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A Framework for the Adaptive Reuse Feasibility of Parking Garages in the Less-Driving Future

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Title:
A Framework for the Adaptive Reuse Feasibility of Parking Garages in the Less-Driving Future A Case Study of Downtown Orlando, Florida
Creator:
Zhou, Ruchen
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
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University of Florida
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english
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1 online resource (65 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.U.R.P)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Urban and Regional Planning
Committee Chair:
Bejleri,Ilir
Committee Co-Chair:
Alakshendra,Abhinav

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Subjects / Keywords:
adaptive-reuse -- downtown -- garage -- parking
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
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Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.U.R.P

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Abstract:
As the global population increases and cities become denser, many of them are developing public transportation systems to cope with road congestion and air pollution. With further development of technology and the emergence of autonomous vehicles, transportation choices are expected to change significantly. For instance, the pattern of private cars as the preferred means of transportation may change, and more people might use new modes of transportation in the future. Under these circumstances, the parking garage, once an essential functional building in the dense downtown areas, may become underused or even abandoned. Parking garages take up a lot of valuable land in the downtown areas of cities, and they are usually built of durable concrete, so knocking them down will increase pollution and economic costs. If we can reuse them adaptively, they can still serve the city. This thesis uses downtown Orlando as its study area and classifies nine publicly owned parking garages. Their structures constrain their possibilities for reuse, as different building functions need to refer to different building codes. In this thesis, I study different policies to narrow down the reuse possibilities of parking garages in Orlando. I use comparative case studies to identify current adaptive reuse methods and their advantages, and I develop an adaptive reuse feasibility framework for publicly owned parking garages using downtown Orlando as a case study. The study will hopefully give urban planners, urban designers, government agencies, and developers ideas for handling challenges with parking garages in a future of less-driving. ( en )
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.U.R.P)--University of Florida, 2019.
Local:
Adviser: Bejleri,Ilir.
Local:
Co-adviser: Alakshendra,Abhinav.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ruchen Zhou.

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UFRGP
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University of Florida Theses & Dissertations

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A FRAMEWORK FOR THE ADAPTIVE REUSE FEASIBILITY OF PARKING GARAGES IN THE LESS DRIVING FUTURE : A CASE STUDY OF DOWNTOWN ORLANDO, FLORID A By R UCHEN ZHOU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2019

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2019 R uchen Z hou

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To my family for their selfless love

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my thesis chair, Dr. Ilir Bejleri, who helped guide me with my thesis. Dr. Bejleri always answers my questions patiently and encourages me to develop my ideas. I would like to thank my co chair, Dr. Abhinav Alakshendra, for his encourag ement and advice. I would like to thank my family for their continuous support and love. Thanks to th eir support, I was able to focus on my academic career and make progress. I would like to thank my friend, Yingying, for her encouragement and advice as a mentor. I would like to thank my boyfriend T ianqi, who gives me a sense of security and enthusiasm f or life I would also like to thank all my friends both in the U.S. and China for their love and kindness all the time.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 1.1 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 12 1.2 Research Questions and Purpose ................................ ................................ .... 13 1.3 Organization of the Paper ................................ ................................ ................. 14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 16 2.1 Parking Issues in the U.S. ................................ ................................ ................. 16 2. 1.1 Parking Spaces are Oversupplied ................................ ........................... 16 2.1.2 Excessive Parking Is an Economic Burden on Drivers and Cities ........... 17 2.2 Future Urban Forms ................................ ................................ .......................... 17 2.2.1 The New Urbanism Future ................................ ................................ ...... 18 2.2. 2 The Less Driving Future ................................ ................................ .......... 18 2.3 The Argument for Adaptive Reuse ................................ ................................ .... 19 2.3.1 Definition ................................ ................................ ................................ 19 2.3.2 Benefits ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 20 2.3.3 Adaptive Reuse of Standalone Parking Garages ................................ .... 21 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 22 3.1 Case Study Analysi s ................................ ................................ ......................... 22 3.2 Study Area Selection and Data Collection ................................ ........................ 24 4 FINDINGS AND RESULTS ................................ ................................ ..................... 27 4.1 Case S tudies ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 27 4.1.1 Broadway Autopark, Wichita, Kansas ................................ ...................... 27 4.1.2 SCADpad, Atlanta, Georgia ................................ ................................ ..... 31 4.1.3 The Garage, Northwestern University ................................ ..................... 36 4.1.4 Related Case: Arcade, Providence, Rhode Island ................................ .. 38 4.2 Summary of t he Case Studies ................................ ................................ .......... 42 4.3 Parking Garage Structures in General ................................ .............................. 45 4.4 Publicly Owned Parking Garages in Downtown Orlando ................................ .. 46

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6 4.5 Adaptive Reuse Feasibility Framework for Each Garage Type ......................... 51 4.5.1 Garage Type I ................................ ................................ ......................... 51 4.5.2 Garage Type II ................................ ................................ ........................ 55 4.5.3 Garage Type III ................................ ................................ ....................... 56 4.5.4 Garage Types IV & V ................................ ................................ ............... 56 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 58 5.1 Research Limitations ................................ ................................ ........................ 58 5.2 Problems Encountered in the Research ................................ ........................... 58 5.3 Considering the Use of Transitional Periods ................................ ..................... 59 5.4 Garage Design for Future Adaptive Reuse ................................ ....................... 60 6 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 62 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 63 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 65

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Building footprints of parking garages in downtown Orlando ............................. 14 3 1 Map of publicly owned parking facilities in Orlando ................................ ........... 26 4 1 Broadway Autopark building after reconstruction ................................ ............... 28 4 2 Old garage building ................................ ................................ ........................... 29 4 3 Parking spaces in the Broadway Autopark building ................................ ............ 30 4 4 Interior design of an apartment ................................ ................................ ........... 31 4 5 SCADpad in Atlanta ................................ ................................ ........................... 33 4 6 Public space in Atlanta SCADpa d ................................ ................................ ..... 34 4 7 garden ................................ ................................ .................. 34 4 8 Floor plan o f SCADpad ................................ ................................ ...................... 35 4 9 SCADpad construction process ................................ ................................ ......... 36 4 10 Graphic of th e building section ................................ ................................ .......... 37 4 1 1 Interior space of The Garage ................................ ................................ ............. 37 4 12 Office space ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 38 4 13 Interior of the old mall ................................ ................................ ........................ 39 4 14 Arcade building fa ade ................................ ................................ ...................... 40 4 15 Graphic of the new section of the building ................................ ......................... 41 4 16 One of the micro apartments ................................ ................................ ............. 41 4 17 Case studies summary ................................ ................................ ...................... 43 4 18 Strengths and weaknesses of cases ................................ ................................ .. 43 4 19 Types of parking garage structure ................................ ................................ ...... 45 4 20 Optimization of parking structure design ................................ ........................... 46 4 21 Data on publicly owned parking garages ................................ ............................ 47

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8 4 22 Five types of publicly owned parking garages ................................ ................... 48 4 23 Typical annual life cycle costs of different construction methods ...................... 49 4 24 Typical model of garage type I ................................ ................................ ........... 52 4 25 Cross section of mixed use building ................................ ................................ .. 52 4 26 Typical mixed use floor plan for garage type I ................................ .................... 53 4 27 Typical mixed use floor plan for garage type I without ramps ............................. 54 4 28 Typical mixed use floor plan for garage type I with beams ................................ 54 4 29 T ypical model of garage type II ................................ ................................ .......... 55 4 30 Maximum residential reuse of garage type II ................................ ...................... 56 4 31 Satellite views of garage types IV & V ................................ ............................... 57

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9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS IBC International Building Code ICC International Code Council IRC MEP SCAD International Residential Code Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing Savannah College of Art and Design

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10 Abstract of Thesis P resented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Urban and Regional Planning A FRAMEWORK FOR THE ADAPTIVE REUSE FEASIBILITY OF PARKING GARAGES IN THE LESS DRIVING FUTURE : A CASE STUDY OF DOWNTOWN ORLANDO, FLORID A By Ruchen Zhou August 2019 Chair: Ilir Bejleri Major: Urban and Regional Planning As the global population increases and cities become denser many of them are developing public transportation sy stems to cope with road congestion and air pollution. With further development of technology and the emergence of autonomous vehicles, citizens transportation choices are expected to change significant ly For instance, t he pattern of private cars as the p referred means of transportation may change, and more people might use new modes of transportation in the future. Under these circumstances th e parking garage, once an essential functional building in the dense downtown area s may become underused or even abandoned. Parking garage s take up a lot of valuable land in the downtown area s of cities and t hey are usually built of durable concrete so k nocking them down will increase pollution and economic costs. If we can reuse them adaptively, they can still se rve the city. This thesis uses downtown Orlando as its study area and classifies nine public ly owned parking garages. Their structures con strai n the ir possibilities for reuse as different building functions need to refer to different building codes. In t h is thesis I stud y different policies to narrow down the reuse possibilities of Orlando parking garages. I

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11 us e comparative case studies to identify current adaptive reuse methods and their advantages and I develop an adaptive reuse feasibility framework for publicly owned parking garages using downtown Orlando as a case study The study will hopefully give urban planners, urban designers, government agencies and developers idea s for handling challenges with parking garages in a future of less driving

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background How to build sustainable cities and transportation system s has been a hot topic internationally for many years because of the growing population and environmental problems. About 82% of Americans live in citie s now, according to the United Nations, up from 60% in 1950. By 2050, 90% of Americans will live in cities (United Union, 2018). High density urban form is considered a solution for allocat ing the larger population of th e future As a result some building s that cannot meet high de n sity requirement s are being phased out and abandoned. The obvious thing to do is demolish the se building and construct new one s But if a building is historical ly significant or even just struc turally sound, it could be a colossa l waste to tear it down Adaptive reuse takes existing building structure s and transform s their use to fit new development s This strategy is often used with old industrial sites, grey sites, and abandoned buildings. In the following chapters, I detail the benefits of adaptive reuse. Due to continu al changes in urban form, future transportation patterns will also be different First, Shoup & Manville (2005) argue d that congestion in downtown s is high because the number of roads does not keep pace with the n umber of automobiles. On the other hand too many roads would mean that people would have not enough space to live in Therefore, cities need to reduce parking in urban areas to reduce congestion. Se cond autonomous vehicles will also reduce urban congesti on and the need for parking in cities Third, due to increas ed investment public transportation has become more and more popular T hese trends mean that cities need to re examine their existing

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13 park ing facilities to cope with future changes. For example, they might relocat e parking areas to near public transit hub s or even reduc e the overall parking space in downtown areas. P arking garages often occupy large area s of a city, especially downtown. P ar king facilities in city centers are used mainly during wo rking hours, and at a low er rate during evenings and weekends. T hese large structures thus appear to waste valuable urban land. Th is is inconsistent with the goal of building sustainable high density cities. For these reasons, the use of the existing lar ge parking facilities in urban centers is likely to be lower in the future. However, as they are built to store cars, parking structures are usually of high quality. If they are abandoned in the future, we may be able to reuse them instead of demolishing t hem T he question then, is what potential these structures have for being adaptively reused 1.2 Research Questions and Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for deciding how to reuse independent parking garages by analyzing the curr ent situation of these garages in downtown Orlando. T he different types of garages, the ir different construction s, and the city s policies would limit the ir reuse so t his framework would allow municipalities and developers to see more directly the reuse p otential of various kinds parking garages and how they can be designed for sustainably future use. I chose downtown Orlando as t he study area is because it has a lot of historical buildings and a pleasant street scale. However, a great deal of floor space in this area is occupied by parking garages ; Figure 1 1 shows the ir building footprint s I f we can develop and reuse these buildings, more vitality could be brought into th e area.

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14 Figure 1 1 Building footprints of parking garages in d owntown Orlando ( Source: Google Map s, edited by the author ) Because there are few research articles on this topic I hope this research can give future planners and urban designers a better understanding of the adaptive reuse of parking garages and new parking garage proj ects. 1.3 Organization of the P aper Chapter 1 introduc es the topic and explains the necess ity of the adaptive reuse of downtown parking garages. Chapter 2 is a review of the literature. This chapter mainly analyzes current parking issues in the United Sta tes, development trend s of future cities and the advantages of adaptive reuse as described in previous studies.

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15 This review provides strong support for the following chapters. Chapter 3 introduces the methods and procedures I use d to complete this researc h. Chapter 4 is a presentation of the research findings and results. In C hapter 5 I expla in the limitations of the research and give an extended discussion of the results. Chapter 6 is a summary of the entire paper.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This li terature review focuses on the problem of excessive parking in the United States and future transportation development patterns. These problems play a large role in the underus e of parking garages and an understanding them can improve our grasp of the cur rent situation. Th is review also defin es adaptive reuse and summarizes its environmental and social benefits to lay a foundation for the follow up research 2.1 Parking I ssues in the U.S. 2.1.1 Parking S paces a re Oversupplied The United States is known as the nation on wheels. Because of its large number of cars, the demand for parking spaces is also very high. Extensive p arking lots can be seen in cities almost everywhere in the United States. Scharnhorst ( 2018) look ed at how parking consumes land and m oney five U.S. cities : New York ; Philadelphia ; Seattle ; Des Moines, Iowa; and Jackson Wyoming. The study considered parking occupancy in these cities and found that in Jackson, 68 % of parking spaces in residential areas were empty as were 61 % in the midt own area. One of the ma in public park ing garages in Des Moines ha d a vacancy rate of 92 % P arking occupancy rates have also been declining annually according to the available data for Seattle and Philadelphia. Even i n New York, only the cheapest parking ga rages are fully utilize d. This implies that parking is oversupplied in the U S ; c ities appear to provide more parking spaces than they actually need. Another study revealed the crucial problem that no cities consider the ir actual parking suppl ies and wast ed cost s of parking (Scharnhorst, 2018; Shoup, 2017). Manville and Shoup (2005) revealed that many people includ ing professional s and

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17 academic s, usually ignore parking in the study of traffic patterns. Furthermore most automobiles are parked 95 % of the time on average ( Greenblatt 201 6 ) but researchers focus mainly on times when the car is moving. 2.1.2 Excessive Parking I s a n E conomic B urden on D rivers and C ities When you look at parking in terms of time and money, some of the numbers are shocking. IN RIX (201 7) released a study of how much parking costs drivers and cities after analyz ing a survey of 6,000 American drivers. The y found that American drivers spend an average of 17 hours a year looking for parking spot s and $345 on wasted time, gas, and em issions. Moreover, Americans pay $20 billion annually for parking S h oup (2000) argued that it is unreasonable to set minimum parking requirement s without considering parking cost s and construction cost s In another st udy, he explained in detail that 99 % of car trips in the U.S. involve free park ing Although minimum parking requirement s can increase parking demand and reduce parking price s they will not reduce the cost of the parking space itself Conversely, cities t hat offer more free parking also offe r more expensive goods and services. The costs of parking also include land development fee s such as those for building parking lots. Scharnhorst (2018) highlighted the fact that each structured parking space in the U. S. costs $60,000 or more to develop. Parking spaces in d owntown areas may cost more because they occupy valuable urban land. 2.2 F uture U rban F orms Technology is moving so fast that we can no t keep up with it but we can see many clues about how cities and transportation will change in the fu ture. These trends tell us that cit y governor s and planners need to alter their urban planning methods to accommodate future changes.

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18 2.2.1 The New Urbanism Future Since the massive d evelopment of suburbanization, downtown area s ha ve been gradually forgot ten. How to revitalize city center s has been a topic of discussion for a long time. The new urbanism seems to offer some hope. The new urbanism aims to redefine communit ies by strengthening the design of neighborhoods. The core idea is to build walkable c ommunities and public urban spaces with a pleasant human scale. However, the new urbanism was mostly used in the design and development of suburbs in the past (Bohl, 2000), while downtown areas we re neglected. Bohl mentioned that applying the new urbanism to reviv e inner city area s has becom e increasingly common in recent years however Restoring and reusing old buildings is also part of a strategy for boost ing the econom ies of downtown areas. Robertson ( 1997) also mentioned the growth of street retail as a means of reviving downtown econom ies 2.2.2 The L ess D riving F uture Changes in traffic patterns and travel choices point to a future with less driving. Research has show n that people of younger generations such as millennials, own fewer cars and drive less (Klein & Smart, 2017). A study of older people s travel behavior also show ed a tendency toward less driving (Alsnih & Hensher, 2003). And the number of Americans who get licenses each year has been shrinking (Sivak & Schoettle, 2012) These figures suggest that there will be fewer cars in the future. The popularity of tra nsport ation sharing such as carpooling, car sharing and bicycle sharing, is another reason there is likely to be less driving in the future. One study noted that it took U ber six years to reach its first billion trips, but only six months to reach the second billion in 2016 ( Dias et al. 2017). B ike sharing has also seen huge

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19 growth in the l ast decade. More than 400 cities around the world now have bike sharing services, ma inly in Europe and Asia ( Faghih Imani, Hampshire, Marla & E luru 2017) Bike sharing tri ps in the U.S. have also continued to grow, though, with the number taken in 2017 up 25 % from 2016. By the end of 2017, five major bike sharing companies were operatin g in 25 U.S. cities providing not just bicycles but electric bikes and scooters (NACTO, 2019). T ransportation sharing can ease traffic congestion and air pollution, but modern cities have other ways to solve these problems. Studies have shown that investme nt in public transportation can effectively relieve urban congestion and improve air quality (Beaudoin, Farzin, & Lawell, 2015). Due to increase s in population, many cities have begun invest ing in developing their public transportation to cope with a more crowded future. Coupled with research into self driv ing cars, this strengthen s the case for a future of less driving. Fagnant and Kockelman ( 2015) also show ed that autonomous vehicles can reduce traffic congestion, improve safety, and even reduce park ing i n central urban areas as they can park themselves e lsewhere and avoid crowded areas 2.3 The A rgument for A daptive R euse 2.3.1 Definition Adaptive reuse is a strategy for giv ing building s new functional uses while maintaining their historical structure s a nd features Extending the life of a building by reusing all or part of its original structure has been seen as a sustainable development strategy. From the perspective of urban planning, adaptive reuse can reduce urban sprawl and environmental hazards (Jo achim, 2002)

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20 2.3.2 Benefits According to Bunnell ( 1977) the adaptive reuse of existing buildings can provide several benefits First, it can save on cost s of construction : not tearing down a building can save up to a tenth of the building cost. Secon d, the walls and structure s of the original building can be reused to sav e on building material s Third, less new construction means reduced labor costs. Obviously, time costs will also shrink as construction work is reduced. Moreover, less investment in n ew materials means less energy to produce them, and adaptive use is suitable for energy conservation as well. In addition some states offer tax incentives for the reus e of historical or old buildings. La n gston ( 2008 ) show ed that it usually takes only hal f to three qu arters as much time to restore an old structure as it takes to demolish it and build a new one. Not having to build a foundation and being able to re use existing building elements can also save considerable time and money. From an environmen tal point of view, if the structural elements of an old building are of good quality, then reusing them can save energy and reduce construction waste. Moreover, construction waste needs to be transported after demoli tion which also increase s traffic conge stion. One calculation found that in Seattle, demolishing a concrete building cost $1 million and generated 1,200 truck trips to transport construction waste ( Brown 2011). These trips not only increase the bu rden of urban transportation but also produce s ubstantial carbon emissions. T he reuse of old buildings can also bring social benefits. La n gston (2008) described several: First, old buildings sometimes have heritage value, and they are usually set in pleasa nt streetsca p es with beautiful views. Second, o ld buildings are usually located in what is the center of the city today, so they are usually surrounded by

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21 excellent public transportation systems. The ir reuse is quite feasible. Third the reuse of abandoned buildings can reduce criminal and unsocial beh avior and improve the living environment of the streets. A daptive reuse can also ease urban sprawl and b ecause it can directly use the existing infrastructure, such as water, drainage, electricity c ities do no t have to use new land resources to provide t his (La n gston, 2008). 2.3.3 A daptive R euse of S tand a lone P arking G arages T he literature suggests that we will enter an era of less driving or perhaps of only self driving vehicles If we need to reduce the parking supply, it would be most useful to reduce the number of independent parking garages. There are millions of these in the U S and their average vacan cy rate is 33% (Koch, 2004 ; Brown 2011) In the current urban developme nt situation they are underused and are likely to be abandoned entirely in the future, in which case the y could be come unsafe. Independent parking garages usually occupy entire city block s and are generally dark, lifeless and used only for storing cars. In urban centers where land is valuable, these places could be better used by being developed for other purposes suited to medium sized urban building s From the perspective of architectural structure, a parking garage is very suitable for renovation and reuse. The core components of a building are its foundations, columns, beam s, and floor slabs. After these are put together space planning, interior desi gn, facade decoration, and other follow up work are carr ied out. Parking garages are easier to reuse than other buildings because they can be directly repurposed with new space planning, interior design, and facade decoration.

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22 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY To expl ore the adaptive reuse of the parking garage, I conducted qualitative research, includ ing research analysis, site visit s comparative case stud ies and policy analysis. Due to t he limited literature, comparing existing cases was one way to identify practic al method s of dealing with different kind s of old buildings. The policy analysis provide d a basis for th e research and limit ed its results to reasonable norms. After that, I too k independent parking garage s in downtown Orlando as my primary research object s. I sorted the garages into types according to building structure and f inally developed a feasibility framework for their adaptive reuse. 3. 1 Case Study Analysis In t his thesi s I take advantage of four completed cases of adaptive reuse to study current methods, especially those used with parking garage s U nderstanding how the site, scale, and function of the project can be transformed and the means of design used can provide a theoretical and practical basis for the feasi bility report. The first case is the Broadway Autopark in downtown Wichita, Kansas. This case involved the transformation of a historic pr e ser v ed parking garage in to a mixed use residential building. Autopark is one of the few places in the United States where garages have been completely adaptive ly reused I t wa s opened in 2018 and its lease s were fully booked in advance. As this is a leading project in its field studying its advantages and disadvantages can let us draw lessons for future projects. The second case is the SCADpa d in A tlanta This is a new form of housing in a garage T he Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD) developed a new approach to adaptive reuse by inventing a residential unit to put into the old parking garage instead

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23 of reconstructing the old structure and t he concept was tested in a n underused parking garage in midtown Atlanta near the campus. The units we re p refabricated and fully equipped with living facilities. Every part of i t was designed for sustainability and energy conservation. This is a promising project as the world faces climate change and growing energy consumption. W ith the advent of driverless c ars, we may no longer need downtown parking garages but may face more s e vere pollution and overpopulation problem s, and SCADpad may be an economical solution. Learning about it helped me gain a better knowledge base on sustainable development and set my si ghts further. The third case is a project on the main campus of N orthwe stern U niversity called The Garage As incubators of new technologies, many universities are working on driverless cars and using their campuses as testing grounds. T he transformation of th is parking garage into a creative student center was well tested an d successful. Although campus es are different from ur ban environment s a main campus is like the downtown of a university. It would be a great benefit if parking garage s could be converted into other places students could use. The fourth case is a mall re novation project called Arcade in downtown P rovidence Rhode Island. This was once the oldest indoor mall in the U.S., and after it was closed, it went through several unsuccessful development attempts. The most recent finally brought it back to the forefr ont as a prime example of adaptive reuse. Although it was not a parking garage, it was a medium sized urban building like most parking garages It is now an adaptive reuse project in the city center, and its successful

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24 transformation support s the more gene ral reuse of old buildings in downtown areas This is why I chose it as a case stud y 3. 2 Study A rea S election and D ata C ollection The study area was set up in downtown Orlando, Florida. Th is is the historic and commercial center of the city According to one report ( Downtown Orlando, 2018) the residential population here grew from 10,559 in 2000 to 17,870 in 2018. The report predict ed that Orlando s population will continue to grow over the next few years. There are 13,054 units with a 94.4 % occupancy rat e and an average rental cost of $1,7 81 (Downtown Orlando, 2018). Th ese data also show that many commuters live outside the city center and need to travel in using different kinds of transportation. From the literature, we know that a good geographical loc ation and convenient public transpor tation are conducive to the adaptive reuse of old buildings. Downtown Orlando has a good public transportation infrastructure : the local bus service LYNX serves 88 routes in the metropolitan area, and its central station is downtown. M ore than 30 bus route s run from here to the entire Orlando metropolitan area. In addition LYMMO operates four fare free circulator route s under LYNX that provide convenient access around the downtown area. LYMMO is the first free downtown b us system operat ing in the U S. In a ddition to public buses, Sunrail a commuter rail system in central Florida has four stations in downtown Orlando. Downtown Orlando also has many beautiful historic buildings, along with pleasant city blocks and archit ectural scales. B ike sharing is beco ming more popular in the area, and when people walk on the street, they often see cyclists and other pedestrians. For these reasons Orlando downtown has shown a trend of changing traffic patterns.

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25 As the population gr ows and cities become denser and invest more in public transport ation people will come to depend less on private cars and thus require less parking. The Economic Development Department discussed this in a 2015 study on reducing minimum parking requirement s. T hey found that parking facilities built with minimum parking requirements were occupied at 30% below the required number of parking spaces. The opinions in the report are also consistent with those in the literature : First, minimum parking requirements need t o var y between locations. Second, an oversupply of parking facilities increases cost s to the city, reduces useable land, and increas es the cost per unit. Third, downtown Orlando s parking problems reflect those of the nation, as other states are als o tryin g to reduce minimum parking requirements so that downtown area s can better develop other modes of transportation. I chose downtown Orlando as the research area on the basis of these points In light of current development trend s it has been specula ted tha t downtown parking garage s will be underused or abandoned in the future. Although cit ies could tear them down and put up new buildings, the literature reports a lot of negative effects of tearing down an old building. If a city knock s down ten parki ng garages, the se negative effects will be multiplied ten fold I focus just on the publicly owned garages because their data are more accessible. Figure 2 1 shows tw elve downtown Orlando public parking facilities. No s 7 and 12 are flat parking lots, and no. 8 is not an independent garage s o include d in this study. I collected m ost of the data through field trips and observation ; some data were obtained f rom the Orlando government website. Modeling software ( Sketchup ) s atellite maps and pi ctures were also used to help with the research.

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26 Figure 3 1. Map of publicly owned parking facilities in Orlando (Source: City of Orlando).

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27 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND RESULTS 4.1 Case Studies T he United States currently has only minimal cases of adaptive r euse of parking garage s T he reviewed cases include only one completely renovated downtown parking garage case, two cases of partial reuse and one case o f reusing an old shopping mall. In this thesis I make a comparative study of these cases to analyze t heir advantages and disadvantages. B ecause of the limited literature on the adaptive reuse of parking garages, this compar ison of actual examples can enri ch the foundation of the research. It can also bridge the gap between research theories and real cases to allow a more comprehensive and detailed analysis 4.1.1 Broadway Autopark, Wichita, Kansas B ackground. Broadway Autopark in downtown Wichita is now a 44 unit high end residential a nd commercial complex (Figure 4 1) A few years ago however, it was a forgotten garage : Knightley s Parking Garage (Figure 4 2). This 101,000 sq ft five story garage was a product of the explosion of the postwar automobile industry and could store 500 automobiles. It is a good representative of American multi story parking garage s, with modern architectur e, an open air design, cement structure, twin spiral ramps, and an ex posed horizontal banding skeletal structure. It was a bustling spot in the downtown area after being built in 1949. Customers enjoy ed valet parking, restr ooms, small storage spaces and even air conditioned waiting areas However, it was completely closed in the early 1980s due to increasing suburbanization and a lack of demand for valet services. After that it became an abandoned garbage dump. Its

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28 unique appearance and important status however, landed it on both the n ational and s tate r egister s of h istor ic p laces in 2016. Like most parking garages, this one has large beams and columns, low floor heights and hard to use ramps. It would be difficult to t urn it into a residential building under the constraints of the original structure. Moreover, because it wa s register ed as a historic building, its renovation faced higher requirements ; f or example, it could not destroy the features of its faade. Similarl y, chang ing the land use from a parking structure to an R 2 residential use require d the approval of the city which neeed to recognize a strong sense of identity in the building Th is add ed further restrictions to the rebuilding. As a result the project cost $5 million and did no t save much money according to the developer. It was opened on April 1, 2018. Figure 4 1 Broadway Autopark building after reconstruction (Source: https://sheldenarchitecture.com/ portfolio _item/broadway parking garage/ )

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29 F i gure 4 2 Old garage building (Source: http://broadwayautopark.com/about ) Reuse solution. The overall design of the project is based on the idea of mixed use. The ground floor is used for public parking, administrative offices, amenities, and small retail Because the building is in Wichita s downtown area, retail use maximize s the advantage s o f the ground floor. The other four levels have about ten one bedroom units each on the east side, and a single unique ly shaped unit on the west side. Th ese last unit s take advantage of part of the ramp and are very popular due to their unusual shape and la rge area. What makes these apartments even more attractive is that the spaces on each floor between the apartments still retain the ir parking function. This kind of front door parking is rare in traditiona l apartment buildings (Figure 4 3). Th e mix used de sign also maximizes the structural and location advantages of the building. All the units are one bedroom apartments with complete kitchens and restrooms. Beams need to be exposed to the ceiling due to floor height restrictions, so

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30 the overall interior des ign style follows a theme of cement and industry, which is also in line with a parking garage The project takes advantage of the existing structur e of the buildin g, in which walls are erected to separate s paces. The e lectricity plumbing and HVAC have been redesigned and fitted to the structure using exposed design methods as show n in Figure 4 4. Because the original MEP system of the garage only conform ed to the code for parking garage s, it had only a simple plumbing system to supply el ectricity and water for lights, elevators and fire sprinklers. The entire MEP system was thus redesigned by MEP engineers to accommodate residential and other uses Figure 4 3 P arking spaces in the Broadway Autopark building (Source: https://sheldenarc hitecture.com/portfolio_item/broadway parking garage/ )

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31 F igure 4 4 Interior design of an apartment (Source: https://sheldenarchitecture.com /portfolio_item/broadway parking g arage/ ) Lesson s T his parking garage was preserved because it was listed i n the Register of H istoric P laces But w e should not only focus on historic buildings ; buildings without great significance but with good structural qualit ies should also receive att ention as it take s a lot of labor and financial resources to protect and reconstruct a building under the strict requirements of historic al preservation Second, most of the tenant s said in their feedback that because the units use the original wall s and ceiling s of the structure, they are not as well insulated as current residential buildings. This has led to a heavy electricity use for air conditioners. This project indicates that more economical and efficient renovation methods are needed for parki ng ga rages. 4.1.2 SCADpad Atlanta, Georgia B ackground. SCADpad is a parking garage housing model designed by the Savannah College of Art and Design to cope with an increasingly crowded urban

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32 environment. It is a sustainable and efficient solution to the growi ng demand for urban housing units around the world. SCAD set up a cross disciplinary team and spent ten months completing the project from engineering to architecture and interior design. They created dwelling units that perfectly accommodate standar d 9 18 ft parking spaces. According to their findings the units they developed could be accepted by the next generation. The design was applied in an underused garage on the SCAD campus in midtown Atlanta as a test project (Figure 4 5 ). The usage of so me pa rking garages in Atlanta is in decline because of the development of mass transit and shared transportation. Reuse solution. This garage has five stories, and the project use d part of the fourth floor as a test area Three micro dwelling units were placed, and some public spaces were also planned (Figure 4 6 ). Each micro unit is 135 sq ft and has an additional green space to extend the living area Figure 4 8 shows the floor plan for this project. The cost per unit ranges from $40,000 to $60,000, which qu alifie s them as affordable housing. The walls, ceilings and floors of the units are made of special insulation material. The unit s are designed to generate electricity using solar panels. Each is equipped with LED light s and low power appliances. At the b ottom of each unit is a large storage tank to supply water for domestic use; it can be replenished by connecting pipes. The w ater supply to the garden is recycled from domestic wastewater to reduce waste The design ers argue d that a limited water supply ca n reinforce residents awareness of sustainability because unlike ordinary houses the taps can not run indefinitely. The HV A C is installed on the ceiling, and the kitchen has ventilation holes

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33 The whole indoor environment is equipped with advanced techno logy, including an i P ad that control s the electrical appliances. R esident s can use this to control the temperature or even whether items are delivered directly to the door. Due to the small size of the unit s this project included a lot of public s paces i ncluding recreation areas, rest areas and even a garden where vegetables can be grown. Residents can rest and sleep in the unit and go out for leisure activities and meals Figure 4 5 SCADpad in Atlanta (Source: https://www.mnn.com/your home/remodeling design /blogs/scadpad a micro housing community founded on big ideas launches in )

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34 F igure 4 6 Public space in Atlanta SCADpad (Source: http://www.scadpad.com/ ). Figure 4 7 SCA D pad s green garden (Source: https://weburbanist.com/2014/07/21 /scadpads parkin g garage turned tiny house village/ )

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35 F igure 4 8 Floo r plan of SCADpad (Source: https://tinyhouseblog.com/tiny house concept/scadpad/ ) Lesson s In this project, each living unit was prefabricated and then placed in the garage. Unlike the Autopark apartment s the inde pendent design of the units means they do not use the walls of the existing structure so they can be self insulate d to save energy. Second, underneath each unit are wheel s to let it move around, making it look like a mobile home that can be put in a garag e (Figure 4 9 ). The l ow building cost and eas e of move ment make the unit economical and efficient. When a building can no longer be used, the unit can be easily removed ra ther than demolished This housing model has the potential to address shortage s in affordable housing, especially in urban centers with large numbers of low income residents. The disadvantage of this model is that the space in the unit is limited, as are t he electricity and water consumption, which means a decline in quality of life The d esigners us ed technology and public space to make up for this. It i s more like

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36 everyone has a private bedroom, but they share a bigger public living room. mode l of living undergoes a huge shift when they live in SCADpad. F igur e 4 9 SCADpad construction process ( Source : https://www.scad.edu /event /2019 04 22 scad sustainable journey scadpad earth day lunch and learn ) 4 1 3 The Garage Northwestern University B ackground T he N orthwestern University campus has a great entrepreneurial community called T he G arage inspired by Bill Gates garage startup. The 11,000 square foot creative space reuses part of a parking garage in the main campus area to provide students with a cross disciplinary meeting space where they can communicate and gather to inspire each other s innovati ons

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37 F igur e 4 10 Graphic of the building section (S ource: Northwestern University ). Reuse solution Because this is a creative space, its floor plan design is flexible. It has sm all offices that can be changed by lifting and lowering the doors. T here are also stud ios, a 3D printing room, a VR experience lab, some private booths, a meeting room and a kitchen. Figure s 4 11 and 4 12 show the environment in side The Garage F igure 4 11 I nterior space of The Garage (S ource: Northwest ern University )

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38 F igure 4 12 O ffice space (S ource: Northwest ern University ) Lesson s T hese reused spaces, such as the meeting room, discussion space, printing room s and VR lab, can be very flexible in design as they must meet fewer spatial standard s and require less natural light t han other living spaces. There are other architectural spaces in our lives that have flexible natural light and height requirements such as exhibition and p rojection space s Such areas could be considered in future adaptive reuse design. Second, this proj ect only uses part of the parking garage space. As the United States is still a car leading society, phased development is a good reuse solution for garages that are underused but not completely abandoned. 4 1 4 R elated C ase : Arcade, Providence, Rhode Isl and Arcade is not a reused garage, but it is a building in a downtown area similar in size to a normal parking garage. Its successful renovation could also i nspire the reuse of downtown parking garages.

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39 B ackground Arcade in downtown Providence, was once the oldest indoor mall in the United States It was built in 1828 The 53,440 square f oo t building has three stories, a glass skylight over an atrium and an ancient Greek styled faade (Figure 4 14 ) As suburbanization increased many tenant s relocated th eir businesses to the suburb s T he number s of customers on the second and third floors also decreas ed because there was no elevator. Eventually the bu ilding was abandoned, but it remained a landmark for residents. With three universities Brown, Rhode Islan d School of Design and Johnson & Wales University the city s econom y has shifted to ward education and research but what students need most is afford able housing. F igure 4 13 I nterior of the old mall (Source: https://www.arcadeprovidence.com/ )

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40 F ig ure 4 14 Arcade building fa ade (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Westminster_Arcade ) Reuse solution A developer bought the building and re designed it as a commercial and residential complex in 2013 The ground floor now has seventeen retail and p ublic rest s paces The second and third floors contain 48 micro apartments Figure 4 15 shows the new section of the building. These micro units range from 425 to 600 square feet and are fully furnished (Figure 4 16 ) The y have become very popular ; most of the tenants are students and young professionals.

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41 F igure 4 15 Graphic of the new section of the building (Source: https://www.cnu.org/what we do/build great places/micro lofts arcade providence ). F igure 4 16 One of the micro apartment s (Source: https://www.cnu.org/what we do/build great places/micro lofts arcade providence ).

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42 Lesson s Reusing a building instead of abandoning it is the best way to preserve it and to bring it back to life. It is possible to convert a medium sized urban building into a mixed use complex of micro apartments and ground floor retail. The geographical location of this building has great advantages, which can save transportation time and costs for commuters in the city center. The micro apartments are also affordable and suitable for young individuals and couples. Finally, the model of u pper floor apartments and ground floor retails makes life simple. 4.2 Summary of the Case Studies T o better compare the basic information between the cases, Figure 4 17 shows a summary. I t can be conclude d that these buildings are no longer single use but are mixed use after the appl ication of adaptive reuse design. Structures that were abandoned have been completely retrofitted. Structures with low or expected low usage rates have been partially retrofitte d as a test project. The three mixed use projects are located in urban centers, and The Garage is located in the main area of a university campus. Conversion to mixed residential use was selected for the three urban projects and has been tested to be relat ively successful. E ach project shows some advantag es and disadvantages of adaptive reuse These are summarized in Figure 4 18 Broadway Autopark is a good example of mixed use redevelopment of a stand alone parking garage. The facilities on the ground floo r are a convenience for residents and also increas e the rental income and reviv ify the street economy. The residential units on the upper floors have open door parking and comfortable dwelling spaces. However, the wall s of the original structure are used a s walls of the residential unit s which leads to l ow insulation efficiency and noise resistance. The new MEP system also

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43 adds high cost s to the project and the design does not consider energy conservation. Each floor has only eleven units so the structure is not being used efficiently. Figure 4 17 Case studies summary (edited by the author) Figure 4 18 S trengths and weakness es of cases (edited by the author) I believe that SCADpad solve s the problem s of Broadway Autopark. Its prefabric ated micro housing units can be easily placed in different pa rking structure s The p recast wall systems also address the noise, insulation, and other problems using new lightweight materials. Prefabrication and low building cost s also make this economical and affordable F or example, if the parking structure is demo lished for some reason, the mobile living unit s can be put in other places. The units have sustainable

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44 designs, including low power appliances and water storage tanks. Moreover, one bu ilding can hold many micro units, so the reuse efficiency of the floor a rea is high. All the se points are consistent with the concept of sustainable development. These cases show that people have begun to look for ways to reuse independent parking garage s and found some success. Th ey also show a trend toward the adaptive reus e of old buildings through vertical and mixed use development of urban spaces. The G arage at Northwestern University shows how parking garages can be transformed partially at first. Then i f necessary, phased development can be carried out in the future. T he structure of the parking garage is also suitable for flexible use s such as innovation spaces Adaptive reuse programs in universities are also educational and mak e more stu dents aware of the importance of sustainability. For garages that are not suitab le for renovation to regular use creative s paces may thus be a good choice because they have few requirement s for space planning. However, this project uses a space without na tural light or ventilation, which leads to more energy consumption. Arcade is no t a garage reuse project, but it is a success story in the conversion of old downtown buildings in to micro apartments. It shows that the housing demand in downtown s is huge an d its success shows that the young er generation s care more about the convenience s of daily life than the size of housing space. This project makes good use of the original structure of the building, and the historical fa ade is well protected. Commercial u se on the ground floor provide s convenience to residents and neighbors and stren gthen s the downtown economy.

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45 4.3 P arking G arage S tructures in General The primary purpose of the parking garage is to allow cars to move vertically to reach parking places. Parking garages may look similar, with simple facades, columns, and floors, but the ir inside structures can be very different. Due to site conditions and cost requirements, designers use different methods and structures to maximize parking efficien cy The internal vertical traffic pattern s are the key to differentiating these structur e s Three main forms of vertical transportation are used: ( 1 ) s taggered floors with one or two way circulation slopes ; ( 2) f lat floors with one or two way circulation slopes or helical ramps ; and ( 3) s loping floor s with one or two way circulation. The c irculation slopes in the second and third type s can be used for both circulation and parking spaces. Because ramps and slopes cannot be reused, however, the area of fla t floor determines the reuse area of the whole parking structure. Gensler ( 2018) noted t hat the more flat floor there is the higher the potential for repurposing. Figure 4 19 Types of parking garage structure (Sour ce : http://www.polarinertia.com/nov04/parking01.htm )

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46 F igure 4 20 Optimization of parking structure design (Source: Gensler) 4.4 Publicly O wned P arking G arage s in D owntown Orlando This section is an analysis of nine parking garages in Orlando regarding their original structures. The purpose is to explor e the limitations and possibilities of the reuse of parking garage buildings as transforming the original building for different function s depends on the condition of the structure itself. Both new and renovated buildings in the U.S. need to follow the In ternational Building Code (IBC ) which provides detailed specifications on the use of buildings, basic dimensions, and related matters The model building code was published by the International Code Council (ICC ). Similarly, residential buildings need to comply with the International Residential Code (IRC). So the analysis will refer to the criteria of the IBC, IRC, and related standard s This will let us determine what uses garages can be converted to with in the constraints of the ir original structures. T he main concern s in this section are the form of the floor, the load of the floor and the height of the floor. These are the basic normative components of a building. This section also provide s a brief analysis of daylight and ventilation based on the sta ndards. For ease of reading, the names of parking garages are replaced by the serial numbers in Figure 4 21 This table summarizes the basic information about all nine garages, including the number of floor s garage clearance height, and building area.

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47 Figure 4 21 Data on publicly owned parking garages (edited by the author.) Ramps. The key to distinguishing garage style s is the means of vehicle circulation the different ways of combining ramps and floors. In general, these parking garages fall into fi ve types, as Figure 4.4 1 shows. The y also use two kinds of ramps: those wide enough to accommodate parking spaces, and non parking ramps. Most of them (garage s 1, 2, 4, 5 & 6) use a central ramp system to circulate traffic; each of these is structured as a combination of flat floors with parking ramps Garage 3 has half continuous parking ramps and half flat floors. Garage 7 uses a continuous slope d floor system. G arage 8 has a flat floor with helical non parking ramps. Garage 9 has non parking flat floors with ramps on one side only According to Kimley Horn s parking structure design guidelines (2016) parking ramps are more common because they are more economical, and their ramps usually have a slope of about 5%. N on parking ramps are common in airports, casinos, large retail locat ions and special event structures They usually have lower parking efficiency

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48 and construction cost s per space are greater because of the lower number of spaces per square f oo t The ir slope s are usually between 12 % and 14%. Figure 4 21 also shows the proportion of slope s and ramp s to total garage area. This lets us identify the maximum reusable floor area of the garage. Seven of the garages have ramps or slopes accounting for between 10% and 22% of the total area while garage 3 is 45% ramps, and in garage 7, all the floors are slopes. G arage s 3 and 7 are thus likely to pose greater challenges to adaptive reuse. The r amps and slopes in the other nine garages can be retained for circulation or removal, depending on the overall reuse desig n. Figure 4 22 Five types of publicly owned parking garages (edited by the author) Floor l oad. Generally speaking, the bearing capacity of a building is divided into live loads and death loads. According to the IBC definition a live load is the dynamic weight a building needs to bear. The d ead load is the permanent weight the structure needs to be ar such as the weight of the walls themselves. It might seem that parking garage s need to bear a lot of weight, but in fact their loa ds are similar to those of residential buildings. According to the IBC ( 2018 1607.1), the floor load of a garage should b e 40 pounds per square foot (psf ). Similar load requirements are for office use (50 psf) and residential use (40 psf). This means that the most suitable reuse of parking garage s is residential. If the structure s are reinforced to bear 50 psf, they might al so be

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49 transform ed into office building s E conomical ly, however, residential use is the first choice, which is consistent with the reus e solution s in the case studies. Floor height. The height of the floors is also an important dimension of a building. Of the nine parking garages all but garage 7 (6 feet 10 inches) have clearance height s between 7 feet and 8 feet 2 inches. Clearance he ight is usually measured as the distance from the floor to the beam In places with no beams, it is usually 2 to 2. 5 feet higher. T he ground floor is typically 1 to 3 feet higher than the upper floors. The number of beams and columns differs between garage s In other word s the minimum ceiling height of these spaces is between 7 feet and 8 feet 2 inches. According to the IBC ( 2018, 1207.2) and the Florida B uilding Code all occupiable interior spaces should have ceiling height s of at least 7 feet 6 inches, except bathrooms, storage rooms, and laundry rooms which should be at least 7 feet. G arage s 1, 2, 5, and 6 have a cl earance height of 7 feet, which means convert ing them to other use s is difficult F igure 4 23 Typical annual life cycle costs of different construction methods (Source : https://ieiusa.com/how long will my parking structure last/ )

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50 Durability Parking garages are usually made of concrete. The main advantage of this i s that they are very durable. Con crete structure s use two main building methods : pre cast and cast in place. Most of Orlando s parking garages are pre cast concrete structures. A concrete structure typically has a design life of around 50 years, but with p roper maint e n ance they can last m ore than 100 years without problems According to one article ( Weiland 2018), cast in place buildings have lower maintenance costs. D aylight and ventilation According to the IBC, generally speaking, the net glazed area should not be less than 8 % of the room floor area. O pen air parking garages can easily meet this specification S ome parking garages with fa ade decoration will block th e effective lighting area which must be considered in subsequent design. However, due to the low height of parking garage s the depth of daylight penetration into the interior is low so only a limited area on the periphery can be effectively used for res idential and similar purp oses Natural ventilation is also required, but mechanical ventilation can be used instead in some areas if necessary Ventilation efficiency must meet different specifications depending on the use. Water, electric ity, and plumbing These parking garages all have lighting and sprinklers, so they also have access to water and electricity. However, the connection s for both must be redesigned if the buildings are to be reused, and the case studies show that this is a system tha t can be r edeployed in the structures. Life s afety The fire and life safety requirements for parking garage s are different from those of other structures If they are to be reused, the existing fire and life safety systems need to be redesign ed and modif i ed Simil arly, enhancements to the egress

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51 system are needed as density increases. The se modification s should accord with the Life S afety C ode 4. 5 Adaptive Reuse Feasibility Framework for E ach G arage T ype Given the current situation of downtown Orlando, our analysis suggests that i f the building conditions meet the requirements, the best reuse pattern will be mixed use r edeveloping the ground floor for commercial use and the upper floors for residential use. However, s hopping and office mode s ha ve changed; f or example, we can do almost everything through the i nternet now. We may also face exploding populations. in the future. So this feasibility study will also consider extreme case of converting all the reusable floors into living units. Under th ese two reuse solutions mixed use and maximum residential, the advantages and disadvantages of adaptive reuse of different type of garages will be analyzed. 4.5.1 Garage Type I Figure 4 24 shows a typical model of the first type of parking garage ; five o f the nine garages (1, 2, 4, 5 & 6) were built in this form. It has a big ramp system in the central part account ing for 17% to 22% of the total floor area with two driv ing lanes in the mi ddle and parking spaces on both sides of the ramp on each floor. S tairs and elevators are usually placed at four corners of the building.

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52 F igure 4 24 Typical m odel of garage t ype I (edited by the author) Mixed u se. According to the analysis of the original structure, the most suitable re development mode is the reu se of the ground floor as commercial or office space, as the ground floor is higher than the others and has no floor load limit. The upper floors can be reused as living spaces. Figure 4 25 shows a cross section of such a building The design of the dwelli ng units has been discussed in the previous chapters ; the SCADpad s many advantages make it stand out among this group Because this type of parking garage is surrounded by four narrow rectangle spaces, it is suitable for the SCADpad unit s F igure 4 25 Cross section of mixed use building (edited by the author)

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53 Ramps cannot be reused, but the ramps in this type of garage have park ing spaces which w e could consider preserving. As we saw with Broadway Autopark, this gives residents easy access to parking spaces. Due to the natural light and ventilation, the units are more suitable for arrang ement along the peripher ies of the floors but not in the inner areas around the slopes. C ar circulation could be arranged in this area to allow on ramp parking. A typical floor plan example is shown in F igure 4 26 F igure 4 26 T ypical mixed use floor plan for garage type I (edited by the author ) The small blue box es represent dwelling units Maximum r esidential u se. M aximiz ing residential use means plac ing dw elling and related function al units on 83 % to 78 % of the total floor area exc luding the ramps. Some changes could be made to add dwelling units. This garage type usually has a circle of structural columns on the outer wall and a nother around the slope. The ramps are directly attached to the columns in the inner circle. It is technically possible to remove these ramps in whic h case the central area could be used as an atrium or enclosed garden or for ventilation and lighting and the structure could be max imally reused ( see Figure 4 27 )

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54 F igure 4 27 T ypical mixed use floor plan for garage type I without ramps (edited by the author) Challenges. T he floor height (beam to floor) of the upper stories in this kind of garage is relatively low. Among the fiv e cases only garage 4 has floors high enough to meet the IBC s requirements for residential us e. The solution is to avoid the beams when arranging the units. In places with no beams, however, stories are typically 2 3 feet taller. The density of the beam s is depends on different factors of structures, so the specific layout planning method should b e developed according to the beam system. Figure 4 28 shows a possibility of the floor plan with low beams. F igure 4 28 T ypical mixed use floor plan for g arage type I with beams (edited by the author)

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55 4.5.2 Garage Type II Mixed u se. Only garage 3 has this type of structure. Nearly half of the floor space in these garage s consists of ramps so the reus able area is minimal. Figure 4 29 shows a typical case The ramp structure is similar to that of type I garage s: t he middle is a two wa y driving space and the sides hold parking spaces. So the redevelopment model can be the same as for type I: the ground floor for commercial space the upper floors for residen ces and the ramps maintained as parking spaces. F igure 4 29 Typical model of garage type II (edited by the author) Maximum r esidential u se. Because only three sides of the flat floor are open to the air, there are few places to arrange living spaces as Figure 4 30 shows. Challenges. Because of its limited reusable space, the reuse value of these garages is limited. T o improve t his we would need to study possibilities for ramp reuse which this research does not include. For residential use, the origina l structure cannot be reuse d maximumly, so I would suggest that this type of garage be considered for flexible reuse, for instance with large areas like studios, creative spaces, or even

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56 community centers However, the floor load requirements also d emand c areful consideration of the design and possibly strengthening of the structural support s Figure 4 30 Maximum residential reuse of garage t ype II (edited by the author) 4.5.3 Garage Type III Only garage 8 belongs to this type. Each floor of this kind of g arage is a gradual continuous slope. S lopes are difficult to reus e, so the reuse value of these garages is relatively low. This research however, did not investigate the reuse of slopes ; there may be new solutions available in the future. 4.5.4 Garage Ty pe s IV & V These two types are treated together because their ramps are only for traffic (they do no t contain parking space s) and thus take up a low percentage of the total floor area. G arage s 8 and 9 belong to these two types respe ctively. Some studies h ave suggest ed that a garage with a large flat floor area can be easily renovated. However, it turns out that building code s restrict the reus e options of these garages The ir floor load s cannot satisfy most architectural functions, a nd the requirements for ventilation and lighting limit the ir division into small spaces. F igure 4 3 1 shows satellite images of two such garages.

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57 F igure 4 3 1 S atellite views of garage types IV & V (Source: Google Maps ) Mixed u se Re development can take the form of both commer cial and residential use Because of the huge size of these garages SCADpads can be placed only on the sides in relatively small area. Therefore, other approaches to space planning are necessary, such as retrofi tting the original walls, as in Broadway Aut opark. Because of their large area, though the buildings can also be considered for a greater variety of other uses, such as exhibition space, office space s and other flexible spaces. Maximum residential u se I t is hard to fully utilize the floor of such a garage while meet ing residential building code s W e might consider the redesign and re planning of the space. For instance, parts of the slabs could be demolished to admit light and create ventilation shafts. Alternatively, one could apply for exceptions to the building codes to accommodate reuse f or example by allow ing full mechanical ventilation in such spaces. Challenges. The difficulty with these garages is their size : Garage 8 is 462,098 sq ft, and GEICO Garage is 983,178 sq ft. It might be best t o consider phased development to make the transition to reuse

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58 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 5. 1 Research Limitation s This study wa s based on a limited literature review and case studies. First, it was developed with respect to parking garage types in downtown Or lando. W e did f i nd that within the constraints imposed by parking garages structure s, they can be reused in limited ways H owever, an actual development project would need to consider many other factors such as the surrounding land use and traffic condit ions. Second, th is study provides a general research framework for different types of parking garages. Within this framework, though, more research into adaptive reuse is needed for example, fire escape s architectural design, space planning, structural d esign, utility arra ngement, and energy saving. These components all need careful but different professional cooperation in each garage type. The study also include s only nine garages in one city; it i s a feasibility study with limited coverage. But due to varying lot size s and conditions, there are many types of parking garages. A complete city wide feasibility report would require a more detailed study of garages. 5.2 Problems E ncountered in the R esea rch The best way to study a building is using drawings of its structure But because these garages were built at different times, it was often difficult to obtain these documents. I could also only conduct a field trip with a laser measuring instrument due to lack of funds and manpower, so I could not make a d etailed survey myself

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59 While survey ing I also encountered problem s of inaccessib ility Permission was required to enter two parking buildings (those of the courthouse and the administration building ) I could only observe these two structure s from the out side. The variety of parking garages and the number of ways they are built went beyond my expectations. Due to the different size s of the lots, different structural forms have been adopted to maximize parking efficiency in different lots and achieve other economic benefits. In my analysis I pointed out that possibilities for adaptive reuse are tightly limited by the conditions of the original structure. This means that different types of parking garages may be suitable for different methods of adaptive re use. There are five forms of construction among the nine garages in Orlando, so it would be hard to invent a reuse method that could accommodate all the garages in one area. Because of the differences in the structure s of the garages, I cannot propose det ailed designs when developing feasibility plan s A complete feasible design requires a lot of profe ssional cooperation, which it would be impossible to include in one study Instead, I only present several of the many possibilities for adaptive reuse base d on the findings in the previous part s of th e thesis. 5.3 Consider ing the U se of T ransitional P erio ds As best I can tell the occupancy rate of parking garages in downtown Orlando is very high on weekdays and very low on weekends and at night. On weekdays I observed that almost all the parking garages were more than 95% occupied As things stand, most Americans, especially in warm, rainy places like Florida, have a hard time switching from private cars to other model s of transportation. People still love their cars and suburban life.

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60 When the era of driverless cars will really arrive is not yet known and it may still be a long time. Transition s are always the hardest time s to go through and it is worth studying n ow how these old parking garages can be r e used during the transition period to limit confusion. In addition to the phased develop ment approach mentioned above, another option is adding time control s for different use s of parking garages. For example, community activities and market s could be held in parking garage s on weekend s Mixed use could be controlled at different time s 5. 4 Gara ge Design for Future Adaptive Reuse The difficulties of garage reuse mentioned above affect the development of the whole research field. A wareness of the need to tr ansform parking garages has increased, but little research and few completed case s exist in this area at the moment Because of the growth in traffic, cit ies may continue to build new parking structures. While designing those garages, professionals must co nsider whether the ir structure s can be easily reused. For example, concrete structures can last longer an increased floor load capacity can accommodate a wider range of uses, and space can be reserved for light and ventilation wells. M any international ca ses can also be used for refere nce on this matter Many of the world s high density cities are built vertically to allow more development. T he TOD model in Hong K ong is a good representative. H igh rise s tend to mix all urban functions in a single building : t he subway runs underground for public transportation; the lower floors provide commercial centers and parking the middl e floors are used as offices a nd the upper floors are used as residences. Th is vertical development mode can provide more usable area for high density cities.

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61 When designing future buildings, we can make it easier to transform them for different function s. For example, parking floors can be easily converted into office or residential use to adapt to the needs of different times as we found that the biggest constraint on adaptive reuse is the original structure of the building. If designers make structure s flexible, the adaptive reuse process will become much easier.

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62 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION According to the literature, the current oversupply of parking in the United States is likely to be phased out in the less driving future A large number of building fa c ilities, including independent parking structures, will then be underused or abandoned ; we are already see ing this trend. For the purpose s of energy conservation and environmental protection, the adaptive reuse of these structures is the best choice. Many people think that parking garage s are firm and stable because vehicles are heavy, but in fact the floor load of parking garage s is similar to those of residential and office spaces M any specific codes also need to be followed for residential and office a p plication such as IBC. Therefore, it is not possible to judge whether a parking garage can be maxim ally reused just by looking at its flat floor areas. Whether a structure can be usefully transformed depends on the following points: ( 1) the construction of the ramps ( 2) the height of floors ( 3) the spacing between the beams and pillars ( 4) the lighting and ventilation conditions, and ( 5) the life of the cement structure. The study will hopefully give urban planners, urban designers, government agencies and developers idea s for handling challenges with parking garages in a future of less driving This i s an environmentally friendly, affordable way to live, and is beneficial to the development of other traffic modes. These old parking garages will have a new life in the less driving future.

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63 LIST OF R EFERENCES Alsnih, R., & Hensher, D. A. (2003). The mobility and accessibility expectations of seniors in an aging population. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 37 (10), 903 16. Beaudoin, J ., Farzin, Y. H. & Lawell, C. Y. C. L. (2015). Public transit investment and sustainable transportation: A review of studies of transit s impact on traffic congestion and air quality. Research in Transportation Economics 52 15 22. Berg, N. (2016, Sept. 2 7). Lots to lose: how cities around the world are eliminating car parks. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com /citi es/2016 /sep/27/cities e liminating car parks parking Bohl, C. C. (2000). New urbanism and the city: Potential applications and implications for distressed inner city neighborhoods. Brown, A. (2011). Alternate o ccupancy : Increasing urban density t hrough reuse of existing parking g arages University of Washington. Bunnell, G. (1977). Built to last: A handbook on recycling old buildings Chr i st, A. P., Smith, M. S., Bhuyan, S., Iqbal, M., & Monahan, D. R. (2012). Parking structures: P lanning, design, construction, maintenance and re pair Springer Science & Business Media. Cookson, G., & Pishue, B. (2017). INRIX Global t raffic s corecard : Appendices. INRIX research. Dias, F. F., Lavieri, P. S., Garikapati, V. M., Astroza, S., Pendyala, R. M., & Bhat, C. R. (2017). A behavioral choice m odel of the use of car sharing and ride sourcing services. Transportation, 44 (6), 1307 23. Faghih Imani, A., Hampshire, R., Marla, L., & Eluru, N. (2017). An empirical analysis of bike sharing usage and rebalancing: Evidence from Barcelona and Seville. Tra nsportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 97, 177 91. Fagnant, D. J., & Kockelman, K. (2015). Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations. Transportation Re search Part A: Policy and Practice 77 167 81. Greenblatt, N. A. (2016). Self driving cars and the law. IEEE S pectrum 53 (2), 46 51. I. C. C. (2018). Chapter 4 : Ventilation In 2018 International Mechanical Code I. C. C. (2018). Chapter 12 : Interior Environment In 2018 International Buildi ng Code I. C. C. (2019). Chapter 12 : Historic Buildings In 2 017 Florida Building Code : Existing Building ( s ixth e dition ).

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64 Joachim, M. (2002) Adaptive reuse Massachusetts Institute of Technology Klein, N. J., & Smart, M. J. (2017). Millennials and ca r ownership: Less money, fewer cars. Transport Policy 53 20 29. Langston, C. (2008). The sustainability implications of building adaptive reuse. In CRIOCM 2008 : International Research Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate, B eijing, China Langston, C Wong F. K. W. Hui E. C. M. & Shen L (2008). Strategic assessment of building adaptive reuse opportunities in Hong Kong. Building and Environment 43 ( 10 ), 1709 18. Manville, M., & Shoup, D. (2005). Parking, people, and cit ies. Journal of Urban Planning and Development 131 (4), 233 45. Manville, M., & Shoup, D. C. (2010). Parking requirements as a barrier to housing developm ent: R egulation and reform in Los Angeles. NACTO, (2019) Bike Share in the U.S.: 2017. Retrieve d fr om https://nacto.org/bike share statistics 2017/ Ohnsman, A. (2018). The end of parking lots as we know them: D esigning for a driverless future. Peters, A. (2017, July 20). See just how much of a city s land is used for parking space s. Fast Company. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/40441392 /see just how much of a citys land is used for parking spaces Robertson, K. A. (1997). Downtown retail revi talization: A review of American development strategies. Planning Perspectives 12 (4), 383 401. Scharnhorst, E. (2018). Quantified p arking: Comprehensive parking inventories for fi ve US c ities. Research Institution for Housing America. Retrieve d from https ://www .documentload .org/documents/4598972 RIHA Parking Report. html. Schmitt, A. (2018, July 12). American cities are drowning in car storage Retrieved from ht tps://usa.streetsblog.org/2018/07/12/american cities are drowning in car storage/ Shoup, D. (2017). The high cost of free parking: Updated edition Routledg e. Sivak, M., & Schoettle, B. (2012). Update: Percentage of young persons with a driver s license c ontinues to drop. Traffic I njury P revention 13 (4), 341.

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65 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETC H Ruchen Zhou was born in Shanghai, China in 1990. She graduated from Shanghai university in 2014 with a bachelor's degree in architecture. Since then she has worked in Shanghai as an architect and participated in some urban planning projects, which stimulated her interest in urban planning. In 201 7 she began the graduate study in University of Florida and received a degree of M aste r of Urban and Regional Planning in 2019.