Is Missing a Link
Second In a Series
By RON CUNNINGHAM
Sun Capitol Bureau
TALLAHASSEE If time-sharing
has done nothing else for the Florida
Keys, it has provided a whole new
growth industry for many of the hereto-
fore unemployable street people who
are forever drifting down AIA to Key
Raggedly dressed entrepreneurs are
paid a few dollars each to stand on
street corners in historic Malory Square
and hand strolling tourists colorful
pamphlets promising a variety of entice-
ments in return for a short tour and a
Visit the Topsider resort on Islamo-
rada and you leave with a $44.95 rod and
reel. The Marathon Key Beach Cub
offers a flat $20 for your time, and the
Pirate's Cove Villas, near the seven-mile
bridge, offers an AM-FM Walkaround.
And time-sharing is only part of the
new boom in the Keys. From the $130
million Key West Resort development at
the north end of that already overbuilt
Island to the 2806-unit Port Bougainville
luxury condominium on Key Largo,
there are 52 building projects now under
construction or in the planning process.
Some predict the Keys will grow to 53,-
000 residents in the next decade, more
than double its present population.
Not bad for a fragile, exposed, water-
less string of low-lying sandbars and
mangrove swamps where, not long ago,
the state lifted a long-standing ban on
growth, confident that local officials
would preserve the Keys in as natural a
state as possible.
Local government, as it turned out,
had to be dragged kicking and scream-
ing into compliance with its own protec-
"The building department was a real
problem. They literally had people who
were waitresses and hair dressers acting
as building inspectors," said Mike Gar-
retson. a planner for the Department of
Community Affairs."Somebody once got
approval o:7 the telephone from a
secretary to bu:.,' units."
Fly over Flonda .nd you can pick
out the classic -xarr.m~is of planning fail-
ure, from the condo-dotted Destin shore
to one million platted, weed-choked lots
that checkerboard the Charlotte Harbor
area to the march of glittering high rises
down the Keys.
For years, the prevailing view of
Florida has been that of a marketable
commodity, dating from 1881 when the
state sold 4 million acres of south Flori-
da to Hamilton Disston for 25 cents per
acre. giving him the rights to half of 5
million acres more, provided he drain
"You see the results of that in the
artificial islands in Blscayne Bay, in the
Interior lands sold at bargain prices to
encourage development, and in the poli-
cy toward the railroads where, for every
mile of track they laid, they were given
a section of 640 acres of land," Gov. Bob
It wasn't until a decade ago, after a
severe drought brought fears of water
shortages, that the state enacted its first
comprehensive planning laws. The
Department of Environmental Regula-
tion and the five water management
districts were created, local govern.
ments were forced to adopt land use
plans, environmentally sensitive areas
were offered protection from harmful
overbuilding, and a regional overview of
large-scale development projects was
Today, Graham calls the succe-s of
those earlier efforts "somewhat spc::y"
and he has asked a study group to re-
view the effectiveness of those original
"Since that landmark legislation
went into effect. Florida has grown by 2
million people, enough to populate St.
Petersburg 10 times over," Graham told
the Environmental Land and Manage-
ment Study Committee (ELM) recently.
While Florida's water management
laws may be the most successful of the
earlier efforts, at least three other areas
of planning are sure to undergo scrutiny
by both ELM and legislators in the com-
COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING ACT
Since Broward County adopted its
comprehensive plan, It has had to de-
fend itself against 300 lawsuits. On the
other hand, sticking to its plan more
stringently than any other government
in Florida, Broward has been able to
extract stiff impact fees from large scale
developers. After a long legal battle,
Arvida Corp. recently agreed to $2 mil-
lion worth of impact fees In order to
build a 20,500-unit project in West Bro-
"In Broward, we are thinking about
throwing out zoning, because if you do
everything the plan tells you to do, you
don't need it," said Commissioner Ge-
Since 1972, cities and counties have
been required to have comprehensive
land management plans. But in the ab-
sence of clear state standards, those
hundreds of plans have varied enor-
mously in detail and quality.
Moreover, Broward may be some-
thing ot-an exception. Local govern-
ments have. more often than not, tended
to ignore their plans In making day-to-
Gov. Graham argues that the recent
scandal in Hillsborough County, where
three commissioners were arrested for
bribery, is a direct result of Hilsbo-
rough's failure to follow its plan.
Under lax state supervision, plans
have ranged from comprehensive, mul-
ti-volume tones replete with a block-by-
block atlas like Broward's to a seven-
page, double-spaced folder offered by
the affluent. 500-resident Martin County
town of Jupiter Island.
Plans are required to include, for
instance, provisions for adequate drain-
? i.. ": which Jupiter Island merely
rotes ":at "water soaks into the ground
within minutes after the heaviest rain."
And to a parks and recreational
requirement, the plan adds that. "Half of
the residents have their own swimming
pools and many have their own tennis
If Broward is a stickler about enforc-
ing its plan, many other communities
are more cavalier. Alachua County has
been sued for not following its plan. In
response, the county sued the state,
maintaining that the land use planning
law is too vague to follow.
Many local officials complain that
the real missing link in the planning
process remains at the state level.
"If we knew what the state transpor-
tation network is going to look like in the
next 10 years, we could just overlay our
own plan on top of that and tell develop-
ers where to build," said Broward's
To build his 2,363-unit, 610-acre Salt
Springs Run, Jack Pines agreed to pay
the city of New Port Richey $150 per
unit in.recreation fees, $50 per unit for
fire protection, and to build a north-
south bypass from his project to nearby
New Port Richey welcomed Pines.
but the Tampa Bay Regional Planning
Council, after months of review, isn't so
Before the council will agree to grant
Pines a Development of Regional Impact
clearance, It wants more data about the
project's possible Impacts on land, air and
water quality, how IIt will affect floodplains,
local plants and wildlife, local health care
facilities, highway congestion, untapped
archeological sites, wastewater systems,
drainage and much, much more.
The DRI process may be the most criti-
cized component In the state's current plan-
Designed to measure the Impacts of
large projects on a regional, rather than
strictly local basis, local officials complain
that It is too easily circumvented by devel-
opers who purposely build Just under the
law's threshold to avoid the expense and
trouble of compliance.
"Two years ago, three of the four major
office buildings under construction In
downtown Tampa were In the 270,000 to
290,000 square feet range," said Tampa
downtown development director Lee Men-
zies. "Subsequent analysis determined that
the size of these buildings was not a func-
tion of market conditions or aesthetics, It
was a method of avoiding the DRI process."
Developed's counter that the DRI is used
more often than not to force builders to pay
for additional services that may or may not
be necessitated by their projects.
"The hidden agenda Is making develop-
ers pay for unrelated services," said Wade
Hopping, a Tallahasee attorney who has
represented developers In the DRI process.
"It's become a process of extortion for
making developers pay for unrelated ser-
And Hopping who serves on the ELM
committee, contends that so much con-
on slips under the DRI net, that the
law doesn't really serve the purpose It was
intended to that of planning for regional
"In the lust 10 years, we have had 338
DRI's, 187 of which were residential devel-
opments," Hopping said. "That doesn't even
total 20 percent of the housing Increase that
has occurred. We're talking about 150,000
houses a year. We're not even In the bal-
Even many state planners don't like the
DRI law, complaining that, by and large,
DRI's are still approved or denied on the
Florida's DRI process may be
the most criticized component
In the state's current planning
basis of strictly local criteria, perhaps be-
cause the membership of Florida's II re-
gional planning councils Is dominated by
elected local officials.
AREA OF CRITICAL
Ironically, the best example of preser-
vation under the critical state concern
process Involved an area that was not even
designated such. Conversely, the worst
example Involved another area that was.
An area under designation can have Its
growth regulated by the stale until every
city and county government In the area has
adopted appropriate planning management
ordinances. The heart of the process is a
resource management task force of citi-
zens, state and local officials who help
draw up model ordinances.
Two years ago, Graham appointed such
a task force to work with the II counties
along the Suwannee River. Without ever
being declared an urea of critical state
concern, every one of those counties adopt-
ed model ordinances designed to protect
Florida's most famous waterway.
State planners attribute the success in
the Suwannee to local pro-conservation alti-
"What you had there were people who
had lived for generations along the river,"
said Garretson, who directed the task force
effort. "It Is part of their folklore, their
music, their religion. They really under-
stand the river because they work on it.
"They are not the rather effete fisher-
men of the Keys, who would just move on if
the fishing gave out down there. These are
not mobile people, they are tied to the
Indeed, If the critical state concern
process has shown Its weaknesses, It has
been In the Keys, where a long history of
local corruption and Ineptitude, as well as
the failure of those e to monitor the area,
has kept development booming despite
"What happened in the Keys Is an In-
credible litany of failure to perform at
every level of government, state and local,"
said John DeGrove, an ELM member. "The
county persistently refused to comply while
pretending to do so. Their planning people
left or got fired. The city of Key West
packed up its planning records in a box and
gave the office to someone else."
On north Key Largo alone, 50 miles
from Miami, at least 15 new condominiums
are planned on 12,000 acres of hardwood
hammock and sensitive mangrove wet-
lands, creating fears that growth there will
lead to what Garrelson calls "an impenetra-
ble bottleneck at the upper end of the
Still, recent changes on the Monroe
County Commission, and a new, more pro-
fessional county planning staff have given
Garretson some hope that the Keys will
begin to enforce ordinances. Others, how-
ever, think that ultimately, the Keys will
have to be redeslgnated.
Next: Florida's Urban Sprawl
Appeals Court sensibly backs
reasonableness of impact fees
The reasonableness of impact fees on new con-
struction has been affirmed again by the Fourth
District Court of Appeal, and Broward County resi-
dents ought to be delighted.
Impact fees on developers are intended to deal
with community needs that result directly from the
new growth. It is a simple concept that has been
complicated by arguments about just how to measure
fairness in the way the fees are spent Impact fees
collected in Deerfield Beach, for example, ought not
to be spent on projects in Miramar.
The latest court decision dealt with parks.
"Broward County demonstrated a reasonable connec-
tion between the need for additional park facilities
and the growth in population that will be generated
by (the Rock Creek development in Cooper City),"
wrote Judge Daniel Hurley.
The opinion gladdened County Attorney Harry
Stewart. It also had to please the Broward School
Board. since school impact is measurable in much the
same way that park needs are. Now if only the county
will hurry up and send the School Board its long-
awaited share of impact fees, as agreed to a month
Impact fees for roads are a thornier issue. County
officials are working on a new formula to show that
the fees are spent on projects that benefit the new
development. That formula would be directly linked
to trips taken on a road by residents in the impacting
development. It would replace an earlier districting
concept that appears to be vulnerable to challenge.
At least the collected but unspent fees have been
drawing interest. But they should be spent now. The
impact is not delayed. It's direct and immediate.
Double-dipping, diversions and DeGrove
Florida Atlantic University Provost John DeGrove
knows a great deal about growth management.
Growth management is to be the key element in
the agenda of the state Department of Community
DeGrove wants to be active in implementing some
of the programs he has proposed.
So. Gov. Bob Graham put together the pieces and
last week named DeGrove head of Community
Good move, right?
DeGrove is well qualified to run Community Af-
fairs, but he simply costs more than the state can
afford. The compromise Graham agreed to is a poor
Under Graham's plan, DeGrove will become a full-
time secretary, but will remain associated with FAU.
Although DeGrove will have to resign as provost, the
university will continue to pay him $62,900. The state
will reimburse FAU for $50.320 8f that amount.
Since both salaries are taken from the public till.
we don't see the difference. The taxpayers will be
paying DeGrove more than 362.000 to run the $60
million Community Affairs Department Taxpayers
only pay the governor $65.000 to supervise all of state
Besides, shouldn't FAU use every penny it has to
educate its students? Why should part of its budget -
even a small part go toward paying a state offi-
cial? How would you like to be one of the graduate
students DeGrove supposedly is going to supervise?
Wouldn't you prefer a professor who can devote more
of his time to your work?
We object to all these diversionary tactics, de-
signed to squeeze tax dollars from unsuspecting tax-
payers. If Gov. Graham really wants DeGrove, he
should be w- o pay the price. if he can'* pay it -
whether for tiuacial or political reasons he should
find another secretary.
SUN-SENTINEL, Monday, .March 28, 1983
Growth: Coping with state's future
This is one of a series of articles deal
nlg with key issues confronting he
1983 Florida Legislature, which coo-
eaes April 5.
By Linda Kleiadleast
When Marcia and Larry talk about
leaving Brooklyn and retiring to Florida
in 10 years, their thoughts turn to visions
of sun, surf and easy southern living.
Ed and Mary plan to make their move
south sooner for a different reason.
Along with their three you
they will leave St. Louis
hopes of finding a job in on
new high-technology Indust
Kate, unemployed and c
family on a small wel
couldn't keep her children
cago last winter because of
of heating. She's thinking ol
warmer climate, such as
Fort Lauderdale News and Sun-Sentinel. Sunday, March 20, 1983
3 Marcia and Larry. Ed and Mary and
'83 ^ Kate aren't real people, but a composite
of the thousands of newcomers who re-
settle in the Sunshine State each year.
ng daughters, They come for their own special reasons
this year in but together they put an increasing de-
e of Florida's mand on Florida's water supply, its road
ries. and education systems and its
aring for her environment.
fare check, As the potential Florida residents
warm in Chi- make their plans at the breakfast table,
the high cost they probably will not think about the
f moving to a Impact of the thousands of others like
iouth Florida them who
already have made the move II is
an influx that has put Florida on
.'7 the threshold of moving from a
rural; agriculture-oriented state to
a sprawling urban, industrialized
S Indeed, the state's population
grew by 6.9 percent, or by 601.000.
in just two years between April
1980 and July 1982. That growth,
nearly the equivalent of adding an-
other Palm Beach County to the
state, brought the population total
to 10.4 million and kept Florida the
seventh most-populated state in the
"Until 1960 we were still a fron-
tier type of state, growing in
spurts," said Sen. Ken Jenne. D-
Hollywood, who served as a
Broward County commissioner in
the mid 1970s. "After that we de-
veloped a steady growth pattern
and we began trying to move in-
dustry here. We've switched to a
more urban philosophy because
we're becoming more urban and
more cognizant of the economics of
trying to develop a state."
The continually increasing popu-
lation has become a matter of con-
cern for stale officials who have
increased taxes to meet the de-
mands posed by it and who wonder
if the quality ol life that will at-
tract new residents and ouiiests
can survive the growth The issue
of Florida iurbaniz;ation has come
to the forelronil and will be a key
topi, for state legislators when
they b-gin their annual 60-day
meeting on April 5.
"We know we're going to grow
and we know we can't put a Chin-
ese wall up at the Georgia border
- but we also can't pave over the
entire state," said Rep. Ray Li-
berti, the West Palm Beach Demo-
crat who chairs the House Growth
Management Committee. "We have
to make sure we can maintain our
quality of life and environment
while we continue to provide the
schools and roads we need."
State officials say 2 million to 3
million people will move to Florida
- with about 80 percent of them
settling along the coasts from
January of 1983 to the end of this
decade. Moving in at a rate of
about 783 per day, those new resi-
dents will increase the state's po-
pulation to somewhere between
12.3 million and 13.3 million people
and make Florida the fourth most-
But the numbers won't stop
Growth experts say the state will
increase to 14.5 million people by
the year 2000. and by 2020 Florida
w:: have 18.6 million inhabitants.
Florida's farmland is being
built up faster than in any other
:ate in the nation." said Florida
Laegue of Cities Director Ray St.-
1ag "We're a state that builds cities
overnight t "
Yet as those potential Florida
-sidents prepare to ride the New
.-.-k subway or a St. Louis bus to
v -rk this coming week, chances
are they won't give much thought
to the rush-hour snarls that bring
traffic to a crawl on Interstate 95
in South Florida or to the estimates
that it costs $3,600 to pay for the
road needs created by each new
single-family home. In 1982, there
were 99.026 new homes construct-
ed in Florida down 32 percent
from the 145,983 built in 1981.
Chances are even slimmer that
the families will think about a
troubled Lake Okeechobee or the
need to find new money to develop
an improved school system through
a $4.4-billion budget and an in-
crease in per-student spending
from $2.554 to $2.886 a year. It's
doubtful they'll give much thought
to a prison system bulging at the
seams from a crime rate that has
matched the state's rapid growth.
of the county jails placed under a
ppuiation limit by the courts and
the average of 18 months to four
years time it takes to settle a civil
c..-c in Broward Circuit Court
niil ensconced in their northern
surroundings. they don't hear about
hou Florida is trying to juggle the
demands of new residents and the
remanos ot its delicate environ-
ment, of the need to preserve the
water supply, the search for funds
to build sewage-treatment plants.
the concern over the loss of agri-
"Well either be a total mess at
the end of this century or we'll
handle this growth rationally." said
Dr. John DeGrove, director of the
Joint Center for Environmental
and Urban Problems based at Flor-
ida Atlantic University in Boca
DeGrove supports the establish-
ment of a state commission to deal
with growth management, saying:
"We can handle the growth if we
do it right. We still have some
farmland to save, but we'll have to
take some tough stands to do it."
In the past decade, a fast-deve-
loping Florida whose coastal areas
began to look like one continuous
city, started to look at the prob-
During the early 1970s legisla-
tors passed laws mandating better
water management and land
But Liberti said the state has not
enforced some of those laws. so
now the issue of growth and how
to manage it has become a top
"We're at the crossroads." Li.
berti warned. "If we don't address
the issue now. we'll lose our envi-
ronment, we'll kill the goose tha'
laid the golden egg. We don't get
second chances in Florida."
To help save some of the original
Florida and provide more recrea-
tion areas for the growing popula-
tion. the state has undertaken
programs aimed at protecting riv.
er lands, barrier islands and coas-
tal areas from development
Lawmakers also boosted the sales
tax to pay for criminal-justice pro-
grams and the gasoline tax to build
House Speaker Lee Moffitt of
Tampa has made growth manage-
ment one of his highest priorities
during the next two years by estab-
lishing the select committee, head.
ed by Liberti. Meanwhile. Senate
President Curtis Peterson of Lake-
land said individual Senate com-
mittees would deal with
Moffitt also has asked the House
Finance and Tax Committee to
look into the possibility of levying
impact fees under which new resi-
dents pay the cost of providing the
services they need. including in-
creased fire and police protection
"The state and local govern-
ments must have the financial flex-
ibil:ty to meet the needs caused by
growth." Moffitt said recently .
"Impact fees help place the burden
on paying those costs on those who
create the need for exoanded eo-
Local governments that h.ive
tried to assess suoh a fee. ikc
Broward and Palm Beach country.
have thus far ended up in c'',r'
facing charges that the fee, ~-c
illegal taxes unconstitutional be-
cause they discriminate against
Gov. Bob Graham emphasizes
the growing need to protect the
environment by developing better
sewage treatment systems and
purchasing lands to develop more
public recreation areas.
"There is a tendency to put is-
sues in boxes and draw tight lines
around them," Graham said. "But
what 1983 is going to underscore is
that there aren't any separate box-
es. The future of Florida is depen-
dent on reinforcing a set of private
and public actions, moving us to-
ward a common goal. Our goal is
to protect the special quality that
makes us Floridians."
To do that. Graham emphasizes
the need to improve education at
the public school and university
level in an attempt to attract more
light industry to Florida and give it
a well-trained pool of workers. In
turn, state officials say that new
industrial development will help to
balance the state's economy and
protect it against future recessions
DeGrove said the state has come
to the point where it must start
looking at solutions to growth prob.
lems that might not be politically
palatable for everyone involved.
"The time for modest proposaLs
is jone." he said. "If we're going to
absorb nearly 10 million more peo-
ple in the no.t .: years, then we're
going to havr :o make some hard-
Those decisions, according to De-
Grove. include better land planning
at the state and regional level and
a way to force unincorporated ar.
eas into cities.
Moffitt talks of the need to pre-
serve agricultural land and the
possibility of containing urban
sprawl by establishing urban con-
It is an idea that has not been
totally dismissed by others.
"Perhaps we should be building
up and not out," said League of
Cities Director Sittig.
The League has appointed a
Task Force for Florida Future
which is examining many of the
same areas as the legislative group
headed by Liberti.
"This is the first time in over a
decade that there is developing an
overall look at the problem." Jenne
said. "The fact that we are going to
become the fourth-largest state by
the end of this decade should tell us
we have considerable problems
The management of Florida's growth will be a
major Issue before (his year's Florida Legislature,
which convenes April 5.
Beginning today, the Sun is publishing a nine-part
series on Florida's growth problems. The series was
written by Ron Cunningham and Ed George, report-
ers for The New York Times Regional Newspaper
Group's Tallahassee bureau.
First in a Series
By RON CUNNINGHAM
And ED GEORGE
Sun Capitol Bureau
TALLAHASSEE If tourists and newcomers stop
in Lake City at all on their way to points south, it is to
grab a quick bite at one of the dozen fast food outlets
Bursting At The Seams
around the first large I-75 interchange inside Florida
or to get a few hours sleep at the Holiday Inn.
Away from the interstate cluster of commercial
madness, life in Lake City goes on pretty much at the
same slow pace it always has.
But James Montgomery, a teacher at Columbia
High School. isn't fooled.
"We know the people are coming here sooner or
later if for no other reason than they've about filled
up in the rest of Florida." muses Montgomery, who
serves on the area's regional planning board.
Indeed. you could hardly call Columbia County a
boom area. The 70 or so new people who establish resi-
dence there every month are barely noticed, scatter-
ing among :he county's rolling green hills, spacious
farmlands nd along the Suwannee River valley.
Perched near the Georgia border in the middle of
nowhere. Lake City may well be one of the last areas
in Florida to feel the effects of a tidal wave of humani-
ty pouring into the Sunshine State in the 1980s.
This surging tide, caused almost exclusively by in-
migration, will move Florida from the seventh largest
state in the nation. now with just over 10 million peo-
ple, to the fourth largest in 1990. with 12 to 13 million
If they put up a turnstile at the border near Lake
City and asked each new resident to kindly pass
through it. that turnstile would register 244.157 new
residents every year.
That's 20.346 people a month.
Or 685 every day.
Or S2 every hour. Or about one new resident -. ery
could grow to 17.8
FLORIDA'S POPULATION could jump
from today's 10 million residents to
over 17.8 million in the year 2020 -
by conservative estimates. One
liberal estimate puts the Florida
population then at 20.9 million.
Source Uriv t F;or.dO Peoultilon Slu ses 19S2.
Or nearly enough new people to populate a city the
size of Tampa each year.
"It is a worldwide phenomenon that people are
migrating from the colder areas into the warmer
areas; it's happening in this country and it's happening
all over the world," said H. Lee Moffitt. Speaker of the
Florida House who has almost single handedly. in the
last few months, sown the seeds of a grassroots move-
ment for rational growth management in Florida.
In :he last four years. 869 new plants located in Florida,
generating 139.000 new jobs. By the end of the 1980s. offi-
cials expect 300.000 new jobs to be created in the services,
trade and industrial sector.
Venture Magazine estimated that 23,000 new businesses
each month are starting in Florida, many of them in the
'.:~.l-tec electronics sector. Venture predicted that a verita-
:'e 'electronics belt." would one day stretch across Fiori-
-a I- midsection, from St. Petersburg to Cocoa Beach.
The occupations that will be most in demand in the de-
cade will include secretaries, bookkeepers. practical nurses,
office managers, clerical workers, sales workers and non-
Farm laborers will experience the largest decline in
demand for their services.
For two years running, Florida has been named the
number one state in the nation in terms of favorable busi-
ness climate, primarily because of the state's low tax base,
low pay scale and small degree of unionization.
FLORIDA AS A PLANNED STATE
'Almost overnight this state has been transformed from
a sieepy tourist, retirement state with more orange trees
:nan people into the fastest-growing, urbanized state in the
.a-:on. We encouraged this growth with measures such as
economic development and we have been successful be-
cona our wildest imagination.
Or problem is that we didn't give enough thought to
.v-nt -e wanted to be when we grew up." -
After Lee Moffitt uttered those lines, upon assuming the
speakeship last November, growth management became.
almost overnight, one of the hottest topics of discussion in
state government ending practically a decade of official
.-cifference over the shaping of Florida's economic and
MIoffitt now has half a dozen House committees looking
: :.ar;ous aspects of growth. He has appointed task forces
:n water and on computer, science and mathematics educa-
::cn. He also has organized a select committee on growth
--anagement comprised largely of other committee chair-
.-an :o pull together growth-related issues.
Everybody is looking for the state to set growth stan-
:arzs. local governments are telling us they don't want to
.ancle that hot potato," said Rep. Ray Liberti, D-Palm
Beact chairman of the Growth Management Committee.
-..d it isn't only Moffitt who's taken the topic to heart.
:.-r.am has an Environmental Land Management Commit-
:ee reviewing all of the state's current planning and environ-
-.er,:ai protection laws for possible overhaul.
The Forida Chamber of Commerce has committed from
3.'0.'J)0 to S500,000 to undertake its own "blueprint for
zrowan." Chamber President George Becker, in an astound-
,ng .adm:ssion coming from a businessman, acknowledged
:na: t e state's tax structure is "increasingly unable to fi-
nance the needs of Florida."
The business community has never collectively recog-
nized the severity of Florida's problems." Becker said. "We
now realize that a planned and positive, rather than reac-
tionary, approach toward meeting Florida's growth is in the
best interest of both business and government."
This :ear, for the first time, a Florida governor has wrt-
ren a specific growth management section into his proposed
state bud et.
Among other things, Graham wants S75 million for
beach purchases, S55 million for endangered lands acquts:-
tions. $4 million for hazardous waste management, almost
SI million for comprehensive regional planning, and other
funds for community block development grants, coastal
protection plans and areas of critical state concern.
The bottom line of all that. Moffitt asserts, is that Flori-
da, historically a low taxing state, must become a more
expensive place to live if it is going to cope with its growth
"Water protection costs money. Education costs money.
The infrastructure costs money," Moffitt said. "And our
very poor tax structure is inadequate to keep up with the
needs of just those three areas."
But if lawmakers, under Graham's prodding, have
seemed increasingly willing to raise taxes in recent years,
an ominous challenge to their ability to further tax has sud-
denly loomed on the horizon.
With little fanfare, a group of citizen tax protesters has
collected enough signatures to place a tax-limiting constitu-
tional amendment on the November 1984 ballot.
And if Florida's own version of California's Proposition
13 is actually approved, it would roll all state and local taxes
back to 1980 levels and place strict limits on how much as-
sessments can annually be raised.
The proposed amendment already has elicited howls of
protests from state and local officials who say its effects will
undo what progress Florida has made in recent years in
educational quality, environmental protection and other
"This will force serious deficiencies at all levels of gov-
ernment." said House Appropriations Chairman Herb Mor-
gan, D-Tallahassee. "We're going to have sewage on the
Next: Planning for Tomorrow
II A/Lay rI7I i, J 1isa' ftw Us o S5iiI
I AI.I.AllAS.SI:'' Too often in Florilda. it lhas laken a
nalilural or main-made disaster to prod ithe ciliteniy inlto
Illilliiig chanllges that shloUhld have been made anyway.
Al leasl Ilial; 's Ihle theory of .Jol1n I)e(;rove, wllo Ipssl-
Illistically expecls Iltha pallern to continue.
"Florida is a silting, waiting disaster area when iI
conics to It well-pllced Ihurrica'ne." warnl's Ilie 5H-yeai oldl
St. Alugsltsint ntllive and Florida Atlantic Iniveltsily urblan
Der(;re adds, in a twantgy voice reminiscent of Ilenry
IFoiula, "We've overbuill. We've allowed iilipiroper, wrolng-
ly placed, batly designed antl consitruilcte developnllent to
g:o n on Iboll coasis and down Ihrough Ite Keys in such a
way that diisasler cannot be avoided.
"We are going to lose lives land we ire going to lose
tlihe in ilte !Illousands," lie continues. "Wliat we oughtl to
doi is linol only plan to ililligale the loss of life as nliclih as
possible, billi make sure we have a posi-disasler plan so
Il;atl we don'l just put killings back the way Ihey were and
Ilhen some 20 or :l3 years down the line expose solill other
folks to that kllld of a disaster."
lly reputllion and credentials. lDe(rove nlay well lbe
Florida's premier growlih-llaliaagenent strategist. Some
have looked upon his vision of a well-ordered Ilorida thlal
should ll e lland duill)bed Ihe naill a veritlilile IIgui of plan-
niIIng (lllters, shocked by his I)lulliness, call lill "radl'al
lack," and dismiss hlin as a Imeddling avtldenic wilho
walls to ride rouglishid over local givernmeiiiitls and the
sa.ci osan;ll principle of Imiile rule.
I:loi I his ivory lower, Dre(rove has lolng been a cioli-
Ill versial figullre. Now, lie is about to gel tile chance to try
;and pn11i .some of his long-espoused growlll-nanagenlentl
tIhl 'ries inlii practice.
Inl (ratliiim. a long-t ine prolege of Ie;lrove's, has
decided lt titrust lls olId nentor dlireelly Into Ile maws of
Ithe bureaucracy. Ile walls IDerove to replace .loan
Ileggen:9 as secretary of ite D)epartment of Coninunily
Affairs -- l he lnearel hig Florida has to slate land--
mialiagemlent aned planning agency.
IDeGr(love helped write ianlly of IFlorid's existing pilan-
nilig and e(vironliieifll protection laws more than a
decade ago is menier of Itleublin Askew's local (Gov-
ernidell Study (i unnl issionc. Andl true o tlle theory of
disst er-driven change. li e recalls that it was le .prolonged
dllolugh of soile severity f thi piromiplited Askew lU fornil
ithn ci ini ssion ill i l le first place.
"We gilt oar original growlih-managenienit laws out of
drought. and now floods ale telling [is we have to redesign
togr system." lie said. pointing Io recent flooding itn lite
ainl-swolle l* ver gldtles.
Calling goniwil management "file top issue of the '80s.
I l(;rove will use Ills new po silioln l1is y Ito ersliuade
iiwake irs ll provide several mlissinlg colmllp oneni s Ihat
lprevet ;Frido a fro having wall t DeGrovlll e s calls al. ";il (-
IllIt- lllii. b ioSlo ill p" growth Ilalnag Ilie system
As far n,"s tieGrove is concerned I Ir'cidna could itg iI tiln
As fillr as% DI-dr(o've I.s t:*(iellifd, ill-loida r'iltl di> a Ih)t
l I44h Idr 1 I
worse lhan lo follow thie examp(ll1le of Oregon.
"Oregon has tile most amlbilltos land conllplrhal41i:.lv,
growllh-anilagelmetll systleml going," .sa1 Id )e;rove. "Ih Iie
process involves comprehensive plans Iliatl must be co'll-
Spleted by local governments and approved by Iile slate
according lo state standards. Oregon has 19 goals thaI
Must be complied willl"
FIlorida requires cities iand counties to have compre-
liensive land-use plans. IIn milanly ways. however, that re-
quirementl is all but meaningless, because Ihe slate never
provided standards or guidelines.
As a result, plans vary widely In their detail andl effee-
tiveness. For every Ilroward County Ihll follows its plan
io Ihe letter. there is a Wallon County Itha blillhely ignores
its plan while turning its once unspoiled while sand beallh-
es illlo lille condo-liled concrete strips.
Florida's most serious growth-related problems ay
le urban sprawl and lthe loss of prime farm lands. And
Oregon, D)eUrove said. has a 1l "urbanization goal Ilhat
reluiles every city in thie sllle to draw a1n urban-zone
boundary in concert witli the county it is located in. II is
generally well beyond thle existing cily limits. fand all
otller land outside tlie urban boundaries is classified for
"We not only need ai clear set of stale standards or
goals, b)ul we also need a well-sllffed, hi gh-lqullily, well-
id11( d d stale land planning agency diretcling those slanl-
dil tds," )e(Grove said. "We call have Ilhe best slatllels on
IltI books, ul Ithey are meaningless wilhul ladellllae
iiiIiitoring 4and elifrce niiit.l "
oI idafl. has 11 regional planning councils, chllarge'd
\ Ilh reviewing large-scale development with he polenlial
foI implllainllig more tlhan nlle city or county. ltll state
Supl. l of tllhe colluncils l s been llinlliall and since ci nll
.:. you have :o do is dr.ve arou".d this state and
!ook what's .,ing on and vr;' i.i. understand that
Flor: s literally bursting at the seams." said Moffitt.
a T:mp- Democrat.
Bursting at the seams indeed:
Fort Myers and Ocala are among the 10 fastest
growing cities in the United States. Ocala. heretofore
known chiefly for its expansive but quaint horse farms,
led the state three years running in new septic tank
permits. And now a developer wants to build a whole
new city of 36,000 single and multi-family homes in
"Developers in the state are finding they can't
handle Broward or Sarasota or Palm Beach anymore
because it is impossible to build in those areas on a
large scale. So they are moving to the interior counties
:hat have fewer problems and less restrictions," says
-' Carretson. a state planner who wants to block
.-: antic development on the grounds that rural
:a-,r. is woefully unprepared to cope with it.
There is a popular saying that every cold night in Detroit
produces 10 new house trailers in Ocala. That may be con-
servative. Marion is expected to gain 436 new residents .
More than a decade ago. International Telephone and
Te:egraph bought 98.000 acres just south of St. Augustine.
E.'en:ally, IT&T said. Palm Coast would become a city the
s-ie of Cincinarti. That may have been overstated since
Paim Coast so far has attracted only 5,500 residents for what
is now projected to be a more modest city of 40,000.
3ut now that long-anticipated growth may finally be
moving up the coast, toward Palm Coast, St. Augustine and
long-dormant Jacksonville. ,
On nearby Anastasia Island this year, five developers
want to build projects that are all over 2.000 units. Jackson-
v.'.ile Beach is planning a major redevelopment effort that
inci-des a shopping mall and a convention center. Down-
town Jacksonville anticipates $418 million worth of business
and residental development to grow up around its riverf-
ront renovation project.
For five years there were no "development of regional
impact" applications from builders wanting to begin large-
scale projects in Jacksonville. Last year. there were six.
Miami is fast becoming Florida's first Megaa city."
Escuire Magazine calls it "the city of the future." Its port is
-ndergoing a $250 million expansion, its airport a $600 mil-
lion expansion. More than 250 multi-national corporations
and 130 banks there do 59 billion a year in foreign trade
Orlando-Orange County expects to need 150,000 new
homes over the next five years to accommodate its growth.
Fifty-one major corporations have committed to locating in
central Florida or expanding existing operations. Orlando is
c-rrently trying to annex a Saudi Arabian-funded develop-
ment project called Debra. which will have 1.765 homes and
a major agricultural trade center.
Once a coastal village of 75 people in the Panhandle,
Destin. now a city of 7,500, saw $89 million worth of condo-
minium sales last year alone. In southwest Florida, south of
Tampa, S66 million worth of new residential building per-
mits were recorded during just the first two months of 1983.
in Pinellas County, 275 new businesses and industries
opened their doors or expanded their plants in 1982. and in
netignroring Hillsborough. where 3.000 new jobs were creat-
ed ast year, prime downtown building sites are going for S4
to S5 million each.
.-A1: as Forida continues to grow. state policy makers
say certain *.lear trends are developing, trends that will af-
fec: the wa, Florida plans its transportation grid. writes its
budget, offers .': social services and hikes its taxes.
Some of these trends include:
FLORIDA AS A GRAYING STATE
There is an 85 percent growth projection for people
between the age of 75 and over during the decade. The age
group from 63 to 70 will grow by 38 percent.
"There are going to be four or five counties in which
people over 65 will have an absolute voting majority." said
Gov. Bob Graham. "That fact could have profound ram;fica-
tions on funding our schools unless we can show senior citi-
zens that they have a stake in our educational system."
In his book "Megatrends." futurist John Naisbitt says
that other states in the nation will be looking to Florida tc
see how it copes with what will be the largest concentration
of elderly in the nation. And if Floridians pay less per capital
than most Americans for things like education, environmen-
tal protection and transportation they already rank wa'.
above the national average on spending for health and hos-
he trend in Florida is toward programs that keep the
elderly out of nursing homes and other institutions as long
as possible. The state's Community Care for the Elderly
program, for instance, is trying to extend its Meais on
Wheels and other services from 20,000 clients now to 34.000
clients within two years.
Yet, even that expansion will provide for only a small
fraction of the elderly who require such services. And aem-
stitutionalization efforts aside. state forecasters say that
Florida will need but probably won't get 19.000 more
nursing home beds by 1985.
FLORIDA AS AN URBANIZING STATE
Despite the growth moving toward Ocala and other in-
land points, growth will mainly concentrate around Flori-
da's coasts. where six of Florida's major seven cities are
This year, for the first time, a Florida
governor has written a specific growth
management section into his proposed state
located. Seventy-eight percent of the population lives or, :e
coast and 61 percent of the growth will occur there.
Fifty-six percent of the state's population lives in or near
major cities. And most of :he larger ones. like Miami. -am-
pa. St. Petersburg and Jacksonville. are involved in down-
town redevelopment or urban renewal projects, some of
them running into the hundredss of millions of dollars.
Planners estimate there will be a need between now and
1990 for 3.4 million new homes, including 1.5 million to re-
place current substandard housing and 1.9 million mere to
accommodate new residents. This year alone, economists
are predicting there will be 132.000 new home starts.
Other costs associated with increasing urbanization will
go up as well. The state will need another 3,775 new prison
beds by 1985, and counties will need 5.287 new jail bees by
1990. The remaining state and local correctional s5ace
needed between now and 1990 is estimated to cost atout
FLORIDA AS AN INDUSTRIALIZING STATE
Where once agriculture and tourism and construction
were the mainstays of the state's economy, industry and
finance are fast hccomin n dtomrinrnt oprror
Crestview to industry:
Come on in,
the water's fine
By MARY V. JONES
Jouwr s sf wrltrf
CRESTVIEW The water supply
in the Crestview industrial area is one
of the attractions to new firms reports
a study by the Northwest Florida Wa-
ter Management District.
The three-year study encompassed 11 In-
dustrial areas in West Florida, and showed
western Okaloosa and eastern Santa Rosa
counties with good ground-water supplies as
well as abundant surface water, George
Fisher, public information officer, told the
Crestview Area Chamber of Commerce
The study shows both counties have a
good balance of water supplies at the shal-
low, medium and deep levels, but there are
also areas where industrial development
should be avoided.
North Okaloosa County has an industrial
water supply of "quantity, quality and acces-
sibility" making it an area of "good potential
for industrial growth," Fisher said.
While Fort Walton Beach and Destin were
not among the industrial areas investigated
in the study, said Fisher, a hydrologic study
of the Gulfs shore areas showed low yield
ground-water supplies and, therefore, the
areas have less potential growth.
The study was made to assist in the devel-
opment of water management programs de-
signed to ensure sufficient water for the
present and future needs of communities,
Fisher said, "by controlling misuse and over-
development of the area's water supplies."
Ground water is the most attractive to in-
dustrial firms seeking new locations, he
said, because "surface water is rarely near
good plant sites" and because pumping wa-
ter from the ground requires less treatment
for purification and less maintenance for
quality than reservoirs of surface water.
A major concern for water management
and governments, said Fisher, is the supply
of potable water to the shore area is North-
Former U.S. Rep. Bob Sikes asked why
the water district doesn't support the pro-
posal of a dam across Yellow River just
south of Crestview to create a reservoir that
would supply water for recreation and com-
munity needs in the south end of the county.
Fisher said the proposed dam "won't solve
"Our studies show it is not feasible be-
cause the cost-to-benefit ratio is not favor-
able and because the cost of cleaning surface
water to potable standards is extremely high
compared to wells."
The water district favors a water well field
on Eglin Air Force Base properties and has
found Air Force officials "receptive" to the
proposal in the past two weeks.
He acknowledged additional pumping
from a well field in the south end of the
county will cause a further drop in the water
supply level in the south end. bu: said hy.
drologists are "finding new sources of wa-
ter" in a continuing study of the Northwest
The water level in the Fort Walton Beach
area has dropped more than 200 feet since
1940. he said.
THE LEDGER/Soturday. March 26. 1983
Officials wrestle with
nagging water worries
By ll BaK
In the midst of the wettest year in
more than two decades, officials of
various agencies involved with water
still are talking about droughts, water
shortages, intergovernmental wars over
water and pollution.
"There's a nagging fear that there's
not going to be enough water." says
Victoria Tschinkel, secretary of the
state's Department of Environmental
But the DER head and other water
experts speaking at a three-day conven-
tion of the American Society of Civil
Engineers in Tampa recently say there
is plenty of water to go around if
man can learn to manage it wisely and
quit polluting it.
"This nation is not drying up," said
Jay Lehr. executive director of the
National Water Well Association. "We
don't even have any true shortages that
cannot be helped by good management.
But we cannot continue to try to thwart
nature building houses on muddy
hillsides or in low areas where they
"We have gone about it all wrong,"
Lehr says. "We can only win short vic-
tories over nature, we do not win in the
Lehr said about 15 percent of the U.S.
"is overusing its water supply." result-
ing in such proposals as pumping water
into the United States from Canada and
Alaska and running pipelines from
South Dakota to northern Texas.
"Any time we can dig a ditch or build
a dam. let's do it before anyone can
think of sensible solutions," Lehr
The best solution, Lehr says, is to
design an area's economy around its
Lehr said the Texas problem could be
solved simply by changing the system
used by farmers to irrigate. In other
areas, such as Arizona. he said man
simply shouldn't try to grow crops and
"every development doesn't need a lake
or a fountain."
"Every 10 or 15 years, every part of
the country suffers a drought," Lehr
said. "It floods periodically. There are
no normal waler years 85 percent of
our problem is not planning for the
drought or the flood"
ee rested not
During the droughl. Ihls waler gauge at Lake Klsslmmee registered nothing.
THE LODGER/Saur day March 26, 1983
Florida has had both in the last two
years, according to state water offi-
And while an excess of water is the
current problem, "let's not forget the
lessons and go into a ditch and drain
philosophy again," says Bill Courser of
the Southwest Florida Water Manage-
With water levels rising, Courser said
some residents "are losing site of the
drought and they're already beating the
drum for flood control."
But Courser said water officials no
longer see flood control as the solution.
When man drains the land in times of
floods, it makes droughts like the once-
in-750-year-event of two years ago even
worse. And if man plans only for
droughts, it makes flooding worse.
"We need to try to make use of our
natural systems so we can dampen this
yo-yo effect." Courser said.
Florida receives an average of 52
inches of rainfall a year, about 39 inch-
es of which is evaporated or transpired
into the atmosphere by vegetation. 6 to
10 inches runs off into the sea or seeps
into the earth. Only about 3 or 4 inches
is used by man.
But there's no excess supply either.
"Recharge is difficult in a state that's
eagerly paving everything over," DER's
Ms. Tschinkel said. She said much of
the water that is seeping back into the
natural system of aquifers is polluted
by septic tanks, old gasoline storage
tanks, improperly dumped chemicals
and other substances.
"Anything you put into the surface
water immediately turns into vegeta-
bles or ugly fish," she said of pollution.
Florida has an abundance of wildlife
that is living at its geographic ex-
tremes. making it extremely susceptible
to change, she said.
And maintaining the natural run-off
of water into the sea is needed to sup-
port the existing environment
Fragile estuaries can be destroyed by
the release of too much fresh water just
as easily as by the release of too little
fresh water, she said, noting that Flori-
da has an important fishing industry.
Some solutions may lie in a group of
growth management proposals being
discussed in Tallahassee.
But if state officials decide to encour-
age strict urbanization, "how do we
provide water to these areas," Ms.
The problem in Florida is that water
supplies in some coastal areas, with the
highest populations, cannot continue to
sustain those populations, she said.
Other proposals include floodplain
management, the subject of model ordi-
nances prepared by the water districts.
"People have built in the wrong plac-
es." she said. "We've spent millions of
dollars trying to protect them. We can-
not afford to do that anymore."
Still other solutions may rest in a
package of bills proposed by House
Speaker Lee Moffitt's task force on
Those bills would require testing of
all pesticides for their impact on
ground water give DER authority to
coordinate the plugging of abandoned
wells that allow polluted water from
some layers of the aquifer to contami-
nate good water in other layers; put
stricter limitations on the use of septic
tanks; and establish a trust fund to help
small towns improve sewage-treatment
facilities that now discharge into lakes
and streams and increase penalties for
illegally dumping hazardous wastes.
Many of the measures are designed to
protect the aquifer, from which 92 per-
cent of the state's residents obtain their
But while those measures could result
in improved water quality, they won't
increase quantity in a state that's
grown from about five million residents
in 1960 to almost 10 million residents
"The demand for fresh water will
continue to increase, yet the supply will
remain relatively unchanged." said
Stanley Leach of the U.S. Geological
"By the year 2000," says Kyle Schil-
ling of the U.S. Army Corps of Engi-
neers, "the states in the water-rich
Sunbelt will have to provide water for
35 percent of the population of the U.S."
Schilling, who advocates a compre-
hensive national study of water prob-
lems, said "water conservation is
becoming the rule, not the exception" in
some parts of the United States.
While Florida's water districts have
developed plans to be implemented in
times of water shortages, fulltime con-
servation has not yet been considered.
Florida uses more water for irriga-
tion about 3 billion gallons day -
than all states east of the Mississippi
combined. And that figure is expected
to increase to 4 billion gallons per da3
by the turn of the century, Leach said.
The state uses 1.4 billion gallons ;
day for public water supplies, but about
THE LEDGER/Sturday, March 26. 1983
In November 1979 flooding inundated this farm in Indiantown, Florida.
two million residents in rural areas
have their own wells for water systems.
Almost 2 billion gallons are used by
industry including 200 million gal-
lons a day in Polk County alone, Leach
But much of that Polk County total is
a result of phosphate operations, which
have been extremely successful in re-
That recycling effort, combined with
an industry slowdown and heavy rains
has resulted in a dramatic improve-
ment in the water table, said Gary
Kuhl, acting executive director of the
Southwest Florida Water Management
District. That improvement demon-
strates the resilience of the state's natu-
ral water system. Kuhl said. He said
recent rains have "pretty well brought
the Floridan aquifer back up to levels
we haven't seen before."
As examples, he said a Frostproof
well that dropped to 28 feet in 1981 now
stands at a record high of 90 feet.
And a well in Mulberry, the center of
the phosphate industry, has rebounded
from a low of 28 feet in 1976 to more
than 70 feet.
"The big red hole," a cone of depres-
sion in the aquifer caused by heavy
agricultural and phosphate use in the
Mulberry area, is slowly disappearing,
said Swiftmud's Courser.
That hole, water experts say, was
responsible for many of the problems
t with lake evels in the county. "We're
t starting to see a recovery in that situa-
tion," Courser said. "It's rebounding and
many of the lakes are back to normal.
Although lack of life-sustaining water
is the event most feared by water offi-
cials. floods could be the more immedi-
"If we don't get a dry season and we
move right into the rainy season, it
could be bad," Courser said.
While few problems have so far been
reported to Swiftmud, officials of the
South Florida Water Management Dis-
trict have their hands full.
The $500 million system of canals
built to drain South Florida, which was
once considered unusable land because
of high water levels, is full.
Lake Okeechobee is at a record high,
making it impossible to drain water
from the Kissimmee River Valley.
Lakes in the Kissimmee chain exceed
their recommended levels.
And officials of the water district are
having problems getting rid of all that
Officials of Everglades National
Park, who once said they could never
have too much water, now say they've
got enough and have asked the district
to curtail the release of water into the
But officials say they can't release
water any faster into the Gulf or Atlan-
tic because of the danger to the estu-
And the traditional wet season, for
which district officials like to prepare
by lowering water tables, normally
begins about the end of May.
Aquifer experiment could spill wet solution
By Bill Bair
An experimental project now under
way in Manatee County could hold some
of the answers to Florida'i problems
with dwindling water supplies in coast-
al areas, engineers attending a Tampa
water conference were told recently.
The project, which may be the first of
its kind in the world, involves pumping
excess surface water during wet peri-
ods into a confining layer of the aquifer
which now contains unusable water.
"What we're looking at is storing
water in a zone that now has very poor
quality." said David Pyne of CH2M Hill,
a Gainesville firm working on the proj-
ect with the Southwest Florida Water
I'yne said Lake Manatee. which is a
major water supplier for Manatee and
Sarasota counties, can provide more
water during wet periods than the aver-
age demand of 35 million gallons a day.
Since the water demand in Florida is
highest during dry periods, the project
will allow water to be stored in a natu-
ral underground system until it is need-
And the cost of the water, about 54
cents per thousand gallons, is cheaper
than any of the other alternatives con-
sidered for the area, which ranged from
70 cents to $1.15 per thousand gallons
and would have required development
of another water-treatment plant.
Under the present system. I'yne said
the water is treated and pumped into
the ground just prior to chlorination.
As more clean water is pumped into
the ground, Pyne.said it pushes out the
naturally contaminated water that is
now found in the confining layer, pro-
viding a supply of potable water that
can be tapped in times of need.
lie said the experimental system
( nld he useful in other parts of Florida
and the world.
Artificial water recharge isn't new,
according to various water officials, but
the Manatee project is unique In that
the water is stored in another aquifer.
rather than being returned to the deep-
And in a state with high evaporation
losses. underground water storage repre-
sents a; mure efficient method of solving
But engineers have been slow to see
the benefits of artificial recharge, said
Jay Lehr, executive director of the
National Water Well Association.
"Recharge never captured the fancy
of the water establishment," Lehr said.
"There is nowhere to hang a plaque in
honor of the thinkers" once a project is
While various artificial recharge sys-
tems have been used for about 30 year*
Lehr said the tendency is still to coi.
struct more expensive projects to solve
In the Chicago area, for example,
Lehr said 86 communities have re-
ceived-approval to pump water from
And since the local governments have
been unable to agree on a single proj-
ect, several pipelines are expected to be
constructed at a cost of millions.
But for a fraction of that cost, Lehr
said an artificial system could be devel-
oped to increase the pressure of the
natural aquifer, which would solve the
"We could literally pour the water
out of Lake Michigan into deep wells
and repressurize the artesian systems,"
In Los Angeles, he said 40 percent of
the city's water supplies come from a
similar system in which excess surface
water Is pumped Into the aquifer.
"We have the technology to put it in
the ground," he said. "We're sure the
artificial recharge will be built in Chi-
cago. but not until they've played every
In Florida, artificial recharge is a
practical system because there's no
where to build dams and store large
amounts of water.
Woody Wodraska of the South Florida
Water Management District says South
Florida, where the water problems are
the greatest, drops only one foot in 10
"We have pancake topography," he
said. "low are you going to move wa-
ter when you don't have slope?"
But coastal areas already are
plagued with salt water intrustion into
the natural aquifers, which are being
umpedd at an increasing rate.
"There are 4,000 to 7,000 people
moving to Florida every week and a
majority of those people come to South
Florida," Wodraska said.
"This is also the area that's least
capable of supporting them when it
comes to water," said Glen Dykes of the
Department of Environmental Regula-
As far as water officials are con-
cerned, it would be best if residents
located where the supplies are.
But since that's not being done, other
solutions are being sought.
Well fields are being developed in-
land and water piped to the coastal
areas and desalinization plants are
being used increasingly as a means of
getting fresh water from salt water.
Florida is second only to California In
use of desalinization plants, Dykes said.
But the artificial recharge systems,
like the one at Lake Manatee, offers
one of the cheapest, most efficient al-
ternatives, Pyne said.
"I think it should be considered appli-
cable in all of southern Florida where
the aquifer is brackish," said Pyne, who
has worked on the project for about
seven years. "It opens a lot of possibili-
ties to any communities faced with
problems with their water system."
THE LEDGER/Saturday, March 26, 1983
All Hot Issues
.By MADELYN MILLER
Associated Press Writer
TALLAHASSEE The push to protect Flori-
da's water from hazardous waste, sewage and
explosive growth moves into the legislative lime-
light on Tuesday.
Cheered by environmentalists, key lawmakers
in both chambers are proposing legislation that
would help preserve one of Florida's most fa-
mous tourist attractions its natural resources.
"It probably will be one of the most active
sessions ... in 10 years," said House Natural
Resources Chairman Jon Mills, D-Gainesville.
In mid-March, Mills unveiled a nearly $70
million a year, eight-btll package that would,
among other things, toughen existing environ-
mental rules and protect the state's groundwater.
"Groundwater pollution is this state's most
pressing problem," said Senate counterpart Pat
The problem pits growth against a delicate
natural balance: Florida's population and indus-
trial growth is straining its water supply, 92 per-
cent of which comes from groundwater pulled.
from two aquifers vulnerable to saltwater and
To fight it, lawmakers and environmentalists
say they need more money-and increased author-
House Speaker Lee Moffitt's water task force
responded with several proposals, including:
A 5 percent wholesale levy on chemicals
and pesticides. It is expected to raise up to $13
million to help pay for a $59.8 million hazardous
waste and sewage treatment bill.
A five-year documentary stamp surcharge
of 20 cents per. $100 value, which is expected to
raise $50 million annually for five years in
matching state money for new sewage treatment
A $5.3 million bill that would give the De-
partment of Environmental Regulation power to
A Senate hazardous waste proposal would give
the 11 regional planning councils $1.1 million
between 1984 and 1986 to detail county needs.
Sen. George Kirkpatrick, chairman of a Sen-
ate hazardous waste subcommittee, said he's "ab-.
solutely convinced we'll pass it in the Senate."
The Gainesville Democrat said he expected the
House to pass the measure, too.
Another Senate bill (SB 175) calls for giving a
flat $50 million to fund sewage treatment con-
struction. But the Senate panel is considering
scuttling it and adopting the more generous
A House proposal would speed up implemen-
tation of a 5 percent tax on hazardous waste gen-
erators and make it easier to find places for haz-
ardous waste transfer and incinerator facilities.
The push to give DER authority to monitor
pesticides was heightened following the discov-
ery of Temik'in Florida drinking-water wells.
Citrus and potato farmers use the chemical aldi-
carb, the active ingredient in Temik, to fight
pests.' But some environmentalists fear that Te-
mik in drinking water could endanger public
According to state officials, the Temik found
so far in drinking water has not exceeded the 10
parts per billion federal drinking water safety
level Agriculture Commissioner Doyle Conner
has suspended most uses of Temik until April 18
Sand wants to ban its use for the rest of the year.
Meanwhile, DER Secretary Victoria Tschin-
kel said her department needs more money to
fight the state's environmental problems.
"The real problem is that all of the state envi-
ronmental agencies only have about 2 percent of
the state's budget," she said.
Tschinkel applauded legislative efforts to
protect Florida's natural resources and said that
if the Legislature passes 60 or 70 percent of the
current proposals "we'd be better off."
Besides hazardous wastes and pesticides,
inadequate sewage treatment facilities threaten
Mills has responded with a five-year, $250
million documentary tax proposal, which he -ad-
mits merely meets the existing needs.
It will be tough to gather support for the new
tax, Mills said, but "if you don't fund expanded
sewage treatment there will no growth."
Gov. Bob Graham also has expressed concern
for balancing growth with protecting the state's
natural resources. Charlie Reed. the governor's
chief legislative lobbyist, said environment is No.
2 on the governor's legislative wish list behind
Florida already has nearly 10 million resi-
dents. During the 1980s. the Sunshine State is
expected to grow from the seventh to the fourth
most populous state in the nation.
Water is our most precious resource
-"Because so much
of Florida's growth is
of recent vintage, we
*may yet have an op- .
pornunity to correct
(water) problems and" "-
prevent new ones. But -
if by the end of the de-
cade we don't get a
handle on-it, we will
have lost our only real
Bill Sadowski, chairman
Speaker's Task Force on Water.
If Floridians do not grasp that handle,
.they will not have to worry about contin-
ued growth. The pressures on Florida's
underground water storage system, which
supplies 90 percent of the state's drinking
water, are real and frightening:
Florida ranks fifth among the states in
the number of "most dangerous" hazard-
ous-waste sites with 25; overall, 200
--dumping sites of all kinds have been iden-
tified here. The state still has no adequate
program for the storage or disposal of
hazardous wastes. No state agency checks
pesticides, such as the toxic Temik that is
used extensively in citrus groves, for their
potential to pollute groundwater.
The state has 4 million septic tanks
and another 50,000 are expected to be in-
stalled this year, although in many areas
the soil is not suitable for their use. A
loophole in a state law allows as many as
16 tanks to the acre.
Tens of thousands 'of underground
storage jaks are rusting away, allowing
gasoline and other chemicals to enter
drinking water. No law regulates the loca-
tion, construction or removal of such
At least 15,000 uncontrolled artesian
wells are discharging an estimated 790
million gallons of water each day. As they
decay, they offer the possibility of an ex-
change of water between polluted and
non-polluted aquifer levels.
This could be the year that the Legis-
lature acts to protect Florida's precious
drinking water supplies. The House task
force has recommended a multi-faceted
program to monitor the quality of Flori-
da's groundwater, find trouble spots and
correct them and prevent new pollution.
But the legislation will not be effec-
tive unless there is money to enforce the
new laws, and Florida's track record in
spending to see that its environmental
laws are observed is not good. A recent
study showed only three states spent less
than Florida to enforce such laws.
The Department of Environmental
Regulation, which does not even have a
toxicologist on its staff, let alone the field
inspectors to properly investigate sus-
pected water pollution, needs significant
budget increases. Gov. Bob Graham has
asked for money to add 48 additional
staffers but even that may not be enough.
To provide money for the cleanup of
hazardous wastes; the task force suggests
that the tax now imposed on imported
petroleum products to finance oil spill
cleanup be extended to bulk chemical
imports. That is a reasonable plan. It
would allow those who benefit from pesti-
cides and hazardous wastes to pay for the
damage they cause. A small increase in
the state's documentary-stamp tax has
been suggested as a source for the state's
$100 million share of a $1-billion program
to upgrade local sewage-treatment sys-
There may be questions over specifics
of the task-force plan and certainly it is
only an initial step. But it is an excellent
first step that should be taken now.
As conservative former Senate Presi-
dent Phil Lewis, a task-force member,
was quoted as saying: "People need to
realize that we've got, potentially, a very
dangerous situation on our hands."
And it grows more dangerous by the
SHE LEGISLATURE convenes on
Tuesday. Will its 1983 session be
paralyzed by fear because of the
tax-cutting amendment that's expected
to be on the November 1984 ballot? Flo-
ridians had better hope not. There's too
much work to be done.
Even in transportation, for instance,
.there's unfinished business despite a spe-
cial session's approval of a much-needed
gasoline-tax increase ad bid-rigging bill
last month. The Department of Trans-
portation continues to be plagued by
waste and inefficiency.
Transportation is just one of the many
areas in which action can't be deferred
while officials await the voters' verdict
on the tax-cut amendment. Consider.
The Environment Florida con-
tinues to gain new residents faster than
any other major state. There's nothing
government can do to halt the growth.
The state can only try to manage growth
to protect the environment, especially
the vulnerable supply of drinking water.
Florida doesn't need lots of new laws
to do this. It has some of the nation's
best environmental-protection statutes.
_i'hat it needs now is to carry out the in.
.tent of those statutes. Nothing illustrates
this need better than recent events in the
Florida Keys, where high-density devel-
opment endangers a fragile and unique
Improving enforcement may require
reorganization of the state agencies re-
sponsible for enforcing environmental
laws and for operating programs such as
Island acquisition and water-quality moni-
toring. Authority and responsibility need
to be less diffused. Even so, the proposal
to place most environmental matters
under an elected cabinet member has se-
:rious drawbacks and should not be en-
Criminal Justice The hearten-
ing drop in Florida's crime rate in 1982
should not lull lawmakers into believing
that the victory is in sight in the war on
crime. Crime rates remain unacceptably
The state has thrown a lot of money
into bolstering law enforcement. How-
ever, Florida has yet to give adequate at-
tention to such pressing problems as
-prison overcrowding and alternatives to
*incarceration; drug and alcohol rehabili-
tation: sentencing guidelines; police
training, standards, and accountability;
handgun management: parole and proba-
tion reform; and crime-prevention pro-
grams, especially among youthful of-
fenders. So the war on crime has a long
way to go.
Education Everybody talks
about improving education. Schools get
more lip service than the kissing booth
at the county fair. Genuine progress re-
2nalns elusive, however. Indeed, instead
of moving toward its professed goal of
* ranking among the top 12 states in edu-
cational achievement, Florida has lagged
This year could be a crucial test of the
-state's resolve. Gov. Bob Graham and
key legislative leaders have been in-
spired by task-force studies and blue-rib-
-bon commission reports that propose
various reforms in education. No doubt
some reforms can be implemented with
little incremental expense. Florida's uni-
versity system, for instance, could im-
prove its service by shifting some pro-
:grams from North Florida to urban
The real test of the Legislature's devo-
tion to improving public education, how-
ever. will be what lawmakers do with
the state budget. Governor Graham's re-
quest for additional taxes on liquor, cig-
arets, intangibles, and ad valorem prop-
erty has won little support thus far.
Even though state officials may devise
ambitious programs and set lofty goals,
little progress will be made unless more
money is invested in education.
0 Finance and Taxation Nowhere
will the shadow of the tax-cut amend-
ment be more evident than in the delib-
erations on the state budget. Already it
has some senators shrinking timidly
from their duty.
Yet life must go on. While lawmakers
must be aware of the existence of anti-
tax sentiment,. they can't allow fear to
Dictate their decisions. If they do, the
tax-cut petitioners will have "won"
whether or not their proposed amend-
ment ever wins voter approval.
Final decisions on fiscal matters must
await May's revenue estimate. Whether
it indicates recovery or continued reces-
sion, however, Florida must do one thing
fiscally: It must replenish its working-
capital reserve, the now-depleted "rainy
day fund." Otherwise, the next econom-
ic downturn could turn into a fiscal cri-
Even if the fiscal forecast is pessimis- ,
tic, however, that's no excuse for law-
makers to yield to the siren song of lot- I
tery advocates. A lottery would exacer- j
bate all that's wrong with Florida's tax ;
structure. Florida mustn't bock its soul
for a few extra dollars.
Health and Social Services The
high-stakes battle among doctors, law-
yers, and insurance companies concern-
ing medical malpractice is expected to
preoccupy lawmakers during the 1983
session. It is only one of several issues
affecting health-care costs, however.
Other issues mustn't be neglected.
These include expanding state authority
to contain the rapidly escalating cost of
hospital care, especially-that rendered by
private, for-profit hospitals. State spend-
ing for nursing-home care for the elderly
also needs a review that emphasizes
cost-effective alternatives such as at-
Open Government The key to
accountable government, whatever the
issue, is the public's ability to know
what is going on. This means that the
public's business must be conducted in
public, in keeping with the original spirit
of Florida's "Government in the Sun-
shine" approach to politics.
Yet a House committee has found seri-
ous erosion' of Florida's laws on open
meetings and public records. An estimat-
ed 400 exemptions have crept into the
statute books. These exemptions ought
to be systematically examined under a
sunset-review process, as proposed by
Attorney General Jim Smith. Exemp-
tions that can't be Justified personnel
records of teachers and policemen, for
instance ought to be rescinded.
IN ADDITION to these major areas of
concern, many other issues will confront
lawmakers during the 1983 session -
everything from the minimum drinking
age to Sunday horse racing.
If lawmakers successfully tackle even
half of these problems while operating
in the shadow of a "tax revolt," then
they will have compiled an admirable
record under trying circumstances.
Who Gave, Who Got
Here are the legislators receiving the most from vari-
ous special interests in the 1982 elections. House
member are on the top line, senators below.
Rep. Peter Deutsch (.. Sunrise) $4,000
Sen. Don Childers (D.. WPB) $1,600
Rep. Bert Harris (D., Lake Placid) $11,500
Sen. Bill Grant (D.. Lake City) $13,620
Rep. H. Cortina (R., Miami) $8,350
Sen. Don Chllders (D., WPB) $4,700
Rep. Tommy Hazouri (D., Jax.) $11,600
Sen. D. Barron (D.. Panama City) $15,766
Rep. Carl Ogden (D., Jax.) $3,350
Sen. Bob Crawford (D., W. Haven) $5,204
Rep. Marilyn Jones (R., Melb.) $4,400
Son. Dempsey Barron $15,766
Rep. Tom Guslatson (D., Ft.L.) $7,800
Sen. Barron $8,514
Rep. Helen Davis (D.. Tampa) $3,288
Sen. Barron $4,450
Rep. Sieve Pajcic (D., Jax.) $32088
Son. Roberta Fox (D., Miami) $27,125
Rep. Tom Gallagher (R.. C. Groy) $9,900
Sen. Barron : $11,450
Rep. David Lehman (D., Holly.) 35,160
Sen. Barron $16,366
HOW THE REPORT WAS CONDUCTED
The information for this re-
port came from a computer anal-
ysis of Florida campaign-finance
records conducted Jointly by The
Miami I lerald. The St. Peters-
burg Times and The Orlando
Sentinel. This project is the first
known use of computers bb
newspapers in a continuing
study of campaign financing.
More than 21,000 individual
contribution records were col-
lected by researchers who then
grouped donors by their various
business, prplessional and per-
sonal interests. The Ihiee news-
Rep. Steve Pajcic (D., Jax.) $1,700
Sen. Barron $3,200
Rep. Carl Ogden (D., Jax.) $5,500
Sen. Roberta Fox (D., Miami) $6,500
Rep. Humberto Cortina $7,500
Sen. Pat Neal (D., Bradenton) $17,031
Rep. Ileana Ros (R., Miami) $4,250
Sen. Barron $6,958
Rep. Spud Clements (D., Brandon) $3,950
Sen. Barron $16,00
Rep. R. lichmond (R., P. RIchey) $3,200
Sen. Barron a$4600
Warren Henderson (R., Sarasota) $4,600
Rep. Elaine Gordon (D.. Miami) $5,273
Sen. Roberta Fox (D., Gables) $11,058
Rep. Ileana Ros (R., Miami) $8,800
Sen. Betty Castor (D.. Tampp) $6,500
papers, equal partners in the
project, plan to use the informa-
tion throughout the legislative
session to track the influence of
special interest money on law-
The proiel dieclor is Ann Driscol. tmer
dirl~o(r The Herld's series on campaign
finncling. Orlng project is commil-
te mrad up of the Tllahassee bureau chiefs
ol the Ihree pper: Sltephen K. Doig of 1h
Herld HNeil Skfn of The Tim,. and Jlhm C.
Van Gieso of The Sentinel. Chairman of the
comnmillee is Marlin Dyckman. a Times edio-
rial writer who organized Ihe project.
Much of Ihe research was done by C alhy Al-
fano. proji I coordinator for The Herald. and
research assIstasnl Kai eirks. Ginger
Clark, Greg Osel and Ross Biurnman of Th
Timre The tomnpllte ptoiren was prepared
by Ted Andresen ol the Times.
By PAUL ANDERSON
Herod Sltaf Writer
A pessimist could make a case
that the 1983 Legislature will not
.be kind to Florida's most populous
countyty: The Dade delegation is
smaller, less experienced and more
ethnically and politically diverse
But members of the delegation,
led by chairman Rep. Ron Silver
(D., North Miami Beach) are opti-
mistic that Dade's seven senators
and 21 House members can produce
some good news.
think we're in a position to do
great things. The potential -is
there." Silver says.
He and others believe that what
the delegation lost in quantity -
las: year's redistricting moved a
Dade Senate seat and two House
seats to other counties that grew
more quickly in the 1970s it has
more than gained in quality.
"Everybody thought we might
have a long and painful transition
__ period, but these folks all came
down running." says Rep. Michael
Friedman (D., North Bay Village).
Also. Dade's three new members
of the Senate Democrats Roberta
-Fox. Carrie Meek and Larry Plum- '
mer all served in the House and
"can't be called neophytes." says
And rather than schisms between
the delegation's new liberal blacks
and conservative Latins, the result
of single-member districts, there
appears to be a willingness to co-
operate at least on such major is-
sues as education.
In terms of clout, where turnover
could have seriously hurt Dade -
on the House Appropriations Com-
mitee, for example, where all
money bills emerge the county
has largely held its own (see accom-
In both House and Senate, Dade's
returning lawmakers hold leader-
ship positions. Sen. Jack Gordon
(D., Miami Beach) ranks second in
that chamber as president pro tenm-
pore and chairman of the Education
Committee; John Hill (D., Hialeah)
is the third ranking senator as the
majority leader; Sen. Joe Gersten
(D.. Miami) chairman of Economic.
Consumer and Community Affairs,
and Sen. Gwen Margolis (D., North
Miami Beach), chairman of Finance
In the House, chairmen include
Barry Kutn on Finance and Taxa-
tion, Larry Hawkins (D., South
Dade) on Veterans Affairs, Ron Sil-
ver on Ethics and Elections and
Elaine Gordon on the Appropria-
tions subcommittee for health and
rehabilitative services. -
Here are major issues the delega-
tion is watching.
Topping the local-needs list
Nearly $14 million in state aid to
complete the first phases of Metro-
rail and the Downtown People
have been designated the top priori-
ty of the Dade League of Cities, the
Greater Miami Chamber of Com-
merce, and the pro-business South
Florida Coordinating Council.
Sen. Larry Plummer is vice chair-
man of the Senate's Transportation
Committee; Dade Reps. John Cos-
grove. Tom Gallagher. Larry Haw-
kins and Ron Silver serve on the
House transportation panel.
Dade School Board budget ana-
lysts say they will need another
$51.6 million next year to make im-
provements in math, science and
The delegation supports an over-
haul of the school funding formula
for public schools so that it recog-
nizes higher costs in urban areas.
In higher education, all of Dade's
colleges are seeking more state
money. Florida International Uni-
versity is requesting the most big-
ticket items, led by a $7.3-million li-
brary expansion at the Bay Vista
campus and additions to its nursing,
engineering and international busi-
Dade's key players in this area
are Sen. Gordon and Rep. Kutun -
both are on appropriations subcom-
mittees plus those who serve on
Dade State Attorney Janet Reno
is hoping to expand a successful
program in Dade schools to help
youths who have been in trouble.
In other areas, the county hopes
to get state funds to cover some of
its court-related costs, to complete
a South Florida hospital for the
criminally insane and expand the
Dade Juvenile Detention Center.
plans to cooperate
' (0.. HieMsl
(S0t) f sr-ms
) sena mery ineper.
JOSEPH GERSTEN (304) 4wU 23-
1D.. Miami) Economic, Cemmunit and Can
w Afaires chirmrn; Governmenel Oper
lion vice chairman JudieryCivil.
JACK GORDON (904) 48-3487
(D.. MUami Bech) Education, chirma
Aeproprations; RuMes a Calender.
CARRIE MEEK (904) 487W33
ED.. Miami) AmAnis!lt*ve Procdwe
Corrctions. Proarion nd Parole; Eoatn;,
Men t and RaobiltUtive Servces.
GWEN MARAOLu (904) 4Was2
(0. North Miami Beacl ) PFance. Tari-
on d Clmi. chairImen Aowrortieons;
Commerce; Goernmenal Operation; Rues
LARRY PLUMMER (904) 4a-348
(0.. South Miami) Transoortaton. via
chairman; ArcUltuure; Jaicery
ROBERTA FOX (W04) 487334
(D.. Cora Gabes) .audiclaryCvrl., vi
chatema; Commerce; PerMa nel Remtmnt
and Colective aerging.
Sen. Roberta Fox is vice chair-
man of the Judiciary-Civil Commit.
tee; Rep. Hal Spaet is vice chairman
of Criminal Justice.
The main projects are aimed at
youths: a local demonstration proj-
ect for treating emotionally dis-
turbed youngsters in home-style
settings (at a cost of $192,720) and
expanding programs for runaways,
foster children and other troubled
youths (about $500,000).
In another social-service area,
Meek, Friedman and several other
Dade legislators are pushing a bill
that would increase the fees
charged for filing property deeds to
raise money for public housing.
This is a list of Dade legislators,
including their district numbers,
party affiliations, section of the
county each represents, telephone
numbers in Tallahassee and com-
For additional information, see
today's Neighbors section.
On particulr luue. s geI`nera most aec-
*ve to contact me oaigtiMon mfnmr mi sit
on cmmni roviwina that isu.
rite use memters t= e Florida use of
Reorestatives. Sftl* Capitol. Talltasse. Fl
12301. write urtano In c *ar o the FioraQ i S
*te. State Ccitol. TallasMUee FI 320.
To relay mtessau to ne entire aleion
call the Doaea tim ofn ce in Mumi at
579e. or write uO W. Fikgle St.. *lO
Mnm FI 3313O0. The diaetion's number in
Tallahassee (Wa) 4M-Vu: don is 305
m Offste Building. Staie Capitol. Tall
M. Fl =101. The d oti0n aide is Ief Pic*k
rn; the ch irt"Wi is Rea. Ron Silver.
I you're not sur who repr oue lec
yur otr registration card for district num
rber or a el e DOae Ecttt s offi a
AN ALL-TOO-FAMILIAR issue is back
again this year to haunt nervous law-
makers: whether or not to remove, or at
least raise, the state's legal maximum in-
terest rate on loans.
.-Bankers and small-loan companies have
made repeal of the so-called usury ceiling
.currently set at 18 per cent their
,* ur, this year, to the
horror of consumer
... groups who call It
-; The Loan Shark Re-
"' ",lief Act.
*: 1. The bankers
* .". know what they
* face. A recent letter
.t, from Barnett Bank
i. L to newspaper edi-
,'. ttors acknowledged
*", understatement that
their proposal was
likely to face some consumer resistance.
There's also a lot of legislative resistance:
No bill was filed on the issue until last
week, and then it had to be a committee
bill by the House Commerce Committee
because no individual member wanted to
have his or her name linked to it.
The committee bill, which would raise
the Interest cap to 45 per cent, was ap-
proved unanimously by the committee's
banking subcommittee last week. No date
has been.set for full committee considera-
tion of the bill, which has no number yet,
in either the House or Senate.
Bankers argue that lawmakers would be
helping consumers by raising or lifting en-
tirely the present interest rate cap, which
was. enacted in 1979 after a giant lobbying
They point to Arkansas, which has a
constitutional usury ceiling of 10 per cent,
as an example of what happens with un-
realistically low interest rates: The state
has had no small-loan, consumer-finance
companies since the mid-1970s. Also, ac-
cording to one legislative study, retail
prices of consumer items like large appli-
ances are higher in Arkansas than In neigh-
boring states so that merchants can recoup,
the money they lose on financing.
In 1982, when the prime rate exceeded
20 per cent, public outrage killed a similar
proposal. This year, with the prime cur-
rently only half as high as two years ago,
the bankers hope that the outcry will die
down to a whimper.
AFTER MEETING WITI Florida news-
paper editors in Tampa last year, Speaker
Lee Moffitt appointed a subcommittee to
review all exceptions to the state's Sun-
shine Law, which 16 years ago opened all
state and local governmental meetings and
records to the public.
The task of the subcommittee: to seek
repeal of all unjusti-
fled exemptions and
to develop guide-
lines for the Legis-
tion of future ex-
But even while
has been busily cat-
aloging the estimat-
ed 400 exemptions
now on the books,
hearings to several groups seeking even
more closed meetings and records.
While newspaper editors and Common
Cause say Moffitt's heart is in the right
place, some are urging him to take a more
drastic approach. Open government, these
proponents say, must be protected no mat-
ter who is sitting in the Legislature at any
given time. Some, including Attorney Gen-
eral Jim Smith, have suggested a constitu-
Moffitt is resisting that route now. And
it's a cinch that the Senate, hardly a cham-
pion of the Sunshine Law in recent years,
won't be friendly to a constitutional
Moffitt's subcommittee is chaired by
Rep. Dexter Lehlinen (D., Perrine), who
has all the fervor of the newly converted.
The subcommittee will draw attention to
the subject for the first time in 16 years
and that alone will make it difficult for any
groups to win new Sunshine exemptions
during Moffitt's term.
The subcommittee, called the Open Gov-
ernment Laws subcommittee of-the House
Judiciary Committee, still is taking testi-
mony before deciding which of a variety of
proposed bills to submit to the House.
The issue will bring disparate groups to
Tallahassee in support of various exemp-
tions, including police organizations.
school boards, teachers, and hospital offi-
Against them will be the Florida Press
Association, which regards open govern-
ment as its special interest.
Auto inspection: A case study of legislative gauntlet
.. To illustrate the pathway a bill must
IJake to become law. The Herald will fol-
low a piece of legislation through this
Sear's session, noting the major hurdles
along with the seemingly insignificant ad-
.ances and setbacks. The subject of this
feature will be proposals to revive auto
inspection, an issue familiar to all Florida
By ANDERS GYLLENHAAL
Herald Cupilul Bureuu
They are nothing more than packets of
paper now, marked 1B 22, SB 10 and III)
3, littered with figures and numbered
paragraphs and written in dry, legalistic
But by the end of May, what happens,
to the three pieces of legislation could af-
fect the lives, pocketbooks and some say
the safety of every Florida motorist.
The bills call for the revival of Flori-
da's annual automobile inspection, abol-
ished two years ago as a bothersome and
ineffective method of ensuring cars and
trucks are properly maintained.
The sponsors of the three similar bills,
two filed in the House and one in the Sen-
ate, claim the public wants inspections
reinstated. They say highway statistics
show a steady rise in the number of
I Opponents of the measures perhaps
hie most vocal of whom is Gov. Bob Gra-
ham say inspections don't work be-
cause many drivers fix their cars up only
for inspection day. They say stations do
not ensure good maintenance any more
than spot checks by state troopers.
The sponsors and co-sponsors of the
bills, some of whom are still adding their
names to the legislation, all say they
drew up the bills out of public demand.
"There's a loud public outcry for it
now," said Sen. Gwen Margolis (D.,
North Miami), a former opponent who
now favors inspections after she was
caught in an 1-95 tie-up when a car with
bald tires caused an accident.
The bills are fairly long compared to
the other 700 that have been pre-filed this
year. Two are 15 pages and one is 18.
each calling for an inspection system al-
most identical to the abolished one.
SIn both the House and Senate, the bills
will get their first review in the Trans-
portation committees, where staff mem-
bers are currently preparing background
material on the proposals.
Then, committee chairmen will make
decisions affecting the bills' chances of
survival. The bills may be assigned to
subcommittees of the Transportation
committees, where they might be amend-
ed or simply tabled to face a death from
"I'm going to work this bill on its
merit." promised Sen. Mary Grizzle (R.,
Pinellas). "This is the most frequent re-
quest I hear about from my people "
Those initial decisions should come
within a week or so of the session's start.
A key issue looming over the Legislature
this year is the same one troubling the
common household: How do you pay the
Florida's leaders have had no difficulty
finding ways to spend money. The gover-
nor has drafted a $11.3-million budget and
more than 700 prefiled bills many of re-
quiring more money
are waiting in
tion is higher taxes
worth of new lev-
ies, according to his
Among them are
in last month's spe-
cial session, as well
as proposals for higher taxes on cigarets,
stocks and bonds, property and alcoholic
The price per taxpayer would vary, de-
pending on his or her financial status. The
governor's staff says the average family of
three would end up paying about $125
more a year if the entire plan is approved.
Some legislators say that's too much,
coming on the heels of the gas-tax hike, a
year after raising the salqs tax a penny and
the year before a tax-cut referendum goes
on the Florida ballot.
An alternative proposed in a half-dozen
bills this year is that Florida adopt a lot-
tery, as 17 other states and the District of
Columbia have done.
If approved in a referendum, the mea-
sure could bring in at least $220 million a
year, researchers say. But a lottery bill
faces possibly insurmountable opposition
from church groups, strong anti-gambling
forces and the pari-mutuel industry, which
fears the competition. I
Other plans for raising money include
increasing' the corporate-income tax, cut-
ling down.on homestead exemptions and
reducing the sales-tax exemption that cer-
lIain industries enjoy.
All Idx proposals will be considered
later in the session by the louse. and Sen-
ate Fina.i:e and Tax committees.
LESS THAN WEIGHTY
SHOULD DIVING off a bridge be ille-
gal? Should your headlights flash on auto-
matically when you flick on your wind-
shield wipers? Should you be allowed to
register to vote on Independence Day?
Along with the critical issues facing the
Florida Legislature this session are some
less-than-pressing ones at least from the
state's point of view. With 160 lawmakers
filing more than 1,000 proposed laws each
year, few Issues are overlooked in the bins
Two companion pieces of legislation, for
instance, propose that no public funds be
invested in firms with loans to the Repub-
lic of South Africa (S230 and 11215) Two
others address an issue considerably closer
to home: whether a Dade Cpunty highway,
should be named "The Don Shula Express-
way" (S 190 and H239)
Sen. Gerald Rehm (R., Dunedin) has pro-
posed Increasing the number of letters on
vanity license plates from seven to eight
(S271). And Rep. Elvin Martinez (D.,
Tampa) submitted a bill making it a misde-
meanor for transit companies to deny bus
drivers two 10-minute breaks each day
(H33 and S385).
Odds are that much of this legislation
will fall by the wayside. As a rule, only
one in four or five bills survives committee
review to pass both the House and Senate.
Some bills, lawmakers occasionally ac-
knowledge, are filed for the value of al-
lowing them to say they proposed them.
WHILE TilL session may lack the sear-
ing issues of past years like reapportion-
ment and sales-tax increases, the agenda
makes up for it with variety.
This year lawmakers are expected to re-
view nursing home regulations (19 bills);
look for alternatives to prisons (17 bills);
possibly approve regulations of time-shar-
ing vacation packages (five bills); and con-
sider adopting obscenity rules for cable-
television programs (three bills).
Legislators face proposals on everything
from regulating hospital health-care costs
(14 bills) to putting labels on honey jars
(S95); from opening the jury pool to all res-
idents (1182) to allowing race tracks to
open on Sunday (S170).
Crime still troubles lawmakers. One bill
suggests a three-day waiting period before
the purchaser of a gun can pick it up
(H178), another would prohibit the sale of
silencers for pistols (11342). and a third
outlaws bullets that pierce protective
One bill that's a perennial favorite
would crack down on criminals who prey
on the elderly. It would require a mini-
mum-mandatory sentence of three years in
prison for a defendant convicted of a felo-
ny against anyone over 60 (H 156)
Five bills propose that Public Service
Commission members once again be elect-
ed. The state's two-house Legislature
should be a one-house body, one bill (H 135)
Got a question? Here's who to call
If you have questions about a bill or
how a piece of legislation is faring, call
this toll-free number: (800) 342-1827,
which goes into effect Tuesday. Or
write: Legislative Information Division,
Rm. 826, The Capitol, Tallahassee, FL
Whenever possible during the session,
The Herald will identify legislative pro-
posals by bill number (example, H100).
If you would like to testify about a
particular issue, call the toll-free bill in-
formation number to find out which
House and Senate committees have been
assigned the bills. Then call the state's
general information' number, (904)
488-1234, to be connected to that com-
For information about the House or if
you want a copy of a House bill, write:
Clerk of louse, Rm. 427. The Capitol,
Tallahassee. FL 32301. For information
on the Senate or a copy of a bill: Secre-
tary of Senate, Rm. 404, The Capitol.
Tallahassee, FL 32301.
For information on contacting the leg-
islator who represents you, see the last
page of this special section.
WHO SHOULD PAY for sewer and
water lines for Florida's rapidly growing
population? How should the tpate build the
roads and classrooms for new develop-
SAmong the more sensitive Issues this
session is how to
: .;. ; ':'* provide services to
scaring away that
growth with huge
: The question has
Been a stumbling
block for a decade.
Several county pro-
posals for Impact
S fees have been
Struck down In
-, : ; court. The Legisla-
ture has yet to come
up with a workable plan after addressing
the issue almost annually. I
The problem is Florida's rapid growth.
In parts of South Florida, an average of
100 residents arrive daily.
The result is that building the roads and
classrooms to keep up with them is ex-
tremely expensive for newcomers if they
alone bear the cost. Yet established resi-
dents don't want to absorb the costs either.
Impact fees are assessed in different
ways. One-time fees of $300 to $2,000 can
be charged to hook up to a sewage system
or obtain an occupancy permit for a new
house. Some developers are required to set
aside land for schools and parks.
The Florida Supreme Court has upheld
impact fees as long as they reflect the pay-
ers' share of the services, are used strictly
for expansion and are applied to specific
In its study of ways to protect the state's
ground water, a House task force has rec-
ommended that homebuyers pay 20 cents
per $100 of assessed valuation on new
homes to raise $50 million for qew sew-
The impact-fee issue and other growth
questions are before the House Select Com-
mittee on Growth Management, which is
drafting proposed legislation.
_ ii I. II '-r~d~ lIIIY
Growth is THE issue
SStaggering cost of new services
clashes with tax-weary public
By Larry Lipman
and John C. Van Gieson
SENamNL TALLuASMaE KJAAU
TALLAHASSEE Florida is not just
growing, it's exploding with growth.
Now the nation's seventh largest state, it
is expected to become the fourth largest
Each day an estimated 808 new, per-
manent residents arrive in Florida;
294,920 new residents a year. It is as if
the current population of Orange and
Lake counties moved to Florida every
Paying the multibillion-dollar bill for
burgeoning services and managing
growth patterns to protect the state's
natural resources are centerpiece issues
of the 60-day legislative session that be-
Lawmakers have been dealing piece-
meal for years with most of the issues
they will consider this session. The dif-
ference this year is a new awareness of
both the staggering problems caused by
growth and the marvelous opportunities
created by it.
The current political setting gives the
Legislature a rare opportunity to take
action. It is the beginning of Gov. Bob
Graham's second term and the start of
the two-year terms of Senate President
Curtis Peterson and House Speaker Lee
And this session is the first to reflect
the impact of reapportionment and sin-
gle-member districts twin changes in
1982 that have altered the Legislature's
st-ucture to make it more progressive,
more urban-oriented, and more ethnical-
ly and sexually representative of the
There is an awareness that Florida is
John C. Van Gieson is bureau chief,
and Larry Lipman is a reporter, in the
Sentinel's Tallahassee bureau.
on the cutting edge of the nation's future
both socially and economically as the
country moves from an industrial to a
service and information society.
"The future, it seems, belongs to Flor-
ida," futurists John Naisbitt and Corinne
Kuypers-Denlinger wrote in a recent
Florida Trend article. "In many ways the
state leads the current restructuring of
America's economy as the nation
sloughs off its old industrial skin and
grows into a new age."
The state's planners and economists
have predicted the shape of Florida's
not-too-distant future. It will be up to
the Legislature to answer the questions
those predictions raise. For example:
Florida is getting older and younger
at the same time. The number of Florid-
ians over 75 is expected to increase by
84 percent by 1990. What will be the im.
pact of an aging population on social
service and health care costs?
Meanwhile, the number of Floridians
from newborns to age 14 is expected to
jump 22 percent What will be the im-
pact on neo-natal care and public
There will be tremendous growth,
but most of it will be confined to the
coastal counties and the Central Florida
belt from Tampa to Daytona Beach.
By 1990 the 34 coastal counties will
hold 78 percent of the state's population.
Orange and Seminole counties will con-
tinue to be home to about 7 percent of
the state's population, but the number of
residents will jump from 650,000 in .1980
to 840,000 by 1990 and 1 million by
What will be the impact on urban
areas and how can the state prevent the
destruction of agricultural and pristine
areas that are in the path of
Florida's economy is changing from
one that depends primarily. on agricul-
ture, tourism and construction to one
that also is geared to international com-
merce and high-tech, computer and defense indus-
tries. Will this shift create more jobs or more unem-
ployment? And how must the state's education sys.
tem change to meet these changing needs?
What should the Legislature begin doing now to
meet the demands of growth? To find out, Moffitt
appointed a special House committee on growth. Pe-
terson said the Senate will deal with growth through
its regular committee structure.
The impact of growth will be felt most heavily at
the state level in the areas of transportation, educa-
tion, health care, criminal justice and environmental
protection. Looming over all of these areas will be
the questions of how to pay and who should pay
for the services that growth will demand.
Most of the people moving into Florida are coming
from the North and Midwest where they are used to
a high level of government services.
"They want the kind of services they're used to re-
ceiving in health, sanitation, schools," said Charlie
Reed, the governor's deputy staff director and chief
legislative lobbyist. "But they think there's going to
be some kind of a Santa Claus that will come in and
drop off these systems."
There is no Santa Claus for governments. To fund
his record $11.3 billion budget, Graham proposed an
array of tax increases on property, cigarettes, alco-
holic beverages and securities, such as stocks and
The need for some, but not all, of those tax in-
creases may diminish after state economists refine
their revenue predictions sometime in May. But
even the most optimistic forecasts of a booming
economy won't be enough this year to fund all the
programs at the level Graham has recommended.
That means the state will have to raise millions of
additional tax dollars or cut programs in the face of
growing demands. To make matters even tougher,
lawmakers know that voters will consider a tax-cut-
ting constitutional amendment on the 1984 ballot.
State officials predict that if the amendment is rati-
fled it will cripple state and local governments, so
they're anxious to avoid angering voters with unpop-
ular tax increases now.
Legislators have passed nearly S1 billion worth of
new taxes during the past year, raising the sales tax
from 4 to 5 percent and approving a transportation
tax plan. Solving growth problems may demand ad-
ditional taxes, but the political risk of a third major
tax increase will weigh heavily on many legislators'
The $238 million transportation tax package
passed at a special session in March illustrates how
growth imposes heavy burdens on Florida. Some of
the transportation needs stemmed from the deterio-
ration of the state's road network,-but a large por-
tion was caused by growth highways in some ur-
ue PW fhnm ban areas are intolerably congested and the progno-
sis is for more of the same unless improvements are
Fearful that the needs of transportation would
take a back seat to the demands of education if both
were considered during the regular session, Graham
called the special session to raise the gasoline tax,
along with automobile and truck tag fees.
A big year for education
With transportation out of the way, education be-
comes the top priority. This should be education's
year. Graham, Moffitt and Peterson all have the
same objective: to drag Florida's education system
from the mediocrity in which many observers say it
wallows to a position of national prominence. To do
that, they agree, the system needs a major overhaul.
But there are differences of approach.
The three top officials see education as the key-
stone to remaking Florida into a progressive state
that leads the nation in high technology and attracts
the kind of clean, light industries that will employ
highly skilled, well-paid workers.
"Florida used to have a self-image of itself as be-
ing essentially a peripheral state," Graham said.
"We were a place where people came to have a good
time as tourists. Today Florida is ... a key center of
the U.S. in high technology and international trade
- the focus of the future."
All three agree that the state must establish tough
high school graduation requirements a back-to-
academics approach that includes heavy doses of
mathematics, science and computer training.
Graham has proposed a S352 million program to
improve education by increasing teacher salaries,
per-pupil spending and enhancing the teaching of
math and science.
Peterson has proposed a 5150 million program,
based on the recommendations of a governor's com-
mittee on which he served that studied the educa-
tion system. The committee advocated lengthening
the school year and tightening statewide graduation
Moffitt has proposed a $53.4 million program con-
centrating on improving science and mathematics.
But while the Legislature deals with the educa-
tional needs of the young, it must also consider the
impact of the elderly.
Florida always has been a place to retire and that
trend is expected to accelerate. By 1990 the number
of residents over the age of 65 will increase by more
As a group, the retirees have more severe health
problems than the rest of the population, contribut-
ing to rampant increases in the cost of health care.
In five years, the annual per-capita expenditure for
hospital services leaped 66.7 percent, from $235 to
Lawmakers are looking for ways to provide Florid-
ians with outstanding medical care at reasonable
costs. One idea being considered as a way of slowing
the increase in health care costs is regulation of hos-
Growth vs. the fragile environment
Among the chief causes of Florida's phenomenal
growth are its environmental assets: sparkling
beaches, clean air and water, and space to live. But
the very causes of growth are being threatened by
Pristine beachfront property is at a premium, and
as growth focuses along the coasts it is rapidly dis-
appearing. Meanwhile, the growth in population, the
increase of industry and the widespread use of pesti-
cides threaten the air we breathe and the water we
The 1.9 million new residential units expected to
be built by 1990 will destroy hundreds of thousands
of acres of agricultural land if suburban sprawl con-
To preserve environmentally sensitive land, pro-
tect beaches and reserve space for recreational
needs, the state has a variety of land-buying pro-
grams. State leaders want those programs to contin-
ue, but the Legislature is likely to make several
modifications in the system to ensure that taxpay-
ers' money is spent wisely, frugally and
Water quality and control will be a majorpriority
on water last year that made dozens of recommenda-
tions designed to: strengthen the state's abilumty
nionitor and 'c iin lm "ai ha-.
ardous wastes, upgrade sewer s and limit he
Th recommendations have been incorporated
into bill form and are expected to sail through the
House, but their destiny is less certain in the Senate.
A key growth issue is whether the state should try
to manage where the population settles. Here the
House and Senate leaders have very different points
Moffitt, a Tampa attorney, says that the state must
try to encourage growth in the urban areas that al-
ready have the infrastructure the roads, schools,
utilities, etc. to serve a large population.
To do that he is prepared,to use an economic car-
rot-and-stick approach to discourage leapfrogging
growth that sprawls into agricultural areas. Moffitt
would grant tax breaks to businesses and homeown-
ers returning to blighted areas and allow hefty tax
surcharges to be levied on agricultural land turned
into a subdivision. -
Peterson, a Lakeland nurseryman, says he's not
convinced the state needs to get involved in deter-
mining where people should live. He said he doesn't
think the threat that agricultural land will disappear
is strong enough for him to support tax penalties
against those who convert farmland to housing
Whether or not the state tries to control where
growth will occur, the question remains: Who
should pay for'it? Should the existing residents pay
the cost of providing more roads, schools, fire sta-
tions and other capital items required by the new
residents? Or should those who cause growth pay
House and Senate leaders strongly disagree on
who should pay for growth. At the heart of their dis-
agreement is a philosophical difference over wheth-
er growth creates more problems or more
Moffitt and other House leaders feel that newcom-
ers should pay directly for the capital items they re-
quire. They want some kind of an assessment fee,
perhaps built into the cost of new residential units,
that can be shared by the state and local govern-
ments to offset the impact created by new residents.
Although sales-tax collections increase with
growth, Moffitt said they don't keep pace with up-
front construction and equipment costs associated
with growth. That means another tax source, aimed
at growth, is needed.
"If we don't get our tax system straight or in bet.
ter position in the next six or seven years, we may
never be able to take care of the needs of this state,"
Peterson and other Senate leaders see growth as
the salvation for Florida's problems. They oppose
any form of impact fees on new residents. They be-
lieve the current tax structure is adequate to cover
growth because new residents pay taxes, too.
"If you buy a new house, that is growth and
growth is good, so why are you penalizing growth,"
Peterson said when asked about impact fees. "The
only thing that impact fees are is a tax."
Prospects for a smooth session
Despite the differences of philosophy and manner
among Graham, Moffitt and Peterson, this session
may be more constructive and less embroiled in pet-
ty bickering than those in recent years.
Graham and Mofftt, both young, urban-oriented
and progressive, seem to have a better relationship
than existed between the governor and Moffitt's im-
mediate predecessor, Ralph Haben.
And after two years of crossing swords with the
Senate over taxes, reapportionment and criminal-
justice measures, Graham has made an effort to be
cordial with Peterson and Senate leaders. He em-
braced the Senate's proposal for the gas tax and,
with minor changes, that proposal was adopted.
Moffltt and Peterson also have worked consciously
on establishing a good rapport. They've gone fishing
together several times and, in talking with reporters,
go out of their way to be sensitive to the other's
This session also may be calmer than previous
ones because the Senate is acutely conscious that its
image suffered horribly from intense infighting dur-
ing the past two years over who would rule. Unlike
his embattled predecessor, W.D. Childers, Peterson
seems firmly in charge. And there is general agree-
ment that his successor will be Democratic Sen.
Harry Johnston of West Palm Beach.
Florida cities attempt
to limit their growth,
preserve quality of life
By John-Thor Dihlburg
SANIBEL Remember the way it
used to be Jim Dooley beaming
-and yellmgon television to "come on
down" andbask in the Florida sun-
shine? Those were the years when
Florida erected free orange juice
stands along major highways to wel-
come the vacationing and home-
But there has been a change in the
tropical wind since the 1960s, and in
the thinking of many who live in it.
The orange juice stands are still open
for business along Florida's frontier.
But just as Jim Dooley, a Miami
weatherman hired by the now-
defunct Northeast Airlines, has van-
ished from TV, the welcome mats
have been pulled in by some of the
Sunshine State's towns and cities.
Some like Orlando and Daytona
--Beach still avidly seek growth.
Others may accept your patronage -
as a paying tourist but do not want
you as a home- or condo-owning resi-
dent A few might simply prefer that
you go elsewhere.
In what would have been heresy as
recently as a decade ago, the human
wave of more than 1,000 newcomers a
Sday has some Florida municipalities
-saying: "Stop! No more growth," and
state legislators scratching their
heads at how to slow and channel the
Not all Floridians are of the same
mind, of course.
"The thing that's non-controllable
in Florida is growth." said Gov. Bob
Graham. "As long as citizens of the
United States have the right talive
Should builders pay the cost of
growth? Page F-L
anywhere they want to, and as long
as places like Florida are qualitative-
ly superior, they will continue to re-
ceive an influx of migration. I don't
believe it's very constructive to en-
gage in arguments of growth or no
"The challenge is how to direct and
accommodate that growth in ways
that wont degrade the very quality
that generated that growth."
But for many living along Florida's
,350 miles of coastline and in its sun-
baked interior, the challenge has
been to halt the rapid expansion that
they say is destroying the same good
life that brought them to the Sunshine
This year there are 10.1 million
people residing year-round in Florida
- double the 1960 figure
Many are feeling the 20-year-old
growth explosion already: from fight-
ing traffic on the roads of Pinel
County; and being hit with giant, spe-
cial assessments to pay for new sew-
ers; and sending children to special
early-mornng sessions at packed
Palm Beach County public schools;
to being limited in how much water
they could use to sprinkle their lawn
or to wash their car.
Sudden and dramatic human in-
fluxes in Florida are the headline-
grabbers like the 1980 Maiel boat-
lift that brought 125,000 Cubans to
Key West and the simultaneous exodus from Haiti
that deposited 30,000 poor and illiterate Haitians on
the Sunshine State's shores.
Those wrenching events had sweeping conse-
quences for Dade and Broward counties. But for
other cities and towns, the problem is totally differ-
ent And its root is not Caribean boat people but
rather the stream of retirees and young profession-
als from Boston or Des Moines now migrating to
the Sun Belt
Many Florida leaders agree with Gov. Graham
that growth is uncontrollable But in cities as di-
verse as trendy Boca Raton, pristine Sanibel and
up-and-coming Stuart, different feelings are
emerging about new residents and the expenses
they entail from expanded public schools and
sewers to more traffic lights and books for the pub-
The new philosophy may seem almost "un-
American," Stuart Mayor Joan Jefferson said with
a laugh. "But for a town, we're learning that bigger
may not be better."
The first line against unbridled growth in Florida
may have been drawn across the livingroom of a
former Army general in Boca Baton.
Eleven years ago, a band of homeowners living
in the ritzy Palm Beach County seaside town met
at the home of retired Brig. (en. Richard Mayo
and said "enough." The former millionaires'
retreat-turned-retirement haven was becoming
part of the supercity rising along the Atlantic
Coast. Boca Raton residents worried. And they did
not want to belong.
To stymie growth, Mayo's group hit on a legal
ceiling so many residences, then slam the door.
They settled on 40,000 households, or a planned pop-
ulation of 105,000.
The numbers were endorsed by voters in a 1972
referendum. Boca Raton's "dwelling-unit cap" be-
The cify spent more than t$00.000 and thousands
of hours in staff and legal time defending the cap.
Behind it formed a ragtag coalition of well-to-do re-
tired executives, arch-conservatives and bird-
watchers from the local Aubudon Society.
For almost a decade, politicians got elected by
promising to uphold the cap. Others were dumped
for flouting it
"The cap gave this community a sense of identi-
ty, a separateness from its neighbors." said Doro-
thy Wilken, birdwatcher and Boca Raton's mavor
during much of the cap period and now a Palm
;Beach County commissioner. But the ceiling on
-growth was not to everyone's liking.
"We shouldn't forget that people have a right to
beside here, the same as alligators and snails." ex-
claimed then-City Councilman William Archer.
Lawsuits rained down. Developers including the
giant Arvida Corp. fought the cap as unconstitu-
tional and capricious.
Their lawsuits went to the US. Supreme Court.
The city lost In October 1980, the justices refused
to review a decision by Palm Beach County Circuit
Judge Thomas Sholts, who found the 40,000-unit cap
without "rational relationship to any permissible
On Sanibel, a 14-mile-long golden crescent
bathed by tlb Gulf of Mexico near Fort Myers, the
interstate highways and vast shopping malls of Bo-
ca Raton are absent. Instead, tangles of mangroves
and stretches of shell-strewn beaches greet visi-
tors. And now, they also can find costly condos and
Five thousand years ago, Sanibel did not exist
Swirling sands collected around mangrove roots
and the barrier island slowly rose from the sea.
Those who live there consider their home a mira-
"Nature has done an awful lot here," said Porter
Goss, a former mayor now serving as a Lee County
commissioner. "Like the beautiful beaches, the sea-
shells. the water quality, the birds and the vegeta-
"We don't need dog tracks or nightclubs or discos
or bikinis to attract people. We've got other things."
For decades. Sanibel lured the tourist more in-
terested in watching a roseate spoonbill drink from
a lagoon than in pub-crawling. The isle lay outside
-the mainstream of Florida life, and a ferry was the
only link with the mainland. When the last boat put
out at 5:30 p.m., Sanibel was cut off from the world.
-But in 1963, the gangplank came down. A bid to
block a bridge failed before the US. Supreme
Court, and the 20t century and its high-rises,
fast-food emporiums and real-estate vendors -
lurched over the newly built causeway and arrived.
Development reached critical mass in the early
1970s. Lee County commissioners approved only
$7.2 million in new construction in 1972 The neit
year, they voted $30.2 million in the first six months
Most of the new buildings were time-share or
year-round condo complexes "housing types that
just weren't in conformity with what those of us
wno lived on Sanibel were living in." Goss said.
Sanibel residents slammed on the brakes. Accus-
ing county commissioners of being reckless and in-
capable of slowing growth, islanders pushed
through a ballot question creating the city of San-
ibel in November 1974.
The new City Council's first action was to slap a
halt on growth while members pondered the next
step. In 1976, three years before Boca Raton. San-
ibel became Florida's first municipality to adopt a
comprehensive plan pointing out the uses to which
each parcel of land could be put.
But the plan did not work as intended. Develop-
ers stampeded to construct homes before laws be-
came stricter. Building permits soaredfrom 377 in
1976 to 561 the following year. Paved roads crum-
bled. fresh-water supplies dwindled and more and
more community services like police and fire
protection had to be provided for a growing pop-
Sanibel politicos decided their plan provided only
half the recipe needed to throttle growth. It set a
ceding but was mute about how slow or rapid the
process should be.
"Growth happened," Goss said. "rm really sorry
you weren't around to see how Sanibel was before."
In January 1979, after an islandwide petition
drive, Sanibel became the first town in the South-
east to adopt a law saying how fast new construc-
tion could take place. The measure, called the
"growth-rate ordinance," limited new building to
180 units a year.
"What the council has done is take a pie that was
once of almost infinite size and cut it down to 180
slices," City Attorney Neal Bowen explained "How
to award those slices fairly is the problem."
Sanibel now stages a competition. In theory, the
180 best projects win, after bids are weighted to fa-
vor single-family housing.
The growth-rate law has aroused hostility among
many who make a living from development, like
Bob Buntrock, who moved to the island 12 years
ago to help sell condos.
"These people are nuts," Buntrock said of the
Sanibel council. "They want to regulate everything,
even our breathing."
To Buntrock, meddling with an individuals right
to use property as he sees fit is "unfair, unwarrant-
ed and un-American. And if I knew what 'fascist'
meant, I'd throw that in too."
Sanibels accent on elegant, quality building has
made Buntrock money and he said he knows it.
Nevertheless, he is still "exasperated."
The same fatigue is discernible in the voices of
some builders and contractors in Stuart, a quintes-
sential Sun Belt boomtown in Martin County east of
Once little more than a depot on the Florida East
Coast Railway from where citrus, tomatoes and
strawberries were shipped, Stuart's sole attraction
was to the sportsman wanting to battle sailfish off
The 1970s boom transformed Stuart into a
minimetropolis of golf courses, retirement clubs"
and condo complexes But the small-town feeling
lingers. Stuart's water tank is painted with a ast
shaded American flag. The high school basketball
team is the talk of the town.
In 1978 a Florida panther wandered onto a shop-
ping center parking lot He looked as bewildered at
what he saw as many Stuart residents do when
they talk about what happened to the town they
"Stuart doesn't seem like the same place," said
Grace Ausburn, president of the Chamber of Com-
merce and head of the First American Title Co.
"When I think of the way it was when I grew up
here, and the way it is for my kids and grandkids,
my heart breaks a little."
From 6,000 inhabitants in 1970, Stuart's popula-
tion doubled by the 1980 Census. Flocking to the
town were snowbirds from the North and sunbirds
fleeing the bigness and crime of Miami and Fort
Lauderdale to the south.
Stuart Police Chief Charles White is one Florida
transplant He moved his wife and five children to
.ie riverfront city m 1979.
"Fort Lauderdale became a maze of concrete
jungles, high crime rates, taxes," he said. "I didn't
like what was happening in the schools either."
Mayor Joan Jefferson and her architect hus-
band, Peter, are two more sunbirds who came to
roost in Stuart At first offended by a brusque re-
ception, they came to understand why townspeople
were so standoffish with newcomers.
"There is a great fear here," Mrs. Jefferson said.
"Many residents are refugees from other places
that failed as communities. They've moved to Stu-
art. And they don't want to move anymore."
Stuart intrigues urban-growth specialists be-
cause the city at the mouth of the St Lucie River
has learned from the mistakes of Boca Raton. San-
ibel and other Florida cities that growth brings
costs as well as benefits.
Since the 1981 elections, Stuart city commission-
ers and their Martin County counterparts have
committed themselves to a slow-growth policy, to
avoid creating just another condo-packed seaside
What is new in Stuart is that the town taxes
growth to make it pay its own way. Developers
must fork over hefty impact fees to offset estimat-
ed costs of the new roads and water mains their
buildings will necessitate, and even the portion of
the police cruiser and officers time needed to pro-
Such fees are being studied by a 22-member spe-
cial committee of the Florida House headed by
Rep. Ray Liberti, D-West Palm Beach, that is pon-
dering the costs and benefits of growth.
"Impact fees are a vital tool, but the last person
to walk into the restaurant shouldn't have to pick
up the tab for everyone who's eaten," Liberi said.
There are drawbacks to the Stuart method. Con-
struction has become more expensive, and in-
creased costs must be passed along to the home-
buyer. "Now, suddenly, we're talking expensive
housing," developer Fred Taylor said.
Higher home prices "are the other side of con-
trolled growth," said William T. Wallos, president
of First Federal Savings of Martin County. "It's
rare that anyone save upper-middle-class people
with savings and investments can afford them.
Stuart already has no place for Carl D. Romano,
a barber. The Detroit native owns a shop on one of
the town's main streets but lives across the river in
Port St Lude.
"Stuart is a beautiful place, a darned good place
to have a home," said Romano, pausing as he
snipped a customer's hair. "But I can't live here.
By JACK REED
SI Poulwr hs Tm- osun Writer
NEW PORT RICHEY The sewer systems that
have supported growth in burgeoning West Pasco
County are in deep trouble.
The trouble is serious enough to threaten future
growth and could cripple the county's No. 1 industry:
building. At the veryjleat, the county and its residents
could be forced to pay millions of dollars to get the
At the core of the problem is the fact that the sewer
systems don't work very well. Millions of gallons of
inadequately treated sewage are being pumped into
Pasco's lakes, canals and rivers in violation of state
WEST PASCO'S sewage system is made up of a
series of small water and sewer systems that the county
purchased for $48-million from private developers, the
men who did moet of the building in the area around
In recent weeks, four "secret pipelines" have been
unearthed at three sewage plant holding ponds. By
clandestinely carrying away waset water, the pipes
gave a false impression that the sewage systems were
working better than they actually are.
Now top county officials think they were cheated
when they bought those plants.
One plant was called "the Cadillac of sewage
treatment facilities" while the county was negotiating
to buy it. But after the county found a hidden drainage
pipe that was used iy the previous owners to illegally
drain off excess sewage, County Attorney Scott Knox
said, "I'd say it's a DeLorean."
Whether there was criminal fraud involved is a
question the state attorney's office is trying to resolve.
But the County Commissionihas voted to sue the
former stockholders of one utilities system led by
n('". : ,'l1
1. Beacon Village
2. Hudson Hills
3. Sea Pines
4. Beacon Woods
5. Leisure Beach
6. Sunrise Hills Plaza
7. Shadow Ridge
8. Gulf Highlands
9. Timber Oaks
10. Embassy Hills
12. Deer Park
13. Holiday Garden
14. Gardens of Beacon
16. Beacon Square
16. Colonial Hills
17. Lavilla Gardens
18. Holiday Lake
Solid dots locate two
private plants. Seven
Springs and San
St. Pewe sbwgl rm ET-rI Mose
developers Carl Minieri and George M. "Bud" Brown Then, the population boom started as West Pasco
- and put a stop to construction on one of Minieri's became known as the land of the "$5,990" retirement
major subdivisions. home. The price of homes went up, and so did the
The mess the county confronts is a product of ex- population to 193,661 in 1980.
plosive residential growth concentrated along the U.S. Fortunes were made by developers and the local
There were only 20,529 people in Pasco in 1950.
business community, but there was a hidden time bomb -
the hastily constructed water and sewer systems.
"West Pasco has grown so fast, it's going great guns for
development. and sewage treatment is not keeping up,"
said William Hennessey, district manager of the State De-
partment of Environmental Regulation (DER).
With the county providing no sewer or water services,
the builders had to become utilities owners. And with no
zoning until 1976 or comprehensive planning until last year,
those builders got little guidance from the county.
THROUGHOUT THE history of the water and
sewagetreatment business in Pasco, developers have been
seated firmly in the catbird seat. Home buyers paid for
their own sewe and water lines, both in the price of the
home and in impact fees added to that price.
And builders made money selling those services. But
when the county decided to get into the utilities business in
1979. a handful of developers "got paid back three times,"
said former Public Service Commissioner Robert Mann.
The developers collected impact fees, saved on taxes by
claiming depreciation on the utilities and got a profit from
the sale. he said. Mann concluded: "It's a shell game."
Four developers Minieri, Brown, W. H. "Bill" Boyce
and Roy Speer had built a water supply line to their
utilities. It was called the Pasco Water Authority pipeline.
After individually selling the county their sewer and
water systems, those builders jointly sold the Pasco Water
Authority for $10.5-million.
DAN MARTIN, THE attorney who negotiated the
sales for each of those developers, did all right, too. In all, he
represented utility owners in nine sales totaling more than
The sale price in each case was figured on a complex
formula created by Tampa certified public accountant
Richard Darby, hired as a consultant by the county.
Based on future revenues, Darby's formula arrived at a
sale price that could be paid off through a percentage of
sewer and water rates. But the formula relied on incorrect
water sales in a wet year like 1983.
A circuit judge who reviewed Darby's formula in a tax-
assessment case said of the method: "It is built entirely on
assumptions and contingencies to the point where if a frog
had wings he would not have to be concerned about the
bump at the end of his jump."
The bump at the end of the county's jump was that de-
spite a 25 percent rate increase in December 1981, the
county's utilities are running in the red.
THE SYSTEM LOST $1.6-million in 1981,
$1.9-million in 1982 and is $300,000 behind so far this year.
County officials are searching for a solution to avoid a
bond default that would hurt the county's credit rating.
Another rate increase is possible.
The cost of environmental damage has not been calcu-
Records filed with the DER show that the county's
sewage plants often violated state environmental stand-
ards, both before the county bought them and after.
Much of the waste water discharge comes from legally
permitted outfall pipes. But unknown millions of gallons of
inadequately treated sewage end up in the Anclote River
and salt marshes along the Gulf coast through illegal
"Its as serious a domestic waste problem as I've ever
heard of," said the DER's Hennessey.
State Attorney James T. Russell whose investigation
of county government led to the indictment of former
County Commission Chairman Barry M. Doyle says he
is now investigating utilities purchases.
AMONG THE CHARGES to which Doyle pleaded
guilty were charges that he accepted bribes from Minieri to
facilitate the sale of the Holiday Lakes and Embassy Hills
water and sewer systems and the Pasco Water Authority
Doyle is serving a three-year prison term. Minieri was
granted immunity from prosecution in exchange for his
Now, county leaders are saying fraud tainted some of
the utility sales as well
The utilities problem first arose at the county's largest,
mot expensive sewer plant, part of a $124-million pur-
chase. Soon after buying the Embassy Hills plant in 1981.
Pasco utilities workers noticed that the 18-acre percolation
pond began filling up.
Such a pond is a necessary step in making sewage safe.
Raw sewage flows to a treatment plant where most solids
are separated from the waste water and it is treated with
chlorine to kill some bacteria.
The partially treated waste water then drains into a
percolation pond where the water is further purified by ei-
ther evaporating or "percolating" into the ground.
BUT THE COUNTY recently discovered that the
Embassy Hills pond, which serves about 8,000 households
and businesses, is in a poor location.
"The subsurface water table is so high it's almost up to
the bottom of the pond," said Charles Arbuckle. utilities
division manager. "There are better locations that could be
picked for a percolation pond."
Each time the Embassy Hills pond threatened to spill
over onto the lawns of nearby houses, workers cranked up
The county obtained permission from the DER to pump
up to 400,000 gallons of waste water a day from the pond
into a drainage ditch. The water made its way into an un-
derground storm sewer that empties into the Gulf of Mex-
The county was using a pump borrowed from developer
Brown, one of the former owners. And "we had to pump
pretty consistently to keep the pond level down," County
Attorney Knox said.
THEN BROWN'S helpfulness wore thin. "I under-
stand Brown came to the county and said, 'I need to start
charging you for the pump,' Knox said. "I believe the
figure he mentioned was $1,500 a month."
But County Administrator John Gallagher balked at
paying Brown and asked Arbuckle "to look for a less ex-
pensive pump," Knox said.
Gallagher's command filtered down to an employee at
the Embassy Hills plant. He had worked for Brown and
Minieri before the county bought the plant. And he had a
The employee asked the county why it "didn't just un-
clog the pipe which was in the percolation pond," Knox
said. When asked, "What pipe?" the employee explained -
how the former operators had used one of two underground
pipes that connect the pond to a storm sewer that empties
into the Gulf.
WHENEVER THE pond level got high, they.just
turned the valve on one of the pipes. It was like pulling the
plug on a bathtub. And it was illegal, the DER says.
County officials were stunned.
A quick investigation showed that Brown and Minieri
had gotten an engineering report on the sewer plant in 1960.
The report indicated "that the percolation pond had
serious limitations in terms of its ability to function
properly," Knox said. "This report was apparently never
revealed to the county even though negotiations for the
purchase of the system had been ongoing since the middle
Then, the county fotind another secret pipe, linking the
sewage pond in the Holiday Lakes subdivision in southwest
Pasco to nearby ITj. rmi I*,
Knox told the Pasco County Commission'about the
secret pipes and the engineer's report, and the commission
voted 4-1 to sue Minieri, Brown and the other stockholders
in the utilities company.
LAST WEEK, THE county filed a demand for a
moratorium on a $71-million, 1,574-unit Minieri subdivi-
sion. The Lakes, that was to be linked to the Embassy Hills
In that complaint, Knox said, "illegal outfall pipes
and/or illegal pumping were being utilized at the Embassy
Hills percolation pond to maintain waste water levels which
. would give the appearance that the percolation pond was
State attorney's investigators turned up another secret
drainage pipe last week, this time at the Colonial Hills plant
built by developer Boyce's company and part of a
S4.5-million utilities package
The pipe has remained open for the last three years,
since the county bought the plant, continually draining
partially treated sewage into open canals, county officials
"WHEN WE BOUGHT the plant, we hired the em-
ployees, and they operated the same way they had before
we bought it," Gallagher explained.
Knox said he would suggest to the County Commission
that it also take legal action against the Colonial Hills de-
velopers if fraud is suspected. But that issue is further
Boyce's right-hand man is Eugene Werner, who headed
the Colonial Hills utilities company. And Werner is the
husband of County Commissioner Sandr Werner.
Meanwhile, few answers are available to the legal, fi-
nancial and environmental questions that arise about the
It is clear that the inadequate sewage systems will have
to be fixed, and that the costs could run into the millions of
dollars. But exactly how much it will cost has not been de-
termined. And whether the county will have to foot the bill
or will be able to force the developers to pay is undecided
and probably will be settled only in the courts.
The developers, wary of State Attorney Russell's
attention, aren't answering phone calls from reporters.
THE MAN WHO headed utilities negotiations for
the county, former County Attorney Gerald Figuraki, quit
county government in July 1982 to join the law firm of
Martin, who represented the developers in the sales.
Both Figurski and Martin have said there is no con-
nection between their past and current relationship. But
both have recently refused to return phone calls.
State environmental officials are ata loss to explain why
their warning about illegal waste water pumping went un-
And a new county administration is trying to clean the
whole mess up and head off a wider moratorium on build-
Should builders pay the costs of growth?
By Mike Goldman
TImes-Union Sotff Writer
As part of his strategy to win ap-
proval for his 68 million develop-
ment on the old Beauclerc Country
Club golf course, Peter Bos voluntar-
ily agreed to pay about $800,000 to
cover the costs of growth.
The money will pay for the munici-
pal services trafllc signals and wa-
ter and sewer improvements re-
quired by the 477-unit development.
Although Bos voluntarily paid for
the improvements, there is a move-
ment in Tallahassee to require devel-
opers to pay such costs. The reason is
that some developers have not been
as cooperative as Bos.
"I'm not the typical developer In
this regard," Bos said In a recent in-
terview. "But it might have been
harder to get approval [without vol-
unteering to pay the feesl"
The question of impact fees -
charging developers for the pddition-
al' municipal services related to the
development will be a major issue
this year before the Florida Legisla-
"It will be one of the biggest fights
you'll ever see," said Rep. Ray Liber-
ii, D-West Palm Beach, chairman of
the House Select Committee on
Growth Management and a prime
supporter of the fees.
"The lobbying will be intense. Ev-
eryone's ox is In the ditch on this
The impact fees are being pushed
by House Speaker Lee Moffitt. D-
Tampa, who has made growth man-
agement one of his top priorities for
the 1983 legislative session.
Although the impact-fee bills have
been proposed in Florida's Legisla-
ture since 1974, they have been solidly
defeated in Tallahassee.
But when the Florida Supreme
Court struck down increased proper-
ty tax benefits last year for residents
who had lived in Florida for at least
five years, saying the residency re-
puirement was unfair to new rest-
dents, Moffitt told Liberti to look at
other ways to pay the costs of
growth. That rekindled the Impact-
Already the proposal is being
fought by healtors, builders and de-
velopers who fear that the charges
could drive up the cost of housing.
It also Is being attacked by local
government officials, including some
in Duval County.
"Ttere Is a philosophical question
which I'm not sure they (impact-fee
proponents] are aware of,' Bos said.
"Why penalize the newcomers? A lot
of these people who want the fees
were newcomers themselves several
years ago. They didn't pay the fees."
But David Gluckman, a Tallahas-
see lawyer who lobbies for environ-
mental groups, said newcomers his-
torically have been undertaxed.
"Those newcomers did not pay a
fair share of growth," Gluckman
said. "Now everyone is paying for IL
People will continue to pay until we
can make growth pay for itself."
Liberti said legislators are consid-
ering imposing fees at both the local
and slate level. After several court
decisions on the fees, the charges
would apply only to the costs of
growth. The courts also have said the
fees must be spent only for the bene-
fit of those paying the fees.
Jacksonville has no impact fees.
But the city, as a condition for grant-
ing building approval, occasionally
requires developers to pay the costs
of road, sewer or related Improve-
"Normally, you have impact fees
when there is a limited amount of
land for development," city planning
director flay Newton said. "Jackson-
ville is not in that category. We have
840 square miles of land area. We
have been planning for growth for
Newton said the charges normally
are "a give and take process" with
developers and sometimes there are
tensions. But because the city has a
strong zoning process an equitable
charge schedule can be worked out,
George Register III, a developer
and engineer who is a member and
former chairman of the Jacksonville
.Planning Board, objects to the fees.
"We have a good handle on growth
and don't have a growth problem in
Duval County," Register said. "It's
steady. But if all of a sudden we took
a rapid.jump, we would have to look
But should the Legislature decide
to create an impact fee, it should be
-a user-related tax," Register said
"A lot of times suburban sprawl
doesn't pay its own way," Register
said. "With the demand on schools
and fire and police, taxes don't cover
-the costs of government. It ought to
be levied directly on the user and not
manipulated as an unfair control of
Register said the process in Jack-
sonville works well
But Liberti said that while the sys-
tem might be working in Duval Coun-
ty, changes in elected bodies could
make the implementation of impact
S"That negotiation process is a key
factor," Liberti said "How do you do
it uniformly? You take any 10 devel-
opments and you won't see an equal
point of negotiation. You might get
less from one development and more
from another. You might get a mile
of road when you need two. And what
happens when you get a change of ad-
But the Florida Home Builders As-
sociation and the Northeast Florida
Builders Association, two groups ac-
tively lobbying against the impact
.fees. take a different view.
New development pays for itself
.and generates additional tax dollars
to pay for public services, said Kin-
.ney Harley, executive director of the
*Florida Home Builders Association.
.. But Liberti said money from prop
erty taxes generated from new devel-
"dpments to pay for public services
-are available only after a develop-
ment is completed. That means the
sewer, water and traffic improve-
ments would come after residents al-
"ieady move into an area.
'" "That (the requirement of impact
.fees] means you in Duval County
-would have the money immediately
.ready to begin the services as the
growth occurs," Liberti said.
Harley said he fears that impact
,fees would increase housing costs.
.. "Look at the alternatives they
have," Liberti said. "We need equal
Distribution of resources. What is the
alternative to providing uniform ser-
vices? If we don't have water, sewer
and roads, the next alternative is
maybe we cant build anymore. The
housing industry has to get more on
the growth-management band-
Ray Sittig. the executive director
of the Florida League of Cities, a
powerful lobbying group, expressed
mixed feelings about the impact-fee
Sittig said the Legislature should
look at impact fees as part of a total
package for regulating growth. He
said a bigger problem is that resi-
dents of unincorporated, areas in a
county receive services from a city
such as fire protection but do not pay
a fair share of the cost.
"The state needs to establish an ur-
ban policy which penalizes urban
sprawl and encourages compact
growth," Sittig said.
School officials also have support-
ed a type of impact fee. Don Magru-
der, executive director of the Florida
School Boards Association, said that
too often, land set aside for schools to
follow a major development is inade-
(Sometimes, as a condition for al-
lowing construction of a major hous-
ing development, the developers wll
be required to provide land for a
Growing numbers of school board
administrators would like money set
aside for schools to cope with growth
or to have direct taxing or condemna-
tion powers to build schools in high-
growth areas. Magruder said.
Jack Nooney, a member of the Du-
val County School Board, voiced simi-
lar sentiments. He recalled that the
School Board was forced to go to
court several years ago to get land to
build Crown Point School in the con-
gested Mandarin area.
"That was unfortunate," Nooney
said "We shouldn't be put in a posi-
tion where going to court is our only
Central Florida growth explosive
By Jack Snyder
OF 1i11 SENTINEL STAFF
When the East Central Florida
Regional Planning Council was
founded In 1963. the population
density n .the 6,00-square mile
region was 97 people per square
Now It's 222 per square mile.
By 1986. tiWe density.could be
more than 280 people per square
That tells you the area has
grown, but growth Is never uni-
formly spread about. ft tends to
The man who has monitored
Central Florida's phenomenal
growth over the past decade ex-
pects the region's coming popula-
tion burst to be strongest in the
hot areas that have led the
Cliff Gulllet, the council's ex-
ecutive director, thinks the re-
gion's strongest growth to be in
Orange County, south Brevard
County, the east Volusia-Daytona
Beach area and south Seminole
The region includes Orange,
Seminole, Osceola, Brevard, Lake
and Volusia counties.
Guillet said he also "wouldn't
count out" Osceola County which
is projected to have the greatest
percentage gain In population in
the region between L981 and
1986, 66 percent.
The council's regional growth
projections for '81 to '86 cover
three possibilities: The highest
anticipated (up 32.2 percent to
1.827 million), a middle ground or
more likely (up 23.6 percent to
1.707 million) and a bottom pro-
The six-county East Central Florida Region
is expected to grow by at least 325,500
residents between 1981 and 1986 to 1.707
million. Orange County Is expected to gar-
ner the biggest single block of that popula-
tion increase, up to 31 percent of the total.
section (up 16 percent to 1.689
The region's population in 1981
was just under 1.4 million.
Orange County Is expected to
get the single largest block of that
population expansion, up to 31
percent of the total.
And Gulllet expects much of
That growth to be concentrated
from the Interstate 4 corridor east
"The Ingredients for growth are
there," said Guillet.
These include the University of
Central Florida, Orlando Interna-
tional Airport, the University Re-
search Park and the airport trade
port, he said.
The airport in particular "is
playing a tremendous role in
stimulating growth," Gulllet said.
Also expected to greatly impact
the east and southeast county
area are the Airport Industrial
Park, a huge commerce park
planned adjacent to the airport,
the Martin Marietta electronics
plant which will eventually em-
ploy more than 7,000 people, the
proposed extension of Interna-
tional Drive to the Epcot Center
interchange and the accompany-
ing explosion of tourist and com-
mercial development and several
jumbo sized residential
The latter includes three major
developments Lake Nona,
Huckleberry and Meadowoods -
which eventually could have near-
ly 20,000 residential units be-
Lake Nona, a nearly 7,000-acre
development southeast of the air-
port is expected to be under con-
struction this spring. Huckleber-
ry, an 1,827-acre project in east
Orange County is to be under con-
struction early next year.
Meadowoods, a 3,000-acre de-
velopment in southeast Orange
County, already is under
Guillet noted that the U.S. 192.
Interstate 4-State Road 635 trian-
gle In south Orange and north Os-
ceola counties is a hotbed of tour-
ism-related development now and
is expected to get better.
Ed Williams, Orange County's
principal planner, agrees the east
and south areas are due for tre-
The east area in particular has
been dead for a long time because
of a lack of sewage treatment ca-
pacity, he said.
Now the county has a plan to
. get sewage treatment capacity to.
the area, Williams said.
Plans also are being pushed to
expand the road network and
roads are a major growth induce-
ment, he added.
Extension of Alafaya Trail
south, Lake Underhill Drive east
and the East-West Expressway
have been proposed to help han-
dle east county growth, Williams
I'he bulk of
will be restrict-
ed from spilling
much beyond a
line a mile or
so east of Ala-
faya Trail. Be-
yond that point. '
gro wth -
development to one housing unit
per two acres.
Another top growth spot is the
southwest Orange County area.
S Williami sdid 35 percent to 40
percent of the single-family build-
ing permits now being pulled in
the county are for that area.
Because the terrain is suitable
for septic tank use, the ratio has
been as high as 60 percent to 56
percent in the past, he said.
And although they're growing
tremendously, Ocoee, Winter Gar-
den and Apopka have been over-
shadowed by growth in the south
and east, Williams said.
All that growth must be man-
aged carefully If the environment
is to be protected, Guillet said.
For instance, the planning
council now Is increasingly
screening projects for impact on
air quality, he said.
That's something that didn't get
a lot of attention a few years ago,
but' the continuing growth has
made it necessary, Guillet said.