Title: Economic Leaflets - Industrial Water Supply in Fla
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00002896/00001
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Title: Economic Leaflets - Industrial Water Supply in Fla
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Bus. Admin., U of F, Gainesvile
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: Richard Hamann's Collection - Economic Leaflets - Industrial Water Supply in Fla
General Note: Box 12, Folder 1 ( Materials and Reports on Florida's Water Resources - 1945 - 1957 ), Item 10
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00002896
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Published monthly by the Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business Administration,
University of Florida, Gainesville. George B. Hurff, Editor.
Signed articles are prepared by Faculty members. Other materials are supplied by the Bureau of Economic and Business Research. The views
and opinions expressed are those of the author and are not to be construed as official views of the University.

VOL. XI, No. 2 Entered as second-class matter December 6, 1941, at the post office at JANUARY, 1952
Gainesville, Florida, under Act of August 24, 1912.

Industrial i)ater Supply in Florida

A. P. BLACK, Head Professor of Chemistry
F. A. EIDSNESS, Teaching Assistant in Chemistry

An ample supply of water is as important to an in-
dustrial plant as its supply of fuel or the raw materials
which it fabricates into finished products. No industry
or business can long survive where water is unavailable
or inadequate as to quantity and quality. This inescap-
able economic fact is already shaping our national future,
because in recent years it has been clearly recognized
that the water resources of the country are not unlimited.
Because the South is today undergoing an industrial
revolution which is changing its entire economy, it is
important that every southern state carefully examine
and evaluate the nature and extent of its natural water
resources. Only by so doing can it make long-time plans
with respect to the number and the type of industries
which it desires to attract.
Extent of Water Use by Industry
Water-use studies based on the 1947 Census of Manu-
factures data indicate that industrial use of water in the
United States may be at the rate of over 21,000,000,000
gallons per day. The United States Geological Survey
-arrives at a somewhat similar figure, estimating that
industry uses daily approximately 5,000,000,000 gallons
of ground water and 20,000,000,000 gallons of surface
water. Industries differ very widely in their water re-
quirements. Of 3,057 plants studied in one industrial
survey, 25 per cent reported usage of less than 10,000
gallons per day; nearly half required less than 50,000
gallons per day; whereas 48 plants reported a daily in-
take of 50,000,000 gallons per day. Table 1 shows the
amount of water used by various industries per unit of
finished product. The steel industry leads all others in
its use of water and requires 65,000 gallons for a ton of
finished product. Next in order of water use are pe-
troleum products, wood pulp and paper. Chart I shows
the uses to which this water is put by industry. From
the chart it is seen that very large industries normally
employ more than half of their total requirements for
cooling purposes. This is important because much of
this use is non-consumptive, and the water may be re-
used. Process water constitutes about one-third of the
total requirements of all industrial plants, large or small.

Table 2 gives for eleven industries the amount of water
required per $1.00 of value added. It will be noted that
the industries which require the largest volume of water
lead also in water used per $1.00 of value added.
Chart I.
Percentage of Water Intake Used for Various Purposes

Iesl of i 00o
U.)l IMkt. -


/ '

Average of All
Plants Taking in
Less Than 10 Million
Gallons Daily

Dhr, PurpoN
Sonitary ond Sece
Bol, Fn d


Average of All
Plants Taking in
More Than 10 Million
Gallons Daily*

Total exceeds 100 percent because of inclusion of reused water by
some reporting plants.
Reproduced from Water in Industry, a publication of the National
Association of Manufacturers and The Conservation Foundation. This
chart is based upon information furnished by 2,833 industrial plants
in the United States.

Sources of Industrial Water
There are four primary sources upon which industry
must depend to meet its present and future water re-
quirements. They are: (a) surface water, (b) ground
water, (c) sea water, and (d) water reclaimed from
domestic sewage and industrial wastes.
Based upon the total daily use by industry of 25,000,-
S000,000 gallons, it is estimated that about 20,000,000,000

Sent free to residents of Florida on request.



so0 -


i Table 1.-Estimated Industrial Water Use in the
United States: 1947

S Production 1947 Water Use
S ______ (Estimated)

Industry A.| 0 |1
o 0 r
1A _4 ___0__ 4 I ____

Steel (finished) ....419 $2,659,250 61,857,241 tons 65,000 4,020,721
3il refining ............ 437 1,494,474 1,887,890,000 bbl. 770 1,452,675
Gasoline .............. (a) 791,25,000 bbl. 7 791,32
Wood pulp
Sulfate ................ (a) 5,356,710 tons 64,000 842,829
Sulfte ........... (a) 2,795,960 tons 60,000 167,758
Soda .................... (a) 491,580 tons 85,000 41,784
Groundwood ..... (a) 2,049,814 tons 5,000 10,249
Total ............. 226 41,938 562,520
Paper ........... (a) 10,646,883 tons 89,000 415,226
Paper board .......... (a) 9,186,810 tons 15,000 137,802
Total .............. 665 1,050,108 19,888,648 tons 553,028
Coke ....................... 167 (a) 79,146,000 tons 8,600 284,493
Beer ........................ 440 808,946 88,027,000 bbl. 470 41,373
Whiskey ................ 22 472,57 246,44,000 gal. 80 21,155
SMilk, cream and 0.11-
butter(b) ............ (a) 71,440,000,000 lb. 0.25 14,286
Canning and pre- 7.5-
serving(c) .......... 2,26 609,99 91,546,000 cases 250 8,520(d)
ice(e) ................3,423 226,584 6,100,000 tons 248.85 8,802
Soft drinks ........... 5,618 421,000 927,700,000 cases 2.5 6,250
Woolens and
worsted fabrics.. 495 599,584 464,568,000 lb. 70 3,252
Wool scouring 74 4,166 210,172,000 lb. 1.26 2,648
Tanning .............. 561 403,783 238,781,000 lb. 8 1,910
Soap ........................ 249 450,721 4,138,001,000 lb. 0.25 1,034
Meat packing
(hogs) ................ 2,153 (a) 51,678,047 hogs 11 568
Cane sugar(f) ..... 2 98,112 858,000 tons 1,000 858
Rayon (all types) 38 447,900 746,900,000 lb. 0.16 119

(a) "Value added by manufacture" is not given on the same basis
as "production" on which 'water consumption is based.
(b) Based on U. S. Department of Agriculture figures for creamy
butter, liquid milk and cream sold in communities. No other milk
products are subject to water consumption estimates.
(e) Excludes fish.
(d) Includes only water used in processing fourteen fruits and
vegetables for which consumption factors are available. This accounts
for 177,821,000 cases. Total water used by this group is probably two
or three times as high.
(e) Includes filling cans and pulling cores.
(f) Includes refining only.
Source: Sheppard T. Powell and Hilary E. Bacon, Journal of
the American Waterworks Association, August, 1950.

Table 2.-Water Used per Dollar Value Added, in the
United States: 1947

Water Used
per $1 Added
Industry (in gallons)

Steel ........ ..... ................ ............... 1,400
W ood pulp ...................................................................................... 1,352
Oil refining ................................-. ........-----. ...... 978
Paper and board 5----- 27
Beer ................................................................................................... 51
Wool scouring .................................................................--- ............ 49
W whiskey .... ........................................................ 4
Soft drinks ....................................... ...... .... ................... 15
Woolen and worsted fabrics ... ..................... ........... .4
Rayon ....... ... .............-.... ............................. ................ 8.6

Source: Sheppard T. Powell and Hilary E. Bacon, Journal of
the American Waterworks Association, August, 1950.

gallons is derived from surface sources and 5,000,000,000
gallons per day is ground water. Of the 3,057 plants
included in the 1947 study, one-half derive all or part
of their supply from rivers or lakes. Twenty-nine per
cent derive their supplies from their own wells and 21
per cent use water from municipal wells. It is significant
to note that since 1939 the use by industry of water from
municipal wells has increased by 50 per cent.

Industrial Water Use in Florida
In the state of Florida there are at present eight pulp
and paper mills, one of which produces wood pulp only;

six, wood pulp and paper; and one which produces paper
from waste-paper pulp. Of the seven mills producing
wood pulp, six utilize the kraft or sulfate process. A con-
servative estimate of the amount of water used daily by
these eight mills is 150,000,000 gallons. A new kraft
mill currently under construction will use approximately
25,000,000 gallons per day, and an additional mill now
in the planning stage will use 40,000,000 to 50,000,000
gallons per day.
The other Florida industry requiring large volumes of
water is the phosphate industry. Peek (Water Resource
Studies, Report of Investigations No. 7, Florida Geological
Survey) estimates the water usage by the phosphate com-
panies in Polk County as 75,000,000 gallons per day. All
of this water, as well as most of the water used by the
pulp and paper mills, is derived from wells. It is evi-
dent, therefore, that these two industries alone are using
approximately 225,000,000 gallons of water daily, with
perhaps 75,000,000 additional gallons to be used within
the near future. To these requirements must be added
an unknown but very large consumption of water for
other industrial uses, of which the washing of fruits and
vegetables is the largest. It is interesting to compare
this total with water used for municipal purposes. Of
the 1950 state population of 2,771,305, 70 per cent, or
1,940,000, are served by the 353 public water supplies of
the state. Based on the present American average of
127 gallons per person per day, this would indicate a
total daily output of 246,000,000 gallons. It is difficult
to estimate to what figure that should be increased due
to the requirements of Florida's large tourist population,
but it seems safe to say that the daily production of
municipal water in the state is probably not less than
300,000,000 gallons. It is evident, therefore, that since
Florida's two major industries alone already use 225,-
000,000 gallons of water daily, to which an additional
75,000,000 gallons will soon be added, the industrial use
of water in Florida is rapidly approaching, if indeed it
has not already exceeded, the total daily production of
the 353 public water supplies.

Extent of Florida's Natural Water Resources

Florida's natural water resources are exceeded by
those of no other area of equal size on the American
continent. A brief consideration of the topography,
geology, and hydrology of the state will explain why this
is so. The state is underlain by a series of limestones
of Tertiary age that form an extensive ground-water
reservoir several hundred feet in thickness. Due to the
prevailing flat topography of the state, and the porous
and often cavernous natures of these formations, condi-
tions for recharge are favorable, and it is estimated that
perhaps 25 per cent of the state's annual rainfall of 52.7
inches may find its way into these subterranean aquifers.
If observations are made of the height to which waters
will rise in cased wells penetrating these limestone forma-
tions, and lines drawn on a map through the points where
these values are the same, there is obtained a map show-
ing with considerable accuracy the piezometric water
surface in these formations. For example, in a broad
band extending from North-Central Florida into southern
Georgia, water will rise in cased wells to a height of 90
feet above mean sea level, and within a small area of
Polk County, water will rise in cased wells to a height
of 120 feet above sea level. These are called the "North-
ern" and "Southern" piezometric highs and delineate in
general the centers of great recharge areas within which
surface water enters the underlying limestones. Smaller
sub-highs are located throughout the state. One of these,

the so-called "Tampa high," which embraces an area of
about 750 square miles in Pasco and Hernando counties,
has been recently studied, and some idea of the enormous
amount of water to be derived from these formations is
available. The rainfall on the high is 57 inches annually,
which means that 741,000,000,000 gallons of water fall
annually on this 750-square-mile recharge area. Each
inch of recharge on the area represents the entrance of
13,000,000,000 gallons into the underlying limestone aqui-
fer. Assuming that 25 per cent of the annual rainfall is
recharged, we arrive at a figure of 185,000,000,000 gallons
recharged annually, or an average of 500,000,000 gallons
per day. Assuming uniform discharge along the fringe
of the recharge area, it may be shown that an estimated
6,400,000 gallons per mile might daily be withdrawn from
wells penetrating the formations.
There are other lines of evidence which serve to con-
firm the existence of vast underground water reserves.
One of these is the large yields which may be obtained
from both deep and shallow wells in many parts of the
state. A well drilled in Jacksonville in 1942 had a flow
of 6,500 gallons per minute or about 9.5 million gallons
a day. A well in Polk County has been pumped at the
rate of 7,500 gallons per minute-about 10.5 million gal-
lons a day-with a drawdown of only nine feet. Wells
less than 100 feet in depth in the new southwest field of
the city of Miami are being pumped at the rate of from
7,000,000 to 10,000,000 gallons per day.
Perhaps the best evidence is a consideration of the
measured flows of the state's extensive system of springs.
Of the 75 first magnitude springs in the United States,
Florida possesses 17. A "first magnitude spring" is de-
fined by the United States Geological Survey as one hav-
ing a flow of 100 second-feet or more. In addition, Florida
has 49 springs flowing between ten and one hundred
second-feet or more. The combined average daily flow
of the two largest springs, SilVer Springs Run and Rain-
bow Springs, is 974,000,000 gallons. The average daily
flow of the 17 first magnitude springs is 2,555,000,000
gallons. The average daily flow of the 49 second magni-
tude springs is 1,052,000,000 gallons. The combined aver-
age daily flow of these 66 springs is therefore 3,607,000,000
gallons. This is greater than the estimated 3,000,000,000
gallons of water used daily by all American cities which
derive their supplies from wells. It is 72 per cent of the
estimated 5,000,000,000 gallons of well water used daily
by all American industries, and 17 per cent of the total
daily usage of water by all American industry. It is
-more than ten times greater than the state's entire
municipal production and more than ten times greater
than the estimated total of all industrial use in Florida.
This vast underground reservoir may be compared to
an impounded surface reservoir behind a dam. The fric-
tional resistance to the passage of water through the
formations corresponds to the dam itself. The height
of the piezometric water surface in the formations cor-
responds to the height of the dam. Since the flow of
this great spring system is due to the fact that the piezo-
metric surface is above the land surface, the flow cor-
responds to water passing over the spillway of the dam
and represents leakage in excess of maximum storage
capacity. Even if the great system of springs should
cease to flow, the state would still possess very large
underground water reserves.
Surface Supplies
While Florida's surface supplies are not as extensive
as her underground supplies, they are still substantial.
The state is made up of some twelve river basins totally
or substantially enclosed within its borders, and seven

whose drainage area outside the state is as large or
larger than the corresponding area within it. The larg-
est of the state's river basins is the Kissimmee River
basin which includes 4,375 square miles. At flood stage
the Kissimmee River discharges into Lake Okeechobee
at the rate of 25,000 cubic feet per second. The next
largest basin is the St. Johns, covering an area of 3,000
square miles, with its flood discharge exceeding 14,000
cubic feet per second. In general, however, due to the
prevailing flat topography, the runoff of Florida's surface
streams is relatively low. Important storage for surface
water is provided by thousands of lakes that dot the
peninsula. The largest of these, Lake Okeechobee, is
about 35 miles in diameter and has a submerged area of
from 578 to 730 square miles, depending upon water
depth. Its surface varies between elevations of 12.56
and 15.56 mean sea level, with 1,320,000 acre-feet of stor-
age between. Evaporation from Lake Okeechobee often
reaches the figure of 2,500,000,000 gallons per day. Due
to the fact that the peninsula of Florida is in general an
area of low relief, it does not lend itself readily to the
construction of large surface reservoirs, and to date
little use has been made of such storage. The proposed
"conservation area" to be constructed as part of the
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project will
have an area of approximately 1,500 square.miles and in
area will be the largest man-made lake in the world.
As would be expected, therefore, municipalities, in-
dustries, and agriculture have for the most part developed
underground sources of supply. Of the state's 353 public
water supplies, 327, or 92.6 per cent, are derived from
wells, and only 26 from surface sources.
Industrial Water Quality
Industry is concerned not only with the quantity of
water available, but also with its quality. In certain
industries, as for example, the pulp and paper industry,
water quality is so important that the Technical Asso-
ciation of the Pulp and Paper Industry has established
its own rigid standards. Many states, notably New
York and California, have adopted a system of classes
and standards applicable to industrial water. As a rule,
quality requirements are highest for process water and
lowest for water to be used for cooling. Sea water is
frequently used for the latter purpose.
Florida waters vary widely in physical and chemical
quality. As a rule, lakes receiving the discharge of
rivers or springs draining swampy areas contain water
which is quite soft and high in organic color; lakes which
do not receive such surface drainage usually have water
low in color. The water of Lake Okeechobee, low in dis-
solved solids and high in organic color along its northern
shore, is much higher in dissolved solids and lower in
organic color along the southern shore.
Because of the limestone aquifers which are present
throughout the state, ground water for the most part is
quite hard, the hardness as a rule increasing with the
depth of the well. The exceptions to this rule are found
in extreme Northwest Florida in the area around Pensa-
cola, where well waters are quite low in total hardness
and dissolved solids. Most artesian water contain vary-
ing amounts of hydrogen sulfide which imparts .an un-
pleasant odor and taste to the water, but which may be
readily removed by aeration. Water from flowing springs
is usually quite similar to water derived from wells in
the respective area.
Water Treatment in Florida
Florida stands very high in the list of states with
respect to the treatment of municipal water supplies.


There are 54 municipal water treatment plants in opera-
tion with several additional plants under construction.
Most of these plants are softening plants for the removal
of objectionable amounts of hardness. A few are co-
agulation plants for the removal of organic color or tur-
bidity. Most, but not all, of these plants are of sufficient
capacity to meet the demands of many types of new in-
dustries. *
Special Problems Encountered
There are three problems which are of major concern
in the development of Florida's natural water resources.
The first is the problem of salt-water intrusion. It is a
problem which has confronted Florida from earliest days
and one which has become more serious as withdrawal
of ground water from coastal areas has increased. It
results from the fact that sea water is heavier than fresh
water and when the two come together in permeable
formations there will be a tendency for the heavier sea
water to displace the lighter fresh water. A great deal
of study and research has been devoted to the problem
and it is now well understood. By careful and constant
observation of drawdowns in wells, and proper spacing
of the wells themselves, the problem of salt-water in-
trusion is being successfully controlled. Lateral intrusion
is being prevented by the establishment of control works
in those rivers or drainage canals which enter the Gulf
or the Atlantic Ocean.
The second problem is the withdrawal of large volumes
of ground water within relatively small local areas. In
one coastal Florida city, for example, withdrawal of 30,-
000,000 gallons of water per day for industrial use has
depressed the piezometric water surface more than fifty
feet within the immediate area. The withdrawal of ap-
proximately 110,000,000 gallons of water a day from
wells in Polk County, about 75,000,000 gallons of which
is used by the phosphate industry, has resulted in the
complete cessation of flow of a spring which for the
period 1898-1931 had an average daily flow of approxi-
mately 20,000,000 gallons. In a few local areas of the
state, the demand for ground water is approaching the
capacity of the aquifers to yield water perennially. All
available evidence indicates, however, that throughout
most of the state the piezometric water surface has suf-
fered little or no change since its measurement was begun.
The third problem is the problem of pollution, which
is, of course, nationwide in its scope. At the present time
about four out of five industrial plants in this country
do not provide treatment of any kind for industrial
wastes before they are discharged, and the United States
Public Health Service estimates that 4,209 American
cities having a population of 31,000,000 have no sewage
treatment plants and that 2,367 additional cities with a
population of 29,000,000 need replacements or additions
to existing plants.
In Florida, as in some other states, pollution is a
problem with respect to both underground and surface
waters. At the turn of the century it was discovered

that wells drilled into the porous limestone aquifers would
successfully remove large quantities of storm water.
Later, as pollution increased and became concentrated
in urban areas, and as industry developed, it became
necessary to dispose of large volumes of untreated sewage
and industrial wastes. It is not surprising that the ease
and economy offered by the use of drainage wells led to
their use for this purpose in certain areas of the state.
Until recently, it had been thought that it would never
be possible to develop adequate supplies of potable water
from formations which for years have received these
wastes. Recently, however, wells have been drilled
through these formations, the polluted formations cased
off, and water of excellent quality obtained from under-
lying formations. Florida's Sanitary Code now prohibits
the drilling of drainage wells for these purposes and
regulates the drilling of drainage wells for other purposes.
Although there are very large areas in Florida where
inland and coastal waters are unpolluted, many Florida
cities, large and small, and some Florida industries dis-
charge untreated or partly treated sewage and industrial
wastes into lakes, streams, or bays. These unsatisfactory
conditions, however, are being corrected at least as
rapidly, if not more so, than in other parts of the coun-
try. Specifically, during the period 1946-49, plans for 88
sewerage systems and sewage treatment plants costing
approximately $30,000,000 were approved; and presently
a substantial number of new projects are either in the
planning stage or under construction.
There is an increasing tendency on the part of both
communities and industry alike to recognize waste treat-
ment as a functional or operating charge to be assumed
by the community or by industry or both.
Recreational Use of Water
The Florida State Chamber of Commerce estimates
that during 1950, 4,700,000 tourists, summer and winter,
visited Florida, resulting in an income to her citizens
of approximately $825,000,000. This constitutes the larg-
est single source of income and represents, therefore,
Florida's greatest industry. It is obvious that nothing
must be done to interfere to any degree with the recre-
ational uses to which the state's rivers, lakes, and streams
are now being put. However, the continued development
of Florida as a tourist state, and the promotion of a con-
current program of attracting new industries to Florida
are not incompatible. There are large areas of the state
strategically located with respect to water supply and
transportation which are suitable for the development
of numerous types of industries, large and small, without
in any way interfering with the recreational use of the
state's natural waters. It is believed by many students
of Florida's economy that the availability of the very
large developed and undeveloped water resources of the
state, in contrast with the shortage of supply in many
other parts of the country, may, and probably will, play
a dominant role in the future industrial and agricultural
development of the state.

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