More Newspaper Articles Relating to the Memo to Members of the Task Force on Water Issues from W'm Sadowski Dated April 28, 1983

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More Newspaper Articles Relating to the Memo to Members of the Task Force on Water Issues from W'm Sadowski Dated April 28, 1983
Various Newspapers


Subjects / Keywords:
City of Tampa ( local )
City of Miami ( local )
Potable water ( jstor )
Pesticides ( jstor )
Groundwater ( jstor )
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida


Jake Varn Collection - More Newspaper Articles Relating to the Memo to Members of the Task Force on Water Issues from W'm Sadowski Dated April 28, 1983 (JDV Box 54)
General Note:
Box 17, Folder 2 ( Task Force on Water Issues, Bills Passed, Articles - 1980s ), Item 25
Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.

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Levin College of Law, University of Florida
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Levin College of Law, University of Florida
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for second

Tenik ban

?iam Iered wem Sawiss
TALLAHASSEE Florida Agriculture Department officials
asked for a second emergency ban on the use of'Temik Friday in an
effort to plug a loophole that could allow citrus growers to use the
controversial pesticide later this month.
Agriculture Commissioner Doyle d statutes bit etendng
Conner ordered a temporary ban Ma statutes prohibit extend At
after the discovery of Temik res- emergency rule he will argue that
dues in an Orange County well Jan. a new emergency has arisen since
2. A proposed rule that would ex- the discovery March 4 of Temik
tend the ban for the remainder of residues in three more Central For-
the year is pending. da wells.
Department officials fear that a Graham said the time gap could,
gap between the April 18 expiration If it is not plugged, have the effect
date for the emergency ban and the of frustrating the purposes of the
effective date of the permanent rule Agriculture Department.
would give growers the time they "This was not intended by law,
need to apply the pesticide. amd legislative remedies to this oc.
"We've got a particularly tricky curring again are being sought," he
situation here. The calendar is said
against us," department spokesman
Pete Packett said Friday. "This is
the time of the year they would be
using aldicarb [Temik's toxic ingre-
dieont. If this were the middle of N ew ban
June, we wouldn't be so worried

Conner had mid be intends to ban
use of the pesticide in Florida
through 1983 with a permanent
rule change. But legal challenges to
the year-long ban will probably
delay its effective date until after
the first ban expires, making the-
second emergency rule necessary.
Harold Brown, a Fort Pierce pes-
ticide applicator who owns citrus
goves near Indiantown. Is attack-
ing Conner's authority to extend
the ban through the rest of the year.
"The permanent rule cannot be
adopted until the challenge is dis-
posed of," said Chris Bentley, direc-
tor of the Department of Adminis-
tration's hearings division.
A hearing officer is expected to
hear a challenge to Conner's perma-
nent rule this month. Even if she
upholds the rule, however, it would
not take effect until 20 days after
her decision.
The new emergency rule would
be effective for 30 days after the
hearing officer's final order or for
90 days, whichever comes first.
Department attorney Frank Gra-
ham pointed out that although Flor-

"The [peaenl rule cannot be
adopted until the chalenge is dis
posed of," said Chris Benle, director
of the Department of Administra-
tion's hearings division.
The challenge, by causing a gap be-
tween the first emergency rule and
the permanent rule, would thwart
Conner's effort to protect the public
from the pesticide's apparent threat
to the purity of Florida s underground
drinking-water supplies, Graham
Florida's concern over Temik grew
after traces of the pesticide were
foumd in drtinhg-water wells near
citrus groves in Central Florida.
Critics say the chemical aldicarb,.
the active ingredient in Temik, is dan-
gerous to the public health The man-
ufacturer, Union Carbide. says the
pesticide is safe if used properly.
Citrus growers credit Temik with
icrasing yields and say it is one of
the mot effective pesticides on the
Brown said he will not use Temik
until all the disputes are settled. "But
I can't speak for what other growers
might do."
Arguments on the yearlong ban
will be heard by bearing officer Di-
ane Tremor in mid-April in Tallahas
see. She threw out an earlier cdl-
lege filed by Brown against the first
emergency ban
The latest emergency rule allows
Temik to be used by such establish-
ment as nurseries tor "container.
ized" plants and for experimental
purposes It also allows potato farm-
rs in Northeast Florida to use the

on1 x emiii

is filed

Agriculture Department filed another
emergency suspension yesterday of
most uses of the controversial farm
pesticide Temik. a department law- .
yer said.
"We filed a brand-new emergency
rule" said the lawyer, Frank Graham.
He said emergency rules are general-
-ly in effect for 90 days.
Earlier this year, Agriculture Com-
missioner Doyle Conner banned most
uses of Temik until April 18
Conner had said he intended to ban
use of the pesticide in Florida
through 1983 with a permanent rule
But legal challenges to the year-
long ban probably will delay its effec-
tive date until after the first ban ex-
pires, making the second emergency
rule necessary.
Harold Brown, a Fort Pierce citrus
grower and pesticide applicator. is at-
tacking Conner's authority to extend
the ban through the rest of the vrar.





To Be Submitted

Neowi-our Stof Writer
ORLANDO A multipronged re-
search program dealing with the pesti-
cide Temik was laid out here Friday by
representatives of state regulatory
agencies, the University of Florida, and
Union Carbide Agricultural Products
SIn the course of the planning session,
Union Carbide officials disclosed that
they hcpe to submit a stronger version
of the temporarilyy banned pesticide for
registration with the U.S. Environmen-
tal Protection Agency next year, and
that they are considering seeking regis-
tration for twice yearly application.
Temik is manufactured in 5, 10 and 15
Srercent formulations for use on a dozen
food and ornamental crops. Temik 20G.
for use exclusively on citrus, is being
developed primarily as a marketing
tool to prevent growers from buying
large amounts of Temik 15G in other
states where it is used on other crops
at low prices when inventories are
nigh. according to John Wichtrich. Te-
mik business manager for Union Car-
bide. Though the percentage of
aldicarb, Temik's powerful active in-
gredient. would be nigher in the new
I compound, growers would be instructed.
to apply less per acre.
Wichtrich said he wanted to "set the
record straight" regarding the compa-
ny's plans for registering the pesticide
for twice yearly or split applications.
lie said company officials are con-
vinced it's "prudent" to go ahead with
the registration plans. but they aren't
committed to it because application
during the fall rainy season "may con-
flict somewhat with our objectives of
preventing it from getting into ground-
The Union Carbide spokesmen also
said they have told EPA they don't
want to register the pesticide for use on
South Florida tomatoes because of the
danger of it getting into the Biscayne
Aquifer. "From what we know of the
Biscayne Aquifer, if you put a brick in
the soil and it got enough water on it. it
would get into that aquifer, and we've
had enough excitement on that sub-
ject," Wichtrich said. The tomato regis-
tration probably will be limited to
California, according to Robert Bert-
well, product development manager for
Temik is under a temporary ban for
most crop uses in Florida, the result of
traces of its active ingredient, aldicarb,
being found in irrigation and drinking
water wells around treated citrus
groves and a West Volusia fernery. Ag-
riculture Commissioner Doyle Conner
is trying to extend the ban through 1983
in hopes that a stepped up research ef-
for. either will exonerate the pesticide
or indicate it should be banned perma-
nently or restricted in its uses.
The company, the university, and the
state Departments of Citrus. Agricul-
ture and Environmental Regulation are

cooperating in the hurryup research
during the next nine months. Much of
the study on Temik's action in soil and
groundwater will be done in selected
groves where monitoring wells already
have produced data on aldicarb resi-
dues; those sites are in Hillsborough,
Polk, Seminole and Martin counties.
The program also calls for installing
monitoring wells next to Temik treated
potato fields in the Flagler-Putnam-St.
Johns area, which is exempt from the
temporary pesticide ban. That effort
wil be a joint project of Union Carbide
and DER.
DER also hopes to use a $55,000 EPA
grant to do a study of Temik and other
chemicals applied over a 10 year period
at the Curtis Richardson fernery in
Pierson. The grant has been approved.
but never released by EPA, according
to Rodney DeHan of DER.
J.T. Griffiths, representing a citrus
growers association, told the group Fri-
day it should seek East Coast "wet-
land" citrus sites for testing and
monitoring, as well as higher ridge
areas inland. The Union Carbide
spokesmen replied that the chosen sites
represent extremes, and data from
them can be used in a computer model
to predict what Temik will do under
certain conditions.
DeHan and Howard Rhodes of DER
expressed reservations about depen-
dence on a computer model, which was
termed ':damned critical to us" by
Union Carbide's Wichtrich. They said
such models are only as good as the
data going into them and the assump-
tions on which they're based.
One research element proposed dur-
ing the session and received enthusias-
tically by all would involve test
applications of lime to increase the al-
kalinity of soils in Temik crop areas.
Aldicarb is known to break down into
nontoxic elements faster in alkaline
conditions. John Attaway, Department
of Citrus, said it's conceivable that a
regulation could be passed requiring
the application of lime with Temik. or
that the pesticide be used only on alka-
line soils.
Citrus, fern, potato and other crop
growers all say Temik not only kills the
nematodes (microscopic root worms),
mites and other pests, but also makes
their plants cold resistant, and im-
proves yield; size and appearance of the
crops. Bertwell reported that a three
year study is under way at North Caro-
lina State University to try to deter-
mine what produces the growth
response. Tests with soybeans have
produced up to 50 percent more root
and shoot growth. 126 percent more
seed and 78 percent more germination,
he said. Wichtrich, however, cautioned
that the results are "too inconclusive to
Representatives of the university's
Institute for Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences (IFAS) said growth regulation

also is being studied by their research-
ers and is not producing such positive
Dr. C.H. Van Middelem. chief of
chemistry for the Agriculture Depart-
ment. said his office has received com-
plaints about the exemption of potted
plants in nurseries from the Temik
ban: he suggested some effort be made
to study Temik's use and effects in
nurseries Wichtrich agreed the compa-
ny will contact state nursery growers
association representatives and try to
set up a program.
To satisfy Commissioner Conner's re-

quest for some data on large groves as
well as small test areas. Wichtrich sug-
gested a 100 acre Hamlin orange grove
be selected for Temik and lime treat-
ment this year. Hamlins mature in the
fall. and therefore would provide some
data during the 1983 program.
The group agreed it should meet ev-
ery six to eight weeks, and try to in-
clude Conner and DER Secretary
Victoria Tschinket. Members set their
next full scale meeting for 10 a.m. June
9 in Gainesville. one day prior to the
meeting of the Pesticide Technical

State eliminates Temik loophole

Tribune Staff Writer ,
The Florida Department of Agriculture moved
Friday to close a legal loophole that would have allowed
citrus growers and farmers to apply Temik despite an in-
tended ban on most uses of the powerful pesticide.
Department lawyer Frank Graham filed a second
emergency rule that would continue the current emer-
gency ban until a hearing officer determines whether
the first ban can be extended through the end of this
Florida Agriculture Commissioner Doyle Conner in
January suspended use of the pesticide for 90 days after
traces were found in an Orange County drinking well. He
then moved to extend tat ban through 1983 to give state
scientists more time to study how the pesticide behaves
In Florida soils.
but because there has been a legal challenge to his
move to extend the ban through the end of. the year, it
has yet to take effect Meanwhile, the temporary suspen-
sion iS scheduled to expire April 18.
Graham said that because only one emergency rule
usually is allowed for a given subject, he is not sure
whether his effort to prevent a temporary lapse Jn the
ban would survive a legal challenge.
But he said he is prepared to argue that since the first
emergency ban was imposed in January, new evidence
has arisen that constitutes another emergency.
That evidence, he said. includes finding Temik in a

deep well in Volusia County. as well as finding excess
levels in ground water samples from a Hillsborough
County orange grove two years after the pesticide was
last applied.
Graham said state officials estimate there are 4.5
million pounds of Temik in Florida. The chemical is used
primarily on citrus trees to kill pests that feed on fruit
and leaves.
While officials said they had not heard that anyone
plans to defy the state's intent to outlaw Temik for the
rest of the year, one industry official said he suspects
that some growers would take advantage of an unin-
tended lapse in the ban.
"It would be a'shame." said Bobby McKown, execu-
tive director of Florida Citrus Mutual, which represents
13,000 growers in the state. McKown said his orgainza-
tion supports a year-end ban, even if a loophole arises.
Harold Brown, a Martin County pesticide applicator
and citrus grower, is challenging the move to extend the
ban through the end of the year. Brown already lost an
attempt to block the first emergency ban.
The current challenge will be heard by state hearing
officer Diane Tremor, who turned down the first chal-
Under state law, Tremor must wait at least 30 days
after the bearing before issuing her ruling.
Because a hearing date has not yet been set a ruling
is not expected before mid-May. Even if the yearlong
ban is upheld, it would be another 20 days before the
rule could become effective, according to Grahsm.

Massive fuel spill

found at airport

threatens wells

erald Sta Wrter
Metro environmental officials have discov-
ered a spill of thousands of gallons of jet fuel
at Miami International Airport, and fear the
amount of fuel underground could be much
But efforts to persuade Metro Aviation De-
partment to install inspection wells at the
airport to determine the size of the spill and
clean it up have been resisted, said Anthony
Clemente, director of Metro's Department of
Environmental Resources Management
The spill is within one mile of a major
Northwest Dade wellfield in Miami Springs,
said Bill Brant DERM's pollution control
chief. It eventually could threaten the water
supply there Clemente said.
Aviation Department officials dispute
Clemente's and Brant's statements. There
have been numerous spills at the airport in
the past and there is no evidence that it has
contaminated nearby wellflelds, said George
Spofford. deputy director of the Aviation De-
The spill was discovered in early February
by a DERM inspector walking through a con-
struction site at the airport. He noticed that a
trench dug by construction workers laying a
new network of underground fuel pipe was
filled with jet fueL More than 2.000 gallons
of fuel were pumped out of the construction
trench, Brant said.
Previous spills of fuels and aircraft sol-
vents at the airport has placed it on the US.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) list
of the worst hazardous waste sites in the na-
Under county ordinance. Brant said. Avia-
tion officials are required to take fast action
to clean up the spill and determine its size.
"By allowing dangerous materials like jet
fuel to be in the ground is a violation of coun-
ty code," Brant said. "It is clearly defined as
a sanitary nuisance In the pollution control
code. The function of our department is to
correct violations of that code."
Spofford said the best way to recover the
fuel is not by installing wells, but by pump-
ing it out of the ground as it is discovered.
"We are concerned about It but we also
want to be realistic about what can be done
about it," Spofford said. "There is no indica-
tion that (the fuel] is moving (below ground].
There is no indication that it is a hazard (to
the wellfieldsl and we are satisfied with re-
moving it when we open up new trenches."

'We are concerned
about it but we also
want to be realistic
about what can be
done about it. There is
no indication that [the
fuel] is moving [below
George Spofford, deputy director,
Aviation Department

Clemente said that simply isn't true. And
once there is evidence that a wellfield is
being contaminated, it is too late, he said.
"We feel there is ample evidence that If
you don't initiate a cleanup, that material be-
gins leaching into the lower levels of the
aquifer," which is Dade's water supply,
Clemente said.
"It shouldn't be necessary for the commu-
nity's drinking water to be contaminated to
get the Aviation Department to clean up con-
taminated ground water in that vacinity."
The threat may not be limited to the well-
fields.. In 1981, at a US. Air Force base in
South Korea, an underground jet fuel spill
caused a series of explosions, destroying sev-
eral buildings, Brant said.
Brant said he is concerned the spill could
be much more widespread.
"The distribution system that feeds the
[airport terminal] concourses is old. If it is
rusted.through and leaking at Concourse E,
there is no reason to doubt that it could be
leaking in other areas," Brant said. "We
want monitoring wells to explore how far
the jet fuel has spread."
Spofford said he is confident that the spill
is isolated around Concourse E. in the west-
ern portion of the airport.
Brant questioned how airport officials
reached that conclusion.
"There has been no work by the Aviation
Department to see how much it has spread."
Brant said. "They may think it's confined.

but they have no evidence to prove
Spofford said DERM officials
might want the airport to install the
wells, but they aren't convinced the
cleanup effort will work.
"To undertake an investment IHke
that, everyone would be better
served to have that knowledge,"
Spofford said. "Everyone makes re-
quests that doesn't mean it must
be done or is required. I know they
[DERMI are sincere, but it doesn't
necessarily mean the request is nec-
essary or the most correct way of
dealing with it."
In a March 18 memo to Brant,
Aviation Department Assistant DI-
rector Bud Carr wrote that at-
tempts to determine the extent of
the contamination were unneces-
sary and would disrupt normal air-
port operations.
"We believe we know the local
tion of the fuel spill" Carr wrote.
"It lies around the old fuel lines
which are being replaced. Those
lines are located adjacent to the
concourse building. The aircraft
parking positions are very active,
serving international flights. To dig
monitoring wells in this location
would be extremely disruptive If
not impossible and [would) tell us
very little which is not already
Spofford said he Is unconvinced
that recovery wells do an adequate
job of cleaning up petroleum spills.
The airport's policy of pumping out
Jet fuel from construction trenches
as they are discovered is an ade-
quate approach, he said.
Brant, again, disagrees.
New technology used to recovery
fuel in recent spills in Dade County
has proved very successful, Brant
Said. An example, he said, was a re-
I cent diesel fuel spill at the Miami-
D Dade Water and Sewer Authority's
Alexander Orr Jr. Water Treatment
SPlant Since the spill was discov-
ered in November. more than
20,000 gallons of diesel tue! have
been recovered, Brant said.

0 P

Toxic waste
The most alarming thing about the Department of Environmental
Regulations' investigation of the Gulf States chemical plant in Lloyd
is not the revelation that that plant was carelessly operated, nor that it
may have caused untold damage to our environment.
It's that the plant operated for four years before the DER became
aware of its existence, and that the DER depended upon the honesty
of the plant's operators to monitor their own compliance with state
environmental regulations.
Consequently, DER officials really have no idea how many similar
plants may be operating in Florida. Unless a plant is guilty of
especially obvious breaches of the law-or unless its employees or
owners tell the DER about violations-DER may not be able to
prevent environmental damage until it's too late.
That's exactly what happened to Gulf States. Only when a chlorine
leak forced 100 residents from their homes in June, 1979 did DER
agents inspect the plant or request that it apply for an operating
permit. Even then it took two years for Gulf States to file its permit
application, and there is evidence the firm lied on its application about
the number and nature of chemicals it handled.
In the meantime, Gulf States may have leaked at least 21 poisonous
chemicals into groundwater on and surrounding its plant. To be sure,
it's going to be punished for that-Gulf States could face a total of
$70,000 in fines, and is now trying to decide how to respond to the
DER's penalty. At any rate, the plant is being closed down.
But for flouting the law requiring it to obtain an operating permit,
Gulf States may well escape scot free.
Industrial waste permits are required of any plant which spills waste
into the environment, be it a chemical plant like Gulf States' or a
power station, like the one at Florida State University. The idea is that
our environment is so fragile, and so much depends upon its
maintenance, that the state has a vested interest in monitoring
operations which may contaminate it.
Beyond. that, Florida passed a toxic.waste permit law in 1980 which
gave it the authority to demand information about the chemicals Gulf
States or any other chemical plant uses, and how those chemicals are
Yet Gulf States failed to file for a permit, claiming ignorance of the
law. Although a DER attorney said ignorance is no excuse for failing
to get a permit, and that Gulf States could face a $10,000 fine for
every day it operated without one, the DER has no plans to pursue the
matter. "We just hadn't thought about it," said the northwest district
DER permitting officer.
Perhaps the reason for that leniency lies in a lack of funds. In the
DER district involved- a district which stretches from Jefferson
County to the Alabama line-the department employs only four
inspectors. That's not nearly enough to do the job required of

them.Consequently. DER is forced to rely on the honesty of the
companici which generate wastes. The Gulf States episode shows
where that leads.
It's time the state put some muscle behind its toxic enforcement of
toxic waste laws. That will mean more money, but its not a question of
whether we can afford to pay the price for a clean environment. It's a
question of whether we can afford not to.
As the Legislature confers this session on means of dealing with
Florida's growth, it might want to bear that in mind.

Florida Flambeas Friday, April 8, 1983

State counts

on chem plants

to report waste
see editorial, page 4
I.AMsF.AI SFrr warE I
Drinking well water and water
*contamination in Jefferson County may have
gone unnoticed had two ex-cmployees of the
Gulf States chemical plant in Lloyd decided
not to inform environmental officials of
alleged wrongdoing on Gulf State's part.
Gulf States Chemicals, located 20 miles
east of Tallahassee, has recently been ordered
to clean up areas on and around its site and
pay S70,000 for polluting nearby streams and
creeks. It has not yet responded to the DER's
findings, but is closing its l.loyd plant.
The Department of Environmental
Regulation was notified of the alleedcd
wrongdoing in late September, 1982. Shortly
after receiving the compalints, field
inspectors conducted several inspections.
The two former employees claimed the
company was falsifying monthly water
analysis reports to the DER.
"The DER depends on companies to
report on their own activities said Raoul
Clark, a DER environmental specialist.

All companies that generate, transport,
treat, or dispose of hazardous substances are
required to have obtained a hazardous waste
operating permit from the DER.
In addition, companies handling
hazardous wastes that might reach
groundwater are required to send water
samples from on-site monitoring wells to
independent testing labs, which in turn
forward the results to the DER.
According to the ex-employees, Gulf
S states neutralized waste samples before
sending them to the testing lab.
Third party reports of wrongdoing are
usually the only lead DER officials have to go
on in uncovering operating permit violations
or environmental contamination, according
to DER ofhcials.
"We usually find problems through
reports or complaints" said Clark.
"Sometimes a field inspector happens to find
problems or a citizen or cx-employee informs
us," he said.
Although the DER is required to inspect
companies that handle hazardous waste,
inspections are only conducted annually.
according to (lerry Neubauer, IER plant
manager for the northwest district. Florida
consists of six districts, with the northwest
district including 16 counties from Jefferson
County west to the Alahama border.
Four inspectors cover the northwest

St. Pt.sburg Independent Thursday, April 7, 1983

Don't mess around

with water policy

that works fairly

ISSUE: Fair state water policy
House Speaker Lee Moffitt has a problem.
One of his committee chairmen, State Rep.
Chuck Smith, D-Brooksville, is out of controL
It's not just Smith's parochial, shortsighted
views on water policy- it's his undemocratic,
unjust treatment of taxpaying Floridians in
discussion of such policy.
Smith has three terrible bills, which, without
iron-fisting and hoodwinking, will never see the
light of law.
But last week, his subcommittee took
testimony from proponents of Smith's
legislation for a couple of hours. When
opponents finally had to ask for any time, they
were given one minute!
We doubt any responsible committee
chairman would condone such behavior. It
descends from the Spanish Inquisition. But
Moffitt's appointee did so.
Any examination of Smith's proposals on
their merits will show they attack the very core
of carefully constructed state water laws, which
have been hammered out over nearly a decade of
debate. We doubt Moffitt wants any part of the
measures Smith proposes, which include bills to:
Prohibit any county or city from
purchasing land for water supply purposes
outside their corporate boundaries. Current law
allows such purchases, in part, because water is a
state resource. Without this law, for example,
people in Pasco County today would not have
water supply systems which have been
developed by the City of St. Petersburg, Pinellas
County and the West Coast Regional Water
Supply Authority. Pasco has not had the
foresight to develop its own water system
adequately to manage the uncontrolled growth it
has experienced.
Transfer water use permitting power to the
State Department of Environmental Regulation
(DER). This power now rests with the Southwest
Florida Water Management District, a board
appointed by the governor, and whose expertise
in water regulation is among the best in the
nation. The DER, meanwhile, is understaffed
and without a thorough knowledge of water
management concerns.

Strip St. Petersburg and Tampa of its
members on the West Coast Regional Water
Supply Authority. This insulting scheme says
that a county may have only one member on
such an authority. That attacks both
Hillsborough and Pinellas counties, whc have
devoted millions of dollars of wellfields and
water supply system resources to making the
supply authority succeed. Having contracted to
make these resources available to the regional
authority, Smith would now leave these people
without representation equal to their
What does he want to do? Start the regional
water wars all over again?
If state lawmakers want to see one of the
nation's model success stories in water supply
and management blow up in their faces, al they
need do is give aid and comfort to Smith's
Contrary to his negative, demagogic rhetoric,
this is not a battle between farmhands and city
slickers. It's between uncontrolled growth and
managed growth; it's between rich landowners
and their developer pals and retirees on fixed
incomes in central cities; it's between those who
want to take what is not theirs state water -
and, without paying for it, deny it to those who
helped pay for other state resources.
Are state lawmakers prepared to allow
Pinellas County to charge a toll for persons
crossing the mean high water line on Pinellas
beaches? Are lawmakers ready to reimburse
Tampa and St Petersburg taxpayers for their
contributions to state universities, state
highways, state community colleges, state
highway patrol, state public education, state
parks in Pasco and Hernando counties?
Until they are, they had best leave such
negative, parochial notions as Smith's outside
the doors of decent lawmaking.

Evening Independent
wift Te PFamous Sunshine Offr
Robert M. Stiff
Michael Richardson
Associate Editor/Editorial
Thomas Rawlins
Associate Editor/News

Keep our water clean

The Bradenton Herald, Sunday, Apri 3. 1983

We're blessed in Manatee
County with abundant water.
We have so much that we
sell it at a more than reason-
able rate to our less fortunate
county to the south, Saraso-
But it seems that, more
and more often, we have
more and more trouble keep-
ing pollutants from our water
Other growing counties in
Florida have neglected their
water supplies, to the detri-
ment of the growing popula-
For example, the story is
that there is good news and
bad news about the Dade
County water supply. The
bad news is that by 1990.
people living in Dade County
will be drinking raw sewage.
The good news is that there
won't be enough to go
Dade seems in serious
trouble, primarily because
they weren't careful enough
about building in safeguards
to protect the water supply,
or they weren't diligent
enough in prosecuting those
who violated the standards.
The lessons ought to be im-
portant to Manatee County
residents now, while we still
have plentiful supplies of wa-
ter and we can still act to
protect it.
Major problems are gener-
ally only the sum total of
many seemingly minor prob-
lems. If the little problems
pass unnoticed for a long
enough period of time, then
major problems magically ap-
A couple of problems,
which may seem minor to
some, occurred last week.
Thousands of gallons of
raw sewage were pumped
from a Manatee County mas-
ter lift station into Sarasota
Bay last week. forcing Health
Department officials to close
a small beach, off Trailer Es-
tates near 69th Avenue West,
to swimming and fishing.

The county's wastewater
treatment director, Henry
Kingsbury, called it one of
Manatee County's worst sew-
age spills. He estimated that
200,000 gallons of raw, bacte-
ria-filled sewage passed
through the station and into
a ditch that flowed hto Sara.
sota Bay.
Charging the spill to hu-
man error, he said, "It
shouldn't have happened,
and it won't again."
Health Department Direc-
tor Dr. John Ambrusko said
the beach will be closed until
further notice. "We gotta
find out why it happened. It
was horrible and we will re-
port it to DER (Department
of Environmental Regula-
tion) ..."
What happened is that
during a maintenance job on
a sewer pipe, a flushing hose
stuck in the discharge line
and raw sewage poured into a
"dry well" which houses the
station's three pumps. Nor-
mally, the sewage would have
been pumped out of the dry
well into a storage area, but
the workers couldn't remove
the flushing hose. Then the
workers couldn't turn off the
main valve. So they pumped
the overflow into the ditch
and into the bay, contami-
nating the water.
The fail-safe methods used
don't seem very satisfactory.
It seems the human error was
not by the workmen, but by
whoever is responsible for
planning for emergencies
such as occurred.
With more people moving
- here every day, spills like this
one become more and more
critical, and more dangerous
to our water supply.
Our efforts should be on
dealing with the problems
should they occur, and in-
Sstructing all the workers on a
job site how emergencies
should be dealt with.

There are some times we
should deal with problems
before they occur.
The attorney for Mana-
sota-88, Manatee County
Save Our Bays and Booker
Creek Preservation Inc., has
written to state Rep. John
Mills of the House Natural
Resources Committee about
an important consideration
that could add to Florida's
water problems.
The subcommittee has rec-
ommended that fuur septic
tanks per net acre continue
to be the state standard,
rather than one or two per
acre that Water Task Forces
and HRS have recommend-
ed. The subcommittee is also
thinking about increasing the
limitation on net flow
through each septic tank.
The associations that Sara-
sota attorney Thomas W.
Reese represents are fighting
the loosening of regulations
that would help protect our
water supply. And they also
recommend that septic tanks
be prohibited within the cone
of influence of any public po-
table water supply.
They are right. Any other
tack would endanger the wa-
ter supply. It will cost more
by demanding sewer systems
in all Florida localities, but
the cost will be a lot less in
the long run.
Manatee has abundant wa-
ter. And we should take steps
to preserve and conserve
what we have.

Water quality bill faces tough opposition

on its journey through the Legislature

St. Pr...ebu Time.. Sal Wratr
TALLAHASSEE Opponents are already
chipping away at a bill designed to clean up
Florida's groundwater, the main source of
drinking water for nine out of every 10
It was just last month that a task force found
that the state's groundwater faced a "real and
immediate" threat from hazardous wastes,
sewage and pesticides. The task force's far-
reaching recommendations were translated into
a proposed law The Water Quality Assurance
Act of 1983 which has become a cornerstone
of House Speaker Lee Moffitt's legislative pro-
In House Natural Resources Committee
meetings this week, key provisions concerning
authority over pesticide use and septic tanks are
likely to be altered. Still unresolved is the cru-
cial question of raising $70-million in taxes to
pay for hazardous waste cleanup and sewage
MOFFITT SAYS HE is unbothered by
this early "give and take" among legislators and
competining terests affected by the bill. So does
Natural Resources Committee Chairman Jon
Mills, D-Gainesville, who is steering this high-
profile bill through the House at a time when
he's trying to become speaker himself.
"To get what everybody wants, everybody's
going to have to give a little," says Mills. Envi-
ronmentalists and health officials will be
watching Mills' committee this week to see just
how much it gives.
Last week, committee members spent four
hours poring over the bulky proposed Commit-
tee Bill 10. The meeting demonstrated what
legislators already knew that the bill's many
components insure opposition from many
One is Agriculture Commissioner Doyle
Conner. As the task force recommended, the bill
would strip Conner of authority over use of
pesticides and give it to the Department of En-
vironmental Regulation (DER).
CONNER URGED committee members
not to do that, saying "the mechanism is in
place" for his department to regulate pesticides.

He added that he wouldn't object to creation of
a committee to advise him on the subject, say-
ing, "I'm not really hung up on dictatorial au-
Rep. Chuck Smith, D-Brooksville, proposed
an amendment creating an advisory committee
to Conner. The Coalition against the Misuse of
Pesticides, a farmworkers' group that has been
active in efforts to ban use of the toxic pesticide
Temik, doesn't like it.
"It is weakening the bill," says coalition
official Ion Sancho. Because Conner's depart-
ment sometimes promotes the use of certain
pesticides by farmers, "We believe that agri-
culture has a conflict of interest"
Rep. Tom Brown, a Natural Resources
SCommittee member from Port OrAnge, says
Smith's amendment is likely to pass. One reason
is that the anticipated tug-of-war between Ag-
riculture and DER over pesticide authority
hasn't happened. The financially strapped DER
isn't pulling. Explains DER official Steve Alex-
ander: "We don't want the authority unless we
get the resources (money) to fund it."
ANOTHER POINT of contention is re-
striction on the use of septic tanks, which can
spread viruses and bacteria to underground
water supplies. Currently a loophole in Florida'
law allows as many as 16 living units per acre to
be hooked to septic tanks.
Moffitt's task force recommended limiting
septic tanks to one per acre where drinking wa-
ter is drawn from private wells, and two per acre
where water comes from a public supply system.
But lobbyists for the homebuilding industry,
which relies on septic tanks because public
sewer systems have not kept pace with Florida's
growth, howled.
Now the Natural Resources Committee is
talking about doubling the 'septic tank limits
recommended by the task force and reducing
the recommended distance requirements be-
tween septic tanks and water wells.
THE DEPARTMENT of Health and Re-
habilitative Services (HRS) doesn't like that.
"I'm disappointed," says HRS health officer
Stephen King. Yet because the new limits would
be much more restrictive than current law, King
calls them a big improvement: "It ain't perfect

but it sure helps."
In Rep. Brown's view, those sticking points
are minor compared to the tax question. "That's
the biggest hang-up on the bill," he says. "It's
still totally up in the air."
Following task force recommendations, the
water bill would impose a 5 percent tax on the
wholesale value of chemicals, with the money to
be used for hazardous waste cleanup. There has
been disagreement over just which chemicals
should be taxed and what percentage tax is
needed to raise the $20-million Mills says the
state needs. Mills said last week 2 or 3 percent
might be enough, and that specifics of the
'chemical tax were still "evolving."
Just as uncertain is the increase in
documentary stamp taxes (imposed on real es-
tate transactions) proposed by the task force.
This tax is projected to raise $50-million for
local sewer plant construction, which has been
hard-hit by cute in federal aid.
Construction and real estate interests op-
poe the documentary stamp tax increase,
Brown say, a "not... totally fair and equita-
BROWN BAYS THE committee might
decide to raise only $20-million for sewer plants
and give it to communities too small and too
poor to raise sewer money themselves. Large
cities and counties would be told to tax for their
own sewer plants.
Mills, 36, a tall, easy-going lawyer, says he is
pleased with the bill's initial hearingdespite the
several points of contention. He knows that
public awareness of water quality issues has
crested because of wide publicity in recent
months, including news reports about Temik
reaching water supplies in Florida and hazarous
waste contamination in other parts of the
Mills' House colleagues will be watching his
performance on the water bill. Under the
house's quirky system of choosing its leaders
years in advance, he is already running for
Speaker in 1987-88 against Rep. Tom Gustafson,
D-Fort Lauderdale. Gustafson, 33, an intense
legislator known for mastering the details of is-
sues, was a key figure last month in passage of a
gasoline tax increase to repair state roads and


The layoffs that bit
Jacksonville reflect a
trauma which has belted
all of America's docks.
In Jacksonville alone,
an estimated 4,00 are
out of work



iAre Hurting .
Associated Press Writer
tional oil surplus and a recession that
was slow to hit the marine industry
have forced thousands of layoffs at
the nation's shipyards In recent
One Industry executive said it'
the.gravest since World War I, and
workers who have plied their rugged
trade on the America's docks for
years are increasingly alarmed.
"rm scared." said William Con-
klin, a shipfltter for most of his adult
life, as he picked up his final pay-
check at Jacksonville Shipyards Inc.
last week.
"If it goes on like this much lon-
*ger, none of these shipyards can stay
in business very long" said Conkln,
38, who supports three children. "Ive
beep laid off before. And that's been
happening more In the past several
months than In the 11 years I've
worked here."
In Jacksonville, an estimated half
of.4,000 shipyard workers-are unem-
'"Right now, we have. about 1,200
laid off from a normal workforce of
2,00," said Larry Brown, vice presi-
dent of operations at Jacksonville
Shipyards, the largest company of its
kind here.
SBrown said several hundred
workers had been. given pink slips
within the pest two weeks as the oil
glut, recession and high Interest rates
continued to slow ship repairs.
"The marine Industry was proba-
bly the last to be hit by the recession,
so it wilt probably be the last to reap
benefits from economic recovery,"
sid Brown, adding the slump began
last summer.

One of the major problems Is oil
tankers a world surplus.
"When the oih Is not flowing the
ships are not moving. When the ships
ate not moving they're not getting
fixed," said Chuck Applebach, a
spokesman for.Norfolk Shipbuilding
& Drydock Corp.
S Compared to Jacksoqville, the
Virginia company is fortunate, Apple-
bach said. Eployment there is down'
1,000 from a high of 4500 since the
summer of 1982, he said.
S.The ship repair trade has always
been o of peas and valleys, execu-
tives said. But Brown said the current
slump is "without a doubt, the worst
that I've seen it n 10 to 12 years."
Ed Motter, general manager of
Marine Maintenance in Houston,
went even further "It's by far the
worst since World War II."
SMotter's company is lqckier than
most; it expanded to 350 laborers
compared to 50 two years ago.
"But only because we're bidding
very cheaply," he said.
S"Its. not just a Houston problem,
or .New Orleans problem or Jack-
sonville problem or a national prob-
lem. Its 'a worldwide problein," Mot-
* ter said.
S "The thing that hurt ouston the
.. most s that the trade with Mexico
S* has fallen off," he said.
Motter said "a lot more traffic in
oil and petrochemicals" would turn
business around.
"We've got a lot of oil and gas
over here. And right now, things are
slow In oil and gas,"said John Lm.
general manager of Port Houston
Lester Martin, general manager
of Todd Shipyard Corporation's Gal-
vpston division, said normal employ-
ment is 700 or 800. Since layoffs at
'the end of 1982, he said, he works
anywhere from 300 to 400.
"You could get a Job next week
and rehire them. But you don't get
those jobs like you used to," Martin

House panel

to test water

protection bill

Natural Resources Committee
Chairman Jon Mills hopes to
find some middle ground
between the lobbyists and the

TALLAHASSEE (AP) An ambitious water-
protection package that would levy a new tax on
chemicals and pesticides for hazardous waste
cleanup will face a crucial test in the Legislature
this week.
Applauded by environmentalists but attacked
by business, the Water Quality Assurance Act of
1983 goes before the House Natural Resources
Committee on Tuesday.
Industry lobbyists are trying to convince law-
makers to revise the package.
"What they've got now, just doesn't seem to be
workable," said Ben Abbitt, a lobbyist for the
Agricultural Research Institute of Florida.
"I think we've moved much closer," said Ste-
phen Metz. a lobbyist for the Florida Home Build-
ers Association, which objects to the proposed
changes in septic tank regulations.
And Natural Resources Chairman Jon Mills
said, "We're going to try to reach some middle
Based on the recommendations of a water
task force that called groundwater protection
"the issue of the decade," the major components
of the $70-million-a-year package would:
Levy a 5 percent wholesale-level tax on
pesticides and chemicals to raise money to help
pay for hazardous waste and sewage treatment
Authorize the Department of Environmen-
tal Regulation to limit or stop use of pesticides
considered dangerous to the public health.
Limit the use of septic tanks in new devel-
opments to one tank per acre in areas using pri-
vate water wells and two per acre on sites with
public water.
"I think it is one of the biggest bills we've con-
sidered in a long time," Mills, D-Gainesville, said
Mills is trying to work out a compromise that
will please the heavily financed agriculture in-
dustry and be acceptable to Florida business.
S"I think that there's a way we can come up
with a plan that some of the folks will accept,"
Mills said.

But Jon ShebeL president of the 1,600 compa-
ny-strong Associated Industries of Florida said
there's still a lot of bill rewriting to do before
business agrees to the package.
Dick Hollahan, a lobbyist for the Florida Cat-
tlemen's Association, said his organization agreed
that drinking water should be protected. But he
disagreed with a provision in the bill that would
allow DER the authority to limit or test pesti-
Lobbyist Abbitt said the federal Environmen-
tal Protection Agency already screens pesticides
and that DER would merely be duplicating that
process. Further, Abbitt said, the Agriculture De-
partment is already doing a good job of testing
"If you complicate and slow down the process
of using pesticides, then it makes it more expen-
sive for everyone." Abbitt said. "The cost is going
to be passed on to the consumer.
"The system works now. You've got an
elected official, the commissioner of agriculture,
who has suspended a suspect chemical. Temik.
while the jury is still out (on its safety)." Abbitt
said. "So the system works."
Agriculture Commissioner Doyle Conner tem-
porarily suspended most uses of the farm pesti-
cide Temik. The -ban was ordered after the
chemical was found in drinking-water wells in'
Central Florida.

EPA suppressed Osceola

By Jamle Starbuck Plnt
and Ken Cmmlns
TImls-Unle StNf Wrtier
The Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) suppressed for a year
a scientific report that could have
helped Florida its 20-year legal and
congressional fight to ke phosphate
mining out of the seo a onal
Forest, The Florfda Times-Union has
The study requested by the EPA
and prepared by two EPA scientists
- said that if the Osceola's wetlands
were mined for phosphate, existing
technology could not return them to
their present condition.
The report was written nearly a
year before Interior Department Sec-
retary James Watt denied 41 leases
to four companies that wanted to
mine 52000 acres of the forest. Watt
based his decision on a Bureau of
Land Management report dated Jan.
7 1i93. that came to the same conclu-
sions reached in the EPA's study.
The 157,000-acre national forest lies
about 40 miles west of Jacksonville in
Columbia, Baker and Union counties
In Interviews last week at the
EPA's regi oal office in Atlanta, the
two scientists who wrote the EPA re-
rt said that on March 22. 12, they
nd-delivered the study to Paul C.
Cahill. Call headed the agency's Of.
fice of Federal Activities until e re-
signed last month in a shake-up of the
EPA that started when Congress be-
gan looking at the agency's dealings
with industry.
Ten days after lth sciont0l4q sive
the report to Cahill, Florida officials
testified before a Senate subcommit-
tee considering a proposal to ban
mining In the forest. The officials say
the findings In the EPA report would
have been critical to their case.
Congress eventually passed the bill.
but President Reagan vetoed It Jan.
14, a day after Watt said he would
deny the leases.

Steve Nelse/Staff
the report was handled Illustrated
bow they often found themselves
taught in a political squeeze that
compromise their professional in-
S.*lt was an appallng process, Bil
(ikley, environmental adminlstra.
Sfor the Florida Department of En-
.tonmental Regulation said of how
information was handled at the EPA.
S"It was a period of time I felt like
Swas In an occupied country. I've
*ever been In a situation when one
government agency couldn't get In-
naUon from another."
i Florida officials, who received
oes of the report only after Cahill
esgned March 25. expect the docu-
itent to be used if the state decides to
help Watt and the Interior Depart-
ient defend a suit brought in Febru-
ry by Kerr-McGee, one of the four
tosphe companies denied mining
In its suit, Kerr-McGee charges
at Watt denied the leases for "po-
DOical reasons."
: Also denied leases were Global Ex-
loration and Development Corp. of
lorida, the Monsanto Co. and Pits-
I)urgh Midway and Mining a division
qf Gulf Oil Corl.,

For nearly two years before Watt
denied the leases, he and other Rea-
an administration officials pushed to
et the leases granted.
EPA fies, obtained by the T1mes-
Union under a Freedom of Informa-
tIon Act request showed that the
began administration urged the
EPA to withdraw questions It had
*bout mining in the Osceola that
were exesd during previous ad-
SAnd Department of Agriculture
and EPA officials also told congres-
dional committees that new methods
Of reclamation technology made it
likely that the forest could be re-
stored to its present condition after
phosphate mining.
Florida's state ad conressnal *
leaders, united in their opositon to
the Osceola mining, said they were
surprised by Watts denial of the
leases. Some now question wh er
.he will vigorously support Us deci-
sion in court,
"Tve worried all the IM (that the \
action Interior has taken can have a
negative effect." Chiles said. "I didn't
feel comfortable with the veto report.
If anything, this [EPA) report -
strengthens he position that the per-
nmts should not be granted."
Victoria Tschinkel who heads Flor-
ida's Department of Environmental
SRegulation, called Watt's action a
sudden reversal by the administra-
"We don't know what depths their
commitment Is going to be," Ms.
Tschinkel said las week. "That's why
we're getting involved, to protect the
state's interest."
A spokesman In the Florida Attor-
ney General's Office said the state Is
expected to decide soon whether to
join Watt and the Interior Depart-
ment in the Kerr-McGee suit


Seven EPA employees in Atlanta.
ant Washington confirmed to the
Tmes-lUnon that Cahill would not re-
lease the document from his custody,
despite repeated requests for it dur-
Ing 192 from Gov. Bob Graham, the
Florida Department of Environmen-
tal Regulation. U.S. Sen. Lawton
Chiles, D-Fla, and members of state
environmental groups.
"I think it was a heck of a cover-

up" Chiles said in an Interview
thursday. "I think there's no doubt
about It.
"The thing I'm concerned about
now is why did Cahill do this? Is there
somebody still here [in the Reagan
administration) who was directing
him? It's not exactly the kind of thing
one does on his own."
Cahill could not be reached for
comment. One of his former aides it
the EPA said he was driving to north-
ern California, where he lived before
joining the Reagan administration..
Five EPA career employees In
*both Atlanta and Washington, who
asked not to be identified for fear of
jeopardizing their jobs, said the way

B- The Florida Times-Union, Jacksonville, Monday, April 11, 1983

Environmental package faces crucial test

tious water-protection package that
would levy a new tax on chemicals
and pesticides to help pay for
hazardous-waste cleanup will lace a
crucial test in the Legislature this
Applauded by environmentalists
but attacked by business, the Water
Quality Assurance Act of 1983 goes
before the House Natural Resources'
Committee tomorrow.
Industry lobbyists are trying to
convince lawmakers to revise the
"What they've got now just doesn't
seem to be workable," said Ben Ab-
bitt, a lobbyist for the Agricultural
Research Institute of Florida.
"I think we've moved much clos-
er," said Stephen Metz, a lobbyist for
the Florida Home Builders Associa-
tion, which objects to the proposed

changes in septic-tank regulations.
And Natural Resources Chairman
Jon Mills said, "We're going to try to
reach some middle ground.
Based on the recommendations of
.a water task force that called ground-
water protection "the issue of the
decade," the major components of
the $70-million-a-year package would:
V Levy a 5 percent wholesale-level
tax on pesticides and chemicals to
raise money to help pay for
hazardous-waste and sewage treat-
V Authorize the Department of
Environmental Regulation (DER) to
limit or stop use of pesticides consid-
ered dangerous to the public health.
V Limit the use of septic tanks in.
new developments to one tank per
acre in areas using private water
wells and two per acre on sites with
public water.

"I think it Is one of the biggest bills
we've considered in a long time,"
Mills, D-Galnesville, said Friday.
Mills is trying to work out a com-
promise tha will please the heavily
financed agriculture industry and be
acceptable to Florida business.
"I think that there's a way we can
come up with a plan that some of the
folks will accept." Mills said.
But Jon Shebel, president of the
1,600 company-strong Associated In-
dustries of Florida. said there's still a
lot of bill rewriting to do before busi-
ness agrees to the package.
Dick Itollahan, a lobbyist for the
Florida Cattlemen's Association, said
his organization agreed that drinking
water should be protected. But he dis-
agreed with a provision in the bill
that would allow the DER the author-
ity to limit or test pesticides.
Lobbyist Abbitt said the federal

Environmental Protection Agency al-
ready screens pesticides and that
DER would merely be duplicating
that process Further, Abbitt said, the
Agriculture Department is already
doing a good job of testing pesticides.
"If you complicate and slow down
the process of using pesticides, then it
makes it more expensive for every-
one." Abbitt said. "The cost is going
to be passed on to the consumer.
"The system works now. You've
got an elected official, the commis-
sioner of agriculture, who has sus-
pended a suspect chemical, Temik,
while the Jury is still out [on its safe-
ty)." Abbitt said. "So the system
Agriculture Commissioner Doyle
Conner temporarily suspended most
uses of the farm pesticide Temik. The
ban was ordered after the chemical
was found in drinking-water wells In
Central Florida.

I I III --

Mining ordinance compromise hard to

By Andrea Rewand
TImes-Unsl Stan Wrlter
STARKE- Environmentalists and
attorneys for Georgia-Pacific say
that they anxiously are awaiting
Bradford County's proposed mining
ordinance, the first step toward per-
mitting peat mining of the Santa Fe
swamp. The ordinance has been on
the drawing board for a year;
"It's gone on too long" said Harold
Hill, president of the Santa Fe Lake
Dweller's Association, adding that he
wants to see the draft next week.
"The people have waited a long time.
They deserve some action taken."
Georgia-Pacific, the world's largest
wood products company, bought the
swamp, located about 16 miles north
of Gainesville, for $202 million in 1981.
Area residents started protesting
soon afterward, when the company
* announced plans to mine tons of peat
from the swamp to fuel its Palatka
paper milL
County officials have said the ordi-
nance has been delayed because they
have lacked the scientific expertise to
write an ordinance strong enough to
protect the 5,316-acre swamp and rea-
sonable enough to allow mining
County Attorney Dudley Hardy
said he Is worried that the county
might pass a law that would require
the employment of specialists to
oversee it.
"I'm concerned it could cost the
county a lot to administer it," lardy
said of the drafted proposal. The final
draft probably will have some
changes, he said.
Georgia-Pacific spokesman Her-
man Moore said that he has not seen
the proposal, but his company is go-

Ing ahead with plans to mine the peal.
Company counsel Wade Hopping
drafted and submitted one proposal
to commissioners, which has not been
The attorney for the lake dweller's
association also drew up a mining or-
dinance, but the proposal was dis-
missed by commissioners as too cum-
bersome to administer..
The main difference between the
two proposals was that the one pre-
sented by the association called for
mined land to be restored to its orig-
inal condition, while the company's
called for the land to be reclaimed.
Reclaimed land need not be returned
to its original condition.
Meanwhile, Suwapnee River Water
Management District officials, also
waiting to review the mining propos-
al, have discarded plans to protect
the swamp by buying IL The swamp
lost its place two weeks ago on the
water management board's priority-
purchase list of sensitive areas.
"We will closely monitor the per-
mitting process" said Joe Flanagan,
district surface water director.
If water quality is threatened be-
cause the company too easily obtains
mining permits, "we can step right in
there and say we're going to enact
our own rules," Flanagan said.
To mine the swamp, workers would
,have to chop down most of the
swamp's cypress timber, drain Its wa-
ter and then dig out the tract's 15-
foot-deep peat deposits.
Originally, the association asked
that the company be required to fill in
excavation sites. But Ilopping said fill
dirt for the mined strips would be ex-
pensive and hard to find.

Environmentalists say that safe-
guards are needed because the
swamp acts like a filter for the Santa
Fe River, the main tributary of the
Suwannee River. The spongy peat fil-
ters out impurities from area drink-
ing water and regulates water move-
Mining could degrade water quali-
ty and lead to flooding 1ill said. Also,
when pat is dried loose dust-like
particles can be carried up to 30
miles away by the wind, creating a
hazard for people with respiratory
Lopping, however, said the mining
will create little environmental dam-
The swamp has enough peat be-
neath its dense ground cover of vines
and timber to sustain a mining opera-
tion for 30 years, Hopping said.



W11411 /0


B- The Florida Times-Union, Jacksonville, Monday, April II1 1983

Environmental package faces c

tous water-protecton package that
would levy a new tax on chemicals
and pesticides to help pay for
hazardous-waste cleanup wll face a
crucial test in the Legislature this
Applauded by environmentalist
but attacked by business, the Water
Quality Assurance Act of 19S goes
before the louse Natural Resources'
Committee tomorrow.
Industry lobbyists are trying to
convince lawmakers to revise the
"What they've got now just doesn't
seem to be workable" said Ben Ab-
bilt, a lobbyist for the Agricultural
Research Institute of Florida.
"I think we've moved much clos-
er," said Stephen Metz, a lobbyist for
the Florida Home Builders Associa-
tion, which objects to the proposed

changes in septic-tank regulations.
And Natural Resources Chairman
Jon Mills said, "We're going to try to
reach some middle ground.
Based on the recommendations of
a water task force that called ground-
.water protection "the issue of the
decade, the major components of
the I0-miUion-a-year package would:
*' Levy a 5 percent wholesale-level
tax on pesticides and chemicals to
raise money to help pay for
hazardous-waste and sewage treat-
Authorize the Department of
Environmental Regulation (DER) to
limit or stop use of pesticides consid-
ered dangerous to the public health.
*' Limit the use of septic tanks in.
new developments to one tank per
acre in areas using private water
wells and two per acre on sites with
public water.

"I think It is one of the biggest bills
we've considered In a long time,"
Mills, D-Gainesvllle, said Friday.
Mills is trying to work out a com-
promise tha will please the heavily
financed agriculture industry and be
acceptable to Florida business
"I think that there's a way we can
come up with a plan that some of the
folks will accept" Mills said.
But Jon Shebel, president of the
1,600 company-strong Associated In-
dustries of Florida, said there's still a
lot of bill rewriting to do before busi-
ness agrees to the package.
Dick Ilollahan, a lobbyist for the
Florida Cattlemen's Association, said
his organization agreed that drinking
water should be protected. But he dis-
agreed with a provision In the bill
that would allow the DER the author-
ity to lmit or test pesticides.
Lobbyist Abbitt said the federal

rucial test

Environmental Protection Agency al-
ready screens pesticides and that
DER would merely be duplicating
that process. Further. AbbUU id, the
Agriculture Department is already
ding a good ob of testing pesticide.
"If you complicate and slow down
the process of using pesticides, then it
makes it more expensive for every-
one." Abbitt said. "The cost is going
to be passed on to the consumer.
"The system works now. You've
got an elected official, the commis-
sioner of agriculture, who has sus-
pended a suspect chemical. Temik.
while the jury is still out Ion its safe-
ty)." Abbitt said. "So the system
Agriculture Commissioner Doyle
Conner temporarily suspended most
uses of the farm pesticide Temik. The
ban was ordered after the chemical
was found in drinking-water wells in
Central Florida.

I -

When a state task force asked which government
agency screen pesticides that could potentially
contaminate water, the answer was one word none.

Pesticides and water:

Fiorida turns blind eye

mwy rOT 5AmNu

In 11r7, there were reports that
eae male workers who helped man-

fruit orchard for 25 yea
Now, yea later, residents of
Fresno County. Cali have found the
chemical in their drinking water. State
health official wodr if the psicide
can be linked to an unusual number o
death in the county in the 1970O and
to an incidence ofstomch canerand
euemia higher than the nation
The EPA removed DBCP fom the
shelves of the nation' pesticide mar-
ket two yeam after the sterility re-
part. It s no longer usd in the con-
tinental United States
BUT WHN it had the federal
stamp of appoa DBuCP l
about 10,000 other pesticides,
herbicides, insecticidds fungicides
and rodenticides was ued in
Florid. It had been ued in Florida
previously foranuaber of years. quite
xtnivey," says a spokesman for the
tamt Department of Agriculture.
DBCP has been found in found
water in Ariona. California. Mary-
land,SouthCarolinaand Te Flor-
id has clean bi of health o fr,
though official at the EPA. state De-
epartmat of Environmental Regula-
tion (DER) and tat Depatment of
Agricultue cannot recall extefi
It i an unfortunate pattern in
Florida. A dangerous pesticide was
used extensively for years. And the
information about its se and the
consequences i filled with boles
for instance, that Florid isamong the
top thr agricultural pesticide n
SThey don't know, however, how many
taon of peticides were applied to
Florida fields last year. Farmnners have
not been required to report that.
State official know which peti-
cdes ae approved for use. But they
don't know which ones are most
commonly used, or whor they ae
aost heavily polled.
And if tate ocialJs have any
I studissabouttheffesMsofpesticids
onthestate'sunderground watersup-
plie.chancesa rethat thetudie were
|See WATER. 27-A

How pesticides

leak into ground water

*L- Pmn* Tri--sorrTT M 7

Water fo27-A A 90
pesticides that have the potential to polut water supplies
or that present public health hazards should be t4ken from
the Department of Aricultur and given to the Depart-
ment of Evironmental Reulation.
DEO 'S DeBAN says tir first step in ttig up a
peticidmoitorin program a to get mre information on
which pesticid are ed wre ad in what quantities.
That should become moe available a result of some
paticida-portn law pwed by the last Legislature.
Thtllhave to coupled with information about the
sate's undergroud watr formtions ad the quality of the
water the. The ttes nowlede there is sketchy at best.
Then the state wi nd people who can put the in-
formation together. Right now, the DER doesn't even have
a toxicologist on staff. DeHan says h has tried to hire one.
but the sate's top salary for the position is about $6,000 less
than what a recent college graduate can make in the private
Research into both how pesticides react in the
environment and their effect on human health is the most
critically missing element, officials say.
"Ten year ago, we knew almost nothing about ground
water from this perspective says the EPA's Severn.
Adds Pfaffenberger from the University of Miami:
"We're in that ray area. in terms of research, where we
don't know at what level it becomes a problem.
"It takes people with a lot of expertise and hand-on
knowledge to make decisions about pesicides," he ays. "In
Florida right now. the expertise is not there."


Water from 27-A
peaetiqJle that have the potential to pollute water supplies
or thTprseent public health haude should be taken from
the Department of Agriculture and given to the Depart-
ment of Environmental Regulation.
DIR'S DeOAN says the first step in setting up a
peticide-monitorinl program i to get more information on
which pesticides are wed where and in what quantities.
That should become more available as a result of ome
pemticide-reporting laws pased by the last Legilature.
SThat wlU have to hb coupled with information about the
)tstae's round water formation and the quality of the
water there. The stte' knowledge there L sketchy at bet.
SThen the state will need people who can put the in-
rmatisn together. Right now, the DERdoesn'teven have
a toxicolgist on staf. DeHan says he has tried to hione,
ut the state's top ulary for the pition is about ,000 les
than what a recent college graduate can make in the private
! Research into both how pesticides react in the
environment and their effects on human health is the meet
critically missing element, officials sy.
: "Ten years ago, we knew almost nothing about ground
water from this perspective." ays the EPA's Severn.
Adds Pfaffenberger from the University of Miami;
We're in that gray area. in terms of research, where we
don't know at what level it becomes a problem.
"It takes people with a lot of xpertle and hands-on
knowledge to make decisions about pestiidee." he ays "In
Florida right now. the expertise i not there "

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The enclosed advertisement was p o*M pus 'meaqoid i1teq -snea plows
the death of Arthur Godfrey. Unfort .0 p5H lr b p.'oll : ouep^o IH
,wnp go puoaluoob '3414s3: oulro
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Union Fidelity is deeply saddened bl -"oes0o yVd us 0ap pIoidd ans
Godfrey. Mr. Godfrey had been a opNuPoll Pl um1sa u P 4"od
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past 4 v years. He will be greatly m 0stp ~Au3ls eq01 pdoOi Almuen 0nq
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Thank you for your undo .Up LbvAs '-mn0t uopronifpi dn
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LIFE INSURANCE C( mn.g* o i!m-
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h mike'ss trail

Its makers told Florida it wouldn't get in the ground water. It did.


MAR 20 1983

-.-- --, .11--. ...----
A yer ago, it wa an agricultural wonder. Flor-
id farmers ipped over the pesticide that not only
killed voracious dcitr pests, but alo increased
fruit size and treednt d onrane ees.
Now it is officially banned in the tat's ditu
Scientists know it as 2-mthyl-2-(methylthio)
propioneldehyde0-(methylcarbamoly)oxim Ag-
ricultual official all it ldkarb. Floridin who
have followed the controversy over it ue know it
a Temik, the trade me registeed by Its only
manufacturer, Union Crbide Aricultural Prod-
uct Inc. <
The debate over the highly toxi pticide is
couched in scientific jargon and cnfUn teati-
mony about its toxicity. But the bei problem i
that Union Carbide was wrong when It mid Tmik
wouldn't infiltrate Florida's underground water
"Its use wa predicated on the idea that it
wouldn't get in the round water," any tate health
officer Stephen King. "The fact is, it has."
FLORIDA OFFICIALS wrenteven scan-
ning the state's ground water for Temik until they
saw news reports about contamination in other
states. The tets conducted since then have not
shown unhealthful levels of the peticide i fruit
and vegetables.
But state-sponsored tote of ground water have
shown remarkable differences from those con-
ducted by Union Carbide. When the controversy
first surfaced last August, the company id that
out of hundreds of tets it had conducted since the
peticide had been mad in Florlds, on one showed
Temik reidue. It wa at a level lea than the
standard of 10 part per billion at by the federal
Environmental Protection Agency (BPA) as safe
for drinking water.
But the state's taets were les flttering. They
found Temik reidue in water under citrus grove,
and follow-up tets have shown that, In some
place, the amount hae increased with time rather
than deceaed. Tests on a Hillborough County
farm have shown that the chemical ha remained in
well water two year after it was last applied.
Still, an agriculture-domiated Temik task
force would not agree to a tate Department of
Environmental Regulation (DER) proposal to ban
he use ofTemik around drinkingwater wells. The
task force said no such ban wa called for until
trace of the peticide were actually found In
drinking water.
UNFORTUNATELY, that didn't take
Temik war found in the well of a family that
lived in a citrus grove in the tiny town of Winter
Garden, near Orlando. Agriculture Commissioner
Doyle Conner, who had been a teadfaet supporter
of the pesticide, temporarily suspended its uu
except in Ireenhouse. He ha since allowed Temik
to e med on potatoes, but has said It will not be
used on citrus crops in 1983.
Some Floride citrus farmers are unhappy about
the ban and are trying to have Conner's decision
reversed. Harold Brown, who distributes Union
Carbide products, sys the ban could cost Florida

citrus grower more than $125-million i
"We fed that food crop are not in
drinking wells are not in dange and that
dues exceeding guideline are within the i
aa of the treated crop," Brown said.
Conner and other state officials w
testing. "Weell agree that the (inform
have right now is extremely limited, but
notely t's pointing in the wrong direct
Victoria T*chinkel, secretary of the DE
THE RESULTS already ar in fr
states. In August 1979, Temik was disc
wells in Suffolk County on New York's Lo
The pesticide had been used extensively
potato fields, and aldicarb was carried
dreds of private wells In the exclusive co
adjacent to the fields.
An EPA researcher who investigated
said the levels of Temik found in the w
pose "an unacceptable degree of cute r
man health."
Union Carbide atetd 10000 wells
county; 2,0 showed traces of Temik.
The company first obectd to local
have the peticide banned. But officials
agreed to atop selling Temik thee,
provided fre carbon water filters to reside
poisoned well. So far, moe than 1,401
have been installed.
The pesticide also contaminated
Wisconsin, where it was used on potato
Carbide tetd 400 well there and found
residues in 13 percent of them. The state
sharply restricted the use f the pestic
judge ha upheld the state's actions.
Temik was first approved for use
crops in 1970. Since then, the pesticide
used on ornamental plants, potatoes,
peanuts, pecan, soybeans and sweet
Grapefruit, lemon, Ume and orange
treated with the pesticide, but its bigges
orange tree
UNION CARBIDE has applied t
pesticide approved for use on tomato c
No one knows exactly how much Ten
in Florid. Neither Union Carbide nor th(
release the figures. But the state estin
more than 22,000 of the 30,000 acres us
ttoes are treated with Temik.
And up to 85 percent of the ornam
flowering plants grown in the state's gr
receive the pesticide.
But it is the orange groves that have I

ficial most worried. While the state estimates that
100,000 acres of Florida citrus groves about 10
percent of the total- received a Temik dose last
year, those in the industry say that the figure is
probably closer to 50 percent.
Temik, a toxic that it is available only in gran-
ular concnthtiona of 10 percent and 16 percent, i
sown into the soil at the bae of plants. Temik is a
systemic pesticide, which means it is aheorbed by
all parts of the plant and by the fruit.
Temik i the only approved pesticide that is
successful at killing citrus nematodes. And a bonus
has been that it has mad citrus trees stronger and
increased their yields.
BUT WHAT makes Temik so effective on
Slopes pet abo mak it o harmful to humans. Temik is
Danger, one of the mt toxic pesticides in the world,
any rei- acentists say. bhamul to humans even In minute
nmdiate amounts.
Products made with aldicarb are required by
ant more the EPA to be marked with "Danger" and "Pol-
ation) we son," and they must display the "skull and cross-
unfortu bones" designation. Contact with lsdicarb,
on" as according to the EPA,can cause "wekness in the
R. lep and arms, diarrhea blurred vision, abdominal
cramps, tremors, eweating, salivation, nausea and
om other vomiting."
covered in And, in extreme cases, death.
n Island. In 1979, a 23-year-old man in Charlotte County
on nearby was found dead three days after h applied Temik
into hun- to some potted palms in a nursery. An autopsy
munmtire showed he had high levels of adicarb in his urine.
Paul Keller's co-workers ey he wore the pre-
the are scribed one-piece disposable work suit gloves,
ells could boots and respirator while applying the Temik.
isk to hu- Union Carbide officials, who wrn against let
ting the pesticide com In contact with bare skin,
croes the have called Keller's death "a mystery."
The EPA ahlo ha trict standards for how much
efforts to Temik houldbe allowed in food and drinking wa-
ventually ter. The agency recommend that drinking water
and later not contain more than 10 parts per billion of Temik.
dent with Residue levels in oranges should be no more than
system 300 parts per billion, according to the EPA.
wells in UNION CARBIDE calls the EPA levels
as. Union "unduly conservative" and says that people could
nd Temik consume much more Temik without any harmful
Shas since aide effects."To say that water containIng 10 parts
ida, and a per million is unsafe or unfit or r human consump-
tion is unduly alarming to the public," sa Union
on cotton Carbide's Richard Back.
has been But the basic question to Rodney DeHan, head
uga cane, of the DER's groundwater division, is that Temik
potatoes. i found In the water at all. "The persistence of
roves are Temik in the environment is most alarming," De-
ust son Hn n ay. "It doesn't matter to me wheer it
survives in the soil or in the water table or
o have the And he say that Union Carbide's credibility is
rope. suffering.
ik is used "First, the story was,'It won't be found in the
SEPA will shallow water table,' "DeHan says. "When it was
ates that found, they said 'Well, it won't the
ed for po- deeper water.'
"When we found it there, they said, The wells
intel and that were used had cracked casings.'"
eenhouses DeHan panues. "Now, we've found it in wells
that don't have casings. I haven't had the explana-
Florida of- lion for that yet."

Pesticides tound in ground water

This chart has been compiled from an Environmental Protection
Agency lit of states that have found traces of pesticides in their
ground water. For the most part, the extent of the contamination
has not been studied. The only chemical listed as being found in
Flkrida water is adicarb, the chemical in Temik. These are
preliminary findings.


Arizona DSCP*

Caliorno DBCP* i

Georgia EDB

Hawai EDOB

Maryland DBCP*
dichlloropropene I

Nebreake strazine I

New York aedicarb
MAR 20 1983 dinoseb
oxmnyl I

South Carolkna ED

Texas DBCP*

Wisconsin aldicerb

"banmdbytheELPAn"e. 9.t*73

SI. Pmlomu rTie NEtUA m*OUW

'Our dependence on chemicals has gotten way ahead of our ability to regulate their safe use
... We have built whole way of life around substances we don't really understand '
-Victoria Tchinkl, secretary of Florida Department of Envionmental Regulation

Toxic waste and water:

the tip of an iceberg

trug mdie money i mr, n. --*A
miyrMn T MA AR_ 131983

They e so number and so complex that m national T
exper on dinkin waar hs stopped a trying to .- M
member all the names.
He lumps them into oe goup "ethyl-methyl-
Hasardous wastes are plingp across America spilling
chemicals and mta into the wat that som of u drink.
The wastes a found along country roads, dumped into
urban rivers,. buried in landfill and sometimes ponuad
casually down sewers.
They can be well-known poisos, like arsenic, m -rcury
and lead. Or they can be eoti chemicals lik tri-
choroethylne and vinyl chloride. They come from such
everyday activities building boato and making point.
And they are being found increasing gly in thb state's
ground water. upon which ine of every 10 Floridians
depend for drinking water
FLORIDA IANKIS FLT among the 50sattes in

This Is another in a
series of rpot
on the qualiy ot
Florida' water.

the number of h.zardous-waste sites on the nation's "worst
of worst"lis. If that's surprising for a state that makes its
living from sunshine and tourists, remember that h rd.
ou wastes are produced by everyone from Moentao to the
corner dry cleaner.
We have become a nation that believes in chemicals.
The federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) es-
timate that 48,000 of them have become a part of ou
everyday lives.
Their proper disposal, unfortunately, has not.
"Our dependence on chemicals has gotten way ahead
our ability to regulate their safe use," the Florida De-
partment of Environmental Regulation's secretary, Vic-
tons TachinkeL
"Ths is a terrible thing. We have built a whole way of
life around substanceas that we really don't understand."
A state tmk force that recently completed a atudy of the
state's water resources felt the same way:
"The task force believes the potential contamination of
issue facing the state in the protection of its water resources
and poses a major threat to th drinking water supplies and
public health of the citizas of this stat."
SAYS BILL SADOWSKI, the brmer state Wgis- lg14 t.a- FERAL
lator who headed the task force "I had not realized beforee

See WATER. 20-A

Battery casings litter a po
Contamination from the batteries metals has reached into the nearby Chipola River.

u~a~saly. qenei"ZCoqan aeu

Is Ise.a 'Sn

eIcSae iuejezs emu ausevea sulaomeuet gio pe 0 tld O10
stomes St*tL l.I5MdUIUeUUdEIUS5SLUPUNInei
I eA~

P.)-.* "41 -i M ..."-p

1td 4"40 "ti eAMy -1-10

al Le6t ESS' 3WIO-O LCal It L

25of the 418

Superfund sites

,. dre in Florida
. Here t the Florida lit on the federal o-
.. ment's uperfund list of the 418 mosand rou urd-
.* ous-wate sites in the country. They m listed in the order
the Environmental Protection Aency Lt. The EPA
ranking ar aet by a complicated model, and the priori-
tie are not mceuarily tnhe ama that the sateto t. Th
order may be changed as more information is available
about each site, state official ay.
V Schuylkill Metals, Plant City (41). Schuylkill
Metals is a company that breaks down old bettarie to
recover the lead in them. The hasrdous waste inside
Them have been dumped into a disposal pond, and envi-
ronmental official le my the beavy-mtal waste have
contaminated a ditch that drains into a lake.
V Pcketlville Road Landfil, Jaksoaville (46).
SThi 63-acre landfill was opened by a private compay in
1967 and subsequently run by the city of Jackovia. Th
site received all types ofsid westes. includiin dustrial
sludges and petrochemical waete. Monitoring bha shown
That the ground water is contaminated with heavy metal
and industrial organic molventa.
I Davie Landfill, Davli (55). Dbpaealof aludge
at the landfill ha contaminated the Bicayne Aquifer
over which the landfill i located. High eIs of heavy
metals, organic chemicals and pesticides have been de-
tected in the ground water.
Gold Coast Oil Corp., Miami (i5). Large
amounts of hazardou wates have been dumped at this
southwest Miami paint-reclamtion plant Ground water
samples from well on the property have shown high levels
of iron and zinc.
V Alpha Chemical, Galloway (6S). A man-
ufacturer of polyeter rein dumped it industrial process
water into an unlined pond on the sit. Residential well
nearby wre found later to be contaminated by acetone
and other chemical dumped into the pond.
V Miami Drum, Miami (104). An industrial drum
recycling company for 14 year dipoaed of the residue in
drums by dumping them into a pit on tbh company
property. Ground water at the site wa found to be con-
taminated with high level of organic chemical Tbh
company property n only 20 yards from a wellrfld that
I supplies water for the city of Miami.
Sl Kasauf-Kimerlinl, Tampa (107). Thia prop-
erty now is named for the two men who own it. But it we
formerly known asTimberlake Battery, another fim that
uued to reclaim old batteries. In thi cue, the battery
casings were used to fill a large marshy are adjacent to a
lake. and official think both the ground water and lake
are contaminated.
V Whitehouse Oil Pits, Whitaeouse (114). The
Whitehouse Oil Sludge Pit were used by Allied Petro-
leum Producte Co. a re-refiner of used motor transformer
oils, for the disposal of acid sludge, clay wastes and oil
sludge. The seven one-acre pits were abandoned in 1969.
Ground water samples showed concentrations of
chromium, copper and lead.
V Pioneer Sand, Pensacola (110). Walter Dugger,

arot *...... ..-tC.c-IE
,IuoueV Hsm yi/n v

s- ;. ..: yf,

* '-- -- If,

Florida's m ost dangerous u .
hazardous waste site s
(Soldface number after each name ia owha alte
ranked on EPA' Metn of 41 mot dangerous p e .dpel
1. Alpha Chemical. Goorowy l31 '
2. American Creosote. Penacola 1242)
3. Brown Wood. Live Oak 11 3)
4. Coleman Evans. Whitehoue 1171)
6. Davie Landill, Davie (61
Florida Steel. Indiantown 11731
7. Gold Coast Oil. Miami (5l4
I. Hollingeworth. Fot Lauderdle (1931
3. Kasaul-Kimerlin, Tampa (107
10. Miami Drum. Miami 1041
11. Munsport, North Mami 1362)
12. NW 68th St.. Hialeash 41 4
13. Prramore Surplus. Mount Pleasant 1321
14. Pickettvill Road Landill. Jacksonville 14q)
16. Pioner Sand. Wrrington (l119
16. Reeve SE Galvanizing. Tapa 11201
17. Sapp Bttllry. Cottondald (160I
1 Schuylkil, Plant City (411
19. Sherwood Medica. Deland (2551
20. Taylor Road Landlill. Sollm (11301
21. Tower Chemical. Clermont 126)
22. Versol Spill, Miami (1961
23. Whitehouse Oil Pits. Whitehoue (1141
24. Zellwood Groundwater Contamination Zellwood 112 )
25. 62nd St. Dump, Tampa 11451

who doeam biness a Pioneer Sand Co., owns a landfill in
Eacambia County where electroplating wastes haev been
dumped. Officials have detected high concentrations of
chromium, lead, copper, oil and grease in the soil.
V Reeves 81 Galvaniings, Tampa (120). The
company used ponds to diapoae of waseateter containing
heavy metal. Since then, ground water has been found
contaminated with zinc. iron and chromium.
V Zellwood Ground Water Contamination. Zell
wood (126). This i listed a a "site" because environ-
mental official have found a contamination problem, but
they can't find a cause. Tests have shown a plume ofcon-
taminated ground water, with high levels of arsenic,
heading toward the Lake Apopka agrciultural region near
thia town in Orange County.
V Taylor Road Landfll. Seffner (130). This 42-
acre landfill owned and operated by Hillshorough County
im now closed. But municipal and industrial wastes

dumped at the site hawe eped i
and traca of cancer-causing c
chloride have been found in re
well near the site.
' NW 58th Street Dump,
solid-waste dilpoul ite bha be
end industrial waetee since 1962
tion ha fouled the underlying
lest two mile and is near a we
city of Miami with water.
S62OSd Street Dump, Tam
an abandoned borrow pit that
dustrial refuse, automobile ecri
Heavy metals have contaminated
site, which is adjacent to a privi
marsh area by a lake.
' Sapp Battery, Cottonda
plant reclaimed lead from lea

6-m0"- iuogenesul LAsee
Mi sy e n qemp poe

MlAD 1 9 14AI

lllnl\~ YI1 I

mtau lik lal d and dmium wre discharged into pond
on the alt. which during heavy raim ovrflowd into a
creek and eventually the Chipol River. Vap ttion has
1 n deatroyd, and water i contaminated a far a the
J river.
SColeman-Brvea Wood Preserving Co.,
Whltekouse (178). Cimical waters from the comp-
ny for yarm wer dumped into two legoon on the dt.
RTh prctiavmtulwas topped nd tbe lagoo were
filled But rent teeta hav shown that the round water
already bad bee contaminated and private well near th
ait are threatened.
Florida Steel Cop., ladlatews (4170). This
Martin County company one ueed electric funuee to
,* malt scrap metal for other us. The process produced
aolid emioue duat, 00 cubic yada of which were
stored a the plant site. Offcial think the lead, inac,
contaminated g nd ad urfae waters.
Brown Wood, ive Oak (182). Until four yuas
ago, poles had barn treated with remote at this site ince
Sthe 1940s. Cemicals drained into a water pond that no
hot about 30 fast ofecacnoooaked Woil a round it Ther
e u 12 private walk and a 100-unit mobile bom park
wthin a mile of the ite.
SHolliBo awgorth, Fort Laoderdale (10). The
S Hollingworth Soldeurl Trminal Co. is allied to bav
dumped induatrilwatae directly into a 90-oot well that
S acontaminatd the Biayne Aquifr.Clea-up of th
a, J lite bs hbcomosproriorty of theDet tMnt of nviron-
mentea Balulation (DER)because it is socde to tbe city
of Port LudrdlaWs drinkinL-waer supplies.
'' Vr 'ol8pll, Miami (19). About 10 ye ao, a
pipine* conecting a V d store tank to Easturn
S' Airlinea' Maintnuace Terminal at Miami International
g 5 Airport began to lak. Baon it wa repaired, an estimated
S -mliaon gallon of the solvent had leaked into the
ground, cotaminatin the ground water under the ar-
S Amerlean Creooeto, Peasacola (342). A wood-
treatment plat that h been operating since the blin-
nin ofthe century, American Creote Works dumped its
-.. _Ts wastea into lagoonon its property. Monitor wells near te
-.nroa ati have identified an undmround plume of pollution
amne Rcambia Bay.
V Sherwood Medloal Iadetries, DeLaad
(255). Water from unlined getting ponad at this site
may be contaminating both ground iad surface water.
nto the Flrida Aquifer, Officide are concsumd about acidic wat and high ni-
hemicala uch A- vinyl trate contamination
idential drinking-watr Tower Chemial, Clermont (269). Since 190,
this company baa been muaufacturing Iricultural
Hlialah (144). TbiL chemicals. Diposalponda oa Ia site ar highly acidic,
n accepting municipal and thea ludge b laced with te now-banned peaticida
.A plume of coutamin- DDT. DERMnotiatL d $l10-mllion settlement with the
Biecayne Aquifer for at co mpry, but It has nat bean paid.
lfild that suppliea the Parramore fSurplu, Mount Pleasat (2).
This 26-acre ite in Gadden County wa originally uaed
(145 Thi dm for the torageof surplus military equipment. But inve-
ea (14i). fTh dump in tigator have found about 1,00 containers of hardou
ha been d with in- wt on the ite, and ome of the barrel have baked
p and bttery i onto the round.
Sthe ground water at Mualport, North Miami (362). Officials hav
ate rih farm and near a discovered that hardou wtes have been dumped into
this abandoned municipal laadfi. Drinking-water sup-
l (160). This defunct plies are threatened, and adjacent surface waters con-
d-acid batteries. Heavy tribute to the Biscayne Bay Eatuary Syatem.

WWM ", ,I I fl A IYJUJ
serving on the task force) how real the hazardous-waste
problem is in this state."
And consider this: The state does not know shout all the
hazardous-waste sites in Florida or have a complete list of
the companies that generate the wastes. There isn't enough
money in state coffers to clean up the sites officials do
know about. A vast number of companies ar exempted
from reporting how theydispose of their hazardous waste.
And some critics think that state laws may actually be en-
couraging illegal dumping.

It took Love Canal
to alert the nation
to the problem

It seemed to start with Love Canal.
A concerned mother and an enterprising newspaper
reporter teamed up in the mid-197(0 to investigate why
children wer getting sick and pregnant women were having
miscarriages and why babies were born with birth defects
in a neighborhood near Niagara Falls, N.Y.
Their findings brought the horrors of buried chemical
wsatae to the nation's attention.
They found that between 1947 and 1963, Hooker
Chemical and Plastics Co had dumped and buried millions
of pounds of waste. The land over the buried drums
became the site of an elementary school, and a neighbor-
hood grew up around it. Twenty-five yar later, the waste
were seeping into basements and oozing from the ground.
But even before President Jimmy carterr took the un-
recedented step of declaring the area a state of emergency,
aardous wrates had begun to poison the natlu water.
THIS IS A SAMPLING ofth catalogue of polon-
ing compiled by David Burmaster and Robert H. Harris,
formerly affiliated with the federal Council on Environ-
mental Quality:
Morethan 100 private wl near JacksonTownship,
NJ. have been closed nce a landfill wa licensed in 1972 to
accept swage sludge and septic-tank waste. Legal
dumping of chemical waste at the landfill poisoned the
nearby wells. Resident there have claimed that the con-
tamination caused premature deaths, kidney ailments and
other health problem.
SIn January 1960. California health officials doad 39
public wells supplying water to more than 400000 people in
the San Gabriel Valley because they were contaminated
with unsafe levels of trichloroethylne. The industrial sol-
vent is known to cause cancer in laboratory mice.
6' More than 9-million gallons of chemical wastes were
poured into s dump near Atlantic City, NJ. Private wel
near the dump pumped out water that blackened pots,
turned laundry yellow "and at times, filed like sods pop."
A year ago, state officials closed seven municipal wells that
had previously supplied about 40 percent of Atlantic City's
Perhaps the most frightening aspect about ground water
contamination is that whenever official hve set out to
look for it, they have found it.
When Michigan took a comprhebsive look at its water
in 1979, it found 268 contaminated sites, 381 sites where
ground water contamination was suspected, nd more than
50,000 sites where a potentially polluting activity either was
taking place or had taken place. Chemical wastes wee the
problem in the vast majority of the case. Michigan said it
would take up to $50-million just to determine the extent of
the pollution and u much a .2 billion to clean up the moe.
THE MOST COMPLETE national picture was
made in 1980 by the Council on Economic Quality. That
study, based on date from EPA regional offices, showed
that at leaut some drinking water was contaminated in 34
states. In the industrial east, nearly every state, including
Florida, had some problems.
And researchers found that of the 33 chemicals most
often detected, the levels in underground water were much
higher than those found in riven, lakes and stream.
The results shot down the theory, once and for all, that
the water Iundergrnound is pristine and protected.

Florida has yet to undertake a comprehensive study like
the one done in Michigan. But reports that have been done
indicate the problems are widespread.
A 1977 study of 320 companies by Florida State
University researchers estimated that nearly 600,000 metric
tons of hazardous wastes were being produced in Florida
each year. (State officials don't know the exact amount, nor
do they know if the total has increased or decreased since
Th study showed that the vat majority of the wate
was being generated in the five most populous counties -
Dade, Broward. Duval, Hillsborough and Pinellas. It is sa-
timated that the Tampa Bay area produces 30 percent of
the state's total of potentially hazardous wastes.
And the EPA has estimated that as much aa 90 percent
of the hazardous wastes produced in this country are not
disposed of by environmentally safe methods.
BUT THE THREAT from hazardous waste didn't
really hit Floridians until 1961.
Sparked by the problems in Love Canal, Congres set
aide a $1.6-billion Superfund to clean up the country'
wort hazardous-waste sites, and the EPA developed a
complicated system taking into account things like
degree of contamination and proximity to drinking-water
supplies to rank the sitea.
Florida hd 16 of the 114 sit onthe h stmor n nany
other state.
"We really made an honest effort to identify our sites
that might qualify for Superfund," says DER's Techinkel.
"I don't think the other states did that. We decided that we
weren't going to pretend that we didn't have a problem."
In the latest list. released in December, Florida was
home to 26 ofthe 418 sites on the list. Four tate which
apparently had intensified their efforts to locate problem
apote had more sites that Florida.
Florida' aitee stretch from Penscolb where the wood
preervative creosote poisoned shallow, private well- to
M i -a where the state's largest aolid-waste dilpoul
plant has leaked cancer-causing chemicals into the aquifer
that is the main source of drinking water for Dade and
Broward counties.
THE SITES that made the Superfund lit, however,
ar only a small part of the state's problem. The DER ays
there an more thao 200 uncontrolled haardous-wate sites
in Florida. "The list is growing," says Robert McVety, head
of the DER's haurdous-waste division.
And, unfortunately, there is evidence that the wateo am
contaminating drinking water. In its efforts to determine
the extent of chemical contamination, the EPA recently
surveyed nearly 1,000 drinking-water systems half of
them chosen because environmental officials thought there
were problem.
About 20 of the systems showed at least trace ofone
ofthe chemicals. Others had more than one chemical. And
some had such high concentrations that well were shut
In Florida, thoe testednd nd from small. private firms
to municipal systems. There were problems found in Hobe
Sound, Fort Pierce, Venice, Pembrook Pines, Pompano
Beach. Riviera Beach, Palm Beach Gardens, West Palm
Beach, Hollywood, Fort Lauderdale, Sunrise, Lantana,
North Miami, Hallandale, Palm Bay and Tampa.
Pinella officials say that their well fields, in mostly
rural ases of Pinellas, Pasco and Hilbborough counties
away from industrial development, have come out dean
when teats for exotic chemicals ham ei qa8

Who should be
Regulated? And
Show do you do it?

Haardous-waste regulation in Florida follows the
federal lead legislation passed two year ago requires
that certain wastes be accounted for "from cradle to grave."
Unfortunately, the theory is tougher than reality.
"I'd say the laws are adequate," says McVety. "The
problem we have is that we have a lot of research to do to
determine who and what shmll be regulatee(;"

aL it .. I I' i sIl i. I CII ie C IIap e lIaztu do
waste management legislation within Florida, state funding
is grossly inadequate to implement this legislation," con-
cluded the 1981 Governor's Hazardous Waste Policy Ad-
visory Council.
AND IN 1983: "Funding is grossly inadequate for
the proper regulation, management and cleanup of haz-
ardous waste in this state," said the water task force in a
report finished last month.
Partly because of staff limitations-DER has only si
hazardous-waste field inspector there has been no
comprehensive inventory of the state's hazardous-weate
generators. "I'd say we hve a pretty good idea about what
the major producers am doing" ays DER Secretary
Tachinkel. "But as in any other program, there are stragg-
MeVety sys that by June the department hopes to have
a better idea about the quantity of hastrdous waltee in the
state d the people who produce them. That is when the
companies must submit reported of their activities.
But even then the picture won't be complete.
Since the DER had no directory of all the state's hax-
ardous-waste producers, itet t letters to 16,000 firm they
thought might qualify. Only about 10 percent said they fit
the state's specifications and will make reports. Even
McVety doesn't think that all of those who a covered by
the law accepted the DER's invitation to respond.
Every hauadous-waste producer must dipose of those
wastes in an approved manner. But those who produce
about a ton or leas each moth are not required to report
how they dispo of it.
THOSE SMALL companies a responsible for
only about 2 percent of the wast produced in Florida. But
in ome all counties, all hasardous-wate producers may
fallinto that category.
Medium-sized companies produce about 80 percent of
the waete. And they an the problem, officials say.
Explains Dr. Roy Haerdon. director of Florida State
University's Institute of Science and Public Affairs. "Some
generators don't know the laws. Other gnore them because
of the cost. And all of them think (the regulations) am too
complex and that they a for large firm only."
On way to locte all the haardous-wast producer -
according to some, the only way is for local government
to t involved. A program In Tallahae i doing jut that
With 80,000 grant. researher* a talking to every firm
and industry in Leon County that could potentially be -
creating hazardous waste. "We're the only county in the
country doing thi,." Herndon ays.
McVety hopes the ide pred e. "rhore an a lot of them
that we jut can't catch at the state level," he ays. `"T
local governments should be involved because whether we
like to admit it or not, the wlsta are probably turning up
in their landfilla"

4Disposing of
hazardous wastes
is a costly business
Drums filled with toxic polions hve been found in
wooded area near the Hishorough River, buried near the
town of Land 0' Lake and imply sitting alongid
Courtney Campbel Parkway. Sewae-treatmnt plant
around the state have reported "lugs of haurdous wastes
passing through their systems, the reults ofeomeone sim-
ply pouring the stuff down the drain.
That is illegal, of course. But both hazardous-wast
producers and environmentalist wonder i state law is not
to blame.
There are no off-site disposal faciltie in Florid
Therefore, up to 80 percent of the hazardous waateo pro-
duced here must be shipped out of state. It can coat up to
$150 to send a 5-gallon drum of watea from Pinellau
County to the nearest approved disposal site, near Living-
ston, Ala. That adds up to about $600 a ton.
While it coste a lot of money to get rid of the wastes,
there also is profit to be made for companies that recycle
them. But those companies haven't ventured into Florida
much because they feel the law is stacked against them.

r a IeL U& ., t..u Iu II anO my back
yard,' uys former Florida House member George Sheldon
of Tmpa. He tried to pau lgiialation lt year that would
have given responsibility for placing hazardous-waate fa-
cilities to a statewide board.
Now, approval must come rom the county commission,
which is not likely to stand up to public pressure from vot-
er who don't want the facility near them. The governor and
Cabinet may become involved only if the regional planning
council votes to usnd the imu to Tallahasee.
Th regional planning council is composed of local
elected oflcibl, and none Ihas vr voted to override a
county commsinion' decision to prohibit a facility.
William Prescott, a Tldhlese lawyer active in the
haardous-wste field, uysthat moat wate-maneeamant
companies believe there jt am nwver be favorable vote
for citing of disposal facility or even a truer station."
A transfer nation is simply a place for the waste to be
stored until enough is gathered to make tohe to dis-
ol site* more rofitable. 'Tern i only one in Fi, In
rompano Buck.
Thi Tamnp By Reional Planning Council rectly
agreed to hlp DR find plae in Pinell, Paco. Hills-
borougb or Mo to county where such a transfer ta tion
could built. The year-longatudy could cmt up to 20,000,
and offiil hope that a pivat company would be un-
couragd enough by the atur to apply to build the station.
MAR 11983
5What are th
Health isks? We
0 simply don't know

It b ot easy to -y bonUthes chemical affct human
beitb In fact, it i mot impossible.
For all of th report fdhelth problem and for dl of
te chemicals that ar nown to case cucw In laboratory
animals, researcher say it would bee a rglutuan tuak to
prove that oumam developed cancer imply by drinking
"Although cicumstntil evidence ofa connection be-
tween ch callym contamiented water and cancer s grow-
a definitive causal relationship cannot currently be
btanti tue, concludn'a Princeton University study
published lt June.
SExisting chemical alytic technique can identify
only sbout 5 percent of the epni coateminants in drink-
in water.
'* Of those, only 10 percent hove bea dn quately
tested to detorine if they cause cancer or birth defects.
SHuman cancer can k the reut of many factors.
,' No om cn say foq urn how much of a certain
chemical is safe, and how pch is too much.
But som thi ngm known. All of those 33 con-
taminants found most often in the 190 Council on Eavi-
ronantal Quality nationalmurvey m known to be toxic at
umffciently high concntrations. At least 21 of the
compounds have been the ubjct of occupational studi.
and worker who ar exposed to them in high con-
centraions hve reported problem raning freon musl to
pontaneous abortions.
"Until recently igh eposiur to thee have rarely been
associated with drinking water," wrote Burmnetr and
Harris. "And especially regardin potential reproductive
problem, thM is no direct evidence that concentration
fIund in mpe th mot1 contaminated rund water pose a
significant health hazard.
"HOWEVER, wherm xposure from couption
of coataminatod gound water have been high, portd
symptom have ben similar to thos aocatod with
occuptional edpos ure"
S tha federal Sof Drinking Water Act of 1974. th
EPA is charged with setablishing national standards for
drnking-wator contamination. The agency soon after et
standard on bacteria, six pseticides and 10 chemicals.
Since then, it has st standard on radioactivity and tri-
halomthanun, a potentially cancer-causing compound
found in many systems that treat water with chlorine. The
See WATER. 21-'

Water MARl3 1983
standards are measured in miAute amounts parts per
billion in some cases.
But there are dozens of potentially hazardous chemicals
for which EPA has not set "maximum contaminant levels."
It is now in the process of setting levels for at least nine.
But the agency and scientists in general -are ham-
Spered by limited knowledge about the substances and at
what levels they become harmful.
"There's a lot of guesswork, because no one really knows
about the harm from parts per million," says Dr. Carl
Pfaffenberger, director of the division of chemical epide-
miology at the University of Miami School of Medicine.
"I'm not trying to frighten anyone, but there is a great
deal of ignorance in the field of toxicology. If you take a
private company to court, you're on very weak grounds."
Several Florida families, however, have decided to try.
One such couple is Bernie and Patricia Windham. They
say in a suit filed in Leon County Circuit Court that the well
Sat their house near Tallahassee was contaminated by tri-
Shloroethylene. They claim the problem began more than
20 years ago, when a paving company building a road for the
state dumped the residue of solvents used for cleaning their
equipment near the land that the Windhams eventually
THE WINDHAMS are suing the Florida Depart-
S ment of Transportation, the paving company and the
company's insurance carrier, saying they are responsible for
the pollution that has slowly traveled through the ground
water and into the well that the Windhams used for six
1 years.
Bernie Windham says that he has had serious health
problems, including abnormalities in his sperm. His
I ....t., ,, rnt hin t the are of 2 months, had her cancerous

- toT;

+1f '-


*^ _* ^


State winning
wastes battles,
but losing war

TDharmhentn SoimmenlRs ilams (D bER) aw
lmet heac lede otllhrainothmreidesmlewm
ino lrda. and they ho. coma ut imum..
To dles a tha poiMsm mam by Sawp SBtery
o bs ai d to eason th land and mimrmy aromd the
Puanele htoMy-eamaaeMa pint. an atomy and
han ained M tWma an. Biami mUmph man
haM pUaNiIa aek Mr thpleat anno the
SmupBaetrySre.hoimchmaaacdleu mealy
a hu = o' matlOemd a pinM ham Jry Spp.
ldid.hnemar.ptid tractr-tiurownm by lth
minpy. and the a .to a 0900ned it a b f a sila0 Bnt
shautjllibnpdtaohidrdito mis.SaouMefaLad-
met f -i- t- S11-mlln, the be latelUd
TOWz- CHMICAL. a f a Or ido that
pmedo .hagri lrtchnihale.,posediamampceroducn
into pnds a it lad. Whn the ponds w- loeded. th
SP Iwto -ll d wa andd flouMd bloo aearby
san and W.hea
A Ornaop Comai y judge poad with b aU DER
Wbmbtakedfot LmillIa ton toownthe. Futher. har
aid thatTorpw oodant Ralph eeashould pay sand.
ditioaMd S0o hf manm mony.
So bar, otnb
"nt's a*typi proMbh in dhe ki afi a."auy
DER ux mosy 1= 11d- *You n fMd the
pa lW lamm le 'btha dot lhan mon sto tain
dS ta probomm.
It a with that in mind that Coogm. the wang
do idPoideismJmaya CtU'radminitauutonu.camd
he Suopfid. It IOappepiatUd Slbillo to pay for
dmap of the 'ais ms taat doud-emt UseS.
Thidsc- swam-thesdonr dthmueomnmaz
as aompsg dhe am have the companies that wmoe a
spomibl (or the maon
ThIbderEahEironmentalPlroesiomApncy (EPA),
Shics fpni d far admaiusai the propa. lie
418 ian nligiUe fatr the mnou. 25 & thems io Floids.
Sh te Sqpoand pegm srddd wm ta consonmy.
AMONG TOM DMIPUTS so aso how many ais
ht ba daed p anie the Supasund was tohibaed.
tdaorAmy tlh bamanmedunddaffidioal
Srpeuad selo ad that tma ro mIe the mutk of
augOoyanianatrpaivateimmpn ianluanurilyooming
And the r e 14X asn that and to ie claimed up
moatnred amond the aMaOm. aKoding to the EPA.
dbtnhamuaMariutdchar-araCtbatWnotuiburad to
the inognai of frmer EPA Adamntrat A M.
dmadsl and srinoag o f dhmrtoplbesatomnsa- na
Cth thae mo" oma io an p bmaorin sopm ro -
ptible feo m of n Supt r nd poblm su and that
polit pld a put is ho the momemy a ditriutnad.
FLORIDA OFICIALS dm't bow that political
aumlha biplayedmis thaP Flode saita but they do
soy that the wheiemo-walowly. Oaly thema-itel ha o *a
ed aySuperkond money as all.
TheuMioiDrmnointiaaii mai.rame poellarofth ,.
aquid from which Dade and Broe couny sideunt &m
n* their drinking watl ham be cleand up to the
tan of am thean -illn. But the mk amor m borun Mt
amlybmuomthlemoaloranItputupthUmoQny for the
atork wl coith ommta Irom th EPA that sdo ym
wali he paid baLk.
Flaide remaovd $SUAM in Awedo to amdy how the.:
mium. led ad obaro maoeo anemiaunag the Spp
poltymOaldodeamdeup.butmsotmoan yboheonmot
o aouldly do thabaf k.
AMabr *e. the Wi eobuslm Oil Pi ln Jthaill
has mind lih* am am th l0li obrem T VXN if ll te Florido ian a.d EPA .
dloup mey. the state domei't haw the 10 percent
oaeodsiWamiohni~ml qd.Tlhoaum baeanlyabout
thealto altthLjagwleanpmasd emol yea.gtoe-
plaih thatd ai be a n dumal failun.
HMeds-aou- produ..r it Floride mat pay wM
UoMs to a t an their diposil a. Buot heM so
yod~oaosowe"as from tha ew I aNd.
PWm the ter is casolly a deritot.
The DOepsams of RenA smNM that it cos
75M0o to adminumst t =i Un Iu yel. it ried only
DER SaMnry Vwesti Teobiokl that the
Ll-hillioi Speriad moast enough to smoore aln of thi
oountryou lepota. -Weastthe staew Lml sn ofogto
ena toao mpaihmbility" at only for vme Supirbfnd
iL. butsheofaotr themppeimasly173aisia Flaindetat
didn't malb the lit.
Oithltoea tweyepn.up yhe as.tihn toant deotsa
muiio tso dean cup rthe nost poM poMblm.

+ c



/ "~i

An 'easy' choice

Most water experts agree: Dade County takes the cake
for the state's most dangerous aquifer pollution


And to mld to the p-. thLm as hi
drds of tindtmim an rm in Dods County
th aeduar=moacted totheuindew-eiWa-
thcouldt"dtaemOftuamhem inefeswy.
by poluting tdo I um.

The Biosrao ameuife at thi mot
a wdgeehopmd aeo at highly peraobte
aeck thou mmb to.. ameteh as Pahm
BeahC utyatho th diot d tlesi Al.
mals a iot Ddse lmd Seawad outim ha
also thucms and tapmw outh it 1emhe thu in thu Beaglmde p
Ts aw em plae, sin Counsy
abhe. ueemeg nmort imnthu Pftwithout
at ie w *o0" MPW Bent PeliaM Coutys
Bmr i dCuw frI thue tridea sAiea by
allO deep a 00 few. by cc thuo to-
ainluelthitoleden adsarodma-
dast. sally ee lho them 70 feel deep.
motm powan u Ia Cuyly
T i bi eha to dtetesl tqi h bi
whe. the ,oudl-t li70 eu(.

TH NATURAL rai of flw is e to
tae lees a day." map BeSet. "Youn put
mthinea th pw as Mmrhwu plalewy
odot he di hidaw it etasl you ilow
diT fUlt u O"e mmyd the OAe
"You M look 4t91 Supartlad ist d dw
that t*h -dbm aunommatnd Po.
Mamti, Jactovile. Tamp.c MIlm-. ap.
lh mwtlmll. "Thumletroeuft ML. ithi

aod ai ate us aet tikle
'It's em.' me moths Ciomey Coma
eiinM~ ltwohPr~oile.whmne
utaaa Mew umlook~~ioteo
Sm Tom Cthe mshpnow" of s~stihet
Vona sbolm d avsdon thes met me, s
the NW int DOW. Cmiy fore a ros knob of
tho m m m Dedermmyindmet~timeLe .
odmism. For the am pot. it sat (Wade
BUT JUSTs aew r yo; ageumi had
than tami motah ofm sataod me.
And sidssm sud loutrisi pilt
throughout South Flonda leok a umbor of
channels into thu ydf-the sae
supply fao t 3.aii pWpl theh
fed"ta goavaumoit usymougosonu baumim at
thai -" healh haasds.
Theea wsemeWoWm iheueta Daioview
whemwo giluo ha ctentamtnd the t.w.1
Smum vis MUh ar- taugibli problem
&- do peoplewhodependedu the mti
pnreveu wells tabaseebehoadod hem
Mmme chmaeml b een ban demented
than is ulejam s bel
Sathe People who have been study"n the
iasto ase mamas.ed than IxpumeblI
fee Heo Pitettip gl the m *inw, who
=%., = takne avetwmmuna-
poteOT W Wo U dor i hl*h in muntmming

thedsmeadw a, thor*em om UP."
ituan je meley.wamatmv ndl hsou
Flasida Wil, rnr~eui D L"Ae t'
toride -
Siuitmhe SouPi th
ledfhlaed o*biammhk mpumndouowq.
towns. an rspoble foir l
pmbkm all ar iro bin
-OPp o. il oum Pude.~U
timrefy raw to swet humani thair
vanamoupeon in Itillehusugle may allow
the oismisem of a pet am, phaosil
drig; wow wulls that may WOmk
Imac ur
ToDodeda omd e rldi.mach
a problem would be a nuarnt.
Pie Stu ma fled. County been mand
the faedal Supiefemed live.e diaractoeyf
41i8 oati wmehcwdomto-we, was in
hooaboou thou., to pmlumo the Bawyeeyw
squibs. OWd all ues mofthe outh Floride &&
-efn at" an. aboem thu 0*6.
miomi Dute.l no mapoy I th eyd
dredm th hut held channels, hut -

tofLamtw eliassuaiw. hoof the semowe

mmo aseeh Aie from dhe damp hot. the
"THZ MITHStree Desp is s, saw

"l...wee noy ons, thu toidd thuem uigat
ouuideoitup. wieciytmpcwt f
theral ass, = M=thuo
doIfiedeAn tom UPtNY hat tisawt.l'e Immun
Hollingswioth Soldoela Terumej Co. -u-
ellorhdpmed hidauduemdmouatlyma.
the iqeis ae laud adiot to em beath
wt i' Fort Loaededooa swiltilds.

Materb-immmdl oe..m Mimegieot
mid tht f oucompiio in the am we th
lilke th nmon s iso idtilfed 142
BAUCE POtTID out that nverl
io op m .thoi Su pdrin at th Southb
IdWaUl eiholasiuMt limita. ed that sus
doUt mupo to ite ae driak *ser mr the
tup l nm t may liftss"
Note Y s eir a the$ ay. Sioth FPlrid
w osaroa Alisp--oitad the sr i Mae
all tshe teqeie asetth finede St a feDak-t.
g Wate Act. And torm I ea pronoatane
Bll Sedo ai. Miami lwer w .
moouinthe -atertbxfaom.M indl t
bli that the p le. rM as had a mo
th ."IftWhead ma srpoblm.t think
we Would hv witeased heith prib-
IomSdemki mys
Hamm, Sadoei wh o s e ad his
family drink bottled w admiso thet th
'thant ft thus d ar *ns i Ml.' And ho
ar tha puat t the pribtm n judging th
three of comameied drinking siu i that
the bmalth itck atsa of the comaiumaDon ay ao
ho appointte rfa t.
Coateminatie srm -e oiMadutri- omm
ioB thu f(a m atosanic. atos exatic cheauals.
about which little a* bin in tams of health
effect. A. a nult. fodeal drawing wanu
staudadsi. far the mom pUat. dnt care them.
"Wha is o iary ebout it is that bwa
mch mutd MIuI-tO.' MW PtuirW.
'no hmiml "h s should ho eacetoewd
abous. wee soan oe iag for."
BS while Did C rom oo lt of loib-
Ilsoseloak thanw aovn ed dbad of tr
cuitMpe tsbma euiit thleestae-uacliding
PWi Cl-oumy a pmcUagIrhm drinking
am me ppikm They banve owidoln MIm bt would put touh -
riaicim m .uyti fuim optc ub to

hamudorwu ebuunir Armg the itdher
popeu d or ct m d ve
*, Itequsmme that admaad utap
mr fair pt uMad indutil ol m.
made otarib amardit tict d the are did

tmo.ilts poitaimha iwe ad sa o enoamuhm
fa0 dth Tbe shi e oM e Me
an utast to Sets htte ides at wh-am he.
wIhd towua wu produd hi the Coumty. ad
the ple. dl mstota'ae which thely n di.
AND DADE oAttoe hve moved t peo.
at the e n*lm auod the o ,uttys public
drthio m wwu odk. Tie heam peed a
'210dy radiaue.' ith rectrict duclMee
of cotta. pollutet int sene Cls enough
that the pul-UAs Wiald W reeh the w-fe -u.
210 day. The towy um that aven Dasesk.
ak Iew duitted su apecnt hat the
pn = oemiac louald hbe eithe dilutd
b by h trMd. theWtCed the wl0l.

Mfimi's problem
Seven at thle 25 hsdmm-wmtwants
ohidest~e andoie Ewwt m,.e l k
Prottn A'c'Wp Supwfund No
O@dWCunctasdW i wghor.tThey v
mw Gold Caow 0. Muiav 2. Duam
LIPI. Oaoia: 3. 3, ipnqvOrth, Fort &
LtudasoWe 4. NW 58th St. Mlinh:t
a. Mmapwt. Wdalli mie.: a. Mhad B*ll*y
ODnu. Mibmimi 7. vmwf Sil MSON, Iquifr


tatil 4,
s au ame t fth r thin a o get aint the

tin a 19 th u UI.S. hirotoMl
PrMtamAMpKlEPA hibpC loAD far Ir-
nir.m M (flal h dkinmm. nTh
iMpued ce.-maas eompod ools f
Ned wheshbW addid htoue tomoml
erioM.uMhlmeuarii c ihaalaledylth
Ia thue 8r ad e mtied. isea cum ai
rat. Ramarhi found 311 pm pr hioa.
Bu the THM lmady only cml'woed mWe
that thewMw orhme e i the do Blecuy
quite that should nt be thefe.
Jim BAch. an mvivsmeutal cooaultat
who used to work tat th DE, reeled at a
naiua eboi att h quitthe awile euing thei
city of North Miami BAch hd hboe b c.
An mmatigaom showed ths the well mo
wpmm aiou ad u the towa typu of th-
hbdumtheme. While thu e-Dde Depe On-.

-w -- m *


MAR 27 1983

What do the water

reviewers drink?

St Temeaseiem W
For six months, they gathered
trom around the state to listen to
norror stories about pesticides,
nazardous wstes and septic tanks
polluting the water that Floridians
Appointed by House Speaker
Lee Moffitt, their job was to make
recommendations about how to
protect the state's fragile water
Now that their work i finished
do they still drink the water?
Most of them do. though almost
.*l1 of them responded to the ques-
:on with a nervous laugh, aad
-ome seemed a little embarrassed.
Here are the answers from thoee
who could be reached: *
William Sadowski. Miami
.awyer, former state represent.
:ive, chairman of the statewide
water task force: "We drink bottled
water we have for years. We
-tarted a few years ago when one of
those reports came out that said LE
there were x-number of things in
:he water. We just decided. 'Why
take the chance?' "
Richard Pettigrew, Miami
;awyer. former House speaker and sen-
ator: "I have put a carbon filter on the
:aucet of the kitchen sink at home, and in
addition, as a result of our discussions
about this, my wife has begun buying
bottled water for us to drink."
Phil Lewia. West Palm Beach busi-
nessman, former Senate president' "I'm
still drinking the water." Tap water, that
Carl Pfaffenberger, director of
the chemical epidemiology division of the
University of Miami School of Medicine:
He and his wife drink both bottled water
and tap water. "When I'm sick, I drink
only bottled water." Pfaffenberger says.
John DeGrove. Florida Atlantic
University profeaaor recently named
director of the state Department of
Community Affairs: I still drink tap wa-
ter (from the city of Boca Raton), and I
haven't really seriously thought about
changing. Of course, the things that we
learned certainly have made me con-
Martha Barnett, Tallahaaee
lawyer "I'm still drinking tap water." She
lives north of Tallahassee and her water
comes from a private well "I did not hae
the well tested. but I believe my husband
Maggy Hurchalla, Martin County
commissioner "I still drink tap water,
from a single, unmonitored well, actually
a shallow well." Hurchalla add that if she
took to hearteverythingshelearned while
serving on the task force. "I'd drink
straight Scotch only."
Walter S. "Buddy" McLin III,
Leesburg lawyer "I still drink the tap
water." McLin's water comes from the
deep municipal wells of the city of Lees.
burg. and he says he knows of no quality
problems. Part of the reason he has not
switched, he says. is because tap water is
used in so many products. "I don't think
that by drinking bottled water you're

bootedd waer. ... carbon ster.



.. ap W rM ... tpwater.

really doing that much."
Victoria Techinkel secretary of
the Department ofEnvironmental Regu-
lation "Tap water. We get our water from
the city of Tallahasee."
Jame Apthorp, vic president of
Deltona Corp., Miami: "I still drink tap
water. My water comes from the Miami.
Dade Water and Sewer Authority. rhope
they keep the two facilities separate."
Alua G. Greer, Miami lawyer "Af-
ter one of the meetings at which we found
out about the virus problems in water, I
took my wife out to the store and we
bought mountain water. She thought I
was crazy." He says that he doesn't drink
bottled water "religiously," but adds that
"every time I drink a glass of tap water, I
think to myself Why am I doing this?'"
Greerreceives his water at home from the
Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Authority.
Jon Moyle, West Palm Beach
lawyer "I still drink tap water at home,
though we do have bottled water here at
the office."
Nathanlel P. Reed. Hobe Sound
investor, former undersecretary of the
US. Department of the Interior "My
water comes from a private system which
has some of the purest water in the state.
And we have fought development around
the wel field to l ksretht
that way." Ar to 17M y
And a word from the two staff mem-
bes who heard all of the testimony and
wrote the task force's final report:
Christian Holland, staff director
of the Hose Regulatory Reform Com-
mittee: "Well, I still drink tap water, but
I am seriously thinking about buying one
of those purification devices. You can't
have heard the things we heard and not at
least think about something like that."
Fred Breeze, staff director of the
House Rule Committee I still drink tap
water, but I am considering switching."
Like Holland, Breeze receives his water
from the city of Tallahaee.

Water finally gets

some action after

years of talking

Edcitril, 14-A
GO V a-" %"

MAR 2 81983

-'- I---w ------ --
For years, the Legislature has talked about water. And
talked. And talked.
This year, the Speaker of the House appointed a task force
to study the state's water resources, and has backed up its
members by endorsing legislative changes they requested and
proposing new taxes to pay for them.
On the Senate side, special subcommittees are studying how
to protect the state's
underground water
supplies and recom-
Florid's mending ways to
M\ spreading hazardous
waste problems.

"Before, people
Thl 4- the'latin a would turn on the
seris of reports tap and the water
Flora's we i House Natural Re-
sources Committee
Chairman Jon Mills, D-Gainesville. "But we've seen instances
where that's not true anymore. It's no longer a hypothetical is-
Adds Department of Environmental Regulation (DER)
Secretary Victoria Tschinkel "I can point out to every legislator
where they have a problem in their district."
With the Legislature set to convene on April 5, almost every
law regarding how Florida protects its water seems fair game for
change, and legislators seem ready to put tougher restrictions on
hazardous wastes, pesticides, septic tanks and other threats to
the state's drinking water supplies.
Bill Sadowski, the former Miami representative picked by
Speaker H. Lee Moffitt, D-Tampa, to head the water task force,
See WATER. 6-A

Some task force

Hazardous waste
' More mony and personnel to identify and re-
sto uncontrold hazardous waste sites. Money
should come from nw tax on chemicals end psti-
V High tat tax on wast disposal.
' Action by Legislatur to facilitate building of haz-
srdous waste dispoa facilities.
SInvolvement of local government in identifying
companies thm produce hardous waste.

Underground storage tanks
W Investing MER with con ovr construction
sandrds. penrmiting. mainrannc and inspection
Sof underground tanks that hold gasoline. oil nd in-
dustrial chamrncs.
Sewage plants and septic tanks
SJoint study by DER and HRS on ground water
pollution from septic tanks and vir contamination.
SLimiting septic tank construction to one per re
in places whee people dink from private wells.
i' Location by the state o at least $50-miion
per ye for the nex fiv years to help local overn-
ments build sewage treatment plants.
SInvesting DER wth authority to restrict use of
pesticides it believes present health hard through
found war contamination.
0 Provision for adequate monitoring of peticide'
impact on ground and surface water.

Ground water monitoring
"Aocating adequate funds for DER to establish
compmhensive monitoring sytsm for state's water

t. P r Tim NELDs BRL

St. Petersburg Times NELDA SARL

Water o -A 2719
MAR -27
Bottled water
It wasn't that many years ago when people thought
that those who would buy water would buy anything. But
the purchase of bottled water now is increasing after than
that of any other beverage. "In the last five year, bot-
tled-water sales have increased 93 percent," ays William
Deal, executive vice president of the International Bottled
Water Association.
Americans spent an estimated $500-million on bottled
water in 1981, the last year for which the industry has
complete figures.
Florida ranked third among the 50 states, the saule
providing for about 58 gallon of bottled water for each
man, woman and child. Miami (14-million gallons con-
sumed) led the state, with the Tampa-St.L Petersburg area
(12-million gallons) close behind.
Many people are switching to bottled water because of
the increasing amount of chemical contamination being
found in public water supplies, Deal uys But he has his
own theory about Florida water-drinkers.
"I'M SURE in several areas of Florid people
drink it strictly because of tate," he ay. "The water that
I've had in some of the restaurants down there is simply
Although bottled water is regulated by both the
federal Food and Drug Administration and the state De-
partment of Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS).
it does not have to meet any additional purity require-
ments than water from a public water system.
Where does bottled water come from? About 86 per,
cent of the bottled water in this country comes from wells
or springs, Deal says In Florida, all 20 botled-water
companies get their water from underground sources,
according to Eanix Poole, of the HRS' environmental
health section.
That does not mean, however, that the water in those
bottles decorated with Indian braves and waterfalls comes
from hidden artesian wells somewhere in the Florida
PUBLIX BRAND water, for instance, comes
from a well near company headquarters in Lakeland. And
the source of Zephyrhills Spring Brand Water is even less
exotic: the Zephyrhills Water Department.
Poole and Deal say it is not that unusual for bottled
water to come from a public drinking-water well. The
difference, they say, is additional treatment.

"Must ll the Ibollled wlaer industry l dws m1siir* Ii.l
meant than public systems," says Poole. "01 course, like
anything else, some are better than others. Some use dif-
ferent techniques. We've found that they're a pretty
dedicated hunch of people."
Most public water systems count on chlorine for their
basic treatment of raw water. That takes care of bacterial
contamination. Some also "soften" the water by removing
Much of the bottled water produced in Florida, Poole
says, is disinfected through a process called oonation.
Ozone, a form of oxygen, is applied to the water. This kill
bacteria, but dissipates quickly and doesn't affect the
water's taste. It more expensive to treat water with ozone
than with chlorine, Poole says.
Some companies using water that already haa been
chlorinated employ treatments to remove the chlorine
taste that many find objectionable. Some remove it by
running the water through activated-carbon filters, which
have been n n to remove not only chlorine, but also
some minerals and potentially harmful chemicals.
DISTILLED WATER is water that comes from
steam. The evaporation process removes almost all of the
mineral content of the water, and that's why distilled
water is flat-tasting.
o A process that Poole says ha come under some scru-
tiny is the vnding machines that promise pure water,
usually at 35 cents a gallon, to those who bring their own
"There's been an awful lot of concern about consumer
fraud in that area," he say. "Sometimes those machines
are just hooked up to the city water department"
The machines are supposed to use some kind of addi-
tional treatment system, Poole says. But officials in
Miami found that one vending machine at a service sta-
on delivered water via a hose connected to a faucet be-
hind the station.
Poohe ays there "really is very little regulatory con.
trol" over the machines, though Dade County has enacted
an ordinance to insure that the machines deliver what
they promise.
Florids law requires that bottle labels contain In-
formation about the purification process and the mineral
and chemical content of the water inside. But much of the
information would mean little to the average consumer.
"You'd have to know a lot about water to understand
those labels," he says.
The price varies, but Deal says the national average for
a gallon of bottled water is 69 cents. The Pinellas County
I .i Uo o31AJOS I

for that price.

Purification systems
Sears ha them, and so does the neighborhood Eck-
erd's. Sales of home water-purification unite from
screw-on carbon filters to complex reverse-smois sys-
tems are booming. And their use has met with mixed
reviews from water officials and environmental experts.
"Drinkin water is really a smell portion of our busi-
n ," says Alan Sayler of Sayler WaterCare Service in St.
Petersburg. "But it's growing. And lately, we've been
getting more and more calls from people who are worried
about their water."
Companies like Sayler's have been n nPinella County
for years. Their main business for years has been soften-
ing the mineral-laden water from the county water system
for restaurants, industries and other private companies.
Homeowners too have wanted the service, which
makes it easier to get a lather from soap and can make the
water less corrosive to plumbing.
A PROBLEM with water-softening systems is
that to condition the water, they replace e calcium in
the water with sodium. This can create a problem for
those on low-salt diets.
The companies that for years have dealt in con-
ditioning systems now are adding purification system to
their line of wares, and new companies dedicated
specifically to treatment systems are springing up.
The company owners say their customers are pretty
much plit between those who are concerned about what
might be In their tap water and those who just don't like
the tate.
Those who don't like the taste should stick to the
cheaper systems, according to Sayler. "Isomeone tells m
that they don't like the water, I suggest they just go to K
mart or somewhere and buy the cheapest carbon filter
they can find to put on the faucet," he says.
Those filters can remove odors, some chlorine residue
and any cloudiness that might be in the water.
BUT WHETHER they ae simple filters that dip
on the faucet or more complex systems that go under the
sink or outside the house, there have been some problems
associated with their use.
The Environmental Protection Agency says the c-
tivated carbon in the filters trape bacteria and some
chemicals, but doesn't get rid of them. In other words, the
carbon can create a situation where water coming into the

would lie in the public water system.
The Canadian government considered a ban on the
fiters, but revised its position to recommend that carbon
filters not be used on untreated water or water that is
known to have a high bacteria count.
Carbon filters have been used successfully in New
Jersey end other industrial areas where drinking water
has been contaminated by potentially cancer-causing
chemicals. The key is that the carbon must be replaced
One of the most expensive systems is one that uses a
treatment called reverse oamosis.
What happens is that the water is passed through a
series of semi-permeable layer that are similar to cello-
phane. The water passing through the membranes is
separated from the dissolved minerals. In most water-
purification methods the water is removed from the
minerals, but in reverse onmosis, theiminera are removed
from the water. MAR e7 19o3
Another method of purircaeion is ditilltion. This
process collects steam from evaporated water, by which
minerals and chemical are removed, It is one of the lest
expensive alternatives when used for small quantities of
water, but many people feel that distilled water tastes flat.
State and county water officials, who for the mot part
don't advocate the system still are more concerned about
salea techniques than about the purification devices.
PINELLA COUNTY water official Fred Kin-
gery ays the county Is always on the lookout for
purification system worker who describe themselves to
consumers as county water employees.
Some of the companies us scare tactical, Kingery says.
"We had one company where the salsamen would test the
water. If they found trace of chlorine, which should be
there, the guy would sy 'You've got chlorine in your wa-
ter, you need our system,'" Kingery ays.
"If they didn't find high levels of chlorine, they would
eay There's no chlorine in your water. There's nothing to
kil the baeeteria. You need our systeoL'
Kingery points out that Pinella County water meets
federal standards for both chemicals and bacteria con-
tamination. He admits that Pinellas water is hard, but
says the health effects from that are not harmful.
Water and environmental officials say that conumenrs
interested in home purification systems should read up on
the subject. It also may be helpful to rent the equipment
fint and to find out whether the company will maintain

zsjsuoiin4x3 Mtl qne~nn q II, iPn


MAR 27 1983

Bottled water:

the top 10 drinkers -
Although Tampa-St. Petersburg ranks only
23rd in population, it ranks 7th in
consumption of bottled water.
ity population
(starndardmet areas) (in millions)
1.LosAngees 7.56
2. San Francisco 3.28
3. New York 8.99 6
4. Sacramento 1.10
5. San Digo 1.95
6. Miami 1.75
8. Dallas-Ft. Worth 3.08
9. Chicago 7.13 1
10. Houston 3.07 i
Sour wma k sions Boted Wasr Alssou aon

s. P.nib --, T,-m FRMK PT RS

Look, don't leap,

into bottled water

or filter systems
* o MT SAM= MAR 27 1983
e. saMrM T.m. .a war
Floridian- spent mor than $8O-million on bottled water in
1981 and that didn't even include Perrier.
Some of them are worried about chemicals and pesticides that
may be hidden in their tap water, and some of them simply don't
like the way it teste.
So they're going to the store for the water they drink and
paying up to 10 times as much for their drinking water as the
public water system charges.
But they may not be getting what they pay for. For instance.
few of them probably
know that bottled wa-
ter does not have to
meet any additional
mei purity requirements
WIAI .E than tap water does.
And while the labels
advertise waterfalls
and hint of hidden
spring, bottled water
Thteis mothering water that has re-
ri ofreports cve additional
.nth quelyof Even more
Florda's water. suspect are the vend-
ing machines that
pump out "pure" wa-
ter. Officials ay these machines are not checked regularly, and
some of them have been found to not treat the water at all.
BUT BOTTLED WATER is only one side of the boom in
the private water business.
Homeowners also are spending up to thousands of dollars to
treat the water delivered to them from public systems Mot of the
treatment systems ar safe and effective.
But there are pitfalls
Activated carbon filters, which some see a the answer for
cleaning chemically contaminated water, are suspected of
becoming a breeding pound for bacteria. And public water offi-
cials sy that unscrupulous sales people are scaring many con-
sumers, epecially the elderly, into buying systems that they don't
need. WATER. 22-A
See WATER. 22-A


W water .ia-A Hardo s. Wa.terut Fund a lille more ha. L4.ul
SI ** f j -- to rlean up just on ie se T'h ta1 that provides this
says he and lis coei utwere sh hmone by has taken in ei e than it co*st to administer it.
formation available bout Florida' water supply and the "'m fairly convinced that everybody (in the Leis-
problems facing it. aturel is concerned about tolic and hazardous waters, "
"Th kind of consensus we reached on the tek for Y we says Lewis. "Thata' one thing that nobody can ignore."
s tron and convinced u any I've vr mn," Sadowski The task force recommended, and House Speaker
May "When other in the Legilature become knowledge. Moffitt tentatively endorsed, combining the humrdous
able about these iuues. I think they will aras with the water trout fund with money set aside for cleaning up oil
4commenndation of the tak fore that water should be pill. They would supplement the fund by taking peoti-
elevated to the levels of importance of education and hu cides and chemicals shipped into the late for utle, move
man mervic. that is expected to rnie about $13 million.
lot'ss an emeency situation." In addition, the House plans call for 6-million over the
Former Senate Prident Phil lawis, another task force next two years to b placed in an emergency fund for tbh
member, sayl that the Legisatur needs to change the way DER.
It hua viewed water sues. TH B TASK FORCE al would raise ro 3 percent
to 5 percent the taxes that hazardous waste producers musnt
SPECIFICALLY. tlhe tsk furce felt that the Lgi.- pay on disposalof their waste. To make sure that all pro-
lature ha ignored protection of the state's underground ducer are identified, the change would include producer
water resures, upon which nine out ofevery t0 loridian who eaerts only ol mou e of wstus (trhey ow e
depend for their drinking water. exempt from the lw) and give local governments both the
Lalator have crueted regional aitleriti to promote ta revenue and the burden of location the produce.
water conervation, govn water u and etle quibbles A controversial sad som envbonmsnu al erta say
over water supply. And though the Pinelas County Corm critical champ would allow a statewide authority to n.
mission h decided it will spend about $0,000 to hire a trvwne when companies that want to build iaardous
formerSupremCourtjusticend theformer DERchief to waste disposal or transfer facilities e denied soaing
lobby for a statewide water board to settle such Intus, permits from lod government
many legislton don't believe that is where the attention The rou ning L ith the comstructl of h facbdltie
will be this year. is vitalenouh that t state an interest In overriding
IThr emphasis that I hope they legislators will glen local complaint from citizens who do't want such fail-
from the report is to move away fom quantity issue and tie in their back yards.
oncentlrte on quality." Lewis say. "People nwd to real Currently there ae no off-ilte dipoal facilities in the
that we've ot, potentially, a very daeprou situation on state, and only one tranfar station That memu the cost
our handS o traseportil hsMnodas watt out o state is ploribstiv
Here some of the problems facing Florida's drinking fo mny mallr lirms land bicallse it n oa r
water, aen id e rof he rea ndtions that the task fore or the Sld dumping that are being foud thuoughot
made to wlv them: the tate.
Hazardous wastes But any attempt to diminish local control over Mcb
The ark force bliror th potenfil cMtomination oninug issues i fought furiously in the Legisature. and
Th a force believes the potential conmination successful at yu n d tin sil
of ground loaler by hazardous st is the single mot legislate on
urgent issue facing the toate in the protection of its water Son. Pat Nea, chairman of th Senate Natural Re-
resourcesr .e pet NC l, cdirn be ihe Stnaki N.tual Rd .
Florida'a hazardous west proeml can't be denied. mour Com ttee. den't baieve taking away that local
The tate played si on dral uperfd list, cn "do-ab*e." HI bee appo inted a scial suborm-
a compendium of 418 o the nation's wort heasndou wt mitte, which mat today, to om up with another alte-
site. Only four states, all highly industrialised, had more, m ai
j Underground storage tanks
These tanks often deteriorate became of thenere.n-
ly aidic nature o i the tl and may pose a serious threat
Speaker Moffltt There 40MAO mudeurgmoud tolre tanks under th
h nd state's service sta tions aloons, ad thousands of othme at
as endorsed an industrial sit throughout the state.
Increase in the tax Many of them are ruting and lakia.,piling gasoline
on legal and armful chemicals into the water that people drink.
Belleview, a town nr i Ocala, had to shut down its etire
documents "t drinking water system last fell wbno a psoline lok from
would raise a service station contamisonated the town's wells.
160-mlion year It iaational problem, but official ay thpotentil
for tohlpIoorl c reous problem is L ter in Flrida because mny of
to help local the tans aei burld in water table. And health official
governments build sy one plllon of oliae ca render I-mlion gapllos o
sewge treatment water undrinkelil.
plant Still, there is no state law that restricts how the tanks
plants. must he built or rulates where they may be cinetructed.
DE l officials my uthey be jurisdiction over the taiks only
after a leek hk caused pollution problem.
Florida has e many sits on the t no only become the The tuak forc calls for giving the D the authority "to
pollution i so serious, but l because it poses such nrulte underground asoilmn store tanks, Includin
threat to drinking water upplies And the Suprfund list construction ended permitting of new tanks d
shown oaly part of the problem. MiamiJMctf dS cionti *ftndear."
.The DEB retinas there asWm 1acouoItllpd HharOd-.
ouawatesitaeseattenduround the tet. And tht' only Sewage tredtldnhta htd ptic tanks
the lso that are known. Reports of rnew se ce in faster Tere i danger that the around water Irom which
than the state's sit fied iMspMtoran inv lasti toe. oroidins derive ... heir drinking wner is being con-
In addition, state officials have prluklittle infrm- minted by uinun and bacteria from seWoe.
tion on the thousands of tos of hasardom waste produced About (-million Floridians r using sptic tanks, and
n Florido, or in what manner they m disposed. There i the number is increasing. State officials estimate that
ot even a complete survey of which companies produce 50,00 tanks will be intlled this yer.
them. But there are concerns that the tank are not properly
ATTEMPT TO PROVIDE mony for thecleanup disposing of the wtas end that bacteria and viruses nr
of the hazardous waste sits and to actually t the work contaminating the water that people drink.
started have been larly unsuccessful. Only two of the Still, the gislature in recent years has retaed re-
Superfund sites have even received money fo a study of strictions on sptic tank construction. Ten year ago, the
how they should be cleaned up, and a third site wa re- law allowed only one septic tank per acre; now, developer
claimed only because local government took the initiative. re putting i many s 16 townhouses on n acre of land and
The Superfund is the taret of numerous inveigations connctin them all to septic tank.
these days, bit even if the federal government came Part of the nreaon that builden are relying mnre P n
Ihr,..,.h ruilt I. li,,- nrv Ihr htie1 hs in ils seplir tonkL and (n small. independent Irealment plants

1 en point out to
every legislator
where they r re au
problem in their
S -Victoria Tcchinkel.
DER secretary

called pckap p s nt s because Florida is growing faster
than its sewer inm.
It is timalted that the mtate'growh will demand mo
than SI-billion oer tIh next ae years for municipal
sewage trtmat plant construction.
THE TASK FORCE reommndation will Mot
m either the construction or the septic tank itidutries
all for restricin Spti tank to oa per o r n plaMs
we people reainv their drinkiq wata fro private wells
on the propty, and to two per Mn whn water is available
ro a public system.
Both induti already have beMu tonight th rinomi-
mndtiont mylng tht it would cost conrUl jokb ild
shut dmn the aconstrctiona industry in tho- pblac where
mre not Available.
Moflutt al*o la endorsed uan incres In th t oax 6n
docuimen s c ba u taemtge that wou-ld rl
$50-million ach yar. The money would go to help loca
government build Mewar uttment plants.
T nre ia should be comprhensiv study of viral
contamination of water, the task force aid, nd perhaps
additional requirmenit that treatment plants eliminate
There i an ureml sed for adequate monitoring nd
dat analysis to determine the impact of pesticides on
face end ground uoter.
Ther re early 10 0 brand of pticd herbicides
insecticide. unicids ad rodentidd e existed for use
In Florida. National anperts y Florid ranks only behind
California and Tea in peticide us.
But information about whether or not they re cn-
taminating te tate's water supplies i virtually non-
That is because while stte griculttal officials test
fruit and veptablMa for psticide reidue, no ou checks the
water. And what litt information dos exist le produced
almost exclusively by the ompanies that mak th pesti
State office have bee n o graphicUdly, however.
that smtimes the company's data cannot e solely lied
Union Cabid*, tihmaufMatur of t ohe toc peUdd
Tumik, told ate official that the psetcide would aot
oantmintu the sta'sr pound watr iit wsM ad property
on crmop rain from oronesa to potatoes.
But subsequent tate tots, conducted after te new
media reported about around water contamnltion by
Tomik in Nw York and other rtate. showed tht tra of
the pesticide we in Florida' ground water.

the lilrt itep iln itu legislative prurwew
Conner opposes such a move, and there is sure to b a
donnybrook between snvironmentalies end the powerful
agricultural industry era the proposal.
Rodney DeHanchief other DER' ground water divi-
sion, thinks his department should hav that power, but he
ss the state has a long way to go before it can mak de-
cision about pesticid use in tm satel .
First, DoHan ys thUestate amd to kno which peati-
cdd are being used, in what amounts and where
Currently, the information dosen' uext Ti data meed to
be combined with the hydrological conditions in the are
Then the state can decide which pesticide present the
greatest potntial dueagu and tet under those conditions
an be conducted.
The task force also wants th PA to help Flrida off
cais decide which pesticides parent the ratet ground
water contamination potential.
Money and authority
No other single uisw wna mm ppn t to the task
orce then the lck olequa deti itilnd na power for
th DES to implement nd irci it existing program
to protect the quety o Floridu's water.
Lst year, eooumenal program in Florid mcind
oly 1.4 percent of the iate's budpgt Tha state gae the
DER about 0-miUllo. asd th federal government
cipped in nothr -mrlUllio
DER Srary Tachiakl eay it i im ply not mough
money for her department to do te job.
The DER daomt have a toxicolo it on Ita staff. It bha
only si field iapctor to investigate haeldom waste
ites. Its proud wtrl dviioa, rep lb* for pretMctini
the water t almot dl of Flord drink, form jut
omr yeal easeo.

'The khid of
#o"eenus we
reached on the
tlask bre was a
strong And
L onAvn ed any
I've ver een. .
S I's an emergency

S-Rep. Sadowmk

MAR 281983
DeHaan ays tuht before the DER can stt out to protect
Ume round wateit must bave man formation about the
tate's aquitem and th amount of pollhtin aludy there.
That will require drilling wells. eating and ti e a system of
monitoring th waert for changes.
Tlh teak ore a ecmmeded that tihe mepeibillity for
drink wa remin with the DER. And Moffllut that
e il at ol don the idee, pushed mainly by Piumia County
Commissio Charlh Ra y, that a statewide wate
board i needed. He esid he will ik th tak fore for Its
opinion on hatL
BUT THE TASK FORCB did age that the DER

and local water ys ou do ette jobou making e
WHEN frMIK WAS found In a drinking water hadrinktng waerislef.Spaifally, lsit
wall. Agriulturaln Commsioner Doyle Conmer umpedsl d must be doe -n freuaitly, and tht test should
uae o the pesticide on al crops except potamtoes wben it is om m a plluta thman m m deteed.
used in small amount,. and ornu ntal plant.. Former,
who prele Tamik for its destructiv power and its ability Now, many pubi wattaio stems treated nly or the
to Increase fruit yields, ae trying to have Caonert' 1983 ha Umited lst of chamial and poticide on the federal Sae
overturned. Drinking Water Act equirements On that lst e only
But the Teik problem haveIhowm e state oficals eight of the 12 substances identified by the EPA as
that they can't relyimpl on the Enviromental Protec- priority pollutets.
tion AgeScy' stampo rova to t thtla pti. "What ei so t yabut It all that we have such lie-
clde can be ued Suely F orid. Indeed. EPA officials itod nuirnts y tok nc member Richard PottU-
have admitted Forid. Imw."Td chemicAloL that wa should be conceard bout,
The task force aid that the DER, not the Depuatmnt we'e t evn testing for."
of Agriculture, should have the power to outlaw certain The tesk fore says that to adqutely carry out all its
pesticides when it believes they present a ground water recommondatiom. the DER's budget must be Increased to
contamintion problem. Although Houa leaders have about $70million net year and tht funding should con.
lentalivrlv endorsed such a proposal. Moffitl rails it "jiust tinte at that level.

A chemist's puttering led to lucky discovery.

of unsuspected water problem in Vero Beach'

g ^,. r.. an, MAR 281983
VERO BEACH -The citen of Vero Beach got lucky.
Dr. Ten Wan, a chemist for the marine laboratory o
Harbor Branch Foundation, was putting around in hi
laboratory one day in 1978 whn he decided to test his tap
He found something that Vero Beech water officials had
never thought to look for tram of trichloroethylene
(TCE) a chemical compound that is sspcted of caauin
"He entusa letter and said we had trichlorthyne in
our water," ay Vero Beach laboratory supervisor John R.
Ten Eyck. "He said he thought we ought to know."
Vero Beach et out to clean it up. Th project, one of the
first and one of the few ground water contamination
cleanup conducted in Florida. may serve a a guide to
other places around the state that have ground water sup-
plies contaminated by hemicals.
THE BOTTOM LINE is thi: While it took only
weeks to find the problem, it was more than two yea be-
fore the city received the necessary permits to begin the
cleanup. And after nearly two more years of pumping out
the poisoned water, the chemical remain.
When Wang alerted Vero Beach official to the problem
he had found, they immediately went to work to find whee
it was coming from. They isolated water coming into the
plant until they traced the contamination to Well 15, one of
the city's moat productive water producer. It pumped
more than 1-million gallon a day.
The well, which drew water from about 120 feet below
the ground, was adjacent to a canal, and water officials
suspected that chemical illegally dumped there were
probably the cae of the problem. Ten Eyck ays.
But the tets came back negative and official moved to
the next suspect. "When you tand at the well and look
across the street, you see Piper Aircraft,"Ten Eyck Mays. "It
wasn't that hard to decide where to look next."
TCE is a synthetically produced substance that is ued
extensively in the United States in industrial solvent. Pi-
per, for instance, used the solvent to clean great and dirt
from airplanes before they wre painted.

/ :I --- E- f


9L Pm g ThRM
The compound can travel quickly through porous ao
and contaminate round water, and tracks ofTCE are being
found in drinking water systems throughout the county.
THE HEALTH EFFECTS of the chemical have not
ben adequately studied, but initial reports how problems
in tert animals related to liver and kidney damage. Addi
tional teats indicate it may have th potential to came birth
defects and cancer.
The Environmental Protection Agecy (EPA) bha not
set standards for how much TC can be coanmed in
drinking water before it become a health sard. "We have
to asume that the numberwe should shoot for in aeo," may
Ten Eyck.
What officials found in the initial repot is that there
were 68 prt pr billion of TCE in the water. Subsequent
tests of ground water near the well showed up to900 prt
par billion.
The well was immediately hut down.
Officials don't know bow much TCE wa spilled before
the problem was discovered, or how lon the people of Vero
Beach drank the water. "We think we found the problem
pretty soon because th contamination had not spread that
far," Ten Eyck says.
The TCE had leaked into the ground from an under-
ground torage tank on Piper's property. The company, the
biggest employer in Vero Beach, drained and removed the
tank, and offered to construct a wl adjacent to the tank to
pump out the contaminated water.

THE QUESTION THEN became what to do with
TCE is part of a group of substance called volatile
organic chemicals. While they can be dangerous in water
and can exist thee for lon periods of time, they disipate
quickly when exposed to ir. The plan wa to pump the
water up, spray it through the air to remove the TCE, and
thn dispose of the water through a canal that eventually
leads to the Indian River.
It took two yea before the EPA and the state Depart-
met of Environmental Regulation agreed to the plans.
There were ultimate concern" say Ten Eyck, about
releasing the TCE into the air, though tests have shown the
amount released to be below what is allowed.
S"It wouldn't have taken two year"
The project finally began i April of 1981. The con-
taminated water is pumped from the ground at a rate of
about 20000 gallo a day. The water is sent to the canal
via a six-inch pipe. The pipe cro above the canal and is
studded with six pray nozzle. By the time the water
reach the canal, 10 feet below, 90 percent of the TCE has
dissipated into the air, Ten Eyck says.
More is released as the water flows o ver several spill-
way, he says, and eventually it is diluted until it is no Ion-
gar detectable.
PIPER IS PICKING UP the tab, though company
officials refuse to say how much the project has cost so far
"We feel like we've done the right thing, but we don't want
to talk anymore about it," says a Piper spokesman.
The project illustrated how a relatively small chemical
pill can poison avast mount of water. Ten Eyck says that
of the million ofgallos of water that have been pumped
from the sit over the past two yeas, the amount of TCE
removed is only about 500 gallons.
Although Vero Bech officials declare the project a
success, they don't know when if ever they will be able
to use Well 15 again. Since the TCE discovery, they havr
found vinyl chloride a suspected carcinogen and other
chemicals in the water.
"Our biggest concern, then and now, ia whether we're
going to have any more wells contaminated, Ten Eyck
ays. "Because it (the solvent) is still in the ground."

A water expert says end is near and he's speaking of pollution
By ROBERT BAMNES 0 o Ql ground water hydrology from the Univer- ground water. At leat five pieces of federal
S., Ma 8 1r~ a8 3 sity of Ariona., said that by 1990, "we will legislation can be used to prevent pollution
be cleaning up more ground water than Lehr said and satMe are beginning to de-
Jay Lehr, a national expert on drinking rie we're polluting, ign their own protection strategies for
water and underground water reoure, rm really quite optimistic." specific problems.
says the end a ne N "The laws are there,"he said. "It take.
He's talking about pollution. Hk tiim i aed a n thr tinp: a lon tie u to implement them, but I think
LAbr, e. cutive director o tha National ithe v ail d watbr. the in the next seven years everything will be .
Water Well Association, for yea a be n ralition by city that it i a vuab place ad new sites won't be developed.
calling for more recognition of ground w- reuc th development oftechno THE EMPHASIS then will shift to
t as natural resoc and decrying wht totttanup.Whil Florida ha had limited e
he called its thoughtss polluting L ehr admits that thee i polutcd lanupWhile aiidag ha nd limited con
So when he spoke at a seminar on moud wa tetry. But ohee und- tamination sits, Lehr said technology i-
ground water and hazardous waste pollu- gund watr supple e s vt he as advancing so that th polutants can be
tion, sponsored by the Florida State that am nt to m than o p nt of m ly a ined
University Public Interet Research Group, LEHR'S UPBEAT outlook isn't th amount's nto s ane- And he said that there are numerous
his listeners wre expecting a classic shared by Florida officials who lately have methods being developed to withdraw the
gloom-and-doom discourse on ground wa- benovercome bythediscovery ofhazrd- IT HAS BEEN estimated that there water and cleanse it. Many of the most
ter pollution. ous waste, pesticide and viruses in the are mor than 0-qudrillio gons of dangerous chemicals can be removed sim
They got the opposite. ground water that 92 percent of the state' fresh watrwithin a half-mile of the Earth's ply by exposing the contaminated water
"We are not in a'Chicken-Little, the- population depends upon for its drinking surface. That is more than four time the air. he said.
sky-is-flling situation,'" Lehr said "We water volume of te Great Lakes. "There really is noneed for the crises w
can have it all fixed by the end of the But Lehr, a Princeton graduate who Lehr also is enthusiastic about federal ad about in the newspapers Lehr sai
decade." received the nation's first doctorate in and state law that provide protection for "We can control the problem."

Salt water: It's the 'all-natural'

enemy of Florida's drinking water
MAR 2 1983

St. 1- TPett M feMr
For all the publicity given hazardous wasts and
pesticides and wage, there s on threat to Florida's
drinking water supplies that was not created by man
- salt water.
Everyone knows that peninsular Florida is sur-
rounded by vst bods of alt wate. St. Peteburgs
founder went one tep further, putting down stake
inan area bounded by the Gulfof Mexico ad Tampa
It didn't take lon to discover what that would
mean to the county's underground water uppliea
Saltwate inrsio, the migration of highly mineralid
water into hush water supplies, had Pinells officials
worried a lonc s 60 yn as go.
SALTWATER INTRUSION is a problem allU along
the coatal ara of Florida the areas where mot people
live. And while it is not a problem created by man, it is
certainly one he can aggravate.
And ha. Well up and down the coast of Florida have
been claoed because the salt water either made the water
uate terrible, or because it ised sodium levels so high that
the water was unhealthy.
Salt water is heavier than freh water, and along the
coastal area of Florida it is just sitting there under the
pressure of the underground fresh water table. The prob-
lens come when that fresh water is pumped out faster than
it can be replnished by rain.
It is estimated that for every foot the water table drops
because of pumping, salt water can creep inland about 40
Pinellas officials discovered the problem yea ago. and
thus established their drinking water wells in the northeast
corner of the county, and in Pasco and Hillsborough coua-
ties farther inland.
BUT T HAS been enormously expensive, both in
land cots and in the "water wars" that have been waged
over the water rights under the land by Pinellas officials
and their political counterparts in the other counties
Even more expensive, though, are the alternative. Key
West, for years, has had to desalinie some of the water that
its residents drink and veral counties and cities along
Florida's southwest coot ae beginning smilr efforts.
It's an expensive proposition, though recent technology
has cut the costs ome. But some state officials a now re-
alizing it is les expensive to keep it clean than to clean it
Her are some other water problems confronting
Artesin well
The problems that can pollute water may be hidden, or
forotten, or both. One that fits into the latter category is
arteian wells, though the people who believe the well are
a huge pollution problem think the name is too petty. They
call them "wild well."
It is estimated that there may be as many a 25,000 of
thee wells scattered around the state, most of them in
South Florida. They are wells that pass through several
layers of the state's underground water tables and aquifers
until the water under pressure bubbles to the surface.
They wre drilled long ago a irrigation wells or for oil
exploration. The problem is that now the well casing are
cracked, and fresh water aquifer are being contaminated
with salt water and other pollutants.
It is estimated it could cost up to 125-millin to plug all
the walls if officials can find them
storm-watr runm MAR 2 11983
Storm-water runoff used to be thought of a a problem
that just affected surface water bodies like bays and lake
That is where developers of shopping malls and residential
areas used to direct the water that runs off parking lots and
tree. The water carry pollutants like heavy metals
and petroleum products.
The developers took care of the pollution problem by
building their own retention ponds and lakes But since
thn, environmental official have learned that the harmful
pollutants in the water don't stay there. Unless the ponds
are lined with ome impermeable substance and most
times they are not the substances simply trickle down to
reach the ground water.

a nI. rPND Cn present other problems. o
keep them from flooding during heavy rains, the ponds
sometimes have drainage wells in them. The metal pipes
that ae stuck deep in the ground allow excess water to
drain into underground quifers.
a s Unfortunately, whatever is in the water "metals...
Soil ... dead dog," say Department of Environmental
Regulation (DER) official Rodney DeHan goes directly
to the aquifer from which people draw their drinking wa-

Sometimes, the are threats to drinking water that
S haven't officially been cssifed as threats. One such threat
concerns phoephate. In part because conclusive research
ha not been conducted and in part because of its clout in
Tallahasee, the phosphate industry is not counted among
the state's hazardous waste producers.
i is mated tha While there are many restrictions on phosphate minmg
It i tin th and its effects on the land and surface water, the verdict
for every foot the still is out on ground water pollution. A recent federal
water table drops study, however, says that there is some ground water con-
tamination from problem chemicals and radioactivity that
because of pumping has been traced to the huge stacks of gypsum that are a
salt water can creep byproduct of phosphate production.
inland about 40 feet The state DER and Legislature are awaiting the results
o several state and national studies before deciding on
additional phosphate regulation.



.~ I
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ci~:5 I

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'"Iseptic. tanks sloi

wI V~hy'V 'slippeuirrppd throdlgh thecraok'inora. Florida's;~:
-aw ol efforts, on. official says : "A '

*ada lot re-
*~~~~ ~ ~utw **Md wptpoW V iheurn de.Ilet prvn furtherir

dqAdto of19 thn pud w te, Iste

&rvimrk'% asbut 4!. bf eptie b t mayos* ta Ii ta' Ibow
~ ftipath~ ;z.aW. 4 ,a A, '

0ode ~pow devi~i~ersb~ dwdo 0SA)OSfDto
Mo 6t 1at'tut Iy Ilodda y Plot* sP
onel.. p Ir a re

Uteri ifivth halt# Ehelk

~i wkwwp' ; IA- : ta~ ilrithtb~higbw II.
,. both lag ~b IhQ PE~tIC 6emrfteakjr

Ito i by *,F WASM AL h

ully homes o~e

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Sg"li galn. per day be run by a certified operator for only two ble.
____ ____ _n __ _AR 2ours per week. Maintenance by suchoperators is required Wellings concedes that the septic tahk prceMs along
., 2 03only two days per week. with the addition of chlorine, can be effective in killing
-u Wk i bacterei"ep bcm teri can bd filteed trt 16 solt.
defined as Including duplexs. tklplees an quarules problem in terms of lhrmitting and compliance assurance," When their food source is gone, they dle off."sup wonjl*
Thfoe th .a to many s16 um.itand each acre .m. the task force report states."Since the present rules require "But chemicals have no such -eeds. Virua.t heo Igo
oA d ,the In Lae Coutilready htan ken dva. 'The most acute only 'grab camping of small plant on an infrequent basis, such needs."
tAg A ow i uan t pea nqedow uny eayn the a n av-. t would be meaningless to use such data to evaluate their VIRUSES DON'T DIE bemuse they dn .
ade Oefth problged. tho pould r multeiom uch .itutlphn ,I today, If there Isa Organisms smaller than bacteria, viruses attack living
mgd thbo r oblid to ilm e the permit., fm a a i DESPITE TtEB increase in construction of septic in the human body and reproduce the e.r The" r
Psrt thero thutlegislators are stilU p ceptie to sincro desire to tanks, the industry Is beginning to feel some praoure. A little research on their effect in drinking water, but It
septic tanks is becauseMtae placO N thtsh m 6idd beno prevent further special meeting of the Florida Septic Tank Association this known thatviruses can remaining water for smont and
development i thol. deradaton of th month is called a "survival seminar," and has lwirted Sen- be active when they reach humans. Sciontista .oct to a
recent ltate rlt lt' io O thoa $7 ground water. Is The "magic box." as the association bills lts ar, is cause complaints from simple upset stomach take
been reques aulM year uteeooe.tirtlm ofptublly' e Immedlat 'Modern, ecdhomical sanitary system." T eight- foo That ist bow Wellingsays her lab was able te pro
owned wMst-WatrtMlt.Additiondatdi IIm*at on of l' four-foot-wide concrete bo buried underground be- viruses were contaminating drinking water. ,
the omot tlt wUI p seut .-biBal. a ose e two bloliprocee..Bateria Inalde In 1916, Welliigs was called in to in o lean
Ttahkusege. i th6 to attack Wath wastes, and thI d taM froa breakofhepatitis in a mant laborcam i
S aTH ForE os R M$.We W the teak is attacked by bmcterit hi sol. h workers drank from swe t the camp,
,ionDE Ik Mlt',,. Asmdtion executivedirector Bob Lynch says kis a was located near a solid wasteispos area and the
'ore omu A s septic loo ,lb de ..ew, s-.t *that worko Although be says that ita,,t oa, ons an are surrounded by septic tanks.
Coaitthsj" -i, ,..b. ... , ea e mght be t6esalva, h believes that isan n"esolated in-. The water was propel chlorinsted se tmhat It a
~rly atin'" v Vsid th foimr pet ase le certally reasonable( -lbacteris But It didn't tal care of the viruses.
Wningasa i$n, 0=m0MtHRS ffl0cls believe that insomnairenikith that they will contaminate round water, and t
a *' tight kind o soll and drainage, and while the water .csed th problem there (in Homestead)," she says
to..e w,". p' s ,, .'a up Ib protetdd, septic tanks ae pifoty ac ptable TIL IT dfficultto thm

mboB ,ter i"'erof e ptict I tnt ft or o i main m th. itir u dm ooie.
dances ar mtia tllat Japt tics ay dh' tepo.mcasdI' t 'tom el dumdbthekproper domet drncera w ait e

to f bt g 'tlow oert bleetie ot. dmeont eee.The c i
e1 It re ti ..... sa. v. t .ih g you a a=
epei are lta plaic irk thoue hd Ts aw vinga
W .d tn l d n et ..d. cl.. ...d 0 t .t..t p .. tate w ot a h ese toghem dthow atrea w esor es ouf e lr ng vuses

.-he tha t aboutlt 6o -h'r te cawo sayret td wtmt vIkNIt6lotofpeudssoA e that t es o roeld bud
o. tlwt"" 1beoer a s -Wat~ed'pleats l led stp e phant.half ofknw is vinyl e.ntht snyIntv o crmba nes.for.h Industradi ofhow Il ng
Ion1iip e I ntos PATS saln io ertllogroa sin eo udas l ter bepot ts wo rood oflh eadterabu g Wets o oing sao
ca reqo ^Juir e'p d; mhytdlttd bd. w e ualton tperst .xp and unlh .e '. h B*ndy shol toremvadee, a eunys ti.Inn p t .Pbl

t e a d~ havett Ilopra d hl denietonef a d A on liispstae problem i andoh ur ntha ow n 1 ptita- T arityr .

not taken dvntage t the loophole that allos atil of adequately p opkl i lt i cteri. l ei tic tanks iS thiane tno to dele t btor as ltri kI
liits d et llow s tc taS t. ---- he tth n ro tai.tim But o t oes. o

E l l, P O W .. .. Alit -- solo to I I III I b elie sta e o s 4
or h sr *Nl b ole o" 'sbdvsmP MY M ~ cag P s Wa a; o.r)ta ,an lps r srogch mcas w t o k~ uficetl srngn

I 1 1 (-"*4,\

!I 1

-*5 Q (..


) )
-s t r
(jj p.


Plan would

tax chemicals

to clean up

toxic wastes

ma anuep. 2- Another part of the tax
symt wvMIo MAR 1 SM.3 package endorsed by l lwr wree.lrl

Hoe Speaker Le Moffi t n.
d a btch of a talu Tuesday
daesiedtobhlp psy ar a70-moliion
prlgom opo p ctln henau' diig
waer spply and d up hidodM
wa nte w
The Democrm fr Tmo warns
to tn eoiele uand puidde and
newly double the steSe tas on onme
gal dwouoM. The niay would
pay for environmental p"proma
'gu ro meaionWag the rta's
ndermd watu r apply to building
ovag t-otmon plants.
MOfft announced the plamo t a

ltie Re Bill Samdaow Moffilw
Ms edl wditr nt water mo and
ebeeirmed ofthe waterforear. Th
they at out ato sl thnr plos to
apaper editoril wriun around

MOmIITT oup eoed ~umoe al
of theremamdaioofSadowlai
tmanscti. andi mdre it leartbhntw.
ur quality nmue wull be o ofh h
p=ioit tir lgeiti im -that
b- April &
hMid rith t t m papo u w llear
aobm of eiaigificat policy Chage.
ach a (gvg the i a ma coneol i
finding ploa faor hazaedoro wneu
depedl failtims.
Milla owooded that bg1imllton
little aueon. But ho mid ho thought
thi yar would be different.
"Bfeona peop loui, d un o thel
ta Pd the wUKeae ld he fne Mill.
edi. Butwe'anMi nm where
thak'aot tm sayaore. It's o langer
hypothetical oiu."
Aoing the propd a ur N
SA 5 present wholesale tu on
cheecl&a and pmtddm, It a e-
tinutd tha wold nie $13-Ellion.
hech would be uad for huudon
w-eleanup. Floda mawn than

nearly double the
state's documentary
stamp tax paid on
property deeds. The
increase would raise
the cost of buying a
$60.000 house by

200 controlled huardout wau e
iut. including 25 on the list of the
latioai 418 wrn.
A iuarmee am the doemente
etmp tu by 20 omt per S100 value
Documentary tuu re pud on most
gal documents. including propent
deeds. The increae woold rme the
taUto65coanper S100. and would n-
cnro the ewt of buying a W60.0
houm by S12
The surchare, planned to lut ft.,
yer would provide S50-atlion each
year to help build sewage treatment
iomnt. Reidental. mndustrl arc
moamerncl eonrn cto n i elo m pert
of the smt already hbo been lowa
becau of inadeqte sewage treat
mn plant.. ud there an metne-
that $13-billion oanruction ;-
nmded by 1986.
The plan would set asa.
S-millioa eac ver for communiu
with fewer than 10.000 people.
A hike from 3 percent to per
cm o the t that producers mus:
pay oo disposal of their hzardou-
wmatu. Thi utan, approved setria
yea go to help pay for clesano.-
hnawudoum weut wu hba been ,.-
then uncemfil so far.
The Deparment of Revenue sa-
it cost S75.E0 to adminuter the tax
- *bout M 50O more than it bring'
I. But Midliid the billU al allow the
Deportmt of Env'ronmente Regu-

Chem i ls MAR 16 1983 .te .powetobeapstcides..butadoenoi
CnemicalaS feml- e ..lgroundwater.
S Recenly, Agrnculture Commiosoner Do',
1tmsio (DER)Ito l 1 f o ile ge the oempio Co'n frfud to stop t~ e ul e of the pesuto.
that kep many ampanefrom bavn to py Te.ik it wa di covred in dn~ikin w
anything. wal. Siae then. h h as extnded a ban unt.
THE PROPOSED bills would alo pend the end of the yar.
6-mllioo eah year to plug soaald "oid A conututuonal amendment proposed os
lls. abandoned wll that are all con- te task fore would make wer a public re
tamiatd water to m nth fresh underound soure" end enquir that at "be managed a
ar. There about 25.000 of the ound public tt for th ue and benefit of all auen
the set, mao of thm in South Florda. ad for the mmnuaceof tural a em
Thee is alo money toallow (DER) to st up Mills Md the amendment was added at ih*
an eatee system to monitor the tate* request of the teak fore because member-
ound u r pollution. About 92 percent ofthe thought water demeved cnutuuonal prot
tu itodrinkiq waterfromunderground tion. Mills aid the amendment ws not ar
ourc. attempt to take water way from the jursudic
And there is 6-llion ver the ont two tio of local and renonal government.
ym e=mnsdo an emeecy fund for DER
to ue to clean up th suchl as lehak from un-
d oud stores* utn
But stuck amon a tohe ta proposals are
moe important policy change.
Th bills would Uallo omprin wanting to
build a haerdou water disposal or transfer
plat to appeal a Mngativ oung decision from
local garoment to a ow State Hasadous
Wante MMnagement Comnoawon. If that Com-
misioa approve the plau. the governor nd
Cabinet would hav the final decieson on
whether the plant bould be bult.
TERE ARE NO disposal facliuee-
Florida. and the companr that build such
plants say they don't cme to the stat because
I the coant local county commieioners to
I approve there plaw The bill prohbits the m of
oadils ian aardo nset. diaposal m. tte
The proposed l t alsoim would ge t
thinks can conamaate the nates ground w-
te. Now. only the Department of Agrtoulture


For the first time since I joined (the commission), I
sense the specter of a real public health hazard.'
Raymond Bellamy of Environmental Regulation Commission

; 1 -

Floridas wr ... l wurry

Floridas w after: before you drink
Florida's water

Is it fit to drink?
.. .,. mAHR 6 1983 ... k

.y .O..Rn n ...
st. Per*r1..b Ti-H
stmn Wrism
They turned on the Flori
faucets in Belleview one ILt^A I\ ^
day and the water smelled
like gasoline. Just like that,
a town's drinking water
supply was gone. 0
But at least the prob-
lem in Belleview was easy
to detect.
Consider Dade County. This is the first in
Officials there have shut
down two drinking water series of reports
wells because they were on the quality of
contaminated with Florida'swater.
chemicals that are sus-
pected to cause cancer. The
other pumps that supply
the county draw water from the same underground
supply. How safe are they?
In Volusia County, traces of the highly toxic pes-
ticide Temik were found in a nearly 250-foot well
that draws water from the Floridan Aquifer. That
aquifer, one of the most productive in the nation, is
the source for drinking water systems all over the
sacola, Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Tampa, Orlando -
again, all over the state have been contaminated
and shut down. More than 2-million Floridians rely


von prvvae we e oe,
for their drinking water.
Most water whether
\ it comes from private wells
or municipal systems -
has not been screened for
the thousands of exotic and
potentially cancer-causing
chemicals that some scien-
tists believe are spreading
through this state like
FOR years, Florida's
water concern was whether
there would be enough for
everyone. The worry now is
whether it is safe to drink.
And no one, unfortu-
nately, has enough in-
formation to answer the
questions. Tallahassee surgeon Raymond E. Bellamy
is afraid that the state's underground water re-
sources, upon which nine of every 10 Floridians
depend for drinking water, aren't adequately pro-
tected even by a new state policy that he helped to
". .. FOR THE FIRST time since I joined the
Environmental Regulation Commission five years
ago, I sense the specter of a real public health
hazard," Bellamy wrote to state environmental offi-
cials last spring.
See WATER. 24-A

Hazardous waste sites: Some of them are leaking
S cancer-causing chemicals into water sources.
Underground storage tanks: Many of the oil and gas
tanks buried in Florida are leaking into water supplies.
This is a national problem, but in Florida it is aggravated
by sandy soils and a high water table.
SPesticides: More than 10,000 brands of pesticides
are used in Florida. Officials simply do not know the
extent of the threat they pose to water supplies.

4 Waste ponds: These ponds were built after the
dumping of dangerous pollutants into surface
water was outlawed. A recent survey found that
98 percent of the 6.000 ponds in Florida are
located 6ver usable drinking water aquifers; more
than 70 percent of the ponds are unlined, thus
Sallowing the wastes to seep down.
SSewage disposal: Bacterial and vial
contamination from the high number of septic
tanks in Florida is increasingly being found in
private water wells.

pat..&ts It,..- FflWAR E1~ 1983




4~ ( ^


) >i

MAR 6 1983

Water ...r-A


In the convolutMd system that Florida has devised to
protect drinking water, the state Department of Environ-
mental Regulation (DER) secretary, Victoria Tachinkel
says her department must take the primary responsibility.
Ask her the $64,000 question Can the state assure
Florida cities that the water they drink is safe? and she
gives an answer that is only vaguely measuring.
"... I would say for the most part we know it is
reasonably safe," Tschinkel says. "But (concerning) exotic
chemicals, and (wells) in rural areas adjacent to industrial
sources, we're worried that we don't have enough informa-
A member of her staff is more blunt: "We are not in a
position to assure people in Florida that the water they
drink is safe. We won't be for some time."
The threats
It is difficult to overstate the dangerous conditions that
threaten Florida's underground water supplies.
John DeGrove, a Florida International University pro-
fessor who is an expert on the problems that face an in-
creasingly urbanized Florida, was taken aback by what he
learned by serving on the task force.
"What we've seen here scares the daylights out of me,"
he told his colleagues.
The chairman of the task force is Bill Sadowski, a
former state legislator who, during his six years in Talla-
hassee. considered nothing to have a higher priority than
education. He says now that protection of the state's
drinking water may have to take precedence, at least in the
immediate future.
"It is an emergency situation," Sadowaki says.
The battlelines are drawn around these areas:
Hazardous wastes: Florida has 25 sites on the
nation's list of the 418 worst hazardous-waste sites. Thef
range from a battery reclamation plant that has poisoned
North Florida woodlands to garbage dumps that are leaking
cancer-causing chemicals into South Florida drinking-
water supplies. The DER estimates that there are 200 un-
controlled hazardou-waste sites in the state that didn't
make the list, and reports of new sites come into DER
.offices faster than the agency can dispatch inspectors.
Underground storage tanks: Thousands of
tanks containing oil gasoline and industrial solvents are
buried below the state's surface, many of them in the water
table. Many of them are rusting and leaking. Belleview had
its drinking-water supply wiped out by a gasoline leak, and
state officials are afraid the scene may be repeated
throughout the state. It is national problem, but Florida
may be more susceptible than most states because of its
sandy soil and high water table.
SPesticides: There are about 10,000 brands of pes-
i ticides registered for use in Florida, which is among the top
three agricultural states. After the highly toxic pesticide
Temik was found in Florida wells, federal officials admitted
that they could not guarantee pesticides they approved
would not contaminate the state's ground water. Florida
agricultural officials however, have traditionally relied on
the EPA to tell them which pesticides could safely be used
in the state.
1' Waste ponds: When tougher environmental re-
strictions outlawed the dumping of dangerous pollutants
into surface waters, industries and municipalities began
disposing of them on land or by injecting them deep into the
ground. Many companies built ponds that collected the
dirty water. A recent survey found that 98 percent of the

"We are not in a position to assure
people in Florida that the water
they drink is safe. We won't be for
some time."
Staff member. Department
of Environmental Regulation


contaminating ground water with radioactivity.

From ground to glass
Ground water has historically been one of the cleanest
and cheapest sources of drinking water. The earth tha'
covers it has been seen as a filter, screening out the thing.
that have polluted rivers and streams; ground water tradi
tionally has been available for drinking with only a min
imum of treatment.
It is such a cheap source because it is so plentiful. Mos
of the country lies over aquifers that could be used foi
drinking water, and the supply of fresh water within E
half-mile of the earth's surface is 20 times greater than al
of the rivers, streams and lakes in the US.
In Florida, three major aquifers provide an abundance
of fresh water. More than nine of 10 Floridians 92 percent
- drink water that comes from underground. Pinella,
County residentsdrink nothing else, and everyone in the
Tampa Bay region depends, to some extent, on grounc
"Because of that, ground water is more critical to us
than anyone else in the nation," says DER Assistant
Secretary Terry Cole.
For the most part, the water quality is good, but man%
believe it is not tested enough. The water that St. Peters
burg residents drink, for example, comes largely from rura
wellfields in Pasco and Hillsborough counties relatively!
unthreatened by industrial and municipal wastes.
But the threats are very real in other parts of the state
And a state task force studying the issue concluded that
Florida "lacks a comprehensive monitoring system which
would provide for a clear picture of the degree and type ot
contamination which is occurring."
State officials worry mostly about what they don't know
Problem ignored for years
Although ground water has been used for centuries as i
source of drinking water, it drew little environmental con-
cern until recently.
"Only in the last 10 years has (ground water) achieved
status as a major resource, and only then because it was
discovered to be subjected to incredibly thoughtless pollu
tion," says Jay Lehr, executive director of the Nationa.
Water Well Association.
"Today ground water is finding its way to the head ot
the line as the latest 'in' or faddish resource to protect."
For years, national priorities were elsewhere. "In the
past, rd say 90 to 95 percent of our efforts were directed at
surface water wetlands, swamps, rivers, bays," says DER
Secretary TschinkeL "As a result, we don't have any his-
torical data or expertise on ground water."
That is partly because of the prioritiesof the U.S. En-
vironmental Protection Agency. In the 1960s and earil
1970s, fish kills were becoming a regular occurrence in bays
and waterways. A horrified nation watched as the Cuyahoga
River, which runs through Cleveland, caught on fire.
"It became a political necessity that something be done
about surface water," says DER official Howard Rhodes
BECAUSE STATE environmental programs are
traditionally stiffed when dollars are handed out, they relh
heavily on EPA grants that my match every state dola
with nine federal dollars. So national priorities become
state priorities.
Moreover, until the last few years the technical ability\
to test ground water for the minute amounts of chemical'
that can prove harmful was simply not available.
For instance, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer
which can identify chemicals in parts per billion, became
widely available only in the last five years. It costs about
$200,000, and-water tests run through the machine can cost
as much as $4,000 each.
But in the mid-1970s, federal officials realized that more
had to be done to protect the nation's drinking-water sup-
plies. Again, surface water received the most attention, but
it was natural to begin looking at the nation's ground water
supplies. The horrors of the Love Canal in Niagara Falls.
N.Y. reinforced the notion that pollution existed in the
ground as well as in the water.
So the EPA assembled scientists and public officials
from acres the country to study the ground water problem
and develop goals and propose federal legislation. Their
work was completed and a 70-page document was written
in November 1980.
Just in time for a change in administrations.
"Th strategy, and it was a good one, is sitting on a shelf
somewhere in Washington," says Rodney DeHan, chief of
the DER's ground water division and a member of the
roupthat wrotethereport. MAR 6 1983
THE ACTION on ground water, state officials say, is
typical of the EPA's retreat on some environmental fronts.
With the blessings of President Reagan and EPA
Administrator Anne M. Burford, the agency's budget has
been cut systematically. And among the President's 1984
budget proposals are an overall 9 percent agency cut; a 25
percent cot in water-quality programs; a similar cut in
grants to states; and a 15 percent cut in drinking-water
RPA'* armltf w-tew a-tetor in, rn *Ill. :- ----

-- O~Lla JitmIILJJr, LJtupJI ti1se1w1t
of Environmental Regulation

6,000 ponds in Florida were located over usable drinking-
water aquifers. More than 70 percent of them were unlined
and thus allowed the wastes to seep into the ground. Almost
none of the ponds were monitored to determine if they were
poisoning underground water supplies.
S Sewage disposal: As much as 40 percent of the
state's sewage is disposed of through septic tanks. And
there are some who believe that Florida, with its high water
table, is one of the least desirable places in the country for
Septic tanks. Bacterial and viral contamination are being
-found in increasing numbers in water drawn from private
wells. And there are warnings of chemical contamination
from solvents used in many cases to clean the tanks.
And there are other problems. Saltwater intrusion,
which crimped Pinellas County's ground water supply years
ago, is a threat to water supplies all along Florida's coasts.
Thousands of "wild wells," mostly abandoned oil-
exploration wells, are crumbling and contaminating fresh
ground water with dirty runoff or salt water. Some scien-
tists say gypsum stacks used by the phosphate industry are

grants to states; and a 15 percent cut in drinking-water
EPA's ground water strategy now, basically, is to give
more control and less money to the states.
"The feds usually lead the way in clean-water and -air
issues," says DER's Cole. "But on ground water, we've had
to move ahead in (regulating) both quality and quantity."
State officials agree that could be a good policy.
Florida's dependence on ground water and the state's
unique hydrological structure mean that "if we're not
careful, we can mess it up much more easily than anywhere
else in the nation," says DER's Cole.
Unfortunately, the DER, at present, may not be up to
the responsibility.
Despite the state's dependence on ground water, the
state DER didn't have a rule regarding its protection until
four years ago or a separate ground water division until
three years ago. "We started from ground zero," Tschinkel
The DER has not been a darling of the Legislature. Last
year, environmental programs in the state received only 1.4
percent of the state's budget. For DER, that amounted to
about $20-million, to which the federal government added

Plan to flood Everglades appears doomed

United Press International
officials say that a controversial plan
to flood 49 square miles of the Florida
Everglades with polluted water may
be killed this week by the South Flor-
ida Water Management District.
\r., i .;.. 'rtr,.| .:. i. I ....... ... f i,[.,

Department of Environmental Regu-
lation (DER), told the district's
executive director, Jack Maloy, that
DER approval of the plan is unlikely.
Maloy said the DER critique
forced a complete review of all aspects
of the district's strategy for cleaning
1-* 1 ol/o A1O p11-J-p 11t,_^

board meets Thursday and Friday.
Under the Everglades flooding
proposal, nitrogen-rich runoff from
the 700,000-acre Everglades Agricul-
tural Area south of the lake would be
diverted to the Holey Land and Ro-
tenberger wildlife management areas
rCf nl.k..... 1--.. PAnn R -3n.t> r-

I.91z I siit .I.* t So .l C AeI___ _. ..._"_._ .,_"i

*Kbrtnwlt cu/tiuC7t I i A&&lhwUaiNti lM Y iWq m @ih( I b

pumping L How pumping affects the aquifer
well Suncoast residents get most of their water from the Floridan Aquifer.
a vast underground reservoir of saturated limestone and dolomite.
Isle .Aquifer water is under pressure, meaning that it will rise to a certain
,- -- --- ,. level even without pumping. That level, shown here in a monitor well, is
S. called the potentlometric surface. When a well is pumped, the
'' ', potentiometric surface is drwn down. In other words, the water in
and. neighboring wells will not naturally rise so high. This also causes a drop
in the water tble which is the water that rests in the sand near the
land's surface. This surface water feeds some shallow wells. as well as
most laes and streams. If too much water is pulled from the aquifer.
surface water leaks down through holes in the clay that separates the
two layers, and lakes and shallow wells will start to dry up. If wells near
Fkm n Aq ll wala Iertl the coast pump too much water, a natural wedge of salt water can be
S mesne t dawn farther inland
.P.ra.bes Th.- -FRANKMPEiTE


How pumping affects the aquifer
-&N midelft go iM atw theirw WOW *n tON Intcnidon AV~w,
800 udotdrgo00id000ea of assumed .tions ad 0400.ta
AoOWwowo to'0*po. nmmwt 0 i tOto iswtet
linden.. weolmilt Oaoog. That Wink. tho~ohere morw..0t. i
cookdO tpatentilmitoretrisssoo. Vi wait a Poaed. toe
p .t nd in0 citha whims, the wnda i
-f tOwillnnotw n v rosesona t high. That "a oou.0 e each
t wttOiWuBSthiedo uthe WOW that I m. the send hea the
luod'eawle 1Oo~e., rt toneetellt waft. a s.00
Mos bwoondsae".. Iftoonoo wirnds, a olO ferom the aetafe.
*w 'M aria" a MOMedo" threate hldes .0t doiCsh Othto sperete, the
hac twlisir. and his" and tONISCw-f wl o to~W dr 00* If irato nea
the ow w rridwe nichwasts. aranws Wdes t SOow cn b
chowl fortheriniond.~ modyu ~ nm


--*' f

noer S5-illion. "Thebe's bee
aeohusea. in the La)a1es1e
TheDE R'agoudwaterdi r
ple. Until rceoytlyt mee eo l)
fwetbh~int toa
-ioa of pound wv r daote
recently as added bMcaue Tech
from ohr duse.
"To My that we o eothelo
autemot of the aury." ays I
Ground water protC
Aftr three yes of study, the
pound water n th a Eono.
uwseot nst sumner. Af two d

"You have to crawl b
walk. When it comes
ground water, we're
crawling stage "

between industry and eavioone
preovd.t was hailed by DER of
"I thmk thatthe fil product
n of the baet, if not the Ib.
The mIat est ve aspect of
effectJa prohibit uab sta
oc ccr or that ree "toaic to ho

MAR 1'83
u a temedous lack of rnleasd into the porund wtr. It also ouls compounds
for thee msu." ey that ae ha u toorF pomu naan tothe od acmutly
tor to tUdignota species in surface water.
oiis udaupoll2 pei Tbh nrul quir m onoeamtor by compasms tha
'two osuofiompe put sua mo the qut o and add. protec on for
skethso.estivminv.- aqutl endrM d s th only onMbly ivdable ource
M oamo, A third tar opopabcalewaote iBfliclatBegme.toftbhppopuliatoo
in pulled the worekes Euviromnmtlis poit out. however, what the rul
don't add ress
md weoud e the uader. "* p oble of poud eatr pollution from uepuc
DeHan. ek o-mm t runoff. peosidde. ilieal doumpin and
oexisg roeling storage container i noi at all covered by
ton thi ruie." Eno udrntal Rgulation Comwation memb er
DER prm ud, B y ,dmued lly the rt. w m n ldooi.
ment R*ioul m. "It is ry posible that these ource of ground wawr
days of referwcem fihs podblhona nrpea the nmr sources of which we hold be
concerned (and) that we pding a lot of money deal-
ig withiaor Msources of polution of our ground water and
before you ignore its ajor a ourtce.
to protecting God po lBch- r of enro n
w0ud ip ip Munot4-S. is mor bIun '*bThe niw ruIe i
still at the imrly ioadoqu. It us that the vnt m.ontw of our I
underroud drnking.water morc art certan to be

Trry Cole. DER Repood Techlkai Well the defense anwer would
aistnt secretary be 'Would you father bae no rule at ll ?'"
To ha suck with som of the department' original
portion waold have o tht th t idutry would have
ie the rule ww p- ak the iruls to an adm stratve hannrg, she saty. a
icial as a dmar po M oh t cond hmw takn months.
is an etMiny good ruo. Srhe dmits. tough. that the rules are onl the bem-
o the astio'" sid Cole. o
tiM rleswhich wnt ioto As bet asstant Cole ys. "You have to crawl before
That cauo birth dofcto yo walk. WMhe it coms to protecting ground water. we r
oeao buino" from bmc iUl at the caling stue."

* ) (

Floridians rely

on water that comes

from underground
Groo.nd mw er mikegintundergound.epaoin
sakrd with about tetihirdi of te world'la ee wter.
mTh n onmi Ww rloarencesCotaunil e e that
there re famo thaMn soqueaillot gallons of iret weers
win ta wt lf-mi otlg rth surface. Th' aboutfoutr
wmas t. voluoe of the GrtM LUee.
About half of the couna depnds an (round water
tor la drawing e er. BIut no sa renlie moa e a n iond
wtr for water than Ronds, whee 92 paecstl
of thmopoul.oan drinks wa thecomnee fret.
Ground wotr a oubsface ww that fi n the
s paes between sa rock and geology formenor
until Iv ar etl iVeturfd. Laf" forress w or thee
saturated a s ar called equifows.
In sone ared of te country. ground wner a found
onry in the nmoy cr.vicM betwti porou rocks. But i
Floretd, quers can- be doep and wdaetnough for
Akwdhrers to tplore.
Aqsooers le under m n of lieFodi. The Bloasyne
Aquifer. under Dade and Browad countii. supless
about 3-eniliton people toh drinking water. The nwCaWn
Mes code to Otw hsacr e newremaly. and in some pices at
erw a tome of th e per o attuv bMeek through the
surface. Becae of that, it t highly iope to
T1i Floriden Aquifer. one of 11h@mnee Droductiv n
thewor.ld, unda mIt of th etee. induding PinMea
and Paco counted. Salt woter has contaemmtud the
ground water under Wto of PnesMle Coun.ty, though

B....ynl t.e roes .oc

there a sone pubictandprte dnwng rcs
water. Th town of IBel r reco its watr from weis
attrnd .round theo taM l town Duond*n Man
Ciarweor am own weis m PWnMaso that supoty fresh
St. Petesburg ad PmCto County, how recer
most of t"wr wasm from wetfeald m Pato and
illAbrough counted.
In the Panhan e. the Saed and Gravee Aqufea is
soue of dnrking wter for hna communtates. A
number of mffonr show quters. Called surtfioai
aouiter. abso supl mnoty wel in Noth FHonda.


t6 ---n i



Pinellas water

supply is feeling

crunch of growth

,,,o.T. ., .* MJAR 7 1983
In on of the few remaining arm in Pinalla County
where co pa and oranges are bruveted. 58 pumps isck
up water from underground and end it a far south as the
faucets at Fort DeSoto Park.
This is the Eldridge-Wilde wll fld, 500 acre of
farmland that straddle Pinellm and Hilaborough county
The water that le in the Floridan Aquifer beneath the well
field is cool and clear.
"We're very fortunts to have a source of water like
this says James Nelon, superior of water quality con-
trol for Pinellas County. He's bouncing along a dirt rod at
the time, pointing out the sheet-metal sheds that houm the
"You can drink the water directly out of the wells -
it's that pure."
PINELLAS IS INDEED lucky to get its wasr
from rural, undeveloped ars in Pinllas, Paso and
Hillborough count, f from trhe knd of industrial pit
and municipal landfill tht lve poiod wells in other
puts of the stat.
Far, at least from moat of them
For just across the county line from the well field, on the
Hillborough side of a lining, barbed wir fence, is a
borrow pit filled with water. Pinella County commission-
e have no control over the pit and could do nothing whn
the Hillsborough County Commison areed to let itr
owners quadruple its size.
Lat week, a neighbor tetied that the borrow pit
owner repeatedly boated that he had the Hillorough-
County Commission "in hihip pocket," butan attorney for
the owner of the pit disputed such statements about
Pinellas officials a so worried about what may be


and their "cones of
depression These
~e in which puiLmp" has
lowered the w r table. An
imaginary rclh i cread

whatever in dumped there
- will reach thd ar being
pumped. The photo at left
shows a Pinsis water
pump at the Eldrids -We e
well fi*d: in bckgr ound is
the Marin borrow pit.
lot.PMeredTwie w-FaAeMAn

St. Preee Tss.-F5A55I ..

Drinking-water law doesn't quench environrmelntalstss

i,.o, .... MAR 7 1903

In 1973, the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) completed a study of New Orlean' drinking wa-
ter. The results shocked the nation.
The EPA found 66 organic chemicals in the water, six
of them suspected carcinogens. A follow-up study by a
group of private scientists and lawyers showed an as-
sociation between the consumption of the water and
increased cancer mortality in white males.
THOSE REPORTS created political support for
passage of the federal Safe Drinking Water Act in late
1974. The act requires the EPA administrator to do a
number of things, including:
s Setting national primary and secondary stand-
ards to protect public health and welfare.
s Establishing maximum contaminant levels
(MCLs) at a point at which "no known or anticipated
adverse effects on the health of persons occur and which
allows a margin of safety."
'w Establishing minimum requirements for state
programs to protect drinking water sources, and to
designate "sole-source aquifer" in areas where large
numbers of people depend upon a single, underground
water source.
to Providing for public notification of a violation of
Although the act has been in effect for more than
eight years, MCL have been established for only a few
chemicals. The National Interim Primary Drinking
Water regulations cover only 10 inorganic, which in-

clude heavy metals, and six organic, which include
In addition to those standards, microbiological con-
taminant restrictions require that samples contain no
more than four coliform bacteria per milliliter (about 20
drops). There are controls on radioactivity and on
turbidity which concerns tiny solids suspended in
THOSE ARE THE primary standards. In addi-
tion, there are secondary standards things that may
adversely affect the aesthetic qualities of drinking wa-
ters, such as taste, odor, color and appearance. The set-
ondary standards are not federally enforceable but are
intended as guidelines.
In 1979, control of trihalomethanes (THM) was
added to the list. These suspected cancer-causing
compounds are formed, ironically enough, iq the treat-
ment plant. Substances already in the water combine
withtchlorine to form the compounds. (An EPA survey
of 80 cities showed that Miami had the highest THM
concentration, 311 parts per billion compared with the
100 parts per billion standard set by the agency.)
Water officials representing Pinellas County, the
West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority, St. Pe-
tersburg, Clearwater, Dunedin and Belleair point out
proudly that their water meets all of the federal stand-
But that's not enough for most environmentalist.
"WE FREQUENTLY hear from the (water)
plant operators that they meet all the federal stand-

Where does your
water come from?
The water that comes out of your tap in Pinellas
County may have come from Pasco or Hillsborough
counties, or it may have come from a park in the middle
of your town. The only sure thing is that it came from
| While about half of the water supply of the city of
I Tampa comes from reservoirs on the Hillsborough
|I River, Pinellas County residents exclusively drink
1 water that comes from wells sunk from 70 feet to 700 feet
into the ground. Nine out of every 10 Floridians get their
water in a similar fashion.
A main supplier of water to Pinellas residents is the
West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority,
MAR 7 1983 which i responsible for the water needs of Pasco, Pi-
nellas and Hillborough counties. The authority -

arda." says.l sieh I'lotgor, project minsnger for thie En-
vironmental Information Service of the Friends o,f the
"Well, that's because there aren't any real stand-
For instance, of the thousands of synthetic chemicals
believed to exist in water supplies, more than 700 have
been identified, and several are known to cause cancer
or birth defects.
Yet, only eight of the 129 chemicals on the EPA's list
of "priority pollutants" are registered under the Safe
Drinking Water Act.
Many communities don't run the full chemical tests
simply because there are no standards set. "So if you run
the tests for the 129 pr '-v pollutants and you find one,
what do you do next?' 6....s one water official. "No one
really knows at what point these things become harm-
There are other concerns. While there are standards
for bacteria, none exist for viruses. Although it has been
proven that disease-causing viruses can contaminate
ground water and remain there for an indefinite amount
of time, there hae been no action either at a federal or
state level.
And many believe that testing for those standards
that have been set is too infrequent. The requirements
in Florida, which are tougher than the EPA standards,
Inorganic compounds Tests for these 10
compounds, which include such substances as arsenic,
lead and mercury, are required annually for surface
water sources and every three years for ground water

composed of representatives from St. Petersburg,
Tampa, Pinellas, Hillsborough and Pasco governments
- operates or manages three well fields in Paco Coun-
ty, plus some in Hillaborough County.
West Cqast provides about half of the water in the
Pinellas County water system. The rest comes from the
county's well fields in northeast Pinellas County.
Pinellas County, in turn, supplies water to people
who live in unincorporated parts of the county and to
most of the cities and towns. St. Petersburg sup-
plies its own water, as does Dunedin and the town of
St. Petersburg's well fields are in Hillsborough and
Pasco counties. Both Dunedin and Belleair have well
fields within their corporate limits that satisfy their
water needs.
Clearwater has wells within its city limits that
supply about half of its supply, and the rest is purchased
from Pinellas County.

Organic compounds These compounds,
which include pesticides, are searched for annually in
surface water and only "as deemed necessary" for
ground water sources.
Trihalomethanes THM tests are required on
a quarterly basis, combined into an annual average, for
all sources.
Radionuclides The level of radiation in drink-
ing water is a yearly average of quarterly tests. The tests
are conducted every four years for all sources.
Turbidity The tests for these solids in water
are required daily for surface water supplies, but only
once every three years for underground supplies.
Secondary standards Tests for these stand-
ards, which do not involve extreme health hazards, are
required every three years.
Art Finney. director of the Pinelles County water
system, is among those who think the tests should be
conducted more often. His recommendations to a
statewide task force studying the issue were that the
tests for organic and inorganic compounds should be
made at least annually for ground water sources, and
more often than that for surface water. The same test
timetable should beA jae4 for J eMscondary stand-
ards, he says. rfAR K 1
Pinellas County water already is checked more fre-
quently than the standards require, according to water
quality manager Jim Nelson, and for more substances
than the law dictates.
The water checks out okay. Besides meeting the
other standards, it is low in sodium and high in calcium.


A matter

of taste?

While some criticize
Tampa's water, officials
say it just tastes different
i. D P 1.... stuH wa ..
The water in Tampa is different, says the head of
the city's water department, but it's not necessarily
"I like it," says city water director Dave Tippin. "I
think it tastes fine."
Tippin surely is not alone in his opinion, but there is

U.I, --',. I

a sizable group that would disagree. T1 use 1Z 1 0 U-I
scription, the water tastes different, and many people
around the state speak of Tampa's water in less than
glowing terms. It has a reputation problem.
"You drink the water in Tampa?" the South Florida
environmentalist, who drinks only bottled water, asks
the question incredulously of a reporter. "Tampa has
terrible water."

BUT TIPPIN SAYS that Tampa's water must
meet the ame federal a te stnd tdard as does every
other municipal system in the state. And because the
majority of the wpter comes from the Hillsborough River
- much more subject to
pollution than the deep
aquifers from which Pinel-
la County draws water -%
Tippin says Tampa's sup-
ply is tested much more
frequently than th that
receive water from under-
The problem -r or al-
leged problem, as Tippin
would say is the river.
"We're one of the few
and probably the largest
city in Florida that gets its
drinking water from
surface water," Tippin
says. "Most people are
used to well water, and well
water tastes different."
The Hillsborough River *.a
supplies about 75 percent
of the 60-million gallons of
water that the 400,000pe- 'I'ddrinkth city of
ple of the city of Tampa
water system serves (the Tampa's drinking
rest of the water comes water any day of the
from underground). And week before 'd
Tippins says Tampa iuse drink the ground
"one of the most com-
plicated treatment systems w er'
in the country" to turn a Flora Mae Wellings
river that is off-limits to
swimmers into clean water
that people can drink.
First, the city semovee the color from the water
which is dark with natural tannic acid. Then it adds
alum to stabilize the water ("more or lees lessen the
corrosive effects,"Tippin says) and lime to increase the
acidity to meet standards. The water then irun through
layers of sand and gravel filters. And then a mixture or
chlorine and ammonia are added to control bacteria.

THE TAMPA WATER did have problems
several years ago with a high level of a suspected can-
cer-causing compound known as trihalomethane
(THM). Oddly enough. THMs are created when organic
compounds in the water react with the chlorine added to
tratit. MAR 7 1983 '
It is a problem that has afflicted water systems all
across the country, and many still are not in compliance
with the EPA's standard of 100 part per billion. Tippln
said Tampa has cut its rate to about half of that.
Still, the stories about Tampa's water persists. "I
hear people say things about the water," says University
of South Florida biology professor John Betz. "I think
it's a matter qf personal taste.
"I've never seen any studies that would make me
believe the water was bad."
Flora Mae Wellings. director of the state's epidemi-
ology research lab in Tampa. says she isn't worried
about the water either especially considering tle
options. Wellings doesn't approve of the number of
septic tanks that have been permitted in Hillsborough
County, and thinks they are contaminating the county'*
ground water.
"I'D DRINK THE CITY of Tampa's drinking
water any day of the week before I'd drink the ground
water." she says.
Betz believes that Tampa. and other cities that reis
on surface water supplies, will eventually have to look to
ground water for drinking water supplies.
"I can see a point in the future when treating the
Hillsborough River is going to tax even the best tech-
nology." Betz says.
Tippin disagrees For one thing, he says the Hills-
borough River is not that dirty "for an urban reservoir."
and that not many industries are located along it. And
he says the technology to clean the river water will ad-
vance if pollution does.
"The river will always be our main source of water."
he says.

Water from -A
buried in the pit and what additional horror might
Sbe dumped there if the pit is expanded that they have
pleaded with, cajoled and even nued their Hillaborough
Pinells County Commission chairman Charles
Rainey aid the decision to expand the pit allows "the
paaibility of connecting a toilet to the fountain of Pi-
nellas County's water system"
The 10-acre pit just across the Hillsborough County
line is owned by James and Patricia Martin, and was
excavated to provide the building industry with valuable
fill dirt.
But Pinellas officials say the pit wai used s a dump,
and charge that all kinds of toxic materials may be under
the water. They sy a plume of pollution may be
spreading through the ground water to the county's
wells just 250 feet away.
The water in the pit i slowly being drained so that
officials may take a look at what' been buried in there.
Them are allegations that barrels of toxic wastes may
have been dumped in the pit, and Pinellas County
Commissioner John Cheanut surprised his colleagues
earlier by admitting that he has had ome trash from his
house delivered to the Martins' pit.
THE CONTROVERSY and the lawsuits that
have followed have pointed out to Pinella officials that
their once isolated and pristine source of water is feeling
the crunch of growth.
tI Officials are regularly sending samples of water -
Staken from the wells and from monitor well dug claer
eo to the pit to Orlando. There, they are analyzed by a
gas chromatograph/ma spectrometer, a $200,000 piece
31 of equipment that can pick out more than 100,000 dif-
Sferent compounds.
So far, they've turned up nothing.
,*lo. Pinellas officials also are testing the county's drink-
ing water for trade of the powerful pesticide Temik
A.- Substantial quantities of the pesticide have been found
in water from a Hillaborough County orange grove only
A" 10 miles eat of the Eldridge-Wilde well field.

Pinellas County's clean water hasn't come without a
"`' hefty price.
S The fiercely political and expensive "water wars"
that the county and the city of St. Petersburg have
S6SS waged mostly with their neighbors to the north -
[t* point out the problems of an urban center that must get
its water from somewhere els.
Besides the cost of transporting the water the length
S) of the county, Pinellas has had to retain a pack of law-
yers and lobbyists to work with the area' politician to
Send off thoae who look at Pinellas' water "transfers"
more as robberies.
But the problems that Pinellas has encountered by
trying to support a booming population without enough
water beneath county boundaries may be a harbinger of
the future for big cities around the state.
Bill Sadoweki. a former Florida Home member who
heads a statewide task force investigating the state's
water resources, said as much when hi group first began
its study.
"WE'RE TRYING to make sure that the pen-
insula of Florida doesn't end up like the peninsula of
Pinellas," he says.
There some who think that Pinellas had the right
idea all along. When the city of St. Petersburg dis-
covered in the 192L0 that a layer of highly mineralized
salt water would contaminate its underground fresh
water if massive pumping was done within the county
limits, it looked to the relatively open spaces of Pasco
and Hillsborough counties to supply its future popula-
tions with drinking water. -
That worked fine until those counties wanted to
grow, too. That's when the war started.
But for all the political problems it caused, estab-
lishing well fields in such remote areas ha meant for the
most part that the water has remained clean. Unlike
iome of the major South Florida cities, Pinellas hasn't
had to worry much about industrial pollution and some
of the other problems that a causing contamination in
those cities' well fields.

The water that comes from most Pinellas County
faucets is much the same as it was when it came from the
Since people throughout the county drink it, let's
take the water at Eldridge-Wilde as an example.
The pumps in the metal sheds draw more than
30-million gallons of water on an average day. But in a
inch, the water plant can send 55-million gallons down
water flow to the S. K. Keller treatment plant
Swell field property and is divided into two tank

Won- .- -- m a.
'What Pineills County has to be careful of is that the cones of depression from the St.
Petersburg and Pinells County wells pread way out beyond the &ounderies of the well field'
John Betz, USF biology professor

that together can hold 2-million gallons of water. The The cone-of-depression rule was in a draft version, but
water is exposed to air briefly in a screened tank. took a beating from industry, development and agri-
Then it receives the simplest of treatments cultural interests, who said that it would rob them of the
chlorine, to insure that it has a proper bacterial count, right to use their property.
and a ubtance called caustic soda which control DEPENDING ON HOW the cone of depression
corrosion in pipe. was measured, some said that the rule would prohibit
WITH THAT, it's ready. The treatment is the developmentmiles rom the boundaries of the wellfield
same in most of the other Pinellas communities, with scattered through Pinellas, Pasco and Hillsborouer
some slight differences. St. Petrsburg adds chemicals counties.
that "soften" the water. Although most people like soft Betz. who was working with various environment
water because it makes sop suds more easily, there is a groups to pass the rule. said he was shocked when it wa-
medical debate over whether hard or soft water is better taken out. "We couldn't imagine allowing discharge-
for those with cardiovascular problems into an area where it would almost certainly get into
S, well," he says.
But if Pinellas has done a good job in insuring that The new ground water rules did provide another wa
drinking water is clen, the challenge to kep it that way to protect underground drinking water supplie-
will be great. Aquifers that are the sole source of drinking water if
"What Pinellas County has to be careful of is that the people are eligible for the state's highest protection, an
cones of depression from the St Petersburg and Pinellas activities on the land above these aquifers would recei
County wells spread way out-beyond the boundaries of the tightest scrutiny from the Department of Environ
the well field," says John Betz, a University of South mental Regulation (DER).
Florida biology profesor who has donq uve r~e However, the Environmental Regulation Commi.
search in water issues. tAj luJion did not give any of the aquifers even the one
A cone of depression is defined as the drop in the already used for drinking water the ultimate desn.
water table that comes as a result of pumping. An nation. Victoria Tschinkel. secretary of the Departnmer
imaginary circle is created on the surface, within which of Environmental Regulation. says that the depanmer:
water or whatever is dumped there will reach the simply wasn't ready to fight those who would have or
area being pumped. The greater the pumping, the larger posed the classification.
the cone of 'depression "Many (aquifers) are drinking water aquifers. but
"The cone of depression (for the Pinellas fields) are just weren't ready to take on that burden." Tschink,
in the areas of Pasco and Hillsborough counties that are ays. "This rule affects every industry and municipal::
experiencing the greatest amount of growth," Betz says. in the state. I think it's just one battle at a time."
"Sooner or later, you're going to have a great deal of At least a skirmish may come pretty soon. St. P
human activity on top of the cones of depression." tersburg environmental lawyer Thomas Reese plans
petition the Environmental Regulation Commissi,
WHILE PINELLAS officials have had a prob- oon to place the tightest restrictions on the aquifer
lem with the Hillsborough County Commission. Paso under northern Pinellas and most of Pasco counties,
commissioner generally have been careful about al-
lowing developments near the well fields. The location REESE SAID HE thinks the boundaries, rou:
of a new landfill has been delayed, for instance, while ly, should be Gulf-to-Bay Boulevard in Clearwater
they try to find a site away from the wells. the south. U.S. 19 on the west, and the northern ar
Dade County, a place with more than its share of eastern boundaries of Pasco County.
contamination problems, has pased a complicated or- The restrictions. if granted, would not prohibit d
finance that bans discharges or activities that could velopment of the land. but would require landowners
harm its well fields. The "210-day ordinance" controls and perhaps farmers -to ask for permits before do:
substances that would reach the wells within 210 days anything that would lower the quality of the water m i
after it was in the ground, aquifers under their land.
Such an ordinance, unfortunately, would not help Reese would have to show that the aquifers met :
Pinellas, since most of its wells are outside the county quality standards dictated by the rules, and the ci"
line. But none of the Pinellas cities that get their water mission would have to consider "economic, social x
from inside city limits Clearwater, Dunedin and institutional factors." Reese would also have to sh
Belleair have any restrictions on developments near that the aquifer is the only "reasonable source of pota:
their wells. Although the city officials control zoning, water to a significant segment of the population."
there are no rules concerning discharges near the wells That would be the easy part, Reese says. The wn
or restrictions on such thing as underground storage west coast of Florida is growing and as it grows. the ,
tanks, which may be buried near the wells. real feasible source of drinking water is the Flori
Environmentalists and water officials say statewide aquifer in Pasco, Citrus and Hernando counties."
protection is needed. says.
But they were unsuccessful last summer when the Still, he knows that his petition will kindle -
state Environmental Regulation Commission (ERC) sharp opposition. "Idon't know how much ofa brouh2
passed the state's new ground water protection rules. I'm getting into," he says.


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