Title: Annual Report South Florida Water Management District 1986
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00004537/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual Report South Florida Water Management District 1986
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: South Florida Water Management District
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Annual Report South Florida Water Management District 1986 (JDV Box 91)
General Note: Box 23, Folder 1 ( Miscellaneous Water Papers, Studies, Reports, Newsletters, Booklets, Annual Reports, etc. - 1973 -1992 ), Item 40
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: WL00004537
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

Ana R 1

S t oI


The Mission Statement

The Mission of the South Florida Water Management District is to manage water and related
resources for the benefit of the public and in keeping with the needs of the region. The key
elements of the Mission are: Environmental protection and enhancement, water supply, flood
protection, and water quality protection.
The Mission is accomplished through the combined efforts of planning and research,
operations and maintenance, community and government relations, land management,
regulation and construction. Inherent in the Mission is the responsibility to assist the Public
and Government Officials by protecting water resources and by identifying and recommending
options for incorporating water resource considerations into land use decisions.

On the cover: Looking south toward Lake Okeechobee, structure S-191 is situated on the north shore of
the 730-square mile lake. This spillway controls theflow of water entering Lake Okeechobee from the
Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough Basin.

Table of Contents

Chairman's Message ............... 2
Governing Board .......................... 3

Director's Message ................. 4

Ensure Water Quality
Lake Okeechobee .......................... 6

Protect the Resource
Save Our Rivers .......................... 10
Save Our Everglades ...................... 12
Permitting .............................. 13

Ensure Water Supply
Water Conservation Season ................. 14
Demand Management ..................... 14

External Coordination
Local Government Assistance ............... 16
Seminole Indian Settlement ............... 17

Provide Flood Protection
Tree-Removal Program ..................... 18
Modified Hendry County Plan ............... 18
S-155 Spillway Dedication .................. 19
C-51 Basin Rules .......................... 19

Employee Recognition
Papers Authored .......................... 20
Technical Publications ...................... 20

Financial Summaries ................ 22

Pat Partington
Cover Photo by Gene LI

Chairman's Message

Florida's history is longer than
that of any other state.
Notwithstanding that, Florida's
modern history is very short. The
tremendous growth and
development in south Florida has
occurred only during fairly recent
times. As a result, today we still
have the opportunity to affect our
future in positive ways.
The role of the South Florida
Water Management District
reflects this recent history and
more. It has also been evolving at
an increasingly fast pace.
Historically, the District's job
description primarily involved
drainage and flood protection.
While these are still major
responsibilities, the District's water
management function has
catapulted into an expanded role
for resource protection.
Enactment of the Save Our Rivers
law, the Water Quality Assurance
Act, the Warren S. Henderson
Wetland Protection Act and other
laws has accelerated the pace of
Of course, challenges are not
mandated exclusively by
legislation. Mother Nature
extended a major two-by-four on
Lake Okeechobee, with the largest
algae bloom ever recorded on the
Lake Okeechobee forced itself to
the forefront of the District's
agenda. Following publication of
the Lake Okeechobee Technical
Advisory Committee's report,
District personnel shifted into high
gear and developed a series of
action items in an incredibly short
time so that the District is now
positioned to move aggressively
toward permanent solutions for
the lake. The game plan
predictably will involve more than
just the District. Cost
and which levels of government
will contribute to lake Okee-
chobee programs, and to
restoration of the Kissimmee, are

William E. Sadowski
Governing Board Chairman

major policy considerations. The
costs may reach into the hundreds
of millions of dollars. Because the
significance of these resources
transcends our boundary lines, the
District is making every effort to
broaden the base of financial
support beyond its taxpayers.
The District's agenda must and
does extend beyond the crisis
management of algae blooms,
droughts, pipeline leaks and other
serious events to ensure long-term
protection of water resources in
south Florida. We cannot lose sight
of our protracted goals for overall
resource protection.
To lay a foundation for future
overall resource management
decisions, the Board and senior
management held a two-day
retreat in 1985 to assign priorities
and explore the functions of the
District. We wanted to make
certain the coming year's budget
reflected the group's priorities and
were not simply the product of
habit or the latest squeaky wheel.
Credit should be given to Stanley
Hole, then Board chairman, who
provided the leadership which
moved us through this exercise.

Results of the retreat are
important and can provide citizens
with an insight into the workings
and values of the District. They
also provide a road map to the
budgetary priorities reflected in
the 1985-86 and 1986-87 budgets.
Water Quality
Priorities included establishment
of a wellfield protection program
to help local governments protect
public drinking water wellfields. In
addition, stormwater management
was designated a high priority.
Finally, the group agreed the
District needed to assess its role in
the area of water quality.
Water Supply
A priority was placed on
"demand management" or water
conservation to strengthen our
ability to keep water use within
reasonable limits.
Another issue identified a top
priority concern was
backpumping, historically used to
provide flood protection to
agriculture along the south end of
the lake and enhance water supply
in the lake. Backpumping appears
to create more problems than it
solves and must either be
eliminated or altered so it will not
cause further harm to the lake.
Land Management
Due to various land acquisition
programs, the District finds itself
confronted with major policy and
practical decisions regarding both
the ranking of land acquisition and
use of the lands once acquired. We
agreed emphasis should be given
to development of a
comprehensive program covering
both acquisition and
management-including public
We also agreed to place a
priority on strengthening the
District's role in intergovernmental
relationships and with private
sector constituencies.

GOVERNING BOARD MEMBERS (left to right) Timer E. Powers, Indiantown; Nathaniel P. Reed, Hobe Sound;
Oscar M. Corbin, Jr., Ft. Myers; J. Neil Gallagher, Orlando; Kathleen S. Abrams, Miami Shores; Chairman
William E. Sadowski, Miami; Vice-Chairman John F. Fanigan, North Palm Beach; Nancy H. Roen, Plantation;
Stanley W. Hole, Naples.

The group felt strongly that the
District should implement a
comprehensive public education
program to assure that the public
will be informed on water-related
issues and their practical
The foregoing priorities are not
to the exclusion of the District's
on-going programs in other areas
such as flood protection. It is
simply a recognition that
substantial new duties have been
assigned to the District.
To accommodate the District's
growth and expanded role, a new
headquarters complex is needed.
District headquarters are 40
percent deficient in office space
and parking. This year we installed

eight temporary office trailers,
and we will need more next year.
The new facility will probably cost
more than $27 million. Current
plans are to spread the cost over
four years.
A significant accomplishment
bears mention. The District and
the State of Florida have been
embroiled in litigation with the
Seminole Indian Tribe for many
years. Through efforts of
Governing Board member Timer
Powers, this very complicated case
has been settled in a manner
which not only resolves the major
outstanding differences but also
preserves the mutual respect and
integrity of all parties. Negotiation
of the settlement is a singular

achievement for Timer and those
who worked with him. The
agreement may very well become a
national model for the resolution
of other similar disputes.
The difficult challenges which
face us today, and those which will
present themselves tomorrow, will
test us all. With the proper
political and governmental leader-
ship the staff of the District is cap-
able of carrying us into the 21st
century in as strong a position as
we humans are capable of
achieving. Yet, we cannot do it
without continued and increased
support from citizens. I encourage
you all to become activists on
water issues so the difficult
challenges can be met.

Director's Message

The annual report provides me
with an opportunity to reflect on
the past year and to share some of
my experiences and observations.
Two memorable trips in 1985-86
convey the enormous span of
interests and diversity we at the
District enjoy in managing south
Florida's water resources.
Visiting a dairy operation in the
Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough basin
instilled in me an appreciation for
the complex and frustrating
problem of agricultural waste
degrading water quality in our
waterways. The sincerity and
commitment on the part of the
industry to solve the problems was
evident, however the challenge
before us is staggering.
I also had the uplifting
experience of visiting the remote
Layne River Rookery in May
1986. The trip was arranged by the
National Audubon Society, a
contractor to the District studying
the impact of water levels on
Snowy Egrets and Tri-colored
Herons. We canoed around a
remarkable mangrove island, home
to hundreds of wading birds, only
to be told that the site used to be
the birth place to thousands of
those same species.
At the District, we have
assembled some of the brightest
minds and most talented people
available, and we have hired
contractors where it's most cost-
effective all to manage the
water resources of south Florida.
Yet competence is not enough. As
our corporate vision shifts from
"Excellence in Service" to becoming
"Leaders in Large System Change"
our decisions must be based not
only on scientific and technological
data, they must reflect
understanding and support from
many diverse interests. While these
interests demand accountability
from the District for decisions it
makes, they share with us the

John R. Wodraska
Executive Director

ability to frame water resources
management policy. With this in
mind, I see that integrative
problem-solving and dispute
resolution, combined with sound
technology, are our most valuable
tools to be effective in today's
complex environment where
our decisions must be lasting and
productive. That's why the District
greatly expanded its efforts to
involve the public, special interest
groups, and other governmental
bodies including universities -
in its programs.
While we are a strong functional
agency, providing services to the
public, we carry out our functions
using a programmatic approach to
enhance the delivery of services
and protect the environment.
Participation by the public in
District programs augments our
ability to make technically sound
decisions for the benefit of the
informed and for those who may
be unaware of the impact our
decisions have on them.
Probably our most extensive
outreach effort involves the on-
going program with Lake

Okeechobee. The District held a
series of cross-departmental
meetings, using the latest complex
problem-solving approaches, to
discuss options for restoring the
lake, and continuously shared the
results with outside interests. This
process is crucial to the
participatory process on which the
District places increased emphasis.
We want to make sure that each
and every group with an interest in
the health of the lake has a
meaningful avenue in which to
contribute to the lake's well being.
Another significant effort is the
District's work with local
governments on water resource
issues. We established a Local
Government Assistance section in
December to work with local
governments on water supply
plans, wellfield protection, well
plugging, resource assessments
and other items.
We also mounted a community
liaison effort to accompany a tree-
cutting program designed to
prevent the clogging of major
water arteries for efficient flood
control. The Community Relations
Division keeps citizens living along
our canal rights-of-way informed
of District maintenance
An annual Water Conservation
Season is another new program
begun this year. Just as there is a
formal hurricane season, the
District is promoting the concept
of an annual Water Conservation
Season to educate the public about
the importance of stretching a
limited resource. Introduced
during the traditionally dry spring
months, we focused our effort this
year on Lee and Collier counties
where growth and demand on the
resource is increasing rapidly.
The "Stretch It" campaign
garnered first-place in the Public
Service Programs category of the
Florida Public Relations

Association 1986 Golden Image
Awards. While the District is proud
of the award, the more significant
accomplishment was in reaching a
large percentage of the citizens
with our water conservation
Managing our resources requires
sound, scientific information for
use in decision-making. We
continually seek creative
partnerships with universities, and
are involved with many projects
with the Florida university system,
to supplement our capability in the
areas of water resource
technology, physical and numerical
modeling, groundwater hydrology,
wetlands and water quality.
We signed a major contract this
year with the University of
California at Berkeley for the study
of full-scale restoration options for
the Kissimmee River, including
physical and numerical modeling
of the system. Renowned research
team leader Dr. H. W. Shen
considers our Kissimmee River
effort a significant societal
challenge that could help the
school attract top civil engineering
and hydrology students.
This project clearly represents
an important example of how the
research role of a university can
enter the arena of public service,
an arena predominantly
associated with government, and
work to solve real-world problems.
The commitment of university
resources to public service for
state and local government must
and will expand. This is the
message I reiterated to the nation's
water resource researchers last
July in a keynote address to the
annual conference of the
Universities Council on Water
Resources in Flagstaff, Arizona.
After examining our new
programs, it is evident the Water
Management District can be
characterized as a "growth

company" in a "growth industry."
In 1985-86 our new hires
numbered 221, with an average
number of 19 applicants per job.
The average tenure at the District
is eight years, reflecting the
stability of the organization.
The District has grown along
with the boom in south Florida.
The density per developable acre
has increased in many areas,
strengthening our ad valorem tax
base. At the same time, we have
made spending of funds on
technology a priority to enhance
our decision-making ability.
We must analyze what the
return is on our investment in
people and technology. In the area
of hydrology, it signifies several
things. We now have less than a
10-day turnaround time in
pinpointing water chemistry
problems. For Lake Okeechobee, it
means the development of a sound
water conservation plan to ensure
adequate water supplies during
droughts. And for the Everglades,
it means more natural flows of
water, critical to the life cycle of
many endangered species of
waterfowl and wildlife.
By maintaining standards of
technological and scientific
excellence among the staff of the
Water Management District and
through all our outreach efforts,
we will be assured of the proper
decisions for the benefit of all. It
will take all this and more to
understand and solve the dairy
related problems of Lake
Okeechobee and the declining
wading bird populations of the
I am convinced that there is no
more exciting or challenging job in
the public service arena than
managing water resources in
south Florida.

Service Awards

35 Years
Billie Jenkins

30 Years
Robert Grafton
Arthur Nelson

25 Years
Thomas Huser
Edward Melley
Joe Melvin

20 Years
E. C. Lane, Jr.
James B. Jackson
James R. E. Johnson
Thomas Swain
H. C. Cummings
Roderick Chandler
Jack Chalfant
Earl Beck

Water Quality

Gene Li

District Focuses on Lake Okeechobee

Lake Okeechobee is a highly productive (eutrophic),
shallow lake lying within our subtropical region.
Although most lakes experience a natural aging process
known as eutrophication, in Lake Okeechobee's case,
the aging process is accelerated by an overabundance of
nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) entering its
waters from several sources.
Agricultural runoff from dairy farms and cattle
ranches to the north of the lake and sugarcane fields
and vegetable farming in the Everglades Agricultural
Area to the south have contributed significant amounts
of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Backpumping agricultural runoff from the EAA
through S-2 and S-3 pump stations has been minimized
and a Best Management Practices program is being
implemented in Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough, but
nutrient additions to the lake are still too high.
Recognizing the need to develop a more effective
management strategy, a Technical Advisory Committee
was formed at the direction of the governor in August
1985 to examine and recommend alternatives to

protect and improve the lake's water quality. Members
of the committee included representatives of the
Department of Environmental Regulation, the District,
other key governmental agencies, and agricultural and
conservation groups.

Ijene Lt

White Water Lily

The final report, released in
August 1986, concluded that
phosphorus is the key nutrient
to control for the long-term
protection of the lake's water
quality. Phosphorus loads
should be reduced by at least 40
percent, primarily through a
program of diverting
phosphorus-rich waters away
from the lake and through
expansion of Best Management
Practices. Priority areas for
controls were identified as the
Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough
basin, Fisheating Creek, Harney

Pond/Indian Prairie and the
Everglades Agricultural Area.
The District is one of the
primary agencies responsible for
implementation of the
recommendations. Following is
a summary of the District's
* Diversion of Taylor
Creek/Nubbin Slough basin
waters: The District will be
responsible for management of
this project in which the
objective is to divert
phosphorus-rich waters from
Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough

into a reservoir in Martin or St.
Lucie counties. The District will
work cooperatively with the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers on
project design, construction and
* Physical removal of
phosphorus: The District will
engage in mechanical weed
removal, harvesting hydrilla,
hyacinths and water lettuce on
the lake, as well as in adjacent
containment areas. The District
also will issue a request for
proposals for a pilot project to
determine the best method of

Major Algae Bloom Creates Concern
The largest blue-green algae bloom ever documented
on Lake Okeechobee appeared in August, ten days
after the recommendations of the Technical Advisory
Committee were released. The bloom, which covered
120 square-miles at its peak, dramatically focused
attention on the recommendations and the need for
prompt corrective actions to improve water quality in
the lake.
Although algae blooms are common occurrences in
lakes during the summertime, this particular bloom
alarmed experts because of its size and fear that it
might be toxic to fish and wildlife. In addition, the
species of blue-green algae, Anabaena circinalis, had
never been reported previously in the lake at such
high concentrations.
The algae, driven by southeasterly winds,
concentrated in a narrow band in the bulrush zone
along the northwest side of the lake where an
extensive die-off of apple snails was observed. Experts
were called in to determine the cause of death and
investigate whether any toxicity present could be
detrimental to snail
kites, an endangered bird of prey
which feeds on the snails.
Studies showed that depleted
dissolved oxygen levels and high
concentrations of ammonia (resulting
from bacteria growth and the ensuing
decay of the algae) had probably
caused the death of the snails. No fish
kills, commonly caused by depleted
oxygen levels when algae die, were

Dave Swift

mechanical harvesting, and to
investigate any beneficial
secondary uses of the weed
cuttings to help defray the cost
of harvesting.
* Backpumping: The District will
continue to move water
southward to the water
conservation areas to minimize
the need for backpumping.
Enlargement of two primary
canals to improve conveyance
capacity is under investigation.
Options to help reduce
downstream impacts include
establishment of regional
reservoirs in the EAA, flow ways
along existing canals, and use of
Everglades restoration tracts for
additional water storage.

* Best Management Practices:
The District will work with the
Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services to expand
Best Management Practices to
the Lower Kissimmee Valley and

Gary Ritter
Fencing cows away from water courses, a BMP, helps reduce the
amount of phosphorus entering the lake.

Mechanical harvesters physically remove aquatic weeds. Gene iu

other water basins through a combination of cost
sharing and regulatory programs. The District also will
sponsor a pilot project to evaluate innovative BMPs
including a water treatment plant for stormwater
runoff from a dairy.
* Water conservation: The District will require
improved water conservation measures for
agricultural operations through permit renewals.
* Aquifer storage and recovery: The District will
sponsor studies and demonstration projects to
investigate the feasibility of injecting nutrient-laden
waters into deep wells for storage and later recovery.
* Diversion of the S-4 basin waters, on the southwest
side of the lake, to the Caloosahatchee River: The
District will contract this option to a consultant whose
objective will be to design a plan to divert phosphorus
away from the lake with no adverse effects on the
Work over the next year will focus on refinement of the
alternatives, making sure they do not cause 0
environmental problems elsewhere. In addition, securing
funds for the options, which initially were estimated at
$219 million, will be a major priority.

4r~ r

Lake Okeechobee supports a multi-million dollar
sports and commercial fishing industry.



1, Ah

Protect the Resource

Save Our Rivers Program

Using $ 6,643,629 of Save Our
Rivers (SOR) funds, the District
completed purchase of 472 acres
surrounding the Northwest Fork of
the Loxahatchee River. The area
was targeted a top priority for
acquisition by the District under
the state-wide land purchasing
program, authorized by the
Legislature in 1981 to protect
environmentally sensitive lands
important for water management.
Preservation of the Northwest
Fork will also be enhanced by an
additional 900 acres, valued at $4
million to $6 million, to be donated
by the John D. and Catherine T.
MacArthur Foundation.
Of the total 1,540 acres in the
Loxahatchee sought by the
District, 499 have been purchased
and 900 are to be donated. The
Governing Board has authorized
eminent domain for acquisition of
62 acres.
Another highlight of the SOR
program this year was the $2
million allocated to the purchase
of the Six Mile Cypress Swamp in
Lee County, an area important for
recharge and filtration of
stormwater runoff.
In addition, the District acquired
three tracts on the Kissimmee
River comprising 1,560 acres for
$2,055,917. With these purchases,
District ownership of Kissimmee
River flood plain now equals
approximately 19,000 acres. The
District will acquire another 31,000
acres to complete its Kissimmee
River enhancement and
revitalization project.
District ownership of SOR lands
now totals 48,000 acres purchased
during the last three years for
$28.1 million. Among the areas
acquired are 38,000 acres in the
East Everglades and C-11l area,
nearly 9,000 acres of Kissimmee
River floodplain and the

Loxahatchee River floodplain
acquisitions. The District has an
additional 224,000 acres-or 350
square miles-on its SOR five-year
To allow for increased public
comment on lands added to the
plan, a committee composed of
District senior managers was
authorized by the District
Governing Board this year. It
reviews land purchase proposals
submitted by the public and makes
recommendations to the Board.
The District has offered two
bond issues this year, totalling $53
million, to expedite purchases
under the program. Funds for the
SOR program come from a
documentary stamp tax shared by
the state's five water management

districts. More than $100 million
could be available to the District
within 10 years.
For effective management of the
lands, the District created a new
division, Real Property
Management, in the Department of
Land Management. The division
enters into cooperative agreements
with local, state and federal
agencies best suited to manage the
lands. Recreational activities must
be compatible with environmental
Approximately 38,000 acres of
District lands have already been
placed under management of the
Florida Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission, and an
additional 9,389 acres are
currently under consideration.

Kissimmee River N-
Gene Li


Save Our Everglades Program

Kissimmee River
Actual physical models of the
Kissimmee River, which show
water currents and sedimentation
patterns, will be constructed dur-
ing the next three years under an
$800,000-study to test restoration
options and show the environmen-
tal effects of each.
In addition, numerical modeling,
using both field data and data
from physical modeling, will be cal-
ibrated to simulate flow of the
main river, as well as its flood-
plains, from Lake Kissimmee south
to Lake Okeechobee.
The modeling efforts are de-
signed to complement the current
demonstration project the District
is completing along a 12-mile
stretch of the river between struc-
tures S-65A and S-65B, known as
"Pool B."
Restoration options to be
studied include:
Construction of sheet pile dams
with and without openings
for boat traffic-to create back-
flow to the natural oxbows;

Earthen plugs to block water at
specific sections of the canal
and force water to flow through
its original course;

Complete re-fill and partial
back-fill of the existing man -
made channel.
Small-scale models will be con-
structed to study certain segments
of the river system. A large-scale
concrete model, 600 feet long by
200 feet wide, will be built to mimic
the entire Pool B area. In addition
to the study of the effects of
placing various structures along
the channel, the large-scale model
will be used for public
demonstration purposes.
A final report is expected in
September 1989.

Kissimmee River
oxbow before the

Lou Toth

Flow restored in
the oxbow after -
initiation of the

Construction on the Holey Land
Restoration Project, along with
land acquisition efforts in both the
Rotenberger and Holey Land
tracts, continued throughout FY
In an attempt to reestablish
more everglades-like conditions,
the two areas will be restored as a
flow-through marsh system. Pump
stations, levees, canals and cul-
verts will be built to redirect and
control water flow.
A contractor is constructing the
levees, inflow control mounds, dis-
tribution canal and seepage
ditches necessary for the Holey
Land Project. This work is expect-
ed to continue through next year.

ley Land
This year the original plans for
the project were modified to
include another 3,500 acres of the
Holey Land known as the "Toe of
the Boot." As a mitigation measure
for wetlands that will be disturbed
in constructing 1-75 across the Ev-
erglades, the state Department of
Transportation agreed to fund up
to $1 million for the additional res-
toration work. Adding the "Toe of
the Boot" will delay completion
until 1988.
Although significant acquisitions
occurred within the adjacent Ro-
tenberger tract, additional land
must be brought under state
ownership before any construction
can begin.

District Strengthens Enforcement Effort

Since 1974, the South Florida Water
Management District has implemented its
authority to evaluate and issue
permits for developments that
impact water resources. To
adequately address this
continuing building and I
population explosion,
the District is
focusing more
attention on permit
The objectives of
the District's
program are to
resolve enforcement
disputes, provide
maximum protection
for water and related
land resources, and
to provide incentives fior
compliance with District
rules and regulations by
penalizing violators.
The Field Engineering Division of the
Resource Control Department is responsible
for ensuring that all land development permit
criteria are followed from issuance of the permit
through final inspection of the construction project.

Division staff conduct ground and aerial
surveillance to spot unpermitted
development and to determine if
permitted projects are following
strict District construction
guidelines. Ground crews
make follow-up
inspections and have
the authority to
issue warnings or
immediate stop-work
The goal of the Field
Engineering Division is to
find solutions to
construction problems
before they become
enforcement issues.

violations cannot be
S .~ settled cooperatively, the
District will seek
resolution through
appropriate legal actions.

Field representatives measure a culvert to ensure
that developers are following District permit

Stricter Criteria Adopted for Surface Water Rules

Because of new responsibility
given to the District by the
Legislature to ensure protection of
groundwater from stormwater
discharge, the District revised its
surface water management rules
so separate groundwater
permitting would not be necessary.
Under the revision, stormwater
runoff from projects with intense
land use, such as industrial and
commercial projects, is required to
be detained or retained in an area
which does not come into contact
with the water table. This
requirement, known as "dry pre-
treatment," pertains to projects in

which a reasonable assurance
cannot be given that hazardous
materials will not enter the
stormwater system.
Dry pre-treatment also is
required for intensely-developed
projects which discharge directly
into "Outstanding Florida Waters".
The requirement also applies to
waters classified for use as a
potable water supply.
In other changes, monitoring is
required for sites with a high
potential for generating pollutants.
Such areas include industrial sites
and solid waste disposal-units.
In addition, the Water

Management District revised
formulas for calculating allowable
discharges into some District
canals. The changes were made
based on updated technical
information which provides for a
more accurate measurement of the
amount of runoff that can go into
District canals without harming
receiving bodies of water or the
works of the District.
Rdles of the District were
amended to allow conceptual
approval of Developments of
Regional Impact at the same time
the project is under District

Water Supply

Water Conservation Season Promotes Awareness

In March the District's
Information Services Division
launched the first annual Water
Conservation Season program to
raise public awareness of water
resources and to emphasize
the value of wise water-
use habits during
Florida's dry season. The
goal was to promote a
conservation ethic through
a positive message.
Rather than ask the
public to limit water
use, the program
encouraged wise use
of water to
minimize waste.
The slogan, "Stretch
it, every drop counts,"
promoted the Water
Conservation Season through
a major public relations
campaign. The message was
broadcast through television
public service announcements, live

radio interviews, direct mail,
shopping mall information displays
and visits to schools.
The first annual Water
Conservation Season targeted
Collier and Lee counties. The
campaign may be expanded
to the lower east coast and
Eventually become a
District-wide campaign.
A post campaign
attitudinal survey showed
that residents view water as
the number two community
concern, second to crime.
/Further, mandatory
restrictions are seen as the
key to conservation success.
Nearly half favor year-round
watering restrictions.
The Stretch-It campaign won
the prestigious Golden Image
Award in the Public Service
Programs category of the 1986
^ Florida Public Relations

Water Conservation Technology Reduces Demand

Another aspect of the District's
water demand management
program focuses on research,
demonstration, implementation
and evaluation of water conserving
technologies and techniques. Long-
term programs were developed
and several studies were
undertaken this year to:
* Determine major impacts that
water conservation programs
have on the operation and
financing of water utilities.
* Implement a model landscape
code that encourages proper
design, installation and
maintenance using plant
materials which can tolerate

low irrigation and/or thrive in
south Florida without irrigation.
* Inventory residential water use
attitudes to motivate better
water conservation in the home.
* Develop a guide to common
landscape plants available in
south Florida for "xeriscape"
(drought tolerant/water
conserving) landscaping.
* Install a semi-closed irrigation
piping system to deliver water
more efficiently than by using
traditional canal/furrow-
flooding system.
* Test the effectiveness of a low-
volume irrigation system on
sugar cane and vegetables

grown in sandy soils. Plastic
tubing releases measured and
controlled amounts of water
directly to the plants as
opposed to conventional open
ditch seepage which spreads
water over the entire field.
* Complete a three-year program
which evaluates irrigation
practices on residential grasses
and determines minimum water
and fertilizer requirements for
healthy lawns.
* Determine the effectiveness of
water saving devices in 30,000
homes in Orlando and compare
this effort to similar programs
throughout the country.

Bonita Bay's xeriscape design garnered several landscaping awards in 1986. )
Bonita Bay Properties, Inc.

P. 4

-a~ ~ or s,, w
ow -

External Coordination

District Creates Local Government Assistance Program

In an attempt to provide better
exchange of information to local
governments and to facilitate
cooperative efforts on various
projects, the District created the
Local Government Assistance
Program in December 1985.
The program was established to
facilitate the exchange of reliable
information relevant to water
resources and growth
management by providing local
governments with technical
knowledge about the relationship
between land use decisions and
local water resources. As
development pressures increase,
issues facing local sovereignty
become increasingly complex, and
the need for dialogue and
cooperative decision-making
becomes crucial.
Five senior level professionals
are charged with the task of

interfacing District resources with
the needs of local government.
Areas of activity include:
* Implementation of the
recommendations of the Water
Resource Assessments for Lee,
Collier, Palm Beach and Martin
* Initiate and participate in an
internal task force formed to
develop the functional
components of a comprehensive
wellfield protection program.
* Assist in the development of a
draft wellfield protection
ordinance for Palm Beach
* Arrange the first joint meeting
between the executive directors
of the water management
districts and regional planning

* Develop and implement an
agreement with the Treasure
Coast Regional Planning Council
to assist in the development of
their draft regional policy plans.
* Participate on the growth
management task force which
developed a charter amendment
to establish a countywide
planning council to be voted on
in Palm Beach County in
November 1986.
* Work with Broward County on
their water supply plan and
develop a strategy to allow
closer scrutiny of public water
* Launch a major initiative, in
cooperation with Collier County
and other state agencies, to
coordinate the acquisition and
restoration of south Golden
Gate Estates.

- .~A

Gene Li .
Gene Li

(Left to right) Palm Beach County Commissioner Ken Spillias, SFWMD Governing Board Vice-Chairman John
Flanigan and Local Government Assistance Program Director Jim Harvey discuss Palm Beach County's approach
to wellfield protection.

Settlement with Seminole Indians Nears Completion

A significant step toward
settlement of the litigation with
the Seminole Indians, which began
in 1978, was taken this year when
a settlement was approved in
concept by the District, the State
of Florida and the Seminole Tribe.
The settlement documents must
now be completed and signed, and
separate bills must be adopted by
the U.S. Congress and the Florida
Legislature to complete the
The agreement provides for
state acquisition of Indian
Reservation lands important for
water management. Some of the
issues addressed by the agreement
have been in dispute for more than
a century.
In addition, the settlement
provides an opportunity to create

a model system, which would be
the first of its kind in the U.S., for
states to use in their regulatory
relationships with Indian tribes.
The Seminoles have agreed to be
bound by the newly created
environmental regulatory system
which will cover water use and
surface water management, and
will be in keeping with the
District's present system and
The flowage easement to 14,720
acres in WCA 3, necessary to the
federal project operated by the
District, which was an issue in the
lawsuit, will be transferred to the
state and District for $1 million. In
addition, the fee simple title, over
and above the easement, will go to
the state and District for $3.5
million. The state and District will

share these costs equally.
The state also is to acquire six
sections of land immediately south
of the Rotenberger Wildlife
Management Area in southwest
Palm Beach County for $2 million.
Under the settlement, the
District will provide $500,000 of in-
kind services toward a water
supply and surface water
management system which will
help the tribe in the development
of their property. In addition, the
Seminoles agreed to withdraw
their opposition to a flood control
plan for ranch land north of the
reservation in Hendry County.
The settlement will boost the
Save Our Everglades program by
enhancing the restoration of the
Rotenberger tract to Everglades

Flood Protection

District Clears Rights-of-Way

Clearing District canal rights-of-
way of unkempt and overgrown
trees is the goal of the Resource
Operations Department's five-year
tree removal program launched
this year.
To reduce the potential for
flooding, exotic trees and shrubs are
targeted for removal along selected
Water Management District canal
banks on the lower east coast. The
purpose of the program is to
reduce the likelihood for trees,
such as Australian Pines, falling
into a canal during a major storm
and impeding flow. A large tree
can create a dam, which will

(Upper right) Trees are cut into
small sectionsfor easier removal
from canal banks.

(Right) Heavy equipment clears
non-native trees from selected
District rights-of-way.

cause flooding upstream. The
Brazilian pepper is another
nuisance tree scheduled for
removal under this program.
District horticulturalists identify
all existing native species before
treecutting begins and, where
possible, efforts are made to
replant native species that may be
taken out during the removal of
the exotics.
Affected homeowners are
notified of tree-cutting activities
beforehand and attempts are
made to address the concerns they
may have about the program.

Gene Li

Construction Begins on Long-Awaited Modified Hendry County Plan

Ground was broken this year County. In celebration, a were praised for their diligence
on the Modified Hendry County ceremony was held in Clewiston and perseverance in pursuing
Plan, a long-awaited project to on January 10. Former the construction of flood outlets
provide flood control for a 260 Governing Board Member Jack for Hendry County.
square-mile area in Hendry Spratt and other county leaders

Spillway S-155, on the West Palm Beach Canal, services the eastern C-51 basin.

S-155 Structure Dedicated

Water control structure S-155
was officially accepted for
operation and maintenance from
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
in February 1986. To celebrate the
long-awaited replacement of the
old Palm Beach locks, the District
held a dedication ceremony on the
north bank of the West Palm
Beach Canal on April 10.
The new, automatic spillway is
hydraulically more efficient than
the original structure built by the
Everglades Drainage District in
1917. Working in conjunction with
an enlarged canal, it has the
capability to discharge high flows
at lower canal stages, significantly
enhancing flood control to the
eastern C-51 drainage basin in
Palm Beach County.
The gates on the modern water
control and salinity barrier
structure are operated
automatically. The lift gates are set

to open and close at pre-
determined levels but can be
manually overridden in case of
emergency or malfunction.
S-155 gate positions are
monitored 24-hours a day via the
District's Communications and
Control System. Instantaneous
readings on canal levels, rainfall
and salinity levels are monitored
around-the-clock through the
electronic data-gathering system.
While the new spillway has been
in operation since May 1984, the
total project was not completed
until two years later. Other
elements of the project included
replacement of the Olive Avenue
and Dixie Highway bridges,
removal of the old Palm Beach
locks, canal excavation,
bulkheading, fencing and the
construction of two public fishing
piers. An adjacent public park is
under construction.

C-51 Basin Rules
In the western end of the C-51
basin, the District is pursuing a
non-structural approach to
flood control through regulatory
efforts. In April, the Governing
Board granted authority to the
legal staff to begin rulemaking
procedures to adopt more
stringent drainage rules for new
development in the flood-prone
The proposed rules would
establish higher floor elevations
for new construction and
require water storage areas to
prohibit encroachment in flood
plains. The new regulations will
not eliminate the threat of
flooding in the low-lying area,
but will ensure that new
construction does not
compound an existing problem.
Public workshops were
conducted this year, with
official adoption of the rules
scheduled for early 1987.

Gene Li

Employee Recognition

Papers Authored

Bruce Adams, Water Use
Planning and Mgmt., Annual Mtg.
Am. Water Works Assoc.: "Water
Shortage Management in a
Subtropical Environment"
Mike Cullum, Natural Resources
Mgmt., Annual Mtg. Fl. Assoc. for
Water Quality Control: "Impacts of
the Revised Basis of Review"
Fred Davis, Resource Planning,
Am. Water Resources Assoc. Conf.:
"Lake Okeechobee Backpumping"
Steve Davis, Environ. Sciences,
Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife
Conf.: "Sawgrass and Cattail
Production in Relation to Nutrient
Supply in the Everglades"
William C. Donovan, Water Use
Planning and Mgmt., Annual Conf.
Am. Soc. of Sugarcane
Technologists: "Efficacy of Aerial
Application of a 2% Zinc Phosphide
Bait on Cotton Rats (Sigmodon
hispidus) in Florida"
Alan Goldstein, Water Quality,
No. Am. Lake Mgmt. Soc. Conf.:
"Utilization of Wetlands as BMPs
for the Reduction of Nitrogen and
Phosphorus in Agricultural
Runoff from South Florida
Jeff Herr, Water Quality, Annual
Fl. Acad. of Sciences mtg.:
"Okeechobee County Airport
Landfill Study"
Jeffrey Holler, Water Quality,
Annual Fl. Acad. of Sciences mtg.:
"Nutrient Removal Aspects of a
Grassed Swale/Wet Detention
System for Treating Stormwater
Runoff at a Single Family
Residential Site in South Florida"
Brad Jones and Kim O'Dell,
Water Quality, No. Am. Lake Mgmt.
Soc. Conf.: 'The Effect of Improved
Wastewater Treatment on the
Trophic Studies of Lake

Tom Raishe, Chemistry Lab.,
2nd Annual Analytic Techniques in
Water Pollution Control Conf.:
"Laboratory Automation
Gary Ritter, Water Quality,
Annual Conf. of the Water
Pollution Control Fed.:
"Management of Agricultural
Nonpoint Phosphorus Runoff in
Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough
Watershed An Experimental
Pete Scarlatos, Water
Resources, 3rd Int'l. Symposium on
River Sedimentation: "Mud Flow
and Sedimentation Problems
Associated with a Dam-Break
Scarlatos, P., and Fred Morris,
Water Resources, Annual Mtg. Am.
Society of Civil Eng.: "Data Analysis
for Quantification of Estuarine
Scarlatos, P., et al. Int'l. Conf.
on Hydraulic Engineering
Software: "Numerical Simulation of
Fine Sediment Motion in Estuaries"

The District's computerized Laboratory Information
Management System (LIMS) was featured in the annual
report of the Perkin-Elmer Corporation. LIMS tracks
samples, provides a data base, allows for acquisition of
data in real-time by anyone at the District and provides
cost-accounting. Chemistry Lab Manager Mary Lou Daniel
is pictured with a Perkin-Elmer representative.
Perkin-Elmer Corporation

Technical Publications

86-1 Preliminary Assessment
of the Groundwater
Resources of Western
Collier County, Florida -
Part 1 Text ...
Michael S. Knapp,
Scott Burns,
Timothy S. Sharp

86-1 Appendices, Part 2

86-2 Upland
Demonstration Project
Final Report ...
Alan L. Goldstein

86-3 South Florida Regional
Routing Model...
Paul Trimble

86-4 Bathymetry of the St.
Lucie Estuary...
Frederick W. Morris

86-5 A Routing Model for the
Upper Kissimmee Chain
of Lakes ...
Andrew Fan

C~-' ~43ri
J 1L


Financial Summary

South Florida Water Management District
Combined Summary of Revenues and Expenditures
Year Ended September 30, 1986 and 1985

1986 1985

Taxes ............................................. ... .. $61,881,305 $ $55,538,213
Intergovernmental ............................. ......... 4,064,468 6,265,585
Interest ................................................ 6,852,877 \5,198,810
Other .................................................... 900,694 1,175,297

TOTAL REVENUES ................................... .73,699,344 68,177,905

Administrative ............................................ 6,390,199 4,563,744
Commissions ............. ........................... 1,748,685 1,693,854
Resource regulation .............. ........................ 3,084,906 2,663,339
Resource planning ........................................ 6,256,016 6,437,035
Technical services ............................... ......... 3,121,477 2,508,608
Land acquisitions and management ........................ 2,922,634 1,258,272
Field operations and maintenance .......................... 24,526,792 23,047,741
Capital outlay ............................................ 25,490,241 13,503,140
Debt service:
Principal retirement ..................................... 155,444 2,801,869
Interest and fiscal charges ............................... 2,011,706 1,791,515
TOTAL EXPENDITURES ............................. 75,708,100 60,269,117
Excess of revenues over (under) expenditures ........... (2,008,756) 7,908,788

Other financing sources (uses):
Proceeds of bond issues net of issuance cost .............. 99,572,814
Defeasance of bonds ..................................... (71,593,760)
Operating transfers in .................................... 8,491,416
Operating transfers out ................................... (8,491,416)
Excess of revenues and other sources over
expenditures and other uses ........................ \ 25,970,298 7,908,788

Fund balance at beginning of year ............................. 54,981,291 47,072,503

Equity transfer (to) from other funds .......................... (600,000)

FUND BALANCE AT END OF YEAR .................. $80,351,589 $54,981,291

Fund Balance does not include the equity portion of the Self Insurance Fund.

Department Comparison


Executive &
Support Offices

Land Management

Resource Control

Resource Operations

Type of Expense Comparison

Tax Commissions

Capital Outlay
10.1% A

Land Acquisition

Current Charges


Contractual Services

Salaries & Benefits

South Florida Water Management District
Combined Balance Sheet
Year Ended September 30, 1986 and 1985

Assets and Other Debits:
Cash & Investm ents ........................................
Receivables (Interest, Property Tax, Other) ...................
Due from other government & FKAA ........................
Due from other funds ...................................
Inventory ..........................................
Other assets .........................................
Fixed assets .. .......................................
Amount available in debt service funds ....................
Amount to be provided for retirement
of general long-term debt ............................ ..

Accounts payable .......................................
Accrued expenses ...................................
Due to other funds .......................................
Deferred revenue .......................................
D eposits ...........................................
Estimated liability for outstanding claims ....................
Estimated liability for compensated absences .................
Long-term debt .. .....................................

TOTAL LIABILITIES ..................................

Fund Equity
Investment in fixed assets ............................ ...
Fund equity:
Reserved for land acquisition ...........................
Reserved for encumbrances ...............................
Reserved for government, prepaids, deposits ..............
Reserved for debt service ............................ ..
Designated for subsequent year's expenditures .............
Designated by management for specific projects ...........
Undesignated ..........................................

TOTAL FUND BALANCE ............................
TOTAL FUND EQUITY .................................



South Florida
Water Management

SW.- oo 00
Key West P 'DO

This annual report is promulgated at an annual
cost of $5085.48 or $.78 per copy to inform the
public about District programs and finances for
fiscal year 1985-86. PIO 266 187 6M.

South Florida Water Management District
P.O. Box 24680
West Palm Beach, Florida 33416-4680

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