Government House Archaeological Excavation, Preliminary Report


Material Information

Government House Archaeological Excavation, Preliminary Report
Series Title:
Government House Archaeological Excavation Documents
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Piatek, Bruce John; Bond, Stanley C.; Martin, Mary; Parker, Susan
City of St. Augustine Archaeological Program


Subjects / Keywords:
Saint Augustine (Fla.)
48 King Street (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Government House (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine -- 48 King Street
29.892465 x -81.313142


General Note:
1st Rough DRAFT; 6/29/94; Project Number 1993.001; Date on cover given as June 23, 1993

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
West Plaza Lot
System ID:

This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text


Government House Archaeological Excavation Preliminary Report Project Number 1993.001

Principle Investigator Bruce John Piatek

Archaeologist Stanley C. Bond

Archaeological Assistant Mary Martin Historian Susan Parker

June 23, 1993

elev. of datum = 4.03 m above msl.

Table of Content

List of Figures


The Government House archaeological excavation was conducted by the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board and its non-profit direct support organization, Historic St. Augustine Incorporated. The project was designed to be conducted in two phases. The first phase began on January 24, 1993 with the field work continuing until April 9, 1993. Laboratory analysis was conducted until June 14, 1993. The archaeological hands-on exhibit gallery was interpreted as were the excavation units. The second phase of field work began on June 14, 1993 and continued until September 9, 1993.

The goals of the excavation were varied and design to accomplish a number of objectives. From the scientific perspective the project goals were as follows: 1) attempt to identify 16th century archaeological features and thereby define the northwest corner of the 16th century settlement, with emphasis on the watchtower and guard house depicted on the 15?? Boasio Map and possibly locate Governor Canzo's 16th century house, 2) better define the construction and structural evolution of the Government House by identifying and dating of architectural features, and 3) obtain new data on the daily life of the governors, their families, servants and slaves.

One educational goal of the project was to provide for professional development of an archaeological intern and to provide direct work experience. The second education goal was to increase the visiting public's understanding and appreciation of archaeology. These goals were accomplished through the training of two student interns and opening the site to the public with interpretation of the finds and the process of excavation. An archaeological exhibit area was designed, constructed, and operated as a learning environment. The archaeological laboratory was visible to visitor of the exhibit. Hand-ons exhibits which allowed the visitors to see what had been found as well as replicate fieldwork experiences were highly successful educational tools. The site visit and exhibit experience was well received by the visiting public.

The excavation began on January 23, 1993 and field work was conducted seven days a week until April 9 when field work was suspended until June 14, 1993 and concluded September 9, 1993. Analysis was conducted on the material from the first excavation phase during the period of April 9 to June 14, 1993. Units 1, 2, 3, 4, were excavated during this period as was the well shaft which was designated as Unit 5. Unit 5 was a designation applied to the combined area of Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 which were all contiguoius with each other. The second excavation phase consisted of excavation of Unit 6 and the excavation and removal of the well shaft liner materials from Unit 5. The field work was completed with the removal of the complete intact wooden barrel that served as a well shaft liner for a well in the Governor's courtyard. The field work, and exhibits by the end of the project had been visited and enjoyed by 105,000 visitors.


The Government House site is located in the area of the
colonial plaza in downtown St. Augustine. This location is currently designated as Plaza Two under the subdivision of the City of St. Augustine. The address for the parcel is 48 King Street, however the courtyard area in which the excavation took place faces onto St. George Street. Figure 1 illustrates the site location
within the City of St. Augustine, Florida.


The history of Government House has been the topic of period
study by historians. The best overall historic study to date is the one prepared by the National Park Service, Southeast Region in 1966. This study titled, "Report on Application of the State of Florida for Transfer for Historic Monument Purposes of Old Post Office BuildinQ and Site St. Augustine, Florida" on file in the lot and block files of the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board.
This document is included as Appendix A of this report as a the
best available historical overview of the Government House site.

Other important historical documents which bear on this site
are the historic maps of St. Augustine. The following are a series of figures consisting other the primary historic maps that depict the Governor's house. This series of building footprints depicted on these historic maps illustrate the available cartographic data
on the evolution of the Government House structure.

Government House Historic Map Series:

FigureZ?? is the Castello Map of St. Augustine from 1763.

Figure ??? is the Puente Map of St. Augustine from 1764.

Figure ? is the Rocque Map of St. Augustine from 1788.

Figure 4 is the Survey of the Governor's Property Following the
American Acquisition in 1821.

Figure 4 is the Clement's Survey Map of St. Augustine from 1835

Figure ??? is a review of boundary changes from 1835 to 1890 at the
Government House site. Taken from Manucy and Arana 1965

Figure ?? Poe Map of St. Augustine from 1928

The following figures illustrate the evolution of the relative
size and shape of the Governor's complex of buildings. Primarily the series illustrates the variation in the map maker's view of the building and what was important to draw, as well as the general pattern of building change through time. The first drawing depicts

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the Castello Map of 1763 which depicts a rather large connected set of structures. Castello was an engineer and his map is assumed to be more accurate and detailed that other maps produced by nonprofessional map makers. Castello's map suggest two or three primary structures perhaps connected by covered walkways of loggias or smaller connecting rooms.

Figure ?? Castello Building 1763

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The De Solis depiction is similar to the Catello but shows a separate small structure in the southeast corner of the property. This structure is the guard house and Castello may have drawn a connecting walkway or loggia which De Solis may not have depicted.

Figure ?? De Solis Buidling of 1764

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The Puente Building of 1764 illustrates the same core building as is suggested by Castello and De Solis but does not depict the guard house structure nor a connecting structure. This is likely due to the Puente's goal as a map maker. He was interested in documenting the primary structures that brought value to the property and he may have been less concerned with secondary buildings.

Figure ?? Puente Building of 1764

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The Rocque map of 1788 indicates that the governor's complex of buildings had expanded. The primary building on the northeast corner of the lot appears to remain with a series of addition spreading to the south and to the west. The building in the southeast corner of the lot has been enlarged but still is a separate structure.

Figure ?? Rocque Building of 1788

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The United State Government survey the Government House lot upon acquistion of the property in 1821. Figure ?? illustares the building as it existed at that time. It consisted of an L-shaped structure with no secondary structures.

Figure ? Survey of Governor's Property following American acquistion in 1821

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The structure remains the same shape as of 1835 when the Clement's Map of St. Augustine was produced. This particular drawing provides dimentions for the structure and the lot.

Figure ? Clement's Building form 1835


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The Moncrief depiction of 1765 is reminsent of Castello's drawing. It shows a main building with two secondary structures, one to the west and one in the southeast corner of the lot. It would appear that the secondary structures did not disappear and reappear but where not indicated on the other maps because of the map maker's attention to detail or his purposes and interest in producing the map.

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Government House was redesigned in 1833 by Robert Mills. Figure ? illustrates Mills plans for the building which maintained the L-shape of the building. Figure ? is the drawing of Mills plan for the redesign of the structure.

Mills 1833 redesign of Government House

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Government House was remodeled again and figure ? illustrates the building plan from 1873. This plan produced the rectangular building which would serve as the courthouse and post office.

Figure ? Kimball Plan for Government House 1873.


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Manucy and Arana (1965) provide a footprint for the building 4O as the Post Office and Customs House in 1875 and an analysis of the
changes in the boudary lines for the property from 1835 to 1890.

Drawing of Boundary changes from 1835 1890. Taken from Manucy and Arana 1965

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A magnetic North oriented grid was established over the site to provide horizontal control. A permanent transit station was established to maintain vertical control. The 0 South, 0 East point for the grid was located directly under the transet. All grid coordinates were measured south and east of the OS,OE datum point. All elevations were recorded as below datum, with the datum tied into a city bench mark. The datum was 4.03 meters above mean sea level. The location of the excavation units and the datum point are idicated in Figure ???. The datum can be relocated by measuring 6.3 meters south from the center of the western set of double wooden doors on the south wall of the east wing of the building (point B) and by measuring 4.85 meters east of south edge of the northern window on the east wall of lobby (point A). These reference points are indicated in Figure ??? (same figure as above).

Unit 1 was a 2m by 2m unit with grid coordinates of: NW corner at 2S,5E, NE corner at 2S,7E, SE corner at 4S,7E, SW corner at 4S,5E. Unit 2 was a 2m by 2m unit with grid coordiantes of: NW corner at 3S,3E, NE corner at 3S,5E, SW corner at 5S,3E, SE corner at 5S,5E. Unit 3 was a 1m by Im unit with grid coordinates of NW corner at 2S4E, NE corner at 2S5E, SW corner at 3S,4E, and SE corner at 3S,5E. Unit 4 was a Im by 2m unit with grid coordinates of: NW corner at 4S,5E, NE corner at 4S,7E, SW corner at 5S,5E, and SE corner at 5S7E. Unit 5 included the total area of all the four units mentioned above. It consisted of the field specimens from the unit surface generally 3mbd and below except where features that had been left in place or pedestalled were removed. Unit 6 was a 3m by 3m unit and was located at the grid coordinates of: NW corner at 8.5S,5.5E, NE corner at 8.5S,8.5E, SW corner at 11.5S,5.5E, SE corner at 11.5S,8.5E.

All excavation was conducted by hand, primarily by trowel. Soil samples of 2 liters were collected from all levels and features. The excavated soil was water screened through quarter and sixteenth inch mesh screen. Each excavation unit was assigned a unit number. Field specimen numbers were assigned to each provenance using the unit number followed by a decimal point and a sequential field specimen number. This provided for greater control over the field specimen numbers and maintained the field specimen numbers in the sequence in which they were excavated by unit.

The sixteenth inch sample from each provenance is curated along with the faunal material and the soil sample material. These samples are maintained at the Preservation Board and the specimens are available for future study. Pending the availability of funds samples will be subjected to appropriate analyzes by specialist at the Florida Museum of Natural History. Metal objects that merit conservation were pulled from the field specimen bags, labeled, and prepared to shipment to the conservation laboratory at the Division

of Historical Resources in Tallahassee.

All artifacts were analyzed at the conclusion of the excavation phase. Data was collected through direct data entry into the personal computers using dBase III+ as the data base program and custom software applications written by the author. Data fields included item identification, group, count, weight, color, date range, modifiers, fragment form and other variables. Once the artifact data was collected then these data were used to enter general field specimen data into the data base. This involved describing the provenance and assigning a relative data to the total field specimen. Descriptive project data was collected in the data base and provides basic documentation of the project. This project was assigned a project number of 1993.001. This number indicates the year and sequence of the project within the year.


The discussion of the excavation findings will refer to two excavation areas, Unit 5 and Unit 6. Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been combined for the purposes of this discussion since each unit expanded upon the others. These four units are designated Unit 5. Unit 6 is the single unit excavated to the south of Unit 5 (see figure ?).

figure of excavation units locations

The soil zones will be discussed for both units 5 and 6. These zones are the sheet midden deposits that represent on-going behavior generally over a over long period of time and marked by the slow build up of soils containing artifacts which were generally not deposited as a result of a discrete activity or behavioral acts.

Zone 1:

Zone 1 contradicts the concepts of zones being deposited in a gradual process. Rather this zone consisted of black loamy soil (10YR 6/1) deposited on the site as a single event to promote good vegetation growth. This top soil zone was found in both excavation units. This zone was deposited after the last major building phase, therefore, post 1939. Artifacts in this zone were modern including coins and other small items which could have easily been lost.

Zone 2:

Zone 2 was a dark yellowish brown sandy soil (10YR4/4) mottled with a pale brown sand (10YR6/3). This zone represents the ground surface during the last major building construction phase which began in 1936. This zone was generally a thin deposit of disturbed soil with modern building debris as well some colonial artifacts which had been redeposited during the construction. The soil color suggest that this zone was deposited during the construction period. It appears to represent sub-soils that were removed during construction, stock piled in the courtyard, used as backfilling material, and the remainder was spread evenly over the courtyard.

Zone 3:

This zone is marked by a color change to a dark grey brown sandy soil (10YR4/2) mottled with light brownish grey sand (10YR6/2) including flecks and pieces of shell and other debris. This soil is darker in color apparently it contains a higher amount of organic material and staining. It represents the soil deposited in the late to post colonial era up to the 1936 building renovation event. Very few features were encountered in this zone.

Zone 4:

Zone 4 is a layer of tabby and rubble that is a much lighter colored strata. This zone is, in and of itself, a set of features. This zone consist of man made deposits of tabby and a layer of small ballast rocks. This zone and the features that it consist of will be discussed below.

Zone 5:

This zone consist of yellow brown sandy soil (10YR5/4) in unit 5 and was the well construction pit. In unit 6 this zone was a dark brown soil (10YR3/3) with yellowish brown mottling (10YR5/6). The

bulk of the archaeological features were located in this strata. In unit 6 zone 5 was the soil that accumulated as a result of human occupation from the 16th century until the tabby floor (zone 4) sealed off zone 5.


Post Mold 1 (FS#s 1.011, 1.014, 1.016 Elev. 2.13 to 2.58 bd)

This post mold first appeared as a large roughly circular area that was designated as a feature (feature 2, unit 1). It consisted of brown sandy soil and post dates the tabby floor (feature 1, unit 1) that was punctured by the installation of the post. The artifact assemblage from the post mold fill provides a T.P.Q. of 1780 based on transfer printed pearlware found within the fill. It is suspected that this post was installed in the 20th century. This suspicion is based on the presence of a grounding rod located in the northeast quadrant of unit 6. This grounding rod was five feet long and may have served as a ground for a communications antenna. This suggest that the post was the support for an antenna or other devise which needed to be grounded. The presence of a grounding rod in association with a large deeply set post argues for an early to mid-20th century date for this feature.

Construction Trash Pits (FS#s 2.006, 2.007, 2.008, 2.015, 2.024, 2.025, 2.026, 3.007, elev. 1.99 to
2.50 bd)

This feature was difficult to identify during field session. It is a single elongated large pit with two linear (north to south) depressions that parallel each other. These deposits contained building rubble with areas of relatively clean soil having been placed in the pit at various intervals. This pit feature appears to have been filled at various intervals of time with varied types of waste material both building rubble and soil. The feature is located in the north west corner of unit 5. The feature cut through the underlaying tabby floor. It contained a large number of iron objects, nails, window glass, and coal in addition to building rubble. This rubble consisted of plaster, coquina fragments, and mortar. The ceramic T.P.Q. for this feature is 1825 based on the recovery of white wares. The occurrence of a fragment of a rubber comb and insulated twisted copper electrical wire indicates that the trash pit dates to the 1936 building construction episode. The pit appears to be a waste pit for construction debris.

Tabby Floor A (FS#s 1.010, 1.012, 2.005, 3.008, 4.005 elev. 1.97 mbd to 2.05mbd)

A layer of tabby paving was encountered at 1.97 mdb. It extended across all of unit 5 except where later activities had disturbed it, such as the 1936 trash pit features discussed above. The tabby averaged 6 to 8 cm thick. The artifacts above this paving layer provide an early to mid 19th century date (1840) for the deposit above the tabby. The tabby contained primarily pearlwares,

one puebla blue on white majolica, one english porcelain, and one 19th century crock sherd. The artifacts indicate a post 1780 to early 1800s construction date for this feature. The deposits directly below the tabby contained artifacts which indicate a 1780 to 1790 time period for deposition. These data suggest that the tabby floor was constructed between 1800 to 1840. There was no evidence that the tabby was an interior floor. No surrounding wall foundations were encountered as an enclosure for a floor. This features appears to be an exterior paving rather than an interior floor. These data suggest that at least a large area, and perhaps the entire courtyard, was paved with tabby. Further testing in courtyard is needed to confirm this hypothesis by defining the full extent of the tabby paving.

Tabby Floor B (FS#s 2.011 elev. 2.02 mbd to 2.08 mbd)

What appeared in the field to be a second layer of tabby paving was exposed in the southwest quadrant of Unit 5, see figure ?. This layer of paving appears to have been the original tabby surface. It likely weathered and was deteriorate when the second tabby floor was poured. Tabby, a soft lime based mortar, would weather quickly in exterior conditions. Deterioration of the tabby surface would vary depending on the foot traffic, drainage conditions and quality of each batch of tabby. Therefore, this second floor level was only preserved in good condition in a limited area of Unit 5. Once the surface had deteriorated it appears -that a second layer of tabby paving was added to the governor's courtyard.

figure ? profile and or plan view of tabby floor

Ballast Rock Layer (FS#s 1.013, 2.009, 2.012 elev. 2.09 to 2.12 mbd)

A deposit of small water rounded flint river cobbles was found immediately below the second tabby layer. These stones were mixed in a matrix of light yellowish brown sandy soil (10YR6/4). These water rounded stones were not of local origin and consisted of black to dark brown and medium brown flint stones. These rounded stones were river gravel that was most have come to St. Augustine as ship ballast. These stones would have been dug from the river bank, perhaps packed in cloth bags and stowed in hold of a sailing vessel (reference on bags *****) which ultimately brought them to St. Augustine. Incorporated in the stones were small snail shells. A sample of these shells was sent to the Florida Museum of Natural History for study by Malicologist Dr.???? He identified the snails as snails of three species (list species ), which live in water freshwater rivers. Two of the snail species are found in the old world and one specie exist on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. These data suggest a Mediterranean or Spanish fresh water river origin for this gravel.

The gravel after being unloaded from the vessel was used as a paving material. It is appears that the stones were acquired by the Governor, then poured onto the sandy soil in order to produce a more attractive and cleaner surface area in the courtyard. The stones must have quickly settled into the sandy soil. The artifacts in the ballast rock paving layer provide a post 1790 date for this feature. The tabby paving above the stones provided an improved courtyard surface at by about 1800. Senior Enrique White who served as the Governor of La Florida from 1795 to 1811 may have enjoyed both the stone and tabby paved courtyard area.

Use of stone paving is a Spanish tradition.??????? It is also found at other colonial sites.

(discuss other finds........... find documents)

Post Holes ... 1, 2, ppm 4, fea 2 & 3 (u4) (FS#s 1.017, 1.018,
1.021, 4.010, 4.028, 4.011

A series five of post molds were exposed immediately below the tabby floor. These five post molds consisted of three large post and two smaller post. They aligned roughly in a north to south line (west of magnetic north by degrees), and were relatively aligned with the current St. George Street.

These post molds began at the following elevations (within a range of 20cm highest to lowest top elevation). Profile drawing of post and refer to map of post pattern.

The pattern of post represent a north/south oriented wall with a

either a corner or interior wall of a possible wooden structure in the northeast quadrant of unit 5. This building existed after 1700 based on the dates of provenances into which one post penetrated (oyster shell footer) and predate the tabby paving of ca. 1800. The artifacts from the post indicate a post 1650 date (puebla polychrome 1.017) however, the occurrence of ballast stones in the post fill of four of the five post molds indicates that the building was removed at about the time the ballast stones were placed in the courtyard (ca. 1800). The wooden structure represented by these post molds would have existed in the late 18th century, perhaps about 1790. The occurrence of ballast stone in the post mold fill indicates that the building was removed either at the time the ballast stone paving was put down, or after the ballast stone paving but before the tabby paving was installed. Given the sandy soil it is assumed that the ballast stones would have been quickly buried in the sand, especially in areas subject to foot traffic.

None of the post molds extended through the tabby. The bases of wood post would be the first portion of a wooded building to deteriorate and the failure of the support system would have resulted in removal of the building. Post of the size indicated by the post molds (25 to 30 cm diameter, and 12 cm diameter) would have supported a substantial load. They suggest the occurrence of a building or large loggia rather than a small porch, shed or fence. It seems unlikely that the ballast stone paving would have been used as both an interior and exterior floor covering material. If the post represent an open loggia area it may have been paved with the stones. If the post represent a building it would have been removed prior to the paving with ballast stones, if we assume that the stones were not used as an interior floor surface. It seems likely that the post represent a wooden building with a wooden interior dividing wall. Further testing is needed to substantiate this assumption, however.

In order for the ballast stones to have gotten into the post molds, the stones would have been installed prior to the removal or rotting of the post or shortly after the removal of the post. It is suggested here that the post were removed and the paving stones were placed in the courtyard as a single renovation event. It is supposed that the deteriorated wooden structure was removed and the ballast rocks were spread over courtyard with some of the stones filling the voids left from the recently removed wooden post or from the rotting bases of the post that may have not been removed.

It is interesting to note that coprolites were recovered from two of the post molds (fea 2 in unit 4, and fs 1.018 pm2). It is not known at this time if the coprolites are of human or domesticated animal origin. Their occurrence as fill material in the post molds suggest that the voids from the post were intentionally filled, either with night soil or more likely by sweeping waste from the ground surface.

S Oyster shell foundation southeast corner unit 5
(FS# 4.006 deposit above footer tpq 1780)

An oyster shell footer was discovered in the southeast corner
of unit 5. It began at 2.05 cmbd and continued to a depth of 2.61 cmbd or 56 cm in depth. This was clearly a earth formed oyster shell foundation which is a common colonial construction technique for construction of coquina of tabby buildings. The foundation predates the tabby floor and ballast stones. The soil above the foundation was deposited after 1780 and the footer is assumed to pre-date 1780. This foundation resulted in the placement and excavation of unit 6 in which additional evidence of the foundation was revealed. The foundation itself was not removed during the excavation. The foundation indicated the northwest corner of a structure. The overall form, function, and time period of this
feature will be explored more fully in the discussion of Unit 6.


During the excavation of Unit 1 an area of soil was located
which manifest the typical mottled soil coloration of a well construction pit. Areas of oyster shells were also located and these were initially interpreted as a building foundation that may have been bisected by the presumed well construction pit. The unit was enlarged so as to encompass the suspected well feature. Each subsequent unit (Units 2, 3, and 4 ) was excavated down to the point at which the soil became saturated with water (__ mbd).
At this point the various units had a single level floor surface.
The designation of Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 were then combined as Unit 5. a single large excavation unit as depicted in Figure ??????. The following discussion focusses on the well as a complete feature and presents the conclusions from recovered data. The following discussion will follow the sequence of behavior which was defined from the excavation data, rather than discuss the features in the sequence in which they were excavated. This should simplify the presentation and present a more understandable presentation of the
behaviors which produced this feature.

figure ?????? combination od units 1, 2, 3, and 4


The water table is rather close to the surface in St. Augustine. Drinking water could be obtained from shallow wells that tapped into the surface ground water supply. Numerous wells have been excavated in St. Augustine and the behavior sequence has been clearly defined. Typical construction of a well in colonial St. Augustine began with the excavation of a large funnel shaped pit. The shape of the pit was determined by the poorly consolidated sandy soil which required large angle of repose for the sides of the pit. Figure ???? depicts the typical profile of a well construction pit and the well shaft as found in archaeological deposits.

Typical well profile figure --- see version on exhibit at band bld.

Once the pit was excavated to the water table, the well shaft liner was constructed. Frequently wooden barrels, from which the tops and bottom have been removed, were used as well shaft liners. These "prefabricated" wooden tubes could be quickly lowered into the pit forced into the wet sand and then stacked to produce a sturdy well shaft. Wooden planks, hollow tree trucks, and coquina stones were also used to construct well shafts but barrels were the most common items used in the First Spanish Period. The construction pit was back filled as the well shaft was constructed. The soil that was used the fill the well construction pit is typically a mix of different colored sands. Wells constructed in this manner provided suitable water and would be serviceable until the material used to as the shaft liner deteriorated and failed. Once the well shaft failed it could be repaired or filled in and a new well constructed. Spent well shaft were often filled with trash and other refuse. Generally household wells were simple and functional items necessary to every household.

Well Construction Episode:

FS#s 1.028, 1.040, 1.045, 2.027, 2.030, 2.035, 2.038, 2.039,
2.042, 3.018, 3.023, 4.008, 4.013, 5.001, 5.003

tpq = 1700 at fs 2.035, 1684 = fs 4.008

Mean Ceramic Date = 1648.38 or 1650

(two sherds out of 59 have a tpq over 1650 .. fs 2.035 puebla b/w at 1700, fs 4.008 elres ware at 1684) Elers ware is extremely small fragment, puebla b/w is also a small fragment puebla may be miss id?

The well construction pit was the first stage in the construction of a well in the governor's courtyard. This well was a typical barrel well as evidenced by the wooden barrel found at the base of the construction pit. The beginning manufacture date for the most recent ceramics recovered from the construction pit provide a date after which the pit was dug, or terminus post quem of 1650. South's mean ceramic dating formula (South South, Bonath
) was applied to ceramic collection from each behavioral event associated with the well: the digging of the well construction pit, the repair of the original well, and the abandonment and subsequent filling of the well shaft. South's formula provided a date of 1648 for the construction pit.

The construction pit was typical for barrel wells in colonial St. Augustine. Artifacts recovered from the construction pit typical of trash that was either dug out during construction, or household refuse thrown into the pit as it was filled. A conch shell which had been made into a dipper was recovered. It was likely lost my the workers during the backfilling operation and

may have served as their drinking cup. Coprolites in the pit ?????

Well Repair Episode:
fs#s 1.032, 1.038, 1.027, 1.030, 1.034, 1.039, 1.042, 1.057, 2.031, 2.032, 2.034, 2.037, 2.041, 3.013, 3.017, 3.020, 3.022,
4.015, 4.017, 4.021, 4.025, 4.029, 5.002, 5.008, 5.022

tpq = 1650
(date from artifacts behind wooden post and other repair related fs' = tpq of 1680 with Castillo poly )

mean ceramic date of 1655.53
--- these looked at and changed or too small to be conclusive. only three sherds that are later tpq than 1650, (fs2.037 playa poly), fs 3.020 with san augustin b/w 1700, fs 5.002 with bacin 1750, fs
5.008 with puebla b/w at 1700.

The original barrels which served as the well shaft liner eventually began to deteriorate and fail. The excavation revealed the bottom barrel had remained serviceable but the two upper barrels, above the water table, were replaced. Rather than construct a new well the governor had this existing well repaired. It seems likely that the Governor wished to retain the well at this location within the courtyard. Otherwise, a new well could have been constructed in another location. The mean ceramic data for the repair pit indicates that the work took place at about 1656 (rounding mean ceramic date of 1655.5 to the next year). The terminus post quem for this activity is 1650 based on 21% of majolica types in the collection.

The repair of the well consisted of digging a repair pit, removing the deteriorated wooden barrels and constructing a new well shaft liner. The new liner was constructed by digging down to the top of the bottom wooden barrel that was still structurally sound. Coquina stones were laid in the bottom of the repair pit perhaps to stabilize water saturated sands at the bottom of the repair pit. Stones were also set out as a support or foundation for a board and post well liner that was to be the new well shaft liner. This liner consisted of four wooden post that had sharpened and charred points and boards that were nailed to the post and formed a roughly square box. It is unclear whether this box was constructed and placed into the repair pit or constructed within the repair pit. It is assumed, given the small size of the base of the repair pit, that at least part of the square well liner was constructed and set into the pit and upon its coquina stone foundation. A large number of large pottery fragments and other solid refuse was found at the back of each post and appears to have been poured into a void behind the post. Perhaps these items were intended to help hold the post in place. These pockets of artifacts were clearly placed in the repair pit after the liner was in place since the artifacts were only on the outside of the post and were tightly packed together.

Once the new well shaft was complete, the repair pit was S filled with soil and a structure was built over the well. This structure is indicated archaeologically by four shell foundation, one at each corner of well shaft liner. These shell foundations consisting primarily of oyster shells, and are typical foundations for coquina stone or tabby construction. The shell foundations were located immediately at the corners of the square well liner. Each foundation was roughly round and the shells were packed into a hole which had been dug into soil after the repair pit was filled. One fragment of coquina was still mortared to the top surface of the northeast shell foundation. Apparently, coquina stones were mortared together over each foundation to form columns. The artifacts that were recovered from the shell foundations provide a terminus post quem of 1680 based on two small sherds of Castillo Polychrome. The mean ceramic date was 1600, with eight of the forty one sherds (19.5%) providing a 1650 terminus post quem. Castillo Polychrome is an uncommon and poorly understood ceramic type and its beginning date of 1680 maybe malleable. The alternative explanation is that the structure was added much later than the repair. However, the associations of deposits in the ground indicate that repair and the construction of the structure were one single event.

The archaeological evidence reveals that the well was repaired, enlarged is size and changed in shape, and that coquina columns were constructed at the immediate corner of the new well shaft. Though there is no direct evidence, the stone columns must have functioned as supports for wooden beams and a roof. It was also the habit to plaster coquina stone work (Manucy 1962) and undoubtedly the columns about this well were covered by a plaster surface. Fragments of plaster were recovered in various levels above the well but is not a directly associated with the well. The recovered plaster fragments were primarily white but numerous mustered yellow fragments, fewer rust red fragments, and occasional dark bluish black fragments were found. There is no evidence of the roofing material nor the form of the roof itself. Manucy (1962:99) identifies palm and straw thatch as the most common roofing material before 1700 with wood shingles or shakes also common. Manucy (1962:102) mentions "affidavits of the carpenters back in 1690 that several government buildings were roofed with shingles". He references in end note 138, Quiroga, April 1, 1688 and June 8, 1690 as the source for the carpenter's affidavits.

Clearly the new well in the Governor's courtyard was an impressive addition. It appears that the ground water would have covered the barrel that was left in bottom of the well. The new well liner provided a square well shaft substantially larger that the original round well shaft. Functionally, it appears it would have been more difficult to construct this larger well while not providing any significant improvement in water quantity or quality. The well appears to have been enlarged and enhanced primarily for artistic and social reasons. This well was different than the common wells in town and certainly enhanced the courtyard and better reflected the Governor's status within the community. It

also existed in the social space of the courtyard rather than in a utility area of the compound which contained simpler wells.

Well Shaft Fill Abandonment Episode:

fs#s 2.028, 2.031, 2.033, 2.036, 2.040, 3.016, 5.001, 5.007,
5.011, 5.012, 5.013, 5.014, 5.015, 5.017, 5.018

tpq = 1650
mean ceramic date of 1663.8, re-examined the sherds and they are either small or were wrong id.. fs 2.028 1 puebla poly at 1700, fs 2.033 1 st augustin b/w at 1700, fs 5.014 1 b/g basin at 1750 and 3 st. augustine b/w at 1700, and fs 5.017 1 puebla b/w at 1700.

Coin is 1/2 real likely minted in mexico, Charles II coin he ruled from 1665 to 1700. coin dates to 1668 to 1697. pushes in fill of well up by a few years circa 1670 when used with mean ceramic date of 1663.8

Eventually the wood from the repaired well shaft deteriorated and at this point the well was abandoned. The artifacts deposited in the well shaft yielded a mean ceramic date of 1664 (1663.8 rounded) with a 1700 terminus post quem based on 5 sherds out of 53. A one half real coin was recovered from this deposit. It was minted in Mexico under the rule of Charles II who ruled Spain from 1665 to 1700. The coin lacked an indication of a date but these cob coins were minted from 1668 to 1697. This dates the termination of the well to circa 1670 considering the mean ceramic date and the date of the coin. The termination date based on the terminis post quem, however, is post 1700. This indicates that the well was filled at about 1700.

The excavation revealed that the southwest corner post that supported the wooden boards of the well shaft had been removed. The other three post were found in the remaining corners and the bases of the post were in remarkable good condition. The upper fill of the well shaft contained small board fragments, large amounts of shell that had fallen in from the corner foundations and one large board that was at the top of the barrel. Generally, the well did not contain the quantity of household refuse that is found in colonial residential wells. Given the nature of the deposit it is believed that the upper well shaft liner was demolished intentionally to fill the well shaft. It appears that he southwest post was pulled out. The upper portions of the other corner post may have broken off during attempts to remove them. Soil and shell from behind the boards of the well shaft tumbled into the void along with broken board segments. If the well had been filled over a period of days or weeks with household refuse then the deposits outside the well shaft would have been left undisturbed rather being part of the material that filled the abandoned well shaft. The evidence suggest that when the well was abandoned it was intentionally dismantled in an effort to maintain a clean and safe social space.

The Well Repair Structure and the Barrel:

discuss it and removal and photographs

During the first excavation phase the units were excavated to the water table and then the ground water was drawn down with a well point system and the well shaft fill was excavated. Once the fill was removed the quality of the preservation of the square well shaft liner and the bottom barrel lead to a plan to remove these artifacts in tact. The well shaft was filled with clean sand and plans and preparation were made for the removal of these features. Wooden structural elements have been removed from wells in St. Augustine, including barrels after they were dismantled. A complete intact barrel had never been removed from a colonial period St. Augustine well.

The goal of removing the wooden liner and barrel were to better document these items, have them available for study and to eventually interpret them to the public. The effort to remove the upper wooden boards and post well liner in one piece was not successful. The structure did not have the rigidity or structural integrity that was need for successful removal. Therefore, the boards were and post labeled and removed to the laboratory. Removal of the large soft wooden barrel with iron bands was successful but presented logical and engineering difficulties.

The plan for removal of the well shaft liners called for drawing down the water table, removing the fill sand from in and above the wooden elements and then excavating around wooden elements and lifting them out as complete items. It was hoped that removal of the items as single intact structures would allow for better documentation of the items under laboratory conditions and without the pressures of below water table excavation.

The plan for removing the post and board liner called for excavating around the boards and then placing a wooden support structure under and around the boards and the post. Then the remaining soil would excavated and the support structure would be lifted with a winch and hand support. Unfortunately, this wooden element lacked enough structural integrity to allow for intact removal. As the soil was removed from the board they fell away from the post and had to be removed as individual elements. Four individual boards and three post were recovered from the excavation. The bases of the post were perfectly preserved. The bottoms of the post which appeared to be pine, were sharpened to a point. The hatchet or adz cuts were clearly defined and the pointed ends indicate that some portion of the post were driven into the soil. Bark was still present as were carbonized bark indicating the post were charred prior to cutting the pointed ends. The charring does not appear to have been intended to remove the bark but was limited to areas between the hatchet cuts, perhaps it

was intended to help preserve the post. The structure of the board and post liner is illustrated in figure ????. Table ??? provides the dimensional data on the post and board liner. figure ???? drawing of borad and post liner or photo

Board and Post Well Liner Data

Post Elevation

S.E. Post ................... 3.21 mbd Top
4.07 mbd Base 86cm post length

N.E. Post ................... 3.35 mbd Top
4.12 mbd Base 77cm post length

N.W. Post ................... 3.42 mbd Top
4.14 mbd Base 72cm post


South Board ................. 3.45 mbd Top
3.77 mbd Base Dimensions ............. 32cm height
3cm thick 98cm length

East Board .................. 3.46 mbd Top
3.76 mbd Base 30cm height 3cm thick 113cm length

West Board .................. 3.50 mbd Top
3.79 mbd Base 29cm height 2cm thick 122cm length

North Board ................. 3.43 mbd Top
3.77 mbd Base 34cm height 2cm thick 100cm length

It was necessary, for the removal of the intact barrel, to place a three quarter inch plywood disk under the base of the barrel. The round disk was cut in half and hinges were installed so that the disk could be folded in half and therefore more easily slipped under the barrel. A whole was drilled in the center of the disk into which a long eye bolt with an expanding wing nut could be fitted from above. The hinged disk had to be placed under the barrel so that it stayed flat and rigid when upward force was applied to it. The goal was to undercut the barrel slip the disk

under it fit the eye bolt down through the barrel and into the disk. Then a rope was to be clipped to the eye bolt and with guide ropes, a pulley fastened to overhead beams, and a winch the barrel would be lifted up to the surface. Unfortunately, high tide corresponded with the final effort to remove the barrel and the well points and pumps could not remove the water and maintain a dry working surface. With great labor and the use of a recirculating water hose the barrel was freed from the wet sand into which it was sinking. The wooden disk was inserted and the barrel was successfully removed in one piece. It was then photographed, measures and carefully labeled and dismantled for conservation. Currently the wood barrel staves and the iron bands are still undergoing conservation treatment.

The barrel recovered from the well, see figure ????, appears to have been made of oak, further examination of the wood is needed to confirm this observation. The upper portion of the barrel was lost to deterioration and use of the well. Seven iron bands were recovered on the barrel but originally it was held together by ten bands. The bands were placed in set of two with a set at the top, at the bottom, and two sets on either side of the midpoint of the barrel. The upper and bottom bands were doubled for greater support of the barrel stave ends. The bong hole still contained a cork stopper and below the stopper was a wooden plug fixed into a small diameter hole. There was evidence that the cork and the wooden pug were covered by a square metal plate, possibly copper, that was held in place by small tacks. This would plate must have protected the stoppers during transport.

Photo and figure of barrel detail with dimensions

Table ????? ........ Barrel Data

Barrel Data

Height .................. 1.08cm at the highest point
Circumference ............ 2.29cm Top
2.46cm Center
1.90cm Base
Diameter ................ 69cm Top Opening
59cm Base Opening


Number of Staves ........ 21 Width at Mid-point ...... 1.75cm

Iron Bands

Number of Bands ......... 7 Width of Bands .......... 2.5cm
(missing a double band and a single from original barrel top)

Other Details

Bung Hole Diameter ...... 5cm Peg Hole Diameter ....... 1.25cm Burg Hole Cover Plate ... 12cm across by 8.5 down 12 nails in the edge of the cover plate with 5 across by 3 down

Possible Second Well Construction Pit:

fs#s 2.027, 2.030, 2.038, 5.003
elev.... 2.31
fs 2.027 tpq = 1650
mean ceramic date 1640.6

The base of Unit 5 never revealed a sterile soil deposit. The well construction and repair pit covered the eastern majority of the unit and an area of mottle sand cover the remaining unit floor. This mottled sand deposit may be another well construction pit since there is no other identified type of colonial feature that extends so far below the ground surface. If this mottled soil deposit is another well construction pit it would have been constructed before the well discussed above. This is indicated by the construction pit of the known well having cut through is other mottled soil deposit. The artifacts from this deposit provide a terminus post quem of 1650 based on one small Abo Polychrome and one Aucilla Polychrome sherd. The twenty two other sherds were first manufactured in the early seventeenth century. The mean ceramic date for the deposit yielded a 1640.6 date. It seems likely

that a post-1650 construction date is too late for this "other well" and that the two later sherds may have been contamination from the other well construction pit. This possible since the two mottled deposits was difficult to consistently distinguish from each other during excavation. Further testing is needed to verify the function and the date of this suspected second well construction pit.


Unit 6 was the focus of the second excavation phase. The unit was located in response to the foundation identified in the southeast corner of Unit 5. The goal of this unit was to identify the outline, construction sequence and function of the structure indicated by the foundation found in Unit 5. The same zones were present in this unit as in Unit 5.

Tabby Floor A: FS# 6.006, 6.006, 1.96 mbd to 2.00 mbd

The tabby floor deposit was encountered at 1.96 mbd and covered the an area that measured 1.8 meters by 3 meters in the eastern side of this 3 meter square unit. The floor had been cut out where the electrical supply conduit for the existing building was buried (see Figure ????, Drawing 1). The tabby floor extended to 2.00 mbd and only appeared as a single tabby layer. This tabby was a continuation of the tabby paving in Unit 5 (Tabby Floor A, 1.97mbd) which began at the same elevation in both units. The area in the west half of the unit that lacked a solid tabby paved surface was disturbed roots. No second tabby layer was identified in Unit 6. The deposits immediately above the tabby floor (FS 6.005 and 6.006) contained one Ironstone sherd (tpq of 1800), two Annular Pearlware sherds (tpq 1785) and five Transfer Printed Pearlware sherds (tpq 1780), among others. The artifacts from below the tabby floor (FS 6.009) provide a terminus post quem of 1800 based on six Ironstone sherds. These findings fit well with the 1800 to 1840 construction date determined for the tabby floor in Unit 5.

plan view of unit 6 tabby floor

One difference in the materials recovered above and from the tabby floor layer in this unit was a large amount of plaster fragments. This suggest either a fallen wall or the refuse from demolition of a coquina wall and the removal of old plastered wall surfaces prior to reuse of the stone. The plaster retained from the tabby floor layer totalled: 939 grams of mustered color (58%), 598 grams of white (37%), 52 grams of red (3%), and 42 grams of black plaster (2%). Since the plaster fragments were above or mixed into the tabby layer, the plaster must post date the floor itself. Therefore, the plaster may have resulted from a remodeling in the early to mid 19th century.

Ballast Rock Layer (FS#s 6.009 elev. 2.02 to 2.09 mbd)

The ballast rock paving in this unit was found immediately under the tabby flooring at an elevation of 2.02 mbd. The rubble layer was mixed in the disturbed western half of the unit. The artifacts from this deposit provide a post 1800 date for it use. This deposit is a continuation of the ballast rock paving discussed in Unit 5.

Oyster Shell Footers: (FS# 6.016, 6.017, elev. 2.10 mbd to 2.52)

A substantial oyster shell foundation appeared at 2.10 mbd and is indicated in figure ?????. This foundation was left in place throughout the excavation. The foundation consisted of a continuation of the western wall first located in Unit 5 which turned both east and west along the north wall of Unit 6. The foundation which consisted of primarily oyster shells packed in a trench was 42cm deep and 30 to 35cm wide. As the excavation continued a discontinuity was observed in the foundation. A later foundation had been added to the existing foundation. The evidence indicated that an east to west oriented wall was added to the rear of a structure that had its northwest corner in Unit 5 and its southwest corner in Unit 6. Figure ???? indicates the size and location of the original walls and the addition wall.

foundations in Unit 6

The walls once supported by these foundation were the walls of the governor's guard house as indicated on the Castillo Map of 1763, the De Solis Map of 1764, the Moncrief Map of 1765, and the Rocque Map of 1788. Pablo Castello mentions the guard house in his 1763 appraisal and list a value for the beams and boards of the flat roof of the Guard House (Arnade 1961:182). A concise date for the construction of the guard house is not available from the archaeological data. Post hole two which has a terminus post quem of 1650 and exist under the first foundation indicates that the first wall was constructed after 1650. A British Period deposit abuts the north edge of the second foundation and indicates that it must have existed prior the British Period (1763). Therefore, the first foundation is older, dating perhaps to the early 18th century and the second wall dating no later than 1763, the British Period, or the mid-18th century. The Castillo Map of 1763 illustrates a rather large building on the southeast corner of the Governor's lot which is connected to the main structure. This is the area of the guard house (reference it Puente??). It seems likely that foundations revealed in Unit 6 represent this 1763 structure.

Rubble Filled Feature

(FS# 6.011, 6.013, elev. 1.97 2.35)

A linear deposit filled with plaster, mortar and coquina fragments extended perpendicular from the oyster shell foundation in the eastern profile of Unit 6 (see figure ???? see unit plan view as done above). This feature began at 1.97 mbd and extended 38cm into the surrounding soil (2.35 mbd). The top of this feature was slightly higher than the top of the foundation. Differentiating of this feature from the tabby floor layer was difficult. The rubble filled trench appeared associated with the foundation because it was perpendicular to the foundation and ran in a straight line along the east wall of Unit 6. This feature appeared in field to be an interior wall foundation for a small dividing wall. The wall was assumed to have been masonry based on the foundation material and lack of intrusive post molds. The shallow depth of this feature and the use of rubble as the foundation fill suggest that it was a secondary wall most likely interior of the exterior support walls. The artifacts recovered from this feature consisted of large amounts of plaster some of which was mustered, red, and blue/grey in color, as well as a majority of white plaster. The plaster was similar to that recovered from and above the tabby floor layer. The ceramics provide a 1785 terminus post quem based on two sherds of Annular Pearlware (FS # 6.013). This date and the ceramic type matches with the plaster deposited discussed in association with the tabby floor.

This feature is of undetermined function at this time and requires further testing to determine it function and significance. The date of the deposit and the plaster associate it with the plaster deposit above and mixed with the tabby floor deposit. This

feature was assumed to be a trench during the excavation but the eastern edge of the "trench" was never observed and the feature could also be the edge of a large trash deposit. The western edge of this feature was extremely straight and perpendicular to the oyster shell foundations but appears to have been deposited years, perhaps 80 or more) after the construction of the oyster shell foundations. Since the plaster fragments overplayed the oyster shell foundations (see drawing 1) this deposit was made after the guard house walls were removed. This feature may be related to the 1834 U.S. Government's remodeling of the Government House and the demolition and recycling of coquina blocks. The 1833 drawing for the remodeling of Government House by Robert Mills (figure ???) does not show the guard house structure. It was either removed as part of this renovation or had been previously demolished.

Mills renovation plans

British Trash deposit: (Fs# 6.019, 6.021, elev. = 2.09 to 2.44)
35cm deep

Area 5 later defined as Feature 3 was a trash pit placed in the corner of the Guard House as indicated in figure ??? (refer to plan view of unit 6). The trash pit began at 2.09 mbd and continued for 35 cm to a depth of 2.44 mbd. The feature contained creamware and no pearlware which provides a terminus post quem of 1762. The occurrence of creamware and absence of pearlware typically indicates a British Period of occupation. A nearly complete dark green glass bottle, perhaps a rum bottle, fit the 1730 to 1750 shape as defined by Noel Hume
(????:??). This feature contained large amounts of glass liquor bottle fragment, leaded glass tumbler fragments, case bottle fragments, fragments from a single clear leaded glass decanter, and a bone handled iron table knife fragment, five pipe stem fragments and as well as other artifacts. This feature appears to be the discarded remains from a social event or celebration at the British Governor's House. The balk of the artifacts suggest the consumption of spirits since glass bottle fragments greatly out numbered all other artifact categories.

Joise Hanger elev. = 1.97

A possible floor joise support was located in the northwest corner of the unit. See Profile Drawing... This feature appeared to be a combination of coquina and brick which served as a support to elevate a joise board, the main structural element of a raised wood floor, off the ground surface. It is unclear if there is an association between the oyster shell foundations and this possible floor support element. Further testing would be necessary to substantiate this initial observation and to determine the relation of possible floor surfaces to buildings. This feature was placed on the ground surface above the British Period trash deposit. Therefore, it is likely a Second Spanish Period feature. It may be related to the Spanish renovations of 1785 1787 in which new floors were added.

Post molds

PH 2 = FS 6.026, elev... 2.30mbd

The feature labeled in the field notes as Area 9 and as Post Mole 2 was located partially under the oyster shell foundation. This feature began at 2.30 mbd and extended into the soil 28cm. The feature in plan view appears to be a trash pit rather than a post hole. This feature was deposited after 1650 based on an Abo Polychrome sherd found within the fill soil. The post 1650 date for this feature helps in the development of a date range for the construction of the oyster shell foundation as discussed earlier

in the report.

Two Other Post Molds

PH 3 & 4 -- Second Spanish (fs 6.027 = ph3 elev... 2.26, fs 6.025 = ph4, elev. = 2.68)

Two post molds which appear related based on top elevations are Post Mold 3 was had a top elevation of 2.26 and Post Mold 4 with a top elevation of 2.30. The locations of these post are illustrated in figure ???. Post Mold 3 had a 28cm diameter and a depth of 53 cm with a pointed base. Post Mold 4 was 36cm in diameter and extended 44cm to a slightly restricted point. Post Mold 3 intruded into the British Period trash pit suggesting a Second Spanish Period or later date. No temporally definitive artifacts were recovered from the fill of Post Mold 3. Post Mold 4 cut through the oyster shell foundation and contained a sherd of Gaudy Dutch Pearlware with a beginning date of 1820. It is unclear what these post molds represent but the diameter of the post molds suggest that they are possible building elements or other substantial structural elements. It should be remembered that there is no clear association, other than beginning elevation, between these two features.

figure showing post mold locations

four possible fence post in drawing 4 shallow post molds in rough line. FS 6.030 = ppm6, fs 6031 = ppm7, fs 6.032 = ppm8, fs 6.033 = ppm9 all start at about 2.40 check depth....

Four relatively small post molds were identified in the southern half of Unit 6 at an elevation of 2.40 mbd. These post molds are indicated in figure ????. The post roughly align with each other and are of similar diameter and depth (10 to 15cm in diameter by 8 to 1lcm in depth). Only one post mold contained artifacts which were three small plaster fragments and one St. Johns Plain sherd. These post are suggestive of a fence line which may have roughly ran east to west. The number of post does not provide conclusive evidence upon which to draw a conclusion. Additional testing would be needed to verify this speculative fence line.

figure of post mold locations

Shell Trash pit in southwest corner

fs 6.039 elev. = 2.37 to 2.60 columbia plain as tpq... post 1598 per Gov. Canzo or Boazio map....

A final feature to discuss in Unit 6 appears to be a trash deposit located in the southwest quadrant of Unit 6 (see Figure ???). This feature was first referred to in the notes as Area 11. This deposit had a beginning elevation of 2.37 mbd and extended down to 2.60 mbd, or 23cm. The deposit consisted of a cluster of whole oyster shells, quahog shells, razor clam shells and two whelks with extraction holes, two fresh water clam shells, charcoal, bone, six St. Johns Check Stamped sherds, an olive jar sherd and a large Columbia Plain plate rim. These materials appeared to have been deposited on an original ground surface rather than as a trash pit. The Columbia Plain sherd indicates that this feature is the only 16th century feature encountered during this excavation. It appears to be sheet deposit of food and tableware refuse.

figure of shell fill trash pit

finding of public excavation --- 105,000 visitors images of visitors

Overall Conclusions

Reference Cited

discuss artifacts with photos....
native types, colono wares, perhaps examine status issue.... put color xeroxes in the report....

Appendix A Historic Background Report

Page No. 1
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.001/ BRICK Brick 1 1.30 0 0 BUCKLE Buckle 1 5.40 0 0 THREE TEETH CHALK Chalk 1 1.10 0 0 COAL Coal 7 4.00 0 0 COIN Coin 1 5.00 0 0 1977 COIN Coin 1 5.10 0 0 1972 COIN Coin 1 2.30 0 0 1969 COIN Coin 2 6.02 0 0 1974 AND 1972 CW Creamware, 1 0.08 1762 1820
EARRING Jewelry, 1 0.01 0 0 MODERN
FASTNER Eye Fastner 1 0.01 0 0 MODERN FLINT Flint 1 2.20 0 0 FRAG FROM POINT TIP GLASS Glass 1 1.00 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 2.10 0 0 GLASS Glass 10 7.60 0 0 IRFRG Iron fragments, 15 21.05 0 0 UID
IRFRG Iron fragments, 9 19.01 0 0 UID
MORTAR Mortar 75 237.56 0 0 TOPSOIL FILL NAILUID Nail, UID 1 11.30 0 0 OJ Olive Jar UID 1 10.08 0 0
PORENG Porcelain, 0 1.56 1745 1950
SMD San Marcos 1 4.00 0 0
** Subtotal **
134 356.78 3507 3770

** Field Specimen Number 1.002 BONE Bone 0 10.30 0 0 BONE Bone 4 1.03 0 0 1 FISH VERTEBRE BRICK Brick 2 20.10 0 0 BUTTON Button 1 3.00 0 0 MILITARY BUTTON BUTTON Button 1 0.80 0 0 BUTTON Button 1 2.80 0 0 GLASS,METAL BUTTON Button 1 0.30 0 0 4 HOLES
** Subtotal **
10 38.33 0 0
*** Total ***
144 395.11 3507 3770

Page No. 1
Government House Excavation

Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.001, BRICK Brick 1 1.30 0 0 BUCKLE Buckle 1 5.40 0 0 THREE TEETH CHALK Chalk 1 1.10 0 0 COAL Coal 7 4.00 0 0 COIN Coin 1 5.00 0 0 1977 COIN Coin 1 5.10 0 0 1972 COIN Coin 1 2.30 0 0 1969 COIN Coin 2 6.02 0 0 1974 AND 1972 CW Creamware, 1 0.08 1762 1820
EARRING Jewelry, 1 0.01 0 0 MODERN
FASTNER Eye Fastner 1 0.01 0 0 MODERN FLINT Flint 1 2.20 0 0 FRAG FROM POINT TIP GLASS Glass 1 1.00 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 2.10 0 0 GLASS Glass 10 7.60 0 0 IRFRG Iron fragments, 15 21.05 0 0 UID
IRFRG Iron fragments, 9 19.01 0 0 UID
MORTAR Mortar 75 237.56 0 0 TOPSOIL FILL NAILUID Nail, UID 1 11.30 0 0 OJ Olive Jar UID 1 10.08 0 0
PORENG Porcelain, 0 1.56 1745 1950
SMD San Marcos 1 4.00 0 0
** Subtotal **
134 356.78 3507 3770

Page No. 2
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.002 BONE Bone 0 10.30 0 0 BONE Bone 4 1.03 0 0 1 FISH VERTEBRE BRICK Brick 2 20.10 0 0 BUTTON Button 1 3.00 0 0 MILITARY BUTTON BUTTON Button 1 0.80 0 0 BUTTON Button 1 2.80 0 0 GLASS,METAL BUTTON Button 1 0.30 0 0 4 HOLES CASING Shell casing 2 1.00 0 0 PAT COAL Coal 0 9.00 0 0 COAL Coal 47 70.14 0 0 COQ Coquina stone 0 105.80 0 0 CW Creamware, 3 2.00 1762 1820
DEBIT Debitage 1 1.70 0 0 POSSIBLE FLAKE DIME Dime 1 2.20 0 0 1918 LIBERTY DIME GLASFLAT Window Glass 8 4.10 0 0 GLASS Glass 2 3.00 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 1.00 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 1.24 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 1.40 0 0 SMOOTH RIM GLASS Glass 4 3.20 0 0 GLASS Glass 2 1.00 0 0 GLASS Glass 2 2.30 0 0 POSSIBLY WINDOW IRFRG Iron fragments, 59 161.00 0 0
IRFRG Iron fragments, 10 50.28 0 0
NAILUID Nail, UID 27 180.18 0 0 NAILUID Nail, UID 45 315.00 0 0 OYSTER Oyster 79 150.00 0 0 PIPES Pipe Stem 1 0.80 0 0 BORE #6 PLASTER Plaster 0 12.20 0 0 PORPOW Porcelain, 1 0.07 1710 1750
Powder Blue
PPOINT Projectile 1 8.60 0 0
PW Pearlware, 1 2.03 1779 1830
PW Pearlware, 1 0.90 1779 1830
PW Pearlware, 1 1.80 1779 1830
PWHP Pearlware, Hand 1 0.60 1775 1820
Painted Early
PWHP Pearlware, Hand 1 2.03 1775 1820
Painted Early
PWSH Pearlware, 1 0.10 1780 1830
Shell edge

Page No. 3
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

REDWARENG Redware, 1 0.80 0 0
SALTGLZGRY Saltglaze, Grey 1 0.50 1675 1800 SJD St. Johns 1 0.50 0 0 CHECKSTAMP
SMD San Marcos 1 3.10 0 0 SIMPLE STAMPED
TABBY Tabby 3 0.90 0 0 TABBY Tabby 0 241.50 0 0
** Subtotal ** 321 1380.30 15814 ****

Page No. 4
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.003, BONE Bone 2 1.03 0 0 COAL Coal 50 109.01 0 0 COAL Coal 50 63.02 0 0 MIX SLAG GLASS Glass 7 2.07 0 0 GLASS Glass 2 1.02 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 1.02 0 0 IRFRG Iron fragments, 15 26.08 0 0
MARBLE Toy Marble 1 2.70 0 0 MILKGLASS Milkglass 1 0.05 0 0 NAILUID Nail, UID 6 25.00 0 0 PIPES Pipe Stem 1 3.50 0 0 BROKEN BELOW SHANK PW Pearlware, 2 0.08 1779 1830
** Subtotal **
138 234.58 1779 1830

Page No. 5
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.004/' ABOPOLY Abo Polychrome 1 0.10 1650 1750 BONE Bone 0 7.40 0 0 BONE Bone 5 2.02 0 0 COAL Coal 0 290.10 0 0 COAL Coal 40 35.00 0 0 MIX SLAG CW Creamware, 1 0.90 1762 1820
FAIENCE Faience 1 3.80 1500 1800 GLASFLAT Window Glass 5 3.00 0 0 GLASS Glass 27 22.80 0 0 BOTTLE GLASS Glass 1 2.10 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 5.50 0 0 GLASS Glass 5 1.80 0 0 IRFRG Iron fragments, 21 14.90 0 0 UID
IRFRG Iron fragments, 3 2.04 0 0 UID
IRFRG Iron fragments, 7 21.50 0 0 UID
MAJOLICUID Majolica, 1 0.90 1500 1600
Manganese on
White UID
MILKGLASS Milkglass 1 1.30 0 0 MILKGLASS Milkglass 1 0.03 0 0 NAILUID Nail, UID 14 34.60 0 0 PW Pearlware, 1 1.07 1779 1830
SCREWM Screw, metal 1 162.70 0 0 SJP St. Johns, 1 4.70 0 0
SLAG Slag 22 37.40 0 0 TABBY Tabby 15 209.00 0 0 TABBY Tabby 12 63.10 0 0 UIDOBJ Unidentified 5 225.10 0 0
UNGLZCEW Course Unglazed 1 40.50 0 0
WW Whiteware, 1 0.50 1820 1920
WWFB Whiteware, Flow 1 0.80 1820 1870
** Subtotal **
195 1194.66 11831 ****

Page No. 6
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.005 ABOST Sand tempered 2 3.04 0 0 ABOST Sand tempered 1 2.80 0 0 BOLT Bolt 1 7.00 0 0 NUT ATTACHED BONE Bone 1 0.03 0 0 DRUMFISH BONE Bone 9 10.00 0 0 BONE Bone 30 23.00 0 0 1 FISH VERTEBRE BOTTLE Bottle, UID 1 43.00 0 0 HAND APPLIED LIP BRICK Brick 1 4.60 0 0 BRICKGL Glazed Brick 1 1.70 0 0 BRICKUID Brick, UID 19 87.50 0 0 CASING Shell casing 1 0.70 0 0 CASTILLO Castillo 1 1.40 1680 1710
COAL Coal 0 496.40 0 0 COAL Coal 0 1340.00 0 0 DISCARDED COAL Coal 3 65.80 0 0 BURNT COAL Coal 7 79.06 0 0 BURNT COQUINA 0 488.50 0 0 COQUINA,TABBY DISCARD
CW Creamware, 1 1.04 1762 1820 YELLOW POOLING
CW Creamware, 3 2.30 1762 1820
GLASFLAT Window Glass 20 25.01 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 91.50 0 0 GLASS Glass 12 5.80 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 0.07 0 0 GLASS Glass 16 23.01 0 0 GLASS Glass 42 46.02 0 0 OXIDIZED GLASS Glass 9 29.03 0 0 GLASS Glass 7 12.04 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 3.57 0 0 BASE MEDICINE BOTTLE
IRFRG Iron fragments, 25 30.90 0 0 UID
IRFRG Iron fragments, 60 130.08 0 0 UID
LEADGCE16A Lead Glazed 1 1.09 1500 0
MILKGLASS Milkglass 1 0.01 0 0 NAILUID Nail, UID 13 47.00 0 0 NAILUID Nail, UID 30 162.07 0 0 NAILUID Nail, UID 10 18.04 0 0 OYSTER Oyster 10 92.50 0 0 OYSTER Oyster 0 740.00 0 0 PLASTER Plaster 7 49.30 0 0 2 WITH WHITEWASH POREUR Porcelain, UID 6 7.01 0 0

Page No. 7
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

POROR Porcelain, UID 1 0.01 0 0 Oriental
PW Pearlware, 3 6.50 1779 1830 Plain
PW Pearlware, 9 14.05 1779 1830 1 HAS BLUE Plain
PW Pearlware, 1 0.02 1779 1830 Plain
PWANNULAR Pearlware, 1 2.00 1785 1830 Annular
PWMO Pearlware, 1 0.06 1799 1830 Mocha
PWTP Pearlware, 10 5.02 1780 1830 THREE BLACK,WHITE Transfer print PWTP Pearlware, 1 1.60 1780 1830 Transfer print PWUID Pearlware, UID 1 0.06 1780 1830
SALTGLZSCR 2 9.01 1744 1775 SJP St. Johns, 2 2.40 0 0 Plain
SLIPW Slipware, UID 1 2.50 0 0 light paste
SMD San Marcos 1 2.00 0 0 Decorated
SMP San Marcos, 1 2.00 0 0 GRIT TEMPERED plain
SPIKEUID Spike, UID 1 50.55 0 0
TABBY Tabby 0 2930.00 0 0 FLOOR
** Subtotal **
392 8340.60 22709 ****


Page No. 8
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.006"" BONE Bone 1 0.70 0 0 BONE Bone 30 49.80 0 0 BONE Bone 3 3.10 0 0 BURNT BUTTON Button 1 1.00 0 0 4 HOLE CASING Shell casing 1 1.60 0 0 COAL Coal 0 720.00 0 0 DISCARDED CW Creamware, 2 2.50 1762 1820
DOLL Doll 1 1.00 0 0 DOLL ARM GLASFLAT Window Glass 15 15.12 0 0 GLASS 1 26.60 0 0 BOTTLE GLASS Glass 1 12.10 0 0 GLASS Glass 2 7.10 0 0 1 BASE,1 FRAG CHICAGO
GLASS Glass 5 5.20 0 0 GLASS Glass 15 31.50 0 0 GLASS Glass 2 1.10 0 0 GLASS Glass 9 7.00 0 0 GLASS Glass 14 15.20 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 0.20 0 0 SOIL SAMPLE GLASS Glass 3 9.80 0 0 IRFRG Iron fragments, 64 144.30 0 0
LEADGCE Lead Glazed 1 1.30 0 0 SOIL SAMPLE
MEXCITYUID Mexico City 1 1.30 0 0
Common UID
MEXRED Mexican Red 2 1.30 1550 1750
Painted or Film
MINIBALL Minie Ball 1 30.20 0 0 NAILSQUID Square Nail UID 1 1.50 0 0 SOIL SAMPLE NAILSQUID Square Nail UID 1 2.50 0 0 SOIL SAMPLE NAILUID Nail, UID 32 128.70 0 0 OJ Olive Jar UID 1 2.70 0 0
OJGLZ Olive Jar UID 1 2.20 0 0
OYSTER Oyster 0 240.00 0 0 PIPES Pipe Stem 1 1.30 0 0 POROR Porcelain, UID 6 4.30 0 0 2 POSSIBLE
Oriental HANDLES,CUPS PORPOW Porcelain, 1 1.10 1710 1750
Powder Blue
PUEBW Puebla B/W 1 0.90 1700 1850 PWHP Pearlware, Hand 1 1.60 1775 1820
Painted Early
PWHP Pearlware, Hand 2 1.30 1775 1820
Painted Early


Page No. 9 05/29/94
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

PWSH Pearlware, 1 2.70 1780 1830
Shell edge
PWTP Pearlware, 1 6.50 1780 1830
Transfer print
PWTP Pearlware, 1 0.70 1780 1830
Transfer print
SLIPW Slipware, UID 1 1.80 0 0
light paste
SMP San Marcos, 3 3.20 0 0
SPIKEUID Spike, UID 2 25.20 0 0 WW Whiteware, 3 3.50 1820 1920
** Subtotal ** 236 3790.72 17432 ****

Page No. 10
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.007.ABOPOLY 1 0.30 0 0 ABO POLYCHROME BONE Bone 2 7.40 0 0 CHARCOAL Charcoal 6 1.80 0 0 COAL Coal 6 10.80 0 0 BURNT COQUINA Coquina stone 0 1500.00 0 0 CW Creamware, 1 1.00 1762 1820 RAISED DECORATION Plain ON RIM GLASS Glass 2 1.70 0 0 GLASS Glass 8 6.00 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 0.70 0 0 GLASS Glass 4 0.80 0 0 OXIDIZED IRFRG Iron fragments, 2 2.50 0 0 UID
NAILUID Nail, UID 2 24.20 0 0 OYSTER Oyster 7 111.20 0 0 1 CLAM PEBBLE Pebble 0 530.00 0 0 BALLEST PENCIL Pencil 1 0.50 0 0 POROR Porcelain, UID 1 0.60 0 0
PWSH Pearlware, 1 2.60 1780 1830
Shell edge
SALTGLZSCR Scratch Blue 1 10.00 1744 1775
SLAG Slag 1 0.50 0 0 SLIPW Slipware, UID 1 0.30 0 0
light paste
SLIPW Slipware, UID 1 0.20 0 0
light paste
SMD San Marcos 1 1.80 0 0
TACK Tack 1 0.80 0 0
** Subtotal **
51 2215.70 5286 5425

Page No. 11
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.008 BEADRAS Bead, Raspberry 1 0.50 0 0 BONE Bone 15 88.70 0 0 BRICK Brick 1 0.40 0 0 BRICK Brick 8 1220.00 0 0 COAL Coal 0 186.10 0 0 DELFT Delftware, 1 0.70 1500 1800
FAIENCE Faience 1 2.10 1500 1800 GLASFLAT Window Glass 6 10.00 0 0 GLASS Glass 6 15.50 0 0 GLASS Glass 4 30.60 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 218.00 0 0 GLASS Glass 11 12.80 0 0 HARMONICA Harmonica 1 16.20 0 0 SOUND BOARD IRFRG Iron fragments, 1 0.10 0 0 UID
IRFRG Iron fragments, 30 50.70 0 0 UID
IRFRG Iron fragments, 2 1.80 0 0 UID
MEXRED Mexican Red 1 1.00 1550 1750
Painted or Film
MILKGLASS Milkglass 1 0.70 0 0 NAILCUT Cut Nail 1 3.60 1790 0 CUT NAIL WITH HEAD NAILUID Nail, UID 11 59.60 0 0 OJ Olive Jar UID 2 35.70 0 0
OJ Olive Jar UID 1 2.00 0 0
OYSTER Oyster 0 200.50 0 0 PEBBLE Pebble 0 1550.00 0 0 BALLEST PLASTER Plaster 16 177.50 0 0 WHITEWASHED PLASTER Plaster 6 45.00 0 0 YELLOW PAINT PUEBW Puebla B/W 1 0.30 1700 1850 PW Pearlware, 2 0.60 1779 1830
PWTP Pearlware, 1 1.40 1780 1830
Transfer print
SMD San Marcos 7 19.70 0 0 1 CHECK STAMP
SMP San Marcos, 1 0.30 0 0
SPIKEUID Spike, UID 1 19.30 0 0 SSJ Spanish Storage 1 74.20 1500 1800 LARGE SHERD
** Subtotal **
145 4046.60 13099 ****

Page No. 12
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.009-.
BONE Bone 2 1.10 0 0 ANIMAL
BONE Bone 1 2.10 0 0 PIG
BRICK Brick 3 16.40 0 0 FRAGS
COAL Coal 0 182.60 0 0 COQ Coquina stone 0 1450.00 0 0 CW Creamware, 4 2.50 1762 1820
ELMORRO Eil Mor 1 7.10 1550 1770 GLASFLAT Window Glass 4 2.50 0 0 GLASS Glass I 3 12.80 0 0 GLASS Glass 3 28.70 0 0 GLASS Glass 15 9.10 0 0 GLASS sGlas. 1 0.70 0 0 IRFRG Iron fragments, 13 25.70 0 0
LEADGCE -Lead Glazed 1 0.40 0 0
NAILUID Nail, UID 7 40.10 0 0 OJ Olive Jar UID 1 1.10 0 0
OJ Olive Jar UID/ 3 26.70 0 0

OYSTER Oyster 0 61.10 0 0
PIPES __Pipe Stem- 2 2.00 0 0 1 4, 1 5
PLASTER Plaster 1 10.30 0 0
PLASTER Plaster 2 11.90 0 0 YELLOW PAINT
PORPOW Porcelain, 3 0.90 1710 1750
Powder Blue
PUEBW Puebla B/W 1 0.70 1700 1850
PW Pearlware, 2 0.90 1779 1830 BLUE POOL
** Subtotal **
73 1897.40 8501 9020

/ *1


Page No. 13
Government House Excavation Project Number 1993.001

Item Code Cnt Weight Dates Comments

** Field Specimen Number 1.010-" BONE Bone 9 27.60 0 0 1 EMBEDDED IN TABBY BRICK Brick 4 27.90 0 0 BUTTON Button 1 0.30 0 0 COAL Coal 1 3.60 0 0 BURNT CROCK Crock, 19th 1 1.40 1800 0 century
GLASS Glass 1 2.60 0 0 FRAG GLASS Glass 2 4.20 0 0 GLASS Glass 2 0.70 0 0 GLASS Glass 1 0.50 0 0 BURNT IRFRG Iron fragments, 14 44.00 0 0 UID
MEXRED Mexican Red 1 0.80 1550 1750 Painted or Film
MILKGLASS Milkglass 0 1.30 0 0 NAILUID Nail, UID 6 21.40 0 0 NONLOCAL 1 5.90 0 0 SHELL TEMPER, NON LOCAL
OJ Olive Jar UID 2 16.70 0 0 (unglazed)
OJ Olive Jar UID 3 13.00 0 0 FRAG
OYSTER Oyster 0 327.60 0 0 MIX CLAMS PEBBLE Pebble 0 1300.00 0 0 BALLEST PORPOW Porcelain, 1 0.30 1710 1750
Powder Blue
PW Pearlware, 1 0.30 1779 1830 BLUE POOL
PWSH Pearlware, 1 0.30 1780 1830
Shell edge
PWTP Pearlware, 1 0.30 1780 1830
Transfer print
SALTGLZ Saltglaze, 1 1.00 1710 1776
SJP St. Johns, 1 0.40 0 0
SMD San Marcos 4 7.30 0 0
SMD San Marcos 11 32.80 0 0
TACK Tack 1 5.30 0 0
** Subtotal **
71 1847.50 12109 ****