Title: Thirteenth Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida -October 27-28, 1988
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00002982/00001
 Material Information
Title: Thirteenth Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida -October 27-28, 1988
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: NWFWMD
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: NWFWMD Collections - Thirteenth Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida
General Note: Box 13, Folder 19 ( Thirteenth Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida - ), Item 1
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00002982
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
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Full Text
~T~ ~







October 27 & 28, 1988
Tallahassee, Florida



October 27 & 28, 1988

Tallahassee, Florida
Florida State Conference Center

The cost of printing this document was included in conference fees.

Sponsored By

Governing Board Members

Fred Bond, Chairman

Clifford W. Barnhart, Vice Chairman Published by NWFWMD
J. William McCartney
Kenneth F. Hoffman, Secretary-Treasurer EDITOR:
Tallahassee Lytha P. Simoneaux
Tom S. Coldewey Suzy Fay
Port St. Joe Joyce Dunaway
John M. Creel Diane Sterling
For additional copies of this
Andre'D publication, write to:
Anare iyar Public Information Office
Panama City Northwest Florida Water
Management District
Candis Harbison Route 1, Box 3100
Panama City Havana, Florida 32333

L. E. McMullian, Jr.

Lloyd E. Weeks
Laurel Hill

~ W __

Thirteenth Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida


Table of Contents

Agenda 4

Main Addresses
Luncheon Address, Understanding Florida 6
Al Burt, Columnist

Banquet Address 10
Peter Dunbar, General Counsel, Office of the Governor

Panel Discussions
The Greenhouse Effect: Water Resource Implications for Florida 14

Should Editorial Writers Save the Environment or Save Their Breath? 20

Comprehensive Planning: Where Land and Water Meet 22

Information Sessions
Water Management and Economic Development 30

Positioning Water Management as a Public Priority 34

Man-made Wetlands: As Good as the Real Thing? 38

Consumptive Use Permitting: The Tool for Allocating Water 40

Maintaining the Water Management Districts: The Care and Feeding of an Institution 41

Technological Advances in Resource Management: Modeling Kissimmee River Restoration 47

Geographic Information Systems for Water Resource Management 50

Conserving Water: Regulation or Education? 51

(Transcripts are unavailable for the Panel Discussion Stormwater Management Issues: Facing the Future)


Agenda L

Thursday, October 27, 1988
Registration L

Conference Kick-off Breakfast
An Audio-visual Presentation on Water Management L
Host: Southwest Florida Water Management District

Panel Discussion
The Greenhouse Effect: Water Resource Implications for Florida
Sponsor: Northwest Florida Water Management District

Panel Discussion L
Should Editorial Writers Save the Environment or Save Their Breath?
Sponsor: St. Johns River Water Management District

Luncheon Address
Address by: Al Burt, Columnist
Understanding Florida
Host: Suwannee River Water Management District

Concurrent Information Sessions
1. Water Management and Economic Development (NWFWMD)
2. Positioning Water Management as a Public Priority (SFWMD)
3. Man-made Wetlands: As Good as the Real Thing? (SJRWMD)
4. Consumptive Use Permitting: The Toolfor Allocating Water (SWFWMD)

Panel Discussion
Comprehensive Planning: Where Land and Water Meet
Sponsor: South Florida Water Management District

Hospitality Hour, Cash Bar

Banquet Address
Address by: Peter Dunbar, General Counsel, Office of the Governor
Host: St. Johns River Water Management District

Friday, October 30, 1988

Concurrent Information Sessions L
1. Maintaining the Water Management Districts: The Care and Feeding of an Institution (NWFWMD)
2. Technological Advances in Resource Management: Modeling Kissimmee River Restoration (SFWMD)
3. Geographic Information Systems for Water Resource Management (SWFWMD)
4. Conserving Water: Regulation or Education? (SWFWMD)

Panel Discussion
Stormwater Management Issues: Facing the Future
Sponsor: Suwannee River Water Management District

4 U

Main Addresses

Luncheon Address
Al Burt, Columnist

Banquet Address
Peter Dunbar, General Counsel,
Office of the Governor

Luncheon Address

Al Burt

"Understanding Florida"

Thank you very much. They always
have one speaker at these things that you
don'thave to pay much attention to. And
that's my role--sort of a fill-in, no ac-
count, know nothing guy. After the oysters
and the gumbo last night at the Ausley
farm and the discussions this morning,
they've made me feel very happy to be
here even though I don't exactly under-
stand why I was invited. I'd have to say
I'm as surprised andpleased to be here as
that fellow was in one of David Newell's
cracker novels. He was a fellow that was
bad to get drunk. And his wife got tired
of it, so she decided to teach him a lesson.
And one night after he came home stum-
bling in and fell asleep, she tied a blue
ribbon around his private parts. And the
next morning when he woke up he was
shocked and pleased too. He said, "I
don't know where I've been nor what
I've done, but it looks like I took first
place." That's pretty much how I feel
this morning. It's too late for you to tell
me to save my breath; and I'm sure that
nothing I say is going to save the environ-
ment, but I'll proceed anyway.
I'm always a little bit intimidated
when I come to Tallahassee. It's such a
beautiful city, such a civilized place, and
has all this government activity. For
some reason I'm reminded of a line Iread
somewhere-a writer described the place
by saying that it was chaos illumined by
flashes of lightning. Up here I always
think about the legislature. It's such an
impressive scene when you can go over
there during the session and sit in the
gallery and watch the proceedings. All
those legislators look so good jumping
up and down in those big chairs and
waving their arms. It would be even

more impressive if you couldn't hear
what they said. A visit like that explains
what H. L. Mencken meant when he
complainedonce aboutbeing submerged
in rhetorical Vaseline. I'm reminded of
what they usedto say aboutHuey Long-
that he had halitosis of the intellect. I
wouldn't go that far and neither would I
go so far as the old cracker who came
away from a visit to the legislature and
told his friends that those fellows sounded
like a bunch of mockingbirds that had
been eavesdropping in an outhouse. I
told you that you didn't have to pay any
attention to me. My favorite political
comment of all came from a California
politician who lost; and he put the results
so well-my favorite quotation-"The
people have spoken," he said, "the bas-
As you can see, I'm getting old and
cranky. Retirement does that to you.
Somebody asked me why, if I'm retired,
I keep writing and keep going around
making these talks. And the only decent
explanation I have is another line from
Mencken who said that he kept at it for
the same reason that a cow gives milk.
"All this stuff builds up and if you don't
get rid of it, it hurts."
Since this is a gathering of experts
on water, it seems prudent for me to talk
about something else. Understanding
Florida is what I had rather talk about
than anything else, and I think it might be
fundamental to every Florida problem.
My excuse for doing that is that for about
15 years my job was to travel all over the
state and write about what I saw. I tried
to explain how we in Florida are ex-
changing old customs and traditions and
natural beauty for new conveniences,
new visions and greater diversity. And
so I became interested in this business of
understanding Florida. Understanding
something that is still in the process of
defining itself. I became impressed that,

without a serious approach to this under-
standing, there can be no political will to
face Florida realities, no focused expres-
sion for the voters to guide the politi-
cians. I became convinced that upon
better mass public understanding of this
state rests the survival of certain qualities
of life that we grew up with-things that
historically have been associated with
Florida. We see so many of the distinc-
tive things of the state that are either
disappearing or diminishing. And we
begin to feel like the Florida we knew is
in jeopardy of turning into a hothouse
New Jersey.
I realize that I'm probably going to
have a hard time persuading this group
that understanding Florida is as impor-
tant or isn't important at all when com-
pared to the problems of preserving the
water supply. But I'm going to try any-
way on grounds that the thought comes
even before the swallow.
The trouble with talking about un-
derstanding Florida, of course, is that it's
hard for anybody to do. It's difficult to
grasp and hold a thorough understanding
of a state that has such a revolving,
spinning population, that has a climate
that stretches from subtropical to tem-
perate and a geography that ranges from
sea level to hilly, that starts in fine white
sand and changes in spots to thick black
muck and red clay. Who could fully
understand a people who range from
cracker to international sophisticate, whose
delicacies go from pompano and avo-
cado to mullet and grits, and whose ac-
cents vary from southern mushmouth,
like mine, to the bobtail syllables of New
York and New Jersey and to the distinc-
tive, fast-breaking Spanish ofthe Cubans
and the mysteries of Haitian creole? What
kind of real understanding can we have
of all that? We tend to know Florida, I
think, the way we know next week's
weather or maybe tomorrow's arriving








stranger. We have some idea, but not
necessarily the specifics. In this state
we're accustomed to relying on uncer-
tainties like the weather, which is our
major commodity, and those arriving
strangers, who are our best crop. We
thrive on mobility and change-the in-
gredients of impermanence. And out of
those we try to mold the sense of perma-
nence. Planning for us is an adventure.
Mass movements of people are no more
surprising than grocery shopping on Fri-
Florida lives by a series of rhythms
almost tidal in their broad patterns. The
rains, the birds, the fish, the people come
and go like the tides. One winter an
amused snowbird encountered an old
cracker down in south Florida. And he
said, "Lots of weird people down here,
aren't there?" "Yeah," the cracker re-
plied, "but there ain't near as many in
August as there is in January."
Florida seems forever poised on the
edge of some new turn of an old cycle-
some new migration that repeats history
or some impending natural phenomenon
whose threat seems fresh only because it
arrived to a new day and to new condi-
tions. If it's not flood, for example,
making nervous those new neighborhoods
with lofty pretensions but the actual alti-
tude of an Ohio basement, then perhaps
we will sit by the pool and worry about
the drought or light up our gas grills and
worry about fire in nearby fields where
once there was a marsh. Nature is com-
fortable with the ancient erratic cycle of
the wet-dry, cool-hot seasons, but Flori-
dans fret over them. Alternately we feel
smotheredunderan extraordinarily close
sun or we wilt under the long days of sop-
ping rains, and we curse the mildew. We
never seem to be allowed a constancy
that permits us to perfect either our rain
prayers or our sun worship. Life in Flor-
ida rides a pendulum from the sublime to

the dangerous and back again and again.
Life here is like going to the beach
and deciding that, despite seeing what
the tides and the winds and the sun bath-
ers have done to yesterday's sand castles,
we will build some more sand castles.
Florida is like time and sand and water-
hard to hold onto, pretty to see, easy to
enjoy, but difficult to regulate or to cap-
ture or to define. Floridians live on a
waterfront desert and their life patterns
have that kind of contrast too. You can
spend a life trying to distinguish the
truths of Florida from its tricks and still
you have to guess because it's been chang-
ing all the while. To endure you had best
stay loose and be adaptable. You had
best be flexible enough to bend but prin-
cipled enough to hold on.
The pieces of Florida are so varied
they can fit together as a functioning
whole only if you consider them part of a
mosaic or perhaps a patchwork quilt.
Neil Pearce and Jerry Hagstrom said that
Florida was a deeply disjointed society
that had no coherent sense of itself and
probably never would. Fortune maga-
zine said last year to understand why so
many people are moving to Florida, think
of it as Texas with water or California
without pretentions. As T. D. Allman
said in his book about Miami, "Florida
has unique combinations of good and
bad, of gorgeousness andugliness, prom-
ise and hope, exuberant escapism and
utter weariness with life, depravity and
chic." Allman says the Florida experi-
ence is "based on a bedrock of illusion."
There are so many different Floridas.
Consider the poetic one envisioned by
Ernie Lyons, the former editor of the
Stuart News: "My Florida," he said, "is
the winding tropical river, heavy with the
musky scent of palm blossoms, with water
turkeys sunning themselves, with stripe-
necked turtles plopping from the logs."
"Millions come to Florida," Lyons

wrote, "and never see it. They are like
motorizedpellets in aglamorizedpinball
machine hitting the flashing lights of
widely publicized, artificial attractions
before bouncing out of the state and back
There is so much of Florida to piece
together and those bits and pieces reflect
some of the state's grit and wonder. Our
wealth of bugs andislands andlightning.
The powdery, fine sands of the Pan-
handle beaches that once were trucked
north to replace sawdust on barroom
floors. The Lake Okeechobee catfish so
tasty that once they sold in New York
restaurants as filet of sole. The waterthat
historically moved down that invisible
slope of the Everglades replenishing
aquifers and nourishing extraordinary plant
and animal life. The hurricanes that can
peel the paint off your house or the roof
off your house andthe skin off yourneck.
The wildlife, like the panther, the eagle,
and the gopher tortoise, once so abun-
dant and now tending to give way to
animals that scavenge and live on the
urban fringe. All those are the things of
Florida, and in some way each year each
of those elements is altered or in some
way influenced by those peculiar rhythms
and by the population pressures.
In a fast-changing world, Florida
changes faster than almost any of those
other places. It's no wonder our politi-
cians are so crazy. They have to lead a
population while chasing after the changes
in it. A steady mix of new population
bringing new talents and new visions and
new tastes and new priorities amounts to
a perpetual transfusion of new blood
piling peculiarity upon strangeness. How
can all this apparent chaos blend into a
functioning whole into a state that has
some sense of what it is and what it
should do about it, into at least a toler-
ance if not a love for all those odd mov-
ing parts? It's not easy.


Demographers recently have begun
to tell us something about Florida that we
have suspected for years but did not
know for sure. That is, that it's the most
turbulent state in the nation, leaving even
California in a calm shade. Turbulence
is a churning process. It's determined by
the number of people moving in and out
of the state. We used to call that tran-
sience, but turbulence is the word for it
now. Using one recent year as a measure,
Florida, a state of some 12 million popu-
lation, received 858,000 new residents
and lost 519,000. California, the same
year, a state with some 27 million popu-
lation, received 900,000 new residents
and lost 550,000. So proportionally, the
best way to measure impact, Florida had
something like twice the turbulence that
California had. Think about that in human
terms. You've heard about the Califor-
nia crazies; well, Florida's competing
Think what the turbulence means in
uprooted Florida lives and the number of
friends lost and the tearing away of ties to
family as well as to place. Think of the
simple logistics involvedin moving what
now probably adds up to 1.5 million Flo-
ridians each year either in or out. I've
gone over those number many times, but
they still startle me. They represent an
extraordinary impact. In the past 10
years, for example, Florida, a state of 12
million, has accepted 7 or 8 million new
residents. If the number were 8 million,
that means it is statistically possible that
75% of Florida's population could have
arrived within the last 10 years. Those
newcomers enrich us in many ways. They
help free us from the mistakes of the past,
but we have to take care that they don't
separate us from the good things of the
past too--from the security and the bal-
ance and the strength of knowing who we
are and where we belong and from under-
standing what kind of peculiar and won-

derful place this is. We should keep
reminding ourselves that these new Flo-
ridians arrive with new standards. Many
of them come from places in the Rust
Belt whose problems in comparison make
even a wounded Florida look like para-
dise. They might not see that we have
any problems at all.
Think of our turbulence in terms of
how it affects stability, in terms of how it
affects continuity in politics, in terms of
heritage and history, or in terms of self
identity, in terms of Florida as a home.
Consider also the extraordinary impact
on Florida's natural resources. Simple
mathematics tells us that four times as
many people live in Florida now as in
1950, sharing the same amount of space,
the same geography, and the same re-
sources. Can we possibly have the same
clean air, the same clean water and as
much of it, the same elbow room on the
beaches, and the rivers and the lakes, just
as many fish in the waters andbirds inthe
air? Can we have as much soothing
greenery and as many renourishing natu-
ral vistas?
Under these kinds of pressures, eve-
rything changes. Even definitions change.
I always thought, for example, that out-
standing waters was an environmental
designation; but I heard a fellow brag-
ging about it the other day, and it turned
out he'd passed his urine test. When
proportionally there's less of Florida for
each of us, it means that what is left
requires greater care and greater under-
standing. It means that on public offi-
cials and upon voters there's a greater
responsibility for wisdom and good judge-
ment. Yet while that need is greater, the
turbulence creates a loss of knowledge.
Maybe the real estate people love the tur-
bulence, but what about the rest of us?
I've never felt that, as Floridians, we ap-
preciate as well as we should the chal-
lenge that those figures represent. I've

never felt that the state took up the chal-
lenge of educating its ever freshening
population as well as it should. The way
Florida's population grows, it's not enough
just to educate the children. There is a
need for mass education of adults to the
kind of place that Florida is. There is a
need for mass public adult education on
this matter of understanding Florida.
It seems to me that too often we in
this state suffer from something like popu-
lation hypnosis, that suddenly built into
this state's consciousness is a feeling that
the power of new population numbers
will overwhelm anything, good or bad,
that comes up. It creates a sense of
fatalism. It makes callousness conven-
ient. There is a danger that we count
those numbers so proudly, and we finger
that fresh flow of cash so gleefully that
we might not notice in the full measure
that we should that the natural qualities
of life in Florida are withering. I like the
scolding that the legendary architect Frank
Lloyd Wright gave Miami in 1955 where
he said, "Miami, you can now insert
"You have nothing in Miami that
belongs to Miami," Wright said. "Miami
has a character. It has these beautiful
coral reefs, this white sand, these palms,
this beautiful growth on so slender a soil.
You have all these marvelous resources
and you live in little boxes and you're
perfectly satisfied apparently. They'll
degrade you to the level of the pig if you
don't look out. And you should look
out," he said.
Migration doesn't account for all the
turbulence in Florida. There's more.
The one andone-halfmillionpeople who
move in or out of the state each year are
only part of the picture. You have to add
the 35-40 million tourists who visit each
year and the number of international
refugees that come in and the number of
migrant workers and the number of people


that move from one place to the other
inside the state. The number of movers,
the number of transients in Florida each
yeartriple its resident population. That's
triple. Every Florida citizen in some way
benefits from that turbulence,buthe pays
a cost too. Consider the downside of
paradise as suggested from statistics from
the "Florida Abstract". Florida ranks
fourth among the states nationally in
population, but, among the other top ten
states in one recent year, it had the high-
est crime rate, the highest death rate, the
highest suicide rate, the highest divorce
rate, and the highest rate of fatal motor
vehicle accidents. When the magazine
Psychology Today published this month
a list of the 25 most stressful cities in the
United States, Florida cities dominated
the list.
Our turbulence creates conditions
that encourage other things besides busi-
ness. The great Florida challenge is to
find a way to make a better balance
among the benefits and the costs. That
begins withunderstanding-understand-
ing the risks that come with the opportu-
nities in a state that is so full of move-
ment that we develop the sensitivities of
nomads, that we develop chainstore val-
ues that couldsubmerge our fondest indi-
vidual hopes and dreams. To understand
Florida you have to understand that a
range of influences has created a mood of
unease in the state, a mood that results
from a kind of stress that invites instabil-
ity, that encourages the kind of behavior
that we associate with the full moon. In
Florida, as a matter of fact, if you judge
only by the strange things that happen,
you might think it's always full moon.
The Florida ambience reminds me of a
line from one of Raymond Chandler's
old detective stories. "Such a place,"
Chandler wrote, "encourages meek wives
to feel the edges of their carving knives
and to study their husbands' necks."

We tendto be so overcome by turbu-
lence, so restless and so opportunistic,
that we fail to merge our sense of self and
place and ways that give residents the
feeling of belonging-of a belonging to
the place where they live. We are losing
that definition of home as a place that we
love forever, that it is more than just
another possession, that it is home, not
just an investment to be cashed in when
the price is right, but a place that will
always be part of us. Our fascination
with turbulence reminds me of what the
philosopher Rene DuBois wrote. "The
usual pattern," he said, "is that a particu-
larplace develops, to the point of absurd-
ity, certain characteristics that contrib-
uted to its initial success and power, and
then it loses critical sense in dealing with
its own creations." With its population,
Florida has practiced what Louis Mum-
ford called the tailor's remedy for obe-
sity. "The tailor meets growth by letting
out the seams of the trousers and loosen-
ing the belt; but when the seams have
been let out as far as they will go and the
belt has been loosened to the last notch,
then either the growth has to be managed
or you begin to see life in the raw."
We need to understand that Florida
always has been easier to enjoy than to
understand. When a visitor first comes
here it seems like a dream. There's a
magical quality about it--that first look.
The world seems bigger and more open
here than it was back home in the Rust
Belt. But after about five years reality
takes over and you begin to judge it by
different standards, and Florida reality
doesn't always match that first dream.
You have to work at acquiring a taste for
the Florida realities-for the long, hot
summers and the mosquitoes and the
long rainy seasons and the threats of
hurricanes and the threats of droughts.
Eventually, anyone who lives here hap-
pily has to face up to a learning process-

learning to balance the dreams with the
realities. It's like learning to savor the
varied flavors of bittersweet.
The future of Florida-how we hope
it will be-depends on that learning pro-
cess. Statistics aren't enough. Some-
body else's standards aren't enough. The
only true measure of progress is in the
quality of life. There needs to be the kind
of understanding and love of Florida that
arms us with a realistic vision. Our
customs and our laws ought to reflect
that vision. We needed to be guided by a
mythic sense of this state. The building
of a vision and the achievement of that
focused sense of this place, Florida, begins
on the foundation of a better understand-
ing. U

Banquet Address

Peter Dunbar
The feeling as we look to 1989 is we
need to build on the SWIM program
itself as the model. SWIM is basically
watershedplanning and Ithink that that's
the way the Governor feels that stormwa-
ter needs to be handled.
Solid waste, led by the fine efforts
from the Department [of Environmental
Regulation?], the Govemor's Office and
the legislative leadership, have brought
us strong new recycling initiatives and
some things I think are going to be much
needed and very successful. Also, we
have high hopes for the Clean Outdoor
Air Act which will bring into compliance
the major urban areas of Florida not now
meeting those goals.
1989 is the year for stormwater and
the initiatives that need to be done there.
It is a major water quality program through-
out Florida. This may be a little bit like
preaching to the choir since I would
imagine each of you, either because of
your direct role with the District or your
relationship with the District, are acutely
familiar with that. I might stop just a
minute and mention that SWIM, when it
passed in 1986, took a lot of those bal-
ancing acts. It was not an easy issue to
tackle; there are lots of competing inter-
ests, property rights and other things in-
If you take an overview of the storm-
water problem, you'll see the similarities
as we try to approach it. The Department
of Environmental Regulation will de-
velop the specifics of the Governor's
proposal. I think from the Governor's
perspective and most others', Secretary
Twachtmann is one of the best Secretary
appointments that the Governor has made,
and I don't mean that to slight the other
appointees, except that he deals with
some of the toughest and most complex
of Florida's problems.

As Assistant Secretary, John Shearer
brings to the fieldthe technical expertise,
the quality, the perception, and probably
the sales ability to make it all come
together and work well. We're talking
about a results-oriented approach that we
hope will bring the first steps of very
long-term success.
Let me give you some of the specif-
ics just to be thinking about. The idea is
that the implementation of the stormwa-
ter program will be through the water
management districts. There willbe a lot
of local governmental involvement. We
think that the districts are well equipped
to make it a workable, achievable goal.
And stormwater plans should be based
on proper watershed planning.
The problem is probably not well
understood by the public as a whole. The
majority of the pollution loads to all of
our water bodies comes from stormwater
runoff. It accounts for virtually all of the
sediment that arrives in our surface water
bodies and 95 percent of heavy metals.
And it impacts us in a variety of other
ways, from an economic standpoint, flood-
ing, the property damage that results, the
increased costs in trying to deal with the
treatment of our drinking water, the col-
lateral impacts that affect our tourist
industry, the ability to use the natural
resources that we have below the mean
high water line, in the marine environ-
ment and also within fresh waters.
The problem can be best focused
when you look at where we find our-
selves in Lake Okeechobee and surround-
ing areas. The SFWMD and the Depart-
ment now face an innovative and rather
unique challenge from the U.S. attorney
in the southern district. The lawsuit is at
the least unfortunate. It tries to tackle a
problem that probably all of us recog-
nize. It tells me two things: the issue is
real and it's something that the people of
Florida and people in pressure groups in

Florida want dealt with and dealt with
now. They want it dealt with effectively.
It also tells me that the way it was se-
lected in this particular case was proba-
bly unfortunate and misdirected. What
we're looking at is maybe as long as six
years to deal with the lake, its cleanup,
and all of the things that I've discussed
earlier. It will cost virtually millions of
Let me give you some final key
thoughts on what I think will need to be
a mandatory part of the legislative initia-
tive when it reaches its final focus in the
spring. It must embrace integrated land
planning and watershed management. It
needs to build on the SWIM program for
institutional structure and we need to
make that better. It needs to focus on the
implementation of past stormwater ef-
forts that have been abandoned as unreal-
istic because goals weren't clear or prac-
tically defined. Some of the comer-
stones will include the state role of devel-
opment of broad policy. The water
management districts willbe responsible
for for the overall watershed planning. It
is important that it is compatible with
SWIM, and, as Ipreviously mentioned,it
is important that it is compatible with the
local government comprehensive plan-
ning acts that are now being implemented.
Finally, we need to have a perma-
nent funding source. We have had to
pick and choose from sources of revenue
to begin the implementation of SWIM,
and we need to do better at the state and
local government levels.
What I'm expressing to you on the
Governor's behalf is the strong confi-
dence he has in the system of water
management that we have here in Flor-
ida. I think Florida is acknowledged by
most, if not all, to have one of the strong-
est water management systems in the
country. And as you face the review that
will certainly come, and probably should,

Peter Dunbar

it's appropriate that we beat back the
efforts of those who would attempt to
erode, or substantially modify, a system
that has served us well and a system that
will serve us better as we look to the year
2000. The Governor is very supportive
of these goals. One of the things we will
get to do next year on the fourth floor
[i.e., the legislature] is try to bring them
to reality on the administration's behalf.
I look forward to having your help. E





Panel Discussions

The Greenhouse Effect:
Water Resource Implications for Florida

Should Editorial Writers Save the Environment
or Save Their Breath?

Comprehensive Planning:
Where Land and Water Meet


Panel Discussion

The Greenhouse Effect:

Water Resource Implications for Florida

Sponsored by Northwest Florida Water Management District

Bernard Sliger, President,
Florida State University

Dr. William Kellogg,
Senior Scientist (retired),
National Center for Atmospheric

James Titus, Manager,
Sea Level Rise Project,
Environmental Protection

Dr. Kenneth D. Frederick,
Senior Fellow, Resources for
the Future

Bernard Sliger
I'm Bemie Sliger, president of Flor-
ida State University, and on behalf of the
university, we welcome this substantial
The time has come when at least a
segment of our society is willing to give
serious attention to issues such as the
greenhouse effect. Until now, this topic
has been like an advertisement in an old
London Times. The ad read, "Found:
one cat, black with white feet, answers to
the name of Go Away." Increasingly, we
are learning that the greenhouse effect
will not go away.
We are fortunate to have a panel of
distinguished scientists with us. Speak-
ing first is Dr. William Kellogg, Senior
Scientist (retired), of the National Center
for Atmospheric Research. Next will be

James G. Titus, Manager ofthe SeaLevel
Rise Project for the Environmental Pro-
tection Agency. Dr. Kenneth D. Freder-
ick, SeniorFellow with Resources for the
Future will speak last.

Dr. William Kellogg
The greenhouse effect has been in
the headlines and on TV quite abit lately,
particularly with the droughts in the
Midwest and the floods in Bangladesh.
People ask whetherthese are things we're
going to see more of in the future as the
greenhouse effect begins to take over the
The main thing we do to the climate
is to bum fossil fuels, which we do at an
enormous rate. This is a slide of a Ten-
nessee Valley Authority powerplant which
produces carbon dioxide and water va-
por. This slide shows the amount of
carbon added to the atmosphere each
year as a result of burning fossil fuels.
Up to 1973, when OPEC put its embargo
into effect, this amount was going up
four percent per year. That's a doubling
time of worldwide fossil fuel use of about
15 years. After the embargo and the
recession, it rose more slowly, but it's
still at two percent per year. If you make
measurements of carbon dioxide any-
where, from Point Barrow to the South
Pole, you get the same picture ofincreas-
ing carbon dioxide.
Why are we concerned about carbon
dioxide? This is where that well known
expression, "the greenhouse effect," comes
in. What happens in the atmosphere is
that sunlight comes through, largely

unattenuated, and warms the earth's sur-
face. The atmosphere absorbs infrared
radiation and warms the lower atmos-
phere. This is the greenhouse effect.
The effect is a warming. Thank
heavens we have it. If we didn't have an
atmosphere with water vapor, carbon
dioxide, methane and infrared absorbing
gases, we would have an uninhabitable
earth. What we're doing now is increas-
ing that warming effect.
Our climate models show that, with
the increase of carbon dioxide, we've al-
ready had the better part of a degree
Celsius increase in temperature in the
last 100 years. This slide shows a litho-
graph of the little town of Argentier in
the French Alps in 1960; you'll notice
the little church and the village, and,
right behind it, a big glacier coming
down almost to the edge of town.
This slide shows Argentier in 1960.
There has been a warming and the glacier
has retreated. Today, glaciers are re-
treating all over the world in both the
Northern andSouthernhemispheres. We
have had about a .7 or .8 degrees Celsius
warming in that same 100 year period,
pretty much as the climate model sug-
What about the future? There are
two scenarios. One assumes we are going
to increase our use of fossil fuels at two
percent per year. I think this is over-
stated. The industrialized part of the
world is actually cutting back its use of
fossil fuels because energy is being used
more efficiently. The question is whether
two percent per year is too much for the


The Greenhouse Effect

future. I think it is. The second scenario
says that maybe we can cut down pur-
posely on the use of fossil fuels and come
back to where we are now in 50 years. I
think that's low. Somewhere between
these two is probably what's going to
If we combine the ideas in these two
scenarios of future carbon dioxide levels
with what climate models tell us about
temperature rise, we get the global aver-
age. A good guess is that, by the year
2050, it will be something like 1.5 to 3.5
degrees wanner than it is now. By that
time, we will have roughly doubled lev-
els of carbon dioxide from preindustrial
Changes of temperature in the Arc-
tic or at high latitudes in the United
States are going to be much more than
average. This is pertinent to Florida.
Florida can look at its temperature change
as close to average. Florida is in between
the tropics, which will have relatively
little change, and the Arctic, which will
have a lot.
Rainfall, however, is really more
important than temperature. In order to
get at that, a Chinese visitor took five of
our state-of-the-art climate models and
laid down maps generated by these models
in terms of what will happen when we
double the ratio of carbon dioxide to soil
moisture. When you see a 5 on this slide,
it means that all.five models agreed that
it would become drier.
Most of the concern has been over
what happens in the summertime, and
this slide shows the summer result. All
five models agreed that there would be
drying out in the summer in the Plains
area and in Mexico, but, interestingly
enough, for the Gulf Coast, four of the
five models agreed that it would be wet-
ter along the Gulf Coast. So this picture
of drier climates is generally more com-
plicated than has been publicized. Here

along the Gulf Coast, we want to realize
that we ought to have some way of check-
ing on our climate models.
One way of checking is to ask, "What
happens during warmer years?" We took
the 10 wannest years during the last 50 or
60 years and looked at rainfall deviation.
During these 10 wannest years, it was
drier in the Midwest. Hot summers go
along with dry summers. If we look
briefly at fall, we get a similar picture for
this area-generally drier, but for Flor-
ida's Gulf Coast, wetter. I've had a
chance to look at what happened during
a warm period about five to eight thou-
sand years ago. We get the same picture:
drier in the middle of the country, but not
drier along the Gulf Coast. This should
cheer people in Florida.
I'm convinced that we are going into
a wanner period. Those terrible storms
in Bangladesh are typical of what our cli-
mate models say might happen as we go
into a wanner period. There's a big
argument about whether what we're seeing
in the summer of 1988 is due to the
greenhouse effect. Many people say that
there are too many other variables, such
as El Nino or changes in ocean tempera-
tures. How can you be sure it is the
greenhouse effect? You can't be sure, of
course, but it is largely the greenhouse
Jim Titus is going to talk about sea
level rise. I will simply introduce the
subject. There were some scary head-
lines a few years ago about what happens
when the western part of the Antarctic
ice sheet whips into the ocean. The
Antarctic ice sheet is enormous, incred-
ible. At the South Pole, Ibought a T-shirt
which said, "Ski the South Pole: 10,000
feet of base, three feet ofpowder!" That's
about right for the South Pole, for most of
the Antarctic ice sheet is perfectly
enormous. If it all melted, we'd have a
huge sea level rise. This now has been

looked at by responsible glaciologists
who predict that the surge of the west
Antarctice ice sheet won't happen in the
next several centuries, so don'tholdyour
breath. However, there are other reasons
to think that we would have a modest rise
in sea level from one-half to more than a
meter due to expansion of the oceans.
What are we going to do about this?
I will end by pointing out something that
comes to mind, which is, could we do
anything about this? Supposing that you
could completely cut out the use of fossil
fuels? Does anybody in this room think
that the world is going to agree to stop
using fossil fuels right away? I don't.
But maybe we can do something of pur-
poseful mitigation. Let's face the fact
that we're going to have a climate change,
and let's see what we can do about it.
That's the important thing.

James Titus
Twenty-thousand years ago during
the last Ice Age, sea level was about 300
feet lower than it is today, and most of
North America was coveredby ice sheets
about a mile thick. As the world warmed
four or five degrees Celsius, which is
what we're expecting in the next century,
glaciers retreated and Florida shrank. I
think, as the earth warms another four or
five degrees, Florida will shrink a little
more, and the pleasant winter tempera-
tures that now characterize south Florida
will come to characterize the entire state.
A rise in sea level will inundate low-
lying areas, flood wetlands, exacerbate
coastal flooding and enable salt water to
penetrate inland Florida's upstream wet-
lands. Warmer temperatures will en-
courage mangroves and fish to move
north, and will probably discourage people
from moving quite as far south.
I'm going to talk first about the sea
level rising. The first impact will be in-
undation of low-lying areas. Florida and

The Greenhouse Effect

Louisiana stand to lose more land than
the rest of the nation combined. We're
talking about an area about the size of
Connecticut that would be lost in Florida
alone. But this state is not as vulnerable
as Louisiana. If you want to get a rough
idea of what could happen in south Flor-
ida, look at Louisiana. In Louisiana, the
land is already sinking at one centimeter
every year. Some people say that it's not
really fairto say that this could happen in
Florida, but in Louisiana's case, there are
also navigation canals, levees and diver-
sion of water. Of course, we don't have
that in Florida, do we?
As sea level rises, two things can
happen. One, wetlands will just migrate
up the slope and the fish will have to
double up because they'll have nowhere
to go. Two, the natural shoreline could
be replaced by bulkheads. We need to
make sure that we don't have a situation
where all the wetlands are squeezed be-
tween the rising sea and development
that wants to stay where it is.
There are many long-term planning
mechanisms that can be implemented.
The state of Maine has already issued
regulations which stipulate that, as the
sea level rises, houses must be remov-
able. If you want a house on the shore-
line, you build under the assumption
that, if the sea rises, you have to move out
of there. And if you want to go condo in
Maine, you have to provide a demolition
plan which shows how you're going to
get rid of the buildings. Other states are
passing long-term zoning and anti-bulk-
head restrictions. This doesn't mean that
people can't develop today, but if they
do, they have to do it with the understanding
that in 75 to 100 years the development
will have to be vacated.
The administration of this is diffi-
cult, but we have to do difficult things if
we want to solve this problem. The
message is clear. We don't lose our

wetlands because the sea rises. We lose
our wetlands because we saw this thing
coming and we didn't do anything about
Florida has a large trust fund to save
the beach, but nobody has thought about
whether the state really intends to spend
the money necessary to counteract sea
level rise. Sea level rise will get increas-
ingly expensive.
Flooding will be another problem.
Flooding will worsen in coastal areas for
a number of reasons. First, storms will
have a higher base to build upon. Areas
that now get flooded with one foot of
water will, if sea level is three feet higher,
get floodedwith four feet of water. Some
current escape routes are already low and
might well be lower than sea level.
Moreover, even rainwater flooding could
be worse. After heavy rains in parts of
Florida, standing water lingers for days.
Florida is very flat. The rate at which
water drains depends on how far it has to
fall. If the ocean rises, the water doesn't
have as far to fall and will drain more
A particular concern is that hurri-
canes might become more frequent with
warmer temperatures. Hurricanes re-
quire high temperatures to form. Through
longer warm seasons, oceans will have
that higher temperature farther north.
Overall, flooding problems will get worse.
We are studying Charleston, South
Carolina, and urban drainage in general.
In Charleston, we found that there is no
real street drainage in the existing drain-
age pipes. If the sea rises even a foot,
drainage ability will be inactive 40 years
from now. Spending two to three percent
more money to install slightly large pipes
while the streets are already dug up would
solve this problem. It's like insurance.
Do you want to spend an extra two or
three percent today to ensure that some
of these longterm projects continue to

work? It's something to think about.
To get back to the flooding issue,
you can divide responses into building
walls or raising land surface. I think
raising land surface is what is going to
happen on barrier islands-you dump
the sand and raise the surface. In other

areas, it may be more effective to adapt
to eroding shorelines.
It's interesting to note that in Miami,
you've got a particularly unusual situ-
ation. Most urban areas could be pro-
tectedby levees. New Orleans is already
below sea level and is protected by lev-
ees. It's trickier in Miami because the
ground is so permeable. It's question-
able whether or not a levee would keep
water out without excessive pumping.
Miami might have to gradually raise its
streets and landsurfaces. Ifwe recognize
that sealevel is going to rise, there should
be a tendency to build roads higher. When
an area is developed, lots should be high
enough to withstand the rise.
Besides sea level rise, there will be
otherimpacts. Mangroves will gradually
come further north. Will that help wet-
lands keep pace? No one knows whether
mangroves will do a better job than
marshes, but certainly the ecology is
going to change.
Finally, fish. Skip Livingston of
Florida State University recently studied
the implications of warmer temperatures
and global waning in general for the
Apalachicola Estuary. What he found
was pretty interesting. Shrimp, crab,
oyster larvae and flounder larvae would
find it too hot to survive during a couple
of months virtually every year. Either
they are going to experience mortality or
they are going to have to flee these estu-
aries to cooler Gulf waters. If they flee,
they'll be vulnerable to predators. If the
climate becomes drier, increasing salin-
ity would create problems and loss of
wetlands would also impose stresses.

The Greenhouse Effect

But don't get the idea that every-
thing's going to be dead. It's just that the
ecology is going to shift to that which is
more common in the equatorial zones.
Things are going to be very different. A
recent University of Florida crop model-
ing study showed that many current north
Florida crops will experience tempera-
ture stresses. On the other hand, citrus
will be able to gradually move back up
What can we as individuals do about
this problem? It seems to me that, even
in terms of preventing or mitigating even-
tual global warming, the most construc-
tive thing that people can do is figure out
how to prepare for it. But let's face it.
This is a long-term issue and we are not
very good at addressing long-term is-
sues. History does not offer many ex-
amples of one generation taking action
solely to avert a crisis that wasn't going
to happen for decades or centuries. Does
this mean that we can't plan, or does it
simply mean that crises averted are not
part of history?
As we celebrate the bicentennial of
the U. S. Constitution, it's worth remem-
bering that this nation owes its political
stability to the foresight of our forefa-
thers. It's true that the Constitutional
Convention was called because of short-
term problems. We're all motivated by
short-term problems. Nevertheless,
Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton
and James Madison spent a great part of
the summer of 1787 debating and refin-
ing the ability of this proposed federal
system to govern generations. It would
have been easier to modify the Articles
of Confederation. It's always easier to
implement stopgap measures. But these
people saw that, in the long run, liberty
and opportunity would be best served if
the states merged to form a nation. I'm
not saying that global warming does not
require a change in our values. People

here care about the type of Florida we
leave to future generations. We may
have to change our institutions to reflect
our values. We tend to stress the short-
term very heavily. Economists have a
procedure called discounting, with which
they can convince anybody that some-
thing occurring 30 years hence is not very
important, andif it'sl00 years hence, it's
completely irrelevant.
Does that really reflect our values?
Our institutions were created before people
knew that the earth was going to get
warmer or the sea would rise. Although
these institutions have tools to address
the kind of problems recognized at the
time of their creation, in many cases they
don't have the tools to address global
warming or sea level rise. Certainly
many of us bureaucrats are going to have
our hands tied until legislators make
changes. But, on the other hand, there's
an awful lot we can do today with exist-
ing institutions.

Dr. Kenneth Frederick
There is sort of a general consensus
among global climate modelers that there
will be a greenhouse warming. Gener-
ally, these modelers look at the implica-
tions of a doubling of greenhouse gases.
Greenhouse gases include carbon diox-
ide, methane, the chlorofluorocarbons
and several others. Associated with that,
we are expecting there will be a global
temperature rise somewhere between 1/2
and5 1/2 degrees Celsius. As Dr. Kellog
pointed out, the higher increases are going
to be in the higher latitudes closer to the
poles with relatively smaller changes near
the Equator.
What does this mean for precipita-
Stion? We can expect an increase in
average global precipitation of perhaps
seven to 15 percent. Again, the higher
average increases towards the poles.
These global averages unfortunately

tell virtually nothing about what is going
to happen in various regions or locations.
Global climate models have coarse spa-
tial resolution and relatively simplistic
hydrologic parameters. The range of likely
changes in precipitation for any given
region is plus or minus 20 percent. This
is a pretty big range for water planners to
try to deal with.
Keep in mind that you are going to
have changes in temporal patterns of wet
and dry periods; there are going to be
changes in the variability and intensity of
precipitation. The rate of evaporation
and transpiration will change in various
areas. The relative form of precipitation,
whether it comes in rainfall or snow, will
change. If you take an area where most
of the precipitation comes as snowfall in
the winter months, and most of the runoff
comes from snowmelt in the spring or
early summer, you are going to have very
major changes. Just the two-degree
temperature change, with no change in
average precipitation in those areas, could
result in an increase of winter runoff on
the order of something of like 20 percent
and a decrease in summer runoff when
there is greatest demand for water. There
are areas of the country the implications
for water availability are much more
serious than here in Florida.
However, it's not so much as pre-
cipitation that water planners are con-
cerned about as runoff. It's runoff that
really supplies the streams that recharge
the ground water tables. Runoff is a
direct result of changes in evapotranspi-
ration, which is very strongly influenced
by temperature as well as precipitation.
With relatively small changes in tem-
perature and precipitation, you can have
rather large changes in runoff. For ex-
ample, a two-degree Centigrade rise in
temperature, with no change in the aver-
age precipitation in Florida, could result
in a reduction of runoff on the order of

The Greenhouse Effect

something like 10 to 15 percent. In the
arid or semi-arid areas of the country, the
percentage changes would likely be much
Let's take a look at Florida. Florida
is a water-rich state. Average rainfall in
the state is much higher than it is in the
nation as a whole. There are abundant
ground waterresources in the state. Nev-
ertheless, there seems to be evidence that
water is indeed a scarce resource in the
state of Florida. And there are major
problems you have to confront even in
the absence of any climate change. Rapid
growth and demand for water is putting
pressure on supply systems. There are
certainly growing threats to water qual-
ity. Near areas of major ground water
development, lake levels have declined.
Because of the potential for salt water in-
trusion, restrictions on pumping in coastal
areas have been put into place. The
coastal reaches of some of streams expe-
rience upstream saltwater intrusion dur-
ing low flow and high tide periods. These
problems confront Florida even in the
absence of any greenhouse warming.
The greenhouse warming is going to
add to your problems. One of the main
things it is going to add is a tremendous
amount of uncertainty. It is not clear
whether it will increase or decrease your
supplies. It is not clear if your major
concern is going to be flooding in the
coastal areas. There are certainly going
to be flooding problems associated with
sea level rise.
There is no doubt there will be an in-
crease in evapotranspiration. Already a
very large percentage of precipitation in
the state is quickly lost to evapotranspi-
ration, and this percentage will certainly
rise. If you do not have an increase in
rain precipitation, then you will certainly
have a reduction in runoff.
On the demand side, water use tends
to rise as temperature increases. Lower

and less predictable rainfall also tends to
result in increase in average water use.
There is one bright side to this, andthat is
that higher levels of carbon dioxide tend
to increase the efficiency of plants to
photosynthesize. At least according to
control experiments, this will increase
water-use efficiency of plants. Crops
grow more efficiently as a result of the
carbondioxide-richenvironment. That's
the bright side.
Well, what are the alternatives for
adapting to these changes? I group these
into four different categories.
The first one is infrastructure. The
traditional response of water planners
has been to build new infrastructures.
Traditionally, facilities have been de-
signed and are operated on the assump-
tion the future is going to look like very
much like the past. That may not be a
very good assumption. It is not at all
clear you should be building more water
supply facilities, since the cost of devel-
oping new water supplies tends to rise
over time. In most of the country, these
water supply costs are rising rapidly. My
own feeling is that you should be putting
your emphasis on the other three alterna-
One of these is "improved manage-
ment of existing facilities." The best
example of this is in the Washington,
D.C., metropolitan area. In the mid-
1970's, the Army Corps of Engineers
was predicting that by 1980 there would
be major shortages and that, by the year
2000, shortages during a drought year
could run about 50 percent of the total
water demand. The Corps had proposed
the construction of approximately 16 major
dams and reservoirs that were going to
cost billions of dollars. By coordinating
the management of three separately
operated supply systems, they were able
to gain a 33 percent increase in the effec-
tive yield with very little new construc-

tion. This is one area that needs to be
An economist always likes to talk
about demand site management and the
use of markets and prices. Given Flor-
ida's current water law, I suspect that
water markets are really precluded, be-
cause you have a riparian rights system.
Water is associated with the land owner-
ship. In the western United States, where
water is very scarce, water marketing is
increasing rapidly. Marketing is a way to
allocate scarce resources according to
their highest value uses. Unfortunately,
water tends to be an exception to that.
Permitting will increase the flexibility of
various regions in Florida to respond to
changing conditions, whether the changes
come from growth, from use of changing
values, or from the supply side, when re-
ductions water amount occur.
Most utilities generally use average
cost pricing. Economists always like to
advocate marginal cost pricing when you
have an increasing cost industry. In most
of the country, you have a sharp increase
in cost of water. The use of average cost
pricing results in justifying water proj-
ects for which water cost will exceed the
additional value that the consumers put
on it. Marginal cost pricing is one way to
give greater incentive to people to con-
Generally, when you have major
changes in water supply, restrictions bring
supply and demand into line. Restric-
tions will continue to be important in
handling extreme events. Perhaps one of
the most important areas to think about in
terms of restrictions are those which will
protect water supplies from increased
threats of contamination from waste dis-
posal sites, agriculture and pesticides.
The fourth area has to do with tech-
nological change. The adoption of tech-
nological change by individuals depends
on incentives. You should look at irriga-

The Greenhouse Effect

tion. I took a look at the most recent
water figures for Florida and was sur-
prised that 46 percent of the water with-
drawals and almost 75 percent of the
consumptive use of water is for irriga-
tion. If irrigators have the incentive to
use water more efficiently, there are
benefits in terms of both water manage-
ment and development of new crop va-
Even in the absence of climate change,
water is a scarce resource. Water prob-
lems are very common. The prospect of
a waning strengthens the case for in-
creased efforts toward conservation,
improved management, and protection
of existing supplies from contamination
and depletion.
Let us address what can be done to
stop the warming. We are already com-
mitted to some warming based on what
we have already put in the atmosphere.
We need to recognize that it is a global
problem. These gases get dispersed rather
quickly in the atmosphere. The situation
is such that no single country can really
have more than a marginal effect. Even
a country like the United States, which
accounts for a significant amount of the
total fossil fuels used, would have rela-
tively little effect if we were the only
country to act.
Some people have pointed to the
recent international agreement on the
chlorofluorocarbons as reason forhope,
but curbing the use of fossil fuels is going
to be difficult. The costs involved in
greatly limiting the consumption of fos-
sil fuels are going to be very high. I think
it's going to force us to rethink the nu-
clear option.
Another one thing that has been dis-
cussed is reforestation. Some estimates
suggest that reforesting 465 million hec-
tares would be sufficient to offset the
buildup of carbon dioxide. A recent
article in Science magazine suggests that

we would have to reforest an area the size
of Australia to have that impact. The
cost involved would be very, very high.
It is also important to keep in mind that
this is only going to postpone the prob-
lem. While these trees are growing, you
are collecting some of the carbon dioxide
and storing it in the trees, but eventually
the trees decay. As soon as these forests
reach a point of no net growth, then you
are right back to where you were before.
You only postpone with this method.
There has been talk about efforts to re-
duce tropical deforestation. Brazil pro-
vides major subsidies for people to go in
and bur the forests in these tropical
areas, which results in major destruction.
It is hoped that Brazil is starting to come
around and at least reducing the subsi-
dies for this.

Dr. Bernie Sliger
Some of you may have seen this
morning's local newspaper in which an
op-ed article says, "Greenhouse Earth is
a Huge Problem." I believe we have dis-
covered that even if we didn't know it
before. Thank all of you for your atten-
tion and participation. U

Panel Discussion

Should Editorial Writers Save the Environment

or Save Their Breath?

Sponsored by Suwanne River Water Management District

Ed Albanesi,
Director of Public Information,

Jon East,
Editorial Writer,
St. Petersburg Times

Bill Mansfield,
Editorial Page Editor,
Tallahassee Democrat

Jim Napoli,
Editorial Writer,
Orlando Sentinel

Dave Newport,
Florida Environments

Frank Sargeant,
Outdoors Editor,
Tampa Tribune

Ed Albanesi
We have a very distinguished group
of journalists serving on this morning's
panel. Lucky for me, they accepted the
invitation to be here before I told them
what the title to the panel would be:
"Should Editorial Writers Save the Envi-
ronment or Save Their Breath?" I must
confess the title was created as an interest
grabber and my hope is that these folks
will in the next hour or so have us all
convinced that they should redouble their
efforts to speak out on environmental

issues. I, for one, am pleased that Flor-
ida's environment seems to have estab-
lished a constituency on the editorial
boards of most of our newspapers.

Bill Mansfield
We're the last of the generalists,
learning less and less about more and
more every day. There are plenty of
people who will speak for the developers
and those that want to harm the environ-
ment and lobby for them. It seems to me
that newspapers have the job to be re-
sponsible supporters of the environment.
Do we do it well? Not as well as we
could. I think we tend to react too much
I after something has happened. We are
not positive enough. A definition of edi-
torial writers is: "People who, after the
battle, come down from the hills and
shoot the wounded." We do too much of
that in the environmental field.
I think a Miami Herald columnist
summed it up one time when he said that
"writing editorials is like writing on
restroom walls, except that people read
the restroom walls."
Should editorials be signed? I don't
think so. Editorials are a collective opin-
ion. Signing would only show you who
crafted it, not his specific idea, although
I think it is a good idea to let the readers
know there are humans behind those
editorials and that editorials are group

Frank Sargeant
I agree that newspapers can and should
be involved perhaps even more than they

are presently in bringing environmental
issues to the public. What other group is
going to pay for all that publicity to
bring the message or the information
that you people are discovering in your
work day by day to the public? Not only
do we bring it there, but we repeat it,
and I have certainly found in my work
that it has to be repeated over and over
and over again before it starts to sink in.
Our newspaper and others do have
a certain stance or bias on many issues,
and I don't think there's any question
but that filters down to the newspaper
side even though it may never be objec-
tively stated. At the Tribune, we have
two people who write most of our envi-
ronmental editorials. The public in
general doesn't know that, and I think it
might be good if they did, so that they
would be aware that there are people
behind those opinions.

Jon East
I think that one thing we need to re-
member is that the environmental move-
ment is a relatively new movement.
Thus, newspapers, like regulatory agen-
cies and real estate developers, are
adapting to it and evolving with it. I
don't think that coverage, by and large,
of environmental issues in Florida is
very good at this point. We are getting
betterbecause people want to read about
it, people want to understand it. I think
there is something to be said for being a
journalist, and it is important that we
have expertise in biology, hydrology
and the scientific fields, but it is also im-

Should Editorial Writers...

portant to know the politics of an issue
andto see the wide range of things we see
every day. Editorial boards do collec-
tively establish opinions for newspapers,
so there is collective thought from people
with a great deal of experience in Flor-
We are seeing the roles of water
management districts expanding in Flor-
ida. I think it's very important that we
convey that to readers and help them
understand that the districts' role is many-

Jim Napoli
What it comes down to is the issue of
technocracy versus democracy. We know
that the technocrats can't run the world
They disagree on lots of things, from
AIDS to the space program-and they
disagree on the environment.
Our expertise and our responsibility
come from speaking for a newspaper.
We are only one voice, though, and people
can listen to us and not listen to us. Our
responsibility is to comment as intelli-
gently as we can-to raise our level of
expertise, in a sense. I think the commu-
nications term for it is "equivalent en-
lightenment." We can't all share the
same body of knowledge, but we can
reach a common vocabulary and a com-
mon understanding of the implications
of the technical material that you are
dealing with.
We have an editorial board of twelve
or thirteen people, and positions range
from "dirty commie rat" to hard right on
that board. We reach a consensus. The
editorials do represent that consensus. In
this case, it seems absurd to me to sign
them. Well, some editorials I wouldn't
Instead of complaining about the
"ignoramuses" on newspapers, come out
and talk to us when there is an issue of ex-
traordinary complexity. I must say that

the St. Johns Water Management District
has brought us in on several issues like
Lake Apopka and the Wekiva River,
which often do revolve around very tech-
nical issues.

Dave Newport
It would be ludicrous for me, an
editor of an environmental publication,
to say that editorial writers shouldn't be
advocates forenvironmentalissues. Cer-
tainly we should. There is one very
important reason, and that is simply that,
with the increased amount of news cov-
erage of environmental issues, the public
would have the situation out of perspec-
tive without some ability to integrate and
otherwise use the information to see what
the bigger questions are.
I don't think there could ever be a
great newspaper without a great editorial
page. There is no way a newspaper can
claim to give effective environmental
coverage without environmental edito-
rial writing.
At Florida Environments, our edito-
rials both react to and foreshadow envi-
ronmental issues that we cover on anews
The public information offices are
very good at reducing complex issues to
their net outcome and the details of the
activities that went into that decision-
making process. On thing that might be
useful, though, is that public input could
be brought forward more, especially with
respect to water management districts
where so many times we've seen the pub-
lic come forward and affect the decision-
making process at a board meeting. M

Panel Discussion

Comprehensive Planning:

Where Land and Water Meet

Sponsored by South Florida Water Management District

Bruce Adams, Assistant
Director, Land and Water Use
Division, SFWMD
Larry Pearson, Director, Land
and Water Use Planning
Division, SFWMD
Nancy Roen, Chairman,
Governing Board, SFWMD

Stanley Hole, P.E., Hole,
Montes & Associates

Phillip Parsons, Landers &

Anthony Clemente, Assistant
County Manager, Dade County

Philip Parsons
We have atwo-part presentation this
afternoon. The first part is a presentation
on a planning review for two counties,
which the South Florida Water manage-
ment District has just finished. Subse-
quent to that, we will have a panel discus-
sion on the objectives of bringing to-
gether land planning and water planning.
We'll focus today on stormwater man-
agement, water supply training and envi-
ronmentally sensitive lands: South Flor-
ida, in the Miami metropolitan area on
the Atlantic to the East, Collier County to
the Gulf of Mexico on the West, and in
the center, the river of grass, the Ever-
We'll start the presentation with Dade

County, a major metropolitan area. The
present population of Dade County is ap-
proximately 1.8 million. By the year
2000, we expect it to go over 2 million,
which will mean an additional water
demand at 55 million gallons of water
per day. The major land use challenge in
the Dade County area takes place in a
transition zone, between the urbanized
area to the east and the Everglades and
the water conservation areas to the west.
This is the urbanized area, and it's al-
ready been largely developed. The tran-
sition zone is in the center, and has land
use conflicts. There's great development
pressure out there, major well fields,
wetlands, some existing urbanization and
some agriculture. In order to develop in
that area, Dade County has established
some fairly severe management tech-
niques. Flood-proofing of roads andhouses
is required. They have stripped fill en-
croachment criteria so land owners can-
not pass flooding problems downstream.
In addition to that, they have strict wet-
land permitting and before they go out
and open up areas in that zone they
require basin management studies.
Another major issue that we looked
at in Dade County which has some plan-
ning significance is the level of service.
Level of service is important in compre-
hensive planning because it's a commit-
ment about what local government is to
provide with its capital facilities in the
future. In addition to stormwater drain-
age, we looked at water supply, and
again we had a level of service concern.
The County in this case denoted the

pressure in their distribution system as a
level of service for potable water. This
works fine for the County and gives it a
great deal of information about when
capital facilities needs come in order to
meet state and federal requirements for
fire protection. Dade County has one of
the best systems in the state. We're very
pleased with that. In water conservation
there was anotherinteresting story. Dade
County has a unified system for their
water. Because of it, it's very large and
can realize large economies of scale.
The policy has been to expand that sys-
tem to make it even larger and cost-
effective and the county sees this as eco-
nomic development manage. Conserv-
ing water over the long term is a change
in direction for this kind of emphasis, and
as we budget the plan, it's a high priority
for the county. The district would like to
see volunteer water conservation.
As you move across the Everglades
and into Collier County, we have a dif-
ferent situation. It's a much smaller area,
but it's very rapidly growing. Its present
population is 126,000, and they intend to
add around 65,000 people by the year
2000. The county is 70 percent wetlands,
and large areas are under public owner-
ship. Again, we were very impressed
with the Collier County comprehensive
plan. Most of the growth in the county is
occurring in the coastal zone in this area.
In the northeastern part of the county you
find a lot of agricultural land uses. And
what we've discovered when we look at
Collier County is that the existing drain-
age system has been developed ran-


Comprehensive Planning

domly over a long period of time. The
existing levels of service were really not
well defined at any time during this de-
velopment. So when the county drew up
this comprehensive plan, it was incom-
plete. It didn't really give an analysis of
future needs. But fortunately the people
that run the county were aware of this
fact a number of years ago and initiated a
major master water management plan
which the district is joined in with. This
is to be completed by next year. We
think this will take care of most of the
problems, so the district's main concern
is in regard to SWIM water management.
The level for service for consump-
tion is 160 per capital today, again the
level of service is really important and
this is at a kind of level of service stan-
dard that we were looking for. It would
really help future possible ground water
supplies. So we've got an issue here.
Collier County people have had, and
they do have, a major waste water reuse
program. Anotherthing that we've found
that has become popular is really good
coordination with the non-public county;
it needs to take place. Between counties
and the special districts of the potable
watersupplyandmanagement. The final
thing we looked at in Collier County
conceded environmentally sensitive land
uses, such as this wetland. We focused
on a bird rookery swamp. It's got the
ground water recharge, and we found
that under the present plan, you can develop
out here in rural residential density of
one to five acres. We found throughout
South Florida that this causes great con-
cern to the district because it tends to lead
to the people solving their drainage prob-
lems on the micro scale, which on a
macro scale alters the hydrology of the
system, and can do a lot of damage to the
existing hydrology. A lot of these prob-
lems fall down between the areas of land
planning and water planning, and to be

solved will require a tremendous amount
of working together between the local
government and the special districts, and
the water management district and other
state agencies.

Bruce Adams:
The first question is: How best can
storm water management occur, so that
sensitive hydrologic functions are pro-
tected along with public safety andhealth

Nancy Roen
Seeing the plans that have come
before us at the district, obviously we've
got two of the best, both from a very
highly urbanized county and then from a
less urban county. Many plans are cookie
cutter, parrot compliance with the 9J5.
You don't see any thoughts or analysis
on what the current state of affairs are,
what the goals are, I don't see any really
tough meaningful discussions going on
both at the county and city commissions,
and the local public generally, and I'm
talking both in terms of both a board
member and as also as a member of the
development community that is criti-
cally involved.
I think we have to identify critical
areas and concentrate on them. Perhaps
the greatest gap that I have seen is a lack
of an understanding of what levels of
service mean beyond transportation and
what they mean in stormwater manage-
ment. I've also seen the need for a larger
than local perspective, a larger than re-
gional perspective. We've got a hell of a
lot of agencies involved with their own
concerns, and there is a desperate need
forcoordinationin communication. Only
now are we first getting involved in un-
derstanding that we need to look at basin
studies and stormwater management.

Stanley Hole
To have a successful stormwater
program, you've got to have two things:
you've got to have the will and you have
to have funding. Some areas in Florida
are now looking at stormwater utility
systems, because you're talking in most
areas ofretro-fitting. The counties have
a responsibility to go to the district and
say this is what we think our recharge
area is, and this is what we think our
national water storage area is. I think the
county needs to show the areas set up for
development, and I think they also need
to show the areas that need to be pro-

Anthony Clemente
The comprehensive planning act is
fitted for failure on the one key issue,
which is funding. You know the initial
sense is, everybody wants to play, but
nobody wants to pay. And everybody's
looking at local government to do that.
I'm seeing an evolution occurring in water
management's role. Traditionally this
has been to provide water management,
i.e., floodprotection. They stoppeddoing
that and the result is that we have large
areas in the state that are now poorly
drained. We're saying we can't have that
development unless you have adequate
drainage, andlocal government has to do
something about that But what local
government is doing is recognizing that
water management is not doing that, and
we have to deal with that development
pressure to develop what we call basin
planning which is, in essence, allowing a
portion of that area to be developed by
elevating the land and then leaving areas
open to accommodate the local handling
of storm water in the area. I think you're
going to see more pressure on the water
management district to go back to look-
ing at their mission to see to what degree
that their personal responsibility is for

Comprehensive Planning

water management flood protection, and
really go back to that mission. There
seems to be a tendency for the water
management districts to now become
planning agencies. There seems to be a
lack of recognition that we have regional
planning councils who are supposedly
doing the job of looking at the overall
planning issues with input in the various
agencies. How we are going to pay to de-
velop the infrastructure that's needed for
flood protection is only one of those
questions. Other services such as police,
fire, waste disposal are issues that local
government are going to have to fund on
their own. To ask local government to
fund water management issues also is
going to raise some questions for what is
the need for the water management dis-
tricts in the future.

Phillip Parsons
How best can stormwater manage-
ment occur to achieve a balance of pro-
tecting the environment together with
public safety and health concerns? One
of the fundamental water management
problems we have in this state is that we
have three totally different state pro-
grams giving us direction and mandates
and imperative regulations. We haven't
done a good enough job making sure that
the message from the state is consistent.
What I'm referring to is 403, which gives
us a water quality-driven mandate, and
that's it. The comprehensive planning
act has a totally different framework.
And from the top down, in planning is-
sues, we're expected to make sure that
whatever happens on the local level is
consistent with the regional policy plan
and the state comprehensive plan. And
those two things may be different. What
you have to do at the local level to be con-
sistent with the regional plan may be dif-
ferent that what you have to do to be con-
sistent with the requirements in the 403.

Then alongside those two, we have 373,
which requires a judgement about water
management. And as we know, water
management is much more than water
quality, and it's much more than compre-
hensive planning, it's balancing the whole
range of considerations, water supply,
water quality, environmental protection.
We need to create consistency so there's
one message from the state, and in my
view, the water management districts are
going to have to play the lead role in es-
tablishing that consistency.

Bruce Adams
Responsibility for stormwater man-
agement is largely divided between local
governments, developers, local special
districts, and regional water management
districts. However, it's very clear that
only local governments have the author-
ity to issue development orders. So three
questions here go to the panel: How best
can the coordination of these various ac-
tors occur, who should take the lead; and
how best can government assure that the
wide ranging aspects of storm water
management are accounted for before it
issues a development order?

Stanley Hole
I think the coordination of the vari-
ous actors should start to occurduring the
local government assistance program of
the South FloridaDistrictstartedacouple
of years ago. That program is a very im-
portant program in making sure that when
the district gets an application for a per-
mit that it's for something that the local
government has deemed to be appropri-
ate. The land use decisions are made by
local government, and should probably
be made by local government, but those
decisions can't be made in a vacuum, and
local government must be aware of the
water management implications of the
decisions that they're making. That rela-

tion between land management and wa-
ter management must start at the local
government level.

Philip Parsons
I believe personally that the com-
prehensive plan in process at the local
level is our best way to achieve the water
management goals that we all share. The
problem with the process is that there
isn't a clear coordination between the
water management districts and local
government, and at the same time there is
no clear criteria for intergovernmental
cooperation between local governments.
And I think the water management dis-
tricts can play the lead role in both.
When the local government adopts its
water management elements, its water
supply and its surface water manage-
ment elements, those could be reviewed
by the water management district under a
regional watermanagementplan for con-
sistency. It's really the same role that the
state should now contemplate for the
Department of Community Affairs. But
I think in this field, the districts are so
much better equipped for that role that
we ought to consider that.

Nancy Roen
I think the water management dis-
trict has a tremendous amount of avail-
able information which it can share with
local governments in helping them and
assisting them to identify both their prob-
lems and their solutions. The district can
take a university-like role. It can serve
perhaps as a center for developing model
ordinances, and assist in developing model
regulatory frameworks, which local
governments can then take on, enforce
and implement. That doesn't take away
local governments' authority to have
more stringent regulation if they so de-

Comprehensive Planning

Anthony Clemente
I think the water management districts
should take a lead in developing the
stormwater management for the various
counties in the sense that they are respon-
sible for the primary system.

Bruce Adams
The question would be does the law
have unreasonable requirements for storm
water planning, or have local govern-
ments just been slowed to react?

Anthony Clemente
What's interesting is the fact that
the water management districts were left
out of the fact in developing comprehen-
sive master plans in the original planning
act. Where were they andwhatwere their
responsibilities? I mean, local govern-
ments assumed that the water manage-
ment districts were responsible for storm-
water management planning and devel-
opment of that plan and then we were
informed that the burden's on us. It did
catch us by surprise.

Nancy Roen
We need some time to make this a
viable productive effort, and I'm afraid
because of the unrealistic time frames,
we will be getting studies that will not be
the kind of studies that we need for the
long-range planning approach that we

Philip Parsons
I think we've expected too much of
many local governments, and if you look
at the experience of Brevard County, a
relatively sophisticated county with an
active planning department, they're having
difficulty meeting the requirements of
the law.

Bruce Adams
The responsibility of management

of delivery of potable water is shared by
many organizations. Responsibility for
issuing development orders is limited to
local government. How best can local
government ensure itself that adequate
potable water can be delivered to exist-
ing and developing areas?

Anthony Clemente
The best way to do that is through
a regional system, which Dade County
owns and operates. Then you can tie the
two together. That works for Dade County.
I'm saying the best way to do that is to
have control of the water system and
regional authority which we have, and
we're able to tie the two together.

Stanley Hole
Whether you have a growing popu-
lation, a complicated aquifer system,
aquifers being overloaded, or competing
utilities trying to draw from the same
potable water, I think the most important
thing is management of the groundwater

Nancy Roen
I think a first step that's critical is
the water management district's need to
be the sole agency involved in consump-
tive use permitting and allocations of the
resource. As far as development and
delivery, I think the water management
districts probably have a role in develop-
ment of the well fields up to a certain
point. Thereafter, I think that there's no
question about the fact that we need to
look beyond the local, to a more regional
solution. .

Bruce Adams
Local governments have great lati-
tude under Florida law and the develop-
ment of levels of service for potable
water supply. Various approaches are
being tried, some being targeting the

water pressure delivery capability of the
distribution system, others reflecting sys-
tems storage capabilities. Water man-
agement districts tend to be interested in
levels of service that are uniform. So
long-term projections of wateruse can be
made and relate to water consumption
that facilitate ground water consumption
permits. The question would be, should
levels of service be developed to serve
broader needs than just those of the local
government? And if so, how?

Larry Pearson
Local governments are struggling
with this. In terms of water supply pres-
sure, this may be the critical level of
service that needs to be measured. Oth-
ers measure that by the number of gal-
lons per day per resident for drainage.
Some levels of service use retention rates,
others have been conveyance capacities,
and still others have been elevations for
flood protection. They are all different.
There are different ways to approach it,
but one of the most valuable things that a
water management district can do in this
process is to develop acceptable method-
ologies and make those available to the
local governments.

Bruce Adams
Florida has a unique hydrologic
environment. Although it has a great deal
of naturally stored water and rainfall, the
long-term high growth rate of the state
has stressed those resources, as in South
Florida during drought periods. These
drought periods are usually managed
through short-term water shortage pro-
grams, rather than long-term conserva-
tion. The question posed to the panel is:
Is long term water conservation a high
priority, and if it is, are local comprehen-
sive plans a major management tool?

Comprehensive Planning

Nancy Roen
I'd like to expand your water conser-
vation to cover two areas, and that would
be enhancement of the supply and de-
mandmanagement. Ithink those are two
key elements in many of the communi-
ties that are within our district. There's
going to be no question about the fact
that the supply is going to have to be
enhanced one way or another. As key
conservation efforts are moving forward,
we're going to have to look at the broad
range of alternative supplies as well as
conserving what we already have.

Stanley Hole
I think long-term water conserva-
tion is a important priority but I think we
have to look at it realistically. I think the
Xeriscape program is a very good pro-
gram, and I think we need to look at or
consider the importance of conservation
on landscape irrigation, because that's a
tremendous water user. Xeriscape is
important because you don't want lawns
to die when you have a drought. I think
you've got to look at a couple of things.
A good way to induce conservation is to
increase your water rates. That has a
majorimpact. If all ofsuddenyourwater
bill is going to double you're going to
think twice. I think long-term water con-
servation for irrigation is very important
and I think the short-term conservation
becomes effective when people know
that they need to conserve and when they
kpw their rates are going to double.

Anthony Clemente
I think the answer to both those
questions is no. Number one, many com-
munities are still trying to clean up their
water, and that is still a very high prior-
ity. I don't think we can lose focus yet of
why we were not protecting those well
fields adequately. I think until we get the
water quality to a point that it has been

improved, people are not going to be real
anxious about conserving it. Number
two, the timing is not right to actively go
out and convince the public to conserve
water when we have situations in Dade
County where the district is dumping
large amounts of fresh waterinto various
estuary systems. Number three, I don't
think that it's premature to make this a
tool in a management plan. We need to
develop regional policies and probably a
lot of things have got to be done by state
law and then adopted by local communi-
ties through the comprehensive master

Nancy Roen
I just would like to point out that
we've emphasized conservation and water
supply development for a very minus-
cule portion of the water that's con-
sumed, and that would be public water
supply. I think we all understand that
there are many larger players in this
equation and we can't only focus on the
very small portion of people that are on
central water systems.

Bruce Adams
Lands with sensitive hydrologic
features are often zoned forrural residen-
tial density. This type of development
tends to eliminate the original hydro-
logic features that low density was estab-
lished to protect. If local governments
require even lower development densi-
ties, land owners contend that takings
have occurred and demand damages.
Assuming that funds are not adequate to
purchase these types of lands, the ques-
tion would be how can their hydrologic
features best be protected?

Stanley Hole
I think the district ought to look at
these environmentally sensitive areas and
decide whether or not development can

occur. And the fact that if it's a recharge
area, they've got to stop saying, this is a
recharge area, we can't develop there.
They've got to start saying what kind of
development makes sense in a recharge
area. If you're doing it for flood protec-
tion, then you've got to get to the tax-
payer because he's the one paying the
cost of flood protection, but if you're
doing it for water supply you go to the
person who's benefitting from that.

Phllip Parsons
I don't think you should use zoning
densities as your major tool for protect-
ing an environmentally sensitive areas.
In Oregon they made a choice in their
process to create urban growth bounda-
ries. Now I haven't been to Oregon, but
I understand when you walk out of the
city limits of the city of Portland you step
into the woods and a very rural commu-
nity. You have urban growth and urban
growth areas, and there is no urban
development out of those boundaries.
That's a choice that local governments
could make. Now it's kind of ironic that
we made that choice more difficult in
Florida. Oregon does not have a concur-
rency requirement and they recognize
that you're likely to have greatest facility
deficiencies in the urban area and that's
a tradeoff they made to have compact
growth and perhaps with these ineffi-
ciencies they're gaining open space that's
undeveloped. We require the concur-
rency and it may make it difficult to have
open space that's undeveloped.

Nancy Roen
I agree that zoning is not the appro-
priate way to address the issue. Certain
areas are critical as floodways or other
environmentally sensitive areas. We have
the opportunity to reward and encourage
the development of areas that are envi-
ronmentally sensitive in a way that are


qU. mprenensi5IJ

an economic plus to the developer and
can make a really great habitat for eve-
rybody. I think very little is done in this
area and I think that we really ought to
provide incentives. Perhaps one of the
ways that has been most effective is the
water management districts' isolated wet-
lands rule. But we've allowed our staff
and the developer to work out an overall
plan that makes sense, that does protect
the viable wetlands and that allows a de-
velopment to take place in those areas. In
addition to that, I think it's critical in
those areas that are environmentally
sensitive for the county and the district
to have an overall plan for the develop-
ment of the area so that you don't have
these sporadic bits and pieces of devel-
opment going out there, one house, two
houses, atrailerandditching anddiking
going on the low thresholds. I think
there should be some overall planning
effort put into these areas so that we can
assure that they're protected.

Larry Pearson
One of the major items brought up
was that the vehicle to realistically fund
the capital is not in place and this could
seriously hurt the whole planning proc-
ess. We've discovered that there have
been some unrealistic time frames estab-
lished which have caused problems with
local government compliance. And that
smal communities unrealistically have
to meet the same strict requirements as
large comnmmities. And we've also dis-
covered that there are some vague re-
quirements under the law, especially in
the level of service area, which probably
need to be better defined. What it looks
like here is that we need some mid-
course corrections in the state planning
law and rules. I would just propose that
the local governments and the water
management districts jointly need to be
key actors in that process. U

___ _1_~~_ ___ __

Information Sessions

Water Management and Economic Development

Positioning Water Management as a Public Priority

Man-made Wetlands: As Good as the Real Thing?

Consumptive Use Permitting: Th Toolfor
Allocatin Water

S *.... Maintaining the Water ManagementDistricts:
The Cre and Feeding of an Institftion

STechnological Advances in Resource Management:
., 3 Modeling KissimeeRiver restoration

Geographic Information Systems for Water Resource

Conserving Water: Regulation or Education?

Information Session

Water Management

and Economic Development

Sponsored by Northwest Florida Water Management District

Honorable Jerry Melvin,
Past Chairman, House
Committee on Tourism and
Economic Development
Honorable Robert Trammell,
House of Representatives

Dr. Bernard J. Yokel,
President, Florida Audubon

Dennis Harmon, Chief,
Economic Analysis, Florida
Department of Commerce

Jerry Melvin
The subject matter today is extremely
important: the coexistence of water
management and economic development.
You panelists have got to let people
know where the money comes from to
fund water management. Until we know
how our economic system works and re-
alize that we've got to have industry and
business, we're not going to be as suc-
cessful in generating the support that
we'dike to have for watermanagement.
I'd like to introduce our panelists
and ask each one to make an opening
statement based on their philosophy of
water management and economic devel-
Dr. Bernard Yokel is president of
the Florida Audubon Society. In 1978,
he was elected to the Audubon Society's
Board of Directors. Governor Bob Gra-
ham appointed him the the Governor's

Growth Management Advisory Commit-
tee in 1985. In the fall of 1984, the Board
of Directors of the Florida Audubon
Society elected him President of the
Representative BobTrammell of the
Florida House of Representatives is serv-
ing his second term in office. He is Vice
Chairman of the Committee on Higher
Education and is also Chairman of the
Subcommittee on Banking. He lives in
Dennis Harmon is Bureau Chief of
Economic Analysis at the Florida De-
partment of Commerce. He has always
worked in the inner circles of govern-
mental affairs in economic trend analy-

Robert Trammell
I am a fifth-generation Floridian.
My ancestors moved onto the banks of
the Apalachicola River in the 1930s and
homesteaded the land before Florida
became a state. By good luck and the
grace of God, we've been able to hold
onto that property ever since. I had the
good fortune to grow up in a rural envi-
ronment, which has had a great deal to do
with my perspective.
I think your Legislature is respon-
sive to the needs of natural resources in
this state. I feel that Florida's leading the
nation in putting out legislation that's
going to protect the environment but also
is taking into account that we have to
accommodate the inevitable growth that's
coming to this megastate.

Bernard Yokel
In the mid-1950s, there were no laws
to help in a rational way to protect envi-
ronmental resources. There was a deep
sense of frustration that we were losing
more of Florida than we could afford to
lose. With certain laws passed in the 60s
and '70s, the technique was to delay and
that, to some extent, worked. Some
developers were put out of business and,
to that extent, it was successful. This was
not what you'd call a tactful, ethical way
to protect the environment, but it was the
only tool in the box. With the Clean
Water Act and the series of laws that now
make it a much more rigorous procedure
to develop in Florida, this process has
become more rational.
Growth is here and growth is not
something that Florida Audubon or any
other group is going to stop. What we
need to do is to assess what is valuable in
Florida, safeguard it and then move to
keep our economy strong. It would be a
serious mistake to try to build a barrier at
the Georgia line. The penalties you
would pay for trying to break our de-
pendence on growth would be more seri-
ous than learning how to control growth.

Dennis Harmon
In thinking about this, I focused on
the same question Bobdid: possibility of
coexistence between good natural re-
source management and strong economic
development. I concluded that we al-
ready have quite a bit of that coexistence
going on now.
Consider how much economic de-

Water Management and Economic Development

velopment is going on in Florida every
year. The volume is staggering. We had
222 new or expanded industrial facilities
last year. There's a tremendous volume
of economic development in Florida, but
very seldom do natural resource man-
agement and economic development come
to a head-to-head conflict. Why? We
have these sets of development approval
processes, planning processes and per-
mitting processes that we did not have 20
years ago. These processes encourage
developers to address natural resource
issues up front. This leads to better
compromises when there might have been
a potential for conflict. Finally, the
agencies involved in these permitting
programs have developed reasonable,
cooperative attitudes premised on the
notion that economic development and
resource protection are not mutually
exclusive. Our laws do accommodate a
balance between growth and environ-
mental protection.
Another reason for this balance is
that business people are people, too. People
who run businesses have sets of maorals,
ethics and philosophies, many of which
coincide with those of the staunchest
environmentalists in our state. These
business people try to put those practices
into play in their business lives. And
there's another angle on that. A bad
environmental image can certainly hurt a
business's sales.
What can wedo to make sure this co-
existence continues or improves? One
thing' would be to develop more predict-
able, efficient permitting proceedings.
Our experience in the Department of
Commerce has been that the process of
permitting and approval is often more
troubling to the development commu-
nity than the actual standards being
imposed or the mitigation features re-
quired. Streamlining and predictability
and consistency are very important to

communities in serious need of economic

Jerry Melvin, Moderator
Water is one of Florida's major eco-
nomic resources. Although many parts
of the state are witnessing rapid growth
and economic development, north Flor-
ida needs more jobs to sustain its popula-
tion and to upgrade the general standard
of living. The question is whether the
development community recognizes that
our water resources are a major compo-
nent of our state's economic base.

Bernard Yokel
As Dennis has said, the develop-
ment community is focused on the bot-
tom line. That isn't to say that the people
running those companies aren't ethical,
as he pointed out. They're sensitive to
the fact that Floridians are strongly in
favor of clean water, wildlife and a good
environment. That is a bottom line issue
with developers. If an environmental
group can show how a proposed project
can get a better image, get permitted
faster, become a more saleable product,
get on the market sooner and begin to
recoup investment more quickly, it means
a better return on investment. This is
good business. It's also good for the
In my view, the environment is the
core of our economy. And more and
more businesses are realizing that the
central thread in that core is water. The
key issue is water management. Flori-
da'a five water management districts are
going to play a tremendous role in what
the state is going to be like in the future.

Robert Trammell
I want to tell you what happened to
Mr. Freshman Representative. We were
going through the permitting process for
a Wal-Mart in my home county, Jackson

County. I was asked by my constituents,
the County Commission, the City Com-
mission and the Chamber of Commerce
to look at the project and see if I could
support it publically. I went to the site
and went to the hearings and meetings to
see if there wouldbe any potential down-
side to the project. Later on, I guess an
editor from one of the large newspapers
downstate contactedmy office and asked
why people in my district supported the
project so strongly. I was credited with
having said that it had to do with their
perspective, that there are not any Wal-
Marts and lots of wetlands in Jackson
In short, what I said was taken out of
context. I felt that it left the impression
that I personally supported the degrada-
tion of our environment. Nothing could
be further from the truth. With my back-
ground and voting record, to say I was
indignant is an understatement.

Jerry Melvin, Moderator
Clearly, industry in Florida is ex-
panding. To many of these industries,
water is critical. State promotional ef-
forts don't put a lot of emphasis on water
availability in Florida, although this is
certainly mentioned as an asset. How
can north Florida create more jobs and
improve standard of living without com-
promising the quality and quantity of our
water resources?

Robert Trammell
North Florida hasn't been populated
to the degree south Florida has and does
not have nearly the problems that exist in
south Florida. That's not to say there's
not the potential for the same kind of
degradation. We want to avoid these
problems if we possibly can.
We can have industry that is com-
patible with the environment. One ex-
ample is agriculture-related industry such

Water Management and Economic Development

as aquaculture. Aquaculture is a thing
of the future in this state. In my district,
we have a state-of-the-art catfish rais-
ing program. We hired a man from
Mississippi who is setting up an opera-
tion to serve as a model for farmers
being forced out of traditional row crop
farming. The timber industry and tour-
ism can also be promoted.
Where heavy industry is concerned,
we're going to have to be very, very
careful. I think we're going to have to
limit what we do in north Florida.

Dennis Harmon
Probably the most important thing
north Florida can do is to get away from
a strict industrial recruitment approach
into one that's oriented toward multi-
faceted economic development. You
can create jobs in rural communities
through entrepreneurship, attracting pub-
lic facilities, and developing recrea-
tional tourism. Water is going to be a
big asset for north Florida and we should
look at natural assets like that as a way
to build industries.
I'd also remind everybody that more
than 85 percent of new jobs come from
expansion of existing industries. A lot
of communities want to bring in the big,
big industries. If they would just work
- with the ones that already exist and help
them to expand, they'd probably be
-much better off.

Bernard Yokel
',My response to the question of how
north Floridacan create morejobswith-
out compromising the quality of our
water resources is to ask, at what price
North Florida has, right now, the
potential for a superb standard of living
because many of its resources are intact
compared to the rest of Florida. The
environment in Florida is your capital.

Any time you spend your capital, you do
so at the peril of the future.
The environment is what generates a
lot of the income. Residential develop-
ment comes because an area is pretty.
Why is it pretty? Because that environ-
ment is functioning, because there is clean
water, and fishing that water, because there
are birds in the air and shells on the beach.
That's a powerful magnet to pull in people
and money. Tinker with that mechanism
and you diminish those dividends. We
have fueled our economy on our assets in
many parts of the state. And we have
depreciatedmanyparts ofthis state. North
Florida can stand tall, look south, and get
a lot of lessons on how not to manage
This area will grow, no question of it.
You need to manage growth so that it
doesn't dirty your water, reduce wildlife,
soil the beaches. Keep those things intact
and this area willbe healthy, attractive and
economically sound.

Jerry Melvin, Moderator
How can natural resources best exist
with economic growth?

Dennis Harmon
Efficiency, consistency, predictabil-
ity in environmental permitting-we have
a lot of that already. I would say the
pathway to the future is your comprehen-
sive plan. Get involved in comprehensive
planning and decide now what areas you
want to conserve as sensitive, important
parts of your community. Plans now being
generated and submitted to the Depart-
ment of Community Affairs are maps of
where any given community is going to be
in 10 or 20 years.
Those who have deep investments in
development are going to be pushing hard
to get maximum advantage in the compre-
hensive planning process. Environmental
interests need to be represented. It's not a

bleeding-heart wildlife issue, it's an is-
sue for people. I put great emphasis on
environmental plans.

Robert Trammell
The citizens and government of this
state have to understand the significance
of the Comprehensive Planning Act and
I think we are well on the way. People
should understand that these plans are
going to become law in 1990.

Jerry Melvin, Moderator
Balancing agricultural, industrial and
residential needs for water supply with
natural habitats is in the best public inter-
est and is the best water management
practice. How can we create public
awareness that good water management
practices are the basis for economic

Dennis Harmon
Two ideas occur to me. One, busi-
ness people respond to hard facts on how
future water supplies and future water
quality can affect their businesses. Two,
business people listen to other business
people. If I were trying to spread the
word about the importance of good water
management practices, I would seek out
corporate leaders and try to get them to
spread that word.

Bernard Yokel
Education is essential. Florida
Audubon is deeply involved in and
committed to environmental education.
We look to the water management dis-
tricts to get the information out about the
importance of water conservation and
proper management. This has to be a
cradle-to-grave approach; we cannot
ignore adults.
We have estimates of 1,500 new
people per day in Florida. Another study
reports 2,400 new Floridians every day.

Water Management and Economic Development

If we have 2,400 new residents who think
this area is magic, they don't know any-
thing about how magic it was five or 10
years ago. Compared to Pittsburgh,
Cleveland or Boston, it's great. They
think there's plenty of room for develop-
ment-look how many wetlands still exist.
Well, compared to what we had, there
aren't many. We have got to educate
these people about wetlands and how
their future is tied to water management.
There is really no lesson of greater im-

Jerry Melvin, Moderator
Are existing growth management pro-
cedures conducive to reaching the joint
goals of economic growth and water man-

Bernard Yokel
The laws we have are adequate to
protect our resources. We need to finetune
them from time to time, which is true of
any body of legislation. Where the prob-
lem comes in is that there are too many
loopholes allowing variances and excep-
tions. Political appointees are too will-
ing to concede to variances and excep-
tions. That's the problem.
If you aren't in the political process,
you are not going to protect the environ-
ment. You've got to exert effort and
influence. You need to plug the vari-
ances and loopholes with concerned

Denniq Harmon
The local government planning proc-
ess is best for dealing with the cumula-
tive effect of development over time.
This process is set up to deal with the cu-
mulative effect, which is probably the
most serious threat to our water resources.

Jerry Melvin, Moderator
The Surface Water Improvement and

Management program has an estimated
cost of one-half billion dollars in public
funds to clean up or maintain water re-
sources. Much of the need for cleanup
could have been prevented at a substan-
tially lower cost. Through our own greed
and self-interest, are we now creating
water resource deficits that will have to
be paid by future generations?

Bernard Yokel
In south Florida, there's no question
of it. We did some really extraordinary
things there in the past. We lowered
south Florida's water table by probably
four or five feet in some areas. That's
why we're faced with really severe drought
potentials. We haven't had one yet, but,
boy, it's coming. It's out there andit will
happen. Florida's renewable resources
are Florida's future. Keep in mind that
this is not a bleeding-heart issue, it's a
hard economic issue. Our environment
is our future.

Dennis Harmon
The way that question is worded
almost begs an answer along the lines of,
well, we need to curtail growth. Serious
people who look a lot at these issues
don't think of that as a feasible alterna-
tive. If stopping growth is not feasible,
then all we can do is struggle with this
We have some mechanisms for doing
that. As decisions come forward for
dredging a river or destroying some
wetlands, there has to be some kind of
process by which the public benefits of
going one way or the other are weighed.

Robert Trammell
I don't think you can quantify how
much these are worth. Florida wouldn't
be what it is today if we didn't have 12.6
million citizens, andif we didn't have the
great natural resources we have. I don't

think you canput a value on it. We'lljust
have to protect it.

Dennis Harmon
Certainly one answer to that ques-
tion is that the environment is priceless.
At anotherlevel, realistic answer to that
question is that it's the amount of money
the voting public can go along with in
terms of what we're spending on envi-
ronmental protection, planning, land
purchases and so forth. This is the way
the public makes its views known on how
valuable the environment is.

Bernard Yokel
How much are our fish, our birds,
our rivers, our lakes and our streams
worth? The answer is, they're worth our
future. U


Information Session

Positioning Water Management

as a Public Priority

Sponsored by South Florida Water Management District

Dr. Douglas Schoen, Ph.D.,
Penn & Schoen Associates

James Garner,Vice Chairman,
Governing Board, SFWMD

Cathy Andade, Director,
Public Information, SFWMD

Cathy Anclade
It has become increasingly impor-
tant for water management districts to
interact in a much more comprehensive
and direct fashion with not only the media,
but the press at large and the general
public. Past water management districts
were something of an invisible entity.
We were a regional government, so we
weren't as close to the people at the local
govemment, and we weren't as well known
as state agencies. We were kind of an in-
visible element in between. But today,
probably within the last five years as
growth pressures of the state affect us, as
we are being charged with more respon-
sibilities and as we have growing budg-
ets, we must recognize how much of a
role we play.in lives of every Floridian.
It is 11t only incumbent upon us for our
own benefit, but also it is indeed our
responsibility to do a good job of inform-
ing and educating the public about why
water management as an institution is
important to the State of Florida.
With me this afternoon are Mr. Jim
Garner, and Dr. Doug Schoen. Mr. Gar-
ner is the Vice-Chairman of South Flor-
ida Water Management District Govern-

ing Board. He was appointed to our
board in the summer of 1987, as the
board representative of Southwest Flor-
ida. He's also ex-officio chairman of our
Big Cypress Basin Board. Jim is native
Floridian, bom in Jacksonville, a gradu-
ate of the University of Florida. Cur-
rently he's a managing partner in the law
firm of Paveese, Garner, et. al. in Ft.
Myers. It is with pleasure and gratitude
that I'm able to have Jim here, because as
a governing board member he recog-
nized the importance of public aware-
ness, at raising public conscientiousness
about water management. We would not
have undertaken the program that we're
here to discuss without you.
Doug Schoen is a principal in the
firm of Penn and Schoen Associates, a
nationally recognized market research
and political pollster firm. Doug comes
to us with a lot of experience in doing
research in both the public and private
sector. His firm has represented such
governmental entities as the U.S. State
Department, the Government of Bermuda,
the State of New York, the Department
of the Army and the department of the
Navy. He also has some pretty impres-
sive private clients, such as Texaco,
General Foods, and Avis. Doug is a
graduate of Harvard and holds a Ph.D.
from Oxford. What I'dlike to do now is
turn the microphone over to Mr. Gamer,
who will give you some background on
why he champions this idea of stepping
up our activities in the realm of public
information and public education.

James Garner
With the multiplicity of problems
that we're facing in South Florida, we
determined that we were going to have to
create better public awareness. Why would
you need a greater public information
effort? Well, in South Florida Water Man-
agement District, we have sixteen coun-
ties, an area of probably twice the size of
New Jersey, with more than 4-1/2 mil-
lion people, and infrastructure for flood
control, the old Central and Southern
Flood Control Project, with over 1400
miles of canals and levees, and 19 major
pumping stations. We're the largest land
owner in South Florida. We're a taxing
authority with a current budget of
$156,000,000. Like all the otherdistricts
we're being constantly bombarded with
changing missions and more and more
added responsibilities.
When you couple that with the people
of South Florida, we found that most
South Floridians really didn't know who
we were. Approximately 360 new resi-
dents move daily into the South Florida
Water Management District area, and for
them it's a new climate, it's a new hy-
drology, it's a whole new area. It also
should be noted that the last real storm
that we had was well over 20 years ago.
The people that did know about us thought
of us as the media portrayed us: on any
given day, the polluters of Lake
Okeechobee are those that are trying to
clean up Lake Okeechobee. I became
aware that we needed a better public
information program if we were going to
be able to deal with not only the political

Water Management as a Public Priority

pressures but be able to build a constitu-
We have a system that was put in
place many years ago, and we had tre-
mendous population growth in and around
that system. Areas that were rural hadbe-
come urban. We had a system that was
old and antiquated, and it became appar-
ent tous that we were going to have to use
more and more of our ad valorem fund-
ing to support this infrastructure to avert
a disaster down the road. And it ap-
peared to me that, if we were going to
have to budget for the system itself, we
were going to need to create public
awareness of that system for flood pro-
tection, and for that matter, providing
water for the people of South Florida.
The step then was first to find out
where we are in the people's minds.
Could we accurately measure their knowl-
edge and understanding of the water
resource issues that faced us, our role,
could we determine what misconcep-
tions might be out there? In short, we
needed to get into the market and re-
search it and find out how we might
direct our efforts. So with that in mind,
this board gave Cathy the mission of
finding a good public research firm, put
together a program for us, and go out and
do a survey. This was commissioned in
March of 1988, completed in June and
Penn and Shoen Associates were selected
after a large search.

Cathy Anclae
Doug will explain how he's con-
ducted the research, what was the ration-
ale for the methodology that we've used
in the study, and what exactly the study
told us about what people in South Flor-
ida were thinking about water manage-

Doug Shoen
Let me take a second at the outset of

my presentation to explain how we, as an
outside research firm, approach the prob-
lem. In doing that you will begin to
understand why it is that research and ul-
timately public relations and advertising
perhaps can be useful to entities like the
district, and similar public agencies in
fashioning the public awareness cam-
paign. Our approach was to say OK,
what is the district trying to accomplish,
what is their ultimate goal? Merely tak-
ing a survey to determine that a lot of
people were unaware of the precise func-
tions of the district was obviously not
something requiring a nationwide search,
or a large expenditure of money, or a
large expenditure of time. There clearly
was a lot more going on.
In the next few years, the district is
going to need more funding to perform
its traditional functions. In the absence
of public support for the district's work
there's every reason to believe there will
be public resistance, and rather than get
into a catch-up situation where the dis-
trict is trying to justify on a week-to-
week basis its increasing needs for fund-
ing, it was Jim Garner's and Cathy
Anclade's feeling that, by developing a
strategy to increase awareness of and
receptivity to the district's work, the whole
process would go much better.
Our approach to the research was, I
think, something different than you would
find in the traditional market research.
Our question was what do we need to do
to get people to alter their impressions, to
change their minds to begin to think in a
way that would work to achieve the goals
that Jim and Cathy wanted? To put it
another way, we were doing what we call
a strategic, theme testing poll, or mes-
sage testing, much like the work we do
for political candidates and for govern-
ment agencies. And rather than being
two separate tasks, each involves similar
components. These are trying to deter-

mine what will motivate people to either
do a particular thing, whether this is
voting, or, in the case of South Florida
Water Management District, having a re-
ceptivity to policies or financial deci-
sions that they may be resistant to, or ig-
norant of.
The initial phase of the survey was
to interview forty decision makers to
help us get a representative judgement of
elite opinion, and we interviewed people
from large agri-business companies to
environmentalists to state employees, to
newspaper editors, to board members, to
staffers in the district. I think we had
about as wide a range as we could as-
semble, politicians and local and na-
tional elected officials as well. We wanted
opinions on the district's principle mis-
sions, feelings about funding for the dis-
trict, what people think the greatest prob-
lem facing the district is, what they be-
lieve the district's greatest successes have
been, and where they'd like to see the
district go. That's helped us develop the
kinds of issues and questions that we
would then test in the survey with the
residents of the South Florida Water
Management District area.
Beyond doing the elite interviews,
we also did what are called focus groups,
where you get groups of residents into a
room to discuss a particular problem.
What we sought to do was to go to
various locals throughout the 16-county
area as a means of trying to determine if
perceptions of the district were different,
between people who live in Lee County,
or Dade County, or Palm Beach County.
We would have a set list of questions that
we hoped to explore but when the con-
versation or discussion would flow into a
different direction, we would encourage
that and let people talk. They were open
ended conversations that ran anywhere
from an hour to two hours. We did four
discussions prior to the survey being

Water Management as a Public Priority

conducted, and then four after.
Out of the elite interviews and the
focus groups came a rather lengthy ques-
tionnaire. The district mandated that
they wanted to know what people thought
of the district, what they thought of water
quality, what they thought of the dis-
trict's four missions, and what should be
done to increase public receptivity to the
district. This led to a survey question-
naire that involved questions that simply
tapped straightforward knowledge of the
district, knowledge of water quality and
the environmental issues, to giving people
arguments about the water management
systems and asking them how persuasive
each of those arguments were in provid-
ing support for or against activity on
behalf of the district and its financial
activity. So we were able to test to some
degree of precision a strategy for the
We did a very large survey. We
wanted to have a degree of statistical
accuracy that would allow us to speak
with confidence about opinions of all
district residents. Our sample size was
about 1100 respondents district-wide,
which could give us data that would be
accurate to about plus or minus 3, which
is a pretty high level of accuracy, similar
to what you'd see in many of the national
polls. In addition, there was a particular
concern in the district with the Hispanic
community, and the perception was that
their needs and concerns were not being
*met, and as part of the effort, we give a
separate sample of 250 Hispanics to de-
termine how much they knew about the
district and what policies they would
support water related issues. The survey
was done by telephone. Telephone inter-
viewing is probably the most cost effec-
tive and statistically accurate approach
that can be used. We employed a method
of selection called random digit dialing
which gave every respondent a theoreti-

cally equal chance of being selected.
And it was that sampling procedure that
allowed us to project some of the results,
the findings to the population as a whole.
And it was this interplay of these three
types of data, the elite interviews, the
focus groups and the survey itself that
lead to our strategy recognition.
People's greatest concern is not flood
control or the water management system
but water quality. When we ask people
what the district's most important mis-
sion was, 48 percent said water quality,
19 percent said environmental protec-
tion, 18 percent said ensuring an ade-
quate supply of water, and 8 percent said
protecting South Florida from floods.
The two traditional goals garnered
about 26 percent. Sixty-three percent chose
the more contemporary environmental
issues of water quality and protecting the
environment. The focus groups them-
selves revealed that people are not envi-
ronmentalists in the sense of being con-
servationists, or ideological in their envi-
ronmentalism. Rather they're practical,
they're pragmatic, they're basically
concerned about the water that flows
through their tap, and they tended to
perceive water issues, not in terms of a
system of water supply, but rather turn-
ing on their water and having it be a little
brownish or have a odor and worrying
about their own well. We did not find that
there was a great level of sophistication
in their perception. We asked people
about their concerns about water quality,
about what was the greatest threat in their
community, and again, water quality won
out. This was the greatest concern. So,
flood control and its associated infra-
structure expenditures are only dimly
recognized by the public as being of sig-
nificant importance. People basically
have not had enough experience with
droughts and flooding to recognize the
potential severity of the problem, and to

recognize the need to adopt in their own
lives, conservation policies.
When we asked about conservation,
there was very limited awareness of the
utility of conserving water. People did
do some of it themselves, but largely to
save money. But the ideological idea of
it was pretty limited. In Lee County,
where the district has managed some-
thing of a public relations campaign,
there was a heightened awareness of the
importance of conservation. But there
was no overall sense that conservation
was essential.
We did find that there was extraordi-
nary sensitivity to the environment. And
that sensitivity to the environment turned
as much on controlling growth as it did
preserving the wetlands and protecting
integrity of the water supply system.
Awareness was highest in Lee County
where the P.R. campaign has been most
visible and in Palm Beach County where
the district is located.
The awareness of the district was
lowest in Dade County, and particularly
low with Hispanics. Most important
problems were environmental, and water
There is an anti-vote sentiment that
comes out also. After we came in with
the preliminary results from the survey,
we were asked to test in focus groups
whether people would pay more taxes.
We found that in four separate focus
groups asked the question, that fewer
than 15 percent said that they would pay
the money knowing what they know now.
The only way that they could be con-
vinced to vote for or support the in-
creasedtaxes wouldbe if they were abso-
lutely clear that the money they paid
would go to protect and enhance water
supply system.
Three conclusions came out of the
research, and Ithink you'll see where this
lead us. First and foremost, there struck


Water Management as a Public Priority

us that there was an absence of visible
lobbying outreach at the elite level among
the legislature and public officials. The
district has a very good image, it has a
high degree of public credibility, but the
district itself is not a positive actor in
terms of lobbying for its goals and priori-
ties. That was point one.
Point two on the elite level was that
there was a clear need for an expanded
outreach program. The staff has a fairly
aggressive program now trying to speak
to community groups and to reach out to
elites. But the survey revealed that there
was a desire for more information. Par-
ticularly as the district adopts a clear
strategy in public affairs andpublic com-
munications; it's going to be critical that
strategy be communicated and the pri-
orities be developed and brought directly
to the elites in the 16 county area.
The third and probably most impor-
tant and expensive priority is public
advertising. There's a real desire to raise
the profile of the district. Raising the
profile of the district entails selling to the
mass public, who is after all concerned
about water quality. Doing that entails
tying in concerns about water quality
with the precise needs of the district to
maintain an adequate water supply sys-
tem, making the link visually and di-
retly between the water in the tap and
the system that maintains the water for
South Florida, and using radio, televi-
sion, and print to make the link between
people's concern about water quality and
maintenance of the system.

Cathy Anclade
The research showed us that most
people don't understand our responsi-
bilities. We operate this massive plumb-
ing system and if you've ever been down
in South Florida, it would be impossible
for you to be in Dade County, or Broward
County or Palm Beach, without criss-

crossing back and forth over our canals.
And to understand that this, which is
such a tangible and a visible part of daily
life, didn't mean much to the people who
lived there, gave us cause for concern.
There is a need to reawaken and in a
sense personalize this infrastructural
system as vital to the quality of life in
South Florida.
There were some pluses. One of
them was that in areas where we had been
working, and areas where we had put the
manpower, and had put some time and
effort, and some financial resources, it
gave us a big payback. Lee County is
about as far away from our Headquarters
in West Palm Beach as any point in the
district, and we had made a concerted
effort over the past several years to focus
a pretty largescale public relations cam-
paign dealing with the need for water
conservation, because Southwest Flor-
ida is an area that has causedproblems in
terms of water shortages and the poten-
tial for droughts. And what we recog-
nized was that Lee Countians knew who
we were and got our message. They had
a very favorable opinion of us. So when
people did get the message about water
management and water resource issues,
they responded in a favorable manner.
We need to be a much more vibrant
player in terms of public education with
our elected officials. Over the years, I
think the South Florida district, as well as
the other districts, meet with our legisla-
tors, and let them know what we need,
what we want, and what's going on, but
we found that even some of our elected
officials, even our community leaders,
even people inthe know sometimes don't
know about water management.
We are planning to upgrade our ef-
forts in the area of working more closely
with our officials. We want to get basic
information out to them, such as, what is
water management, why is it important,


why, when these very crucial pieces of
legislation that will be coming before
them this year, it is worthknowing some-
thing about us before you take a vote on
it. We also realize that working down in
South Florida we have a very close work-
ing relationship with the beat reporters,
with the folks from the Herald, the Palm
Beach Post, and the Sun Sentinel, the
people who cover us regularly. We would
like to engage in a much better media re-
lations effort with the Tallahassee press
corps, and tell them who we are and what
we're about, and what some of these
issues are that are going to be coming up
on the agenda as we move through this
legislative session. We believe that we
can become influential rather than hav-
ing always having to be reactive. E

Information Session

Man-made Wetlands:

As Good as the Real Thing?

SSponsored by St. Johns River Water Management District

Dr. $d Lwe, Director,
Envkomental Seiences,

Dr. BrMat Haingesm,
Environmental Scientist,

Dr. G. Radie Best, Associate
Director, Center for Wetlads,
University of F&rda

Stuart radow, Supervising
Professional, SWFWMD

What I'd like to talk about as an ex-
ample of a proposed mamnade wetland
system is the St. Johns River Water
Management District's proposal for es-
toration of Lake Apopka.
Our plan for restoring Lake Apopka
has five primary goals:
S The firstisto decrease the amount of
nutrients, primarily phosphous, that leave
Lake Apopka and go to the lakes down-
stream. These are valuable lakes-lakes
Bustis, Or4i, Carlton and Beauclair.
Apqpka h been compared to a cancer
spreadingdownstream. The leastwecan
do in our program is to stop the spread of
the cancer. That's ournumber-oneresto-
ration goal.
Secondly, we want to decrease the
amount ofpbosphorus wichisdelivered
to Lake Apopka. This primarily entails
reducing the agricultural discharge.
Thirdly, we want to increase the rate

of nutrient loss from Lake Apopka. One
could think of Apopka as a lake which
has been overfedm Ofen, in the case of
obesity, it's not enough to simply reduce
the income of calories. One has to go on
an exercise program.
Fourthly, we want to increase the
amount of vegetative habitat. One of the
most serious things that has happened to
the lake is the loss of thousands upon
thousands of acres of emergent and sub-
mergent vegetation.
Lasly, we want to decrease sedi-
ment suspension. This causes a phe-
omenonwe call ineaal loading. These
sediments have accumulated at a rapid
rate due to the large amount of phospho-
rus the lake receives.
Whpt we poaes to do is to take a
simeable %Nhuk of hi fanning area and
try to re-stalish it as a weland. We
would move water fom Lake Apopka
into the sath end of this weland, which
would be apprimately 5,200 acres in
sie, and cap watr to heet flow though
the wetland nqothwad The base flow
from the lake wouldbedicharp ddown-
stWam withimproved waterqulity. The
remaining water would be returned to
Lake Apopka.
We've calculated that we can move
enough water to treat the volume of Lake
Apopka apprximately twice uannully.
This single actippacompc i sh four
of our five restoration goals. We pmdict
that it can decease the dowqstrear load
by 30 percent. decrease loading of phos-
phbom to dthe ake by;percare a
the rate of 'tmglow lo 3 .Pelr t,

_ _~II___

SMan-mad Wethnds

some definite positive stride in
five as well as all theothers.
As a member of the SWIM team, I,
tobe termed a realistic optimist. If
recognize there's a problem, then
clu begin to address that problem
something about it. That's what
team is trying to do for prior-

I ollm Best
I think we need to be honest about
One of the first things I'd like
idis start off with a real layperson's
ve, because that layperson's
ve generates an attitude that has
Sircomne in the permitting process,
adgslatory process, and, more impor-
In the educational process. When
le think of wetlands, they think
mocassins" or mosquito control
s. They are considered waste-
that could be turned into agricul-
prodbctive lands, which some
think is a far better use. And I
that's stl a very common attitude.
''The real question is, are wetlands
development compatible? There are
of people who say they are abso-
not compatible. We have nature
over here, we have man sitting
here, and the only way they run into
1bther is in a head-on collision. Is
'.t true? I don't think it is true; I think
t learn how to create wetlands and
how to emulate these functions,
:1b &kmeluesat we ascribe to them as
Very important, then perhaps we
cm blend those two together.
Oven the proper setting, it is pos-
Pible to create wetland systems. What
ons are we trying to create? We
Itnt to create the function of water man-
agement. Wetlands are naturally adapt-
ile to water management. We want to
riuate the function of flood attenuation.
wetlands ate adapted to this. We want to

build in th wetland benefits. We wamt,
the water quality enhancement.

Strt Bradew
The are variablesinvolvedinmiti-
*galioa of eshwater wetlands, certain
complicating factors which are difficult
to deal with. The bottom line is that we
generally end up with a wetland that is
not quite like the one that was destroyed.
That's not to say that's necessarily
good or bad. Hit units ae tat
units. You have to look at what the
function of the wetlands supposed tobe,
whether itkS primarily for water treat-
ment, or whether it's forhabitat for wild-
life. Success cadnbe judged on length of
time it takes for a system to recover.
Ge rally, what we've also tind is
that for projects that are asking to create
new wetlands, the less disturbance, the
better. We look for alternatives to out-
right wetlands creation. The difficulties
are minimized by finding wetlands off-
site. We don't have he problems with
exotic plant invasion and we generally
see a mo successful eslt: In a lot of
instances, this involves no more than
flooding old pastures so that the wetland
species generally take over slowly and
eventually you'll end up with a wetland
One of our policies that has been
coming more and more into vogue is
being able to use uplands as compensa-
tion for wetlands. In south Florida, you
could say the uplands are as endangered
as the wetlands, ormore so. What we are
trying to do as an agency is figure out a
way forpeople to conserve those uplands
in association with wetlands so we get an
entire habitat system, and not)ust devel-
opments and wetlands with nothing in

Information Session

Consumptive Use Permitting:

The Tool for Allocating Water

Sponsored by Southwest Florida Water Management District

Carlyn Harper, SWFWMD

Ken Weber, SWFWMD

Jay Yingling, SWFWMD

Dave Moore, SWFWMD

The Water Resources Act of 1972,
otherwise known as Chapter 373, Florida
Statutes, authorized Florida's five water
management districts to establish a pro-
gram forregulating the use of water. The
Southwest Florida Water Management
District was the first district to do so,
implementing its rule in January, 1975.
Southwest is currently in the process of
revising the water use permitting rule in
response to increased growth and the
limited availability of the resource. The
Rule revision is also a response to the
district's increased understanding of the
region's hydrology, advances in technol-
ogy that aid in water management, and a
desire to make more rules understand-
able to the regulated public.
Districts-must understand water re-
sourCe availability. This includes: 1) ex-
isting resource and 2) water needs. This
determines the supply and demand.
Existing resources are measured by
collection of data on lake levels, stream
flows, wetlands, water quality, ground
water levels, aquifer characteristics, and
recharge. The resources are managed
through permitting programs, monitor-
ing, and data collection.

The water use permit program has
the objective of managing the water re-
sources to protect existing legal users
and the resource itself. The permitted's
use is determined by such criteria as
demand, system efficiency, other sources,
water transferred, and conservation.
Permits are divided into use categories:
Agriculture, Commercial/Industrial,
Mining, Public Supply, and Recreation.
The permit program encourages all users
to project uses and promote conserva-
A major consideration in permitting
is the "withdrawal impact". Analysis of
withdrawal areas is critical because dif-
ferent areas can be affected in different
ways. The basic test of water use in-
cludes: 1) is the use reasonable andbene-
ficial 2) is the use in the public interest
and 3) will the use impact existing legal
In order to insure that water use
meets the three tests stated above, the
permit will be evaluated against the fol-
lowing factors:
1) Is the water demand reasonable?
2) Will the withdrawal cause ad-
verse impacts to wetlands, lakes, streams,
and other environmental features?
3) Is the applicant proposing to use
the lowest quality of water available for
the use?
4) Will the withdrawal cause salt-
water intrusion?
5) Will the withdrawal induce move-
ment of man-made pollution?
6) Will the withdrawal impact exist-
ing off-site land users?

7) Will the withdrawal affect exist-
ing legal water users?
8) Does the withdrawal use local
versus remote resources?
9) Does the water use incorporate
conservation or reuse?
10) Is the water use wasteful, caus-
ing unnecessary runoff?
If the proposed withdrawal meets
these criteria or can mitigate negative
impacts, a permit will likely be granted.
Concerns of session participants in-
cluded water drawn for agricultural uses
and salt waterintrusion. Current rules do
not provide for metering of agricultural
wells at their expense. Continued re-
search into more efficient irrigation prac-
tices can improve water use. Salt water
intrusion has been a major problem in
coastal areas of the state. Such locations
as Pinellas County have lost there local
water supplies and now must import water
from other areas. This will continue to be
a problem in the future and is a prime
consideration in the permitting process.










Information Session

Maintaining the Water Management Districts:

The Care and Feeding of an Institution

Sponsored by Northwest Florida Water Management District

Fred Bond,Governing Board
Chairman, NWFWMD
J. W. "Bill" McCartney,
Executive Director, NWFWMD

L. M "Buddy" Blain,
Blain and Cone, P.A.

"Bobby" Clark,
Farmer and Rancher

Fred Bond
Our panel includes Bob Clark, from
Tallahassee. He is in the farming and
ranching business and is a partner in an
insurance agency in Fort Lauderdale,
Florida. He is past Secretary of the
Florida Farm Bureau, and the Florida
Cattleman's Association. Hewasaboard
member of the South Florida Water
Management District for 13 years. For
11 of those years he served as chairman.
Next to Mr. Clark is Bill McCartney,
Executive Director of the Northwest
Florida Water Management District. He
is a graduate of Troy State University
and the University of Alabama.
On Bill's left is Buddy Blain, who
practices law with the Tampa firm of
Blain and Cone, P.A. They devote their
practice to waterlaw andproperty rights,
including permitting, regulatory activi-
ties and real estate matters. He has a
degree in education and a law degree
from the University of Florida. He has
played an extremely active role in draft-

ing and implementing Florida resource
laws and regulations since 1965. He
served as special assistant to the Attor-
ney General in Florida in statutory revi-
sion and bill drafting. He served as
attorney to the Florida Senate Urban Affairs
and Local Government Committee and
to the Florida Senate Natural Resources
Committee. Also, Mr. Blain was Gover-
nor Martinez' appointee to the Environ-
mental Efficiency Study Commission.
We'll begin our discussion with an
opening remark from Mr. Blain and
continue with Mr. McCartney and Mr.

Buddy Blain
I was concerned when Bill called
me about this panel. He's always been
known to be a great scrounger for his
District. We had meetings down in Key
West this summer and it cost $4,000 to
feed the group. We stayedoveronSatur-
day night and Bill took three fish and four
loaves, fed us all, and charged us $40.
The institution of water manage-
ment is not very new. The Water Re-
sources Act has been in existence now
for 16 years, and actually, we've had a
district going back some 39 years.
What part of the water management
districts should be preserved? I think
we've got to have independent regional
agencies, not state, but local or regional
agencies. We've got to have appointed,
not paid, lay board members who are not
experts. They've got to be independent.
We've got to have an independent staff.
They can't be state employees. We've

got to have non-politicalboundaries. We
need to stick together. These are the
elements for preserving the institute.
Florida has got the best system of
water management anywhere in the United
States. I met yesterday with the South-
eastern Region of the USGS. They wanted
to know what Florida was doing. I said
we're talking about making changes. They
said, why would you want to change
anything? Each time we chip away at
things, all you can change is the pro-
grams. Quite frankly, if you get over-
loaded some programs may be stopped.
You don't have to keep doing something
because you can do it. It may have been
required at some time but it may not be
important now.

I want to talk about the institution of
water management. Don Morgan told
me when I came to work with the District
that "Water management is what my
governing board says it is." And that's
pretty much true. I look around the room
and I see my teachers. I see Fred Bond,
Bobby Clark, Buddy Blain, and others
such as Jim Stidham, Jack Maloy and
Daryl McIntyre. They are my disserta-
tion committee if you will. Anything
that I happen to know about water man-
agement I learned from them. People in
the business do represent one thing, as
Buddy pointed out: They represent the
Let me tell you what water manage-
ment districts are not. They are not a
document; they are not a bill passed by

Maintaining the Water Management Districts

the legislature; they are not Chapter 373
of the Florida Statutes; and they are not
administrative enforcement procedures,
rules and regulations, inspections, or
permits. Watermanagementdistricts are
people-faces with a mission, with a
history and a tradition who meet monthly
to allocate, store, manage, preserve,
enhance, and develop the most critical
single item in the state of Florida which
is its water resources. As the panel
charge pointed out our water is, in this
state, our economic base. The steward-
ship of that water and the resources to
manage that water are the most impor-
tant things we have.
The real water management districts
are the present board members, the pres-
ent staffs; past board members such as
Bob Padrick, Tommy Clay, Helen Th-
ompson, John Finlasson, Bill Smith and
Louis Atkins, and former staffs such as
Bill Storch, J.B. Butler, Jim Stidham and
Jack Woodard. We share collective and
individual successes. As Buddy pointed
out, we've got the best damn program in
the United States of America. If you
want to know what a water management
district is you have to come to Florida
and study.

~ Bob Clark
My opening remarks are going to be
Addressed primarily to the South Florida
Water Management District, because it's
Jhe elderstatesman of the Districts. As I
make these remarks please considerthem
for your district as well because their
problems are going to be yours from this
day on. Since the Water Resources Act
in the early '70s, a great deal of their
responsibilities now are reversing and
correcting water management practices
that were made the first half of this cen-
tury, practices that had the guidance and
the funding of both the Florida Legisla-
ture and the United States Congress. Water

management, the first half of this cen-
tury, meant flood control and land recla-
mation. Those were the two main func-
In 1928, at Lake Okeechobee when
that terrible hurricane came through and
emptied the lake then pushed over the
dike on the south side of the lake, the
people interested in water management
were not concerned with the bluegreen
algae on Lake Okeechobee. They were
more concerned with trying to identify
over 2,000 bodies-people who died
because of Lake Okeechobee. Today, the
South Florida Water Management Dis-
trict's office and three million people are
nestled cozily on land that was reclaimed
through flood control in Dade, Broward
and Palm Beach Counties. During the 13
years that I served with the Water Man-
agement District, Idon'tremembersend-
ing any written invitations to these three
million people to come and join us, but
there they are. Broward, Dade and Palm
Beach Counties are going to be built out
shortly. These people are going to come
in larger numbers than they have in the
past 40 years to Florida, but they're just
not going to go as far south. They're
going to be in the Suwannee District,
they're going to be in the Northwest
District, they're going to be in the north-
ern areas of the St. John's District. But
we ask ourselves when is enough enough?
How much responsibility are the water
management districts going to have to
take from this point on?
I don't think that this audience, our
staffs, or our boards are going to be able
to answer these questions because they
don't know all the factors. They don't
know what new, exotic, undesirable
aquatic plants are going to be here. They
don't know what new pollution is going
to be in what waters of the state of Flor-
ida. But you can bet on one thing, the
water management districts will be here.

They will grow a lot and they will have
more responsibilities.

Fred Bond
Since the Districts were created in
1972 the activities and responsibilities
are increasing dramatically. We've taken
over such things as stormwater, wet-
lands, and many, many additional re-
sponsibilities. Are we headed toward
becoming a regional comprehensive
natural resource management agency?
And are these additional duties diluting
or interfering with the primary mission
of the water management districts, which
is to preserve and manage our water re-

Buddy Blain
Since 1973 we have been a regional,
comprehensive natural resource manage-
ment agency, primarily concerned with
water. As far as saying enoughis enough,
these books on this table are a collection
of the laws that have been passed that
relate to water since 1972. These vol-
umes of books, called RegFiles, are a
new service of nothing but water man-
agement laws and rules. It's a very com-
prehensive service. This is going to
bring about more uniformity because now
you can compare from one to another and
there's a numbering system. Some of
you need to put some numbers on your
forms so they'll fit in, too.
Some programs were instituted in
1947, 1949 and 1950, down in South
Florida and in 1962 and 1968, in the
Southwest and some programs have been
undertaken in some of the other districts
since then. Programs don't need to con-
tinue if they're not serving a purpose. I
don't think you currently have too much,
but I think you may be getting too much
if you reach too far beyond water and
directly-related things. That's the pri-
mary purpose for a water management

Maintaining the Water Management Districts

district. You need to stick with that. If
you are going to take over and be the
regional planning agency, then you are in
deep trouble because you're going to be
taking on a lot of other things that are far
beyond the charge of water management
districts. As long as it's water related
there can't be too much.
In 1972, when it said all water is
subject to regulation, the water manage-
ment districts didn't look at salt water
other than what was intruding down in
South Florida. You didn't look at salt
water until the SWIM program came in.
You knew that you had the authority, but
there wasn't the need for regulation and
management until SWIM. It's interest-
ing to me that each year the legislature
gives the water management districts
additional responsibilities because they
have been active agencies that have got-
ten results. You've built credibility, but
you've got to have more accountability.
Stick together and tell them "we're ac-
countable. Come and look anytime you
want. We meet once a month. Our
records are open. We submit all of our
budgets and all the financial reports to
the legislature and it's there for all to
see." I don't think enough is too much as
long as you stick with water.

Bll McCartney
When I came to work with the North-
west, Florida Water Management Dis-
trict, it was all we could do to issue a
water well construction permit. Since
1981, we have the Save Our Rivers pro-
gram, our district now owns 91,000 acres
of land and has provided management on
those lands. We have a new program for
which I see a number of buttons in the
audience. It's the Surface Water Im-
provement and Management Program or
SWIM. We have the Warren S. Hender-
son Wetlands Act which mandated the
districts to permit agriculture and for-

estry water management activities in
Florida. We didn't even know what
agriculture was and still don't. The Water
Quality Assurance Act has been added to
the water management districts' licens-
ing of waterwell contractors and regulat-
ing water well drilling. I guess the rule of
thumb ought to be, "enough is enough,"
which means an agenda that a governing
board can handle in one day.
People say you only move in two di-
rections. You move forward oryou move
backward. Certainly the water manage-
ment districts have moved forward. The
water management districts regulate both
quality and quantity of water. We design,
build, and operate both water quantity
and quality structures. We license pro-
fessionals. We buy and manage large
tracts of lands. We have extended our
mission to salt water, we are not the
Northwest Florida Fresh Water Manage-
ment District. We protect wetlands. We
control aquatic plants or used to control
aquatic plants. We provide for some
navigation. We contract with the De-
partment of Natural Resources, the De-
partment of Environmental Regulation,
the Game and Fish Commission, the
Division of Forestry, and others to imple-
ment certain aspects of their programs.
We implement projects for local govern-
ments and we have a natural resource
education program in the public schools.
If that is not a comprehensive, regional,
natural resource management agenda,
then I've never seen one.

Bob Clark
It's the utmost importance to keep
the five districts completely separate and
on hydrologic boundaries. Like Buddy
said, it's been pecked at and pecked at
and they start talking about splitting
Alachua County andPolk Countyinthree
districts. We've got to watch it. I think
the districts are the way they should be. I

don't think there should be any more
districts set up. That's just something I
think the water managers are going to
have to watch closely and fight very
much against. If it ain't broke, don't fix

Fred Bond
Our second question that we pose to
the panel comes from the legislature. Al-
most every year someone suggests that
the water management districts are too
powerful; that they're autonomous; that
they don't answer to anyone; that they
have large budgets, buildings, vehicles,
personnel, etc. This is usually followed
by a suggestion for greater accountabil-
ity and greater oversight. The question
is, do the districts need additional over-
sight and accountability and how can the
districts improve their image and their
perception in this area?

Bill McCartney
Although Buddy mentioned the 39
years of water management history in
Florida, really many of those early years
were flood control in Central and South-
ern Florida. We only gained comprehen-
sive water management after the 1972
session. Our district was established but
it wasn't even functioning until August
of 1974. So you can say we've only
really hadwatermanagement in this state
for 14 years on a comprehensive and sys-
tematic basis throughout the state. That's
not a very long time. Fourteen years--
that's recent history. It took Northwest
Florida a long time to catch up to the rest
of the water management districts.
Even with the district's short his-
tory, however, there are now only five
members of the Florida House and Sen-
ate who are in office today who were in
office when the 1972 Water Resources
Act was passed. Ninety-seven percent of
the current Florida Legislature did not

Maintaining the Water Management Districts

serve during the enactment of the Water
Resources Act. They were not privy to
the justification for the creation of the
water management districts. So from
their point of view, water management
districts are just another agency outthere.
They don't know how the districts were
created and they don't know what they
were intended to do. The legislature
does not vote on our budget, our organ-
izational structure, our staffing, the loca-
tion of our headquarters, nor the implem-
entation of our programs. They provide
the enabling legislation but not necessar-
ily the implementation of our programs.
They don't really have a lot of control
over the dollars that we spend or the ad
valorem taxes we assess.
In my message in our annual report
this year is a little question from a typical
Who are these water management
districts? Who are these agencies that
regulate my constituents, and function
like state agencies, but for whose staff
and budgets Ido not vote? Whoare these
agencies ofappointedmembers who levy
ad valorem taxes in my district?
We're a group that was created by
the 1972 Legislature and a number of en-
lightened thinkers. We are not autono-
mous, notby a long shot. We were up for
SSundown last year. Obviously, we didn't
do our homework, because we're up for
Sundown again this year. All of our
regulatory authority is delegated by the
Secretary df the Department of Environ-
mehtal Regulation. They (DER) dele-
gate our programs and they contract with
us for many others. We are under the
auspices of DER's state water policies
under which all our rules, regulations
and programs are evaluated on a system-
atic basis. We file our rules with DER
and the Secretary of State. Each year, we
require financial audits and are subject to
the Auditor General's performance au-

dits. All our meetings are held in open
public forums once a month. We are
subject to Trim Legislation. And the list
goes on. So the water management dis-
tricts are not autonomous and they do
have a great deal of oversight.
I think that the Legislature does not
understand our programs. They don't
understand our mission all the time, or
that we do have a lot of accountability
and do have a lot of oversight. But we
don't stroke them enough. Think there is
a lot of education that the water manage-
ment districts need to do with the indi-
vidual legislators and the collective Flor-
ida Legislature. Once they realize the ac-
complishments and the validity of the
district's mission, then a lot of our prob-
lems in the House and Senate will be

Bob Clark
I think that you have three different
sections in your Legislature: 1) those that
are interested in the water management
districts and are knowledgeable; 2) those
interested in the water management dis-
tricts but not knowledgeable; 3) those
that are knowledgeable but not interested
in the water management districts. Many
times when I was Chairman, we tried to
give a presentation, meet with the legis-
lative delegations back when they were
having committee meetings in their home
counties. They have other issues; they
have constituents that are interested in
other issues andthey don't become inter-
ested until they have problems. As they
give you more responsibilities, you're
going to have more problems. The fund-
ing issue will keep coming up, especially
from those that are not knowledgeable of
the districts. District employees have
some of the best jobs of the working class
people in many rural counties. People
are envious; they speak to their legisla-
tors about it. I don't know what the

solutions. It is difficult to get legislators
to talk about your programs in Session,
before there are problems.

Buddy Blain
Anyone who suggests that there's
not oversight and accountability simply
is not made with the package. I do think
that we have done, that any of us in-
volved with water management have done,
a very poor job of keeping the new legis-
lators educated. We don't cut them in on
the process. We don't call them and tell
them when we're doing something. We
don't use our local legislators to help us
get things across. We do it and hope
they'renotlooking. That'skindofshort-
sighted. We need them involved when
the rah- rah's going on. Representative
Chuck Smith ought to be the host in
Brooksville when things are going on.
Phil Lewis was the champion for a long
time down in south Florida. I can re-
member when nobody in the Legislature
wanted to talk about water. They didn't
want anything to do with it.
Shortly after the Constitutional
Amendment passed, we didn't have any
money. It was when you had the first
flooding. Where did it occur? West
Floridal WhenGus Craig was Chairman
of the Rules Committee and called a
meeting at 6:30 in the morning, he made
a decision by 6:45, and by 7:45 they put
the money in the budget. About two
weeks later the Secretary of DER found
out what happened. But we didn't tell
our legislators what we were doing. We
told everybody else but we didn't tell the
legislators. And they need to know.
They're the ones that get elected not the
governing boards and not the staff. There's
a lot of glory to share by getting the
legislators involved and educate them on
We've got the Water Management
Act because of Operation Wethook. Re-

Maintaining the Water Management Districts

member Operation Wethook? A legisla-
tor from Miami who's very articulate and
one who is still around from Duval County
(who also got irritated), and one from out
in West Florida, the three of them got
together to dismantle Central and South-
ern Florida's District because of Opera-
tion Wethook. Operation Wethook was
some boondoggle where they were flying
people from West Palm Beach all the
way to River Ranch Estates and up on the
Kissimmee. On the weekend. Now why
were they doing that? Because of Feder-
ally-sponsored projects they were pay-
ing for to count the number of people
who went fishing on the weekend on the
Kissimmee River. But they didn't know
that until they looked into it. The deeper
they got into it, the stronger it became
apparent to them that there was a prob-
lem down there that needed to be worked
on. And that was the germ of the joint
committee that formed the Water Re-
sources Act in 1972.
The more you can educate your leg-
islators the better off you'll be. There's
certainly every opportunity for them and
to find out about the water management
district from an activity standpoint, from
a money standpoint, but they don't have
the time and they won't take the time and
so you're going to have to take the time
and give them information dose-by-dose
or drop-by-drop or spoonful-by-spoon-

We do have some legislators who
are interested but don't have much knowl-
edge. We have got a lot of new legisla-
tors and it's probably fair to assume that
they don't have much knowledge, yet
I'm sure some of them are interested and
that is a challenge for the districts. Go to
work on those folks.
Our final question I'd like to ask the
panel to address is the fact that Florida

has traditionally been recognized for
having the best Florida Resource Man-
agement Institution in the nation. I be-
lieve that's still valid. But the districts
have undergone a lot of changes in recent
years. Some of which we've addressed.
During the Sundown hearings a lot of
other changes were proposed including
changes to the boundaries, compositions
of the boards, elected versus appointed
board members and so forth. Our final
question is with all of these changes that
have taken place and that are anticipated
how can we maintain the quality of the
institution of water management in Flor-
ida in the years to come?

Bob Clark
I'd like to speak primarily on the
governing boards themselves. The cur-
rent administration has a policy that a
board member's going to be appointed
after serving two terms. As long as
Buddy and I and several others have been
in this business, it seems that a large
portion of the governing board members
have served longer terms than that. I did
a little research and found that out of 175
boardmembers whohavebeen appointed
to the districts since 1972, only 16 have
served over eight years. That's less than
10 percent. As I've traveled around to
different governing board meetings, it
never ceases to amaze me the quality of
people that give up their time to serve on
these boards. And their working rela-
tionship with the staffs is excellent.
There are going to be additional re-
sponsibilities brought on these boards.
They will gain regulatory authority and
begin serving more time unless they
become, once again, policy makers.
They're going to have to leave more
authority with staff and especially with
the executive directors. There's no other
way that you're going to get a quality
person with the full financial disclosure

and everything else that they have to do
to serve on these boards and serve even
more time than what they're doing now.
Water management districts and their
boards are only as successful or only as
good as the Governor's appointment
secretary. This is something that you
have to look at. If not, then you're going
to have elected boards.

Buddy Blain
I think, with all due respect to the
staff, the board is the heart and soul of
water management in Florida. You
wouldn't have a staff if you didn't have a
board. When the water management
districts were first being created and first
being geared up back in 1949, you had
five boardmembers, they were appointed
at large throughout the districts. As
we've been given greaterresponsibilities
and opportunities the board has had to
make more decisions. I don't thinkboard
members shouldbe paid. Andifyou start
paying them anything then you're going
to detract from the system.
Actually, I think the governor's
position on appointment for eight years
was humane. Some of the people who
served for longer periods of time have
given a continuity that really has put us in
touch and made it possible to get to the
point we are today. Basically the idea of
rotating board members on and off is not
such a bad idea to give them an opportu-
nity and to give them some relief.
And it's kind of interesting when a
new board member comes on. Some of
you are new to the board. You come on
andyou're not sure what's going on. You
think this is going to be a civic responsi-
bility and it's not going to take too much
effort and first thing you know you're
learning about aquifers. You're looking
at modeling and computers, and you're
trying to understand. You've got world
of people who still are in powerful posi-


Maintaining the Water Management Districts

tions and are very sympathetic and inter-
ested in water management who are
overlooked. Board members are giving
50 to 60 days a year to the districts.

Bill McCartney
I'd like to nominate Buddy Blain as
the first President of the Society for Pres-
ervation ofWater Management Districts.
He's always up front on the issues.
To know what changes we can ex-
pect we really have to know what we are.
I don't think there is an institution of
water management. There is the institu-
tion of water management districts. But
there is no mechanism right now, except
for the coordination through the Depart-
ment of Environmental Regulation, for
collective responses that don't specifi-
cally relate to Florida Government for
the districts. It's interesting to note that
there have been only three publications
or three vehicles in which all five dis-
tricts were collectively involved. One is
the Florida Water Atlas, which had a
section on each district and we didn't do
that One is the Governor's Save Our
Rivers brochure and video presentation;
we didn't have anything to do with that,
either The only collective response that
the five districts have had was last year
to the Senate Natural Resources Com-
mittee. Overall, we need to work to-
gether more closely; we need to work
together on education.
We need a small collective staff.
Wehavent even been able to keep a
coordinator to help us with meetings and
agendas and things like that or our An-
nual Meetings. Much of the coordina-
tion that we've received has been unilat-
eral on the part of an individual district to
bring everybody together. We used to
meet quarterly, then we met semi-annu-
ally, then we met annually, and now
we're goingback to semi-annually again.
We need to maintain some consistency.

Certainly, we have learned a lot from
each other.
Once we understand what we are,
then we need to really realize what changes
we can expect and which ones the insti-
tution cannot accept because they could
do harm to the institution. When you say
there are 80 acres of Putnam County in
the St. Johns River Water Management
District and the rest of Putnam County is
in the Suwannee River Water Manage-
ment District, does it really matter if you
put that 80 acres in with the rest of the
otherpart ofthe County? No! Butitdoes
matter when you say that the water
management district boundaries must be
consistent with the county line. Because
that makes political subdivisions of the
district that relate to elected as opposed
to appointed boards.
I can't say enough for the quality
and the dedication of the appointed boards.
We have been extremely fortunate in
Northwest Florida. Tom Coldewey has
been on our board for the past 15 years.
He has flown back from Wilmington,
Delaware to attend a budget and finance
committee meeting. If that's not dedica-
tion! And his example is commensurate
with the other board members. There are
some changes we can stand and some we
can't. Andwhenwe talk aboutthe county
lines, I suggest that we revisit or Sun-
down the counties andsee ifwe shouldn't
bring them on line with our Water Man-
agement Districts.
The districts are an original creation
from the state of Florida and not a federal
mandate. That's why we're the only state
that has them. So they are unique and the
only way we're going to maintain them is
for those of us in the business, those of us
that have been in the business, to have
meetings like this once a year and to have
topics on the agenda in which we partici-
pate. U

Information Session

STechnological Advances in Resource Management:

Modeling Kissimmee River Restoration

Sponsored by South Florida r Water Management District

Louis Toth,
Research Environmentalist,
Environmental Sciences

Kent Loftin,
Water Resource Division,

Louis Toth
I'd like to emphasize that the Kis-
simmee River Project is first and fore-
most an environmental restoration pro-
gram, so in the first half of our presenta-
tion, I'd like to give some background as
to why we are attempting to restore the
Kissimmee River, our restoration objec-
tives and the environmental criteria that
we feel are important in achieving these
goals and objectives. These criteria are
based upon what we know about the
hydrology and ecology of the pre-chan-
nelization ecosystem, what we have
learned from our demonstration project
and the impacts of channelization on
Kissimmee River resources.
Pri r to chanpelization, the Kissim-
mee River'consisted of about 103 miles
of meandering river that flowed within a
one-to two-mile wide flood plain. The
former river now is directed through a
56-mile long canal that has an average
depth of about 30 feet and surface width
of between 200 and 350 feet. Although
the canal spoil destroyed many miles of
former course, remnant sections of the
original river remain as what we call
Soxbows on either side of the canal.

Between 30 and 35,000 acres of the
45,000 acres of pre-channelization flood
plain wetlands have been either com-
pletely drained, covered with spoil or
converted to canal. Impacts of chan-
nelization on these wetlands have had
wideranging ecological consequences.
These include a loss of fish and wildlife
habitat, and a virtual destruction of the
complex food web that the flood plain
wetlands once supported. For example,
since channelization, there has been a
reported 92 percent reduction in water
fowl usage of the lower Kissimmee ba-
sin. This decline is apparently due to the
loss of foraging habitat that was once
provided by the extensive wet prairie
that existed along the periphery of the
flood plain.
Approximately 35 linear miles of
former river course have been obliter-
ated by the excavation of canal and
placement of spoil, while discontinuance
of flow has resulted in severe habitat
degradation in the remaining 68 miles
of river course. Dissolved oxygen levels
are indicative of the affects of lack of
flow on river habitat quality. During the
summer and fall months dissolved oxy-
gen levels in the canal and river fre-
quently fall well below state standard of
five parts per million and in the old river
runs they even fall below one part per
The effects of channelization have
not been entirely limited to the river or
floodplain. For example, channelization
appears to have accommodated the drain-
age of an additional 220,000 acres of
wetlands within the lower Kissimmee

basin. As a result, much of the watershed
which formerly provided an extended
base for low regime now contributes
rapid surface water runoff. This secon-
dary drainage, in combination with the
conversion of drained wetlands to inten-
sive agricultural land use, has led to
further degradation of river water qual-
In addition to the direct physical
destruction of 35 miles of river course
and 7,000 acres of flood plain wetlands,
channelization has impacted the envi-
ronmental values of the Kissimmee River
ecosystem primarily through altered
hydrologic regimes. In response to this
environmental degradation, in 1976 the
Florida Legislature passed the Kissim-
mee Restoration Act that established the
coordinating council for the restoration
of the Kissimmee River valley. This
legislation directed the coordinating
council to develop measures to alleviate
the impacts of channelization and re-
store the environmental values of the
Kissimmee River ecosystem. At the
same time, the Army Corps of Engineers
conducted a feasibility study that evalu-
ated some of the proposed restoration
measures and the possibility of federal
participation in Kissimmee River resto-
ration efforts. In August of 1983 the
coordinating council recommended that
the Kissimmee River be dechannelized
by partial backfill of the C-38 canal. In
response, the South Florida Water Man-
agement District developed a prelimi-
nary restoration strategy that included
the phase one demonstration project.
The project consists of four major


Modeling Kissimmee River Restoration

components, one of which is the installa-
tion of three sheet pile weirs across the
C-38 canal. The purpose of the weirs is to
simulate the effects of backfilling by
diverting water and flow into adjacent
river oxbows. The first of the weirs was
completed at the end of 1984. The last
was completed in August 1985. Two of
the other project components are field
tests of floodplain marsh restoration al-
ternatives. These include pool stage
fluctuation and the creation of a flow-
through marsh. During the course of the
demonstration project, we have had ex-
tensive hydrologic, hydraulic and envi-
ronmental monitoring studies.
The environmental monitoring stud-
ies have been a joint effort of the South
Florida Water Management District, the
DER and the Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission. These studies
have shown positive environmental re-
sponses to major demonstration project
activities. In the floodplain, forexample,
we have seen significant changes in
vegetation. In flow-through marsh area,
a mixed broad leaf marsh has replaced a
pasture that existed prior to our demon-
stration project. In the new portion of the
pool, wax myrtle has died out and been
replaced by willow. And in the southern
portion of the pool, pool stage fluctua-
tion has led to increased plant species
and community diversity in both flood
pain and the littoral zone of affected
river oxbows.
JThe floodplain fauna has also shown
positive environmental response. Peri-
odic inundation of drain sections of the
floodplainhas attractedflocks of as many
as 500 white ibis to the Pool B test area.
In addition, small forage fish populations
have expanded in response to the in-
creased water levels that occurred as a
result ofourpool stage fluctuation sched-
In river channels and adjacent weirs,

the restoration of flow has prevented the
encroachment of floating and emergent
vegetation, flushed out the thick depos-
its of organic material that were found on
the river bottom and restored a more
natural sand bottom substrate, increased
habitat diversity, water quality, and led
to some positive changes in river fish
and in vertebrate communities.
As a result we feel that the demon-
stration project has provided data to
support further Kissimmee River resto-
ration efforts. Although the future
course of our restoration program has
not yet been decided, the environmental
restoration objectives and the criteria for
meeting these objectives have been clearly
established. Throughout the Coordinat-
ing Council and Corps review process,
the public support for restoration was
overwhelming and demands for rees-
tablishment of river valleys were voiced
repeatedly. This simply stated goal ef-
fectively envelops the complexity and
multi-dimensionality of river restoration.
These complex interrelationships pre-
clude establishment of specific restora-
tion criteria for each component of the
ecosystem and require that our restora-
tion strategy be based upon an ecosys-
tem perspective. This holistic approach
embodies the legislative intent of the
Kissimmee Restoration Act and can be
achieved through establishment of con-
cept of ecological integrity as our pri-
mary restoration goal. A thorough and
comprehensive river restoration plan must
be able to reproduce this variability as
well as the basic hydrologic characteris-
tics. We also feel that this restoration
strategy must provide measures that will
recreate the 35 linear miles of river
course and 7,000 acres of flood plain
wetlands that are currently obliterated
by the canal and adjacent spoil banks.
I'd like to now introduce Kent Loftin,
who is the project manager of the Kis-

simmee Riverrestorationprogram. Kent
will describe to you how this environ-
mental criteria that I just described are
being incorporated in our river restora-
tion efforts.

Kent Loftin
We basically asked the question,
what do we need to do to restore the
river? And mainly we need to recreate
the original topography and vegetation
so that the given flow rate, the actual re-
sponse to stage and distribution of water
is the same as it was originally. Also, we
need to fix the original inputs to the
system, the flow from the tributaries as
well as the upper basin. And the second
thing is, how successful can we be with
this? We have divided most of the fea-
tures into form and function. For many
years, the center of the restoration was
dealing with recreating the form of the
river. That is, can we backfill the canal
and get rid of the manmade features? We
are trying to promote the idea that we
have to deal with the function, which is
the hydrotheory feature, just as much.
All of these factors involve the en-
tire range of social, economic, political
and physical constraints. We're going to
have to deal with those overthe next year
or two as we move ahead with the Kis-
simmee restoration. In some cases, we've
looked at these factors as iron-clad con-
straints. If we do that, it limits what we
can expect to achieve in restoration. But
if we look at relaxing or changing those
constraints a little bit, this will give us
more flexibility in what we can do in the
To give you another view of how we
break down the objectives of restoration
between form and function, on the form
side we want to restore flow to the river
flood plain and remove the manmade
features to the fullest extent we can. That
will definitely improve the aesthetics. If

Modeling Kissimmee River Restoration

we restore the function, which is the
water flow, and we mainly want to elimi-
nate the over drainage effects of drain-
age in the flood plain and the uplands
and also restore the hydroperiods, then
the difference here is some of these are
compatible and some may be trade-offs.
That is, we can have more water to re-
store the wetland habitat and have the
water to support the extra species popu-
lations and diversity. But if we deal only
in providing hydroperiod and engineer-
ing to make it wet the land, we may not
have the aesthetics of a restored river.
There's one more constraint that we
didn't mention yet, which is the naviga-
tion factor. We currently have a river
system that provides year-round naviga-
tion. It's very safe to navigate; there are
no swift currents or hazards to boaters.
Under restoration features, I think some
of those things are going to be difficult to
maintain. Decisions need to be made on
how we provide for navigation underresr
Within the flood control constraints,
we have to be careful with what's done in
the lower basin that could impact the
upper basin or Lake Okeechobee or areas
We're going through a process of
developing our alternative plans and
evaluating them. The way we are pro-
ceeding is to adjust the individual fea-
tures of the plan so we can try to maxi-
mize those goals to help improve as
manyof the beneficial environmental
features as we can. At the same time,
we're trying to work with loosening the
constraints about the navigation or the
flood control or the hydroperiod issues
that can limit what we can accomplish
out there.
At some point in time, we hope to
lay before the decision makers certain
pathways for the rest of the restoration
effort, and choose A, B, C or D. Let's

say A is a backfilling plan, B might be
using more extensive weirs, but the main
idea is that those pathways are probably
independent from each other from that
point on. At this time, we're still looking
at the full spectrum of alternatives and,
about a year from now, we'll be ready to
present what we feel are practical combi-
nations of those alternative plans and the
components that we're going to use.
We are beginning to bring everyone
into the viewpoint that we have to con-
sider re-regulating the upper basin to
give us more flexibility on how we de-
liver water to the lower basin. We're
putting forward the idea that it doesn't
make a lot of sense to spend a lot of
money building weirs or backfilling the
canal if the flow regimes are not consis-
tent to make it function very well. So we
need to have a double-pronged approach.
If we look at some of the basic alterna-
tives, we have what we're considering a
maximum weir plan where we use as
many weirs as functionally beneficial to
redistribute flow paths. We also have the
option of what kinds of weirs we're look-
ing at.
There's going to be two key areas of
evaluation. We're going to evaluate each
component and how well it works and
that's where the modeling work, espe-
cially the physical modeling work, is
very powerful. Also, we'll be develop-
ing the cost options and also going
through something in-house at the water
management district where we look at
how these features will perform in a
whole system with maximum weirs or
maximum flows.
We plan to prepare a matrix to deter-
mine how well a given plan satisfies the
objectives of form and function and, on a
component level, what structures are used
and what's required physically to ac-
complish it. Each one of these will carry
with it a commitment to deal with the

constraints like keeping navigation or
flood control at the status quo or whether
it implies that there has to be this change
in commitment to one of those constraints
and the trade-offs of that. We don't
expect to give any decision by the single
number or bottom line. No one can say,
aha, A is better than B. But it's going to
be very complicated and the key of this
particular matrix is that each individual
block has been filledin by two basic tools
- the field data we've collected and the
development of the criteria, and the de-
velopment scales to give us an index on
the performance as it would compare to
the pre-project condition. In the second
part is the modeling work we're doing
going to actually tell us how these things
will perform before we build them in the
field? Then we can give an estimate in a
quantitative or qualitative way on this
matrix so that the decision makers can
make the decision about viability.
I think the costs are going to be very
expensive in this study or restoration.
Something came out last week at a sym-
posium we had that I want to share with
you. The view was that, many times,
when a "least cost" alternative rule is
used at the time that studies are made, the
foresight isn't largescale enough to look
far down the road at other social or
emotional feelings that would come about
as have on Kissimmee. You can make
the least cost decision today that in the
end is going to cost a lot more money.
When they channelized the Kissimmee
River, it was probably economically a
good least cost and functional solution to
the flood control problems. But as we
see some 20 or 30 years later, we actu-
ally have to revisit this study and the cost
implications might be in excess of $100
million. With a little bit more foresight
and with a slightly higher cost, we might
have avoided the channel down the
floodplain. N


i .


Information Session

Geographic Information Systems

for Water Resource Management

Sponsored by Southwest Florida Water Management District

Steve Dicks, Manager, Mapping
and GIS Section,

Robert Christianson, Manager,
Land Use Planning Section,

Steve Dicks
The Southwest Florida Water Man-
agement District is currently developing
a Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
The system is computer-based, designed
to facilitate the capture, storage, editing,
manipulation, and display of geographi-
cally referenced data.
There are two types of databases.
Vector data uses lines and points to dis-
play information and raster data uses
rows and columns.
The GIS system can link data to-
gether creating relationships of informa-
tion. These links allow comparing and
combining different layers of informa-
SThe development of a GIS system
may use two approaches. Some systems
areNproject-oriented while others are
database-oriented. The project-oriented
system relates to individual jobs and the
information necessary for those specific
tasks. The database-oriented system in-
volves long range activities where data is
collected and stored for use over a period
of time. The data is available for many
tasks and is retained permanently.
The design of the GIS system in-
volves a process where there is analysis

of the use of the system. There are
several steps in the development phase.
To start the procedure, those using the
system should be contacted as to their
needs and requirements. Next the func-
tions of the system shouldbe determined.
After looking at requirements and pro-
posed functions, the physical design of
the system should follow. Finally, apilot
project can be used to test the aspects of
the database design and see if it meets the
needs of the program.
The largest part of the system is the
collection and maintenance of the data.
An analysis of the data inputs should
investigate data quality, data documen-
tation, and database maintenance. The
database should be universal in nature so
information can be shared with other
The collection of the different data
layers is tedious and the hardware will
take up a lot of space. The Southwest
District contracts out most data collec-
tion. Analysis requires less staff and
hardware, and is done in house.
Applications of the GIS system by
the District includes modeling for the
susceptibility of groundwater contami-
nation (DRASTIC), permit and plotting
evaluation, land use analysis, and site
identification for land acquisition.
A model of groundwater contamina-
tion susceptibility is requiredby the state
and is being implemented on the GIS
system. The permit and plotting activi-
ties are aided by providing information
on nearby permits and comparisons of
the area involved.

Robert Christianson
The Southwest District uses the OIS
program for various applications related
to lands which are owned by the district
for water management purposes. The
GIS system provides a tool for land use
analysis. One application involves cal-
culation of recreational needs. The
computer program relates demand to
supply. A computer grid display high-
lights area of need. The system can also
determine the types of recreational de-
Other factors such as how far people
will travel for recreation can help deter-
mine the locations desirable for such ac-
tivities. The GIS program facilitates the
evaluation of land use.
A major application of GIS is the
identification of areas most important for
acquisition. Base data is entered into the
system and then programs developed to
generate composite maps of the District.
The maps include a base map, topogra-
phy, land cover, floodplain, hydrology,
population, and water supply.
The composite maps can identify
areas most important for water supply,
flood protection, protection and regula-
tion of natural systems, threats of devel-
opment, and management and acquisi-
tion. U

Information Session

Conserving Water:

Regulation or Education

Sponsored by South Florida Water Management District

Richard Owen, Director,
Planning Department,

Wendy Nero,

Richard Owen
Water conservation programs are a
reality because of rapid growth and the
limited water resources in Florida. The
Southwest Florida Water Management
District has implemented a two-part pro-
gram featuring both education and regu-
The water conservation initiatives in
the past included a grants and demonstra-
tion program and presently focuses on
the development of water conservation
programs by utilities and associated or-
ganizations, an education program work-
ing closely with school systems in devel-
oping programs on conserving water, and
the launching of a major media campaign
to increase public awareness.
The implementation of regulatory
programs involve consumptive use per-
mittiqg, local ordinances, and state legis-
lation. The consumptive use permitting
program places water conservation con-
ditions in agricultural areas.
Other regulatory devices involve local
ordinances that restrict irrigation to cer-
tain times of the day and limit such non-
essential water uses as car washing. New
legislation may require changes in build-
ing codes and landscape designs. In
recent years, water conservation has come

to the forefront and the Governing Board
has provided needed funding for public
awareness programs.
New landscape designs such as Xer-
iscape can reduce the need for heavy ir-
rigation of residential properties. Sev-
eral demonstration projects have been
completed in the state featuring the Xer-
iscape principles.

Wendy Nero
The Southwest Florida Water Man-
agement District has participated in sev-
eral education programs on water con-
servation. Several examples include a
reuse curriculum with Pinellas County 4-
H, an auto visor water conservation cam-
paign in Sarasota, Cap n' Splash video
contest with the Manasota Supplier's
Association, and a Public Service Video
Campaign with the West Coast Water
Supply Authority and the Hillsborough
County Extension Service.

Richard Owen
The Consumptive Use Permit Pro-
gram (CUP) generally requires certain
conditions. The users affected include
the suppliers, agriculture, industry, com-
mercial entities, and power generation.
The District has Public Supply, In-
dustrial, and Agricultural Advisory Com-
mittees which provide input to the dis-
trict CUP program. The group has as-
sisted in developing conditions for con-
For the agricultural community, sug-
gested conditions include implementa-
tion of the best management program,

leak detection and system repair, conver-
sion to more efficient irrigation systems,
and night irrigation where possible.
Wendy Nero
Water conservation programs for
public suppliers require an evaluation
process. Utilities need to identify the
service area population.
Programs such as efficient landscap-
ing and water efficient plumbing will be
part of the future and may be required
through legislative changes.
A discussion of water conservation
measures included the promotion of in-
dividual meters for apartments and con-
dominiums and rate structures to encour-
age conservation. Concerns were ex-
pressed about rate structures and their
limitations due to bonding requirements.

Richard Owen
Agencies should be prepared for a
water shortage emergency by having a
specific plan including procedures to
identify the extent of the shortage. A list
of possible water restrictions ranked by
severity of the shortage should be avail-

Wendy Nero
The Southwest District conducted a
survey of awareness of water conserva-
tion. Although most residents in the
district have experienced a water short-
age within the past three years, only 55
percent said they were aware of it.
The water conservation plan should
make residents aware of the water saving
methods and the adoption of measures to


1 -- ---U

Conservng Water

handle the shortage. Sixty-five percent
said they would respond to measures
because of a fear of running out o water
in the near or distant future.
A mobile lab could provide analysis
of individual homes and businesses ec-
ommendingwatersavingmeasures. This
service would bring recognition to the
sponsoring agency.

Rihard Owen
The Southwest District has consid-
ered several options for mandatory water
conservation. They include regulatory,
economic, and operational methods.
Regulatory ttthods can involve or-
dinances aid legislation mandating cer-
tain conditions for water conservation.
They include new plumbing codes, land-
cping codes, irrigation efficiency codes,
daytime ligation ban, alternate day ir-
pgation, quantity of use restrictions, and
ladscape contractor licensing.
Economic methods center on utility
rate structures. Several fonns include an
inclining rate, a seasonal rate, and a rate
surchrge. These methods are controver-
sial since they can place a heavy burden
on lower income groups.
The third method is through opera-
tional mechanisms. They are provided
by utilities and include water audits, leak
detention, after testing, wastewater reuse,
and stonnwater reuse.


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