Priceless Water? Providing for the Future

Material Information

Priceless Water? Providing for the Future
Tampa Chamber of Commerce


Subjects / Keywords:
City of Tampa ( local )
Hillsborough County ( local )
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida


Jake Varn Collection - Priceless Water? Providing for the Future
General Note:
Box 28, Folder 19 ( Priceless Water? Providing for the Future - February 19, 1997 ), Item 1
Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.

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Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location:
Levin College of Law, University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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The Hydrologic Cycle; A Systems Overview

Southwest Florida Water Management District
Needs and Sources

West Coast Water Supply Authority
Needs and Sources

Mr. Randall Reder

Dena Leavengood
Peter Schreuder

Mr. Rich McLean,
Deputy Executive Director

Mr. Jerry Maxwell
General Manager


Panel Discussion
Public Supply

Question and Answer


Mr. Randall Reder
Mr. Patrick Ho
Mr. Lee Thurner
Dr. Scott Emery
Mr. Bobby McKown
Ms. Holly Greening

Mr. Randall Reder

Guest Speaker:
Jake Varn
Carlton, Fields (Tallahassee)
"Cooperation & the Positive Side of Water Wars"


FEBRUARY 19, 1997

Dr. Karen E. Koch, Fruit Crops Department, Univ. of Florida
GREENHOUSE CO2 EFFECT: (from Weissbach & Horecker, 1989)
5 to 10 billion tons of CO2 from fossil-fuel based energy production and
de-forestation burnoff
1.5 x 1011 tons of CO2 sequestered annually via global photosynthesis
1% increase on worldwide basis would be 1.5 x 109 tons of CO2

CITRUS PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN THE FIELD: (from Sinclair & Allen, 1982)
Photosynthetic rate of citrus leaves is relatively low in the field:
6 to 11 Atmol m'2s-1
Leaves tested were new, fully-expanded on all sides of tree and interior
(trees were 2.5 to 3.5 m tall)
Two types of diurnal photosynthesis noted:
cool days photosynthesis continued at ca. 8.0 Amol m-2s-1 for 10 of the 12
daylight hours
hot days midday depression but rapid in morning. Photosynthetic mean
was ca 5.0 gmol m'2s for 10 of the 12 daylight hours
(from Davies et al., 1975)
Leaf number per "mature" trees
'Hamlin' 50,000
'Pineapple' 24,000
'Valencia' 60,000
(from Marler, 1988)
Leaf area (m2) of young 'Hamlin' orange trees 8 mos. after transplanting (bare
moderate to well-watered 1.3 to 1.4 m-2
(from recent unpublished data, K. E. Koch)
Mean leaf area of orange leaf
.00187 m2

Mean rates are calculated only as very rough approximations and include several
an annual mean of ca. 10 hr of photosynthesis per day at maximal rates
(typical for 12-hr days)
ca. 50/50 division between days exhibiting midday depression of leaf
photosynthesis and those in which rates remain elevated
moderate to well-irrigated plants
leaf number per tree is ca. 50,000 (this figure is likely to be variable)
a mean area per leaf is also estimated at .00187 m2 (again likely to show
much variation)
CO, loss from total respiratory activity is estimated based on a temperate
gran crop, but percentages relative to total photosynthesis are comparable
in many plant species (Gifford et al., 1984)


SEP 14 1989

FC'-: i

CALCULATED PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 FIXATION: (see assumptions on previous page)

CO2 assimilated by 1 acre of bearing citrus:
mean orange leaf psynth: 6.5 ptmol CO2 m'2s1
x 3600 convert per hr: 23,400.0 pjmol CO m-2h-1
x 10 convert per day: 234,000.0 tpmol Cd2 m-2d
x 365 convert per year: 85,410,000.0 jmol CO2 m'yr'
+ 1,000,000 conv. to mol: 85.41 mol CO, m2yr-1
x 44 convert to g CO2: 3,758.0 g CO m 2yr1
x 0.00187 convert per leaf: 7.028 g O leaf1yr 1
x 50,000 convert per tree: 351,376.0 g CO2 tree'yr
x 100 convert to per acre: 35,137,600.0 g CO acre yr
x 0.0022 convert to lbs: 77,303.0 lbs C6 acre'lyr.
+ 2,000 convert to tons: 38.7 tons CO2 acre'yr"
40% for total resp. loss
(see previous page): 23.2 tons CO, acre'lyr"
**1 acre of mature, well-irrigated citrus grove is likely to sequester approximately
20 tons or more of CO2 during 1 year of photosynthesis.

CO assimilated by 1 acre of newly-planted citrus:
new grove psynth per leaf area: 85.41 mol CO2 m'--1
x 1.35 convert to per tree: 115.3 mol CO2 tree yr1
x 100 convert to per acre: 11,530.0 mol CO2 acre'yr1
x 44 convert to g: 507,320.0 g CO acre'yr
x 0.0022 convert to lbs: 1,116.0 lbs Cb acre-yr1
+ 2,000 convert to tons: 0.56 tons dO2 acre-lyr1
40% for total resp. loss
(see previous page): 0.34 tons CO 2acre'lvr'
**1 acre of newly-planted citrus is likely to sequester approximately 1/3 ton of CO2
during its first year.

CO2 assimilated by Florida citrus groves:
A. Current "bearing acres" (1988 census): 522,000 acres
x 23.2 convert to tons per acre: 12.110.400 tons CO2 total acres"'
B. When all current acres mature: 698,000 acres
x 23.2 convert to tons per acre: 16.193.600 tons CO, total acres"'
**Bearing Florida citrus groves assimilate approximately 12 million tons of CO2
annually, and this will increase by an additional 4 million as new citrus plantings

02 produced by Florida citrus groves:
1 mole O given off for each mole CO2 taken up
CO2 = 4 g mole"'
0, = 32 g mole"1
CC2 values x 0.727 = amounts of 02 produced

Approximate 0 produced annually by:
1 acre of mature citrus 16.7 tons
1 acre of newly-planted citrus 0.25 tons
current bearing acres in Florida 8,804,261 tons
current total acreage at bearing age 11,772,747 tons


Davies, F. S., W. C. Cooper, and F. E. Galena. 1975. A comparison of four abscission
compounds for use on 'Hamlin', 'Pineapple', and 'Valencia' oranges. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 88:107-113.
Florida Agricultural Statistics Reporting Service. 1989. Citrus: Commercial citrus tree
inventory for 1988. Fla. Ag. Stat. Rep. Serv. Orlando, Florida.
Gifford, R. M., J. H. Thorne, W. D. Hintz, and R. T. Giaquinta. 1984. Crop productivity
and photoassimilate partitioning. Science 225:801-808.
Marler, T. E. 1988 Growth of young 'Hamlin' orange trees as influenced by microsprinkler
irrigation, fertilization, and nursery tree type. PhD dissertation. University of
Florida. 173pp.
Sinclair, T. R. and L. H. Allen, Jr. 1982. Carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of
leaves on field-grown citrus trees. J. Exp. Bot. 33(137):1166-1175.

Weissback, A. and B. L. Horecker. 1989. The path of carbon in photosynthesis -- Back to
the future. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 7(2):159-169.

Florida Citrus A Mutual
TELEPHONE (941) 682-1111 P. O. BOX 89 4 LAKELAND, FLORIDA 33802
Presentation to
The Greater Tampa Chamber of Commerce
Water Task Force Seminar
"Priceless Water? Providing for the Future."
By Bobby F. McKown
Executive Vice President/CEO
Florida Citrus Mutual
February 19, 1997

1. How is agriculture using the water in the region,

especially in the Tampa Bay area?

The agricultural community uses water as a vital part of

several aspects of food and fiber production in the central Florida


They are chiefly:

1. bed establishment in preparation of planting seasonal


2. irrigation for plant establishment;

3. supplemental irrigation for dry season protection;

4. fertigation as a vital part of best management practices

to minimize potential for groundwater contamination and


5. frost and freeze protection.

Telfax (941) 682-1074


The agricultural community in this part of the state is

comprised of many forms of production.

They are:


fish farming for restaurant;tropical fish farming for

aquariums all over the world; tropical fish is the

highest value commodity shipped from Tampa International

airport; bait fish production for sport fishing.


represents about 50% of total water use permitted

for agriculture in SWFWMD for fresh and processed oranges

and grapefruit production.

The figures, by county:

1994 2000 2010

Charlotte County
acres 13,796 14,605 18,614
water 14 mgd 15.2 19.4

Citrus County
acres 233 400 400
water .3 mgd .3 .3

DeSoto County
acres 62,407 66,622 75,825
water 55.7 mgd 59.5 67.7

Hardee County
acres 54,211
water 48.4 mgd

Hernando County
acres 1,109
water 1.7 mgd

Highlands County
acres 44,421
water 62.8 mgd

Hillaborough County
acres 27,739
water 22.7 mgd

Lake County

1.1 mgd

Manatee County
acres 23,940
water 21.4 mgd

Pasco County
acres 11,555
water 16.3 mgd

Pinellas County
acres 248
water .3 mgd

Polk County
acres 88,406
water 118.4 mgd

Sarasota County
acres 2,516
water 2.4 mgd


365.5 mgd
























*****These are quantities that citrus is permitted to

withdraw, primarily from the deep aquifer, a certain percentage of

which will return to the surficial. intermediate or rehvdrate

wetlands. While these are permitted quantities these figures do

not represent the smaller amount of water actually consumed as most

people perceive.

Another distinction between the use of water for public

utilities and that for agriculture is that agricultural water is

not constant and is heavily defendant on weather. Water permitted

for citrus use represents about 50% of agriculture's total use.


ornamental horticulture and citrus plants;supplemental

irrigation, fertigation, frost/freeze protection.


supplemental irrigation in dry season for pasture grazing



supplemental irrigation in dry season for sod production

for landscapes.


as many as five crops per year concentrated in eastern

Hillsborough, western Polk and northern Manatee; bed

preparation, supplemental irrigation, fertigation,

frost/freeze protection;sole supplier of the entire

nation with strawberries at certain times of the year.


spring and fall crops supply sources throughout the

nation concentrated in Hillsborough, Hardee, Manatee; bed

preparation, supplemental irrigation fertigation,

frost/freeze protection.

All other vegetables

spring and fall crops supply t

coast sole source of some wint

and Canada at times Manate

Hardee, Sumter, Sarasota,

preparation, supplemental

frost/freeze protection.

he urban centers along the

,er vegetables for the U.S.

e, Hillsborough, DeSoto,

Levy, Charlotte bed

irrigation, fertigation,

Total water use permitted for agricultural use within the SWFWMD is
estimated to be (in million gallons per day/seasonal):
1994 2000 2010 2020
684.8 747.9 799.2 847.3

Some Facts to consider:

Agricultural lands are 2 percent of the tax base of the
Hillsborough County area but use only 3/10 percent of the total
expenditure of tax dollars for services.

Growers get 16 cents worth of services for every dollar paid
in taxes. In other words farmers must pay $6.00 to get a dollars
worth of public services.

Urban areas require $1.53 in services for every dollar paid.
Urban areas require 94 percent of the services provided in
Hillsborough County.

Over a fifty year period strawberry producers will generate
$5,000,000 of economic gain for Hillsborough County per acre in

Ornamental horticulture will generate $8,000,000 per acre over
the same 50 years.

Tropical fish farms will generate $11,000,000 per acre in the
same time.

**Figures generated by a 1995 independent study
commissioned by the Tampa Chamber of Commerce, Hillsborough
County Government and the agricultural community.

2. Does the table provide an accurate depiction of the estimated

future needs for agriculture through the year 2020?

Florida Citrus Mutual worked closely with the SWFWMD to

establish the figures included in the recently released report


dated January 1997 and utilizing those figures the table is

inaccurate and overstates the need for agriculture by almost 20


3. How will the agricultural industry meet future needs?

Water use rates for agriculture are based upon the SWFWMD

AgMod Water Use Permitting Model which calculates the permitted

acre-inch/acre season. Within the Southern Water Use Caution Area

some crops are permitted with two rates, average year and dry year,

based upon rainfall probability. Dry use rates can only be used

against available credits established through reductions in actual

use below permitted use in prior years.

Beginning in 2000, continuing through the year 2020 and

beyond, the quantities permitted for agricultural use will be based

upon higher use efficiencies and growers will necessarily find new

ways to conserve in order to meet those higher efficiencies.

The citrus industry, and the agricultural industry at large,

have spent, literally, hundreds of millions of dollars updating

irrigation systems over the past 10 years to incorporate the latest

technologies, including: replacement of overhead systems with

undertree microspray; meters and soil moisture monitors;

temperature and rainfall monitoring devices; computer controlled

fertigation systems and well casing replacement; logging well

configuration data, and wetland impact monitoring; construction of

tailwater recovery systems and filter strips to decrease water use

and encourage recharge of the surficial systems.

In addition to all of those efforts a growing number of

growers have foregone the use of their wells as a primary source

for crop irrigation and have agreed to rely on the availability of

processed public wastewater, while retaining their right to return

to groundwater in the event of an emergency or if the public's

wastewater becomes too costly to continue using.

Phytosanitary concerns are left to be resolved by

recommendations for treatment levels and use practices established

through university research and constant long-term monitoring for

concentrations of heavy metals and other toxins.

4. What is agriculture's present and future unit cost and value

(economic value to the community or otherwise defined)?

The present unit cost for the various agricultural commodities

produced within the area of the SWFWMD is difficult to calculate

due to the fact that acreage figures vary from year to year with

row crops; citrus acreage within Polk County is found in three

different water management districts; processing of citrus into

juice is done without regard for political or agency boundaries;

labor, transportation, and other costs are extremely variable from

year to year and are dependent upon the size of the operation.

It can be said, for discussion purposes, that a citrus grove

is typically permitted for a range of water use within the SWFWMD

of between 11 and 20 acre inches per season which is based upon

"normal rainfall probability and typical irrigation systems,

planting dates, and soil characteristics." Projected water use

rates are calculated by multiplying projected acreage, water use

rate, and 0.000744.

These amounts equate to somewhere in the neighborhood of 1/3

to 1/2 million gallons per acre maximum use, based upon mature

grove requirements. Citrus grove production will vary based upon

the age, variety, soil type, management practices and weather,

among other things. Prices will also depend upon timing and the

availability of similar varieties at the time of harvest as well as

supplies of carryover from the previous season and the futures


Citrus water use for processing is permitted as an industrial

use and it is estimated that one gallon of water is used to

sanitize the average 45 pound carton of fresh grapefruit.

The economic opportunity cost can be stated in terms of the

value of the economic contribution shown in the facts to consider

I shared earlier. Once again, they are:

Over a fifty year period strawberry producers will generate

$5,000,000 of economic gain for Hillsborough County 'pet acre in


Ornamental horticulture will generate $8,000,000 per acre over

the same 50 years.

Tropical fish farms will generate $11,000,000 per acre in the,

same time.

The contribution that agriculture makes to the overall health

and well-being of the community cannot be fully valued in terms of

dollars and cents.

Rather, other considerations include the safety of

phytosanitary production and processing requirements that are

unmatched anywhere in the world, the maintenance of continuous open

space for wildlife and air quality conditioning. The contribution

to clean air and oxygen production by citrus has been quantified

and determined to be equivalent to counteracting 10 percent of the

total statewide air pollution contribution.

Citrus groves are documented safe havens for a host of animal

species which are vital links in the food chains of many threatened

and endangered species statewide.

Storm water retention areas provide habitat and safe nesting,

feeding and breeding areas for threatened and endangered species

and help to retain heat for the nesting areas adjacent upland areas

while retaining vital levels of moisture for wetlands.


vmmffifi IL

FEBRUARY 19, 1997 4 8:00A.M. 1:30P.M. 6 THE FLORIDA AQUARIUM

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