Historic research and primary source documents


Material Information

Historic research and primary source documents
Series Title:
Martin Hernández Site, 71 Park Place
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Planning and Building Department, City of St. Augustine, FL
Physical Location:
Folder: Historic & research documents


Subjects / Keywords:
Saint Augustine (Fla.)
71 Park Place (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Martin Hernández Orange Grove (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Martin Hernández Site (Saint Augustine, Fla.)

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
BDAC # 04-0441
System ID:

Full Text
Mercadel, Minorca.
1. Miguel b. 1784 4k1, r P
2. Catalina b. 1786 ep ki 1A 2
3. Ana b. 1788 3 o 4. Sebastian b. 1790 Y
5. Pablo b. 1793 6 (
6. Juan )twins b. 1795 1 0
7. Antonia)
8. Eleuteria Catalina Ana b. January 3, 1798

Eleuteria Catalina Ana Sabate.. m. . Antonio Alvarez 1/20/1818, b. June 8, 1791 ,,, 'Son of Geronimo p, Alvarez, Asturias; p 1. Geronima P.' 1819(?) and Antonia Venz,
2. Antonica Cecilia b. 1821 6an Agustin.


Page 197 Entry 419

Eleuteria Catalina Ana Sabate, born January 3, 1798. Baptized January 21, 1798. Daughter of Paulo Sabate, native of Ciudad de Ciudadela, Isla de Menorca, son of Miguel and Catalina Capo, and Antonia Orgegas, native of Arabel de San Phelipe, Isla de Menorca, daughter of Sebastian and Ana Cherez.
Sponsors: Juan Joaneda y Catalina Sebate, San Agustin.
Priest: Miguel O'Reilly

Page 236 Entry 451
Antonio Joseph Alvarez, born June 8, 1791. Baptized June 13, 1791 Son of Geronimo Alvarez, Asturias, and Antonia Venz, San Agustin.
Sponsors: Bernardo Segui and Antonia Segui, both of San Agustin.
Priest: Miguel O'Reilly


Miguel Sabate . . . m. . . . . Catalina Capo
Ciudadella, Minorca
1. Pablo Sabate. . . . m. . . . Antonia Ortagus
,A b. 1761 6/9/1781 b. 1763 0 r,t I, ;( C- \ Cherez-Gonzales,
Mercadel, Minorea.
1. Miguel b. 1784 / v4' 7" M
2. Catalina b. 1786 rIha r A TA 2
3. Ana b. 1788 20 "
4- Sebastian b. 1790 ceL/ v'
5. Pablo b. 1793 i 6
6. Juan )twins b. 1795 xJa,
7. Antonia)
8. Eleuteria Catalina Ana b. January 3, 1798 '

Eleuteria Catalina Ana Sabate. m. . Antonio Alvarez
1/20/1818 b. June 8, 1791 ee a-,,,-,Son of Geronimo pR Alvarez, Asturias; 1. Geronima P.' 1819(?) and Antonia Venz,
2. Antonica Cecilia b. 1821 San Agustin.


Page 197 Entry 419
Eleuteria Catalina Ana Sabate born January 3, 1798. Baptized January 21, 1798. Daughter of Paulo abate, native of Ciudad de Ciudadela, Isla de Menorca, son of Miguel and Catalina Capo, and Antonia Orgegas, native of Arabel de San Phelipe, Isla de Menorca, daughter of Sebastian and Ana Cherez.

Sponsors: Juan Joaneda y Catalina Sebate, San Agustin.

Priest: Miguel O'Reilly

Page 236 Entry 451
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got in line eagerly holding out his and her cup for their share. Clothes also were distributes, 'they werd heavy and durable and I imagine the colonists were thankfull for that. Miguel Sabate and family were among those who contined from New Symrna to St. Augustine accompaned by Dr. Turnbull. They traveled against many odds. The Indians were not as yetconvinced that the Minorcans were their friends, there was the fear thAt they would attack these brave colonists any-tiire from the bushes. The roads were damp and swampy and infested with mosqliitoes. Many of the colonists were sick on the way, most likely they were bitten by mosquitoes and contracted malaria. They would stop to rest here and there, a band of worn out ragged travelers. I imagine young Pablo, the son 6f Miguel would some times cry out with pain and that hi6 father though he was tired would pick the little boy up in his arms and carry him. Many died of the fever from the mosquitoes before they ever reached St. Augustine. Those that reached St. Augustine must have knelt in prayer, thankful that God had spared them. Miguel probably fell down on his knees, his family at his side and kissed the ground, so happy they must have been that they arrived together. The colonists quickly.set up rude huts and began to plant. They had cleared the swampy lands and their gardens were progressing due to the mild blimate and soil of wonderful fertility. Gale was plentiful and streams were full of fish, oysters, and, turtle, there was no need to worry about food. Thus the colonists were very well offwith the exception of the Indians stealing from them and sickness reducing their numbers.

Pablo Sabate the son of Miguel settled dpwn in St. Augustine to live. He was married in 1781 by Father Peter Camps, the only priest in St. Augustine, to Antonia,0rtegus of St. Augustine, who was the daughter of Sebasthn Ortegus and Anna Cherez. He was married while he was yet adolesant. He was later secretary to the Gov. General of Spain and because of political power was given a grant of land of. one thousand nine hundred acres by the apanish Government, this was called the Pablo Sabate g int, it is whab is now CasyGola, Fla. Pablo lived here and raised his family those being Juah Santiago Josef Sabate and Clara Antorio Sabate twins, born July 17,1795. Micheal Sabate born 1784, E era Catalina Ana Sabate born Jan. 3, 1798 and Ramon Pablo Sabate born Aug. 31, 1801. Baptized the same year by Father' O'RC4lly. It is from Ramon that I descended. He was married lb Father Encroe on Nov.4,.1823 to Maria Roger the daughter of A ert Rogero, and Antonio Villa who came from QUggadella \Minorce, Ramon lived at his fathers home at Cas$U-Cola. He had six children. Nica who married Emmanuel JDe. Medecis, Paul who married Agatha Andreau, Mary who married


Hernandez, Nettle who married Frank Hernandez, Marcella who married
Sylvester Manucy, Robert P., who married Anna Farley. Ramon died
from an injury received while herding cattle, He lft his wife and
her brother as executors of his estate that had not as yet been
divided. His wife later took the slaves and let his sisters take the land. She retained the slaves*and most of them lived on her
place called *Governors Grant, on the North River. The slaves
remained with her until their freedom and many afterwards. The
oldest slave was named Samson. He had a big family. He died one bitter cold night going up North River. S~aly, his wife lived to be very old, she .we, nmate at the Buciham Home for colored
exslaves, this pl ow the Buchirham H~tel of this city. Mary
Sabate Hernandez was in charge of thidsvh6me. One of Sally's boys
who was Minge had his name changed to Stevens. When the slaves
were freed Sally clasp her son to her and sdid, "no more Minge Sabate
now it will be Minge Jack.." This incident served as a joke in the
Sabate family for a number of years.

Two of Pablo Sabate's sons Juan Santiago Josef and Micheal
established a line of sailing vessels (cutters) between St. Augustine, Spain, and the Islands of Minorca, Majorca and other Medlterranean ports. -They carried merchandise and passengers between
these ports. heir sister EYfl~fedia Alvarez (who at one tine owned
the oldest house of St. Augustine) often accompanied them on
their trips. They ran during the summers and brought back olives
in largeaEarthn jars covered with goat skins, also wine and olive oil. Eulgte.ra had several jars at the time of her death. After
several years of this business they were followed out of St.
Augustine by a Pirate ship who was supposed to have robbed them
and fired and burnt their cutters. They had quite a chest of gold aboard and several rich passengers. There has never been a trace of them. If their vessel had been struck by a hurricane or storm
some one would probably have seen some of the wreckage.

Robert P. Sabate (my great grandfather) was born at Uask-Cola
Sept. 1831. He left St. Rugustine in the early fifties by stagecoach to May port then by steamer to Savanah. He went to work on
the gavanah Morning News under Col. Tompson and afterwards went to Mobile to work on a new paper the Tribune after which he went
to the Mobile Register. His health began to fail him and so he returned to Savanah to his first love the Savanah Morning News.
He married Ana Farley about 1858 in Ga. They had six children who
were Antoinette, Ramon F., Robert Joseph, Clem~atina, Philip Edward,
and Marcella.


1813-1814 CENSUS
Treasury Ward Ph 2

Hernandez, (Don) Martin 50 Gomila, (Dona) Dorotea, his wife 48 1 son 10
2 daughters between 7 & 11

5 male slaves to 25
6 female slaves 14 and over


From Jose Mariho Hernandez to Joseph Martin Hernandez: 1788 1856

Kim Hazouri

(. Ai I


On May 26, 1788, Jose Marino Hernandez was born into this household. .Mariano Roque, the royal engineer, was the godfather and Angela Huet, Roque's wife, was the godmother. M. Hernandez's growing wealth and prominence in St. Augustine benefited his son. Hernandez received schooling in Savannah from ages 15 to 17; he attended law school in Havana, Cuba from 1805 to 1810.(15)

When he returned to Florida, Hernandez practiced law under the Spanish regime beginning in 1811. As an attorney, he assisted clients with land claims and grants, collected and gave depositions, and spent many hours in court conducting law suits and foreclosures of mortgages. Later, Governor Sebastian Kindelan employed Hernandez as the official interpreter for Auditor of War cases. (16)


raids. Today, this island is referred to as "Rattle Snake Island" by local fishermen. [Refer to illustration on page 21] (58)

Another tract, New Hope, was sold in 1887 as part of Hernandez's estate. It encompassed 700 acres and was about 12 miles north of St. Augustine at Guano Point. (59)

When Martin Hernandez died in 1834, Joseph Hernandez inherited his father's property. Despite the fact that he was one of eight children, J. Hernandez was the only child to profit from his father's death. He inherited 2,000 acres that had been his father's Spanish military service grants and a Charlotte Street lot and residence.(60)

Hernandez also owned six lots in the city of St. Augustine. Five sizable lots were located in the northern Minorcan district of the city: two lots were on St. Hypolita Street, near Charlotte Street; three lots were located on Charlotte Street, near St. Hypolita.(61)

The sixth and most valuable lot was situated south on the Matanzas River. It was on Bay Street, bounded by Bridge Street on the south. On this large lot, Hernandez constructed two buildings. They were described as "the Billiard Room" and "the fine dwelling" where Hernandez resided. [Refer to illustration on page 22] (62)

Hernandez owned significant amounts of land; he also knew how to maximize his profits from it. He was a leader in soil conservation and fertilizing techniques, as evidenced at Mala Compra. Likewise, Hernandez demonstrated his irrigation innovations at St. Joseph's. The Agricultural Society of St.


Augustine was founded by Hernandez and he served as president. This group led a movement to "diversify Florida's agricultural products." (63)

Hernandez advocated canals for inexpensive and quick transportation of export crops. He organized "The Planters and Citizens Company" consisting of his peers in St. Augustine. They petitioned Congress unsuccessfully for funding for a canal connecting Mala Compra and Smith's Creek in Mosquito county.(64)

To cultivate his land, Hernandez owned many slaves. In 1816, 85 slaves between the ages of four and fifty-six lived on his property. In the 1830 census, Hernandez had 119 slaves; the majority were female. The 1845 St. Johns County tax rolls document that Hernandez owned 127 slaves. By 1850, Hernandez was the wealthiest man in St. Johns county worth $70,000; he owned 148 slaves. (65)

Several indicators of Hernandez's attitude towards his slaves exist. In the Dr. Seth Peck accounts ledger, Hernandez was charged for medical services 193 times from May 1837 to June 1840. Secondly, in his will, Hernandez bequeathed three young females slaves to live with specific family members. During the Seminole War, his slaves remained at their plantations refusing to desert Hernandez; they "were singularly distinguished for their truth and fidelity...". (66)


21. Ibid.

22. Quote from "List of Men Banished from North Carolina, 1784" letter dated February 1, 1784 from Son. Gen. Exchange Qtrly, Spring 1964, No. 29, p. 13, HHMS Williams Biographical file.

23. Smith III, "Williams" 4-5; Samuel William's will, SAHS Williams file. His will is also in the St. Johns County Court House in the Will and Administration, Book 1.

24. Smith III, "Williams" 5; Samuel William's will, SAHS.

25. Seiberts, Loyalists in East Florida Volume II, 366; Smith III, "Williams" 4; Memoirs of Victoria Williams, Samuel Williams's granddaughter, February 14, 1917, SAHS Williams file.

26. Smith III, "Williams" 4.

27. Hill was born a fraternal twin; her brother's name was John Hill. They were baptized at nine months old on July 8, 1787. White Baptisms, Book 1: 1784-1792, p. 69, entry 136 and 137; marriage certificate of Theophilus and Teresa Hill in Edgecombe County, North Carolina, September 3, 1762; Book of White Marriages, 1802-1832, entry 268, pg. 155; Lodowick Johnson Hill, The Hills of Wilkes County, Georgia and Allied Families (Atlanta, Georgia: Johnson Dallas Co., 1922).

28. Murder story from St. Augustine Research Library Archivists; In later years, Teresa Thomas Hill was able to return to South Carolina. Her grandchildren were "impressed by her personality and bearing." Hill, Hills, entry 3.

29. V. Williams, "Memoirs" 1; entries from Fannie Monroe Williams's diary, "Account of Time," dated April 18, 1811 to


Moultrie during Florida's British period. Rowland H. Rerick, Memoirs of Florida Volume 3 (Atlanta, Georgia: The Southern Historical Association, 1902) 265-266.

53. Elizabeth Griffin, 1987 Joseph M. Hernandez: Planter, Soldier, and Politician. Unpublished senior paper, department of history, University of Florida, SAHS.

54. Personal notes of Eleanor Barnes, SAHS Hernandez file; Hernandez paid in cash. Spanish Land Grants, Confirmed H 40; DG IV 203, pg. 236-241.

55. This frame was so deep that it was unearthed in the 1970s by I.T.T. Palm Coast Development. Now, condominiums and apartments are on top of Mala Compra; description of house from 28th Congress, Ist Session, Representative #58, House of Representatives, January 19, 1844.

56. Spanish Land Grants, Confirmed H 40; DG IV 203. pg. 236241; Hanna and Hanna, Sands 60.

57. Farmer's Register, 1935, in SAHS Hernandez file; Hanna and Hanna, Florida's Golden Sand, in SAHS Hernandez file.

58. "Locals" claim this is a great fishing spot. Spanish Land Grant, Confirmed H 46; DG IV 160, 201 p. 249.

59. I cannot find the deed for New Hope. However, New Hope is mentioned in Williams family documents. Hernandez probably came into possession of this property by his marriage. Newspaper clipping in the probate file box for Hernandez at St. Johns County Court House. In Summary, Hernandez owned the following properties: Bike's Hammock/St. Ann's, 635 acres; Buena Suerte, 455 acres;


Williams Orange Grove Plantation, 3,200 acres; Salt Springs Tract, 10,000; St. Johns River property, 10,000; St. Joseph's/Camp Brisbane, 800 acres; Bella Vista, 394.75 acres; Mala Compra, 800 acres; New Hope, 700 acres; Hartford, 500 acres; Little Matanzas Island, 70 acres. Hernandez inherited 2,000 acres form his father. Total acreage amounts to 29,554.75. According to the 1845 St. Johns County Tax Rolls, Hernandez owned 29,989 acres of land and 2,150 in "town lots." He also owned 127 slaves and 75 high grade cattle. Oddly, in 1860 when the Hernandez estate was probated, James M. Gould, Francis P. Ferriru, and Venancio Sanchez (administrator) testified that Hernandez did not own property or slaves. Inventory Book 3, p. 233 at St. Johns County Court House. However, in 1877, Venancio Sanchez sold Bella Vista, Mala Compra, St. Ann/Bike, St. Joseph's, Hartford, New Hope, and Little Matanzas Island to James M. Baker for $5,495. In August 22, 1896, St. Joseph's and Mala Compra were purchased by Venancio Sanchez.

60. After his father's death, Hernandez was in possession of land, such as Hewitts Old Mill, proving he obtained his father's property. However, M. Hernandez did not leave a will. I title searched the three properties and could not find the original deeds.

61. Griffin, Mullet, 138; Ibid. probate file box; 1830 Clemens maps for current day St. Augustine (city) property locations, SAHS.

62. Quote from "Fire in St. Augustine and Loss of Property," The News, Saturday, July 26, 1845, SAHS file on "Fires in St.



(Funded by the Division of Historical Resources [Grant Number S9052]
The Flagler County Board of County Commissioners and Flagler County Tourist Development Council)

Written by:

Ted M. Payne
Patricia C. Griffin, Ph.D.

Prepared for: Prepared by: Flagler County Planning Department MAAR Associates, Inc. 1200 E. Moody Boulevard P. O. Box 655 Bunnell, Florida 32110 Newark, Delaware 19715

June 30, 1999

Analysis and Interpretation

The chalky paste pottery is affiliated with the 2,000 year St. Johns culture chronology. Principal temporal classification attributes are associated with the surface treatment (Milanich and Fairbanks 1987:Table 2, 157-166). Plain surfaced pottery is associated with the earliest St. Johns history, i.e. St. Johns la and lb. Stamped surfaces are attributed to St. Johns II (St. Johns 2a and 2b).

Analysis of the Chalky paste, plain surfaced sherds has been approached at a very conservative level with body sherds being classified as St. Johns culture only. Plain surfaced rim sherds are attributed to St. Johns la and lb. Stamped surfaces, check or linear, are assigned to St. Johns 2a and 2b. The fabric impressed surface with chalky paste probably belongs to the St. Johns culture, but the sandy paste sherd with pinched rim impressions remains unclassified. It might be affiliated with Transitional period prior into the beginning of the St. Johns culture.

It appears that the prehistoric occupation that took place in the study area was located in the northern section and was St. Johns cultural groups. Settlement took place as early as St. Johns 1 (A.D. 100 to A.D. 800) and continued with an undefined history to as late as St. Johns 2 (A.D. 800 to A.D. 1565). Unclassified sherds, if culturally/temporally interpreted, have the potential of providing additional information which might alter the prehistory for the study area. Also, the recovery of sherds that were possibly used with the building architectural materials may indicate an introduction of cultural materials from another, undesignated locale outside of the study area.

Historic Cultural Resources

Jos6 Mariano Hernndez and Mala Compra Plantation


Jos6 Mariano Hernindez, the owner of the Mala Compra Plantation during its most productive time from 1816 to 1836, was, unlike other owners of large plantations in that era, a native son of Florida and St. Augustine. In his lifetime he fulfilled many roles. In his family he was grandson, son, husband, father, stepfather, and grandfather. In his life as an plantation proprietor, he owned a total of 12 parcels of land in Florida, although at least three were never farmed, and one later plantation in Matanzas, Cuba. He was known among his contemporaries as an accomplished agriculturist. In the public arena he was a lawyer, justice of the peace, a representative in the Territorial Legislature of Florida, a city councilman and mayor, and held the rank of brigadier general during the Second Seminole War. His capture of the Seminole leader, Osceola, under a flag of truce, still incites controversy as to the part that he played in this denouement. Because of his prominence, he ranks as one of the best known historical figures of Florida. In a traditional American "rags-to-riches" story, his ancestors, the HernAndez and Gomila families, came to Florida in 1768 as indentured people with the ill-fated Turnbull Colony. During the British period in East Florida, large grants were offered to prominent people in England and Scotland. The dual plan was to establish a thriving agricultural complex in the province, and secondly, to people the colony with white Protestants. Dr. Andrew Turnbull and two other prominent men in the British Isles, including the prime minister, succeeded in obtaining extensive grants in the East Florida. Some 40,000 acres, located 70 miles south of St. Augustine,


became the New Smyrna plantation. After some experimentation, the main crop grown there became indigo, the source of the blue dye much prized before synthetic dyes were invented. Corn and other mixed vegetable crops also played a role in export and for provisioning the plantation workers (Griffin 1991).

The approximately 1,300 colonists were mostly Catholics and the largest proportion were from the island of Minorca in the Mediterranean. They endured a starving time at the beginning of their indentured service. Half of their number died from the harsh conditions within the first two years. Although matters eventually improved somewhat, the plantation collapsed after nine years for a number of reasons. Not the least of these reasons was the turbulence caused by the American Revolution. The original colonists, augmented by the children born on the plantation, were given sanctuary in St. Augustine (see Griffin 1991:83-101 for a more complete analysis of the failure of the plantation enterprise).

Among the immigrants was Martin HernAndez, a boy of 12 (born in 1756), who later in St. Augustine became the father of Jos6 Hemrndez. He came with his parents, Gaspar Hernndez and Margarita Triay, from Mah6n, Minorca, the sizable mercantile town on the east coast of the island. It was located at one of the best deep-water ports in the world. At least three of Martin's brothers also came with the family. The father (Jos6 Hern ndez' grandfather) was carpenter, but whether his skills were used on the plantation under the direction of the head carpenter, William Watson, is not known.

As Hernindez is a common Hispanic name, there are conflicting reports on the Mediterranean origin of the ancestral family of Jos6 Hernfndez. One source (Marti 1991) indicates that the Familia Herndndez immigrated from Vilanova, Portugal to Minorca during the seventeenth century. Frequently in the ensuing years many of the men of the family served as soldiers in the Castillo de San Felipe, the fort guarding the entry to the port of Mahon.

Traditional genealogies of the Hernindez family, as well as knowledge handed down through subsequent generations, indicate that they immigrated from the nearby island of Majorca. This was several centuries before Gaspar Hernindez and his family sought their fortunes across the Atlantic. One scholar from Israel, Dr. Gloria Mounds, is of the opinion that the family fled Majorca because of the intensity of the religious discrimination (personal communication 1999).

Dorotea Gomila, mother of Jos6 Hernindez, was a child of six (born 1762) when she first reached the shores of East Florida with her parents. Dorotea's father, Jos6 Gomila, was a carpenter by trade. However, some documents indicate that he, at other times, or concurrently, worked as a farmer, fisherman and mariner. Working several occupations at the same time has been a survival trait for the Minorcans through many centuries, and continued as an adaptive strategy after the group reached St. Augustine (Griffin 1991:150-161). In fact, the many economic and political roles of Jos6 Hernindez are a demonstration of this custom.

The Gomila family immigrated to Florida from Cuidadela, the traditional old Spanish capital of the Island. The family enjoyed a long history on the island of Minorca, probably coming there with one of the waves of Catalan immigrants from mainland Spain in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Today Hernndez and Gomila are still prominent names on the island of Minorca (Griffin 1997:unpublished field notes).


In the first years in British St. Augustine, the Hernndez and Gomila families experienced the same misfortunes as their fellow Mediterranean colonists. They were allowed to settle in the sparsely built, and undesirable north section of town, south of the fort (Castillo de San Marcos). The 11 block area was known for many years as the Minorcan Quarter, or sometimes the Greek Quarter (Figure 3). This barrio continued into the Second Spanish period as the main residential location for the Minorcan group. Philip Rasico (1990:73) in analyzing the Spanish census of 1813-14 found 58 remaining immigrants of which 42 were still living in the quarter.

By the middle 1780s a few of the group had risen in their fortunes. Martin Hernindez was certainly one of them. In the detailed 1786 census he was living in a family complex south of the plaza on the waterfront, engaged in the building trade. He is variously listed as "carpenter of the shore" or "head carpenter" of the town. By then he had been married to Dorotea Gomila for six years, and had his brothers helping in the business, in addition to an apprentice. The 1786 Hassett census protocol follows:

Family #7:
Martin Hernindez of Minorca, Carpenter, of 30 years.
Dorotea Gomilla his wife ofMinorca of 24 years.
Margarita, daughter of the said, of this [City] 3 years.
Catarina, daughter of the said, of this [City] 1 year.
Francisco Marin, White Apprentice Carpenter of Mosquitos of 15 years
Juan Alcina, White apprentice of Minorca, of 22 years.
Joseph Gomilla, Widower, father of the said Dorotea, of Minorca, Fisherman, added
[agregado], of 50 years
Juan Hernindez of Minorca, Carpenter, unmarried, of 22 years.
Gaspar Hernindez of Minorca, Carpenter, unmarried, of 20 years.
(Hassett's Census 1786, Minorcans, Greeks and others known as such, Family No.7)

Also listed in the household were three slaves, two males and one female. The ownership of slaves in itself was a mark of affluence. He was apparently increasing his holdings at a good rate as he reported himself in the 1784 census as "Carpenter of the Shore," owning just one "mulattress slave and a horse" (Spanish Census of 1783-1784).

The home and business of Martin Hernmndez was in a prime location just south of the plaza on the waterfront. It was described by Mariano de la Roque, the chief engineer of the province in his map and index (1788, block No. 28, lot 190) as a "two story masonry house in fair conditions, owned by the Chief Carpenter Martin HernAndez; with deed and land that it cites." Next door on land owned by Martin Hernindez (lot 191) lived Juan Hernndez, his 22 year old brother, in a "Two-story timber-frame house, in fair condition."

The presence of Jos6 Gomila in the house of his daughter and son-in-law was recent. The year before he was living at the south edge of the Minorcan Quarter in a house fronting the Street of the Merchants (present day Charlotte St.). On 20 November 1785 Jos6 Gomila was inadvertently involved in one of St. Augustine's most spectacular murder cases, that of the murder of Lt. William Delaney. This young officer was killed, according to several Minorcan bystanders by one or the other of several fellow soldiers wearing hooded cloaks, having just come from rehearsing a play in the plaza.. The incident involved several "suitors" who were jealous of the affections of one Catalina Morain, a seamstress who occupied a rented room near the Gomila home. Lt. Delaney struggled into Jos6 Gomila's house as he died. Therefore, Jose Gomila's


testimony played a large part in the extensive legal case that ensued (Tanner 1989:73).

Although he became a part of his daughter's family, he continued ownership of his house. It was described by Mariano de la Roque as a "Masonry house and flat roof, in fair condition"(Roque 1788, Block 13, No.93).

Early Life of Jos6 Mariano Hernindez

It was into this moderately prosperous (considering the times and their origins) Minorcan family that Jos6 Mariano Hernindez was born on 26 May 1788 (Plate 1). Almost a month later, on 23 June 1788, he was baptized by Father Michael O'Reilly (St. Augustine Parish Records [CPR], Book 1, White Baptisms, Entry 206). The baptism took place in St. Augustine just 20 years, almost to the day, after his progenitors arrived in New Smyrna from Minorca. He was the third of 10 children born to Martin Hernmndez and Dorotea Gomila, although one of the girls died in infancy. He held a special place in the family because he was the first-born son. As befitting the status of Martin Hernindez, the godparents chosen for the infant were the prominent couple, Mariano de la Roque and his wife, Angela Huet.

Until the age of 15, Hernindez lived the usual life of a boy in Spanish St. Augustine. He probably attended the free school established for the Minorcan boys by Father Thomas Hassett, and may have helped out in the carpentry business with his father and brothers.

At the age of 15 in 1803, in accord with his father's growing affluence, he was sent to Savannah, Georgia for additional schooling. After two years there he returned to St. Augustine for a short time. He then went to Havana, Cuba for additional schooling. Sometime during the next five years he studied law in Havana, returning to St. Augustine in 1811. From time to time in his subsequent career, he practiced law in Florida.

Because the United States and Cuba were the two prominent locations that St. Augustine related to at the time, the exposure to an English speaking environment in Savannah and, on the other hand, the contacts made in the capital city of Havana, were invaluable in his later career. He became effectively trilingual. As a child he first learned as a "hearth" language the Minorquin dialect of Catalan. In his early schooling he was taught Spanish as the Catholic Fathers prohibited the boys from speaking Catalan. Finally, he gained fluency in English, a smattering in St. Augustine, more in Savannah, and even more after the American Territorial Period began in 1821. Because of his linguistic competence, he was employed in 1814 by Governor Sebastian Kindelan as official interpreter for war claims cases. These cases resulted from the so-called "Patriot War," an early abortive attempt on the part of the United States to annex Florida to the Union (United States Territorial Papers [USTP], Military Affairs, Page 9, Joseph Hernandez to Jesup,
4 May 1824 ).

No sooner was he back in the United States after his stay in Cuba than the "Patroit War" broke out. Both Jos6 and his father took part in the conflict on the side of the Spanish. Jos6 Hernndez saw active service as a volunteer in the Third Battalion of the Cuban Infantry. His father, Martin, was handsomely rewarded for his service with three grants of land--1,000 acres on Pellicer Creek, and 500 acres each on the St. Johns River and the Halifax River. Jos6 Hernindez eventually inherited all three of these properties (Spanish Land Grants [SLG], Con. VoL II H:48). Young Jose himself was awarded 635 acres south of Matanzas, in what was known as Byck's Hammock (St. Ann's), although he did not receive this land until


1818, soon after he purchased Mala Compra. He also bought "Little Matanzas Island," now known as Hernandez Island from F. M. Arredondo, Jr. for $100 in 1817. It was composed of 70 acres "in front of the little Matanzas bar" (SLG, Con H 46; DG IV 160, 201). It was used as a natural cattle pen.

Right after the war, however, before he became a plantation owner, Jos6 HernAndez operated as a merchant in the coastal trading business. In 1814 he sold a sloop in order to purchase a schooner, and he was later employed by Hibberson and Yonge, a mercantile house in Fernandina (Fryman 1992:27). He also practiced law on a part-time basis.

Marriage and Increasing Prosperity

During this time, on 25 February 1814, Jos6 Hernindez married Ana Maria Hill Williams, a widow with four children. She brought to the marriage a large plantation named "Orange Grove" which contained 3,200 acres on the Halifax River. It was situated in the location of present day Daytona Beach.

The Hills were originally from South Carolina, where the family was well connected, but they found it necessary to immigrate to St. Augustine in 1787. Theophilus Hill declared later that year in the 1787 census that he was Protestant but "desires to confirm himself and his family in the Catholic religion." He declared a wife, Teresa, 4 daughters, 11 slaves, adding that he tilled 50 acres of land but wished to farm additional land. The number of slaves owned identify him as a substantial citizen. The actual situation was that the Hill family fled South Carolina in 1787 because Theophilus had killed a man there, and was sought by the authorities. His wife was pregnant with twins at the time and shortly after reaching St. Augustine, Ana Maria and her fraternal twin, John, were born. The infants were baptized in the Catholic faith on 8 July 1787 (CPR, White Baptisms, Bookl:Entries 136 and 137).

Ana Maria grew to adulthood in St. Augustine. Being of the same age, she certainly was acquainted with Jos6. However, the fact that the two were not of the same sex and came from different cultural backgrounds, would have militated against any significant association between them at that time. At a young age Ana Maria married Samuel Williams, an Englishman recently arrived from the Bahamas, although he previously lived in North Carolina. As a bride she was later described by her granddaughter, drawing on family tradition, as "eighteen, London educated, and very beautiful" (Hazouri 1996:10). In the six years of their marriage, Ana Maria bore Williams three sons and one daughter. She became accustomed to plantation life as they lived on the Halifax plantation and planted cotton--a failure--and later sugar cane that was more successful. Williams was an indifferent farmer, though, and most of his money was made in the slave trade.

Williams died in 1811 under dramatic circumstances, a rather complicated story that was thoroughly researched by Kim Hazouri (1996:10-13). He was a Loyalist who had refused to join in the American Revolution. Once in East Florida, he was harassed by the "patriots" from the Carolinas and Georgia. He found it necessary to flee his plantation several times. At last he hid at the fort (Castillo de San Marcos), and soon after died from the ordeal.

Jos6 Hernindez was a good friend of Williams as well as of the Hills, which may seem amazing in that both of these families were well connected. Hernindez, in contrast, no matter his rising stature in St. Augustine, was still the son of a former indentured servant. The best explanation is that HernAndez, out of his charismatic personal style and his generosity, made and kept many good friends during his career.


Family (iGroup Sheet
Husband: Martin Hlernandez
Born: Abt. 1756 in: Mahon, Minorca
Married: May 6, 1780
Died: 1834 in: St. Augustine, FL
Father: Gaspar Joseph 1. B. I lernandez
Mother: Margarita Juana G. Triay
Wife: Dorotea Gomila
Born: Abt. 1762 in: Ciudadela, Minorce
Father: Josef Gomila
Mother: Catalina Flucha

1 Name: Margarita Hernandez ~ J ~ d, 6 F Born: 1783 h. \o
2 Name: Caterina Silvestre Columba Hernandez F Born: December 1, 1785 ., 1
3 Name: Josef Mariano Hernandez M I Born: May 26, 1788 Married: February 25, 1814 in: St. Augustine, FL
Spouse: Ana Maria Hill
4 Name: Gaspar Juan Hernandez M Born: February 14, 1790
5 Name: Clara Antonia Hernandez F Born: September 1, 1792
6 Name: Martin Gaspar Mariano Hernandez M Born: March 16, 1794
7 Name: Juana Maria Antonia Hernandez F Born: June 12, 1799
8 Name: Rosalia Margarita Quintina Hernandez F Born: October 30, 1801
9 Name: Ignacio Epifanio Juan Hernandez M Born: April 7, 1804

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FAS 2005 Tentative Program

8TTTT h CttuuB Cenitur C 7 8:00-8:10 introduction Introduction Introduction 8:10-8:30 Carty, Thomas J. 8MR3268: An Overview of a Paleoindian/Late McEwan, Bonnie G. So Jetted andAdorn 'd: The History and Gifford, John, Steve Koski, and Mark Grasmueck 2004 Research at Little Salt
Archaic Site in Marion County Symbolism ofJet Artifacts Spring, Sarasota County
8:30-8:50 Tesar, Louis D. The Cutting Edge of Sorrow: Wakulla Springs Lodge Mitchem, Jeffrey M. J. Clarence Simpson and the Early Days of State- Koski, Steven H. and Martha Ardren Little Salt Spring Park, an
Site (8WA329) Microlithic Knives Supported Archaeology in Florida Archaeological and Ecological Reserve: The Preservation of Significant Archaeological Components and Surrounding Landscape Associated with the
Little Salt Spring Site
8:50-9:10 Austin, Robert J., Bradley E. Ensor, Lisabeth Carlson, and Jon Endonino Walker, Karen J., William H. Marquardt, Merald R. Clark, John Faught, Michael K. Florida's Middle and Late Archaic Archaeological
Multidisciplinary Investigations at West Williams, An Archaic Site in LoCastro, Darcie A. MacMahon, and John E. Worth Modeling and Record: How much is underwater?
Hillsborough County Presenting Sixtenth-Century Pineland
9:10-9:30 Randall, Asa R. Hontoon Island Habitation Sites Marquardt, William, Karen J. Walker, and John E. Worth The Impact Knight, Robert and Donald Munroe An Update on the Isolated Finds Policy of the 2004 Hurricanes on Pineland's Archaeological and Historical Amateur Contributions to Florida Archaeology Resources
9:30-9:50 Sassaman, Kenneth E. Hontoon Dead Creek Mound LeFebvre, Michelle J., Alicia Lusiardo, and Helina S. Woldekiros Smith, Roger C. Florida's Maritime Heritage Trail Student Paper- Zooarchaeological Analysis of a Colonial Spanish
Cofradia Site (SA30-3), St. Augustine, Florida
9:50-10:10" Tucker, Bryan and John Krigbaum Was There Social ranking at Harris Provenzali, Jorge A. Student!Paper May6lica Makers' Marks: The Scott-lreton, Della New Additions to Florida's Underwater Archaeological
Creek? Meaning of Absence ( Preserve System

10:20-10:40 Berbesque, J.C. Student Paper Stress in a 7,000 Year Old Population: McGee, Ray, Antoinette B: Wallace, Nick McAuliffe, Michael B. Moore, Robin E. Underwater Archaeology and Northeast Florida's Hidden
Hypoplastic Defects in Windover Tarletonand Carl D. Halbirti Archaeological Investigations ofa Multi- Maritime Heritage componentSpanish Mission/British Hospital site in St. Augustine, FI
10:40-11:00 Kowal, Amy Student Paper The Pure and Simple Tooth: Incidence of Grange, Roger and Dorothy Moore The Archaeology of Stormy Morris, III, John W. The Tolomato River Bar Anchorage: A MultiDental Abscesses at Windover Pond 8Br246 Weather at Tumbull's Smymea Settlement component Maritime Infrastructure Site in Northeast Florida 11:00-11:20 Wentz, Rachel Examination of Subadult Pathology in a 7,000 Year Old Condosta, Marissa Catherine Student Paper A Predicative Model for Raupp, Jason T. A New Look at the 1733 Spanish Plate Fleet
Population from Florida Presidio Isla de Santa Rosa
11:20-11:40 Endonino, Jon C. Student Paper Thomhill Lake and the Archaic Eschbach, Krista French Material Culture in 18th Century Spanish Taylor, Kim The Craftsmen of Oyster Bank: A Historical Survey ofthe
Mortuary Mounds of the St. Johns River, Florida Pensacola: The Meaning of Change Commercial Anchorage for the Plantations on the Guana Creek Peninsula 11:40-12:00 Saunders, Rebecca Consumption Made Conspicuous: Shell Rings in the Driscoll, Kelly A. and Lisa N. Quinn Archaeological Testing of the Cook, Gregory The Pensacola Waterfront Shipwreck Project: A New
Late Archaic Fort Zachary Taylor Coverface, Key West, Florida Investigation of Pensacola's Maritime Past LUNCH LUNCH 1:00-1:20 Estabrook, Richard W. Chert Outcrop Outliers and Lithic Reuse in Mikell, Gregory A. Company "M" of the 14' New York Cavalry in Tumbleson, Nicole Dredging Florida's History
Peninsular Florida Pensacola, September 1863-February 1865
1:20-1:40 Schwadron, Margo Archeological Investigation of the Eastern Hagen, Melissa N. and Carl D. Halbirt '"The Hemandez Orange- McKinnon, Jennifer "Master, good-bye, we no more see you": The Wreck of
Everglades Tree Island Sites, Everglades National Park Grove": A Nineteenth-Century Enterprise in St. Augustie, Florida Georges Valentine
1:40-2:00 Newman, Christine, Mary Glowacki, and Jim Dunbar Corkscrew, Sims, Cynthia L. and James N. Ambrosino Examining the Eslinger, Kimberly L. "And all the men knew the color of the sea:"
Okaloacoochee, and Picayune: CARL Investigations in the Swamps and Archaeological Integrity of Nineteenth-Century Features at Naval Air Archaeological and Historical Investigations of a Cuban Filibuster
Sloughs of Southwest Florida Station Pensacola
2:00-2:20 Ambrosino, Meghan L. and James N. Ambrosino A New Look at the Newquist, Ingrid M. Drawing on Maps: Changing Perspectives Pickett, Shane Student Paper A Preliminary Analysis of Shield's Point
Palm River Midden (8HI108), a Late Woodland Shell Midden on Tampa Ascribed to the Landscape of St. Augustine, Florida Wreck #5 (8SR1680)
2:20-2:40 Dean, Jonathan A. and Jeanne Lambert Uncovering a Tattered Legend Oldham, Vicki, Uzi Baram, Canter Brown, Bill Burger, Rosalyn Sjordal, Paul Student Paper New Evidence of the Archaeological
The Weeden Island Site Howard, and Louis Robison Looking for Angola: Public Archaeology Importance of the Shields Point Vessels and Public Education
2:40-3:00 Kolianos, Phyllis E. Ancient Coral Figurines from Caxambas Roberts, Erika Sabine and Michelle J. LeFebvre She Said, She Said: A Fafard, Mark Student Paper Next Year n Jerusalem: A 21st Century Self-Reflexive Ethnoarchaeological Exercise 'Medieval' Pilgrimage Site BREAK BREAK
3:20-3:40 Wallis, Neill J. Student Paper The Case for Swift Creek Paddles as Totemic Symbols: Some Anthropological Considerations Dunbar, James S. and Christine Newman Use, Abandonment, and Preservation: The Cultural History of Goethe State Forest, Levy County,
3:40-4:00 Rolland, Vicki St. Johns and Ocmulgee Pottery: evidence of Long Distance and Long-term Interaction Recovered from the Shields Mound (8DUl2), Frashuer, Anya Student Paper Middle Woodland Ceremonialism in the
Jacksonville, FL Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida
4:00- 4:20 Elgart-Berry, Alison Life and Death on the Pine Island Ridge O'Brien, Matthew An Examination of the Usefulness of Posthole Digging in Archaeological Sampling Strategies: A Case Study from 8 Hi 4561
4:20-4:50 Bense, Judith A. The New Florida Public Archaeology Network: An Overview and Progress Report Hood, Darden Finessing Your Understanding of Radiocarbon Dating 4:50-5:30 FAS Business Meeting (New Board)

Posters: Sherstad, Heather D. Wynnhaven Beach Site a Coastal Village: The Woodland Years
Wallis, Neill J., Ann S. Cordell, and Lee A. Newsom Paste Characterization of Charcoal-Tempered Pottery from northeastern Florida.
Posters will be in the prefunction area.

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