Preliminary Report of Archaeological Investigations at 39 Magnolia Avenue, St. Augustine, Florida


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Preliminary Report of Archaeological Investigations at 39 Magnolia Avenue, St. Augustine, Florida
Series Title:
Archaeological Files of 39 Magnolia Avenue Site
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Carl D. Halbirt
City of St. Augustine, Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Saint Augustine (Fla.)
39 Magnolia Avenue (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
39 Magnolia Avenue Site (Saint Augustine, Fla.)


General Note:
BDAC # 04-0271

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University of Florida
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Preliminary Report of

Archaeological Investigations at 39 Magnolia Avenue,
St. Augustine, Florida

(BDAC No. 04-0271)

Carl D. Halbirt City Archaeologist

Planning and Building Department
City of St. Augustine, Florida

February 2007


The purpose of this report is to provide preliminary information and interpretation regarding the City of St. Augustine's archaeological investigations at 39 Magnolia Avenue. as well as previous investigations that have occurred on and around the property. The property is situated approximately 800 feet due north of the Fountain of Youth Park--the site of the A.D. 1565 Menrndez encampment (Deagan 2002), is situated in Archaeological Zone ID (Figure 1). This zone is characterized as containing diverse inventory of archaeological deposits that date from the late Archaic Period (ca. 4,000 B.P.) into the historic era (Halbirt and Carver 1992:24-25).

The City's investigation was implemented under the aegis of its Archaeological Preservation Ordinance (Code of Ordinances, Chapter 6), which mandates that all new construction involving ground-penetrating disturbances in recognized archaeological zones be evaluated for its potential impacts to cultural resources. For construction projects on either private or public properties, which exceed the thresholds established by the ordinance (Halbirt 1993a), the City requires archaeological mitigation. The proposed construction at 39 Magnolia Avenue, which is privately owned, will subdivide the east half of the property into four new single-family lots (Figure 2); henceforth, triggering criteria establish in the ordinance. Consequently, the property owner obtained a City archaeological permit (BDAC 04-0271), after which field investigations ensued.

Research conducted at this property provides an unfettered picture of Timucuan life in St. Augustine just prior to the arrival of Pedro Men6ndez de Avil6s in 1565. Unlike other areas excavated within the city where archaeological deposits exhibit multiple occupations during different cultural periods (e.g., the Men6ndez encampment where mission period materials as well as the late prehistoric materials also are represented), the evidence from 39 Magnolia Avenue points to a discrete cultural period. This observation is reinforce by the fact while activities dating from the late 1700s to present are evident in the archaeological data, most of this material is restricted to the upper 5 to 10 inches of overburden. Once the general shell midden is encountered these recent occupations become negligible, save for intrusive disturbances.


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=Area Investigated

Figure 2. Area of Investigation

Previous Research

The property at 39 Magnolia Avenue had been subject to a low intensity auger
survey in 1981. The survey was part of a research project, whose intent was to simply try "to locate and record those sites with...'potential archaeological significance' in the North City area" (Smith and Bond 1981:1). Of the 605 mechanically excavated auger holes in Area A of the study (Figure 3), 33 auger holes were drilled into soil deposits at 39 Magnolia Avenue. All auger holes were 4-inches in diameter and extended to a depth of 51 inches below ground surface (Smith and Bond 1981:17). The ensuing soil deposits were then screened through a quarter inch mesh and all artifacts were collected. Shell deposits were documented as heavy, moderate, or light, which is unfortunate as this database can not be readily contrasted to other surveys conducted in North City (Chaney 1986:29), nor with the survey results from this project.

Most of the auger holes excavated at 39 Magnolia Avenue were centered near the existing house, with only a few placed in the proposed project area (Figure 3). Even so, moderate to heavy quantities of shell were documented as occurring throughout the property (Smith and Bond 1981 :Figure 11). Moreover, a few of the auger holes around the existing house contained fragments of St. Johns and San Marcos pottery (Smith and Bond 1981 :Figures 7 and 8), both of which are Native American in origin. St. Johns pottery is typically found in deposits dating from the late prehistoric to the early 1600s, whereas San Marcos pottery is found in deposits that date between 1580 to 1763.

In addition to the 33 auger holes, a 5-foot square test unit was excavated in the area of heavy shell density just east of the existing house. A series of soil deposits were documented (Smith and Bond 1981:Figure 13), with those zones directly below the modern black humic surface containing either a heavy concentration of shell fragments or shell. A similar pattern was noted for 39 Magnolia Avenue area where high concentrations of shell were documented. Shell filled pits were observed in the profile walls of the test unit and seven post molds were recorded, suggesting the probability of a structure in the immediate area.

=City Archaeological Projects

=Project Area at 39 Magnolia

Figure 3. Location of Archaeological Investigations in the Williams Subdivision.
Adapted from Smith and Bond (1981: Figure 6).


A variety of aboriginal and European pottery types where recovered from the test unit (Smith and Bond 1981:Table 2). The most dominant ceramic type was St. Johns ware, which accounted for 64% of the 260 artifacts recovered. This was followed by San Marco ware (19%), early historic (ca. 1600 to 1750) European items (4%), and late historic (post 1800) European items (17%). The presence of European items in lower soil deposits along with post holes, lead the authors to suggest that a "some type of structure or structures associated with a protohistoric occupation" occurred on the property (Smith and Bond 1981:31).

In 1986, Edward S. Chaney undertook a comprehensive study of all the
archaeological surveys that that had taken place north of Castillo de San Marcos. The study was undertaken in an attempt to better define the distribution and significance of sites in this part of the city (Figure 4), which could not be adequately addressed by a single survey. Of importance to the investigation at 39 Magnolia Avenue, was the delineation of a 16th to 17th century site (listed as No. 7) that measured approximately 550 feet (east-west) by 300 feet (north-south). This location, which includes most of the property associated with 39 Magnolia Avenue as well as that area between San Carlos and May Street east of Magnolia Avenue, was identified as containing the "densest concentration of St. Johns pottery in the survey area" (Chaney 1986:37). Given the presence of both St. Johns and San Marco with few European items, Chaney surmised that the site was likely aboriginal in origin and dated from the 16th to 17th centuries.

Since the adoption of its archaeological preservation ordinance in 1990, the City has examined 28 properties in the Williams Subdivision, in which 39 Magnolia Avenue is located (Figure 3). These investigations have consisted of both a posthole survey of the area to be impacted by new ground-penetrating construction, as well as the excavation of test units for those properties found to contain potentially significant remains. The result is a clearer perspective of the composition and distribution of archaeological deposits present in the Williams Subdivision. In addition to the material previously documented, City investigations have recorded the presence of a large late Archaic (Orange Period) site around Radio Road (Halbirt 1993b) and a component to the mid 18th century




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agricultural enterprise of British Governor James Grant (Halbirt 1999). Also documented have been structural remnants and ditches associated with aboriginal occupations noted by Smith and Bond (1981) and Chaney (1986) as having occurred in this subdivision.

Field Work

Based on the investigation by Smith and Bond (1981) and the synthesis by
Chaney (1986), it was surmised that the proposed area to be impacted by construction of new single-family residences at 39 Magnolia Avenue contained potentially significant archaeological deposits. These earlier studies indicated a Native American occupation thought to date during the initial decades of European colonization of St. Augustine. Unfortunately, little actual testing occurred in the proposed project area. Most work had occurred in Lots 1 and 2 (Figure 2) or to the north, between San Carlos Street and May Street. It was therefore necessary to survey the property in question and, then, based on the survey results, implement data recovery program in those locations thought to contain significant archaeological deposits.

Archaeological Survey
The City's investigations occurred between November 2005 and September 2006 in Lots 3 6 (Figure 5). The investigation commenced with a systematic shovel-pit survey of that portion of the property that was not overgrown by vegetation. A total of 87 shovel pits, spaced at 5-meter intervals, was excavated down into the culturally sterile soil deposits. These pits averaged 30 cm per side, with a depth varying from 50 cm to 125 cm below present ground surface. The depth of the shovel pits depended on the elevation of the culturally sterile sands. All material was initially dry-screened through one-quarter inch mesh and all cultural debris, including shell, was collected. Afterwards, the debris was wet-screened with the material sorted into categories (i.e., Native American and European ceramics, bone, shell, and metal) and then counted and weighed.

=Shovel Pits TR=Trench
SA= Stripping Area San Carlos Avenue =Disturbed Areas

Structure Two R 3

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Fiure 5. 39 Manolia Site Ma

Figure 5. 39 Magnolia Site Map

Because the majority of shovel pits contained shell and Native American
ceramics, density maps were prepared for these two categories to assess where potential concentrations existed. Fourteen shovel pits contained European wares, of which the most common type was coarse earthenware. Also recovered was one San Luis Polychrome sherd, one Puebla Polychrome sherd, one El Morro sherd, one porcelain sherd, and an unidentifiable majolica sherd.

Most of the property was found to contain quantities below the mean weight for both shell (mean = 6.0 kg) and Native American ceramics (mean = 17 grams) per shovel pit. The exception was one locale toward the south-central portion of the property, which contained both abundant shell and Native American pottery (Figures 6 and 7). Other locations on the property contained isolated pockets of shell and Native American pottery, with no definable patterning. The majority of Native American ceramics recovered were identified as St. Johns ware (especially the check-stamped varieties), which constitutes more than 81% by weight for this category. A preliminary weight of 1,533 grams for all Native American pottery had been calculated from the survey data; although this may need some modification. Also recovered were some San Marcos ware, San Pedro ware, and an unidentifiable sand-tempered ware.

Subsequent to the survey, two backhoe trenches (Trenches I and 2) were
excavated through and beyond those locations found to contain concentrations of shell, Native American pottery, or both. These trenches were excavated to determine the presence or absence of archaeological features. The trenches were in excess of 20 meters in length. Locations containing dense artifact concentrations also were found to have buried cultural features. Areas beyond the concentrations contained few, if any, definable features beyond a general shell midden.

Test Area Excavation Strategy
Based on the survey results, two areas were slated for further investigation. The first location was placed along that portion of Trench 1, which contained a dense


concentration of shell and Native American ceramics. The second location was placed along Trench 2 in an area containing a dense concentration of shell in what appeared to be a ditch. The excavation strategy and results differed for the two locations. Because of the quantity of shell in both locations shell weights were not recorded.

A series of hand-excavated test units were excavated along Trench 1 in order to maintain a tight control of the artifact distribution and quantity (Figure 5). Fourteen test units of vary sizes were opened, with the levels excavated according to natural stratigraphic layers when possible. In total, approximately 38 square meters was excavated to a depth of more than 60 cm below present ground surface. Excavation was halted when the culturally sterile yellow/gold sands were encountered. Soil stains were then marked and excavated to determine if they were features. Documented was the remains to a structure (Structure 1) as well as a diverse assemblage of pit features.

Given time constraints, the second area investigated, which was along Trench 2 (Figure 5), was for the most part mechanically excavated using a backhoe down to the culturally sterile sand. A few locations in selected areas were hand-excavated in order to obtain a sample of artifacts, especially around the area of Feature 1 (a ramp). Over 64 square meters was mechanically excavated to a depth of approximately 50 cm below present ground surface. Afterwards, the surface was troweled and all soil stains marked and drawn. Some of these stains were subsequently excavated to determine if they were features. Documented was the remains to a probable second structure as well as an assortment of pit features.

Excavation Results

Because of the differences encountered in the two excavation areas, they are
discussed separately. The results are presented according to the two structures identified during the project.

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Magnolia Estates
39 Magnolia
Lots 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; Block
BDAC 04-0271

Green = 6 kg shell per shovel pit MPink = 9 Kg shell per shovel pit
Yellow = 12 Kg shell per shovel pit

Figure 6. Relative Shell Density


Magnolia Estates 39 Magnolia Avenue 'Lots 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; Block 11 BDAC 04-0271

Green = 17g ceramics per shovel pit SPink = 34g ceramics per shovel pit Yellow = 52g ceramics per shovel pit

Figure 7. Relative Ceramic Density


Structure 1
Structure 1 represents the remains to a large circular building, which was only partially excavated (Feature 8). Nevertheless, an estimate as to the structure's size was obtainable. The diameter of Structure 1 is 6.8 m or 33.5 square meters in area. The structure is defined based on two concentric lines of post holes dug into the culturally sterile sands. Represented was a core support system with post holes averaging 30 cm in diameter by 20 cm in depth and an outer wall frame with post holes averaging 15 cm in diameter by 13 cm in depth. For those outer wall frame post holes with a depth greater than 10 cm, the post impression was observed to be vertical in orientation. The possibility exists that the structure may have had a central post hole. The location of the entry was not established in that portion of the structure exposed through excavation.

Toward the center of Structure I was a large roasting pit (Feature 10) that evidenced two episodes of use as defined by shell concentrations and burnt soil. A radiocarbon date of 680 + 40 BP (i.e., A.D. 1300) was obtained from the lowest level within this pit (Appendix A). Other features were documented within the confines of Structure 1, including five shell-filled trash pits and miscellaneous charcoal/ash stains. Although analysis of the material culture has not yet commence, the test units encompassing Structure 1 contained a large and diverse assortment of cultural material throughout the general midden zone, including some early European wares (e.g., Santo Domingo Blue-on-white and Seville Blue-on-blue). It should be noted that the European wares were recovered from the upper levels of the general midden.

While only a limited area outside the structure was examined, results indicate that various activities occurred around Structure 1. A total of 13 extramural features were documented, which include roasting pits, charcoal pits and stains, trash pits, post holes, miscellaneous pits, and a linear depression that may represent a ditch. A second radiocarbon date of 910 + 40 (i.e., A.D. 1070) was obtained from a roasting pit (Feature 6) adjacent to the structure (Appendix A). This second radiocarbon date suggests the possibility of multiple occupations within the shell and Native American pottery concentration established during the survey. It should be noted that Ocmulgee ceramic

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types were recovered from test units outside the structure. While analysis has not been undertaken for any of the cultural material outside Structure 1, visual examination of the Native American ceramics and bone essentially duplicates that found within the structure. The only difference being that few European pottery types were recovered from this area.
The two radiocarbon dates indicate that the large concentration of shell and
Native American pottery documented for this portion of the property falls within the St. Johns IIb period (A.D. 1050-1513). This is supported by the recovery of certain Native American pottery types (notably, the Ocmulgee series). Even though the ceramic and radiocarbon dates suggest a St. Johns IIb affiliation, the presence of European ceramics (notably Santo Domingo Blue-on-white, Sevilla Blue-on-blue, and coarse earthware forms) is also suggestive of an early contact era occupation (circa A.D. 1560s).

Structure 2
The second structure (Structure 2) excavated is more enigmatic as the stains identified as post holes are problematic. Subsequent to the mechanical removal of the overburden and general midden deposits, a series of circular to ovoid stains with shell were identified in the culturally sterile soils. These stains averaged 35 cm in diameter forming a rectangular pattern, which measured 10 meters (east-west) by 6.4 meters (north-south), or 64 square meters in area (Figure 9). The problem is that the stains identified as probable post holes where shallow-generally less than 10 cm in depth, which casts suspicion as to their being architectural elements. The possibility exists that the soil stains with accompanying shell debris represents impressions to posts that were placed, for all intention, on the existing ground surface.

The distinguishing element to Structure 2, however, was the discovery of a curved semi-subterranean ramped entry that had been covered (Figure 10). The 4.2-meter long by 70 cm wide entry was centered along the north wall. At its maximum depth, the ramp had been excavated into the culturally sterile soil a distance of 0.75 meters. Two steps were part of this descent, with the upper step having a narrow trench placed behind it. This trench, which measured 50 cm in length by 10 cm in width, may have been where a removable barrier into and out of the ramp was placed. It should be noted that the trench

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Figure 9. Plan of Structure Two.

A: Modern humic zone _B: Sandy loam with shell ---- --fragments
C: Dense shell in dark
(organic) sandy loam D: Brown fine-grain sand E: Dark grayish-brown sand F: Deposit of shell within E

Figure 10. Plan and Profile of RampLe

for Structure Two.

for Structure Two.


and first step was placed in an ash filled pit. Ash stains were also observed along the deepest portion of the ramp. The ramp feature abruptly stopped at the proposed north wall of Structure 2, where it ascended at a steep angle. Two shallow depressions in the culturally sterile soil at the deepest point of the ramp suggest the presence of a ladder. At the top of the ramp, just inside the north wall, was a large horse conch shell (Pleuroploca gigantea). A series of small post holes (averaging 12 cm in diameter by 10 cm in depth) were exposed along one side of the ramp, which suggests that the ramp was covered.

Although two trash deposits and amorphous stains were found within the confines of Structure 2, most of the features excavated in this area of the site occurred outside the structure. Documented were trash pits and charcoal stains, which suggests activities (especially food preparation and disposal) occurred outside Structure 2. This pattern contrasts with Structure 1, where food preparation and disposal occurred both inside and outside the structure. Also documented outside the southwest corner of the structure was a curvilinear alignment of shell that measured, at least, 3 meters in length with the width varying from 15 to 60 cm. Two large conch shells with the ends worked are considered to be part of this feature. What this alignment associates with is unclear, but it may form the foundation to an architectural element that was part of Structure 2. Artifacts recovered from features within and around Structure 2 place it during the St. Johns IIb Period, which suggest that it may be contemporaneous with Structure 1.

Subsequent to the abandonment of Structure 2, the ramp was filled with a dense deposit of shell with little other cultural material (i.e., ceramics, bone, etc.). This differs significantly from the trash deposits found around either Structure 1 or Structure 2, which contained a mixture of shell, ceramics, and animal bone (primarily estuary resources). This suggests intentional filling with shell collected from the adjacent marsh so that the ramp could never be reused. No other location within the area of Structure 2 contained shell deposit as dense as that of the ramp. In fact, shell densities in the general area of Structure 2 are below the average, as shown in Figure 5. Given its size, the presence of a ramped entry, and post-occupational activities (specifically filling in the ramp), Structure
2 may have been used for activities other than residential.


Additional Investigations
It was during the excavation of Trench 1 that a human burial (Burial 1) was discovered toward the east end of the trench. Only a small portion of the skull was exposed in the north wall of Trench 1. Found in association with the skull was a broken bone hairpin. After discussions with the state archaeologist, additional mechanical excavation was undertaken to determine whether other burials were present on the property. Four additional backhoe trenches were excavated as was as an area near the initial discovered burial.

The mechanical excavation of areas to the east of and between Structures 1 and 2 resulted in the discovery of another burial loci in Trench 6, which was approximately 25meters northeast of the initial discovery. This second burial loci (Burial 2) contained what appeared to be two inhumations. Backhoe trenching, which occurred within a dense root zone-a consequence of nearby trees, had adversely impacted one of the inhumations. Even so, it was ascertained that the burial was oriented north-south with the head to the north. Recovery of bones from the back dirt pile indicated that the burial was an adult with severely worn teeth; most of the enamel had been removed exposing the pulp. The second inhumation is thought to be that of a child, however, only a limited number of bones were exposed so identification is tenuous at this time. Whether any of the burials were flexed or extended was not determined as additional testing was discontinued after consultation with the State Archaeologist. All of the burials had been dug into culturally sterile soils, yet none were more than 20 inches below the existing ground surface.

To determine if the burials were part of a cemetery, an area near Burial I was
mechanically stripped of overburden and general cultural midden to the culturally sterile sands. No additional features were observed, which suggests that this burial was an isolated occurrence. At this point, it was decided to halt further actions associated with defining burials. Such activities would have required large-scale mechanical stripping of the property, which is privately owned.

It should be noted that neither the mechanical stripping of the area north of Burial 1, nor the excavation of Trenches 6 and 7, nor the excavation of shovel pits toward the east end of the property produced any further evidence for subsurface archaeological features. This could indicate that the east portion of the property was outside the zone of primary occupation as illustrated by the shell and Native American ceramic distributions. Investigations at the Dufferin Street PUD (City BDAC Site File 92-0721), which is south of the project area (Figure 3), reinforced this assumption as little shell or Native American artifacts occur along the marsh edge of the project area.

To date, all of the cultural material recovered from 39 Magnolia Avenue has been cleaned and is stored in the City's archaeological lab awaiting analysis. The field notes have been organized and the photographs have been digitized and cataloged.


The City's archaeological investigation at 39 Magnolia Avenue resulted in the discovery of a St. Johns IIb occupation. This is contrary to the protohistoric occupation (ca. 16th to 17th centuries) as suggested by Smith and Bond (1986) and Chaney (1986). The possibility exists that the occupation may extend into the early decades of European colonization of St. Augustine; albeit, this is by no means certain as Spanish artifacts are generally limited to the upper elevations of the general cultural midden.

The discovery of a late prehistoric residential structure, with possible early
historical European ceramics is provocative. Structure 1 provides essential information for understanding Native American lifeways (especially diet and exchange systems) either just before or right at the cusp of European settlement. Moreover, this is one of only a few Timucuan structures that have been excavated in northeast Florida. It's size and post hole pattern helps to establish Timucuan architectural styles that would have been presented when Pedro Mendndez settled St. Augustine. Albert Manucy (1997: 1419) identified a series of house types used by Native Americans during the early decades


of European contact. Possible types are: 1) circular plan, post and thatch, dome roof or 2) circular plan, post and thatch, cone roof.

Even though Structure 2 is enigmatic and problematic, its discovery provides
interesting facets of Timucuan life beyond settlement-subsistence adaptations. Although conjecture, it is possible that the structure may have held ceremonial and/or ritual significance. The distinguishing architectural elements to this structure are its postulate size and shape, ramp entry, and possibility of auxiliary features (namely the partially exposed shell alignment). What type(s) of activities may have been involved is purely speculative for the moment, although research into ethnohistorical accounts of Southeastern tribes may provide clues. It is the opinion of this author that the ramp represents a corridor (passage) that led into and out of some type of architectural feature (e.g., a council house). The two burial loci (Burials I and 2) are to the east and southeast of this structure, the direction to which the ramp entry is oriented.

When combined with other City investigations in the Williams subdivision
(Figure 3), as well as the results of earlier work by Smith and Bond (1981) and Chaney (1986), the data from 39 Magnolia Avenue can provide a more comprehensive picture as to settlement layout within this area of St. Augustine. According the Chaney (1986: Figure 15 and Table 1), a series of artifact concentrations, or sites, occurs between the church of Nombre de Dios and the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind (Figure 4). It is hypothesized herein that the St. Johns components to these sites are not discrete entities, rather they are residential loci to a dispersed St. Johns IIb village that occurred along the banks of the Matanzas River. The large shell and Native American ceramic concentration found at 39 Magnolia Avenue is one of these residential loci. City projects that have occurred between the areas designated by Chaney (1986) as sites have been shown to contain ditches that may represent the remnants to agricultural fields, as well as the remains of brush wind breaks (City BDAC Site Files 93-0539, 95-0925, and 970304). Found within some of these non-residential features were modest shell concentrations.


The information documented at 39 Magnolia Avenue would not have been
possible without the City's Archaeological Preservation Ordinance. The ordinance does not stop construction. It's intent is to document and provide an understanding of the archaeological deposits that are buried on a property. By enacting and implementing such an ordinance, the City is helping to preserve its past, both prehistoric and historical, through the recovery and preservation of data.

Acknowledgements: This project would not have been possible without the assistance of volunteers who came out daily, even during the hot summer months, to participate in field excavations and lab efforts. Thanks is extended to Tom Kehn, Bob McKinney, Toni Wallace, Nick McAuliffe, Paul Gordon, Phil Gulliford, Vicki Rowland, Mike Tarleton, Kelsey Lloyd, Matt Armstrong, Helen Gradison, and Pauline Larrivey for their dedication and countless hours in helping to preserve St. Augustine's unique history. Dr. Kathleen Deagan (Florida Museum of Natural History) graciously donated funding for the tworadiocarbon dates as well as providing moral support. Amber Grafft-Weiss assisted in preparing the figures presented herein. This manuscript was editing by Clara Waldhari, who has graciously volunteered her time, expertise, and support these past 17 years toward making the archaeological reports emanating from St. Augustine both comprehensible and readable.

References Cited

Chaney, Edward E.
1986 Survey and Evaluation of Archaeological Resources in the Abbott Tract and
North City, St. Augustine. Ms on file, Florida Museum of Natural History,
Gainesville, Florida

Deagan, Kathleen
2004 Summary Interpretation of Archaeological Field Work at the Fountain of Youth
Park Site ((8-SJ-31), 1951-2002. Ms on file, Florida Museum of Natural History,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

Halbirt, Carl D.
1993a The First Five Years (1987-1992): The City of St. Augustine's Archaeology
Program. Paper presented at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Florida
Anthropological Society, Clearwater, Florida.


Halbirt, Carl. D
1993b City News: Orange Period Site Studied in North City. St. Augustine
Archaeological Association Newsletter, Volumes 1 and 2, p5.

1999 "...A Great Farmer and Gardener:" Archaeological Evidence of Governor James
Grant's Farm, St. Augustine, East Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 52 (1-2):

Halbirt, Carl D. and Linnea J. Carver 1992 Documented Archaeological Projects in St. Augustine: An Inventory of the City's
Archaeological Resources. Ms on file, City of St. Augustine Planning and
Building Department, St. Augustine.

Manucy, Albert
1997 Sixteenth-century St. Augustine, The People and Their Homes. University Press
of Florida, Gainesville.

Smith, James M. and Stanley C. Bond 1981 Phase III Archaeological Survey of St. Augustine, Florida. Ms on file, Historic
St. Augustine Preservation Board, St. Augustine, Florida.