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Teaching with Primary Sources Yonge Gainesville, FL from the University of Florida Digital Collections
What are primary sources? time of study artifacts are objects made by persons during the time of study s econdary sources are accounts and interpretations made by those without firsthand knowledge World War II Memorial Service at UF from UFDC http ://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00029908/00001
Why use primary sources? Engage Students Personal connections Empathize with historical figures Exposure to different perspectives F irst person accounts make David C. Barrow Elementary Media Center in Athens, Georgia
Why use primary sources? Promote Inquiry Primary sources make history more approachable Students actively engage in the past Primary sources are often just one piece of the puzzle Photo from the Teaching with the Library of Congress blog
Why use primary sources? Construct Knowledge Students construct knowledge as they form answers to their questions Relating to history on a personal level allows for a deeper understanding P rimary source materials lends itself to other content areas Photo from the Teaching with the Library of Congress blog
Why use primary sources? Develop Critical Thinking Skills Students learn to recognize bias and question where historical information comes from. Analyzing primary sources encourages a higher order of thinking. Model developed by Barbara Stripling assistant professor of library science at Syracuse University.
Why use primary sources? Key Component of Common Core C ommon core standards require students to critically examine complex non fiction texts.
Analyzing Primary Sources Search for primary sources that coincide with standards based learning objectives.
Analyzing Primary Sources Letter from a Civil War soldier to his father, discussing his experiences during the battle of Olustee the largest Civil War battle to take place in Florida
Analyzing Primary Sources Letter home from the same Civil W ar soldier, also found in the UFDC. Secondary Source: Credible website Secondary Source: Florida in the Civil War Friend, S. (2001). Florida in the Civil War: A state in turmoil Brookfield, Conn: Twenty First Century Books.
Analyzing Primary Sources Be aware of potentially offensive content http:// ufdc.ufl.edu/FI07050917/00001 UFDC
Analyzing Primary Sources Choose a graphic organizer that helps students closely examine any kind of primary source.
Analyzing Primary Sources Explore these teacher guides from the Library of Congress that provide you with question prompts to better facilitate the analysis process for a variety of material types.
Analyzing Primary Sources Model document analysis Photo from the Teaching with the Library of Congress blog Photo from the Teaching with the Library of Congress blog
Analyzing Primary Sources Example Observe What do you notice first? How much of the text can you read? (can later refer to transcript) What does it say? What do you see that looks strange or unfamiliar? How are the words arranged? What do you notice about the page the writing appears on? What other details can you see? Guide for Analyzing Manuscripts
Analyzing Primary Sources Example Reflect Why do you think this letter was written? What do you think was happening when it was written? What tools and materials were used to create it? What can you learn from examining this? If someone created something like this today, how would it be different? How would it be the same? Guide for Analyzing Manuscripts
Analyzing Primary Sources Example Question What do you wonder about? Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Guide for Analyzing Manuscripts
Analyzing Primary Sources Students will now explore secondary sources to confirm their reflections and locate answers to their questions (developed throughout the analysis process) Secondary Source: Credible website Secondary Source: Florida in the Civil War Secondary Source: Research database Friend, S. (2001). Florida in the Civil War: A state in turmoil Brookfield, Conn: Twenty First Century Books. http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/olustee.html
Analyzing Primary Sources Example Assessment Inform students they will be interviewed for a newspaper article. However, they must speak from the perspective of a civil war soldier who has recently fought in the Battle of Olustee Draft Questions that tie in to objectives and guide students through the process of creating a historical narrative based on what they have learned. Provide students with interview questions and have them write out their answers. Grade along side an established rubric to evaluate whether objectives have been met. Check out more follow up activity ideas for Analyzing Manuscripts:
References/Resources Calisphere A world of digital resources http ://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/ Using primary sources T eacher Resources Library of Congress http ://www.loc.gov/teachers/usingprimarysources/ National Archives: Docsteach http ://docsteach.org/ Library of Congress Teachers Page http://www.loc.gov/teachers / Teaching with the Library of Congress Blog http://www.loc.gov/teachers/ University of Florida Digital Collections http ://ufdc.ufl.edu /