Town Plan: Material Things and Things of the Spirit


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Town Plan: Material Things and Things of the Spirit
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Archaeological Files for Aviles Street
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Mixed Material
Elsbeth Gordon
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Folder: Research, Prior excavations


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BDAC # 10-3000
General Note:
Chapter Nine

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University of Florida
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Chapter ine Chaptr Nine (hapter Nie

A T-n Plan: Maeal Things and Things ol the Spirt A Town Plan: lateria Ihings and hins of ihe Spirit A lon Pl.: Material Things and Things of tie Spirit

i e l wa ro u andwex erer in it confidenceand yetoeeih, s sndeweren nfidence d ees o ee ith wa of and l wewe in its conid eeand

ived in its grace and in the peace o fits benediction. We neer lived in its grace and in the peace o its benedctions We never lived i its graoc and in the peace rfits benedictions. W nrr

came home from an arbsnce that its face did nor light up and speak came home from an hence that its ace di no light up and speak came home from an absence that iti face did not liht up and speak out us in eloquent welcome and we could not enter it unmoved our to us in eloquent welcome andwe could nor enter it unmoved. our to us in eloquent welcome andwe could not enter it unmoved
Mark Twain Mark Taid Mark Twain

St Augustinc. like Twains house, was laid down with hear and soul It was at thie edge St Augustine. like Twan's house, as lalid don w ith hear and soul it was at the edge St Augu~sine like Iwain s house, was laid down with heart and snul it was at the edge of a new world in the 16 lenltu and its spatial additions over tile centuries were consistent of a new world in the 16-1 century, and its spatial additions over the centnes were consitent of a ne world in the 16 cnu, and it pail additions or the centuries wre consistent wih its pr rdal and spirial principles Stroll th city's naowstreets and be comforted by the wilh its practical and piritualprinciples. Strll Ae city narrow streets and be comfoned by the with its practical and spiritudlprinciples Stroll the city's narnwslreets ad be comforted by the streetscape s agelessinels and the sense of peace and inimacy ruend in its humal sale sweetscape s agelessness, and the sense of peace and intimacy found in its huma scale slreetscape's agelessness, ad tile sense of peace and intimacy found in its human scale

On Ihe eve of the citys 450 binhday celebration, what secrets does she hold close o he On the ev of the city's 450t bihday celebration. what secLets does she hold cls to her On he eve of the ci y's 450 bilthda) cichration, what secrets does she hold dloe to hr bosom? What mysterie lie under her roads and archtecmral foundations. hMdden in be l bhinth bosom? Whal mysteries lie under her roads and arlhiectulal foundation. hien n the labyrinth boom? What mysteries lie under her rdu and a hitectral huatieons. hidden in the labyrimh of centuries and layersof reidentcultures, ethcitics and languages Can we ever satisfy te of centuries and la ersf lsident cultures, ctiicities and Itanguages Can e ever satis Ihe ol centuries and la ersof resident cultures ethnicities andlanguages Ca we ever satis the quest to know how she looked in thie 16" centil, or how she withslood endless enemy aacks quest to know how she looked in the 16 h eenmu,. or how she withstood endless enemy attacks quest to kno, how she looked in ie 16 centu, or how she withstood endless enemy attacks ad rose up from the ashes ofenemyset fires and wood crunching hurricanes? Maybe answers and rose up from the hes of enemy-set fres ad wood cmnching huicanes? Maybe answers and rose up from the ashes of enemy-set fires and wood crunching hurricanes Maybe answers will begin a d end wiwh the 16" century on plan w ill bein and end wilh the 16" cen e town plan will begin and and with the 16 cent I on p1l

Spanish colonists limndcd St Augustine in 1565, and in 172 73 they began to lay out Spanish colonists founded St Augustine in 1565, and in 1572 73 they bga to ly out Spash colonists founded St Augustine in 1 565, and in 1572-73 they beganll to la u the ciweknow today Itook hape in the area south oftoda pla Itwas good ie, ith he ci wekno today I tookshape in the rea south oftoday'sp t ieas a goodsite, with the city nowtda ttook shape in theaasouth of today' pla It was a goodite, ~l a por oed in he lee oinaaia Iland, ad a r noreh o k delnie eeeted in te lee of Ai a Isled and a pr i e nor kee a defensive e on a p protected inth lee eo Anna i Island and a fto the nonh o keep a deenSive een

11. 1h....hriri (b, d, mi), th, mk, 1-ro th -- ,,ha o it, ikfli- Bt st, f,,' '1h, ,, 11 -) N il isl)lh H,,, K-ol tl -ti, 11. ,, 1, 1 1 i It I t .1 1, 11, f th, ,, re (b- d, -m~), ihe m1,1 it- ll b,t -a it, lifeli- -,, ,] .,

,J 1, ,r olia th, d-onal - as lId -u h- kg- tio bga ad It, -rhi-- ".- f h," lfioa te clo I- ws lid 11-1o oniuco b-,, -ad it, -il -. 111, .1 f h-ae ohoi tlle :.].-l I,,1- 1 ,d -Ilu, fi-onactn b,- ad I ,IISI~

tradIon conunued oter buldigs were burned to h ground in 1586 and 1702, or that the ciy()l rra ditn c-itnue aler b,,ling- -,re burned to e ground 1586 and 17O2, or t tl city .if trtol celnuea aner bu1l, mgs were umed "f Ue -ro-nd All b1- d 17, ul t-t-dI, d11, t, toda is basically the 16 centuy plan today is basically the 16h cenu plan. toda is basically the 16h ccltuy pl.

In general, i is known that the settlers transplanted some building traditions from their In general, it is known that Ihe settlers transplanted some building t aditions from their In gen-al, it is Lown that the sclers transpland some building taditiofi 5 h} native regions in Spain. and that they shaped them to heir new site and situation i however. in native regions in Spain, m-d that they shaped them to their new site and situation However, in naive regions in Spain, and ihat they shaped them to their new ie and situation H e I the Royal Ordinances for New Towns issued by Spain s King Felipe II, them may e more the Royal Ordinances Ibr New Towns issued by Spain s King Felipe 11, there may be more the Royal OMinanes for N.w Iowns issued by Spains ng Felipc II, the my be ir specific cxplanations Rr their building decisions ihes Ordinances were issued in 1573 but specific explaations lor their building decisions These Ordinances ere issued in 1573 bu specific explanations for their building decisions hese Ordinmces were issued in 15 thy rejected the essentials of earlier rules tor town planning in the Spanish Indies. They tey reflected the essentials of earlier rule Ior town planning in the Spanish indies They they rellected the essentials of earlier rles for town planning in the Spanish indies 11 pecied the location of plazas, streets and public building, and addressed urba defenses, specified the locaion f plhas, seet and public buildings, and addressed urban defenses. specified the location of plas, streets and public buildings, and addressed urband, cleanliness, health, aesthetics ad the spiital weifme of people isolated rom heir Mother leakliess, health. aesthetics and the spintual welre of people isolated from heir Mother cleanliness, healf, aesthetics and the spiritual welfare ol people isolated fmm their M Count lhey we thought to have been compiled in consultation with the learned men ofthe Country. hey e thouit to have been compiled in consultation with the learned men ofhe County Hey are thought to have been compiled in consultation with the leaned mns our(, engineer-chltects, churlmen, anists, meeorologistgs, and bygienists. It i Cmwn s cor, enginec- architets, churhmen, arisIts. meteorologists, d hygienists 11 is Crwnl's cou, engineer-achitets, churchmen, arsts, meteorologists,. ad hygienL It is unkown if St Algusfine was built with these Ordinnces in mind, but them are similarities dhat unknown if Si Augustine was built wit these Ordin-ces in mind, but there are similarites that ukawn if St Augstine w, s bull with these Ordinmces in mind, but them e similar appear to he more than coincidece It is possible these Ordmaccs were the nation's irst appe to be more th coincidence It is possible these Ordilnlces re the nations first appear to be more than coincidence It is possible these Ordinances were e nati f building codes But something more thl codes happened here building codes. But something m- than codes happened here building code Bul something more t codes happened he

P-eical site-specific lessons were learned The plm had to acomndate cold wet Practical ite-specific lessons were learned The plan had to accommodate cold wel Praccal sitespai ic lessons were leaned. The plan had to accommodate cold norhenters, sumner hucicanes, md frequent surges that eroded lbundations on sand banks northeaters, summer hurricanes, and frequent surges that eroded fiundations on sand banks nonheasters, summer humcanes, andi vequent surges that eroded foundations on sand t Spains sellers had built and rebuilt a fio and other srucres on Anastasia Islad between 1566 Spains ellerns had built and rebuilt a fon and other structures on Anastsia Island between 156(6 Spain s settlers had built and rebuilt a br and other sructures on ast asia sld b 166 and 1572, but had to leave there, since the sea had eaten a large part of the island where the frt and 1572, but ad to leave there, since the sea had eaen a iarg part o lhe iland where the fort and 1572, but had to leave here, since the sea had eaten a lago part q lfthe ,ih- hnd o and town were' More than a centry later, St. Augustines parish priest was still observing that andlown were. More than a century klter, St Augustine's parish priest was still bsering tht and town were' More than a century late, St Augtine p parish priest was sill obse g the flood-tfd and water of t he sea ha,, been consuming a great prt of he place. There were the oodtids and waer ofihe rea hae been conumig a geat part of the pl.ce.' There were the food-tides and water of t he sea h me been cosuming a great arl o p lhe place I. also architcnlral lessons to be learned about local constructionn materials, incessant lood alo hltctual lessons to be leed about local construction materials, incess tt tr, food also rchitl lessons to be learned abb t bcal cntruion maerials, incess,t rotf

I9g d &k fg ,d-, ..d l-t F igfitrd th i-d', K l d~f Fn -di .-F. f-. h, -1d ,W, .d .Iffi. I-g, ad dd- --, d-i,, d -,il, 1 l, f- I -d', -dil l

Sg Aug-iL'I, tNL p -V-,d 1ii, Id plltb uh uu, I. p ith it, SI4,u uiPel.1- Il.u i -ii i ig-l,, m pi i I lit n tp -t i id .iii, SI. A iig- I l.t.I It tl- ll \... 1 -pld i l, .,d idbly it(,p .-1, h

Spaish Ordinances It had a kinship wiLh place, and endured the passage of cenries and four Spanish Ordinances it had a knship with place, and endured the passage of centuries and our Spanish Ordinances It Iad a n ship wii place d cndlred the pasage of ceulrics md four cha ies in govemmen. 11 rew sti g ro~ ih the 18I century infsion of coquina stone and the changes in government It grew tronger with he 18"- centu infusif m ocquina sone Land the hng in en t. It ew tronr with the ifusin of coquina te and the 19 ceur hitcte of Heny Flaer that glorifid its Spanish heritage In 1970. the St 19 center architecture ,l Henry Flagler that gloified its Spanish heriage I, 170. the St 19" centu hiteure H lar ha gilded its Spanish heritage In 1970 the SI Augustine "-l own Plan as designated a National Historic Landmar k It is the oldest enduring Augustine "own Plal was designated a National TJistoric Landmark. It is he oldest enduring Augustine "Town Pla, was designlatcd a National Hisric Iandmak It is tile oldest endunng

colonial ur the ited States. colonial feature of the United Sttes colonial future of the Unitd States

With quotes fr~m the Royal Ordinances and cycwimess accounts, and glances at two 16 Wilh quotes from the Royal Ordinaes and eeitness accounts, and glances at two 16 Wih quotes f rom the Roal Ordinances and eyewitness account and glances 16u centu drawings keeping in mind the depictions presentations andnotfats -the is century dlaings keeping in mind i depic ionsar represent ions and not facts there is cnt draw-ingg keeping inmind depictions r reprcntatim and ntcts here i muchto be discovered about 6l centu St Augustlines architect hure I truth will note muchto be discovered about 16' centun St Augustine architecture The truth ll not be mueh to be discovered about 16 centul St Augustine s archilcture The ruth will not b known, however, until archaeology finds supporling e idlene nax, however. until alchacology inds supporting cidence known, hlever, unil achaeology inds suppoting evidence

Laing Out a New Town LayinO a N Ting Out a Nw L TJli ii Ordinances Number 10, 112 1 13, 14 and 1 15 indcale the plaza was central to a s Ordiances Nuber 110.112. i13, 14 aid 115 indicate the plu was central to a Lon's Ordinances Number 110, 112. 113, 114 ad 115 indicate the plaza as c tm l to a town beginning (IJnderined words are my emphasis. begimling. (Underined ordi em emphaiii) beginning' (lderlind word are my emphasis)

lio 110 thepiian othe plak- hal be dermind Noi i10 i he plan ofthe pi hall be iteimin rdi . he plan ofthe place shall be d etemined

gth the ma- -oi l~ wilhuain m ma wih he ma n1No I12 .The w hence is to be mad, dfthe No 12 he whence ~ is to he made, ithe No 12. The 1i 7 hence @ is o be mad i the

Sisiuaed n the seacoast shold be made i own is itated on the seacoast should be madre anPtohn is situated on he sea oast hould he mIade a h ii l ndP i 7ii ii plaza shall be fan.i t which l ii The pluai.shall-be oan hi hich .i The iplazashall/bei o an d whi ich ihil hvi h a i th I u io ne ind hali ,s the hall hav ii h, a 1 ih h euai o on and h. i i-ie I-,h shall hat ai ihe i ai a inih u o one and a haIl-m th

wdth inasmuch as this -ize is the best foi, in which hors es inarmuch a 1 his ize is the best for M in which hore _d inasmuch a this ize is the bestr ff in which horses

a u andfir any ohi la that h he he are udandfr any other fists that shall b, held are u ,d andfir an oherfleia that shall be held

These rle clearly ep s the pla -a te firt pri rity in laying do-n a nA tow In These rules daly r i nsr the plDa a the 1f,, pri,6,, y dn 1 1 n NA, I i-d theaiest wn ,isual imageof St Augustin, BapiaB, io"baeplano s theearlest kno damage of St, Augusine Bapistaoazio's "battlean" Drak teretn n viualage S Augute BpsBoazio"battl pan"ofDr anck in 186 there is anopen oblong space extendig wst m the land place Its aack in 586 there i an open ohlong pae extend g, st from h lani ace, Its attack in 1586 there is anopen oblong pace exendingw ron the landing l ,ce its boundaries we defined on the mlap as flows: in the west by an architectural complex ("M" "the boundaries are defined on ihe map as Iolows: in the esl by an architectural complex ("M" 'lhe bound.ies are defined on the p as follows: in the west b an architectural complex ("M" the tone house' and "N" the lookout); in the north by corn icdds and in the souh by he ton toMne house" and "N" the lookout); in the north by com fields; and in the south by the toun town house ad "N" the lookout); in the north by com fields; ad in the south by the town buildings, with the parish church standing in its southeast comer alone Sunounding the ton buildings, with tile pish cluirh sending in its southeast corner alone Surounding the to\n buildings, with the parish church slanding in is Southeast comer alone Surrounding the town were agriculmral fields If the pla space was laid ou first according o the Olin anes, ,it wer agiulturalfields. If the plaza space was laid ou firs t according to the Ordinances, it wor agrcultural lields Ii the plaza space was laid ou rs t according to the Oninaces, it would have been used some thien years for landings, unload]ng ships, bu)hing id selling would have b n used some thileen years for landings, unloading ships, buying and selling would have been used some thirteen years for ladies, unloading ships, buyng and selling goods andholdingf 'tas and religious cer onies t accommodate the landing of rake goods, and holding iestas and religious cemo ies. I accommodated the landingofDrak' goods, and holding iesti andreigious ceremonies Iaccommodatedthe landing ofDrake army in 586 on house" might ve represented e ove e Houe,office ad an in 1586. 'The towne" mighl have represented te Govenment Iouse, office and any in 1586. "The towne hdoue" might hav e reprcsened the Gove ment House, aiii and residence of Governor Pedro Menndez de M qus (officially governor from 1577-1589), residence of Governol Pedro Meninder de Mar qus (llicially governor f om 1577 1589), residence ol Gorvemor Pedro Menendz de Maqus (officially govern ,,rm 1577 1589), ocated at the head ofthe pla where an eye could be kept on its activifis, port Iladings, and located at the head of ithe plaza whe a eye could be kep oil its activities. pol landings, and located at the head ol the pl a whr an eye could be kep on it activities, port landings, and fiestas. (Fig: Boazio, 1588/1589 Edition, Alphabet Key, Englih Translation) fiest (Fig,: oo,. 158815819 Edition, Alphabet Kc, English Imrnslaton) fiestas (Fig: oio, 1588/1589 Edition, Alphabet Key. English Translation)

However, he location of the beginning pl relative to today s is unknown Drake However, the location of the beginning plara relative to today's is unkn1 Drae IIoweve the location of he beginn plaza r latlve to days is un known I)rk burned the town as he depaned. With the rebuilding ol the parsh church, govern hiiouse, burned the town he departed With the rebuilding ofthe parish chmh, government house, bumd te town as h departed With the rebuilding ofthe parish church, govenment house, guard house, ad reidential blocks, the layout of the plva might have changed Archaeology is guad house, and residenual blocks the layout of the plaa might have changed Ahaeolog is guard house, and residential blocks, the layout of tie plaza might have changed Alhaeology is needed needed needed.

Sample sizes for laying out a beginning plaza according to the ratio in Ordinance No Sample sizes for laying out a beginning plea according ,,o he raio in Ordilce No. Sample sizes r laying out a begiing plaza according to the ratio in Ordinmlce No 112 l ,engh qual to one and a halfim1,s the width were specifid in No ,, I3: 112. Length equal so one o6 d a halftime the wdth were specified in No 113: 112, length equal to one and a hatime the lidth ere speiied l No I 13

No 1l3 Th choit ,fplazahall h mad ,fwith rNrence ,o 1 13 hee hoie ofapl shall be madewithreerencto N 136. .The chi of ,Jpl~ ihal bemad ,wih r,frnc o the tihat the town ma, hve it shali he not les than two the that the tMn may hu ve- t hall be no les than Ao the that the ron mav he It shall be noi ha hundreds et i [pies]ideandhreehuned long arg hunedepi ide and hreehundred long, noarr hnded pies]wideandh, hudredee /,g notarg than eght hunlrdfi, 1ong ndfive hundred and thir tfo eh., dred, ,e long n iv hunji, d b nd ,hi, y 1-,f- fhar g h hun r i Jo /,mg ,ndf,v, hundred and -hi0 io fe

wide. A moderate and good proportion s six hundredfeet lon g | wid. A moderate and goodproportion is six hundredfeet long |wide moderatl and goodproportion i six hundred fle long

andor h d ft wid andur hundred wide and our hundred aid

A ratio allowed for orderly groh. If its oblong (prolonged tsque) was int entAollly A ratio allowed ibr orderly gwth If its oblong (prolonged square) 'as intetionlly A ratio allowed for orderly grwh If its oblong (prolonged square) was intention propoioned increased or decreased by the raiool : the ratio, uld hae relectd an proportioned ncrea,,se d o decrease ,, -ed byhrio : Krtio uld r an pp i abytheratio of the ratio, old haereflected a ancient con of measure from Medieval and Renaissance Meditenrrean histro when theolog ancient canon ar measu from Medieval and Renaissance Medienanean history when theology tancient c-on ofmaure fm Me l and Rei nce Meditnnean hiol whel theology and afll netic were closely related In the wrilings of heologians like St. Augustune o Hippo, and ithmetic were c losely related In the writings ol heologias like St. Augustine of Hippo, ld arthmetic were closely related In the writings of theologians like St Augustine of Ilippo, and in the practices of enginer-achitecls and chumh builders, hamionious ratios were and in the practices oengineerarchtects and chuxh builders harmlnious ratios ere and in the practices of engincr-areitets and church builders 1wmonious ratios -rre

molly linked to the order and harmonyof Goda' univer e Colonial St Augustlne s symbolically linked to he irdier and harmony of Cods universe Colonial St Augustine s symbolically linked to the order and hmony of God's unverse Colonial St Augustine s proportioned pla woul d thus have been symbolically spirimal prproned pl.a would thus have been symbolically spiritual/ poporiond plaza would thus have been symbolically inLual

Afer the to burned in 1586 and recnstruction beg i is conictured that a plaza was Aier e t bumed in 1586 ad reconsttion began, it is connect ha a plaza was After the town bled in 586 ad reconstruction began. it is concu d that a plaza wa again central t the lwn, ctivitics a marke ,square and port ending. ith social focus o agn cenal to the town activities a marke qu and po lanin, wilh a social u i again entrallo the n t tiviies market su ndpoandingwithasoialfocusto be overlooked by a ne church, ton haill (Government House) and a guardouse The post-lire be overlookW by a new church to-n hdl (Govement louse), and a guardhouse ihe post-ire be overlooked by a new church, town lhl (GovemmenL House). and a guardhouse. The post-fi plaza may have been an o bng rfm (extended square) IhatL began a the landing port This onn plaza may ave been an oblon form extendedd squdfc) that began at he landing pnt This Ilm pl a may have been an oblo-gjorm extendedd square) that began at he land pour Ils fiorm uld be consistent with 18 century maps ad today's plaza (Figs: 173m, Wagner Map; 1764 would be consistent witl 1i centu maps and oday s plaza (igs: 1730 Wagner Map: 1764 would be consistent with 18" centu maps and today's pia. (Figs: 1730 Wagner Map; 1764 Puente Map) Puente Map) Puente Map)

A pla in St Augustine is therefore suggested to have been funclioin some 26 yea A plaza in St Augustine is terefore suggested to have been fntioning som e 26 a A p] in St Augusine, i, there ugeeld Lo hav been functioing some 26 yeam belor 1598 when Govem(or Mender de Canzo wrote tie king: Snce Icame Ihe ~ived JLule 2. befam 1598 when Governor Mendez de Canzo wrote the king: Sine I came the amved June 2, before 1598 when Gowor Mendez de Canro wrote the king: Since Icame [ho wrived June 2 197] i aused them io mak. Pla and all dfthem come to sel, three and hon e firfii h 1597] I caused them to make a Plaza and all lf lhem come to ell ther, eand a house for ,h 1597] I cliused them to mk, a Plaza and all of, them come to sell thre, and a house lor fish market and meat marker where there i wight and measure which until now they had no had' market and meat market uhere there is weight nd measure which until now they ha d not had. marke and meat maket where iheire i weightl and mena e which until now they had not had. Mende de Canzo took credit lbr "a Pla" inl particular that of the fish and meat market in a Mendez de Canzo took credit r a Pla" in paicular that of the ish and meat market in a Mendez de Canro took credit for 'a Pla." in paicular that of the fish and meat market in a built sltmcture ih a legitimate system of weights d measures But, did he lay out the ft bil strue with a legitimate yse o eigs and measus But, did he lay out the built structure with a legitimate sysem of weights and measures, But did he lay out the it plarm in the tow? It is comonly held, repeated i publications, and noted m the Natonal plua in the tow-l It is commonly held. repeated in public tiol, and noted in the Natonal pla in the town? It is commonly held, repeated in publications, ad noted in the National Regitr lisin tl i- goerr raed lhe pia It is more likely be had lbnalized and Register listing that this governor created the plam" i t is more likely he had fomalrzed ad Register listing tht tis governor created the piaza. It is more likely he had formalized and

I,1,,,d ,,I,-ikti pl.,, F,,tkad l ddk;f p pl-. -Wad It, ,,,, -ktmg plfOrdln ,e p 1,umbr 1[4 pcified ha Ihe p A a hould --didel e enromlet: Or1in4umbr 1 el led ha h p h, ld spAitcd ,- I Lh pl a av;u ud consider th nvimne

o 114. F>om the plaza shall runjou main reets one rom fihe No 114 From theplaza shall runfur main streets one rom the o 14 190m the plaza shall runfour main srera, onentrom the midle ofeach side ofthe plaza and two street, at each corner of middle reach sie othe plaza and io et at euh crner of middle of each side ihe plaza and o s ec n. /

iheplaza heur n a hl, the I aza i-r , h,, theplaza ht cners of the az ,hallce he

& The tree s rurming thusiom theplaza wdillnot a The streets runninglthus/jihm the plazaill not & The streers runningthusfrom therplaza ill not

he expand o the fiur principal wind, whiih caue muc h be egsed to the four pin ,ral wind ich cause much be oosed to thefour principal wind which case much

A compass reading indicates he cme St Augustine, plaza today face the lo Aompass reading indicates he co rs of St Agustin- plaza toda I e e local A compass reading indicatesthe com of St. Augustin plaza today face the 10,I prevailing minds northeast, southeast, snuth es~ nothe t d that the main pedestrian prevailingwinds nothest, southeast, soLurhest, no -dxest dtha llemain pedestri- prevailing winds noahe sutheast, southwest, norlhe and hat the main pedestrian roues aligned with the cardinal directions do not face diretl into them It is tempting to routes aligned w~th the Cadinal directions do not e dirct in them. It is tempting to routes aligned with the cardinl direcions do not face directly into them It is temlping to Stur hat he rootsoftodasplaza and grid plan re pl in the centu, and conjecmre that the roos of oda pia and grid ee pla were planed in he 16 cnu and t at the roots ofda p a and grid sreet plan wr planted in the 16 cnu an that the principle of rule 114 wr Ibilowed arer the fires of 1586 and 1702 that the principle of nle 114 was ollowed alfer the fires of 1586 and 1702 that the principle ol le 114 wa followed afer the Ires of 1586 and 1702

No 7/5 The wholeplazaroundabout hali ha arcade, fir No 11i The holeplaza round abour .hall h arcades or Np I, 15hehopaza rundabout shallhave r adei /i

these ae oci ablr enience ro the merchants who hese are of cosiderable onenience to ih, merchants who these are /fconsiderable conveniic e to the merh. ans Iho

g 4 nerally gather there geneall ,gathe tFhere genera gathe , thre

It is unknown if arcades were bil in the early of t he wlen city, but the concern I is uknown if.cade weir b uil in the rly er of the wooden ciLY hut he cmcen It is unknon if acades were built in tlhe cl era of lhe wooden cit, but the concem expressed was for protection fro sun and rain expressed was ior protection from sun and ran expnrsscd was for pr.otectim fom sun and rain

Ordinance Number 19, 120, ad 121 ere for the parish church Ordiniaces Nu mber9 I 20 and 1 wre o lhe parih chub rdinc Nmer 1, 120 and 121 were r the parish hrch

,o 119. As for the temple ofthe cathedral i he town i siuaed -No.d li A, fo he / emple ofthe cathedral fthe on s iuaed INo 1 9 Ai f, he temple rf Ihe cthdral if rhe rn isiuud on th, co ,il h hilt inprt so -- at i may be ie on on 1h. oas t II b, l o Ih.i ,t ma be seen on On ,h coas 1 i 1 hll b, built in par so thai b, mu) be see on

n.. (d,, e means or d,,ee or te or,, f mea,, or -dI,,fe fo t1,he or IeI

120 ,r the temple of the cathedra,, he pari 0/ h church, or o 120, For the temp, o,, he cathedral the palh church or

mon-aster building lo hal be assined next afer the plaza ad mona ry bui g los hall be assned next afier the pia and monastery huding lots shall be amigned nexr aIe he bi,, a and sireet and shall be so completely) iolatd Iha no gilding shall street, and shall be so completei isoated that no builng shall eetls and shall be so completely isolated that no buildng shll he added there ercept one appelainin to its commodiousness and be added thee except one appertaing to its commoiouness and be added iher ecept one apperta ing to it cmmodiousne a

orna ieintton ornamentaion rnamenation

N. 121 Afir that a sie and l-ocation shall be asgnedfor tihe o 721. Aer that a site and location hall be assigneaol he Vo 121. (ier tha a site and location shall, be -asigned/,r h S ui and cabido house and he uom he d royal council and cildo house and or he custom house and rol council and cabild ho nd h custom hue and

arsenal near the iemale and nort its iso that il times ofneed the arsenal near the temote and port isellso that in timns of need the
on e one maaPy aid, t.ohe o1-t ,, 0,fher ., ,

A lP ge parish church with a devotion to Auestra Snora de los Remed s (Our Lady o A lage parish chuch with a devotion to Nuesara tSno a de his Remedios (Our Lad of A large paih church witd a devotion to Nuestra Scora de lo, Remedio (Our Lady of Remedies) we built soon after the town was laid out it i depicted on the R oaio-lrae battle Remedies) was built soon le the tow, was laid out It is depicted on the Boazio-rae battle Remedies) was built soor a ldihe town was laid out It is depicted on the Bouzio-Drke battle plan map at the souheasr corner of the 156 plaza. where it would have been seen on leaving the plan map at the outheast comer o he 1586 plaza where it would have been seen on leaving the plan map al the southeast corner of the 1586 plza, here it would have ben seen on leaing tle a by weary ocean travelers (No. I 19) A visible church meant calm waters and a safe sanctua sea by we ocean travlcrs (No I1 9) A visible chich meant calm waters and a alf setuay sea by weary ocean Iravelers o. 19) A visible church meant calm waters and a safe sanctualy (Chapter In). (Chapter Te) (Chapter n)

A report hy the king's fort inspector indicates that supplies did not always it into the A report by the kings rn inspector indicates that supplies did not d ways fit into the A rpon by the kings fon inspect indicates that supplies did not alays lit into the ustolls house and arenl, ad that some were stored in the church in 1578: 46 cash of wine; customs house ad amenal and that some were stored in the church in 1578:46 cVak of win. cust thom and ad that me were stored in e church in 1578:46 ca of ine; and outid, toed -againi the churh wall under a roof o palmetto 60 cu, a o ,l our all ell and otia stowed against the church wall. under a roofo palmetto, 60 cask ofour all e-et and outside, lowed against the church wall, under a roofo palmetto 60 cas four all f well placed on top oftheir plank, tikewia, 80 escaupiles [conon Pmor) al l hanging on thelr nail ." placed on top oftheir plank;h likewise 80 ecaupiles [cltlon armor- all hanging on her naity. placed on p ltheirplanks likewise 80 esaupiles |cotton annr all hanging on their naila Ordinance No 12 had apeciiled lat-hose buildings be near the port l nd each oher in order Ordinance No 121 had spci Fed that these buildings be near the port and each other in order Orinance No 121 had specified thr these buildings he near the port and each other in order that onemay aid the orhe Ensign Hemando de Mesas depicted fe ehuilt Remeo in 1594 tha- mayad the other Ensi Hrnandode Mea depicted the rebuilt Remedi in 1594 tha o maya idthther Ensi Ierndo de as depictedhe rebuilt Remedi i1594 near lh lning d fie rebuilt doitrnrs HGu- e and an I No 121 had spcified the e near the ending and le rebuilt I vor's C- ou- e and .-cnl No 121 had pecified they be the landing nd tile reuil 0over-or', House d areal No 12 hd pid fedthey be

near h m66 ndpof biiif t{t -a Phe ,Pple could r,, a a m n rhe ,por ef th let nd,ort !if so th the epl, could 663, means 6 I- d ,noa tN ..C/- 1ndp, t -, o that the temple could 6., a a ,nsi of lns r h po it f(No 119). Govemor Pedrn Y,~ des ibed his house in 1603 as buit over the sea and s iel(No 119) governor Pedro Ybr described h is house in 1603 as b-lt ove..r he sa arid is iel(No 119) ernor Pedo Ybarra described his house in 1603 as built oer ih snd so coldanddampi Mcstas's representation suggests the Ordinances and his drawing were more o coMundd ml Mestas i s representation suggests the Ordinances and his drawing were more so cold andFda i" h Mestas's leprsentatlion suggests the Or dinances and his drawing wce realistic than we thought (Fig Mestas detail) realistic han e thougt. (ig: Mstas detail) realistic than th thought (Fig: Mestas detail)

A ccntu later, in 697, th6 e 'parish church was located on a plaza because it was A century later in i 697, the "paish church was located an a pla because it was A century ler, in 1697, the 'parish church as located on a plea because it p bible to take 40 paces straight ou from the main doors ofthe church; that he hurch h a possible to take 0 paces straight out from the main doors the church; that the church had a possible to take 4 paces stralghl out iom the main doors of the church:h th e church had a ponico; and that a person aalag in the partico wa nar enough to the gutdouse to convers poruic; ad -hal a p-sn wing in the n p. oas nar enouh o the urdoe to overe poni-o and ht a pron aing h prio as near enough to the guardhouse onrs with he watch-13 Onlyr rchaeolgy can veriy historian Amy Bushnells researh and Mestas's with the watch"' Only ,rchaelogy can ver, historian Amy Bushnells research and M -es 's ith the watch!'3 Only archaeology can veriy hislorian Aiy Bushnell s research and Mesa' drawing. Excavated burials and a postmold near today s Aviles Strcct and the southeast side of drawing Excavated burials and a postmold ncar toda's Aviles Sreet and the southeast side of drawing. Excavaled bials and a postmold nea today s Aviles Sdree, and the soulhest sid today'ss plaa are a beginning" They would have been closer in 1594 o Ihe port Seawalls and today s pla ar a beginning They wulid have been closer in 1594 to the poan Seaalls and today's plaza ae a begiming They woud have been closer in 1594 to the p-n Seawall d fill have extended the land and roads east o]the pla In my event. Remedios faced what the sea fill have extended the lad and roads cast of the pl-a In any event R-emedio fared what the sea ill have exlended the land and riads east olthe plaza h any event. Remrdli fced what the brought: new colonisti, mie, plates, and sor srgs broh: new colonists, enemies, pirates, and stierm r-ges brought: new colonists, cnemics, pirates, and storm surgs

In 1702 the English aived and bumed the church to tihe grounded It was not rebuilt h 1702 the English wrived and burned the church to the gruund i was not rebuild In 1702 the English anied and burned the church to the ground It was not rebuilt

Vm-us Ordincs wre- rule- t br slicer, reside tial defenses, clanliness, aethetic and Various Ordinances wre rr f r street, reidenil de/ns, tiearlne ss, -,hetics d Various Ordin-ces were rules for streetslsidnil defdn-e, clenliess, tcstheicr an health Several are particular revealing abou hbeI it olf today health. Scverl are paniculary rcvcling about the cityoF today, health. Several are paicularly rvealing about the cit oftoda

Vo 16 The sreers in coldpl-aces nhall be ,id, anl in No.V I The streets in col places hall h wide and -nr h No. 116. The streets in cold place shal be wide and i .

naro but or purposes of ~ where horses are to he had nabrou Uor purposes Fj w here horses are to be had n w, ut 1 rpuwoses r w here horses are o be had

they are belr wide the are bette wide the are better wide

St Augutine'sstreets are narrow today Some arelined with stone walls and St Augusine, streets e n owtday Sme are lined -ith stone walls and St Aug sine'ssreets are narrowtoday Some are lncd with stone alls and

overhanging balconies that shade pedestriars f m sun and rain {Fig: N.row Balcony Street} overhanging balconies that shade pedestrians from sun and rain (Fig: Nar w Balcony Street) overhaging balcoies that shade pedestrians from sun and rain. (Fig: Naow Balcony Stre) Bi SL Augutine -a d a weodn town n the 16t"-1 'h elu-te, ,,d it, lt Widls e not But St Augnsine wa a wooden town ia IFe 1t- 17" cnturis, and it, tret width, are not Bu SI Augutine was a odj- U1 in e 1 6t I71 cenures, and its street widths e not

precisely known Nauow shadlng streets in hot climates had roots in the counrics border ing the precsely knn. Nwrow shading streets in hot climates hM roots in Ihe counties bordering Ihe precisely hown Nanow shadm streets in hot climates had roots in the countries bordering the Meditpnanean, in p laces like Mscopotamia. Rome, Arabia and their colonies w here buildings Mediterraneal in places like Mesopotalia, Rome. Arabia and their colies where uildings Meditelranean, in places like Mesopotamia, Rome, Arabia and their colonies where buildings and courard walls enclose d and shaded narrow srees F enes and house walls bilt up to tIhe and coulyard walls enclosed and shaded naIrow streets Fence and house walls built up to the ad courtyard d walls enclosed and shaded nano, streets. -ences and house walls built up to the street edge rel defensive elements themselves (Ordinace No 133): street edge we defend lnts themselvs (Ordinance No 33): street edge won deensive elements themselves (Ordine n 13):

N 133.. he buildings fthe whole twn gene lly shall be so arunged that No 133 T :hbiingote whole mn generally shall be so arranged ihat No 33 .The buidings ofthe whole toun generally shall b o arranged thai they shal serve as a defense an@ against those who may try to disturb or they shall against those who may, try to disturh or they shall 5mne as ii delne and ort against those who may try to disturb o

invade the ton Each house in arriua hall be o built tha they may kee invade theon Eah ho i a ua hl e o uil hh, m e invade e townh houe i icu la h, k ihahy m

therein their horses and Iwork nimaQ. and shall have yrds and corrals as large hinand ha have yards and orra as large therein ther horses and ork anima and s hall have yards and orua as large

as possible for health and leana possible fo h h ad cle allies, as ps3ible for health and cuanlines

Visits to St Agutlinel s historic stone houses (Tihe Oldest House, the Llambias House. Visits to St Augustine's hislic stone houses (The Oldest House, the Llambi Ilouse, Visits to St Augustine s historic stone houses (he Oldest Iouse, the Llambia\s House, and the XimenezFatio House, for examples) -veal that setl-sustaining house unils were still a d the XimcnezFaiuo House. for examples) reveal dat self-sustaining house units were sil a and the Ximenez-Fatio House, lor exanples) rveal that self susaining house units were still a tradition inthe enu Inthe nt ofan em atc thy had ir ellitchn aiin in e 18" cen In the even of a enrmy attack, they had their ells kichen tradition in the 1 8" cenm In the evenl lan enem aack, they had their wells, kitchen gardens and domestic animals within their ard enclosur$s Health, cleminess an-d fires in gardens, ad domestic animals within their yard enclosures health, cleanliness and res in ganss and dometic animals within their r d nclosurc Health, cleanliness. and ires in the- residential compounds ere imponl issues In the cenuries before refigeration, bod these -sidential compounds were imprtal issues In the centuries before refrigeration, food these esidential compounds we implant issues In the centuries belbre rerigeration, food spoiled, smelled and sickened people. and fires we a constant threat in the initial woodd- spoiled, smelled ad sickened people ad lires ere a constant threat in the initial wood-and spoiled, smelled and sickened people. and fires ere a constant that in he initial wood-adthatch archiletum Preventive measures were the essence of many Il the Ordinances. tch archiecre Preventive measures were the esece of many of the Ordiiances Ihath alchitecture Prevenlive measures were th e essence of man of the Ordina ees

S122 7 he site and budding lts fr laughter houses fiherie 122 The site a buding lots f io laughter houses Jlsheries No 122 ihe ite and building lots for slaughter houses fiherie niand other things produ tive ofilh sha ll be so placed tanneries and orher thinsprodui ir be so3plac d tannries and othe33r things p oductive of/ fith shall be so i placed

that the filth c be easid died oj ha the filth can be easily disposed of that the filh can he eaily dposed of

o. 2. The hopitalor the poor and the sick o/non No. 121. hoilr h poor and th sik o non N l Thehospiral r poor and thoe sikor non

contaious diseases shall be built near the temle and its cloister.. contagious diseases shall be built near the temple and its cloister contagious dia ease s shall be built near the temple and its loiser...

Speciic winds with respect to the hospital and the sick wih cntagiou disease were Specic winds with respect to the hospital and ihe sick wih conagious diseases wem Specific winds with respect to the hospital and the sick iih cou agious dseaspes we 3so addressed in,o 121 .-I ell a No 124 I 15,7 a hopil a built ad a ed to the also addressed illN.o 121 as ill an 4 In 197 optl wa uilt and athed t the also addssed in No 121 N, s wll as ,] o 12 In 1 7 a hspit ws built and attached the

shrne of'uesra hor de la Soledad in the outskirts ol he town southwest l he pla shrine of uestra hor de lahSoledad in theoutskirts ofthe townsouth est of tile p a shrine of uetra Seora de la Sldad Ihe outskins of the to n soulbwestfthe plaza (Chapter ln) Bedding the sick near the altar wa in keeping with Spanish beliefs about healing (Chaper Tn) Bedding tihe ick near the altar was in keeping widh Spanish bnclh about dealing (Chapter Ten) Bedding the sick near the altar was in keeping with Spanish beliefs about healing This hospital was Ihe firs hospital in hat is now the continental lited Sates Today the chapel This hlospial was the first bhospitl in what is now the continenl United States Tody he chapel This hospital was the first hospital in what is now thie contincnal Ulinited States oday the chapel ad hospital sie is a hallowed ste, preserved by its oIners, the Sistes oi St Joseph and hospital site is a hallowed site, presented by its owners, the Sisters of St. Josph and hospital site is a hallowed site, preserved by its owners, the Sisters of St. Joseph.

Ordin;e No 134 addressed architectur and implied a geometric order sbest Thifs Ordinme No 134 addressed archiectul and implied a geometric orderwasbes This Ordinance No 134 ddressed archiecture and implied a geometric ollr r best lhis ould compliment he central plaza and gridiron strts would compliment he central plaza and gndiron streets would complimet the cental plaza and gridiron re

o 134 e shall ry so fr as poibe to have the buildmg all ooe form o o 134 They shall r sofar as possible to hv. the buildings all ofioneirm or 134 ~hey shual try i ~r as possible to hav the buildngs all o one form r

the sake o/the beaut, f the town the sak ofthe heaui* ofthe town the ik othe beaut, ofIthe own

Afer a BRtish led orce Torched St Augusine in 1702, the rebuilding process began Ater a British led firce torched S. Augustine in 1702, the rebuilding process began Aller a British led fore torched St Augustine in 1702, the rebuilding process began gain, conjeemred to have been planned around a pl.a Ihat approximates the location and sze of again, conjecture to have been plmmed od aplaza that approximates the location and size of again, conjectured to have been planed around a plaza that approximates 1heolion ld i of today' plaza This time, however, the paris church ,as nott built at the lading; LaSoldad today' pla. Fhis ime, however, the prish church as not rbuil at he landin: g;La Sordad's today'pla l his ime, however, lh parish churcll ws not rebut at the landing; la Soledad: chapel on St George Strect became rhe parish church i wa one of tilhe few wood stmmr s chapel on St George Street became the pariis church 11 wa one of the few wood stmrnles chapel on St. George St-ree became e parish church it was one lhe ol d ru l sp-ed by the British In the 1700s, a number of buildings were rebuilt with coquina stone The spared by the Brilish In the 1700s. a number of buildings wcm rebuill wi h coquina stone The spared by the British In the 700s, a number of buildings wen rebuit with coquina stone The govelor s house (Government House) was rebuilt at the est end of tiLe plaza where it stands goyerrs house (Govern ent louse) was rebuilt at the wcst end o tbe plaza where il sands govemors house ((overnmen t House) was rebuilt at Ihe west end of'the plaza where it stands today (Fig: 1763 Govenors Iouse) A Bishop sf louse was at the southwest com by 1735, today. (Fig: 1763 Goemor's House) A Bishop s House was at the southwest coner by 1735. tday. (Fig: 1763 Governor's House) A Bishop s House was at hIe soudlwest camer b) 1735, and the Marquez ailly had built a large house on Aviles Street across from the Remedio ad the M quez family had built a large house on Aviles Stiet across from the Remedios ad (he Mquez family had built a large luse on Avilc Street acrss from the Remedios cemetery hat became the hospital in 1740. Nwrw steers radiating from the gldilo plan still cometer tha became tie hospital in 1740. N ww sreets radiating from the gridiron plan still cemeto that became the hospital in 1740 Narrow steels radiating fron the gridiron plan still prevailed, and coquina house walls continue t he built up to the streets, enclosing wells, prevailed, and coquina house walls coltinud to be built up to Ihe Jreela, enclosing wells, prevailed, and coquina house walls continued to be built up to the streets, enclosing wells, kitlen gardns, orchds. and livestock (Ordinances 116 and 133). (Fig: Hrabawski lot layou) kitchen gardens, orh,rds, and lvestock (Ordinances 116 lld 133). (1ig: Hrabawski lot layout) kitchen garde, orchards,. and livestock (Ordinances 116 I and 133) (Fig: lrabawski lot ) Eightenbh cmntm faciesontinued to be lb, geometric block (omlsshpl e f- um -ilh Eigh nth nm, bede -,-o tinued L, be lb, 1 eometric block forms, simple vumes with Enhenh conra f-aades eonim-d to he ow ge mric block fos, simple olume with

thick coyuina stone wlls, and litle ornam ned except ir wlow grillcs and second hoC thick cquina sa- s -11N litte ornamented cept or nd- ll,, ad second sto thick coquin stone all ad el-ie ornented ecepa or window rilles -,l second si-a y

blnies all. e omor thes k, ofrh bear offh, ,,wn (No 134 ) baleo es all ofone btmr fth, saoi h, beauty fthe ro (No134)' b balconies al ofone ao rmfor th sake f thea /ihe -(No. 134).

As the ol, ew alter 1702. it lived up to the foresight another Ordinance: As the town grew after 1702, it lived up to the lresight another Ordinance As the tonl grew afer 1702. lived up to he foresight of anoher Ordinancc:

No 117. he streets shall ru/roma the main-plaza in such w-se N 5/ The streets shall ru om he maiplaza in r ,, h o T, streets hal l runfio, the mainl plaza that although the ion, increases considrably in size. no that although the town increase considrably in size no that although the lwn increases considerable sin no

inconvenience s may arise whih may caue what may be r buil to incomenience m a io e which m ha cause what m be rebuilt to inonenience m arire whch may cause hai ma he rhuikh to become ugl) or be pr/dicial o it de ense and nomodiousnes. become ugly or be preudiial to its defense and commodiousness. boa me ugly or be prejudicial to its defrnr and nommodiusnes

In 1764, a map ,wa signed by Eligi de la Puene ihat reveals the Spanish town plan was In 1764, a map was sigd by Eligio de la Puenc hat re eals tihe Spanish town plan was In 1764 a map ,as simed by Eligio de la Puente that rccal the Spanish ton plan was

essentially today's town plan ith some obvious exceptions: an empty space where the 16h- essenially today lin plan with some obvious exceptions: an empty space where the 6lh essentially toda s town plan with some obi ous exceptions: an empt space where the 16thS17th centu Remedos and bad stood at the soulheasl comer of the plaza; tih guard-house at the 17th centa Remedi o ad had stood at the southeast comer of tbe plaza: the guard-house at he 17th center Remedlos ad had stood at the souheast comer of the plaZa; the guard-house a the plazas cast end (it 16' century location); and abandoned stone walls ofa proposed new paish plazas east end (its 16 centu location); d abandoned stone walls oia proposed new pansh plazas east end (its 16h entl local ion); and abandoned stone ~lls of a proposed new p dish

church begun at lhe south ide of the plaza several decades earlier. (Fig: Puente map. 1764) church begm at the south side of the plea se ral decades elier. (Figs: Puente map, 1764) church begun at the south Aide of the pta several decades earlier (Figs: Puente map, 1764)

Florida was ceded to the British in 1763, and St Augustine became he capital of their Florida was ceded to the Brtish m 1763, and St. Agustine became (he capital of their Florda was ceded o the Btlsh in I763, and St Augustine became the capital of their

East Florida (1763-1783). The plaza (called The Prade) ad the town plan did not chage East Fldda (17631783) he plaza (rled Tilhe Parade) ad the ton plan did not cnge East Florida (17631783) he plaza (called ihe Parade) and the town plan did not change

Sizs,. ad uses, and stllisrle elements of buildings surrounding or near the plh a, hiever, did Sizes and uses. and stylistic elements of buildings surounding or near tihe plea, however, did Sizes. and uses, and stylistic elements o buildings sununding or near the plea, however, did

chage: the Bishop's house became the two-sto- British statehousE, the hospital became a chnge: the Bishops house boene the two-sto British statehouse, the hospital became a chage: the Bishop's house become thie two-to, British statehouse, the hospital became a courthouse ad jail; the monaste in the south par of own beene barracks. When the courthoe and jail; the mnsate in the south part oL oxn beee banacks. When he couhouse and jail; the monastcy in the south part of town became barracks. When the Spish sumed in 1783, ihe most notable addition .ound the plaza was the ne cathedrl Spanish retumed in 1783, the nmost notable addition around the plaa was the new cathedral Spaish retuned in 1 783, the most notable addition ound the pl-a was the now cathedral (1797), tday s Cathedrd Basilica Is Neoclassica l entrance and tall espadil pelrwr (1797) oday's Chdrl Barilica Its Nocliical entmce and tll eaaa belfry re (179) today s Cthdral asilica Its oclasical entrance and tall espadata belfrv were sming, ad a reminder of the thee that had preceded it a the Franciscan convento at La stunning, and a reminder of the three that hd preceded it at the Fraciscan convno, at a stunning, and a reminder oi the three that had pr ceded it at the Frciclln o at La

oledad. and at Mission ombre d Dios (Fig: Cathedl) ledad, d at Mission mbe de Dio (Fg: Cathedral) Soleded, nsd at Miion Nhmbre d, Dio (Fig: Cathedral)

When Florida became an American Te itor in 1821. the historic -ton1 plm remained in wen Florida became an American Ierritoy in 1821, the historic ton plan remaind in When lorida becne an American Ten ito in 1821, the historic town plan remain in

place nor did it ehlre with the i l of he Vicorin era and Ifl ,ie HiFll, g ,- tels placeU nFrl did it change with the arrival ofhk Victorian era a ,d Henry ager Hi, large hotels place, nor did it eha Ae ith the ,rfal of he -iriml erad il Fagr I is large ho ls 44444444 *i4,,4i44h,444444.446 45 44 4,6 4 66 4 4 46465,,45446444444,64

and churches l buiI in the la 1880 est ofhe colonial toSa Iaou It i, rab, ha ad hura,,w uil in the lat 1-1Os, of he Iolonl n ou I- i- notable that ud Sihe built i te late 1O w n e olnl town layFu I- I 88 n-l, th1 r Fl1ger had quickly rcognizcd al the ton had an ainil Ifr place and w ould say: "Here wa Ftagr had quickly reco-ized that the town had an amt nl for place and would say: lere was Flagler had quickly recalled thai -e town had an alllinit for place ad would say: "Hre ,a St Aug-tine, the oldest cit, in the United Sales Ilow to build a holu to meet tFhe iqu-imcns St. Augustine, the oldest city in the United Staes Ho o build a hol] to meet the requiments St Augustinef the oldest ,ily in the United Stats. How to bmd a hotel to meet the requirements of ninetnth-cenlur y America and have it in keing wi d the character o he place, that was of nineteenh-century Amenca and have it in keping ,ilh the chdlacter of the plce ha ws onin nhntu Amic ad he it in eeping th the charactd e of the place that was my hardest problem.' His buildings not only alidaed St Augustlne, s Spanish history and my hardest proNlem" is buildings not only validaled St Augl stines Spi sh hisor ad mi hardest problem' His buildings not only validated St. Augustine' Spanish histo ad multral heritage they embraced the tehniqu and look o f colonial St Augustie s tabby multicuural heritage,, hey embraced the technique and ilok of colonial St. Augustl ne s tabby mlticultural heritage, they embrace d the technique and look o 1 colonial St. Auustine ab concrete and coqina walls (Fig: Flagler Ponce de Leon; Grace Chuch) concrete and coquina wlls? (Fig: Flaglr Ponce de Icom GrFe Church) conc te and coquia wallsX (Fig: Flagler Ponce de Leon: Grace Church)

Buildings have since come down and g-one p and the debate continues as o Spanish or Buildings have since come don ad gone up and tl debate continues as to Spanish or Buildings have since come don and gone up and tle debate continues as to Spaish or non-Spanish sle infill in the hi stone dismet But the basic 16"'t ccnlu, colonial town plan is non Spanish syle in fill in the historic district But the basic 16' centl colonial ton plan is non-Spanish le in ill in e historic district. But the basic 16' centu colonial town pl. is still in place It had taken time to fit the town laou into its enviromn nt to establish its kinship still in place It had taken tlime o it he town layout into its envimnilmet, to establish its kinship still in place It hadtaken time to 1 he town laout into its environment, to establish its kinship with place, and to iet in stone its cohe ent sense o, er New Urhanismm n plans sreeping ith place, and to setinstone its coherent sense ol, de New Ulbasmto-n pla sweeping with place, and to set in -lone its coherent sense of order Ne- trhanism to~ plans sweepng the county of late am in essence "ne St Auglstine" played communities with some o, the the count of late am in essence "nco-St Augustine" planned connunities wth sonme of he the county o late are in essence "neo-St Augustine planned comm miies whil some of ihe

sam concerns expressed in the Spanih Ordanc same concerns expissed in the Spanish Ordince. ame concerns expressed in the Spansh Ordiance

More hacology and presernation is now needed to ensure the 450 year old ci will More ,chology and preseration is lw needed to ensure the 450 year old cit ,ll M ,ore archology and presertion is now needed to ensure the 450 year old ei will endu with its tasued material things ad things of the spirit and sanctity l place endue writh its tre ed material things and things of the spirit and sanctity oF place endum with its teasured material things and things l the spirit and ancti of place

we cannot enter it unmove We n ertu n W cannot enter it unmoed

1. Adaptcd lm atalk I gnve at the amual me lg the St Augtline Hisorica Socie I Adapted from a alk I gave a the muall mectng ol heS Augustine Historicia Scly 1 Adapted rom a talk gave at thennl metin of heSt Augustine lIIoricalSocic Jairy 17, 2005 afd from an article written for oruin. the magiaine of the Florida Hunaniies January 17. 2005, and from a micle written 10 Forum, ile nmgine of the Florida lul ities Januay, 17, 2005, and [om an anicle written for Form, the magazine of ihe Florida Humanites Council. Spnng 2005, exceed in rumSpring200CouncilSpring2005,ex ted in orm, Sp ri g 200 8 Council, Spng 2005, excerpted in orum, Spring 2008,

2 Q quoted in Amerian bungalow, August-No.mber, 1 2 Quoted in Ameri n Buni ow, AugustNoember. 1 2 Quoled in America.n un galol, AugustNovembeh,

3 The mns location souh olthe plaza is supported by archaeofogical evidence ftund by 3r The owna location south ofl the plaza is supposed hby rchaeogical evidence fould by Dr 3 e town's lcationsouthoftheplazaissupporledbyalchacoogica evidence fund by Dr Kahleen Deaga and Carl l albi. Sec )eagan. "Archaeoloical Strategy in the Investigation of Kathlecn Deagan and Carl Halid.n See Deagan, "Archaeologie Strategy in the Inveigation of Kathleen Deagan and CaHl irlH i See Dean, "Archa ological Sttegy in tie ilesttigon o anl UIlown Era: SixiLeenh Cent St Angu tinc." unpublished summa report prIpared ir an Unknown Era: Sixteenth Ccnluri SSI Augustine, unpublished summan pon prepared for a Unknown Era: SixIteenth Centmuy Si Aguine," unpublished sumnly iport pr epar ed for St Augustine Foundation Ine, on file at 1Ie Florida Museum of Natural iTistoN, Universi of Stl Augustine FoundatLon, Inc., on file at he florida Museum of Naural History. University of StI Augustine Foundation, Inc. lnle at he Florida Museum of NaUlral isto, University Florida. Gainesille; and Deagan, The Ichaeology of First Spanish Period St Augustine," 16 Florida, Gainesillc; and Deagan, ". e Archaeology of 1irsl Spanish Period St4 Augustine,M 16 Florid, aimevile; and Deagan, "he Archaeology of First Spanish Peod St Augustine," 16 (El Escribano, 1978); Halbirt, "Redelinlng ie Boundics of 16r Ce-t-u Sti August inc." SAA, (EL ,ribano, 1978); Ilalbin, "Redcinng Ihe RundMaries of 16I :entul St. ALugusine," A. A, ( 'sibano, 1978); Halbirt, "Redefing thc Boundaries ol 161 Century St Augustine," SAAA, No I (Maih 1999); Homan, "St Augualine 1580. the Rsech Prject," No I (March 1999); Hoffman, St Augustine 158l the Research Pro ct," No I (March 1999); Holman, St Augustine 1580, the Reserch Project,

4 uttall, 'Royal Ordinances concerning the I ying Oul of New l owns 743 4 Nuttall. "Royal Ordilces concealing the Laying Out o New Ton," 743 4 Nuttall, "Royal Ordinances concering the Laying Out of New Tow, 74

5 Alono de as Ala to the Cron, ugusine,Ja 12 1 an in Ide o the Cn, Stugu c 12, 1600, ranslated in Lyon, "Project 5. onso de las Alas o ihe Crown, S1tAugustine,Jauary 12, 4,00, ir ,isted in Lyon, "Projec Historian RepoIL," 76; Lyon, The First Thce Wooden For," 144 istoria Repon." 7(; lyon, The Fill Three Woden A lon," 144 Historian Repon, 76; LIon, "he First Three Wooden 14

6 "Alonso de Leturiendo s Memorial to the King," translated by Jolm H. Hu. P-orida 6 "Alonso de Leturindo s Memorial to the King." translated by Joh ll. IlIn-, Florida 6 "Alonso de Lemrindo's Memorial to the King." translated by John H Hann, Floida Archaoloy, 2 (1986), 173. Archaeoloy, 2 (1986), 173 Archaeolo 2 (1986), 173

7. he quoted translation o h dinaces of 1573 aLre ro uuttall, "Royal Ordinance 7. The quoted translations ofth Ordinances oi 1573 aIr om Nuuall. RoyaOrdinances 7 The quoted trslatio ofthe Ordinanees of 1573 are from Null "Royal OrdinMees Concerning the laing Ou oNew T s, 70-51 See also Hoffmanand yon, A ConcerningtheLaing Out of New owns" 7551 See also Ioffan and Lyon,A Con ing he Laying Out ofNew Tons' 70-51 See alo Ho an and Lon, 'A Prliminma Repon on the Iyou o SI Augustine. Florida. ca. 1580' Appendex 1 13 Preiminay Repo l on the Layout f iSt Augustini, Florida. c 1580. Appendix I. 1-3 PIreiminiu Repor on thie Layout of St Augustine, I orida, ca 1580, Appendex I, 1-3

8 For more on tis subject, see: Lawler, cred (iomey; T ivio, The Golden Rao ihe only 8 For more on this subject, see: Lawler, SacrediGeomeu: Livio, The Goldn Ratio. The only 8. For more on this suect, see: lawler, Scred Geometr: Livio, ihe Golden Ratio l only AIferene o he P"laza se that I ha.e found is by SolamI the parish prest in 1759: 200 varsM refern ,e to the P ,la si, that I have oand is by So lan, the parish priest in 1759: 200 vams werence to the Plea slze that I have found is h Soana the palish piest in 1759: 200 raS square Perhaps one o, he original meurements contained 600 fect (600 pics in Splish) square Perhaps one of the origiml masurments contained 600 feet (600 pies in Spanish). squar Pe rhaps one ol Ihe liinal measi men contained 6O feer (600 pies i Span, I h)

9 A Mendez de Czo. inletterso ing from govmor598 1610, 1154 59. anscribed and 9 Mend de iCanoin lIters to kinfrom governors 198-1610. A54 9 transcribed ad 9. Mendcz de Canz, inlt rs o ing om vemor 1598 1610, At 4-5-9. cribcd and anslated, SAHS Research Liba page 12 of ranslation MC63 translated, SAHS Research I ibra-, page 12 of tanslation, MC63 translated. SAHS Rscarch Libra. page 12 of translaMiM n, MC63

I 0 Including my oin book, lorida s Colonia Achiectunral Heriage [0 Including my on book, Florida s Cblonal Architecural eiltage 1 0. InHcluding my own book, lorida : Colon al Architectural Hritag

11. Captain Alvaro Flores, translated by Conner. (olonai Rerds, I. 189-91 11. Captain Alvao ores, traslated by Connor, colonial Rec rd, I. 18991 1 Captaln AIvaro Flows, ranslated by Comor, Colonal neords II 189-91

12 ma to king, Janua 8. 1604. AIG, 54/5/9. trascribed at SAHS Research Librar. 12 Yba-a to king, Jan-y 8, 1604, AIG, 54'5/9, rscribed at SAHS Rscarch Libra 12. Ybarra to king, J~ua 8. 1 I604. AIG, 545/9 transcribed at SAIIS Rese ch Libray

13 Bushncll.Situado nd ahana,88- 9 13 Bushell, Stuado andSbana. 88-89. 13 Bushnell,SituadoandSbaIa,8889

14i Di n th Carl alin Ci r p 2 2010iusion i Carl lbi City chaeologist September 2. 20 14 Discussion with Carl Halbirt Cil Arceologit. September 2, 2010

15 For more on the St Augustne architectural style, see Gordon, loridu s olonil 15i For more on the St. Augustine architectural s4lc, see Gordn, Florida s Coniial 15 For more on tie St. Augustne achitecturl sle, see Gordon, h ida (,onia Architeturalileritage, Chapers Four and Five Manucy, The Hoses of s Agustine, ad Archectural H, ritg, Chapters Four and Five; Manuy, hAe lhoues ofS Augustine, and Achitectural Hertage, Chapters Four and Five, Manucy, he Houses i St Augustine, and Strieenh Ce(ury Sr. Agustine: Parker, he Secnd Century ofSettlement i panih St eenh-Cenury St A ugustine: Paker. The Second Century ofSettlement in Spanish St. Siren C(nty S. Augustine; Parker, The Second Centwy ofettlement in Spanish St Ausine _,uustine Putine

6 ScGordon, F ridaConia6chitecl Herilage, Chapter4,"he Power of Stone" 16 SeeGordon, oida ol nial Ar hiteral lita 1Chapte, 4,TheP, ,oSone" 6 Seeodon, Forida s Coloal Arhi t .r HIge, Chaptr 4"Th Porof Stone."

17 Quoted m Thomas Gham 's Fale ugustine Hte, 17, 9 17 Qoted from I hmas Graham's lagle 6 uguine Hotel, 17. 19 17 Quoted fom Thomas Graham's Flaglr S Augusne H t, 17, 19

i8 abbywallswereamixtureofoystershlsandlme, sandand,,er, cast ,place the 8 Tabbyw s wereamixtureof oystershells and lime, sandand4 ater, at inplace Ihe I8 abbywaswereamixtureo ysteshelld6lime sand and waer astinplae the milxture was tam~ped down1 in board lifts,/layer uponl layer. Cartrw and Hastings adapted the mixtum was Imped down in board lits, layer upon layer. Cand~re and ilastings adapted the mixture was talped down in board lifts. layer upon layer. Canbre and HaTstings adapted the 464 6,4 444 446I4, ,4, d 66464646,.4446,64,,,, I 66'- d.- 66476 ,44 d444,It64 -d44. 66444,, 446,d 'Ibb pro-- t.o "Chcet r 'tel loy they Ise Porlan Peen (inbb p-ae t.f 19the shl tbyprcs ,1thcnu Iehnlg: hy-sddo a- eet '-taeo osersel ab5poesto/ t l[lytcnooythyusd rda cmn (npl f ytr h lime) and crushed coquina aggegate (in place of oyster shells). This construction teiliqule was lime) and crushed coquina aggycgate (in place of oyster shells). This con struction technique was lime) and crshed coquna aggregate (in place of oyster shells). This constr uctionltchnique was first employed by Fraklin W. SMi at his Villa Zorayda across the sIreet from the site of- the rst employed by Franklin W Smith at his Villa Zorayda across the street from the site of the first employed by Franklin W Smith at his Villa Zorayda across the street fom the site ob Ponede LeonHotel. Flagler'shoelswere the rstlrgeconcrete commeiialbuildingsinthe PoncedeLeonHotel. lagler'shotelswerethefirst argeconcrete commercial buildingsinthe Ponce de Leon hotel Flglers hotels e e first large concrete ommercal buildings inthe United States. Al earlier well-own architect ad tied to mmake St. Augustine in his own Unlited States. An earlier well-known architect had tied to remae St Augustine in hs own Unied States An earlier we-lknown architect had teed o remake St Augustine in his own imageandfaled. He had[brsaken the spidtofhe]listolcity. RoberMills oneof image and failed He had lrsaken thespI tofthehistorcalcy. Robert Mills ,Ine image and filed He had forsaken thespitoftheistoricalcity Robert Mils, one of America's most important ambhtects and designer of the Washington Monument, was assigned to America s most important architects and designer of the Washington Monmelnt, was assigned to Amenea s most important architects and designer ar thle Wa shin gton Monument, was assignled to renovate St. Augustine s iconilc Govemnment IHouse in 1 836 into a federal courthouse and renovate St. Augustine's iconic Govemnment House in 1836 into a federal courthouse and renov ate St. Augustine s icodte Goverunent House in 1836 into a federal courthouse and p ltoice. He sipped it oitslandmark Spanishtoewer and Doriecwdl entrance to the postoffie. He strippedit of its laudmakSpadlsh twer and Dorie wallentrance to the postoffce Ile stripped itof its ndmark Spanish twer andDorie wallentranceto the

we influenlced by what was event lashion. In 1936.,Florida architectsMellen Clark Creely and wasinflueced bywhat was curant fashion. In 1936. Florida architect Mellen Clark Greely and was idluenced by what was cunent fashion. In 1936. Florida architects Melen Clak Greely and Clyde Hamis peeled back Govemmnent House taking it back to its 18 century spirit o f place Clyde Harris peeled back Govermlent H ouse taking it back to its 18'" centuq spirit of place Clyde IIaxris peeled back Govenmlent H ouse -taing it back to its 18" century spirit of place compmanin 0h wes 1 ere 1 ent.)Spanish plaza [1e0soul ofthe Spanish town was commaang he wst ekd f he161 cnturySpanish plaza. The soul of thleSpallshtolww comma ling he ,st nd ofthe716a e etrySpanish plu. he soul ofthe Spanish townwas
more~~~ ~ ~ t.oan than -1kt Aeiafshomonioam afIe t,--ca M-.hi, mole, imor.n th fick ,mna ]" io
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