1995 Florida Land Plan:  The State Land Development Plan

Material Information

1995 Florida Land Plan: The State Land Development Plan
Florida Department of Community Affairs


Subjects / Keywords:
City of Tallahassee ( local )
City of Gainesville ( local )
Land development ( jstor )
Transportation ( jstor )
Land use ( jstor )
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida


Jake Varn Collection - 1995 Florida Land Plan: The State Land Development Plan (JDV Box 39)
General Note:
Box 29, Folder 11 ( 1995 Florida Land Plan ), Item 5
Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.

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Levin College of Law, University of Florida
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JUNE 1995


During the past 13 months, the Department
of Community Affairs has worked to pre-
pare a revised state land development plan
as required by subsection 186.021(4), Florida Stat-
utes. While this revised public workshop draft plan
has been under development, many growth manage-
ment activities that potentially impact the plan were
initiated by state, regional and local governments.
At the state level, the Task Force on Land Use
-" and Water Planning made recommendations for better
integrating land, water and transportation plans, in-
cluding modifying the role of the state land develop-
ment plan and the process for adopting it. The
governor's office began the required revision of the
State Comprehensive Plan for consideration by the
1996 Legislature. The Florida Department of Envi-
ronmental Protection continued its ecosystem initia-
tive and preparation of the 1995 Florida Water Plan,
with an estimated release date of November 1995.
The Florida Department of Transportation adopted a
20-year Florida Transportation Plan in February 1995
and continues its unprecedented planning effort. Fi-
nally, the governor initiated an effort to repeal 50% of
Florida's rules and regulations before 1997.
At the regional level, the 11 regional planning
councils are preparing strategic regional policy plans
and the five water management districts are complet-
ing the preparation of district water management
plans. Locally, counties and cities are working on the
first round of evaluation and appraisal of their
adopted comprehensive plans.
Into this environment comes the department's
revision of the state land development plan. During

the public workshops on the draft plan, some partici-
pants questioned the timing of development of the
plan, suggesting that release now is premature. A key
concern is the imminent revision of the State Compre-
hensive Plan, the guiding document for the state land
development plan. Other participants suggested that
the Legislature reconsider the role of the plan and the
process by which it is prepared and adopted. The
department is sensitive to these concerns. Readers
should understand that the release of this revised pub-
lic workshop draft plan for public comment, as re-
quired by law, will not necessarily lead to its adop-
tion. The decision of whether to adopt the plan will
depend in large part on the response to the revised
public workshop draft plan received by the Depart-
ment. In the interim, until any revised plan is
adopted, the State Land Development Plan, adopted
in March 1989, remains in effect.
Unlike the 1989 plan, this proposed plan contains
advocacy policies as well as planning policies and
standards. Regardless of whether this plan is eventu-
ally adopted, we hope that the advocacy policies in
this revised public workshop draft plan and the up-
dated trends and conditions statements provide a use-
ful reference for planners, policy makers, other stake-
holders, and the public. The department looks for-
ward to public comments on this revised public work-
shop draft plan and hopes that its contents will assist
efforts to improve Florida's quality of life and take
steps to assure Florida has a sustainable future.



The department will accept written com-
ments on this revised public workshop draft
plan through August 31, 1995, at the following

Mr. Jim Quinn, Chief
Bureau of State Planning
Department of Community Affairs
2740 Centerview Drive
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2100
facsimile (904)488-3309

Additional copies of the proposed plan
may be obtained from Ms. Sam Owens-
Johnson at the address listed above or by call-
ing (904)488-4925, suncom 278-4925.



The Department of Community Affairs extends its
appreciation to the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council
for hosting the drafting workshop that initiated the prepara-
tion of this plan.

Charles McIntosh, Chairman

Julia Greene, Executive Director

Sheila Benz, Director of Planning

Marshall Flynn, Data Processing Manager

Rosie Warner, Receptionist

Bobbi Jaroy, Secretary

Norma Ozias, Planning Division Secretary

Bruce Gaul, Graphics Production Manager

Mike Bouffard, Press Operator

The department also thanks the chapter drafting team
leaders and recorders for applying their knowledge and
energy to assure the success of the drafting workshop.

Patti McKay, 1000 Friends of Florida
Land Use Team Leader

Sheri Coven, Department of Community Affairs
Land Use Tetm Recorder

Jim Quinn, Department of Community Affairs
Natural Resources Team Leader

Greg Burke, Department of Community Affairs
Natural Resources Team Recorder

Joyce Ott, Department of Community Affairs
Affordable Housing Team Leader

Susan Caswell, East Central Florida Regional Plan-
ning Council
Affordable Housing Team Recorder '
Bob Romig, Florida Department of Transportation
Transportation Team Leader

Karen Bryant, Florida Department of Transportation
Transportation Team Recorder

Carlene Barrett, Florida Department of Commerce
The Economy Team Leader

Andra Cornelius, Florida Department of Commerce
The Economy Team Recorder

Frank Koutnik, Department of Community Affairs
Emergency Management Team Leader

Sandy Hand, Department of Community Affairs
Emergency Management Team Recorder

The department also gratefully acknowledges the contri-
butions of the individuals who participated in the drafting
workshop (see appendix F for a complete participant list).

Finally, the department extends its appreciation to the
regional planning councils who provided logistical support in
conducting public workshops on the draft plan in February.

Blountstown W.T. Neal Civic Center

Apalachee Regional Planning Council
Charles Blume. Executive Director

Orma Jeppson, Administrative Assistant

Douglas Hattaway, Regional Planner

North Fort Myers Regional Council Offices

Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council

Wayne Daltry, Executive Director

Nicole Gwinnett, Executive Secretary

Hollywood Regional Council Offices

South Florida Regional Planning Council

Carolyn Dekle, Executive Director

Rhonda Hebert, Office Manager
Orlando Orlando City Council Chambers

East Central Florida Regional Planning Council
Aaron Dowling, Executive Director

Terry Hunalp, Administrative Assistant






I. Land Use 5

II. Natural Resources 17

III. Transportation 35

IV. The Economy 47

V. Affordable Housing 57

VI. Emergency Management 67


A. List of Resources and Facilities of State Significance 79

B. Acronyms Used 81

C. Glossary of Terms 83

D. Relationship of Goals to the State Comprehensive Plan 93

E. Overview of Growth Management in Florida 95

F. List of Participants in the Drafting Workshop 101




Figure 1.1 Comparison of Incorporated and Unincorporated Populations, 1980 and 1990 6

Figure 1.2 Planned Land Use Allocations for 2010 7

Figure 1.2 Comparison of Official Population Projections to Populations that Could be Supported by
Land Designated for Development in Local Future Land Use Maps 8

Figure V.1 Growth in Number of Florida Households, 1970-2010 58

Figure V.3 Forecasted Market Need for Housing Units Affordable to Households with Incomes below
95% of Median, 1995-210 60

Figure VI.1 Population Density Per Square Mile, 1990 68

Figure VI.2 Population Distribution, 1990 68

Figure VI. 3 Tracks of Hurricanes and Tropical Storms Near Florida Since 1886 69

Figure VI.4 Regions Projected to Add Approximately 1 Million in Population, 1990-2005 72

Figure A.1 Florida's Integrated Planning Framework 96


Table V.1 Age of Housing Units in Florida 58

Table VI.1 Losses From Hurricanes Impacting Florida 70

Table VI.2 Impacts of Hurricane Andrew 71

Table VI.3 Evacuation Clearance Time (In Hours) 73

Table VI.4 Comparison of Available Public Emergency Shelter Spaces 1992 to 1994 74


As one of Florida's state agencies, the Depart-
ment of Community Affairs is charged with
implementing the State Comprehensive Plan
and other specific statutory duties and responsibilities.
One of the key mechanisms for describing how the
department fulfills its charge is its agency strategic
plan, which is prepared every year in June. As the
state land planning agency, the department is also
responsible for preparing another type of strategic
plan-the state land development plan.
The state land development plan is an element of
the integrated statewide planning process established
by Florida's growth management laws. (See Appen-
dix E: "Overview of Growth Management in
Florida" for a discussion of Florida's integrated plan-
ning framework.) The plan must be consistent with
the State Comprehensive Plan's goals and policies
related to land development that are set forth in Chap-
ter 187, Florida Statutes. One of the three state-level
"translational"plans', the state land development plan
in part translates the broad goals and policies of the
State Comprehensive Plan into more tangible goals,
objectives, and policies related to land use and devel-
The 1995 Florida Land Plan: the State Land
Development Plan will be the third state land devel-
opment plan prepared by the Department of Commu-
nity Affairs. The first state land development plan
was adopted in 1986; the second in March 1989.

The other two translational plans are the state water use plan,
also called the Florida Water Plan, which is prepared by the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and the
Florida Transportation Plan, which is prepared by the Florida
SDepartment of Transportation.

Authority for and Application of
the Plan

Sections 186.021 and 186.022, Florida Statutes,
and instructions issued by the Governor's Office of
Planning and Budgeting and the Florida Legislature,
prescribe minimum requirements for agency strategic
plans, including the state land development plan. The
state land development plan is defined in Section
380.031(17), Florida Statutes:
"State land development plan" means a
comprehensive statewide plan or any por-
tion thereof setting forth state land develop-
ment policies.
The state land development plan has a very nar-
row statutory role in Florida's growth management
system. Principally, the Legislature has authorized
the Department of Community Affairs to review cer-
tain large-scale developments for consistency with the
state land development plan. Policies that will be
used for this purpose are so identified throughout the
plan. These large-scale developments include Florida
Quality Developments [Section 380.061(3)(a)(7),
Florida Statutes] and developments of regional im-
pact [Section 380.06(14)(a), Florida Statutes]. Fur-
ther, if the department determines that a development
order issued by a county or municipal government for
a project of development of regional impact size is
inconsistent with the state land development plan, it
may appeal the development order to the Governor
and Cabinet. The department retains this appeal au-
thority within local jurisdictions that are certified to
conduct development of regional impact reviews
under Section 380.065(3)(b), Florida Statutes, and



after termination of the development of regional im-
pact program in counties and their associated munici-
palities pursuant to Section 380.06(27), Florida Stat-
utes. Finally, the department must determine whether
work performed by grant recipients that are funded
from the Growth Management Trust Fund is consis-
tent with the state land development plan [Section
186.911(3), Florida Statutes].
Administratively, the state land development plan
has two roles. First, pursuant to instructions formu-
lated by the Governor's Office of Planning and Bud-
geting, state agencies should consider the state land
development plan in the development of their agency
strategic plans. Second, pursuant to rules prepared by
the Governor's Office of Planning and Budgeting,
regional planning councils must consider the state
land development plan in preparing their strategic
regional policy plans, although regional plans do not
have to be consistent with the state land development
plan under current law.
Finally, the plan is intended to play a meaningful
educational role through advocating sound land use
and development policies, thereby assisting stake-
holders in Florida's future to be aware of actions that
they can take or encourage to improve Florida's
sustainability and quality of life.
In every case, however, the state land develop-
ment plan shall be reasonably applied where eco-
nomically and environmentally feasible, not contrary
to the public interest, and consistent with the protec-
tion of private property rights.

Public Participation

In developing this revised public
workshop draft version of the 1995
Florida Land Plan: the State Land
Development Plan, the department
actively sought the participation of
constituent groups, the general pub-
lic, municipal and county govern-
ments, state agencies, regional plan-
ning councils, and water manage-
ment districts. The public participa-
tion program for the 1995 Florida
Land Plan has so far included the
following elements: an early request
for comments in late spring of 1994
on the existing plan; an intensive and
open three-day drafting workshop,

held in January 1995; a series of public workshops
conducted around the state in February 1995; and a
public comment period held open through March 8,
1995, on the public workshop draft.
The department's effort to prepare the plan began
in January 1995, when it coordinated a three-day
drafting workshop hosted by the Tampa Bay Regional
Planning Council in St. Petersburg. Over two intense
days January 9 and 10 some 70 workshop par-
ticipants created the initial version of the 1995
Florida Land Plan. Six chapter drafting teams, each
led by and consisting of subject area experts, worked
using a consensus approach to prepare chapter work-
ing drafts. (Appendix F lists the workshop partici-
pants.) On January 11, the drafting teams presented
their work to a group of invited responders. The in-
vited responders included members of gubernatorial
growth management advisory committees, the Land
Use and Water Planning Task Force, state and re-
gional agencies, workshop participants and the gen-
eral public. The chapter working drafts resulting from
the workshop formed the building blocks for the pub-
lic workshop draft.
Following the drafting workshop, the department
worked with the chapter drafting team leaders to
slightly refine the chapter.working drafts and compile
them into a public workshop draft. The department
released the public workshop draft of the 1995
Florida Land Plan for public comment in mid-Febru-
ary and conducted public workshops in Blountstown,
North Fort Myers, Hollywood, and Orlando between
February 22-24, 1995. A public comment period was



also provided until March 8, 1995. The department
used the comments received during the workshops
and comment period to guide the revisions to the
public workshop draft. This work resulted in this
revised public workshop draft version of the 1995
Florida Land Plan: the State Land Development
Plan. Comments on this revised draft will be ac-
cepted through August 31, 1995. Additional public
workshops and hearings will also be held on this draft
and any subsequently proposed plan.
Once a proposed plan has been prepared, the
department must submit it to the Governor's Office of
Planning and Budgeting and the Legislature for re-
view. Following revision of the plan in response to
comments made by the public, Governor's Office and
the Legislature, the department may proceed to adopt
and publish the final plan.

Organization of the Plan

The Executive Summary highlights the priority
issues and goals, which are the building blocks of the
The majority of the plan is presented in the sec-
tion titled Priority Issues. The priority issues iden-
o tify broad themes related to land use in Florida toward
which the department, other state agencies, regional
planning councils, and other organizations will be
focusing on during the next five years. For each is-
sue, the plan describes related trends and conditions,
lists resources and facilities of state significance, and
sets forth one or more goals, objectives, and policies.
*The Trenls and Conditions Statements provide
context and rationale for the issues. The state-
ments present best available data to describe cur-
rent conditions and analyze those data to describe
expected trends as they relate to the issues. The
narratives center primarily on emerging require-
ments related to an issue and problems and oppor-
tunities to be considered in addressing it.

* The Objectives describe shorter term outcomes
and serve as organizing themes for the following
* The Policies tell "how" the goals and objectives
may be achieved. These statements describe, in
general terms, the means the department and other
agencies should employ to further the goals and
objectives. The policies are categorized as either
advocacy policies, which are directed to many
audiences but do not apply in any regulatory ca-
pacity, or planning policies and standards,
which will be used by the Department of Commu-
nity Affairs in the review of developments of
regional impact and other authorized applications
of this plan as described earlier in the introduc-
The plan contains six appendixes:
* Appendix A presents a list of Resources and
Facilities of State Significance. These signifi-
cant resources and facilities should be given spe-
cial consideration in planning and permitting ac-
tivities by all levels of government.
* Appendix B lists acronyms used.
* Appendix C provides a glossary of terms.
* Appendix D identifies the relationship of the
plan's goals to the goals and policies of the State
Comprehensive Plan.
* Appendix E provides an overview of growth man-
agement in Florida.
* Appendix F presents a list of participants in draft-
ing workshop.
The plan also contains a Bibliography of docu-
ments referenced in preparing the plan.

* The Goals set forth long-range outcomes, consis-
tent with the State Comprehensive Plan, that ex-
press what result the department, in cooperation
with other state, regional and local agencies and
the development community, seeks to achieve.





Land Use

Trends and Conditions

Florida's natural beauty, climate, and diversity of
flora and fauna make it a natural paradise. Named the
"Land of Flowers," Florida has long enchanted resi-
dents and visitors. While Florida is blessed by these
natural attributes, its natural beauty is inspiring a fatal
attraction with growth. Continued rapid population
growth is increasing demands on already stressed
natural systems and resources. Development fre-
, quently targets marginal lands or lands with vital
natural resources such as wetlands, wildlife habitats,
and aquifer recharge potential. Unless a comprehen-
sive approach to preserving these irreplaceable re-
sources is in place, Florida will lose forever the natu-
ral amenities which have existed here for millennia-
the same amenities that attracted its existing popula-

The Face of Florida

With a total size of 58,560 square miles, Florida
ranks 22nd in the nation in total land area. Key physi-
cal characteristics of Florida include the following:
a land area of 54,252 square miles;
a water area of 4,308 square miles, including ap-
proximately 7,700 lakes larger than 10 acres, 20
major rivers, and 27 first magnitude springs;
a coastline of 1,197 statute miles;
a tidal shoreline of 2,276 statute miles;
more than 660 miles of sandy beaches; and
4,500 islands larger than 10 acres.

Floridians Today

Understanding population demographics and the
living patterns of Floridians is vital to planning for
Florida's future growth. Between 1970 and 1990,
Florida's population grew from 6.8 million to 12.9
million, an increase of 90.5%. By the year 2015,
Florida's population is projected to grow by an addi-
tional 7.2 million, which represents a 196.8% increase
since 1970.2 Most of this growth in expected to rein-
force the "H" shaped megalopolis that will be the
Florida of the 21st Century. This "H" runs up the
west coast from Naples to Citrus County, spans the
state from Tampa Bay through Orlando to Volusia
County, and stretches the entire length of the east
coast from Jacksonville to Miami and the Florida
Of Florida's 13.9 million residents in 1994, ap-
proximately 7.1 million residents lived in unincorpo-
rated areas of the state, while 6.8 million resided in
incorporated municipalities. The typical Floridian
lives on the fringe of a central city in a coastal, metro-
politan area. For instance, between 1970 and 1990,
the population of the St. Petersburg-Tampa-
Clearwater metropolitan area increased by 85%, but
the population within those three central cities in-
creased by only 15%. Even though this trend may be
largely due to Florida's highly restrictive annexation
laws, it nevertheless holds important challenges for
Florida's counties as they face growing pressures to
deliver urban services at municipal levels. The fol-
lowing illustrate additional trends in population
growth and distribution.
* Data provided in the Florida Statistical Abstract
indicate that Florida's population in urban areas


Land Use

has almost doubled throughout the decades from
1950 through 1990; however, rural populations
have not increased at a similar rate.4
* Census data reported for the years 1980 and 1990
indicate that although historically more people
resided in incorporated areas, now just over half
of Florida's population reside in unincorporated
areas and just under half in incorporated areas.
Recent trends clearly point to more unincorpo-
rated area growth. Figure I.1 compares the incor-
porated and unincorporated populations for 1980
and 1990.
* The proportion of the state's population within
metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) has mini-
mally declined over the past 30 years, as the fol-
lowing statistics indicate: 1970 6,213,151
(92%); 1980-8,884433 (91.2%); and 1990-
11,754,090(90.8%). Given the rapidity with
which the MSAs have expanded in Florida, now
encompassing 34 counties in 1992 compared to 11
in 1970, for these areas to continue to decline in
overall population share is more evidence of the
sprawling, low-density trend facing Florida.

* Florida's population has historically concentrated
along its coastlines because of the desire for water
access for trade and recreation. In 1992, approxi-
mately 77% of Florida's population resided within
the coastal area. This represents a slight decrease
in the proportion of Florida's population residing
in coastal counties, down from 1970 level of 79%.
Population projections forecast that the proportion
of Florida's population living in coastal counties
will rise to about 78% by the year 2015.5
Florida's population growth has had a direct im-
pact on the use of our finite land resources. The
state's growth management and regulatory frame-
works provide today's Floridians with the opportunity
to assess trends related to continued population
growth and develop plans to address potential im-
pacts. Putting long-range plans in place today-and
implementing them-will to help assure that future
Floridians enjoy a quality of life equal to or better
than today's. Challenges that require action include
guiding development patterns, providing infrastruc-
ture and public services, and protecting property

Figure 1.1 Comparison of Incorporated and
Unincorporated Populations, 1980 and 1990

Total Population

Unincorporated Population


Source: Florida Statistical Abstract, 1987 and 1993, Table 1.31.









Land Use

Development Patterns

Development patterns are the key to growth man-
agement. Properly designed, sited and built structures
with the proper mix of uses can have dramatic effect
on reducing automotive trips, increasing energy effi-
ciency, stimulating pedestrian activity, and conserving
sensitive natural areas. This does not require low
densities but rather a mix of densities and uses com-
bined with attention to urban design features. Florida
has these places Winter Park, Key West, Apalachi-
cola and more are being built or planned, such as
Oakbridge, the Hammocks, and Palmer Ranch. But
much of Florida is not meeting this test.
In many areas, typical development patterns ex-
hibit low-density, segregated residential and commer-
cial areas with little planned mixing of uses. This
type of development pattern has traditionally been
considered to be "urban sprawl." In urban areas,
urban sprawl is generally characterized by develop-
ments composed of poorly connected single-use ar-
eas. It may be characterized by ribbon or strip devel-
opment, or large expanses of low-density, single-
dimensional development. Sometimes sprawl "leap-
frogs" from the urban development boundary to out-

lying lands that were previously in agricultural use or
were undeveloped native lands. This may lead to
potentially excessive expenditures for extending ur-
ban services, such as water and sewer, stormwater
management, schools, roads, police and fire service.
It also can increase the premature development of
lands that lie outside of the existing urban area,
thereby exacerbating the impacts of sprawl. Even
worse, it can isolate people and neighborhoods from
their community, especially those without access to
their own cars.
A review of local government comprehensive
plan future land use maps indicates that sprawling
development patterns are likely to continue. Figure
1.2 illustrates the proportions of total statewide acre-
age of planned land use allocations for 2010 as estab-
lished by local governments in their plans. The figure
shows that rural land uses (agriculture, estate and
preserved land) account for over 78% of the proposed
land uses. Urban types of uses (single family and
multifamily residential, commercial/office and indus-
trial) will account for less than 18% of land uses.
These projections indicate that the current statewide
land use pattern is expected to continue into the fu-

Figure 1.2 Planned Land Use Allocations for 2010


Multifamily 3.1%

.Military 1.9%
- Commercial/Office 1.8%
' Industrial 1.3%
Mining 1.2%

Single Family

Source: Composite Statewide Future Land Use Map, compiled by Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council.



Land Use

Figure 1.3 Comparison of Official Population Projections to Populations that Could be
Supported by Land Designated for Development in Local Future Land Use Maps





60.000,000- -

40.000.000- /

20,000,000-- "Population Estimated from FLUM Designations
Official Population Estimates
10,000,000- Units Estimated from FLUM Designations
-Estimated Units Needed for Official Population Estimates
Low Medium High

Source: Composite Statewide Future Land Use Map. compiled by Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council.

Further examination of the future land use alloca-
tions reveals a trend of continued sprawling develop-
ment patterns. Figure 1.3 translates the projected
allocations into projected populations using an aver-
age number dwelling units per acre for each land use
type and an assumed 2.45 persons per unit. Three
growth scenarios are calculated-low, medium and
high--to compare population projections to future
land use map density allocations. The official state
medium population projection for 2010 is 18 million,
an increase of 4.1 million from 1992.6 By compari-
son, the future land use allocations contained in the
local government comprehensive plans would accom-
modate more than 25 times this projected population
without any additional land being designated for de-
In addition to its other impacts, development
patterns can have a direct impact on energy use, cul-
tural and historic resources, and agricultural activities.

Energy Efficiency. During 1992, Florida con-
sumed 3,066.4 trillion BTU of energy. Transportation
was the state's largest energy consuming sector in
1992, accounting for 1,112.4 trillion BTU or about
36.3% of the total consumption. Per capital gas con-
sumption in Florida was 448.9 gallons in 1992, a
7.2% decrease from 1988.7 The residential sector
consumed 820.7 trillion BTU or 26.8%, the commer-
cial sector consumed 695.3 trillion BTU or 22.7%,
and the industrial sector consumed 438 trillion BTU
or 14.3%.'
Development patterns and construction and de-
sign techniques directly impact energy use. Land
development patterns most clearly impact transporta-
tion energy consumption, an issue that is discussed in
the transportation chapter of this plan. The design
and construction of buildings, however, can also have
a significant impact on energy consumption, poten-
tially reducing the need for additional power generat-
ing plants. Efforts should be made to incorporate
energy efficient features and design in new and reno-



Land Use

vated buildings and to orient buildings on sites to take
best advantage of nature's heating and cooling cycles.
Most land development in Florida occurred dur-
ing a period of readily accessible and affordable sup-
plies of energy. Little consideration was given to the
eventual impact on energy consumption. While it is
difficult to estimate the actual energy costs induced by
present land use patterns, potential long-term energy
savings achievable from energy efficient land devel-
opment could be substantial. It is important to recog-
nize the energy impact of future growth and develop-
ment and the opportunities to reduce energy con-
sumption through efficient land use patterns and de-
sign and construction.
Cultural and Historical Resources. Florida has a
rich cultural heritage complimented by a unique eth-
nic population blend. Florida's heritage is embodied
in its historic buildings, architecture, prehistoric ar-
chaeological sites, numerous artifacts, and in the tra-
ditions and folk ways of its diverse citizenry.
Florida's cultural and historic resources provide not
only continuity with our past, but can create jobs,
improve housing, enhance the quality of life, and
along with the state's unique natural resources, draw
-., hundreds of thousands of visitors to Florida annually.
During the last 20 years, Congress and the Florida
Legislature enacted laws to help protect our cultural
and historic resources. Unfortunately, the loss of
these resources through deterioration and destruction
continues to occur, in part because their nature and
extent have never been systematically assessed. At
the present time, only 21.6% of the state's land area
has been surveyed for pre-1940 archaeological and
historic resources.9
While much of Florida's built environment is
relatively recent when compared to other parts of the
country, certain cities, particularly St. Augustine,
Pensacola, and Key West can be counted among the
oldest European settlements in the United States.
Many other Florida communities contain historic
structures and districts that, though not of great age,
represent our state's unique past and contain struc-
tures and areas of exceptional architectural quality
and aesthetic appeal.
Agriculture. The extent of Florida's agriculture is
due in part to the favorable climactic conditions of
abundant rainfall and sunshine, coupled by a long
growing season. Florida produces more citrus than
any other state. It's largest crop is the orange but

grapefruit, limes and tangelos are also produced."'
Florida also produces approximately 70% of the
nation's winter and spring vegetables."
Florida's population growth and development has
had a tremendous impact on agriculture. In many
cases, this growth is located in close proximity to our
most highly productive agricultural areas like
Hillsborough, Dade and Palm Beach Counties. The
encroachment of urban development can, in general.
threaten the continued viability of farming. Urban
dwellers often find the side effects of agricultural life,
for example, odors, noise and slow traffic to be a
Further, the water required for agriculture produc-
tion competes with water resource needs for the over-
all population and the water demands of natural re-
sources. This is a significant issue since 90% of
Florida's population depends on ground water for its
drinking water.2 For example, agricultural irrigation
alone consumed an estimated 3.8 billion gallons per
day in 1990.'~ Another water resource problem re-
lated to agricultural issues is the stormwater runoff
generated on agricultural lands, which carries a vari-
ety of contaminants. Herbicides, pesticides and nutri-
ents are examples of pollutants that can degrade water
Moreover, the conversion of improved farmland
to urban uses poses a significant threat to agriculture.
The conversion of agricultural land uses was acceler-
ated due to the record freezes that occurred in Decem-
ber 1983, January 1985, and in 1989. For instance,
these freezes resulted in the conversion of traditional
agricultural lands (citrus) north of Bartow, making
these lands available for urban development. A sec-
ondary affect of the freezes was the conversion of
previously undeveloped property in the southern part
of the state from native conditions to pasture or citrus.
The loss or conversion of farmlands to urban develop-
ment not only undermines the long term existence of
a strong Florida agricultural industry, it also endan-
gers agriculture's substantial contribution to Florida's
economy. This issue is discussed in greater detail in
the Economy chapter of this plan.

Infrastructure and Public Services

Infrastructure includes all types of public facili-
ties and services that are provided by governments
throughout the state. This includes transportation,
water, sewer, solid waste, schools, parks, and


Land Use

stormwater facilities and services. The lack of coordi-
nation between land uses, and a lack of adequate
funding for infrastructure and public services, has
contributed to a significant existing backlog.14 The
state's population growth rate increased dramatically
after World War II, increasing 145% between 1950
and 1970.15 During this period and continuing to the
present, maintenance and expansion of existing facili-
ties has been frequently deferred to direct limited
financial resources towards the extension of systems
to meet the demands posed by the rapid new growth.
This has left an infrastructure backlog that can only
be met through close coordination of land use and
infrastructure planning.
Coordination of Land Use and Infrastructure
Planning. Current efforts at capital improvements
planning at all levels of government have not yet
eliminated Florida's infrastructure backlog. Although
there are some examples of excess capacity in urban
areas, the predominant situation does not reflect this
situation. In most areas of the state, some types of
infrastructure are in need of maintenance or expan-
sion. Under current law, local governments are re-
quired to integrate their land use decisions with the
ability to assure needed facilities and services will be
available concurrent with the impacts of the develop-
ment that needs them. Known as concurrency, this
approach was put into state law in 1985. Accomplish-
ing concurrency requires directing growth to areas
appropriate for development and ensuring that devel-
opment occurs with the timely and equitable provi-
sion of adequate infrastructure and services.
For example, there are cases statewide where in
urbanizing areas, a significant amount of land has
been subdivided into parcels just large enough to
allow the installation of onsite water supply (wells)
and/or septic systems. This occurrence has often
resulted in inappropriately located and improperly
maintained septic tank systems, which, as they age,
create serious surface and ground water quality prob-
lems. This inadequate provision of water and sewer
facilities, lack of sufficient density, limited utility
service availability, and other poorly planned infra-
structure has in many cases resulted in costly solu-
tions being required, such as retrofitting or the instal-
lation of central water and sewer systems.
The Efficient Provision of Infrastructure and Pub-
lic Services. It is essential that state and local gov-
ernments protect the investment that already exists in

their physical infrastructure, such as roads, bridges,
and water and sewer lines. The realities of growth in
Florida and the condition and capacity of existing
infrastructure are such that funding for existing back-
logs will continue to be an issue while new infrastruc-
ture will also need to be developed to meet future
demand. Paying for the construction and mainte-
nance of new infrastructure while addressing the
backlog and continued maintenance of aging infra-
structure will be difficult.
Meeting the need and demand for infrastructure
and public services will be an expensive and complex
task, one that will require substantial expenditures by
and cooperation among various governmental entities
and the private sector. One answer may lie in the use
of more effective pricing systems. For example, full
marginal cost pricing systems could be used to assure
that persons choosing to locate outside of areas desig-
nated to receive services pay the full cost associated
with their location decisions.
Maximizing the use of existing infrastructure
involves encouraging more compact development and
promoting the rehabilitation and reuse of existing
facilities, structures, and buildings in urbanized areas
which may be under-utilized because of their location
or condition. Further, when older urban facilities such
as sewer lines require replacement, larger lines can
frequently be put in for not much additional cost.
which can serve as a spur to infill development and
redevelopment. It is important that all governmental
decisions regarding the provision of public facilities
acknowledge both capital costs and ongoing operation
and maintenance costs.
Intergovernmental Coordination in Providing
Infrastructure and Public Services. In addition
to its state government, departments, boards, and
commissions, Florida has 67 counties, 67 school
boards, 10 state universities, 28 community colleges,
five water management districts, and 392 municipali-
ties, all of which have capital facility responsibilities,
and borrowing and taxing power. As of October 1,
1994, 449 independent special districts and 461 de-
pendent special districts existed which also have vary-
ing degrees of responsibilities and powers for provid-
ing infrastructure and public services.'6 The sheer
number of providers underscores the challenge of
providing infrastructure and public services in a coor-
dinated and efficient manner. Furthermore, there is a
lack of integration between educational and other


Land Use

state agency facility siting decisions with local land
use decision making. The state needs to provide lead-
ership by siting state facilities in a manner that ac-
counts for both short-term capital and long-term op-
erational and maintenance costs, is based on the
land's sustainability, and is consistent with local com-
prehensive plans.
Another issue involves the location of facilities
with regional or state significance that are necessary,
but have unpopular attributes. A majority of the com-
prehensive regional policy plans adopted by Florida's
regional planning councils in 1987 indicated that
siting these facilities pose a problem. Examples of
these facilities (known as locally unpopular land uses,
or LULUs) include hazardous waste storage areas,
prisons, power plants and transmission lines, pipe-
lines, landfill sites, and mental health institutions.
Locating LULUs has led to much debate in the past
and requires an intergovernmental coordination pro-
cess to site these state or regionally significant facili-
ties in a locally sensitive manner.

Property Rights

The Fifth Amendment to the United States Con-
stitution and Article I, section 9 of the Florida Consti-
tution establish that no person shall be deprived of
property without due process of law and just compen-
sation. The legislature has implemented these protec-
tions through statute, and both federal and state courts
enforce these safeguards to assure that all government
regulations are developed and administered consistent
with established due process guarantees.
There is an inescapable tension between land use
regulations and property rights. In their enactment
and implementation, Florida's planning and growth
management programs should be sensitive to private
property rights and not unduly restrictive. Compensa-
tion or other appropriate relief should be provided to
any landowner for a governmental action that is deter-
mined to be an exercise of the police power which
constitutes a taking. Any such relief should be deter-
mined in judicial action rather than an administra-
tive proceeding. All state agencies and local govern-
ments must be responsible for observing these stan-
dards as they develop and administer Florida's plan-
ning and growth management laws.
In considering the issue of property rights, we
also recognize and take with equal seriousness the
S right to be free from actions by others which harm

one's property. Government entities should protect
these property rights in developing and implementing
growth management programs.
Florida's constitution guarantees to each citizen
the right to use and enjoy property. Property rights
are a cornerstone of a free society and a healthy
economy. In exercising their individual rights, Florid-
ians have a responsibility to respect the rights of
neighboring landowners and the community or state
as a whole. Exercise of individual property rights
should not hurt the community's health, safety, and
welfare. This often requires that private property be
subjected to and managed through appropriate regula-
To ensure fairness to landowners when the public
interest requires regulation of land use that results in
the elimination of all reasonable use of private prop-
erty, Florida recognizes the need for and operates
programs for acquisition of lands by state or local
governments or other public entities. Fair compensa-
tion or other appropriate benefits should also be pro-
vided to a landowner when all reasonable economic
use of private property is denied. Further, any gov-
ernmental restrictions on the use of private property
or conditions attached to the approval of land devel-
opment or other permitting mechanisms must be rea-
sonably related to the public interest and the impact
the use of the proposed property would have had on
that interest.
As development occurs, which generally results
in increased population, the potential increases for
individual property owners to adversely impact other
property owners, as well as the community. Conse-
quently there is an increased need to effectively man-
age land to ensure compatibility between uses and
protect the community and public interest, as well as
individual property rights.


Land Use

Goals, Objectives and Policies

GOAL 1: Florida's land development patterns
exhibit clear separation of urban and rural areas;
result in compact, self-contained, sustainable
communities; achieve energy efficient integration
of land uses; and preserve functional open space
and community character.
Objective 1: Increase densities within urbanized
areas to the highest level permitted in local govern-
ment comprehensive plans before expanding the
perimeter of the urbanized area.
Advocacy Policies:
1. Regional planning councils, in their strategic re-
gional policy plans, should identify and map met-
ropolitan and urban growth centers, and provide
guidelines for determining where urban growth is
2. Counties and municipalities should, with the as-
sistance of regional planning councils, establish
urban development boundaries in their local gov-
ernment comprehensive plans to appropriately
delineate urban and rural areas.
3. Counties and municipalities should target im-
provements to infrastructure within urban devel-
opment boundaries before extending service to
areas outside the boundaries to accommodate
higher population densities and optimize infill
development and urban redevelopment.
4. Counties and municipalities should target anti-
quated platted lands in programs for lot aggrega-
tion, protection or restoration of natural systems,
and systematic designation of new land uses that
achieve an integration of related land uses.
5. State, regional and local land use planning and
permitting agencies should use incentives to direct
new public and private development to areas that
have available infrastructure and service capacity.
6. Counties and municipalities should develop and
implement land development regulations that
provide incentives or encourage mixed-use devel-
opment and infill development.
7. Counties and municipalities should set minimum
densities within identified urban service bound-
aries as a means to encourage compact develop-

ment and efficient provision of infrastructure,
public services, and affordable housing.
8. To promote more compact, sustainable, and effi-
cient neighborhoods and communities, developers
and planners should consider the following design
a. site development where it will help keep
vehicle miles traveled below the area average;
b. mix uses to improve the area's jobs-housing
c. mix land uses at the finest grain the market
will bear and include civic uses in the mix;
d. develop in clusters to raise net densities and
provide open space;
e. place higher density housing near commercial
centers, transit fines, and parks;
f. phase convenience shopping and recreational
opportunities to keep pace with housing and
locate it in or proximate to residential areas;
g. make subdivisions into neighborhoods with
well-defined centers and edges;
h. build and use neighborhood schools;
i. concentrate commercial development in
compact centers or districts (rather than
letting it spread out in strips);
j. make shopping centers and business parks
into all-purpose activity centers; and
k. design auto-oriented land uses to be pedes-
trian- friendly, or at least separate them from
pedestrian-oriented uses.
9. Counties and municipalities should fully imple-
ment the flexibilities in the local government
comprehensive planning process, such as estab-
lishing transportation concurrency exception ar-
eas, to promote compact, mixed-use development
Planning Policies and Standards:
10. Counties and municipalities should avoid desig-
nating or permitting the development of substan-
tial areas of the jurisdiction as low-intensity, low-
density, or single-use development or for uses in
excess of what is needed to support projected
population growth.


Land Use

11. Counties and municipalities should avoid desig-
nating or permitting the development of signifi-
cant amounts of urban development in rural areas
at substantial distances from existing urban areas
while leaping over undeveloped lands which are
available and suitable for development.
12. Counties and municipalities should avoid desig-
nating or permitting the development of land in
radial, strip, isolated or ribbon patterns generally
emanating from existing urban development.
13. Counties and municipalities should avoid the
premature or poorly planned conversion of rural
land to other uses to both conserve productive
agricultural lands and natural resources and maxi-
mize use of existing infrastructure.
14. Counties and municipalities should designate or
permit the development of land in ways that
clearly separate rural and urban uses; promote and
facilitate infill development and the redevelop-
ment of existing neighborhoods; encourage an
attractive, functional mix of uses; result in im-
proved accessibility among linked or related uses;
and preserve functional open space.
15. Counties and municipalities should avoid desig-
nating or permitting the development of land that
disproportionately increases the cost in time,
money and energy, of providing infrastructure and
public services when compared to promote com-
pact growth patterns.
16. State, regional and local agencies should invest in
infrastructure in a manner that promotes infill
development, development of areas designated for
revitalization, or furthers local goals for develop-
ment contiguous to the existing urban area.
17. Counties and municipalities should either limit
development requiring infrastructure and public
services to areas which have available adequate or
programmed infrastructure or services to meet the
needs, or ensure that development outside of these
areas provides the needed infrastructure or public
services concurrent with impacts of development.
18. Counties and municipalities should maximize the
use of existing, programmed and planned infra-
structure in when designating and permitting the
development of land.


19. Counties and municipalities should encourage the
design of neighborhoods and new communities to
pedestrian scales, with narrow street widths,
mixed land uses, maximum street connectivity,
and cluster developments surrounded by common
open space and natural areas.
20. Counties and municipalities should minimize the
cumulative impacts of development on resources
and facilities of state and regional significance to
avoid adverse impacts on the resources and facili-
21. State and regional agencies should assure that
their permitting and development activities are
consistent with local government comprehensive
plans, as determined by the affected county or

Objective 2: Reduce Florida's consumption of
nonrenewable energy resources through planning for
and developing efficient land use patterns and
considering energy use in site design.
Advocacy Policies:
1. The state should promote the use of telecommuni-
cations to reduce transportation energy costs.
2. The Departments of Management Services and
Education, and all other state agencies, should
maximize energy efficiency in the location, de-
sign, operation, and maintenance of state build-
Planning Policies and Standards:
3. State, regional, and local land use planning and
permitting agencies should maximize energy effi-
ciency and reduce total energy use in site planning
by methods that include but are not limited to:
solar orientation and access, natural ventilation,
and use of native vegetation for shade.
4. State, regional, and local land use planning and
permitting agencies should employ and promote
sustainable design and construction practices in all
new building construction projects and during
5. Counties and municipalities should adopt and
enforce the model energy code to maximize the
long-term energy efficiency of newly constructed
residential and non-residential buildings.



Land Use

Objective 3: Increase consideration given to
protection of listed and nonlisced cultural and
historic resources, including community design,
archeological, historical, architectural, and paleon-
tological resoIrc(. in land use planning and permit-
ting decisions.
Advocacy Policies:
1. The state should continue to inventory and prop-
erly manage historic and archaeological resources
on all state lands.
2. State and local governments should encourage the
preservation and rehabilitation of historic build-
ings that are no longer used for their original pur-
poses (i.e., old schools, theaters, etc.), for public/
c use.
3. State and local governments should preserve pub-
lic spaces of historic significance and exceptional
urban design.
4. Counties and municipalities should identify and
adopt preservation and restoration policies for
culturally and/or historically significant areas or
Planning Policies and Standards:
5. State, regional and local agencies with land use
planning and permitting authority should ensure
that land use reviews and decisions assess the
potential for adverse impacts to significant ar-
chaeological, historical, architectural and paleon-
tological resources.
6. State, regional'and local agencies with land use
planning and permitting authority should assure
the protection of significant archaeological or
historical sites, and require adequate mitigation in
cases where some destruction is unavoidable.

ment agricultural practices to protect and preserve
soil resources.
3. The Department of Community Affairs, counties
and municipalities should identify and implement
strategies to encourage sound and proper land
development and discourage sprawling, inefficient
leapfrog urban development which undermines
the long-term use of land for agricultural pur-
4. The Departments of Community Affairs, Agricul-
ture and Consumer Services, and Transportation,
and regional planning councils should monitor
changes in the amount and types of land cover in
the state, including those used for agricultural
5. The Departments of Management Services, Trans-
portation, and Education and the State University
System should employ practices that conserve soil
resources in state construction and development
Planning Policies and Standards:
6. State, regional and local agencies with land use
planning and permitting authority should mini-
mize the effect of planned urban growth patterns,
infrastructure service areas, and proposed devel-
opment on productive agricultural lands.
7. State, regional and local agencies should consider
the conservation of soil and water resources
needed to support agriculture in reviewing all
land-use plans and development projects.
8. The Department of Environmental Protection
should require sound soil conservation practices
on state-owned land leased for agricultural pur-

Objective 4: Reduce the net loss of productive
agricultural land.
Advocacy Policies:
1. The State should establish a development rights
and lease-back acquisition program to assist farm
owners to maintain key agricultural lands in agri-
cultural uses.
2. The Departments of Agriculture and Consumer
Services and Community Affairs and the State
University System should promote best manage-



Land Use

GOAL 2: Florida's investment in infrastructure
.o- provides the quality and level of services required
to support development and furthers its desired
pattern and form of urban and rural develop-
Objective 1: Increase the coordination between land
use and public facility and service planning at all
levels of government in Florida.
Advocacy Policies:
1. All local governments should ensure that the capi-
tal improvements planning implement their com-
prehensive plans coordinates the provision of
capital improvements with land use decisions
consistent with Chapter 163, Part II, Florida Stat-
utes, and Rule 9J-5, Florida Administrative Code.
2. All local governments should consider in all plan-
ning and programming activities the effects of
public facility investments on land use patterns.
3. School boards should work with their respective
county and municipal governments to better coor-
dinate the availability of educational facilities
with student needs.

Objective 2: Minimize the long-term costs of
providing services and constructing, operating and
maintaining infrastructure and public services.
Advocacy Policies:
1. State, regional and local planning and permitting
agencies should provide incentives for develop-
ment to use available infrastructure by promoting
financing methods that assign costs proportionate
to the actual infrastructure expansion costs neces-
sitated by a development.
2. State, regional and local planning and permitting
agencies should promote development and rede-
velopment in locations where public facilities can
be efficiently provided and maintained.
3. State, regional and local planning and permitting
agencies should use public facility investments to
direct growth to areas already served by urban
services that are appropriate for additional devel-

Objective 3: Increase use of intergovernmental
coordination processes for the siting of public facilities
and provision ofpublic services that ensure meaningfid
involvement of allfacility and service providers and
the public.
Advocacy Policies:
1. The Department of Community Affairs and the
regional planning councils should ensure that local
government comprehensive plans contain objec-
tives, policies and procedures that assure the
interjurisdictional impacts of development are con-
sidered and addressed in all reviews.
2. The Department of Community Affairs and the
regional planning councils should ensure that local
governments establish intergovernmental coordina-
tion processes through interlocal agreements with
other service providers that provide for collaborative
planning and decision-making concerning public
facility siting.
3. The Department of Community Affairs and the
regional planning councils should ensure that local
governments adopt intergovernmental processes that
provide for the consideration in local land use plan-
ning decisions of the ability of other public agencies
to provide efficient public services.
GOAL 3: Florida's land use regulations and
government action protects private property rights
and recognizes the existence of legitimate and often
competing public and private interests.
Objective 1: Maintain protection of individual prop-
erty rights.
Planning Policies and Standards:
1. A state, regional, or local agency should provide
compensation, or other appropriate relief as pro-
vided by law, to a landowner if a governmental
action it has taken is later determined to be such an
unreasonable an exercise of the state's police power
as to constitute a taking.
2. A state, regional, or local agency should provide for
the determination of compensation or other relief by
judicial proceeding rather than by administrative

3. A state, regional, or local agency should consider
acquisition of lands in cases where regulation will
severely limit practical use of real property.


Land Use

End Notes

' Edward A. Fernald and Elizabeth D. Purdum, editors, James R. Anderson and Peter A. Krafft, cartographers, Atlas of
Florida, (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992).
2 Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business Administration, University of Florida, 1990 Florida Statis-
ticalAbstract Table 1.10, 3; and 1993 Florida StatisticalAbstract, Table 1.12, 6 and Table 1.84, 52.
3 State of Florida, Department of Transportation, Trends and Conditions: 2020 Florida Transportation Plan, (Tallahassee,
November 1994), 15.
4 Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business Administration, University of Florida, 1993 Florida Statisti-
cal Abstract, Table 1.10, 4.
s Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business Administration, University of Florida, 1993 Florida Statisti-
calAbstract, Table 1.83, medium range projection, 52-75.
6 Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business Administration, University of Florida, 1993 Florida Statisti-
calAbstract, Table 1.83, medium range projection, 52-75.
7 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data Report, (1992), 95-100.
* U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data Report, (1992), 95-100.
* State of Florida, Department of State, Information provided by Louis Tesar, (December 27, 1994).
1o Edward A. Femald and Elizabeth D. Purdum, editors, James R. Anderson and Peter A. Krafft, cartographers, Atlas of
Florida, (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992), 182.
" Edward A. Femald and Elizabeth D. Purdum, editors, James R. Anderson and Peter A. Krafft, cartographers, Atlas of
Florida, (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992), 186.
12 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Water Plan, 1995, Draft, (Tallahassee, December 13,
1994), 20.
13 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Water Plan, 1995, Draft, Figure 9, Historical freshwater
withdrawals in Florida by Category, 1950-90, (Tallahassee, December 13,1994).
14 Keys to Florida's Future: Winning in a Competitive World, The Final Report of the State Comprehensive Plan Committee to
the State of Florida, (Tallahassee, 1987), 13.
s1 Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business Administration, University of Florida, 1993 Florida Statisti-
calAbstract, Table 1.10, 4.
16 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, Communication with Special District staff, (December 22, 1994).




Natural Resources

Trends and Conditions

Florida is beginning to establish sustainable devel-
opment levels and practices so that additional population
growth and land development can be accommodated
while assuring the viability of our natural systems and
resources. Sustainable development utilizes Florida's
finite land, water, air, soil, plants, and animals in ways
#" that maintain the value and function of those resources
for future use. If the achievement of sustainable devel-
opment is not used as the standard then Florida will
likely continue to suffer major water resource degrada-
tion, and losses in the area or value of floodplains,
coastal and marine resources, wetlands, upland habitat,
listed species, and recreational resources.
For example, both the State Comprehensive Plan
and Florida Water Law (Chapter 373, Florida Statutes)
imply through the establishment of minimum flows and
levels that natural systems should have the first priority
for water resources, yet despite Florida's abundant water
supplies this has not always been the case. Burgeoning
human population and related demands on water sup-
plies for public, agricultural and other purposes, com-
bined with inadequate water management, have resulted
in lowered lake levels, changes in hydroperiod, increased
fire hazards, excessive drainage with damage to wetlands
and estuaries, and the rapid spread of invasive exotic
plant species. An end result has been that four of
J Florida's five water management districts, all but the
Suwannee River Water Management District, currently
have areas designated as "Water Resource Caution Ar-

Water Resource and Floodplain Protection

The quality of life in Florida is dependent on its
water resources. Throughout most of the state, surface
and groundwater systems are closely interrelated. This
characteristic makes Florida's ground water resources
highly susceptible to contamination from a variety of
sources such as landfills, leaking underground storage
tanks, hazardous waste dumps, septic tanks, urban
stormwater runoff and agricultural chemicals. Since
about 90% of the state's population relies on groundwa-
ter as a source of drinking water supplies, such contami-
nation can have serious consequences, as well as being
costly or impossible to correct. Many natural systems
are equally susceptible to ground and surface water con-
tamination. Accordingly, prevention is seen as the most
viable protection strategy.
In addition to threats from contamination, ground-
water resources face threats from depletion caused by
rapid development and overpumping. The state's coastal
development pattern has created a difficult freshwater
conflict: most population is concentrated along the coast
while most fresh groundwater is found inland. In those
areas of the state where groundwater withdrawals exceed
aquifer recharge capacity, groundwater levels have fallen
drastically. This reduction in levels has had significant
impacts on surface water systems such as lakes and wet-
lands, causing some of these areas to dry up and lose
much of their ecological value.
Drainage and overpumping of groundwater can also
reduce the availability of potable water by allowing salt-
water intrusion into coastal areas and accelerating the
vertical and horizontal movement of contaminants in


Natural Resources

inland areas. Overpumping and transfer of water from
inland areas to coastal communities can degrade the
water in those inland areas. The goal of sustainable
development, as it relates to water resources, includes
fully using existing local resources and developing new
alternative sources in conjunction with aggressive con-
servation programs. Urbanization can also reduce local
aquifer recharge as a result of the paving of land surfaces
and the construction of curbs and storm sewers.
Florida's surface waters-rivers, streams, lakes and
estuaries-have also been adversely impacted by land
development activities such as urbanization, agriculture,
silviculture and mining. However, in some areas there
has been improvement. Although domestic wastewater
effluent from sewage treatment plants was once the larg-
est polluter of the state's surface waters, over the last
fifteen years almost all sewage treatment plants have
been upgraded to provide enhanced levels of effluent
treatment and many have actually discontinued the dis-
charge of effluent to surface waters. Alternative uses of
wastewater effluent, such as reuse through irrigation,
aquifer recharge, and wetlands enhancement are slowly
becoming more accepted and prevalent.
Still, approximately 26% of the state's population is
served by septic tanks.' Septic disposal can negatively
impact the water quality of both surface and ground

waters when occurring at too high a density, too close to
a sensitive resource, or in inappropriate soils. Nearly
75% of the state's soils are severely limited for septic
tanks usage, and, increasingly, areas of the state having
severely limiting soils are being developed without cen-
tral sewerage.2 Based upon a recent HRS study, it ap-
pears that most future non-central wastewater demand
will occur on the fringes of urban areas in sandy soil
areas of high water tables where the use of conventional
septic tanks is prohibited.3
Today, polluted stormwater runoff from urban and
agricultural area, often called nonpointt source" pollu-
tion, is recognized as the single greatest threat to the
state's surface water quality. Nonpoint source pollution
is responsible for the majority of the nutrients, sediments,
heavy metals and pesticides entering Florida's surface
waters. Such nonpoint source pollution is exacerbated
by the state's wetland losses, because wetland systems
act as natural "filters," removing pollutants before they
can enter surface waters.
Increasingly, atmospheric deposition of nutrients and
pollutants is also being recognized as a contributing
factor to the deterioration of the state's water quality. In
addition to nitrogen "pollution," various toxic substances
including heavy metals, organic compounds and pesti-
cides are being introduced to surface waters through



Natural Resources

dryfall and rainfall. It has been estimated that as much as
67 percent of Tampa Bay's total nitrogen load originates
from atmospheric deposition.'
While the statutory responsibility for the regulation
of water quality and water quantity has been primarily
assigned to the Department of Environmental Protection
and the five water management districts, local govern-
ments make the basic land use decisions that ultimately
generate water demands, complicate flood protection,
and create air and water quality problems. Because of
this, a major intergovermental coordination issue is how
to effectively coordinate and integrate the authority and
programs of state and regional water resource agencies
with local land use decisions. This problem has been
recognized in almost every analysis of Florida's environ-
mental legislation, including the December 1994 report
of the Governor's Task Force for Land Use and Water
Planning Task Force, which proposed the establishment
of formal linkages between land use and water planning.
Historically, land development in Florida has often
been based on the major restructuring of land through the
elaborate engineering of systems of channels, dams,
levees, and other structures to drain land and to hold
back flood waters. As a result of these past efforts to
"reclaim" dry land for agricultural and urban purposes,
- Florida's original 20 million acres of wetlands have been
reduced to approximately 8 million over the last 150
years. About a quarter of that loss has occurred in the
last 35 years.' In addition, many of the natural functions
provided by such wetland areas have been greatly dimin-
ished, if not destroyed. These inherent natural wetland
benefits include: (1) the temporary storage of overflow
and surface ruNpff to moderate the impacts of floods; (2)
water quality improvements resulting from the burial of
nutrient-rich sediments and the removal of pollutants
through biological processes; (3) the provision of habitat
for species that depend on periodic inundation; and (4)
the creation of biological productivity within the wetland
system and, ultimately, conveyance of much of that pro-
ductivity to estuarine food chains through detrital and
nutrient transport.
This early structural approach to water management
has now evolved into a state policy of encouraging
nonstructural approaches that seek to avoid flood dam-
ages and losses while protecting the natural values of
riverine and wetland systems. This sometimes involves
the actual purchase of important floodplains for water
storage, floodwater conveyance, and the other natural
wetland system functions discussed above. Where
actual structures must be used, the emphasis is on

designing structures in floodplains and floodprone
areas that minimize adverse effects on natural flows.
These approaches help minimize flood-related losses
and reduce the future need to reconstruct subse-
quently damaged structures, often at significant eco-
nomic and environmental costs. But unfortunately, as
the 1994 floods in Caryville, southern Leon County
and other parts of the state demonstrated, Florida still
has significant development at high risk within
floodprone and floodplain areas.

Coastal and Marine Resources

Florida's 35 coastal counties comprise the coastal
area of the state. The state's ocean, gulf, bay and
estuarine shorelines total approximately 8,426 miles
and include 3,258 miles of sandy beaches.6'7 In addi-
tion, there are over 1.4 million acres of coastal barri-
ers (e.g. barrier islands and spits) in the state, includ-
ing over 295 islands.8 Between 1970 and 1992, the
total population within these coastal counties in-
creased from 5.39 million to 10.40 million, to consti-
tute more than three-quarters of the state's population.
It is estimated that within the next fifteen years, the
state's coastal population will increase to 13.5 mil-
The coast is a major attraction for tourists and

residents. In surveys conducted in 1985, 1987 and
1992, saltwater beach activities were the most popular
recreation activities for these user groups. Saltwater
fishing, with and without a boat, consistently ranks in
the top 10 favorite resource-based activities for resi-
dents and visitors. Ecotourism is also increasingly
becoming an important, growing industry for many
rural counties in Florida.
The intense pressure to develop along the coast
has significantly impacted the natural and recreational
assets of Florida's coastal and marine resources.
Beaches and dunes are by nature subject to erosion
and the movement of sand. As a result, structures
located too close to active beaches or dunes face the
risk of potential damage and for loss of life. Florida's
first line of defense against potential damage and loss
of life from storms are the coastal beaches, dunes and
barrier islands that protect the mainland. They natu-
rally act as buffers to lessen flooding and wave and
wind action on the mainland. For this reason they are
considered high risk areas for development.
Rapid urbanization has also led to increased
beach and dune erosion, due in part to improper de-


Natural Resources

velopment practices as well as improperly designed
and located buildings, revetments and groins. Recent
estimates calculate that there are 348.6 miles of beach
erosion problem areas in Florida." Beach restoration,
the pumping of sand from offshore or inlets onto the
beach, is a standard technique for repairing eroded
beaches. This process is normally only a temporary
measure, although highly supported by tourists and
local officials. Beach restoration may cost over $2
million or more per mile, and require maintenance
(nourishment) every five to ten years depending on
prevailing currents and storm vulnerability. Beach
restoration projects may also affect marine species,
such as nesting sea turtles, shore bird nesting areas or
offshore marine resources including coral reefs,
seagrasses and other coastal marine habitats.
Florida's coastal resources are characterized by
productive marine, estuarine, and other nearshore
areas. Habitat existence and quality are considered
the most important factors affecting marine resource
populations. Dredging and filling has significantly
impacted marine habitats, resulting in increased nutri-
ent-rich runoff, high turbidity, and elevated levels of
heavy metal pollution. Coastal development, and

development along rivers and streams that provide
necessary waterflow to estuarine areas, have severely
altered the natural waterflow and introduced contami-
nants to these areas. This alteration has resulted in
salinity and sedimentation problems in a number of
Florida's bays and estuaries.
Nearshore estuarine habitats are proven nursery
grounds for more than 90% of the major recreational
and commercial species in Florida. Salt marshes,
mangroves, and seagrass beds are important nursery
grounds for many marine species, help to control
erosion, filter runoff, recycle nutrients, and generally
act as a protective buffer zone between upland and
open water areas.
However, increased urbanization in coastal areas
has seriously affected these habitat areas, resulting in
the loss of open bay areas and protective vegetative
covers, the alteration of fresh water flow patterns, and
the closing of approved shellfish harvesting areas.12
Seagrass beds and other adjacent coastal natural com-
munities around the state have been particularly hard
hit by man's activities over the last hundred years.
One of the more recent impacts involve industrial
activities, most notably power plants, which utilize

.-. :/


Natural Resources

saltwater for cooling and significantly impact the
S estuarine environment through thermal pollution af-
fecting seagrass beds and the impingement and en-
trainment of numerous fish and planktonic species."3'1
Due in part to these various human-related impacts,
Tampa Bay lost over 80% of its seagrass beds and
40% of its mangroves; the Indian River estuary expe-
rienced an 86% mangrove loss and a 30% seagrass
loss"5; and the diversion of freshwater flows away
from the Everglades system for urban and agricultural
purposes has been implicated in a seagrass die-off
affecting over 70,000 acres in Florida Bay.16
However, some previously impacted systems
appear to be experiencing some recovery. Seagrass
beds in Tampa Bay actually increased by over 2200
acres between 1982 and 1990, associated with in-
creased water clarity and the construction of the new
City of Tampa Hookers Point sewage treatment
Recent studies have demonstrated that some of
Florida's fisheries are suffering severe declines and,
in some cases, may be in danger of collapse. A fish-
ery collapses when the population of that species can
no longer provide a sustainable yield to fishing. .This
situation can lead to very serious restrictions on the
sale or even the possession of such a species. For
example, actions have had to be taken to protect
populations of important finfish such as snook, king
mackerel and redfish, and many valuable shellfish
harvesting areas have been closed due to the potential
human health impacts of pollution.
There are many complex reasons for Florida's
decline in fisheries and other marine resources. Ur-
banization, including stormwater drainage and dredge
and fill, has caused extensive damage to these sys-
tems by altering water flows, introducing pollutants
into the system, and destroying vegetation necessary
for the healthy functioning of the natural system. In
many instances, the decline may also be related to
over-harvesting and problems with current fishery
management practices. In November 1994, an
amendment to the state Constitution was approved by
voters banning the use of some fishing nets in Florida
In response to the many concerns related to
coastal development, growth management laws re-
quire responsible planning and management of devel-
opment by coastal local governments. Some of these
requirements include the limiting of development in
high-hazard coastal areas (Section 163.3177, Florida

Statutes), and the restriction of state funding for infra-
structure in such areas, except where such develop-
ment is consistent with a local government's approved
comprehensive plan coastal management element
(Section 380.27, Florida Statutes).
In 1987, the Florida Legislature passed the Sur-
face Water Improvement and Management (SWIM)
Act which is directed to improve and protect certain
water bodies and coastal resources. The Act specified
several estuarine areas where restoration and special
management plans are being developed and imple-
mented. These plans were developed for the water
management districts but they address many common
policy areas addressed by local government compre-
hensive plans. In many counties, the ultimate effec-
tiveness of the SWIM-initiated planning efforts will
depend on local government involvement in their
implementation and management.
Protection of important coastal resources requires
a comprehensive and innovative approach among all
levels and divisions of government to control the
adverse impacts of development. Planning and man-
agement efforts focused on specific resources, such as
those for the Charlotte Harbor area, Tampa Bay, the
Apalachicola River and Bay, Florida Bay, and the
Indian River Lagoon have promoted highly active
intergovernmental coordination among federal, state,
regional, and local agencies to address the wide range
of resource management issues involved with the
protection of those resources.

Natural Systems and Recreational Lands

Florida's broad climatic range produces a rich
variety of natural systems that provide a wealth of
environmental, economic, and aesthetic resources.
Florida's climate and attractive natural environment
are major factors in attracting the 35 to 40 million
annual visitors who help make tourism one of the
most important sectors of the Florida economy.'"
Each year, 67 percent of Floridians actively enjoy
wildlife viewing, hiking or boating in the natural ar-
eas of Florida.19 Florida's wetland systems are major
habitat areas for a large number of plant and animal
species. Coastal estuaries and associated wetlands
provide spawning grounds, nurseries, and food
sources for two-thirds of the fish and shellfish along
the Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Overall,
Florida's natural areas offer a wide variety of benefits
such as recreational opportunities, wildlife habitat,


Natural Resources

maintenance of clean air and water, and watershed
Unfortunately, severe damage or destruction of
many of these natural systems is continuing. During
the past decade, Florida's population increased by
38% while the number of acres of forests and wet-
lands between 1970 and 1987 decreased by almost
two million acres.2 Further, as noted earlier, 60% (or
12 million acres) of the state's wetlands have been
lost to development or agricultural activities.
While demand for forest products in Florida is
projected to be well over one billion cubic feet per
year by the year 2000, the acreage of forested lands
has decreased by 7.5 million acres since 1949.22
Florida has very few old growth examples of the vast
native forest that once covered our state. In 1936,
longleaf pine forests accounted for 51 percent of all
pinelands in Florida and 37 percent of all forests.
However, in the past 50 years, longleaf pine forests
have declined from 7.6 million acres to only 0.95
million acres today.23
The ancient scrubs and sandhill ridges of central
Florida, rich sources of species diversity and ende-
mism, are mostly gone. Of the 81 natural communi-

ties listed by the Florida Natural Areas Inventory as
occurring in Florida, 12 are considered to be critically
imperiled, 29 imperiled, and 23 rare. Only two other
states in the nation have a larger number of jeopar-
dized species than Florida. The decline of these wild-
life species is a strong indicator that the natural sys-
tems upon which Florida depends for its quality of
life, economic vitality, and basic human needs, such
as clean air, water, and food, are under severe stress.
One wetlands system of particular concern is the
greater Everglades ecosystem, which encompasses
9,000 square miles, and includes the Kissimmee
River, Lake Okeechobee, Florida Bay, and the Ever-
glades itself.24 The Kissimmee River was once 90
miles of river meandering through a one to two mile
wide marsh floodplain. Now undergoing reconstruc-
tion to partly restore it back to that state, it had been
converted to a series of pools connected by a channel
50 miles long to increase flood protection in central
Florida. The biological impacts of this "straighten-
ing" included a 78% reduction in floodplain wetlands,
a 93% reduction in water fowl use, a 74% reduction
of bald eagle nesting in the watershed, and reduced
wading bird populations.25


Natural Resources

The Everglades ecosystem is truly a unique bio-
logical system, but it has been seriously degraded as a
result of the draining, diking, and channelizing that
has been done to make urbanization and agriculture
possible. The recently enacted Everglades Forever
Act (Section 373.4592, Florida Statutes) recognizes
that waters flowing into the Everglades Protection
Area contain excessive levels of phosphorus, ad-
versely affecting the area's ecology. The impact on
the Everglades National Park from water quality and
quantity changes has been extensive, including a 90%
reduction in wading bird populations.26 In addition,
the diversion of freshwater flows away from the Ever-

glades system appears to be a cause of a massive
seagrass die-off affecting over 70,000 acres in Florida
The new Ecosystem Management program estab-
lished in the Department of Environmental Protection
(DEP) will help focus state and regional decisions on
the goal of protecting Florida's remaining ecosystems
through a wide variety of programs, including public
education, land acquisition and management, re-
search, pollution prevention, planning and regulatory
alternatives development.28 DEP is currently working
on establishing six pilot projects (Apalachicola River

and Bay; Suwannee River; Wekiva River; Lower St.
Johns River; Hillsborough River; and Florida Bay/
Southern Everglades) to begin implementing the eco-
system management approach throughout the state.
Additionally, many of the ecosystem management
goals can be accomplished through implementation of
the Florida Greenways system. The Governor's
Greenways Commission Report delineates what is
needed for the implementation of a statewide system
of greenways, while emphasizing private property
rights, public education, land acquisition and regula-
tory alternatives. By its nature, much of the success
of the ecosystem management approach will depend
upon effective intergovernmental coordination with
other levels of government involved in making land
use decisions.
Endangered Species. Due to its unique geo-
graphical, geological and climatic situation, Florida
has one of the highest diversities of plant and animal
species in the country.29,30 Some nine percent of
Florida's native 3,500 plant species are unique to
Florida, with many of these plant and associated en-
demic animal species concentrated in biological "hot-
spots" such as the Apalachicola River basin, the Lake
Wales ridge scrub area of central Florida, coastal ar-
eas, the Big Cypress Swamp, and the Florida Keys.3
However, since the mid-1880s, at least 34 species of
native plants and animals are believed to have be-
come extinct.3? There are many factors that cause a
species to decline or become threatened or endan-
gered, but the primary factors today are associated
with human encroachment or the elimination of habi-
tat. Currently, 118 animal species and 482 plant spe-
cies are listed as an endangered, threatened or a Spe-
cies of Special Concern in Florida, second only to
Hawaii.33'"435 The Department of Community Af-
fairs' recognizes all federally and state listed animal
species and 317 of the listed plant species as being of
state significance.36
The primary threat to the wildlife and plant spe-
cies that have become listed as endangered or threat-
ened comes from the activities of man and the en-
croachment of land development, with agriculture
often effectively serving as a precursor to urban de-
velopment. These activities include land drainage and
clearing, resulting runoff, dredge and fill activities,
and the reduction of habitat to a level which will riot
support the survival of species. Other threats cited by
the recent Florida Biodiversity Task Force include


Natural Resources

phosphate mining, coastal armoring, fire suppression,
habitat fragmentation, contamination, pesticide and
herbicide usage, thermal effluent, exotic species intro-
duction, commercial exploitation, road and boat kills,
domestic pets, and introduced diseases. The rate of
habitat loss in the state has reached the point where
the preservation of the last remaining vestiges of rep-
resentative habitat types has become a priority for
state and regional conservation agencies.
An important need in land use planning and the
management of endangered and threatened species,
and lesser threatened species of special concern, is
good scientific information about the existing location
and habitat needs for these species. As more land is
converted to urban and agricultural development,
necessary habitat information, particularly on a spe-
cific geographic basis, is critical to the management of affected species. There are now a
number of databases available that provide significant
contributions to these data needs.
The Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI), a
joint operation of the Department of Environmental
Protection and the Nature Conservancy, maintains a
database of over 20,000 geographically referenced
points that document the occurrences of 387 species
of plants, 467 species of animals, and 81 natural com-
munities. The FNAI data has habitat information
mapped at the county level, which is generally avail-
able to state, regional and local governments upon
request. The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission Nongame Wildlife Program maintains a
species observation database of over 17,000 records
of wading bird.rookeries, eagle nest locations, listed
species occurrences, etc. The Florida Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission Nongame Wildlife
Program has also completed a project to map wetland
habitats of high priority to endangered and threatened
species in Florida. Additionally, their Florida Breed-
ing Bird Atlas database depicts the breeding status of
all bird species known to nest in Florida.
A newer addition to this information base is the
Statewide Wildlife Habitat Conservation System that
has been developed by the Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission (FGFWFC). This system
involves LANDSAT-based mapping of habitat types
for each planning region in the state, useful for land
use planning and resource management at the regional
and county level. The system can be used for estimat-
ing the amount of each habitat type that is presently in
public ownership, along with the identification of

priority areas where additional acquisition projects
should be directed. Through the use of this system,
the FGFWFC has recently identified 4.82 million
acres in Florida as Strategic Habitat Conservation
Areas. These areas need to be acquired or voluntarily
protected if Florida is to protect the full complement
of its biological heritage. In addition, the Marine
Resources GIS operated by the Florida
MarineResources Institute of the Department of Envi-
ronmental Protection's Division of Marine Resources
contains valuable information for use in making deci-
sions about coastal and marine resources.
Land Acquisition, Management and Use. The
State of Florida owns approximately 3 million acres
of upland property and approximately 7 million acres
of sovereign submerged lands.37 While Florida still
has significant natural areas remaining in private
ownership, much of these lands are being rapidly lost
to the urbanization that accompanies population
The stress placed on our natural land areas by
urbanization requires that the land that is still avail-
able for silviculture, agricultural and natural resource
uses be managed in a way that maximizes the benefits
and qualities of these areas. In many cases, the goals
of agriculture or timber production, recreation, provi-
sion of wildlife habitat, and furtherance of water qual-
ity and quantity can complement each other in a mul-
tiple-use management context. For example, prac-
tices conducted on agricultural lands can enhance the
wildlife habitat values of the area. Agricultural ex-
pansion that seeks to take advantage of already con-
verted areas rather than converting intact native plant
communities can help maximize the availability of a
wide range of natural values. In many situations,
thoughtful silvicultural management practices can
significantly enhance the natural system value of an
area without having an adverse effect on the eco-
nomic value of timber resources. Just the method of
cutting or site preparation often can have a tremen-
dous effect on the natural diversity of the area and its
attractiveness for wildlife habitat.
Florida has an array of land acquisition programs
which increasingly are focusing on the need to buy
ecologically intact systems that include all of the nec-
essary components to ensure a healthy level of species
diversity and ecological functioning.
Acquisition is an important land management
tool. The Save Our Rivers program is focused on



Natural Resources

resource management. As of January, 1995, over
700,000 acres had been acquired through this pro-
gram." The Conservation and Recreational Lands
program also approaches projects based on resource
boundaries established through biological evaluation
rather than on ownership descriptions, and, together
with the EEL program, had acquired almost 800,000
acres by 1993.39 This approach enhances the potential
for maintaining the integrity of state land investments
by minimizing the prospect that development on adja-
cent lands will severely diminish the natural resource
value of purchased property.
The Florida Communities Trust program that was
funded as part of the Preservation 2000 legislation
passed in 1990 is a state-level acquisition program
designed to assist local governments in acquiring
lands for natural resource protection on a local level.
At the regional and local government levels, a number
of partnerships are also being forged to protect and
manage the state's key natural resources. One ex-
ample in Southwest Florida is between the Southwest
Florida Water Management District (SOR and P2000
funds) and Hillsborough County (Environment Land
Acquisition Protection Program or ELAPP) where
environmental land acquisition is occurring using
- funds available from both agencies.
Another example of interagency cooperative ac-
quisition and management of sensitive land is the
Phipps-Overstreet project in Leon County. This 1,500
acre acquisition was recently completed by the City of
Tallahassee, the Northwest Florida Water Manage-
ment District and the Department of Environmental
Protection, preserving a wide swath of land reaching
from the Alfred B. Maclay State Gardens west to
Lake Jackson. Included in the purchase are pristine
Lake Overstreet, forested ravines, wetlands, and up-
land pine and hardwood forest located in the center of
the most rapidly developing area of Leon County.
In the face of increasing population growth and
rapid urbanization that is resulting in permanent loss
of important natural areas, Florida continues to evolve
and integrate its planning, regulatory and land acqui-
sition approaches to natural system protection. One
recent innovation is the Green Swamp Land Authority
which will protect significant natural resources
through less than fee simple acquisition and Transfer
of Development Rights (TDRs). It is estimated that
without the use of such new, innovative techniques
that the trend for habitat loss in Florida is likely to
result in a six-to-twelve million acre conversion of

existing natural areas to urban uses shortly after the
turn of the century.4"

Mineral Resources. Mineral extraction is a billion
dollar plus industry in Florida. One of its largest sec-
tors is phosphate mining, representing 44% (1992
Atlas of Florida) of Florida's mineral extraction.
Florida supplies approximately 25% of the world's
phosphate and 75% of total United States produc-
tion.41 About 90% of Florida's phosphate is mined in
Polk, Hardee, Hillsborough, and Manatee Counties.
The northern region of the state, specifically Hamilton
County, contributes a smaller amount. Other extrac-
tion industries include oil and gas, peat, limerock,
gravel, clay, titanium, and Fuller's earth.42
The most common mining practice utilized in
Florida is strip mining, which causes significant dam-
age to the physical, chemical and biological character-
istics of the areas impacted by mining. However,
reclamation techniques can offset many of the adverse
impacts of mining and consists of two main stages:
contouring and revegetation. Nevertheless, reclama-
tion of many types of natural ecosystems has not yet
been demonstrated. Reclamation technology is a
relatively young science, with even the oldest recla-
mation experiments usually being less than 20 years
old. A longer time appears to be necessary in order to
adequately evaluate the full succession of changes on
reclaimed mine areas.

It is estimated that a cumulative total of 109,928
acres have been disturbed by phosphate mining in
Florida through 1993. An average of about 6,000
acres were mined for phosphate annually in the period
between 1989 and 1993. During this same time
frame, 17,480 acres of phosphate-mined lands were
reclaimed and released, with additional acreage in
approved reclamation programs that are either sched-
uled or required to be reclaimed.43 In addition, op-
portunities for reclamation or reuse of mined areas
can lie in directing urban type uses to these already
disturbed lands. For example, in Polk County, the
very successful Oakbridge development of regional
impact is located on reclaimed land that was mined
for phosphate. Likewise, the Florida Power Corpora-
tion has sited a major electrical power plant on a re-
claimed phosphate mine site.
A major issue historically related to mining ac-
tivities, particularly for phosphate mines, is their need
for large amounts of fresh water. For 1990, it was
estimated that mining used some 315 million gallons


Natural Resources

per day (MGD) of freshwater withdrawals, which
represented about 41% of all self-supplied commer-
cial-industrial withdrawals in Florida. However, this
represented only about 4% of all freshwater with-
drawals, behind both agricultural and public supply
withdrawals." Furthermore, between 1981 and 1990,
the Southwest Florida Water Management District has
noted a marked 600 MGD to 300 MGD decrease in
water withdrawals by a combination of Mining and
Commercial-Industrial uses.45 Today, the Phosphate
Council reports that about 94% of the water used in
phosphate mining is reused and that about 88% of the
fresh water used in the manufacturing process is re-
Onshore oil and gas activity is currently located
in the Jay Field in Santa Rosa County and in the Big
Cypress area of Collier County. The associated intru-
sion of roads and drilling structures into wilderness
areas is a significant upland drilling issue.
During the last 15 years, interest by the federal
government and the offshore oil and gas drilling in-
dustry has shifted from the central and western por-
tions of the Gulf of Mexico to Florida's eastern por-
tion. Jurisdiction over leasing, drilling and production
in federal waters is assigned to the U.S. Department
of Interior (DOI) Minerals Management Service.
Through the Coastal Zone Management Act, the State
of Florida reviews any federally permitted activity
which could impact the state. Florida can determine
whether such activities are inconsistent with the laws,
goals, and enforceable policies of the state. If an
inconsistency determination is made, the activity
cannot be permitted unless the state's determination is
overturned by the U.S. Department of Commerce
Florida has taken the position that its coastal re-
sources are too sensitive to allow the development of
its outer continental shelf without thoroughly examin-
ing the need for that development and the adequacy of
the scientific and socio-economic research on which
drilling projects would be based. For this reason,
State law passed in 1989 and 1990 prohibits oil and
gas activity in state waters (10.36 miles seaward in
the Gulf and 3 miles seaward in the Atlantic) [Chapter
377.242(5), Florida Statutes]. Also, in June 1990,
President Bush recognized the particular sensitivity
and importance of south Florida's coastal and off-
shore areas by placing the Keys and south Florida
below 26 degrees latitude off limits to oil and gas
activities until the year 2000.

Goals, Objectives and Policies

GOAL 1: Florida's planning and regulatory
frameworks assure the availability of an adequate
supply of water for all competing uses deemed
reasonable and beneficial; maintain the functions
of natural systems and the overall present level of
surface and ground water quality; and improve
and restore the quality of waters not presently
meeting water quality standards.
Objective 1: The quality of Florida's surface and
ground waters will not be further degraded.
Advocacy Policies:
1. Coordinate state and regional water quality pro-
tection programs to ensure that the prevention,
abatement, and control of surface and ground
water pollution is addressed in land use planning
and regulation.
Planning Policies and Standards:
2. Assure use of wastewater treatment technology
that results in discharges that meet state standards
for new or expanded wastewater treatment facili-
3. Protect ground water quality by ensuring, in high
and prime aquifer recharge areas designated by
water management districts or local governments,
that pollutants are properly handled, monitored,
and otherwise controlled or contained to prevent
movement into the aquifer.
4. Prohibit new development that would depend
upon wastewater facilities that would discharge
inadequately treated wastewater into the waters of
the state.

Objective 2: Florida will protect the water sources
serving its potable water supply systems.
Planning Policies and Standards:
1. Protect public wellfields, existing public surface
water supply sources, and areas designated as
future water supply sources by prohibiting or
severely limiting activities that would negatively
impact these areas.
2. Ensure that land use activities do not negatively
impact or restrict the functioning of prime or high
recharge areas designated by water management


Natural Resources

districts or local governments and limit roads and
other impervious surfaces and watershed alter-
ations that would reduce the availability and flow
of good quality water to such areas.
3. Ensure that development does not contaminate or
deplete potable water aquifers through degrada-
tion of water resources, encouragement of salt
water intrusion or damage to the physical, chemi-
cal or biological integrity of the potable water
aquifer system.

Objective 3: Florida will assure the sustainable use
of ground and surface water resources statewide in
order to avoid the limitations of water supplies and
any adverse impacts to natural systems.
Advocacy Policies:
I. Assure effective coordination of local government
comprehensive plans, strategic regional policy
plans, regional water supply authority plans, and
district water management district plans (includ-
ing needs and sources information) to implement
sustainable yields in water use at the local govern-
ment level.
2. Local governments should use the needs and
sources information prepared by their water man-
agement district as best available data regarding
water siuppiy avatlfabi ty less more current and
accurate information is available.
3. Local governments should adopt water conserva-
tion programs, consistent with water management
district guidelines.
4. In land use decisions and planning, reuse of re-
claimed water as an alternative source of water
supply should be emphasized.
Planning Policies and Standards:
5. Ensure that development does not cause ground-
water levels, including seasonal fluctuations, to
fall below safe levels established by water man-
agement districts based on sound ecological and
public safety considerations.
6. Allow development to occur only when adequate
water supplies will be concurrently available to
serve such development.
7. Ensure that all buildings, utilities, and operations
employ water-saving devices and water reuse and


reclamation opportunities to the greatest extent fea-
8. Require water conservation measures, including
reuse of reclaimed water, through all development
planning, review and regulatory programs. Ensure
that the lowest quality water suitable for a given
purpose is used in order to reduce the unnecessary
use of potable water.
9. Allow only development that does not rely on
groundwater withdrawals that increase salt water
intrusion beyond safe limits, interfere with other
existing legal uses of water, or could cause damage
to natural systems, agriculture, or area geology.
10. Maintain the natural rate, timing, quantity, quality,
and pattern of surface water flows through careful
management of development activities.
11. Protect the biological and ecological integrity of
rivers, lakes and associated floodplains through the
utilization of nonstructural flood control programs
that maintain the essential character of wetlands
vegetation and ecosystem functioning.

Objective 4: Florida will increase the amount of its
naturally functioning wetlands.
Advocacy Policies:
-1. Contiinuie the commitment to no net loss of wetlands,
utilizing the concept and principles of ecosystem
2. Undertake restoration of currently degraded, non-
functioning wetlands consistent with the concept
and principles of ecosystem management.
Planning Policies and Standards:
3. Land development planning and decisions should
provide for the protection, restoration and mainte-
nance of the ecological functions of wetland sys-
4. Incorporate the natural assimilative capability of
wetland areas into development planning and con-
struction to the extent such functions will not be
5. Monitor, evaluate and enforce compliance of
projects required to provide mitigation related to the
destruction of wetlands.


Natural Resources

Objective 5: Storm water runofffrum all communities
and development in Florida will meet state water
quality standards before discharging to waters of the
Advocacy Policies:
1. Develop incentives to encourage the retrofitting of
current stormwater treatment systems for existing
development to comply with state water quality
Planning Policies and Standards:
2. Incorporate watershed management programs that
seek to protect the natural flow and quality of sur-
face water systems into land use planning and regu-
lation programs.
3. Ensure stormwater runoff from new land develop-
ment, urban renewal and modernization projects, or
other major modifications, does not adversely im-
pact the quality of ground and surface waters.

Objective 6: Florida will preserve, and where neces-
sary, regain the natural functions of riverine corridors
andfloodplains through effective ecosystem manage-
ment strategies.
Advocacy Policies:

6. Protect the natural hydrology of rivers, bays, and
their associated ecosystems that are shared with
adjoining states; utilize interstate cooperation to
safeguard water quality and to protect historic flows
required by downstream ecosystems.
GOAL 2: Florida shall ensure that development
and marine resource use and beach access improve-
ments in coastal areas do not endanger public
safety or important natural resources. Florida
shall, through acquisition and access improvements,
make available to the state's population additional
beaches and marine environments, consistent with
sound environmental planning.
Objective 1: Florida will experience no further net
loss in coastal strand, beach and dune systems as a
result of new or expanded development activities.
Advocacy Policies:
1. Increase interagency coordination initiatives, includ-
ing public/private ventures to improve management
and protection of marine, estuarine and coastal re-
Planning Policies and Standards:
2. Implement dune stabilization projects using native
vegetation as the required stabilizing medium.

1. Coordinate land use planning and infrastructure 3. Prohibit motor vehicles from operating on dune
development with watershed management plans.----- -systems. --------

Planning Policies and Standards:
2. Prevent future flood damages by keeping buildings
out of the most frequently flooded areas and by
requiring buildings in less frequently flooded areas
to be elevated or designed to minimize flood dam-
3. Maintain and protect the beneficial functions of
wetlands, floodplains, and floodprone lands includ-
ing: storage; floodwater conveyance; groundwater
recharge; maintenance of minimum water flows,
levels, and quality; and habitat for fish and wildlife.
4. Avoid development that requires the use of struc-
tural modifications to river systems, floodplains or
floodways and, where such systems have been de-
graded, restore natural functions.
5. Design and construct roadways to avoid interference
with the natural flow of waters in and to 100-year
floodplain areas to the maximum extent feasible.

4. Prohibit the excavation and removal of active dunes;
restrict new construction to areas landward of the
primary dune line.
5. Eliminate disturbance of dunes and dune vegetation
by providing pedestrian access such as elevated
steps and dune walkovers where appropriate.
6. Restrict fill in beach areas to materials characteristic
of the natural beach and other compatible materials.

Objective 2: Florida will protect and increase
public access to all coastal areas in the state,
consistent with sound environmental principles.
Advocacy Policies:
1. Emphasize coastal strand, beach and dune sys-
tems in state and local acquisition programs.
Planning Policies and Standards:
2. Provide for beach access in land use decisions.



Natural Resources

Objective 3: Florida will limit/i development inll
coastal high hazard areas to projects and land uses
t, designated in adopted local plans found in compli-
ance with Chapter 9J-5, EA.C. (Minimum Criteria
for the Review o(f Local Government Comprehensive
Plans and Determination of Compliance), which
limits developmental impacts on natural coastal and
marine resources.
Advocacy Policies:
1. In areas where severe beach erosion threatens
public and/or private structures, the relocation of
these facilities should be considered before any
beach renourishment project is undertaken. A
comprehensive analysis needs to be conducted as
a part of any project to protect the beach and dune
system. If relocation alternatives are not feasible,
the cost of any beach renourishment projects un-
dertaken should be appropriately shared by those
receiving the benefit.
2. In the state's intergovernmental coordination and
review process and in local land use approvals,
ensure that state funding does not subsidize devel-
opment within coastal high hazard areas and is
consistent with adopted local government com-
Sprehensive plans.
Planning Policies and Standards:
3. Maintain natural beach processes by prohibiting

4. Water-dependent uses shall be given priority over
non-water-dependent uses in all marine shoreline
5. Nonwater-dependent projects should not be al-
lowed seaward of the primary dune line nor
waterward of the mean high water line.
6. Limit new boating facility development to areas
most suitable for such uses, based on the proposed
development's consistency with state permitting
and planning standards, aquatic preserve manage-
ment plans, and local DEP-approved manatee
protection plans.

financial ability to construct. operate and maintain
such facilities throughout the expected lifetime of
the development.

Ohjcctive 4: Florida will protect csttuarine re-
sources by restoring and maintaining natural
freshwater inflows and hydroperiods.
Advocacy Policies:
1. The water management districts or DEP should
determine and implement minimum flow require-
ments for all the state's river systems.
2. Emphasize oil spill prevention through the imple-
mentation of appropriate navigational assistance
and the enforcement of state and federal transpor-
tation regulations. Develop contingency plans
and emergency response programs to minimize
the impacts of spills.
3. Maintain and improve the habitat and abundance
of commercially important fisheries and listed
species, such as manatees and seaturtles, through
consideration of the impacts of upland land uses
in the preparation and implementation of Manatee
Protection Plans and Habitat Conservation Plans,
and siting of septic tanks among other activities.
Planning Policies and Standards:
4. Coastal marshes, seagrass beds, shellfish harvest-
ejn.a!as,. salt barrens, mudflats, .manroves and
other-live-bottom communities -shallbepreserved-
to the fullest extent possible, and the rehabilitation
of degraded marine and estuarine resources shall
be undertaken wherever feasible.
5. Ensure that the U.S. Department of Interior oil,
gas and mineral lease sales and associated off-
shore and onshore development do not allow for
the exploration and development of these re-
sources when it would threaten the productivity of
marine, aquatic and estuarine resources.

7. Restrict new development in federally designated
Coastal Barrier Resource System areas that will
need to use infrastructure subsidized by federal or
state funds, unless the development or the local
government can demonstrate their independent


---f ...--- 11

Natural Resources

GOAL 3: Florida shall protect and acquire
unique natural habitats and ecological systems,
such as wetlands, coastal strand, tropical hard-
wood hammocks, palm hammocks, and virgin
longleaf pine forests, and restore degraded
natural systems to a functional condition.
Objective 1: Florida will protect and restore its
natural systems of statewide significance through an
integrated and coordinated planning, management,
and acquisition system in association with local
Advocacy Policies:
1. Implement the statewide wildlife conservation
system and the Florida Greenways System.
2. By 1996, DEP, FGFWFC, DCA, DOT, HRS,
DACS, RPCs, and WMDs should implement
policies and procedures to support and implement
the ecosystem management initiative outlined in
the final report developed by the Ecosystem Man-
agement Implementation Strategy Committee.
3. Provide sufficient, permanent funding and re-
source planning and management for all existing
conservation land acquisition programs.
4. All state agencies actions should be consistent
with plans and strategies identified through the
SWIM program, resource planning and manage-
ment committees, and Areas of Critical State Con-
cern process.
5. Encourage the identification and protection of
significant public scenic vistas and natural wild-
life corridors in land use decisions.
Planning Policies and Standards:
6. Assure land development planning and approvals
provide for the protection of state significant up-
land natural communities, including suitable buff-
ers, and management programs adequate to ensure
the continued survival of such systems.
7. Ensure the compliance monitoring of required
mitigation projects to determine their value in
providing benefits to the functioning of natural
ecological systems.
8. Restrict the use or introduction of invasive exotic
species, especially on or adjacent to lands or wa-
ters containing unique native habitats.

9. Protect the state's diverse habitat types to main-
tain Florida's biodiversity.
10. Ensure that land development regulations and
approvals provide for the protection of wildlife
and natural systems.
11. Require development activities to be compatible
with the continued protection, management, and
public use of adjacent lands held for conservation
and preservation; ensure the consistency of such
land use decisions with the implementation of any
needed prescribed burning on adjacent lands as
provided in Section 590.026, Florida Statutes
12. Avoid the further fragmentation of large tracts of
natural resources and facilities of state signifi-
cance in all land use decisions.

Objective 2: Florida will restore the habitat and
natural functions of the Everglades-Lake
Okeechobee-Kissimmee River-Florida Bay Ecosys-
Planning Policies and Standards:
1. Prevent further degradation of the Kissimmee
River-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades-Florida Bay
2. Reestablish the ecological functions of the remain-
ing Kissimmee River-Lake Okeechobee-Ever-
glades-Florida Bay ecosystem in areas where these
functions have been substantially damaged.
3. Prohibit the introduction or use of invasive exotics
within the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee-
Kissimmee River Ecosystem.

Objective 3: Florida will protect the Wildlife Habitat
Conservation System through a combination of
acquisition, less-than-fee simple incentives, and
partnerships among public and private entities.
Advocacy Policies:
1. Develop and utilize biologically sound land banks
throughout the state for the mitigation of impacts on
listed species and their habitat from land develop-
ment activities, excluding endangered species, when
onsite mitigation is not appropriate.
2. Encourage partnerships in land acquisition manage-
ment, planning and implementation among agen-
cies, organizations and various levels of government



Natural Resources

to most efficiently implement natural system protec-

Objective 4: Florida will allow no further net loss of
endangered and threatened species habitat as a result
of land development decisions.
Advocacy Policies:
I. Use existing data bases and plans in a coordinated
method to identify and disseminate to local govern-
ments listed species locations and habitats prior to
implementation of land use decisions.
2. Consider and implement Manatee Protection Plans.
Planning Policies and Standards:
2. Ensure the adequate protection of Florida's remain-
ing longleaf pine forests, xeric scrub, sandhills, and
other natural communities considered to be critically
imperiled, imperiled or rare in all land use decisions.
3. Design developments and plans in a manner that
achieves consistency with listed species recovery
plans, guidelines, and habitat conservation plans.
4. Locate development so as to avoid significant ad-
verse impacts on endangered, threatened or species
of special concern.
5. Ensure that all land use decisions involving lands
containing or impacting listed species populations
or listed wildlife habitats include an adequate
combination of mitigative measures including
preservation, restoration, management, monitor-
ing, public education, and the provision of ad-
equate protective buffers.

GOAL 4: Florida shall protect its air, land and
water resources from the adverse effects of resource
extraction and ensure that the disturbed areas are
reclaimed or restored to beneficial use as soon as
reasonably possible.
Objective 1: Florida will protect the ecological
integrity of important natural systems from the adverse
impacts of resource extraction.
Advocacy Policies:
1. Inventory types of wildlife species and habitat and
plan mining activities to adequately protect such
2. Encourage the land use approvals of mining and
restoration to incorporate the tenets of the Florida
Greenways Plan, the Strategic Habitat Restoration
Plan, and the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Conserva-
tion System.
Planning Policies and Standards:
3. Prohibit the mining of environmentally sensitive
areas that are not capable of being restored follow-
ing resource extraction.
4. Prohibit the mining of endangered and threatened
species habitat that is not capable of being restored,
unless it has been clearly demonstrated and ensured
that the mining is unlikely to result in an adverse
impact to the viability of the onsite listed species
5. Provide maintenance and monitoring of restoration
lands to ensure the restored values and function.
6. Ensure that new mining development does not rely
on groundwater withdrawals, nor impinge upon
established surface water natural system minimum
flows and levels, that would be incompatible with
other existing legal uses of water or the maintenance
of safe groundwater or surface water levels as deter-
mined by the applicable water management district
or DEP.

7. Monitor water resources for degradation associ-
ated with mining operations and waste disposal so
that sources of pollution can be quickly abated.
8. Ensure that resource extraction, waste disposal
and land reclamation protect water resources,
preserve environmental systems and minimize
radiation emissions.


Natural Resources

End Notes

1 State of Florida, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Onsite Sewage Disposal System Research in Florida: An Evalua-
tion of Current Onsite Sewage Disposal System (OSDS) Practices in Florida, HRS Contract No. LP-596, (March, 1993), 1-1.
2 State of Florida, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Onsite Sewage Disposal System Research in Florida: An Evaluation
of Current Onsite Sewage Disposal System (OSDS) Practices in Florida, HRS Contract No. LP-596, (March, 1993), 4-51, 4-52.
3 State of Florida, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Onsite Sewage Disposal System Research in Florida: An Evaluation
of Current Onsite Sewage Disposal System (OSDS) Practices in Florida, HRS Contract No. LP-596, (March, 1993), 4-89.
4 H.S. Greening, "Atmospheric Deposition: A Key Source of Nitrogen," Bay Guardian, (Winter 1994-1995), 3.
5 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection, "Change in Wildlife Habitat" in Strategic Assessment of Florida's Environ-
ment, (November 1994), 26-28.
6 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection, Outdoor Recreation in Florida-1994, (1994), 3.1.
7 D. Kennedy, "Recreation and Preservation Issues," Urban Waterfront Management Project Resource Report Number 2, Florida
Department of Community Affairs, (1983), 3.
8 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, A Coastal Barriers Resource Manual, Prepared by the Florida Atlantic University/
Florida International University Joint Center for Environmental and Urban Problems, (1986), 2.
9 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, "1993 Population Trends," Coastal Currents, Volume One, Number One, 8.
10 State of Florida, Department of Natural Resources, Outdoor Recreation in Florida-1992, (1992).
11 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection,Beaches and Shores, Status of Comprehensive Beach Management
Planning. (1993), 2.
12 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection, "Acreage of Shellfishing Waters by Classification" in Strategic Assessment of
Florida's Environment, (November 1994), 110-111.
13 J.C. Zieman and Rita Zieman, "The Ecology of the Seagrass Meadows of the West Coast of Florida: A Community Profile," U.S.
Department of Interior Biological Report 85(7.25), (September 1989), 93.
14 Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Florida State University, Power Plant and Transmission Line Siting in Florida: A Planner's
Handbook, draft (November 1991), IV-15 to IV-21.
15 Durako, M.J., M. Murphy, and K. Haddad. 1988. Assessment of fisheries habitat: northeast Florida. Florida Marine Research Publica-
tions No. 45. 51pp.
16 SFWMD Governing Board Workshop on Florida Bay. November 13, 1992.
17 Lewis, R.R., K.D. Haddad, and J.O.R. Johansson. RecentAreal Expansion of Seagrass Meadows in Tampa Bay, Florida: Real Bay
Improvement or Drought-Induced? Proceedings Tampa Bay Area Scientific Information Symposium 2; Editors: Sally F. Treat and Peter
A. Clark. Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council. p. 189.
18 State of Florida, Department of Commerce, Agency Strategic Plan, (1994).
19 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife Associated Recreation, (Washington, D.C.), 1989.
20 State of Florida, Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for Florida, (April 9, 1985), 26.
21 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection, "Change in Wildlife Habitat" in Strategic Assessment of Florida's Environ-
ment, (November 1994), 26-28.
22 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection, "Change in Wildlife Habitat" in Strategic Assessment of Florida's Environ-
ment, (November 1994), 26-28.
23 R.S. Kautz, "Trends in Florida Wildlife Habitats 1936-1987," Florida Scientist, 56(1): 7-24, (1993).
24 State of Florida, Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for Florida, (April 9, 1985), 26.
25 State of Florida, Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, A Report on Fish and Wildlife Studies in the Kissimmee River Basin and
Recommendations for Restoration, (1982).
26 State of Florida, Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, A Report on Fish and Wildlife Studies in the Kissimmee River Basin and
Recommendations for Restoration, (1982).
27 South Florida Water Management District Governing Board Workshop on Florida Bay, (November 13, 1992).
28 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection, Beginning Ecosystem Management, (April 25, 1994) p.39. ,



Natural Resources

28 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection, Beginning Ecosystem Management, (April 25, 1994) p.39.
29 Gatewood, S. and D. Hardin, "La Florida: the Land of the Flowers," The Nature Conservancy News 35(5):6-12. 1985.

30 J.J. Ewel, "Introduction to ecosystems in Florida," In R.L. Myers and J.J. Ewel, eds., Ecosystems of Florida, (Gainesville, 1990), 3-10.
31 Florida Biological Diversity Task Force, Conserving Florida's Biodiversity, A Report to Florida Governor Lawton Chiles. (February, 1993),
p. 43.
32 Florida Natural Areas Inventory, (1993).
33 State of Florida, Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. Official Lists of Endangered and Potentially Endangered Fauna and Flora in
Florida, (June 1, 1994), 22.
34 Sections 581.185-187, Florida Statutes.
35 Information on Hawaii provided by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, May 1995.
36 Rule 9J-2.041, Florida Administrative Code, (Listed Plant and Wildlife Resources Uniform Standard Rule).
37 State of Florida, Department of Revenue, Property Assessment Role, (1992).
38 Greg Brock, Department of Environmental Protection, personal communication.
39 Board of Trustees of the Intemal Improvement Trust Fund, Annual Report: Conservation and Recreation Lands, (February 10, 1994), 4.
40 State of Florida, Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Unpublished report, (1993).
41 Florida Phosphate Council, Letter to the Department of Community Affairs, (March 10, 1995).

42 State of Florida, Executive Office of the Govemor, Trends and Conditions for Florida, (April 9, 1985), 33-34.
43 State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection, "Acres of Phosphate Mining Lands Reclaimed" in Strategic Assessment of
Florida's Environment, (November 1994), 62-63.
44 Richard L. Marella, Water Withdrawals, Use and Trends in Florida, 1990, Water Resources Investigations Report 92-4140, U.S.
Geological Survey, p. 38.
45 Southwest Florida Water Management District, District Water Management Plan, Vol. II; (September, 1994), 1-27.
46 Florida Phosphate Council, Letter to the Department of Community Affairs, (March 10, 1995).






Trends and Conditions

By the year 2015, Florida's population will have
nearly tripled since 1970. This growth will place
enormous demands on Florida's already overbur-
dened transportation system. Recent trends indicate
the following:
* if single occupant travel continues to increase,
Florida's roads and highways will experience
unacceptable levels of congestion;
* air traffic delays are on the rise due to airspace
congestion and limited airport capacity;
* urban transportation facilities are often congested
while facilities outside urban areas have excess
* urban sprawl has resulted in part from the past
failure to link transportation and land use planning
* Florida's transportation system is the most vulner-
able sector of the state due to its almost complete
energy dependence on petroleum; and
increasing costs for right-of-way acquisition, con-
struction and operation of the State Highway Sys-
tem, as well as rising costs for seaport, rail and
aviation facilities may impede Florida's ability to
provide the mobility necessary to enhance
Florida's economic competitiveness.
Florida ranks fourth in the nation in both popula-
tion and in vehicle miles traveled, but 15th in total
highway mileage;
On average, Florida roads have twice the traffic of
typical roads in the United States;

* Although Florida has only 3% of the U.S. road
mileage, it has 5.9% of the nation's vehicle miles
of travel; and a
* From 1970 to 1990, vehicle miles traveled in-
creased by 163%, while population increased by
only 90.5%.'

To meet its future transportation needs and
counter recent trends, Florida must ensure its trans-
portation system is integrated with land use goals and
objectives, provides adequate mobility and accessibil-
ity, promotes economic prosperity, and is sensitive to
the environment. This can be accomplished in part by
fully integrating transportation and land use planning,
assuring application of transportation concurrency
does not encourage urban sprawl, achieving consis-
tency among state, regional and local planning docu-
ments, and implementing innovative access manage-
ment techniques.
Understanding population demographics and the
living patterns of Floridians is fundamental to plan-
ning for their transportation needs. Of Florida's al-
most 13.9 million residents in 1994, approximately
51% (7.1 million) residents lived in unincorporated
areas of the state, while 40% (6.8 million) resided in
incorporated municipalities. The typical Floridian
lives on the fringe of a central city in a coastal, metro-
politan area. Suburbanization of the population is.
being accompanied by an increasing decentralization
of commercial, office and industrial uses to serve
suburban residents and take advantage of lower land
costs. This decentralization tends to increase the de-
mand for private modes of transportation. For in-
stance, in 1990, the private automobile or carpool was
clearly the predominant mode of travel for work trips




*: 4

in Florida, constituting 91% of travel by all modes, up
from 75% in 1960.2
The proportion of travel by other modes declined
during the past 30 years. In 1990, walking accounted
for only 3% of trips, public transportation 2%, and
other means such as bicycle and motorcycle 2%.3
Moreover, the average number of vehicles per house-
hold increased from 1.28 in 1970 to 1.58 in 1990, a
23% increase.4 This increase has been exceeded by
the growth in vehicle miles traveled, which has well
outpaced population growth in Florida.
Suburbanization trends are reinforced by the contin-
ued availability of relatively inexpensive motor fuel,
pricing systems that do not charge the full cost of
driving, and land use plans that encourage low density
suburban growth and the resulting emphasis given to
roadway construction by government to meet trans-
portation needs.5
Florida's age distribution affects its transportation
system requirements. Since 1970, the proportion of
United States residents aged 65 years and older has
increased by 56%. The proportion of Florida's citi-
zens in this age group has increased by 118% during
this period. Today, almost one of every five licensed

drivers in the state is age 65 and over. Land use plan-
ning must consider the future transportation needs of
Florida's growing elderly population. They will espe-
cially need the option of living in communities where
mobility and accessibility is only provided to drivers
of single-occupant automobiles.
Disabled people also have specialized transporta-
tion needs. The estimated two million Floridians with
disabilities depend on transportation to get to work,
obtain health care and participate in other activities.
Many of these individuals require alternative modes
of transportation with features that accommodate their
special access requirements.

Florida's Transportation System

As Florida continues to grow, traditional highway
solutions to transportation problems, such as building
more roads, will become more costly and less effec-
tive. Florida and its communities must take advan-
tage of the investment made in existing transportation
facilities and integrate them into an effective, energy
efficient multi-modal transportation system. The
major elements of the existing Florida transportation



system are the highway system, rail system, public trans-
portation systems, aviation system, deepwater ports, and
bicycle/pedestrian systems.
Highway System. The Statewide Highway System is
made up of approximately 12,000 miles of state-main-
tained roadways. Included in this is the Florida Intrastate
Highway System (FIHS), a 4,130-mile system that in-
cludes the Interstate network, Florida's Turnpike, and
other limited and controlled access highways serving
high speed and long distance travel. This system is
complemented by over 100,000 miles of local roads, and
numerous transit and bicycle/pedestrian routes and sys-
Rail System. Rail passenger service in Florida now
consists of four Amtrak lines and fixed guideway transit
systems including the Tri-County Rail System serving
Palm Beach, Broward and Dade counties; Miami's
MetroRail and People Mover, and the Jacksonville Auto-
mated Skyway Express. Ridership on Florida's fixed
guideway transit systems has grown 19% during the
1990s. Much of this growth is due to increases in rider-
ship on the Tri-County Rail
System. Since its initial oper-
ating year in 1989, ridership
on Tri-Rail increased from
291,367 riders to approxi-
mately 2.3 million riders.6 A
recent market survey forecasts
intercity rail travel to increase .B
by 27% from 1992 to 2000,
and by almost 60% from 1992
to 2010.7
In 1992, the Florida High :, "
Speed Rail Transportation Act I i
authorized the FDOT to estab-
lish a statewide intercity pas-
senger rail system through a
public/private partnership.
Conventional train, intermedi-
ate high speed train, and ad-
vanced high speed train rail
services are being considered.
Routes serving central and
south Florida (Tampa-Or-
lando-Miami) are expected to .i
be among the first designated.
The high speed rail line corri-
dor and proposed ancillary
facilities should be considered

in planning efforts at all levels of government. They
should also be integrated with the objectives and policies
in state, regional and local comprehensive plans to assure
they are designed and located so as to support compact
urban development patterns.

Airports. Air transportation is also an essential com-
ponent of Florida's multi-modal transportation system.
There are 103 public airports in Florida. In addition,
several of the nation's and the world's busiest military
airports operate in Florida. However, 60% of Florida's
airports are approaching their capacity to handle aircraft
traffic. For every two passengers in 1990 using Florida's
commercial airline service airports, there will be five in
2010. Aircraft traffic delays, due to airspace congestion
and limited airport capacity, already cost Florida busi-
nesses and citizens $124 million per year.8
Increased air traffic demands create competing
needs for the same airspace by development and broad-
cast facilities. Tall buildings and antennas can adversely
affect airport capacity and aviation safety by restricting
approach and departure paths, access routes and maneu-
vering airspace. Land use
planning and regulation
adjacent to Florida's airports
must be coordinated with
aviation authorities. This
will ensure the long-term
ability of Florida's aviation
facilities to serve the needs
of current and future resi-
dents and visitors.

Seaports. Seaports are
also integral to Florida's
multi-modal transportation
system due to their impor-
tance to trade and tourism.
Florida's seaports are the
foundation of the state's
$38.2 billion international
trade industry. In 1992,
Florida's waterborne foreign
commerce exceeded $25.8
billion, including 52%
exports and 48% imports.
Furthermore, in 1992, 6.9
million passenger embarka-
tions and disembarkations
occurred at Florida's eight
cruise ports. The cruise




industry's economic impact to the nation was esti-
mated in 1992 to be $14.6 billion, generating almost
135,000 jobs. Since Florida is home to most of the
nation's cruise industry, it is safe to assume most of
that impact benefits the state.9
The common element among the intermodal fa-
cilities described above is that they are complemen-
tary rather than competitive. People or goods arrive
at these facilities via one mode of transportation, but
may depart using a second mode of transportation.
Managing the demands on Florida's transportation
system in the state's growing urban areas will require
effectively linked intermodal systems and a firm com-
mitment to achieve meaningful alternatives to cars in
urban areas where adequate roadway capacity is not
available or it would not be appropriate to provide it
because of cost or urban form concerns. Furthermore,
the continued viability of Florida's air, rail and water
transportation services will depend upon adequate
surface transportation access between terminal facili-
ties, as well as sufficient space for expansion of termi-
nals and related economic development activity.

Transportation and Land Use Planning

The challenge is to integrate the planning, imple-
mentation, and financing of these transportation
modes and related facilities into Florida's growth
management system. This challenge can only be met
through the integration of transportation and land-use
planning. The land uses within a community cannot
function in isolation. Mobility and accessibility must
be provided between land uses as well as between
communities and regions. The relationship between
land use and transportation is reciprocal; the land uses
within a community create a demand for transporta-
tion facilities and transportation services are catalysts
for land development.

Impacts on Development Patterns. Transporta-
tion and land use decisions have often been made in
the past with little regard for their impact on one an-
other. Unfortunately, roads constructed to connect
urban areas became the impetus for local develop-
ment activity along the new roadway corridors. Simi-
larly, roads constructed to link the suburbs with cen-
tral cities reinforced a sprawling urban development


W:~~ I


'' 'C ""~
:~r? i.. PP (n




-A pattern. Without land use controls and access limita-
tions, such transportation improvements stimulated
undesirable development and often resulted in auto-
dependent urban sprawl. Now though, with the pas-
sage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Effi-
ciency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and the Clean Air Act
amendments of 1990, transportation planners not only
have now been challenged to recognize this relation-
ship but they have been given the flexibility to help
land use planners create and implement plans that will
help foster the viability of alternative transportation
The ISTEA legislation, and the subsequent plan-
ning by the Florida Department of Transportation,
recognize that coordinated and integrated transporta-
tion and land use decisions can foster the realization
of state, regional and community goals. The form
that development takes has a direct impact on the
transportation options that will be available and fea-
sible to serve that development. Increasing minimum
densities and concentrating development in strategi-
cally designated areas and corridors can help make a
public transit system feasible. Encouraging mixed-
use developments and pedestrian connections through
"" land development regulations can reduce dependency
on the automobile as a primary form of transportation.
Downtown redevelopment efforts, proposed develop-

ments of regional impact and military base reuse
plans provide opportunities to dramatically affect a
specific area of the state and serve as an example of
desired future development in Florida. A review of
the impacts of these types of development on the
regional transportation system, however, must occur
if these opportunities are to be effectively utilized.
The way we use land is closely tied to the way we
design and use our transportation systems. Land
gains value from its location, including its access to
transportation. Growth and development increase the
intensity of use and effectively remove some land
from the pool of land available for future transporta-
tion facilities. Right-of-way protection and early
acquisition in Florida have become increasingly im-
portant during the last decade, largely due to the rap-
idly escalating cost of land in more intensively devel-
oped areas. Legal challenges to various right-of-way
protection measures used by state and local govern-
ments have further heightened the need to find sound,
defensible, and acceptable methods to preserve and
protect future transportation corridors. This methods
lies principally in well-designed local government
comprehensive plans.
Transportation Levels of Service. Another key
issue is setting levels of service and related transpor-
tation concurrency requirements. Transportation fa-



cilities often operate at or below the adopted level of
service within urbanized areas while facilities outside
urbanized areas frequently have excess capacity.
Transportation concurrency requirements can com-
pound this problem. In part because of the difficulty
of meeting transportation level of service require-
ments in more congested urban areas, development
has tended to locate in suburban and rural areas where
adequate transportation capacity is available.
Recognizing that concurrency requirements could
promote urban sprawl when improperly crafted, the
Florida Department of Transportation adopted level of
-! e iH'

service standards for rural segments on the FIHS that
are more stringent than those standards for the urban
segments. Adoption of these standards will limit
development in rural areas. In adopting statewide
standards, care must be taken to provide the flexibility
necessary to balance the possible conflicting interests
of discouraging urban sprawl and fostering rural eco-
nomic development without adversely affecting the
economic well-being of Florida's rural communities.
Florida's local planning laws (Chapter 163, Part
II, Florida Statutes) provide several options that per-
mit greater flexibility in the application of transporta-
tion concurrency requirements. These provisions
include: exemptions for de minimis impacts and spe-
cial part-time demand facilities, use of long-term
transportation concurrency systems, and establish-
ment of transportation concurrency management areas
(TCMA) and transportation concurrency exception

areas (TCEA). TCEAs can provide transportation
concurrency exceptions for urban redevelopment
areas, urban infill areas, downtown revitalization
areas, and projects that promote public transportation.

Public Participation. Since most of the facilities
on the FIHS are limited access highways, develop-
ment near interchanges and along connecting road-
ways can reduce the level of service of these facilities.
Access management techniques such as driveway
spacing, intersection and signal spacing, control of
median openings, and the design and location of turn
Slanes, however, can improve
the capacity and safety of
highivays and major thor-
oughfares. Besides improv-
ing mobility, appropriate
access management features
can reduce or delay the need
for new capital construction,
reduce the number of acci-
...'.. dents and improve the coor-
:s -,-c:.2 ~dination between land use
.......'.- ?;.:.-''.; -- .. ... ..
'.' -" '-" .'" and transportation planning.
S-. By controlling the design
-.'."'" ; and operation of all drive-
"^ "' ways and public street con-
ti- .,. t .;. nections to highways, access
.management can signifi-
cantly improve the land
,,, :, development pattern within
an area.
Finally, one cannot ignore the importance of pub-
lic and private participation in the land use and trans-
portation decision-making processes. Historically,
citizen participation has not been as effective as it
should be. This is due in part to unfamiliarity with
opportunities for public involvement. Further, citi-
zens will usually express a greater interest in transpor-
tation issues only when they realize these issues di-
rectly affect their daily lives. The private transporta-
tion sector, such as the rail and trucking industries,
should also be encouraged to participate at all levels
of the planning process. Recent federal and state
laws, such as ISTEA and amendments to Chapter
163, Part II, Florida Statutes, the latter of which
strengthened requirements for local intergovernmental
coordination, represent a clear policy shift to solicit
public participation at the beginning of the process.



Mobility Enhancement

ISTEA, as discussed earlier, and Florida's compan-
ion 1993 ISTEA transportation legislation encourage
increased accessibility and mobility through more bal-
anced multi-modal transportation systems, while de-
emphasizing travel by single occupant vehicles. If cur-
rent suburbanization trends continue, however, signifi-
cant reductions of single occupant vehicles on Florida's
roads and highways will not be achieved.
Among the 10 states with the largest number of
urban interstate miles, Florida ranks third in congested
miles. Compared with 10 other Sun Belt states, Florida
ranks second.10 This reliance on automobile travel has
created demands for continued expansion of the highway
system, which has overshadowed investment in other
means of transportation and encouraged urban sprawl.
In the future, it will be extremely important that the com-
mon definition of transportation move beyond the simple
provision of roads and begin focusing on the movement
of people and goods. When this occurs, the issue be-
comes which mode and linkages will be most effective,
rather than how many additional lanes will be required.
Only by providing dependable and convenient travel
choices to Floridians, such as expanded bus systems,
intelligent vehicle and highway systems, high occupancy
vehicle lanes, rail service, bikeways, and pedestrian
corridors, can the demand for more highway lanes be

Transportation and the Environment

Energy. Reducing the proportionate use of single
occupant vehicles will not only encourage more efficient
use of public transportation services, but will reduce
Florida's fuel consumption. Nearly $9 billion is spent
annually in fuels in the state's transportation sector."
With more than half of the nation's crude oil supply
coming from abroad, and a state transportation system
totally dependent on petroleum, transportation is one of
the most energy-vulnerable sectors of Florida.
Florida's typical sprawling suburbs connected by
strip-developed highways are the most energy-intensive
pattern of development. The public is unlikely to use
public transit until using a personal car becomes too
inconvenient or expensive. Only after highway conges-
tion becomes critical, parking is unavailable, automotive
fuel becomes extremely costly, and transit routes provide
adequate service between origins and destinations will

there be a significant switch from personal cars to public
Unfortunately, constructing and maintaining transit
systems requires a large financial investment, making it
expensive for government and unappealing for the pri-
vate sector. Even if Florida could afford to build such
public transit systems, the state's sprawling communities
are neither easily connected nor efficiently served.
Long-term programs are needed that guide Floridians
toward reduced dependence on the traditional automo-
bile and away from traditional patterns of sprawling
Air Quality. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
(CAAA) and the Intermodal Surface Transportation
Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) require compliance with
ambient air quality standards and a determination of
whether new transportation facilities will promote single-
occupant vehicle use, which increases air pollution. The
three air quality compliance designations are: "non-
attainment", areas not meeting standards' "attainment",
currently meeting standards; and "maintenance", re-
cently upgraded from nonattainment and required to
meet standards for an extended period. Failure to meet
and maintain air quality standards can result in sanctions,
including loss of Federal transportation funding.
Since 1970, average vehicle fuel efficiency has in-
creased 55% and engine improvements have reduced
exhaust emissions. During this period, Florida has expe-
rienced 100% population growth, 163% increase in ve-
hicle miles traveled, a decrease in vehicle occupancy,
and an increase in the average age of the vehicle fleet.
Fortunately, the net result has been a slow and steady
decrease in toxic emissions from mobile sources since
1990 resulting in Jacksonville being redesignated as an
attainment area in 1995 while Dade, Broward, Palm
Beach, Hillsborough and Pinellas Counties might be
redesignated from non-attainment to attainment areas in
Land-use practices designed to reduce single-occu-
pant vehicle travel will often improve air quality. Higher
densities of development will promote higher vehicle
occupancies in carpools/vanpools and improved effi-
ciency of bus service. Mixed land-use practices will
reduced trip lengths and help to promote walking and
bicycling as modes of travel. More intense development
along fixed-guideway and transit routes will encourage a
travel mode shift from private automobiles to transit



Natural Resources. New state and federal policies
call for a more balanced and integrated transportation
system that supports economic development, yet is
sensitive to the environment. New initiatives, such as
the concept of ecosystem management (an integrated
flexible approach to managing Florida's biological
and physical environments) and environmentally
sensitive design offer promising tools to serve future
Transportation planners must increase efforts to
identify and avoid environmentally sensitive lands
and vulnerable natural resources or to mitigate im-
pacts in transportation facility construction when
avoidance is not possible. The ISTEA legislation has
greatly increased flexibility in this area. The Florida
Department of Transportation is now one of the larg-
est contributors to environmental mitigation funds in
Florida, and has creatively provided funds for critical
environmental acquisitions. In addition, stormwater
management control measures to avoid pollution from
existing and new highway facilities should be ex-
panded. Finally, more effective measures for balanc-
ing the economic goals, mobility needs and environ-
mental considerations of the state should continue to
be pursued.

Transportation's Link to the Economy

U.S. Secretary of Transportation, Federico Pena,
recently announced a new National Transportation
System initiative by challenging Americans to view
transportation inefficiencies as an economic cost. The
Secretary noted that even a "1% improvement in
overall efficiency of America's transportation system
would translate into nearly $100 billion in savings
across our economy."'1 However, assuming addi-
tional transportation spending on any mode would be
equally advantageous to economic growth may not be
entirely correct. For instance, in a report to the
American Public Transit Association, he noted the
Relative to a baseline path, a program of in-
creased transit spending of $100 billion over a
10-year period is predicted to raise productiv-
ity at an average rate of about $18.50 a year so
that by the year 2000 the annual increment to
productivity peaks at $185. A highway spend-
ing program of equal magnitude, while also
lifting productivity, would have a somewhat

smaller impact. In the case of enhanced
spending on highways, productivity would
climb at an enhanced pace of more than $8 per
year until 1999 and would peak at just $87 in
that year.'3
This demonstrates that transit spending carries
over twice the potential to affect productivity as does
highway spending. What does this mean for Florida?
One third of Florida's income comes from interna-
tional trade and tourism, both of which rely on a de-
pendable transportation system.14 The Florida
Intrastate Highway System, a high speed rail system,
the rail network, major airports, and deep water ports
are the key elements of the transportation system
needed to support Florida's economic expansion.
Clearly, positioning other aspects of land use plans so
as to make transit investments more feasible can al-
low for more cost-effective transportation investments
and thus a significant impact on Florida's economic
Florida must not only ensure mobility to its citi-
zens, but access to markets, jobs and opportunities.
The state must also recognize the social and environ-
mental impacts of transportation as well as the direct
and indirect costs associated with them in making
transportation investment decisions." Improving
major airports, seaports, railroads and truck facilities,
completing a statewide high speed rail system, im-
proving intermodal connections, and managing and
preserving designated transportation corridors will
strengthen Florida's position in the global economy
and facilitate the linkage of transportation and land-
use planning into a cohesive statewide growth man-
agement system.


Encouraging alternative modes of transportation
can reduce demand on existing and planned roads and
highways. Balanced, mixed-use development that
places shopping and recreational opportunities near
homes and businesses, together with infill develop-
ment and downtown revitalization, will promote in-
creased pedestrian and bicycle traffic. Accommodat-
ing pedestrians and bicyclists can help make Florida's
environment more people-friendly, less stressful and
more supportive of a healthy citizenry. Cities and
counties need to encourage, through their comprehen-
sive plans and land development regulations, higher



density nodes and corridors which are served by pub-
lic transportation within urbanized areas.
Transportation and land-use planning must be
better coordinated to provide a solid foundation for
sound growth management. These decisions cannot
be done in isolation; they are both tools that can be
used to achieve the desired future vision of Florida's
communities. Transportation improvements, when
not complemented by land use controls and access
limitations, often stimulate untimely and/or undesir-
able development in undeveloped areas. An emphasis
on identifying and encouraging alternative modes of
transportation, improving public sector efficiency,
identifying required revenues, and developing and
applying creative programs and innovative imanage-
ment techniques, including close cooperation and
joint ventures with the private sector, is needed to
meet Florida's transportation needs in the 21st cen-

Goals, Objectives and Policies

GOAL 1: Florida's transportation system opti-
(4 mizes the mobility of people and goods, assures
accessibility, supports sustainable communities,
and promotes economic prosperity while protect-
ing the environment.
Objective 1: Increase coordination and integration
of land use and transportation planning and deci-
sions within and among all levels of Florida govern-
ment to support sustainable land use patterns.
Advocacy Policies:
1. Ensure that the Florida Land Plan, the Florida
Transportation Plan, and the Florida Water Plan
are compatible with each other and each plan is
consistent with the State Comprehensive Plan.
2. Ensure coordination and consistency between the
transportation plans of the Florida Department of
Transportation, regional planning councils, metro-
politan planning organizations (MPOs), port au-
thorities, cities and counties.
3. Ensure that transportation corridor analyses for
undeveloped areas at the corridor planning and
design stage or the project development and envi-
- ronment (PD&E) stage specifically consider suit-
ability of the adjacent land for urbanization, limits

on access, and the timing of roadway construction
and urban area expansion.
4. Encourage binding agreements between state and
local entities to establish appropriate land use
controls and corridor right-of-way protection tech-
niques in designated transportation corridors.
5. Use the local comprehensive planning process to
protect, preserve and acquire to the maximum
extent possible, rights-of-way for transportation
corridors identified in the Florida Transportation
Plan, MPO long-range plans and transportation
elements of local comprehensive plans.
6. Educate and inform the development community
and the public about the advantages of compact
development and promote public acceptance of
the densities needed to support public transporta-
tion and more efficient use of land.
7. Encourage transportation organizations to in-
crease financial and technical assistance to land
use planners to increase their understanding of the
impacts of proposed future land use plans on
transportation needs and modes and to offer alter-
native land use options that would minimize the
need for additional road construction to accom-
modate single-occupant automobile traffic.
8. Invest larger proportions of transportation funds in
rail, transit, and bicycle/pedestrian systems \\ hen-
ever feasible.
Planning Policies and Standards:
9. Accommodate bicycles and pedestrians in road
design and construction whenever feasible.
10. Ensure that multi-modal and non-motorized link-
ages are specifically considered and accommo-
dated in land use approval processes.
11. Establish level of service standards that promote
urban infill while allowing appropriate economic
development in rural areas. This should include
establishing transportation concurrency manage-
ment areas and transportation concurrency excep-
tion areas wherever feasible in combination with a
commitment to providing alternatives to single
occupant automobile travel.
12. Ensure that adequate transportation facilities,
whether roads or other appropriate modes, are



available concurrent with the impacts of develop-
13. Protect land and buffers designated for future
expansions of existing ports and airports from
other land development impacts.
14. Coordinate transportation and land use plans to
identify access points onto major transportation
corridors and control access by appropriate
means, such as frontage roads. Minimize curb
cuts and median openings in critical transportation
corridors through land use planning and regula-
tion and access permitting.
15. Establish plans for land development patterns and
parking policies that are designed to reduce auto-
mobile trip generation and promote the use of
public transportation and alternative transportation

Objective 2: Increase protection of natural, cul-
tural, and historic resources, reduce energy use, and
promote the attainment of good air quality when
planning and constructing transportation improve-
Advocacy Policies:
1. Provide incentives for the provision and use of
transportation modes that are compatible with the
environment, conserve energy and have minimal
air quality impacts.
2. Avoid the use of state transportation funds in
coastal high hazard areas and environmentally
sensitive areas, such as wetlands, floodplains and
productive marine areas.

3. Ensure that transportation plans evaluate the bal-
ance between energy costs, land use patterns and
densities, and transportation modes, with the aim
of reducing total energy use.
4. Combine transportation mitigation funds when-
ever feasible to acquire high quality natural eco-
systems and protect unique natural resources. In
Southeast Florida, consider using all transporta-
tion mitigation funds derived from projects north
of Florida City to assist in the acquisition of buffer
lands and other lands needed for Everglades resto-
Planning Policies and Standards:
5. Use transportation improvements to direct devel-
opment away from environmentally sensitive
areas and toward locations suitable for develop-
6. Provide for adequate treatment of stormwater
runoff in plans for the construction of new roads
and the expansion of existing roads.
7. Ensure that impacts to wildlife corridors and
crossings are minimized in the location and design
of new roads and expansions to existing ones.
8. Provide for the protection and maintenance of
cultural and historic resources in the construction
or expansion of transportation facilities.
9. Coordinate land use and transportation planning
to minimize the impacts of transportation systems
on air quality and maximize energy efficiency.




End Notes

1 State of Florida, Department of Transportation, Trends and Conditions: 2020 Florida Transportation Plan, (1994), 41; Bureau of Eco-
nomic and Business Research, University of Florida, 1990 Florida Statistical Abstract, (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1990), 3;
1993 Florida Statistical Abstract, (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993), 6 and 52.
2 University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Demographic and Commuting Trends in Florida, (Tampa,
February 1994), 24.
3 University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Demographic and Commuting Trends in Florida. (Tampa,
February 1994), 27.
4 State of Florida, Department of Transportation, Trends and Conditions: 2020 Florida Transportation Plan, (1994), 20.
5 State of Florida, Department of Transportation, Trends and Conditions: 2020 Florida Transportation Plan, (1994), 19.
6 State of Florida, Department of Transportation, Trends and Condiions: 2020 Florida Transportation Plan, (1994), 67.
7 State of Florida, Department of Transportation, Trends and Conditions: 2020 Florida Transportation Plan, (1994), 66.
8 State of Florida, Department of Transportation, Trends and Conditions: 2020 Florida Transportation Plan, (1994), 69.
9 State of Florida, Department of Transportation, Trends and Conditions: 2020 Florida Transportation Plan, (1994), 73-74.
10 State of Florida, Department of Transportation, Trends and Conditions: 2020 Florida Transportation Plan, 42.
11 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, Building Partnerships fora Sustainable Florida: 1994-1999 Agency Strategic Plan,
(Tallahassee, 1994), 44.
12 Surface Transportation Policy Project, Progress, "Its The Economy, Stupid!," Volume IV, Number 8, (Washington, D.C., October 1994), 1.
13 Surface Transportation Policy Project, Progress, "Transit Versus Highway Spending," Volume IV, Number 8, (Washington, D.C., October
1994), 7.
14 State of Florida, Department of Transportation, 2020 Florida Transportation Plan: (Public Hearing Draft), 22.
15 Surface Transportation Policy Project, Progress, 1.





The Economy

Trends and Conditions

Population growth and governmental policies
have a direct relationship to land use and economic
expansion. Floridians today are increasingly realiz-
ing that population growth creates a unique set of
circumstances and demands and does not necessarily
translate into a higher standard of living or the quality
A of life they desire. Moreover, they realize that land
development intrinsically does not necessarily equate
to high quality economic growth.
Clearly, population changes have impacted and
will continue to impact the character of our commu-
nities, the use of our land and the structure of our
economy. Responding to the needs of Florida's pro-
jected demographic profile at and beyond the turn of
the century requires diversifying the economic base,
increasing opportunities for employment and higher
earnings, reducing economic disparity, and fostering
the maintenance and expansion of agriculture and
related industries.

Florida's Economy

Income. Florida's 1992 per capital income of
$19,397 ranked 20th nationally and continued a long-
standing trend of annual increases. That year, the
United States' per capital income was $19,841.' The
Bureau of Economic and Business Research of the
University of Florida projects that Florida's per capital
income will grow to $35,663 by 2005 and that
Florida's real per capital income will keep pace with
the forecasted national real per capital income growth
rate of 1% annually.2

Employment and Job Creation. Florida's 1993
unemployment rate was 7.0%. Statewide, 1993 an-
nual average unemployment rates in the.67 counties
ranged from a high of 14.6% (Hardee County) to a
low of 3.9% (Leon County). Five counties, Hamilton,
Hardee, Hendry, St. Lucie and Taylor, had 1993 an-
nual average unemployment rates of 12% or higher.
The ratio of Florida's prime working age popula-
tion (between the ages 15 and 64) to the non-working
age group is expected to remain fairly constant from
1995 (61.7%, 8.75 million) through the year 2005
(62.9 %, 10.6 million).4 This means that more than
1.8 million new jobs will be needed by the year 2005
to accommodate Florida's prime working age popula-
tion, a group that is becoming increasingly diverse
and multi-ethnic.
Employment and job creation are critical to a
state whose population profile is one of continued
growth and diversity. Of the major employment sec-
tors in the Florida economy, the most obvious area of
growth has been and will continue to be in services.
Service industries, including those related to tourism,
rank as the single largest category of jobs in the state;
this sector is expected to grow at an average annual
rate of 4.1% in the next 10 years. The second largest
category, in terms of level of employment, is trade,
which is expected to be the second most rapidly
growing industrial sector over the next 10 years with
an average annual growth rate of 2.7%. Four other
major employment sectors including transportation,
communications, and public utilities combined; fi-
nance, insurance, and real estate combined; govern-
ment; and agriculture are each forecasted to grow at
average annual rates between 1% and 2%. With the
tremendous growth in service industries, it is impor-



The Economy

tant that planners recognize the need that many ser-
vice establishments have for highway visibility and
access. These needs should be accommodated
through effective access management programs that
provide access while reducing strip commercial
sprawl and unnecessary curb and median cuts.
Economic Disparities. Despite Florida's relatively
strong economic health, there are many areas of the
state where economic vitality has faded or economic
opportunity has passed by. While there is no state-
wide listing of areas experiencing economic distress,
there are general indicators that can be used to deter-
mine if a community is in distress. These indicators
include the following:5
* the percentage of housing units in the area that are
substandard (built more than 30 years ago or lack
some or all plumbing facilities);
* the percentage of year-round housing units in the
area that are vacant rental housing units;
* the per capital income of the area;
* the rate of change in per capital income in the area
from the prior year to the current year;
* the unemployment rate in the area;
* the percentage of population in the area having
incomes below poverty level;
* the per capital taxable value of property in the
* the rate of change in per capital taxable value of
property in the area from the prior year to the
current year;
the percentage of the population receiving public
the percentage of the adult population that is func-
tionally illiterate; and
the rate of population growth.
Florida has several metropolitan economies that
rank among the nation's best. Yet many urban "inner
city" communities are in economic decline or at a
standstill. The lowest per capital income and the high-
est unemployment rates in Florida can be found in
central cities. Economic disparities, however, exist in
both urban and rural settings. Statistics documenting
the hardships of areas in economic distress include the

* Because few manufacturing, professional service,
or high-wage industries are located in distressed
communities (both urban and rural), per capital
income for residents in these areas remains low.
Twenty-one rural counties have per capital in-
comes below 70% of the state's per capital in-
come.6 Per capital incomes in eight of Florida's
31 small counties (those with less than 50,000
population in 1993) increased at a slower rate than
that of Florida from 1990 to 1992.7
* Unemployment rates of residents living in dis-
tressed urban and rural communities significantly
exceed those of residents living outside those
communities. This condition is especially true for
African-American men and youth, who experi-
enced unemployment rates that were 6.6% higher
than those of the white work force in 1993.8
* In 1993, 17 of Florida's 31 small counties had
unemployment rates above the state average.9
* Thirty-seven out of Florida's 67 counties have
commuting rates higher than the national average.
This is an indicator not only of urban sprawl but
also a sign that the lower-paid working population
may not be able to afford to live in close proxim-
ity to their work. These commuting patterns
negatively impact local economies because in-
come earned is generally spent in the nonresi-
dence county and the impact to the transportation
systems of the additional trips.," The disparity in
unemployment rates may be related to the trend
toward greater commute distances and the dispro-
portionate number of African-Americans and
youth who do not have access to transportation to
suburban locales or the availability of good qual-
ity jobs in or in close proximity to their resi-
dences. This in part is due also to federal, state,
and local tax and development policies that have
encouraged the decline of our central cities and
our rural areas.

Vital Economic Sectors

In addition to maintaining and fostering expan-
sion of existing businesses and industry, Florida's
communities must look to diversifying their economic
bases. This means they must pursue global markets
and develop the infrastructure to sustain healthy local
and regional economies.


The Economy

Tourism. Florida is known around the world as a
premiere vacation destination. A desirable climate,
seemingly endless beaches, uncommon natural re-
sources, and world class recreational and amusement
attractions make this state a leading tourist destina-
tion. Visitors to Florida spend a great deal on enter-
tainment, lodging, food, and gifts. This spending
translates into jobs, incomes and tax revenues for
Between fiscal year 1984-85 and fiscal year
1993-94, tourist arrivals to Florida grew by 45%,
from 27.7 million to 40.1 million." This 10-year
growth trend, however, masks a possible recent
downward trend. According to the state's tourism
estimates, visitor arrivals for the first nine months of
1994 trail the same period in 1993 by 1.1%. The third
quarter of 1994, however, showed a 5.3% growth
compared to the third quarter in 1993. The current
official state forecast assumes a continuation of the
pre-1993-94 trends, projecting a 43% increase in an-
nual tourist arrivals to 57.5 million by fiscal year
In addition to traditional tourism destinations
'" centered around major attractions and theme parks,
Florida possesses an abundance of natural resources
that can more than adequately support an expanding
eco-tourism market. Florida boasts four national
forests, numerous state forests and parks, and hun-
dreds of wildlife management areas, campgrounds
and scenic rivers. Many areas of the state designated
for agricultural use also provide resources for eco-
based tourism. Comprehensive state, regional, and
local policies that protect the environment adequate
are important to ensuring that tourism remains a vi-
able component of the Florida economy.
International Trade and The Global Economy. -
Our economy, like those of the rest of the world, now
responds rapidly to changes'in the economies of other
nations. There is an increasing recognition of the
need to develop new markets and relationships be-
yond our borders. A growing number of communi-
ties, states and nations compete for their share of tour-
ism, international trade and investment. Through
promotional efforts, government policies and private
leadership, Florida must present a strong and vital
image in worldwide markets.
SBecause of Florida's geographic location, our
state is in an excellent position to reap extraordinary
benefits from its proximity to, and cultural ties with,

Latin American countries and Caribbean nations.
These international markets alone account for 60% of
merchandise trade through Florida's trade districts,
which further emphasizes the importance of Florida's
port facilities to our economy. Another way to under-
stand the significance of foreign trade impacts on
Florida residents is to recognize that $1 billion in
international trade can support up to 16,000 jobs for
Maintaining and Expanding Agricultural Indus-
tries. In fiscal year 1984-85, total Gross State
Product (the value attributed to goods and services by
productive state activity) was $155.9 billion. Ap-
proximately 2.6% of the total GSP or $4 billion was
directly attributed to agriculture.14 As used here, agri-
culture includes farming, forestry, fisheries and other
agricultural services. By fiscal year 1993-94, agricul-
tural GSP had risen an estimated 63% to $6.5 billion,
but slipped to approximately 2.1% of total GSP.R
While this trend indicates that agriculture is of dimin-
ishing importance relative to other sectors of the
Florida economy, it does not consider the value-added
food processing, silviculture and ranching compo-
nents of Florida's agriculture industry. These ele-
ments hold a strong promise for Florida's agricultural
No one would suggest that we close our best and
most productive businesses. Every year, however.
Florida converts about 160,000 acres of productive
farmland to other uses. According to the Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, the total loss
in production acreage between 1980 and 1990 due to
all causes, including the devastating freezes of central
Florida's citrus stock, was 2.2 million acres. This
translates to 250,000 acres per year.16 A more conser-
vative figure of an annual net loss of 160,000 produc-
tive acres was reported in 1987 by the Department of
Community Affairs in its mapping and monitoring of
agricultural lands project."
Despite the trend toward net loss of productive
agricultural land, which of course cannot continue
indefinitely, the agricultural industry has demon-
strated an ability to grow using international trade to
expand markets for Florida products. Our state's
agricultural sector is dynamic and promises to be a
major source of trade with other states and countries.
A critical issue for Florida's agricultural industry
concerns the impacts that the North America Free
Trade Agreement (NAFTA) will have on the competi-


The Economy

tiveness of domestic products. Agricultural produc-
ers, processors and shippers rely on a level playing
field with regard to environmental, labor, and food
processing regulations for their competitive advan-
tages. Governmental policies that support and en-
courage the value-added portions of the agricultural
economy and minimize encroachment of urban uses
on agricultural lands can assist in this effort.

Land-Use Planning and Regulatory

By increasing market shares of tourism, expand-
ing high-value-added industrial clusters, broadening
international trade initiatives, and maintaining and
expanding agriculture, Floridians can expect the eco-
nomic stability that accompanies increased growth,
retention of quality jobs and a secure, dependable tax
Developers, industrial prospects and investors
require a clear set of rules that are consistently applied
across permitting agency lines. Responsible busi-
nesses and industry leaders realize the importance of
protecting the environment and the long-term cost
savings inherent in planning for growth. An efficient,
accessible regulatory process, including streamlined
permitting, encourages growth and protects Florida's
public health, safety and environmental resources. At
the same time, streamlined regulatory processes help
to reduce duplicative and inconsistent rules.
Recognizing this, Florida has worked to add pre-
dictability to development siting, reduce unnecessary
regulatory restraints, and streamline permitting pro-
cesses. Study of these issues by the Partners for a
Better Florida Advisory Committee"1 and the Third
Environmental Land Management Study Committee
led to enactment of landmark legislation in 1993 to
streamline land-use planning and environmental per-
mitting processes.19 This legislation resulted in the
* eventual termination of the Development of Re-
gional Impact Program in certain counties and
their associated municipalities;
* creation of an environmental resource permit to
consolidate wetland permitting functions of the
state and water management districts; and
* establishment of a network of economic develop-
ment liaisons in planning and regulatory agencies

to ensure expedited responses to issues arising in
the course of economic development projects.
Several other growth management and environ-
mental permitting initiatives are noteworthy:
* the 1993 merger of the Department of Natural
Resources and the Department of Environmental
Protection to form the Department of Environ-
mental Protection;
* the Department of Environmental Protection's
seeking federal delegation of certain wetlands
permitting authority;
* the Department of Environmental Protection's
preparing guidelines for delegating its permitting
authority to local governments;
* with exceptions of newest cities, all counties and
municipalities have adopted local government
comprehensive plans that designate land for future
* the enactment of the Florida Jobs Siting Act2" to
create a consolidated process for economic devel-
opment projects especially beneficial to Florida
can gain virtually all the land-use planning ap-
provals and environmental permits needed to
proceed in a timely, coordinated manner; and
* perhaps most significantly, Governor Lawton
Chiles' pledge in his second inaugural address to
reduce state agency rules by 50% by 1997.

Resources Needed for Economic Growth

In addition to a clear set of rules for land develop-
ment, businesses need infrastructure and financial
resources to support their locations and expansions.
Infrastructure and Public Services. With the
exception of transportation, the provision of infra-
structure and public services is primarily a local gov-
emment issue in Florida. In 1987, the State Compre-
hensive Plan Commission concluded that the need for
public facilities in Florida is far outpacing our will-
ingness to provide them. As an example, the Com-
mission identified that the cost of implementing the
transportation goals of the State Comprehensive Plan
alone would cost $16 billion.21 Despite the imposition
of concurrency requirements, the state and local gov-
ernments have not caught up with the need. Contin-


The Economy

ued population growth coupled with sprawling devel-
opment patterns have intensified infrastructure needs.
Florida's sources for infrastructure financing
remain limited. Public facilities and services that are
critical to meeting residential, commercial, and indus-
trial development needs remain under funded. Tradi-
tionally, county and municipal governments have
provided economic development incentives, such as
impact fee waivers, property tax reductions, and job
training financing to influence the location ofa job-
creating business within their communities. In some
communities, however, these inducements have cre-
ated funding deficits and increased impacts to natural
resources as land is prematurely converted to urban
uses. More often than not, these areas have been left
with costly, fragmented, development patterns and
haphazard, unplanned extensions and expansions of
public facilities. The public and private sectors must
work together to make adequate public facilities and
services financing a reality.
Capital. Access to capital is essential for business
growth. Without capital, concepts are not imple-
r mented; businesses are unable to incorporate tech-
nologies to become more competitive; new markets
are not entered; and opportunities for diversified eco-
nomic growth and job creation are lost.
In Florida, where services represent the largest
business sector, the majority of industrial and com-
mercial loans are collateralized by land. For example,
the construction of hotels, retail outlets, and restau-
rants, are usually financed through loans that are se-
cured by land and improvements. The use of land as
the primary form of loan guarantees limits the ability
of new and expanding industries and high wage busi-
nesses (particularly small and minority business) to
acquire capital. Restrictive lending practices based on
land values can also limit the capacity within rural
areas to grow and expand.
As stewards of stockholder's investments, lending
professionals must be encouraged to develop lending
policies and practices that will enhance the economic
viability and overall well being of their community.
A major consideration in lending decisions is calcu-
lating investment return in the event of a borrower's
inability to repay. To decrease the degree of risk and
diminish a lenders loss ratio, land is often used as
" collateral because of its reasonable opportunity for
resale in the event of foreclosure. These lending prac-
tices highlight the need for orderly and planned land

use and development strategies to support industrial
and business growth.
Military Base Closure and Defense Realignment.-
A study by the Florida Department of Commerce
showed that large percentages of Florida's manufac-
turing and high technology industry growth during the
1980s were fueled by defense spending. As the de-
fense budget is realigned, reductions in force and
equipment will cause a shrinkage of the Department
of Defense as a market for Florida manufacturers.
On March 12, 1993, the Secretary of Defense
recommended another round of closures and realign-
ments of military installations nationwide. Military
bases in five Florida communities-Homestead, Jack-
sonville, Orlando, Tampa and Pensacola-were se-
lected for base closure or realignment under the long-
term federal commitment to reduce the size of
America's military force and defense expenditures.
Even considering the effects of some realign-
ments which will bring additional military programs
into Florida, the Florida Department of Commerce
estimates the direct and indirect effects resulting from
these reductions will mean a total loss to Florida of
18,000 jobs and nearly $700 million in annual earn-
ings over the course of the five-year phase-in period.22
In response to the negative economic impact the
national defense downsizing could have on Florida, in
April 1993, Governor Lawton Chiles signed an Ex-
ecutive Order establishing the Florida Defense Con-
version and Transition Commission. The
Commission's responsibilities encompass the coordi-
nation of Florida's response to the upcoming Base
Realignment and Closures for 1995 (BRAC 95). The
effort is designed to ensure that Florida communities,
businesses, and workers successfully overcome the
problems caused by the national cutbacks in defense
spending and that Florida garers its fair share of
federal dollars available to implement defense conver-
sion, reinvestment and transition activities. As a posi-
tive sign for Florida's economy, no Florida bases were
targeted for closure or realignment as a result of
BRAC 95.
The Florida legislature gave further support to our
state's defense initiatives with passage of:
the Qualified Defense Contractor Incentive meant
to provide tax refunds of up to $5,000 per saved
or created defense job;" and
the Defense Commission and Transition Act24
which set state policy for reporting on defense


The Economy

downsizing and established a military base reuse
and community matching grant program to expe-
dite planning and growth management require-

Important Economic Resources. In addition to
providing public infrastructure and services and capi-
tal, communities seeking to locate new businesses or
retain and expand existing businesses should take
advantage of the following resources in their eco-
nomic development planning activities:
Land designated for business/industry;
Other public inducements (e.g., special taxing dis-
Opportunities for attracting large-scale employers
and small and developing businesses as job genera-
tion sources;
Small Business Development Centers;
Supportive business services;
Community support services (hospitals, libraries);
Community Redevelopment Agencies;
State Enterprise Zone Program;
Federally designated economic development dis-
tricts and empowerment zones;
Quality and quantity of available labor;
Cultural and historic resources;
Tourism-related facilities and environmental ameni-
* Major sports franchises and facilities; and
* Affordable housing located proximate to job centers


To ensure that Florida's economy continues to
provide the kinds of employment opportunities asso-
ciated with a higher standard of living and quality of
life for our state's citizens, the impact of Florida's
land use policies on the state's economy must be con-
sidered. These policies must be balanced with
Florida's need to diversify its economic base by in-
creasing our market shares of tourism, business and
industrial activity, and international trade, and ad-
dressing those issues blocking the achievement of this

diversity, namely geographic economic disparity and
limited development capacity.
As Florida continues to grow, its government and
business leaders are increasingly faced with difficult
decisions regarding how much development, what
kind and where. Land use decisions are inextricably
tied to our economic well being and these decisions
must be based on sound and reliable economic, social
and environmental information.

Goals, Objectives, and Policies

GOAL 1: Florida's economic climate provides
economic stability by maximizing job opportuni-
ties, increasing per capital income, and reducing
economic disparity.
Objective I: Increase the efficiency and effective-
ness of development review processes consistent with
the long-term, sustainable use of resources and
Advocacy Policies:
1. State, regional, and local agencies should imple-
ment fast track permitting programs for projects
proposed for infill and redevelopment areas.
2. All state, regional, and local agencies should pro-
vide greater certainty in business location deci-
sions through efficient administration of land-use
planning and land development regulation pro-
3. All state and regional agencies with planning or
regulatory authority should streamline develop-
ment review processes and delegate permitting
authority to the lowest possible level.
4. The Department of Community Affairs and re-
gional planning councils should promote resolu-
tion of challenges to local government compre-
hensive plans through the appropriate regional
dispute resolution process or Intergovernmental
Coordination Element dispute resolution process.
5. The Department of Community Affairs and re-
gional planning councils should encourage the use
of areawide development reviews covering areas
where more than one large-scale development
proposal could take place to assist the siting of
selected industries deemed most appropriate for
properly using Florida's environmental resources.



The Economy

6. The Department of Community Affairs and re-
gional planning councils should encourage the use
of conceptual permitting processes to assist the
siting of selected industries deemed most appro-
priate for proper use of Florida's environmental
7. The Departments of Community Affairs and
Commerce should promote the use of the 1993
Florida Jobs Siting Act to facilitate the location or
expansion of new businesses consistent with the
long-term, sustainable use of resources and facili-
8. The Departments of Commerce and Community
Affairs should promote the use of the optional
military base reuse planning provisions of Chapter
288, Florida Statutes, to facilitate the conversion
of closed military bases and airfields to other eco-
nomic uses.

Objective 2: Enhance diversification of the state's
economy and increase employment in non-tradi-
tional economic sectors consistent with the long-
i' term, sustainable use of resources and facilities.
Advocacy Policies:
1. State, regional and local agencies should encour-
age full utilization of available incentives by tar-
geted industries, pursuant to Section 288.106,
Florida Statutes, to locate or expand in Florida
consistent with local government comprehensive
plans, land development regulations, the availabil-
ity of adequate public facilities, and the long-term,
sustainable use of natural resources.
2. The Departments of Community Affairs, Agricul-
ture and Consumer Services, and Commerce and
regional planning councils, in cooperation with
county and municipal governments, should iden-
tify geographic areas of major development po-
tential in which special efforts should be made to
improve the economic climate in a manner com-
patible with the long-term, sustainable use of
natural resources.
3. State, regional and local plans should designate
adequate land and water resources for expansion
of dockage and upland warehousing and transfer
facilities at Florida's deep water ports.

4. State, regional and local agencies should protect
and preserve Florida's unique and sensitive natu-
ral and cultural and historic resources, including
the Everglades, unspoiled riverine corridors, and
intact beach and dune systems, through an appro-
priate mix of acquisition, regulation and conserva-
tion for the purpose of helping to maintain
Florida's important tourism industry.
5. The Department of Environmental Protection
should expand state park facilities, rails to trails,
Florida Recreational Trails, and Greenways and
provide incentives for development of hostel and
camping facilities for ecotourism where demand
is high and the natural resources can support ex-
6. The Department of Commerce should identify an
appropriate funding source of at least $2 million
annually and dedicate the funds to a grant and
loan program for the development of infrastruc-
ture, facilities and amenities for ecotourism.

Objective 3: Increase public and private investment
in land and infrastructure needed to support sustain-
able economic growth, sustain and preserve the
value of Florida's infrastructure, and protect and
maintain natural and historic resources as a primary
economic asset of the state.
Advocacy Policies:
1. State, regional and local agencies should develop
plans and incentive programs to convert and reuse
military installations closed by federal action be-
fore building new facilities.
2. State, regional and local agencies should market
lands identified as suitable for future industry in
local government comprehensive plans and pro-
mote investment in the infrastructure needed by
business in these areas.
3. Local governments should enforce planning re-
quirements that assure adequate provision of in-
frastructure needed to support economic develop-
ment activities.
4. State, regional and local plans should provide for
the development of intermodal transportation
capacity, including commuting, freight rail, public
transit, and paratransit systems, in direct support
of the economic investment in land and facilities.


The Economy

5. State, regional and local plans should identify and
dedicate suitable lands for airport and seaport
expansions to minimize incompatibility with adja-
cent uses.
6. State, regional and local agencies should promote
investment and provide incentives for private
development of needed expansion of airports and
deep water seaports to enable the state to take full
advantage of cultural ties and proximity to the
Caribbean and Latin and South American mar-
7. State and local governments and port authorities
should coordinate their fixed capital investment
and land development activities to maximize
Florida's transportation assets.

Objective 4: Increase Florida's per capital income to
exceed the national average and raise per capital
income levels in disadvantaged, rural counties and
distressed urban communities to the national aver-
Advocacy Policies:
1. The State should permit disadvantaged rural coun-
ties and distressed urban communities to adopt
flexible revenue-generating activities targeted to
economic development initiatives.
2. State, regional and local agencies should exempt
community redevelopment areas and areas desig-
nated for redevelopment in local government
comprehensive plans from transportation
concurrency requirements to achieve densities
required to support viable public transit systems,
consistent with adopted public transit plans and
local economic development goals.
3. The Departments of Commerce and Community
Affairs should encourage the full utilization by
businesses of economic development enhance-
ment programs to stimulate private development
and expansion of permanent job opportunities for
the economically disadvantaged through the use
of the federal Enterprise Community or Empow-
erment Zone Programs, state Enterprise Zones,
community development corporations, and com-
munity-based development organizations.

GOAL 2: Florida's land-use planning and
regulatory frameworks foster the maintenance
and expansion of agricultural and related value-
added industries to ensure that Florida is devel-
oped in a sustainable manner and is a healthy
and competitive force in national and interna-
tional marketplaces.
Objective 1: Increase incentives to maintain lands
for use in agricultural production and reduce
instances of premature conversion of agricultural
lands to urban uses.
Advocacy Policies:
1. The State should establish a Florida Farmland
Preservation Program to prevent the rapid and
uncontrolled loss of farmland to urban uses
through the provision of technical assistance,
grants, and loans.
2. The Department of Revenue and local govern-
ment property appraisers should promote the use
of land for agricultural purposes by maintaining
preferential property tax treatment through the
greenbelt law. To promote equitable use of the
exemption, the Department of Revenue should
evaluate implementation of the law and revise
regulations as needed to assure that land owners
who benefit from a reduced tax burden maintain
the land in productive agricultural use or, upon
proposing the land be developed for other uses,
pay the local government taxes that would have
been owed on the property had it been assessed
for the proposed use.
3. The Departments of Community Affairs, Agricul-
ture and Consumer Services, and Transportation,
and regional planning councils should monitor
changes in the amount and types of land cover in
the state, including those used for agricultural
4. The Departments of Transportation and Commu-
nity Affairs, regional planning councils, local
governments and port authorities should coordi-
nate planning of road, rail, air and waterborne
transportation systems to provide adequate facili-
ties for the economical transport of agricultural
products and supplies between producing areas
and markets.


The Economy

Planning Policies and Standards:
5. State, regional and local agencies should mini-
mize the effect of planned urban growth patterns,
infrastructure service areas, and proposed devel-
opment on productive agricultural lands and
implement policies that discourage further en-
croachment on these lands.
6. The Departments of Community Affairs, Environ-
mental Protection, Transportation, and Com-
merce, Agriculture and Consumer Services, the
State University System, water management dis-
tricts, regional planning councils, and local gov-
ernments should identify and implement strategies
to encourage sound and proper land development
and discourage sprawling, inefficient leapfrog
urban development which undermines the long-
term use of land for agricultural purposes.

Objective 2: Reduce soil erosion on lands in agri-
cultural production to maintain the economic value
of land for agricultural purposes and reduce sedi-
mentation in state waters.
Planning Policies and Standards:
1. The Departments of Agriculture and Consumer
Services and Community Affairs and the State
University System should promote best manage-
ment agricultural practices to protect and preserve
soil resources.
2. State, regional and local agencies should consider
the conservation of soil resources in reviewing all
land-use plans and development projects.
3. The Department of Community Affairs should
enforce state planning requirements that local
government comprehensive plans ensure adequate
protection of soil resources.

4. The Departments of Management Services, Trans-
portation, and Education and the State University
System should employ practices that conserve soil
resources in state construction and development
5. The Department of Environmental Protection
should require sound soil conservation practices
on state-owned land leased for agricultural pur-



The Economy

End Notes

SBureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida, 1993 Florida Statistical Abstract, Table 5.05, "Personal Income:
Total and Per Capita Amounts in Florida, Other Sunbelt States, Other Populous States, and the United States, 1990 Through 1992,"
(Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993), 134.
2 Carol Taylor West, David G. Lenze, and Tony L. Tracy, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida, The Florida
Long-Term Economic Forecast Volume 2 State and Counties, (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994), 5.
3 State of Florida, Department of Commerce, Florida County Comparisons, 1994, Figure A-3 "Annual Average Unemployment Rates,
1993," (Tallahassee, 1994).
4 Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida, The Florida Long-Term Economic Forecast Volume 2 State &
Counties, (June 1994).
5 See Section 290.0065, Florida Statutes (1993). The last three indicators listed are used by state agencies participating in the Rural
Economic Development Initiative lead by the Department of Commerce.
6 Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida, 1994 Florida Statistical Abstract, Table 5.20, "Eamed Income: Total
Earnings on a Place-Of-Work Basis and Percentage Distribution by Type and Major Industrial Source in Florida, Other Sunbelt States,
Other Populous States, and the United States, 1991," (Gainesville: University of Press of Florida, 1994), 153-155.
7 Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida, 1993 Florida Statistical Abstract, Table 6.10, "Labor Force:
Estimates by Employment Status in the State and Counties of Florida and in the United States, 1990, 1991, and 1992," (Gainesville:
University Press of Florida, 1993), 212-214.
8 United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Market Statistics, (1994).

9 State of Florida, Department of Commerce, Florida County Comparisons, 1994, Table A-2 "Population Density, 1993" and Table A-11,
"Employment and Unemployment, 1993," (Tallahassee, 1994).
10 Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Florida Demographics and Journey to
Work: A County Data Book, "Work Outside of Home County/State, Percent of Workers Age 16+," (Tampa, May 1993), 17.
11 Florida Economic Consensus Estimating Conference, (October 24,1994).
12 Florida Economic Consensus Estimating Conference, (October 24, 1994).
13 United States Department of Commerce, Economic and Statistics Administration, Office of the Chief Economist, (1993).
14 State-of-Origin of Exports Estimates prepared by the Massachusetts Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of
Massachusetts, Amherst using data provided by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
15 United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, Annual Report, (1993).
16 Interview with Mr. Craig Evans. American Farmland Trust, (July 16, 1993).
17 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, Mapping and Monitoring of Agricultural Lands Project, Data Summary Worksheet,
(1987). The Department conducted the study in cooperation with the Florida Department of Transportation and used satellite imaging
and ground-based measurements to calculate a net loss of 1.6 million acres of agricultural lands between 1974 and 1984.
18 See Section 403.0612, Florida Statutes, (1993).
19 See Chapters 93-206 and 93-213, Laws of Florida.
20 See Section 403.950, Florida Statutes, (1993).
21 Keys to Florida's Future: Winning in a Competitive World, The Final Report of the State Comprehensive Plan Committee to the State of
Florida, (Tallahassee, 1987), 13.
22 State of Florida, Department of Commerce, Strategic Plan: Working to Improve the Economic Quality of Life for All Floridians. 1994-
1999, (Tallahassee, 1994), viii.
23 See Section 288.104, Florida Statutes, (1994 Supplement).
24 Chapter 94-323, Laws of Florida.




Affordable Housing

Trends and Conditions

The 1949 U.S. Housing Act promised a "decent
home and suitable living environment" for all Ameri-
cans. This national goal was affirmed in the 1990
Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act.
SThe 1990 Florida Legislature pledged that by the year
2010 the state "shall ensure that decent and affordable
housing is available for all its residents." While re-
cent initiatives at both the state and federal levels,
such as enactment of Florida's William E. Sadowski
Affordable Housing Act in 1992, mark significant
progress toward realizing these goals, safe and afford-
able housing remains out of the reach of many Florida
families. The nature of housing problems in Florida
relates primarily to families overburdened with the
cost of housing and to a lesser degree to substandard
housing conditions.
The availability, accessibility and affordability of
adequate housing is integrally related to the use of
land in two key ways: (1) planning to assure that
affordable housing needs are addressed and (2) imple-
menting land development regulations and building
codes that govern the density and distribution of hous-
ing and assure that new or rehabilitated structures are

Florida's Affordable Housing Conditions

Housing Affordability. -The cost overburden of
housing is the major housing problem facing Florida.
While cost overburden can affect all income groups, it
more seriously affects households with below-median

incomes. While definitions vary, a widely accepted
definition of "affordable" is set out in Section
420.0003(3), Florida Statutes:
"Affordable" means that monthly rents or
monthly mortgage payments, including taxes,
insurance and utilities, do not exceed 30 per-
cent of that amount which represents the per-
centage of median adjusted gross annual in-
come for households classified as very low,
low and moderate income.
The 1990 U.S. Census of the Population and
Housing reports that the 1989 annual median house-
hold income for Florida was $27,483.' This means
that in 1989, half of all households in Florida earned
less than $27,483 and half earned more. Approxi-
mately 1.1 million households, or 22% of households
in Florida had incomes below 50% of the median
household income in 1989. Of this group, 66% paid
more than 30% of their incomes for housing. Among
the roughly 544,000 households with incomes be-
tween 51% and 80% of median income, 35% experi-
enced housing cost overburden. About 9% of Florida
households earned incomes between 81% and 95% of
the 1989 median. Of this group, 25% paid more than
30% of their incomes for housing. Renters experi-
ence cost overburden even more frequently than own-
ers. Almost 60% of all households earning below
80% of median income are renters.
Based on 1990 proportions of the income groups
in the population, approximately 3 million households
will be at or below 80% of the median household
income by the year 2015. About 1.7 million of these


Affordable Housing

households will be at or below 50% of the median
income. If the above trends continue, Florida will
have a housing affordability problem of considerable

Household Growth. In the decade between 1980
and 1990, the number of households grew from 3.7
million to 5.1 million.2 This represents a rate of in-
crease of 37.1% in a 10-year period or about 139,000
new households per year (see figure V.1).3 According
to market studies, by 2015 the number of households
is projected to be 7.6 million.4 Florida's average
household size has been shrinking over time. Average
household size in the state was estimated to be 2.45
people in 1994, down from 2.55 in 1980 and 2.9 in

Condition of Florida's Housing Stock. Florida's
recent population growth means that much of the
state's housing stock is new in comparison to other
states with older urban areas. Only 4% of housing
units in Florida were more than 50 years old in 1990.
The greatest proportion of Florida's housing stock,
roughly 63%, was built in the 1970s and 1980s (see
figure V.1).6

Table V.1 Age of Housing Units in Florida

Year Constructed

Number of Units

1939 and earlier 217,565
1940-1949 239,445
1950-1959 695,453
1960-1969 968,615
1970-1979 1,745,235
1980-1989 1,976,000
Source: 1990 U.S. Census of the Population and Housing

Figure V.1. Growth in Number of Florida Households, 1970-2010

8,000,000 r










|1 6.626.587'





2000* 2005*

Sources: Florida Statistical Abstract, 1990 and 1991, and Need for Low and Moderate Income
Affordable Ownership Housing in Florida, November 1994




Affordable Housing

Because inspections of all housing units are not
feasible, community development planners use surro-
gate indicators of housing conditions. Units typically
considered to be substandard include those that lack
water, heating, and kitchens (criteria from U.S. Cen-
sus) and those built prior to 1940. Based on the expe-
rience of the Department of Community Affairs in
reviewing local government comprehensive plans,
using the Census criteria and age of housing to iden-
tify substandard housing may under represent the
extent of inadequate, unsafe and deteriorating hous-
Affordable Housing In Florida 1994 estimates
that approximately 5.5% of all units in the state are
considered to be in need of moderate rehabilitation,
substantial rehabilitation, or demolition. This
amounts to roughly 326,740 units. While the need to
rehabilitate housing units is relatively small now, the
number of substandard units will rapidly increase
over the next two decades as Florida's housing stock
ages. By the year 2015, more than 2.1 million units
will be 50 years old or older; another 1.7 million units
will be about 40 years old or older. Unless these ex-
' isting housing stocks are well maintained as they age,
the substandard housing rate may rise to 10% or
higher. An important challenge in Florida's near fu-
ture will be to identify and rehabilitate housing in
older and historic neighborhoods.
Recent natural disasters have also shown that
older homes built before National Flood Insurance
Protection Program regulation are particularly vulner-
able to damage and destruction by the repeated im-
pact of high winds and flooding. Damage may also
occur from local isolated flood events. In these cir-
cumstances, localities and homeowners must support
the cost of repairs without the benefit of financial
assistance and resources that accompanies a presiden-
tial declaration of a major disaster.

Housing Construction Needs The housing inven-
tory grew from 4.4 million units in 1980 to 6.1 mil-
lion in 1990, an increase of 39.3%. In comparison
with production during the previous decade, however,
this represents a slower rate of growth in housing.
Through the 1970s, the state experienced an average
annual gain of 185,240 units compared to an average
annual gain of 172,160 units in the 1980s. From 1990
to 1994, the production of housing continued to
slightly decline to 171,975 units annually. Forecasts
project this declining trend will continue, resulting in

an average annual increase of 113,238 housing units
through the year 2010.7
Of the 6.1 million housing units in Florida in
1990, nearly 1 million were vacant and about 418,000
of those were used for recreation or on a seasonal
basis." Construction must slightly outpace population
growth to assure adequate supply, account for typical
vacancy rates, and replace demolished units.

* Need for Affordable Rental Housing. According to
a 1994 market study of the need for affordable rental
housing in Florida conducted for the Florida Housing
Finance Agency (herein referred to as the Wolff
study), the shortage of rental housing affordable to
households with incomes in 1989 below 80% of the
median income was 226,336 units. Trends in popula-
tion growth for this income category demonstrate a
need for an additional 73,466 rental units by the year
2000, an additional 59,938 units from 2000 to 2005,
and another 59,125 units from 2005 to 2010. The
need for rental housing, including the shortage in


Affordable Housing

1994 and projections through 2010, totals 418,865
units (see figure V.2). Although the Wolff study re-
ports that its forecast understates the need for these
units, it does reflect an annual increase in market need
of at least 12,835 units. The study also indicates that
60.5% of this need is found in the state's six most
populated counties (Dade, Broward, Palm Beach,
Pinellas, Hillsborough, and Duval).9

* Need for Affordable Ownership Housing. In an-
other 1994 Wolff market study, the shortage of owner-
ship housing in Florida was surveyed. Vacancy rates
were found to be lower for housing affordable to
households with incomes below 95% of the annual
median income. The unmet need for ownership hous-
ing in 1994 was shown to be 209,713 units. This
need is expected to expand by an average annual in-
crease of 36,385 units, for a total additional demand
for 582,701 units by the year 2010.10

Production Through Assisted Housing Programs.
- The William E. Sadowski Affordable Housing Act
of 1992 established a dedicated funding source for
affordable housing programs. The Act generated over
$90 million in fiscal years 1992-93 and 1993-94 and
is expected to provide approximately $50 million
more during fiscal year 1994-95. Beginning in July
1995, the equivalent of an additional 10 cents of the
documentary stamp tax on deeds is to be transferred
from collections for the General Revenue Fund to
collections for the State Housing Trust Fund and Lo-
cal Government Housing Trust Fund. When this sec-
ond dime is appropriated by the legislature, the annual
funding to be distributed to counties and cities partici-
pating in the State Housing Initiatives Partnership
(SHIP) Program will in some cases nearly triple. The
combination of state and federal resources with pri-
vate sector financing has proven to be ad effective
means for providing affordable housing. Developers

Figure V.2 Forecasted Market Need for Housing Units Affordable to Households with incomes below 95% of median,








994 Rentl Need
1 W4 OwnemnNp Need

2000 2005


Source: Statewide Low-Income Rental Housing Study, 1994, and Need for Low- and Moderate-
Income Affordable Ownership Housing in Florida, 1994



Affordable Housing

should work to access these funds to complement
resources they may have available to include afford-
able housing within their projects.
Housing Populations with Special Needs. In-
creasingly, communities in Florida are realizing the
importance of developing integrated plans for the
housing, care and mobility of people with special
needs, such as the elderly, the very poor, the home-
less, the physically and mentally disabled, and mi-
grant and seasonal farmworkers. The state has a com-
mitment to ensure that decent and affordable housing
is available to all residents, including special needs
populations. Local governments in partnership with
the private sector, including private nonprofit agen-
cies, must identify needs among these populations for
affordable housing and related services and develop
and implement strategies to meet them. The Afford-
able Housing Study Commission in its 1994 Annual
Report to the Governor and Legislature cites Florida's
growing population of elderly and homeless as two
issues that demand the state's immediate attention.

, The Elderly. The state's elderly population was
estimated to include 3.3 million people over the age
of 60 in 1995 and, of that number, one-third (approxi-
mately 1 million) were over the age of 75." Nation-
ally, 6% of the population is over the age of 60. In
Florida, 20% of the population is age 60 or older and
this segment continues to age and expand in size. In
the past 15 years, the elderly population increased by
46% statewide with the highest percentage of change
(126%) occurring among people over the age of 85.
Although this represents only 265,887 people, these
are people most at risk of needing assisted living.12

The Homeless. In 1994, when the Department of
Health and Rehabilitative Services released its fifth
annual report on homelessness, Homeless Conditions
in Florida, the number of homeless on any given day
was estimated to be 46,000 people." This figure rep-
resents an average annual increase of 15% over the
previous year. The report estimates that 73% of
homeless people are Florida residents. Although
families comprise a smaller proportion of the home-
less population than during previous years, approxi-
mately 33% of Florida's homeless population are
,' families."1 Also, the report estimates that about 34%
of the homeless population are chronically homeless,
while the remaining 66% are new homeless." The

homeless coalitions around the state reported the
availability of about 7,500 emergency shelter beds for
the homeless. This means that on any given day in
1994, Florida was able to meet only 17% of the emer-
gency shelter needs of its homeless population.'6 The
report estimates that one-half of Florida's 67 counties
do not have any emergency homeless shelters.17 In
addition, it cites 10 major contributors to
homelessness in Florida; one of these is a lack of
affordable housing.

Addressing Affordable Housing Needs
through Land Development Regulations
and Policies

Planning and Development Review. Florida's
integrated, comprehensive planning frarpework (see
appendix E) specifically recognizes the need to pro-
vide for affordable housing as part of community
development. At the state level, plans provide policy
guidance for addressing affordable housing needs and
programs provide financial and technical assistance in
meeting local needs. Regional plans, as with state
plans, assist the development of local plans by provid-
ing policy guidance. Because Florida's counties and
municipalities are in the best position to identify and
respond to local needs through planning and develop-
ment approvals, the state's growth management
framework and affordable housing assistance pro-
grams charge these local governments with develop-
ing local government comprehensive plans that ad-
dress housing needs.
In their reviews of developments of regional im-
pact, the Department of Community Affairs and re-
gional planning councils apply the adequate housing
uniform standard rule adopted by the Department (9J-
2.048, Florida Administrative Code). The rule estab-
lishes how housing issues will be evaluated in the
review of applications for development approval and
other binding determinations made for developments
of regional impact. The rule is a "safe harbor" rule in
that if the development order contains the applicable
mitigation standards and criteria set forth in the rule,
the development is presumed to make adequate provi-
sion for housing. The rule requires determinations of
demand for housing, need for housing, and whether
the development will cause a significant impact. If it
does, the rule prescribes mitigative action to remedy
the impact.


Affordable Housing

To assist county and municipal governments in
addressing housing needs in their planning efforts, the
state will undertake an affordable housing needs as-
sessment for each local government. Acting on a
recommendation of the Third Environmental Manage-
ment Study Committee, the legislature revised the
Local Government Comprehensive Planning and
Land Development Regulation Act (Chapter 163, Part
II, Florida Statutes), to require the Department of
Community Affairs to develop a rule that outlines a
uniform methodology for completing a jurisdiction by
jurisdiction assessment of affordable housing needs
on a schedule that coordinates with the schedule for
submission of local evaluation and appraisal reports.
These assessments, once completed must be consid-
ered by local governments in preparing housing ele-
ments of local government comprehensive plans. As
of April 1995, the Department and the Florida Hous-
ing Finance Agency are still in the process of devel-
oping the methodology to be adopted by rule. At its
option, a local government may complete its own
assessment, if it uses the methodology adopted by the
Department. Hopefully, the availability of these as-
sessments will assist local governments to more fully
plan for the densities and other actions necessary to
assure the market provides adequate amounts of af-
fordable housing given the demographic and eco-
nomic trends facing each community.
Regulatory Reform. In part, the shortage of af-
fordable housing can be attributed to rising costs of
land, construction and financing, and increased land
use restrictions, all set against the backdrop of
Florida's phenomenal growth. In addition to address-
ing the affordable housing problem through its com-
prehensive planning framework and financial assis-
tance programs, Florida is addressing the affordable
housing problem through a campaign of regulatory
reform. Because Florida vests authority to issue de-
velopment orders and building permits in county and
municipal governments, these local governments
must perform most of the work to reduce regulatory
barriers that preclude or discourage the production of
affordable housing. Reducing regulatory barriers,
however, is also of concern to state government.
State regulatory agencies should routinely review
their regulatory procedures and adjust or eliminate
them as appropriate.
Public and private sector housing professionals
have long recognized the relationship between land

development regulation and the affordability of hous-
ing. Research in this area points to three basic ways
in which local land use regulations may affect hous-
ing costs.
1. Restrictions on housing supply by density, use. or
Sty This category is the most pervasive of the ways
in which regulations can negatively affect the supply
of affordable housing. These measures contribute to
housing costs by limiting the number or type of hous-
ing units that may be built on a given unit of land.
The types or ways in which regulations limit de-
velopment rights include among others:
* Requiring large lot size, large side yards or set-
* Requiring minimum house sizes
* Restrictions on housing type (e.g., little or no
* Prohibitions/restriction on manufactured housing
* Prohibition of accessory units
* Prohibition of Single Room Occupancy units

2. Design. review and construction costs. This cat-
egory is the most straightforward of the ways in
which regulations can add to housing costs. Under
this category, costs are added to a housing unit by
standards that must be met in the design, review or
construction of a housing unit. Examples include:
* Building code standards
* Environmental regulation (i.e., wetlands protection
and endangered and threatened species protection)
* Labor costs
* Subdivision regulations subdivision "gold-platting"
* Historic preservation
* Impact study costs

3. Procedural Delay. Administration is the third ma-
jor way in which regulations can add to the cost of
housing, typically by adding time to the overall devel-
opment review process. The longer the delays, the
greater the costs that may be incurred by the devel-
oper in bank interest and other charges.
The consequences of these three factors-which
are in large part, under the control of local govern-
ments-in existing and emerging land use patterns


Affordable Housing

and their overall effect on affordable housing are evi-
dent in a variety of ways. A major effect is the rela-
tive location and balance of housing units and job
opportunities. This effect is strongly linked, in many
jurisdictions, with the geographic segregation of resi-
dences along socioeconomic lines. Land use and land
development regulations often work to make the con-
struction of moderately priced homes in certain lo-
cales difficult at best, principally by restricting hous-
ing by density, use or type. By restricting supply
through these land use controls, the market reacts
through increased land costs and subsequent higher
housing prices. Thus even though the market supplies
housing, it does so at rates well above levels afford-
able to households earning the median household
income for the area or region. The resultant residen-
tial quiltwork pattern created by these forces are large
expanses of relatively homogeneous socioeconomic
enclaves, neighborhoods, or even towns. This can
. have an impact on the delivery of public facilities as
well as create imbalances between employment op-
portunities and residential opportunities that affect the
ability of people earning below median incomes to


live reasonably accessible to their places of work.
These kinds of land use patterns have other nega-
tive effects, including: higher transportation costs in
terms of time and money for workers facing long
commutes, greater energy consumption due to longer
commutes resulting in increased air pollution; isola-
tion of inner city residents and others without automo-
biles from new employment opportunities; increases
in traffic congestion; urban or downtown deterioration
through suburban job creation; and artificial inflation
of the value of housing located near employment
centers. In addition, the necessity for long commutes
contributes to society-wide problems such as in-
creased levels of unemployment among the poor,
minorities, single-parent families, or other lower in-
come special needs groups.


In summary, ensuring the availability of acces-
sible, adequate, safe, and affordable housing is an
important issue for Florida. Florida's state and local
governments must conduct land use planning in ways



Affordable Housing

that are sensitive to affordable housing in the areas of
socioeconomic zoning, density, jobs-housing balance,
and urban mobility. Failure to do so will directly
contribute to a wide spectrum of other problems that
degrade our overall quality of life, including but not
limited to: weaker schools and education, higher
crime, reduced air quality, unemployment, poor eco-
nomic development, higher public facilities and trans-
portation costs, and increased energy consumption.

Goals, Objectives and Policies

Goal 1: Provide access for all Floridians to safe,
sanitary and affordable housing.
Objective 1: Increase the number of housing units
made available to very low, low and moderate
income households through public and private
efforts, giving emphasis to providing units affordable
to households with incomes below 50% of the state's
median household income.
Advocacy Policies:
1. The state land planning agency should provide
current and accurate information on affordable
housing needs throughout Florida, in aggregate
and for local jurisdictions, by using the state af-
fordable housing needs assessment methodology
to develop a housing data bank.
2. The state should actively commit state revenue to
provide assistance and incentive funds, and lever-
age those funds to increase the participation of the
private sector, nonprofits, and local governments
in the construction and rehabilitation of affordable
3. The state should work to maximize the receipt of
federal resources for affordable housing, including
the use of state funds to increase financing avail-
able through the Rural Economic and Community
Development offices (formerly the Farmers Home
Administration) and the HOME Investments Part-
nership Program.
4. Counties and cities should consider the cost ad-
vantage of adaptive reuse of suitable structures for
affordable housing and the rehabilitation of exist-
ing substandard housing in their local government
comprehensive plans and redevelopment plans.

5. The state and local governments should preserve,
restore or replace the affordable housing and sub-
sidized housing stock to ensure the availability of
housing affordable to households with incomes
below 50% of the median household income, with
special preference given to households with in-
comes below 30% of median income.
6. The state and local governments should, when
suitable, give first consideration to using surplus
publicly owned lands to meet the demand for
affordable housing.
Planning Policies and Standards:
7. The state and local governments should address
the housing requirements and accessibility con-
cerns of special needs populations through pro-
grams that integrate housing and caTe-related
needs in support of independent living.
8. The state and local governments should accom-
modate the needs of migrant farmworkers and
other farmworkers when developing affordable
housing programs and plans.

Objective 2: Reduce land use planning and regula-
tory requirements that unnecessarily add to the cost
of housing without compromising the protection of
public health, safety and welfare.
Advocacy Policies:
1. State, regional, and local agencies should review
existing and proposed regulations to assess their
impact on affordable housing and, where appro-
priate, conduct cost-benefit analyses of current
provisions or amendments.
2. Local governments participating in the State
Housing Initiatives Partnership (SHIP) program
should continually monitor the impact of land
development regulations and policies on the cost
of housing and adopt and implement meaningful
regulatory reform measures.
3. The Department of Community Affairs and the
Board of Building Codes and Standards should
review and, if needed, amend statewide building
codes to ensure that they do not unnecessarily add
to the cost of housing.
4. State, regional, and local agencies should establish
flexible and expedited permitting review pro-
cesses for affordable housing developments.


Affordable Housing


Planning Policies and Standards:
5. State, regional and local planning agencies should
assist developers of large-scale developments in
complying with the Department of Community
Affairs' housing-related development of regional
impact rules to ensure that DRIs do not adversely
impact the ability of persons to find adequate
housing reasonably accessible to their places of

Objective 3: Appropriately site affordable housing
developments though state, regional, and local land
use planning efforts.
Advocacy Policies:
1. Local governments should provide adequate sites
for low and moderate income housing in their
local comprehensive plans and implementing land
development regulations. To reduce costs, zoning
for these sites should not require large lot sizes,
large side yards or setbacks, minimum house
sizes, or include any unnecessary restrictions on
housing type.
2. Local plans should provide for a mix of densities
and a mix of housing types, including single room

occupancy facilities, accessory apartments and
assisted living facilities.
3. Local plans should predesignate appropriate
areas for higher density residential development
and direct housing activity to those areas, thereby
avoiding local project-specific zoning and per-
mitting, reducing opportunities for NIMBYism,
and promoting urban infill.
Planning Policies and Standards:
4. State, regional and local planning agencies
should encourage the creation of mixed-use,
mixed income developments to foster efficient
urban development, discourage urban sprawl,
and avoid large homogeneous concentrations of
low-income residents.
5. State, regional and local planning agencies
should direct the construction of new housing
and encourage the relocation of existing housing
away from riverine floodplains and other hazard-
ous or vulnerable areas through meaningful local
land development regulations and financial in-


Affordable Housing

End Notes

1 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing, as cited in Affordable Housing in Florida 1994, 1.
2 U.S. Census Data as reported in Affordable Housing in Florida 1994, Table 1.1, "Population and Population Projections," 4.

3 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, Affordable Housing in Florida 1994, (Tallahassee, Florida), 3.
4 Reinhold P. Wolff Economic Research, Inc., Economic and Market Consultants, Need for Multi-family Rental Housing for Very Low and
Low income Households, prepared for the Florida Housing Finance Agency, (November 1994).
5 Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business Administration, University of Florida, 1990 Florida Statistical
Abstract, Table 2.05, "Households and Average Household Size: Census Counts, April 1, 1970 and 1980, and Estimates, April 1, 1989,
in the State and Counties of Florida," (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1990), 55; and 1993 Florida Statistical Abstract, Table
2.05, "Households and Average Household Size: Census Counts, April 1, 1980 and 1990, and Estimates, April 1, 1992, in the State
and Counties of Florida," (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993), 67.
6 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing.

7 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing as reported in Affordable Housing in Florida 1994, Table 1.3, "Inventory of Housing Units,"
8 1990 U.S. Census of the Population and Housing as reported in Affordable Housing in Florida 1994, Table 1.4, "State of Florida Market
and Inventory Conditions," 7.
9 Reinhold P. Wolff Economic Research, Inc., Economic and Market Consultants, Need for Multi-family Rental Housing for Very Low and
Low income Households, prepared for the Florida Housing Finance Agency, (November 1994), 21-22.
10 Reinhold P. Wolff Economic Research, Inc., Economic and Market Consultants, Need for Low and Moderate Income Affordable
Ownership Housing in Florida, prepared for the Florida Housing Finance Agency, (November 1994), 25-26.
11 Donna J. Monroe, et. al. Aging 2000, Florida Atlantic University, (June 1991).
12 Florida Demographic Estimating Conference as reported in Department of Elder Affairs Programs and Services, Chart 1 "Increase in
60+ Population 1980-1995" and Chart 5 "85+ Population arrayed by County and PSA," (January 1995).
13 State of Florida, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Homeless Conditions in Florida: Fifth Annual Report to the
Governor and Legislature, (Tallahassee, February 1, 1994). 2.
14 State of Florida, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Homeless Conditions in Florida: Fifth Annual Report to the
Governor and Legislature, (Tallahassee, February 1, 1994), 2.
15 State of Florida, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Homeless Conditions in Florida: Fifth Annual Report to the
Governor and Legislature, (Tallahassee, February 1, 1994), 3.
16 State of Florida, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Homeless Conditions in Florida: Fifth Annual Report to the
Goveror and Legislature, (Tallahassee, February 1, 1994), 9.
17 State of Florida, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Homeless Conditions in Florida: Fifth Annual Report to the
Governor and Legislature, (Tallahassee, February 1, 1994), 9.




Emergency Management

Trends and Conditions

Florida is the most vulnerable state in the nation
to the impacts of hurricanes. Florida is also suscep-
tible both to other natural disasters natural disasters
including tropical storms, floods, tornadoes, and to
man-made events including hazardous materials inci-
dents and others.

Vulnerability To Natural and
Technological Hazards

Florida's vulnerability is directly due to its geo-
graphic location and to its development patterns. Not
only is Florida in a subtropical region with intense
storm activity, but of the state's 67 counties, 35 have
coastlines which either front the Atlantic Ocean or the
Gulf of Mexico or both. These counties comprise
approximately 1,197 miles of general coastline and
2,276 miles of tidal shoreline.
The following statistics illustrate some of
Florida's characteristics that make it highly vulnerable
to disaster:
78% (10.6 million) of Florida residents live in the
35 coastal counties;
11% (1.5 million) of Floridians reside in mobile
18% (2.4 million) of Florida's population is 65
Years of age or older;
*nearly 42,000 people with special needs have
registered for evacuation assistance;

* Florida residents own more National Flood Insur-
ance Program (NFIP) policies than any other
* Florida ranks first nationally in the number of
tornado touch-downs per 10,000-square- mile
area, with an average of 52 events per year;
* Florida experiences an averageof 1,800 hazard-
ous materials incidents per year; and
* three nuclear power plants operate in Florida.
The 1990 U.S. Department of Commerce, Na-
tional Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Study, Fifty Years of Population Change Along the
Nation's Coast, anticipated that Florida will have
experienced a 226% increase in its coastal population
during the period from 1960 to 2010.' The national
average for coastal population density is 237 persons
per square mile. Florida has the highest coastal popu-
lation density in the southeast region of the United
States, having more than 417 persons per square mile
in 1990. That density is predicted to rise to 520 per-
sons per square mile by 2010. Southwest Florida is
now, and anticipated to continue to be, the most rap-
idly growing coastal area in the Gulf of Mexico re-
gion. See figures VI. I and VI.2.

Hurricanes and Tropical Storms. The state's
proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic
Ocean, coupled with the generally low coastal eleva-
tions and the fact that almost 78% of the state's popu-
lation reside in the 35 coastal counties, exacerbates
the state's vulnerability to tropical storms. Of all the


Emergency Management

Figure VI.1 Population Density Per Square Mile, 1990

Figure V1.2 Population Distribution, 1990

One dot equals 1000 persons
1990 data

Population per Square Mile

I -6.7-88.8
121 0-284.8

* .1 *~p

. .' ,
',,, *

Source: Atlas of Florida, University Press of Florida: Gainesville, 1992. Used by permis-
sion of Edward A. Femald and Elizabeth D. Purdum, editors; James R. Anderson and
Peter A. Kraft, cartographers.




Po.V ,


r .




4W.;=- -

Emergency Management

hurricanes which have affected the state from 1900 to
1994, 55 have made landfall and 25 have been classi-
fied as major hurricanes (Category 3 or higher).2 The
map in figure VI.3 shows the tracks of 136 hurricanes
and 234 tropical storms that have hit or brushed the
state since 1886. Generally, the lower intensity hurri-
canes have made landfall in the northwest portion of
the state. The more intense hurricanes (Category 3
and above) have shown a tendency towards landfall in

South Florida and in the Keys, the region with the
highest population densities.
Storm surge is the most significant effect of hurri-
canes and the element of a hurricane most responsible
for loss of life.3 The surge represents a combination
of low pressure and the amount of water pushed by
the wind ahead of a hurricane advancing landward
from a large body of water. Along with storm surge
hurricanes can create severe wave action. A breaking

Figure VI.3. Tracks of Hurricanes and Tropical Storms Near Florida Since 1886

1912 1932

tIO .,, /
1-SMI 1
Source: Florida State University Beaches and Shores Resource Center


Emergency Management

wave carries a large momentum and can run up on a
sloping shore to elevations of approximately 50% of
the depth of the storm surge. Florida is predicted to
receive some of the highest storm surges in the nation.
Hurricane winds present another significant threat
and are the main determinant in defining the category
of the storm. Hurricane force winds are defined as
winds with a maximum sustained velocity exceeding
74 mph and pose a significant risk to occupants
within coastal and inland structures. This was dem-
onstrated dramatically in 1992 by Hurricane Andrew.
Hundreds of thousands of homes, offices and retail
shopping centers were seriously damaged because of
the failure of roof, windows and cladding. Tornados
are another major source of wind damage in Florida.
Mobile homes are particularly vulnerable to high
winds; 98% of mobile homes damaged by Hurricane
Andrew were totally destroyed.4
Hurricane destruction has been costly in lives and
property damage. Between 1906, when a Category 3
hurricane impacted Northwest Florida, and 1992,
when Hurricane Andrew impacted South Florida,
approximately 3,898 people have died and property
damage has been estimated to be more than $43 bil-

lion. Table VI. 1. shows the number of deaths and
damage in thousands of dollars caused by previous
hurricanes. As the table clearly illustrates, while we
are better protecting lives, our increased exposure to
the costly impacts of hurricanes is apparent in the
value of property losses. If the effects of other major
storms were added, the figures would increase signifi-
cantly. An example of the effects of cyclones in rela-
tion to population densities is Hurricanes Elena arid
Kate experienced during September and November
1985, respectively. Hurricane Elena only brushed the
Tampa Bay area with tropical storm winds (40-73
mph), yet inflicted more than $70 million in public
and private damage eligible to receive public recovery
assistance.5 Hurricane Kate, however, made landfall
in the Panhandle as a minimal Category 1 storm, yet
inflicted more than $20 million in public and private
damage eligible to receive public recovery assistance.
The damage from Kate was lower because the areas
impacted along the Panhandle were less developed
than those further south in the Tampa Bay area that
were impacted by Elena.
Although the majority of the estimated public
losses would be covered under a federal disaster dec-

Table VI.1. Losses From Hurricanes Impacting Florida

2 1906 9/19-29 3 958 NW FL 134
7 1917 9/2-15 4 927 FL Keys 600+
2 1926 9/11-22 4 935 SE FL 1,315,397 243
4 1928 9/6-20 4 929 SE & C FL 1836
6 1935 8/29-9/10 5 892 FL Keys 408
5 1945 9/11-20 3 951 SE FL 539,087 <25
6 1947 9/4-21 4 940 SE FL 703,859 51
Donna 1960 8/29-9/13 4 930 SW FL 1,823,605 50
Betsy 1965 8/26-9/12 3 948 SE FL 6,461,303 75
Frederick 1979 8/29-9/14 3 946 NW FL <25
Elena 1985 8/27-9/4 3 959 NW FL 1,392,693 <25
Andrew 1992 8/23-28 4 926 SE &SW FL 30,000,000 96
"Less than 400 million; dollar values adjusted to present value.
Since 1921, Rorida has also experienced seven notable tropical storms.

Source: Dr. Robert C. Sheets "the United States Hurricane Problem: An Assessment for the 1990s," pp.36-44


Emergency Management

laration, local and state jurisdictions may have to
share the total loss figure by 25%. In Florida, local
governments are often asked to cost share 12.5% with
the state matching the remaining 12.5%. If federal
aid is not received, the economic impacts are ab-
sorbed by the local governments and individual citi-
zens and businesses. Repeated impacts erode the
structural integrity and value of a community's hous-
ing stock, infrastructure, and economic stability. Two
of Florida's most important economic foundations,
tourism and agriculture, can be severely depressed by
disastrous events.
The most recent example of the devastating im-
pact of a storm in Florida was Hurricane Andrew, the
third most powerful storm to hit the United States in
recorded history. Andrew slammed into south Florida
at 5:05 a.m., August 24, 1992, damaging 1,100 square
miles as it crossed the peninsula and into the Gulf of
Mexico.6 The storm was classified as a category four
storm, with sustained winds of 145 miles per hour and
gusts of up to 175 miles per hour. In addition,
Andrew's storm surge set a record high for Florida-
16.9 feet in Biscayne Bay. Table VI.2 highlights
,- some facts about the impact of Hurricane Andrew.
Further, virtually all economic activity in the devas-
tated south Florida area ceased following the storm.
The heaviest damage was inflicted on the south Dade
area, home to 8,000 of the nearly 60,000 businesses in
Dade County and 120,000 jobs. One month later

Table VI.2 Impacts of Hurricane Andrew

28,066 Homes destroyed
107,380 Homes damaged
180,000 Persons left homeless
82,000 Businesses destroyed or damaged
32,900 Acres of farmland damaged
31 Public schools destroyed or damaged
59 Health facilities and hospitals damaged
9,500 Traffic signs and signals damaged
3,300 Miles of power lines destroyed
3,000 Water mains damaged
1.4 mil Residents lost electricity
150,000 Residents lost telephone service
Source: Department of Community Affairs, Building Community
Partnerships: 1992-1997 Agency Strategic Plan.

(September 24, 1992), an estimated 86,000 people
were out of work and 7,800 businesses were closed, at
least temporarily. Tourism-a $500 million per year
industry-was impacted severely, and will continue to
be, at least for the next few years because of damage
to hotels, restaurants and parks and travel industry
perceptions. Damage to agriculture was estimated at
$1 billion, with a permanent income loss of $250
million and $1.3 billion in damage to structures.
It would be erroneous and dangerous to assume
that another storm the size of Andrew would not hit
Florida again in the near future. Hurricane research-
ers predict that Florida is at risk to be hit by more
frequent and stronger storms in the coming years as
compared to the two past decades. This is particularly
onerous because a large proportion of the total popu-
lation lives within 20 miles of the coast, the majority
concentrated on the southeastern and southwestern
sections. Projecting population trends into the next
century, Florida will have three coastal regions that
will grow by one million persons. See figure VI.4.
Another major concern, in terms of hurricane
impacts, is the development of Florida's barrier is-
lands as more people have moved into the state and
chosen to live on or near the water. Many of the bar-
rier islands also serve as tourist destinations, support-
ing Florida's primary industry, tourism. The 1990
NOAA study, Fifty Years of Population Change
Along the Nation's Coasts, 1960-2010, found that the
barrier islands of Florida accounted for almost one-
half of the urbanization of all U.S. coastal barriers
between 1950 and 1973.7 This barrier system is a
complex system of more than 300 coastal islands and
numerous unnamed and marsh islands. They form the
first line of defense for the state against major storms
by dissipating the surge flooding, wind and wave
Sea level rise is also a factor.' Sea levels have
risen markedly in response to global temperature
changes. The figure that has been extrapolated for a
Florida scenario is an estimated rise of 15 centimeters
(6 inches) in the next 25 years.9 This will be of even
greater consequence for Florida as it will adversely
impact future storm surge heights.
Flooding. In inland portions of the state, heavy
rainfall events from tropical and other weather sys-
tems pose another significant flooding hazard. Floods
are natural occurrences which become problematic
when vulnerable land uses occupy flood-prone lands
or when hydrologic systems are altered, changing the


Emergency Management

Figure V1.4 Regions Projected to Add Approximately 1 Million in Population, 1990-2005

Source: The Florida Long-Term Economic Forecast, 1992

patterns of natural flooding. Florida's relatively flat
topography, subtropical climate, and rapid growth and
development have resulted in the potential for exten-
sive flooding problems. Past development practices,
which focused on rapid removal of stormwater runoff,
have exacerbated these problems. Since 1979, the
majority of federally declared disasters in Florida
have involved flooding.'0
Mitigation. Because of increased population den-
sities along the coast and on the barrier islands,
coupled with rising sea levels and the disastrous af-
fects of storm surge, Florida's population, infrastruc-
ture and property are more vulnerable now than at
anytime in the past. This can be attributed to many
key factors including past poor planning, intense de-

velopment and inappropriate land uses. Hazard miti-
gation strategies and measures are needed to mini-
mize the state's vulnerability to natural and techno-
logical hazards. Examples of land use measures in-
clude: reduction of residential and structural densities
and associated infrastructure in highly vulnerable
coastal locations, particularly on barrier islands and in
the coastal high hazard areas; siting new and post-
disaster redevelopment, non-water dependent devel-
opments outside of flood prone areas; and, ensuring
structures within developments withstand the forces
of a Category 2 storm.
The impact of the state's massive population
growth on public safety has manifested itself in the
inability to quickly and efficiently evacuate and shel-



Emergency Management

ter residents threatened by a major hurricane. For
example, the 1994 Florida Hurricane Peninsula
Evacuation Study states that for a Category 4-5 hurri-
cane with a storm track which enters Dade County
and exits Collier County, there would be 1,191,800
evacuees and 553,200 vehicles requiring a clearance
time of 78 hours. See table VI.3 for estimated clear-
ance times.

The trend of increased growth, coupled with the
accompanying development, and the state's inability
to improve roadways at the same pace as develop-
ment, require alternatives to evacuation. Regional
hurricane evacuation and inland shelter studies have
determined that there are not enough shelters to ac-
commodate the anticipated numbers of people. For
Category 4-5 hurricanes, 21 coastal and five inland

Table IV.3 Evacuation Clearance Time (In Hours)




? North Central2

East Central2


Treasure Coast4

South Florida5

Tampa Bay6


West Florida8

St. Johns
St. Lucie
Indian River
Palm Beach
Santa Rosa



Evacuation Clearance Time
(in hours) for Category 3 Storms
Noncoastal Coundies
]8-10 hours
10-12 hours
12-14 hours
14-16 hours
16-18 hours
18 + hours

C. v

1 Study completed 1991. Evacuation times reported are for November.
2 Study completed 1989.
3 Study completed 1995. Evacuation time reported for Nassau County relates to
clearance of Interstate 95, which has a greater dearance lime.
4 Study completed 1994. Evacuation times reported are for late fall, which are longer.
5 Dade County study completed 1993; Broward and Monroe studies completed 1991.
6 Study completed 1995.
7 Study completed 1994.
8 Study completed 1986 (Tri-State Study).

Source: Regional Hurricane Evacuation Studies. Florida Department of Community Affairs, Division of Emergency Management. May 1995.



Emergency Management

counties would not have an adequate number of pub-
lic shelter space for evacuees." According to regional
inland shelter space studies there is a deficit of more
than 165,000 shelter spaces. Table VI.4 lists avail-
able or needed shelter spaces in each region.

Table VI.4 Comparison of Available Public Emergency
Shelter Spaces 1992 to 1994

Number of Shelter Spaces available (or needed)
Region 1992 1994 % Change
Southwest (142,461) (170,189) -19.5
South Florida (42,897) (15,587) 63.7
Withlacoochee 14,397 4,715 -67.3
Tampa Bay (106,012) (146,982) -39.0
North Central 48,206 42,708 -11.4
Apalachee 43,609 43,609 0
East Central 82,555 82,555 0
Northeast (47,434) (14,500) 69.4
Treasure Coast (9,852) 5,508 155.9
Central Florida 26,792 (1,530) -105.7
West Florida 15,100 15,100 0
Statewide Deficit (117,997) (165,609) -40.3
Source: Department of Community Affairs, Division of Emergency
Management, Regional Hurricane Evacuation Studies,
compiled June 1994.

The problems associated with evacuating and
sheltering people on barrier islands and coastal re-
gions are of critical concern. These highly vulnerable
areas are normally heavily inhabited, and with barrier
islands, have limited egress routes. For example, the
entire population of Sanibel Island and Captiva Island
(Lee County) are totally dependent on one egress
route that often floods under adverse weather condi-
tions. In 1988, Tropical Storm Keith passed within 90
miles of Lee County but caused the Sanibel Island
Causeway to be closed by the local authorities be-
cause of rapidly rising water. Had Tropical Storm
Keith escalated into a hurricane, those residents still
on the island would have been trapped with no pos-
sible way of leaving.
Mitigation strategies, as they relate to land use,
are the most effective means to combat the destructive

impacts of these emergency events. Pre-event plan-
ning and post-event management strategies can help
reduce injuries and losses from natural disasters. The
challenge, then, is to direct growth away from vulner-
able areas.
It is not surprising that the factors that expose
particular geographic areas to catastrophic loss are the
same factors that make these areas desirable to
people. Waterfront property is most vulnerable to
flooding, yet is typically the most expensive and de-
sirable property for development. In other areas of
the state, flood-prone areas correspond to areas of
substandard housing. Damages and impacts to this
segment of the population from flooding have signifi-
cant consequences for housing policy in the state.
There is often great public resistance to the creation,
implementation and enforcement of effective land use
requirements. By increasing public awareness of the
dangers and risks associated with building in vulner-
able areas, Florida government can promote appropri-
ate land use.
Another important tool for mitigating property
losses following a natural disaster is the development,
adoption, implementation and enforcement of effec-
tive building codes. Many structural elements of
residential and commercial construction experience
damage or complete failure due to natural disasters as
the result of high wind loads. The recent experience
with Hurricane Andrew has served to highlight this
problem. The recurring and uniform nature of dam-
age to residential structures indicate that design wind
force levels may be inadequate, and that performance
type code requirements may not effectively ensure
safe structural response. There are a number of differ-
ent building codes in the state, each with different
requirements and criteria for wind design. Many
structures have historically failed during wind disas-
ters as the result of inadequate window, roof, and door
protection. This is also true of floodplain develop-
ment restrictions and other land use ordinances. It is
the responsibility of local governments to help protect
their citizens from flooding. The construction of
state-owned and financed structures are not subject to
local building codes. Many local building codes do
not require that building which are less than substan-
tially damaged be brought into compliance with the
current code during the construction process. State-
wide standardization of minimal construction require-
ments provides the most effective implementation of
appropriate construction practices. Uniform code


Emergency Management

/' requirements and uniform enforcement are fundamen-
tal to achieving statewide standardization.
Hazardous Materials Many industries in the state
commonly use and produce hazardous substances in
the manufacturing process. Significant quantities of
hazardous materials are transported by common carri-
ers intra- and interstate daily in support of industry.
In addition, seaports also store large quantities of
petroleum and other potentially hazardous materials.
On average, Florida experiences 1,800 reported inci-
dents involving hazardous materials per year. Further,
during each of the last 10 years Florida has experi-
enced incremental increases in the number of hazard-
ous materials incidents. Vulnerabilities inherent in the
use, production and transportation of hazardous sub-
stances include incompatibility siting, transportation-
related releases, shelter availability for post-release
evacuation, critical facility location. The State Emer-
gency Response Commission (SERC), supplemented
by the Local Emergency Planning Committees
(LEPC), provides training, compliance seminars and
fulfills requirements of the federal government under
the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-
P Know legislation.


In summary, land use planning is closely tied to
the emergency management planning process. Miti-
gation strategies at the planning stage include estab-
lishing planning mandates which consider the natural
perils unique to the area, setting minimum standards
for subdivisions, considering setbacks, open areas and
acquiring land for open spaces. Other issues that need
to be addressed in the planning process include: iden-
tification and construction of adequate shelter space,
identification of critical facilities, determining the
optimum location for new construction and establish-
ing priorities for repair and reconstruction, identifica-
tion of evacuation routes and the coordination of all
transportation planning with emergency management
officials, the incorporation of findings of regional
hurricane evacuation studies into local comprehensive
planning and land development regulation, the identi-
fication and mitigation of hurricane preparedness
impacts on proposed development, and the develop-
ment of effective post-disaster reconstruction and
redevelopment plans.

Goals, Objectives and Policies

GOAL 1: Florida's land development policies
protect lives and property from natural and
technological emergencies.
Objective 1: Minimize expenditure of state funds
that subsidize inappropriate pre- and post-disaster
development in coastal high hazard areas and 100-
year floodplains.
Advocacy Policies:
1. All state agencies should include provisions in
strategic plans for the sequential reduction in the
expenditure of state funds that currently subsidize
pre- and post-disaster development.
2: The Department of Community Affairs, in coop-
eration with all other state agencies, should review
projects using state funds sited in coastal high
hazard areas or 100-year floodplains to ensure
appropriate hazard mitigation measures are incor-
porated in the design and siting process.
3. All state agencies should discourage public ex-
penditures that subsidize increased densities in the
coastal high hazard areas except for restoration,
enhancement of natural and historical resources,
or development of recreational facilities.
4. All state agencies should eliminate state funding
for infrastructure construction or improvements
which are designed to support increased popula-
tions on barrier islands or in coastal high hazard
areas, unless consistent with approved local gov-
ernment comprehensive plans, although existing
transportation corridors should be maintained or
improved as necessary to assure safe hurricane
5. The State of Florida should eliminate state fund-
ing of sewer and water line extensions or expan-
sions which will encourage future growth/higher
densities in the coastal high hazard areas unless
consistent with approved local government com-
prehensive plans.


Emergency Management

Objective 2: Reduce density allocations by 10%
from planned 2015 levels in 100-year floodplains
and coastal high hazard areas.
Advocacy Policies:
1. State agencies should develop incentives and
disincentives to encourage local governments to
reduce densities in the 100-year floodplain.
2. The Department of Community Affairs, in coop-
eration with the Board of Building Codes and
Standards and other appropriate organizations,
should educate potential and current residential
and commercial dwelling occupants of the im-
pacts of natural disasters, to include economic
disruption, personal safety and property loss.
3. State agencies should promote the acquisition of
property in coastal high hazard areas and 100-
year floodplains and down-zoning to minimize
future property damage or potential loss of life.

Objective 3: Maintain evacuation clearance times
in coastal counties with 1994 hurricane evacuation
clearance times of 12 hours or less for category 5
storms and reduce evacuation clearance times in
coastal counties with 1994 hurricane evacuation
clearance times greater than 12 hours for category
5 storms by 30%.
Advocacy Policies:
1. State and local agencies should improve infra-
structure that contributes to the reduction of clear-
ance times for the current population.
2. The Florida Department of Transportation, metro-
politan planning organizations and county and
municipal governments should give priority to
expansion of capacity on roadways identified as
"critical links" by the most recent regional evacu-
ation study where it does not encourage develop-
ment in hurricane-vulnerable areas.
Planning Policies and Standards:
3. State and local planning and permitting authori-
ties should assure that developers of mobile
home parks subject to the provisions of Rule 9J-
2.0256, Florida Administrative Code, and located
outside of surge impact areas provide safe, on-site
shelters for residents, consistent with provisions
of the rule.

Objective 4: Increase to 100% the capability of new
structures to withstand the forces of a Category 2
Advocacy Policies:
1. The Department of Community Affairs, in coop-
eration with the Board of Building Codes and
Standards, should advocate the adoption and en-
forcement of model building code requirements
and incentives for new residential structures to
address the issues of roof, weather envelope, and
window and door failures.
2. The State, in cooperation with private property
insurers, should promote retrofitting existing
buildings for window protection through tax in-
centives or insurance rate reductions.
3. The State should implement a mandatory certifi-
cation program for building inspectors, emphasiz-
ing wind resistant construction.
4. The State should require that all new state-owned
and financed construction, as well as substantial
improvements to state structures, comply with all
.applicable portions of local building codes or the
state model building code, whichever is more
GOAL 2: Florida's critical and public facilities
are protected from natural and technological
Objective 1: Reduce the at-risk potential of critical
and public facilities for the purpose of protection in
the event of a natural or technological disaster
Advocacy Policies:
1. State, regional and local planning and emergency
management agencies should identify programs
and strategies to mitigate potential structural dam-
age, occupant risk or service disruption.
2. State, regional and local planning agencies should
discourage the siting of new critical facilities or
institutions, such as hospitals, nursing homes,
adult congregate living facilities, schools and
correctional facilities in coastal high hazard areas.


Emergency Management

Objective 2: Increase the number of managed
public hurricane shelter spaces to levels needed
to adequately satisfy the anticipated demand
statewide for a Category 3 hurricane event.
Advocacy Policies:
1. State and local agencies should develop mini-
mum building construction standards and de-
sign techniques for public buildings and site
public buildings so that they could be used as
public hurricane shelters.
2. Local planning and permitting agencies should
condition development in hurricane vulnerabil-
ity zones on the availability of adequate shelter
3. State and local agencies should establish incen-
tives for prioritizing, retrofitting and mitigating
projects to effectively increase public shelter
capacity and occupant safety.
4. The Agency for Health Care Administration
and other appropriate state and local agencies
should ensure that all residential health care
facilities have the capability to evacuate and/or
shelter residents.
Planning Policies and Standards:
5. Assure planning and permitting agencies ad-
equately consider the cumulative impacts of
development upon public facilities, specifically
public shelters and evacuation routes, and re-
quire appropriate mitigation of those impacts.

Objective 3: Increase the number of post-disaster
redevelopment plans in place at the state and
local levels.
Advocacy Policies:
1. State and local agencies should assure that re-
construction of public facilities destroyed by a
storm event incorporates appropriate mitigation
techniques and alternatives.

regulations and cultural and natural resource
preservation activities.
Planning Policies and Standards:
3. The Department of Community Affairs should
require the adoption of local post-disaster rede-
velopment plans as part of local comprehensive
plans that specifically identify potential hazard
mitigation projects in advance of disaster
GOAL 3: Florida's efforts to protect and
acquire unique natural habitats and ecological
systems and restore degraded natural systems
to a functional condition maximize hazard
mitigation values.
Objective 1: Increase the use of public land
acquisition programs to support hazard mitiga-
tion efforts.
Advocacy Policies:
1. Conservation agencies (including non-govern-
mental organizations) and local governments
should identify potential acquisition sites in
areas of existing vulnerable development.
2. County and municipal governments should
include potential acquisition sites in their com-
prehensive plans and post-disaster redevelop-
ment plans.
3. State and local agencies with land acquisition
programs should identify acquisition funding as
a reserve to match disaster and emergency
funds when they become available.
4. State and local agencies with land acquisition
programs should include post-disaster restora-
tion of previously developed or degraded natu-
ral systems in management plans for acquired

2. County and municipal governments, when de-
veloping post-disaster reconstruction and rede-
velopment plans, should recognize and exam-
ine the impacts of public infrastructure financ-
ing, building code enforcement, land acquisi-
tion, floodplain management, land use plan-
ning, development regulations, environmental


Emergency Management

End Notes

1 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, Coastal Infrastructure Policy Report Number Nine, (Tallahassee, 1994).
2 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, State of Florida Hazard Mitigation Plan, (Tallahassee, 1994).
3 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, State of Florida Hazard Mitigation Plan, (Tallahassee, 1994).
4 United States, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Inter-agency Hazard Mitigation Team Report, FEMA 955-DR-FL (Hurricane
Andrew), (1992).
5 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, The State Land Development Plan, (Tallahassee, 1989).
6 Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee, Final Report (Tallahassee, 1993).
7 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, Coastal Infrastructure Policy Report Number Nine, (Tallahassee, 1994).
8 State of Florida, Department of community Affairs, Coastal Infrastructure Policy Report Number Nine, (Tallahassee, 1994).
9 Research by the Tampa Bay Regional planning Council and the Mote Maine Laboratory which focused on Sarasota Bay found that the
high tide mark in 25 years will be 15 centimeters (0.5 feet) higher than today, will increase by 37 centimeters (1.2 feet) in 70 years, and
64 centimeters (2.1 feet) by 2100.
10 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, State of Florida Hazard Mitigation Plan, (Tallahassee, 1994).
11 State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, Integrated Hurricane Evacuation Program, (Tallahassee, 1992).




Resources and Facilities of

State Significance

Resources and facilities of state significance
should be given special consideration in planning and
permitting activities by all levels of government.
These are resources or facilities within Florida that
are identified as being of state, national or interna-
tional importance and which meet one or more of the
following criteria:
1. A resource or facility that due to its uniqueness,
benefit, service delivery area, or economic or
ecological importance is identified as being of
state, national or international concern.
2. A resource or facility that requires the participa-
tion or involvement of the federal government, the
state government, or two or more regional govern-
mental entities to ensure proper and efficient man-
3. A resource or facility that is defined to be of na-
tional or state concern in state or federal laws or
For purposes of this plan, Florida's resources and
facilities of state significance are as follows:
* Affordable Housing Stock Developed or Managed by
Local Housing Authorities, Agencies or Nonprofit
Organizations Receiving Public Assistance
* American Red Cross Shelters
* Beaches and Coastal Dune Systems
* Coastal Barrier Islands Designated as National
Coastal Barrier Resource Areas
* Care, Group and Retirement Housing Receiving Pub-
lic Funds

* The Central and South Florida Flood Control District
* Deepwater Seaports Identified in Chapter 311,
Florida Statutes
* Designated Hurricane Evacuation Routes, Identified
by the Evacuation Transportation Analysis as Cany-
ing Significant Numbers of Inter-Jurisdictional
Evacuation Trips
* Emergency Communication Centers (State Warning
Point and Local Emergency Dispatch)
* Emergency Communication Facilities (Landline,
Radio, Cellular)
* Energy and Telecommunications Infrastructure
* Existing Greenways as Identified and Mapped by the
Florida Greenways Commission
* Federal Class I Clean Air Areas
* Florida Intrastate Highway System
* Freight and Commuter Railroads
* Historic Districts and Listed National Register of
Historic Places and Sites
* Homeless Shelters
* International and Regional Airports
* Lands in Agricultural Production and Prime Agricul-
ture and Silviculture Lands
* Long-Term Affordable Housing Financed Through
the Florida Housing Finance Agency
* Medical Facilities and Public Health Units


Appendix A: Resources and Facilities of State Significance

* Military Bases and Airfields
* Mineral Resources of Commercial Significance
* 100-Year Riverine Floodplains
* Prime and High Aquifer Recharge Areas Desig-
nated by Water Management Districts
* Public Access Points to Public Lands and Beaches
* Public Potable Water Supplies (Aquifers and Sur-
face Water Sources)
* Public Works Facilities and Distribution Systems
(Water, Wastewater, Utilities)
* Spaceport Launch Facilities
* State and Federally Designated Recreation Areas:
Florida Trail
National Scenic and Recreational Trails
Wildlife Management Areas
* State and Federal Lands, Including:
Public Lands Held for Water Management
State and National Parks
National Seashores
National Wildlife Refuges
National Wilderness Areas
State Preserves, Reserves, Gardens and Recre-
ational Areas
State and National Forests
Federal Military Conservation and Recre-
ational Lands
Sovereignty Submerged Lands

* State and Federally Listed Animal Species and
Their Habitats
* State and Federally Listed Plant Species Consid-
ered Critically Imperiled, Imperiled and Rare
* State and Federal Navigable Waterways and Chan-
* State, County, and Municipal Emergency Opera-
tions Centers
* State Universities
* Unique Natural Habitats and Communities,
FNAI Designated Critically Imperiled, Imper-
iled and Rare Natural Communities [Section
259.041(14), Florida Statutes]
Marine/Aquatic Live Bottom Communities
* U.S. National Weather Service, Local Weather
* Waters of the State, including:
First and Second Magnitude Springs
Class I and II Designated Waters
Outstanding Florida Waters
Aquatic Preserves
National Estuarine Research Reserves
National Marine Sanctuaries
Everglades, Lake Okeechobee, and the
Kissimmee River
SWIM Water Bodies
State and Federal Wild and Scenic Rivers
Shellfish Harvesting Areas




Acronyms Used

















_ HIPs

Advisory Council on Intergovernmental Relations

British Thermal Units

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

Coastal Barriers Resources Act
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

Comprehensive Regional Policy Plans

Disaster Application Centers

Department of Community Affairs

Department of Environmental Protection
Disaster Field Offices

U.S. Department of Interior

Developments of Regional Impact

Evaluation and Appraisal Report (of Local
Government Comprehensive Plan)
Environment Land Acquisition Protection Program

Environmental Land Management Study

Florida Administrative Code

Federal Emergency Management Agency

Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
Florida Housing Finance Agency

Florida Intrastate Highway System
Florida Natural Areas Inventory
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Gross State Product

Housing Incentive Plans
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services

HUD U.S. Department of Housing and Urban

ICE Intergovemmental Coordination Element (of
Local Government Comprehensive Plan)

ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
of 1991

LEPC Local Emergency Planning Committees

LULUs Locally Unpopular Land Uses
MPO Metropolitan Planning Organization

MSAs Metropolitan Statistical Areas
NAFTA North America Free Trade Agreement

NFIP National Flood Insurance Programs

NIMBY "Not In My Back Yard"

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric

RPC Regional Planning Council

ROW right-of-way

SAIL State Apartment Incentive Loan

SERC State Emergency Response Commission

SHIP State Housing Initiatives Partnership
SOR Save Our Rivers

SRO Single Room Occupancy
SWIM Surface Water Improvement and Management
TCEA Transportation Concurrency Exception Areas
TCMA Transportation Concurrency Management Areas
USDOC U.S. Department of Commerce
VMT vehicle miles traveled





Glossary of Terms

"Adequate Housing" means housing that is available
for occupancy and that is not substandard.
"Affordable housing" means monthly rents or mort-
gage payments for housing, including taxes, insur-
ance and utilities, do not exceed 30 percent of the
gross annual income of very low, low, and mod-
erate income employee households.
"Ambient Air Quality Standards" means those
standards designated as such in Rule 17-272.300,
Florida Administrative Code.
"Applicable Local Plan" or "Local government
comprehensive plan" means a plan or element or
portion thereof prepared, adopted, or amended
pursuant to Chapter 163, Part II, Florida Statutes,
as amended.
"Applicable Regional Plan" means the Regional
Planning Council's adopted Comprehensive Re-
gional Policy Plan prior to the adoption of a Stra-
tegic Regional Policy Plan pursuant to Section
186.508, Florida Statutes, and thereafter means an
adopted Strategic Regional Policy Plan.
"Applicable State Plan" means the State Compre-
hensive Plan adopted in Chapter 187, Florida
Statutes, and the State Land Development Plan
required by Section 186.021(4), Florida Statutes.
"Archaeological or Historical Site or Property"
means, consistent with Subsection 267.021(3),
Florida Statutes, any prehistoric or historic dis-
trict, site, building, object or other real or personal
property of historical, architectural, or archaeo-
logical value; these properties or resources may
include, but are not limited to, monuments, me-

morials, native American habitations, ceremonial
sites, abandoned settlements, sunken or aban-
doned ships, engineering works, treasure trove,
artifacts, or other objects with intrinsic historical
or archaeological value, or any part thereof, relat-
ing to the history, government and culture of
"Areas subject to coastal flooding" see "hurricane
vulnerability zone."
"Arterial road" means a roadway providing service
which is relatively continuous and of relatively
high traffic volume, long trip length, and high
operating speed. In addition, every United States
numbered highway is an arterial road.
"Beach" means the zone of unconsolidated material
that extends landward from the mean low water
line to the place where there is marked change in
material or physiographic form, or to the line of
permanent vegetation, usually the effective limit
of storm waves. "Beach", as used in the coastal
management element requirements, is limited to
oceanic and estuarine shorelines.
"Bicycle and pedestrian ways" means any road, path
or way which is open to bicycle travel and traffic
afoot and from which motor vehicles are ex-
"Buffer" means an undisturbed or appropriately man-
aged area that surrounds or is adjacent to a par-
ticular archaeological or historical resource that is
utilized to minimize man-induced disturbances
from interfering with the continued preservation
and protection of the particular archaeological or
historical site or property.


Appendix C: Glossary of Terms

"Central Business District" means a compact urban
core area of a municipality or unincorporated
urbanized area which serves as the primary center
for economic activity in the jurisdiction.
"Class I Area" means the areas designated as such
under Rule 17-275.800(1)(b), Florida Administra-
tive Code, including the Everglades National
Park, Chassahowitzka National Wilderness Area,
St. Marks National Wilderness Area and Bradwell
Bay National Wilderness Area.
"Coastal area" means the 35 coastal counties and all
coastal municipalities within their boundaries
designated by the state land planning agency.
These local governments are listed in the docu-
ment entitled "Local Governments Required to
Include Coastal Management Elements in Their
Comprehensive Plans, dated July 1, 1986, and
available from the Department upon request. The
local governments listed in the document and any
other communities that incorporate subsequent to
July 1, 1986, and meet the criteria in Chapter
380.24, Florida Statutes, shall also be included in
the coastal area.
"Coastal barriers" means barrier islands, spits, pen-
insulas, or similar landforms, including the
Florida Keys, which front on the Atlantic Ocean,
Gulf of Mexico, or Straits of Florida and which
separate estuaries or harbors from the open waters
of the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, or Straits
of Florida.
"Coastal high hazard areas" (also "high-hazard
coastal areas") means the evacuation zone for a
category 1 hurricane as established in the regional
hurricane evacuation study applicable to the local
"Coastal or shore protection structures" means
shorehardening structures, such as seawalls, bulk-
heads, revetments, rubble mound structures,
groins, breakwaters, and aggregates of materials
other than natural beach sand used for beach or
shore protection and other structures which are
intended to prevent erosion or protect other struc-
tures from wave and hydrodynamic forces includ-
ing beach and dune restoration.
"Collector road" means a roadway providing service
which is of relatively moderate traffic volume,
moderate trip length, and moderate operating

speed. Collector roads collect and distribute traffic
between local roads or arterial roads.
"Commercial uses" means activities within land
areas which are predominantly connected with the
sale, rental and distribution of products, or perfor-
mance of services.
"Concurrency" means that the necessary public fa-
cilities and services to maintain the adopted level
of service standards are available when the im-
pacts of development occur.
"Concurrency Management System" means the
adopted procedures and/or process that the local
government of jurisdiction for the development
utilizes to assure that development orders and
permits are not issued unless the necessary trans-
portation facilities and services are available con-
current with the impacts of development, consis-
tent with Chapter 163, Part II,Florida Statutes,
and Rule 9J-5, Florida Administrative Code.
"Cone of influence" means an area around one or
more major waterwells the boundary of which is
determined by the government agency having
specific statutory authority to make such a deter-
mination based on groundwater travel or draw-
down depth.
"Conservation uses" means activities within land
areas designated for the purpose of conserving or
protecting natural resources or environmental .
quality and includes areas designated for such
purposes as flood control, protection of quality or
quantity of groundwater or surface water, flood-
plain management, fisheries management, or pro-
tection of vegetative communities or wildlife
"Deepwater ports" means the ports of Jacksonville,
Tampa, Port Everglades, Miami, Port Canaveral,
Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach, Port Manatee, Port St.
Joe, Panama City, St. Petersburg, and Pensacola.
"Department" means the Florida Department of
Community Affairs.
'Development of Regional Impact (DRI)" means
any development which, because of its character,
magnitude, or location, would have a substantial
effect upon the health, safety, or welfare of citi-
zens of more than one county.



Appendix C: Glossary of Terms

"Drainage basin" means the area defined by topo-
graphic boundaries which contributes stormwater
to a drainage system, estuarine waters, or oceanic
waters, including all areas artificially added to the
"Drainage detention structure" means a structure
which collects and temporarily stores stormwater
for the purpose of treatment through physical,
chemical, or biological processes with subsequent
gradual release of the stormwater.
"Drainage facilities" means a system of man-made
structures designed to collect, convey, hold, divert
or discharge stormwater, and includes stormwater
sewers, canals, detention structures, and retention
"Drainage retention structure" means a structure
designed to collect and prevent the release of a
given volume of stormwater by complete on-site
"DRI Uniform Standard Rule" means any one of
the rules adopted under Part m of Rule 9J-2,
Florida Administrative Code.
"Dune" means a mound or ridge of loose sediments,
usually sand-sized sediments, lying landward of
the beach and extending inland to the landward
toe of the dune which intercepts the 100-year
storm surge.
"Educational uses" means activities and facilities of
public or private primary or secondary schools,
vocational and technical schools, and colleges and
universities licensed by the Florida Department of
Education, including the areas of buildings, cam-
pus open space, dormitories, recreational facilities
or parking.
"Estuary" means a semi-enclosed, naturally existing
coastal body of water in which saltwater is natu-
rally diluted by freshwater and which has an open
connection with oceanic waters. "Estuaries" in-
clude bays, embayments, lagoons, sounds and
tidal streams.
"Evacuation routes" means routes designated by
county civil defense authorities or the regional
evacuation plan, for the movement of persons to
safety, in the event of a hurricane.

"Evaluation and appraisal report" means an evalu-
ation and appraisal report as adopted by the local
governing body in accordance with the require-
ments of Section 163.3191, Florida Statutes.
"Flood plains" means areas inundated during a 100-
year flood event or identified by the National
Flood Insurance Program as an A Zone or V Zone
on Flood Insurance Rate Maps or Flood Hazard
Boundary Maps.
"Florida Intrastate Highway System" means an
interconnected network of limited access and
controlled access highways designed to accom-
modate Florida's high speed and high volume
roadway traffic as required by Section 338.001,
Florida Statutes, and adopted by the Legislature.
"Foster care facility" means a facility which houses
foster residents and provides a family living envi-
ronment for the residents, including such supervi-
sion and care as may be necessary to meet the
physical, emotional and social needs of the resi-
dents and serving either children or adult foster
"Group home" means a facility which provides a
living environment for unrelated residents who
operate as the functional equivalent of a family,
including such supervision and care as may be
necessary to meet the physical, emotional and
social needs of the residents. Adult Congregate
Living Facilities comparable in size to group
homes are included in this definition. It does not
include rooming or boarding homes, clubs, frater-
nities, sororities, monasteries or convents, hotels,
residential treatment facilities, nursing homes, or
emergency shelters.
"Habitat" means the place or type of site where a
species lives and includes any area that is associ-
ated with the life history requirements of a par-
ticular listed plant or animal species.
"Hazardous material", as used in this rule, means
any Extremely Hazardous Substance, Toxic
Chemical Substance, or Hazardous Substance
listed in the federal Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III Consoli-
dated Chemical List.
"Hazardous waste" means solid waste, or a combina-
tion of solid wastes, which, because of its quan-
tity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infec-


Appendix C: Glossary of Terms

tious characteristics, may cause, or significantly
contribute to, an increase in mortality or an in-
crease in serious irreversible or incapacitating
reversible illness or may pose a substantial present
or potential hazard to human health or the envi-
ronment when improperly transported, disposed
of, stored, treated or otherwise managed.
"High recharge" means an area so designated by the
appropriate water management district.
"High-hazard Coastal Area" means the areas identi-
fied in the most current regional hurricane evacua-
tion study as requiring evacuation during a cat-
egory one hurricane event.
"High hazard hurricane evacuation area" means
the areas identified in the most current regional
hurricane evacuation study as requiring evacua-
tion during a category one hurricane event.
"Historic resources" means all areas, districts or sites
containing properties listed on the Florida Master
Site File, the National Register of Historic Places,
or designated by a local government as histori-
cally, architecturally, or archaeologically signifi-
"Hurricane evacuation routes" means the routes
designated by county emergency management
officials that have been identified with standard-
ized statewide directional signs by the Florida
Department of Transportation, or are identified in
the regional hurricane evacuation study for the
movement of persons to safety in the event of a
"Hurricane shelter" means a structure designated by
local officials and American Red Cross as a place
of safe refuge during a storm or hurricane.
"Hurricane shelter space" means, at a minimum, an
area of 20 square feet per person located within a
hurricane shelter.
"Hurricane vulnerability zone" means the areas
delineated by a regional hurricane evacuation
study as requiring evacuation in the event of a
100-year or category three hurricane event.
"Industrial uses" means the activities within land
areas predominantly connected with manufactur-
ing, assembly, processing, or storage of products.


"Infrastructure" means those man-made structures
which serve the common needs of the population,
such as: sewage disposal systems; potable water
systems; potable water wells serving a system;
solid waste disposal sites or retention areas;
stormwater systems; utilities; piers; docks;
wharves; breakwaters; bulkheads; seawalls; bul-
warks; revetments; causeways; marinas; naviga-
tion channels; bridges; and roadways.
"Inland shelter study" or "inland shelter plan"
means the studies produced by the Department
and the state's regional planning councils which
detail regional public hurricane shelter availability
according to various simulated regional hurricane
"Interagency hazard mitigation report" means the
recommendations of a team of federal, state, re-
gional, or local officials which address measures
to reduce the potential for future flood losses and
which is prepared in response to a Presidential
Disaster Declaration.
"Level of service" means a qualitative assessment of
a roadway's operating conditions or the average
driver's perception of the quality of traffic flow
that is represented by the letters A through F: A
representing the freest flow and F representing the
least free flow. Quantitative criteria for the differ-
ent levels of service are provided in the Highway
Capacity Manual (1985 Special Report 209) as
published by the Transportation Research Board,
National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,
and Rule 14-94, Florida Administrative Code,
Level of Service Standards.
"Limited access facility" means a roadway especially
designed for through traffic, and over, from, or to
which owners or occupants of abutting land or
other persons have no greater than a limited right
or easement of access.
"Listed Species" means an animal species identified
as a state endangered, threatened, or species of
special concern in Chapter 39, Florida Adminis-
trative Code, a plant species identified as a state
endangered or threatened in Rule 5B-40.0055,
Florida Administrative Code, or a federally listed
plant or animal species in 50 CFR 17.11-12, 4-25-


Appendix C: Glossary of Terms

"Listed Species Jurisdiction" means the jurisdiction
given to the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission or to the Department of Environ-
mental Protection over certain groups of listed
animal species pursuant to Chapter 372, Florida
Statutes. The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission is responsible for freshwater and
upland listed animal species, and the Department
of Environmental Protection is responsible for
marine listed animal species.
"Living marine resources" means oceanic or estua-
rine plants or animals, such as mangroves, sea
grasses, algae, coral reefs, and living marine habi-
tat; fish, shellfish, crustacea and fisheries; and sea
turtles and marine mammals.
"Local comprehensive plan" means a plan or ele-
ment or portions thereof prepared, adopted, or
amended pursuant to Chapter 163, Part II, Florida
Statutes, as amended.
"Local peacetime emergency plan" means the plans
prepared by the county civil defense or county
emergency management agency addressing
weather-related natural hazards and man-made
disasters except nuclear power plant accidents and
war. The plan covers hazard mitigation, emer-
gency preparedness, emergency response, emer-
gency recovery and in coastal counties, hurricane
"Local road" means a roadway providing service
which is of relatively low traffic volume, short
average trip length or minimal through traffic
movements, and high volume land access for
abutting property.
"Low Income Household" means one or more per-
sons, related or unrelated, residing together whose
combined annual adjusted gross income is greater
than 50 percent but does not exceed 80 percent of
the median annual adjusted gross household in-
come, as reported by the U.S. Department of
Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for the
metropolitan statistical area (MSA) or county
within which they reside, whichever is greater.
"Major Stationary Source" means a major source of
air pollution as defined by Section 403.031,
Florida Statutes.

"Major trip generators or attractors" means con-
centrated areas of intense land use or activity that
produces or attracts a significant number of local
trip ends.
"Management Plan" means a plan that details the
necessary steps to ensure the continued viability
of a given plant or wildlife resource within a
given preservation area, including continued fund-
ing sources for implementation, the type and fre-
quency of any vegetative management, the means
of human disturbance controls, and the strategies
for continuing resource protection, monitoring
and enforcement of the plan. Such plans shall be
subject to review and approval by the Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission or the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
when wildlife species or their habitats are in-
volved that fall under their respective listed spe-
cies jurisdictions.
"Marine habitat" means areas where living marine
resources naturally occur, such as mangroves, sea
grass beds, algal beds, salt marshes, transitional
wetlands, marine wetlands, rocky shore communi-
ties, hard bottom communities, oyster bars or
flats, mud flats, coral reefs, worm reefs, artificial
reefs, offshore springs, nearshore mineral depos-
its, and offshore sand deposits.
"Marine wetlands" means areas with a water regime
determined primarily by tides and the dominant
vegetation is salt tolerant plant species including
those species listed in Subsection 17-4.002(17),
Florida Administrative Code, "Submerged Marine
"Mass Transit" means daily operating, fixed route
and fixed schedule passenger services provided by
public, private, or nonprofit entities such as the
following surface transit modes: computer rail,
rail rapid transit, light rail transit, automated
guideway transit, express bus, and local bus.
"Minerals" means all solid minerals, including clay,
gravel, phosphate rock, lime, shells (excluding
live shellfish), stone, sand, heavy minerals, and
any rare earths, which are contained in the soils or
waters of the state.
"Mobile home" means a structure as defined in Sub-
section 320.01(2), Florida Statutes.


Appendix C: Glossary of Terms

"Mobile Source" means an automobile, truck, bus
and other transportation vehicle, vessel or aircraft
that is attracted to or associated with a develop-
ment, causing the development to be an indirect
source of air pollutant emissions.
"Moderate Income Household" means one or more
persons, related or unrelated, residing together
whose combined annual adjusted gross household
income is greater than 80 percent but does not
exceed 120 percent of the median annual adjusted
household gross income, as reported by the U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development
(HUD) for the metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
or county within which they reside, whichever is
"National Register of Historic Places" means, con-
sistent with Subsection 267.021(5), Florida Stat-
utes, the list of historic properties significant in
American history, architecture, archaeology, engi-
neering, and culture, maintained by the Secretary
of Interior, as established by the National Historic
Preservation Act of 1966, as amended.
"Natural drainage features" means the naturally
occurring features of an area which accommodate
the flow of stormwater, such as streams, rivers,
lakes and wetlands.
"Natural reservations" means areas designated for
conservation purposes, and operated by contrac-
tual agreement with or managed by a federal,
state, regional or local government or non-profit
agency such as: national parks, state parks, lands
purchased under the Save Our Coast, Conserva-
tion and Recreation Lands or Save Our Rivers
programs, sanctuaries, preserves, monuments,
archaeological sites, historic sites, wildlife man-
agement areas, national seashores, and Outstand-
ing Florida Waters.
"Nonpoint source pollution" means any source of
water pollution that is not a point source.
"Oceanic waters" means waters of the Atlantic
Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, or Straits of Florida, but
does not include bays, lagoons, or harbors.
"Onsite sewage treatment and disposal system"
means a septic tank or other system, consistent
with Rule 10D-6, Florida Administrative Code, as
of the effective date of this rule.

"Open spaces" means undeveloped lands suitable for
passive recreation or conservation uses.
"Paleontological Site" means a location containing
geological fossil remains of prehistoric plants or
"Paratransit" means transit services, including
ridesharing, car or van pools, demand responsive
buses, and other public transit services, which are
characterized by their nonscheduled, non-fixed
route nature.
"Park" means a neighborhood, community, or re-
gional park.
'Park trailer" or "park model recreational ve-
hicle" means a structure as defined in Subpara-
graph 320.01(1)(b)7., Florida Statutes.
'Peacetime emergency plan" means those plans
developed by a county according to the provisions
of Rules 9G-6 and 9G-7, Florida Administrative
Code, under the authority provided in Section
252.35, Florida Statutes.
"Point source pollution" means any source of water
pollution that constitutes a discernible, confined,
and discrete conveyance, including but not limited
to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well,
discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concen-
trated animal feeding operation, or vessel or other
floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be
discharged. This term does not include return
flows from irrigated agriculture.
'Pollution" is the presence in the outdoor atmo-
sphere, ground or water of any substances, con-
taminants, noise, or manmade or man-induced
alteration of the chemical, physical, biological, or
radiological integrity of air or water, in quantities
or at levels which are or may be potentially harm-
ful or injurious to human health or welfare, animal
or plant life, or property, or unreasonably interfere
with the enjoyment of life or property.
'Port facility" means harbor or shipping improve-
ments used predominantly for commercial pur-
poses including channels, turning basins, jetties,
breakwaters, landings, wharves, docks, markets,
structures, buildings, piers, storage facilities, pla-
zas, anchorages, utilities, bridges, tunnels, roads,
causeways, and all other property or facilities
necessary or useful in connection.



Appendix C: Glossary of Terms

" "Potable water facility" means a system of structures
designed to collect, treat, or distribute potable
water, including single user water wells, public
water wells, treatment plants, reservoirs, and dis-
tribution mains.
"Primary public hurricane shelter" means a struc-
ture designated by local emergency management
officials as a place for shelter during a hurricane
event. For purposes of this rule, primary public
hurricane shelter includes only those structures
which are located outside of the high hazard hurri-
cane evacuation area and which have been desig-
nated by the local government and the American
Red Cross as primary shelters.
"Prime recharge" means an area so designated by
the appropriate water management district gov-
erning board.
"Private recreation sites" means sites owned by
private, commercial or non-profit entities avail-
able to the public for purposes of recreational use.
"Public access" means the ability of the public to
physically reach, enter or use recreation sites
including beaches and shores.
"Public buildings and grounds" means structures or
lands that are owned, leased, or operated by a
government entity, such as civic and community
centers, hospitals, libraries, police stations, fire
stations, and government administration build-
"Public facilities" means transportation systems or
facilities, sewer systems or facilities, solid waste
systems or facilities, drainage systems or facili-
ties, potable water systems or facilities, educa-
tional systems or facilities, parks and recreation
systems or facilities and public health systems or
"Public facilities and services" which must be avail-
able concurrent with the impacts of development
means those covered by comprehensive plan ele-
ments required by Section 163.3177, Florida
Statutes, and for which level of service standards
must be adopted under Chapter 9J-5, Florida
Administrative Code. The public facilities and
services are: roads, Rule 9J-5.007(3)(c)l.; sani-
eP tary sewer, Rule 9J-5.011(2)(c)2.a.; solid waste,
Rule 9J-5.011(2)(c)2.b.; drainage, Rule 9J-
5.011(2)(c)2.c.; potable water, Rule 9J-

5.011(2)(c)2.d.; parks and recreation, Rule 9J-
5.014(3)(c)4.; and mass transit, Rule 9J-
5.008(3)(c) ., if applicable.
"Public facilities" means wastewater facilities, solid
waste facilities, or potable water facilities, but
excludes onsite sewage treatment and disposal
systems and single family residential individual
water wells.
"Public recreation sites" means sites owned or
leased on a long-term basis by a federal, state,
regional or local government agency for purposes
of recreational use.
"Rare Plant" means a state or federally listed plant
species that is ranked S3 by the Florida Natural
Areas Inventory, consistent with Paragraph
253.025(15), Florida Statutes, and is therefore
considered as either very rare and local through-
out its range in Florida, is found locally within
Florida in a restricted range, or is vulnerable to
extinction because of other factors. When a plant
species has a compound rank such as S2S3 of
S3S4, the second listed rank will be utilized for
the purposes of this rule.
"Reasonably Accessible" means a commute time
from the principal access point of the place of
employment in the development to the location of
adequate housing by private or public conveyance
of 20 minutes (during peak hour) or a commute
distance of 10 miles, whichever is less. In areas
having an established Metropolitan Planning Or-
ganization, this distance and time determination is
established from use of appropriate traffic analysis
"Recreation" means the pursuit of leisure time activi-
ties occurring in an indoor or outdoor setting.
"Recreation facility" means a component of a recre-
ation site used by the public such as a trail, court,
athletic field or swimming pool.
"Recreational uses" means activities within areas
where recreation occurs.
"Recreational vehicle" means a vehicle as defined in
Paragraph 320.01 (l)(b), Florida Statutes, except
for park trailers.
"Regional center" means a major retail, service, pub-
lic, recreational, entertainment or other type of


Appendix C: Glossary of Terms

facility or development area that regularly attracts
use by citizens from more than one county, in-
cluding regional hospitals, civic centers, universi-
ties, professional sports stadiums, regional malls,
regional airports, regional, state or federal govern-
mental centers, state parks, nationally advertised
resorts or amusement parks, or designated re-
gional activity centers.
"Regional hurricane evacuation study" or "re-
gional hurricane evacuation plan" means the
studies produced by the Department, the state's
regional planning councils, the U. S. Army Corps
of Engineers, or the Federal Emergency Manage-
ment Agency, which detail regional hurricane
evacuation clearance times and public hurricane
shelter availability according to various simulated
regional hurricane events.
"Regional park" means a park which is designed to
serve two or more communities.
"Regional planning council" means a governmental
body created pursuant to Chapter 186, Florida
"Residential uses" means activities within land areas
used predominantly for housing.
"Right-of-way" means land in which the state, a
county, or a municipality owns the fee simple title
or has an easement dedicated or required for a
transportation or utility use.
"Roadway" means an existing or planned road seg-
ment in its entirety or any portion thereof, includ-
ing intersections and interchanges.
"Roadway functional classification" means the as-
signment of roads into categories according to the
character of service they provide in relation to the
total road network. Basic functional categories
include limited access facilities, arterial roads, and
collector roads, which may be subcategorized into
principal, major or minor levels. Those levels
may be further grouped into urban and rural cat-
"Sanitary sewer facilities" means structures or sys-
tems designed for the collection, transmission,
treatment, or disposal of sewage and includes
trunk mains, interceptors, treatment plants and
disposal systems.

"Secondary public hurricane shelter" means a
structure designated by local emergency manage-
ment officials and the American Red Cross as a
shelter during a hurricane but does not meet the
definition of primary hurricane shelter.
"Services" means the programs and employees deter-
mined necessary by local government to provide
adequate operation and maintenance of public
facilities and infrastructure as well as those educa-
tional, health care, social and other programs nec-
essary to support the programs, public facilities,
and infrastructure set out in the local plan or re-
quired by local, state, or federal law.
"Shoreline" or "shore" means the interface of land
and water and, as used in the coastal management
element requirements, is limited to oceanic and
estuarine interfaces.
"Solid waste" means sludge from a waste treatment
works, water supply treatment plant, or air pollu-
tion control facility or garbage, rubbish, refuse, or
other discarded material, including solid, liquid,
semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting
from domestic, industrial, commercial, mining,
agricultural, or governmental operations.
"Solid waste facility" means structures or systems
designed for the collection, processing or disposal
of solid wastes, including incinerators but exclud-
ing phosphogypsum stacks.
"State Highway System" means all streets, road,
highways, and other public ways open to travel by
the public generally and dedicated to the public
use according to law or by prescription and desig-
nated by the Florida Department of Transporta-
tion, consistent with Chapters 334 and 335,
Florida Statutes.
"State Implementation Plan (SIP)" means docu-
ments prepared by states and subject to the Fed-
eral Environmental Protection Agency approval
that identify the actions and programs committed
to by states to control and/or reduce air pollutant
emissions, pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 7401, 40 CFR
Part 51, 40 CFR Part 52 Subpart K, and 40CFR
Part 81. These multi-volumed documents are
available in the Division of Air Resources Man-
agement, Florida Department of Environmental


Appendix C: Glossary of Terms

"Stormwater" means the flow of water which results
from a rainfall event.
"Substandard housing" means any housing unit
lacking complete plumbing or sanitary facilities
for the exclusive use of the occupants; or any
housing unit which has been found by an appro-
priate local authority to have one or more viola-
tions of an applicable housing code that poses a
material threat to the health or safety of the occu-
pant; or any housing unit that has been declared
unfit for human habitation; or any housing unit
that has been found to be substandard in the most
recent housing conditions survey conducted by
the local government, done in conjunction with
the local comprehensive plan or otherwise, pro-
vided that there is no evidence that this dwelling
has since been rehabilitated.
"Transportation demand management" means
strategies and techniques that can be used to in-
crease the efficiency of the transportation system.
Demand management focuses on ways of influ-
encing the amount and demand for transportation
by encouraging alternatives to the single-occupant
automobile and by altering local peak hour travel
demand. These strategies and techniques may,
among others, include: ridesharing programs,
flexible work hours, telecommuting, shuttle ser-
vices, and parking management.
"Transportation disadvantaged" means those indi-
viduals who because of physical or mental disabil-
ity, income status, or age are unable to transport
themselves to or purchase transportation and are,
therefore dependent upon others to obtain access
to health care, employment, education, shopping,
social activities, or other life-sustaining activities.

"Very Low Income Household" means one or more
persons, related or unrelated, residing together,
not including students, whose combined annual
adjusted gross income does not exceed 50 percent
of the median annual adjusted gross household
income, as reported by the U.S. Department of
Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for the
metropolitan statistical area (MSA) or county
within which they reside, whichever is greater.
"Wastewater facility" means a structure or system
designed to collect, transmit, treat, or dispose of
sewage, excluding onsite sewage treatment and
disposal systems such as septic tanks and aerobic
treatment systems covered by Rule 10D-6,
Florida Administrative Code.
"Water-dependent uses" means activities which can
be carried out only on, in or adjacent to water
areas because the use requires access to the water
body for: waterborne transportation including
ports or marinas; recreation; electrical generating
facilities; or water supply.
"Water recharge areas" means land or water areas
through which groundwater is replenished.
"Water-related uses" means activities which are not
directly dependent upon access to a water body,
but which provide goods and services that are
directly associated with water-dependent or water-
way uses.
"Water wells" means wells excavated, drilled, dug, or
driven for the supply of industrial, agricultural or
potable water for general public consumption.

"Transportation system management" means im-
proving roads, intersections, and other related
facilities to make the existing transportation sys-
tem operate more efficiently. Transportation sys-
tem management techniques include demand
management strategies, incident management
strategies, and other actions that increase the oper-
ating efficiency of the existing system.
"Vegetative communities" means ecological commu-
nities, such as coastal strands, oak hammocks, and
cypress swamps, which are classified based on the
presence of certain soils, vegetation and animals.



Relationship of Priority Issues to the Goals

of the State Comprehensive Plan

Priority Issue I: Land Use addresses the following State Comprehensive Plan goal areas:

> Goal 12 Energy (pertaining to land use patterns)
> Goal 15 Property Rights;
) Goal 16 Land Use;
> Goal 17 Downtown Revitalization;
> Goal 18 Public Facilities;
> Goal 19 Cultural and Historical Resources;
> Goal 21 Governmental Efficiency;
> Goal 23 Agriculture (resource lands conservation issues); and
) Goal 26 Plan Implementation.

Priority Issue II: Natural Resources addresses the following State Comprehensive Plan goal areas:

> Goal 8 Water Resources;
> Goal 9 Coastal and Marine Resources;
> Goal 10 Natural Systems and Recreational Lands;
) Goal 11 Air Quality (stationary sources);
> Goal 14 Mining ; and
> Goal 26 Plan Implementation.


Appendix D: Relationship of Priority Issues to the Goals of the State Comprehensive Plan

Priority Issue III: Transportation addresses the following State Comprehensive Plan goal areas:

> Goal 11 Air Quality (mobile sources);
> Goal 12 Energy (transportation sector);
> Goal 18 Public Facilities (transportation only);
) Goal 20 Transportation;
> Goal 22 -The Economy; and
) Goal 26 Plan Implementation.

Priority Issue IV: The Economy addresses the following State Comprehensive Plan goal areas:

> Goal 21 Governmental Efficiency;
> Goal 22 -The Economy;
) Goal 23 Agriculture (as sector of economy);
> Goal 24- Tourism;
> Goal 25 Employment; and
> Goal 26 Plan Implementation.

Priority Issue V: Affordable Housing addresses the following State Comprehensive Plan goal areas:

) Goal 4 -The Elderly; and
> Goal 5 Housing

Priority Issue VI: Emergency Management addresses the following State Comprehensive Plan goal areas:

) Goal 5 Housing (mitigation);
> Goal 7 Public Safety;
) Goal 8 Water Resources (flood plain management);
) Goal 9 Coastal and Marine Resources (public safety);
> Goal 13 Hazardous and Non-hazardous Materials and Waste; and
> Goal 16 Land Use (mitigation).