TEACHER EDUCATION FOR CHINESE EFL CONTEXTS : A CASE STUDY OF US TRAINED PROFESSORS TEACHING ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES By NATHANIEL T. MURRAY A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2019
Â© 201 9 Nathaniel T. Murray
To my parents
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This is not the conclusion, but certainly the most important milestone, in a journey that began in May 2007 when I popped a teach yourself CD into my car and listened to my first few words of Mandarin Chinese. At that time, I had no idea how far in physical miles and in l ife experiences this silly notion of learning Chinese would actually take me. I have received so much help from so many people along the way. . . My doctoral committee, for the support and guidance they have provided. Zhihui Fang, who opened up to me the world of academic writing, and whose high quality mentorship always kept me on the right track. Danling Fu, who offered me the opportunity of a lif etime the day that she knocked on my office door to ask for my help in the piloting of the nascent China 4+1 program. Elizabeth Bondy , who excels at helping students think through their own ideas to develop their research interests . Russ Bernard, a most im portant mentor since before I began my Ph.D. studies, helping to equip me with the best of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches to conduct many kinds of high quality research. Their spouses also cannot be forgotten. Bill Lang, for his fr iendship and valuable career guidance. And Carole Bernard, who has known me since I was a baby. Many other UF faculty members deserve my thanks and appreciation. Cyndy Griffin, our longtime family friend who provided significant guidance during my Ph.D. ap plication process ; I will always be indebted to her . Seven Terzian, who also guided me through the application process . Maria Coady, who provided helpful support , shared her vast knowledge of working with second language learners , and helped co write my first academic publication. Tom Ratican, who has provided guidance and mentorship long before my Ph.D. studies .
5 M any classmates have also been there to help me thro start listing people by name, I will accidentally leave off several important names. But they know who they are ; every one of them means a lot to me . I could not have completed this project without the many Chinese teachers of college English who opened up their classrooms and their lives to me. It is unfortunate that I am not allowed to identify them by name, even though they deserve to be named for all the help they gave me. I am particularly inde bted to my three participants, whose interviews and classroom strategies constitute the major base on which the analysis of this dissertation relies. As they were teaching their students English, they also taught me a great deal about teaching in the conte xt of Chinese universities . Their trust and friendship are extremely important to me. I could also not have done this without the support of my family. Anthropologist Gerald Murray and psychologist Mar Ã a Alvarez, my parents, who probably had the most arduous task of all , and who dedicated themselves to that task with unfailing loyalty and commitment. They have spent their careers helping and advising students, including their son, the most difficult student of all. A large family of cousins, aunts, and uncles in Miami and in the Dominican Republic also deserve my deep gratitude. To all of them, my warmest Â¡ muchÃsimas gracias !
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 4 LIST OF TABLES 10 LIST OF FIGURES 11 ABSTRACT 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 14 Problem Statement 14 Purpose of the Study 15 Research Questions 16 Significance of the Study 16 Limitations of the Study 18 2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 20 Overview 20 The Language of the Barbarians 20 The Language of the Diplomats 2 4 The Language of the Enemy 31 Chinese Study Abroad in the United States 36 English Teach ing in China Today 38 3 LITERATURE REVIEW 39 Historical Development of Research on Teacher Knowledge 39 Reflective Practice and Post Methods Approaches 42 Diversification of the Teacher Knowledge Base 44 Kno wledge 44 Pedagogical Content Knowledge 45 Personal Practical Knowledge 45 Disciplinary Linguistic Knowledge 47 English for Teaching 47 Interdisci plinary Approach 48 Search for a Unified Theoretical Framework 50 Sociocultural Turn in Language Teacher Education 53 Directions for Future Research 57 What Teachers Learn in their Teacher Education Programs 57
7 Ho 57 Factors That Influence Teacher Learning and Classroom Practice 58 4 METHODOLOGY 59 Overview 59 Participant Selection and Recruitment 60 Collection .. 60 Interviews 60 Classroom Observations 61 Analysis 62 Interviews 62 Classroom Observations 63 Trustworth iness 64 5 ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES THE CASE OF CHU 69 Overview 69 Current Institution 69 Educational Background 71 Language Education Cluster 71 Educational Technology Cluster 73 74 Research Question #1: Types of Knowledge from US Based SLTE 74 TESOL for the Mindset, Literacy for the Substance 74 Teacher as Facilitator 75 Connecting with S 82 Peer Review and Process Writing 84 Signal Words and Rhetorical Structure 87 Jigsaw Method 91 Educational Technology 94 Academic Writing in Steps 96 Research Question #2: Influencing Factors 9 8 Testing Focus (but not in the way you think) 9 8 US Training of Other Professors 100 Administrative Pressures 101 Team Teaching 103 Teaching Assistant Experience 10 3 Educational Technology 10 5 Linguis tic and Institutional Separations 10 6 Conclusion 108 6 SCIENTIFIC WRITING THE CASE OF TAO 1 09 Overview 1 09 Current Institution 1 09
8 Educational Background 11 0 Research Question #1: Types of Knowledge from US Based SLTE 11 1 Scientific Writing and the Whole Language Approach 11 1 One Paragraph, One Idea 11 6 Coherence and Cohesion 11 6 Logical Coherence over Grammatical Correctness 1 19 Points and Subpoints 12 4 Use of L1 12 6 Resear ch Question #2: Influencing Factors 13 0 Adviser Relations 13 0 Learning vs. Practicing 13 3 Conclusion 13 5 7 SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS THE CASE OF LI 13 6 Overview 13 6 Current Institution 13 6 College of International Studies 13 6 IELTS Preparation 1 38 Additional Responsibilities 1 39 Institutional Politics 14 0 Educational Background 14 0 Research Question #1: Types of Knowledge from US Based SLTE 14 2 Systemic Functional Linguistics, Lexical Cohesion, and Lexical Repertoire 14 2 Co Construction of Knowledge with Students 14 5 Spontaneity 14 7 Metalinguistic Knowledge 15 3 Identity and Motivation 15 5 Research Question #2: Influencing Factors 1 58 Institutional Differences 1 58 Student Fluency 16 2 Nature of the Chinese Language Itself 16 4 Social Value Placed on Writing 1 69 Time Constraints 17 0 Collea gue Feedback and Individual Reading 17 1 Student Mistrust and Competitiveness 17 2 Conclusion 17 4 8 CROSS CASE ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS 17 5 Overview 17 5 Summary of the Findings 17 5 Research Question #1: Types of Knowledge from US Based SLTE 17 5 Research Question #2: Influencing Factors 17 6 Adviser Relations 1 77 Implications for Research 1 79
9 Implications for Programmatic Adaptation 18 0 Teaching and Research Assistant Experience 18 0 Implications for Research 18 3 Implications for Programmatic Adaptation 18 3 Academic Writing and English for Academi c Purposes (EAP) 18 4 Functions and Features of Academic Writing 18 4 Implications for Research 1 89 Implications for Programmatic Adaptation 19 0 Influence of the Institutional Environment 19 0 Co mplexity of the Standardized Testing Influence 19 1 Student Attitudes and Motivations 19 2 Changing Curriculum 197 Implications for Research 20 2 Implications for Programmatic Adaptation 20 3 Conclusion 20 3 9 CONCLUSION 20 5 Overview 20 5 Theoretical Contributions 20 5 Motivation 20 6 Implementation 2 09 Potential Topics for Future Research 2 09 Teacher Education 2 09 Teaching Practice 2 09 Educational Technology 2 09 China Specific Research 21 0 Final Thoughts 21 1 APPENDIX A INVERVIEW PROTOCOL 21 2 B CLASSROOM OBSERVATION PROTOCOL 21 3 C SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CODES BY PARTICIPANT ... 21 4 LIST O F REFERENCES 22 2 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .. 2 3 5
10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Study participants 60 8 1 Summary of the 19 types of knowledge across the three participants 17 5 8 2 Summary of the 16 influencing factors across the three participants 17 6
11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 52 5 1 80 5 2 Peer review guidelines co constructed by the course instructors 86 5 3 Diagrams for cyclical process, cause and effect, and sequence of events 88 5 4 92 6 1 11 3 6 2 11/24/2017 12 3
12 Abstract of the Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement s for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy TEACHER EDUCATION FOR CHINESE EFL CONTEXTS: A CASE STUDY OF US TRAINED PROFESSORS TEACHING ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES By Nathaniel T. Murray May 2019 Chair: Zhihui Fang Major: Curriculum and Instruction Recent trends in globalization and international graduate study have led an increasing number of English teachers from non English speaking countries to pursue their degree in second language teacher education (SLTE) in the United States (Stapleton & Shao, 2018). This has created a need for further research into what these international graduate students actu ally take away from their SLTE programs and apply within their local English as a Foreign Language (EFL) environments (Crandall & Christison, 2016). T he purpose of this study was ( a ) to identify which specific knowledge and skills from their US based SLTE program the participants appeared to make the greatest use of in their local EFL teaching contexts , and ( b ) to identify any potential factors which appeared to most hinder or facilitate their learning or application of their US ga ined knowledge and skills. as a theoretical framework, an exploratory, multiple case design (Yin, 201 8 ) was conducted to investigate the teaching practices of three native Chinese speaking college E nglish teachers who had received their SLTE graduate degrees in the US. Findings uncovered 19 discrete knowledge and skill areas from their US based SLTE experience of which the participants tend ed to make the most extensive use , includ ing coherence
13 and cohesion, systemic functional linguistics, certain varieties of metalinguistic knowledge, and the rhetorical structure. In addition, the findings uncovered 16 discrete factors that appear ed to most strongly influence and implementation of their US gained knowledge. These include d types of writing feedback that their academic advisers provided to them during the writing of their doctoral dissertations, their teaching as sistant and research assistant experience during their US studies, the degree of separation or integration of language and content instruction with in their current institutional environment, and the nature of the Chinese language itself . These findings contain a number of important implications for second language teacher education theory and practice. This study has taken steps toward investigating how these and other factors appear to determine which US based knowledge and skills are imp lemented in certain Chinese EFL settings, and to what degree.
14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Problem Statement Recent trends in globalization and international graduate study ha ve led an increasing number of English teachers from non English speaking countries to pursue their second language teacher education (SLTE) in the United States and other Western countries (Stapleton & Shao, 2018) . This, according to Crandall and Christison (2016) , has ed for a body of research, with a special focus on non native English speaking teachers (NNEST), who comprise the majority of English language teachers worldwide, concerning their participation in graduate TESOL programs in English dominant countries, as w ell as the impact their experiences in such programs have when ( p. 5 ) This body of research already exists to some extent . It has covered a range of important issues including NNEST learning needs ( Ilieva , Li, & Li, 2015; Li & Tin, 2013), the professional development of NNEST (Braine, 2010; Kamhi Stein, 2009, 2016; Sun, 2016), and the perceived advantages and disadvantages of NNEST (Kang, 2015; Ma, 2012, 2015) within local educational settings . L ess thorou ghly studied are the local educational settings themselves , and the types of knowledge and pedagogical practices that Western trained teachers have tended to apply within those settings . Moussu and Llurda (2008) called for greater investigation ; yet ten years later , this research remains limited . Several studies which did investigate Western trained NNEST within their foreign language teaching environments are Lo (2005), who examined the difficulties that a Taiwanese elementary school teacher encountered while attempting to implement her US gained knowledge of second language acquisition, and Hong an d Pawan (2014), who analyzed the challenges and opportunities that four mainland Chinese college English teachers experienced while attempting to implemen t their Western gained knowledge of communicative language teaching. However,
15 recent research with which I have been involved (Murray & Coady, 2018 ) has suggested that many Western trained Chinese English teachers tend to teach English for Academic Purposes (EAP) at the college level . This necessitates a further understanding of the specific knowl edge and skills from their Western SLTE program the teachers tend to employ in the teaching of EAP within these settings. Moreover, a s Chinese higher education settings continue to experience a rapid transformation in departmental structures and teaching d emands (Hayhoe & Liu, 2010) , it is important to investigate the complex interplay of factors which may hinder or facilitate the gained knowledge in those environments . Purpose of the Study Having identified this gap in the literature, the purpose of this study was ( a ) to identify which specific domains of knowledge from their Western SLTE program the participants appeared to make the greatest use of when teaching EAP within their local highe r education settings, and ( b ) to identify any potential factors (social or institutional) which appeared to most hinder or facilitate their learning or application of their Western gained knowledge and skills. I should also say at the outset that I am not claiming any particular type of knowledge or in itself ; I am simply referring to the fact that the participants of the present study received those pieces of knowledge from the specific SLTE program which they attended in the US. I believe that it is important for teacher educators to be more aware of the content and materials that international students are taking away from the ir teacher education programs , and how it appears to most strongly shape their classroom practic e when they return home to teach within their local English as a Foreign Language (EFL) educational environments.
16 Research Questions The following research questions framed the study: 1. What types of knowledge from their US based SLTE did the participants use in their current teaching? 2. What factors appear ed use of their US gained knowledge in their current teaching ? Significance of the Study This study has implications , both for SLTE in general and for the education of NNEST in particular . With respect to SLTE in general, Johnson (2016) asserted that : development of effective language educators who are skilled at enacting theoretically and pedagogically sound instructional practices in diverse settings, an area of future research is to determine empirically what language teachers actually learn by participating in the practices embedded [in] thei ( p. 131 ) In other words, there is a need for more work which documents what language teachers took away from their teacher education programs and adopted into their local teaching practice. Documenting what teachers do in different instructional settings, and listening to their opinion concerning what knowledge and pedagogical strategies are needed with in those instructional settings are necessary in order for SLTE programs to better prepare teachers who will be likely to t each in those types of settings (Oss, 2018). Such documentation can better inform those programs , so that they may better prepare future cohorts of teacher candidates who are likely to teach in those same environments upon graduation . With respect to NNEST in particular, Johnson (2016) further asserted that : instructional settings often find the ESL classrooms where they are expected to learn to teach to be qualitatively different in terms of the norms for interaction, teacher/student
17 programs, understanding the extent to which the language learning settings in which langu age teacher education takes place adequately prepares language teachers for any and all instructional contexts is an under researched yet highly relevant emerging area of ( pp. 129 130 ) (parentheses original) In other words, more attention needs t o be paid to the question of whether international students coming to the US for their SLTE graduate study are finding their experience worthwhile. While no single SLTE program may realistically hope to prepare all of its students instructional settings , it is possible to become familiar with at least some common teaching needs and future instructional contexts of different groups of teacher candidates. While the present study focused s pecifically on the Chinese who will be teaching in higher education environments in China, I hope to encourage similar investigations into other groups of domestic and international teacher candidates. While three cases is certainly not generalizable to all Chinese, it is enough to shed light on the experience of a few Chinese, thereby guid ing future research. The present study also aim ed to shed light on the process by which teachers develop their knowledge and instructional approaches f or the teaching of EAP , which has received increased attention in recent years (Hyland & Shaw, 2016) . The notion of teacher learning as a complex and nonlinear process has been amply discussed (Borg, 2006; Johnson & Golombek, 2016 ) . However, what this process might specifically look like for the teaching of EAP has received less explicit attention. The present study aim ed to fill this gap. During previous research (Murray & Coady, 2018 ), I also became interested in the question of why some teachers appeared to value their US SLTE experience more than others . In the many conversations I have had with language teachers over the years, some tea chers believed that their US based SLTE program provided them with valuable knowledge and skills , in addition to strong professional identity development ; other teachers believed that their US based
18 SLTE program provided them with little more than the degree itself. What made the difference between such divergent perceptions ? individual SLTE experience is different and is influenced by a seemingly interminable number of potential factors, I began to wonder whether there might be a f ew key factors which could affect whether teacher s find value in their SLTE experience or not. I believe I have identified several factor s which, at least, deserve to be further explored . Moreover, w hile a sample of 3 may be too concise to make statistical generalizations, it is enough to identify potential factors which could be tested for generalizability in future studies . So what? Why should we care whether US based SLTE programs impact the teaching practices of Chinese teacher candidates? My dissertation is based on the assumption that SLTE programs have a responsibility to their international students, to make greater efforts to b ecome more familiar with those their knowledge of evolving student needs and educational environments. Limitations of the Study This type of research has many potential pitfalls. First , i t is difficult to prove a direct causal link between what people learn in their SLTE program and what they do in the classroom. Any attempt to do so would be speculation at best, given the potentially infinite range of influencing factors . It is entirely possible , though, to make an informed speculation based on the triangulation of interview and observation al data . This is appropriate for the exploratory nature of the present study, whose purpose is to identify potential influencing factors which appear to merit particular attention in follow up investigation s . Second , it is difficult to prove the impact of US training without comparing it to local training. How can we be sure that someone could not have learned the same knowledge in an
19 SLTE program in China? S uch a comparative study could only be done with a large number of participants in two groups, involving astronomical amounts of data over a long period of fieldwork. This was, in fact, my original plan , though it ended up being infeasible to conduct such a project within my particular time and budget ary constraints. It is possible , t hough, to lay the groundwork for such a larger scale study, by using an exploratory design to identify potential key factors which could be compared across US trained and China trained teachers in the future . That is one of the purposes of the present study. Finally , a sample of three may be too concise to make any generalizable findings. Yet even so , it is enough to which could be worth examining in greater depth in future studies with a more generalizable research design. The qualitative and exploratory nature of the design makes it suitable for such a purpose.
20 CHA PTER 2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Overview With respect to the teaching of English in China , three trends have remained remarkably consistent over the past 1 7 0 years. First , English education policies and ideologies have been closely political relations with the West, particularly the United States. Whenever political relations alternated between friendly and hostile, the teaching of English alternated with it. It is important to examine those events. Second, the Chinese have always been internally divided between what I would call the English resistant, the English friendly, and the English reluctant. During the previous two centuries, English education policy in China has seen a regular alternation between these three . There were even some periods where none of these views took precedence, with all three views clashing to the point where the government was unable to put forward a cohesive policy. Third, China has often demonstr ated the seemingly contradictory behavior of resisting Western powers politically or militarily while at the same time adopting Western knowledge for self strengthening purposes , including the learning of English . In short, since the end of the Opium Wars of the mid nineteenth century , the Chinese have attempted to balance between the promotion of Mandarin for its connection to the culture and the promotion of English for its practical utility (Adamson, 2002; Ross, 1993; Yuan, 2001). The Language of th e Barbarians In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, China was still under rule of the imperial Qing Dynasty. The government had long dismissed the English language as impure and barbarian , going so far as to outlaw its citizens from learning it. Still , they recognized the need to maintain some degree of trade with the European powers who were colonizing Malacca, the Philippines, and other parts of Southeast Asia during this time. In 1755 they allowed the British to conduct
21 trade activities on their soi l but restricted them to the southern region of Canton ( in Guangdong Province) . The Qing government also recognized the need for a common language to use in business transactions, so they allowed a small number of citizens to use a Pidgin English and act as intermediaries. These citizens, known as compradors , enjoyed a wealthy lifes tyle but low social status due to their contact with foreigners. English also began coming into China through Christian missionaries, leading to the establishment of the first English school in 1818 by Robert Morrison (Kachru & Nelson, 2006; Pan, 2015). Th e Opium Wars, which began in 1939 when China attempted to restrict the forced importation of large amounts of opium on the part of the British , resulted in bloody defeat s for the Chinese, and in the treaties which gave the American and European c olonial powers far greater trad e and missionary rights in port cities such as Canton, Macau, and Shanghai. The British made a colony of Hong Kong , while the Germans took control of northeastern Shandong Province. The Chinese saw these defeat s as a humiliation, becoming that challenged their longstanding view of themselves as the superior Middle Kingdom free from other impure cultures, and the bitter reality that centuries long isolationism had caused them to fall behind other countries militarily and economically. This ambivalence extended to their views of the English language , where they became torn between their longstanding view of English as an inferior barbarian language, and the reality that learning English was necessary to modernize and compete more effectively with the European colonial powers (Fairbank & Goldman, 2006; You, 2010). Chinese officials and intellectuals were divided on how to view the missionaries. Some viewed them positi vely as a source of technical and scientific knowledge that could help them modernize their country , with English being the language of their modernization. Others viewed
22 them negatively as the carrot behind the stick of colonial oppression, with English b eing the language of cultural destruction (Deng, 1997). Regardless of these two divergent conceptions , the Qing government recognized the need to be more pragmatic concerning the acceptance of English. In 1862 they established the Tongwenguan ( , , a government institution charged with the training of translators and interpreters for business and government . Soon after, function s to include the teaching of scientif ic and economic subjects (You, 2010). Scholars and intellectuals during this time attempted to balance the two languages, viewing Chinese for its essence of the culture ( t uses ( entirely , and Standard English became the language of trade, with missionaries being the primary English teachers in port cities and government academies (Bastid, 1987; Pan, 20 15). A s the nineteenth century began to near its end , it became clear that the Qing would never fully recover from the myriad wars, rebellions, and internal divisions . O fficials had a difficult time agreeing on how to reconcile Western modernization with traditional culture. This led to a kind of paralysis, which made them lose a number of key wars (including a Sino French war in 1884 1885) and struggle to put down internal rebellions (notably the Taiping Reb ellion in 1850 1864). A major defeat by Japan in 1895 forced China to hand over the island of Taiwan and other island chains in the East China Sea to the Japanese Empire. To top it all off, a violent massacre of hundreds of missionaries and Chinese Christi ans (the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 1901) led to a devastating and coordinated bombing of Beijing by eight colonial powers in retaliation, forcing the Chinese to pay considerable restitution money, known as the Boxer Indemnity Funds (Fairbank & Goldman, 2006; Reynolds, 2001).
23 Yet , while they fought the Western powers politically and militarily , they attempted to adopt Western knowledge. In 1903 , t he government established several Western style universities, including Peking University , and pushed to reform the education based on Japan , wh ich at that time was shedding its own feudal past and modernizing its economy according to Western standards. In 1905 they took the significant step of abolishing the Confucian imperial examination system, which for more than a millennium had determined the selection of government officials based on their knowledge of Confucianism and the Chinese classics. Some would argue that this abolition thinking. Fo llowing that, the Chinese introduced more Western style math and science teaching , in addition to English. They based their English teaching primarily on the Japanese model of reading and translation, and increased their English classes from three hours a week to eight (Adamson, 2002; Orton, 2009; Wang, 1981). Christian missionaries were among the primary teachers during this time . For instance, the Anglo Chinese College, a Protestant school in the coastal city Fuzhou, taught English in addition to using En glish as the medium of instruction (Dunch, 2001). At that point , the dynasty was in its last throes, with many factions claiming that the government was still too conservative. Sun Yat sen, a medical doctor who spent decades gathering support among the Chinese diasporas in Hawaii, Japan, and Southeast Asia (and who hims elf was a converted Christian), led a revolution in 1911 to establish the Republic of China, a nationalist autocracy based (in theory) on three principles: unity of the ethnic backgrounds that make up the Chinese nation, the right of the people to rule the mselves through constitutional governance, and social welfare accessible to all of the citizens (Ebrey, 1996; Fairbank & Goldman, 2006).
24 The Language of the Diplomats To understand the fractured nature of English education policy in the Republican era (191 1 1949), it is important to understand the politics of the time. The new Republic was in a constant state of war and upheaval. Barely a few years after Sun Yat sen founded the Republic , he was engaged in a bitter power rival ry with a prominent general, Yua n Shi kai . Yuan usurped him and established a brief military dictatorship in which he attempted to revert to the feudal and Confucian principles of the past. When Yuan died suddenly in 1916, the resulting power vacuum left the country fractured into rival warlord clans. Sun Yat sen managed to take back control of the government, but had difficulty controlling the warlords. In this climate , education in China remained a disjointed patchwork of public, private, and missionary schools, some of them run by the warlords themselves. The teaching of English therefore did not have a systematic pedagogy that was used by all teachers. Nor was it always oriented toward practical communication. Many English teachers during this time still emphasized knowledge of the Chinese classics, while considering everyday communication to be too vulgar (Ebrey, 1996; Wang, 1981; Wang, 1986). The central government then attempted to shift its education model from the Japanese to the American . As a result, English classes be came more focused on oral and listening. Some officials promoted English as the medium of instruction, on the grounds that it would enable the country to participate more fully as a modern state in the international system. O ther officials wanted to keep C hinese as the medium of instruction, on the grounds that it would maintain the cohesiveness and self determination of the Chinese people. Both sides had a nationalist vision for their country , though w ith such differ ing interpretations of what that nationa lism meant, the two sides found it difficult to reach a compromise , making it difficult for the government to set forth a coherent English education policy (Adamson, 2002; Cleverley, 1985; Taylor, 1981).
25 The Chinese also assisted the Allies during World War I, digging trenches and unloading cargo ships. They hoped that in return , the Allies would compel Japan , who had taken Shandong Province from Germany during the war , to give the province back to China. They felt deeply betrayed when, d uring the T reaty of Versailles , the Europeans allowed the Japanese to keep Shandong. Students in Beijing erupted in anger, pouring into Tiananmen Square on May 4, 1919 to demonstrate, partly against the Europeans and the Americans who had betrayed them, partly agains t their own government who had ineffectually allowed it to happen. For months, students across the country skipped their classes to hold protests. The May Fourth Movement, as it would c o me to be called, created considerable rifts between politicians and intellectuals, who viewed the students either positively as a force for change , or negatively as a source of disruption. Paradoxically, the movement took a stand against the Western mistreatment of China , but in favor of Western ideas as a way to make up for weakness, which many of the protesters attributed to the old feudal , Confucian ways of thinking (Cleverley, 1985; Ebrey, 1996). Language education was at the center of this debate, one side advocati ng for oral and vernacular instruction ( literally the other side advocating for the preservation of written and classical instruction ( or (Adamson, 2004). A central figure during this time was John Dewey, who happened to arrive in China three days before the outbreak of the protests. Dewey had originally planned to spend only a few months in China, delivering guest lectu res on science and democracy. However, he was so impressed by the student movements and by the complex situation of education reform that he saw in China, that he decided to take an extended sabbatical from Columbia University and remain in China for two y ears. Several of his former students at Columbia had returned to China
26 a leader of the New Culture Movement, which advocated for vernacular instruction and the adoption of Western political philosophies into Chinese culture. Another student was Tao Xingzhi, who initially experiential learning. As time went on, given the volatile political climate in China during this time, Tao began to doubt whether politics and education could truly be separated in an autocratic political system. He also questioned whether the classroom could serve as a microcosm for society in a culture where education had for centu ries been structured to produce bureaucrats, not problem solvers (Dewey & Dewey, 1920; Du, 1992; Hartnett, 1998; Yuan, 2001). Incidentally, in 1926 Tao also founded Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, which is currently the University of Florida Program. Tao designed th e university as a teachers college, to train teachers to address the problem of mass rural poverty and illiteracy that was plaguing the country at that time. H e did not only w ant his teachers to transmit knowledge to the students, he also wanted them to become around education (Brown, 1987). Today, NXU continues a s a teachers college in China, and is a particular proponent of Tao Xingzhi T hought. T he May Fourth Movement also produced many opponents to the spread of English. Some scholars argued that multiple languages caused divisions and reinforced the economic divide between the rich who could afford high quality English instruction and the poor who could not. The education system was st ill heavily disjointed around the country, especially at the K 12 level, with wealthy families able to send their children to elite private academies (some of which were run by missionaries), where they would become fluent in English. Scholars also
27 advocat ed for Mandarin as a language of national unity and efficiency in business and government (Gil & Adamson, 2011; Hayhoe, 1992). J ust as importantly, though, the May Fourth Movement produced another set of ideas about how to modernize and move the country forward. Some intellectuals turned to Marxism. Inspired by the Russian Bolsheviks who had just undergone their own revolution several years prior , several pr ofessors and librarians at Peking University established weekly Marxism study groups. These meetings attracted the attention of a young library assistant named Mao Zedong, who had participated in the May Fourth protests. The study groups argued that the on ly way to truly eliminate the Confucian hierarchies problems was to overthrow them entirely through class struggle. When the Soviets learned of these study groups, they sent advisers to help those groups formalize into cells that reported to a national party congress. Two years later in 1921 , the Chinese Communist Party was founded at a secret meeting in Shanghai , with attendees including Mao Zedong and several communist advisers from the Netherlands and the Soviet Union (Ebrey, 1996 ; Pan, 1998 ). In the beginning, the ruling Chinese Nationalist Party and the fledgli ng Chinese Communist Party maintained amicable if slightly mistrustful relations with each other. Both parties sought advice from the Soviets on how to establish a joint cooperation . F or a brief period in the mid 1920s , the Communist Party was even a branc h within the Nationalist Party. They both cooperated in the Northern Expedition, which was a successful military campaign to crack down and take back the northern part of the country from the warlords. This tide shifted when President Sun Yat sen died in 1 925, and his successor, the military general Chiang Kai shek, was strongly anti Communist. He began cracking down and imprisoning Communist Party members , often with the help of local organized crime elements such as the notorious Shanghai based
28 Green Gang . Even so, the reality is that Nationalists, Communists, and Japanese all tended to make use of these gangs in attempting to achieve their various political objectives ( Sergeant, 1998; Rossabi, 2013). Within this climate, the status of English continue d to increase , promulgated by several factors . First , China was gaining prominence in international relations, especially in the development of its relations with the US , in the acquisition of military and industrial technologies from Western countries , an d in the assertion of greater control over tariffs which the European powers had long still regulated. English became a language for military and diplomatic affairs. Second , international mass media such as print and radio, as well as Western sports and mo vies, were becoming more widespread during this period . This gave citizen ry greater exposure to Western culture and entertainment. Third , anti Japanese sentiment was beginning to rise. The Japanese at this time were becoming more aggressive and militaristic in their design for an empire in East and Southeast Asia; they began moving more troops into their bases in Shandong Province, and att acked Manchuria in 1931. When this occurred , the Chinese turned even more to the West for support, with English language and culture becoming more prominent as a result. Publishing companies printed magazines related to English learning. In addition, the d irect method of language instruction began to replace the grammar translation method for the teaching of English (Adamson, 2004; Rossabi, 2013; Wang, 1981). The situation began to deteriorate in the late 1930s, internally between the Chinese Nationalists a nd the Chinese Communists, and externally between the Chinese and the Japanese. Political rivalries gave way to guerrilla insurgencies , as Nationalist and Communist armies fought each other for key cities such as Changsha and Guangzhou. B oth armies also confronted Japanese forces in small skirmishes in the north , until f ull scale war finally broke out in 1937 .
29 T he Japanese then tore through the coastal provinces, taking major economic centers such as Shanghai, Wuhan, and most infamously, Nanjing, before turning to the interior and taking major cities such as Changsha and Nanning . The Nationalists and the Communists agreed to a cease fire , establishing a joint base of operations far up in the interior mountains of west central Chongqing , out of the way of Japanese bomber planes (Ebrey, 1996; MacKinnon, 2012). English education encountered obstacles during this time, along with much of the in general . The Chinese continually relocated their schools as they retreated from city to city in the face of Japanese advances, preventing the possibility of a stable or cohesive curriculum. C oncerning the rival and Communist Parties sought help from the US, with negotiators from both parties allegedly impressing the American military officials with their English. When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941, the US declared war on Japan and began sending more weapons and supplies to the C hinese , over the Himalayas and through the Burma Road toward the US at this time was one of pragmatic cooperativeness (Ada mson, 2002). Starting in 1945, the situation deteriorated quickly. After the Yalta Conference in February, the US became increasingly critical of the Communist takeovers in Eastern Europe, causing the Chinese Communists to become increasingly critical of t he US as a result . When the Japanese surrendered in August , bringing an end to the war , the US attempted to broker an agreement between the Nationalists and the Communists. This was hampered by deepening mistrust between both sides , who eventually fell back into armed conflict . When full scale war broke out between the Nationalists and the Communists a few short years later , the US supported the Nationalist side with military aid . A t that point , however, the Nationalist government was deeply corrupt under Chiang Kai shek, with government officials
30 property for the alleged purpose of supplying themselves against the Communists in the coming resumption of hostilities (Fair bank & Goldman, 2006). When the Chinese were given back possession of Taiwan following the Japanese surrender, Nationalist officials brought this corruption to Taiwan. They hoarded Taiwanese goods in order to supply themselves for the fight against the Com munists on the mainland, causing rapid inflation and opening a large black market in Taiwan. At the same time, the Nationalists treated the Taiwanese as second class citizens, preventing them from holding high government offices, and persecuting them to ro ot out any communist sympathizers. The Taiwanese, who had just been through a different experience under fifty years of Japanese colonial rule, were rioting openly in the streets by 1947 and receiving a severe crackdown as a resu l t , with tens of thousands of Taiwanese intellectuals arbitrarily killed or jailed . Meanwhile, the Communists were gaining moral support among the peasantry, with messages of land reform and redistribution of wealth (Rigger, 2013; Rossabi, 2013). By 1949, the Na tionalists were all but defeated. Their military was larger in size, but more corrupt , disorganized , and unpopular than the sleeker Communist guerrilla forces. They had generally lost the moral support of the people, as well as of the United States . The Co mmunists entered Beijing, and Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the Republic of China on October 1 st . Nationalist leaders and millions of refugees fled to Taiwan , and the Republic of China designated Taipei as its temporary capital in exile while still claiming legitimate sovereignty over the entire Chinese mainland. T he US was ready to allow Taiwan to fall to the Communists. The Korean War played a major role in preventing that from happening . When fighting broke out on the Korean Peni nsula less than a year later , US President Harry Truman decided on a policy of communist containment
31 block the Communists from taking Taiwan, as well as to bl ock the Nationalists from attempting to retake the m ainland. He also signed the Sino American Mutual Defense Treaty with Chiang Kai shek to provide weapons and support to the Nationalists on Taiwan. This infuriated the Communists, who sent volunteer troops to Korea to fight against the Americans. Even today, the means war to help the Koreans resist the Americans Price (1979) provides a succinct and convincing traditions struggled with foreign ideas, and both largely failed in the face of the poverty and one of the means by which the countr y could modernize and play a more prominent military and diplomatic role internationally. Western popular culture became more widespread within the country, as international mass media technologies became more advanced. Government officials attempted to im prove the quality of English instruction using American models. Those who lived in urban centers had access to English medium schooling and viewed English as a pathway to economic and professional advancement . Yet d espite this , it cannot be forgotten that the majority of Chinese were living in rural poverty during this time . In the end , the Republic of China was unable to overcome its internal corruption, its disputes with Communists, or the challenges of educating such a populous peasantry. The Republic of China would end up having a different future in Taiwan (Seeberg, 1990; Wang, 1981). The Language of the Enemy was quick to take a staunch anti American stance, with English considered the language of the enemy . Chinese and American troops fought each other
32 in Korea . Chinese Nationalist pilots in American fighter jets and Chinese Communist pilots in Soviet fighter jets shot made vigorous attempts to take Taiwan . Union, Russian became the primary foreign language that was taught in schools, with many English teachers being forced to retrain as Russian teachers. Soviet cadr es came to China to industry. Education began to follow the Soviet model of technical subjects to prepare workers for industrial jobs, as well as a structured pedagog y based on memorization and teacher centered instruction. L anguage teaching followed this trend, being based on rote memorization and rigid grammar rules. The government tolerated English as a means to access technical and scientific knowledge, so they all owed a minimum to be taught in schools . Since they did not initially have their own English textbooks, they had no choice but to make temporary use of old textbooks from the Republican era, as well as of borrowed texts from the Soviet Union . They also took control of private and missionary schools (Adamson, 2004; Rossabi, 2013; Taylor, 1981). In 1950, Deputy Minister of Education Qian Junrui issued a scathing criticism of academic intellectuals as being too Anglo American, too disconnected from the social p roblems of Chinese society , and too permissive of English which had no practical value for solving those problems (Pepper, 1996). O ne might say that English has always been the victim of association whether the view was positive or negative at any given time . As the 1950s decade advanced and Republic as the le gitimate government of the Chinese nation, China began to expand its official diplomatic relations and play a more prominent role internationally. This led to an increase in the need for English its first series of hom egrown English
33 textbooks in 1957, with assistance from the Beijing Foreign Languages Institute, which at the time was the language training school for diplomats. The textbooks pedagogy still followed the structural approach of the Soviet model, but focused more on translation skills (Adamson, 2004). In the early 1960s, the Soviet Union began a dÃ©tente and warming of relations with the US, with Khrushchev denouncing Stalin. This angered Mao Zedong, who star ted becoming more critical of the Soviet Union. As a result, Russian language education became less popular as a subject in school , and English began to take its place. Many of the English teachers who had been forcibly turned into Russian teachers were on ce again re trained as English teachers . Since t he Chinese government hoped to compensate for what it saw as the ideological impurity of emerging patriotism, love of labor and of the Party, and scorn for the old Chinese Nationalists and their American lackey supporters still on Taiwan. Pedagogy was still highly structural . H owever, the textbook chapters shifted from context reduced grammar structures to context richer dialog ues and reading passages. T he government developed more English textbooks that were specifically for primary and secondary school, thus attempting to bring English to younger learners . This effort was hampered by the fact that many English textbooks during this time were designed by a small number of education specialists with consultation from a few elite language universities, without significant input from practicing teachers themselves (Adamson, 2004; Rossabi, 2013). As the 1960s progressed, the Sino Soviet relationship continued to deteriorate . T he Chinese denounc ed the Soviet withdrawal of missiles from Cuba , as well as Soviet support for India during the Sino Indian War of 1962. This led the Russian language to diminish even further in popularity , with a comparable increase in the popularity of English . Meanwhile, the Chinese Communist Party itself was in the midst of a bitter power struggle . Mao had become
34 marginalized within the Party , due in part to the failure of the Great Leap Forward in the late 1950s . I ntellectuals who had been persecuted during the previous decade enjoyed a few years of respite and increased prominence. Those intellectuals believed that the political content of English textbooks should be reduced i n favor of issues that were of more immediate relevance to They also consulted a greater number of classroom teachers themselves on how to improve instructional quality, in addition to diversifying language teaching pedagogy to i nclude the audiolingual approach and eventually even sound recordings. Even so, t he political messages did not disappear entirely . As the Vietnam War got underway , and the Chinese supported the Viet Cong, some of the reading passages in English textbooks n arrated the stories of brave young Communists giving their lives to stop the evil American invaders (Adamson, 2004; Cheng & Wang, 2012; Ebrey, 1996). In the first few decade s disliked but tolerated, to being accepted as an element of modernization. Many intellectuals, particularly in the early 1960s, attempted to improve the quality of instruction while making sure not to entirely discard the use of English for political messages. Those intellectuals attempted to to adopt a more pragmatic use of English. The Ministry of Education was even in the process of developing a new twelve year education curriculum that included English as an important component . However, the Communist Party was seeing increasing rifts and internal divisions . Mao attempted to regain control of the party, thereby initiating the Cultural Revolution in 1966 , during which time the teaching of English would once again see high restrictions (Gu, 2012). The teaching of English would continue to undergo a constant cycle between periods of ts substance, English for its
35 Mao reform era, but again saw a restriction in the mid Soviet Union in the early 1990s, English once again saw a resurgence as the Chinese aimed to fill the political power vacuum left by the Soviets (Cheng & Wang, 2012; Lam, 2008). When China entered the World Trade Organization in 2001, the teaching of English saw perhaps its most significant expansion to date. The government called for a substantial increase in the recruitment of qualified English teachers, as well as for an increa se in partnerships with W estern universities. In addition, the government called for an expansion of bilingual education programs that use both English and Chinese as the medium of instruction; the objective of these programs was to produce workers who pos sessed the necessary fluency to conduct business and scientific research activities in both languages. These bilingual programs included immersion, transitional, and maintenance (Yu, 2008). The next event which had a decisive impact on the development of E nglish policy was the selection of Beijing as the site of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. The government viewed the Olympics as a vehicle for political and economic integration into the international system, with English promoted as th e language to facilitate that integration. A revised national curriculum was implemented, and the number of private and community based English learning centers swelled (Pan, 2015). I n recent years, the government has made attempts to curtail what it views as the pervasive spread of English to the detriment of the national cultural identity. Officials have been pushing for the elimination of English loanwords and acronyms from dictionaries and official publications, for a reduction in the English portion of the national college entrance examination, and for a later age at which schoolchildren would begin their studies of English . These officials
36 have typically argued that the prominence of English requirements within the school curriculum , and the younger ag e at which children beg i n learning English , could result in an erosion of a China Chinese Study Abroad in the United States The tr end of Chinese students coming to the United States for academic study began in the early nineteenth century and is rooted in two separate but related developments : missionary attempts to bring Western knowledge and Christianity to the Chinese, and the Chinese to strengthen their country through the acquisition of Western political, scientific, and military knowledge (Gil, 2016) . Hsu (2014) documents several boys having studied at a Christian mission school in Connecticut in the 1820s, with by a Chinese being conferred to Yung Wing in 1854 from Yale College. Yung went on to bec o me a key player in late nineteenth century reform efforts, including helping to garner official support for the Chinese Educational Mission which sent 120 college students to the US between 1872 and 188 1 . Hsu (2014) also analyzes the greater geopolitical situation that spar ked further Chinese study in the US at the turn of the century. Two trends appeared to converge during this time: (a) light of the declining Qing Dynasty, and ( b) push to increase its soft power in light of , which the US was not yet strong enough to confront directly. In this climate, the US ended up reinvesting a substantial portion of the Boxer Indemnity Funds to bring Chinese to study at American universities. Many scientists and political reformers during the Republican era had studied in the US under a Boxer Indemnity
37 Scholarship ( Hayhoe, 2018) Study abroad continued in the 1930s and 1940s under various government and nonprofit programs, but ceased after the Communist revolution, though many Chinese already in the US during the revolution were allowed to remain (Hsu, 2014). Chinese study abroad in the US saw a resurgence in the wake of the post 1979 reform and opening up. Exact data on Chinese students pursuing a second language teacher education graduate degree in the US are difficult to obtain; statistics are typically counted for education and the humanities, and second language teacher education could fall under TESOL, literacy, applied linguistics, or another similar name, and could be housed within an e ducation d epartment or a l inguistics d epartment. C ircumstantial data , though, could still lead to some plausible inferences regarding current study abroad trends. The 2016 2017 academic year saw an en rollment of 350,755 university students from China in the US, a 6.8 % increase from the 328,547 the year before. Of those 350,755 students, 128,320 (36.6%) were enrolled at the graduate level (Open Doors, 2017a) . Moreover, of those 35 0 ,755 total students, a combined 11.8% were studying in the fields of education, humanities, and social science (Open Doors, 2017 b ) . While this data is not able to conclusively determine the number or percentage of Chinese students that are focusing specifi cally on SLTE at the graduate level, it does indicate a significant altering of the student demographic landscape in American universities. In addition, 61% of all international graduate students studying in the US during the 2016 2017 academic year we re privately funded, while 31.1% of them were funded by their host institution (Open Doors, 2017 c ). While this data is not specific to country of origin or field of study, the data source does specify tends to be in the form of teaching and research assistantships, which are usually given to doctoral students. Some
38 a necdotal e self funded . This open s the possibility of some academic programs receiving financial benefit without making significant programmatic adaptations to meet the needs of this new student demographic , a possibility that teacher education programs should take steps to avoid. English Teaching in China Today The research in which I have been involved over the past few years (Murray & Coady, 2018 ) has suggested a shift away from the teaching of general or comprehensive English toward the teaching of EAP in Chinese higher education settings , with native Chinese who received their second language teacher education graduate degrees in the US often being assigned to (or sometimes even expressing a preference for) the teach ing of writing . This opens up many questions concerning the Chinese higher education context. What are its structures and functions? What are the purposes of academic writing for Chinese college students? Most imp ortantly for the present study : how to best prepare those teachers who come to the US to receive their language teacher education, and who will be on the front lines in the EFL classrooms defining this new landscape? This opens up many questions for langua ge teacher learning, education, and development.
39 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW The present study was theoretically framed by the concepts of teacher knowledge : what teacher s need to know, how teacher s learn it, and how teacher s use it to make their instructional decisions in the classroom . Scholars have long been interested in how a theoretical understanding of these issues might help language teacher education programs enact sounder educational practices that better cultivate that knowledge base in their teacher s ( Freeman, 2016; Johnson & Golombek, 2016) . This has become more challenging as the teacher education programs are receiving increasing number s of international graduate students, all of whom have different ways of learning and will be returning to teach in different types of education contexts . It is therefore imperative for education researchers to gain a better theoretical understanding of how non Western teacher candidates learn within the Western teacher education programs that they attend , including: how those teacher candidates use their new knowledge within their home teaching contexts , what factors facilitate or hinder th e adoption of the ir Western knowledge, and , if applicable, what other types of knowledge they use more often. This chapter will review some of the previous literature on language teacher knowledge and language teacher education, then highlight several salient research gaps with respect to the training of non Western teachers within Western teacher education programs. Historical Development of Research on Teacher Knowledge Parsons et al. (2018) outline several distinct phases in the development of teach er knowledge as an academic field of study: the behaviorist phase (pre 1975), the cognitive phase (1975 1984), the sociocultural phase (1985 1994), the multicultural phase (1995 2004), and the critical phase (2005 2014). In the 60s and early 70s, teacher education research was heavily based on the externally observable ( Cyphert & Gant, 1970 ; Hamachek 1969) . That began to
40 change when scholars such as Clark and Yinger (1977) suggested that understanding the way in which a t eacher determines how certain behaviors might be appropriate for different settings requires a more thorough T he mid 70s to mid 8 0s saw a burgeoning of decisionmaking models, in the form of flowcharts, tree diagrams, and process models ( e.g. Clark & Peterson, 1986; Shavelson, 1973). in ternal body of knowledge called pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) , which he described as Consequently, the 1990s saw an increased attempt to define the structure of that knowledge base. the sense that they were organized around a series of basic principles, and that these principles were formulated largely by the teachers experiences (pp. 197 212). He stated as many academics were saying at the time that teacher education should not be a simple matter of teaching them a discrete series of pedagogical skills, and that th was anything but linear. B y the early 2000s , the number of definitions of teacher knowledge had become so large that they often contradicted one another and made it more difficult for scholars to know which ones to use, much less advance the field. As Borg (2006) put brought to bear on the conceptualization of the cognitions underpinning instructional decision making and these tend to obscure any substantive overlap which 92). He reviewed a large number of prior conceptualizations of teacher knowledge , such as
41 beliefs, implicit theories, and situated knowledge , and attempted to incorporate them into a single held, practical system of mental constructs held by teachers and which are dynamic i.e. defined and refined on the basis of educational and implication that teacher knowledge and belief systems have some structure and organization behaviors and instructional decisions able to be documented. in langua ge teacher education as broadening from a predominant focus on language development to a focus on how teachers envision their roles as agents of social change. For instance, do teachers focus primarily skills to address current issues in their major or discipline? Additionally, Kubanyiova argues that s outside of teacher education may be as important, if not more so, as what happens inside it s teacher development is shaped by numerous experiences outside the classroom, creating a need to investigate these exp eriences further. This in teacher education more broadly, where teachers are being encouraged to reexamine their role in the classroom: whether they are there simply to cultivate a set of kno wledge or skills in their students, or whether they are also there to engage their students in a process of social transformation (Bondy & Hambacher, 2016) . A review of the recent literature on teacher knowledge has demonstrated four salient areas of research: (a) reflective practice and post method approaches, (b) a diversification of the teacher knowledge base, (c) a search for a unified theoretical framework in the investigation of teacher knowledge , and (d) sociocultural turn in language teacher education.
42 Reflective P rac tice and P ost M ethod A pproaches This strand of research aims to shift the study of teacher education and teacher p ractice from an emphasis on teaching method s awareness . I n other words, a shift in emphasis from the what to the why . Canagarajah (2016), in his comprehensive overview of the changes in TESOL research over the past 50 years, describes this post methods approach as a transition from a focus on sk ills to a focus on cognition, where the making process is not on which teaching methods should be used but rather on why the teacher own beliefs and their understanding of the classroom context are driving them to make the instructional decisions that they do in that moment. This post method thinking has implications both for pre service and in service situations. The traditional approach to teacher education has been to focus on methods first and application second: to tre at teaching approaches almost as physical tools that the pre service teacher receives from faculty instructors and then keeps in a toolbox to be pulled out in the most appropriate circumstance. However, Richards and Ro d gers (2014) suggest that mere transmission of a prescribed series of teaching general philosophy toward language teaching: teacher education must therefore also focus on the cultivation of This reflective practice could be in the form of written journals, or even stimulated recall interviews, where the teachers might consciously reflect on what they might not have previousl y considered. Griffith, Bauml, and Quebec decision, the ability to take influencing factors into con sideration, and the ability to measure
43 of pre service teachers in the US, they found that this awareness could be cultivated by incorporating reflective writing into the teacher education program. The field of second language teacher education (SLTE) is moving in a sociocultural direction where teachers spend time making explicit reflections on their role as teachers and on the ways in which their own previous kn owledge and beliefs would influence their classroom decisions (Crandall & Christison, 2016; Liu, 2009). These reflections enable teachers to become more aware of the internal and external factors which cause them to make the decisions that they do ( Catalan o, Shende, & Suh, 2018; Kubanyiova & Crookes, 2016 ; Zeng, 2018 ). Reflective practice has also been studied in in service teaching contexts. Yuan (2016) conducted a study of university faculty in Hong Kong, finding that the participants were able to use ref lective practice to overcome certain obstacles in their classrooms and to narrow the divide between their ideal teaching approaches and the realistically feasible teaching approaches. Farrell (2007) reached a similar conclusion, proposing a type of combine d inductive deductive approach to self reflection, where teachers would sometimes reflect on their beliefs and the ways in which those beliefs played out in the classroom (deductive), while at other times pay ing attention to their classroom practices and t he types of beliefs that were evident from those practices (inductive). Jackson and Cho (201 8 ) discuss how self reflection can come in various different forms, such as written journals, observation by peers, and reading of the academic literature. They als o point out that the self reflection can focus on a variety of general or specific classroom elements such as instructional pedagogies or the social dynamics between students. Xu (2015a) conducted a study of first year in service high school English teache rs in Beijing. The study involved the teachers meeting regularly over the course of a five week period, to design and discuss lesson plans which they then used in their classrooms, then bringing those
44 lessons back to the weekly meetings for further discussion. The author concluded that practice based approaches to teacher education, such as this one where teachers were able to use material from their own in service class, were more effective at expanding their pedagogical content knowledge than were classes which focused primarily on general teaching theory. In the implications, the author described how such practice based approaches could be incorporated into existing in service professional development programs. Collectively, the above literature hi ghlights the value of an approach to teacher education that focuses on reflective practice. Diversification o f the Teacher K nowledge B ase Knowledge This strand of research focuses on what teachers need to know in order to make their decisions. Freeman (198 9) defines four components of what a teacher need s to know in order to teach: knowledge, skills, attitudes, and awareness. Conceptions of teacher knowledge have since become far more diverse, to the point where the topic of teacher cognition has what feels like an alphabet soup of overlapping acronyms related to knowledge. Even the concept of knowledge itself has been the subject of analysis. Kumaravadivelu (2012) makes a differentiation between knowledge and knowing , the former carrying the static connotat ion of being like an object, the latter carrying the dynamic connotation of teacher s constantly learning and apply ing their knowledge and experience in the classroom. Kumaravadivelu makes a further sub division of knowledge into professional, procedural, a nd personal: (a) professional knowledge being the knowledge about language teaching and learning, (b) procedural knowledge about student and classroom management, and (c) personal knowledge being the individual experiences that the particular teacher brings to the profession. These three types of knowledge were examined in the present study.
45 Pedagogical C ontent K nowledge This distinction between knowledge of general pedagogy and knowledge of language teaching specific pedagogy is a common thread running through the various definitions of the teacher knowledge base. This is well exemplified by a concept that has gained prominence over the past 30 years, which is that of pedagogical content kno wledge (PCK). Shulman (1987) first coined the term when hypothesizing the potential links between content knowledge and general pedagogical skills. PCK was something in between: an understanding of the specific pedagogies that were most applicable to the t more specific than merely general pedagogical knowledge , such as how to take general pedagogical principles and customize them for the specific content academic discipl ine . Personal P ractical K nowledge Another term that has gained prominence is that of personal practical knowledge (PPK). First coined by Clandinin & Connelly (1987), PPK refers to the values and beliefs that teachers formulate based on their own prior educ ational experience, including those teaching approaches that they have been exposed to as students. In contrast to pedagogical content knowledge, which tends to emphasize the collective and accumulated wisdom of all language teachers, PPK tends to be more personalized, emphasizing the individual wisdom and experience that ha ve been acquired by an individual (Golombek, 2009). Because of the personal nature of PPK, studies often employ narrative inquiry to determine how that knowledge and beliefs were formed. In exploring PPK from a non Western perspective, Sun (2012) conducted a series of classroom observations and in depth interviews of a Chinese language teacher in New Zealand. ee elements: a desire to
46 qi field, which might loosely translate as energy field or life force , essentially creating a vivid and productive classroom dynamic; and a desire to maintain a smooth f low of class. Sun interprets these elements as being deeply rooted in the step by step procedures that the students model off. Western teachers might interpret s uch an is based more on mastery within a W be seen from within a Chinese cultural Hence, investigating the cognitions and knowledge bases of language teachers from non Western cultural traditions carries the additional responsibility of investigating the cultural frames that on e might take for granted when investigating Western ers. More recently , Swart , de Graaf, Onstenk, and Knezic (2018) suggested a definition of PPK which focuses on the knowledge that the students and teacher co construct with each other , with a specific focus on linguistic knowledge . language development should therefore focus on promoting practical knowledge of langu age This suggests that PPK is viewed by practicing language teachers as having a largely linguistic focus, and that language teacher education (particularly for non native English speakers who will be teaching English) should focus as much on language skill development as on language teaching pedagogy. more data sources such as classroom observations and reflective writings in or der to increase our understanding of this extension of practical knowledge The present study aim ed to fill this need by collecting observation and teacher reflection data.
47 Oss (2018) argue s that personal practical knowledge is necessary to inform teacher education practices. Learning what teachers do on the ground in different educational setting s , learning from them what works and what does not work in different contexts, is important infor mation which should feed back into the teacher education practices of SLTE programs whose teacher candidates tend to teach in those types of settings. Disciplinary L inguistic K nowledge Turkan , De Oliveira, Lee, and Phelps (2014) proposed that teaching acad emic content to specialized knowledge of how to model the appropriate linguistic forms and functions that are commonly used within that content area. They proposed that the ability to do so required a special knowledge which they called disciplinary linguistic knowledge (DLK) . T hey defined it in terms of two subdomains: the discipl modeling the ways in which the discourse of a discipline is constructed and for engaging ELLs in communicating meaning in the disciplinary discourse orally and in writi In other words, it is the knowledge of how to teach English learners to decode and deconstruct the lexical and grammatical features of academic language, based on the principles of systemic functional linguistics. They advocated the explicit c ultivation of DLK to all teachers who are going to have English learners in their classroom s . English f or Te aching Freeman ( 2016 ) suggested that English fluency in itself was not enough to become an effective English teacher in EFL contexts . Freeman and his team proposed that English teachers (Freeman , Katz,
48 Garcia Gomez, & Burns, 2015 , p. 136), with a specific focus on the specialized language necessary for managing the class rooms, communicating the content of the lesson, and providing feedback and assessment to students. They called this subset English for teaching (EFT). They conceived of EFT as a subset of English for Specific Purposes (ESP), in this case the specific forms and functions of English necessary to perform pedagogical tasks such as modeling, corrective feedback, or delivering concise explanations. Interdisciplinary A pproach rela ted issues and concepts, such as teacher autonomy (Xu, 2015b), task based teaching (Zheng , and university professor preparation necessitating both content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge ( GonzÃ¡lez Valencia , EnrÃquez , & Ramos Acosta , 2018) . Collectively, these studies point to a growing diversity of concepts that are becoming a part of teacher k nowledge. The original conceptions of teacher knowledge were focused heavily on the teachers subject matter and how to teach it. However, as Kubanyiova and Crookes (2016) argue, the teacher knowledge nections with the domains of second words, teacher knowledge is becoming much more interdisciplinary, requiring teachers to draw from a broadening range of acade mic subject areas when making their instructional decisions. More recently, Teemant (2018) argues that language teachers should be trained to draw on a critical consciousness of social activism and inequality alleviation when making decisions. All of these developments might be seen as a reflection of the increasing maturity of the field of language teacher education . And y et more work is needed. As Kubanyiova and Crookes
49 based ev idence of (p. 124). In other words, there is still a need for more longitudinal studies concerning the ways in r period of time, more ground level data concerning the process by which it changes. One researcher who examine d the processes of cognitive change was Zheng (2015) . He conducted a four month observational study of high school English teachers in China. Using a combination of interview, observation, and stimulated recall instruments, findings demonstrated that cognitive change is often driven by tensions , specifically at three levels: micro level, such as when students do not understand a concept in the way the teacher had expected; exo level, such education bureau; and macro l evel, such as the tensions between the demands for standardized handling of these situations was driven by a focus on tension reduction, identifying solutions to preferences. In other cases, teachers handled the situation by determining which contextual factor took priority in that particular circumstance. In all cases, Zheng concluded that teachers may not necessarily use the same decision making paradigm to handle every particular situation; to moment decision making was not so linear, and its development over time was also not so linear. This is consi stent with previous observational studies (e.g. Farrell & Lim, 2005) which demonstrated decisions. influenced in part by the
50 objective s teaching objectives. The way in which the teachers negotiate these tensions drives forward the development of their own teaching approaches. Teacher development, viewed from this standpoint, is a constant cycle of tensions and resolutions as teachers cont inually adapt to classroom realities. Regarding the study of cognitive change, several longitudinal studies have been conducted over a longer period of time. However, they have tended to focus either on the change in cognition from pre service to in servic e phase (So & Watkins, 2005), or on describing what beliefs the participants adopted over time without describing the process by which they acquired those beliefs (Lidstone & Hollingsworth, 1992) Search for a U nified T heoretical F ramework Over previous dec ades, numerous attempts have been made to advance some form of unified theoretical framework to capture all the elements that comprise teacher knowledge : an all encompassing conceptual framework that synthesizes the various components which , but certainly not the first. O ne of the most influential studies that deserves mention was Freeman and Johnson (1998). Their study is commonly regarded as a ground breaking moment in the field of language teacher education . In the study t he authors provided a conceptual framework for the teacher knowledge service educational experiences, the social context s within the school and classroom environment, and pedagogical process es of language teaching. This conception is noteworthy , because it was the first time that the field of language teacher education develop ed its own homegrown theoretical framework that did not borrow and adapt a framework from the more well established disciplines in sociology
51 and the Humanities. In fact, Lee, Murphy, and Baker (2016) recently conducted a reception study , which found that amework continues to grow in popularity within the field of language teacher education. knowledge base for an English teacher as being comprised of four elements: (a) content kn owledge (CK), which is the knowledge of whatever subject area such as math and science that the teacher might also have to teach; (b) general pedagogical knowledge (GPK), which is general knowledge of pedagogy and classroom management; (c) pedagogical cont ent knowledge (PCK), particular subject area discipline, for example math or English; and finally, (d) language fluency. with respect to non native English speakers teaching in foreign language contexts. Feryok (2010) proposed a comprehensive theoretical framewo rk based on complexity how they conceptualized the structure and components of teacher cognition and did not capture the dynamic complexity in action. Through a primarily e mail interview based study of a single making processes could be studied be constantly s elf organizing as teachers negotiated the different classroom environments. The Freeman (2016) proposes a framework for language teacher decision making that does not a ttempt to directly modify any individual previous paradigm but merely places them all along a continuum of axes with four quadrants, forming a composite theoretical framework (pictured in
52 Figure 3 1 ). The top two quadrants focus on general teaching , the Sh avelson (1973) quadrant representing the older behavioral focused flowchart concept of teacher decisionmaking, with the processes as constrained by observable classroom factors. The bottom two quadrants are newer and more specific to language teaching: the Woods (1996) quadrant (referenced earlier in this paper) representing the 1990s new turn in language teacher decision making theory based on the interplay of decision, planning, and interpretative processes; the Borg (2003) quadrant (updated in Borg, 2006) representing the updating of the Clark & Peterson model with cognition factors arning experience). In effect, Freeman demonstrates the way in which the research on language teacher cognition has built upon the previous research on general teacher cognition, and the ways in which language teacher decision making has built on the previ ous research in general teacher decisionmaking. Follow Figure 3 1 . Adapted from Free making framework ( p. 160 ) . Reprinted with permission from the publisher .
53 Models and composite models such as these demonstrate the ongoing attempts to cohesively situate the diversified array of social, cognitive, and linguistic factors that might bear m decisions. This is not to prevent researchers from developing new insights on the structures and functions of teacher cognition. However, common conceptual and theoretical frameworks provide the field with a greater sense of cohesion and can facilitate d iscussion and collaboration among scholars. Every academic field has its own body of collective knowledge, the accumulated wisdom that its scholars pool together. In effect, scholars have been working to help the field of teacher cognition develop a knowle dge base of its own. Sociocultural T ur n in L anguage T eacher E ducation A number of studies have pointed to a so 1997), whereby a greater emphasis is placed on the social and cultural environmental factors of the cognition of teachers. Scholars of this school of thought generally trace their roots to Vygotsky (1978) and his theories on the zone of proximal development (ZPD) . Toth and Davin (2016) advance amalgamates the internally oriented, making with the externally oriented, making is constrained and directe instructional support) as well as and the nature of social interaction), which neither a cognitive nor a sociocultural appro ach alone can fully account for. Toth and Moranski (2018) point out the importance of learning by doing, and how knowledge is constructed through contextual social interactions. Johnson (2016) echoes these claims , arguing that teacher s act within a complex web of factors that shape their beliefs and decisions, including internal (such as prior schooling and pre service education) and external
54 (such as institutional context and student personality). In effect, argues Johnson, the teacher is at once a doer, a knower, and an interpreter. Johnson and Golombek (2016) advance the concept of responsive mediation, founded on the dialectic approach initiated by Marx in the field of political theory and adapted by Vygotsky into the field of psychology. The dialectic a pproach, they argue, provides the researcher with the ability to study the driving forces that have shaped social phenomena over time. Cultivating this ability in pre service teachers enables them to better mediate between the various demands and social fa ctors within the classroom environment, thus enabling teachers to make theoretically and pedagogically informed classroom decisions. This approach builds on earlier work by the authors (Johnson, 2009, 2013; Johnson & Golombek, 2011), which explored the way s in which language teacher education programs could train their pre service teachers to adopt a more sociocultural historical approach to their own teaching practice and to the analysis of classroom dynamics. Observation of classroom practice is seen as i mportant for the study of teacher education , one which informs teacher education practice . This need for increased sociocultural awareness was highlighted by several studies into English teachers in China. Zhao (2014) conducted a series of classroom observ ations as well as interviews with students and teachers at a vocational high school, finding that many teachers at these schools had a difficult time negotiating their gramma r oriented conceptions of English teaching with the more practical, job related de mands of vocational schools. By contrast, Hong and Pawan (2014) found that a group of US trained English teachers in China were better able to negotiate the complex social and institutional factors to introduce some more communicative and critical thinking approaches within their testing heavy academic environments. This study, which drew heavily from Johnson (Johnson, 2009; Freeman & Johnson, 1998), found that participants
55 Western theories and pedagogies as prescriptive knowledge they had to apply in their own teaching contexts. Rather, they viewed their training interpretively, as a lens through which they could reevaluate and rethink their own knowledge, their profession, and who ( Hong & Pawan, 2014, p. 98 ) In other words, the participants were able to take a more metacognitive approach that focused less on the importation of pedagogies and more on a post methods reflective practice. In effect, they were able to draw from their knowledge base of Chinese and American educational experiences when navigating their social contexts and making their classroom decisions. Chou (2008) reached a similar conclusion regarding locally trained elementa ry school English teachers in Taiwan: the teachers were able to take the lessons from their early teaching experiences and blend them with ongoing TESOL instruction that they received as part of their in service continuing education; in so doing, they were able to create the supportive language learning More recently, Jiang (2017) discussed how teacher education in China is shifting from an emphasis on the objective assessment of what the teacher knows toward a more holistic examination of how the teacher is able to organize activi ties and facilitate discussions. Chien (2018) adds to this the importance of formally instituted mechanisms for professional dialogue between teachers. E badi and Gheisari (2016) described the sociocultural approach class sessions, then attended a series of workshops where she was required to ref lect on the strengths and weaknesses of her own teaching and the beliefs that had motivated her classroom decisions. The participant therein continued to maintain a regular schedule of self videotaping and reflective writing. The authors found that some of practices were effectively reshaped as a result of this exercise. Using a theoretical framework that drew from Johnson and Golombek (2011), they concluded that
56 and to create harmony between historical situations in which that professional development occurs, we need to step into exploring classroom moment by moment complexitie s, determine the present practices of the in service teachers, and then articulate sound ways to support and enhance teacher ( p. 11 ) Allen (2018) advocates for a dialogic pedagogy , in which a teacher learns to teach not simply by receiving a series of discrete pedag o gical methods, but by cultivating their sense of identity through dialogue with students and colleagues . between student teacher and professional te acher , during which the confluence of mentorship, pedagogical skills development, and administrative support are key to helping people cultivate and negotiate their identities as rising teachers. Ishihara and Menard Warwick (2018) promote the idea of langu age teachers engaging in practice which is responsive to their environment and of sociocultural in betweenness . The sociocultural turn also includes the impact of emotion on teaching pedagogy. Toraby and Modarresi (2018) found a positive correlation between the emotions that teachers exuded Given that such perceptions of effectiveness are an important par t of emotion is an important aspect of the study of language teacher education. Technological knowledge is becoming a more important aspect of student teacher engagement . A l terator , Deed, and Prain (2018) , in their analysis of common metaphors that are used to describe teachers, place particular emphasis on the increasing range of technological tools that teachers are expected to use to engage with their students. This is particular ly true in solving capacities for tackling scientific issues .
57 Directions for Future Research What T eachers L earn i n t heir T eacher E ducation P rograms The sociocultural turn in language teacher education research requires researchers to investigate how the prior education and language learning experiences affect their classroom and living experiences during their LTE studies to determine what the teachers ultimately take away from the program . Do the teachers describe their takeaways in terms of specific areas of knowledge or skills ? A different worldview? An evolution or reaffirmation of previously held beliefs ? Most importa ntly for this study, in what specific ways do non native English speaking teachers of English learn when they attend US based second language teacher education programs? It is crucial for US based teacher educators to be aware of those issues if they are t o enact sound er teacher education practices that provide effective teacher development to the ir international teacher candidates. T eacher K S hould B e S tudied The growing diversity of conceptions of teacher knowledge (e.g. PCK, PPK, DLK , EFT ) , and the equally growing diversity of disciplines from which teacher knowledge is being investigated ( such as linguistics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology) , can make it difficult for researcher s to know exactly how teacher knowledge should be studied or, in the case of teacher education programs, how teacher knowledge should be developed or cultivated . Investigating the structure and components of the teacher knowledge base requires an understanding of th e educational environments in which those teachers operate . It is not enough simply to study classroom and institutional environments that shape those beliefs and practices. A s teaching environments around the world continue to evolve, it is crucial for teacher educators to
58 constantly be updating their knowledge of those environments . We cannot assume that the above conceptualizations of teacher knowledge, many of which were de veloped in Western educational contexts, will be readily relevant or transferrable to non Western contexts or readily relatable to teacher candidates from non Western countries. Factors That I nfluence T eacher L earning a nd C lassroom P ractice Previous literature has highlighted factors which can determine the extent to which a teacher candidate learns or does not learn the material provided in his or her teacher education program, prominent among those factors being how congruous that material is with the teacher own prior beliefs and experiences . Previous literature has also pointed to a number of local conditions that can determine the extent to which teacher s are able to apply the knowledge and skills from their teacher education program s , prominent among those conditions being class P rior research in which I have been involved (Murray & Coady, 2018 ) has suggested that more work needs to be conducted within foreign language contexts, particularly higher education contexts which are undergoing a rapid transformation and whose teachers often come to the US for their teacher development . As we see rapid chang es in EFL teaching contexts and in the nature of second language teacher education itself, there is a need to investigate what new factors emerge which could have an influence on the way teachers learn . Additionally, an investigation of the factors which m ight hinder or facilitate the implementation of the knowledge gained from their teacher education programs would be useful.
59 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY Overview As stated previously, the purpose of the study was (a) to investigate the knowledge and skills from their US based SLTE programs the participants tended to apply within their local teaching context, and (b) to understand the most common local conditions that hinder or facilitate the application of their US knowle dge within their local instructional environments. To accomplish this, the study employed an exploratory, multiple case design (Yin, 2018). According to Yin, a case study is appropriate when the research question deals with how or why some phenomenon occur s. In this case, how influence their teaching practice, and why (i.e. what local conditions can facilitate or hinder) can participant s use some parts of their US gained knowledge and skills to a greater or lesser extent than others ? Implications for teacher education were then drawn . can be studied in several ways. They can be studied using a large N, with a battery of tests to determine statistical significance. They can also be studied using a small sample , with different sources of data triangulated to make an informed speculation on the likely impact. Both kinds of studies are necessary and should ideally be conducte d in For the present study , time and resource constraints necessitated the adoption of the latter kind of research design. Th e design was structured around the goal of triangulating multiple sources of data to make informed speculations on the types of knowledge and skills from their US SLTE program s the participants appeared to be using consciously or unconscious ly. Such speculations could be further explored or tested in future studies. While the range of possible influences is potentially infinite, I began to question whether or not certain patterns of influence appeared to be recurring.
60 Participant Selection and Recruitment Participants were selected using purposive sampling (Patton, 2002 ) using the following criteria: ( a ) Chinese nationality ; ( b ) graduated from a US based SLTE program ; ( c ) specialized in TESOL, applied linguistics, or a related discipline (theoretical linguistics was excluded if the teacher had no teacher education or second language acquisition coursework) ; ( d ) currently teaching at a university in China. Table 3 1 provides background, the classes which I obse rved, and the hour s of interview and observation with each of the participants. Table 4 1 . Study participants Pseudonym Degree Hours of Interview* Hours of Observation Classes Observed Chu Ph.D. , TESOL 5.5 23 Academic English 3 Public Speaking T ao Ph.D. , Literacy 4 12 Academic English 1 Scientific Writing Li Ph.D. , Applied Linguistics 8 19 Argumentative Writing IELTS ** Writing * Personal interviews and stimulated recall interviews were grouped together, since they often overlapped within the same interview ** International English Language Testing System Collection I nterviews Two types of interviews were conducted : semi structu red and stimulated recall. The semi structured interviews were guided by a prepared list of questions (Appendix A ) , divided into two areas of focus. The first area was the SLTE program, such as its curriculum and sequence of courses , the internship and teaching assistant experiences that the program provided, and the types of knowledge and skills that the participant gained from each course. The second area of focus was the current institutional environment, such as the structure and content s of its
61 core and elective courses, the bureaucratic structure and administrative pressures, and the classroom environment itself: the student characteristics and motivations , the teaching materials, and of course, the most common types of US gained knowledge or teaching strategies that the participants found to be most important and applicable . The semi structured format enabled me to capture the same basic data for each participan t, while enabling both of us to explore other issues or topics that each individual participant considered to be of particular interest and relevance to him or her (Hatch, 2002). The stimulated recall interviews had a different purpose, although they were often conducted within the same session as the semi structured interviews. For the stimulated recall interviews, I would ask the participant about specific instances of teacher talk or instructional decision that I had noted during a classroom observa tion, with a focus on identifying any area of knowledge or experience on which the participant had drawn when performing that action, particularly whether they had been drawing on their US teacher education experience. Most of the time, I was able to ask t he participant these questions immediately following the class, or a few days later at the most. Stimulated recall interviews have been identified as essential to to mo ment instructional decision making (Borg, 2012). In this case, stimulated recall interviews, when triangulated with other data, gave me valuable insight into the ways in which the gained knowledge was influencing his or her classroom practi ces. Classroom O bservations Classroom observations were partly deductive, partly inductive. Deductively, d uring the semi structured interviews I would take note of details such as teaching methods or US knowledge which the participants raise d , then during the classroom observations I would
62 document instance of those details . At the same time, I would document other phenomena that I saw and which the participant appeared to be doing with frequency . I developed a shorthand system for quick documentation of phenomena with corresponding timestamp. Observations were guided by two sets of observable phenomena: behavior codes and time allocation (Appendix B ) . Behavior codes were teaching strategies, lesson objectives, lesson structure, classroom language, and teaching materials. Time allocation codes were how much the teacher talked versus how much the student talked, which language skills the teacher most emphasized, how much material was provided by the teacher versus how much was generated by the students, time spent on class wide or small group/pair work, and time spent on the predetermined lesson plan versus time spent deviating from it. My o bservation notes were made with a focus on e nabling me to understand 19 7 9 , p. 8, cited in Hatch, 2002 , p. 72) , with a particular emphasis on determining which of their acts were guided by their US gained knowledge . Analysis Interviews Analysis of interviews began with open coding (Merriam & Tisdell, 201 6 ), where every sentence or idea unit was assigned a code. While this phase of coding was largely inductive due to the exploratory nature of the study, my codes did have a focus on two general aspects : (a) US gained knowledge , skills, and experiences; and ( b) influential environmental factors. After completing this round of coding , I examined the entire list of codes , consolidating repetitive codes and grouping similar codes together into broader themes . I tested the suitability
63 of these themes by re reading the transcripts to determine which themes could best be supported by direct quotes from the participants (Creswell, 2018). Simultaneously, I compared the themes to the theoretical literature on teacher knowledge and language teacher education, particularly , as well as the theoretical constructs of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and personal practical knowledge (PPK). On this basis, I arrived at the final list of themes for each participant, sub divided into themes which dealt with the US gained knowledge, skills, and experience on the one hand, and themes which dealt with apparent influen cing factors on the other (Appendix C ) . My objective was to identify the schema, those e, both in their teacher education programs and in their current teaching (Bernard, Wutich, & Ryan, 2017). Coding was conducted using the software program QDA Miner . In addition, analysis was guided by handwritten notes which I took during the interviews. In fact, throughout the course of the fieldwork, I refined a technique of co constructing charts and diagrams with the participants which summarized the information as they were providing it . These visuals ended up being a useful tool in the process of ana lysis , in addition to serving an important member checking function (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) . Classroom O bservations Classroom observations were analyzed through a combination of scan sampling and time allocation analysis (Bernard, 2013). Scan sampling is the observation of an individual over time, with a focus on identifying changes in behavioral state under different circumstances and at different time points (Mulder & Caro, 1985) . In effect, I was trying to learn why a participant might have been able to implement some given US knowledge or instructional approach more successfully in one circumstance and less successfully in another ; or whether the participant had
64 to modify that knowledge or approach for one circumstance versus another. This was intended to ability to implement or require them to modify their US gained knowledge. Time allocation analysis is the study of what portion or percentage of the time an individual devotes to certain actions. While scan sampling focuses on individual instances of behavior, time allocation analysis focuses more on periods of time (Stinson, 1999). In this case, I was attempting to determine things like the types of teaching strategies the participants devoted the greatest time to, the types of knowledge or skills they were most focused on cultivating in their students, and the types of class activities on which the participants appe ared to place the greatest emphasis. Trustworthiness Lincoln and Guba (1985) provide guidelines for how to increase the trustworthiness of Chief among these is to maximize credibility through prolonged engagement , triangulation of data , and member checking . Prolonged engagement is defined as spending enough time in the research site to become oriented to its social customs and cultural idiosyncrasies , with the objective of understanding the environmental contexts within which Prolonged engagement in this case was established in several ways. First, when I lived in China many years ago, I was an English teacher in the kinds of higher education environments in which I conducted the present fieldwork. This provided me Chinese higher education environments, and their situatedness within Chinese society more broadly. Second, I spent the previous two summers (2015 and 2016) doing research within these
65 kinds of environments ; I therefore came into the present fieldwork having already studied such environments from a more formal researcher perspective. Third, during my time onsite in the pres ent fieldwork, I spent considerable time becoming familiar with other aspects of campus life outside the classroom, including the libraries, campus centers, and even the local neighborhoods in which the universities were located. While these were obviously not actual sources of data for the fieldwork, my familiarity with these aspects of local life enabled me to make better interpretations of the interview and observation data that I did formally collect. Fourth, I have established longtime professional rel ations and personal friendships with the participants, providing me with an additional depth of understanding of their classroom actions, and of their thoughts and feelings as they were making their instructional decisions and reacting to classroom conditi ons and on the spot challenges . Triangulation is defined as the synthesis and comparison of multiple sources of data to identify patterns or explain phenomena (Barkhuizen, Benson, & Chik, 2014) . In this case, the three sources of data were (a) the semi str based SLTE experience and the current institutional environment, (b) the stimulated recall to moment instructional decisions, and (c) the classroom observation s of th Barkhuizen et al. further discuss how such retelling and analysis of events approximates the actual events. I made every effort t o support each finding with a combination of multiple data sources , then to support each analysis point with findings from all three participants. Member checking is also an important part of trustworthiness and credibility (Morse, 2018). At multiple points throughout the collection and analysis process, I conferred with my
66 participants. During the collection period, I ran many of my preliminary idea s by them, to check whether they believed I was on track or not. As mentioned above, as the interviews were taking place, I created a number of charts and diagrams to summarize the data that they provided. This enabled me to confirm with them on the spot w hether I was understanding them in the way they had intended. Oftentimes, looking at those charts and diagrams caused them to open up even further and provide additional information . Subsequent to the fieldwork, I asked the participants for slight clarific ations on certain points, as part of my regular personal contact with them. Finally, I showed the participant s the first draft s of the ir corresponding chapter s and incorporated their ideas into subsequent drafts. This also enabled me to check the accuracy of the interview and observation segments that I reported. Barkhuizen et al. (2014) also address the issue of generalizability . W hile the present study might not be generalizable to a greater population in a statistical sense, findings could still be generalizable to theories of teacher knowledge. This requires that the study be well framed theoretically ; I made every effort to frame the study based on the most classic and the most recent literature on language teacher knowledge . I tied each point of analysis as much as I could to the existing theoretical literature. In addition , I attempted to identify enough common patterns of experience to have meaningful implications for the process of teacher development more broadly . Finally, generalizability could be realized indirectly if the data allow for the formulation of hypotheses which could be tested in subsequent larger scale studies. I have proposed potential hypotheses which could be further tested using other types of r esearch designs in future studies. The researcher, as the primary instrument of collection and analysis, will naturally bring in some of his or her personal biases to the study ( Merriam & Tisdell, 201 6 ). Given my own four years of experience as an English teacher in mainland China and Taiwan, as well as the
67 department ally funded research that I conducted on US trained Chinese English teachers in China during the summer s of 2015 and 2016 , it is perhaps inevitable that I would have held some personal preconceptions going into the dissertation fieldwork . I made every effort to minimize the influence of these preconceptions through the use of bracketing . Bracketing is the explicit acknowledgement of such biases , for purposes of minimizing their influence on the information collection and analysis (Creswell & Poth , 2018 ). I consider that my own background experience with this research, and in Chinese culture more generally, was advantageous in several ways. First , I believe that I was better able to detect and understand the schema or unspoken assumptions underlying many of the statements . Second , I believe that I was better able to guide the interviews in a manner that result ed in deeper insights from the speakers and from my own analysis. Th ird , I believe that my previous experience as an English teacher in China enabled me to better connect with the participants during interviews . P articipants often felt more comfortable with me because they knew that I could closely relate to many of the th ings they were saying during interviews. This provided an additional level of rapport between myself and the participants. In addition, my fluency in Mandarin enabled participants to speak with me more freely . It made them feel comfortable speaking to me more candidly. I had used these advantages to great effect in previous research , and felt confident going into the field that I would be able to use them to great effect during the present study as well . S everal o ther potential pitfalls ar o se from the fact that I was not a neutral or invisible observer. C lassroom observation inevitably involve d some degree of disruption simply by my physical presence . I took several measures to minimize this disruption to the greatest possible extent. First, I attempted to determine the most appropriate times during the semester to enter
68 and exit the field sites. These times were mutually agreed upon by myself and the participants. Second, I aimed to ens ure that observations were regular and consistent, instead of occasional and intermittent. This enabled the students to become more acclimated to my presence, reducing my visibility and minimizing disruptions. Personal interviews can be something of an art form, particularly stimulated recall interviews where the participants are asked to reflect on specific moments or decision points in their classes. This reflection might inevitably have an influence on the ways in which participants change and adapt t heir teaching in the future. In essence, the act of conducting regular interviews with them could be one of the influences which causes their instructional decisions to change over time. The nature of this research made it difficult to completely avoid thi s potential pitfall , yet it was possible to minimize its influence through the types of questions that I asked: probing enough to get the participants to reflect on their classroom experience, without leading or suggesting that participants do something di fferently next time. Classroom observations can also be something of an art form: the researcher is present in one sense but invisible in another. However, with careful planning and continuous open communication with the participants, it was possible to w ork out a plan for minimum disruption and maximum quality of data collection. In short, I believe my own background knowledge and experience brought a combination of benefits and drawbacks . I attempted to minimize the influence of my biases while capitaliz ing on the advantage of those biases , with the aim of strengthening the trustworthiness of the data , the findings, and the analysis . C areful planning and execution on the above issues ensure d that the data collected and the analysis conducted could be as trustworthy as possible.
69 CHAPTER 5 ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPO SES THE CASE OF CHU Overview This chapter presents the individual findings for Chu . I start by presenting an overview of her current teaching institution and her US educational backgroun d. I proceed to detail the most common facets of her US training that I saw reflected in my personal interviews and classroom observations. Finally, I analyze some of the local factors which I believe exerted an influence on the extent to which she was or was not able to apply her US training. While all of her academic degree s and teaching experiences invariably feed into her current teaching practice, a careful triangulation of interview and observation data enabled me to tease out specific areas of knowledge and skill that appeared to be cultivate d most strongly in her US doctoral program. Current In stitution Chu to which , beginning in the 1980s, the central government allowed a greater degree of autonomy to experiment with Western style capitalist economic policies. The result is that many SEZs today are sprawling megacities with dozens of software and industrial parks. Many SEZs also provide their education institutions with greater flexibility to experiment on matters such as curr iculum design and admissions requirements. This university is well funded and maintains numerous partnerships with local industry, as well as a regular stream of international conferences on everything from earthquake safety to road construction conference s in which the students themselves take active part. The students are all undergraduate science and engineering majors, many of them conducting and publishing original research in collaboration with their faculty advisers , most of whom have overseas degree s or work experience
70 teaching faculty to teach the students about Western academic writing conventions and cultivate English classes at the university are housed in the Foreign Language Institute (FLI) (a pseudonym) . It is not a full department , as it does not have its own major . It provides the common English classes which all students of the university must take, as we ll as a variety of elective classes which are designed by individual professors . The semester that I conducted my fieldwork, Chu was teaching a sophomore a cademic E nglish course and an elective public speaking course. At that time , the core English curriculum was undergoing a major restructuring. The old curriculum, which is the one that I observed but which is in the process of being phased out, consists of four sem esters of a cademic English , with an integration of the four language skills, as well as considerable overlap in the content of the courses from one semester to the next . As of this writing, the new curriculum is currently in the process of being redesigned . Chu is one of the faculty in charge of this redesign , and her US training exerts a strong influence on how she helps redesign, as will be detailed below. The new curriculum aims to cultivat e EAP beginning from smaller and more accessible building blocks . Moreover , in what might be considered a microcosm for the constant change and rapid expansion of the city as a whole ) , the FLI has been moved and restructured two or three times in the past few years. Three years ago , the English teaching faculty were housed in the main teaching building , near the offices of faculty from some of the science content area departments . The English classes did not yet have their separate division ; they were situated core mostly liberal arts that all students of the university were required to take. Subsequently , as the university physical layout w as in a constant state of construction and renovation with new buildings being erected and old
71 ones being torn down the English teaching faculty were shuffled around campus several times , before finally being given their own hallway inside a newly constructed complex of scientific research institutes. E ducational B ackground China. Immediately following, she went to the US to pursue a Master of Education in secondary English education from a major school of education. Upon graduation, she returned to China for a year to teach English courses at a polytechnic university and at several private language training centers . Following that, she returned to the U S to pursue her doctoral degree in TESOL at another major school of education. In recounting her doctoral coursework, Chu divided it into three broad clusters: language education, educational technology, and a broad cluster that I label as . Language E ducation C luster This cluster of courses is related to language teaching theories and pedagogies. She further divided this cluster into two sub clusters: TESOL related and literacy related. The TESOL related sub cluster included courses in L2 acquisition theories, L2 teaching methodology, testing and assessment, bilingual education and American language education policy, and curriculum materials development. T he courses tend ed to be heavily US centric . As 12 11/24/2017) . Many of the teaching method s textbook s had a decidedly American K 12 orientation , except for one course pack which she found useful at the time and still makes extensive use of today . T ESOL teaching
72 methods course, it covered reading, wr iting, listening, speaking, these four skills. I realized that I would be able to use many teaching strategies from that course pack 11/27/2017). That course pack was created by an adjunct faculty member, who taught the teaching metho ds course during the semester that Chu was enrolled . The course pack is a compendium of articles on pedagogies for teaching each of the four language skills, as well as other teaching approaches such as process writing, semantic mapping , and collaborative learning all three of which ended up surfacing in her current teaching practice. Chu still has that course pac k on her bookshelf; she refers to it often, and she showed it to me when I visited. Two things are noteworthy here. First , many of the teaching strategies that she frequently uses in her current teaching such as process writing and semantic mapping were not directly covered by the instructor during class . T he course pack seemed to function as a kind of varied tool box , with only a portion of its being covered by the course , but the rest of the tools being available for the teacher s to refer to where necessary in their subsequent teaching where useful . This suggest s that the value of a teaching methods course may not only be in what the course itself covers , but also in the wide array of other teaching methods that are provided for reference . Second , while this particular teaching methods course was taught wi th a focus on American K 12 contexts , the course pack materials themselves were not so context specific . I would postulate that this made it easier for Chu to adapt those methods into her local EFL teaching context s . This postulation is supported by prior findings (Murray & Coady, 2018 ) , which suggested that if a textbook introduced a set of teaching methods with too much of an explicit focus on American K 12 e ducational context s , then the Chinese students did not necessarily see the relevance of those methods for their own future teaching contexts , and consequently did not use them.
73 The literacy related sub cluster included courses in reading, literacy, and academic writing. Curiously, she did not spend a substantial amount of our interview time talking with me about these courses . In fact , she appeared to downpla y the importance of those courses for her teaching practice . However, I found that the knowledge and material s from those courses appeared to figure just as prominently in to her teaching practice as the knowledge from her TESOL related courses. In fact, I would argue ( based on the evidence presented below ) that the bulk of the linguistic knowledge that she taught to her current students came from those few literacy courses. I would speculate that she downplays the importance of these courses in her teaching practice because she vie w s herself primarily as a TESOL student , not a literacy student. This belief might have been inculcated by h er own US institution , which tends to operate under the ideology that TESOL and literacy are two separate fields : (a) TESOL being the teaching of the English language to non native English speaking children , and being more related to culture and society ; and (b) literacy being the fa cilitation of content knowledge learning (e.g. math, science) for all school aged children , and being more related to academic language . I personally tend to believe that the TESOL literacy distinction is largely ideological, not substantive. Regardless , t he emphasis that Chu current university places on the development of the academic writing skills has meant that Chu end ed up drawing just as extensively from her few literacy courses as from her many TESOL courses . Educational T echnology C luster This cluster included courses in (a) m edia l iteracy; (b) t echnology, c ulture and s ociety; and (c) the integration of technology into the curriculum . S he pursued an optional educational technology minor as part of her doctoral studies. This material ended up figuring heavily into her dissertation, which focused on the literacy practices in which middle school English learners
74 engaged while playing a popular massive multiplayer online roleplaying game (MM ORPG). When she first returned to China, she made extensive use of this technology expertise in her class room teaching . She feels that her use of technology has decreased since coming to her current university, simply because s he felt that she did not have sufficient time to integrate technology into her teaching as extensively as she would have preferred , given the heavier teaching load and the sheer time commitment that it took to remain updated on all the latest technological developments. Conse quently , she did not feel that she was able to make as extensive use of her US learned educational technology knowledge as she would have like d , yet she still found ways to incorporate aspects of it in her classroom teaching. A C luster I label this cluster for lack of a better term. It include s the courses that she took in her doctoral program but which do not fall into the above categories. These courses consist primarily of research methods courses, including qualita tive and quantitative. T hey also include a course on career preparation, which she took from the school psychology department within the school of education, and a course on grant writing, which she took from the department of entomology outside the school of education. She used th e latter course to obtain an external grant , which she used to complete her dissertation fie l dwork. Research Question #1: Types of Knowledge from US B ased SLTE TESOL f or t he M indset, L iteracy f or t he S ubstance By Chu account , the teaching methods and second language acquisition courses from her US studies appeared to shape her general teaching approach and orientation, while the literacy courses appeared to provide both the materials that she directly taught in class a nd the micro teaching strategies that she used from moment to moment .
75 the content. From TESOL , (Personal Interview, 11/27/2017). In other words, the literacy courses provide d much of the m aterial that she deliver ed to her students, while the TESOL courses influenced the way in which she deliver ed it. Two of the most important TESOL concepts which she emphasized were (a) teacher as facilitator, and (b) lives. Teacher a s F acilitator The attitude of teacher as facilitator was one of the primary ideas that Chu took from her TESOL teaching to do some introduction s with students, do some reading activities like jigsaw or other activities in class. So they re very practical, I can use them directly and think about how to involve students and make them motivated She typically did thi s in one of two ways: By asking students to take notes on a reading or video , then having a class wide discussion on those notes . Or, by splitting the class into small groups , then moving around the different tables as the small groups talked among themsel ves. While many teachers, US trained and otherwise, may use a combination of class wide and small group activities , she made clear that her manner of implementing them was developed and refined in her US doctoral experience, through a combination of taking TESOL teaching methods courses and teaching assistant experience. Class wide discussions. An example of the class wide discussion approach could be seen in a session of the sophomore a cademic English class on 11/24/2017. She began with a TED talk on drug addiction by Johann Hari ( TED, 2015 ). Before the video began, Chu instructed students to take notes on two things while they watched : ( a ) the individual verbal and nonverbal language that the speaker use d to deliver his talk material, and ( b ) the general idea or message that the
76 speaker attempt ed to convey in his talk. After the video, Chu asked the students to list some of the main points that the speaker was attempting to make. Chu : What is the main information in this talk? What does the speaker try to convince us of? S1: That w e have the wrong attitude about addicts. We are used to reducing our connection s with them. Chu : Okay, so? S1: So, we used to think we had to treat them as terrorists or terrible people. Now, he finds that those people maybe have some social trouble. They feel so alone, so we should make more connections with them, and love them more. Chu : Okay, to make them feel more welcome again so they can break that habit. So this s the preconception that he thinks we have? S2: That the reason for addiction is a chemical reaction. But he found that the real reason is that they have trouble making emotional connections. Chu : How about the presentation, the speaking skills going to do your presentation very soon. So what are your observations on nonverbal language? S3: Gestures. Chu : Gestures, hand gestures. Very good. He uses a lot of gestures Like when he , the palms And how about eye contact? Did you talk about eye contact before, in your previous classes? Ss: [ Nod collectively. ] Chu : Yes, I bet you did. So what is effective eye contact? Scan your audience in different directions k about verbal language, how does he open his talk? S4: He s tarts with a personal story. Chu : Yes. So there are different ways to open your talk. Maybe if you talk about your personal experience. People like to listen to stories. And when speaking, how doe does he refute that? Ss: [ No one answers. ] Chu : Just like when writing, what do you need to use? S5: Evidence. Chu : Very good. You need concrete support. What kind of evidence does he use? S5: The experiment in Vancouver. Chu : Yes, previous studies by some researchers. S5: About rats. Chu : And he also talks about the veterans of Vietnam. They were expected to continue using their drugs when they came home, but they stop ped . So it shows that environment is very important for their connections.
77 This segment demonstrates some specific techniques that Chu use d for facilitating discussions . First , she provided the students with a set of things to look for when watching the video. Second , she integrated student generated content with teacher generated content. When a student made a point, she would take it and elaborate on it, then build on it with something of her own. This could enable students to buy into the class material even further , because they had a hand in generating it . Third , she attempted to tie the material directly to the assignments that the students were working on, including an upcoming presentation , thereby helping the students find even greater value in the discussion . Chu explained to me that her US based teaching assistant experience was important in cultivating her sense of teacher as facilitator. As a TA, s he taught an undergraduate TESOL class as part of her fe llowship requirements. At that time, the TESOL course format consisted of a large lecture delivered in a lecture hall splitting of the cohort into smaller groups of 20 or 30 . E ach of these smaller group s was led by a teaching assistant. Chu was in charge of one of those smaller groups , with her role consist ing entirely of fostering discussions, since the lecture had already been delivered by the faculty instructor. lectures every week, and we had small sessions, more like cohort discussions. So she would teach them the content, and we would have the discussions. What made me change was that student centered discussion, not just the content delivery. Because when I wa s educated in China, there were a lot of lectures instead of interactions with the teacher. Because of the class size, you cannot have the chance. But in that [US] class, with no more than 30 or 20 something students, you have the chance to have a very clo se relations h ip. I learned to listen to them and give them feedback, so it was more like communication, I am not the authority to teach (Personal Interview, 11/24/2017) As demonstrated in this quote, being a discussion facilitator, and that mentality has stuck with her to this day. That TA
78 experience was important in cultivating a view of herself not as an authority who is above her students, but more as a coach who draws the potential out of her students . She aims to tap into the knowledge that students already possess, integrating it with the knowledge that the course is intended to provide. Chu understood that her American undergraduate students already possessed a great deal of the knowledge that they needed for th eir careers. Those students were pre service elementary school teachers , many of who m already possessed considerable knowledge of pedagog y and instructional scaffolding, and even some second language acquisition theories . Their curriculum required the m to take the TESOL courses in order to be better prepared to address the specific needs of the English learners that they would encounter in their future elementary school classrooms , particularly in the public school system . When I was a TA during my own doctoral studies , I had a similar situation as Chu did: My students were undergraduate pre service elementary education majors who already possessed a substantial knowledge of teaching and education . T hey had to take my TESOL course as part of their teache r certification process . Given this, I came to view my job not as providing them with new information much of which they already knew but rather as help ing them take the information that they already possessed and apply it specifically to English language learners. From her TA classes in the US to her current classes in China, Chu appears to have adopted this approach. Her students in China were undergraduate science majors who already possess ed some knowledge and experience with different forms o f oral and written academic communications , especially for their scientific fields . Her role , as she saw it , was to bring out the knowledge that the students already possess ed , and to help them cultivate that knowledge for their careers and for their own f uture stud ies abroad.
79 If she were teaching the students a content course, such as physics or biology, then she might have been more inclined to act as the authority who deliver ed information, since in that case she would possess a body of content knowledge that her students would not yet have. L anguage skills were different. Even if she was communication than her students were , language was still not something that could be learned . In sum , doubly reinforced when she learned it in the graduate level TESOL teaching methods course that she took, and then applied it in the undergraduate level TESOL methods course that she taught. Small group discussions. The other type of discussion of which Chu made frequent use was the small group discussion, where she would split the class into g roups of four or five per table . She would assign each table a topic to discuss, usually with some combination of language and content goals toward which to work . For instance , in her public speaking elective class on 11/2 1 /2017, she began the hour by reviewing the different purposes of a speech (to convince or to actuate) and the different types of speech foci (fact, value, or policy). She then split the class into five groups and assigned each group a different TED talk to watch and then discuss among themselves . The guidelines for the discussion s were delineated on the PowerPoint (Figure 5 1) , which she left on the projector screen while delivering her instructions. As can be seen in Figure 5 1, the students in their small groups were asked to discuss the following features of their assigned TED talk: (a) the speech function or purpose, (b) the focus of the speech, (c) the organizational structure, and (d) the persuasive tools or strategies employed by the speaker. Chu provided each group with the link to their assigned TED talk, so the students could watch it on their laptops or smartphones at their respective tables. During the activity, she left that slide up on the projector screen for students to refer to when need ed.
80 Figure 5 1 . academic English class on 11/21/2017 Speaking of , it is worth pointing out that every classroom which was used for language classes had its desks arranged in clusters of six , so that the students would face each other in small groups . Moreover, all of t he tables were freestanding , not simply writing surfaces attached to chairs. This allowed for one large table surface on which to share materials du ring small group projects or discussions. T hese seating arrangements appeared to be deliberately arranged for small group interactions . By contrast, science content classes tended to be taught in larger lecture halls which had the traditional arrangement o f chairs and writing surfaces in rows facing the front of the classroom. The allotment of large lecture halls with fixed position chairs for the science content classes , and the smaller classrooms with movable tables for the English classes , suggests that the university administration had intended the English classes to focus on interaction and communication . This configuration ended up better enabling Chu to implement her US learned orientation of teacher as facilitator.
81 As the students were discussing in their groups, Chu floated between them, asking some prompting questions to each group . For instance, one group was assigned to discuss a talk by Arthur Benjamin (TED, 2009) on why statistics should be taught before calculus. The group was having trouble agreeing on whether the purpose of the speech was to convince or to actuate (i.e. to sway toward a viewpoint versus to call for an action). Chu leaned on the table into their gr oup, and the discussion went as follows: Chu: the function? Do you think he tries to persuade us or convince us about something or make us to do something? S 1 : [ Trying to think of an answer .] Chu: So you are going to analyze the function, or are you doing that together? S1: Together. Chu: idea about the function of this speech? S2: [Trying to think of an answer.] Chu: I mean, does the speech try to make us do something or believe in something? S2: Believe in. Chu: Okay, so you think he just makes us believe instead of doing something? S2: [Nods.] Chu: Believe in what? S2: That statistics is more important than calc ulus. Chu: S1: It means that our math education should turn from analog to digital . Statistics is at the top of the pyramid. Chu: So, what is the status quo right now in math education? Which one do we teach first? S3: Calculus. Chu: So what Pauses.] S2: Calculus. Chu: Calculus. Right. So you can say the function is to make us believe. And personally, I think that the function is to make us to change the education. S1: Chu: answer. In this segment, Chu was clearly having some difficulty getting students to talk. She appear ed to use two techniques to attempt to overcome this difficulty . First , Chu prompt ed a
82 student to seek help from his groupmates , promoting the spirit of working together as a team. Second , when a student was having difficulty answering a question, she repeat ed the question with increasing simplicity: first an open ended question, then a one or other question, then a yes or no question, and finally a one word prompt. She did not provide her own answer until the student finally gave an answer. In this way , she avoid ed feeding answers to the students , and instead aimed to buil d on what the students already kn e w. In addition, Chu believe d that collaboration was a better way for students to learn certain language concepts that she wanted them to . On 11/27/2017, she gave the following instructions in preparation for a group activity: Chu: When you work in your groups, you solve the problems if you have questions about vocabulary. Because you will work on the same section of reading, so you help each other to learn that effectively, instead of everyone using a dictionary to look up the same word. Here, we can see her attempts to foster discussion by getting the students to search for the answer s among themselves. She clearly o perated under the assumption that students would learn more by asking the answers of each other than by seeking the answers alone. Working alone, the students might find the answer and learn something. But working together, students could find the same ans even more efficient. Chu often adopted this approach, instructing students to have these discussions among themselves while she moved around between the tables. Connecting w ith S D aily L ives Chu lives. She did this by finding new materials to give to students ; or , if she was required to use certain textbook materials in class , by modifying those materials. For instance, one of the reason s
83 why she chose the abovementioned Johann Hari TED talk (on 11/24/2017) was because she thought that it was more useful than the text book reading passage which had been assigned for that week . She was required to use that reading passage, because it was one of the materials which all the faculty who taught sophomore academic English that semester had agreed to use during that particular week. S he only used that text for a portion of the hour , while she used the TED talk for the rest of the hour . During the discussion after the TED video, she made the following comments to the class : Chu : When we started this unit on addiction , I thought that this was so far away from us. Did any of you have that kind of feeling? So you might have wondered, ? I asked myself that, too. And first, I thought something about chemistry and s that make people hooked on or addicted to. But also, I read an article last month , an article about laughing gas. If you do it may be easy to get addicted to, it might be very dangerous, this is what happens in real life. Some Chinese students, when they go study overseas, they get addicted to laughing gas. So laughing gas is nitrous oxide, [ its Chinese name ]. At the very beginning, it was used for medical reasons . L aughing gas was used by dentists to relieve the pain of patients. And now some people abuse it , a type of drug. So about the chemical s . A s this talk informs us, not only about the drugs. Any addiction maybe indicates that we need some type of connection for something. Chu appeared to be attempting to accomplish three things. First , she was trying to relate the chemical aspects of drug addiction to the personal interests in chemistry and science more broadly given that all the students at the university were science majors. She even looked up the name of the chemical element of laughing gas in English and Chinese. This demonstrates the ample preparation that Chu put into each class period. Second , Chu shar ed with them a recent news article about how Chinese students abroad were becoming further addicted to lau ghing gas. Since her university was strongly pushing the
84 English teaching faculty to prepare the students for study abroad, Chu was trying to help those students with more than just the language skills; she was also trying to help the students prepare for other aspects of study abroad life, such as the stress that could lead some students to turn to substance abuse for relief. Third , Chu was attempting to tell the students that addiction could happen to anyone, including them . She felt that it was important for them to be informed about the dangers and warning signs of addiction, given the danger that the people who most strongly believe d that it w ould never happen to them could often be the ones who were the most susceptible to it . When people begin to form habits without realizing it, those habits could already be too deeply engrained by the time the people realize that it could happen to them. Sh e was trying to make the point that a ddiction could involve any substance or even any activity , and that the main cause of it (and the most visible warning sign) was often a lack of human connections. She hoped the students would understand that t his lack of human connection was something that could happen to any of them during their studies abroad. In sum, since Chu was required to cover the topic of substance abuse during that week , she attempted to modify and introduce new materials which would tie more closely into , by universalizing it to any kind of addiction . Peer R eview a nd P rocess W riting Chu made frequent use of process writing in her classes , typically by having students submit multiple drafts of essays that were revised based on peer review ed feedback . As she explained to me, process writing had not been directly discussed in any particular class in the US , although she identified two sources that were heavily influential in cultivating her interest in process writing: (a) the professor of her doctoral courses in literacy, with whom she had many informal discussions about process writing ; and (b) the aforementioned TESOL methods course
85 pack, which contained a chapter on how to implement proce ss writing (Personal Interview, 11/13/2017). Chu found that her students were not always improving their academic writing skills from one essay to the next . This made her consider that the students might benefit from spending additional time on each essay, either by revising the whole essay multiple times , or by writing one section of the essay at a time. give them a topic and expect them to write about it in one lecture, so step by step, one In addition , Chu ha d to coordinate her instruction with colleagues who taught other sections of the same sophomore a cademic English l evel 3 course during that semester . In this particular course, the instructors agreed by consensus to include peer review in th at syllabus . The teachers also collaborated in the development of the guidelines on which the various argumentative essays and peer reviews would be evaluated . Therefore , Chu had some input in to the development of the peer review guidelines that were collectively used by the sophomore a cademic English instructors . She summarized those guidelines for me, as shown in Figure 5 2 below . I have placed arrows next to the parts which Chu said she contributed to the rubric . As can be seen in this illustration, when Chu contributed her input to the peer review guidelines, she placed an emphasis on three particular aspects: (a) transitional words and phrases, (b) the distinction between academic and non academic language usages , and (c) the use of refutations and counterarguments. When I asked her where she had gotten the idea to suggest those aspects, she explained to me that she had gotten them from her US based academic writing class, taught by a professor who specializes in applied linguistics (and who also happens to be
86 Chinese). That class, she explained to me, had emphasized the importance of presenting more than propaganda, that (Personal Interview, 11/27/2017). Figure 5 2 . Peer review guidelines co constructed by the course instructors Introduction Hook Background information Thesis statement Transitional words and phrases Body paragraphs Topic sentence Supporting evidence Transitional words and phrases Counterargument and refutation Counterargument Refutation Transitional words and phrases Concluding paragraph Restated thesis Summary of main points Final remarks Transitional words and phrases Use of language Informal or non academic language Grammar, punctuation, and capitalization problems Format and mechanics Appropriateness of centering, indentation, and line spacing Use of resources In text citations Reference list in proper format
87 In that academic writing class during her doctoral studies, Chu learned that her argumentative essay would be more credible if she took the initiative to present some of the into her classroom teaching. as well as into the collective guideline s for peer review. Signal W ords a nd R hetorical S tructure Chu appeared to place a heavy emphasis on the ability to identify the rhetorical structure of a text by identifying certain individual within that text . For instance, identifying a cyclical process by identifying signal words such as rise, fall, and stabilization ; or determining a historical account by identifying signal etc. To teach students about the relationship between signal words and rhetorical structure, she often used small group activities such as the jigsaw , which she had picked up when some faculty instructors in her US doctoral program used it in their classes. For instance, in the sophomore academic Engl ish class on 11/27/2017 , the class was analyzing a reading passage on the globalization of drugs such as crack and heroin. It should be noted that Chu did not particularly like this reading passage; but it was part of the course packet which all the instru ctors who t aught sophomore academic writing that semester had to use. B eing obligated to use it, she decided that it could be best used to teach her students about signal words For this activity , Chu divided the class into small groups and assigned each group a dru g from the reading passage to focus on . The groups were supposed to read the paragraphs pertaining to their assigned drug : cannabis, cocaine, heroin, inhalants, alcohol , or tobacco. She instructed the students to ( a ) read for comprehension, ( b ) talk to each other about vocabulary that they did not know ( instead of checking a dictionary individually ) , ( c ) summarize the main ideas
88 of the reading passage , and ( d ) identify certain rhetorical structures in the reading passage . Students were to do this with the assistance of three fill in the blank diagrams (shown in Figure 5 3 ) which appeared in the text after the reading passage : Figure 5 3 . Diagrams for cyclical process, cause and effect, and sequence of events The first diagram was a circle with four blank text boxes around the perimeter; students were to fill in the four steps of a drug epidemic cycle. The second diagram was a table with two columns, labeled as cause and effect; students were to identify certain effects that were described in the readings, and to identify their causes, or vice versa. The third diagram was a linear series of three blank text boxes connected by arrows; students were to identify some sequence of three events in the reading and fill them into the text boxes. These diagrams corresponded to the three rhetorical structures contained within the text: cyclical processes, cause and effect, and sequence of events. The cyclical process in question was the rise, peak, decline , and resurgence in the use of certain drug s . The cause and effect was the impact of globalization on the dissemination of those drug s across borders and continents. The sequence of events was the historical trend in drug use from medical to recreationa l. As the students discussed their assigned drug in their small groups, Chu floated around the different groups, spending several minutes at each table, trying to get the students to identify different signal words that marked each of the three rhetorical structure s . The fol lowing segment of conversation took place at the table that was assigned to discuss cocaine , when the group was feeling stumped with the reading passage :
89 Chu: So, how does cocaine provide an example of globalization of substance abuse, and the cyclical nat ure of drug addiction? Ss: [No one answers.] Chu: S1: Circle. Chu: Yes, a circle. So there are two keywords here, one is globalization , and the other is cyclical structure , right? And in the reading, what information is very important? What kind of feature did you identify in this part of the reading? What information indicates globalization? S2: South America , North America, and Europe. Chu: Yes, exactly. Different countries in different continents. That i ndicates globalization. And also, there are a lot of numbers, those are timeline, because we talk about development or a change based on the timeline. So we have the timeline, including 1860, 1900, 1960s and 70s and 80s and 2001. Right? timeline. And globalization, what countries are involved. And how about cyclical structure? What is the cyclical structure that this reading is talking about ? S3: This word, stabiliza tion . [Reading from the text] Chu: Yes, e what else? If you , turn to the diagram after the cyclical nature of drug epidemics. And you see, the first box is already filled in with the word s ere Ss: [ No one answers .] Chu: S4: Chu: Right. All those words indicate what? An increase in drug use. And then later in also see sho uld highlight those words, because it shows the trends of what the cyclical nature means there. That will be the key information So you see in the reading, then and finally Because this passage talks about globalization and the cyclical structure. the key information. But how? So you can find all the details. Teach each other if there are any vocabulary We see several things in this exchange. First , Chu was trying to get the students to see which signal words indicate d different types of rhetorical structures , such as c ountry names to indicate globalization ; d ates to indicate a sequence of events ; or w ords pertaining to rising and
90 falling, or increasing and decreasing, to indicate a cyclical process. She proceed ed to help the students identify other signal words such as air , which suggest e d cause and effect, namely improved transportation causing drugs to travel globally . Second , Chu was not feeding answers to the students, but trying to lead them to identify those signal words for themselves. If students had trouble answering, she did not provide them the answer , but simply rephrase d her question in a simpler manner . Only once she believe d that the students ha d identified enough keywords on their own, did she provide an explanation of her own to cement their new knowl edge. Chu then floated to another table, where the group was talking about the social, psychological, and physical reasons for alcohol consumption in different conversation at this table included the following segment : S1: T hese three boxes talk about alcohol in China, India, and Mexico, and different views and attitudes. Chu: And the reasons. S1: The reasons and control of alcohol. Chu: paragraph? S1: Chu: sense, the reasons why it says Chinese people consume alcohol? S1: Chinese people use alcohol more because of social [sic.] . Chu: And psychological. Do you agree with that? What does it mean for social? S1: [social interactions]. Chu: S1: Just like, I am not happy today, and after a sleep, I will feel better. Chu: Relieved, the pain. And physical? [Turns to speak to the whole class] Why do you think Chinese people drink alcohol ? We talked about social reasons. People, a [siblings], you have to drink to show that, right? So the second one is psychological, increase in confidence and decrease in negative feelings. So if physic al? Think about it, people in the north usually drink more than people in the
91 In this s egment, we see Chu attempting to get her students to identify cause s and effect s , namely by categoriz ing different types of causes (i.e. social, psychological) for the consumption of alcohol . We also see Chu attempt ing to get her students to tie the reading material to their own culture and society ; for example, some of the reasons why Chinese people drink. approach to teaching these concepts was originally cultivated in the a cademic w riting class that she took in the US , but it was further developed in the academic writing classes that she taught in her first teaching job after returning to China. In her US academic writing class, the core text book was the classic academic writing manual Inside Track ( Gillett, Hammond, & Martala, 2009) and its companion website (Gillett, 2018) . It also happens to have been the core text for the academic writing class that I took in my own doctoral studies, making it one of the strongest influences on my own academic wri ting and on my teaching of academic writing to others. It also meant that I could more teaching focus , even when she herself might not have been as consciously aware of its influence , as she admitted to me on several occasions . Jigsaw M ethod In one of the above quotes, Chu mentioned learning the jigsaw method from her US based TESOL teaching methods class . T he course instructor had not only discussed it, but also used it as a teaching method herself. During class reading assignments, Chu made frequent use of the jigsaw method, where her students would be divided into groups, with each group focusing on a different section of the reading passage. s time, and they have more interactions with each
92 To set up the jigsaw activity, she went around the room and had the students count off by number and letter, i.e. A1 to A5, then B1 to B5, etc . She then had the students get into groups by assign ed on. She put up a PowerPoint slide (Figure 5 4 ) with four questions that the groups would have 10 15 minutes to discuss among themse lves. She described to me how the PowerPoint slide was important to maintain on the projector screen them to introduce the main idea of their section, then they have no idea what they should focus Personal Interview, 11/27/2017). Figure 5 4 . Peer review guidelines After the 15 minute discussion period was up, she would have the students reshuffle and with a different section of the reading passage, each person could introduce their respective portion of the reading passage,
93 so that in the end, each person in the group had a chance to introduce his or her section of the reading passage, enabling every p erson in the group to have a chance to speak . This way, rather than have all students read the entire passage , and inevitably cause some students to take up most of the speaking time while others sat ba ck quietly , each group could discuss a manageable sect ion of the passage . The groups would then reshuffle, so that each student could in turn introduce his or her corresponding section of the passage . In this way, every part of the article was discussed, and every student had a chance to s peak. On 11/28/2017, she implemented the jigsaw activity in her class, and she assigned a blog post entitled (ICPMA, n.d.). The article contain ed smartphone addiction, and Chu broke the class into five groups so that each group would discuss three of the points. The implementation of the activity went similarly as the one just described. After class, she explained to me , ( Personal Interview, 11/28/2017 ) addiction. She considered t his reading passage to be dense r , lengthier, and more difficult to divide cleanly. Chu has learned through experience that the best articles to use for the jigsaw activity were those which could be ( a ) easily dividable so that the different sections could be read independently of the other sections ; ( b ) more accessible in terms of technical complexity ; and ( c ) , since smartphones were a likelier source of addiction for her students than drugs. This is a clear example of how Chu took an aspect of her US training and adapted it into her own local teachi ng context through her own personal practical knowledge (PPK) , which she has cultivated during her time at her current university.
94 Educational T echnology As part of her US doctoral studies, Chu pursued a minor in educational technology. At her first univer sity teaching position on returning to China, she made extensive use of technological tools, particularly smartphone apps. In her current university, she makes frequent use of blended learning, as well as allowing the students to access websites and videos on their mobile devices during class. Far from reprimanding the students for using their smartphones and laptops during cl ass, she welcomes it. In her first job after returning to China, one paper abo did have blended learning experience when I worked as a TA in a graduate course after I defended my dissertation but before I came back to China. My adviser gave me an online gradua te course about teaching English, it was about content, helping students English learning in their content areas. I think that this developed my teaching experience using online components, and this came back to help with my current curriculum design, the blended course format . I have students use a discussion forum, I ask them to answer my educational technology courses in the US, I took online and blended courses as well. And when I TA e d for th at undergraduate TESOL course , there were two courses that I taught online. Just like you Interview, 11/25/2017) In other words, Chu gained significant experience with blended learning from her US teacher education program. She gained this experience in two predominant ways: by taking a number of educational technology courses for her minor during her doctoral studie s , and by frequently using blended format when she worked as a teaching assistant in the US . These courses taught her how to integrate various technologies into the curriculum, including screencasts, media literacy, evaluating web sources, and the use of s martphone applications for teaching and learning. Concerning her teaching assistant experience, most of the courses for which she worked as a TA were either face to face with a heavy online component, or fully online. The students of
95 the face to face cours es were usually undergraduate education majors right within her department, while the students of the online courses were usually current elementary school teachers from around the state who needed to take TESOL courses for their continuing education credi ts. In either case, the blended format often consisted largely of posting weekly assignments, and of having students post on a weekly discussion board and respond to Chu continued this practice when she returned to China. In the first university at which she taught, she used this format extensively in the doctoral writing and level academic writing course that she taught. At her current university, she continues to use this format. In the published paper that she mentioned, she and her co author described how the blended learning format allowed them to send out general announcements , upload curriculum materials, regulate discussion forums, and develop online based activities . Their goal, as they described it, was to achieve a balance of inputs (reading) and outputs (writing), along with ample student to student and student to teacher interaction ( A uthor s , 2017). T he digital component of her course consisted largely of posting the reading assignments and providing discussion forums for the students to interact with each other on course related materials outside of class. I observed this myself during classroom obse rvations . Aside from the weekly online forums and allowing students to use their electronic devices in class, she made frequent use of several popular Chinese instant messaging applications: WeChat for announcements and other communications with her studen ts, and QQ for the sharing of larger files and documents . In fact, I have observed many teachers in China making frequent use of WeChat as a communication tool with their students, most often by creating a group so that they can message their students simu ltaneously . I used WeChat in this way myself when I taught a short term academic writing course at a Chinese university in the summer of 2017.
96 Academic W riting in S teps The university administration was pushing Chu and the other English teaching faculty to teach t he i r students to write a research paper starting in freshman year . Chu felt that this was impossible . A cademic writing had to be taught in steps , she felt, with each step accessible enough so that the students could catch on without being too overwhelmed. h them how to write an argumentative essay about academic topics in their own field, like physics or biology. elements of a research paper. In their second year, som e of them have not even read a research paper, so it goes without saying, the freshmen would not have either. Their departments should teach them that. Several issues are highlighted by this quote. First , the university administrat ors appear ed to want their students to begin writing for publication from the first year, expecting the English Second , the facul ty from the actual science departments appear ed to focus on teaching their students the scientific content knowledge while expecting the English teaching faculty to train the students in the skills of writing for publication . These content area professors appear ed to have little regard for the partial responsibility that they bore in preparing students to publish in their respective sub disciplines , or for the reality that the English teaching faculty could not automatically teach every type of r esearch article format. The old English core curriculum was designed in an attempt to meet this demand, by focusing intensively on EAP for all four semesters . There was significant crossover in content from one semester to the next. Chu did not believe tha t this was useful or practical. nd they still have a lot of problem s
97 In essence, she felt that the old curriculum was counterproductive, because it weigh ed the students down so much , stuck was better to begin from a foundation and cultivate the skills in accessible steps over the course of two years already a tight schedule as is , but at least was better than a solid wall of four heavy semesters of academic English . In fact, when I examined some of the syllabi for the current academic English courses, I noticed that they were densely weighed down with highly technical academic skills, such as findi ng evidence and using transitions, and with heavy topics such as drug addiction and abnormal psychology. By contrast, Chu described the new curriculum thus : The new curriculum will be English 1, 2, and 3, then EAP. focus on academic reading and also writing, but writing is more about argumentative essay writing, but they should use academic topics, and le arn to use references and citations in their writing. need to learn to use references, evidence in writing, avoiding plagiarism. The language (Personal Interview, 11/25/2017 ) In other words, she did not consider the first three English courses to be EAP per se , as they would not focus directly on publication or other academic activities . Instead, t he courses would contain some building blocks leading up to EAP . At the time of my fieldwork, the exact contents of each course had not yet been determined , although Chu had the general idea that English 1 would focus on paragraph building ; English 2 would focus on essay building ; English 3 would focus on the different essay functions, primarily argumentation but also description and persuasion ; and EAP would focus on putting all those skills toward specific academic venues in academic and professional lives. When I asked her what was guiding her decisions on this curriculum redesign , she explained: T he a cademic w riting course that I took [in the US] , the only course I can really draw on the a cademic w riting course instructor] used.
98 I used that website before , in my academic writing course when I worked for my previous university . Th at website is Gillett (2018), which was the main text of the a cademic w riting course that she took in the US . She also used that website as one of the main texts of the academic writing courses that she taught in her first job after returning to China. During her first few years at her current university, she was not able to use the site as ex tensively as she had before, largely because many of the course materials were already decided upon by senior faculty. N ow that she has been tasked with helping redesign the whole curriculum, she has use d it extensively to guide her design decisions. From that website, Chu took many of the elements that she was implementing in the new curriculum, such as the paragraph as the most basic unit of writing, the various functions of an academic essay, and citati on and referencing. We see, then, the influence of her US a cademic w riting class, which planted the seeds that have been further developed over the years. Research Question #2: Influencing Factors Testing F ocus ( but not in the way you think ) Chinese education, including higher education, is often labeled as being heavily oriented towards teaching to the test. While tests and exams did have a strong influence on the teaching objectives and the teaching methods that the participants used, the in fluence that I saw during my fieldwork had little to do with the teachers making their students memorize facts for a test. In the case of Chu, the influence of testing was more complicated than that. The university administrators want ed the English teachin g faculty to redesign their curriculum with the TOEFL and IELTS in mind . This did not mean that the faculty directly prepare d students for those exams , nor did they even prepare the students for the College English Test (CET), which has traditionally been a graduation requirement for non English major college students in China.
99 CET 4 and CET 4 and CET 6, they about CET 4 or CET CET 4 and CET 6 refer to the two most common levels of the CET on which college students in China have traditionally focused . Level 4 is the minimum required for graduation, but students may opt to try the more difficult Level 6, which looks better on their CV . In t he above quote, Chu was basically saying that, while many other universities in China might still focus on preparing their students for the CET, her university now focuse d on cultivating its academic language skills , to take the study abroad test s and survive in their studies overseas . The CET, at her university, was no longer as stringent a requirement; writing instruction therefore did not need to be structured very much around it. So how did By making her draw heavily on argumentative writing skills, on which the GRE, TOEFL, and IELTS place a heavy emphasis. In fact, during most of my fieldwork, argumentative writing was the academic writing ge n re that I saw most strongly emphasized. When I asked her why argumentative writing appear ed to be the most common kind that I have seen taught in the college classrooms that I visited, she speculated that , OEFL, and in their IELTS, and GRE (Personal Interview, 11/27/2017). In other words, because the study abroad standardized tests place d such a strong emphasis on a cademic writing, it filter ed into many college English classes whose students would one day take those tests. And yet, Chu did she rarely mentioned the tests themselves during class. She focused entirely on academic writing concepts , of which s he deepened her knowledge through her US experience.
100 US T raining o f O ther P rofessors Chu f ound that she was able to adopt with relative ease many of the interactive teaching approaches that she cultivated during her time in the US , because the students tend ed to be receptive to these types of teaching approaches . Chu speculated that her students might have show n receptivity to these approaches because they were also used by the content area professors, many of whom also received their degrees from foreign universities as well . I think the students at this university are getting more use d to group work. But maybe in other universities, they still use traditional ways to teach . I recall my learning experience, during my undergraduate study, even though I majored in English. And the thing is, most of the professors here have overseas experience, so consciously or unconsciously they transfer their previous learning experiences to their teaching as well, especially since those professors never had training about teaching, I think their teaching is determined by their learning experience. 11/27/2017). This suggests that ay have already be en accustomed to a more interactive, group based style of classroom learning , because many of their content area professors also taught in similar manner . Those professors, who were generally required to have a foreign degree in order to even be hired at this university, were themselves not trained as teachers , yet many of them taught in an interactive and group based way , because that was how they were taught in the courses they took during their US studies . Students in other universities did not always show the same receptiveness to such teaching approaches. certain teaching approaches is based at least in part on whether a majority o other professors within and across departments also use that approach . This could be an interesting question for future investigation, because it has potential implications for among teachers and stu dents .
101 Administrative P ressures A considerable influence on Chu have come from university administrat ors , who often provide somewhat vague mandates without having much linguistics or language teacher training themselves. These mandates are oftentimes ambitious, not so much in the goals themselves as in the time frame that they expect. teachers can prepare [the students] for academic s tudy in their subject learning, both here and in their [foreign] exchange programs. And other departments like Global Education speaking world. So al Interview, 11/25/2017). Chu was saying that one administrative office want ed the English teaching faculty to prepare the students for academic survival in graduate studies abroad (as if that were an easy task), while another administrative office want e d the English teaching faculty to prepare the students for daily life abroad (as if that were an easy task as well ). This appear ed use of her US training in several ways. First , she adapt ed her instruction to what was appropriate for their current proficiency level and what was If was about drug addiction, and Chu felt were linguistically inaccessible and sub stantively irrelevant, then she found articles and TED talks on smartphone addiction , social connection , and other issues which she felt the students were more likely to encounter during their studies abroad . S he felt that such materials enabled her to introduce academic language principles at an appropriate level to be challenging but not inaccessible . Second , she drew on her US gained knowledge of academic writing, to help design a curriculum that cultivate d the building blocks which could be applied to a wide variety of academic genres . This contrasts with the old curriculum, which she believe d introduce d too
102 many academic writing concepts all at once for four semesters, making it difficult for the students to even begin to get a handle and cultivat e a solid foundation in the first place. training play ed the role of leading her to develop a step by step curriculum that was intended to build the foundations of academic writing toward those higher level p rofessional functions : progressing through paragraph level, essay level, academic function level, and finally, professional level such as research and science writing. Chu language teacher training helped her understand that the lofty goals of the administrators would not be so easy to accomplish. Professional activities, such as reading and writing research publications, take years to cultivate. The English curriculum at the school only las ts two years. How could undergraduate students accomplish in two years what many graduate students with native English fluency often struggle with ? The administration appear ed to be heavy handed in some ways and hands off in others. On the one hand, they appeared heavy handed in the ways that they impose d sometimes vague and lofty goals and left it to the English teaching faculty to figure out how to implement those goals . On t he other hand, they appeared hands off in that they did not micromanage the actual content or teaching approaches of the English teaching faculty. Contrary to what appears to be commonly believed about Chinese education (including higher education) , Chu and many of her colleagues did not appear to be prevented from using interactive teaching methods by a heavy teaching load . The role of institutiona l administration was more complicated than that, and deserves further investigation , especially as Chinese higher education is in a state of flux . In fact, this appears to contradict another popular notion, about Chinese education being rather rigid and inflexible. The challenge facing Chu and many of her colleagues was not that they were dealing with a system that offer ed little flexibility. On the contrary , they were dealing
103 with a system that was in a sta te of constant flux, so that the ir challenge was to define the shape of the new curriculum in line with changing administrative and global demands . It is also worth noting that Chu made no mention of government or Education Ministry requirements. This migh t be partly related to the fact that, as described above, the university is located within a Special Economic Zone, where the government tends to give greater degrees of latitude in experimenting with different kinds of education polic ies . institutional pressures , at least those which appear ed to affect her most directly, lay with various administrative offices and their overlapping language , as just discussed, as well as with her own intradepartmental collabo ration. Team T eaching This intradepartmental collaboration was one of the factors which appear ed to most learned knowledge . S he ha d to coordinate her teaching with other teachers who were responsible for other sections of the same course. Prior to the semester, they had to sit down and agree to teach the same syllabus with the same textbook. The textbook that she and her colleagues ha d to use in the sophomore a cademic English class that I observed was selected by the former director (Personal Interview, 11/27/2017 ). The peer review was agreed upon by all the faculty beforehand, which facilitated her use of it in class (Personal I nterview, 11/24/2017). Teaching A ssistant E xperience Chu worked as a TA throughout most of her doctoral stud ies , specifically as an instructor for an introductory TESOL course for undergraduate elementary education majors. She described this experience as having been influential in helping her to synthesize and cement much of the knowledge that she gained from her US doctoral classes.
104 I think I go t a lot of improvement and became a lot more confident in teaching. And about the content, because there was basic content about language and culture, so that helped me build the foundation knowledge, because I taught that course a lot. And I also shared a lot of personal English language learning experiences with students, because as an insider about the language learning and cross cultural experience. So that course helped me , in terms of teaching, and learning as well . (Personal Interview, 11/24/2017) This undergraduate TESOL foundations course was designed to prepare elementary education majors to address the cultural and educational challenges of English learners within mainstream American K 12 classrooms. F rom Chu as a kind of review of all the knowledge that she gained in her graduate level courses on language, culture, society, teaching methods, and language acquisition. Because she had to teach much of the information that she herself was learning at the same time, she feels that the information became more firmly engrained in her own mind, enabling her to make better use of it in her current teaching in China. Another important point reflected in the above quote was t he notion of having an able to use her experiences as an English learner herself to provide better explanations of language learning to her native English speaking undergraduate students, with the positive benefit of improving her own personal feeling of credibility as a language teacher , and as a language teacher educator . T he influence of the TA experience was not just in the content of what she taught, but also in the nature and timing of her TA responsibilities. For example, the semester that she took her graduate level course on TESOL teaching methods, her TA duties consisted primarily of running small group discussions. S he learned how to be a discussion facilitator not only by being lectured to about it in her graduate cla ss, but also by simultaneously acting out the role of discussion facilitator in her undergraduate TA class.
105 After that semester, the teaching format for the undergraduate TESOL course changed, and she was assigned to be the sole teacher of a section of tha t course. However, at just the right time, during the semester that she was receiving instruction on how to be a discussion facilitator, she was being given the chance to practice that instruction right away , when her TA duties required her to focus exclus ively on being a discussion facilitator. I would speculate that if she had been assigned as the sole teacher of a section of the undergraduate course during that S he agreed with this speculation during member checking. In this way, her TA experience shaped many of her current teaching approaches, particularly in the integration of language and culture. Moreover, her teaching confidence increased when she was able to share her personal English learning experiences with her pre being a native English speaker herself. the US but in a different university, also contributed to the development of her teaching sensitivity. Her TA duties at that time consisted of acting as note taker for struggling ESOL students in a local area high school. Vietnamese student , he was falling behind, so I sat in with him in his science and history class, I took notes and helped him to make sure he understood all the points delivered by the teacher cultivated her ability to catch what English learners were struggling with . Educational T echnology As mentioned above, Chu minored in educational technology. She was strongly interested in its use for language instruction , which frustrated her when she did not feel that she
106 was able to make as extensive use of it in her current teaching as she would have like d . E ducational technology is broad and constantly changing , making it more difficult for Chu to stay abreast of the latest developments under her heavy teaching load, let alone integrate them extensively into her course. It almost felt like staying updated on the latest technolog ical developments require d specializing primarily in technology , not in TESO L . Moreover, about the latest technology. At that time [in my doctoral (Personal Interview, 11/24/2017) In other words , since Google is ordinarily restricted in mainland China, she found it difficult to run a Google search on the latest technology trends . Of course, it is possible to access Google by using a VPN, but this te nds to be slow er , and speed and connectivity are not always guaranteed. There are, of course, other search engines , both Western and Chinese , that she could use for her online research . However, she felt that these search engines could not usually locate the types of materials that she would have prefer red to use in her class. Moreover , while there is significant educational technology research and development in China , Chu felt that her ability to implement it in her class was restricted , o r at least slowed , by ( a ) certain common web and video search engines being blocked in China, and ( b ) the sheer amount of time it took to stay updated on the latest technologies. Linguistic a nd I nstitutional S eparations This category is slightly more difficult to define, because there were two distinct but closely interrelated issues occurring here : the first was a separation between language and content instruction, the second was a separation between language instructor s and the content professors. The latter appears to have been partly responsible for the forme r, within the
107 As describe d above, the university was institutionally divided into the science content area departments and the FLI . The teachers in the content area departments had the full status of professor, while the teachers of the FLI only had the status of lecturer or instructor . The professors of th e content departments were generally responsible for teaching the science content, while the instructors of the FLI were generally responsible for teaching academic English . At a time when many universities in China are experimenting with the integration o f language and content instruction, content area professors at this university can be somewhat territorial, reluctant to share their content instruction with the language instructors, while expecting the language instructors to teaching and development needs. universities which have instructors who specialize in science and technology in their language centers, so they collaborate with those instructors who major in English education. They collaborate on ESP, English for o that. We just do general academic English, to Chu made a distinction between ESP as the integration of English instruction and specific content area disciplines, and EAP as the teaching of general academic language skills such as synthesis and argumentation. When I asked her whether it was possible to collaborate with really realistic to try a nd co Interview, 11/21/2027) . English teaching faculty were therefore left to teach generic academic communication skills. W ors appear ed to have This mean t that Chu was not able to make as extensive use of the US based training she received in the integration of language and content. Her TESOL degree focused on language and
108 content integration for Hispanics and other minority ESL students in American K 12 contexts. Some of these principles might have be en transferrable into Chinese EFL contexts, where many universities are expanding the scope of their language and content integration . This university follows the opposite trend. Chu was therefore limited to the teaching of generic academic communication skills , making her draw less heavily from her US gained language and content integration knowledge , and more heavily from her a cademic w riting course , for her classroom teaching practice . Conclusion perhaps natural that many of the knowledge and skill areas that she took away from her US program and made the most extensive use of in her current teaching context had to do wi th teaching approaches and pedagogy, such as techniques for peer review, process writing , and . As was reflected during interviews and observations, her TESOL related coursework appeared to shape her teaching approa ch, while her literacy related coursework appeared to provide the material that she directly taught in her classes. Some of the most influential environmental factors appeared to be related to what the other instructors were doing: if many of them were using similar teaching approaches as she was, then the students appeared to be more receptive to them, as if they were institutionalized as a community of practice (Wenger, 1998) . These findings have some important implications for the implementation of US based teaching approaches within Chinese contexts.
109 CHAPTER 6 SCIENTIFIC WRITING THE CASE OF TAO Overview Tao is Chu She received her Ph.D. in L iteracy from the same US university as Chu did. In fact, she and Chu were friends during their doctoral studies, having had some overlap in their coursework. Tao uses her US gained knowledge of literacy and academic writing to help her students develop their ability to write for scientific publication, which is something t hat the university is pushing its students to do . This involves teaching about the structure and content of scientific research articles. Current Institution Tao works at the same university as Chu . The university is working hard to improve its prestige among universities in China, particularly in its push to get its students to conduct their own cutting edge scientific research. In fact, many of the students at that university are already conducting their own resea rch jointly with their faculty advisers . They work within one of the many research institutes that are tucked away in research building complexes scattered around the campus. These institutes range from biological to environmental sciences , and they have c orridors of rooms filled with lab equipment and sometimes lab mice and other animals . Half of these research buildings are covered in scaffolding at any given time, and there is perennial construction of new buildings and demolition of old ones. The constr uction occurs at such a rapid pace that many hallways and research rooms sit empty, having never been used. All that it produces. Such an expansion in resear ch output requires a strong system for training student s in the conventions of academic writing for scientific publicatio n in English . Tao fills this niche, using specific areas of knowledge that she gained from her US studies .
110 Educational Background Prior to coming to the US, Tao received her in English and an M.A. in Linguistics, both from universities in China. When she first came to the US for her Ph.D. studies , she initially enrolled in E ducational P sychology before transferring to L iteracy . Her coursework in literacy and academic writing. She also took the TESOL teaching methods more oriented towards K 12. I think some of the ideas can be transferred to college teaching, but This suggests, as I had specul ated in the case of Chu, that teaching methods courses which are taught with too much of a focus on one particular teaching context might be of little value to international students who will be teaching in different contexts. Consequently, many of her tea ching methods appear to have been developed not as much in the US as during her lesson planning for her current courses. thought about how to make other people understan knowledge to other students, I had to learn quickly, study the textbooks before I want my students to study it. Also, Google o nline about how other teachers did or how foreigners Based on this quote , it appears that she took her US learned knowledge of literacy and academic writing , and she used a combination of textbook study and internet research to develop her teaching methods, which she then refined through experience and experimentation in the classroom . In addition to this coursework, she noted that she took a large number of independe nt study credits , both with her adviser and with another professor from the anthropology department, whom she wanted on her doctoral committee because he is a specialist in ethnographic research methods, in which she wanted to further her skills.
111 me to read a few books and articles, and write a report. I wanted him to be my committee member, so I could learn something from him. So he gave me some books and articles to read, to study the methods, not just data collection but research methods He w Interview, 11/20/2017) This suggests that Tao may not have received the full extent of the research methods training that she wanted through her own department. The qualitative research courses in the department consisted primarily of generic methods in data collection and analysis. The majority o f research methods courses offered by the department tend ed to be quantitative, with a focus on analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) , regression, and survey methods. F or the more in depth ethnographic type of training that she wanted, she had to go to the anthropology department. This also suggests that her research methods skills were developed at least in part through a workshop style of mentoring with guided independent study, instead of purely through lectures and term paper s . This might have had some influence on the workshop style with which she ran her science writing class . W hile that is difficult to prove empirically, it is interesting to note that the way bears some resemblance to th e way in which she developed her own research writing skills while in the US . She develop ed , partly through lecture and classroom instruction, partly by having students read actual published articles and develop their own understanding of common research article content and style . T his closely approximated how she developed her research skills in the US. Research Question #1: Types of Knowledge from US B ased SLTE Science W riting a nd t he Whole Language Approach Tao taught an elective science writing course, which had two objectives: to teach students about the structure and components of a scientific research article, and to of the linguistic conventions of good science writing . While she admitted that sh e did not have
112 any previous training in science writing specifically , she was still able to draw on two main aspects of her US training when teaching the course : ( a ) h er broad foundation in qualitative, quantitative, and ethnographic research methods , which were transferable enough to help guide her course design and classroom teaching ; and ( b ) h er extensive training in academic reading and writing from her literacy studies, including the Whole Language Approach dissertation adviser is a major proponent. The Whole Language Approach is an approach to reading instruction that reverses the traditional grammar focused orientation of many reading pedagogies . Whereas many traditional pedagogies build from sentence grammar to paragraph structure to general meaning, the Whole Language Approach reverses that so as to start from general meaning. As Tao explained to me when she was describing her teaching approach for the scientific writing course, she prefer red to from the US: first fo cus on the meaning, then focus on the language, then last , focus on the ). This was reflected in her teaching practice. During one class meeting on 11/22/2017 , she split the students into pairs and gave each pair a set of three science research articles (He & Tritt, 2017; Maamar y, Wang, Tan, Palese, & Ravetch , 2017; Servick, 2017) . She asked the students to read the introduction section of the He & Tritt (2017) article in their pairs , with these guidelines: Tao: Whe n you [read] this piece, please look at the information, for example, the main idea of each paragraph . A s I said before : one paragraph , one idea T he second thing is , what information and how they organize it F or example , background information , or what research has been done And knowledge gap , the unknown . T he hypothesis , questions , purpose , approach , plan , proposed solution A lso , highlight any expressions , especially verbs, what kind of verb they use, and expressions the author uses, or you can also notice noun phrases A nd if possible , please notice the tense T he major thing is : main idea, information, and language .
113 Figure 6 1 . learned emphasis on the Whole Language Approach: She asked students first to identify the meaning or main idea of each paragraph, then to identify the specific structure or order of information delivery in each paragraph, and finally, to identify noun and verb phr ases, and key individual nouns and verbs. After giving students sufficient time to read, she started asking the students questions on those points. With practice, the students were able to comfortably identify those elements, then add to it with a discussi on on their opinions about the technological advances described in the articles. Tao chose to focus on details such as hypothesis, knowledge gaps, and proposed solutions, based on an open courseware series called Writing in the Sciences (Sainani, 2013) , 6 1 shows a , which includes details about paragraph organization that she
114 drew from the Stanford course module s . In fact, Tao used this open courseware series as the blueprint for her nearly entire course. The original syllabus for her science writing class closely followed the sequence of modules of the open courseware series. This sequence was divided into roughly three parts: linguistic forms of good a cademic writing (including paragraph construction manuscript (including peer review and plagiarism avoidance). That began to change as the semester went alo ng . Tao found herself making modifications to the syllabus based on her US learned understanding of the Whole Language Approach . For instance, the original courseware began with basic forms of academic writing, such as the structuring of sentences around strong verbs and the use of parallel structures for greater sentence clarity. makes a good paragraph We focus first on meaning level, then structure level, then certain information later, such as strong verbs, punctuation, and parallels I learned from the US. Interview, 11/16/ 2017) Tao cut out the introductory sections about verbs and parallelisms, and moved them to later in the semester, opting instead to begin the semester by r eading the article, getting the information, the gist, the major supporting evidence. Library visi t in week 4. Week 5, writing process and writing steps, expository, modeling of pre and writing the methods section. Although this is revision, this is still writing. Because when they write they can revise, and you do that at the same time This quote demonstrates several key indicators of the influence of her US training . First , her emphasis on the Whole Language Approach, where she start ed the semest er by teaching the students how to read a research article for the general idea and main arguments, then proceed ed to give an overall view of the writing process, followed by an introduction to the different parts
115 of a science research article. Paragraph and sentence level mechanics c a me later. The most immediate priority was understanding the main ideas of the paragraphs. Second , Tao added in a library visit early in the semester , so that the students could begin learning how to gather their own references and study them in order to develop their own ideas about how to write a scientific research article. This bears striking resemblance to the way in which she herself learned to w rite a research article, by finding and analyzing her own articles under the guidance of her doctoral committee member from anthropology. It also bears striking resemblance to the way that she prepared herself to teach the science writing course : Because she only had research methods training for the social science s but not the natural science s is in there (Personal Interview, 11/16/2017). In other wo rds, she prepare d for th e science writing course by going to the library and teaching herself the contents and formatting of a science research article , and she passed that approach onto her students, having them go to the library to teach themselves the contents and formatting of a science research article. Third , the idea that revision is a form of writing , was most likely learned through the constant writing feedback that she received from her major academic adviser. As will be detailed i n the sections below, much of what Tao learned about teaching academic writing and giving the students different forms of feedback were cultivated through her writing feedback from her principal adviser in her doctoral program. Tao supplemented the course materials with a book by Tim Sk e rn entitled Writing Scientific English (2009) , which she had found by doing a Google search for other materials that could be useful in her design of the course. The book follows a similar structure as the Stanford open cour se, beginning from the mechanics of academic English sentences , highlighting data
116 from tables and figures, and finally , to the process of writing multiple drafts and preparing the manuscript for submission. If this is a conventional approach to the teaching of science writing, then Tao opted to reverse much of this approach, based on the influence from her US adviser and her US based reading and literacy training. One P aragraph, O ne I dea In the above instruct : partly from her coursework, but mostly from her interactions and individualized feedback that she got from her main adviser and other professors : Before I became a Ph.D. student, nobody taught me formal English, for instance that it should be left aligned. So I learned from my own writing feedback, professors saying, 'this is very repetitious and has a lot of information that we don't need, cut this and make unified paragraph, like one paragraph, one idea. I learned all this from [ my US adviser ] (Personal Interview, 11/20/2017) was deeply embedded within her teaching practice. Whether by getting her students to identify the main idea of a paragraph, asking them to nts to place paragraphs in some order, much of her instruction focuse d on the paragraph as a focal unit of analysis , other elements building off of that. Coherence a nd C ohesion This was one of the aspect s on which she placed the greatest importance , the id ea that there is a difference between making sentence s transition smoothly from one to another (cohesion) and the ideas themselves being well ordered and organized (coherence). She spent considerable time in the classroom explicitly explaining to her students the difference between these two .
117 Based on an accumulated number of classroom observations, Tao appears to have developed some of the following explanations for coherence . For descriptive essays, ideas should have a spatial order , such as from lef t to right, right to left, front to back, up to down, etc. A person could choose any desired order , as long as that order was applied consistently . For narrative essays, Tao believed, ideas sho uld be ordered temporally, one after the other, marked either by ordinal markers such as first and then, or time markers such as at 11:00am and at 3:30pm . While it might seem obvious to say that narrative essays have their content ordered according to time , o ther elements could be involved , such as subordinating which link the event which comes before to the event which comes after . Sometimes it might be appropriate to mention an event which had occurred pr eviously done two weeks before Or, it may be necessary to digress on a brief tangent before resuming the main story. In other words, events need not be listed directly in chronological order . Sometimes they may be presented in a different order to suit a certain narrative purpose , such as for literary effect or to backfill information necessary for the reader to understand the subsequent series of events in the story . This can be done, as long as the cohesion of the sentences is c lean enough for the order of events to remain clear in the mind of the reader . T here is also a consideration of which transition words to use, such as individual words like then or at 2:00 , or subordinating clauses like For expository essays, Tao conceded that coherence could be somewhat more difficult to teach , since there may be no spatial or temporal component. For instance, in one class session on 11/ 16/2018, she argued that, when discussing the use of cellphones , one could categorize these uses into communication and social networking, video gaming and other leisure, and taking pictures for different activities. T hese are three different categories of things that can be done on
118 one smartphone. T he question is: How are they grouped? Are they grouped in a random order? Or are they grouped according to some logic or categories? Tao discussed how she had learned these things in the US. When I asked her how she had learned to get stude nts to learn how to describe different things in which order, s he said that her academic describe, for example, describe money, and you would approach this topic from di fferent In other words, we can see here how her conceptions of expository writing were developed in her US a to identify the topic or focus of the writing, and describe different aspects of it. As long as the essay was organized coherently around some aspects with each paragraph covering one aspect, any aspect could be picked . D uring one classroom observation on 11/15/2017, Tao developed a series of activities to teach the students the difference between coherence and cohesion. She began by having the students read two separate paragraphs from the textbook: O ne paragraph was an expository about tables and cooking equipment of the restaurant space, describing spatially from right to left. The other unt of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake , from what the narrator was doing when the earthquake began , until the end when the narrator realized who had died during the quake. Tao began by asking the students to read the first paragraph aloud to themselves. Next , she had the students split into pairs and asked them to identify ( a ) the topic, ( b ) the controlling idea, ( c ) the order in which ideas were presented, and ( d ) the linguistic marke r s (such as
119 transition words and subordinating clauses) tha t were used to structure those ideas. All of this points to the linkage between coherence , which is the way in which the content and ideas build directly on one another, and cohesion , which is the actual linguistic markers that are used to transition betwe en events. Logical C oherence over G rammatical C orrectness Tao explained to me that when she correct ed tend ed to focus more on logical coherence and the elimination of logical gaps than on grammatical accuracy per se . For instance, during a personal interview on 11/16/2017, she showed me a writing sample that she intended to use in class as a demonstration on how to provide feedbac k. The writing sample read as follows : Femtosecond laser machining has been widely used in precision machining and advanced fabrication. Compared to long pulse laser and continuous wave laser as a kind of short pulse laser, the heat effect of femtosecond laser is much lower which results in the high accuracy of fabrication . To solve this problem, the author proposed a dry etching assisted femtosecond laser machining approach by change the pulse number and power of the laser and the et ching time which can fabricate unique microlens with specific diameter and height efficiently. From the point of my view, is it possible to fabricate rectangular microlens instead of the circular lens, maybe we can adjust the light distribution from gaussi an distribution to uniform distribution. It should first be noted that Tao may not have be en an expert in lasers and precision machining, let alone this technical vocabulary, yet she could still help improve the structure and logic of those sentences, jus t as I once helped IT and pharmaceutical specialists improve their business English communications without necessarily being an IT or pharmaceutical specialist myself. Th is is one characteristic of ESP and EAP: the teachers are oftentimes not content area specialists themselves . In fact , they might even have students from a wide array of content areas in their classroom, and yet the teachers can still teach a core set of communication skills that are applicable to many content areas ( especially if those content areas are within the same general
120 field, such as science, as is the case here). That being said, Tao has made an effort to develop a working knowledge of some of these content areas. Tao felt that there was a logical gap in the second sen tence of the paragraph. The first sentence says that femtosecond lasers are used in precision machining. The second sentence says that femtosecond lasers are more efficient than long pulse or continuous wave lasers. Tao felt that there was a logical gap he re , which could be filled by splitting the sentence in two and rewriting as follows: Compared to the long pulse laser and the continuous wave laser, the femtosecond laser has a shorter pulse. This creates intermittent waves, which results in a lower heat effect and thus a much higher accuracy of fabrication. It is likely that t he writer of the above sample had originally intended to say that femtosecond lasers could cut metal into more precise shapes, because th ose lasers pulse s were shorter, and a shorter pulse generate d less heat. The logic here was that too much heat cause d the metal to become too soft , which could make it more difficult for the metal to hold in the precise shapes that you want it to. Femtosecond lasers generate d less heat and were therefore more suitable for cutting metal into precise shapes. Tao thought that this logic had not come out clearly in the original writing , s o she added in the parts that she felt were missing , to ensure that the logical coherence of the argument was solid. primary focus was not on grammar correction. Although she certainly did aim to improve the grammatical accuracy, this focus was secon dary to fixing logical flow and filling in logical gaps. She was not simply taking what someone had already said and repackaging it in more correct grammar. She was adding in her own bits of content in order to fill logical gaps, or removing bits of content in order to eliminate logical redundancies, all in an effort to improve the logical flow of the sentences and paragraphs. As she explained to me, i
121 we can definitely fill it. The purpose is to make the sentence flow example of where you can add some information The next gap in logical coherence that Tao identified in this writing sample was the first clause of the The first two sentences had not referred to any kind of problem, yet the third sentence suggested that is problem could be solved by changing the pulse number and adjusting the microlens diameter. To Tao , there appear ed to be a gap in the logical coherence of the paragraph , a missing piece of information which could explain why higher accuracy of fabrication led to s ome kind of problem . Tao suggested that the following be added between the second and third sentences: Although this is useful for carving wood or metal, it is not enough for process ing hard er materials such as silicon wafers. After adding this sentence, the paragraph said that femtosecond lasering was useful for cutting many materials into precise shapes, but that harder materials such as silicon wafers were still difficult to cut, with the solution being to adjust the pulse number, etc. In this way , Tao went beyond merely correcting to suggesting actual content which could be added in order to improve the logical coherence of the paragraph. Several aspects of her US training appeared to be reflected in the way she provided feedback. She explained to me that, in the academic writing course that she took during her US doctoral studies, she learned about the concept of the referent . The referent is the thing or object that a phrase refers to. According to systemic functional linguistic theory (which the professor of her US based academic writing course is a specialist in), the first part of a sentence should directly refer to someth ing in the preceding sentence , in order for the logical flow to be cohesive was no referent in the this , and no ted that in
122 order for the sentences to have logical coherence, the writer would need to add some information that would Only then could the writer writer had written in the third sentence of his paragraph, did not have a clear referent. The writer appeared to be attempting to say that a femtosecond laser could cut met al more precisely if the laser had a ed to refer to. So I words, Tao did not feel that the that the shape of the laser should be non circular. She proposed instead specifying more preci following sentence which discusses a rectangular shaped laser. This is another example of Tao using her US mprove logical coherence , not simply the mechanics of grammar . Tao explained to me that when she met with her students, she would give them this type of feedback, asking them what they had intended to say in one place, and suggesting where they might impro ve their logical tightness in another place. Moreover, during the science writing class sessions that I observed, she would place those sample paragraphs on the projector screen and use a dry erase marker to circle, strikethrough, underline, and overwrite suggested revisions. She would also turn to the class and ask them if they could clearly understand the meanings of the paragraph s and sentenc es. For example, during the science writing class on 11/24/2017, she put the abovementioned femtosecond laser paragraph on the projector and said to the students:
123 Tao: If you had this sentence, how would you revise it? T his is longer, this is shorter, because of this. Because lower, so heat lower .. . And because of this, resulting in high accuracy of fabrication . Can you see the information and organization o f this sentence? I guess this author tried to use the compare and contrast structure. But when you compare and contrast something, the two parts should be put in parallel. . , and continuous , intermittent [ part ] types of laser s . S1: One side is long pulse and continuous. Another side is short pulse. Figure 6 2. As Tao was having the above exchange with her students, she stood at the whiteboard and drew the diagram shown in Figure 6 2 , just outside the margins of where the femtosecond writing sample was displayed on the projector screen. Tao was essentially attempting to explain that when compar ing and contrast ing two things, it was necessary to present those two things in parallel . In this case, she said, it should be clearly highlight ed through parallel sentence structure that some types of lasers had a long and continuous wave, while femtosecond lasers had a shorter wave which led to lower heat effect and therefore higher accuracy of fabrication. Tao was also attempting to explain that during discussion of cause and effect , it was necessary to use cohesive sentence structures with the appropriate signal words (i.e. because of, resu lting in ) . When I asked Tao where she had learned to take this kind of approach to providing feedback, she explained to
124 me that she had developed it largely from her US academic adviser , with whom she had frequent interactions and established a close personal friendship : She asked us to present every week, present a passage or paragraph: how we wrote this s . I learned a lot from that. That helps my o wn writing, and now I can use This quote demonstrates the workshop style of writing feedback that Tao experienced with her adviser, both through one on one interactions and through the la nguage arts classes. In those classes in the US , Tao and her classmates were asked to critique and analyze rather about strengthening logical coherence), she and her classmates were asked to reflect on their own writings and develop their own understandings of what m ight be changed . This approach clearly stuck with Tao, as I observed her using it with her current students . In the science writing class, after giving several feedback demonstrations using the writing samples that she had found , she would ask the students to take out their own writing assignments and provide the same kind of feedback to each other. Points and S ubpoints Tao frequently explained to her students that writing multiple sentences was not the same thing as making multiple points. If the sentences were largely repetitive, then the students might well be writing four or five sentences but only actually be making one or two distinct points. On top of that, Tao felt that the students sometimes made multiple points which should really h ave been grouped as subpoints of a larger category . For example, i n one session of the a cademic English class on 11/20/2017, Tao asked the students to come to class with a paragraph written on their use of QQ, a popular Chinese instant messaging applicatio n that is also commonly used for file sharing . In this instance,
125 have their points grouped and sub grouped in the most logical or coherent way . Tao split the students into pairs so that they could discuss their essays amongst themselves ( indicative of . As the students were discussing their paragraphs in their pairs, she floated around the different pairs and had brief conversations with each. The following is one of the interactions in which she attempted to clarify to students how to distinguish between points and subpoints : Tao: So what are the main points about the uses of QQ? S1: They want to use for many ways of communication, for example the text messages, the video, reading, or some other writing things (sic.). Tao: Oh, I see your point. But all those functions would help people communicate. For example, the group chat. But what are some of the different features, for example And r ecording experience s . S1: Q Zone. Tao: Right, Q , just in different aspects. Do you know what I mean? So you talk about communication. So you can use voice, you can use words, you can add , just different kind. So think about that, okay? S1: Make them in a logical way. Tao: Right. Put t he m in a logical way, and show them the different features of this. It is a communication tool. Tao was essentially attempting to get the student to view communication as the top level category, with three sub categories within that: written communication such as text messaging and the Q Zone ( the equivalent of the Facebook news feed ) , oral communication such as voice chat and video chat, and file sharing. Tao felt that the student had simply listed a bunch of uses for QQ , without grouping those uses in to any real coherent order. S he was trying to challenge the student to see if he could come up with his own structure that would group those uses logically. After class, when I asked what made her decide to use that approach with the student , she said that
126 QQ is a communication tool. So , the students use communication as one of the supporting sentences. But for me, that belongs to the topic sentence I about uploading (Personal Interview, 11/20/2017) In other words, Tao was attempting to challenge the student to present the different uses of QQ in a more coherent structure, instead of simply listing all those uses out in no particular order . This type of focus on grouping and subgrouping appears to reflect US learned emphasis where the whole essay might be structured around the idea of QQ as a communication tool, while each paragraph might focus on a different aspect of communication. Use of L1 Tao also made frequent use of her shared L1 with her students : Chinese . While in the US, she came to strongly believe in the value of the L1 as a teaching support. She seemed clear that this idea was strongly influenced as with many other things by her adviser, who is a strong proponent of ea that students must be able to draw on their reserve of prior knowledge and personal experience, much of which is encoded in their L1 , and is best retrieved by use of the L1. the ideas down, then make it more idiomatic, easier to understand, logical, etc. But if you , my students find it difficult to write at first, so Interview, 11/20/2017). In other words, it was better for the student s to write out their ideas in Chinese and then have something to edit and polish, than to try and force the students to write only in English and have them end up writing something that might be lexically cohesive but not logically coherent. Tao came to val ue this and many other uses of Chinese as a teaching tool.
127 Generally, Tao appeared to use Chinese in four distinct ways: ( a ) d irectly translating individual words that the students may not have underst oo d ; ( b ) p roviding explanations, typically by repeating explanations that she had just given in English, like a follow up to confirm that the students had understood ; ( c ) c ode switching back and forth between English and Chinese words and phrases ; ( d ) as a classroom active participation or maintain their engagement. The following classroom excerpt on 11/21/2017 demonstrates her application of this : Tao: Occasion, what does that mean in Chinese? S2: . [Occasion.] Tao: [Important moment], right? So occasion here means a special or important event. [Normally, we] S1: . [Opening ceremony for the new school ye ar.] Tao: Like an opening ceremony. Very good. So our opening ceremony can be a special occasion for my family, so we would go out and celebrate. [So you can see how often my son gets 100%.] Ss: [Laughing all together.] Tao: Another one, circumstance. S6: . [Shape.] Tao: . . [Shape. Circumstance.] Okay, [Here is a word], In just under one minute, Tao used Chinese for at least three different purposes. First , to allow students to quickly demonstrate their understanding of the word occasion , once by giving its direct translation, once by giving an example of an occasion. Second , by making a humorous comment about her son rarely getting 100% on his exams which got the students laughing and therefore more engaged . Third , to indicate that she was about to provide an example. In all three cases, Chinese was used as a teaching support. An other excerpt from the same class period highlights several more combined uses of Chinese.
128 Tao: spell it? Ss: R E C K O N. Tao: Think or suppose . [This is a very British word.] When I was in the US, I rarely heard And this is very formal English, . Ss: . Tao : Ss: [Laugh out loud.] Tao: ? . [Use the S1: Tao: the [You take the phrase] [and turn it into] . In just under two minutes, Tao used Chinese for at least four purposes. First , to give students the chance to demonstrate their understanding of a concept by speaking individual words in Chinese or directly translating Chinese sentences into English (e.g. . Second , to repeat specific the word reckon that she had just delivered in English, almost as a way to clarify or make doubly sure that the students understood them correctly. Third , code switching and interspersing English with Chinese as a kind of s Fourth , whether she intended or not, the use of Chinese led to a humorous moment where she students could pick up more quickly on this mistake because she had said it in Chinese.
129 Chinese also appeared to serve two useful purposes in the teaching of idiomatic expressions. First , to allow students to enhance their understanding of an idiom by finding an equivalent idiom in Chinese. For example, during that same class period on 11/21/2017, students an equivalent idiom in Chinese, (which might be translated l , with the character having the double meaning of , as if two people were naturally right for each other ) . In addition, the students were able to better the equivalent Chinese idiom, (which might literally be translated as , with the character having the double meaning ) . The second purpose that Chinese served in the teaching of English idioms was in the literal translation of the idiom. A literal translation provided a clearer contrast with the figurative meaning, as well as created some humor when the literal translation sounded funny in Chinese. In the following exchange, Tao was attempting to clarify the figurative meaning of to go along with by contrasting it with the literal meaning, making the meaning clearer. Tao: nounced to the world that I was his girlfriend, I went along with , went along, the literal meaning, [the literal sentence means what ? S1: To support. Tao: To agree with or support someone or something, right? Finally, Tao used the literal meaning of the idioms as a tool to create some humor. For as silly t -
130 The students laughed at this one. In addition, s . Tao appeared to make deliberate use of these literal translations to great effect to get the stude nts laughing, which made the lesson more engaging and the material more memorable. In discussing her use of Chinese in the classroom, Tao explained to me that she attempt ed to use it in such a way niversity says we should all use English, sometimes I still use Chinese, just a little, so they could make quicker Chinese as a resource during class enabled her stude nts to make stronger and more lasting connections with the material that was being taught, a reflection of her US learned orientation of These findings could have some useful implications for the use of L1 in language instruction. In short, the L1 had many uses for classroom management, humor creation, L1 funds of knowledge, and, when used judiciously, enabling students to make connections more quickly. Research Question #2: Influencing Factors Adviser R elations have been one of the most important factor s which determined what she took away from her SLTE program and how she applie d it in her current teaching practice. Through out the interviews and observations, it seemed apparent that much of the knowledge about academic writing that she currently teaches , as well as the way in which she teaches that knowledge, came from her adviser : through classes that she took with her, independent study credits with her, and one on one writing feedback.
131 l language arts courses with her, and she was talking about different writing genres, that type of information and characteristics of different types of writing. But in terms of writing skills, I learned from (Personal Interview, 11/16/2017 ) From my interviews with Tao, it appears that her academic adviser influenced her classroom teaching in several important ways. First writing were formulated and cultivated through the constant personal feedba ck on her writings that she received from h e r adviser. Tao tend ed to provide similar kinds of feedback to her students that she had received from her adviser . Specific aspects of academic writing that Tao appeared to learn directly from her adviser were : ( a ; ( b ) the use of logical connectors to mark cohesion ; and ( c ) various different styles of writing ( such as narrative, persuasive, expository, argumentative) , each style having its own way of organizing idea s for coherence. Second , adviser recommend ed some of the textbooks that she use d either directly in her classes or as a supplement as she prepare d for her classes. F or the core a cademic English course and for the elective science writing course, she chose some of the textbooks based on her s . F rom there, during her lesson planning , she used those textbooks to round out her knowledge of academic writing. For instance, in the a cademic English course, she her by her adviser. As she once explained to me, with that textbook in front of us: that, you can wri on her fami
132 Tao was pointing to a textbook reading passage about happy family . During one class session on 11/9/2017, she had assigned the students to read this passage to identify its structure and organization. She had also asked them to identify the to pic and the controlling idea of the passage. The controlling idea, she had explained, was like the sub topic which guided the writing . the controlling idea, then the essay should focus on issues related to family and their relationship to the mother , whether it be organized thematically (such as by people and traditions) , nar ratively (such as by important events in chronological order) , or in some other way . She had come to view the concept of the an important element structural coherence of an essay . S he had learned about that concept from a textbook that her US adviser had recommended to her while she was preparing for the course. This demonstrates how Tao continues to maintain a close friendship and collaborative relationship with her adviser even aft er graduation, and how this relationship continues to be a source of knowledge and professional development . This ongoing contact with her adviser is a key source of material that she uses for her current teaching practice, and therefore it is important to consider the adviser relationship and the tips and suggestions and resource s that the adviser often provides. Third , and perhaps more subtly, it appears as though the feedback and correction style of learning which characterized the relationship between h er and her adviser has translated into a feedback or correction style of learning that I saw her use with her current students . In other words, she became accustomed to learning the craft of academic writing through feedback and opportunities for revision that she received from her adviser. It was like a workshop method, where her adviser would provide her with recommendations: instead of simply telling her what to fix , her adviser would ask her probing and prompting questions to get Tao herself th inking
133 about what the main idea of her paragraph might be, how strong the coherence or cohesion of a certain passage was , or how to improve the structure of a given paragraph . T his is the style that Tao uses with her own students. It appears that the conte nts of what she taught her students and the manner in which she cultivate d from the mentoring and feedback that she received from her US academic adviser. It appeared to be instinctual, as she did not alw ays realize the source of some of her teaching practices . Interestingly, the adviser appear ed to play another role as well. When I asked Tao if she received any kind of initial training from her current university on being hired, or whether she receives any kind of ongoing professional development support on the part of the university, she said th at she does not. That does not prevent her from seeking other forms of continuing professional development. As she explained 7). In other words, her adviser has come to her university in the past to give talks to the teaching faculty about literacy and academic writing. H er adviser continues to play an important role even today, not just for Tao individually but for the universi ty as a whole. Tao continues to maintain contact with that university, having visited several times and being personally familiar with some of the university administrators. Learning vs. P racticing Tao explained to me that when she first returned to China, she attempted to make the classes as interactive as possible, believing that it was better for students to maximize their practice time instead of simply being lectured to . S he soon discovered that if students spen t the majority of their time practicing speaking or writing , they might feel like they had not taken away very much from the class. As she put it :
134 nese students would like to get information from the teacher, Interview, 11/20/2017). In other words , Tao found that the conventional wisdom of students needing minimal lecture time and maximum practice time was only partially applicable to Chinese contexts ; the students wanted to receive some substantive knowledge , instead of simply talking for an hour or two . Tao came to believe that it was better to strike a balance between delivering the material and having the students practice it . She aimed to achieve the goal where third of the time I talk, one third of the time the student s talk, and one third of the time they work in their own Personal Interview, 11/20/2017 ). F or Tao , there was a distinction between learning and practicing ; both were required, and each was ineffective without the other. For this reason, Tao believe d that there was a difference between native and non native English speaking teachers of English , in terms of how they taught and in terms of what the students felt they took away. But with Chinese teachers, they think Chinese speaker will give them more knowledge about w students those and how to make logical connections 1 more from the Chine se teacher than from native [English speaking] teachers] may have better Interview, 11/20/2017). In other words, with native English speaking teachers of English, students often fel t that they practice d more but learn ed less . By contrast, for non native English speaking teachers, it was often the opposite . Thus, s tudents nee d ed a balance of learning and practicing . 1 characters could alternatively be translated as flow, exchange, coherence, cohesion, or connection.
135 This quote contains a number of important points. If there is a trend of native speakers providing more practice opportunities and Chinese speakers providing more explanations, these could be combined so that the students would walk away from every class a nd from the semester having acquired sufficient knowledge of the language as well as sufficient practice opportunities. felt the need to walk away not only with practice opport unities but with substantive knowledge which they had received . For those reasons , the common assumption about the need to reduc e teacher talk and maximiz e student talk did not hold true in this case. If Chinese (or other international) students received e xtensive instruction in the US on how to use interactive teaching approaches in the classroom, they could balance those teaching approaches with additional time spent explaining and analyzing language concepts (such as supporting arguments or logical conne ctors) for the students . They could integrate this with their intuitive knowledge of the local teaching , using their cultural similarity with the students to their advantage. Conclusion she would have placed the greatest emphasis on concepts such as logic , coherence, and use of the L1. Her relationship with her academic adviser appears to have be en especially influential on her career and in her current teaching. She dealt with many of the same environmental issues as Chu, in addition to finding that she need ed to moderate her US The balance d formula of one third teacher lecture, one third student practice, one third teacher student feedback, appeared to be the perfect brew for the learning of EAP and scientific writing.
136 CHAPTER 7 SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGU IS TICS THE CASE OF LI Overview Li received his doctoral degree in applied linguistics from a flagship university in the US. Though he teaches a variety of classes which have significant variation in learning objectives and student characteristics, he appears to place emphasis o n the same core set of US learned systemic functional linguistics principles , while making adaptations to these principles where necessary to suit the needs of each individual course. This chapter will examine how those principles are applied, and the conditions which appear to hinder or facilitate his application of them. Current Institution Li works in the College of International Studies (a pseudonym) of a major university of foreign languages. The semester that I visited his school , he taught three courses, of which I was able to observe two: an argumentative writing course for English majors within the College , and an IELTS (International English Language Testing System) writing course for non degree students that is housed within an extension schoo l attached to the university. The se courses differ significantly in terms of student characteristics, teaching and learning objectives, and of course, the teaching approaches that Li uses for each course. The third course he taught that semester, but which I was unable to observe due to scheduling conflicts, was a course in sociolinguistics. College of International Studies The College of International Studies ( CIS ) was once simply the Department of English. It began to reinvent itself in light of the reality that b eing an English major in China is no longer as prestigious or as secure a guarantee of future career potential as it might have once been , because it is becoming easier for non English majors to cultivate a strong English fluency that is often more practical than the grammatical and literature knowledge on which English majors tend to
137 focus (Personal Interview, 10 /29/2017) . T he department reinvented it self as the CIS , and is a unique institution compared to English departments of other foreign language universities in China . The CIS now offers a variety of content courses in order to provide its majors with a broader array of marketable knowledge and skills , such as international relations, gender and society, and language and culture. In fact, the CIS now has five tracks , from which its students can choose to specialize in one : English literature, applied linguistics, sociocultural resea rch, international politics and economics, and translation theory and practice. In addition, the course offerings within the CIS tend to be categorized into three types: lecture style, seminar style, and skills development style. W ithin the College , the faculty who have foreign degrees typically did not study linguistics or SLTE , but rather content area s such as sociology and political scienc e. The se faculty members tend to teach courses which integrate language and content instruction . In fact, the president of the university is a prominent promoter of language and content integration in Chinese higher education. By contrast, the faculty who received their degrees right in China tend to teach courses dedicated exclusively to language sk ills. In short , the CIS consists largely of foreign trained professors who received their degrees in content areas and who usually teach courses which combine language and content instruction , and locally trained professors who received their degrees in SL TE and who usually teach courses which focus largely on l anguage development . Li is therefore in a unique position, being one of the only faculty member s in the College who received his foreign degree in SLTE . For those reasons, the College typically has him teaching courses that focus on English writing for academic purposes, such as persuasive writing and argumentative writing . There is another department at the university which takes care of classes for no n English majors, and they tend to use similar textbooks to those used in the CIS . Li does not teach any
138 classes in that other department , instead focusing on CIS majors. Despite this, h e mention ed that the faculty who do teach in that department tend doctoral graduates of the CIS . Clearly, a s a faculty member in the CIS , Li felt that it was important to be aware that some of his current students , upon graduation, would likely end up going across the street to teach English classes for non English majors . Curiously, students of the argumentative writing class barely noticed me when I sat in the classroom , as opposed to the IELTS students , who gave me frequent glances of curiosity. When I asked Li about this, he speculated that the argumentative writing students probably this could suggest that the CIS receives the occasional ethnic minority student, who may typically not mix in with the mainstream Han Chinese students or develop close social linkages with them . IELTS P reparation The IELTS is a common standardized test which students from non English speaking countries must take in order to be admitte d to universities in the UK and other countries (typically not the US, which uses the TOEFL instead ). Li currently teaches an IELTS writing class for students who are planning on pursuing their under graduate degrees in the UK. These are non degree students who typically did not score high enough on the Chinese college entrance examination to gain admission to a reputable enough university within the Chinese higher education system. T hese students seek an alternative, which is to go to the UK for undergraduate studies. Their families typically tend to be economically wealthy enough to afford the full tuition for their undergraduate studies abroad , as well as the preparatory classes to prepare for the IELTS beforehand . Despite the broad range of private test preparation centers to which the
139 parents could choose to send their children to prepare for the IELTS , many parents prefer to send the ir children to rospect of their children being able to study with reputable professors who have advanced qualifications. At the same time, such a nondegree program provides a source of additional revenue for the university , since the parents often pay for these classes o ut of pocket . IELTS writing class f its within a broader curriculum of classes in IELTS speaking, listening, reading, grammar, math, and even British culture and society. In fact, the students have a full daily schedule of all these classes , Monday to Friday, including individual study time and even computer lab time in the evenings. It is a comprehensive and self contained series of courses to prepare the students to take the IELTS at the end of the semester. The studen ts generally room on campus during the week and go back to their homes on weekends. Typically, the professors who teach these nondegree IELTS courses tend to be junior faculty members such as Li. This course is not technically counted as part of his regular teaching requirements, but more of a voluntary addition which allows him to draw additional income . Additional R esponsibilities In addition to his teaching duties, Li must maintain a research agenda. He typically wakes up at 6am to go to campus to get some research done before the start of the teaching day. After classes, he often stays late to get some more writing done or meet wi th students individually. With respect to tenure and promotion, he explained to me that he needs three things: a book, a national grant, and several articles published in S ocial S cience C itation I ndex ( SSCI ) journals. For the book, he simply published his doctoral dissertation. For the grant, h e was still in the process of designing a research project for which he w ould apply for national funding . For the articles, he had already submitted several articles to SSCI jour nals and was still waiting to hear
140 back from them . Additionally, Li was attempting to develop a writing center , though at the time of my fieldwork he was not yet sure what this center would specifically teach. The center is still in such an early stage, that little information about it was available to collect. Institutional P olitics Concerning other institutional politics issues, he explained to me that it is easier for a man to get this job than a woman, beca use the universities would prefer to hire someone whom they calculated would not require maternity pay and whom they figured would be able to dedicate themselves more completely to their work instead of splitting their time between their work and their fam ily. Educational Background Li received his doctorate in applied linguistics. Yet while his degree was in the Linguistics Department, he had significant coursework from the College of Education . In fact, it seemed quite clear from our discussions that he felt a closer affinity to the College of Education than to the Linguistics Departm ent. Linguistics professors had really strict guidelines to follow. If you had late homework then you get a grade. But in Education, if you explai ned to the professor about the difficulty that you had, then they would work with do research on education issues, so they might know more difficulties that the students might have. But for Linguistics, they just play with language, they ign ore the social and This quote has several key implications for the influence current classroom teaching. First , he was impressed by the educat to personal issues or difficulties that he faced during his studies , particularly due to social and cultural circumstances. This responsiveness to students difficulties were , to me, clearly reflected in his current classroom teaching , as will be detailed throughout this chapter . His responsiveness
141 as a teacher thus appears to have been cultivated at least in part responsiveness when he was a student in hi s US doctoral studies. It left a deep impression on him, and he transfers it to his students. Second , research interests shifted over the course of his doctoral studies, from a focus on pure language to a focus on culture and social justice . In fact, his academic adviser was a professor in the College of Education who was then on a temporary posting to the Linguistics Department. That professor specializes in systemic functional linguistics (SFL) and cri tical discourse analysis (CDA) for the teaching of academic language within American K 12 teaching contexts , with a focus on addressing social inequities that language barriers sometimes reinforce . Li ended up embracing her research agenda during his work as a teaching assistant under her supervision, as well as in his dissertation. doctoral coursework could be broadly divided into three parts. First, there were the core linguistics courses, such as phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Second, there were the historical and archaeological linguistics courses in which the Linguistics D epartment tends to specialize. Li found these courses which included studies of Ancient Greek, Latin, and Gothic to be particularly challenging. Third, there were the teaching methods courses that Li took from the College of Education. W hile Li did list ou t the courses that he took, he appeared to place little emphasis on the content of the courses themselves. Rather, he appeared to place a greater emphasis on four aspects : (a) the teaching approaches that his professors used when teaching those courses, (b) the teaching and research assistant work that he did in collaboration with his adviser, (c) his own reading and analysis of research articles during his coursework and action research projects , and (d) his interactions with classmates and coll eagues more broadly.
142 research interests to shift from a predominant focus on language to a broader focus on the intersection of language and culture. The apparent influence of these aspects current teaching will be detailed throughout this chapter. Research Question #1: Types of Knowledge from US B ased SLTE Systemic Fu nctional L inguistics , L exical C ohesion, and L exical R epertoire Li place d a strong emphasis on systemic functional linguistics (SFL), a system of metalinguistic concepts that allow the reader to analyze how the parts of an academic sentence or paragraph function together to produce precise meaning s and semiotics (Halliday, 1985/1994). For instance, Li was particularly interested in cohesive transition words and relationship markers (such as those which indicate time or possession). When he was in the US, he came to embrace I spent several years researching this with my adviser, for middle school students. We studied how academic language can be unpacked, demystified using SFL. So we basically used SFL to demystify academic language for content based ESL teachers. But some te achers do not like it at In other words, he came to see that value of SFL when he saw it used in practice. cohesion, modeling to build up field related Essentially , he define d SFL heavily in terms of lexical cohesion and lexical repertoire. Lexical cohesion is the use of certain words that connect ideas and make them flow smoothly and logically. Lexical repertoire is like a mental cache of words from which a person could draw when formulating their sentences. In his view, a broad lexical repertoire was espec ially important in academic writing, where precise words are often called for. Additionally, under the time constraints of the IELTS exam ination , Li believe d that it was necessary for students to have a
143 reserve of words ready to draw on e , so that they could sound professional without using the same words over and over again. As he described to me : based lexical repertoire, so I want to help students accumulate those lexical choices. So when they get nervous sitting the exam, they have Li emphasize d lexical repertoire , both for the IELTS class and for the argumentative writing class, though each for different purposes . For the IELTS class, lexical repertoire provide d students with a ready made set of words from which to draw during the time constraints of the IELTS exam . For the argumentative writing c lass, lexical repertoire helped improve d the CIS ability to make reasoned arguments through more precise wording . It should also be noted that Li typically use d SFL as a teaching tool , but not so much as the object of instruction [the students] would go In other words, he did not directly teach his students about SFL, but he use d SFL as a tool when teaching his student s about lexical cohesion. Y ou really draw on your repertoire, but we have to purposefully develop it. In an English speaking environment, we can develop it in and out of the classroom. But in EFL er exiting my classroom, they Personal Interview, 10/16/2017 ). L exical repertoire did not automatically build simply by more exposure to academic English; it needed to be explicitly taught and expanded . A technique that he has developed for was for him and his students to co construct lists of words which had slightly different meanings which were appropriate for different contexts . For instan ce, in one IELTS class on 10/18/2017, Li had the students open their textbooks to a reading passage about the benefits of frequent athletic activity. He began by reading the first sentence of the reading passage himself:
144 Li: ( R and participation in sporting activities, for example, soccer or basketball, has , ? ? [What is this sentence talking about? Advantages or disadva ntages?] Ss: . [ Advantages.] Li: , ? . [ classmate to read a sentence.] S1: ( r First , sports promote the development of the body Li: First , sports promote the development of the body and muscles ? [W hat other words can you use?] S2: Improve. Li: Improve . Great. ? [ Any others ?] S3: Develop. Li: Develop. , . , ? , . , ? , ? p ? [Develop. G ood, that winded, right? If you have to , The discussion continued in similar manner , as both Li and the students proposed new words to add to the list. As words were being suggested, Li was simultaneously typing them in real time in to a blank Word document , which was displayed on the projector screen behind the : Promote Improve Support Develop Facilitate Increase Strengthen Foster Better (as verb)
145 An examination of the above sequence of classroom talk reveals some interesting findings . First , Li began sought. Second , h e repeat ed nal tactic. Third , he use d a combination of open ended questions and confirmatory acknowledgement to prompt students to speak . Fourth , he switche d into Chinese for the se prompting functions. Fifth , he co construct ed this lexical repertoire with his students . C ategories of lexical connector s which Li frequently emphasized throughout his classes included those that reference d personal sources (e.g. writes, argues, according to) and those that reference d visuals diagrams (e.g. indicates, illustrates ). This suggests the strong importance that Li attache d to the use of data and evidence . Moreover , Li remarked to me that other colleagues often felt quite skeptical about the idea of using SFL for language instruction : well established and well developed system of teaching These colleagues tend ed to believe that SFL was simply an additional set of vocabulary terms to describ e things that they already taught . By contrast , Li believe d that SFL use d a different approach to the teaching of language , one which focuse d on the functions of certain words and phrases, such as words which performed an inferential function (e.g. suggests, implies) or phrases which identified cause and effect (e.g. due to, result ing in ). Li aim ed to teach his students how to use these words and phrases properly for the strongest lexical cohesion. Co C onstruction of K nowledge with S tudents In the abovementioned classroom observation segment, we saw L i co construct the list of Even if an individual
146 student did not possess a large lexical repertoire , one student knew one word, another student knew another word. So in a way, the class as a whole possesse d a large collective repertoire ; if students could simply share those words with each other, then that repertoire would be diffused across all students, with the teacher playing a facilitating role in this diffusion . This was the idea of knowledge co construction, which Li learned from his teaching methods classes in his US universit y , as well as from seeing his professors use that method themselves during class . As he related to me: ation from students, to increase their level of engagement. She said that we can use that technique. You saw that I pick up a lot of many of our teachers do that in the Chinese context. But my phonology teacher always did this. It gives students confidence, and students feel like their performance is 3 /2017) In other words, he noticed how his phonology professor te nded to integrate many of the class material. This enable d him and his classmates to the lesson and participate more actively . It also enable d him and his classmates to feel that they ha d taken away more from the lesson, since they themselves were more Li took this lesson, and now applies it with his current students. W hen his students could see that their contributions were valid enough for the teacher to build on, then confidence increased , which in turn could feed into their own im proved language development. The abovementioned classroom observation segment demonstrates Li co constructing a list of lexical connectors with his students , words which the students could then incorporate into their own writings . K nowledge co construction could also be extended to other concepts as well. The following classroom observation segment from the sophomore argumentative writing class on 10/20/2017 demonstrates Li introducing various forms of evidence .
147 Li: In argumentative writing, you have to show your own arguments, which means are preferred. Which types of evi dence do we prefer in argumentative writing? S1: ( reading from the textbook ) Facts, statistics, and expert opinion. Li: based evidence, which means we have to do a little bit of quotation and citation. But this time, you have t o keep in mind that you have different types of evidence available. You have facts, you have personal experiences, you have what? S2: Common knowledge. Li: Common knowledge. And what else? S3: Anecdotes. Li: And you also have what? Logical reasoning. You c an do pure logical reasoning. would like you to use research based evidence, which means you have to collect evidence online or go to the library to check out some resources. The textbook mentioned three types of evidence : facts, statistics, and expert opinion. To this, the students added anecdotes and common knowledge. Li then added analogies, logical reasoning, and personal experience. Li spent the rest of the class period co vering those types of evidence in greater detail. In the end, eight different types of evidence were discussed, with the students contributing two of them . T he students learned about those types of evidence in a more interactive way , to which they themselv es contributed some pieces of knowledge. In the end, Li spent considerable class time developing material which had been introduced by the students . Spontaneity In the US, Li learned about the value of spontaneity, and came to believe in its importance for teaching practice. His spontaneity in the classroom came in two forms: making on the spot changes to a lesson during class, and making adjustments to his future lesson plans based on how a given class went overall . For instance, i n one meeting of the sophomore argumentative writing course (10/16/2017), Li was teaching the students about the difference between argument and persuasion . Instead of simply beginning with his own lecture about the differences , he began
148 playing a video podcast (Baker, 2016) S everal minutes into the video, he made the sudden decision to paus e it and pull up a second video, which was a 2012 campaign ad by then US President Barack Obama (BarackObamadotcom, 2012) . Why did he make this spontaneous decision ? A fine grained look at the few minutes of this classroom behavior reveals some interesting findings. The vide o podcast about claim, evidence, and persuasion began by delineating the difference between argument and persuasion . video said, is when a writer or speaker makes a case using emotion and feeling in support of a companies are trying to make you feel a certain way about their products. Or a political candidate is trying to get you to feel a certain way about the It was at this point that Li paused the video and said: Li: Okay, the [speaker] is talking about this, reminds me of a video I need to show you. of like all about personal emotion to use emotion to engage people . Li began by , that persuasion focus ed more on emotion than on evidence . He then instructed the class to pay attention to the emotion based arguments that Obama used in the video that he was about to play. The video was saved on his USB drive, in an old folder from a previous semester. In this way, he had a reservoir of materials from previous c lasses useful . Li began playing the video of Obama contrasting his economic development plan with talked about how he intended to create more jobs and train more math and science teachers while Romney intended to pursue the same economic policies which had led to the financial crisis.
149 Li spontaneously paused the Obama video halfway through and went back to the ori ginal podcast, which gave definitions and examples of claim, evidence, and warrant. The warrant, said explanation of how the evidence supports the claim , in case the audience or reader interprets the evidence in a different way. After the video finished, Li switched into Chinese and began delivering an explanation : Li: With persuasion, we sometimes use emotions . , , . , ? [ For example , You should study well, so that when you get older you can develop yourselves. But what about the use of evidence? ] S1: . [ good for your career.] Li made spontaneous switches between different videos , in his attempts to teach his students about the difference between argument and persuasion . In these brief few minutes, Li added various elements of spontaneity: pulling up new videos, eliciting student comment s , and switching to a final Chinese explana tion in order to cement the new knowledge . When I asked him what made him decide to pause the video podcast and pull up the probably clear, but for the students probably not clear . You have to take into account the students as your audience, s o I just felt that I should pause the podcast to show them th at Obama speech ( Personal Interview , 10/16/2017). In other words, Li had sensed in the moment that the too well received or understood by the students . T his made him decide that he needed to show the students a concrete example of emotion based persuasion , so that they would be able to better follow along with the rest of the podcast. It is also noteworthy that he did not originally plan on playing that Obama video. He had it on his USB stick , in some old folders from a previous semester. W hen
150 the video podcast talked about political candidates , this triggered his recollection that he had an Obama video saved , and that it would probably be a useful video for his students to watch in this particular moment . When I asked him where he learned about many years in the US [as a teaching assistant], so I had to learn to sometimes be spontaneous, because American students are really flexible, they can ask you a lot of unexpected questions, so you have to be p Flexibility is one feature in American classrooms Personal Interview , 10/16/2017). In other words, Li had to accustom himself to coming up with answers to the frequent questions that his American students would ask him. It is also noteworthy that Li did not appear to have learned as much about spontaneity from his language teaching methods classes . Those classes tended to place a greater emphasis on how the different teaching approaches worked , but not as great an emphasis on when or how to make on the spot decisions . Spontaneity appeared to be developed more from his own teaching assistant experience s , and yet it appears to feature prominently in his current teaching practice . The influence of TA experience on the teaching and classroom practices of US trained English teachers and perhaps on the teaching and classroom practices of teachers more broadly is a theme that has emerged in the other two parti cipants, and merits further inquiry in the future . I was also interested in exploring spontaneity with respect to lexical repertoire: During all of those co constructed word list s (such as improve and support in the above observation ), did Li decide in advance that he would teach those specific words , or did those words simply come to him spontaneously in the moment he was teaching them ? When I asked him about this , he explained to me d were
151 In other words, he ha d accumulated a broad mental glossary of lexical synonyms , from which he would draw depending on the situation in the moment. It seems that he did not always pre plan which words he would teach his students ; when the occasion arose, it would simply occur to him that certain other words would be useful for the students to know, based on h is previous experience. A subtler s candidate is trying to get you to feel a certain way about political candidate recollection that he had an Obama speech that might provide a good example for students in that moment. This suggests that spontaneity can be triggered by the raising even briefly of a particular topic that reminds the teacher that they have some other material of relevance and utility. The ways in which certain keywords trigger a reaction or recollection appears to be an element involved in spontaneity, an aspect of cognition which merits further investigation. Apart from these types of moment to moment classroom decisions, spontaneity also IELTS class meeting on 10/19/2017, Li became frustrated when he felt that the students were not absorbing the material that he was providing, and when he felt that their essays and their writings were still suffering from problems of basic grammar. The moment came near the end of class. In the preceding half hour, the students had been working on their essays individually, while he had been floating around the classroom, giving students individualized feedback . As he continued to see the same basic grammar mistakes , and as it be came clear to him that the student s were not
152 grasping the argumentative writing skills which he had been attempting to cultivate , he grew visibly upset , came to the front of the classroom, and told the students in a moment of candor : Li: , , , . , . , . , . , , , . , y ou spend the most hours watching TV, . [The first problem is that , if your word order is incorrect, then the essay, every sentence many times, that your writing writing more clearly. And the third problem is that, in your descriptions, for incorrectly. It seems that you s p end most hours watching TV and not writing.] When I sat down with him immediately following the class, he explained to me that he was frustrated because the students did not appear to be picking up the material. He questioned how he could teach advanced argumentative writing skills when the students were barely able to compose basic sentences with proper subject verb object word order. For this reason, he decided on the spot that he was going to make changes to the way he taught the class: Li decided that he was going to leave the last class meeting of every second week as , where students could freely practice whatever they needed to, while he went around the room answering questions or providing recommendations. He also decided that he needed t o spend more time reviewing basic grammar before progressing to the more advanced argumentative writing skills necessary to score well on the IELTS. In short, Li appeared to demonstrate two types of spontaneity. The first was the moment to moment type, whe
153 was the curriculum adaptation, where he would decide that he needed to spend additional time in the semester on some more basic material before moving on to the more advanced. Li sug gested to me that this spontaneity was cultivated largely through his TA experience in the US. Metalinguistic K nowledge In the sophomore argumentative writing class, Li spent a considerable amount of time getting the students to understand the concepts of claim, evidence, and warrant with a strong emphasis on the latter . He spent part of the time directly explaining those concepts, part of the time using videos and writing samples (as in the ones just described above) and getting students to cre ate their own examples or identify such elements with given reading passages. He believe d that the warrant was crucial to constructing a strong argument, and yet it was one of the most easily overlooked aspects of argumentative writing, especially in China , where it is seldom taught. When I asked whether the claim evidence warrant trio was something he had learned in the US, he explained to me that he learned about it indirectly . Instead, he had developed an intuitive understanding of the parts of a compone nts argument, through the cultivation of metalinguistic knowledge. Metalinguistic knowledge is language about language. It is one thing to know the words for house, run, and big . It is something else to know that those word categories are nouns, verbs, and adjectives. It is one thing to argue that too much junk food is bad for your health. It is something else to be able to directly describe what makes that argument strong or weak. In the US, even tho ugh Li was never directly taught about the concept of the warrant , through a combination of adviser feedback on papers and his dissertation, and his own reading of hundreds of academic articles throughout his doctoral studies , he came to understand that on e could not simply make a claim and present supporting evidence: There was a third step which involved
154 interpreting the evidence for the reader. This was important, because the reader might understand or interpret the evidence differently from what the aut hor had intended, especially if the reader was not a subject matter expert. ther e was no label for my knowledge, so then I had to empower myself in labeling my knowledge, because when I teach my students, I want to be more theoretical and practical Personal Interview , 10/16/2017) H is adviser, in providing him with feedback on his essays and writings, told him that he needed to add more of his own interpretation of the supporting evidence in order to make sure that the reader could more explicitly see his intended connections between the claim and the evidence . It was only later, as he was preparing to teach his students in China to do the same thing, that he learned that this interpretation had a name: the warrant. He learned about this term when he was searching for videos and other resources to help him prepare to teach his students about argument construction. When he did finally come across that term, he had enough metalinguistic understanding about argument construction to understand what it was and how to do it well . As he expla ined to me: genre based knowledge between the purposes of different types of essays. So when I teach argumentative writing, I have to consciously think about how to differentiate the different types of essays in directly [in the US], but at least I learned some metalingu istic knowledge, and I could Personal Interview , 10/16/2017) This quote indicates several things. First , that in the US , he did not directly learn how to teach the different purposes of academic writing (e.g. persuasive, argumentat ive, expository) or about the different components of a strong argument (e.g. claim, evidence, warrant). H e developed an intuitive feel for these concept s through adviser feedback on his writings, and
155 through his own independent academic reading , much He developed the metalinguistic awareness to notice that there was a distinction between different types of writing purposes ; he simply had not know n how to label them or how to teac h them . Those things, he had to learn as he was preparing his classes. It is also important to note that Li did not learn m any of these concepts through his coursework . In fact, he specifically said that he did not take any course s in academic writing. He was a student of applied linguistics who took some education courses, but academic writing was not one of them. He developed his academic writing knowledge by receiving feedback from his adviser during the writing of his essays and dissertation, and by studying the structure and language of the academic articles that he was reading throughout his doctoral studies. In short, in the IELTS and argumentative writing classes that I observed , he was using knowledge that he had gained from the US, but much of that knowledge was gained not from the courses themselves but from his interactions with his adviser and from his own independent reading. D espite not having received much direct instruction in academic writing, he was able to teach academic writing based in no small part on the metalinguistic knowledge that he had cultivated through various other experiences, particularly through his interactions with his adviser. This demonstrates, as Toth and Moranski (2018) argue, the importance of metalinguistic knowledge, and of the need to continue studying its role in the study of academic writing instruction. Identity and M otivation During classroom observations, I noticed that Li appeared to differ between the nondegree IELTS class and the sophomore argumentative writing class . For instanc e, in the IELTS class he would often make motivational comments like [ K eep drilling yourself ] [ D , or perhaps more figuratively,
156 ] (Classroom Observation, 10/16/2017) , as tactics to get the students to continue practicing and improving themselves in preparation for the exam . By contrast, in the argumentative writing c lass, he tended to make more encouraging remarks. For instance, he would constantly tell his students in English things like D , D ( Classroom Observation , 10/18/2017) . F or the IELTS class , he appeared to be playing to sense of challenge and competitiveness, whereas for the argumentative writing class , he appeared to be playing more to the sense of fragility and inadequacy. Why this difference? And did he learn these motivational tactics from his US doctoral program? With respect to the IELTS students, he explained: A lot of rich spoiled, they need someone to motivate them to do that. Most of them are from rich families, at least from the middle class. They can afford to take the IELTS classes and 26 /2017) As mentioned bef ore, t he students in the IELTS class generally did not score well enough on the Chinese college entrance examination to gain admission to a top tier university within the Chinese higher education system . As a result, they were taking the alternative route of pursuing their undergraduate studies in the UK, and they were enrolled in this nondegree program to prepare for the requisite standardized tests. Moreover, that I have often encountered in China , namely that students from richer families may not always work too hard in school, since they know that they can have their families shell out the expensive tuition money to send them abroad for their post secondary education . To the extent that this belief has any validity, it would mean that such students often do not have a high level of motivation to work hard in school. Given this, Li felt that he need ed to play to their sense of competitiveness, motivating them w ith messages of
157 constant self improvement , trying to imbue them with a sense that if they really wanted to go study in the UK, then they would need to do the required work to score well on the IE LTS . He seemed to be attempting to shake them out of an apparent sense of apathy with a message of aspiring to better themselves , or to find something to aspire to . The students were competitive, just not in a way that Li felt was the most positive as will be detailed in the paragraphs about student competitiveness below. By contrast, the sophomore CIS major students were in a different situation. Apart from being a few years older, they had different goals and different learning objectives. Li explained: dence. They need confidence in texts. But English major students have to be confident in their professional identity. Sometimes they doubt themselves, especially English major discourse identity, institutional identity, affinity identity. People have a conflict between these different identities, so I have to foster their identities as English majors in the classroom 26 /2017) In othe r words, he suggest ed , English majors in China may often have lower academic and professional self confidence, as well as a more negative sense of professional identity . According to findings from previous research in which I was involved (Murray and Coady , 2018 ), English majors in China may feel this lower self confidence because it is much easier these days for non English majors to have just as good if not a better level of English fluency, and a more practical and communicative type of fluency at that. Content area majors like STEM or finance can have two advantages: their subject matter expertise and their English fluency. But usually the English language itself, and oftentimes more focused on the grammar and literature than on the communicative and professionally usable. Therefore , English majors may often feel that they graduate without many professional advantages or a professionall y marketable English fluency in the first place.
158 The department has aimed to address this issue by transforming itself from an English D epartment to a College of International Studies and adding a wide array of content courses to enhance ofessional knowledge base. Li is also attempting to address this issue through his teaching practice, by the ways in which he motivates his students to have a more favorable opinion of themselves and fewer unrealistic expectations . When I asked him where he learned how to motivate his students in different ways, he explained to me: e US] was an expert on identity, so I paid greater attention to identity. And I was also a minority student there, a language learner myself , so I know the importance of 10/27/2017) In essence , a practi cal effect of his having studied in the US was that he cultivated a greater awareness of the importance of identity development beyond mere language teaching pedagogy . Curiously, this identity development appears to have come from two sources, neither of w hich were related to his actual coursework: one from his doctoral committee member who specializes in language learner identity, and one from his own struggles with his language learner identity as a non native English speaker receiving a doctoral degree in SLTE in the US. H is US experience helped him develop his ability to cultivate different forms of language learner identity , both in his students and in himself . Research Question #2: Influencing Factors Institutional D ifferences based SFL training had taught him to value the importance of lexical connectors and transition words. By contrast , his students in China often showed resistance to lea rning about transition words. This tended to frustrate him. He explained to me that the students often built up a resistance to using transition words because instructors in other classes had said that such words were not so important.
159 transitional words. And one student told me that in another class, her teacher had said that they g , and she said lit erature. I said okay, fine, in literature you can write whatever you want. 10 /31/2017) There appear ed to be three issues at play here. First , that the different writing genres (i.e. expository vs. literary) had different conventions , and students might generalize the conventions of one genre across all other genres , believing that there was no need to do things differently from what they are already used to doing . Second , that if certain writing conventions of o ne genre did not cross over into other genres, then the students might not see the value of learning those conventions, figuring that they would not use them again after the course was finished. Third , that different teachers ha d their own personal likes and dislikes which they might impart on their students ; then the students might internalize those likes and dislikes and filter the content of subsequent classes through them . Any or all of these three factors could make it more difficult for Li to teach t he SFL based transitional words on which he came to place importance. Deeper institutional issues appeared to be at play here as well. The various courses were obviously intended to provide different pieces of knowledge which would add up to a comprehensive understanding of the field. The c ourses should ideally have complement ed each other and dovetail ed with one another. These courses sometimes end ed up providing informat ion that the students felt was contradictory , so that instead of providing mutually complementary material, the courses may have provide d material that the students considered to be mutually exclusionary. This was als , including those that Li consider ed to be important based on his US experience . As suggested above, different teachers within the CIS may have come from different academic backgrounds which ha d different writing conventions. This may have be en useful to
160 students if they were able to comfortably switch between the writing conventions of different genres. It may not have be en as useful if the students felt that they were receiving conflicting information from different teachers, leading the students to be unsure of which to accept or disregard . Either way, some students did not end up learning or retaining everything they could, and the teachers may not h ave ended up teaching all the material that they had hoped . In this case, the fact of teachers coming from diverse academic backgrounds could end up reduc ing what students took away from the program, not broaden it as was intended. In this case, the course curriculum could become a set of disparate courses that are not cohesive , and which do not teach a structured, unified set of skills. I would speculate that this is especially possible in the field of language education . Finance m ajors might take courses in accounting, economics , and stock markets . Political science majors might take courses in government, media, and public policy. These courses can complement each other and are less likely to provide conflicting information. They might all have some writing component, yet the focus of the learning is likely to be more on the content and less on the writing style. Language majors are different. Students such as those in the CIS often take courses in persuasive writing, expository writing, literature, and translation. In this case, the writing style itself is often the course content , potentially causing students who have become accustomed to one writing style to resist learning t he conventions of another. I believe i t is important for a US trained English teacher to be aware that he or she may be going back to an environment in which students have cultivated their own preconceptions about writing , based on advice from previous teachers and their own writing experience s at school. This might lead the students to resist the US based knowledge that the teacher aims to provide , posing a challenge for the teacher who implement that knowledge.
161 Institutio nal differences appeared to affect not only student instruction, but also the different types of micro level knowledge that a teacher provide d to students of different departments . For example , Li found himself placing a greater emphasis on cohesion for IELTS students , and coherence for E nglish majors . one sentence, no supporting evidence only have 250 words, what can you be expect ed to write ? You may not always have time to use evidence, comp are and contrasts , it takes time to organize it In other words, the IELTS students were preparing for an exam in which they only had 250 words and a limited amount of time to make their point. This left little time for in depth learned knowledge of lexical cohesion a greater priority. By contrast , the CIS majors were preparing to work in various fields of indus learned knowledge of analytic coherence would be of greater priority. In addition knowledge from other classes can complement a During a session of the argumentative writing class on 10/27/2017, Li asked if any of the students had previously learned about citations and reference lists. Several of the students who specialized in the International Relations track said that they had covered it in some of their IR courses. In those courses, they had learned how to reference sources when presenting supporting evidence . The students demonstrated an awareness of the different citation formats, such as APA, MLA, and Chicago . Li did not have to spend as much time on citation format as originally intended, freeing him to use that time to teach other things. In sum , institutional ly reinforced differences US gained knowledge in three way s . First , they appeared to influence receptiveness to the knowledge and skills he wanted to provide . Second , they appeared to
162 influence the specific types of knowledge that Li emphasize d , based on what different types of students ne ed ed to know and what those students were taking those classes for. Third , they appeared to influence the prior knowledge that students brought to the class, and consequently the knowledge on which Li needed to spend more or less time. Student F luency learned knowledge in two interesting ways. First , it appeared to determine whether he made greater or less use of PowerPoints and other electro nic resources that he had grown accustomed to while in the US. Second , it appeared to determine whether he made greater or less use of the functional linguistics approach that he had come to adopt while in the US. During the 10/18/2017 IELTS class in which lack of responsiveness and the poor quality of their writing assignments, I noted that Li stopped using PowerPoints or videos , and i nstead began making greater use of the old fashioned chalkboard, writing senten ces and highlighting the subject verb object as is commonly done in traditional grammar instruction. When I asked what made him decide to discard his electronic resources and resort to the old fashioned chalkboard, he explained to me that s Interview, 11/19/2017). In other words, when Li discovered that th cover argument construction, and that he was going to need to first spend more time developing their basic understanding of subject verb object word order, his mind appeared to unconsciously equate basic grammar instruction with the old fashioned chalkboard, and more advanced
163 argumentation skills with the more modern electronic resources. Since he had learned basic grammar with a chalkboard during his K 12 schooling , he unconsciously began teaching basic grammar with a chalkboard as well. Perhaps just as interestingly, Li appeared to not even realize why he had done it, until I asked him. His initial response to my question of why he decided to switch to the chalkboard, was that he had no particular reason, he had simply done it . Several second s later, once he got to thinking about it, he began to realize that it might have been because he unconsciously associated the chalkbo ard with traditional grammar instruction. This, similarly with the above example of cognition and decisionmaking . Second , as he was using the chalkboard, he abandoned any attempt to use functional linguistics to teach his stude nts. He resorted to teaching basic grammar , using the more traditional way of lecturing about what is a subject and what is a predicate . It was necessary, As he explained to me : d for low applicable to every context. If I have time with them, I would definite ly introduce these kinds of concepts . I would introduce the most important parts of SFL to them. But given the limited time, I would just use the old use SFL concepts (such as participant and process) to teach argumentation, he decided to use more traditional grammar concepts (such as subject and verb) to teach abou t basic word order and what constitutes a complete sentence. At first, it may seem that participant is just another name for subject , yet there is a difference. A ccording to traditional grammar, the subject is simply the actor that performs the action of t he sentence . A ccording to SFL, analyzing the
164 participant is not simply about identifying who or what performed the action; it is also about analyzing the degree of agency or involvement that the participant had in performing the action (Fang, 2016). For instance, was phenomenon A the direct cause or simply a contributing factor to phenomenon B? This concept of analyzing the degree of agency is something that Li feels his sophomore argumentative writing students are ready for, but not his nondegree IE LTS students. His IELTS students first need more instruction in basic S V O and other rudimentary grammatical concepts. Nature of the Chinese L anguage I tself was complex. It could be a double edged sword, an inhibitor in some ways and a facilitator in others. It could be an inhibitor when certain linguistic structures that are inherent to English academic writing do not translate so easily in to Chinese. At the same time, it could b e a facilitator when students were able to draw on cultural references that were familiar to them, and when the teacher was able to use Chinese as a scaffold or a teaching support. Li explained to me that it was sometimes difficult for his students to gras p the kind of conjunctions and logical connectors that his US experience ha d taught him were so important. , Interview, 10/18/2017). W hen Li translated the sentence into Chinese, he changed the structure from a compound sentence with a causal marker to two simple sentences with no causal link . I found this in my own Chinese learning experience as well. Years ago, when I was first attempting to learn how to formulate more complex sentences in Chi nese, I would become
165 confused when my language exchange partners frequently took my complex English sentences and broke them down into strings of simple sentences when they translated them into Chinese. In time, I came to understand why they had done that; the Chinese language did not work that way. , forgot to bring my membership card, I could use it for a discount.] These are two simple sentences. Chinese does not have subordinating words that are equivalent to that or which in English. The closes t thing to a subordinating clause that exists in Chines e is to place the subordinate phrase as an adjecti ve phrase before the noun. Technically, T got to bring my I can use it to get a In effect, certain kinds of clauses and logical connectors which native English speakers might take for granted often make little sense to native Chinese speakers. Com plex conjunctions and subordinations are common in English academic writing , but not so much in Chinese academic writing . As a result, even though Li came to understand the importance of such conjunctions and subordinations during his time in the US, he ha s a more difficult time helping his students in China to understand them. We can examine this in even finer grained detail.
166 have close equivalents in Chinese. Their logic makes little sense to a native Chinese speaker who needed to spend more time than he had previously anticipated in explaining the logic of the English language to the students. Li encountered some challenges when attempting to explain to his students about subordinating clauses . In one classroom session on 10/23/2017, the students were readin g the which was intuitive to Li, based on his reading of many academic articles during his time in the US. This was not as intuitive to s , though . In relating the difficulty that he had in explaining it to them , he said to me that them. We can tell, because we read a lot. But the , just (Personal Interview, 10/23/2017) In other words, the grammatically into Chinese. As L like occupy Noun modifications also presented would turned T he structure of [ MODIFYING PHRASE ] + [ NOUN PHRASE ] , much like
167 the same sentence . T hat structure does not work as smoothly for complex modifying phrases, any turned in English In addition, Li had a difficult time explaining the difference between coordination and subordination, because the Chinese language itself does not have such a clear cut distincti on. The following classroom observation segment from 10/ 30 /2017 demonstrates the difficulty that Li had in explaining this difference to his students: Li: , , . , . P . , represent 22 % [So the important thing here is that, to show cause and effect w succession P izza is the second most . o kay , % The above segment demonstrates the difficulty that Li encountered in explaining the difference between coordination (and) and subordination (which). As can be seen, he attempted to explain it by saying that coordinated phrases were separated by a comma while subordinated phrases were not. Yet , even this rule only holds true for certain instances , particularly between that and which . Li had cultivated an unconscious, intuitive understanding of this , due to the many research articles that he read during his US doctoral studies. Despite this understanding, h e had some difficult y in finding an explicit way to teach his students about it , given the significant differences between the two languages. The above segment appears to be his attempt to provide a deliberately over simplifie d explanation so that the students could first grasp the basic concepts , before he subsequently dives into the greater nuances of the language .
168 On the more positive side, Li found that the Chinese language could be used in several ways to enhance the students learning. One way was to allow students to draw on their own funds of knowledge , which Li share d with them as a native Chinese himself . In this excerpt from a classroom observation on 10/19/2017, we could se e this at play : Li: What type of evidence would you prefer in the Chinese language? Have you read any ancient texts in Chinese? S1: Analogy. Li: In ancient Chinese te x ts, we prefer analogy. W hen someone want ed the Emperor to do something, he would use som e analogy. Can you think of an example? S1: cannot simultaneously occur. too.] Li: Sure. Sometimes when people want to show their argument, they would use this analogy but without any specific elaboration. Especially in ancient Chinese te x ts, especially when some ministers want ed the Emperor to do something, they used a : In Chinese , evidence. But in English, we generally prefer empirica l evidence, like facts, languages show a preference for different types of evidence. This segment of classroom observation demonstrated several things . First , Li was drawing a comparison between the based argumentation that he had learned in China , and the based argumentation that he had learned in the US. He was better able to illustrate this difference to his students because he was familiar with both, having learned the former during his schooling years in China and the latter during his doctoral years in the US. Second , Li was using his US learned teaching approach knowledge , which he specifical ly did by allowing his students to use the Chinese language to access cultural idioms and details from the Chinese classics . It help ed that he share d many of those same funds of knowledge with his students as a native Chinese himself. Third , Li was using his US learned prompting techniques for eliciting partially open ended responses. All of
169 these approaches were facilitated by his use of the Chinese language . In short, the Chinese languag e has inherent advantages and disadvantages in the teaching of English academic writing. Social V alue P laced on W riting Li sometimes felt that his ability to implement h is US gained knowledge of writing was hampered by a difference in the social value placed on writing in China versus in the US. In his opinion , writing skills tend ed to be more highly valued in the US : since everyone could speak English, non native speakers could not use their English fluency to distinguish themselves profe ssionally . In contrast, not everyone on the US had strong writing skills, so non native speakers could better distinguish themselves in that domain . In China, m ost of my students are not motivated to learn writing . They can talk fine, but does In the US, no matter how well you speak, you can never be better than native speakers. But a lot of native speakers do not know how to write correctly or appropriately , so writing actually becomes a favored literacy. 30 /2017). As this quote suggests, Li found that many of his students were not motivated to develop their writing skills, since those students appeared to believe that oral skills were likely to be of greater professional benefit in the future , certainly much more visible and immediate than writing skills. gained belief in the importance of writing came into conflict with his such belief . In the US , he had come to view writing as a way to set himself apart academically and compensate for his lack of native speaker English f luency, whereas his students in China had come to view writing as a distraction from the speaking practice that would really set them apart academically. Thus, it was a mismatch of priorities and a mismatch of the social value that both he and the students had come to place on writing skills . This mismatch writing that he himself possessed .
170 Time C onstraints In the US, Li learned about the importance of providing students with sufficient individual attention for them to u nderstand the concepts with which they were having trouble. In his current teaching environment, t ime constraint s prevent ed him from providing that individual attention. Time constraints appeared both on the part of the teacher and of the students. On the part of the teacher, for instance, in the IELTS class he was under pressure to teach large amounts of content about writing and vocabulary concepts in order to prepare the students to take the exam at the end of the semester. This force d him to spend m ore time than he would have like d in lecturing to the class as a whole and delivering those lectures in Chinese at that. Chinese was often used due to the large amounts of content that had to be delivered in a brief time, given the proficiency which made Chinese more expedient. On the part of the students, Li made numerous attempts to get students to come to his office to discuss their writings individually. In fact , he often stayed in his office after hours, in case a student came by with individual questions . In one class , he even passed around a signup sheet with times and dates for them to stop by his office; he asked the students to sign them and sign up so that they could go to him for more individual help . To his disappoi ntment, virtually none of the students did, as they had busy schedules themselves. When he showed me their weekly schedule, I saw that it was full every day , with classes covering not only the IELTS writing section but also the math and verbal sections. Th e students had only a 2 3 hour free block twice a week, during which they would typically do independent work or take the time to rest, as the students even had practice sessions in the evenings. They roomed in the city ( often right on campus) during the week and went back to their homes on weekends . In the end, Li was un able to help them as much as he wanted to .
171 Colleague F eedback and I ndividual R eading As has been suggested throughout this chapter, much of what Li knows and t eaches to his students appears to have come from the constant feedback and interactions with his adviser and various colleagues throughout his US studies , as well as from the ideas that he himself developed through the many articles that he read and analyzed throughout his US doctoral studies . This feedback appears to have had an influence on the types of linguistic knowledge that he taught his students, as well as on his own sense of identity and self confi dence as a non native English speaking teacher. (Personal Interview, 10/17/2017). Li went on to expl ain that : taught me a lot about academic writing. I think it was because of the equal relationship, colleague to colleague, so she could really give me comments. At first, I was a little c So then I became more open, kept working with her. So then I learned how to write conference abstracts, academic papers, and now I can do that by myself. Of course, I still have some mechanical errors, but if I had stayed in China and never gone abroad, I could neve Interview, 10/17/2017) The friendship and collegial relationship that Li developed with this classmate over the course of his five years in the US appear s to have had a deep influence in several respects. Firs t , he became more attuned to cultural practices and frames of reference outside of his own, which I of reference and thereby respond to them more effectively . Second , he became much more adept at spotting language mistakes that he might onc e have overlooked . T his must account, at least in part, for his ability to get students to recognize their own language mistakes and listen to his feedback for how to improve on them. Third , he improved his ability to write research papers
172 and conference p roposals, which because his research focused on functional linguistics and its use s in academic language development must have fed into his actual use of functional linguistics in his teaching practice. Moreover, ack, so I could tell what is good and what is bad from the Western perspective, not from the Chinese perspective ence abstract, but now I can write multiple in a day and get accepted 7 /2017) In other words, much of the knowledge about academic writing that he now passes on to his students was cultivated through the regular feedback that he received from his adviser during his US doctoral studies. His improved writing abilities also had a positive effect on his self confi dence , both as a teacher and as a researcher. Student M istrust and C ompetitiveness T he issue of mistrust among the students ran deep . In one meeting of the IELTS class on 10/25/2017, Li told the students to break off classwork. One of the students directly asked whether this would not cause the students to adopt language habits : Li: , ? . , , ? [You s hould help each other, you know? Don t practice alone. Some people have a higher fluency than you, but others are still progressing, right? So , everyone help each other.] S1: ? [What if we get that person s mistakes?] Li: , ? , ? [That may happen, right? You two could analyze each other s weaknesses, couldn t you?] explain that the act of providing feedback could improve the to detect their own language mistakes . Many of the students did not appear to buy that argument . They worked in pairs only half heartedly and quite
173 reluctantly , from what I could interpret in their manner of working . Li would express frustrat ion over this is sue, explaining to me that , you have to support each other, not just put your classmates down and then stand up and think you are great to be specific, tell them to present the strengths first. I did the same thing. For example, when I talked to students about their writing , I first told them that I liked this idea, but Li found that the students of the IELTS class had a tend ency to view each other as competitors. He attempt ed to compensate for this by teaching the students to first make some positive comments, before getting into the ir constructive criticism. Moreover, he trie d to model this kind of approach himself in the fe edback that he provide d to his students on their own writings. themselves over their classmates, Li believed that the best way to get his attention was for students to support t heir peers, not work against them. sources. First , from the test scores and individual rankings for which they had to compete all throughout their K 12 schooling . Second , from the fact that they were essentially competing for the same admissions slots in the British universities. Consequently, they may be unaccustomed to working collaboratively . T hey may even have felt that they are hindering their own chances of ad mission to the British universities if they provide d help to the competitors sitting next to them. They may have believed that there were only a finite number of openings for those universities. Being unaccustomed to peer review, they may not have know n ho w to deliver constructive feedback properly. First, they may not have know n how to deliver constructive criticism in a diplomatic manner. Second, they may not have know n what kinds of language
174 aspects they should even provide feedback on . In fact, they may even have draw n some satisfaction and a sense of their own strong competitiveness by putting other peers down. The practical effect of all this was that Li ha d a difficult time implementing the types of peer feedback based approaches to language instruction that he came to value during his time in do so for competiti ve reasons, made it more difficult for Li to cultivate the sense of cooperation and mutual assistance that his US experience taught him to be valuable for language learning. Conclusion hasis on the use of his US learned functional grammar and systemic functional linguistics knowledge, as a means to improve how his students support their argumentative claims using evidence. He also appears to place a strong emphasis on student identity de velopment, largely as a result of his RA experience researching these issues in local K 12 schools in the US during his doctoral studies. His interest in applied linguistics also led him to take an interest in metalinguistic knowledge : the ways in which he understood how to write, before he knew the specific name s for those conventions. He each other. He also has to navigate two different sets of bureaucracies, those within the CIS and those within the nondegree IELTS preparation progra m. How h e handles these challenges using his US knowledge has yielded significant insight.
175 CHAPTER 8 CROSS CASE ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS Overview In this chapter, I will begin by presenting a general summary of the findings that were detailed in the preceding three chapters. I will then present an analysis of some of the differences and similarities across the three participants with respect to those findings . Implications will be drawn, both for our theoretical understandin g of teacher development, and for programmatic recommendations that teacher education programs coul d follow based on these findings. Summary of Findings Research Question #1: Types of Knowledge from US B ased SLTE As shown in Table 8 1, the 19 types of US gained knowledge that emerged across the three participants appear to be most cleanly grouped in to the following categories: (a) linguistic, (b) pedagogical, and (c) theoretical. These might correspond, respectivel y, to content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) in the language teacher knowledge framework stipulated by KÃ¶nig et al. (2016) . Table 8 1 . Summary of the 19 types of knowledge across the three part icipants Linguistic Pedagogical Theoretical Logical coherence over grammar Peer review, process writing Knowledge co construction SFL, lexical cohesion, repertoire Academic writing in steps Signaling & rhetorical structure Whole language approach Identity & motivation Metalinguistic knowledge Educational technology Teacher as facilitator One paragraph, one idea Jigsaw method TESOL vs. literacy Coherence & cohesion Use of L1 Spontaneity Points and subpoints Linguistic knowledge refers to the most prominent structures and features of academic language, particularly writing, that the participants appeared to develop through their US based SLTE experience and apply within their local teaching contexts. Pedagogical knowledge refers
176 to the specific teaching methods as well as to the more general pedagogical approaches from their US based SLTE experience the participants emphasized as being most valuable for their curr ent teaching contexts . Theoretical knowledge refers more to the attitudes or conceptual orientations that the participants appeared to adopt from their US base d SLTE. Research Question #2: Influencing Factors As shown in Table 8 2, the 16 most prominent in fluencing factors that emerged across the three participants appear to be most cleanly grouped into the following categories: (a) factors related to their SLTE experience, (b) factors related to the environment in which they currently work, and (c) factors related to their current students. SLTE related factors had largely to do with out of classroom experiences, such as their teaching assistant experience and friendships and professional relationships that they developed with their colleagues and academic adviser s . These appeared to shape the types of knowledge that the participants took away from their SLTE program. Environmental factors were varied, and had to do with institutional divisions within or between departments of the university , the degree of c oordination with other faculty on teaching matters, and even the nature of the Chinese language itself. These appeared to shape the extent to which the participants could apply their US knowl edge. Student related factors had to do with student assumptions, preferences, or preconceptions that influenced their degree of receptiveness Table 8 2 . Summary of the 16 influencing factors across the three participants SLTE Environmental Students Educational technology Linguistic & institutional separations Learning vs. practicing Colleague feedback Differences between professors Social value of writing Teaching assistant US training of other professors Time constraints Adviser relations Nature of Chinese language Student mistrust Administrative pressures Student fluency Team teaching Testing focus
177 Adviser Relations The influence of the adviser relationship emerged as an important theme in the teacher development . This relationship appeared to have an influence on three the ways in which they provide feedback to t heir current students, and their sensitivity to the First , t he types of language feedback that the advisers provide d assignments and dissertations during their doctoral studies tended to be the types of language feedback that the participants provided to their current students on their classwork and writing assignments. For instance , Tao tended to receive feedback on logic gaps and redundancies in her writings, and now she tends to focus on tended to receive feedback on functional grammar and lexical connectors in his writings, and Second , the ways in which the participants provided feedback to their students tended to reflect the ways in which their advisers provided feedback to them. For instance, Chu and her adviser developed a kind of back and forth rhythm , where she would submit portions o f her own writing for feedback, then use that feedback to improve other portions of her writing, then submit those, and so on. As seemed apparent from the classroom observation s , she tends to establish a similar back and forth rhythm with her students, where she has her students submit portions of their essays at a time for feedback to improve the next portions essentially process writing. to provide suggestions but rather to pr ompt Tao to identify any potential logic gaps for herself, before giving small hints to try and help her determine for herself how to strengthen the logic. Now, Tao tends to do the same thing with her own students.
178 Third , as part of their assistantship res ponsibilities, the participants collaborated with their advisers in co teaching courses for undergraduates or in doing research in local area public schools . Chu stated that the regular meetings that she and the other teaching assistants had with her adviser were useful in giving her teaching ideas that she uses now , while her TA experience needs and struggles . Meanwhile, Li made it clear that his time doi ng research with his adviser in local public schools , studying the local social and cultural issues which affected academic language development , were influential in sharpening his ability to understand local social and cultural issues af principles of learning to teach language. First, that language use may always be purposeful but not always meani ngful. The teaching approaches of the participants in the present study were cultivated heavily through meaningful interactions with their academic advisers, including their class writings and the TA/RA work they performed with K 12 and undergraduate students. Second, that people typically learn best by doing. The participants in this case further cu ltivated their ability to provide writing feedback by receiving writing feedback, in addition to cultivating their sensitivity toward their students in China through their TA and RA work on students in the US. Third, that the development of metalinguistic knowledge is important. Through the various developed an intuitive feel for strong academic writing, a feel which they subsequently needed to learn how to explicitly teach their stude nts. Fourth, that social context and teacher development have a constantly and mutually reinforcing influence on each other. The participants further cultivated their knowledge of academic writing instruction within their SLTE programs and their current te aching contexts.
179 Implications for R esearch Much of the academic literature on the role of the academic adviser in language teacher development has tended to focus on the formal teaching practicum , and on the mentoring structures in pre service teacher education programs (CastaÃ±eda Trujillo & Aguirre HernÃ¡ndez, 2018; Nguyen, 2016 ; San MartÃn , 2018 ). Moreover , this literature tend s to focus on the ways in which the mentor ing supervisor could model o r scaffold certain teaching practices ; it has also focused on the direct discussions that t he mentoring supervisors could have with their teacher candidates concerning issues and challenges that arise with in certain educational contexts . L ess attention appears to ha ve been paid to the ways in which the feedback that academic advisers provide on teacher could have a significant influence itself on content and approach es . My findings have suggested that particularly for non native English speakers (NNES) who are likely to receive feedback on language issues in their theses/dissertations and other writing assignments future research into the impact of writing feedback on the subsequent teaching practices of NNES teacher candidates would be valuable for the study of how NNES learn to teach . Future r esearch c ould further investigate the degree of similarity between the writing feedback that NNEST provide to their current st udents, and the writing feedback that those NNEST received from their own faculty advisers. This feedback could be in the types of language issues addressed (e.g. grammar vs. cohesion), or in the methods of feedback delivery (e.g. direct correction vs. pro mpting questions). The fact that the participants appeared to place a greater emphasis on this writing feedback than on the content of the courses themselves , suggests that this feedback could be even more influential on NNES teacher development than actual course content . of classroom
180 experiences in teacher education. This merits further investigation , with possible implications for how teacher educators can shape the teaching practices of teacher candidates particularly NNES teacher candidates through writing feedback. Implications for Programmatic Adaptation When providing feedback on their teacher assignments, particularly their theses or dissertations, t eacher educators and academic advisers may wish to consciously address issues of lexical cohesion, logical coherence, rhetorical structure , and the appropriate use of certain words . Especially for NNES teacher candidates, this feedback is likely to become the language feedback that they provide to their future students, in addition to the teaching approaches that the teacher candidates learn from their actual teaching methods coursework. Moreover, teacher educators may wish to develop a more conscious awareness of how they deliver their writing feedback . Do they simply make direct gramma r corrections using the Track Changes function in Microsoft Word ? Do they insert comments prompt ing the teacher candidates to identify certain logical holes or redundancies or weak rhetorical structures in the assignments ? Do they discuss issues of logic and str ucture in the s ? Ruegg (2018) links teacher feedback to student writing self efficacy. This could be extended to encompass teacher educator feedback on writing assignments to teacher candidate self efficacy. It is important for teacher educators to be aware that the ways in which they provide writing feedback to their teacher candidates coul d become the ways in which those candidates provide writing feedback to their future students . Teaching and Research Assistant Experience TA and RA development. The TA experience co uld be divided into two components : the teaching itself, and
181 the regular meetings with the faculty instructor of the course . The teaching component could be further subdivided into collective teaching and individual teaching , the former being the teaching of a cohort of undergraduate students, the latter being the tutoring of a single English learner in a local public school. E ach of these two types appears to shape a different aspect of the teacher . The teaching of a cohort of undergraduate students appears to give teacher candidate s an opportunity to put into practice some of the methods a nd pedagogies that are taught in the graduate level teaching methods course. However, it cannot be any TA experience, but rather the kind that enables the teacher candidates to directly implement some of the teaching methods that they learn ed in their grad uate level teaching methods course. This suggests that a teaching methods course may have the deepest influence when it is taken concurrently with some form of classroom teaching opportunity . The simultaneous taking of a graduate level teaching methods course and the teaching of an undergraduate level course particularly if the latter is itself a teaching methods course likely provided participants with the opportunity to strengthen their metacognitive decision making ( Griffith, Bauml, & Quebec Fuentes , 2016) . In other words, when participants were able to immediately implement some of the teaching strategies that they were learning about, this could provide them with the opportunity to reflect on why they were u sing a given strategy and how it was or was not working out for them in practice . The same goes for the tutoring of an individual English learner , even if the skills cultivated by this activity were slightly different. T he i ndividual tutoring of an English learner appears to cultivate the teacher candidate detect and analyze the individual barriers whether social, cultural, or linguistic that an English learner might face in the classroom. This appeared to be especially the case with Chu , who credit ed her teaching of undergraduate students
182 as having strongly cultivated her orientation as a discussion facilitator, and her tutoring of an individual English learner as having helped The RA experience appears to have both a direct and an indirect impact on the The direct impact is that, as the participants were conducting interviews and focus groups with students and schoolteachers in local public schools, they were discovering for themselves some of the local conditions which facilitated or hindered The experience of having uncovered and analyzed the se local condi tions for themselves, as opposed to only having been lectured about those conditions in their graduate classes , has likely ability to pick up on conditions . The indirect impact of RA exper interests were shaped by research they conducted either jointly with, or under the supervision of, their faculty advisers. Chu credits her doctoral dissertation on the online literacy practices of video gamers as having strengthened her understanding of how to use technology for language development, which she makes great teaching of ethnographic research methods during her independent study with her anthropologis t committee member is reflected in the ways in which she currently guides her students to read academic articles and develop their own understandings of the structure and contents of a research article. Li credits his experience investigating the social an d cultural barriers to language development in local public schools as having cultivated his research interests in the linkages between culture, society, and functional linguistics, which in turn fed into his teaching approach which is heavily centered on systemic functional linguistics and is highly responsive to student sociocultural circumstances . What the participants have in common is that their research experience appears to have a substantive
183 impact on their teaching practice, by strengthening thei r ability to investigate and better understand their students, and by influencing how they teach research methods. In a way, then, research assistant experience itself might be considered a form of reflective practice . The act of reporting whether internally in the department or externally in a refereed journal , is itself an act of reflective practice which c an and does RA experience, then, can provide built in forms of reflective practice that many scholars (e.g. Richards & Rodgers , 2014 ; Catalano et al. , 2018) consider to be critical for teacher development. Implic ations for R esearch T he influence of teaching assistant and research assistant experience on teaching practice should be further explored. Specifically, more investigation could be done on the different ways that teaching a class of students and tutoring an individual student can shape a subsequent teaching practice. For instance, Chu made it clear that her teaching of undergraduate classes shaped her orientation as a discussion facilitator, while her individual tutoring of a high school English learner sharpened her ability to pick up on her current individual needs. What other kinds of teach er knowledge a nd skills are cultivated through group and individual TA experiences? Specifically, are there substantive differences between the types of knowledge that are cultivated by classroom instruction and the types of knowledge that are cultivated by individual t utoring? If so , they merit further investigation. Implications for Programmatic Adaptation First , teacher education programs should deliberately provide their teacher candidates with both types of opportunities classroom t eaching and individual tutoring. G iven that each type of opportunity appears to cultivate a differe nt area of knowledge and skills, b oth types of
184 opportunities are necessary in order to cultivate a more complete teacher. Second , teacher education programs could provide more feedback to teacher candidates during their TA experience. An assistantship is not a practicum; a practicum is usually designed for the express purpose of provid ing teacher candidates with scaffolding and fee dback on teaching strategies, but an assistantship is often designed to serve the needs of the department or the local community and may therefore not include a heavy feedback component beyond regular TA meetings. More explicit feedback mechanisms within a ssistantship opportunities could help to fill this hole in the use of TA experience for teacher development . Academic Writing and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Despite their differences in teaching context, the three participants were focused primarily on the teaching of core academic writing skills. Moreover, there was considerable overlap in ( a ) the functions and features of academic writing that the participants emphasized , and ( b ) the pedagogical approaches that they developed for teaching academic writing and . These features and approaches have implications for how teacher knowledge is defined and operationalized within these contexts. Functions and F eatures of A cademic W riting Academic writing can mean different things to different people. Even so, there were certain functions and features that all three of the participants appeared to share . The function that all th re e participants most emphasized appeared to be argumentative w riting, while the feature appeared to be lexical cohesion. Argumentative writing. The three participants appeared to place a heavy emphasis on argumentative writing, specifically how a claim is supported with arguments that are coherently organized around precise technical terms that are selected for their precision from a broad lexical
185 repertoire. Other types of academic writing, such as persuasive, narrative, and exp ository, were also addressed , yet argumentative took precedence. There appear ed to be several reasons for this. First , argumentative writing is heavily emphasized on the GRE, TOEFL, and IELTS tests. These standardized tests appeared to filter down into because the participants were directly preparing students to take those tests (as was the case with Li), or because the university administrators were demanding that the language teaching faculty design their curricula with the eventual taking of those tests in mind (as was the case with Chu and Tao). T he comes in direct and indirect ways. Second, argumentative writing is emphas ized heavily across different academic disciplines. sociology, literature, and international relations n different natural sciences, which also involve the supporting or refutation of hypotheses with data. The language skill of argumentative writing can be applied to numerous content area disciplines. Lexical cohesion. The p articipants spent much of their classroom time focusing on the concept of cohesion , which they defined as the organization of sentences or paragraphs around phrases. At the sentence level, cohesion could be made by using words such as this or that to refer to something from the previous sentence, or by using context specific lexical repertoire ( such as rise and fall when describing a cyclical process, etc. ). At the paragraph level, cohesion could be made by organizing the sentences around signal markers. For instance, a descriptive paragraph might be organized around spatial connectors such as left, center, and right. Or a narrative paragraph might be organiz ed around temporal connectors such
186 as first, next, and after that. Or an expository paragraph might be organized around categorical connectors such as calculation, communication, and data storage for smartphone use. Lexical cohesion , which include the ability to use the appropriate signal words to specify degrees of certainty and ensure logical connections between ideas, as well as the ability to pack dense information cleanly through a mature command of noun phrases and embedded clauses. Lexical cohesion might therefore be considered one of the foundational building blocks on which many higher order academic writing skills a re built. Each of the participants might have learned about cohesion in a different way. Chu appeared to learn about it from the academic writing class that she took in her doctoral studies . Tao appeared to learn about it from her literacy classes and through her regular feedback by her adviser on her writing. Li appeared to learn it from his studies of systemic functional linguistics and the functional purposes of various linguistic element s. However, the result was the same: A ll three parti ci pants came to view the importance of lexical block of good academic writing , despite each participant having learned about it in a different way. The participants p laced heavy emphasis on teaching the proper use of those connectors to their different classes of students. Pedagogical strategies. The three participants developed some pedagogical approaches in common, such as becoming discussion facilitators, tying , and making selective and judicious use of their common L1, Mandarin . assertions that literacy instruction for East and Southeast Asian students is best done with a combination of culturally Fu and Matoush ( 201 4 ) highlight the distinction
187 between surface level and meaning level in literacy, arguing that combined use of L1 and L2 can cultivate the to better grasp this distinction for communicative competence . The participants Generally, all three participants attempted to focus on becoming discussion facilitators, participation , both in discussing substantive content so that they c ould practice their English, and in directly discussing the English language itself. It looks as though to function professionally in English, meaning tha t the participants have quite a bit of leeway in terms of how much they are able to foster a communicative environment. This is also favored by the fact that the College English Test, the standardized test that all college non English majors have tradition ally been required to pass in order to graduate from college, is no longer as strictly enforced as it used to be . As a result, it was considerably more ambiguous what requirements or regulations the participants needed to follow. This ambiguity appeared to open the door for a ( Hsiao , 2018) that the teachers and students could negotiate together , facilitating the conditions for dialogic pedagogy (Allen, 2018). In other words, the participants had more room to implement the discussion based learning approaches that they had come to value during their US studies. Different student characteristics and circumstances dictated the kin ds of motivational strategies that the participants used. For students with a low motivation, the most frequent tactic employed by the participants careers. For students with apparently lo w self efficacy or a more negative sense of professional identity, the most frequent tactic was to assure them that they were great students and that their mistakes were a normal part of their language development and not indicative of a flaw in their
188 abil ities. For science major students, a common motivational tactic was to focus on the benefits of hard work for their publication and professional development. Across the three participants, their motivational tactics materi , and those English majors appeared to feel the greatest insecurity about their English, something that was also noted in the previous research in which I was involved (Murray & Coady, 2018 ). (2001) distinguishes between strategies to initiate motivation and strategies to maintain motivation . This distinction was recently tested and reconfirmed by Cheung (2018) . In the case of the three participants, strategies to generate motiv ation included playing music at the beginning of class and having informal conversations with the students before the start bell rang . Strategies to maintain motivation included many of those described above. Moreover, Lin , Larke, Jarvie, and Chien (2018) argue that a number of factors, including converge to produce anxiety which T he participants developed motivational strategies to counter these negative effects, including a much greater emphasis on peer review and portfolio assessment in order to reduce the feeling of s, as well as spending considerable time familiarizing the students with some of the core features of academic language such as nominalization and lexical cohesion. Tao additionally emphasized teaching students about research articles. use of their common L1, MacÃas (2018) argued that few studies
189 Between the participants, Chinese appeared to be used for two classroom management functions: main and creating a humorous atmosphere. Engagement was maintained by scaffolding explanations in mixed English and Chinese, by asking prompting questions, and by functions were often performed by Chu and Li. A humorous atmosphere was created by all owing students to convert idiomatic expressions into their direct and funny sounding translations , as well as occasional mistake. Tao especially appeared to make use of Chinese as a tool to create humor and lig hten the mood in class. Implications for R esearch Different teaching environments naturally emphasize academic writing for different purposes and may even prioritize different aspects of academic writing. A valuable question for further research would be t he ways in which academic language is defined and taught in different teaching contexts. Developing a more thorough understanding of the functions and features of academic writing that are prioritized with in different educational contexts would greatly ass ist researchers in understanding how academic language particularly writing is or should be best taught to different student populations. Moreover, further research could be done on how a person learns academic writing. ly, with her adviser TESOL coursework did not emphasize academic writing specifically , although t he academic writing course she did take ended up being one of the courses that she makes the greatest use of in her current teaching. Li did not take any coursework specifically in academic writing, yet he learned about it through colleague feedback and through the research assistant work that he conducted jointly with his adviser. Further research could examine how academic writing is
190 learned through a combination of ( a ) direct coursework, ( b ) colleague and adviser feedback, and ( c ) RA wor k with local ELL students. Such expe knowledge about academic writing. Further research could therefore examine how teachers take that implicit knowledge about academic writing and prepare to teach it explicitly. Implications for Programmatic Adaptation A n SLTE program would ideally aim to provide a balance of TESOL related and literacy related coursework. TESOL coursework would include courses on teaching methods, language and culture, and second language acquisition theories . Literacy coursework w ould include courses in reading, academic writing , and functional linguistics . The reading course might ideally focus on training teachers in ways to teach students how to identify the gist of a paragraph . The academic writing course c ould focus on argumentative writing, effective paragraph construction, supporting a claim with evidence, and the interrelationship between logical coherence and lexical cohesion . Finally, a functional linguistics course would introduce teacher candidates to concepts such as field, tenor, and mode, which could be used to write and analyze academic texts . awareness and self Hu & Gao, 2018). Influence of the Institutional Environment Many environmental factors could influence the extent to which the participants could or could not implement their US gained knowledge. In popular conception, t wo elements which are often consider ed influential factors in EFL class size and testing requirement s did not appear to have as direct an influence as I had originally assumed. In this case, class size did not appear to be a major issue , because the language classes were often capped at 20 or 25 students, while the elective classes typically had less than 10. Moreover, apart
191 requirement to directly prepare their students for specific standardized tests, but rather to equip students with general academic language skills which they could use for a wide variety of future purposes. Complexity of the Standardized Testing Influence Standardized tests did appear to have a strong planning and classroom practice, but not in the way that is commonly believed : The participants did not necessarily , e ven in the c ase of Li, who was directly preparing one class of his students for the IELTS. In my previous experience, when I observed teachers in China ing , they were usually not teaching their students language itself but rather teaching their students test taking strategies . Li was not doing this. H is explanations in Chinese tended to be about the appropriate use of lexical connectors , or in some cases ency was not sufficient to grasp those concepts , about subject verb object agreement. Granted , he was only preparing his students for the writing part of the exam , so there might have been fewer test taking strategies to discuss in the first place. But eve n then, his teaching focused less on strategies for scoring high on the writing portion of the exam, and more on the argumentative writing principles that he also taught to his sophomore English and International Studies majors. His instruction focused on cultivating general academic writing skills in his students , which they could adapt for different contexts . encouraged his students to i ncrease their use of cohesion markers such as first , second , and for example , which would give the essay a more organized appearance for the human grader who would likely give the essay only a few minutes
192 erosion in the quality of teaching, since lexical cohesion is an important aspect of good academic writing anyway . He transferred it from his US experience to his current students. Chu and Tao were also in fluenced by standardized test ing, but in a different way. T he university administrators wanted the English teaching faculty to organize the curriculum around the students eventually passing the GRE and TOEFL , even if the faculty did not necessarily have to directly prepare their students for those exams. In addition, f or final exams in the courses , Chu and Tao tried where they could to make greater use of portfolio assessments, which they learned about from one of their US professors . They were able to make more extensive use of portfolio assessments precisely because they were not having to teach to the test. Rather, the influence of the standardized test was that Chu and Tao would have a strong focus on argumentative writing, which wo uld prepare the students for the exam when they would eventually take it, but which is also an important part of any professional writing. B y focusing strongly on argumentative writing, Chu and Tao were in effect killing two birds with one stone: preparing their students for the writing portion of the GRE and TOEFL, which the students would take eventually, as well as equipping their students with the skills to write argumentatively in their careers as scientists and researchers. Given this, it might even b e speculated that the focus on the GRE and TOEFL facilitated learned emphasis on argumentative writing. Student A ttitudes and M otivations Student attitudes and motivations naturally have an influence on their degree of receptiveness to a highly individual , certain attitudes in common. First , many of them appear to prefer some combination of lecture and interaction, not just purely interaction. Second , many of them appear to be either unaccustomed to or even downright
193 adverse to collaborating with each other. Both attitudes make it more diffi cult for the participants to implement their US learned interactive teaching approaches , or at least require them to modify those approaches to suit local conditions . Student preference for combination of lecture and interaction. Two issues are at play her e : class. Concerning the textbook, students may unconsciously expect the course to have a main text and might even feel that the course is somewhat disorganized if t he main textbook is not used extensively enough. This is why the participants, apart from the administrative pressure to use the textbooks assigned to their courses , make more extensive use of the textbooks than they might ideally like to. are too clunky and literary , which makes it more difficult for them to teach the types of lexical connectors and transition words for argumentative writing that their US studies taught them to emphasize . Concerning the expectation s knowledge from the teacher , the participants came to understand the same thing that I did during my first year of teaching in Beijing: that the students did not respond so positively to the simple directive to talk as much as possible. The students needed to feel that they were learning specific knowledge , by taking notes from my lectures or by reading instructions f rom the textbook. In addition, I found that students participated most actively in class when I told them what specific language skills they would be evaluated on such as the correct use of some grammatical form, or the ability to support a claim with evid ence and when I gave them instructions on how to work on those skills. The participants understood this as well, leading them to scale in the US. They understood that they had to balance between delivering lectures, allowing students to practice, and providing
194 on the spot feedback both to individuals and to the class as a whole . This is how student attitudes impacted the ways in which they implemented their US learned knowledge of giving feedback and practice opportunities to students. Second , Chu and Tao came to understand that student s in the STEM fields may often In the US, Chu and Tao were both taught that students could best learn and retain material when the y were prompted to come up with the answers for themselves, and that answers should be avoided where possible , because the students would not retain the information as readily or feel that the information was important to them becaus e they had not generated it. Yet, while I agree that information that they themselves generate, in the past I have observed teachers who took this principle too far, where they would eat up a lot of valuable class time by phrasing and rephrasing a question that students had trouble answering, simply because those teachers wanted to avoid The three participants were deft at avoiding this , as could be seen from the classroom observations. Chu and Tao understood that a brief, well formulated answer or explanation could sometimes provide their science major students with the missing piece of information they needed to better follow along in the lesson not to mention moving the lesson along more quickly. This agrees with which suggest Chinese s with examples, in addition to the opportunity to engage in critical thinking. Whether this principle could be equally applicable to science majors versus non science majors would be worthy of further research . Regardless, in this context what matters mos t is that Chu and Tao believe that this principle is especially
195 applicable to science majors, and this has led the m to modulate their US learned emphasis on prompting and elicitation to better suit this particular education al context. writings whether at the essay level or at the individual sentence and paragraph level a grees driven approach to academic writing instruction for Chinese college students. Within a Chinese higher education context, Ying draws a connection cohesive resources and senten ce structures and how to organize their ideas in writing with coherence and logic on the one hand , and an increase in positive motivation to study academic writing on the other . The participants have emphasized th is in their teaching practice. Barriers to collaborative learning. In the US, the participants came to believe in the value of collaborative learning, students providing constructive feedback to each other. However, they sometimes had a difficult time creating such a collaborative atmosphere, either because the students w ere unaccustomed to providing feedback and did not feel qualified to do so, or because they were downright resistant to the idea of helping each other. For example, each other . n student made a comment in class suggesting why: that the students were Moreover, it is possible that the students viewed themselves as competition, not for the IELTS exam its elf on which anyone could work hard to score high but for those few coveted admission slots in the British universities to which they were planning to apply. Li had learned in the US to view peer to peer collaboration as a way for students to draw upon eac help each other improve collectively, the students had learned to view peer to peer collaboration
196 therefore not improve themselves well enough to get the high test scores and admissions results that they so badly wanted. Li had also explained that the students did not necessarily know how to give feedback. Apart from some of his students believing that putting their classmates down would make them saying , The students of Chu and Tao, by contrast , appeared to be more receptive to peer feedback methods of learning. There are several possible explanations for this. First , many of the other English teaching faculty were using peer feedback as well. In fact, when they met to coordinate their teaching of different sections of the same course, they agreed that they would all include a peer review component and even provide their students with the same set of guideline s for peer review. T he students might have been more receptive to peer review because it was more an individual Second , elective courses differ from course was elective, which the students voluntarily cho se because they wanted to improve their writing of scientific research papers. Because the course was chosen voluntarily, it is possible that students were more open to accepting the pedagogical approaches that the teacher deemed necessary for helping them to improve their scientific writing. Third , when a course is blended, with a heavy online component, as was particularly the case with Chu, peer feedback is far more inevitable, because that is one of the only ways for the students to interact with each other in the online medium , especially when the assignments themselves involve making comments about
197 In sum, while in the US , the participants all learned about the value of peer to peer feedback and motivate students to l earn , p. 3 ) . Several factors helped and hindered their actual implementation of those approaches. Helping factors appeared to be the institutionalized reinforcement by most of the language teaching faculty, the elective nature of c ertain courses, and the blended medium. Hindering factors appeared to be peer review etiquette, and in Fuster MÃ¡rquez and Gregori Signes (2018) maintain that student generated materials are an effective source of feedback. The abovementioned potential helping and hindering factors deserve to be further tested in future studies. Changing C urriculum The types of US learned knowledge and skills that the participants did and did not implement within their current teaching contexts also appeared to be influenced by a constantly changing curriculum. Contrary to the popular conceptions of Chinese education being characte more by a state of constant flux. For Li , the se changes and restructurings required him to increase his integration of language and content instruction . In the case of Chu and Tao, the changes had the opposite effect, requiring them to separate language and content instruction even further . These divergent effects might be explained by several potential factors , which will be examined in further detail . First , there is a departmental difference. Li work s in a Department of English that ha s recently reinvented itself as a Center for International Studies , while Chu and Tao work in an office that has recently been taken out of the Common Requirement s Division and made into a
198 standalone Foreign Language Institute . which non English majors in China are now able to become fluent in English, is trying to adapt to this new reality by introducing content courses to provide more marketable knowledge and skills beyond the English language itself. This has led the department to hire a n increasing number of faculty from content area disciplines such as law, sociology , and political science, to teach courses which integrate language and content. linguistics , he has found himself teaching a greater number of linguistics courses. During the period that I was visiting his university , for instance, he was teaching a course in sociolinguistics. does not have the status of a full department but is merely an , which has been In this way , the separation of language and content instruction is institutionally reinforced. Second , there is an attitudina l difference on the part of the university administrators. In CIS apparently see the need to integrate language and content instruction for the CIS s professional growth and development. As a result, Li tends to teach his US learned knowledge of culture, sociology, and linguistics more administrators evidently see the need to separate language an d content instruction. Chu and Tao tend to use their US learned knowledge of culture, sociology, and linguistics as teaching supports for their language instruction, but not so much as direct objects of instruction in themselves. ive writing knowledge, the university has added a standalone nondegree institute which offers study abroad standardized test preparation courses. These tests,
199 such as the GRE, TOEFL, and IELTS, are usually taught by junior faulty from the English and International Studies Department. Since these kinds of tests tend to place a primary emphasis on argumentative over other forms of writing, Li has found himself teaching argumentative writing with gr eater prominence than other forms such as persuasive or expository. Given that approach to argumentative writing tends to place great importance on the referencing of facts, figures, and data along with the lexical connectors (i.e. demonstrates, illus trates ) to make those facts and figures effective Li finds himself drawing extensively on his own doctoral research experience in synthesizing data and using it to support his claims and findings. This suggests several potential implications. First , that j unior English teaching faculty in China might sometimes find themselves teaching nondegree standardized test prep aration courses, particularly if they work in a foreign languages university, where the administration might wish to capitalize on its greater language teaching resources and reputation to create such ancillary institutions which provide those types of courses to paying customers . S ince such standardized tests tend to prioritize argumentative writing, then this will be the form of writing that th e instructors end up drawing on their knowledge of. Second , given that argumentative writing relies heavily on the synthesizing and referencing of facts and figures, teachers who received their doctoral degrees in the US might find themselves drawing on their dissertation research experience when teaching their students argumentative writing. In summary, the potentially shifting curriculum toward a greater proportion of integrated language and content courses might lead faculty to more directly teach their US learned content knowledge instead of simply using that knowledge to support their language teaching, while the creation of nondegree standardized test prep institutes might lead faculty to make more use of their US learned argumentative wri ting knowledge
200 suggests many potential trends to further explore in future research. curricular and institutional changes were slightly different, having to do with primarily two things: (a) t he university administrators urging the English teaching f aculty to reform the curriculum; and (b) constant restructuring of both the hierarchies of the academic departments, and the physical campus through constant bulldozing and constr uction. With respect to curricular reforms, the university administrators have placed great pressure on the language teaching faculty to achieve three lofty goals within the four short semesters rses : provide students with the academic language skills necessary to score well on the GRE and TOEFL ( though not to directly teach to those tests) , provide students with the academic writing skills necessary to perform well academically in their graduate studies abroad, and prepare those students to function well socially in the living environments abroad. This has prompted Chu, who was placed in charge of the curriculum redevelopment, to focus on the cultivation of a core set of academic writing skills which could be applicable to a wide variety of academic particularly scientific disciplines. The specific aspects of her US gained knowledge on which Chu appears to have drawn in order to achieve this objective are lexical cohesion, signal words and transition markers, the synthesis and summary of evidence in argumentative writing, and a focus on the paragraph not the sentence as the fundamental building block of solid academic writing. The first semester is to focus on paragraph development . T he sec ond semester is to focus on the cohesive joining of paragraphs to form an essay . T he third semester is to focus on different essay writing purposes, such as arguing, persuading, describing, or narrating. The fourth semester is to focus on writing for parti cular venues, such as reports, conference papers, and refereed journal articles. In designing the curriculum in this way, Chu appears to have drawn
201 heavily from Gillet et al. (2009) and companion website (Gillett, 2018) , which were used in her US academic writing class and which also happened to be used in the academic writing class that I myself took semester curriculum of compulsory academic English courses. With respe once housed within a department of common requirements that all students regardless of major had to of the main teaching buildings, and the instructors were distributed two to an office, with each instructor having a full sized desk area and dedicated bookshelf. T he English classes were subsequently given their own standalone academic unit , the FLI, whi ch at first glance might appear to have be en an increase in status. Yet, several things indicate to me that the status of the English teaching faculty may still be more of a marginal supporting role. First , the academic unit into which the English classes were placed does not have the status of a department . Second , the instructors are no longer arranged in two per private office with individual bookshelves . I nstead, the instructors are housed together in one large office room with rows of cubicles, the side walls lined with several shared bookshelves. These physical and hierarchical configurations, coupled with the broad ening scope of language and communication objec tives which the university administrators (who themselves are not trained linguists or language teachers) direct their English teaching faculty to help their students achieve, suggest that the English instructors are subordinated and weighed down with some what vague and lofty expectations. directly teach more content as opposed to pure
202 changes require her to teach an increasingly general set of core academic language skills such as those mentioned above which could be applied to a wider array of scientific disciplines; in other words, English for General Academic Purposes (EGAP) . She is not able to directly teach content from her US coursework such as literacy, educational technology, and second language acquisition theories, but she uses that content to better inform sh skills. W e see in action the issues described by Zhang et al. (2018) , namely the ways in which the participants develop their teaching approaches partly through their tensions and ongoing negotiations between teacher objectives and institutional objecti ves. Concerning Tao, the curricular changes will impact her by requiring her to more explicitly teach writing as opposed to speaking. Under the old curriculum, all four language skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking) were taught within the same cla ss, by the same instructor. Under the new curriculum, speaking and listening will be more divided from reading and writing, with the foreign (Western) faculty being designated to focus on the former and the local Chinese faculty being designated to focus o n the latter. This means that Tao, as a native Chinese, and as a specialist in literacy, will likely focus more exclusively on academic writing and less on academic speaking. This will likely lead her to make even more extensive and exclusive use of the ac increased emphasis on the teaching of writing as opposed to other language skills thus appears to be influenced by ( a ) her status as a native Chinese , and by ( b ) the focus of her doctoral degree. Implications for R esearch The complex influence of standardized tests merits further investigation. Findings from this dissertation suggest that the influence of standardized tests on Chinese English teaching
203 environments can be both direct and indirect: direct when the teacher mus t directly prepare students for that test, indirect when the tests have some influence on the overall academic environment in which the teachers operate. Another area of research to further investigate is the role of student attitudes and motivations, part icularly the sources of resistance that students might show to teaching approaches based on interaction and peer feedback. Further research could focus on the ways in which the changing curriculum affects teaching practices. Finally, research could examine for language instruction or the precise object of content instruction. Implications for Programmatic Adaptation Teacher education programs could focus on preparing teacher candidates to use their learned content (in language, culture, sociology, linguistics, etc.) both as instructional supports in the teaching of language , and also as direct objects of instruction in the teaching of content. This is because t eacher s may be called on to make use of their knowledge in different ways in the classroom. Moreover, it could be of importance to prepare teachers to manage and overcome different forms of student resist ance. While teacher education coursework often says that st could be paid to some of the specific beliefs and preconceptions which students within different teaching environments are likely to hold. Conclusion This chapte r has made some analysis of the findings across the three participants, with some implications for research and programmatic adaptations that SLTE programs could make. While this analysis is specific to the three participants of the present study, I hope t hat it may provide some ideas and insight for teacher educators more broadly, in helping them think about
204 the types of experiences that have a strong influence on teacher development . I also hope that it may help teacher educators better understand the tea ching environments in which some of their teacher candidates are likely to be teaching, and the local conditions in those environments which determine the types of knowledge from their SLTE program they will be using.
205 CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION Overview This dissertation has answered the call to better inform SLTE practice by documenting what language teachers do in the classroom and analyzing how their SLTE experience appears to influence that. Additionally, with specific reference to NNEST, thi s dissertation has answered the call to better understand what international graduate students take away from their Western based SLTE programs and apply within their EFL settings. This chapter will present some final thoughts on this study and on the diss ertation experience in general . First, I will discuss some of the theoretical contributions that I believe this study has made . Second, I will present some reflections on my motivation for undertaking this study and on the process of carrying it out. Final ly, I will present some potential research questions for future research, many of which I intend to address in the coming years. Theoretical Contributions I believe that this study makes several substantial contributions to the theoretical literature on language teacher education. First , while considerable attention has been paid to the influence of coursework and teaching practicum on teacher bsequent teaching practice, I believe I have identified specific influences on teaching practice that have received far less attention, such as writing feedback, the academic adviser relationship, and the development of metalinguistic knowledge during s SLTE program . Second , while considerable attention has been paid to the limitations that class size and teaching requirements typically place on EFL learned from their Western based SLTE programs , I believe I have identified other influencing factors that have received far less attention, such as formed beliefs about academic writing and competitiveness toward each
206 other integration or separation, and the nature of the Chinese language itself. Finally, while many conceptual models have been developed for the I believe I have identified some required types of te acher knowledge that are specific to Chinese college EFL environments . In so doing, I have attempted to move beyond the one size fits all models of teacher knowledge, and to document parts of the teacher knowledge base that are specific to one particular i nstructional setting. I encourage similar studies to be conducted in other educational settings globally , to help make US based teacher education programs more informed about where their international students are likely to be teaching Motivation I was mot ivated to take on this study for several reasons. First, I believe that we as teacher educators still have a relatively limited understanding of what our international teacher candidates who will likely teach in higher education settings around the world take away from the training we provide them. The 19 knowledge and skill areas identified from the three participants of this stu dy such as coherence and cohesion, systemic functional linguistics, greater rhetorical structure are a starting point . These findings can be tested on a larger n umber of participants, or used as a guidepost to uncover additional knowledge and skill areas. Second, I believe that we are still relatively unaware of the teaching environments that are going to influence which parts of their US training the teacher candidates are likely to use . Many of the 16 influencing factors uncovered in the present study pertain to this environmental influence , including the degree of separation or integration of language and content instruction within their current inst receive something
207 as opposed to simply practicing something, and the nature of the Chinese language itself. These variables can be tested on other educational environments , and , as with the 19 knowledg e and skill areas, used as a guidepost for the identification of other environmental conditions. Third , during the many formal and informal conversations I have had with teachers in diverse educational settings during my doctoral studies, I became interested in the question of why some US trained EFL teachers believed they gained a lot from their teacher education experience while others believed they gained little more than the degree itself. How to explain the se differences in experience? I do not believe the academic literature on teacher education has adequately addressed this issue. In fact, I was often told that teacher experiences were too different to be able to make direct comparis ons . However, I began to wonder whether this objection might be an untested assumption . I speculated that , with some inductive exploration , it might be possible to identify some potential influencing factors that were common to all or at least some teacher candidates . A portion of the 16 influencing factors uncovered in the present study are related to variables in teacher education experience, such as the types of writing feedback that their academic advisers provided to them duri ng the writing of their theses or dissertations, the strength of the academic adviser relationship, and the types of teaching assistant and research assistant experience that they gained during their SLTE studies. Implementation During the fieldwork , sever al trends became apparent. The first of these was the I had not originally intended to give such prominent attention to those areas ; they simply emerged as the strongest foci of the instruction . This suggests to me that native Chinese speaking English teachers who have foreign
208 degrees will likely be assigned to the teaching of academic writing, possibly with an emphasis on In addition , as has been suggested throughout this dissertation, the participants were often left to their own particul ar teaching contexts. This hints at a broader trend in China , where English teaching at the higher education level is seeing a considerable shift toward the teaching of EAP without a coherent top down directive of what EAP means for Chinese higher education contexts. What are its structures and purposes ? Moreover , to what degree can Western theoretical understandings of academic language development many of which were developed in American K 12 teaching contexts be applied or modified for the study of EAP in higher education contexts in China and elsewhere? These are important questions that US based SLTE programs cannot avoid addressing, given that a sizable percentage of their student body will be teaching in higher education contexts globally. The second trend which became apparent during the fieldwork was that much of what the participants took away from their SLTE programs appeared to be influenced by experiences outside of their actual coursework. At the start of my fieldwork, I repeatedly asked participants to list out the contents of the courses they took in their US studies, and to indicate which of those contents they were currently applying in their teaching. When they had difficulty doing this, I figured that their memory simply needed to b e jogged by being shown old syllabi or at least descriptions of the course that they took. However, even this did not elicit substantial response from them. The participants spent most of their time discussing out of classroom experiences. Initially, I bel ieved that my study might ultimately fail because it was too difficult to directly tie specific aspects of their coursework to specific aspects of their classroom teaching. As time went on, however, I came to believe that their responses were simply an ind ication that their out of -
209 classroom experiences may have had a stronger influence on their current teaching than did the contents of their classroom coursework. Hence, it was not a bad thing, but a significant thing that the participants focused most heavi ly on their adviser relationship, their writing feedback, and their TA and RA experience. I believe that these types of out of classroom experiences merit further investigation for different types of SLTE programs, at the graduate and undergraduate level, as well as for NEST and NNEST teacher candidates. Future SLTE research could pay attention to this. Potential Topics for Future Research This dissertation will conclude with some potential questions for future research that have emerged based on my findings and implications. Teacher E ducation T he influence of writing feedback on a teacher practice , i.e. which linguistic aspects and methods of feedback delivery might teacher educators wish to consider when delivering wr iting feedback . T he influence of teaching assistant and research assistant experience on a teacher . The influence of the academic adviser relationship on teacher development . The influence of colleague relationships self awareness . The equal blend of TESOL related coursework (such as teaching methods, language and culture, and second language acquisition) with literacy related coursework (such as reading, academic writing, and applied linguistics) for more balanced language teacher development .
210 Met alinguistic knowledge: (a) what it is, (b) how it is acquired, (c) how it is converted into material that is directly taught to students . Teaching P ractice The different uses of content knowledge, e.g. culture, linguistics, sociology, as teaching supports for language instruction or as the direct object of instruction Sources of student resistance to certain teaching approaches . How academic writing is defined and taught in different educational settings, i.e. which features and functions are most emphasize d in different settings . Educational T echnology Which technology tools or methods are most suitable for developing which aspects of academic language, e.g. nominalization, lexical cohesion, defending a claim . T he most effective ways to prepare teachers to use technology and blended learning in the classroom . The modification of educational technology tools and methods for different degrees of language and content integration or separation . China S pecific R esearc h The increasingly widespread teaching of research writing and academic publication to undergraduate science and non science majors, and the preparation of language teachers to teach research writing . The divergent trends of language/content integration in some higher education environments and language/content separation in others . The double edged influence of the Chinese language on the teaching of English, particularly academic English .
211 Final Thoughts There is something special about China. Every time I go there, the trip ends up being as much a personal one as a professional one. Classroom research ends up uncovering insights that answer many questions I had about other aspects of Chinese society . And personal experiences I have along the way end up providing me with insights to better conduct my classroom research. The success of the present study cannot be taken for granted. It was the product of many lessons born of the successes and failures I have endured throughout the course of my ten year quest to deepen my understanding of the country. Integral to this success were the people who opened up their classrooms and their lives to my insatiable curiosity about Chinese education and about Chinese society more broadly. In the end, this trip taught me the same two lessons that I re learn every time I go to China. First, that China has a major role to play in the development of our knowledge in every field of study, including education. Second , that I must spend the rest of my personal and professional life attempting to deepen my understanding of this country. It is not a choice.
212 APPENDIX A INTERVIEW PROTOCOL Questions concerning current teaching environment 1. What type of institution do yo u work at? 2. Can you describe for me your classroom environment? 3. What types of teaching materials do you use? 4. What types of teaching methods/approaches do you commonly use? 5. Questions concerning teacher preparation experience 1. Can you describe your training or preparation experience in your Western degree program? 2. What types of courses, internships, or other experiences did you have in your program? 3. Which of the knowledge and skills gained in your Western program do you consider to be most useful for your current teaching environment? 4. Which of the knowledge and skills do you consider to be less useful for your current teaching? 5. If you could make recommendations to your Western program for how they could help future Chinese students, what recommendations would you make? Questions following up on specific moments during classroom observations 1. What made you decide to adopt a certain teaching strategy in a given instance? 2. Why did you switch from one s trategy to another in a given moment? 3. Where did you learn to use that particular teaching approach/strategy?
213 APPENDIX B CLASSROOM OBSERVATION PROTOCOL Behavior Codes What types of teaching strategies does the teacher use? What are the lesson objectives? How is the lesson structured, i.e. order of activities, method of delivery, and checking progress? What types of classroom language does the teacher use? What types of teaching materials does the teacher use? Time Allocation What percentage o f time is allocated to the teacher talking versus the students talking? What degree of emphasis is placed on reading, writing, speaking, and listening? To what extent does the teacher transmit information versus having the students generate it? What amount of time is allocated to individual, small group, or class wide activities? To what extent does the teacher stick to the lesson plan or depart from it?
214 APPENDIX C SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CODES BY PARTICIPANT Chu Category Finding s Code s I. US Based Knowledge 1. TESOL for the mindset, literacy for the substance 2. Teacher as facilitator 3. daily lives 4. Peer review and process writing 5. Signal words and rhetorical structure I1a. Teaching methods I1b. Interaction strategies I1 c . Teaching content I2a. Not the authority I2b. Student funds of knowledge I2c. Motivating students I3a. Textbooks lack relevance I3b. I 4a. Process writing I 4b. Peer review I4c. Refutation, counterargument I5a. Rhetorical structure I5b. English for Academic Purposes I5c. Academic Writing class I5d. Gillett book and website I5e. Run on sentences
215 II. Influencing Factors 6. Jigsaw method 7. Educational technology 8. Academic writing in steps 1. Testing focus 2. US training of other professors I6a. Imitating US professors I6b. Accessible texts I7a. Blended learning I7b. QR code I7c. Discussion forum I7d. Media literacy I7e. Teaching assistant experience I7f. Presentation software I8a. Research writing I8b. Level by level I8c. Unrealistic pressures I8d. Lofty goals I8e. Study abroad survival I8f. Repetitive boredom II 1a. Study abroad plans II1 b. GRE, TOEFL, IELTS II 1c. Argumentative writing II2a. Student receptiveness II2b. Institutional reinforcement
216 3. Administrative pressures 4. Team teaching 5. Teaching assistant experience 6. Educational technology 7. Linguistic and institutional separations II3a. Changing curriculum II3b. Few guidelines II3c. Conflicting guidelines II4c. Study abroad survival II4a. Collab . among teachers II4b. Textbook selection II4c. Core or elective course II4d. PowerPoints II4e. Saving time II5a. Discussion facilitator II5b. Not the authority II5c. Student centered II5d. Insider credibility II6a. Time investment II7a. Language vs. content II7b. Departments vs. centers II7 c . Professors vs. lecturers II7d. Language content collab.
217 Tao Category Findings Codes I. US Based Knowledge 1. Scientific writing and the Whole Language Approach 2. One paragraph, one idea 3. Coherence and cohesion 4. Logical coherence over grammatical correctness I1a. Meaning, language, grammar I1b. Stanford open courseware I1c. US professor feedback I1d. Self teaching I1e. Student difficulty with articles I1f. Whole Language Approach I2a. Writing feedback in US I2b. Paragraph as key uni t I2c. Cognitive load I3a. Cohesion and connectors I3b. Coherence and ideas I3c. Textbook I3d. EAP I3e. Controlling idea I3f. Logical connectors I4a. Workshop style I4b. Referent I4c. Logic and organization I4d. Prompting I4e. Not content area expert
218 II. Influencing Factors 5. Points and subpoints 6. Use of L1 1. Adviser relations 2. Learning vs. practicing I5a. Point grouping I5c. Logic and organization I5d. Points vs. statements I6a. Content first, edit later I6b. Funds of knowledge I6c. Direct translation I6d. Cementing explanations I6e. Code switch scaffold I6f. Classroom management II1a. Resource recommendations II1b. Regular feedback II2a. Expecting teacher to give II2b. Expecting teacher authority II2c. NEST practice not teach II2d. NNEST teach not practice
219 Li Category Findings Codes I. US Based Knowledge 1. SFL, lexical cohesion, and lexical repertoire 2. Co construction of knowledge with students 3. Spontaneity 4. Metalinguistic knowledge 5. Identity and motivation I1a. Use SFL but not teach SFL I1b. Lexical repertoire I1c. Lexical cohesion I1d. Purposefully build repertoire I1e. Artificially create in EFL I2a. Incompatibility of texts I2b. Student engagement I 2c I2d. Increase student confidence I3a. Mix planned and spontaneous I3b. Trigger words I3c. Moment to moment changes I3d. Curricular adjustments I3e. Influence of TA experience I4a. Understanding the concept I4b. Ability to analyze language I4c. Self study ing concept names I4d. Class preparation I4e. Combination of feedbacks I5a. Rich families
220 II. Influencing Factors 1. Institutional differences 2. Student fluency 3. Nature of the Chinese language itself 4. Social value placed on writing I5c. English major low confidence I5d. English without English major I 5e. Doctoral committee influence I I 1a. Clash of teacher expectations I I 1b. Clash of genre conventions II1c. Student preconceptions II1d. Language content differences II1e. Complement or contradict II1f . Departmental expectations II2a. SFL for advanced II2b. Grammar for basic II2c. Digital tools for advanced II2d. Chalkboard for basic II2e. Cognitive trigger II3a. Hard to find explanation II3b. Chinese for explanations II3c. Chinese vs. Western logic II3d. Funds of knowledge II3e. Clausal structures II4a. Writing low social reward
221 5. Time constraints 6. Colleague feedback and individual reading 7. Student mistrust and competitiveness II4b. Speaking high social reward II4c. Writing an advantage in US II5a. Students full schedule II5b. Individual feedback difficult II5c. Adapting to time pressures II6a. Colleague feedback II6b. Adviser feedback II6c. W riting improved II6d. Writing self awareness II7a. Lack of tact II7b. Reinforcing weaknesses II7c. Student competition II7d. US supportive mentality II7e. Lack peer review experience
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235 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Nathaniel T. Murray (Nate, or in Chinese) was born in 1984 in Boston, MA , and grew up in Gainesville, FL. He graduated Cum Laude from the College of the Holy Cross in 2006 with a B.A. in m usic and a minor in p hysics. He received a certificate in t ranslation s tudies in 2007 from the University of Florida, then worked as an insurance fraud investigator for two years in Boston . In 201 0 , he received a M.S. in i nternational r elations from the University of international terrorist organizations. Barely several days after submitting his master Nate boarded a plane to Beijing to begin his China career. He taught courses in politics and international relations at China Foreign Affairs University ( ) in Beijing for one year. In the summer of 2011 he moved to Taiwan, where he committed himself to building his Chinese fluency (hence his use of the traditional Chinese characters). He taught oral English classes at an adult education center for two years, then worked in business Eng lish consulting for multinational financial firms for one year. He supplemented this with short term teaching assignments at the Taiwanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where he taught a combination of international affairs and diplomatic English courses to junior diplomats. In 2014, Nate returned to the United States to begin his Ph.D. in c urriculum and i nstruction at the University of Florida. His research interests include (a) the use of applied linguistics for the development of academic writing skills, (b) the preparation of teachers to teach academic writing, and (c) the development of education in China . Nate grew up in a multilingual / multicultural household and is fluent in Spanish, Chinese, and French. He has also studied German and Italian.