Citation
Hydroscope Newsletter

Material Information

Title:
Hydroscope Newsletter
Publisher:
SWFWMD
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Law -- Florida ( LCSH )
Lawyers -- Florida ( LCSH )
City of St. Petersburg ( local )
City of Tampa ( local )
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida

Notes

Abstract:
Volume 6, No. 1, January 1975
General Note:
Box 6, Folder 1 ( Hydroscope - 1970-1985 ), Item 52
Funding:
Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
Levin College of Law, University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Southwest Florida

Water Maragaemerrt District


P.O. Box 457


Brooksville, Florida 33512


VOLUME 6, NO. 1


January 1975


WILL SAWGRASS LAKE
BECOME PINELLAS'
NATURE'S CLASSROOM?
Pinellas County youngsters of the future
may enjoy the benefits of an outdoor edu-
cation project similar to Hillsborough County's
Nature's Classroom.
Hillsborough's widely-acclaimed project
allows every sixth-grader in the county to
spend one school week each year in a
natural setting learning about conservation,
Florida animals and plants, and the Balance
of Nature at first hand.
Nature's Classroom is located on 360
acres in the Lower Hillsborough Flood de-
tention Area provided by the District to the
C~ ol system.
SA4ow, Pinellas County school officials have
expressed an interest in creating a similar
facility at Sawgrass Lake near Pinellas Park.
The District is currently acquiring land there
for a flood control and water management
project.
The suggestion is now under consideration
by the District Planning staff and by the
King Helie Group, District consultants for
planning recreational use of the land. No
decision on final recommendations to the
Pinellas-Anclote Basin Board or to the Gov-
erning Board has been made.
"The primary purpose of the District's
involvement must necessarily be flood control
and water conservation," John Anderson,
chairman of the Basin Board emphasized.
"If, however, we can also make the land
available for public use, either as a public
park or as an educational facility, that will be
an extra bonus."

Board Continues Hearings
Public hearings on the use of shallow
aquifer levels as a means of regulating St.
Petersburg's wellfields in Hillsborough and
Pasco Counties have been continued for 90
f( by the District Governing Board.
the Board, in continuing the hearings,
also voted at the December 11 public hearing
to require that any suggestions, comments
or proposals on the subject be submitted for
staff consideration within 45 days.
These wellfields are now regulated on the
basis of artesian aquifer levels.


BOARD ACTS ON 1-4 COMPLEX

FOR TAMPA BYPASS CANAL
Action taken by the District Governing Board at its December meeting has
moved Tampa and Temple Terrace one giant step closer to effective flood pro-
tection and water conservation.
The Board adopted a resolution asking the State Department of Natural
Resources to approve disbursement of $5,710,582 for the construction of the
Interstate 4 complex over the Tampa Bypass Canal.


The State Department of Transportation
hopes to advertise for bids on the project in
March and has estimated a contract time of
32 months, says Fred Schwartz of the
District engineering staff. That would mean
an expected completion date for the complex
of January 1978.
The complex includes reconstruction of a
segment of Interstate 4, Hillsborough Avenue,
Garden Lane, and an on-off ramp between
1-4 and Hillsborough Avenue.
FUNDS FOR THE PROJECT will come
from the State Water Resources Development
Account.
Concurrently, the U. S. Army Corps of
Engineers will be advertising for bids on
Section 3B of the Canal. That section of the
canal runs from Buffalo Avenue north to a
point where it will connect with the Harney
Cutoff near Vandenburg Airport.
WHEN THE CUTOFF IS COMPLETED,
the canal will connect with the Hillsborough
River about three miles upstream from the
Tampa Waterworks and will provide for the
first time the capability for diverting lower
elevation flood waters around the city. It
will provide a conduit for potentially pump-
ing approximately 10-15 million gallons of
water daily from a breath in the aquifer near
U. S. 301 to supplement Tampa's source of
water supply. (Tampa now uses an average of
approximately 55 million gallons per day.)
THE CANAL, when it is connected to the
river could also provide a means of storing
a small amount of excess water from the
river during times of high flow-usually rainy
summer months-for use during the annual
spring drought, when Tampa's water supply
runs short.
"Although the Tampa Bypass Canal is
commonly associated with flood control, its
possible functions in terms of water conser-


vation and water supply are equally dramatic,"
says Don Feaster, Executive Director of the
District.
"ITS VALUE as a tool for flood protection
is obvious. If we have a major flood on the
Hillsborough River before the canal becomes
functional, flood damages in Tampa and
Temple Terrace could soar into the tens of
millions of dollars.
"Beyond that, however, the potential
benefits in terms of water conservation and
supply are certainly worth noting. The By-
pass Canal offers a very real possibility for
more than doubling Tampa's available water.
The possible recycling of water from the
City's advanced waste treatment plant alone
could amount to 50 million gallons per day.
(continued on page 3)









DISTRICT ACTS TO COUNTER

INTRUSION
(In last month's issue, a feature by the editor explored the problem of
salt-water intrusion. That article, in essence, warned that many coastal
areas within the District are already incorporated in the Zone of Salt Water
Encroachment (250 milligrams of chloride per liter at depths of 100 feet or
less).
The story also attributed the movement of salty groundwater into inland
areas to two primary causes: (1) Canalization, which drains fresh water from
the ground while allowing salt water to flow inland; and (2) a reduction in
artesian pressure in the Floridan Aquifer. The artesian pressure in the aquifer
is measured by potentiometric surface, the height above mean sea level in a
well shaft to which artesian groundwater will rise under its own pressure. For
every foot of potentiometric surface that the aquifer level is lowered, salt
water beneath the Floridan Aquifer rises approximately 40 feet.
This month HYDROSCOPE is featuring a look at District projects and
proposals directed at arresting the movement of the salt-water wedge and, in
some places, pushing it back toward the Coastline.


WHEN DISTRICT HYDROLOGISTS and
engineers speak of projects to prevent salt-
water encroachment, tley divide the pro-
jects or proposals into three categories:
(1) Research projects aimed at collecting
information on the extent of the zone of
encroachment, particularly in Southern Hills-
borough and Charlotte Counties where the
Zone has not yet been mapped:
(2) Operational projects aimed at pre-
venting the movement of salty surface water
up rivers and canals; and
(3) Operational projects aimed at main-
taining or increasing artesian pressure (poten-
tiometric surface) in the Floridan Aquifer.
IN SOME INSTANCES, a particular pro-
ject may fulfill more than one of these
functions. For instance, Garald G. Parker,
Senior Scientist and Chief Hydrologist for
the District, has proposed that inflatable
rubber dams (Fabridams) or other kinds of
salt water barriers be installed near the mouths
of many major rivers within the District to
maintain the river levels a minimum of two
feet above mean sea level. The effect would
be two-fold:
(1) THEY WOULD LIMIT the inflow of
salt water during high tides and thereby cut
off a major source of intrusion near its
source; and
(2) THE PRESSURE EXERTED by the
increased depth of water upstream from the
dams would induce increased recharge to
the aquifer and prevent encroachment at
depth in the aquifers.
By forcing more water into the fresh
water aquifer (a confined area) we would
increase the pressure within the aquifer and,
thus, push back and depress the encroaching
salty groundwater.
Although the proposal, if changed from
an idea to an operational project would
have a dramatic effect upon the problem of
encroachment, the difficulty is fiscal. In-
flatable dams, although less expensive than
concrete dams, are costly. The District's in-


flatable dam on the Withlacoochee River was
installed in 1965 at a cost of $194,800.
The cost of construction today-and on
rivers of greater width-would be much higher.
WHEN THE LAKE TARPON OUTFALL
CANAL was constructed, providing a surface
outlet from the lake to Old Tampa Bay, a
salt-water barrier was built to prevent the
movement of salt water up the canal to the
Similarly, the District constructed an en-
closure around a sinkhole near the western
shore of the lake-through which salt water
was intruding at times of high tide--to
prevent further salination of the lake.

As a result of these actions, the chloride
(salt) content of the water has dropped
dramatically: from more than 3,000 milli-
grams per liter (mg/1) in 1968 to approxi-
mately 300 mg/1 in December, 1974. Thus,
the District has changed a brackish lake into
a fresh water lake that, in recharging the
aquifer in that area, helps to hold back salty
groundwater.
TWO OTHER SALT WATER BARRIERS
are planned by the District, both of them in
northwest Hillsborough County. Diaz, Seck-
inger and Associates, consulting engineers,
are now designing the structures to prevent
further salt-water intrusion up Channels A
and G, channels constructed in the early
1960's by the Soil & Conservation Service
for flood control purposes.
Plans for the salt-water barrier on Channel
A are now in the final design stage. It is
anticipated that advertisement for bids to
construct the barrier will be scheduled this
March and that construction will begin in
late April or early May. Estimated cost of the
project is approximately $600 thousand.
PLANS FOR THE BARRIER on Channel
G are in the preliminary design phase. Both
projects are funded by the Northwest Hills-
borough Basin Board.
The U. S. Geological Survey has suggested
the construction of salt water barriers on the


Pithlachascotee and Anclote Rivers if these
rivers are used as a supplementary source of
water supply and/or if seasonal excess, flow
is diverted from them to storage areas. If te-
flow of fresh water in these rivers is redu<
without inhibiting the flow of salt water up-
river at high tide, the result would be
extensive salt water invasion of the rivers'
channels. Gradually, the saline water in the
rivers would find its way into the soil
beneath the river and move laterally from
there.
Similarly, Geraghty & Miller, District
consultants, are studying the feasibility of a
salt-water barrier on the Anclote River, at-
temp ing to weigh biological and hydrological
factors in considering various potential sites
A PROJECT OF DISTRICT-WIDE IMPACT
is the yet-embryonic regional monitor well
program, funded and directed by each of the
District's eleven watershed basins. Under
this long-term program approximately 400
monitor wells at some 250 wellsites will be
constructed throughout the District over the
next decade.
From these wells, District hydrologists
will collect data reflecting changes in aquifer
levels and movement of salt water. These two
hydrologic features are closely correlated; a
decrease in artesian pressure within the aquifer
(usually stated as a lowering of the potentio-
metric surface) invites the landward and up
ward movement of salt water.
FOR THAT REASON, many of the
monitor wells will be located near the coast
(or known Zone of Encroachment line) and
will be aligned perpendicular to potentio-
metric surface contours.
All of the District's basins are participat-
ing in the Regional Monitor Well Program.
Most of the basins now have well construct-
ion operations underway, and 25 wells are
scheduled for completion before the end of
this fiscal year.
THE PURCHASE OF A LARGE RIG,
capable of drilling wells to 1,500 feet, by the
Alafia River Basin has provided a major boost
to the program. Although it will be used
primarily in the Alafia Basin, it is to be made
available also for use, at cost, in other basins
and will represent not only a major savings in
project expenses but quality control over
drilling and sampling operations not possible
by any other means.
OF ENORMOUS LONG-TERM SIGNI-
FICANCE in countering the problem of salt-
water intrusion are the District Rules and
Regulations on the Consumptive Use of Water.
In spite of the legal language in which they
are necessarily couched and behind all t"\
debates over specific details, the real sigr
ficance to these laws is quite simple:
They will prevent the "mining" of the

(continued on page 3)






(continued from page 2)
Floridan Aquifer (taking more water from
the aquifer than Nature can restore).
BY PREVENTING EXCESSIVE LOWER-
ING of aquifer levels-and, thus, the poten-
(->ietric surface of the aquifer-we will en-
the aid of Nature itself in the job of
holding salty groundwater back, of preserving
our fresh water resources. Man destroyed the
natural equilibrium that exists between fresh
water and groundwater. If Man stops mining
the aquifer-if Man stops lowering poten-
tiometric levels beyond reason-then Nature
will be able to stop the Salt Water Wedge
from moving further inland.

USF Gets Grant

for HydrillaStudy
Do aquatic weeds grow faster in lakes
whose surface levels have been maintained by
groundwater pumpage? The District may
know the answer to that question early this
year.
The growth of the aquatic weed hydrilla is
the subject of a short-term study authorized
by the District Governing Board at its
December meeting after earlier approval by
the Northwest Hillsborough Basin Board.
The $1,000, six-week study will examine
the premise that hydrilla grow more rapidly
in lakes that have been augmented by ground-
,'er pumpage than in those that have not.
The addition of groundwater frequently
changes the pH value of lake water, making
it more alkaline or basic. Because hydrilla
seems to prefer a slightly alkaline envi-
ronment, it is theorized that adding ground-
water to lakes may hasten the plants' growth
rate. (continued on page 8)

--HYDROSCOPE-
This document is produced at an annual
printing and postage cost of $3,147.00
to provide public officials and private citi-
zens a current source of information about
the Southwest Florida Water Management
District and its programs.
BOARD OF GOVERNORS of the South-
west Florida Water Management District:
Derrill S. McAteer, Chairman
Robert E. Vaughn, Vice Chairman
J. R. Graw, Treasurer
Joe E. Hill, Asst. Treasurer
Thomas M. Van Der Veer, Secretary
N. Brooks Johns, Asst. Secretary
John A. Anderson, Member
(-4erman Beville, Member
,. C. Bexley, Jr., Member
Donald R. Feaster, Executive Director
Mygnon Evans, Editor
Donna K. Parkin, Asst. Editor


Monitor Well Program
Underway in NE Basins

The District has taken another important
step towards establishing a regional monitor
well program in the northeastern part of the
District.
The District Governing Board at its De-
cember meeting authorized, subject to ap-
proval by the Oklawaha River Basin Board,
payment for construction of the first Dis-
trict monitor well in the Oklawaha Basin
located north of the Moss Bluff Lock and
Dam. The well, eight inches in diameter,
is 225 feet deep.
Payment for the well, $4,442, completes
a contract with Guest Well Drilling Company
of Sarasota for two monitor wells in the
Withlacoochee and Oklawaha River Basin.
The other well under the same contract
was accepted by the Governing Board in
November. It is located in G. B. Tompkins
Park on U. S. 301 between Coleman and
Bushnell. Cost of that well, eight inches in
diameter and 225 feet deep, was $3,647.
Both wells are now partially functional
for monitoring purposes, says Barbara Boat-
wright, District geologist. They will become
fully functional in the near future when con-
tinuous recorders are installed.
Two other monitor wells were drilled in
the area earlier this year by the U. S. Geo-
logical Survey under its cooperative agree-
ment with the water management district.
Both of those wells are located in Citrus
County. One is in the Withlacoochee State
Forest south of State Road 44; the other is
on the bank of Lake Tsala Apopka.
Cost of these wells was split 50-50 by the
water management district and the Geological
Survey.
When the regional monitor well program
is completed, the District will have approx-
imately 20 monitor wells in the Withlacoo-
chee Basin recording changes in aquifer levels,
changes in the water table, and changes, if
any, in the Zone of Salt Water Encroachment,
Boatwright explained.
The specific locations of the remaining
monitor wells to be drilled has not been
finally determined, Boatwright explained.

ByPass Canal
(continued from page 1)
"WHEN YOU BEAR IN MIND that the
cost of running a pipeline to a distant well-
field usually costs about one million dollars
per mile-and you still must calculate the
cost of the wellfield-then the value of the
Bypass Canal comes into clearer focus."
Construction costs on the canal are shared
by the federal and state governments. The
U. S. Government provides 83% of con-
struction funds; the state, 17%. Funds for
purchase of rights-of-way come from local
sources.


DISTRICT STUDIES

RADIATION LEVELS
The District, in cooperation with other
government agencies, is conducting exten-
sive research in Polk, Hillsborough, Hardee
and DeSoto Counties to determine the pos-
sible impact of phosphate mining upon
radiation levels in ground and surface water.
Water samples are being taken from 100
sampling points-mostly wells-for analysis by
laboratories at Florida State University, the
University of Florida, and the U. S. Geolog-
ical Survey laboratory at Denver.
Cooperating in the joint project are the
U. S. Geological Survey, which in addition to
taking water samples within District bound-
aries, is also taking samples in Manatee
County; the State Department of Pollution
Control which is coordinating the multi-
agency investigation; and the Suwannee River
Water Management District. The latter is part-
icipating, providing background analysis, be-
cause of proposed phosphate operations in
Columbia County.
Public attention was focused on radiation
levels in water supplies in Polk County last
spring when laboratory analyses of water
samples there revealed radiation levels slight-
ly in excess of recommended standards of
the federal Environmental Protection Agency.
"There is certainly no reason for alarm
over these radiation levels," says Ray Clark,
administrator for the Radiation and Occu-
pational Health section of the state Division
Health.
'There is, of course, a basis for reasonable
concern. We must assume there is some type
of health effect from long-term, low-level
radiation exposure. However, a statistical,
study of causes of death in Polk County
has not provided a shred of evidence of an
unusual incidence of leukemia, bone cancer,
or lung cancer.
Of the 100 sampling points within District
boundaries, 30 are in the watershed basin
of the Alafia River and 70 within the Peace
River Basin. Another 25 samples are being
taken in Columbia County in North Florida.
The sampling points are concentrated in
Polk County because of the concentration of
phosphate mining operations there and the
availability of clusters of wells penetrating
different geologic formations, explains Barb-
ara Boatwright, District geologist.
"Our primary interest in obtaining sam-
ples from the Alafia Basin (Eastern Hills-
borough County) is gaining comparative data
on radiation levels in areas of reclamation
and in areas where mining has not yet begun.
We know that uranium 235 occurs naturally
in the phosphate matrix. The data from
Hillsborough County-when compared with
data from areas of current mining operations
-should give us a pretty good idea of how
mining the matrix increases or decreases the
degree of radiation."


_1 __ __ _




f------------------- -- ---



Jay B. Starkey:

Pioneer Floridian With 21st Century Vision


The year was 1922.
A young man with, some said, more
audacity than brains, decided to resign his
comfortable $1,800-a-year Post Office posi-
tion in St. Petersburg to take up cattle ranch-
ing.
"Can you afford to resign?" the Post
Master asked.
"No, sir, I have a wife and a five-month-
old baby at home and a 90% mortgage on our
home. But, if I wait until I can afford to
quit, I'll never have a chance to get into
ranching."
Soon Jay B. Starkey bought his first
tract of land: 10 acres south of Largo. The
down payment: one horse, one cow, and $50
cash.
Many of the years that followed were
"pretty rough." "Several of those years I
didn't make $1,800. Then the Depression
came along and the situation became ter-
rible. We sold hogs for 3C a pound and
steers for 4Q a pound."
By 1972, however, the man who had
struggled so hard to buy and keep 10 acres
had become the owner of the massive Anclote
River Ranch, 16,000 acres of Florida wilder-
ness sprawling over the headwaters of both
prongs of the Anclote River and traversed by
the Pithlachascotee River.
A portion of that ranchland is now becom-
the Starkey Wellfield and is being made
available to the City of New Port Richey.
Beginning two years ago he gave 250 acres
of his land to the Southwest Florida Water
Management District-and sold 1,759 acres to
the District for a fraction of its value-under
the condition that water withdrawals there
would be carefully regulated and that the
land would be preserved as a wilderness park
for future generations to enjoy.
"Sure I could have sold it for two or three
times more than I got for it if I had been
willing to sell it to the fast buck boys. They
would have chopped it up, dredged it, drained
it, and bulldozed it under. They don't care
what they do to the land and to our natural
resources as long as they can get their money
and get out.
"That's the reason I think the water man-
agement district is now one of our most
important governmental agencies. If people
don't wake up and realize that we can't build
houses and put mobile homes on every acre
in Florida and that we can't deplete our
water resources, there's a hard day of reck-
oning coming.
"Maybe I shouldn't care. I'm nearly
eighty years old. But other people are going
to be living here and I care what happens to
them."


Starkey's sense of history-both future
and past-is obvious as he drives through his
woodlands talking about the trams that once
ran through here carrying men and goods to
the big sawmills at Odessa; talking of pioneer
children who are buried here; pointing out
that the narrow sand trail was once the Dade
City Highway, a trail for stage coaches and
wagons traveling between Port Richey and
the county seat; pointing out locations where
pioneer farmers had settled.
Back at the ranchhouse where his son
J. B. Starkey, Jr. and his family now live, a
freight train clangs lazily by in the distance.
"Only two trains a day go by here now," the
elder Starkey says, "but that used to be the
main Jacksonville to St. Petersburg line. A
Russian built the rail line. That's how St.
Petersburg and Odessa got their names. The
lumber that was cut at Odessa was moved by
train down to St. Petersburg, loaded on to
schooners and shipped all over the world."
Starkey's love of local history prompted
him in 1962 to found the Pioneer Society of
Pinellas County, open to anyone who had



Mr. Starkey, in addition to his life as a
successful rancher, has played a very active
role in the affairs of St. Petersburg, Pinellas
County, and Florida.
"While I was born to love the great out-
doors, I have tried to keep in touch to some
extent with what goes on in this section of
Florida," he modestly states.
In actuality, he has had an enormous
impact on this section of Florida. Below is a
partial listing of his numerous civic activities:
Florida Livestock Board 1953-59
Florida Cattlemen's Association Pres-
ently Member; President 1953-55
Pasco County Cattlemen's Association -
Member
Tax Collector of Pinellas County 1937-
1949
Director, First National Bank of St.
Petersburg 1953-
Former Director, First Park Bank of
Pinellas Park 1958-73
Former Director, Pinellas Central Bank,
Largo 1951-53
Committee of 100, St. Petersburg Chamber
of Commerce
Founder, Pioneer Association of Pinellas
County and first President
Member and Former President, School of
Pioneers of St. Petersburg
Kiwanis Club of St. Petersburg, 30 years
U. S. Appeal Board, Southwest Florida,
5 years


been a resident of Pinellas at the time it
became a county in 1912. Although Starkey
himself had been born in Minnesota, he had
started school here right after the turn of the
century. His wife, the former Blanch Straub,
had been born in North Dakota but they
both entered the first grade on the same day
in the same school in St. Petersburg, Her
father, he reminisces, owned the St. Peters-
burg Times when the paper was a weekly
with a staff of only three persons.
Those early years were hard for Starkey.
His mother became a widow when he and
his brother were still young children. B ye
time he was ten he was earning his ow Jy
in the world while still going to school. By
the time he was twelve, he bought his first
calf. By the age of 17 he had saved enough to
buy three cows. He was a senior in high
school when he watched a young aviator
named Tony Jannus take off in a single-
engine plane to cross Tampa Bay for the
world's first scheduled commercial flight.
That was 1914; events in Europe soon drew
young Starkey into the U. S. Army. When
the war ended, he returned home to marry
his childhood sweetheart and settle down to
a comfortable-but-to-him-boring career with
the Post Office.
"That wasn't the job for me," he explains.
"I always liked cattle and I like working out-
doors." One glance at his bronzed hands and
face even today says that he spends more
hours in the sun than in the shade.
They are the hands of a man who is still
hard-at-work a decade after most men have
throttled down to half-speed or less. They
are the hands of a man with a profound
social consciousness, a deep concern for
posterity, an abiding respect for nature and
the land, and the intelligence and determina-
tion to effectively influence his environprt.
for the benefit of all.
(Editor's Note: The District Governing
Board will honor Mr. Starkey in special
ceremonies at its January 8 meeting.)














SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT/WATER LEVEL DATA
IN FEET ABCVE MEAN SEA LEVEL EXCEPT AS NOTED NOVEMBER 1974
MIN.-MAX. PERIOD THRU
I 4 8 11 15 18 22 25 29 DESIRABLE 1972
FRI MON FRI MCN FRI MON FRI MON FRI CHANGEIA) ELEVATION HIGH LOW


ALAFIA RIVER OASIN

PLEASANT GROVE

HILLSBOROUGH RIVER BASIN

BLACKWATER CREEK
CYPRESS CRe"K
HILLS RIVER AT RICHLAND
- -ABOVE CRYSTAL SPRINGS
-- AT HILLS STATE PARK
- AT MORRIS BRIDGE
- AT FOWLER AVENUE
AT CITY CAM UPPER
- AT CITY DAM LOWER
LAKE THCNorOSASSA

N. B. HILLS. RIVER BASIN


59.6.


59.62


71.32 11.24 71.37 71.25
26 70 26.55 26:35 26.20
69.96* 76.88 76.73 76.63

34.16 34.14
24.53 24.52
22.38 22.29 22.24
22.24 22.22 22.10 72.08
.30 .30 .20 .30
34.60 34.50


59.40


59.36 .28- 60.00 60.44 56.80


71.36 71.33 71.48 71.28 71.23 .00
26.00 25.92 25.90 25.87 25.82 1.13-
76.48 76.40 76028 76.2I 76.12 *94-


34. 18
24.47
22.03 22.02
21.84 21.79
.30 .30
34.44


34.16 .02-
24.36 .26-
71.94 22.05 .36-
21.75 21.8S .45-
1.30 .30 .50-*
34.40 34.36 .32-


BROKERR CREEK WATERSHED
LAKE CALM (C) 49.66 49450 49.40 49.30 49.18 .58-
CHURCH LAKC 35.09 35.04 34.94 34.86 34.80 34.74 34.62 34.60 34.54 .60-
ISLAND FORD LAKE 40.32 40.23 40.16 40.09 39.98 39.92 39.68 39.82 39.73 .61-
LAKE KEYSTUNE 40.50 40.45 40.38 40.34 40.27 .33-
LAKE TARPON 2.92 2.90 2.87 2.84 2.79 2.79 2.77 2.75 2.72 *22-


(ROCKY CREEK WATERSHED I
LAKE DOSSON 53.08
LAKE PRETTY


52.96 52.90 52.86
A3. 04


1.00/3.80


52.74 52.70 52.58 52.50 52.46 .66-
42.95 42.94 42.90 42.84 42.80 .49-


(5EWETWATER-BRUSHY CRK W.)
LAKE CARROLL 35.38 35.35 35.25 35.20 35.12 35.10 35.06
LAKE CHARLES (C) 53.00 53.00
LAKE CRENSHA 54.74 54 54. 54.58 54.48 54.38 54.32 54.24
LAKE HANNA 60.68 60.54 60.48
LAKE HOBBS
LAKE MAGOALENE 40.64 48.60 48.52 48.46 48.38 48.34 48.26
ROUND LAKE (C) 53.34 53.44 53.38 53.35 53.46 53.30 53.42
SADDLEBACK LAKE (C) 53.60 63.63 53.63 53.72 53.73 53.72 53.65
STARVATION LAKE (C) 52.04 51.86 51.82 51.70


43.44 42.35 42.26 42.46 42.89 42.58 43.52 42.58 41.33 1.94-
50.36 50.12 49.87 49.75 49*53 1.06-
41.37 40.66 39.81 40.14 40.39 3q.82 39.53 40.12 39.23 2.82-
19.70 19.93 20.19 20.86 19.15 19.31 19.36 19.58 .73-
55.44 55.34 55.20 55.08 5 5.92 54.84 54.72 54.61 54.50 1.08-


REGULATORY NELLS (D0)
CALM 33A 2e.52 27.98
HILLS 130 38.20 36.88
JACKSON 26A 38.34 36.47
JAMES 11 29.66 29.38
GRACE IIINT EtOO 24.40 24.15

OKLAWAHA RIVER BASIN

LAKE APOPKA 66.70 66.60 66.53 66.45
APOPKA BEAUCL*CANAL UP 66.50 66.48 66.12 66.12
APOPKA BEAUCL* CANAL LOM 62.50 62.70 63.04 63.06
CHERRY LAKE LPPER 96.30 96.28 96.20 96.16
CHERRY LAKE LOWER 94*66 94*66 94,62 94.60
LAKE DORA 62.50 62*50 62.50 62.52
LAKE EUSTIS 62.54 62.52 62.34 62.30
LAKE GRIFFIN 57.39 57.50 57.84 58.08
HAINES CREEK UPPER 62.43 62.35 62.02 61.92
HAINES CREEK LOWER 57.39 57.69 58.36 58.57
LAKE HARRIS 62.60 62.56 62.3W 62.30
LAKE BINNEHAHA 96.40 96.43 96.30 96.30
UKLAWAHA R AT MOSS B UP 57.32 57.47 57.70 58.02
- AT MOSS BLUFF LOWER 35.98 35.95 35.93 35.87
- AT S. 40 3604 0 .0 35.96 35.92
- AT SILVER SPRINGS 39.51 39.49 39.44
PALATLAKAHA R AT V*C* UP 94.58 94.50 94.54 94.52
- AT VILLA CITY LOUER 89.26 89.10 88.84 88.66
- AT M-I UPPER 71.50 71.50 71.50 71.40
LA9E VALE 59.68 59.64 59.98

WITMLACOOCHEE RIV. BASIN

BIG GANT LAKE 75.70 76.70 75.70
LITTLE WITH AT TARRYTOWN 63.92 83.70
- AT RERDELL 61.92 61.72
LAKE PANASOFFKEE 39.28 39.21 39.08 39.00
L. TSALA APOPKA / FLORAL 40.38 40.30 40.24 40.19
- AT INVERNESS 39.74 39.72 39.66 39.60
- AT HERNANDO 38.38 38.34 30.32 38.28
WITHLACDOCHEE RIV AT EVA 108.06 100.02 107.75 107.68
- AT CUMPRESSCO 81.06 80.75
- AT DADE CITY 68.2 69.66 64.56 69.50
- AT TRILBY 51.40 51.29 51.18 51.12
- AT CROON 42.33 42.19 42.02 41.97
AT TRAILS END 40.10 49.94 39.72 39.66
- AT WYSONG DAM LPPER 37.90 37.76 37.64
AT WYSONG DAM LOWER
- AT HOLUER 30.52 30.30 30.09 29.91
- AT DUNNELLON 27.97 27.85 28.00 27.89
AT INGLIS UPPER 27.45 27.50 27.50
- AT INGLIS LOWER .60 1.00 1.31


PEACE RIVER BASIN

LAKE ARIETTA
bANANA LAKE
LAKE FANNIE
LAKE GIBSON
LAKE HAMILTrC
LAKE MANCOLK
LAKE HENRY
L AK LENA
LAOE PARKER
PEACE RIVER AT BARTOC
- AT FCRT 1BADE
AT ZCLFU SPRINGS
- AT ARCADIA
LAKL SMART
LA. E THISTLE


30.44 26.55 5.01- 24.0 (E)
36.96 37.21 2.30- 33*0 (E)
36.49 36.48 3.22- 34.0 (E)
28.64 30.43 1.86- 25.0 (E
23.80 24.09 2.27- 20.0 (E)


48.85 33.92
52*98 35.59
47.61 35.88
27.70 15.40
58.85 50.17


39.57 21.07
50.90 24.79
44.57 23.69
38.83 21.66


66.50/C7.50





62.00/64.00
62.00/63.50
5.oo00/59.50


62.00/63.50
96.00/97.25








59.00/61.00


75.70
84.50
61.63
38.90
40.10
39.52
38.26
107.59
80.50
69.40
51.06
41.85
39.57
37.44


75.70 75.70
83.34
61.54
38.86 38.78
40.08 40.01
39. 0 39.42
38.24 38.16
107.54 107.49
S0.35
69.3e 69.38
51.00 50.97
41.82 41.75
39.53 39.50
37.40 37.36


75.70 75.66
83 20
61.53
38.74 38.70
39.98 39.91
39.40 39.38
38.10 38.10
107.43 107.42
80.35
69.30 69.30
50.93 50.89
41.71 41.66
39.48 39.
37.34


29.74 29.65 29.56 29.52 29.49 1.28-
27.83 27.78 275 27.86 27.89 .11-
27.45 27.52 .07
.60 1.20 .95-


139.40 139.31 139.34 130.28 139.200139.181I39.16* .28-
105.20 105.30 105.19 105.10 105.0 105.03 .03
121.88 121.85 121.80 121.76 121173 121.69 121.66 121.01 121.55 .38-
142.21 142.17 142.13 142.09 142.03 142.09 142.09 142.05 142.01 .24-
119.27 119.20 119.07 119.05 118.97 .36-
97.50 97.44 97.38 97.34 97.26 97.24 97. 9720 920 97.14 .40-
124.32 124.22 124.14 124.08 .30-

129.48 129.9e 129.97 129.91 129.85 .79-
41.11 91.41 91.39 91.31 .13

35.48 35.40 .90-
7.40 7.F1 8.08 7.86 7.80 7.7 7.7 77 .76 7.68 .20-
127.55 127.53 127.47 127.43 127.39 127.36 127.32 127.2I 127.23 .38-
136.65 1360.4 131.58 136.56 136.48 136.44 136.34 136.26 136.20 .48-


75.80/76.50 75.84
85.19
71.34
40.00/41.50 44.28




111.80

7P. 7
69.08
52.72
45.24
43.06
30.5








142.00/144.00 42.540




95.00/98.60 101.08

35.00/136.75 136.62
126.00/125650 127 17






128.20/131.60 131.81
98.57
77.20
55.25
26.60
128.0C/128.75 126.15
135.00/136.75 136.82


(A) AMOUNT OF CHANGE IN FFET FRM LAST READING OF PREVIOUS REPORT.
(1) AVERAGE ELEVATION CtWIPLTED FL PERIOD 0A0D EPRESENTS EAN PONTH-END ELEVATION.
(C) PERICUICALLY AUGMENTED dY GR(UNOlATER PUMPAGE.
(U) READINGS LR' REGULATORY ObSE.VATION WELLS REPRESENT AVERAGE VALUES FOR THAT WEEK.
(E) ELEVATION ESTABLISHED FCR WELL FIELD LEGULATICN.


$0.60 43.80
37.28 29.96
40.70 38.18
43.60 37.88
7.08 .73


55.06 48.77


(OBSERVATION WELLS
BERGER RD D
HILLS 13S
LUIZ- LAKE FERN AD
PATTERSON RD
VAN DYKE ROAD S


35.02
52.70
54.16

62.04
48.22
53.46
53.62


75.06

60.12
37.65
35 24
32. 30
30.92
106.55

66.40
50.05
40.67
38,08
35.20
26.69
23 20
22.70


1

















RAINFALL (INCHES)
NOVEMBER 1974


H

L
L
S

C
R


G
0


R S
O T

K U L T
S S E E
V H
I N M P
L E 0 A
L L N R
E L T K



.00 .00 .00 .00
*.00 .00 .00 .00

.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 *00 *DO


.00 *00 .00 .00

.00 .00 .00 .00


.05 .12 .06 .00
*00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00


.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
-----------------------


.00 *0 *.00 .00

.00 .00 .00 .00


.00 .00 *00 .00
.00 .00 .07 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
.03 .00 .00 *00
.00 .00 .10 .00

.10 .18 .00 .32
.00 *00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00

.00o 00 .00 .00


.01 .00 T .05
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
.15 .00 .04 .00


.40
.00
*CO
.00
.00


S
L
A

0
N
D

F P
0 I L
R N L A
O V A N
E K T
L R E
A N C
K E A I
E S N T



*0O .00 .0 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
*00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00

o00 .00 00 .00
00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 T .00
.00o .*I .0 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00


.03 T .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
*00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00

.00 .00 .00 *00
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 *00
*00 *00 .00 *00
.00 .00 .27 .00

.5o .02 .00 .03
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 *00
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00

.00 .00 *00 .00CO
.00 .00 .02 .00
.00 .26 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 T .00


A
M
P










I U
N C
T


A A.
I U

P H
O U
R L
T A


.15
*00
.00
.00
.00


.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00

.00 .00 .00 .00
.00oo .00oo .OO .00oo
.00 *00 T .00
.05 .08 .03 *O0
.01 *.00 .00 .00

.0o .00 .00 .00
.00 T *06
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .00
.00 *00 *00 *0O
-----------------------




.0 .00 .00 .00

*.09 *05 .00 .00
.02 .00 .00 .00
.DO .00 .00 *00
I .oo .04oo .00

.00 .01 .00 .00
.02 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 *00 *00
.00 *00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 .0*

.0o .00 .00 .00
.oo00 .00oo .00
.05 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .o00 .00oo
.00oo .06 .o05 .05


TOTALS FOR NOVEMBER 0.52 0.31 0.32 0.30 0.27 0.17 1.20 0.10 O.39 0.30 0.37 0.46 0.34 0.54 0.12 0.16
NORMAL FOR NOVEMBER ** 1.49 .94 1.81 1 .4 1.40 1.53 1.45 1.48 I.59 1.65 1.74 1,46 1.61
YEAR TO DATE 39.32 46.97 57.81 49.78 43.45 45.79 44.52 75.16 45.86 42.44 51.70 40.37 57.31 31.00
NORMAL YEAR TO DATER* 52.39 51.42 54.60 55.80 52.30 49.19 53.70 54.28 49.51 54.27 55.31 49.68 54.26

*GAGES MAINTAINED BY SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENTT DISTRICT. ALL OTHER GAGES MAINTAINED BY NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE.
**AVERAGE FOR PERIOD 1931-1960.















STATUS OF WATER CONTROL STRUCTURES ON 30 NOVEMBER 1974


OKLAWAHA RIVER ODASIN

APOPKA BEAUCLAIRE -

BURRELL -


23 CFS

O CFS


MOSS BLUFF O CFS

WITHLACCOCHEE RIVER UASIN

BIG GANT LAKE ALL LOGS IN PLACE

RUFE WYSONG DEFLATED

LESLIE HEIFNER CLOSED

ORANGE STATF CLOSED

GOLF COURSE ALL LOGS IN PLACE

BRYANT SLOUGH CLOSED

OROGDEN BRIDGE CLOSED

VAN NESS CLOSED

TSALA APOPKA OUT-ALL 0 CFS

INGLIS BYPASS 1170 CFS


INGLIS -


CFS


N. HILLS. RIVER BASIN

LAKE KEYSTONE CLOSED

LAKE PRETTY I LOG OUT EACH BAY

PEACE RIVER BASIN

LAKE LENA (P-1) CLOSED

LAKE ARIETTA IP-3) CLOSED

LAKE HENRY (P-51 CLOSED

LAKE SMART (P-6) CLCSFC

LAKE FANNIE (P-7) CLOSED

LAKE HAMILTON (P-8) CLOSED

LAKE HANCOCK (P-11) CLOSE

LAKE GIBSON CLOSED

LAKE PARKER CLOSED

bANANA LAKE I GATE CPEN b INCHES

SCOTT LAKE- CLOSED

LOCERY MATTIE (PCLK CITY HAPlhS CITI WLCA)


FST -

CENTER -

EAST -


CLOSFr

CLOSED

CLOSED


-N


1 .00
2 .00
3 .00
4 .00
5 .00

6 *00
7 .00

9 .12
10 .00

11 *00
12 .00
13 *O
14 .0O
15 .00

16 .00
17 .25
18 .DO
19 *01
20 .00

21 .14
22 .00
23 .00
24 .00
25 .00

26 .00
27 .00
28 .00
29 .00
30 .00


.02

.00
.00
.00
.00


-~'~- --- ---









BOARD AWARDS CONTRACT

FqR KEYSTONE NORTH PHASE

Work will soon begin on the northern section of the proposed Lake Keystone
Project in Northwest Hillsborough County.
The District Governing Board accepted a bid on December 11th for $81,641
from M and L Contractors of Sarasota for that portion of the water conservation
project which will affect Lakes Keystone, Island Ford and Crescent.


The Northwest Hillsborough Basin Board,
headed by Robert E. Vaughn of Brandon,
had previously recommended acceptance of
the M and L low bid. The Basin Board had
deferred action, pending budgetary clari-
fication and a meeting with members of the
Hillsborough County Commissioners, on the
more-controversial southern phase of the
Lake Keystone Project.
The northern phase of the project will
include reconstruction and modification of
an existing water control structure between
Island Ford Lake and Brooker Creek, clean-
ing out a canal between Island Ford Lake
and Lake Crescent, and construction of a
culvert under Crescent Road.
The improved canal will allow excess
water to flow into Lake Crescent to sup-
plement lake levels there.
The southern segment of the Keystone
Pr -which would divert excess water
frA _ake Keystone to Lake Rogers-has
been embroiled in controversy. Many res-
idents of the area have raised strong
objections because Lake Rogers, located
within St. Petersburg's Cosme-Odessa Well-
field, is owned entirely by the City of St.
Petersburg.
The City has agreed to pay one-half the
cost of the southern phase of the diversion
plan.
The purpose of the Keystone Diversion
Project is water conservation," says Don
Feaster, Executive Director of the District:
"Northwest Hillsborough County has suffered
severe drops in water levels in recent years.
We need to increase the recharge to the
aquifer there. That's what the diversion pro-
ject is designed to do."
The water that would be diverted to Lake
Rogers is water that otherwise flows out of
Lake Keystone through Brooker Creek and
Lake Tarpon to Old Tampa Bay, Feaster
explains. "It just doesn't make sense, in an
area with a serious water shortage problem to
allow an excessive amount of fresh water
to flow to waste into a salty bay. We need
to detain that water and allow it to replenish
theft fer."
that .ter developed over the proposed di-
version, it was the Keystone Park Civic
Association that originally suggested a di-
version from Keystone to Rogers."
The Keystone to Rogers diversion was
first proposed in a report from the Civic


\ Artillery


Association's Water Committee and presented
to the District August 23, 1970.
The District staff, at that time, was con-
sidering several diversion ideas. Eventually
the staff recommended Lake Rogers as the
recipient lake because of its apparently more
efficient connection to the aquifer. Lake
Rogers rises and falls in direct response to
fluctuations in aquifer levels.


The most recent Ice Age-which reached
its climax approximately 50,000 years ago-
saw about half of the U. S. under glaciers.
The loss of water to these glaciers caused sea
levels around the world to drop some 300 -
400 feet. In Florida the effect was a much
larger land mass, a peninsula that extended
out many miles farther into the Gulf and
Atlantic than it does today.


Withlacoochee Map

Project Finished
The Withlacoochee River Basin Board has
accepted Phase II of its aerial mapping pro-
gram of the Withlacoochee River.
Phase II of the highly detailed mapping
covers 55-square miles of the river in two
areas ranging from Stokes Ferry to Turner
Camp Road and from Croom to Trilby. The
mapping was done under contract with the
consultant engineering firm, Black, Crow
and Eidsness at a cost of $86,350.
Phase I of the Withlacoochee mapping was
completed in February 1973 and covered
19.5 square miles from Rainbow Springs to
Stokes Ferry.
The Withlacoochee Basin Board mapping
effort is part of the total District aerial
mapping project that has been underway
since the mid-1960's. The project is designed
to assist local governments in protecting
valuable floodplain areas. To date nearly
1,100 square miles of the District have been
mapped under the program.
The District encourages protection of
floodplain areas as an alternative to the
construction of major and expensive flood-
control projects designed to protect against
periodic high waters and to avoid the human
misery and economic havoc that accompany
flooding.
Extremely detailed and accurate, the maps
provide the topographic and hydrologic data
necessary to delineate natural floodplain and
flood hazard areas. Once these areas have
been identified, the information can then be
made available to other agencies to aid in
planning and zoning.
Most of the maps are available on a scale
of one inch to 200 feet and have a contour
interval of one foot. Each sheet of mapping
covers one square mile and is numbered by
the section, township and range numbers of
that section. Most of the mapped areas are
also available on photomosaics which are on
a scale of one inch to 1000 feet with two-
foot contour intervals.
The aerial maps are available to govern-
mental agencies free of charge upon written
request or to interested persons at a cost of
410.00 per sheet from the District's Brooks-
ville Headquarters.







Bulk Rate
U. S. Postage
6.1 c Paid
Brooksville, FL 33512
Permit No. 14


MR. L. M. BLAIN
801 S3UTH BOULEVARD
TAMPA, FLORIDA 35606


P. O. Box 457 Brooksville, Florida 33512

RETURN POSTAGE GUARANTEED


ADDRESS CORRECTIONS REQUESTED


New Report Explains

Reasons For Changes

In Levels of Lakes


Natural factors influencing lake level fluc-
tuations in Florida are discussed in a report
recently prepared by the U. S. Geological
Survey.
The study, prepared by G. H. Hughes,
notes that'fresh-water lakes are plentiful and
generally well-distributed throughout the
state. Although 35% of Florida's lakes are
located in four counties (Orange, Lake, Polk,
and Osceola), 12 other counties have more
than 200 lakes and only 15 counties have
*ewer than 30 lakes.
Of Florida's 7,712 fresh-water lakes, most
are smaller than 100 acres; 930 have surface
areas greater than 100 acres; and 115 are
larger than 1,000 acres. The largest, Lake
Okechobee, covers 436,000 acres.
"The U. S. Geological Survey has recorded
lake-level fluctuations at some of the import-
ant lakes in Florida for many years, in
cooperation with state, local and other
federal governmental agencies," the report
notes, including some records that date back
to 1929.
Nearly half of the state's fresh-water
lakes are situated within the 15 counties
included within the jurisdiction of the South-
west Florida Water Management District.
The degree of fluctuation between sig-
nificant wet and dry spells varies greatly,
among lakes, according to the report. Some
lake levels will fluctuate as little as two feet;
other lakes will rise and fall by as much as 30
feet. Most (about 80%) fluctuate four feet or
more.
Levels of lakes interconnected by streams
or canals tend to fluctuate together, but the
range of fluctuation may differ significantly.


A primary influence upon lake-level fluc-
tuations is the permeability of soils beneath
the land surface. "In combination with the
slope of the land surface, the permeability of
materials determines the extent to which
rainfall runs off the land surface or percolates
down to the water table."
Another major influence upon lake levels
and their fluctuations is, the report states,
the relationship between the lake level and
the potentiometric surface of the confined
aquifer. Leakage of water through the lake
bottom is another, closely related factor
upon fluctuations.
Some of the other influences upon lake
levels discussed in the report are rainfall,
size of drainage basin, aquatic weeds, evapo-
ration (determined by wind speed, temper-
ature, and humidity), ground water inflow,
and surface water inflow.
The report, Map Series 62, is available
from the District headquarters in Brooks-
ville free of charge to the public and con-
cerned governmental units as long as the
supply lasts.




Industry in the U. S. requires some 2.5
trillion gallons of water per day (seven times
the average daily discharge of the Mississippi
River). More than 70% of this water is used
to produce electric power.


Scientist calculate that all the rivers of the
world contain only 1/10,000th of the world's
water.


The famed Gardens of Nineveh, which
flourished in the 7th Century B.C., was
irrigated by a system of canals, including one
that brought water from 30 miles away.


Hyd ri Ila (continued from page 3)
Six lakes in northwestern Hillsborough
County are involved in the study that will
be performed by Dr. Dean F. Martin, Uni-
versity of South Florida chemistry professor.
Of the six lakes, Hobbs and Cooper have
never been augmented with groundwater;
Crystal and Strawberry have recently been
augmented; Starvation has been augmented
sporadically for some time; and Saddle'-
has been augmented continuously for se. --al
years.
Dr. Martin will perform biochemical and
chemical analyses on water samples from
each lake. By measuring the oxygen prod-
uction and hydrogen ion consumption of
hydrilla plants placed in the water samples, he
will be able to determine whether the plant
grows at different rates in natural waters of
varying chemical and biological contents.

New G.S. Report Studies
Low Streamflow in Florida
Low streamflow in Florida is the subject
of a report recently prepared by the U. S.
Geological Survey.
"Streamflow in Florida fluctuates and, at
times, is not sufficient to supply the water
required for municipal or industrial supplies,
supplemental irrigation, maintenance of suit-
able conditions for fish, and disposal of
liquid wastes," says Roy B. Stone, author of
the report.
He also notes that low-flow characteristics
are an indication of groundwater flow and,
thus, important in evaluating regional water
resources and in establishing parameter< r
pollution control.
Most of the major rivers within the
District are included in the report, identified
as Map Series 64. It is available from the
District free of charge to local government
and concerned citizens as long as the supply
lasts.


1