Title: Water, A Precious Commodity
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00004505/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water, A Precious Commodity
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Waterlines - South Florida Water Management District - Wnter 1992
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Water, A Precious Commodity (JDV Box 91)
General Note: Box 23, Folder 1 ( Miscellaneous Water Papers, Studies, Reports, Newsletters, Booklets, Annual Reports, etc. - 1973 -1992 ), Item 8
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: WL00004505
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

S. -





E -on it 10 Ll I. 1.11-1 i' r ti, ri E c .1 1,,, 11 rIC.
p I: I I.,o % r, r~o L-Ibr i i t h.-ii Lh t
cr. r. .i ll cL all. I .Il ind o fl\ n 'I I-I.l .rida.
eiani. ,urt 'I d N.2v
ILI t. I hr o ale
t.. d



1. ~J~gl;:i:ll': ... :\ :?


ta terines is a quarter nein pubbhlcaon
of the southh Florida WUater management
D rnict -puhlishe dto pro ide mnfrmaton
to the pubbc on nater resource issues
and Disrict programs and goals

Governing Board
Allan Milledge Miami
I e-eChairman
Valene Boyd Naples
Ken Adams est Palm Beach
lames E Nail l Fort Lauderdale
Anme Betancourt Miami
Franklin B Mann Fort Myers
Leah G Schad West Palm Beach
Frank Vi illiamson. Jr Okeechobee
Eugene Penis Fort Lauderdale

Executive Director
Tilford C Creel

Deputy Executive Director
Thomas K. MacVicar

t aterLines is produced bs the
Office of Communications
Cathieen .inclad. Director
in cooperation nt7h the
Dii uon of Graphuc Communications

Supervising Editon
Patti Nicholas

Jan P. Loftn

Art Directorn
Llia Ana Hemandez-Bazo

Pal Panmglon, Gene Li, Cindy Pelescak

Printing Services:
Jim Mandolfo. Mike Dionese.
Kathy Santamarna

Address comments or inquiries to
The Office of Communicauons
South Florida
Water Management Distrct
5301 Gun Club Road
West Palm Beach. Florida 33 -16-4680
(40") 686 8800 or I 800-432-2045

This issue of WaterLines was printed on
recycledpaper at a cost of$6635.00, or
$.53 per copy to inform the public
aboutthe workoftheDistrict. 029212.5M



Cape Coral's dual water supply

An old yard takes on a new look with

The water conservation education page
campaign goes statewide

The eighth assembly of
Globescope Americas focuses on
partnerships throughout the
western hemisphere

The aftermath of the October
torrential rainstorm in Dade and
southern Broward counties page
page I1
"A New Beginning" by Tilford Creel '

Jim Harvey, SFWMD Planning
Department Director



page 15

COVEFR (front and back) Photos by
Gene Li. Raindrops glisten on
nature's freshly "washed"leaves.

_ ~~I


The challenge of balancing an unpredictable

natural resource against a variety of demands is a

constant reality at the South Florida Water

Management District. In this issue we feature a city

with vision Cape Coral in Lee County. They

planned for their future water supply needs by

establishing a dual water system which utilizes

reclaimed water. Conversely, we also cover the

unexpected October storm which dumped 9 to 14

inches of rain in Dade and southern Broward

counties in 24 hours the heaviest concentration

of rainfall in seven years.

Up front, South Florida Water Management

District Executive Director Tilford Creel shares his

thoughts on agency direction and accountability.

ctober 1991 was a month for
beginnings-the start of a
new fiscal year for the Dis-
trict and the month I official-
ly assumed the role of execu-
tive director. Throughout my
career, I have faced many
challenges. And now when I
envision the future of water management in
Florida, I am committed once again to
make a difference. During my seven years
as deputy executive director, I listened to
and learned from staff. I am proud of the
work we have done. When I talk about the
accomplishments of the District, I am talk-
ing about the individual contributions of a
team of more than 1400 people.
As I prepared for the annual employee
talks in December, I was amazed at the
tremendous changes that have occurred
during the past year. Experience tells me
that growth and improvement only come
through change. The agency is young -
only 40-something-so I believe we are en-
tering a new age in resource management
and protection.
The settlement of the Everglades law-
suit and the passage of the Marjory Stone-
man Douglas Everglades Protection Act
which was passed during the last legislative
session, signal a renewed commitment to
protect the Everglades and a new era of
cooperation and partnership among the
state and federal agencies involved.
This commitment to being a better
"partner" with the many interests we serve
is the tie that binds the staff and the Gov-
erning Board. The key word is ACCOUNT-
ABILITY, and with that I mean resource ac-
countability, social accountability, and
agency accountability. Resource accounta-
bility means water management in south
Florida must be addressed through a "sys-
tems" approach-the greater Everglades
ecosystem which encompasses the Kis-
simmee River and its headwaters, Lake
Okeechobee, the Everglades, and our coas-
tal estuaries.
To be socially accountable, we must
improve our relationships with the inter-

ests we serve and t s
tells me
to whom we are
responsible. The that growth
first order ofbusi- and
ness will be to
further strengthen mproem
coordinationwith Only come
the state, the De- through
apartment of Envir-
onmental Regula- change.
tion and the other Til Creel
water manage- Executive Director
ment districts.And
last, but not least, is agency accountability.
We must recapture the public trust b\
being financially frugal with tax dollars
Given these priorities, one of my firsi
duties as executive director is to improve .
our organizational structure. The Distimc is
currently reorganizing to fine-tune and
streamline agency functions and to strength
en executive oversight of fiscal opera. ''".'. -
tions and performance review. To become
more responsive to the external world. we
are developing a unit which captures all in-
tergovermmental, public and communmr re
lations under one umbrella As part ol that
effort, we will be organizing regional -rer
vice centers to better serve all areas within
our district.
Yes, we are experiencing a new begin-
ning at the District, but what will remain
constant is the tradition of excellence and
commitment to the resource and people
we serve.O





' .:AN AL


I"1 [








I . I.. .. .. . .

:12! _
Ut ~r '
-rl S-~

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By Ellen Underwood E

[ anyone who has lived in Florida for
any length of time knows water
can be a sensitive subject. It's ei-
ther restricted or flowing too free-
ly. It has been called "a limiting fac-
tor to growth in the state," and has been the subject
of many heated debates in government chambers.
But nowhere has it been a more sensitive subject
than in the city of Cape Coral on the lower west
coast of Florida where in the past decade, the hot-
test topic around town has been water. More specif-
ically, it has been the planned "dual water system"
that has been the center of controversy. The system
is called "dual water" because two pipes are run to
each household one for high quality drinking
water and a second for non-potable irrigation water,
consisting of treated canal water and reclaimed
No one is more familiar with the issue than Jo-
seph Mazurkiewicz, the mayor of the city for eight
years. At 39 and slightly graying, Mazurkiewicz,
known as "Mayor Joe" to many, was elected at age
31 in his first attempt at running for office.
"It's been a long haul," Mazurkiewicz said in De-
cember. In the past eight years, he has seen fellow

councilmen both win and lose seats depending on
their position on the dual water issue. Two special
referendums have been held in which issues relating
to the adoption of a dual water system won by a
landslide majority both times. And more ink has
been used in newspapers covering this issue than
any other story in recent years.
Today, after much public debate and education
regarding its health and cost aspects, the dual water
system is well underway, with the first phase sche-
duled to be completed this January. Homes are to
be connected as soon as February. The plan calls for
26 square miles of the city to be connected to the
system in three years: eight square miles now and
the remaining 18 in two additional phases.
Cape Coral is unique because it is the only city
in Florida which has plans today to eventually con-
nect its entire utility system to non-potable irriga-
tion water. "The city has planned for its water sup-
ply needs through the year 2010," said Chip Merriam,
the District's intergovernmental representative in
Fort Myers.
Cape Coral has grown very quickly and has been
forced to look at its long-term water supply needs.
Cape Coral presently is the 14th largest city in Flor-
ida in population, and is second largest in land area
-114 square miles. Today there are 78,000 res-
idents, but at build-out the population will grow to
around 380,000. These figures are even more aston-
ishing considering the city was just a dream in 1957.
Cape Coral is a typical land development story in
Florida. Developers saw the raw coastal land in the
late 1950s as a gold mine. They moved in with
dredges and bulldozers, built 400 miles of canals,
and used the fill-dirt to build lots. Very quickly, lots
were sold to mostly out-of-staters for very little
money often for several thousand dollars or less.
People liked the coastal location, with access to
the Gulf of Mexico and estuaries. The original de-
velopers went bankrupt and successive developers
carried on the dream of Cape Coral. Soon, all lots
were sold. In 1971, the city was officially incorpo-
rated. Today, Cape Coral continues to grow by
5,000 to 8,000 people annually. The lifestyle is al-
most exclusively residential, with little business or
agricultural development. However, some critical
infrastructure needs, such as water, were not ad-
dressed during the initial development.
As with many Florida cities, Cape Coral relies on
groundwater as its primary source of drinking
water. The city's potable water comes from a deep
aquifer which requires treatment at a reverse osmo-
sis plant. However, this aquifer is limited and pro-

--.i------i- --- 1' -~-~.-- ---- ---I-1~--. -. .~._~II___~

sections show it will not be able to meet the
demand of the city at build-out. In fact, the
maximum amount of water available from that
aquifer without harmful effects to the system,
such as additional saltwater intrusion and im-
pacts to other aquifers, is only enough for po-
table use leaving none available for
In 1981, Don Kuyk, the city utilities direc-
tor, originated the idea to use canal water for
irrigation, saving the city's underground water
resources for potable, indoor use. Strongly
supporting the program and helping to devel-
op it was Robert Godman, a retired NASA en-
gineer who lives in Cape Coral. Soon after, re-
claimed water was included in the plan as a
way to dispose of wastewater and as a back-up
for the canal water during times of low flow.
"It was a stroke of genius," said Steve Lamb,
director of the District's Regulation Depart-
ment, which issues the city's water use permit.
"The city planned this system long before the
District began requiring the use of reclaimed
water throughout our 16-county area," he
added. "They are way ahead of us in that area."
District studies support the fact that Cape
Coral does not have a safe, reliable and cost-
effective water supply for future needs without
a secondary system. The District's draft water
supply plan for the lower west coast identifies
areas where demand exceeds supply. When
the dual water system is not a part of the mo-
deling process, "Cape Coral is a problem area,"

said Terry Clark, supervising professional in the
Planning Department. "When it is in there,
Cape Coral is not a problem."
"The residents of Cape Coral should be
commended for their foresight," Clark said,
echoing the sentiments of many District offi-
cials. "This is a very positive example of a
community coming together to solve a
Steve Kiss, Assistant City Utilities Director,
recently dropped a copper penny into the final
holding tank where reclaimed water is treated
with chlorine before being stored in a 5 mil-
lion gallon storage tank. The penny reflected
the sunlight on its journey down, turning over
and over in the water as it sank to the bottom
of the cement tank. The water was so clear,
one could still see the penny lying on the bot-
tom of the tank even though the floor and
walls were painted black.
During a short tour of the facility, Kiss and
utilities director Kuyk pointed out that every
conceivable detail has been considered in the
building of the dual water system. "In the mid-
1980s, it was a model in the country," Kuyk
said. Today, as other municipalities are looking
for ways to take advantage of reclaimed water,
the technology is becoming more popular.
At one edge of the property sits hundreds
of cement lock boxes. The South Florida Water
Management District has committed $500,000
worth of funding for the installation of the lock

boxes for homeowners in phase one. Similar to
water meter boxes, these boxes allow the key-
holder access to the dual water system. The
boxes will include a one-inch PVC hook-up for
connection to residential irrigation systems,
and a %-inch hose bib for those homeowners
who wish to irrigate with a garden hose.
Lamb feels that Cape Coral is on the cutting
edge of reuse technology. "Wastewater is a
commodity that is very important... it can solve
long-term problems," he said. "A lot of utilities
are beginning to look at it with new eyes, as a
resource for the future."
It used to be that wastewater was primarily
reserved for golf course irrigation. When Lamb
looks at what Cape Coral and other cities are
doing, he wonders if there are better uses for
the resource. The city of Hollywood in Bro-
ward County is looking at it for use as a salt-
water barrier. Palm Beach County is consider-
ing recharging its wetlands with reclaimed
water. And some utilities are examining reuse
as a method of recharging diminishing
groundwater levels.
But in Cape Coral, the mayor sees it as the
capital project which will not only provide
water for the city's growth into the 21st cen-
tury, but one which will make the city more
beautiful. "The hope is that once it is up and
fully operational, there will be a great greening
of the city... it will enhance the value of the
community as a whole."[

No one is more familiar
with the issue of a dual
water system than Mayor
Joseph Mazurkiewicz.
"It's been a long haul,"
he says. He has seen
fellow councilmen both
win and lose seats
depending on their
position on the issue.


"He's one of those
unusual people who
can see the forest and
the trees. He usually
has a fresh perspective
on things, and is the
person you turn to for
intuitive answers and
creative solutions,
especially when
traditional solutions
won't work."
Mike Slayton,
Big Cypress Basin Administrator





By Marsha Kirchhoff
n office can tell a great deal about the person occupy-
ing it. In Planning Department Director Jim Harvey's of-
fice, there's an atmosphere of orderly informality, which
embraces a broad range of interests. Photographs of
family and friends share space with shelves and stacks of technical
documents, and obviously cherished books and works of art. It's a
comfortable room clearly the hub of a lifetime career commitment.
Harvey's demeanor mirrors his surroundings. He relaxes in his
chair, and carefully, yet also quickly, gathers his thoughts and talks.
He is precisely focused on the discussion, no matter what the subject
- someone very comfortable in his own skin.
Harvey has been with the District since 1985. A Deputy Executive
Director at SWFWMD from 1983 to 1985, Harvey moved south to
spearhead the development of local government programs and coop-
erative partnerships to solve south Florida's water management and
land use problems. The District's area offices were developed under
his leadership. As Deputy and then Department Director in Planning,
he also shaped and oversaw the development of three of the District's
four major SWIM Plans. Harvey speaks with obvious pride of the plan-
ning "team's" varied accomplishments, and each individual's dedica-
tion and commitment to quality. He sees himself as a facilitator rather
than a commander for that team. "My job is to get the right people on
the right project, give them the tools they need and an adequate
amount of time to apply their expertise to the problem," Harvey said.
Planning teams are intentionally comprised of a diverse group of
individuals. "We need biologists, engineers, planners, hydrogeologists,
economists, computer experts, and administrative staff all work-
ing together to solve the incredibly complex problems we're facing
in the 1990s," said Harvey. Recent reorganizations within the plan-
ning department, like divisions based on geographic boundaries rath-
er than fields of expertise, have been made to institutionalize and
strengthen these interdisciplinary teams.
Those teams are tackling some pretty challenging jobs: authoring
numerous SWIM plans and other water resource management and
restoration strategies within a climate where human growth funds so-
lutions, but can also reverse or worsen environmental problems. Har-
vey agreed, "but I believe in the philosophy that often, crisis is just
another word for opportunity."
"Our department's long-term goal is to produce water supply,
water quality, flood control and environmental plans that work to-
gether to enable people, businesses and industries and the natural en-
vironment of south Florida all to prosper," said Harvey.
'We are also making a conscious effort to plan with people, rather
than for people," he said. "The Broward Water Supply Plan was a case
where that operational guideline was not initially applied. But we
stepped backhand then worked intensively over several months to de-
velop a close and cooperative working relationship not only with
the county's planners, but with Broward County commissioners, utili-
ty directors and the community at large, and jointly developed a 5-8
year plan that meets everyone's water needs and creates a secure
water future for Broward County."
Harvey believes these kinds of cooperative relationships are essen-
tial to Florida's future. "The people who are really determining what
south Florida is going to look like are local governments through
local land-use plans which direct where, when and how people are
going to live. This agency is an important and critical link in the in-
frastructure needs of urban and agricultural communities."
"My greatest hope is that together we are able to pass along the
best of this unique environment and a high quality of life to our child-
ren's children. If we plan properly today, that kind of balanced, self-
sustaining human and natural environment will be the result."E

_ ~_L I_ _________ ___

Check your local TV
listings in the months to

come. One of the newest
Shows on the air will be
coming from your own
back yard. Well, actually
from a yard or a landscape
just like yours. The new
one-half hour broadcast
is called "Plant It Smart
B BEFORE large expanses ofturfae typical
of a south Florida landscape. with Xeriscape."

The "hands on" broadcast was produced by the South Florida Water
Management District as a part of the agency's on-going water conservation
program. The show's format focuses on a typical single-family home in south
Florida. The purpose of the program is to show homeowners how they can
"retrofit" or improve their existing grounds to a new Xeriscape landscape
that saves time, energy and money, while creating a quality landscape that
conserves water and protects the environment.

Opening with the finished product, the show's host, Tommy Aiello,
chairman of the state landscape contractor division of the Florida
Nurserymen and Growers Association (FNGA), walks the viewer through
the steps necessary to create a beautiful Xeriscape landscape without
starting from scratch or emptying your pocketbook Each of the seven
fundamentals of Xeriscape landscaping is treated in detail, showing the
viewer how to transform a water-guzzling yard into a prime example of a
yard that not only looks good, but more importantly, functions correctly.
To begin production, the District solicited
appropriate homeowners to participate in a i
cost-sharing project to film the show. The
criteria was typical of a south Florida lands-
cape: a yard with large, unplanned expanses of
grass; a record of heavyirrigation due to an out-
dated sprinkler system; and large maintenance
bills. The owners had to show a willingness to
participate both physically and financially in the
"retrofit." More than 70 applicants responded.
The selected yard (in Lake Clarke Shores
in Palm Beach County) had a history of very f
heavy water use over 90,000 gallons per
month. Most of the plants in the yard were











By Bruce Adams

zones were
increased from
4 to 10 for
more precise
amount and
duration of
watering can
be varied
according to
plant needs.

poorly selected, located,
installed and maintained.

The owners, recent pur-

chasers ofthe home, wanted __

to make aesthetic improve-
ments and to reduce their

water and maintenance

While eamajorlandscap- .. 1 .

ing job of this magnitude
SAFTER: Turf areas were reduced and plant
would normally be phased varieties Increased fom 5 to 27.

in over a period of three months to three years, the entire re-landscaping

+ was completed in a one week period. A well-coordinated effort was needed

W ITH X ER ISC A PE in order to accomplish this feat. Key to the success of the project was the
contributions of professional landscape organizations, contractors and

suppliers. The FNGA and the Florida Irrigation Society (FIS), together with
I Mulch lils in
pathways worn numerous businesses, contributed to the quick turnaround project.
by foot traffic.
It also provides In addition to the aesthetic improvements and water savings-estimated
weed control
andsoil at over 75%- a number of important environmental features were also
protection for
plants as they incorporated in the re-landscaping.
row to
maturity. Recycled mulch--made from collected on-site yard waste such as tree
limbs and branches-was

used extensively in the

new landscape. The soil

was amended using mu-

Snicipal yard waste which

was recycled into com-

post. The latest develop-
ment in turfgrass, FX-10,

Swas used to replace

--sodded areas. This new

variety, developed by the

University of Florida with funds contributed by the South Florida Water

Management District, grows an extensive root system which requires much
less supplemental water. Field trials of FX-10 have demonstrated the need

for only 5 to 10 "waterings" per year.

With the proper amount of planning, an understanding of the

fundamentals of Xeriscape, and a little hard work, any yard can be turned

into a vibrant, functional water conserving landscape. Learn how. Look for

"Plant It Smart with Xeriscape," coming soon to a living room near you.0


It Off!

Water Conservation
Goes Statewide

IBy Kurt Harclerode I










1990 -DROUGHT. .ust when you thought
south Flonrda as running out of water, the skies
opened and the shower returned in 1991.
Depleted ground after resources were
recharged and lake (Okechobee rose to normal
or above normal le el,-all good news to home
owners, farmers, and businesses that had been
impacted by the water shortage.
So, do the improved conditions mean that
people can return to daily lawn watering and
other indulgent water uses? No! Water conserva-
tion activities must be employed, not only dur-
ing severe drought conditions, but rather as
normal habit practiced year-round.
To help foster this conservation ethic as well
as remind, inform, and teach Floridians the need
to conserve, the state's five water management
districts agreed to cooperate in promoting water
conservation through the Turn It Off! communi-
ty education campaign. In 1992, Turn It Off. will
be seen and heard from Pensacola to Key West
and from Jacksonville to Naples.
in south Florida, the campaign has used a var-
iety:of communications tools to convey the con-
-ervnaion message Message that appear on TV
or are heard on radio act as the initial spark to
create awareness But lust aS important to these
highly visible elements of the campaign are the
myrad of act'lnles designed to turn an informed
indr dual into a water conservation pro.
An outdoor indoor retrofit demonstration in
Bonita Springs t a cost sharing project with Lee
Count) I will test the eflectiveness of employing
indoor conservation kits as well as rain switches
installed on spnnkler s~.iems Data will be col-
lected and then compared to homes (without
conservation delce ) in the same area.
Xeriscape landscaping courses are being of-
fered at several communir) colleges throughout
the District including Edion Community Col-
lege in Lee Counir and Miami Dade Community
College At Miami )ade under a Lcot-sharing
agreement with the Disinct. courses are offered
at the V ol)son Campus and ar taken on the
road" to home and condo owner associations.
Corporate partnerships are being established
with businesses throughout south Florida include
ing many restaurants which are cooperating with

the District by displaying table-top information
regarding water conservation. The District has
begun working with the hotel industry as well.
Recently, the Hyatt Hotels in Florida instituted a
comprehensive water conservation program that
includes employee education and a Xeriscape
landscaping plan. The Hyatt is also involved with
guest education and has printed District de-
signed door hangars that stipulate each room as
a water conservation zone. More cooperative ef-
forts with corporations throughout the state are
expected during the 1992 campaign.
Improved agricultural irrigation efficiencies
will be the focus of District-sponsored mobile ir-
rigation labs in Collier, Hendry, Glades, Lee, and
Dade counties on the west coast and in the agri-
cultural area of south Dade County. A multi-
agency/private partnership in composting the
Florida Water Conservation / Compost Utiliza-
tion Program will derive compost from solid
waste. The end product can be used as a soil
amendment which helps to retain soil moisture
and will be marketed to agriculture and the
"green industry."
On the local government front, the District
will continue to promote its water conservation
program adopted in 1990. The program is cen-
tered around six specific urban water conserva-
tion measures: 1) limiting lawn irrigation to the
hours of 5:00 p.m. to 9:00 a.m.; 2) requiring
adoption of Xeriscape landscape ordinances; 3)
requiring the installation of ultra-low volume
plumbing fixtures in all new construction; 4)re-
quiring the adoption of conservation-oriented
rate structures by utilities; 5) requiring imple-
mentation of leak detection programs by utilities
and; 6) requiring implementation of water con-
servation public education programs. Ordinan-
ces have been passed in Dade, Broward, Palm
Beach and Lee counties as well as the cities of
West Palm Beach and Boca Raton. In fact, some
130 local ordinances dealing with a daytime irri-
gation ban, low volume fixture requirements,
and Xeriscape landscaping have been passed
since September 1990.
Regardless of the weather, conservation is
becoming a way of life in Florida. So remember,
"Water Is The Lifeblood Of Florida, Don't Bleed
tls Dry."[

By Ann Overton

Was Pogo right? Are we

our own worst enemy in

preserving Earth, our island

home? Some experts say that

if we make profound changes

now in how we do business

locally, we may reverse the

trend and sustain our

remaining resources for

future generations.

"Sustainability" and "sustainable development" are more than environmental buzzwords for the
'90s the concepts can become a reality in our constant battle to save the planet from ecological
demise. A 1987 report by the United Nations-chartered World Commission on Environment and
Development defines sustainable development as:
"..a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the
orientation oftechnological development andinstitutionalchangeare allin harmonyandenhance
both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations."
More simply, sustainable development is responsible growth coupled with an environmentally
sensitive economy, as opposed to no growth with a stagnant economy.
One group taking the lead on sustainable development is the Global Tomorrow Coalition. GTC
is a 10-year-old, non-profit alliance based in Washington. The group is devoted to building a
leadership base in the United States to resolve long-term problems in the areas of the environment,
development, population growth, and resource depletion bypromoting responsible public choices
and broadbased partnerships between the public and private sectors.
GTC brings its message to the public via conferences known as GLOBESCOPE ASSEMBLIES. Its
eighth such assembly, GLOBESCOPE AMERICAS, was held in Miami from October 29 through
November 2 to focus attention on partnerships throughout the Western Hemisphere, specifically
with our Latin American neighbors.
The Miami meeting, with its theme of "Charting a Sustainable Future," was the forerunner for



the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,
S to be held in Rio de Janeiro in mid-1992. The proceedings of
/ j GLOBESCOPE AMERICAS will be presented at the United
Nations conference.
/ The state of Florida and the South Florida Water
S> Management District played an active role in the
S GLOBESCOPE AMERICAS meeting. Governor Lawton
Chiles and SFWMD Governing Board member Leah
Schad were the Floridaco-chairmen of the conference's
Leadership Council, and Marjory Stoneman Douglas
was an honorary member.
During Chiles' opening keynote address, he
emphasized the need to "get a hold on global
warming." He warned that we cannot "think like a
dinosaur" when it comes to renewable energy sources
and other energy alternatives. Chiles' speech set the tone
for the conference as the global warming issue surfaced
throughout many sessions.
d Director Tilford Creel; and Cathy Anclade, Bruce Adams, and Roy
King, Office of Communications, participated in various sessions
throughout the five-day conference.
The high point of the gathering was a luncheon speech on November 1 by Lt. Gen. Henry Hatch,
chief of engineers in Washington for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. He said that Congress had
mandated environmental protection as a key element of the Corps' mission and he described how
the agency is striving to work within the framework of sustainable development.
His own words say it best: "In the last few years, we have significantly changed our approach to
the environment from one of compliance to one of seeking opportunities to directly attack
Continues on page 14



__ ~_

"1-o U

By Ellen Underwood

High tides made it
impossible to drain
water to sea quickly,
frustrating residents
and causing wide-
spread flooding.
Opposite page:
Adventuresome boys
canoe down a Miami
Springs street.

he October 8 record rainfall in South
Florida sounds almost like a Vincent
Price movie: a rare astronomical
occurrence created some of the
highest tides in years, and a full moon
made them even higher. A stalled
cold front combined with an upper-
level disturbance had only a remote chance
of developing into a torrential rainstorm,
but it did just that.
The intense rain caused by these
unusual weather conditions caught
both National Weather Service
and District meteorologists
by surprise. Neither pre-
dicted the downpour until
it was happening. The
result was the heaviest
rain in 24 hours in
south Florida since
I98,. dumping between 9 and
I i inches in Dade County and
.suihem Broward County.
Rain continued through Oc-
tobc r IIi and created local flooding
in man\ areas. Twenty-one resi-
dentcr, ere destroyed, more
than 1 .it.) homes or apartments
"ere damaged, and at least 150
people were left temporarily
homeless during the event, ac-
L ording to Red Cross officials.
Road% and airport runways closed.
Car, tallied Raw sewage backed
up into sewer systems and was
dumped in canals and rivers. And the U.S.
.mall Businr% Administration declared
Dade (ouunn a disaster area.
Despite the I loalized problems, the
-4u ear old v after management and drainage
%sstem designed for South Florida and
operated hb the southh Florida Water Man-
agement Distncit worked as well as possible.
In most areas of Dade and Broward counties,
the -.tem managed to handle the majority of
the rain
The s\ stem functioned as designed,"
said Alan Hall, deputy director of the
District's Operations and Maintenance

Department, which oversees the District's
massive water management system of 1,400
miles of canals and levees, 252 water control
structures, and 23 pump stations.
High tides made it impossible to drain
water to sea quickly, frustrating residents
and causing widespread flooding. Worsening
the situation, strong easterlywinds blew
waters inland, instead of out to sea.
Cities most affected were Hialeah, Miami
Springs and West Miami. Others which
experienced flooding included Dania,
El-Portal, Hallandale, Hialeah Gardens,
Hollywood, North Miami, North Miami
Beach and Opa-locka and parts of Miami.
Hall called the October storm, that
whipped in without warning as people slept,
a classic "wet run" of a hurricane. "It built up
the tides like a hurricane, and we couldn't
discharge in many cases."
"This year, what we've seen are just
glimpses of what a hurricane could do," Hall
added, noting a hurricane that hit south
Florida would do all this and more. "I hope
the residents take this as a warning of what
they can expect during a hurricane." During
an actual hurricane, the District recommends
residents follow instructions of local emer-
gency officials, which is evacuation in many
cases. Unlike this stalled cold front, there will
be advance warning to prepare for the winds
and rain of a hurricane.
Response to this storm began for one
District official at 3:45 a.m. on October 8. "I
got a call from someone who was flooding in
the Arch Creek area (of Dade County), and
that's how it all started for me," said
Albert Basulto, assistant area director of the
District's Dade County operations and
maintenance office.
Basulto and other Miami employees work-
ed around the clock for the next week. All
floodgates were fully opened and remained
open until the region was drained two to
three weeks later. The only exceptions were
structures where the water level was higher
downstream of the structure due to the tides,
which were closed to hold back incoming
saltwater. Pumping and excavation equip-






~"r)l hh


1111 :1F

0% -



ment were quickly secured from other District
field stations to help drain floodwater. A Grad-
all excavator was borrowed from Fort Lauder-
dale to clean culvert crossings, and pumps
from Homestead were used to help drain a 10-
block area of Miami Springs.
Field station personnel, along with the staff
of the District's Miami Area Office in Coral Ga-
bles, handled thousands of phone calls from
residents, local officials and area emergency
agencies. Questions were answered in both
English and Spanish, as many of the affected
residents were Hispanic. Many calls from citi-
zens were regarding personal safety, and those
were referred to the proper emergency
This event was a reminder, however, that
no system can be designed to 100 percent guar-
antee flooding will not occur. "The October
rains made us realize that the public has come
to see our water management and drainage
system as a guarantee that south Florida will
not flood," said Julio Fanjul, intergovernmental

program representative for the District's Miami
office. "We need to continually educate people
that the system does not guarantee south Flor-
ida is flood proof. It is designed to minimize
flooding during heavy storms and maintain ap-
propriate groundwater levels on a year-round
basis," he said.
Of all cities, West Miami was one of the
most affected by the storm. Annie Betancourt,
a District governing board member from
Miami, was involved from the start. "Realizing
the seriousness of the rainstorm and the dam-
age it caused, I personally contacted Mayor
Pedro Reboredo of West Miami and expressed
my concern, while at the same time I offered
support from the District in evaluating the sit-
uation," she said.
City officials from West Miami held a public
meeting on October 11 to ask questions, share
their opinions, and discuss the District's opera-
tional procedures with District staff. They were
assured that the system operated as designed,
and that the District would provide assistance
to West Miami in identifying possible

solutions to the flooding problems the city
This rainfall intensive "test" of the region's
various water management components pro-
vided some valuable lessons. In order to deal
more effectively with future storm events, a
Dade County task force was formed to review
the many issues associated with high water
levels. Called Flooding Impact Task Force
(FIT), the group is composed of the District,
DER, HRS, and Dade County Department of
Environmental Regulation Management
Tom Singleton, Dade County District program
representative, is the task force's facilitator.
"There are going to be a lot of connected ac-
tivities," he said. "When you bring the regula-
tory agencies together, you get the solutions.
That's really what we're about motivating
One of FITs objectives is to review plans of
cities that flooded to see where improvements
can be made. As an initial study area, FIT will

look at Hialeah first, and eventually all cities in
Dade County. "By dealing with Hialeah initially,
we can develop good methods of analysis and
problem-solving that can be applied through-
out the county," Singleton said.
FIT also is seeking solutions to Dade Coun-
ty's sewage overflow during periods of high
water levels a considerable problem during
this recent storm event. "'We're trying to find
where problems exist within the system," Sin-
gleton said. Ultimately, FIT will develop short-
term, intermediate, and long-term solutions to
the public health issues associated with the
operation of the stormwater, water supply and
wastewater systems of Dade County.
The whipping winds and torrential rains of
October 8-10 were just a reminder of how
south Floridians are at the mercy of the ele-
ments. While no system will completely pro-
tect the area from flooding, there are lessons
to be learned from this rainfall event. By work-
ing together, state and local governments, and
citizens can be better prepared for future inevi-
table storms.0

GLOBESCOPE (Continued om page 11)

environmental problems as the purpose of the
engineering effort itself to exploit our
talents in the solution of the nation's present
environmental problems and the prevention of
the future ones." Hatch emphasized that all
engineers, no matter what their specialty, need
to maintain a continuing awareness to the
environment through education.
Hatch also outlined nine "design concepts"
needed for building the frameworkfor what he
termed "sustainable engineering:"develop a
continuous environmental education; adopt
ecosystems thinking; emphasize the conse-
quences of individual actions; demand envir-
onmental economic tools; search for sustainable
alternatives; develop and apply technology to
serve sustainability; listen to those we serve;
cultivate a multidisciplinary teamwork; and
continuously educate those we serve.
He concluded by saying that "the time has
come for the concept of sustainable develop-
ment to move beyond a castle in the air and to
mature into a structure firmly supported by
solid foundations, built, perhaps, with the
stones of these nine principles... our expanded
awareness of the consequences of anunsustain-
able path provides an opportunity to change
this course." The audience responded to
Hatch's remarks with a standing ovation.
Former SFWMD Governing Board member
Arsenio Milian of Miami, who received the
GTC Sustainable Award at GLOBESCOPE,
coordinated a more politicized session entitled
"The Socialist Environmental Legacy," con-
cerning Cuba and its relationship with its
environment. The panelists, including an
exiled Cuban environmental activist and other
experts on the island nation, said that south
Florida and Cuba share a Caribbean ecosystem
The panel also expressed concern that air
and water pollution from Havana could be
affecting some of south Florida's fragile
ecosystems, but that "Cuba has escaped many
of our (U.S.) mistakes over the past 30 years"
because of its lagging technology
GLOBESCOPE AMERICAs concluded on a
very bright note. wvth its final day, November 2.
designated as the Youth Summit Designed
especially for school students. one group
traveled from as far as central Kentucky to
attend that session. Students and teachers
made presentations on how they are getting
hands on experience in environmental rest
ration, prnarily in south Florida
The students were also treated to a per-
formance of "The Water Log," the District
sponsored pla) that creatively teaches the
audience about the need to conserve water.
Additionally, Jim Fowler, of "Wild Kingdom"
fame. introduced the audience to several of his
more docile "critters." including a baby
alligator and crocodile, two Burmese pythons.
and a European homed owl
These students hold the key to sustaining
the global environment in the future via the
education the) get today.O

Governing Board Member Annie Betancourt, from Miami,
immediately contacted Mayor Reboredo of West Miami
and offered support from the District in evaluating the




Fort Lauderdale
attorney Eugene
Pettis was sworn in
as an SFWMD Gov-
erning Board
member in October.
Pettis is with the
law firm of Cooney,
Haliczer, Mattson, Lance, Blackburn, Pettis and
Richards, P.A. He is also active in the Fort
Lauderdale Chamber of Commerce and the
Community Partnership Program Inc. He will
complete a term ending March 1, 1994.0

Lykes Brothers Fined
For Wetlands Violation
In one of the state's largest enforcement
actions against a wetlands violation, Lykes
Brothers, Inc. of Tampa must pay a total of
$680,000 in fines and other costs. Approved at
the December Governing Board meeting, the
amount is part of an overall program to restore
wetlands that were excavated extensively
without necessary permits in Glades and High-
lands counties during the summer of 1989. The
deadline for complete restoration is April 30,
1992. Lykes must also monitor the restoration
area for several years to ensure that the wetlands
vegetation and wildlife return to pre-violation

By District Meteorologist Eric Swartz
Lake Okeechobee ended 1991
one and a half feet above normal,
up from an almost two foot deficit
at the beginning of the year. This
dramatic increase is evidence of
the nearly 58 inches of rain which
fell during the year. The yearly
total is the highest amount since
1983 when 67 inches fell and it
comes on the heels of three con-
secutive years of below normal
rainfall. Not all this rain was evenly
distributed, however, as demon-
strated by the torrential downpour
of nearly 14 inches in 24 hours
over the Hollywood area in early October.
In the past, above normalwater temperatures
off the coast of Ecuator, popularly known as "El
Nino," have been linked to an active jet stream
over southern North America. Water temperatures
in the region have been running above normal,

and an active jet stream this winter has resulted
in heavy rains in California, Texas, and locations
in the southeastern U.S. Eventually, Florida can
expect to experience similar types of rainfall
events this winter which would raise rainfall
totals for the dry season above normal.0

Water Management Conference

Held in Tampa
H eld in T aa Over 350 politicians, engi-
7 / 0- ,neers, environmentalists, farmers
..' 7' ... ... and government representatives
SNgathered in Tampa for the 16th
annual water management con-
Sference in October. Former
d i United Nations Ambassador An-
drew Young gave a speech en-
titled, "The Empowerment of
Water." He stated that steward-
ship over Florida's rivers and
ground water systemswill be
Lt. Gov. Buddy MacKay
felt into the 21st century because
the availability of water ultimately will determine where people live and what industries survive.
Field trips included inspecting a phosphate mine operation in Polk County, touring Tampa Bay
by boat, and walking through Nature's Classroom Environmental Center. Lieutenant Governor Buddy
MacKay wrapped up the conference with a luncheon speech entitled, "Exploring Solutions in Water
Management A View From the Governor's Office."[

Thirty-six employees at the SFWMD received Davis Productivity Awards from The Florida
Council of 100, Inc. and Florida TaxWatch, Inc. for developing and implementing 12 cost-saving
programs which total $1.7 million in recurring and one-time costs. Begun in 1989, the program
recognizes state employees whose work measurably increases productivity and promotes
innovation. The 36 received their awards at the December Governing Board meeting.


.----'-- ^ 5? t -. --_-

'-- -


By Ellen Underwood

system, the Indian River Lagoon is one of
the most prized water resources in
Florida. More commonly known to some
as the east coast intracoastal waterway, the Indian
River Lagoon is a series of three lagoons that stretches
156 miles, from New Smyrna Beach to Jupiter. Desig-
nated an Estuary of National Significance last year, the
river is home to the most diverse number of animal
and plant species of any estuary in the United States,
with 4,315 different species recorded.
Unique in its diversity, the Indian River Lagoon is
home to one-third of the U.S. manatee population, 20
percent of all the eastern seaboard mangrove forests,
and is a spawning and nursery ground for ocean and
lagoon fish. The river also is a major economic re-
source, providing excellent commercial fishing and
recreational opportunities.
The Indian River Lagoon is split between the
South Florida and St. Johns River Water Management
Districts, with only 45 of its 156 miles within the
South Florida district. However, this 45-mile stretch
includes the St. Lucie River, an integral part of the
Since the Florida development boom began in the
1920s, the river's water quality has suffered. Because
it is an estuary where salt water meets fresh it is
not a flowing river. As a result, it does not flush as
quickly as some waterbodies.
Over the years, some serious water quality prob-
lems have developed within the system. One of the
largest is deposits of muck clay and organic sedi-
ments from land which wash into the river. The St.
Lucie River has accumulations as much as three feet
thick. This muck is churned up during rainstorms and
by boat propellers, and degrades water quality which
is a condition that is not favorable to aquatic life.
Other water quality problems facing the river include
pollution from stormwater runoff and septic tanks,
and large discharges of freshwater that severely alter
the estuarine habitat.
However, programs are being developed (with
some in the implementation stage) now by the Dis-
trict through the Surface Water Improvement and

Management (SWIM) Plan to preserve and restore
this treasure of Florida's east coast.

Under the SWIM program, the District has begun a
muck removal study to determine ways to remove
deposits collected in the St. Lucie River. Another
study will examine how to prevent additional muck
from entering and building up in the river through
the use of best management practices and retrofitting.
Other programs include a 27-acre demonstration
site to monitor the effectiveness of retrofitting; the
opening of mosquito impoundments which will
create hundreds of acres of marsh; a septic tank in-
ventory; and a public information program featuring
canoe trips, brochures and a display. "People have to
understand that everything they do has an impact,"
said Dan Haunert, program manager for the Indian
River Lagoon District SWIM program.

In addition to SWIM-funded programs, the District
is moving along with other projects to improve water
quality. One important effort is to change the water
release schedule for Lake Okeechobee to reduce the
frequency of large, damaging freshwater releases to
the sensitive brackish systems downstream.
A new schedule was unanimously approved at the
December Governing Board meeting, which reduces
the potential for adverse impacts in the St. Lucie and
Caloosahatchee River estuaries, without compromis-
ing the flood control and water supply components of
Lake Okeechobee. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
has been requested to immediately implement the
new lake regulatory schedule. The new schedule will
incorporate the pulse releases developed by District
staff to further reduce environmental impacts of the
Lake Okeechobee regulatory releases.
Additionally, the District is providing cost-sharing
funds to assist both Martin and St. Lucie counties de-
velop stormwater utility programs, which will help fi-
nance projects to reduce the amount of contaminants
entering the river.0


------- ----

Mercury Contamination

in Fish Still a Health


Fish caught in mercury contaminated water bodies should not be eaten more than once a week by
adults and not at all by pregnant women, nursing mothers, women of child bearing age and children
under 15. These recommendations were based on a portion size of 1/2 pound of fish. In addition to
the limited consumption advisories, HRS recommends that fish caught in certain parts of the Ever-
glades and the Savannahs Marsh should never be eaten.


Northwest Florida
(Panhandle Area)
Perdido River
Escambia River
Blackwater River
Yellow River
Econfina Creek
Deer Point Lake

North Florida
Suwannee River
Drainage System
Lake lamonia
Lake Talquin

Limit Consumption:
Largemouth Bass

Limit Consumption:
Largemouth Bass

Central Florida
Lake Kissimmee
Lake Istokpoga
Lake Tohopekaliga
East Lake Tohopekaliga limit Consumption:
,Limit Consumption:
Hillsborough River Largemouth Bass
St Johns River and Tributaries:
(south of Lake Monroe)
Lake Sawgrass
Puzzle Lake
Econlockhatchee River
Lake Harney
Lake Helen Blazes

Southeast Coast
Savannahs Marsh
(south St. Lucie and
north Martin Counties)

No Consumption:
Largemouth Bass

South Florida
Conservation Area 1:
Wildlife Refuge)

Limit Consumption:
Largemouth Bass, Gar
Bowfin, Warmouth

No Consumption:
Largemouth Bass,
Conservation Areas 2a and 3: Bowfin, ar
Everglades National Park and
northwest of SR 27 Limit Consumption:
(Shark River Drainage Warmouth,
System) Yellow Bullhead
Catfish, Oscar
Everglades National Park Limit Consumption:
south and east of SR 27 LargemouthBass,Gar,
(Taylor Slough) Warmouth, Bowfin

For more information, conlat your local HRS County Public Health Unit or the HRS State Health Office in Tallahassee.

South Florida
Water Management District
P.O. Box 24680
West Palm Beach, FL 33416-4680

Bulk Rate
West Palm Beach, FL


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