Title: Engineering and the Environment - Spring of 1992
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00004504/00001
 Material Information
Title: Engineering and the Environment - Spring of 1992
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: The Florida Engineer - Univ. of Fla. College of Engineering
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Engineering and the Environment - Spring of 1992 (JDV BOX 91)
General Note: Box 23, Folder 1 ( Miscellaneous Water Papers, Studies, Reports, Newsletters, Booklets, Annual Reports, etc. - 1973 -1992 ), Item 7
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00004504
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text




years have seen
an increasing environmental
awareness. And today, the
nation and the world are
strongly focused on environ-
mental issues.
Signs of this focus are every-
where, from municipal
recycling programs to reusable
grocery bags. A 1989 poll of
Florida residents showed that
75 percent of those polled
thought pollution of the state's
drinking water was a serious
problem. The business sector
also is making the environment
a major focus.
Fast-food outlets have stopped
using plastic foam containers
and newspapers are beginning

Engineering Education, I was
made keenly aware of difficul-
ties in several areas related to a
lack of environmental plan-
ning. The residents of Moscow
must live within a haze of
automobile exhaust. The city of
St. Petersburg, formerly
Leningrad, is saved from this
only by the Baltic Sea breeze.
According to an interview with
Igor Izodorovich Altschuler,
scientific researcher at the
Department of Geography,
Moscow State University, and
co-founder of Support for
Ecological Initiatives, published
in Environment magazine
March 1990, the Baltic and
Black seas are not exempt
from pollution.

to use recycled paper. New "Beaches along Riga Bay, an
environmental technology is arm of the Baltic Sea, were
being used in the industrial closed during the last two
sector. According to Dunn & seasons," he said in 1990. "It
Bradstreet in Dunn's Market was forbidden to swim there
Identifiers for August 1991, because of sewage and pulp-
and paper-plant
GATOI h pollution. At many


there are 14,664 American firms
involved in environmental
technologies or pollution
control and abatement, with
796 such firms in Florida.
Many other countries have
recognized the need for
environmental leadership
policy. On a recent trip to
Russia, sponsored by the
National Science Foundation
and the American Society for

beaches along the Black Sea,
especially in the Odessa region,
swimming is also forbidden."
However, the new government
and the people I met are
concerned about their environ-
ment. As Russia moves toward
an open economy, the people,
its universities and industry are
openly searching for proper
approaches to improve
environmental quality. Russia's

technical universities, long
focused on education directed
toward arms and defense, are
moving into a broader focus.
These moves are critical to
everyone as we all live in the
same neighborhood -
planet Earth.
In the United States, our
educational system excels in
environmental and environ-
mental engineering education
and your college is helping to
lead the way. Your college has
had an Environmental
Engineering Sciences (EES)
department since 1967 and, in
1990-91, graduated 29 new
environmental engineers to
help meet the challenges to the
environment. For example,
research from EES is being
used by the phosphate mining
industry to help reclaim
ecosystems lost to mining pits.
However, the EES department
is not alone. The Materials
Science & Engineering
department is finding new and
better ways to recycle waste.
Researchers in Civil Engineer-
ing are working with industry
to put discarded automobile
tires back into use as part of the
pavement the tires once rolled

over. The construction industry
is using Coastal & Oceano-
graphic Engineering research to
erect safer bridges and
buildings. Virtually every
college program is involved in
environment-related activities.
The programs in this magazine
are only a few examples of
your college's involvement in
this forefront challenge. Habitat
Earth will require new
technologies for successfully
integrating man and nature.
That technology must come
from engineers.
"Being an environmentalist is,
almost by definition, part of
being an engineer," said David
Goddeau, P.E., 1990-91
president of the Florida
Engineering Society. "Alter-
ation of our environment is
usually affected by engineers. If
we, as engineers, don't enhance
and protect our environment, it
won't get done."
The 1992 Engineering Advi-
sory Council's environmental
focus endorses our continuing
commitment to this important
challenge for the future of
Florida, the United States and
the world. With your help and
encouragement we will
continue researching and
solving critical environmental
problems while working to
meet the ever-increasing
challenges of the future by
educating the engineers
of tomorrow.

XZ 0'Xy"



Engineering & the Environment


But humanity was not
content to stay housed in
caves, ignorant of its
As humanity grew more
powerful and joined in

make way for farms and ranches
to feed the expanding
But as humanity grew more
civilized, it became aware of the
damage being done to the
biosphere and of the harm being
donne tn Mn/thr Natilr

Florida has been especially
susceptible to changes made to
its fragile environment. And
researchers at the University of
Florida's College of Engineering
are taking on the challenge of
finding ways to integrate man
and nature, in ways compatible

FAMILY OF HUMANITY, ever-larger groups, it to them both.
S Gathering its resolve, humanity
THE EARTH HAS BEEN pushed away from the began assessing the damage Integrating the ecology and
PERSONIFIED AS giving arms of Mother done to the earth, and attempt- humanity's economy has long
MOTHER NATURE Nature, taking and grab- ing to right past mistakes, while been a study for Howard T.
HER LOVING ARMS bing what it needed, guarding its home for genera- Odum, graduate research
HER LOVING ARMS bg what t needed. tions yet unborn. professor of Environmen-
SURROUNDING AND Population pressures continued Thp Pnon Prn Jri... tal Engineering

Academy of Science awarded
the prize to the UF professor
and his brother, Eugene Odum,
a retired University of Georgia
professor. Howard Odum is an
elected member of the Swedish
Academy and received the prize
for "pioneering, multifarious and
original research on the
structure, dynamics and
perturbation of ecosystems."
It was Odum's work that started
the beneficial use of wetlands for
wastewater treatment, being
used in some parts of the state.
This treatment system also helps
rehydrate areas drying out from
over-consumption of
drinking water.
The study of wetlands and water
quality, always important in a
state like Florida in which most
of the potable drinking water is
on or close to the surface, has
always had an important place at
UF. Recently, this area has
undergone some significant
changes; not the least of which
is the merger of two environ-
mental centers on campus.
The Center for Wetlands, a
university-wide research unit,
and the Water Resources
Research Center, a statewide
federal/state research institute
coordinated by the college, have
merged to create the Wetland
and Water Resources Research
Center, said Ronnie Best,
director of the merged center.
The center will continue the
activities of its components,
including sponsoring water
resource research at other
universities within the State
University System.

"The wetlands center historically
had a dedication to looking at
integrating humanity and nature
into our developing landscape,"
Best said. "That applied theme
forces us to look at integrating
ecology and engineering into
this applied science we're calling
ecological engineering."
According to Mark Brown, an
associate scientist in the
department of Environmental
Engineering Sciences and the
center, ecological engineering is
engineering in which the
majority of any designed
project's supporting and
organizing energy comes from
the environment.
"In ecological engineered
projects, the use of technology,
fuels and goods and services, are
just amplifiers for natural
processes," he said. "While one
could say that a conventional
sewage treatment plant, for
example, is an ecologically
engineered system because most
sewage treatment plants have a
biological component in them to
break down waste, the majority
of that plant is derived from
technology, goods and services.
"However, if you were to take
wastewater and, instead of
putting it into a system like that,
put it into a wetland environ-
ment in the appropriate
concentrations and let the
environment do the work; that's
ecological engineering."

residents, Brown said. For
instance, Brown suggests that
one of Florida's most serious
problems concerns drainage and
loss of surface and groundwater
resources. Although Florida
began as an extremely wet state,
it is being engineered into a
parched state, Brown said.
"One thing we've been doing is
figuring out better interfaces
between treated sewage and the
environment. We're using
wetlands as the interface," he
said. "Using wetlands as nature's
treatment plants rehydrates the
landscape by putting the water
back in areas where it can do
some good. Now we've got two
things going for us: We've got
this ecosystem that's doing the
final waste processing, and, at
the next larger scale, we're
keeping Florida wet. That's
good ecological engineering -
when you can solve two
problems with one solution. The
idea is to use the free services of
nature to do the very costly last
treatment step, and to keep
Florida wet and green."
Brown and Best have designed
many wetlands for wastewater
treatment. One of their designs,
built by the city of Orlando
utility system, is taking effluent
from northern Orlando and
using 1,200 acres of wetlands for
the final processing. However, it
is more than just a place for
wastewater processing.
"There's all kinds of wildlife,"
Brown said. "People use the
constructed wetland for jogging
and bird watching."



industry leaders front
around Florida gathered
on the UF campus Jan.
30-31 to help chat the
College of Engineering's
future during the 1992
meeting of the Engineer-
ing Advisory Council
(EAC), which focused
on "Environmental
The EAC, an advisomybody
to Dean Winfred M. Phillips,
serves as am4-* comaun ica-
tions link between the college
and the business community,
nllow iniidastyleaderstodis-
cuss what dty need from their
partnership with education.
CEOs, nmanagragencybeads
and educators, provides a
unique opportunity for council
members and gtwets to influ-
ence college policy, exchange
views andasist ninth eitiatio
ofcooperatdve ventures.

The meeting was sponsored by
E.I. DuPont de Nemours &
Company, Inc., and PCR, Inc.
Convenitxgin the J. Wayne
Reitz Union Balroom for the
IAC banquet Jan. 30, the
keynote speaker, Thomas D.
Forman Jr., president and chief
operating office of Camp
Dresser & McKee Inc., was
introduced by, UF President
John V. Lombardi. Furman
discussed the engineers role in
maintaining environmental
"We tan no longer take Florida's
unique emironment for
granted," he said. "We must act
proactively to ensure that these
bounties are available for future
Engineers must lead the country
in environmental stewardship,
Furman said, leaving the
environment at least as good as,
or better than it was for their
Finding ways to apply rechnol-
ogy in an environmentally
compatible manner resents a
challenge to conteporary
engcies and scientists, said
Warren Viessmsan Jr, associate
dean fir.acdemnic programs and
and EAC meeting organizer.
Given that Florida's economic
and s6ciar well-being are so

dosely tied to environmental
quality, the'1992 theme was
extremely timely, he said,
Presiding officer John A.
Hancock, senior vice president
of power operamens for Florida
Power Corp. in St. Petersburg,
opened the meeting's second day
with a report from the executive
committee. Following
Hancock's report. Phillips
provided an overview on the
college's activities during the
previous year.
M. Jack Ohanian, associate dean
for research and administration,
then chaired a session on
"Frontiers of Engineering
Research." W. Emmett Bolcb,
professor of Environmental
Engineering Sciences, talked
about "Controlling Man-made
and Natural Radioactivity in
Florida," Brij M. Moudgil,
professor of Materials Science &
Engineering, spoke about using
"Improved Process Effciency
for Environmental Protection,"
and Byron E. Ruth, professor of
Civil Engineering, described
"Utilization of Waste Rubber in
Highway Pavements."
Keynote speaker for the
hwncheoi on Jan 31, as
Wilrlia$. tBtcher, senior
engineering avisor t -he
National Scie Ye Foundation,

who spoke on "Global Climate
Change: The Engineer's Role,"
Also at-the tunchieo, Phillips
presented college graduates
Lany Smith, CE'55, state
materials engineer for the
Florida Department of Trams-
portation, and Frank-Gillette,
ME '62, director of engineering
on United Tecmnology/Prat &
Whitney's F-119 program, with
distinguished service awards
from the college.
Following lunch, Viessman
moderated a panel discussion on
"An Environmental Leadership
Initiative (Business/Industry/
University Coalition)." Those on
the panel were Hancock, Peter
C. Rosendhl. vice president of
environmental relations for the
Florida Sugar Cane League in
Clewiston, Fla., Thomas L.
Crisman, professor of Environ-
mental Engineering Sciences
and associate director of UFs
Center for African Studies, and
Robert G. Dean, chairman and
graduate research professor of
Coastal & Oceanographic
The consensus of the palel was
that UF and the College f
Engineering tnw take. an active
leadership reit developing an
environmental coalition between
environmental organization


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Zaricki, a fourth-year senior in
Aerospace Engineering, Mechan-
ics & Engineering Science, said
the fair is designed to bring to-
getherthe engineeringcommunity
and the community outside the
"The main purpose of the fair is to
educate the public about what
we're doing and to provide a forum
for students to meet with poten-
tial employers," he said. D 28


In addition to creating wetlands,
treated wastewater also can be
used to help integrate food-
producing agricultural areas, and
food-consuming urban areas,
said Allen Overman, professor
of Agricultural Engineering.
Since 1970, Overman has been
working with Tallahassee to find
ways for the wastewater
produced by city residents to be
used to grow feed for animal
"After we consume the nutri-
ents, we return it in
concentrated form and flush it.
But where does this stuff go?"
Overman said. "The point of
this work is to try and put a
significant amount of this back
into the natural cycle."

O verman has been
studying the use of reclaimed
wastewater for irrigation of
crops to determine if it is an
effective way to dispose of the
wastewater and effectively water
crops. The system now can use
about 17.5 million gallons of
reclaimed wastewater a day. The
city has leased the land to a
private concern to operate the
farm system. Overman said this
project, as well as the similar
Conserve II project in Orlando,
could be one of the best way to
dispose of reclaimed wastewater.
Reclamation is another area of
interest for Brown but he is
trying to reclaim land lost to
phosphate mining. Brown has
researched what it takes to make
a successful landscape on old
phosphate mining sites and has
come up with designs that, 50 to
100 years in the future, still will
be able to have a symbiotic
interface with humanity.
"In the old days, phosphate pits
were relatively small areas
surrounded by forested lands

that acted as seed sources," he
said. "So when the mining was
finished, seeds were there
immediately and they naturally
reclaimed the land. The new
ecosystems often didn't resemble
the previous ones, because the
soils and topography were
different, but an ecosystem
developed fairly quickly all
the same."
Because current phosphate
mining pits can cover up to
17,000 acres, the forested areas
surrounding the pits cannot
reclaim the pits if left alone.
"Nature needs some help if we
are to put these pits back into a
functioning ecosystem," Brown
said. "All the phosphate
companies recontour and
actively plant trees to reclaim
their mines as quickly as
possible. We've been doing
research on how to speed up the
process of ecosystem establish-
ment to help in putting these
areas back in order."
Much of what he finds fault
with, Brown said, is good
engineering, just not good
ecological engineering. "Many of
the environmental problems in
Florida, and globally, for that
matter, can be greatly reduced
through good ecological
engineering," he said.
Brown also is fighting the
perception of many engineers
that their stormwater systems
are nothing more than drainage
systems. Never one to see only
the obvious, Brown believes that
engineers should take a second
look at stormwater systems, and,
instead of seeing a drainage
system, conjure up visions of
meandering streams.
"Often, engineers are interested
primarily in getting water off the
property as quickly as possible.
So when they lay out their plans,
their ditches are straight and
designed only to convey water,"
he said. "While these may be
efficient in removing water from

the premises, they do not help to said. "Then you can make

enhance the environment or
integrate man with nature. My
suggestion is to think of those
ditches as first-order streams.
Allow vegetation to grow in
them, and maybe plant a few
trees along the sides as they
meander away from the
development: Turn them into
assets, picturesque forested
streams, instead of
straight ditches."
Stormwater retention basins, yet
another potential visual liability,
could use some ecological
engineering, Brown said.
"Now, when you get to the
bottom of a stormwater system,
there sits a square pool," he said.
"Yet, they could be ecologically
engineered as marvelous wetland
ecosystems providing wildlife
habitat, and cleansing
In a study that could be of use in
Brown's plans for runoff
systems, Kirk Hatfield, assistant
professor of Civil Engineering
(CE), has been conducting
research on how construction
affects the contaminant
hydrology the flow of water
and contaminants.
"We are concerned with the
volumes of water and the mass
of contaminants discharged off
the site after you build on it," he
said. "You can't really do any
civil engineering without
affecting the hydrology."
Hatfield and Bent Christensen,
professor of CE, have finished
initial work on an improved
hydrograph model, which shows
the rate of water flow over time
and will change depending on
how the physical characteristics
of the site are changed.
"Without having to go in and
make direct measurements, you
use this new hydrograph model
to predict how the site will
behave and what the runoff
characteristics will be," Hatfield

whatever design changes are
needed, or whatever stormwater
management systems are
needed, to deal with the
hydrologic change. You want to
make the site behave as much as
possible like it did before you
disturbed it."
Hatfield currently is working on
additions to the model that can
describe surface movement of
contaminants from a site, such
as motor oil from a parking lot,
when the runoff enters the
stormwater collection system.

A number of Gator
Engineering faculty have joined
in different portions of a project
to study contaminants already in
a particular water system that
of Lake Okeechobee.
Concerns over the water quality
in Lake Okeechobee started in
the 1960s when aquatic weeds
and algae blooms began
interfering with fishing. Large
algae blooms continued in the
1970s and 1980s. After
numerous studies, it was found
that if there was enough
phosphorous in the lake, the
algae growth would expand
"The South Florida Water
Management District
(SFWMD) established a
monitoring program around the
lake and found that the primary
source of phosphorous was
coming from the dairies and
beef lands north of the lake,"
said Del Bottcher, a professor of
Agricultural Engineering. "Also,
significant amounts of phospho-
rous were coming into the lake
from the Everglades Agricultural
Area to the south due to
drainage water being pumped
into the lake from sugarcane and
vegetable muck lands."
The water management district
looked to the farmers to reduce
the phosphorous in 10





Mehta has been delving into the
problem of the resuspension of
lake sediments. Because Lake
Okeechobee is extremely
shallow, with a maximum depth
of about 15 feet, much of the
underwater movement is caused
by exterior factors, Mehta said.
"By and large, the resuspension
of the bottom material is
episodic and is almost totally
driven by the wind," he said.
"Once you know the relation-
ship between the wind and the
resuspension event, then, if you
know how much phosphorous is
brought up by the sediment, you
can correlate the wind to
phosphorous loading."
For three years, Mehta and his
group investigated the bottom of
the lake, coming to the
conclusion that it is rather like a
large, hard bowl with about 200
million cubic meters of sedi-
ment, mainly from the
Kissimmee River, sitting at the
bottom. Mehta used various
sensors to determine the amount
of sediment suspended in the
water and correlated it with
wind-generated waves.
Lake Okeechobee is not the only
area where researchers are
concerned with an excess of
nutrients entering the environ-
ment. Bottcher, as principal
investigator, also is working with
about 81 dairies in the
Suwannee River area on a
similar problem. However, the
concern around the North
Florida dairies, is with nitrates
in the groundwater supply.
"We look at every aspect of the
physical systems to control the
movement of the nutrients,"
Bottcher said. "The ultimate
goal is to get the nutrient levels
in the manure properly matched
with the receiving cropping
system so that the crop can take
up these nutrients in an
economical fashion."

aste of another kind also
interests Hatfield, who is trying
to construct models describing
water flow through and around
an open landfill. Water
percolating through landfills
creates contaminated water
called leachate. During opera-
tion, the landfill has a collection
system to make sure the leachate
does not contaminate the
surrounding area, Hatfield said.
"To design or operate that
collection system efficiently, you
want to have some knowledge of
what the incoming volumetric
load of leachate will be and what
the dissolved solids concentra-
tion is going to be, so then you
can treat this waste accordingly,"
he said. "Once you can simulate
a site behavior, you can look at
how best to manage the leachate
production, or change the
leachate collection system so it
may be recycled."
But no matter how well
managed a system is, pollutants
still will enter the environment.
An important aspect of trying to
curtail contaminant damage,
Sheng said, is finding out where
contaminants go once they enter
the environment.
To understand the physics of
the water and contaminant
movement, Sheng said,
researchers first must collect the
basic physical data of the water
bodies, such as current, wave,
temperature, salinity and
suspended sediment
"You can't possibly collect data
from 1,000 locations in a water
body because the average
instrument platform costs about
$40,000," Sheng said. "You need
to supplement the measured
data from the small number of
platforms by building math-
ematical models. For the past 20
years or so, I've been building
these mathematical models that
will compute the currents, waves

and contaminant transport in
water bodies.
"You build a credible model
system first, use the data to
make sure the model is capable
of simulating the present
conditions of the water body,
then you can use the model to
see how the system will react
to changes."
Once the data has been
gathered, the researchers go to
work, interpreting what
information has been acquired.
Of particular interest to Sheng is
his work in lakes and estuaries,
which can be defined loosely as
any semi-enclosed water body
that opens to the sea. Estuaries,
because of their makeup, have a
particular balance of salt water
and fresh water, which is
controlled by the action of tide,
wind and the density of the
water. Since estuaries are such
attractive places to live, many
people do so, causing one of the
most serious pollution problems:
an excess of fresh water from
storm runoff and the contami-
nants the runoff carries.
"In the Indian River Lagoon
estuary, the clamming industry
is in decline because too much
fresh water gets into the river
too soon and kills the dams,"
Sheng said.

In addition to estuaries,
construction and population
continue to have an effect on
Florida's most famous and
precious resources its
beaches. When the first
European settlers arrived in
Florida, they began making use
of the Peninsular State's peculiar
shape by modifying existing
inlets and creating new inlets to
allow easier docking for ships.
While these inlets, constructed
for navigational purposes with
deep channels and jetties jutting
into the ocean, may make it
easier for boats to enter and

leave the harbor, there also is
indisputable evidence that they
are causing many beaches to
erode more swiftly than normal,
said Robert G. Dean, chairman
and graduate research professor
of Coastal & Oceanographic
"On the east coast of Florida,
there is a strong flow of sand
from the north to the south," he
said. "These inlets have a
tremendous potential for
interaction with this natural flow
of sand. It's bad today, but in the
past it's been even worse
because, when these inlets were
dredged to keep the channels
deep, the sand was taken off
shore and put well out of
the system.
'We can document about 55
million cubic yards of sand that
have been dredged and placed
offshore. That has a market
value today of between $300
million to $600 million. Many
of our shorelines today are still
eroded because of that."
The problem, Dean said, is the
jetties and inlets form a barrier
that prevents sand from flowing
past them, thus depriving
beaches south of the inlets from
naturally rebuilding what
erosion takes away.
"The main remedy, really the
only effective remedy, is to
reinstate that natural flow of
sand, which means picking up
that sand on the north side of
the inlet and moving it to the
south side," Dean said, adding
that such a sand transport
system would cost a couple of
hundred thousand dollars a year
to run. "We're trying to develop
better means, less expensive
means, of accomplishing this
Once erosion has severely
diminished a beach, Dean said,
the best way to restore it is to
renourish the area. Beach
nourishment involves placing
large quantities of N 12


good quality sediment
on beaches.
"One of the questions that has
emerged deals with the
environmental effects of beach
nourishment," he said. "One of
those items of high concern has
been whether beach nourish-
ment will adversely affect the
nesting of endangered
sea turtles."

A after mating, the female
sea turtles come ashore along
Florida beaches and dig shallow
pits in which to deposit their
eggs. To protect the nests,
current state guidelines allow
beach nourishment projects only
in the months of December
through March, when turtles are
not nesting, Dean said.
"It turns out these are also the
most storm-energetic months,"
he said. "There have been
estimates that it would cost 30
percent to 60 percent more to
nourish the beaches during these
months. The surprising thing is
that all of the data show that
beach nourishment is very
beneficial to turtle nesting. On
Jupiter Island, prior to beach
nourishment in 1973, there were
an average of 75 nests per mile.
Now it has gone up to 720 nests
per mile. That is the result of
beach nourishment using poor
quality material placed during
nesting season!"
With all the talk about disap-
pearing beaches, and pumping
sand back onto malnourished
beaches, Dean said a current
study could come as a bit of a
"We've been analyzing the data
and have found that, on the
average, the east coast of Florida
is building up," he said.
"However, there are wide
variations with some places

eroding very rapidly and some
places building up equally
According to the study, Florida's
east coast is, on average, moving
out about one-quarter of a foot
each year, compared to some
places in Virginia and Louisiana
where the coastline is eroding at
a rate of 14 feet per year. On
average, Dean said, the west
coast of the state is just about
stable. However, it also has
some areas eroding and others
building equally rapidly. So why
all the fuss? Why do people
seem to think that all of
Florida's coastline is melting
away like a Popsicle in the hot
summer sun?
"One explanation I use, kind of
jokingly, is that while I study
beaches, nobody ever asks me to
come and look at a wide beach,"
Dean said. "It's kind of like a
doctor. Healthy people don't
come into his office."
Healthy people do, however, go
in for checkups. Mehta said he
is performing something similar
for beaches in a U.S. Depart-
ment of Energy study to
determine if coastline changes
actually match up with predic-
tions made from inundation
models created to forecast sea-
level rise. For the study, Mehta
is using data collected from six
sites around the United States,
including Daytona Beach and
Although the eventual outcome
of the study is, of course, not
known, Mehta said even if sea-
level rise actually reduces the
amount of usable shoreline, it is
not time to head for the inland
"There is still the matter of
human intervention," he said.
"Obviously, you're not going to
let Manhattan, for example, just
sink. On the other hand, there
are a lot of places, say, along the
coast of Louisiana, that are just
too vast to do much about."

While human intervention can
cause changes for good or ill,
nature, in the form of severe
storms and hurricanes, can
create even greater coastline
changes, with large amounts of
sand lost to the dune systems.
"If there are structures present,
larger quantities can be lost,"
said Max Sheppard, professor of
Coastal & Oceanographic
Engineering. "One of the
Florida Department of Natural
Resources' (FDNR) concerns is
how much sand loss is due to
man-made structures. Our work
has been directed at enhancing
the scientific basis on which
estimates of structure-induced
sand loss are based.
"The reason sand is scoured near
a structure when it is inundated
by rising water levels is due to
increased turbulence and flow
modification as a result of the
structure. This causes an
increased drag force on the
bottom near the structure, which
results in sand being placed in
suspension and carried away
by currents."
Sheppard recently travelled to
Colorado State University in
Fort Collins to use a large water
flume in their engineering
laboratory. The study concen-
trated on cylinders, much like
pilings that hold up some coastal
structures, and also used a model
of a large swimming pool.
Sheppard used the results to
create a computer program for
the FDNR. "If you input the
structure parameters, the type of
sand around the structure, and
the environmental conditions,
the program will calculate the
maximum depth of scour and
maximum volume of scour," he
said. "It should be a very useful
tool for FDNR."
Sheppard also is looking at
windblown sand in dunes and
the effect of vegetation on
retaining that sand in the dune

system. "What we've been doing
is developing a methodology and
computer programs which will
allow FDNR to compare not
only different types of vegeta-
tions, but different spacings of
vegetation," he said. "Our
preliminary results are somewhat
surprising in that we're finding a
marked effect on the wind-
blown sand transport. Our
results also show that the effects
of vegetation on the wind and
sand transport extend many
plant heights downwind from
the plant."
Once these models have been
tested and verified, FDNR can
use them in their permitting
processes for approving coastal
development and other changes
along the coast.

plants also play a major part as
the subject of a $1.5 million
study for the federal Environ-
mental Protection Agency. As
part of that study, Eric Allen
and Dale Lundgren, both
professors of Environmental
Engineering Sciences, studied
the effects of exposure to ozone
and acid deposition on trees in
the southern commercial forests.
A group of forestry researchers
was studying the effects of
controlled exposure to acid rain
and ozone by building large
chambers in the forests in which
to grow southern pine seedlings.
Allen and Lundgren, using
about $650,000 worth of
equipment, monitored the actual
conditions in the forests.
Starting in October 1987 at the
Duke Forest in North Carolina,
and in July 1988 at the Austin
Cary Forest north of Gainesville
and the Austin Forest in Texas,
Allen and Lundgren monitored
air quality, including ozone
levels, wet and dry acid
deposition and meteorological
variables at all the sites.


the University iI FIH-.rndi -
first Capital C aii p.' I !
ended with a r-unilldiiin.
exclamation p'int
benefitting th' ti dc, n
and the faculty ,ti t li -i.1
lege of Engineerin4 \ i!id
LogicSystemspro. i.d it-
largest equipnii-t z-it
ever- the largesi -i i
equipment gift in, tri .,ur. .r
sity history r. irti thI
provision of soi .re ', .il-
ued at more -.n ,1In
million. Alumn.- I ri cnd
and corporate 4., ppor t.: r
of the college contributed
gifts totaling $ ?.' 112 *-2 1
during the five -, .r can.-
paign, which i: 14 '-'
percent of our f2 mll ..n'i
goal. For the semai periu.-d
theentireuniver-ti. .'iiicd
support in exce-- i t3i'2 n
million, topping 1 oi e.al i
$250 million. Botl, IluZurn-
are subject to ch.a ni. a .- ud

d il. ..:.ii Li. fr- m lnuh_.t itt -
3.re pr>t'ic-d
Hc.aritcli thI nk_ ni-utl

, I,. ** rkrd' I cli (. n cl\ >->,
nbhal -. Lily ca_11iii- -aindi
u lI r-iltr ThIe 4_,.1u i n..Cr1

1l110-1 111 0 Tle -'!11 IIIc e th

n't ak>-i. t t ri i .litvr belther
c LIh: 1t1. thie r. -t.irch

,c.iliti: n- In.-rv produc-
[r-. : th n .: >r I r..-i '

tii lrit tl~ n ine- 'lI oI-ur
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cnieded -ipp. .rl tor ,:.r
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Th-LcIIf lr-'-1- 1iI-:h 0r i
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_r"]l ."I 'LIr I.,cu lt hIa, v'
bL-.nrc jUl, de', -lo.pm,:r.
p.irtrier- 1. ilh.lioirciniirn -r-r
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p.irtiilp.tinP inI.iulH .ation
_>:liitiai.' fl n land t r'. anrd-
-hip a.ti\ lt" Thiie licip

u nldc r -::or h: lin,.1 in I
url.lidcr c in ll I.-Ol nline di
pri'. at -uppiirt Tl llt-n.
.and thi cI c:c.-lini :.il-
1-CL- admir--tr trioni ind
.1i partm r 't i lit lni c i i e
, 'prt .i.ir Ipprnc: ut.iiin
La.It Liut ol criticlm- inl-
poirt.lni .. I ar it -alutc
l ir in.d iJl.lal- % lih-ii l.ak-
m,, rolh: ,a- tlyt-h director ol



* .J./l/titn .ul/,dl'.towlt
p/'.l'e,, orh/ips. ,'iholiio hipi
ianl olit tinti i iii' ia.hgi t
* Capital oilntri.ti'on gifti
Ior a t-uri-flooradditl/io to
R/ine, Hal ila Strii ,tile
and .ilatcriai l Laborttorn,
buil i.ng i,7/ii, til', cMifMn -
niautirn.' i.entcer

Sia.nd 1 Id,-_ collthori E

, (.m lm itmn'-rt t,, ,.c llelc,
a" slr[i tha.it '.ir pr>'-peti-

trind- ar aili. \ 1i% l
-cr' Cd NMirianna M,:Elrln'
protlran' a --i-itant ha-
_iri Ed thrctl dir:ctor>olcn-
'iniv:rting d'i, elopmncit
during the .tammpaiigin .ind
colninuv" to pro. ide th'e
ciintinuit\ o1 quailiti s-Er-
\ Ice Ill. ._ It. 1i 0 to our
dc-eloppinclit anid alumni
r-.pon 'ibilitic- lv.ii h-'it'l .
clerk t\ pi:r-ind reception-
i-t pro idc- -li c rr.Iir.il
stipport or. allt,-_ur .a: I-
tic- and it the Ir-t le .ni

ilicnliui r tI trc' t i-.itor tIo
,tar Ih(( tog, lthcr [tb:\
.iar:. th l h.ir t11at bn ind- tii r
d '.>l,-] pm rnt .ind -ilusllln
prO~F r.'n,-n ti.- ,ith>r Liki-
i ti, mi priid;---or- in
the 16 rl\ d.i\ -, t c th C .pi-
ta -l -C .Iip 1 i 1 Eli' \ 11i
I\ il!lian.- and Bill
Fri.-.:r..k c-taLi -hl -d ia
,ommin',tmi:nt tr \ci _llcli'e
I- l t h a.[ iLr d thl: -i. TI>v-
i. -lilf\ t flod.i T1 tlii.-c
lowir 1t.m mmrn clbr-
tlhen .1 -p ..- litI'
\ h.it IIhs hl i .ld Tlic
Li ,lopniemnt prinriti_-
li ted hvrv: ar :h.illl nct'-
tor u- all t. n ul', -taltt
.1ind %.ltridiitVEr- : n LI';t
ni ic d ci liopd r. thi: i-

,rr.iiill h1n -iermnn cll.d_

I' ir i.ippor ntl in tn i
olnri cr, a- i-v ll a- I-
na.nc 1a%!l', -.hI1itiiI .-tobc0I
thye rn.i.-t Iniportailncl
\\ h!l thi C ipit.il Coni-
pauien lha; ended iour
icoinmiltmntI miTu-.r C!n
linu, \\ iI ', o.ir
partic.ip.'ition in our i :on-
tl uiniii cltort %,c ll se-ek
c\cii nmor-e t Emt'raicc E\-
icllnc~'11 tor Enl'in: ring'
Tha.nk i\,..u lor \our -iup-
porti rlv a'e r contact[ mr
i- heilc cr ,iou c.Lin olun-
te-r \i.'Liur -pe-ial talcnt- Ior
oiir dU \ clpmIni t ind
1lunrrini procraini-

Albert \'. Sistrunk



\mintred N1 '"hillip- talk-
ing to 1 hle 11 peopl, r h,.>
mtrendi d the,, brdkt.i-t in
their hon-.r at \\ i Hall
Noi\ in ,.iad -oflni in the
,:ollc ,cI: .-,rc at lir li t Ii r-
'. 'ii- 3boIlt m .: i ting tile
3 lbitioui c -al; ict tor I thi:
,:anipa., n But t h.-
doubt- I. rc lard t: ret t a
thI c, ollig, rcccn i ed Ijtt ot
mor thaiin i4,3 mrilliihi
Philhp- then drc-,:tEd
the aitetilti n or tlh.., at-
Itl'dine ll tIhc ncll oliior
' Re:gni'ili.n Board tht li-t-
S tli.s h lt to the c ,llc E:.t
$ :101.'i- 1 or m.:>r,
S OLu 11 ni_,Ai,>; there i
I..aclc I\ t ..n th.: board
P iiill.p --aid %l r t unlai. -
trom thlicr.., *. Our 4iop
-urt- mil e it i.c rulln Iult I
jpa:i hrh.it i'. a in \-
pandabl.: bt:.rd
Tm kIlleI P E CEt
iu'1 1aj the :-.:iha.irman n
. ot the engineering .cam-
p.i3;r. nll Oranr,~ ind
-cminole counti_-- K>ile,
chalrnmin oi the board rind
principal oi Pr .f.-i.m:n.-I
Engineering C'on-ultant-
Irn: ott irl:ndo a.id1a!unint
cointribu.tionl-l r, e- n-e -tial
in m.nliitlaininl thl io'llcg_ c
lust a- port- arC a
tnrov :lcinntlion ito th,:
alummi I think contribute
in to th.: ,:.:,llege i-a, -. .ai
lor them to continue tilhir
atlliltltion .nde,\pre-- their
pride in the liiri er-it\ n-
g.nercinl prigraim i-

Robert C. Pillman EE
I: 'I ha nmad, a ectond
a1ln al : 1]0Hi.I Il iII ill t. th,:
co-llege tlhroti h the grra.u-
3t -.tidciert h-llid -;hip
endo~n, mint thit b:ar- hi-
na me

"Currently, it is the
largest student-support en-
dowment in the College of
Engineering," said Albert
W. Sistrunk, the college's
director of development.
The additional money
for the endowment is eli-
gible for $50,000 in state
matching funds. When the
college receives those
funds, the endowment will
total more than $300,000.
Pittman's continuing
support of college students
and programs has been ex-
tremely gratifying, Phillips
"The Pittman Graduate
Fellowship Endowment
contributes significantly to
the ability of the College of
Engineering to attract and
retain truly superior engi-
neers for graduate study,"
he said. "Bob Pittman rec-
ognizes the need for
significant fellowship op-
portunities for engineers of
exceptional potential, and
his vision and goodwill are
of special importance to the
Pittman, chairman of
the Pittman Electronics
Group, Inc. of Naples, was
responsible for establishing
the college's first eminent
scholar chair, the Robert C.
Pittman Eminent Scholar
Chair in Electrical Engi-
neering, currently held by
Chih-Tang Sah, graduate
research professor. Pittman
has previously given schol-
arship support for
undergraduates and
graduates in Materials Sci-
ence & Engineering and
Electrical Engineering.

Valid Logic Systems
has provided the Univer-
sity of Florida with the
single largest equipment
gift in the history of the in-

The $10 ,561,600 dona-
tion of electronic design
tools by Valid has helped
the Electrical Engineering
department in the college to
enhance its leadership
position in electrical engi-
neering education and
research. This major soft-
ware gift will provide
electrical engineering stu-
dents with the opportunity
to design circuits using
state-of-the-art software
tools. The software in-
cludes tools for digital and
analog simulation, multi-
chip module design and
integrated circuit design.
Valid's most recent gift
follows the corporation's
1989 gift of $2.6 million
worth of software design
tools to Electrical Engineer-
ing and brings their Capital
Campaign total of gifts to
$13.2 million. The software
gift will be used mainly by
the VLSI/TCAD group,
which studies very large
scale integrated circuits
and the technology for
computer-aided design,
said William Eisenstadt, as-
sociate professor of
Electrical Engineering and
the department's computer
"With these more ad-
vanced tools, we can
increase the efficiency of
the design," he said. "Mod-
ern software such as this
has more functions that
make successful designs
Phillips said the value of
Valid's gift will be repli-
cated many times over as
more students become pro-
ficient in using the software
and use those skills in in-
"This is especially sig-
nificant because it
recognizes the leadership
our faculty in Electrical En-

gineering bring to our goal
of excellence," he said. "The
software package enables
our undergraduate and
graduate students to be ex-
ceptionally well educated
for technical leadership

Herbert E. Pickle, CE
1949, of Fort Lauderdale,
has used two unitrusts with
an initial value of $220,000
to benefit his family, and,
ultimately, to establish the
Herbert E. Pickle Endow-
ment for Excellence in Civil
The unitrusts are based
on property which is ex-
pected to increase in value
up to more than $1 million.
Phillips and Paul Y.
Thompson, chairman and
professorof Civil Engineer-
ing, elected to make this gift
unrestricted, thereby al-
lowing them to decide the
focus of the endowment
when the funds become
Phillips and Thompson
have recommended for the
future that the endowment
take advantage of whatever
state matching funds will
most effectively enhance
the department. Thompson
went on to say he and the
department greatly appre-
ciated Pickle's generosity.
"Herb Pickle's generous
gift reflects his distin-
guished career," he said.
"Herb has honored the de-
partment of Civil
Engineering by his very
special gift, and we appre-
ciate his enthusiastic
endorsement of our pro-
gram. Hopefully, other
graduates also will want to
investigate planned gifts
through the engineering
development office and the
UF Foundation." *

University of Florida "
Engineering Course
Aids the
Handicapped Ern

Although he is a quadriplegic,
Gernot Aistrop is able to stand
for up to 30 minutes a day thanks
to a University of Florida
engineering course.
Every year, two to three students
take an independent study course
sponsored by the National
Science Foundation's Bioengi-
neering Research to Aid the
Disabled program. The course is
taught by Robert J. Hirko,
associate engineer in Aerospace
Engineering, Mechanics &
Engineering Sciences.
The latest project, to aid Aistrop,
was finished in August. De-
signed by former engineering
student Mike Gedwill, the
project made a hydraulic chair
that rises, straightens out and
enables Aistrop to lean forward
on a set of bars to stand up.
Aistrop, 32, an occupational
therapy intern with the Veterans
Administration Medical Center
in Gainesville, said he wanted
the device to help him stand so
he could place weight on his
joints and bones, and achieve
better circulation and
"It's definitely going to help me
out in the long run," he said.
"I've noticed, after being
confined to the wheelchair for a
dozen years now, the deteriora-
tion you have in your body. It's a
creeping thing and now I've been
able to break the pattern. It's
done a great deal of good
for me."
Although he is classified as a
quadriplegic because his injury
resulted from a fracture in his
neck, Aistrop does have gross
motor control of his arms and
uses them to push his wheelchair
and to operate the standing chair.

Hirko said the NSF provides
$500 for the materials needed
for each project. Each of Hirko's
students, of which there have
been 10 since the program began
during the 1988-89 school year,
picks out a project to aid a
specific person. Hirko said he
has contacts with local handi-
capped organizations that supply
him with ideas.
"When I get a student interested
in working on a project we go
around and talk to administra-
tors of handicapped programs,"
he said. "They point out the
people who have engineering
needs. The students then look
over the type of engineering
required and pick a project they
think will suit them."
Hirko, who received a Ph.D. in
biomedical engineering, typically
meets with each student taking
the course about three times a
week to work out any problems
the student is having. Students
usually receive two to three
credits each semester, depending
on how much work they want to
do. Because the end result of
each project is designated for a
specific person, the devices must

be well designed and con-
structed, Hirko said.
"You have to make the devices
so they're easy to use," he said.
"And the person must want to
use them. Handicapped people
are just like anyone else. They
don't want to use a big, klutzy
piece of equipment that makes
them look bad or feel bad. We
need to make it easy to use, easy
to get to, and something with
which they can be independent."
- R.J.

Florida's Surface
Waters Mostly Free
of Chemical
The results of a three-year study
by a UF environmental
engineering professor show the
state's surface waters are mostly
free of certain chemical
However, the $360,000 study by
principal investigator Joseph
Delfino, chairman and professor
of Environmental Engineering
Sciences, indicates at least five
sites around the state are

suffering from significant
chemical contamination. During
the study, which was sponsored
by the Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation with
help from the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency,
Delfino and his graduate student
researchers studied 31 of the
potential worst chemical
pollutant sources around
the state.
"The state's concern was that
these pollution sources were
releasing toxic chemicals to the
surface waters of the state,"
Delfino said. "Their main
concern was the potential for
movement of chemicals from
these sites to adjacent surface
waters and, more importantly,
whether these chemicals cause
existing surface water quality
standards to be exceeded.
"Even though we studied 31
sites, not every one of them was
a waste site per se, but a site that
could be discharging potentially
injurious chemicals to the
surface waters of the state." The
team took 10 samples at each of
the 31 sites, looking in both the
water and soils or sediments for
chemicals listed as the EPA's
organic priority pollutants.
Surface waters adjacent to 10 of
the sites, Delfino said, were not
found to be chemically im-
pacted, meaning they found
none of the chemicals known to
be on the site in the adjacent
surface waters. However, surface
waters adjacent to 16 of the sites
were found to be moderately
chemically impacted, while five
of the sites had a significant
chemical impact on the adjacent
surface waters, Delfino said.
"We don't know directly if there
was a biological impact from
those chemicals," he said, adding
the survey results were not
representative of all state waters.
"Many of the sites that we
surveyed were considered among
the worst in the state.


We went for the worst cases, but
in 10 of the 31 of the so called
worst cases, there weren't any
real problems at all."
Of the five worst site-related
waterways studied, two were
located in Pensacola, one was
located in Jacksonville, another
in Columbia County, and the
fifth in Orlando. Three sites
represent old wood treatment
sites including creosote
applicators, Delfino said.
Creosote is a mixture of a variety
of hydrocarbons that comes
from trees and pine tar or
materials from coal and coal tar
that are used to treat wood.
"Concerning the surface waters
adjacent to these five sites, we
are strongly suggesting the
responsible regulatory agencies
get more actively involved in
cleaning them up," Delfino said.
"We can't prove it, but by
finding a lot of chemicals going
into those surface waters, there
is the likelihood of some
biological impact." R.J.

Driving the Heavy
Lifters with Nobody
at the Wheel
Enemy aircraft have turned an
airfield into a series of smoking
craters with a relentless bombing
attack. With U.S. planes in the
air, the landing strip is still
However, having armed forces
personnel repair the runway
16 poses a needless risk to life, so
the air base officers call for the
robo-repair crew. Within four
hours, the minimum necessary
length and width of the runway
is repaired and once again
ready for use.

Although this scenario is not
possible yet, college researchers
are working to make autono-
mous runway repairs a
commonplace event in
the future.
Carl Crane, assistant professor
of Mechanical Engineering
(ME) and a member of the
college's Center for Intelligent
Machines and Robotics, and
Joseph Duffy, graduate research
professor of ME and director of
the center, are the co-principal
investigators on an $875,000,
two-year contract with the U.S.
Air Force to help develop
machines capable of repairing a
bombed-out runway on their
own. The goal of the program is
to create machines capable of
repairing 50 feet by 5,000 feet of
runway by themselves.
The group currently is working
on a way to enable the construc-
tion vehicles to navigate
autonomously around obstacles.
"What we're trying to do is get
the machine to think 'How can I
get from point A to point B
without falling into any objects
like craters or running into any
trucks,"' Crane said. "It's job is
just to get to the goal. We've got
to be pretty accurate in our
description of the area."

To test out their theories, the
group has purchased a Kawasaki
Mule, a small, all-terrain vehicle
with a flat panel in the back.
The one-seater vehicle has roll
bars, off-road tires and a 280 cc
engine. The group is automating
the Mule's controls so it can be
run remotely, then autono-
The group purchased the Mule
so researchers wouldn't have to
travel to Tyndall Air Force Base
to perform all the experimental
trials. The base is the home of a
previously roboticized excavator
that has been the subject of
experiments to see if it could
change tools on its own and how
best to locate those tools.
Since the current contract calls
for work on navigation, Crane
said, they thought it best to
work with a smaller vehicle
closer to home. Graduate
students are helping to program
the Mule's computer to work
out how best to get to and from
different areas, using a process
called off-line path planning.
The autonomous vehicle also
will be equipped with ultrasonic
and infrared sensors to help it
detect objects in its path. "As we
move along that plan, the on-
board sensors will detect any

unexpected objects," Crane said.
"It basically has to think
on the fly."
The computer will use a
combination of an on-board
inertial guidance system and
data from global positioning
satellites to tell where it is
exactly. The first demonstration
took place in February when
Crane and the group demon-
strated the off-line path
planning and on-line path
executor through simulation.
- R.J.

Researchers Study
the Phenomena in
a Flash
Lightning bolts have captured
the interest of many throughout
the years, but only one man has
been named "The Godfather of
Lightning" by his colleagues.
Martin Uman, chairman and
professor of Electrical Engineer-
ing, received the offer of a
nickname he couldn't refuse by
pioneering lightning research for
30 years. Fascinated by
lightning's fireworks in the sky,
he has authored 115 papers, six
books and co-developed one of
the world's best systems for
locating lightning.

The l\ule's predecessor, a roboticized
excavator at Tyndall Air Force Base,
was the tirst test vehicle.



"Lightning is fascinating.
Everybody sees it, and yet, for
some reason, it has been a
neglected field of study," Uman
said. "This location research has
influenced everything from
weather projections and fire-
fighting expenses to where
airplanes fly."
A lightning flash is instanta-
neous, unpredictable and over in
only one second. Uman and
others have broken down the
actual flash, using high-speed
data acquisition systems and
computers, to study the event
microsecond by microsecond.
Research at the UF Lightning
Research Laboratory, which
Uman oversees, is focused on
four main projects: the basic
physics of the
remotely I-
locating and S
izing f _SBE
in-cloud U
direct and induced effects on
overhead power lines, and,
finally, artificially induced
The newest study involves
measuring the electric and
magnetic fields within 30 miles
of lightning. Five antennas are
set up in a network, with each
one capable of detecting the
pulses from a lightning flash up
to 30 miles away. A computer
will use the arrival times of the
pulses to record the exact point
in space and time at which the
lightning produced the signal.
This project is directed by Ewen
Thomson, associate professor of
Electrial Engineering. A second
new project involves measure-


ments of electric fields 30 meters
from artificially induced
The results of this study will
help researchers understand how
lightning strikes the earth. The
research should allow specific
understanding of the charge
distribution of leaders the
actual channel of electrons that
bolt to the ground and return
strokes the upward move-
ment of electrons from the
ground up that makes
lightning visible.
As "The Godfather of Light-
ning," Uman's exhilaration at
studying lightning is challenged
only by his eagerness to unmask
the mysteries that lie ahead.
According to Uman, there are


"What we don't ur
about lightning ar
important parts an
difficult to study.
remain unanswere
with a sigh. "How
started? And how
decide what to hit
started, we have an
top and the bottom
well understood."
As more technically
equipment become
Uman and his coli
to unravel the mys
lightning and its fl
"Thirty years of sti
lightning is a long
said, "but it's been
and I've had a lot o
- L.R.

lightning and
plenty of
research still
out there that

~~.-~.~ :-r- ~- '
; : i. ,
I-~"~';"' ` ar~r~tr~~..
'.~i~Bi J;~

S since the fall 1991 issue,
we have received only two
letters to the editor, which are
printed below. We greatly
appreciate the time taken by
DonaldA. Eckler and Jennifer
Green-Esping to write in and
we encourage more ofyou to do
the same. This space belongs to
you, the alumni of the UF
College ofEngineering. Space
permitting, we will try to print
every letter we receive. Some
letters may be editedfor style or
length, but we willprint each
letter as much as possible. We
hope you all have a successful
1992 and will write to share
your successes with us.

Richard Jones, EDITOR

will keep him I attended the Civil Engineering
very busy. reunion Nov. 16, the same day
understand as the Florida-Kentucky football
e the most game. I enjoyed meeting my
d the most former professors and class-
Two questions mates, meeting new civil
d," Uman said engineering students and the
is lightning excitement of a football game at
exactly does it Ben Hill Griffin Stadium.
? Once it gets After talking with several of my
iswers, but the former professors about the
n ends aren't College of Engineering, the
budget constraints and their
y advanced effect on the educational system,
:s available, it became clear that our
leagues hope engineering schools desperately
tery of need additional financial
ashy antics. support. It is much more
dying difficult for the College of
time," Uman Engineering to obtain financial
a good time support than it is for the athletic
f fun." department to sell out football
I must admit that it is a great
deal of fun to spend a Saturday
afternoon watching the Florida
Gators play football on Florida

Field, but what makes our
involvement in this activity
possible? It is the education we
have received from our engineer-
ing schools at the University of
When you consider the cost of
two tickets, hotel rooms, meals
and gas for a weekend and
football game, you have spent
close to $500. THIS IS FOR
END! Think of how much you
have spent if you bought season
I think it is great that the
engineering education we
received at the University of
Florida provides us with the
financial ability to enjoy our
weekends in this manner. Let's
also consider the financial needs
of our College of Engineering.
The next time you sit down to
write a check to the athletic
department for football tickets,
please write a check to the
College of Engineering in an
equal amount as a way of saying
"Thank you" for the education
which allows you to enjoy your
weekends at Florida Field.
Donald A. Eckler, P.E.
CE, 1974
Coral Springs, Fla.

As a former student of Dr.
(Ellis) Verink, I must say that
your article doesn't begin to
touch on what a wonderful,
caring and inspiring person and
professor that he is. He is truly a
blessing to the Materials
Science & Engineering
Department and the university.
I will never forget him.
Jennifer Green-Esping
MSE, 1989
Ponte Vedra Beach, Fla.

Rene Mont Rogers, EE, is
continuing research on micro-
wave vacuum tubes as a senior
scientist for Litton Electron
Devices in San Carlos, Ca.
Norman Edward Singletary,
AeMES, has been enjoying his
retirement for the last three
years after working 38 years with
Martin Marietta in Orlando.
His last position was as the
senior member of the profes-
sional staff at the company.

Paul C. Rosser, EE, a Rear
Admiral in the U.S. Naval
Reserves recently retired from
the Naval Reserve and relin-
quished command of the
16,000-person Reserve Naval
Construction Force (RNCF).
Rosser entered the Naval
Reserve upon release from active
duty in 1964 and was named
Commander of the RNCF in
1989. In civilian life, Rosser is
chairman and chief executive
officer of Rosser FABRAP
International, an architectural
and engineering services firm
based in Atlanta, Ga.

Charles B. Carroll, ME, has
been named director of the
Integrated Technology Products
Laboratory for the Electronic
and Product Systems Research
Division of the David Sarnoff
Research Center in Princeton,
N.J. The center is a subsidiary of
SRI International.

Arthur N. L. Chiu, Ph.D. CE,
has been elected to the grade of
Honorary Member of the
American Society of Civil


FrankJ.Jamison III, P.E., EE,
MS EE, has been designated as
Engineer of the Year for the
Naval Training Systems
Command and the Naval Air
Systems Command. He works
as the head of the special
systems branch of the Naval
Training Systems Center
in Orlando.

Bob F. Henderson, ME, has
been named manager of quality
assurance and international
industrial engineering for
Armstrong World Industries'
Floor Products Operations,
based in Lancaster, Pa.
James R. ThompsonJr., ME,
the recipient of UF's first
master's degree in engineering
awarded to a student who
completed all studies at an off-
campus location, was awarded
the Holley Medal from the
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers during the
organization's 1991 Winter
Annual Meeting. Thompson,
deputy administrator at NASA,
received the award for major
technical advances in propulsion
technology for manned space
flight and, specifically, the
development of the Space
Shuttle main engine, the largest
liquid hydrogen rocket engine,
which produced the highest
performance of a rocket engine
in history.
Bruce D. Roberts, MS ISE, has
been named vice president of
engineering for Unisys Group's
Electronic and Information
Systems Group, headquartered
in Eagan, Minn.

David Michael Miller, CE,
recently completed an assign-
ment as resident engineer for
Universal Studios during
construction of Universial
Studios Florida in Orlando. He
now has returned to consulting
with Post, Buckley, Schuh
&Jernigan, Inc. in
Melbourne, Fla.

SamuelJoseph Brown, P.E.,
MS AeMES, has been named a
fellow of the American Society
of Civil Engineers and was the
principal author and editor of a
book called "The Product
Liability Handbook: Prevention,
Risks, Consequences and
Forensics of Product Failure."
He works as the president and
consultant for Quest Engineer-
ing Development in
Houston, Tx.

William Andrew Berky, ME,
recently was elected as president
and chief executive officer of
Overman Associates, a mid-size
consulting engineering firm in
Virginia Beach, Va.

John H. Schmelzer, ISE, is
working on a real estate/
cigarette factory project in a
joint venture in Moscow, Russia.
He works as the manager of
industrial engineering for
Liggett Group, Inc. in
Durham, N.C.

Gregory S. Parnell, MS ISE,
has been selected for promotion
to Colonel in the U.S. Air
Force. He is assigned to the

Pentagon, where he serves as
chief of the Resource Analyses
Division, of the USAF Studies
and Analyses Agency.
Steven Martin Day, MS NES,
has been elected as a partner in
the architect engineering firm of
Black & Veatch in Overland
Park, Ks.

Frederick E. Henry, NES, MS
NES, has been named engineer-
ing supervisor for Duke
Engineering and Services, Inc.
of Charlotte, N.C.
Brian R. McMahon, AE, MS
AE, received the 1991 Sunkist
Young Designer Award,
presented annually by the
American Society of Agricul-
tural Engineers. McMahon won
the award for his work in
irrigation and water

Robert E. "Buck"Joslin, ME,
has been selected to attend the
U.S. Naval Test Pilot School
following a successful tour as a
presidential pilot with Marine
Helicopter Squadron One. Joslin
is a major in the U.S. Marine
Corps and is stationed in
Quantico, Va.

James W. Vearil, EES, MS
EES, 1990, serves as a hydraulic
engineer in the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers.

Timothy Lance Blankenship,
EE, is a staff engineer in the
Military and Aerospace Division
of Harris Semiconductor in
Melbourne, Fla., and has been
granted four U.S. patents.


Michael Eugene Frye, EE, is
working as the instrument
maintenance supervisor for the
Sequoyah Nuclear Plant in
Soddy Daisy, Tn.
T. Neil Peters, EES, has been
named as a principal of ERM
Inc., of Exton, Pa. Peters serves
as the Richmond, Va.,
branch manager.

John P. Rutte, P.E., CE, MS
CE, is a systems design engineer
for Lockheed Space Operations
Co. in Titusville, Fla., and is
responsible for Space Shuttle
external tank and solid rocket
booster access and handling

William E. Schaefer, P.E., CE,
recently was promoted to vice
president over all corporate
engineering for GWL Environ-
mental Consultants, Inc. of
Jacksonville, Fla.
Ronald R. Bliwernitz, MSE,
works as an inspection manager
for Morton Thiokol in
Huntsville, Ala.

Brian S. Cumming, ME, is a
senior associate with Ralph
Hahn and Associates, Consult-
ing Engineers, and is in charge
of the Orlando branch office.
Cumming specializes in energy

Russell Gary Daly, CE, is
serving on the Electronic Data
Collection Technical Advisory
Committee in charge of training
and production in the Florida
Department of Transportation's
third district. He works for the
FDOT as an assistant profes-
sional land surveyor in the
Chipley, Fla., office.

Anthony C. Schneider, EE, is
finishing up a two-year study of
Toshiba Japan's design and
development of inverters.
Schneider currently is living in
Yokkaichi, Japan.

Jennifer Mary Cahill, ISE, has
been hired as a sales engineer for
General Electric Co. in
Charlotte, N.C.

KeithJoseph Carew, ISE, is the
production manager and
hardware designer for carbon
fiber masts, which are being
used in the America's Cup yacht
competition. He works for
International Marine Industries/
Sparcraft in Santa Ana, Ca.
Timothy Trase Travers, CE, is
employed as the safety engineer
responsible for the review of
missile systems and hazardous
procedures for range safety
compliance at Patrick Air Force
Base, in Cape Canaveral, Fla.
He works as a safety supervisor,
engineering, for Johnson
Controls World Services.
Christopher Winiewicz, ISE,
has finished a NASA training
program and now is working at
Kennedy Space Center as a cost
engineer. The work consists of
putting together estimates and
schedules for new programs and
future launch vehicles.

fgon TB. 5eet"

I Thrasher I

gineering community throughout Florida was sad-

dened in December to learn of the death of Leon B.

"Skeet" Thrasher, the College of Engineering's oldest

alumnus. fThrasher, who graduated with a bachelor's degree in civil

engineering in 1913, died Dec. 08,1991, just a week before he was to

celebrate his 100th birthday. He was the oldest UF alumnus and the

oldest Gator letterman, having lettered as a baseball shortstop in 1911

and 1912. IThrasher received his nickname, "Skeet," because of his

small stature as a young boy. But he grew up to become one of the

biggest names in Florida's roads. lBeginning work with the newly

formed State Road Department in 1919, Thrasher supervised the

building of every paved road in Marion County, as the District 4

engineer responsible for 15 counties. IThrasher's claim to fame in

road construction was building US 441 across Payne's Prarie between

Gainesville and his birthplace, Micanopy. Nicknamed "Thrasher's

Folly" by those who thought the road would sink into the marsh, that

stretch of US 441 between the two cities now is named after Thrasher.

fAt the time of his death, Thrasher lived in Ocala with his two daugh-

ters, Louise Carpenter and Rosemary Greene. He is survived by his

two daughters, five grandchildren and seven great-grandchildren.





Martin Eisenberg, chairman
and professor ofAeMES, has
been elected to a three-year term
on the board of directors of the
Society of Engineering Science.
The society was founded in 1963
to foster and promote the
interchange of ideas and
information among various
fields of engineering science.
In October, Eisenbergwas
elected to a two-year term as
chairman of the National
Council of Space Grant



Jonathan Earle, assistant
professor, has been appointed to
the Florida Governor's Recy-
cling Markets Advisory
Committee and will work with
Viessman on the Minority
Engineering Doctorate
Otto J. Loewer, formerly of
the University ofArkansas, will
assume the chairmanship of the
department during the spring
1992 semester. Loewer will
replace Gerald W. Isaacs, who
retired in August 1991.


Andrew J.
accepted the
ties of
Dean for

effective Feb. 10 of 1992. Evans,
also associate professor of Civil
Engineering, received his
doctorate in that department
from UF in 1975 and was the
program manager in the
technical division at Santa Fe
Community College, with
responsibility for programs in
Natural Resources and Engi-
neering Technology.




Robert G. Dean, graduate
research professor, has accepted
the position of chairman of the
and began his
termJan. 1.
Dean said he
is looking
forward to
serving as
chairman. "I
do see a lot of opportunities for
our department and our field in
terms of education, research and
service to the state. I think this
kind of change is good and I look
forward to the challenges of the
Dean took over the chairman-
ship from Hsiang Wang, who
has returned to the faculty where
he will continue pursuing his
teaching and research interests.




Stanley Y.W. Su, professor of
CIS and Electrical Engineering
and director of the Database
Systems Research and Develop-
ment Center, has been elected
trustee and treasurer of the Very
Large Data Base Endowment, an

international organization
overseeing the conduct of the
annual international conference,
publication of a journal and
organization of tutorials.
Julius T.
emeritus of
CIS and
Engineering -
and director
of the Center for Information
Research, has been named a life
member of the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE). Tou retired
as ofJan. 1.



Alex Domijan, assistant
professor and director of the
Florida Power Affiliates, is a
senior member of the Associa-
tion of Energy Engineers.
Ramu Ramaswamy,
professor and director of the
Photonics Research Laboratory,
has been elected fellow of the
Optical Society of America. He
also was elected fellow of IEEE
through the Lasers and Electro-
optics Society.
Yangesh C. Trivedi, lecturer
at the UF/University of North
Florida joint program, has
advanced from secretary to
chairman oftheJacksonville
section of IEEE.




Warren Viessman Jr.,
associate dean for academic
programs, alongwithJonathan
Earle, assistant professor of


Agricultural Engineering, will
administer a $1.08 million
National Science Foundation
grant for the college's Minority
Engineering Doctorate


D. Jack Elzinga, chairman
and professor, has been named
chairman of the American
Program of the EURO XII/
TIMS XXXI Joint International
Conference to be held in
Helsinki, Finland, June 29-July
1. The Institute of Management
Sciences (TIMS) conference will
feature more than 800 technical
presentations with an attendance
expected to exceed 1,000
professionals in operations
research and management
Richard L. Francis,
professor, has been named
associate editor of the new
journal, Location Science. He also
is co-author of the second
edition of the book, "Facility
Layout and Location: An
Analytical Approach," with L.F.
McGinnis and JA. White.
Chung-Yee Lee, P.E.,
associate professor, has been
named associate editor oflIE
Transactions, the leading research
journal of industrial engineering.
He also is department editor for
a special edition of the journal
IEE Transactions on Scheduling
and Logistics in the Manufacturing
and Assembly ofElectronic
Products. Lee also is president-
elect of the American Chinese
Management Education
Suleyman Tufekci, associate
professor, is the co-editor of the
Proceedings of the NATO
Advanced Studies Institute

conference on "New Frontiers in
the Theory and Practice of
Combinatorial Optimization"
published by Springer-Verlag.
Tufekci was the director of the
conference, which took place in
Ankara, Turkey, in 1990.


Larry Hench, graduate
research professor and director,
Bioglass Research Center, has
been named as a fellow of the
American Institute of Medical
and Biological Engineering.


Erskine Crossley, adjunct
professor, received the Machine
Design Award at the ASME's
Design Automation Conference
held in Miami Sept. 22-25. He
received the award for
distinguished contributions to
the mechanics of machinery as
teacher and professional
Winfred M. Phillips, dean,
has been appointed by Gov.
Lawton Chiles to the Southern
Technology Council. The
council examines the role of
science and technology in
Southern economic
Phillips also has been named as a
fellow of the American Institute
of Medical and Biological
George N. Sandor, P.E.,
research professor emeritus, has
been named an Honorary
Member of the American Society
of Mechanical Engineers.
Sandor was honored for more
than 50 years as an engineer,
researcher, educator and friend

of the mechanical engineering
community, for making
multifaceted contributions to
machine design, and establishing
an international reputation as a
leader in the field.



M. Jack Ohanian, associate
dean for research and adminis-
tration, was elected Secretary/
Treasurer of the American
Association of Engineering
Societies at the December 1991
meeting of the organization's
board of governors. His term
runs for one year and
began Jan. 1.
S. Roessler,
professor, has
been named a
fellow of the
Society and is
editor in chief
of the society's newsletter. She
also is a member of the technical
steering panel of the U.S.
Department of Energy's
Hanford Environmental Dose
Reconstruction Project.
William C. Vernetson,
associate engineer and director
of nuclear facilities, is chairman-
elect for the National
Organization ofTest, Research
and Training Reactors Novem-
ber 1991 through October 1992.


The smell of smoke from the
smoldering charcoal permeated
the warm fall air outside Weil
Hall Nov. 16, as almost 200 civil
engineering alumni, family,
staff, students and friends
gathered for the
first Civil Engi-
neering Alumni
A clash of colors
ran riot that
Saturday as orange-
Gator fans mingled
on the green lawn
under a yellow and
white striped tent,
chewing on
hotdogs, hamburg-
ers and chips.
Paul Y. Thompson,
chairman and '
professor of the
department, said he
was thrilled by the
response to the
barbecue. "We had
never done "
anything like this
before in all the .
years of the
department so we
decided to give it a
try," he said.
Those attending ,
the barbecue were
witness to an almost singular
event, Thompson and two
former department chairmen
were present at the same time.
The department has had only
22 five chairmen since it was
founded in 1905.
Ralph Kluge, who was chairman
for so long (1951-69) because,
"They couldn't get rid of me,"
said he had looked forward to
having a good time at
the barbecue.

"I think this barbecue was a
great idea," he said. "I'm a little
disappointed I didn't see more
of my older students here, but
maybe I'll see them later."
Less than two minutes after
saying that, a younger man
walked up to Kluge and said,

In addition to the fun, the UF
student chapter of the American
Society of Civil Engineers took
the time to name Byron
Spangler, professor emeritus of
Civil Engineering, as "Professor
Of The Century" for all his hard
work in the department for the
students and the profession.

"Through all the work
he's done for ASCE here
and nationally, he's
affected the life of
probably every civil
engineer in the country,"
said chapter president
Roger Rossitto.
Spangler, coming to the
microphone to receive
the award, looked just as
surprised as he said he

"Prof. Kluge, I know you don't
remember me, but .."
Jim Schaub, chairman from
1969-87, said he enjoyed the
"It's terrific because you get
people like Jim Shivler (class of
1938) who's well known
nationally to come back," he
said. "That's what's so great
about this; that we can get
people from years past to
come back."

"I had no idea anything
like this was coming up,"
he said. "I appreciate it very
much and I appreciate all of you
showing up to say hello. We
look forward to seeing more of
you in the future."
Thompson said that just may be
"We're going to do it again, but
whether it's going to be every
year or every other year, I'm not
sure," he said. "We think it was
a big success and everybody
enjoyed it." R.J.


A career in sales engineering is
one of the surest paths engineers
can take to owning their own
business, said Pensacola
businessman Jack W. Sparks.
Sparks, owner and president of
Systems Engineering Research
Facilities, Inc. serfF), was the
guest speaker at the fall '91
session of the Harbert S.
Gregory Distinguished Lecture
Series on Oct. 31, at theJ.
Wayne Reitz Union Audito-
"It takes a lot of hard work and
determination to own and run
your own business," he told the
350 people attending the lecture.



Sales engineers usually are
people with a lot of experience
in engineering, who, in addition
to selling their company's wares,
also must sell themselves to
potential buyers.
"The most successful sales
engineers are the ones who are
friends with their clients,"
Sparks said. "I assure you, some
of my best clients are some of
my best friends."
Sparks, who received bachelor's,
master's and doctoral degrees in
mechanical engineering from
UF, formed SERF in 1972 and
dedicated the company to the
design and development of
mechanical equipment. While
the company has broadened its
area of interest, Sparks said, it
still takes on jobs in the $10,000
to $400,000 range.
"When you're given a contract
that everybody says can't be
done, it's a real joy to take it on
and be able to do it," he said.
Established by Mr. and Mrs.
Harbert S. Gregory in 1986
with a $200,000 endowment to
the college, the lecture series is
designed to encourage engineer-
ing students to consider careers
in the sales and entrepreneurial
aspects of engineering.
Sparks, who gives talks almost
every year to the college's
mechanical engineering
graduates, said he is thrilled to

be able to inject some real-world
business sense into students'
college experience. "So many
people just don't know what
they want to do when they
graduate," he said. "The don't
know what it's like outside
of college." R.J.




Transportation professionals
from across the state gathered in
Gainesville last November to
participate in the Florida
Transportation Forum 1991.
About 225 people took part in
the forum, which was a
successor to a series of Highway
Conferences last held in 1974,
said organizer Ralph Ellis,
assistant professor of Civil
Charles Wallace, director of the
Transportation Research Center
in the department of Civil
Engineering, said he was excited
by the enthusiasm of the forum
"The attendance far exceeded
our highest expectations," he
said. "The technical sessions
were, by all the reports I
received, outstanding. I sat
through a few myself and they
were very well done."

Among the presentations were
sessions on minimizing
construction contract disputes,
freeway management systems,
intelligent corridor systems,
innovations in highway
materials and construction
techniques, total quality
management and intelligent
vehicle-highway systems.
The two-day conference, held
Nov. 14-15 at the Gainesville
Hilton, focused on building for
Florida's future, with an
emphasis on planning, design
and construction of highways.
Fitting in with the theme was
the keynote speaker for the
forum banquet, Ben Watts,
secretary of the Florida
Department of Transportation.
Watts, who in 1989 was named
interim secretary and then
secretary of the FDOT, said the
shifting population face of
Florida and new state laws are
changing the ways transporta-
tion policy is made.
'Traditionally, roads deter-
mined where growth occurred in
Florida," he said. "Now, land
use decisions, approved by local
governments, determine where
transportation facilities are
placed. We must understand we
cannot build enough roads in
Florida to meet the transporta-
tion needs, not only now in
certain parts of the state, but
certainly in a great majority of
the state in the next 20 years."
To help meet the transportation
challenge, Watts said, the
FDOT that very day had
announced a major new policy
that will limit all interstate
roadways in Florida to only
10 lanes.
"The urban areas will have six
regular lanes to be used by local
traffic, and there will be two
additional lanes in each
direction that will be physically
separated from the regular lanes
and they will be for the exclusive
use of through traffic, transit

vehicles and high-occupancy
vehicles with at least three
people in that vehicle," he said.
"It provides incentives for
people to get out of the one
person-one vehicle mode that is
at the heart of our congestion on
the interstate system today."
Ellis said some of those
challenges could be addressed at
future Transportation Forums,
which could be held every
two years.
"I think the attendance levels
indicate that there's a high level
of interest and common concern
among the professional people
in the state with transportation,
engineering and construction,"
he said. "I think the forum's
success will add to its credibility
and it'll again be a well-attended
function in the future." R.J.







The Society of Engineering
Science (SES) began a new
tradition this November by
inviting four distinguished
colleagues and honoring them
with special symposia.
Honored were A.C. Eringen,
who founded the SES in 1963 at
Princeton University and was
celebrating his 70th birthday,
John W. Hutchinson, the 1991
Prager Medalist; James K.
Knowles, the 1991 Eringen
Medalist; and Richard Skalak,
the 1991 SES Fellow designee.
More than 350 conference
attendees from the United States
and western Europe convened at
the Constans Theater in the
Reitz Union, Wednesday, Nov.


6. Hutchinson opened the
unusually well-attended meeting
with a session discussing
"Interfacial Fracture Mechanics:
Theory, Experiment and
Martin A. Eisenberg, chairman
and professor of Aerospace
Engineering, Mechanics &
Engineering Science (AeMES),
and Bhavani V. Sankar,
associate professor of AeMES,
served as conference co-
chairmen. Eisenberg credits the
high attendance and success of
the conference to the high
quality of the papers presented,
the dedication of the session
organizers and to three unprec-
edented conference
organizational initiatives:
"First, the specialized symposia
that were centered around major
themes within the conference
provided a strong focus for the
meeting. The second aspect is
we had a special National
Science Foundation- and
industry-sponsored program to
help subsidize graduate student
attendance. This resulted in
about 75 graduate students
attending from all over the
country," Eisenberg said.
"Lastly, we held a panel
discussion with representatives
from NSF, NASA and academia
discussing 'Engineering
Education and Pipeline Issues.'"
Eisenberg was the moderator
for that panel discussion and
opened with remarks titled,
24 "Research and Teaching are
not Enemies."
James Dally, representing the
University of Maryland, spoke
on "Questioning the Engineer-
ing Curriculum." Representing
NASA was Richard Devon, who

spoke on "The Pipeline
Problem: Easier Said than
Seen." Vasundara Varadan from
Penn State, spoke on "Why the
Fairy Godmother Doesn't Turn
More Little Girls into Smart
Engineers." Robert Watson
from the NSF, addressed
"Education is Everyone's
The three-day meeting included
more than 300 papers presented
in nine concurrent sessions.
Topics ranged from solid and
fluid mechanics to biomedical
engineering and electromagnetic
A.V. Srinivasan, an invited
lecturer from United Technolo-
gies Corp. discussed ways in
which engineered structures and
systems can and should mimic
natural forms in a talk titled
"Biomimetics: Natural Systems
in the Context of Engineering
Science." He emphasized the
opportunity for researchers in
engineering, botany, zoology,
and medicine, to use knowledge
gained from natural systems to
help optimize design of
engineering systems.
According to Eisenberg, SES
has been dedicated to fostering
just such interdisciplinary work
in broad areas of engineering
science, applied physics and
Also at the meeting, it was
announced that Eisenberg has
been elected to the board of
directors for the SES. "I look
forward to having a role in
developing future directions of
the society," Eisenberg said. -


After analyzing the results
through the end of the project in
early 1991, the researchers found
substantial levels of ozone, Allen
said. "The highest levels we saw
were up in the North Carolina
forest," he said. "The EPA set
an ambient air quality standard
for ozone at 120 parts per
billion. We exceeded that at the
Duke Forest site seven times in
Ozone is a phytotoxic chemical
which attacks and kills cells,
especially those in tree leaves
and needles, and seems to affect
the metabolism in some trees.
The levels of ozone exposure at
the Florida and Texas sites were
much lower than for those in
North Carolina. In fact, the acid
depositions, as well, were about
50 percent higher at the North
Carolina site compared to the
other two sites, Allen said.
"Although the acid deposition in
North Carolina is 50 percent
more than in Florida and Texas,
there doesn't seem to be any
major problem associated with
that exposure," he said. "In
terms of pine tree growth, and
the southern forests are mainly
pine species, they like acidic
soils. It appears that with the
type of trees grown down here
for commercial purposes, acid
rain is good, rather than bad,
for them."
It is apparent contradictions like
this, between accepted knowl-
edge and scientific fact, that can
cause some people to see the
environment as conflicting
forces combining to create a
chaotic whole. Engineering, on
the other hand, seems to be a
world of straight lines and
precise measurements. But for
Odum, the director of UF's
Center for Environmental
Policy, these are part of
one system.

"We believe the environment
works on the same principles of
thermodynamics and hierarchi-
cal organization and organizes
with some of the same math-
ematical principles we find in
engineering," he said. "For the
past 40 years, we've been trying
to put these two together; first
finding out if they have
processes in common, then
dealing with the combined
system of the two."
This new field is called ecologi-
cal economics. The key to his
system, Odum said, is reinforce-
ment between engineering,
economics and the environment.
"That requires that you ask a
larger-scale question," he said.
"You don't say, 'What do you
want me to build and I'll do a
good job.' You say, 'What's the
problem and I'll tell you how to
fit a design with the environ-
ment so that the environment
works for us at the same time.'
"Our work is an example of this
fitting together called ecological
engineering. But to decide what
to do, you have to put a value on
it. That is where ecological
economics comes in. We use the
value of real wealth, EMERGY,
defined as the work done to
make anything, expressed in
emjoules, units of a kind of
According to Odum's theory,
"choosing actions and patterns
with the greatest EMERGY
contribution to the public
economy maximizes public
wealth, a healthy economy and
environmental harmony."
In the first chapter of "EMERGY
and Policy," Odum writes, "If
the designs of society that
maximize wealth can be
determined from scientific and
engineering principles, then
better choices are possible with
less trial and error and less
adversary confrontation. EMERGY
evaluations and designs based on
unchanging physical measures

may provide an efficient and
predictable means for achieving
public wealth and a sustainable
Although energy analysis has
been tried before, it has had
limited success because people
compared things of different
quality, like vegetables and
manatees, Odum said.
"To compare the different
elements, we have made tables
of what's called transformity, to
tell how much this kind of
energy (or EMERGY) is required
to make another kind," he said.
"That way, we can make fast
calculations about what an
environment's worth, or what a
housing development is worth to
the public economy."
For example, suppose questions
arise about incurring extra
construction costs in order to
avoid wetland damage. Ecologi-
cal economics, Odum said, can
help to determine which plan is
best by evaluating which plan
gives the most EMERGY,
considering environmental work
and human users.
"You can't do that with money
because the environment's useful
work in maintaining water
quality, wildlife and aesthetics is
not paid for and does not show
up in costs," he said. "Money is
only paid to people. By
measuring the work that nature
is doing, we can convert it back
into dollars and help make
public decisions."


Odum said ecological economics
is the opposite of traditional,
market-oriented economics, in
that EMERGY emphasizes the
worth of something to the
public, rather than to an
individual or business.
"If you maximize a state's
EMERGY, you maximize its
wealth and that means the
money will buy more. When fish
are abundant, the price is lower
and the market says it's not as
valuable," he said. "However,
that's when people have the
higher standard of living because
they can get a lot more
fish cheaply."
Odum is not alone in attempt-
ing to integrate engineering and
environmentalism. Many
members of the Gator Engi-
neering faculty are making a
healthy environment part of
their work.
"The overall goal of engineering
is to hook humans and nature up
in symbiotic interfaces," said
Brown, associate scientist of
Environmental Engineering
Sciences. "Instead of making
good, efficient technological
solutions that ignore the
environment, we need to make
good, efficient solutions that not
only solve their particular
problem, but that benefit the
environment as well." *


rmnin Te

1962, judges innovation
and technology in a
historical perspective.

For him, the term "state-of-the-
art" can mean anything from
current technology, such as that
embodied in the F-119
advanced tactical fighter engine,
to the ribbed washboard clothes
used to be rubbed on when
washing them in a tub of
soapy water.
Of course, the ribbed board was
only state of the art to those
using it in the past, but it still
fascinates Gillette.
"I'm very interested in washing
machines," Gillette said. "Our
living room has antique washing
machine items in it. The thing
that amazes me is what people
went through and what they
invented to wash their clothes.

"You really have to respect the
people who lived during the
beginning of our country; how
they had the ingenuity to make
levers work and how they used




things to get mechanical
advantages. They were all
engineers, because, in the early
days, people had to be creative
and do everything for them-
selves. We need to have that
same creativity and motivation
to keep our country strong
and competitive."
Gillette's fascination with
antiques also extends to trains,
both model and real. He said he
has possibly the largest collec-
tion of brakeman's lanterns in
the United States and every year
during Christmas he and his
son, Joe, start rigging up their
electric trains throughout
the house.
"We have four generations of
electric trains, my grandfather's,
my father's, mine and my boy's,"
Gillette said. "I can remember
growing up when we couldn't
afford switches for the trains. I
would take a piece of straight
track, a piece of curved track,
some springs and orange crates
and make my own switches. I
did that when I was 12 and we
still have them on display.
"I learned a lot from playing
with electric trains when I was a
kid. I learned about electrical
and mechanical things from
tearing engines down and
putting them back together."
When Gillette, 54, leaves off
perusing the past through his
study of antiques, he heads to
work at United Technologies/
Pratt & Whitney in West Palm
Beach, where he is director
of engineering on the
F-119 program.
The U.S. Air Force awarded the
contract to build the engine for
the F-119 advanced tactical
fighter to Pratt & Whitney in
1991, following 10 years of work
by Gillette and his team.

While designing and building
the engine, there was a joke
running through the halls of
Pratt & Whitney that you had
to be a Gator to work on the
team. Although Gillette denies
using only UF graduates, his
love of his alma mater did
shine through.
"All the electrical harnesses -
which have a lot of wires
running through them were
orange and blue," he said.
"Channel A is blue and channel
B is orange and we won with
those. I guess when you're the
boss, you can get orange and
blue harnesses. Of course, some
of the people from Auburn said
that orange and blue was for
them too."
As might be guessed by the
orange and blue harnesses,
Gillette continues to be a big
supporter of the University of
Florida and Gator athletics.
Gillette said he tries to come up
to Gainesville for every home
football game. His support for
the Gators was evident during
the 1991 Tennessee game.
Gillette wore a Gator shirt,
orange pants, an orange and blue
jacket and even Gator
tennis shoes.
Although one would not expect
someone born in Willoughby,
Ohio, to grow up to be a Florida
Gator, Gillette's selection of a
college becomes clearer when he
says he grew up in Orlando and
graduated from William R.
Boone High School.
"I've always liked to tinker, like
with cars, and I've always been
mechanically inclined," he said.
"Growing up in an orange grove,
I thought I'd go into landscape
But Gillette's career plans
changed when the Soviet Union
launched the first man-made
satellite Sputnik in 1957.

"Our Vanguard rocket failed and
we were having trouble putting
the Redstone rocket up," he
said. "When the Russians got
their Sputnik up, I thought,
'Man, that's exciting' and that's
when I decided to go into
engineering. It was exciting
because it was a new era and I
wanted to build a rocket."

But before Gillette could go
build a rocket, he first had to
finish college. During his college
years, Gillette married his high
school sweetheart, Jane. In his
senior year, Gillette and his wife
had twin daughters. Now 29,
Jana, the older by six minutes, is
a paralegal and Gina, the
younger twin, recently began
work on an MBA.
"We lived with them in Flavet
II, where Beatty Towers is
located now," Gillette said. "I
had a good time there. I used to
take the twins for stroller rides
down by the sororities across the
street. All the girls would come
out and take a look at
these twins."
But going through school with
two infant daughters was not an
easy thing to do. "My wife and I
averaged three hours sleep a
night during the week and we
struggled through it," Gillette
said. "I remember going to class
one morning at 7 a.m. and
somebody waking me up at 11
a.m. I slept through a couple of
classes and never knew it."

D despite the hardships,
Gillette said he and Jane, who
worked as a secretary in the
office of the Dean of Men,
enjoyed their time at UF.
"I wish the students now had the
same luxury we did," he said. "I
never locked up a bicycle the
whole time I was here. And
every major building had apples
on sale in front of it for a nickle.
You just walked up to the box,

threw in a nickel and got an
apple. Maybe that's why we
were so healthy going
through school."
The couple's third child, Joe, 23,
was born after they had moved
to West Palm Beach. Joe, a
mechanical engineering student
at UF, said he is beginning to
think it is almost inevitable that
he follow in his father's
"Initially, I wanted to go to
medical school, which I still
haven't ruled out," Joe Gillette
said. "As a young kid, I wanted
to be a pediatrician or an
orthopedic surgeon, but I was
interested in the work my dad
did, like with the fighter planes,
and it seemed so exciting that I
wanted to get into that type
of field."

F allowing his 1962 gradua-
tion, Gillette and family went to
West Palm Beach, where
Gillette began working for Pratt
& Whitney.
"At that time, I wanted to be a
rocket scientist," he said. "When
I interviewed Pratt & Whitney,
they were making the RL-10
rocket, which was the first liquid
hydrogen rocket. I had the
opportunity to not only design
the rocket chamber, but to put
together the computer program
that selected how the 960 tubes
were to be assembled."
Gillette worked in rockets for
about five years before he went
into jet propulsion, where he has
stayed ever since. In 1980,
Gillette, then 42, was chosen to
be the engineering manager to
develop the engine for the
advanced tactical fighter. After
10 years of hard work, the
company was notified that it had
won the contract to produce the
engine. In 1991, Gillette was
appointed director of engineer-
ing programs, F-119 Engine
Projects for Government p




Engines and Space Propulsion
at Pratt & Whitney, where he
provides leadership to 900
engineering employees respon-
sible for the design, analysis,
development testing, production
transition and engineering
support of the F-119
engine program.
Gillette credits the education
he received at UF for helping
him succeed.
"I think that's what enabled me
to progress at work and what
enabled me to become the
Engineer of the Year for 1990
and perform like I did," he said.
Gillette received the award from
the American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics at
the International Aerospace
Engineering conference in Los
Angeles, CA.
At the Engineering Advisory
Council Meeting in January,
Gillette was presented with a
distinguished service award by
Winfred M. Phillips, dean of
the college. Among his
engineers at Pratt &Whitney,
Gillette said he tries to instill the
philosophy of patience,
persistence and honesty.
"I think that combination will
produce a winner," he said.
"Another word for honesty is
integrity. You've got to have
integrity in what you're doing.
You've got to, in your own
conscience, know you're doing
your best. Also you have to have
integrity with other people. It's
28 really easy to take the easy way
out. Integrity sometimes is a
tough thing to maintain."
In a company newsletter,
Gillette said honesty and
integrity have helped him in his
dealings with the U.S. Air Force
during the F-119 work.

"The Air Force has been kind to
me when I've goofed up and I
had to admit it," he said. "They
can accept that. What they can't
accept is people who lie
and lose credibility."
Even though he is kept busy at
work, Gillette still manages to
get back to UF as often as he
can, and the number of trips has
increased since he became the
corporate executive for United
Technologies Corp. who works
with the university. Gillette is
the person who coordinates the
project for anything United
Technologies does with
or for UF.

I addition, Gillette has
served on the college's Engi-
neering Advisory Council for
about four years.
"I'm motivated to do it for two
reasons," he said. "One: I'm very
grateful that I had the opportu-
nity to come to this school and I
want to help it. Two: If there's
anything that we can do to guide
or give information to the
university to make the students
better when they come out to
industry, that helps not only the
university, but also industry.
"We keep trying to get a better
quality of students, which is
happening. Our businesses will
only thrive through
Through his work with the
college and university, Gillette
said, he has become more aware
of the need to bring greater
numbers of students into the
nation's engineering programs.
To increase the number of
available, qualified engineers,
Gillette said, educators have to
start working on students before
they come to college.
"We have to start at the K-12
level and instill in people the
excitement of the art of
engineering," he said. "There are
easier ways to get a degree than

to go through the schools of
engineering. I don't think we're
going to convert people once
they get to the University of
Florida. We have to start in the
lower grades and convince
students that it's worth the
struggle and work going through
engineering schools."
"Right now in our country, there
are not a lot of people going into
the sciences, starting from
elementary school up," he said.
"We're producing 10 lawyers to
every engineer in this country.
What we need is more
technical people."
To make his point, Gillette
harkens back to his antique
washing machines and other
devices from the dawn of the
industrial age.
"What made our country great
during the industrial revolution
was engineering and ingenuity,"
he said. "We're getting to be
more of a legal- and communi-
cation-based society and a
paper-based society. What we
don't want to lose to foreign
countries is our engineering
ability to compete and be
effective and competitive."
Florida is the fourth-largest state
in the country, in terms of
population and should be doing
its part to supply the nation with
desperately needed engineers,
Gillette said.
"We've got to respond not only
to the state's requirements, but
the nation's requirements," he
said. "There's a lot of opportu-
nity for the university to get in
on the development to make this
a world-class state. And that's
my motivation: to make the
University of Florida a world-
class university." *

At the fair banquet, five students
were recognized for their work
during the past year. Those hon-
ored were: Roger Rossitto (CE),
with the Dean Weil Award; Jay
Philp (MSE) and Zaricki
(AeMES), with the leadership
awards; SeemaJagtap (CE) and
Carrie Stanbridge (CE), with the
service awards.
In addition, fair organizers were
hoping to generate an interest in
science and engineering among
youngsters from the local school
systems by sponsoring a science
fair project contest. Judges from
industry and academia offered
constructive criticism to student
sciencefairprojects. Studentswith
and ribbons, Zaricki said.
The Society of Engineering Sci-
ence received the trophy for Best
OverallTechnical Society Exhibit
for its "Imagineering" display.
The exhibit featured computer
animation, an F-16 cockpit
mockup with flight and combat
simulation, and displays on bio-
medical engineering, particle
control systems for space, robotic
putter, and the Controlled Eco-
logical Life Support System
Special events at the fair included
a paper airplane flyoff, sponsored
by Sigma Gamma Tau, the Engi-
neering Bowl, sponsored by Tau
Beta Pi, the Baby GatorNationals
PinewoodDerby, sponsoredbythe
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, the American Society
of Civil Engineers' Balsa Wood
Bridge Competition, andatricycle
race, sponsored by the UF
Institute of Transportation
Engineers. R.J.







Thinking back to his early years
in New York City during the
Great Depression, Dan Drucker
remembers that his father, an
engineer himself, did not want
his son to follow in his footsteps.
"My father wanted me to
become a dentist," Drucker said.
"I know how he picked dentistry
because we couldn't afford a
medical education but it had
absolutely no appeal to me.
"There wasn't a feeling that
unless I became a dentist he
would be very unhappy with me,

--- . .

but he thought it was the right
direction to go. During the
depression years, there were no
jobs for engineers at all, so it
didn't look like an occupation
worth pursuing."
Luckily for students at the
University of Florida, however,
Drucker decided to follow his
dreams and become an engineer.
Since then, Drucker, graduate
research professor of Aerospace
Engineering, Mechanics &
Engineering Science (AeMES),
has gone on to become one of


the few people to win both the
National Medal of Science and
the John Fritz Medal.
Typically unassuming about his
accomplishments, Drucker said
he does not make much of his
twin accomplishments, nor does
he expect others to think about
it too much.
"It's something most people
don't pay attention to, so there's
no real problem that way," he
said. "Academic life is different
from business life. In business
life, status means a great deal in
many ways. In the academic
arena, it's kind of 'What are you
doing now?' that is more
important than what you
have done."
The National Medal of Science,
given to such scientific luminar-
ies as Theodore van Karman,
pioneer in aerospace engineering
science, and John Bardeen,
winner of two Nobel prizes in
physics, is awarded for contribu-
tions to science and education.
The John Fritz Medal, given to
people such as Alexander
Graham Bell and Thomas Alva
Edison, is recognized as the
highest award given by the five
founding engineering societies.
However modest Drucker may
be about these two awards,
Martin Eisenberg, AeMES
chairman, makes up for that. In
a slideshow and presentation
about his department, Eisenberg
makes sure to point out
Drucker's accomplishments and
the company in which he stands.
In addition to winning the two
medals, Drucker in 1988 was
named by President Reagan to
serve on the National Science
Board. The board is the policy-
making body which governs the
National Science Foundation.
"It was (former UF president)
Marshall Criser who got me on
the board," Drucker said. "He
told me he had been talking
with the presidents of the 0

other state universities and they
had decided that of all the
people they knew about, I had
the best chance. That surprised
me. I think what helped avoid
political consideration was that
I've always registered as an
The 24-member National
Science Board is composed
primarily of presidents and other
senior officers of colleges,
universities, research institutes,
and industrial firms. Members
serve six-year terms. Drucker,
who will serve until 1994, is one
of two members from the
When Drucker came to UF in
1984, he expected to slide back
into the quiet contentment of
academic life after serving as the
dean of the engineering college
at the University of Illinois,
Urbana-Champaign for 16
years, and, before that, teaching
at the Division of Engineering
at Brown University, for 21
years, where he also served as
chairman. All he wanted to do
was teach and continue his
research for a couple of more
years. But then came the two
medals and his appointment to
the National Science Board.
"I didn't even join the retire-
ment system because I was sure
I wouldn't be on the active staff
for 10 years, but it turns out I
probably will," he said. "Al-
though I enjoy teaching and
research, it's primarily because
30 of the science board appoint-
ment. I need a base from which
to operate."
Drucker, 73, is no stranger to
work. When growing up in New
York City, he attended
Columbia University and
received a bachelor's degree in
1937, a master's degree in civil

engineering in 1938 and a
doctorate in pure and applied
science in 1940.
Although he has since gone on
to a career in engineering
education and research, that was
not his original career goal.
"I originally wanted to be a
design engineer, working on
bridges and tunnels," he said.
"Research was not something I
knew about until I was in school
getting my master's degree. In
Columbia, unless you did badly,
you went on to a master's
"All of a sudden, the world of
research opened up because of
one person: Ray Mindlin. At the
time, he was an instructor and
he went on to get the National
Medal of Science."
The world of research has, in
turn, rewarded Drucker for his
work. Among his other awards
for research, teaching and service
are the Timoshenko Medal of
the American Society of

Mechanical Engineers (ASME),
the first William Prager Medal
of the Society of Engineering
Sciences, the von Karman
Medal of the American Society
of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the
Lamme Medal of the American
Society of Engineering Educa-
tion (ASEE), and the
Distinguished Educator Award
of the Mechanics Division of
ASEE. In addition to writing
one book, Drucker has authored
more than 150 technical papers
and was president of ASEE,
ASME, the American Academy

of Mechanics and the Interna-
tional Union of Theoretical and
Applied Mechanics. Drucker
also is a member of the National
Academy of Engineering, a
foreign member of the Polish
Academy of Sciences, and a
fellow of the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences.

r ,.

But the awards and articles were
in the future for the then young
Drucker when he graduated
from Columbia.
After receiving his doctorate,
Drucker went on to teach at
Cornell from 1940-43. There,
engineering research continued
to sink its hooks deeply into
Drucker's soul and has yet to let
go. Since moving away from
experimental research, Drucker
has become interested in the
mathematical description of how
materials behave and in trying to
obtain more physical insight on
why materials behave as they do.

Even when describing his
research to someone unfamiliar
with engineering, Drucker's eyes
light up with a glow expressing
his love for dragging an
unknown truth into the light of
scientific scrutiny.
"In general, my work is basic
and lays the groundwork for
other people to do the applica-
tions," he said. "I don't find it
interesting to do something that
is well understood, but just
needs a little bit more here or


there. I've always moved away as
soon as the work has reached a
certain point where it's clearly
understood and accepted by
other people and they know how
to apply it. It's then not
sufficiently interesting to
me anymore.

DI rucker has been married
to his wife, Ann, for 52 years
and the couple has two children,
David Drucker and Mady
Upham. His family usually takes
up most of Drucker's time
outside his work and office.
"When I was a kid, I liked to
play games of all sorts," he said.
"But bit by bit, I gave up games.
Since then, research, in a way,
has been my hobby."
Since he began serving on the
National Science Board,
Drucker said, he has become
ever more sensitive to how
engineers and their work are
perceived by society.
"There is a shift in perception
that has gone on periodically,"
he said. "The initial use of the
word technocrat was as a good
guy, but then it became a
bad guy.
"There are obviously things that
engineers do that are helpful,
and there are things that result
from engineering which may not
be so helpful. With automotive
products, you get cars that take
you from place to place, but you
get a lot of people killed on the
highways. You always get that
mixture of good and bad."
In recent years, Drucker said,
engineers have become associ-
ated with two negative things:
war and pollution.
"It's not exactly a fair associa-
tion," he said. "It's not the
engineers who are declaring wars
or actually killing people and
polluting the environment.

"The picture of the engineer has
changed. At one time, the
engineer was thought of
primarily as a servant of society
who did the right thing when he
did what society asked. He
wasn't supposed to ask if what
society was asking for was good
or bad. I think now there's a
better understanding that
engineers should give society
what it wants, provided society
understands the consequences.
It's up to the engineers to
explain the consequences."
Although many young people
still want to become engineers,
Drucker said, there is a large and
widening gap between the
country's needs for engineers
and the number of people
willing to fill those needs.
The main product an engineer
must create, Drucker said, is a
competitive society, in terms of
goods and services, infrastruc-
ture and an appropriate defense
"Appropriate in this case means
being able to do what you want
to do economically enough to be
able to do it," he said. "We're
not in that position now by a
long shot in any of these areas.
Industry is not competitive
enough. Infrastructure costs, if
we went ahead with our present
knowledge, would bankrupt us.
Defense costs are already
doing that.
"There's a giant lack of engi-
neering knowledge as to what to
do to be able to do all these
things. We have to do them all
within our resources and we're
not doing any of them within
our resources. Engineering
provides, essentially, a basis for
economic health. If you don't
have economic health, you don't
have anything."
Drucker said he thinks one
reason for the anticipated
decline in the numbers of

engineers can be traced to not
enough effort by colleges in
recruiting and retaining
minorities and women.
"Historically, they have not
entered engineering schools in
appropriate numbers and there's
too little indication of change,"
he said. "If we project that, you
suddenly project a tremendous
drop in new engineers."
Engineering colleges can boost
the enrollment of minorities
through intensive recruiting of
minorities, and the effect can be
significant. "If you start to slack
off, however, you can see the
drop right away," Drucker said.
But, he said, engineering
colleges must continue to make
sure they graduate only qualified
"People are yelling and shrieking
about the coming dearth of
engineers for good reason. Of
course, one doesn't want to
think of schools of engineering
as just turning out fodder that
provides industry with cheap
labor," he said. "A mediocre
engineer is worse than no
engineer at all."
But a dedicated engineer like
Drucker is a wonderful find,
indeed. And Drucker said he
should be around UF for more
years to come.
"No matter what people say, as
you get older, things do go
slower. I would guess I can now
work, at most, at a third the
speed I used to work at when I
was young," he said. "In a way,
it's a disappointment, but an
expected disappointment."
In 1994, when Drucker's
appointment to the National
Science Board expires, he said
he plans to enter retirement.
"But," he said, with a twinkle in
his eye and an urgency in his
voice, "keep up on the research."

within the State University
System and the business
community. Not only would this
coalition enable decision makers
on a state, national and global
level to receive more relevant
information on environmental
issues, but also would allow
universities to better educate
students about the environment.
"Each student should have some
exposure to the concept of
environmental stewardship
talked about by Thomas
Furman," Hancock said, adding
he thought it would be advisable
to hold a special meeting of the
EAC to discuss the environ-
mental initiative.
The environmental challenges
facing humanity would be better
served by a cooperative, rather
than disparate, effort, Viessman
said. While the work of molding
a useful coalition will be worth
it, Viessman said, it will be a
"Bringing about a melding of
different disciplines, even on one
campus, is more than just
establishing an institute," he
said. "It takes a lot of work and
About 110 people, including
members of the EAC, college
faculty and special guests,
attended this event.
Other program topics included
presentations by Maryly
VanLeer Peck, president of Polk
Community College, on
"Women and Minorities: Key to
Engineering Manpower
Shortages," Charles S. Hanskat,
vice president of the Crom
Corp., on "The Importance of
Outreach Education," and a
student leadership panel
debating "Future Directions for
Engineering Education." R.J.


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