FORT MARION NATIONAL MONUMENT
Notations on Its Original Character
Albert C0. Manucy Junior Research Technician Fort Marion Naponal Monument
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TShPL3 CONTRUCTON, I0M7 =MION NATIONAL MORabWT
Wth the poseible eephioUA of th fort beatione
consrasson o etrreplA dates tam "het 198s adi4tas the fort ltelt ws m Lan nesatlas of th. year 1A9R by )A&8 the OU.at
east and eteast bseatios were tiled in end DM a td gone, and bY 188 thie ta part te rkf th e ea* trteoa s and baetions) Wa sestmalSy sOphts etaw has beeno bailt behi t eW entaie saM
their roots prove soia arot of to remain WtI th ees oota wei
not bomfprzot, weA to roal4 asineer AnteMeo as Amwdoa4 ee the Saret for dtg the gret arhes as amqnate theater Sanget Z8th senary tlis.e
2.; V - -i -- L - -- ----
(SMle aof W st ) *Datwpte do te qpe as tabiee a sete preasse 4 So 4A.th to o PlU Aper Wale 44 0*K M aea e 4*4
898594 8 S doh A e t iSataso. aS bOeder# Cpit 0eenes A~ g04 ga 24 ea eoebtasdu as 8 4e 0 apZ r (Dtab1va so "
(wsyutYag f t s es) tS&apa do. so d doo 1u Plent 6e Ot1iner 4 M*.R*Moft*)#*ISIf48Q4.2 l8adt.4eS de a e at Oat e at eas a1dst14 @ .m Sea ta eg G D o9 Ne
to mea -juts 2vnt* Owaese y m ek aea*e at
Ze## at dies W@he
Th oark of teari doa the old res au latag feudastmn for neW reh be9 aa r ~4r th sh e r of 1 ~8s a appamntly th eosreatJion was virt a l aaplted by 1740.*i aobtteodly tho t eoepleit was built at tMeis time by f111ng the spauze*l of the arahes e a roselle mrtar on the entire surfaoes for it Ia not likely tha the inw eroeaa would hW bean left i a atifficC tly prototeo4, or does terahe ee to be sr imndioation that the tarplein autff retd etou e ameag duig the 11740 bebAm nt, although sme of the parpWetS wr paQrtl lsiahed sa4d hba
to be rebuilt.
fr the yeas folliwtig 1740, the W51 naWatie i laltkigS but it was repoted in 881 tat he war 0e0ent with six aeslb f aA srE tob oi1 88 UIMWWs atat# AireW ateWip n settle ated thits asseay 0seetiag md vemsW the paUt of it tht
al Itr tor Lw no dtiite teon at hbad 7 th
asspan it seems probb e that pias the t rsta 4th .eege
of e 12 e!2 pt 1, pi t s
'*ret 4ase at br 00 aita g neeime sema de4 Ra (Lt, teba tsva3tes spe at ass s to: ttes4 oua Ifh, aort, Otrs asb washinton otw).
* saabwa 8U "* al a4eset of emntak MMA ubes.
e teeO tile took plao dUting the lt* 18809 or l9UO's Photo9
graepa in fort eiOn files) made fdrtla the 70's md e80t a bo shakes eand tnts eeste on the t ploi, so it does not seoa likely that tb tile ha bean played at t hat tiem at by about 12, part 10
of the terreplin ha4 been overlaid with these Ul*, ad the paig proabey was coaplted by 19%0s Rese dea4rSl with the asphbl coating o~ the tiles alang the south front are also la@king, b~it i* 11
those mabro at of one o2 tlme# the welta sb e t 1920 by a War DepartmeAt sm admO 4e Davies
The arthest btion was reased b ut a fot above 1h level of the othe seetion e tesMleUfta and pae s with b~ewi4 but menr t wo dosamntary aritnce at hand to Sa t* vb r Ah thia bok pstn wee laide In this beaties a UnitA States on ma ws sna en4 on bat.t t
WAM t the wset or the 19tha40 eastur tev
be fatd in the a ttion tt he dbS
" s*tow edtte8i+d ( Mate &e} w. Se Earae, DaWA no"a, st* As $S
PUPOSZ8 OF INV9STIOKION
In tbhi pS*P~ t th ti little dituission o th
character of the urt fes rmorei by the projoJ mworkr. The mO1stoEt Mzarrean Q Uidirs eRVy plans (1934) and oountloss photograph suffitently describe that relatively m*dan root#, file deals of its oonstr otion may doubtless be found in W~ar Dptment reo w4,
Inauguration of the projeoo rw the 19Pth outury 1t
oOve~'tgi and rpItS it with a. yemaanat waterp"ot oaoo aStfrded a 3ag ewaitad end taue oppstiuaty to exar e the oriOgna toe plain# hAid8 undr bet heroi etas ler ox brake GoWret4 tile no4 asaphal The niew urtaae I of such pomewxane t* fhatMsu invet*& V
** an th* ** A wist **=en ssan n of 0e qwae and grading us taptain to e 9W1 the new ov erWt sraat in twr tha S et sheigo o o inal gradea
fwa the tehmiatesme steapwit* thw .I e is pek$* eater se supersadt n teh e dgSapted w i 2) ts a...a constreties of the ortal tUrlpaa 8) to ei The as*tie of eaosmto heesl 3) to mord l rtaePt*r videme v e* by oe-efra the oritSnal toerpletn.
sa time wAU st at u bme hev, *eteba t* wt00 a#: p. 18 for desoueoW the a w ea .rtasf r
~Dat "he au or abstay 19" afr x seesse
P14e or not tof th tet a efo rer the 44w oete base for the
aterproof Vas led, Engila 3ebhn H, Lmas U0nLwo tst pits thrru$h ~te orugiw~ terapI n aln the West fron to the sequine arch beneath la f ae 190188#, Vi nt sllarly iedtigate dterr* getsei and r ea istrtton a at point the nwrth teorre t Locations of thee test ~pite ar indicated on the aOmpaVya places Md Phoocwb a umber I and 5 otha h.svatLns were a" as the work praerease#
1abaA VtSS Test *Pi tkne (4 0 a ) tiel y over *Sat t f ah of ep ^1 sryon
was a terptI adSlors e, a
grta ar it on
tBt tati! es
ThS saWees(agsse astod A tIs ptoegrap s. a3) afpe to be a alkbasat brt oratr ohlr~ atae san if* a4 sequina grael, ead to remakably heawL fagnats of oyste shell ad bits of chere4l Oa' be sas In thief mortar (oallete #1#apt), whehb Is /4 / inches thifek
Wat Aeth aurtw lape A were dieeyveud two other lay*"#, R eand O Lawr B was tbs indwha tltok, lort 0 t" ifnhme thak at the top ot the arcH (Y) -*A twe1ve inas thiok ovr the spandrel of the arh. teqr a *as poured in direct aontaet with th top of the easiest rch
hE pbetegraph a* a) or Test Pit ont ahow the Oli ta'$ te* eah with the OeptiOU of the Uppeas*t (A3 v1as septe4 bV toisel Aek,
oute$" is said to hae bee 4ed
levr lAsre mar be a at lso upo the
*a stan er o or a,
@t atae ma estiones by ametee steha to t his M ane nyp t 9petter," etd Apr*, castle e43a
--tk 4 c M M0 4 td Ax~ d~~~ ~ e ~rwt
A PMaxps1ained tanMt10al s4tinls the uiAque a thUe
strXip () **ending mrwa o arapet wall to the other 1o an
over the enter of the arch go otmlar efo was found es*whs b
on the terreplla# Aparently of red celar and line# poured In aplsef
owr stratum B# thistrip is about 4 Inehes sqIas -e te top
ts at the level of atat A*
test MSt Te (eaPB* 1Stal eaion to a ta*~eplets
over nortk parition of xem ary see abmt,, a ftio we
of soutryard Parpmst
the sams stratnote in T oeat Pit Oe as found En H h Ovors
trat=a 0 wa fouse to bav a total tA istt
that the mortsr lWaye 0 e a s
a third) of the senter a04nt of the are
StdeuIr ar 0" ws e *neMher r -"( *
Nate *9atmo* and stOnate 4ts whok .0e fe~ew 49
Baia Enae e' 4" A as
of att*a reput 44 eta$@ ZaP1~ ~4
te arshu* Qas Sis < wabb
ageta's wor666tiba ite o h
eiarth-U o daysseediat 4 1# o ne, sit IM 1sh to *\
Aa ~tlwllae tso lek
by daat a uaiy MAD
tsp r~J-utra~ # a~rs V$esh st talj
ota A Ue aet es$a to al gaeaso nafeotga et 9t 0tgssal oWa mtb~wat a bee4AA1ae sxe dw apeas onthesafe6 s is eth & I
atp~s almost 108 SAhes tiek. BUkee*h s6iat D ti a trX~e rs a hal foet bstratm (1) ot laosely passed eoqinr gravel
U# ^fn test (see Plate four)o Loesiot north terreplet.S overar ft= roa
Test Pit thre
over mwet pertti1on of
tes roe An concrete over Fern
with TeSk ih Ma Ro00m Test Pits ThE ecard our, /
las a .#. p .. wS$rey
Mr0fes, Chares s wo it Agas" t0atyt aeo PR
t, well to *St RES4t h tee *b trvl PWebe ftnarea rta tU a. *asosainst
of bih*osi~.na s..4 o s e l of set alat tait
The frm roem to so called beasee of a Imuarious natural
growth of southern maidehaai fezn which fe ~tos the walls and ehath watered by seepage of moisture from the roof of the fort In order to save this spout sle, it was determined to dispense with the watezr
proof mmsbran over this one room but steps also had to be taken to prevent the water in this area from spreading elsewhere. ast
and e t part tions of the tofr room were Q# sed rie the atopir Ad waterproofed soeorste out-off wall were constru ted trxt 1 top of the partition to the conoa.te 1 he Mew not. h #eaasttis
necessary for this new abo treOtion a or4ed ezellae Epp *ii
for study of the old ostreotiono Disnsioaia ant 0 4Wti#se
taile of aroh and terreplet a" s ePhotstaph my 44 Illustrain
the typo of fill fawA ta the ei north enra
terreplain, shows the uortkh et of the stBreh over the a t parition-
of the OeaoM *EtsviM bas xnot yet
been ears~e betk to the ~gtlne mesare
of the etstsi Ditaoe from the top of the partition to the t* 'terreploin
level is shOwl to be S. tet. Consptouous
at the 1 level is sthe 4 foot thil ne s
of t4apt (A), Ol Mset ie of te te rrepl*th.i Other el entsJ n the fill are
strati "Bah- ~.1 4
*0 L m nkke
Photograh no. 7 is
a closer view of the north ena of Test Pit a. In cmparie wlth photograph no. 5, the ma- sonry work on the curtain her shown is more finished, and Ppograssee to the terreplein level in fairly definite steps. The masonry of the curtain is 60 years older than that in the oyrtyard wall
test $tt as@> -es.tions
s e of t aro, wiach was about
Lthe belortU e14 4replain surtn .ac
Photograph no. 8
Photorah no# 5 shows the south eand of the tes ;it* Of espeoial interest are the rough character of th masoary i hn the courtyard wall (D), nd the Tst Thr
ole1ry disesrnible strata in the Thr fill. Note that the partittet wall at this end of the trench I lightly To lower (*3 feet) than at the north end4 (The horizontal underoutting
(D) on the well froM 348 to 4#0 fet allesr for the inset Ot metal flseht e Uneesesary for water otfifl the rof))
harwtera of the *st tre amd the uneven natre of the pearties Swall. t right is 1~*:. reenfored conget4 bae
(c) which was 14id t Sthe old tersplnt.
II. G iERAL OBErYATIONS most of the eastern (espeeallly the 8141 near the 1ag) ag western terepleins were found surtfied with tpias of conUtSItable h1a* uness but the north and so th terrepleins mre found to be tan 1ua i with a loose mixture of send aud Ooquina gravel. Sand and gravel was apparent in the larger surfaes t'r t F-- a tion
of the bastions, though other werew isolated patches of mortar like
Deeaesioal amsll holes in there tereplain fwere found plugged with Amoriean period anoan balls# Same Of theN beles were io the nature of Vewts arom r ooms ensth. o in both aath"est an4 northwest bastions were teatu avfttas probably oease4 oBy ambi4at se of sen at gdrve 84 Photogrph noj
As to the OMtaisett OharAter of the terreple aswtuaw Wattar stated that be hA esed the enabseken parts of the taptook to bIe rso00 (a. his 9 OtbeW aaal eps aa nip t 4lted In rote V)* Vtr probably other parts et it ero rea esm adt the te epiS*a fille With se when the treple was pyaed a ga uaateamined later dter The aa4l enaity In the southwest bastion was near the center of the struetur. Zt we. soundeo with a ro to a depth of about lt wteet
fMil. on *ioh hule in the g~~re of he n~rthwe*t b stion is llnettrated In photograph Ino 9, 1gineers smsien tTo ame j tems at the bottom of this holt whth has bean *ped sightly at th. top to allow fot ivetiFgatn.l The sand# ume a ira over tuh. saitie wsf a ifd*ent strength to prevent their having in UHder owtRsay oircusataness the cevties vaer eSvidet only rby small srfee holes
this photogrph indict te the mnsisten f tis t alra. w
A l uteesting dais~e1ow in the northeast bastion was the asetica period gun traere ahoa ia photogrsphs 10 a 1. This travers amna the otrth, and conaists of a irm treek leid on 12 Itk gray grate traerse atseans The ia paint le a also on a gassite tfodatiow* Theie fet aweu are not rmvw. brt ae b ured unde r the new surface. Thr se a ore a foo mbielIed Ia the terrelsa wher two oft them are een at the point of the Waements 4hee4 in phatormph 1.
It we pmnabl during the 1920te that attaat wart made to *4zpl2 tho
of the aorhheast beation
but this aen
a oomarativrely resent
flU to gr ade the terre Photogrph a 11 plain for titha
surfasDIn doue by aited states engineers The s4 a t he trailers. Mder this fill was a *!aye of Oqauin goavel.a 04 ag
Of aensiderable interest to th tudant of o nesteatto was a find in te southes b bartOzsa or sentry bo In graitng the paage waB to the bartisa, it was necessary to reme several inhes of the old teoreplea sWzfaes, mb Wedd in the terreplin were several ime2i*sdwa-h;lf straps of iroa radiating fram near the senter of the etaoula r bartizn floos The out r ends ao these straps were built iate
astie the b l V that they contained roas staler to those in the northeast baton. bhese efforts tanvolved cutting throua the etts~ wall at the bes of the gorge of each bastion. tsovel of part of the fill appeantly resulted in inodwr sev.inas The northeast bastion trwrepeta sems to have bee one of the last prsts of the roof to have been aveda. see the view eatit*ld S1 the WaSjtMtM se!at L! Eiage atted beft.we
the masonry of the wells; the innor endads whih were in the floor, were buried in Knchorin pockets of oal, Wlething fr1m two to five pounds, eaM evidently mau ed in plaoe The ir n was bely oxidized, and sam of the straps wore broken off at the poIe t where they entered the bartiza wall. Presumably this iron was eOtfes4e mept, helping to hold the weight of the sentry towers which pvojeo8t in part froi the point of the bastion.
Driven into the eSirface of th tererplain a meta plase and espootally along the waters 0 fot were $*-a& head wright iron spikes, badly oxidiSed, yet perfectly r".o zaeble, They uooar ed in fairly regular positions, a tatt whiah aaSgets anchorage for wooden floors or buildes th qth head pw$%ted an inh or two above the original m.asos 0 tf %W or else war broken off at its arfaoso Indications point to the fs Of the ikes in conneotion with the tall woo4ea stucture an ay teti which eOrated the terrepI.n lve. da g A anteo the oivil Wav
lhotostat *"Jort Marioa (10 Dembe? 1864)# View of setheast bastion, eaf t a d a~nth ourta ns l ra the aeaWalU (Fort Matoa tAlae,)
Photograph showta the aro and repy Fort Marlo (to titles) This print, as well as the others listed below tis n JFO Ma4ia riles, and sense to be a oopy of a stereogrc ph made bot 1870
Pehotgraph showUg seat~ ead part of M"th Ot suwt ftaedes Fort ates1 (Ao titl).
photograph of tbh ogartyard end nofth fa*oade, shovng butildiU on tGap tar st Marian (aO t$4--).
O- dr' M 01t
Observation of the work on the torpleit was illuminating, and the few test pits dug in the course of the construction helped to clarify many questions about architecture of the fort. In some respect, however, examination of the terreplein proved rather dieappointing, for aside fruom he few items mentioned in the ts i of this paper, no 18th century artifats were found. That feot, however, tends to verify the conclusion that at one time the entire terreplein was covered with tapia, and this herd surface of 'ered no hiding place for tools, buttons, pipes, aherds. boxes and the usual 20
accumulations of this area.
The present terreplein srfas, whieh eonrsst ate a y of concrete tile about 18 inches stare, is not sati tatoW7. frf the standpoint of historical interpre-tatioun although it iP oemnbabr le on several other 1 uante The roof is waterproof and abould help to conserve the arches in their present condition; It is permanent, and smoothh ad safe fto handling the ave*re 850,00 visitors per year. Fram the n agineer's point of view it is an easellent job, neat in ~pearenme, perfootly graded-a good soaltion to a difficult problem.
Ameowdthg to ostractors (KendWrik 0intapring oqpsMy, t.e
Augustine Flora), a rbtifats were found in the rubble foinS the SfIUl btwee the est ourtain wallg of the fort In 19, when w*4r mn were tuaneling through the well in constetion of pst room facilities, a amber of "artifacts. in the shape of fish bo=nesstO. ere found Thbo items were presumably the remains Of a 17th osetury 1Math
AnA the preant tile t Uttl diffreent, exst In Size, from the tile it repaIe4; the only objection which the average vuitor has to the presont surface sa its glaring whitenaes, which is intexesi d by the Florida sm. This condition hasm been some -int aleviated by
-amdiag the tile with moavsrh Umak, rmah O~ of wih remeel In the *l to olr it slihtly.
But the fact renta tbat it Is oon laderbly ~tient ftaa the aparently ortainal tapa sirftce Ytt4er In aSh of the raetheri ettaitoRy. 1rtar devEloped by z nwas Leaper for fil tie the iaesae ots *a the parepet (a photog ph no* 121 thero is senmdemrable Otriaet between the old and mw work* Deplaasant of firing stepa* work that is nam progre"res rapidlyU sniiuis thi- sentrast bat 4s not ovraa It* Thes mortar filltg the n4rma has b bee "ederet as Ineonpvtaone as possible with a oatingf a d.
In this witer*s opinion# howrew, an attaipt bould he made
to pro e a surfao that would exa8c ly sablee historieelly .iore.
tapla, and that wauld mIak interpretation of the torroplin relatively
simple. This vpaudo-tspta suWrtsee eight overlZa the present tiles,
Unfortunately, there are man difficulties in the way of this
solution, and it is doubtlt that a peoaticable method of arromplishment aen be found without the expnditure of oonsideraeb times expense
end xpri~rmnt action.
ReWently a wo* blosk of old paiAg fra one of the fol ~
reos was sent for testing to the National Btrs of tanday4s The
Bueasu was unable to obtain exwt quantitativ or qtaltvitt aaalsas
of this Peapl but made several sugtinsa wheh oel be hept4 in eperimeate to reparde the partvig a wehtI bad tep
is obtain is isexermense tor evaow aorwai p1 esaebt that
ae duplieates of tbese in the forte eand wrth will be setable2 for
use in fan~ repairs sad restorations The results of those espeFa
meats ma provide a basis for fuarthr thought about the utsite
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AGI. Archivo General de Indisa MS. manuscript Brigr. Brigadier N. D. no date Caj. CaJon no, number Cas. centimeters Qp.cdt. work cited D. G. District of Columbia p. pag E. Engineers pp. psF Est. st ante pt. part AML. Fort Marion Library U.S. United States LC. Library of Congress USA United States Archives Leg. LegaJo volne Lieut. Lieutenant WD War Department Lt. Lieutenant
~A~nanl Report of O~pratione, 9 Ocober 1833, Lt. Stephen Tuttle, corps of Engineers fst. AututinelJ to Briadier General Charles Gratiot, hief Enginer, -eis haingtor ;ity. Ma*4gy. A suanary of hie work during the year in St. APrstine end on Fort arion. Most of Tuttlea diszoesion deale with reco andat.ons for o1k oni the seawtAl, but tlere is a neat recapitlation of leenup Pwork at the fort4 UTJA, AL (milrofilm .)
Amnmoe: map Keyr Deaerepilon aioJ de la Planta del Caetillo, goe5 do orden d sU Mast so febricOa os el Prese. 4 la Florida de Do Jnr* Uarqs CabersE, Gonre. We asselaS rwe* H. 3D. Me., 4 pp. The
tile i descriptive. The key explain work pr ges abehown on a map, the location o which is not knoln. On the doement is the notation: "Vn1e son earta ~ays de O2 de argo de 1686". 7icetion of original document u~kowno. 3~L (l1nen treeing), 9 X 14 in.)*
AUiMon:O Desripota s d el fete o* e aS tabrion an osat preidt o do
*e A stin e la Flor po etei 8. = a eae d as3 to M Dw Pablo 4e Rita Salasary s Gobernaoe caitan Gearl as 3706,ugoe o eats ontia n 8 e .May 18. M 8 1 clor, sealed with key. PrCogr O pl a of the fo0rt. (Th rt maerio tracing is mis4ated 136) SeI Lower as DMo tip. la;ist of T Lanses, nos T0. Also 4 LOMary, florida M**1 V. and SainW letter in TLhe U ttes IM5ator or5O old st Aaatine, pp. 121-1389. Original in AG% wV1, lo st Caja Le a1g 17 (traEing), am (tracing on 1fam, solore 10 3/4 z 28 In.)
Photestat *f photograh j fart MAriAs. 10 December 1864. View of the sotbeeSt bwatishw east an south ana from the seawall. Of optional nt rest as one of the earlieso*t photographs of the fort, showag mauaWted anas The original pears to be In the ar epartsnt fites the Fprt Marion photostat lafks clarity. iVDE DiRaAr 72, sheet 19. AL (photostat 10 3/4 z 8 3/4 in.).
Photograhm of Strew-raph:j Fort Marion. View of the arcth and rap aso tites rea 1890.' ( z 8 3/4 in.). A with other prints of this naOtues, the view records oiartea ontoporary feature, indatiatg the nature of life at the fort asee of temporary buildingsseho. The Fort aione print is evidently a photogra h of one of the asy steraogr hs of at. asgutie, made durina the 180'* FML.
P-hotoraph of a stereaograp7 yort s matou. View of the eavrt art and eorth oaretu facade, sowing btildige so the tevreple.t /arr titleJ. fGira 189O ( ft 10 in.)* A ecord photogsaraph. mL.
Photograph of a storeoraphf Fort Marion. View showing the east ad part of the north courtyard faatdes, with build gs on the ter left E'no title.j Circe 18~m. I 10 in.). Va.ue of whei view i that of a reoz d photorph. ML*
V view From the stahtower of FoAt Marto. Arotype reprobction,
TLis View wa evidently published in one of the numerous books deine4 to publioae !t, Augatine durint the lealer eoa It is of espeeial tvIU in terreplein study sine It a ews no pa ing in ther~ noIhast bastion. It repreiets the fort in a tr seition stie, after a=a post-l*11um 1repalrs had heen :aa~e, but befons th fire steps were reIn ventory draes ut by the detaillg Engineer n Reon doe a sr, Lent&ement in the Light R stment of Malages being the 3ls.t of theb Lioes, mud COnmedat of the. -frtfiestious of the fOwa, a4 the Seater AdAtat thereof Don Pablo Aosnte, Ie t in the Amy, of A1 the ftwsSu A P lt e 31fess. i ow a beloning to the GoVernment done iA du pliTtes as by tho eliverd to the Goveor, and by bin to the oasiaone ofat the it4d t of ae ris~e." s. translauc of manish hlea~ s ~lapp., no 4as (ru re three Pats (slatian to Fait 9a3W are euleame av 10 aly 1w8 l tter* s tttls Iutea u a s i c 139 of .v to Br1ir. Generla Charles GMUtOr t, Chief Sginesr$ Wans ingo 4ity. (the rst of theis "nvemtoWr (15 pp) Lt en eloa. with Tattis Ir Jly 1V53 tter to Grateit, id deals with ot her fortifiotise sad pAblie biuIaid s in St. Antinet and vieanity.) The dooment contains a teihnical deaription of the fort, evidotly made in 181 as n of the stpe in turaag over spanish Governnt property to the ga tte4 States The detriptIo ties in with rmes plan of thes fort entitled *Pla del Castillo fo amareos (VL phstt), whih is one of 18 pans and maps fne in the tr. s Ach made to wecanY t 4he00=00ent 12h deseriptions are especially aiaatt afor enestrautional detail of the aies. features trasted. USA. lt, (aieroflam).
"Letters of Montiaoe Siee of Ato Augustsmee in falleottes of th
aT~ji~PtB Qt rV4Statea a7a pak U Geoia Mat rte $o*tow* savanash109. 1 pp., ape, 1 h p (#1t Marpp.. G view of the salative aOssesMibility of the Spenti .Sourse mater11 (which is presmably in the Sast noria Papers, IbWar of oigre.)* this series of translat4t letters is emeptionally valable to the astBatet of 1740 SpentibIBAteh relatioe in the zler4-atewatr resaio. 'It pablE t ion Cnsists of a a3Ation et SS letters, trsorie o 3to844 fren
oies in the twahtvoe it St. AWnstine by Antonio IYrea, eeper of the Pablie .',Whive. The treascriptiom wer ~ang the manuaeripts of the Georgia fiatoriesl Seiety, ntd were tr nsleted by Major C. e~ Witt 1110.z As is pointed out by the transltor, *Many pertinent letters wre Oyideatly not trnseoribed for the Georgia slletion. 'The V.lue of the work as a sourebook suffers thereby, as it elso dOes by failure to inousde the snibsh text, xavertheles, the publication s otffTiitent for the averna student, covesriz a it does the Period from 92 March 1737 to 2 ,a ary 1741, aod reldtin to the entire area fZe ro~acUito inlet to .eve~nnah. t deals Partioularly ith Spenisih defensive activities a moears, work on the fortes etc*
The events of the period from t he 1 ish viewpoint are covered partially Ia the Oglethorpe letter, olleations of the Georaia Ili torisal Jooet
Losery, iodbury: Tbe Lowery deoc012tionf A desritiv *Ust of ape of the panish Poassasions within the Preent t of the Unite Ase,
10l0 Ge rmand Printing Offi, eingto, D. 1 1 567 pp.* frontiapiee (photograph of LownIr ), bidas. This work is a blasi cheekli. in the field it eovere. Surprisingly fow map (relatig to Florida st least) have he discovered siAoe this publication. LEwery's 4aesriptions, in most osses sfi~ieintly oleaor md k as rehensive to aneble the student to id~mtify mey relatively obsoure maps, are greatly uiamnte4 by Editor P. L. PhilUps's inf onsaivo notations, many pointing out a4diticnal pe rtinent p now in the Library eo sOa ss. The natuem of the beak nesaeserily ea11a for only 9g4mral oaservations abmt the aJo*tty of the emapsa. In sme caes these descriptions are sub Jet to revision by the *lose student of ortin lo&Ugs* The work renmtn essmtial as a retworae foP the student of early Florlda history.
W$11 ate JWbba Lee: ISTerritor of lAridst Givil a Natural ieta of te oaty, the imatend the Inian Tribes from the thavt 84aeover to to resent Tm. A. Goourih, Mew York#.iliIs one of the first 19th oUt rry estud t of Florida ltrsourwo and history, Was aa seamarte obe.rr stable of l ptitn his I pressiom n oan peper. A sdMa eyeyO he was a preotical man ~4 influential in the dvr3opment of ta ar sCn Morids, His mrks are most valuabl for tir contemporary description but Mr. liams was ao mens murator of history; he recorded emaeh oraor-a nth information that is espscialr y valuablee in collation with dounantear efite4Ce. This woVk, the. most pSeheMsiVe pQbUbliestion on lorida up to ;illisas' time is a sort of geIftiod gtide book and un doubtodly had sush to do with later 1Forida dellepJauta illimas ftlianrity with Florida au a whol) was eualled by few of his catmporrries.