Background Research from Buff Gordon


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Background Research from Buff Gordon
Series Title:
Archaeological Files for Aviles Street
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Elsbeth Gordon
Physical Location:
Folder: Research, Prior excavations


General Note:
BDAC # 10-3000

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University of Florida
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iC I- r- J i t u El i V S t

Church ofSan uan, 1566 1572 C of an, 1566 1572 h oanJan, 1566 I57 Eiht months alter the Spaih landed in il5, their campsite was destroyed by the Eight nonths alor te Spaih landed in 1565. thcir empsite was destroyed by the Eit months aier the Spaish laded in 1565, their capite was destroye by the lanillg arrws of dians. They mlvcd to ,armstasia Island where they built a new, i# town naming alTrOws sIndian. They moved to Anasia Island where they built a new fort. town naming rrows of Indians They noved to Anastasia Island where thc built a new fon. town and church Doctacnts reveal thlt the latter was called the church r,fan ,uan and that it w and church Documents reveal Iht the bter was called the church of an Juan and that it wIS and church. Documents rev eal that the later was called Ihe church of an Juat and that it was near the well o Eni Juan diJnui. o, which is nerxt to the stoVehoue, which .jCMned wth the ear the ,ell fEn 1 ign, uan de u nc which i nexi t. he -r rehouse whih 1,oinrd wiih he near the ell oflEnsign Jual de Ji u 3 hich i next to he torehouse hich ih joined iith the church, and that its four ol ur-wick candles and 30 wax candle were all of ampeche [ Mexico] church, and that its four fou r ck candles and 310 war candles were all of Campech e [ Mexico] church, -d that its u r- ick candles and 310 wax candles were all ofCampeche [ Mexico wax. B1 1572, 1the 1 a ha 111eaen large par f the iland Rher theo nd to- 6 a t xn B 1572 the1 d h e ten alargepat oif he iland whe, hep and tn oereandi a By 1572, rhe s had eatn a largeart ofthe island wher, rhi ort an t ro- ,we.,, i wa neessary to change to the other side where it is now." The church ofSn Junn, an d the asnecessay to change it to the other side where t is no. The chirh ofSan Juan, and tlhe was necessary io change it to the other ide where it is no. The chur ch otshan Juan. and the

e landscape and it human hislor he landscape and it human histy Ihe landscape ad its human stoy.

Nl tra1 r1 1 de osR edios. 1572 1702 Nesira SeIoladeos Remedos. 11572 1702 ueSta Seior dei losr.mi 1172 1702

About 1572 di sellers m,,,d hack to te malalld, and built their to on h I-rbr Abot 1572 Ihe e noted back tb (h,1otl-d dh b ,k m15nlnd and buil thir to on the hnbor south f olay Pl-a p'ish church was built bn Ihe bank ol he Matanzas Rier at wht souh of today s Plaza' A padsh curclh was built on the bdk of the Matazas I~ler at wha south of today's Pla A paish church as built on he bm of the Matanas River a( what as then the nrtheaslem end o oin.l it asdedicated to St Augustine oI Hippo and laid don asl hen the mnheasrcm end ofwwn i, was dedicated toSt Agustine of Hippo and laid don was then thenoaheastem end oftn It was dedicated to St. Agustine of Hlippo and laid dn to the ,prilu practical conideion o remarkabl cset l 6" century Spanish the piriual ad pracil on iderations of a remarkable set ofi16 centu Spanish to thespiritual and pracical conideains of a remklble e of 6 century Spanish ordinance for planning ne towns (see Chapter Thirteenl I became known by i s advocac o nd- ordinances ir pllnning now towns (see Chapter Thinien) It became known by its advocacidn od nanc for planing new- tons (See Chapter Thiyccn. It became kown by iis aloacion (deoion and title) Ns a S s Red (O Lad (devotion ad tile) Nuera Senora de los Remedio (Our Lady oi Remedies)cle church a. (devoion and tih uestra euoa de lo Remeri Our Lrady f Remdies) e church w depicted in a drawing in 1586 by Baptita Boazio s beore it was torched by Francis Drke, depicted in drai g n 586 by Bapisa Boazio ubl hre it w tlrched b Francis Drake depicted in a draing in 1586 by Baptism B-l i ust before it was torched by ilancis D)rik and in 594 e rebui church was drawn by Homando de Mostas These are the oldest dra-igs alid in 1594 the rebuilt church as drawn by iIemando de Mesias i ese are the oldest drawings and in 1594 the rebuilt church was dra n by Hemando de Meslas llese a the oldest drawings of ani sacred space intheUited States Bothdlaingsshoi the urch slocated close to of any sacred pace in the United States Bolth drains how fhe church was located loseto of any sacred space in the United Stats Both dra-ings sho the church - locatedclseto the Mrbor at die southeast end of oday s plaa (Fig: Brio; Metas, deai) | the habor a he hea t end o ofl da s plaza (Figs Boazio; Meas details) the harbllr at the southeast end of ioday s pla. (1igs: Boazio: Mstas detais)

1n Sp e nbe99 ma* hare been d named in a hurcae overor Mndez de Cano In Sepembr1599 it may have been d mllagd iii ahumcan Go rmlr Mendcz de C~o In Splcmcr 159 it -!, la e been 1-,mgeld in a hurricane Gornr lender de Ca bGS

(15971603) wrote the kng it was in need of repairs: Likewise he prmial church o hlis ci / (1597 1603) wrote dhe king it was in need o repairs: Tikew is the princil c hur ch of thi city (1597-1603) wrote the king it was in need of repairs: LikeiX e the picipal chrch of )ris has the samre neresiy) ofbeing covered ith a iat ro/otr tite und other ver) necessary repair: has ihe same nlecesir of being covered with a far roofor tile and other ver ncsiiry rehars has the same neeeity (being creed with aut rnofo ille and other erey necessea Your lajsty being pleased to command to he giv en the proceed of te tithes for three or four Yor Majt being phased to command o be given the proceedy of the tithes for three orfor Yor blajesty being pleased to command to be given the proceed 9/ the i n be repaired that which is doine in the church has been ahe cost of thsl d ie rs dnear it cn be rpired.iha wiwih is don in ,d ,h he b I h ,--b6h itd, ch h hchab at the cos ,oIt soohsif h resident ,hohave d e it-fomtheirpoveri r -esidensa who havedone itfromt :h pv ; a e resident whoh he done it from heir pover/. I d "

Span s sixteenth -cetu plng ordinn for laying lo new ons (c mmpiled pim Spin i h c u plnin rdinc rin ut ne on (mpild fro Spain s sixteenh century playing ordinmees tor laing out n toin (compiled f
,1d, p-,t,- d pblh m 1573lcicsldulshln53 Pilpls ifedhtPehrhhplcdahhe th i "
older practices and published in 1573 by Phillip 1 specied that the luch be placed at the or prcic d publih in 1573 b Phillip I pcied th e churc h ple at the older practices and published in 1573 b Phillip I 1) speciied hat the chllurch be placed a the ,riont of the Ionx so that all parts oit may be seen. d so ttat it ma) be seen on leaving the fircfront of the town so Ihat all p.rt l it may be seen, ad o ihal it may be seen on leaving the foreiont of the to.n s, that all parts f it ay be s -e. and so tat i may he se,- neI sea and in a place where its building may serte as a means o/ dee.nsefor ihe p ort itself s This sea and in a place where its buildMi may sere as a means of defense forthe port itsel T IJs sea and in a place where t building may sere ia a mean of defense for the port irse 1 explains ,hy the parish churh clung to its precamous site it the harbor a edge (before dere was explains why the parish church clung to its precarious site at the harbor's edge (belire there was explains why the parish church clung to its precarious site at the harbor s edge (bcfre thr a seawall) in sight of the rbor let for a long 130years in the face of ood tidc and storm a seaal) insight of thebabor inlet ir ang I ears in 1e face of ood des ad stor a scaall) night o the harbor inlet for a long l30 years in the ce[lP d i a ulg, hui es, andassaultsbyshiphbmLepiraesandBritsh enemies. Ontheharbor surges, hurricanes,andassaultsbyship-bo-r piratcsandBritishenemies Onheharbor surges, hurricane, andassaultsbyshipbonepiratesiu dBritishonmes Onthe Iharbor waterfront. me Christian cross on Remedos s gable stood out as tile highest landmark. it was a w aterflimt, the Chislian cross on Remedi s: gable stood out as the Mghest landmark It was a waterfront the Christian cross on Remedies, gable stood out as the highest landmark. r a bolic beacon of faih thai would lead the suivors of trachcrous sea voyages through tihe symbolic beacon of faih ttt would lead thie surviors of treacherous sea voyages through the symbolic beacon ol aih that iid lead the survivors of ureaherous sea vo'ages hoIll th nlel and into the calm wate and slely l S.i Au grille portl (Fig: Ioazio Plan) inlet and into the calm water ad safoof St Augustils port" (Fig Boario Pla) inlet Iand ino die calm water and safeit of St Augusiler s po. (lg: Boaio Plan)

These same t sighted urban planning ordinances also specified that the c-s-om house Iheose same larsighted ban planning ordiccs also specilied ihat the ,cutom os(he These sane farsighted urban plain ng ordimnces also specific d that he custo hu

-dudarsea h ear the temple andport ilelf ro that n times ofjneed the one may aid the and a 1enal be ner the tenple and port itselso that in times (need th one may aid he and arsenal be near rhe temple and port itels o that in times need lhe one may aid h ,thr' ence, the trio ofbuidings c-urch, g-emorshoe{council, cabildo. customs) and othi. Hece, thelrioofbuildings. church, govcmor house (council, cabildo. customs) and o er.' Hencc. the trio of buildings -church, governors house (counciL ab um ) guardhouse arsenall) sood at ti harbors edge as was dawn by 1estas in I 594 (Fig: Mestas gualdhouse arsenali) stood at the harbor's edge as wls dian by Mcstas in 1594. (Fig: Mestas gualdhouse (r senal) stood at the harbors edge as as r.a n by Mestas in 1594 (Fig: M s D drawing) An earlier repor (157) substantiates this cleer triumvirate: sppliies at could not fit Drawig) An erler report (1578) substantiates his clover triumvirate: supplies that could not Lit Drawing) n earlier repon (1578) subsmiaites this clever iumvirate: supplies that could in he cu sm and muniion houses -wr stored in the large chllch: i tie cUStoms and munition houses were stored in he lare clrh: i the customs and munition houses xer stored in the lage church:

hWihin 46 ck, i ndui so d gins h rch Wiin 4 cs ofine;: and outid stowed aint the church thin 46 cask ofwine: and outide, slowed again the church

wall, under a r ,oofopalmetro. 60 asks o/lour all ell placed on all, under a roqtffpalmetto. 60 coks lflour all well plced on wal under a r o, ofpalmerm. 60 cosk of fior all well paused on

iop ol~rrlo'pg~k Ih.,,isc o .'.,pii les[cttn norl ,,/: q.p hrii iX pg, ,, :ki rr Hi, i Z [ otn anlwr] al to .:the#~lun Ilr li,,g HO mcaui~ie al m l i

hanging on their nail." hanging on their naii hanging : their nau

Churches shall be aid oul in goodproportion," the oldinances continued Spiritually, it Churches hall be laid out in good propot ion." the ordinances continued. Spiriiully, it Churches shall be laid ott in goodproportion," e ord might be conjecnlred that Remedios s di- d t th, le.mensions, b, I Rwl,,d- plpaed according to the geometric ratios might be cdjectured that Remedi s dimensions wdi- p pl the genetic ratios might be onjcurd that Remedi dimension r pla specifcd in the 1573 ordinances fol town plans: lngth equal to one and a halimes ihe wIi. h specified in the 1573 ordinances for t-on plazas: legth eq7al ro one anda halftimes the idh. speid led in the 1573 ordinances u-r town pla-aS: lenrglh eg, h 1,It Propotonai systems in Chistian church architecture since the earliest basiica t}h ough the Propor tional sylems in Christiln church achitecture since the earliest basilica through the Proportional systems in Christian chnch architoure since the Medieval and Renaissance pe-od, had become the very principle ol church order and sthetics Medieval and Rnaissanee periods had become the voy principle of church order and aesthetics Medieval and R-missce periods had become the cry princip h IHarmonious proonions were thought to ilect the indawmental laws of nature and the uderse Hramnious propr tion were bought Io rinecr the fundamental las ,l nature and Ihe univrse Harmlonious proportions were though to retlect the fundamn d t created by God the architect. he could be achieved by simple Solomonic ratios or in the more created by God the alctec They could be chieved by simple SolomniW c ratios or in the more cleated by God the architec I hey could be achieved .by complicated rules fbr increasing and decreasing numerical modules recording o -,e "Goldel compicated rules for increasing and dccrasing numerical modues according io the "(iolden complicated rules for increaig and decreasing numerifcaldi t ld Raio" (the smaller p t relates to the larger pan as the lger pm relates to the ,hole). Ratio" (the smaller pan relates to the larger part as the larger part relates to the hole) Ratio" (the smaller part Ir eate to the larger pan as the gcr pa I Propoltioned chulrhes wre thought of as ite threshold to heaven In orinnately, Remedios s Proponioned chrches wor thought of as the threshold to heaven." Unio nately, Remedis s Prponioned churches wr eg thought r Ihas the (breshold to he dimensions wue unown, but in 1759 1he parish pest descri bed three St. Auglline Franciscan dimensions are unknown bu in 1759 the pmish priest described three St Augustine rancisea dimensions are u1k-lown but in 1759 the pish plies- desire which ilh simple ratios (widh equaled half the length and height was half the width)i Ihe churches with simple ratios (width equaled half the ength and height was half the width)' The churches with simple ratio (idih equaled half he l -nh andbll originlSl Peter, sin,,Rome coneclated i A D 326 had the samel. tio it was 400 eet ong, original St Peter's in Rome consecrated in A. D. 326 ad t , Pd i D 36 dthe same ratio it wa 40 ft ln3261 andils bladth Ias 200 eet and planned enlargemen in 1452 as be 6r40 eet by 320 and its breadth was 200 fcet -andaplaedeargementin1452 to be 64(0 fct by 320 ld its badhwas 200 feet -and a planned enlarg- ,, 2 b6nenti 4fet' ee : feti "

azio s drain oRm io depicts die rectlgular basilica church extcndng ie Boio's drawing of Remeios depicls the rectangular basilica church extending the B,azi' drawing oL Remedios depiels the rctfa,-gu r length ofa town block, its trance in the east Mestass Remedos issimilar and has a double length of aton lock. its enhance in the east. Mess s Reedrios is similarand has a double ength f a own block, its entrance in the cast. Mstas dsR door facing cast and a detached po-and-be bef with four bells mag by rope pulls Its door facing east ad a detached postand-beam belfr with iur bells rung by r,pe pulls. Ts dor dIeIing east and a detached post-id-be l blfii withl b -, 1 It verie] plalks are joined with wrought iron nails. Both churches are rolled ih palm thatch. In vertical planks ar joined With wrought iron nails. Both churches are roofed with palm thatch In veical planks a re omed iwi11 irtought iron nails BoLh 01, tch boh, all eyes would be drawn though the darkness of the long nrrow, and windowless Iae both, alleys wiud be dr awn through the darkness of the long, nanllw an ,.indl,,,ss nave both. allr eyes would be drawn though the d arknlfes s of the ,.dngtow-d th d.maofhe candlelighed s .,,ayad Nmain h 1576Rcdo i xas towardhed ad-oFlhe cadlelightd ,anetua and mainar In1576 R .mm. s ,,,.rd Ihe, dr of headl-lightds-,--an dIaina1a i76 R

inventoried with a rich assonment of interior Arnislgs. Abo 1598 Governor Mondcz de inventoried with a rich assonentof interior umishings. About 1598. Governor Mendez de inventned with a rich assortment lr interior limishings. About 1598, Govem.r Mende de Can basted : h. ct3, is at presen with much publi adornment if shine ofthe princ pl Canz boasted : Th, cio i, at p,ese, ~ih much public ado rnmeinl of hria i flhe pincie Canzo boasted : This ci is ar prese t ih much p Jlic aoriet oshlins oTe ri

h d IAin 1602, h lAote lat he priniple church as one ofthe neatesiadberfinihed I chu, h.. nd in 1602 h -,,rot, hat the principle church asI one d the netestand bet inihe i church and in 1602, he wr tt the principle h ua one f ithe neaiea andbesinied.. ojiu kfind in the indll s o fits kind in ihe Indi es." il k ,i nd l

Roberl Seale, alips the pirael John ais supped he paish ch ch o itsl mamentin Robe Scarl aliasthc pirate Jo Davis strppd th parishchrch ofitsornamentsin Robn Searlc. alias e pirate olmDais slipped he nish churchof it ornaments in 1668 A In 1675, tile visiting I Bishop of Cuba worte the Queen of Spain about the l of St. 1668. l 1675, the visiting Bishlp I Cuba wroe the Queen Spain about the city ,i St 66. In 75, the visiting Bishop of Cuba ote the Queen of Spn ab le city oSt Augusell: l A r gard it V Aitual welfare i ha a p ,sh chrch de, icad t I 1ugus ine. Au gustine: As regard i, t iriAual welAare, i has a parh c hurch dedicated t1, A ugusine. AustAine: As regads its sPiri ual ,lre it h,,s paih ,hur h d(iceA d to S. gusine In 1697 a repon indicates a church plaza sp-e ws said to ex nd 40 paces straig,- out from its In 1697, a repon indicates a church pl-a space was said t extend 40 pces stright out from its in 1697, a Ireport indicates a church plaza space was said to extend 40 paces straight out from its a rn lo aind a portico+ along its side wall allowed a person to tlk t the w atch in, the adjacent main doors. and a portico along its side wall allowed a person to talk to the watch in the adiaccnt mua doors. and a poico along its side wall allowed a person to talk to be wa+ch in, the adjacent guardhouse Also in at year, Govetrnor QuirTga built a Iew hell loer fIr thile spia m or, but gu dhouse. Als In tAl year, Governor Qu-iga built a ol w bell tIer A r the igeIia mayo, but gurdhouse. Also in that yea Governor Quloga built a ne , bell tower ior the ileiaa mayr, but no description follows. no description follows.- no description Ill AA

In November 1702. when Cwolina's Govemnor ames Moore Id siege to St A ugustin, In November 1702. when C arolina's Goveror Jalcs Moore laid siege to St Anugustin. In N ovembcr 1702. when Carolinas Governor James Moore laid sieg to St Augustine. the invaders Aere ovrhelmed by the size of the chrch TJpcopc fled with their the vadeis wei e overwhel edb, y the sre of te chrc. Townspeople fled with their the invaders were ver whelmed by the size oihe churh T ,ownspeopl cd with their

li d possession into the newly cAnstred stone fo and lived here packed like lielock and possessions into the newly contruced stone dirt and lived there pcked like livestock and possessions into the newly nstmeted stone fon and lived there packed lik sardines in a cFm Rr filly-two days, at the end of ,hich. on December 30 Ihe delleated enemy sardies i a can fi r fly-w1 o dais, at the end of wich. on Dece3mber 30, t lef ae d enemy sardines in a ca for fi -to days, at he end o which, on DecembeI 30, the deleted enemy depmed and srt fire to the church and most of St, Augustines wooden buildings." Remedis departed id set id e to the church and most lS. Augustine's I, A den buildings., Remedii artd and set ir t the church and most of St Augustine's wooden buildings Remedio, Ihad I, sin e 1572, but this time its loss was too great a burden to be. It IMd stood at thle river s edge since 1572. but this time its loss ias too eat a buden to be It had s d at the river s edge since 1572, but this time its los as Io 1 geat a butl bear It as not rebuilt A map of 1730 marked ts allowed wateront site: cros he l sodthereb was not rebuilt A mapof 1730 maked its halIed water ol e A I Aro A hers sodl heeby ll notbl. A map ol 1730 marked its allowed erfriont site: A l 9h, lh i
I;A- I I., Ah d,,l lt I I. sincere e'b il1 2 G eat hu hd roed 106 [17 02] never sincerebuit" Grea Churh ds oyed 06 [] .... ..

u I&a 11 laS d ca Early 1570s 1763 ,ue Senoad 1la Soledad. ca. ar, 1570s 1763 Nesra S,,, ,oran la Soid, ca. Earl 1570s 1763

cr the deruction of Remedis in 1702, the St Augustin parish moved inland to Ate the Aist rucltion o Remedios in 102. the St. Augustine prish moved inand to a Aler heA des-tion ofi Remedis in 1702, tie St Augustine parish moved llnd to a curld od chapel that w pard in 1702 Il had been ori-ialy built as -t-,t cnur-olId ood Apl that a spl d in 702 hd been iignAly built ], I 3rl Clul oo ch al pe in 1702 It had hen ,igAalll built as an 1,lmbi

( whin) ith a de-otio o l uetra Scaa de la SLedad (Virgin Ma f afer thfe CNcifiion) by a (shrine) with a devotion to Niuitra ,Sioa de la oedad (Virgin May dtr be Cruciixion) by a (shrine) wih a deotion to Nuestra Sira de la Soledad ( irgin .M.ary ler lhe (:ci% iII It a Cofradia (cftraf n i@) shodly aterthe tornrelocated to the mainland in 1572. A hospital fr Colradia conterit shonly ater the town relocated to themainland in 1572 A hospital for Cofradia (ctdi te v sortly after thetown relocatedtothe mailadin1572 Hospital for

he solders (a small room with beds) was attached o 1he 1 ine in 1597. Gov-ernor Oa alo ihe odiers (a small ronm with beds) ,,as attached to the shnne in 1597 Govelor Ganzalo the soldiers (a small room wih beds) was anached to the srine in 1597 Go ornal

Mendezs de C o. srote: henl aied at his cir [1597[l /nd tal he) e, ebininga Mende ,, de,, Canzo. te tfen r athi c [1597 Ioud a erebegn nga M dez de Cano,, te: hen I a ed at hii [ 15971 sunldtha thewee being

hial and ge the i that it he mde beaue i he this P idi which h hospital and gave the ior that it be made because it is te reme f P id,hi h and g th h it be mde ea h medy this resdi, hich if the had not had it this past summer mal, soldi, s and Indian natives of Yours uld have persied had not had it this pastl ummer many sodiers and Indian naiv- s of irs wouldd have perished had noi had it thi, pas summer may soldier and Indian nai es q lrs wo uld ha e perished

a died aodg to te great ic sp ,, that ere' ere. It was fi, first hospit built and died according to the il and h b aor in e ra siers that er, here It was the first hopil built

in ahais now the condnenl United States Anold Rod female slae InedMia je in wha io n- d he coninnnl nid Sa An Rol in l e nad Mria Jie in what i, n, th, e continental Unid Sas ,, old Roal fenae sle naled Man Jie

,cr-,d as cook for the patients, and made beds and kept the hospital clanc served as cook for the patiellt, id made beds and kept tie hospital clean" er, ed Is cook lir the patients and made beds and kept the hospital clean '

b Februan 1600 ad April 1601. Mender de Cno reported dt On March 14 159.9 In Februar 1600 and Apnil 160, Mcndc de Canzo reponed that On -,rch 14. 1599. 9 in ebmr 1600 ad Apri 1601, Mendez de Caio reponed that (, March I4 1599,

here w ,asi r in it ich burned a nur othouses, and thei F a co ng en the hr w.a. a inre iicn which burned .aunS er" g p ,ss and he sr,,cicn ve'nt the ther a irin i iy whih b e a nmr oh athe Fs ,r,, s an.scisca, So.5,sss ,

bd of) is church i cord ihl oth end of.twl or hich reon i sher the od uits drch is icoerd withpa [s outh emn of awn]. hic reason, to shelter hle

prior and certain religious it was necessary to put the m into the Chapel of Our Ladv of Solitude i prior and crain religious it way necessary to put them, ino the Chapel of our Lady ofSolitude prior and certan religious it was necessary to put them into the C ofugx or~t( Iay /Solitude

y# himtl w*asand there was then no hospital nor any place to recen e the sick and where the city hospital wa l and there as thenl no hospital inor any place o receive the sick and where the r hospital was ad there was then no hospital nor any place to receive the sic and so that the charitable workl ould n it ceae and because ofthe great need ofthe poor soldiers so t hat the critable or ol n ot cease adbu se ofthe gr ofhe poor soldiers } ) so that the charitabe work would nor ceas ad because ofthe grea need other r d~hek~ing blacklavendnai nd d ia rupm yownpen sacomois and andh ind th ins black slaes ad native ndians Iser up at my owln expee a commodlus and 5 and the king s black slaes andni ndian. I set up at my oxn expe a connodius and decent hospl ith a haldozen bed ude e patronage 5 ta B,,arbara2 den ho al ith a haldoz, n ed under e patronage /,ant Barbaa decent hoSptal it a halfdoze, bed under the pa,,ronage ant Barbara,

-1,, 1604 (11, 1-1i h,,d --d ti.I, 1, h 1, A th Abou 1604 th, Ili- h .., d b1604 th- th-e ,bi,,Il hdt mo-ed b1ck inl- b-1, ir ( i,, 11-r, -n ,Ibfll out .d ,It bfthe

464byF Pd55 r o Be,55nn -,hr n he m h brhho erma dscried in 1604 by ry Pe tdro ermeobelongit th e rfhe brhrhood,, 1r,,, mira. d ,cr i in 1604 b Sy F NJP-e,-,rnn bg o tlmr sfh, brtherhood

oldis le garrison |fNueslta Seoa de la Sol, edad The hospital als being nlala,,,ned [soldics of te garrison] estra Seor de la Soledad. Ihe hospital was being mainid [soldiers of the carrion] oi esra Sra d la Soledad... 2 The hospital xas bein, g nin taed

by soldiers almsld' by soldir alm

Some eigity years later, the visiting Dihop of Cuba wrote Marianal in 1676 (ha Some eight years later, the ,isiting Bishop -f Cuba w-rote Queen Mariana in 1676 that Some ei1hy years lter, Lhe listing Bishop of Cuba woe Queen Mariana i 167(16 tha

the rm1, ifO, Ld) ufSliu.e hd a ho-ia oiuous o ,,tg.. i bed the -h b, the a d h had hpl omgu -1 ivilh ,d y(z, '

Between 1687 and 1693, Gonemlor Quiraga y Losda enlareW d the shrine at the hospital Betwen 687 and 1693, Governor Quiroga y Losada elrged ihe hrine a th, ho sial Between 1687 and 1693. Governor Qubga y Losada enlrgr d the shr ine a the hospitf ofSoledad ito a little churh complete with a campanario. iive year later the parish priest ofoledad ino a itle church complete with a campanaio.: rie yes Iater the parish priest oSile edd i o a lle chrch complete with a campana io. Five years later the palish pries Alono de Ltuondo ported to the ing about the spira o that t Alonso de Letiondo repoed t the king about the Hopital of Our Lad oSoitde tat the AIonso d 1 e1tniondo reported to the king about the H l qfor La ofoliue that the, Ih j ri uxtaposed wth lhe main ahaI 1fhe to, e1 aid hermitge or hospital and room ,,the ,ick., jx taposed with the main dhar olthe ai'resaid herntiage or hoplial and groom ofhe sick is juiposed ith the nmin altar of rhe aforesaid hermiae or hospital and, next a kthe whr since i s near o ght a at a hours, Ihe sick andr e o a kihen r ine it neceary to a a all hoursor the sick nd n t hen e it is ne o a a hours e si d mllng the medcines as he huiings ore place a e all o f wood ihe ,huch and the, ,ha, and making the medlnes am the buildings o/ th, place ae al o, wood the churc h and the altars and mo ,9ng he medicmes as the building o tie place are all ,n d he church nd the ahar sd images, al recei muchdamage This was the state 31 is rchitectuil wlhn Sledad became imlages, allriv .lch dama." This ias th e state of its 1chitcli, when Sol dad became imags allreceive much d, ae, This was the state of its achitecire when Soledad became the parish uch in 1702 the parish church in 1702, e parish church in 1702

Fory-hre ycars later, in 1735, the enegetc Bishop of Tricale, Francisco de San Fony-three years lar, in 1735 he engetic Bishop ,i Tncale Francisco de San Fny -three years later. in 1735. tie energCtc Bishop of ricalc, Fransco de San

n entu -.ra y Tej ada arrived Hc wasa professorof ology.gudiof arise Buenaaventura y ieiada arrived 1e H asa proeSSl o thelogy, gudian of aFranciscan Buenlavemt ay Tejada anived He asaprolssorof theology, guardian ,aFranciscan convent in Seville, e fiii resign t bishop in St Augustine. In 1736, he ,as moved to be convent in Seville, 1he ,rst resident bishop in St, Augustlinc. 1736 he was moved to be convent in Scvill the first resident bishop in S, Augustine. In 1736 he w6 s moved to be b inging this iirmandd u<, to date and to mke the wo ks of e said hermit, in t .one, 1e1 bringing this Her mandad up to dat a d to make the works f the said hermirage i lo,. He bringig ghis Hrmandld u to dau and to make he i o, s fofth s,id hemirage in sn H called it the hlermitage o nto itn de a ol ) 1765 ,ld t h d r Laofra el -di,;, in 76 t lld i hrmi of o d Lad 176 it d t the hrmitag ofan C o racel i 1765 it lso called the ermita of h Lah, Aaclis This advocaciIn d our La I q 4ra.eli may also called the ernia ,1 Our Lady of3racelis. This advocacian of Our l 3racelis may also called the ermita of Our Lady3 oAracelis This advocaci, n of Our Lad) ofArac is mlay have arrived at tile prish church with he Bishop of Tric e The had been founded in Seville ill have arried a the pansh chwch wilh the Bishop of iricae Ihe had been imnded in Seville in hae airnved a the paish church with the Bishop of Tricale he had been rounded in Soville in h Ise Ith cently and losly asociated with the ralciscans Ihat he used the name the late 161 cenm and was closely associated wih thle Frciscans That he used he wm e the late 16 center and was closely associated -ith the Franciscans That he used Ihe name Santo Criso de la Soledd might ea hat he also brought ihe Chn-l igure to ihe Virgin who 'nto Cisto d, I h Soled,d might mean tha he also brought he Christ figure to the Virgin who ,Sane oiso de a Soedad might mean that he also hught the Ch ist figure to the Virgin ho without Chrils arer the crucimixim was lreied to as La Soledad, reng the lact she as wilbout Chl is altcr the crucifixion was ,frcd to as La S ,oledad, ing to re fact she was without Chisl after the cmcfixion was refered to c La Soiledad, referring to t he fact she was the solitary figure and the Chist rha went lth his youp was referred to as elSano Cristoi e the solitary figure and the Chnldt ha went with this group was rele edm t as elSanrto Ciio de the solitary figure and the Cuist that went with tis youp was referred to as el Santol Crto de la Soledad.) la Soaledd. I, Sledad.)

Tehada's improvemcn s and expansions in what war originally the ermita oinesa Tehada s improvements and expansions in what was originally the ermia ofuesira Tehada s improvements and expansions i who was orixinally the ermita ofAuese Senora de la S -odad owe described by F aer JIan Josd Sol.. die parish priest 1759: Senor de la oledad o ere described by Father Juan Jose Soana tLhe pirsh priest in 1759: ,Senora d la Sledad were described by Father Juan Jos Solaa. the parish priest i 1759:

Hith reard I ,t m iat / hr hut.h. .. leu d Io a htll i di, rga, d to th, mat e iol, of iehurch it ieced ho Ull 1 1h ,,d hmat erPi -,dcIr .i reducedd tm a1l

rt~~he asstan,~t cura,~,te and anote na and .ano r room more ~utere)j- fhe ,sian ,,ole a,,nd n.oth.i r room more narrow (autere) for the acolyrs: [the church] i 20 varas long 1555 foct he the acolytes; [the c church] i 20 varo long [55.5 feet]. the the aolyte; | the church is2 vaa log [55.5 eet]. the

presber chancel vaas [1 I .9 and~ .II ara d [1 9 pr bter chancel vaas [ 13 9 fec] and 1 I S ,as wide [31 9 prebyter chancel 5 vr as [ 13 9 cet] and 11 id, 131 9

ret]. in place of the anc ie and dmaged wood ir had a ne feet in plac o f te ,ane nl and waged wood it had a new feet] i place of te wient a,d da maged h-ood i h

fronr ws erected i h te on arches an abv ehem a wlh, l "ont waa r.ct ed wih hr one rch, -tead abov tm ll /ni w rtd ih hre n r above them a wall

h sere ii t: ler in whih the bells are rung. he roofi whih series as the toer in whh the hells are rung The roo fl whih series as the touer in whch the bells are run The roofl

wood board rblas).. anew choir wa built. woodboari d (tahla). a n-ew choir wa buidt. -ood board tables) .. nehoi l ui

lcttcr was both a complaint and a relations about alchitecr He dpicted La Solalwa s letter ras bh a complaint and a revelation about architecture. He dcpictedLa Solanas leterwash btha complaint anda revelatinaboul acitecule e depicted L o mall and narrow ilat the laithul had to bear massi in the street, where they suffered Sedad so small and n arw thal the fair IL1 had h hear mass in the steet. here they suelred Soledaod so small a d narw that the faitfu had to mass in the stt wh1c the -ul ld andlain Hiwords wi nd-raisigtactics aimed at the kings royal purser ith inlhe sun and rain lis words were fund-raisingacticsaimed at thc ing royal purse, with in he sun ad rain H words were lundrasing at-csalmed athe kihg s royal purse, with

Ihe cwn would build a bigger and better church But fnds never came That Uie roof hope Ihal the crown would build a bigger ad better church But funds never came That the rol hope at th crownl would build a biger id better church But Emds ncr came Ihat th roe the altars ws probably tr Ilower. La Soleda td in other repons was kblow n to have leaked on Lhe altars was probably true. However, La Soledad in other reports was known to have caked on the altas was probably tre. However, La in other reports was k mon to have nddan orgllst as well as a bell-ringer It al o had a retable clded d pointed fr had a organ d an organist as well as a bell-ringer It also had a rctabol gilded and painted fCor had an organ and n orgaist as rell as a bellringer It also had a retable g ilded and painted for r and le or ent s made i St Augustine in 1754. the gea alta and new rnames made in, St Augusti in 1754.^ the ycat altar and new5 ohrnamnlts made in St Augustine in 174 /ana' 11 IrClitClurr ] rreliml s include Iia Sorrdad iiffmt elevtionl thai had three Solalu's arcrltcurl rclaimts include La S d hlriii iri ]rOlrii l elvt hnhai d three Somal mchectual revelaions included .ra ,Sed #ds x flo elation that had threc ,i lhr ( emolic o the Holy Tnmity), abve whih was the stone wall which sene s entrance arches (symbolic ofthe Holy I rinhl abve which was the Sme wal which serv. as entrace arches (symbolic of he IIoly Tiniy ). above w which was the stone wall which serve /cin h the bells are rung. La So ledd ad ,dhd h bIdfla I may hav had Iwo t hetwr in whhich the bll s LaS oleded hd neada a belfr. It ma hehd o the or in which thh 1 eL a ung, La ledd had an epadana belfy 1I may have had ; smaller of which was inscribed S.hd eph.' L edha one of ihle stone lCee bells. the smaller of wich was inscribed 'St Joseph. La Sledadhad one of three stone large bells, e smaller of which was inscribed "SI Joseph "3 La Soledadhd one of tthe sto hlii the mid 1730s Tile oh s wrei a the rilrch o l the (2onino dr iim Ftncio and belfries in rile rmd-[ 73s Ihe othils wre at the church of thre iunemor ii San Ftnirro and belles in the mid 1730s The otllr wer aL Lde ch inch of the ( m,'nto d" hnISun 'atc mid Ih hrhI1 e ia ,Xi'isra ,0,,du ii L.h,. at lsson W lmbr de Des Jolm Ballnm decirbed I he chuch ,1 Nuertlarir 7et d i LaLehe' at mission Nomrc de I)ils Jh ll irkl eclibd til cshuhof sstra ,.n i~hra & aLeh tmsio o red De John Baram d cscribcd as having aaehes in 4 o which perhaps haned a l a cr bar tha the Conno s as hving 5 aches n 4 of which pehaps haed a bel y a cos ba that as lhe Co o as avig 5 ahe in 4 o whih rh h-angd a hell b a 1i 3 d c od arch fxed undr v crown o-dve arch." fixed under ve crown oe arch

Thi n l matic chge in bell iiFcades cme bout aer the wood town burned in 1712. I his dramaie change in belfy Icadcs cam abhl aler Lhe wood town burned in 1702 This dramatic change in belf facades cne about afer the oo Lon unle in 170 Coquina stone in the king s quarries ha d been made avaiJabl afler ie f-l w .s finished in 1695 Cloqdna stode in the king's qllaies had been made avaiable after the b-r was inished in 1695. Coquina stone in the kings qLanies ad been made available lhl er the fort was iniled in 169t We cannot know hat was in the minds or expectalions o, the Spanish, but ,e can imagine ho, We cnot no., what as in the minds or expectations of the Spanish, but we can imagine hoX We calnll know what was in he ninds or expectations of t he Spanish, but we call imagine ho the ne Eil rh Ifcades enabled a sense of cultural wellbeing and connections wilh the Mother the new church facades enabled a sense 01 cultural wellheing ad convictions with tie Mother the new church facades enabled a sense of cultural ell-bcing and connections w ith the Moher County. Th ccurrnt Cathedral s 1 6 centurly espadafa beliT y- iis u ed and stepped pediment Country The current Cathedral s18 conm esp)aaa belfry itsculred and slipped pedimen Cluntry. The currentLCalhedrals 18 century srpadaa belfy its curved and stepped pedimll inhg peacefully above the ponrt, pierced by openings in wich four bells iang brings us closer rising dacefully above the portal pierced by opcnilgs in which lur bells }ng brings us closer rising grefflly above tie ponal, pierced by opemlags in which lor bells hang -brings us cli to those 18" century sentiments now that we knowl its on cotmetions to the earlier churches to those 18 century sentimntl now (hat we know its own coections to tie earlier churches. 1o those 18" ccnmy' sentiments now that we blow its own connection to the earlier cl che. (Figs: EspiLa, Ailes Chuch, (:athedral) (F igs: Espadaas. Avilds Church. Cathedral) (Figs: Espadahia Ails Church. Cathedral)

la ole-d-Convertd: St Pelers Anglican Chrch 1764 1784 La rledadConveed: St POt s Anglia Church, 1764-1784 a SoleddConvered: St Peter, s Anglican Church. 1764-1784

a ,Sl,,dad sered as the Spanish parish church until Spain ceded 1lorida to the British m La Soldad served as the Spanish parish chrch until Spain ceded Flondd to the Briish in La Soledad seed as hfie Spaush parish church until Spain ceded Floda o the Bitish in 1763 SIoiya rth Spanish Ift ata ll toward spirewouldfpiercethe ollonialS 1763 ShorlyaieatheSpanish leiaallLowerandspirewouldpilcethcolonialSt 1763 ShorlyalerlheSpanishlet all erandspire udpiercetheloni Augustine skyline This steepe was attached lo toe west end of tihe fonme Spaishchurch La Aagustie skyline This sleeple was attached to tie west end f[ the flmler Spanish church Ia Augustile skyline ifts steeple was attached to the west end of the famer Spanish chrh /. ledad t1us becAn the nglican St Peters Church Soledad thus became the Ang lican S. Petnrs C church. Soldad tius became he Ang lican S Peter Church

Engineer James Moncrif was chred wth measurig he Spanish building in Engineer James Moncrief w. s charged wih meu ng ie Spmish buidin in Engineer JIams Moncrie was charged wih m e sA ng the Spanish building in

preparation r its conversion; and when Florida ,was traceded to Span n 1783, tie Spish preparation for its conversion; and ,hen Florida as leroccded 1o Spain i 1783, he Spanish preparaon for it,s conversion,; and len Florid, as -A troceded to Spa in 1783, the Spanish engineer Mari o de la Rocque measured the bildings fomlerly used by c British Monriefs engineer Mariano de la Roclue measured Ihe buildings ibmnerly used by the BRtilsh Moners e-nincr Maria o de la Rocque ncasurcd the buildings fonnrerly used by the British Monehr measurement prior to its conversion wir 120 net long and 48 feet ade. Afer its conversion, measurcmcnls prior to its conversion rr 120 fe long and 48 eet wide Aer its conversion, measurements prior to it, conersion we 120 fet lon and 48 tI t wid lcr i die Rocque measured it at 45 varas Ions by 19 vwas wide. or 127 feet by 53 5 feet, based on the the Rooque measured it at 45 varas loing by 19 varas wide. or 127 feet by 53.5 feet, bed on the the Rocque measured it at 45 vmas long by 19 varas wide. or 127 feet by 53.5 leer, hased on Ih Cuban vara 133. inches. John Bartram. botanist from Philadelphia estimatedd?) the church Cuban vara of 38 inches JolnBartram. a bot allistfra Philadclphia (ctimatcd?) tie church Cuban vraof 338 inches. John Bartrama btanist iron Philadelphia (estimated?) the church A 100 rel long." Was La ledadlarger th- Father SolanA led one to belief? (Fig: Floor as 100 feet long. Was La Sd Cddlager than Father Solana led one o belicl (Fig, Flor was 100 feet long. Was La ledad lager than Father Sola led one to belief? (ig: tlo or Pl-) Plans) Plans)

English -ld Spi,, p nd -, aomn and data ecate huu Kth English and Spanish maps a Ad documents a d data c bccd arhaolgi, h/en English and Spanish maps and docunts d daa -caaed by -haologi, Kahleen

1 Von Simson, Th CGohic Cthdal, 37. 1 Vn Simson Th Gohi,, (ath(l. 37 1 Von Simson. he GoLi4 Crhedral, 37

2. Lopcz de Mendow, in Ruidiaz y Carvia.La Florid, II, 451. See also Gatmon. He Cross in 2 Lopez de Mendo in Ruidiaz y Caravia, La lo ida, I, 45 See also Gannon, The (os in 2 pez de Mendo, in Ruidiaz y Caravia, La lorida11. 451 ic al ann h o i the Sand. 22.26; Lyon. Tre Enrprise of Floida 91 107, 213. 220: Lyon. Richer han We the Sand 22, 26; iyon. The Enterrise of lorida, 91, 107, 213, 220; Iyon, "Richel Than We the Sand 22, 26; Lyon, The Lnterprise of Florida, 91,107 213. 220: Lyon. "Richer Than We Thought.35; Gordon. "So precious a w aeng... 9. All he bells might nt hae been Tnugi"35; Gordon, '"So previous a watering ... 9 All the bells might not have been Lhouthe, 35: Gordon "*So precious a watering. '", 9 All the bells might not lve been

3 Barcia. in Kenign. Barli s: Chonological HitoL;, 88 3 Baria, in Kemg, Bai .hrnl a iry, 83. Barcia in Krri a Baia s CI hro nological listory, 88.

publicationofSolis in Spanish Solis's memorial haeen quoted in Barcia. 1723 publicaioln ilisin Spanish Solis's memorial had been quoted in Barcia, 1723 publication ofSolis in Spanish Soliss memoriathad been quoted in arcia. 1723
5 yon, Project His)an Report," 17, I: Lyon."The First Ihree Wo,,de n Fons f Sti 5. Lyon, Prgiect Historian Repon. 17 Ill; 1 yon, "he First Tlre Wooden Fans of St 5. iyon. Project historian Report," 17 J 11 ; lyon. "Te First Thiee Wooden Forts of Si guli Seealso, Gordon "So precious a wa ering 25. Agus t inc." 144. Se ordon.' So precious tering 25. Augusine." 144 See so, Gordon, "S precious a eling. 2

6. , lndea lhe.n S6 guin Januma 12 1600, ACT lanto Domgo 229,6 Alonso de las Alas to the Crowr, S. Augustine, J a 12, 1600. AG Santo Domngo229. 6 lonso de Aastohe Cron, St Augusine, Janua 12, 1600, AGI SanltoDomungo229 translated in Lyon. "Projet Historian Repont" 76 Manslnted in Lyon, Proect Historialn Replrt," 76 translated in lyon, Prnect Historian Report." 76

7 The towns location south of the plaza is depicted on the Boazio plan of Drakes raid of St 7. ihe town s location south ofthe plazlis depicted the Boazio plan of Drakes raid iSt. 7. The towns location south if the plaza is depicted on the Boi pplm f,[ Drake s raid of SI Igusine in 186, and upponcd by chaeolegical evidence found byDr Kathleen Deag mid Aguspine in 1586, and supported by archaeological evidence iound by Dr Kthleen Deagan and Augusine in 1586, and supposed by archaological evidence found by l)r Kathleen .Deaga and Carl Halbin Sc Deagan "Archaeological Sualeg in the Invesgation of an Unnl Er: Carl Halbin. See Deagan, Archaeological Strategy in the Investigain 0 an nni r: lIIbi See I IArchaeol gical SS-tae inlhe In estiation of an U -l ra: Sixtccnth Conmy St. Augustine," unpublished suminary reprl [prpred Ibr S. AuguSliln Sixteenh Centuy St. Augustine," unpublished summa repon prepared flr St. Augustine Sixteellth Cently t Augustine, unpublished siilmn a repon prep-ed for St. Augustine foundation. Inc. on file at the Florida Museum of Natural History Univerlsity of Florida, Fondation, lnc. on 5ile aL the Florida Museum of Natural llisto Universty of lorida. Foundation, inc, on file at the 1 lorida Museum of Natural Ilistory UieriV o lrid G 1in 1eill; and Deagan, "'he Amhaeology of first Spalsh Poeiod St Augustine.' 16 (Eg Gainesvillo and Deagan. "lhe t/ heology ofFirs Spanish Peiiod St Augustine," 16 (El Ganiesville; and Deagan, 'he Archaeology of First Spanish Perod St Augustine,' 1(l rh no. 1978); Halbbrt "Redefining the Blndes of 16- Cent St. Augustine." S AAA, No Ecribano, 1978); Talbir, "'Redelining tile Boundaries of 16 Century St Augustino, 4AA. No Esribano, 1978); Halbin "Redefining the Boundaries of 16" Cntur St. Augustine, .4. No Sl(Mch1999);ll a,"S Augstin1580 h ResechPrc" I(March 1999); Hotman "St Augustine 1580, the Resech Project,"16 1 (Mch 199l),Iloman. St AugusLtine 150, heResearch Prjecl,"16

8 See the invcntoy ofNuesra Sienora de los Remedilo in yell, Richer Than I Thought, 93 8 See the inventory ofu/\esti a Senora de los Remedios in Lyon, Richer han Le Thogt, 93. 8. See the inventory ofNulstra ~Snor de los Rneidios in Lyon, licher Thanl Wet Tkhoughtr, 93 The plamlg ordimulces e translaed in N uttall, "Ordinances concerning the laying ota of nwC The planning irdinances ale trnslated in Nuttall. Ordinances concerning the Laying out of new The planning ordinances are traslat ed in Nutall, Orlinunlces concerning the Laying out o To n," 752 A cpy el~ Roait "battle plan" map with the drawing of the church can be seen T ows" 752. A copy of Boazio s "battle plf' map with the drawhiL of the church can be seen I owns" 752. A copy of Boazios 'bale plan" mpll -iLh the drawing of tIe church can be seen at the SAIlS Researh Libla. It was engraved and published in 1588 in Latin and FT rench at the SAIlS Resear ch library. Ii was ngraved anld publislcd in 1588 in and rch... al the SAHS Reerc Library. it was engraved ald published in 1588 m Latin an lrh Biggest. A Summarie and Irue Discourse of Su Francis Dankes West india Voyage...Formore Bigges, A Sumaaric and lue Discourse of Sir Francis Drake Wesi Indian Voyage.... Frmore Bigges, A Summarie and True Discourse o Sir Francis Drakes Wsl Indian Voyage... For more
on the Drake atack, see Kelsey, Drake, 275-78; Monison. The Vortherm oyages, 650. A copy on the Drake attack, see Kelsey, Drake 275-78; Morrison, he Northerno~4 ess 650. Acopy on the Drake anack se Kelsey, Drake, 275-78; MonsOln The Norlhenll Vo)ages 650 A opy ol the Mens drawing is also at the SAHS Research Library F or a burial and conunent on the ofthe Mcstas draw ing is also at the SAIIS Resealh library. Fr a burial and commu on ie of the Mestas drawing is also at Lhe SAHS Rescarch Libry For a burial and comment on te location of the Church by chaeologist Stan Bnid, see "Scallop Well" e St A utine Record location of the Church by archaeologist Stn Bond, see "Scallop Weli" ihe Augustitne Record locauon of he Clthurch by archaeologist Stan Bond, see "Scallop Well The St Augustine Record May 31986, 68B M 31, 1986 6B Ma 3 I, 1986 6B

9 (iorncr doCamolcr, 1971603, rancribd nd r cd t STTSReseah 9 Govcnl edcdeCnollers, I597 [63,rcribcd mdtrlated tL iHS reseffe 9 OoiernomndeeCano liters, 1597-1603,ancribd andt ra satod at SliS search Library. l Itist. MC 63. The 1599 hunicane is il Gilor, Franciscn (onquest /[F/orida.122. libla FI Hist, MC 63 The 1599 hurricmae is in Geiger, Franciscan C-oiuestoflorida,122 Iibrary FI Hist. MC 63 he 1 599 hurricane is in Gei ger Fris an Conqll oi Forida122

shrine rad hospital of La Soleld, bt I have not iould a reirnec to the parish church boning shlinie and hospil ] of Ia Solodad, but I have not found a reference to the parish church burning shrine and hospital of La Soledad, but I have notfo uiind a reflece to the paish chtlh buniing leaving he city without a parish church Bushnell wites ie paish church burned but I believe it leaving th ctin without a parish church. Bushnell wries the parish church bumed but I believe it leaving the ciFt without a parish church Bushnell wrics the pish church burned but I believe it
S l he Convent church that burned; Situdo and Sabana," 88 is only the Conent church tha med "Situad and Sabana." 88 is only lhe Cilveln chu rch tal burned; "Situado and Sabana." 88

10 Ordinances concening tie Iaying out of new ownss" trslatcd by Nual, The Hispanic I "Oidinances concerning the Laying out of new Towns," ranslared by Nlaal, The Hipanic 10 "Ordinanc es concerning the Laying t ofl nei owns "translated hy Ntal, 7e Hisanic ouned, and compiled andpbih d ingP hilip i 7 he chrch asi dcpccdat this udd nd compiled andublldbKinPhilp illi hechurch d pict ed ali s and compiled andublshedb Kg Phiipll 7 be church a pil al1li
l',,,l~p"3 4"4 434,444 4444,34443344hl .3 3p44 4433 4 444344444 444444 I 4c34pi4443d4,4b ,3b4Kl.g4h4lp]T,4,l47,

site i 1586 on Drake's battle plan drar by Baptista Bo66io te ln 1 on DIakeh battle plan" rawn by Raptist Boio sre in 1586 on Drakes battlee plan dra;n by Baptista 13oaio 11 Sant ugstine asl he"itular Saint of th churl, andPatronSaint ofthei" See 11. Sait Augustine theTitul 7 Saint of the chuh. and Patron Saint llhe ciy See I Saint Augustin was the "Tiulr Saint ol he church i PaonSaint ofthe ci" See (d 'r6n, in We hald. 16 ,'entu 7 Leer,. 7 and Leturitndo, Ml ,oria7 King, 85 A 6 66 Calder77l,, in .Wenhold.",l6 cenu Ler," 7; andl Iuindo. Menorial to theKlg, 185 A Ca d ron, inWcnhld,. 6 cenuLtter.7:mdLoeturind. ,Memorialtohe King,,15 A 76 in l the church properly is in Ly n, "Richer Than We Thoght,' 93 1576 inellar of the church p -mprty is in Lyon, "Richer lhan We Thought," 93 1576 inventory of the chuh proper is in Lyon. 'Richer Tn We I hougit." 93. 12 i rdies oncmil he iaing ouL l n Towns," r anslaed by hunr al. he i panic 12 ) rinanc oneming he .aying ot of new owns." translated by Ntal, The Hp7anic n Odi n oncin the Layg ou of icw oans. trslatd by Nltal ,1he Hslhni, 57T7i7,nhs i,7alRpiew, 751 dmri7cpisica liea.75L Amo7an7sr lR,,W 751 SCaain r (vsitadorKin fo inspector) translated by Connor in C ni7 13. Captain Alaro Flores i isitdor, Kin rt in8pcr6- tnslted by Conr. Colonial 13 Captain al lor (iiadr. King frt inspector) tranlated by Connor in Colon al Record Ii. 189-91 Rerr, 189-91 lecod II, 189-91 14 Sce Von Simon. She (iothie (athedrc. 8-14.33-35.5,5 154 55,08 0: rer 2 iuir d 14 See Von Sinson. The Gthic Cztthdral 8" /.33- 56 4-55, 208-10, Lalr, crd t4 See Ylm Sim-m1 hd (;h c Ih 1al 8,1 33 35 5, 208 0; ,, e, S
omry 6, 0,53 Slndd, Sbli mb ,"0 S7e 6oC7 24 6 on (10 meI,2, 4 6, 107;7nerlnd "Sm liumc,9410 3 See ChulJhl,is, 4 6 0, 6 5: Sud&rard. S icib b r 94SeaoChurh ii San luis this chapler Sn Luis this chapter San Luis. tis chapter 15. ola to Aiaga. A1 86--21/41, 15; see 1he La Leche chpel in Chapter Ten. this book 15. Solana to Anlltaga. AGI 8672141, 15; see the la ecie chapel in Chapter Ten, this book, 15 Solana toi iaga, AG1 86 721/i4 1 15: sce the La Lcche chapel il Chaptel Tenlhi i 16 Scoi, Baslica, Building St Pete'l,34 3751 Scoti Basiica, .. S .Building St Peters 34, 37,51 16 Scoti. a silica,. Buildng St Peter', 47 51 17, A inveny by Basar del CasLell, o y Ahed in 1571 in Ly,, Richer Tl We hugl," 7 An inventlry by Ballasar del C astllo y Ahedo in 1576 in LyonRicher Than We uh. in n by Blta del Caello y Ahedo in 1576 in Lyon, ". cher hll W 6e Thought, 92 96 9, 92 9( 18 6inde d C c i58 in letrs 1597-1603.7 I 6674 5 9 anrnll at I 86ne e al ca 5 in lr78 ,66 597-160 AI 54-5-1. transcribed d tllaed at 18 Mnd d Cano ca 1598 i6l7]7t-s15971603 459la b a 7d nslae a SMIS Reserch library. MC6(3; Mendez de Canzo in1602, in Bushnel, "Siado and Sabana," 8. S\HS Reserch Librar. MC63 Mend ez de Canro inl602. in Bushcl, "Situado ad Sabaa," 88 SAIIS Reserch Libra. MC63; Mendez de Canx in 1 602 in Bushnel. Situado and Sabana," 88 I 14, Marqus de Mancera, iceroy ofNe7 Spain, to the crown, Mexico, April 20 19 AG I 58221, ld de cr pri 19 2/14, M Iarqs deanecra viceroy& MA-of New, Spain to he crl Mexico, April20 1669.1890 If Ara n "Defenses and Delnders ai S 1 Augutl8ine," 7; ifhian. Flords. Fionelr, 1(699 90 IT Arana, "Del-enses id Defenders at Si Augustile" 7 Holiman. Forid s rirs. 1669. 90 ff Aran. "Defen8ses and Defenders at St. Augushine," 7; Hoffma, lorid 1, ionti rs.

10 WenBld. "A17 cenmur letter of Gabril Daz Va Caldern. Bishop o Cuba ', "7 20 Wehold. "A 17 en letter of GabrieDiaz VaraCalderon. Ushoof Cuba.",7 2. Wenhold "A 17 "centul letr Gariel Diaz Vra Cdr Bishop Ch 7

1 B1uslinell. "Situad1 ,anSabana. 88 21 Buhlll. "Situad and Sabana." 88-89 21 Busll.' Stuado and Saba na."8889 6nn rb6, 1956 6 76 ,nn Arrr. 15 ,4 6 7im A6 bor, 1(56.76 23 Amade, Th Sgr. f1 .02, 41, 43, 57 23 Arnade, he Siege ol 7 2, 41, 43, 577 23 -nade. he Siege 41702, 41, 4, 7 24, Wagner, 'ADraf o Town an d Hrour, 1730. copy at SAHS Researlh Libirar 24 Wagner, "A Drt of lown and Harbour," 1730. copy at SiS Rcarch Libra 24 Wagnr, "ADratof lown andlInbour,"1730 cpy atSATISResearh Libra 25 Mendez d Canza. Ictters to kng, 54 59, Februu 23, 1598, 34 if, as trlscribed and 25. Mendez de Canzo. letters o kilg, A54 559, February 23, 1598, 34 ,, arancribed and 25 Mellde de Cano, letters to king, AI 54-5-9, Fcbma" 23, 1598, 34 f, as ranribd d translated at SaS ResearchLibr y, MC 63 Box 2, File 10 Hospita/or the sohlir re the tnslated at SAIIS Reserch T library. MC 63. Box 2, File 10. Hospil fir he sodiers are the translated at SAHS Research Libray. MC 63. Box 2, File 10 iospita for the soldiers are the ors etuiendoll in ca 16981700, translated by Hann. ranslat ro Aloo d o Leri d in c 16-100. rld IIm anlaion lsonso de words of Lerind in ca 16981700 slated by Ha Translaton of Alons de uriondo's Memorial to the Kng," 194 Lo i Memoril to the Kin,"194 euinii s Mennlrili t tie King." 194 26 ndde: oking, -5-ebn anStt o 26 Mnd d ao okin. AI559, b a 4 2 and Stt on Cole7on7 26 MndeCden-Ao 7ing, nId a9o rb rua1 34 11, -d di 'Coleclin Cotugi ofie ldito i1 n, Mdadri-, uu 6 I1 i i nd Enei rtoionn lpes council oB.,e Jlp,- C -- b r Madrid, Auu, 16, 1598, f id Enign Br tolme Lope1 1ounc598llthe In to crown Madrid,uust 16, 1598, if id Egip, Bano-ome Lope

Gavira to thr governor of llorda. A 54-5-16/106, September 12, 1600 4 fT Ga ia to Ihe governor of Florida, AI 54 5 16/106, Selember 12, 1600, 4 f Gavira io Ihe governor ll Florida A 54-5-16/1 O6. September 12,1600. 4 II

27 Mendez dc Car1 oilers to kin b 28, 1600 and April 24, t60 1, blil ;(Vlcthm- AI 27 MeTndez de CIro, leels to kin Fb8,1600 mr April 24. 1601. St-o Colcin. Ai 27 Mende de -d anz- lurs m kng bF, 28 Ib 28 0 1 m6 d April 50 Ste sea CobIec o A 5493238 178 f. transcrlihbed and translaed a SAHllS fResech Libr The fire is also 54-593 132 38 78 1 iltranscribed ald translated at SAHS Research I ibrl. he ire is also 54-5-931 3238 178t ft trscribed d d translaed at S11IS Rsouch I ibrary Ie lire i al r1posd i cir l ncn onqesroflorida. 122 repelned in eiger, The Frnnicn Conqut oFlo rida, 122. repedi eiger, Th Fancan oqet /Foid 22

28R. meejo to king. March 30, 1604, Exhibit F, A 54 5 20/1, trunscribed and tmlat-d at 28 Bermajo to king, March 30,1604. Exhibit Al 54-5-20/12, transcribed and ranslated at 28. Bermeio to ing. March 30. 1604. Exhibit E, AI54-5-2012. trscribd and translated at
SAHS ReFeaclh ihrart, MC 63 Box 2. The Franciscan monastml, Conento de la Conepcidn SAHS Research Libray. MC 63 Box 2. T Frnciscan monastr, Convento de la (oncepcion SMIS Research Libra MC 63 Box 2 The Fralciscan monastel, Convento de h Conc.pcidn Inmacuada, was bul befhr 1587 when the first group of friars stopped there belbril taking up lmuaculada, was built before 1587 hen the first group of friars stopped there befre taking up inmaculad, was bul before 1587 when the irst glp of Iis stopped there before taking up their assigmncts. GovernorMecndez de Canzo described the bodny ofthe churh is scored wth theirassignments Goverr Mendez de Canzo desnbed the body of the church ii cored with their assignments. Governor Mendc de Canzo described the bhn o hech d puhn and because fires are a frequent occurance and i iv in danger (A 54-5-9/24). Ar thle palm and because fires are a frequent occurance and it i in danger (AT 54 5 9/24). Aller Lhe plm and because tres are a frequenlt occurane and it is in danger (AI 54-5-9/24). Aftr the 1599 fire. it was rebuilt (1601-03) with wood planks. and was more generally known a 1599 fire it was rebuilt (1601-03) with wod planks. and we more generally blonl as 599 lire, it was rebuild (1601-03) with wood planks and was mree generally o; ueni B viin l'ranrweo It iias the Brls heaquters during ihe siege of 1702. and was set Com i,ii d.- tan F nancn~ It oa the Blrliiis edrter duil i he siee of 1702 rid ,,,,r set fhmm ir Sim iinlui mcts o as ihe Britisll hadunrter ding ihe siige iii 1702; ir r.n imn tie It -I a rebuik ill the nid 1 70 ,,ith tune I h bcame the Bnii bsaaks in tile 1760- .In fire [1 ,,ts rebilt in the Inid ]7f0s with clone It b~camei the Britih batvacks in the [7ii0s on tim [ was rebuilt in tile mid ] 700s ih sto le It beete thc British barracks in tie 1760sI783, and its remnwis are incollated into today s Naionl Guad Ieadquaers See Gordon. 1783. and its remnants are incorporatd into today s National Guard Headqarlters See Go
29. Ltudrond. ca. 1698. translated by IIann. Translaton of Alonso de Lomriendo's Memorial 29 ILetiondo ca. 1698. ranslated b Haln "Tranlation ol Alonso de Leturiendo s Memorial 29 Iclurondo, ca. 1698 translated by Hal. "Translation of Alnlms de Ieturienda'5 Memria t the King I Spain; 194 totile King ofSpain, 194 o the King ofSpai" 194

30 Calderon. 1675. tranaled by Wenhold "A 17" Cenlury better ofBabriel Diaz Van 30 Caldern 1675 translated by Wenhold, "Al 7 'Cenluryl Lter oRBabriel Di.Vara 30. Calderon, 1675. translated by Wenlold. "A l 7" Century Lecr of BahriDl Diaz Vara Calderon Bishopnl Cuba.. "8 Caderon, Bishop of Cuba "8 Calderon, Bishop of C '8

31. Dshell, "Sitlada and Sabla" 89 31 BushnellS ituaduandSabana,"89. 31 Bushnell "Sihada and Sabana." 89

32 Lelrinndo to King, ca. 1698, in Ham. translationn of Alonso de Lcuriondo s Momeorial to 32 Lemriondo to Kig, ca 1698, in Imn. 'Translation of Alonso de Leturiondo s Memeorial to 32 Iieuriendo to Kin, ca 1698, in Hann.ansln of Alonso, de Leturiond s Memearia the King. 194. 217 the King 194, 217 the King 194. 217

33 Bishop of Tricale to the Kng. April 29.1736, j58-2-14118, translationat SA\HS Rscamh 33. Bishop ofTrile to the King, April 29, 1736, AT 8-2-14/ll1. tralaton at SAIS Research 33. Bisho p o Tricale to he King, April129. 1736. Al58-14/ll 8. ranslatilm at AHSResearch
Library. MC6] 736 Box File 3"Aicunt o iAuxiliaryBishop. lis background isino liblr M( 1736 RBox3 File 36 "Account of Auxiliary Bisho p." His backgrolnd is in Libmrr, Mi63 rl iox 1 ile 36 "Account of Auxiliarq Ulhop" His background is i Omnml, T~il Oo in Ihe lzd, 79 G lne i lri >os i h ,*d, 79i (annon, ihe ross in tile Salnd, 79

34 Bishop of Tricule to King, Apil 29, 1 736 page 3, copy a SAIIS Research Libr. MC63 34 Bishlp or Tricale to King, April 29, 1736. page 3. copy at SAHS Research Libraiy, MC63 34. Bishop of Iricale to King. April 29. 1736. page 3, copy at SAHS Resech Libre.; MC63 /736 Box 3 ile 36 ]n / 765 it was Outi Ladrml f Ae ih i th emohal il un ihristisllm l de 1736b~ox 3 ic j 361l176it as Our a di o/Are eh i il eo io urlC~iotmod 73(, Box) 3ile 36 ]n 1765 ii a On, Ltarh ruJiii A iaeh i he Memoil of Jn C/iruitmo de Aca. January 17. 1765. translated at SArTS Research I ib A Brothrhood was a Acosta, Jainury 17 17 65 ul ated a SAHS Research library A Brothe hoo,,d was a Acosta. January 17, 1765. translated at SAHS Research Libray. A Brotherhood was a eon latint or urcoi I an indebted to Jlimabeth Gcssnor for the infimnation aboutthe nares confrateunt or n oty (gal a n indebted to Fllzabeth Gessner for the infanmlion about e mmcs conlfatemity orco-todia 1 am indebted tol Flizabeth Gessnel lr the intomlation abrut the names and deb otIn, to La Slld and Ll M-Tllms Ll T I SATledad an dcT taons to La Solcdd

35 Juan nosl Solana to Julian de riaga, Sec ofState forthe Navv and te lnldies, April 22 35. Juan Jose Solana to Julidn de Aniaga, Se. ar e r Uth eN ald the Indies, Apri 22 35. Tuan Jose Solanaml Jlian deAaiaga. Sec ofState for thc Navy and dthe ldies, April ?2 Senlsure in April9. 1760 AI 86-72/41 Stetson Collection. copy at SALIS Resench 1959 enclosure in April 9. 1760 Al 86 7-21/41, Statson Collecliin, colpy a SAHS Resedrch 1959 ennclosre in april 9 1760 Ai 86-7-2i41. Stetson C ollecion. copy at SAHS Researchl Library. Solana had been chaplain of (be fnr since 1724 and parish priest since I751 see Libhrry Solana had been chaplain of the fon since 1724 aid parih priest since 1751: see Libray. Solana had been chaplain of the ibrt since 1724 and prish priest since 175/: se Kaphski. Religion. Power andPolitrics in Colonial S Augutine, 153. A Spaisihvara was lcss Kapitsh, Religion, Iower and Poltcs in(Cooii al St. Augustine, 153 A Spanlish var wa less Kapitski, Relgio Poer and Politi s in ClonialSt. Augustine, 153. A Spanish vara wl than the ii6 inch yal d; in Cua_ ii a 33 38 inche, based on tie Romn Il il l Ii 12 inchcse than rihe 3@ indl yard; in Cuba if wasr 33 38 inches, based an the Kolun foot of Ii 12 inches, tha tile 36 irh ynm; in Culba, ii as 33 8 inchs, bused lm Lhe Rlmlan ir~ot a Ii ] inhes

36 Chiisot o, inenrol,llnuall 17 17615 pages 6 and Ig el trn/atm ,1 SAHS Resarchl 3G i hnsllsmo, inlenton, Jalmary 17, 176. paes 6 olld 8 of teralrlafn at SkS Resarch 36 Clisotomo, im entol. JauaD 17,17(,5, panes 6 a ld 8] lmll /ull a[ 'ATIS Reseat ch Sbral; Bishop ol Iricale, liter to king, April 29. 1736, 58-2-14/122, page 1 of traslated Libray: Bishop of Tricale, letter to king, April 29, 1736, A 1 58214/122, page 1 of Iranslated Libra, Bishop of Tricale, lelr l king, pril 29. 1736. Al 58-2 -14/122, page 1 ofA lae transcription, Si S KRsearchLibr, transcription, SAIS Researl library Irluiptlion SAHS Research I ibr.