Excavation forms and field notes for Test Unit 1

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Material Information

Title:
Excavation forms and field notes for Test Unit 1
Series Title:
Castillo de San Marcos Terreplein Project
Physical Description:
Unknown
Physical Location:
Folder: TU1 excavation forms & field notes

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
97-3003; 93-3000; 94-3000
Castillo de San Marcos
System ID:
USACH00479:00016

Full Text


CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Form

BDACNo. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) ( Q6A / Stripping Area Test Unit / Level No. 1 Depth (BD) 2 0 //32 Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) ( c/ru,- k. C A 0 1
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C~La-. ZQk c9 )kL4d WL9 cJ-AA dCZt ,& Aik c,1-Jec




Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantifies) C- C) / C

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Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) f)-aComments (use reverse if necessary) rahs 4 t < lt e e







F. S. (U / / (se graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)














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CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Fonu

BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) \V Q Stripping Area Test Unit Level No. 3 Depth (BD) 3 /1/ Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) A- Co a c 7 n c, -.


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Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) r .i

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// Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) U, .e r U\










Comments (use reverse if necessa-y) e c r7 -e w -p ,) ter, .... ~-~ (,...K&CC C U)~) C
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CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Form

BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit / Level No. Depth (BD) J/// Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) ~ xe/ 4 u v -o






Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) A..








Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) /Jo 4-e Ca o.NAo +















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Comments (use reverse if necessary) o I c ce e







F. S. # (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)
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CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM Test Unit Excavation Formu
BDACNo. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit Level No. -$ Depth (BD) < Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) A o 2

Q t 4a ca. Qz~ "c; V,-L CA.c 1Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) Ca C







Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) U so












Comments (use reverse if necessary) a rr f -c C







F. S. # (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit) t'I) L(







CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM Test Unit Excavation Formu

BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project)

Stripping Area Test Unit Level No. Depth (BD) Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) ) ) __ _ __ __






Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) A








Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity)












Comments (use reverse if necessary)







F. S. # (, f,(Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)







CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Fornu

BDACNo. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit Level No. Depth (BDr Soil Charameteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) Aid & .. . t nA t x f, TS



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Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) 7_____ 5bo





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Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) A) k.











Comments (use reverse if necessary) 7LW A, L nc n r




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F. S. i 2 (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)







CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Form

BDAC No. _iillg Address Stripping Area Test Unit Level No. Depth (BD) r fr3 -9 I Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) l A (m L- n I /- I! .
en e nlsos 3 -2 L~v JL4




Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) ?7, ta& B/I r nca






Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) ,A o cd1 -t L,



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Comments (use reverse if necessary) ae (- 010 <,o ..



F. S. # (Use rah aer to ustrate ay features observed in test unit


F. S. # _/1i (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)







CITY OF ST. AUGUINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Fonu t.. / BDACNo. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit' Level No. Depth (BD) 7/ Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) A, &/ 'a U I _coc iv----7"- r Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) 0 09 a/ C p A/ C







Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) /A)i ,. f.r,-oflt~~ ze4-~J tAwO.e -wi




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Comments (use reverse if necessary) 14 ,- o-_ .






F. S. # __I0 (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)




City of St. Augustine Archaeology Program Feature Form


BDAC No. NONE Street Address CASA (terr. pro.) F.S. # I

NO Stippiftg-A-ea. Test Unit Level J Elevation 7- (cm BD) Feature Type (put in secondary uses) F A. he [ 5 -c-d.UO Shape Size (cm) Depth (cm) Feature Characteristics: Nature of walls (sloping, straight, bell shape), modifications (oxidized.soil, clay/daub, shell lining, etc. and where evident), base shape (saucer, flat, pointed) and modifications. Draw plan/profile on reverse side of form.








Soil characteristics (color, texture, inclusions [charcoal, shell, daub]) jLe Ap. o e .. 4yi M 0 ..E. I A a 4IVL Jj&-4 Q C &&ru) LeA- cj 9 M~k 6 !,e to e\



Artifact types and quantities (approx.) foo rajn ig-ce.,S & &- CComments (e.g., primary and secondary uses of feature--reason) 7 ,, ef Sa--,, &I.




Discarded Material (wt): shell brick tabby coquini stone other Excavator .-j ,' Date # of bags Flot (Y/N) Pollen (Y/N) If (- 7-,L e J











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CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Fonu k I (, BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit I .q 4- Level No. I Depth (BD) 3 Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) lt .e ,N u r- t A-.






Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) ,1 /I3t. /I,- e JaIn~- c,








Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) ,V ( .












Comments (use reverse if necessary)







F. S. # (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)







CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM ( Test Unit Excavation Form
BDACNo. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit f Level No. 2- Depth (BD) 3 6 Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) F - ( g






Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) .5 / C- (, r, / 4 j








Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) /1) o)












Comments (use reverse if necessary) w c r o- ocr ; F /







F. S. # / (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)







CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM / Test Unit Excavation Form

BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit Level No. 3 Depth (BD) 35q / Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) 9 e C (9 s raj C.






Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) w t w r J er,. r, W








Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) (Uo a


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Comments (use reverse if necessary) 5 r-e n~ u.; .o







F. S. # ) a > o (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit) (Ue rah aprtoilusrae n







CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM Test Unit Excavation Fonu BDACNo. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit J A Level No. Depth (BD) Yl t / Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) /






Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) A7 /) (a I-








Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity)













Comments (use reverse if necessary)







F. S. # I (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)





City of St. Augustine Archaeology Program Feature Form


BDAC No. NONE Street Address CASA (terr. pro.) F.S. # I Feature No. Stripping Area Test Unit e Elevation Feature Type (put in secondary uses) __Shape Size (cm) Depth (cm) Feature Characteristics: Nature of walls (sloping, straight, bell shape), modifications (oxidized.soil, clay/daub, shell lining, etc. and where evident), base shape (saucer, flat, pointed) and modifications. Draw plan/profile on reverse side of form.









Soil characteristics (color, texture, inclusions [charcoal, shell, daub]) /'V '- ZArtifact types and quantities (approx.) 9)D VL-.





Comments (e.g., primary and secondary uses of feature--reason)







Discarded Material (wt): shell __ brick tabby coquina stone __ other


Excavator Date # of bags Flot (Y/N) Pollen (Y/N)





City of St. Augustine Archaeology Program
Feature Form

BDAC No. NONE Street Address CASA (terr. pro.) F.S. # I, ait c Feature No.. Stripping Area Test Unit L Level 4 Elevation c ( BD) Feature Type (put in secondary uses) C-a..e-"rba.& e e , -( I Shape Size (cm) Depth (cm) Feature Characteristics: Nature of walls (sloping, straight, bell shape), modifications (oxidized.soil, clay/daub, shell lining, etc. and where evident), base shape (saucer, flat, pointed) and modifications. Draw plan/profile on reverse side of form.









Soil characteristics (color, texture, inclusions [charcoal, shell, daub]) r: n





Artifact types and quantities (approx.) '




Comments (e.g., primary and secondary uses of feature--reason) LAG 2, 3 er&,, Q







Discarded Material (wt): shell __ brick tabby coquina stone __ other Excavator Date # of bags Flot (Y/N) Pollen (Y/N)







CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM A I Test Unit Excavation Fonurm

BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit / Level No. / Depth (BD) Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) EVe s. ,-e A 2 7_ 4






Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) A o a .








Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) ik) ( ,












Comments (use reverse if necessary) T I -e






CITY OF ST. AUJGUT-INE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Fonurm

BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) joo I Stripping Area Test Unit / Level No. 2- Depth (BD) -0 Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) C -r G ,&.. n






Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) ( c iL A

3 F/ r ov a v 4- hJik ,- ) /A oL 1A,L 2, ) z63 V v ro /1 -/


Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) / -me a.












Comments (use reverse if necessary) o -_ ~ / .







F. S. # / 6 1.. (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)


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CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Formu
BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) P Stripping Area Test Unit 1 Level No. Depth (BD) 1Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) / ,, c.--.





Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) Al E







Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) J J E










Comments (use reverse if necessary) FS c, u





F. S. # _..[, ( _(Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)
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CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM Test Unit Excavation Fonurm

BDACNo. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit* Level No. Depth (BD)3 2 Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions)






Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) p/, ,,5 t 5 C z ,








Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity)













Comments (use reverse if necessary)







F. S. # I-(Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)







CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM Test Unit Excavation Form

BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit Level No. Depth (BD) Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) (~ cofc<.---, .a. <

(A1A E4V e-f 4- L Lept c gL-- C.. m %It t-a- a4 1~ a2.S zg-61A...

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Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) (I). ) / -C *

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Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) ,. k -, Y"'_ CV-A", CA4 C'j Ila









Comments (use reverse if necessary) Z& .~ & ,.D ke, f LI







F. S. # J (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)


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CITY OF ST. AUGUTTNE 6'7
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Fonu

BDAC No. NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit / Level No. _- Depth (BD) -f -" Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) 0_a S u.4. 0 14- n.Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) {0 ; '/ e --)-Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) A) t a ck C&











Comments (use reverse if necessary) Ar p4 hw j t...-d o ,-,- 3 cc; e~-FS~__.# I Ure C ,-e r olluta fat o r ite uI



F. # J, /' (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)







CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE & / ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit. Excavation Fonu

BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit Level No. -" Depth (BD) / 4 5 177 Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) s,,,Io-- .s4 .1,, b Ac. ,


c 6 (ce Cc I- L+t WmJ7Q 4 -6. ,Artifacts R covered (Types and relative quantities) jC 7) i







Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) /)o ,rA-r-4p. L C"& ecQ p. I vLe P'







Comments (use reverse if necessary) "l I p k ,,tt c-F. S. # (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit) (-2-- T7-

























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CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Fornu

BDAC No. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit / Level No. L Depth (BD) 9<.L J/l Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) A +A , o a R ON- V)'EAdL9 w.. 60. a" ,9 k- --hiLcD. A ik cLer s vttcArtifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) 1 5/ F / / 2 C T i/ L S3 L (f r5F t +7 c i c, t IVo P~ C-s 37eA5S I s7 / / 7 a t 9rH o / 4do, (/ .,,


Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) 4 le o,,,












Comments (use reverse if necessary) (t o .tc,-S. &4 ~e- 0 **







F. S. # __f (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)


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CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Fonu i
BDACNo. -NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit Level No. Depth (BD) _Z L -9 Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) er- f {) (or W / co usAI






Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities) / / e ,s So -t c H 1q R C R -oo T / V- i / /v 0S 5, o3 / 57 /A 6,#Ve F-'A-S




Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) W L- we, L











Comments (use reverse if necessary) 4.e~w- e C r 2-- u) o- -,9 t, I







F. S. # (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)







CITY OF ST. AUGUTINE
ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM

Test Unit Excavation Fonu

BDACNo. NONE Address CASA (terr. project) Stripping Area Test Unit J Level No. Depth (BD) Soil Characteristics (Color, Texture, Type, Inclusions) A-e -, +V-k L9c- (

J AL"y-~r a .Q Cdyt ( i&




Artifacts Recovered (Types and relative quantities)5 < -tAC








Features Observed (distinct soil stains, characteristic, and quantity) /A ) 4 Trd












Comments (use reverse if necessary)







F. S. # __I (Use graph paper to illustrate any features observed in test unit)





City of St. Augustine Archaeology Program 1Feature.Form


BDAC No. NONE Street Address CASA (terr. pro.) F.S. # eatul __No. Stripping Area Test Unit Level 0 Elevation 4tm D) Feature Type (put in sendary uses)

Shape Size (cm) Depth (cm) Feature Characteristics: Nature of walls (sloping, straight, bell shape), modifications (oxidized.soil, clay/daub, shell lining, etc. and where evident), base shape (saucer, flat, pointed) and modifications. Draw plan/profile on reverse side of form.
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Comments (e.g., primary and secondary uses of feature--reason) Ul & c k + kjt Ls07qmo 6*




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Excavation Results

The five test units excavated provide a unique glimpse into the construction of the current fort terreplain surface (gun deck), which spans approximately 250 years of use'. The information obtained during this investigation indicates that the terreplain surface varies considerably in the types and degree of material used in its construction. The following addresses the various stratrigraphic deposits that comprise the present gun deck and how those deposits associate with the supporting coquina stone casemates.

Evident from this investigation is that the quantity and composition of deposits along the extent of the terreplain's surface differed. For example, 15 distinct strata were noted in the area between Rooms 15 and 16 (Test Unit 1) in comparison to the 31 strata noted over Room 21(Test Unit 5) and the 8 strata noted over Room 1 (Test Unit 4). Moreover, in most cases, the thickness of the strata varied between the test units. On the other hand, stratigraphic deposits appear to be consistent between the courtyard wall and the parapet over each room--as exemplified by Test Units 2 and 3 that were above Room 7. Clearly, historical repairs and/or resurfacings on the terreplain were concentrated at specific locations that appears to extended from the courtyard wall to the fort's curtain.

What follows is a description of the stratigraphic deposits that comprises the historical terreplain surface of the Castillo de San Marcos. The strata are discussed in order of earliest (deepest) deposits to lastest (upper) deposits. The test units are presented according to their excavation sequence.




1 The original gun deck was constructed in the last quarter of the 17th century and was
dismantled between the 1730s and 1750s in favor of a new gun deck over the recently constructed coquina stone bomb vaults.








1est Unit 1

As mentioned previously, Test Unit 1 was excavated to determine the characteristics of 1) the 1939 wall constructed atop the merging of the coquina stone vaults of Rooms 15 and 16 and 2) to evaluate the nature of the terreplain deposits above the fern room (Room 16). Initially, a 1 m by 3 m test unit was excavated, which straddled the 1939 wall, with the excavation proceding according to the natural stratigraphy of the terreplain deposits. Later, with approval of the park's superintendent (Gordie Wilson), the test unit was expanded an additional 4 m to the east (Figure ika)-- effectively covering the width of Room 16. Within this unit a total of 15 different soil strata or substrata were observed (Figure b; Table M The earliest of these strata (Stratum A) is a pale yellow (Munsell 2.5Y 8/4) coquina sand, which has been compacted. The sand represents a single fill deposit that bridges the lower arches of Rooms 15 and 162. It extends from 0.97m to over 1.37m below the established site datum (BESD), which is at the southwest corner of the courtyard wall. Within this fill deposit a layer of broken tabby blocks were found at roughtly 1.27 m BESD (Figure b). The depth of these blocks was not determined due to the constricted area of excavation The possibility exists that they may extend to where the vaults of Rooms 15 and 16 converge. The blocks may have constituted sometype of buttressing system of which the the top forms a pavement-like surface (Figure c). The subsequent coquina sand deposit (Stratum A) would have permeated the crevices of these intentially placed blocks.

The tabby blocks are irregularly shaped. They measure more than 20cm in length and width and vary from 10-15 cm in thickness. The origins of these blocks are unknown, but they



2 The lower elevation of this fill deposit was not determined given the presence of the 1939 wall and the constricting coquina stone arches that effectively limited further excavation.








are the remains of demolished structure(s)--possibly the original walls and/or roofs of the 17th century case mates (Arana and Manucy 1977:32).

Above the coquina sand fill was a partially consolidated gray tabby matrix that was

composed of three distinct zones or substrata labeled as B-i to B-3 (Figure b), which separated easily during excavation. The depth of this deposit extends from approximately 75 cm to 97 cm BESD. The tabby surfaces varied in color from a light gray (Munsell 2.5Y 7/2) to a light brownish-gray (Munsell 2.5Y 6.2) and contained various amounts and sizes of tabby and coquina stone rubble as well as charcoal and shell. Stratum B is situated where the arch of the coquina stone vault becomes less acute and, therefore, this may have formed the first floor surface to the terreplain-a fact that is supported by the numerous artifacts recovered from this stratum (see below).

Distinctions between the zones of Stratum B were based primarily on compaction and quantity and types of inclusions. For substratum B-l, the deepest deposit, the tabby matrix contain mostly shell inclusions with some charcoal and tabby and coquina stone rubble fragments3. This differed from substratum B-2, which was more consolidated and contain numerous tabby and coquina stone chunks that were better cemented into the tabby matrix. The upper tabby zone (B3) was very carbonaceous and friable. Associated with the tabby matrix of B-3 were some large tabby blocks found over Room 15 (Figure d). No tabby blocks were documented on the Room 16 side of the test unit. In terms of condition, B-2 was better preserved than either B-1 or B-3. The poor condition of B-3 may be a result of an extended exposure to use. This supposition is supported by wear marks consisting of grooves and depressions at a comparable elevation as the


3 The terminology used for tabby and/or coquina stone construction debris found within a
strata is based on particle size: Block refers to fragments greater than 10 cm in length; chunks of tabby range from 5 cm to 10 cm in length; and rubble is less than 5 cm in length.








top of B-3 (i.e., 75 cm BESD) in the coquina stone vault over Room 16 (Figure e). The carbonaceous nature of B-3 could be associated with fires on the gun deck.

Following the gray tabby zone, the next stratum (Stratum C) consists of a deposit of coquina sand that extends from 52 cm to 75 cm BESD. Stratum C consists of two zones or substratum (C-1 and C-2). Bothiare pale yellow (Munsell 2.5Y 7/4 and 2.5Y 8/4) and both appear to be partially cemented. The difference is in compaction and particle size. Substratum C-1 was more compact with a variable particle size, which included some chunks of coquina stone, while C-2 had smaller particles including some coquina stone rubble and tended to be of a looser nature. Whether Stratum C constitutes a floor surface or is equivocable. The stratum does appear to have been cemented to some degree, but its compaction may simply be due to compression from above. The possibility exists that Stratum C represents two fill deposits used to elevate the terreplain to just below the vault's keystone. The top of Stratum C is 20 cm below the top of the keystone of Room 16 (Figure b)4.

Forming a thin (3 to 5 cm) lense atop the coquina sand was a brown (Munsell 10YR 4/3) band of sandy-silt (Stratum D), which contained numerous inclusions of tabby rubble, sand concretions, shell, and charcoal. What this band of sandy-silt represents is uncertain. Clearly, it constitutes soil bought up onto the terreplain surface probably from the surrounding fort glacis. Stratum D essentially levels the terreplain to the top of the coquina stone arch or the based of the keystone (Figure _b). The undulating nature of the surface of Stratum D, which could have been caused by foot or artillery traffic, and the numerous artifacts found within this thin band of soil (see below) suggest that it may represent an occupational surface of the terreplain.

4 A similar pattern could not be discerned over Room 15 given the location of the test unit, which did not extend far enough west to determine association between coquina stone vault and Stratum C.








Above Stratum D was another zone of coquina sand (Stratum E), which was similar to Stratum C-2. Stratum E was pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) with numerous inclusions of coquina stone rubble and chunk fragments. Stratum was poorly consolidated, similar to C-2, with little-if any-evidence of matrix having been cemented with tabby.

Unlike the previous strata, which were essentially level, Stratum E sloped from east to west, with the thickness varying from 15 cm over Room 16 (32 to 47 cm BESD) to 10 cm over Room 15. Of particular importance is the fact that the thickness of Stratum E over Room 16 is comparable to the thickness of the keystone cap over the same room (Figure b). Thus, it is not until Stratum E, which is only 28 cm below the existing gun deck, that we find evidence for a level terreplain surface. That the seven previous zones were lower than this crest or keystone indicates that the coquina stone vaults were obstacles in the movement of artillery and soldiers along the terreplain surface for part of its use-life.

The next three strata (Strata F, G, and H) contain variations in the coquina sand matrix found in Stratum C and E. Because Strata F, G, and H were poorly defined during excavation-partially due to the effects ofjackhammers used to remove the surface concrete over Test Unit 1, they were not distinguished until the profile drawings. The deposits were either light gray (Munsell 2.5Y 7/2) or pale yellow (Munsell 2.5Y 8/4) in color and contained numerous inclusions of white tabby rubble and chunk fragments', especially Stratum F. The combined thickness of these three strata varied from 14 to 20 cm. The shallow deposits (18 to 22 cm BESD) were over Room 16, while the deeper deposits (22 to 42 cm BESD) were over Room 15. These three strata represent the last of the historical terreplain deposits that date prior to the 1939 restoration and



5 The tabby rubble and chunk fragments observed in Stratum F, G, and H were similar to the well-preserved tabby levels documented in Test Unit 4.








resurfacing efforts along the gun deck (Manucy 194_).

The final series of strata observed in Test Unit 1 constitute 20' century activites toward conserving the fort's terreplain and coquina stone vaults. The earliest manifestation of this preservation is associated with the 1939 restoration effort. Archaeological deposits associated with this activity consist of the construction trench and concrete wall use to maintain the Room 16-the fern room--, the Represented in thein consists of three conservateSubsequent deposits on the terreplain represent Deposit Subsequent deposit cap (Figure b). The The upper elevation varying from 32 to 42 cm BESD, while the lower elevation ranged from 47 to 54 cm BESD. The thickness of Stratum E ranged from 10 to 15 cm. Stratum E was that extended from 30 and








Figure 4. Photograph of Groove Marks in Coqu ne Vault above Room 16.








Figure 2. Photograph of Tabby Blocks at Base of Terreplein Deposits in Test Unit 1.




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