U NDERSTANDING HAITIAN AGRICULTURAL TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING: REVIEW OF FOUR SCHOOLS By MARIE CHRISTELLE CALIXTE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULF ILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2018
2018 Marie Christelle Calixte
T o God the Almighty and the Virgin Mary, Mother of God
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I th ank Dr. Grady Roberts for his incredible patience, care and his invaluable mentorship throughout my studies. I also th a nk my committee member Dr. Bunch for his advice and making today possible. I must recognize Julie Nelson and Dr. Sky Georges for their in put into making this project a reality. I thank Austin Council for his support since my first day in the department; he has been helpful in so many different ways, that my stay in the USA has been less worrisome because of him. I thank my parents, and espe cially my mom who has been, once again, a major source of daily comfort even at a distance. I want to salute my sister Emmanuelle for her encouragements. I also need to mention the whole team of AREA Projects for their support, but particularly Dr. Rosalie Koenig, Dr. Delva Lemane, Dr. Absalon Pierre and Nicole Monval. I cannot forget the great people of the schools that I visited who made me feel so welcomed and comfortable; without their participation, this project could not have happened. Finally, I than k the whole department of AEC all the graduate students, professors, staff members and other employees, who have contr ibuted to my personal development
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 9 DEFINITION OF TERMS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTI ON ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 13 Global Food Security ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 13 Food Security in Haiti ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 14 ................ 15 Technical Vocation al Education and Training ................................ ................................ ....... 15 Agricultural TVET in Haiti ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 22 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 22 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 22 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 23 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 23 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 23 2 TH EORETICAL FRAMEWORK ................................ ................................ .......................... 24 Constructivism ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 24 Experiential Learning ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 26 S ituated Learning ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 28 Backwards Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 31 Conceptual Model ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 32 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 33 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 34 Data Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 34 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 35 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 38 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 40 Who Are the Dire ctors? ................................ ................................ ............................ 40 Who Are the Teachers? ................................ ................................ ............................ 41 Who Are the Students? ................................ ................................ ............................. 42 About the Schools ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 43
6 Subjectivity Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 45 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 46 4 WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF AGRICULTURAL TVET IN HAITI? ................................ 47 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 47 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 47 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 48 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 49 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 49 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 51 Social Mobility of Students ................................ ................................ ............................. 51 Improving Local Communities ................................ ................................ ........................ 57 Agricultural Extension ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 59 Recommendations and Implications ................................ ................................ ....................... 63 5 WHAT IS THE BALANCE OF THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL SKILLS IN HAITIAN AGRICULTURAL TVET CURRICULUM? ................................ ....................... 68 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 68 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 68 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 69 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 70 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 70 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 72 The Role of Practica l Experiences in the Curriculum ................................ ..................... 72 Instructional Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 78 Barriers to more Pra ctical Experiences ................................ ................................ ........... 81 Recommendations and Implications ................................ ................................ ....................... 84 6 WHAT ARE THE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES OF HAITIAN AGRICULTURAL TVET GRA DUATES? ................................ ................................ ........... 88 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 88 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 89 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 89 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 90 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 90 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 92 Employers ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 92 Types of Jobs Taken by Graduates ................................ ................................ .................. 96 External Factors that Affect Employment ................................ ................................ ....... 99 Recommendations and Implications ................................ ................................ ..................... 102 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ............................... 106
7 A PPENDIX A INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE DIRECTORS ................................ ................................ .. 112 B INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE TEACHERS ................................ ................................ ... 114 C INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE STUDENTS ................................ ................................ .... 116 REFERENCE ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 117 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 124
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Director Characteristics ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 41 3 2 Teacher C haracteristics ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 42 7 1 Summary of findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 107
9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Conceptual Model ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 33 7 1 Conceptual Model updated ................................ ................................ .............................. 108
10 DEFINITION OF TERMS BAC (Bureau Agricole C ommunal) they are public agencies under the ministry of agriculture which operate at the regional level Baccalaureat or Bacc II T he second, out of two consecutive, official exams in the Haitian education system applied by the ministry of Education to all students which is a requirement for university INFP (Institut National de la Formation Professionnelle) is an agency under the ministry of Education which manages all the technical, vocational schools in the territory License after the Bacc II Philosophie or Philo The last year of studies in the s econdary which is the thir teenth year, not including kindergarten Peasants I n Haitian vernacular, it refers t o people living in the rural places, and is used to refer to farmers State I n Haitian vernacular, it means the governmen t of Hait i The mountains I n Haitian vernacular, it means the rural community, as Haiti is a mountainous land TVET school U sed in this paper to define the institutions providing training, that are not un iversities nor the classic academic route s leading to BaccII
11 Abstract of Thesis Present ed to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science UNDERSTANDING HAITIAN AGRICULTURAL TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING : REVIEW OF FOU R SCHOOL S By Marie Christelle Calixte December 2018 Chair: Thomas Grady Roberts II Major: Agricultural Education and Communication Food insecurity being prevalent in Haiti, agriculture production and productivity are important to ensure availability of food for th e Haitian population. Extension plays a great role in information dissemination amongst farmers, and extensionists represen t bridges that are created between science and the rural communities. In Haitian context, extension agents are graduates from agricul evance in Haitian agricultural system. This basic qualitative study used constructivism, experiential, and situated learning, as well as backwards design as theoretical framework to investigate the role of TVET within the Haitian system, the employment opp ortunities for graduates of TVET schools, and the balance of theory and practice in their curricula. The findings of the individual i well as focus groups with current students revealed that respondents felt that TVET helped in system. It was also found that for the participants, practice was crucial in the curriculum, and that despite the many obstacles faced, v ariety of instructional methods were used to ensure that students would receive the skills necessary to perform in their future endea vors. The participants also identified the types of employment graduates get involved in and the activities that they
12 ought to do as technicians in the agricultural system. Despite the many factors that affect the employment opportunities, the schools also have influence on the employability of their graduates.
13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Glo bal Food Security The appreciation for agricultural activity exists because farmers are producing essential goods to support human life, that is food, and because the rural work provides social stability (Moehler, 1997). Food production is important becaus e food security is still an issue. In 2005, thirty nine countries in the world were dealing with critical food insecurity (FAO, 2006). In 2002 FAO reported that 70 to 75% o f the poor and hungry live in rural areas; which suggests agricultural production is sues. In 2015, it is still close to 11% of the world that lives undernourished; 20% of the malnourished in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region are from the Caribbe an islands (FAO, IFAD & WFP, 2015). However, food security exists on two levels, th e national and the household level (FAO, 2003). On the one hand, food security means availability of food products at the global and national scene, and on the other hand, it is concerned about access to food supplies and nutrition (FAO, 2003). The two lev els of food physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active a ap. 2.2 parag. 16 ). However, less developed countries tend to view agriculture as part of regular daily activities, whereas in more develope d societies due to the low percentage of the population engaged in production, agric ulture is viewed as uncommon (Wilkin, 1997). Nonetheless, comparisons between agricultural output per acre of land and per worker is in favor of industrialized countries, a food produ ction depends on developing countries (Fuglie & Wang, 2012). Some emerging
14 countries have relied on agriculture to support their development. A country like Vietnam experie nced a rapid economic growth with export goods like rice, coffee, and other agricult ural products, from 60% of its population below the poverty line in 1993 to 16% in 2006 (Cervantes Godoy & Dewbre, 2010). The same case study from Vietnam is a great exampl e of how agricultural performance can help in poverty reduction in other developing countries (Cervantes Godoy & Dewbre, 2010). Agricultural productivity growth is quantitatively important to worker (Gollin, Parente & Rogerson, 2002). Out of 68 developing countries, 30 have experienced over 3% GDP yearly growth due to agricultural production (Atchoarena & Sedel, 2003). Food Security in Haiti Haiti presents a different story. been fluctuating up and down but mostly down since the 2000s (FAOSTAT, 2018). Unfortunately, Haiti is also a country that is country in the LAC region in such critical position (von Grebme r et al., 2016). It is also reported Development Goal (MDG1) goal against hunger due in part to natural disasters (FAO et al, 2015). Ac cording to World Food Program WFP, almost 50% of the Haitian population is undernourished and 25% live in extreme poverty, which amounts to nearly 3 million of people ultivated either with permanen t crops or pastures, in a country where 39% of the population live in rural areas (FAOSTAT, 2018). This shows the potential for expansion of agriculture in Haiti, if all the parameters were in place. Access to food, which is a n important component of food security along with production, has also been declining since the 2000s; food utilization is poor with 20% of children under five years old who are stunted according to FAOSTAT (2018). However, food
15 availability has been on th e rise (FAOSTAT, 2018). This a larming situation suggests that this country may require reforms in its agricultural system, which starts with the professionals who are involved in it. Needs The challenges that coun tries will have to face in the future in order to produce world food in sufficient amount are not related to technological constraints, but rather to access to these technologies and resources (Fuglie & Wang, 2012). Extension activities link agricultural p roductivity to agricultural education through extension agents who communicate directly with farmers about such technological tools and resources. A good strategy for rural development and poverty reduction in developing count ries includes building human c apital through basic education and Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) as well as synergetic relationship between TVET and general education (Basu & Majumdar, 2009). Agricultural extension deals with a simil ar symptom of inertia Transfe r of Technology agricultural curricula in TVET based on these principles, do not integrate all the disciplinary subjects, interpersonal s leadership, innovation, creativity (Ison, 2015). The emergence of a learner centered curriculum is necessary, which functions under the principles of issue based and experiential knowledge production, real world projects as te aching strategies, constructiv ist philosophy and action research (Ison, 2015). TVET is an important part of the agriculture related capacity building in a country. Technical Vocational Education and Training UNESCO defined Technical Vocational Education a a spects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding
16 and knowledge relating to occupat ion in various sectors of econ 1). Moreover, empirical research on people with expertise on educational planning, has found persons for employment in a trade or i ndustrial occupation or enables employed persons in the (Mouzakitis, 2010, p. 3919). From both perspectives, skills and practica l applications of knowledge ar e central to TVET. Especially in industrialized countries, the market demands workers to be more flexible, with skills related to the technical, scientific and information realm (King, 1993). The types of skills that ought to be incorporated in the program of study, are any topic that is found to be pertinent to the specific discipline in accordance with market demands (Mouzakitis, 2010). The main learning experience to be provided is the possibility to transfer learning betwee n school units and home, and f rom school to workplace (Mouzakitis, 2010). sustainable development as well as a way to combat a number of social inequalities (UNESCO, 2017a). In Fin land, for instance, TVET teach ers took responsibility for the promotion of social and economic progress, particularly in fields related to agriculture, forestry and commerce (Heikkinen, 1997). In the developing countries, particularly in Latin America, TV ET provides educational opport unities to disadvantaged youth (King, 1993). TVET schools tend to require lower levels of ability than general secondary schools, mostly because there is usually no possibility to continue into tertiary education (King, 1993). Many TVET traditions are term inal, meaning simply training technicians, not necessarily leading to higher studies; however, it is argued that in Latin America, most of the TVETs have the dual purpose of having a clear progression path towards higher educa tion as well as technical trai ning (King, 1993).
17 However, TVET is largely unpopular in developing countries because of the colonial past, where TVET was reserved for coloni sts by the colonizers, and because students who usually attend, are from a certain social class, and were not exp ected to enroll in higher education (King, 1993). The social issues in Ghana, for example, require more TVET but are also the for li mited vertical mobility and gr owth, and because it is perceived to be chosen by people with which aims at economic development must ensure that graduates succeed in different a reas of activity because of th eir deep knowledge and understanding of the field, and because they have developed creative and independent thinking, they must be able to work in teams (Mouzakitis, 2010). They must also have good communication skills for var ious contexts, be able to use technology, all the while making informed decisions (Mouzakitis, 2010). UNESCO management and their connection with labor markets, and their generat ion of research and knowledge (UNESC O, 2016). One of the most recurr ing issue reported by this organization was through the quality of the skills they offer in order to meet an existing nee d (UNESCO, 2015). In developin g countries like Ghana, the population is very young; therefore, TVET has a role of providing increased demand in Ghana are within the social and economic realm, sp ecifically, youth unemployment and the low productivity in most industries (Darvas & Palmer, 2014). Nevertheless, there is a disconnect between agricultural industry in particular and employers with institutions providing agri cultural training and skills ( Freer, 2015).
18 The guiding principles of TVET, which emerged from the UNESCO (2015) conference, were identified as the following: employability, decent work, lifelong learning, sustainability, growth and equity. However, to c reate employment where there was not enough demand, the idea of entrepreneurship was proposed (UNESCO, 2015). therefore encourage curricular changes to include pedagogies that foster innovation and entrepreneurship menta lity, such as experiential learning methods ; teamwork ; problem solving ; critical thinking ; and management of opportunities, ambiguity and uncertainty (Freer, 2015). In d t he technical skills alo ng with the notions of business and enterprise development as a way to inculcate trainees with business by experts is not only to provide skills motivation, positive values, and other skills like entrepreneurial skills, and so on making it holistic in nature (UNESCO, 2015). In Finnish TVET, the concept is that problems are individualized to st udents, whom are receiving training to better face real world issues and to build resilience (Heikkinen, 1997). In Pakistan, an amendment to the Constitution has allowed provinces to make contextual planning for education notably for TVET based on the prov needs (Nooruddin, 2 017). However, TVET itself needs to be looked after for quality through the standardization of TVET, the development of non technical skills in the curriculum, image, training for TVET teachers, and so on (Basu & Majumdar, 2009; Nooruddin, 2017). It is important to revigorate TVET in such a way because, a study in Nigeria found that TVET allowed young people to develop skills towards job creation in the agricult ural sector, among others (Edokpolor
19 & Owenvbiugie, 2017). This study also found that Nigerian TVET had the potential to help Other important points raised during a conferenc e in UNESCO (2015), was th e relationship between TVET and academic education and academic component s of curricula. In Ghana, there is higher demand for TVET from youth who have not completed their high school because most of these TVET schools, whether pub lic or private, have minim um entry level educational prerequisite H owever, many poor young people have no schooling at all or even less perspective, because ther e is very little attention paid to the different types of teachers and the characteristics of the educational institutions in which they evolve; the complete picture of teachers is varied, complex and their specific contribution a s it demic education is crucial in understanding TVET system (Heikkinen, 1997). The diversity of TVET is a critical aspect to take into consideration when trying to comprehend it from a systematic perspective. The diversity within TVE T is due to the fact that it embraces both education and training; therefore, offering many different types of clienteles, of institutions, outcomes, curricula and employment positions, reflecting on historical and cultural influences (King, 1993). Koudahl (2010) identifies three T VET systems is Europe, the market model, the state controlled model and the cooperative or dual model. All models have advantages and disadvantages, but the cooperative model has the additional benefit of integrating both the mar ket and the state controll easy employment as the training is provided exclusively by the industry for the number and quality of skills it requires H owever, these skills may be very narrow and may not permit inter
20 organization mobility for employees (Koudahl, 2010). The state controlled model, on the other hand, provides excellent training, broad in nature; however, the skills acquired are not necessarily the ones that the industry needs in the appropr iate quantity (Koudahl, 20 10). The dual model includes training in schools for the skills not provided in the workplace, followed by placement in organizations for the other competencies related to the trade (Koudahl, 2010). based or po st school programs of TVETs (King, 1993, p. 202). In developing countries, the post school training often means post primary schooling and funding varies according to regions; in Africa for instance, these institutions are externa lly funded while in Latin America they tend to be under the responsibility of national training agencies (King, 1993). Work based vocational training is also on the rise, although, it has been predominant in the past, through apprenticeships and other type s of workplace trainings ( King, 1993). Public TVET is one cultural aspect that varies across countries, and the exact role performance, and the private sector de quality training (King, 1993). In Ghana, there are two times more students enrolled in private led TVETs than in the public entities H owever, informal TVETs through apprenticeships remain the major source of TVET in this count ry, despite many other org anizations like NGOs that deliver them as well (Darvas & Palmer, 2014). However, enrollment in both private and public TVETs have declined or stagnated in recent years in this African country (Darvas & Palmer, 2014). The wide var iety of TVET types and ins titutions makes it difficult to have one best approach I t would be more appropriate to build upon the culture of TVET that already exists in a specific society (King, 1993). Nonetheless, TVETs in general benefit from a number of interactive, participative and collaborative instructional methodologies, which aim at sustainable
21 development, such as creativity, industrial relations and hands on experiences, including visits, laboratory activities and internships (Minghat & Yasin, 201 0). In Ghanaian context, the provision of TVET related skills is impaired by overly theoretical curricula, the fact that the best teachers are not being retained and the lack of incentives for instructors to maintain practical link with industry (Darvas & Palmer, 2014). Sustainabl e agriculture i s an industry that could benefit from a relationship with TVET as it confronts a few issues. Unfortunately, a gricultural institutions dispense knowledge as a commodity from lecturers to students, and operate under the belief that fundamental s of sciences, intricacies of agricultural sciences (Ison, 2015). This is a problem because sustainable agriculture is content but also context bound; therefore, it requ ires problem solving and creativity skills, stifled by lectures and examinations by regurgitation which are common approaches used by most of these institutions (Ison, 2015). Sustainable development can be a purpose for TVE T if the focus is on human develo pment rather than employability skills for human resource development (McGrath & Powell, 2016). The improvement of skills for sustainable development is transformative and requires a new way of doing TVET, a way that integr ates poverty, inequality, individ ual agency, environmental sensitivity and other social issues (McGrath & Powell, 2016). For that transformative change to occur, the focus must be on people and p 15). Additionally, post secon dary agricultural education and training, in other words agricultural post secondary TVET, must pay attention to six critical areas: physical infrastructure, curriculum development, human capacity building, government suppo rt and institutional linkages (R ivera, 20 0 6).
22 Agricultural TVET in Haiti Technical and vocational training in Haiti has been declining and many schools have deteriorated or ceased to function (MENFP, 2012). The situation is such that employers have decid ed to provide these trainings the mselves and quality of the teaching is not always optimal (MENFP, 2012). I of the extension work in Haiti (GFRAS, 2017) In 2015, a study from th e Centre department of Haiti has food security status (Maxime & Paul, 2017). Therefore, it is important to understand the role of TVET and agricultural technicians in the Haitian agricultural system. Pro blem Statement Agricultural technicians can play a key role in the implementation of extension and rural advisory services to meet the needs of farmers. In a country like Haiti where food insecurity is prevalent, ensuring o ptimal agricultural production, a ccessibility and availability of foodstuff is essential. Agricultural technicians are realizing most of the extension work. However, little is known about their qualification to do so. These technicians are often trained in agricultural TVET schools. Yet, the current status of TVETs in Haiti has not been extensively researched. Purpose The purpose of this study is to have a better understanding of agricultural TVET in Haiti. Specifically, it seeks to get a picture of how TV ET fits into the Haitian agricult ural and extension constructivist approach to make meaning of TVET curriculum, specifically Situated Learning and Experientia l Learning as pillars of technica l training aimed at practical application of knowledge. Backwards design is used in understanding the relevance of the training provided as dy:
23 1. What is the purpose of agricu ltural TVET in Haiti? 2. What is the balance of theoretical and practical skills in Haitian agricultural TVETs? 3. What types of employment opportunities are graduates from agricultural TVETs in Haiti receiving? Assumptions For the purpose of this study, the researcher assumed that all the interviewees gave complete answers that are true to their knowledge. Limitations For constraints related to time and resources, the researcher had to select the schools based on geographic area. Ideally, all the schools in Haiti should be included. Similarly, all the teachers and students within each school should be interviewed. Unfortunately, this was also not feasible. Summary Food security is still an issue in many developed countrie s, particularly in Haiti. People i nvolved in agriculture have a responsibility to ensure proper production and distribution of food to the population. Extension agents are an important link between agricultural research and the farmers. They must receive t he best and most appropriate train ing to perform at this important task. In Haiti, most of the extension agents are graduates from TVET schools. However, around the world and time, TVETs have been quite diverse in kinds, in audiences, and in the pursued go als related to skills development. TVET has also been recognized as an immense contributor is to arrive at a better understanding of Haitian agricultural TVET as it pertains to its role within the agricultural system, the types of employment that its graduates get involved in, and the components of its curricula.
24 CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Camp (2001, p. 8) define d relationships phenomen a life, and middle range theories which describe phenomena that fall between the others (Camp, 2001, p. 7). In qualitative research, theories from researc h; however, the ic research questions, data Marriam, 1998 pp. 45 46 ). In social sciences, as opposed to natural scienc es, researchers often link various theories together to explain a set of data (N gulube & Mathipa, 2015). This study is qualitative and focuses on constructivism, particularly social constructivism as grand theory to understand e Haitian agricultural system. Middle range theories are Situated and Experienti al Learning, which help to appreciate the practical application of knowledge in technical training and curriculum. Finally, the study also integrates elements of Backwards Desi gn to comprehend the relevance of the training provided as it relates to employa bility of graduates of Haitian TVETs. Constructivism prioritizes the social interactio ns in the learning and meaning making process, whereas Piaget focuses on individ ual cognition and its interaction with social processes (Bozkurt, 2017). However, constructivism has a great effect on students, both cognitively and socially (Powell & Kalina, elopment
25 collaboration and social interaction between learners (Jaramillo, 1996; Pow ell & Kalina, 2009). What they have in common, however, is that they rely on lea rners solving problems themselves, they are inquiry based and use a Socratic method (Jaramillo, 1996; Powell & Kalina, 2009). Constructivism in education needs to have an impac t on curriculum as well as teaching strategies, practices and tools utilized in classrooms (Jaramillo, 1996; Powell & Kalina, 2009). Teachers are facilitators and peers help in constructing meaning (Doolittle & Camp, 1999; Jaramillo, 1996). Common teaching practices may include debates or multiple perspectives and any kind of interact engagement and participation, real world meaningful experiences and relatable examples, the ability to choose from different options according to preferences (Doolittle & Camp, 1999; Powell & Kalina, 2009). It also is about building knowledge from previous knowledge as well as background and past experiences, content and skills relevant to learners, formati ve assessments required to inform future learning (Doolittle & Camp, 1999; Powel l & Kalina, 2009). context of language development H owever, a study suggests that it is also applicable in teaching science, particularly mathematics as individua l learning of mathematics related problems and solutions can develop through social context and negotiation of shared meaning (Bozkurt, 2017). Criticisms to a constructivist ap proach include the idea of performance, the lack of clarity especially as it per tains to the use in curriculum development, its hegemonic influence in the educational system and its failure to re contextualize (McPhail, 2016). Social constructivism and sit uated learning both support that learning is constructed socially and is context bound, particularly sensitive to cultural settings (Doolittle & Camp, 1999; Powell & Kalina, 2009). In
26 the context of technical education, constructivism has not always been p roposed; on the contrary, this is a field that has predominantly used behavioris t positivism (Doolittle & Camp, 1999). This situation is explained by the externally imposed skill and competency based curriculum whose goal is to respond to industry demands rather than the internal construction of knowledge by learners (Doolittle & Camp 1999). However, as the workplace requires higher order thinking even from a TVET level, constructivism is being presented in the TVET system; though this area is the slowest to embark on the constructivist reform (Doolittle & Camp, 1999). However, it is argued that cognitive constructivism may be the most appropriate for this type of education, because TVET is fundamentally based on the transmission of workplace skills targete d to employability with the relevant competencies needed on the job (Doolittle & Camp, 1999). This study uses a con structivis t approach to understand the socially constructed meaning hin the system view the role of tecnicians. This informed the research methodology and data analysis. Experiential Learning Experiential Learning can be defined in the context of education as a type of learning in contrasted with lectures and classroom learning. However, those who argue against this type of learning often assimilate it with naturalistic learning that occurs as a result of life experience, whi ch can be biased (Buchmann & Schwille, 1983). This idea is challenged by the same b iased assumption it derives according to Kolb (2014), for this thinking supposes that objective learning comes from extraordinary people who do not go through the hazards of whereas ordinary people cannot learn independently from their biases, making their knowledge unreliable.
27 Universities have used experiential learning in their curricula (Roberts, 2006) in some developed countries. Experiential learnin g in higher education is often opposed to academic lectures and readings format (Ko lb, 2014). Students are encouraged to get hands on experience through internships, field projects and classroom experiential learning exercises (Kolb, 2014). In experiential learning, people learn through experience fundamentally by the provision of the ex perience to the learner (Beard & Wilson, 2013). A basic experiential learning program starts with a goal or an objective, includes physical movement while allowing for many types of intelligence to express, is designed with social collaborative or competit ive strategies with added rules and obstacles, and typically ends with quiet time for reflection (Beard & Wilson, 2013). The sequencing of activities in experiential learnin g is such that the intensity of the skills required for the tasks are on a continuu m from low to high, as the tasks themselves range from low to high (Beard & Wilson, 2013). Experiential learning skills often start with low intensity and skills then move t o low intensity high skills, to high intensity and skills and end with low skills b ut high intensity tasks (Beard & Wilson, 2013). First hand experience, however, can be related to status quo, as it limits the use of imagination and epitomizes imitation, which maintains standards unchallenged (Buchmann & Schwille, 1983). A study that a nalyzed international research papers on adult ex periential learning determined the characteristics of such learning, specifically, that it is based on action and reflection; that subjective experiences are the source of learning, and that there is a proce ss that occurs during learning which includes ada ptation, relearning, synergy between human and environment and knowledge creation (Dernova, 2015). Various disciplines incorporate experiential learning components in their curricul a. I n formal college and u niversity education experiential activities may i nclude practicums, hands on
28 laboratory activities, educational placements and service learning (Cantor, 1997). Internships are thought to be beneficial in agricultural related studies (Roberts, 2006). The Re port of the Commission on National Aid to Vocatio nal Education in the United States, views TVET as a way to connect education with life by emphasizing on utility, practicality and purposefulness (Buchmann & Schwille, 1983). Professional and technical progr ams specifically are using out of the classroom e xperiences to permit student skill development and competitiveness upon graduation (Cantor, 1997). This study understands that experiential learning facilitates the teaching while enhancing the learning, of those skills and comp e tencies that ultimately de fine TVETs curricula through influencing the design and delivery methods in the classrooms. Experiential learning was used as the lens to view the curriculum and teaching methods. Situated Learning When le arning is not situated, it is slow and unsuccessf ul, as seen with a study about context of their ordinary use (Miller & Gildea, 1987). This study revealed how c hildren come up with mystifying sentences when th ey have only learned the words with a definition, as opposed to how quickly and effectively they integrate new vocabulary words when they hear them in examples (Miller & Gildea, 1987). The reason is that con cepts are not abstract but can be compared to too ls, which are used actively by people rather than just acquired (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989). Learning to use a tool requires use in context I n this sense, the community that routinely utilizes the tool also determines the set of rules about its usage which makes learning an enculturation process (Brown et al., 1989). Enculturation requires the students to be involved in authentic activities ; ies and culture (Brown et al., 1989). All these c onsiderations on how humans learn and reason, have
29 led authors to conclude that school practices need to allow students to learn through cognitive apprenticeship by using cognitive tools in authentic activit y rather than symbols (Brown et al., 1989). Symb ols are representations of external situations stored in memory S uch mental representations may not be accurate or complete as compared to reality (Vera & Simon, 1993). Incomplete or inaccurate mental repre sentations of reality and planned behavior will n ot necessarily result in desired consequences (Vera & Simon, 1993). Therefore, symbols are problematic as taught in the school system, which make schools inefficient in knowledge of and application to the re al world (Vera & Simon, 1993). Learning hence ari ses from a cultural and socially constructed world where people engage in activity with each other (Lave, 1991). This view of situatedness is a third wave of thought called situated social practice, as oppos ed to the two other views: cognitive and interpre tive (Lave, 1991). Situated social practice supposes legitimate peripheral participation, often viewed as noise by the school system, but which permits not only the development of knowledge and skills but al so identity through the production of communities of practice (Lave, 1991). Apprenticeships occur in a variety of ways but possess a series of claims: the progress is visible by the learner and others therefore making praise, blame and tests unnecessary; t hey also allow access to ongoing work (Lave, 1991 ). In their study on the relationship between situated learning and mathematics, Anderson, Reder typical real workplace context in which the skills are to be used is, in fact, more nuanced. They nly grounded in the concrete (Anderson et al., 1996, p. 6 ). Th e kind of knowledge to be acquired is fundamentally what determines how much it will be bound to the
30 context in which it was learned (Anders on et al., 1996). As examples, they cited reading and writing skills who were definitely not context bound. How ever, proponents of situated learning & Carre is also contingent on th ese tasks sharing common cognitive elements or not (Anderson et al., upon mental direc ted toward the transferable skill to be learned and when many examples were provided to them (Anderson et al., 1996). To the claim that abstract authentic activities prevail, the authors presented arguments that po sed abstract instruction followed by concrete application or examples as the most effective practice than any of them alone (Anderson et al., 199 6, p. 8). The reason is that in some instances, abstract instruction transferred better than concrete training and vice versa. Advocates of situated learning have similar positions when guidance and participation are posed as required characteristics of a be done i requirements (Anderson et al., 1996, p. 9). To that claim, the authors find that some skills are better mastered independently before adding complicating social interactions. However, they recognize that for motivational reasons as well as for enhanced critical skills, practice in context is very beneficial (Anderson for an environment that is appropriate, a nd which fosters the successful development of skills (Voss et al., 1995)
31 e, must allow for in context learning of the trade by exposing the students, during their training in these sch ools, to real life experiences which will facilite their assimilation of the culture of the profession. Situated learning provided an additional lens to examine the curriculum and teaching methods. Backwards Design & McTighe, 1998, p 2); which means that it informs the lessons and practices required to master desired skills and knowledge. Backwards design also thinks about assessments, not at the end, but as lesson pla ns are being constructed, because evaluations must also be directed towards desired outcomes (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998). As a result, Backwards De sign follows a process, which consists of first identifying the desired results, then determining acceptable ev idence of such results being successfully attained by learners or in other words the most appropriate evaluations, finally planning the experienc es that will lead to learning and suitable instructional activities that match with learning objectives (Wiggin s & McTighe, 1998). An example of a course using backwards design was developed for technology teachers doing in service and preservice practicum s, to cooperate with teacher educators in elaborating a curriculum (Shumway & Berrett, 2004). The benefits foun d were that the pre service teachers learn more and are generally more enthusiastic about their chosen profession; the school pupils also receive d the changes positively. However, being a process that required more coordination time between the schoolteach ers and university students, it resulted in a low participation from teachers initially (Shumway & Berrett, 2004). On the other hand, when design ing curriculum backwards, there are important precautions to counteract possible unintended effects. First dete rmining
32 ctors may be influencing the knowledge transfer (Bowen & Graham, 2015). The study focuses on the skills and competencies which employability to be incorporated into the cursus in the agricultural TVET schools. Backwards design was used as a lens to see how the types of jobs taken by graduates informs the curricula. Conc eptual M odel Other modes of learning may be beneficial to students, in that they allow for a more realistic conception of the profession, all the while providing them with key attributes that will make the transition to work easier (DeGiacomo, 2002). Alternative modes of learning also benefit stude nts from a financial standpoint, where paid positions help them finance their studies and constitute better employment opportunities upon graduation (DeGiacomo, 2002). However, apprenticeships are also regarded as new forms of slavery th rough children expl oitation and free labor, but this situation is most prevalent in societies with powerful forms of capitalism and not so much in other contexts for example West Africa (Lave, 1991). This notion introduces the diverse cultural interpretati ons of theories, no American scholars, which uses the concepts of tools and symbols and their application in educational settings (Ageyev, 2004). The development of the sociocultural learning theory is very much engrained in g eneral American culture of individualism, which opposes many other In Haitian TVET, the socially constructed meaning of TVET by all stakeholders within the agricultur al system, informs the curricular decisions. These curricular decisions include real world situated learning experiences, practical in nature, which will foster reflection on the rm curricular decis ions as well so as to ensure appropriate training for the improvement of local economy.
33 Figure 2 1 Conceptual Model Summary In qualitative studies, many theories are linked together to interpret data, while also guiding the orient ation of the study questions. Backwards design is the substantive theory used to experiential and situated learning lenses. Finally, constructivism is the grand theory that explain s the role of TVET within the Haitian agricultural landscape. Social constructivism in education must be visible in the curriculum and in the teaching methods, which are participative in nature. The middle range theories, situated and ex periential learning assure that learning occurs in context and through first hand experience. Backwards design allows for the desired outcomes of learning to guide the instructional methods as well as the curriculum.
34 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This study is a basic qualitative study (Ary, Cheser Jacobs, Sorensen, & Walker, 2012), which used semi structured interviews and focus groups. Basic qualitative or basic interpretative rspectives (Ar y et al., 2012). The researcher took a social c onstructivist approach, where meaning is constructed from All activities in this study w ere approved by the In stitutional Review Board. Data S ample The ag ricultural tec hnical schools were selected based on their proximity to the Ouest geographic department of Haiti. The sampling method was to select all cases of the targeted population (Harding, 2013) within the geographic region, which resulted in six scho ols. The selec ted schools were Gressier, Montrouis, and four schools in Petit Gove. However, preliminary visits revealed that only four of these schools were open at the time of the study which included the one in Montrouis and three schools in Petit Go ve. In each o f the four schools, the sampling method was to select stratified purposeful sampling (Ary et al., 2012). To begin, the school director was used as the primary contact. Next, he was asked to identify teachers and students to be a part of the s tudy, thus cre ating a stratified sample. Stratified purposeful sampling allows for inclusion of many subgroups and comparisons are also possible (Ary et al., 2012). Typical cases are chosen to represent a common profile within an organization (Harding, 201 3) and increas es confidence in conclusions (Miles, Huberman, & Saldaa, 2014). Within each school, the director was interviewed as well as three teachers per school, and one focus groups for each school was also conducted with nine students in each (Ary et al., 2012). H owever, one of the school s h ad a different system, therefore, deviant
35 cases were selected for focus groups to ensure relevant data collection, meaning only students whose situations were pertinent to the research had been selected (Ary et al. 2012). Out o f two possible respondents, only one showed up to the meeting. So, in all, four TVET directors and 12 TVET teachers were interviewed, and four focus groups with 28 students total were conducted. Data C ollection Interviews allowed for researc her to gain in making, lives as well as the meaning they give to their experiences, emotions and feelings (Harding, 2013). An inter view guide, ra ther than a questionnaire, was used during the qualitative interviews (Yin, 2016). The interview guide contained a set of key words or specific questions relevant to the subject and often served as a reminder to the researcher (Harding, 2013; Yin, 2016). H owever, the qualitative researcher may ask a new set of questions that were not planned during the interview based on responses of the participant (Harding, 2013). As a new pattern emerged with information about Institut National de Formation Porfessionnel le ( INFP ) qualifications, researcher included questions relating to this subject, as well as assignments and exams, which were not originally part of the interview guide. begin without questions, they begin with a base of experience, theoretical knowledge, and certain goals that drive provisional questions that et al., 2012, p 455). For this study, researcher conducted literature reviews about T VET in other countries and came up w ith a set of preliminary questions, which were revised by exper ienced researcher s in the field of activity. The interview guide questions were designed to answer the three research questions, and slightly modified to fit the perspective of directors, teach ers and students.
36 For the school directors, this study used semi structured interviews, with open ended questions conducted in a conversational manner (Harding, 2013; Yin, 2016). School directors were asked questions to gain insights on TVET and its role with the Haitian ag ricultural system. The directors were also interviewed about their backgrounds, academic and professional experiences, as well as their motivation to open a TVET school. The interview guide included questions to directors about their sc hool and its relatio nship with the state funding and the curriculum. They answered questions about the profile of instructors working in the school, and the profile of the students who attended the school. They were also questioned about employment opport unities for their gr aduates. The interview guide was a total of 11 questions with a few probing questions for many of them. The questions were grouped under three main categories to answer questions about who the directors were what is TVET, and about the ir school, from the administrative, educational and students point of views. The complete interview guide for directors can be seen in Appendix A In addition to the directors, three teachers per school were also interviewed using the same method. The int erviews to teachers were conducted to better understand the current state of practices and theory in the curriculum at each TVET school and their instructional strategies. Teachers were questioned about their background, academic and professional experienc es, as well as their der three groups. Th e groups answered broad questions about who the teachers were what is TVET, and about the curriculum, from an instructional and employment perspectives. The teacher interview guide can be seen in Appendix B
37 All the interviews to dire ctors and teachers, and the focus groups to students occurred at elaborated in English then translated in French and Creole, and all the interviews were conducted in Haitian Creole. The data were collected in Creole, but results were translated back to English and reported in English as well. All the interviews were audio recorded, although the researcher also kept a personal journal to reflect on all interviews an d focus groups (Yin, 2016). Responding students participated in one focus group at each school to give their insights theory. They also discussed agricultural T role and their future role s in the Haitian agricultural system as they envision it. The focus group guide asked questions about their backgrounds, their families their motivation and their future aspirations. The guide included a total of 14 prelim inary questions to s tudents under three main sections about who the students were what is TVET, and about the courses. In one of the focus group (FG 03), the director did not want to leave the room and was present the whole time, although he did not parti cipate or sit down. The complete focus group guide is in Appendix C Focus groups are also a type of qualitative interview for moderate sizes of groups of people (Yin, 2016). A focus group is a qualitative research data collection method, in which the res earcher actively par ticipates by determining the research question and by collecting the data through group discussions and interactions (Morgan, 1996). The focus groups are an important oup share common exp eriences or views (Yin, 2016). Some of the strengths of focus groups is that participants have to explain each other to the group and the researcher can ask them to compare their experiences (Morgan, 1996). Focus groups are sometimes no t appropriate for se nsitive topics and when
38 institutional context constrain some people from exposing their views to each other (Harding, 2013). An o ther weakness of focus groups may be the effect of the group on the data (Morgan, 1996). However, focus grou ps are an important qualitative data collection method because they permit shared understanding (Harding, 2013). They are widely used in sociology and other social sciences, for various purposes, including curricular changes, often in combination with othe r methods such as in terviews (Morgan, 1996). Formal observations of all facilities with checklist were not conducted, although a checklist was elaborated prior to research. Researcher made general observations of the premises due to the lack of observable items. Data A nalys is The findings from all interviews and focus groups were analyzed directly from the audio recordings in Haitian Creole, using a constant comparative method to discover initial codes (Saldaa 2016). They were then translated and repor ted in English. Transcription is argued to be & Dixon, 1997). Data analysis often involve s reading of the transcript in the presence of audio or video data because transcribing is itself a purposeful analytical tool within a research program (Green et al., 1997). Also, it is recognized that transcription of audio recordings can be done in many ways (Miles et al., 2014, p 11) which can result in different texts. Analysis without transcribing therefore is possible, particularly due to time constraint and when answering a simple research question (Ary et al., 2012). In this case, the researcher m ay take notes while playing a recording rat 514). This first cycle coding of the audio and translation were simultaneous. Quotes were taken directly from audio, rather than from transcript/report of interviews, and translated verbatim by researcher on an individual basis.
39 As peer debriefing is often used for validity, to ensure trustworthiness in this study, a peer debriefing process followed (Creswell & Miller, 2000), where two colleagues fluent in Haitian Creol e and English randomly chose an audio to lis reporting. Member checking is also a way to ensure validity in qualitative research (Cho & Trent, 2006). Many different actions can be considered as m ember checking such as re turning the interview transcript to particip ants, a member check interview using the interview transcript health and educational research (Birt, Scott, Cavers, Campbell & Walter, 2016, p 1803) I t may also be member check of preliminary interpretations or of the final report (Hoffart, 1991). This study used synthesized versions of individual interviews to directors, which were returned to the participants to e comprehension. Three of t he four directors replied to researcher. Triangulation is yet another technique t ha t qualitative researcher s use to add rigor to their studies (Cho & Trent, 2006). There are various ways to triangulate, such as d ata source triangulation, theoretical triang ulation, investigator and method triangulation (Carter, Bryant Lukosius, DiCenso, Blythe, & Neville, 2014). This study used data source triangul ation, or data collected from many types of people (directors, teach ers and students) and also method triangula tion, or the use of various data collection methods, which usually are interviews, field notes and observations (Carter et al., 2014). The coding process included two additional rounds of coding which were looki ng for patterns, resulting in a list of code s answering the three research questions (Saldaa, 2016). Patterns are repetitive occurrences from the data (Saldaa, 2016). Coding, especially second and third round coding, is a heuristic used to identify emerg ing categories, themes, or concepts (Saldaa 2016). Categories were constructed when patterns of codes were organized to form a
40 new meaningful whole (Saldaa, 2016). Recoding and recategorizing are also possible at this stage, because qualitative analysis demands rigor and meticulousness (Saldaa, 2016). Demographics In total 4 directors were interviewed and coded as D 01, D 02, D 03 and D 04, according to the number assigned to their school. A total of twelve teachers (01 T1/T2/T3, 02 T1/T2/T3, 03 T1/T 2/T3, 04 T1/T2/T3) were also interviewed and coded according to the school they taught in as well as the order in which they were interviewed. However, in one of the schools, a teacher was interviewed twice, as a director and as a teacher. And a focus grou p of nine students each occurred in three of the schools, coded FG 01, FG 02, and FG 03. However, the last school was particular, therefore only one student was interviewed and coded as FG/E 04. Who A re the D irectors? Three of the directors were agronomists (D 01, D 02, D 04), and one had a degree in Education (D 03); but all four graduated from a private university in Haiti. Only D 04 has a 03 was pursuing a graduate degree in ed ucation in a foreign university at the time of the study. Only one of the four d irectors (D 02) had a technical degree in agriculture in addition to a bachelor degree, which he obtained as a former student of the school he was now managing. Actually, sch ool 02 was unique in that it had multiple directors who happened to be three br others who were managing the school that belonged to their oldest brother, whom was no longer involved technical school. D 04 was als o a former student from the first cohort of his university. Apart from D 04 who worked fulltime at his institution, all other directors had other businesses too; some were even involved in various [agricultural] activities (D 01, D 02). Many of them (D 01, D 03) owned the technical school they were managing. In short, except for D 04, the directors
41 were entrepreneurs. All the directors interviewed were male and most of them seemed young 03 who was middle aged). Specif ically, D 02 brothers were very young; one of them looked like he was in his twe nties. Table 3 1 Director Characteristics Director Attended a Tech School BSc Major Posses a MSc Degree Former Student at this School School Type Previous International Exper ience Years of Teaching Experience Outside Economic Activity D 01 No Agronomy N o No Private No Tech 2011 Radio, farm D 02/ W D 02/ J D 02/ A D 02/ B Yes Yes Yes Yes Agronomy Engineer Computer Agronomy No No No No Yes Yes Unsure No Private Private Private Private No No No Unsure Unsure Unknown Unknown Unsure Family ag riculture, s other school D 03 No Education ongoing No Private Online maybe Is an educator Own s chools D 04 No Agronomy Yes 1 st cohort Private Montpellier 2 14 y ea rs dean Dean Who A re the T eachers? The teachers were mostly agronomists, except 04 T1 who had degree s in computer science and accounting management, 01 T2 was an agricultural technician, and 02 T3 was an agricultural technician as well as a lawyer. Consequently, three teachers had technical degrees (01 T2, 02 T2 plus a bachelor in agronomy, 02 T3 plus a degree in law). On the other T3 in ecology and biodiversity, 04 T1 in accounting management. They both wor ked for the same TVET institution, which is the only one that is a part of a university. Teacher 01 T1 also commented on for 01 T1 and 04 T3, have studied in private universities. Some o f them were graduates from the same institution where they were teaching, such as 02 T2, 04 T1, 04 T2. Only two teachers worked fulltime in their institution, 04 T1, and 04 T2 because they ha d additional responsibilities 04 T1 was also the administrator o f the Montrouis campus and 04 T2 was also the farm manager on this campus. All other teachers had
42 different activities, ranging from teaching in various K12 and technical schools, to being en trepreneurs (02 T3, 03 T2), and working for either the ministry o f agriculture (01 T1) or NGOs/IOs (01 T1, 01 T2, 02 T2). All of them however had been teaching before, even for many years sometimes. All the teachers interviewed were male. Table 3 2 Teach er Characteristics Attended a Tech School BSc Major Posses a MSc Degree Former Student at this School School Type Previous International Experience Years of Teaching Experience Outside Economic Activity School 1 T1 No Agronomy Not really No Public France 15 years MARDRN/ NGO T2 Yes Ag tech No No/ ICVR Private No Sin ce 2012 NGO/IO 22 years T3 No Agronomy No No Private No 6y in K12 2y in tech Teach maybe School 2 T1 No Agronomy No No Since 2015 T2 Yes Agronomy No Yes Private No Agriculture, school T3 Yes Law No Unsure Private No Tech 1 Entrepreneu r School 3 T1 No Agronomy No No Private No Since 2006 Tech 2016 Teach T2 No Agronomy No No Private No Tech 2017 Entrepreneu r T3 No Agronomy No No Private No Tech 2017 Teaches schools School 4 T1 No Computer Acctingm ngmt Yes Private Paris 8 Full time in school Ad ministrat or T2 No Agronomy No Yes Private USA Since 2016 Full time in school Farm manager T3 No Agronomy Yes No Public Montpellier Since 2014 Teach in many schools Who A re the S tudents? The students in every focus group were all from rural communities as they confirmed themselves. In FG 01, there were two female students out of nine in total T heir director thought
43 he had approximately 30% of the student population who were female. In FG 02, three of the participants were women amongst nine in total, an d their director reported 25% of females in his institution. There were four women in FG 03 and five men amongst the students, which matched the 55% male student population estimated by the director. FG/E 04 was a male student T he dean was unable to give a number about the ratio but thought that women were scarce in the Faculty of Agriculture, and that in the technical program women were very uncommo n. breeding, bu t some mentioned commerce as well, often both. A student cited agriculture and music, another one named agriculture and construction. A few of the s tudents were financially independent and mentioned their personal activities, which were also related to agr iculture. Some of them had been working for years with organizations such as NGOs and the public sector. Others had studied elsewhere, and either di d not graduate or graduated but decided to switch careers such as nurs ing, mechanic s, and construction. The students were not asked their ages, but researcher noticed that the age pool seemed wide enough to include people possibly in their thirties which was confirmed by D 01 for his school where the age range varied from 18 to over 30 35 years old. Most of th e participants were graduating students, only a very few were in their first year. Generally, the students who were just starting on the program wer e a little bit less participative than the others who were closer to graduation. About the S chools School 01 was a private technical school in Petit Goave giving degrees in the agricultural option. However, the researcher noticed that this school was less focused on diplomas than the others based on much less emphasis was put on that by the director, teachers, and students. The agricultural technical prog ram lasted approximately 3 years, according to the director and the students, although researcher could not grasp the reason behind the flexible end
44 dates, as the school did not have a credit system. The school also did not have INFP certification from the Ministry of Education, which was required for technical schools to operate, even though it has been in the process of obtaining it since it opened in 2013. The students must have a minimal level of schooling o f 3e, in the Haitian system. Additionally, the school lacked most infrastructure such as laboratories, lands or even technologically equipped classrooms. School 02 was also a private technical school, giving degrees in the agricultural option. Contrary to School 01, it emphasized the diploma it deliv ered and the fact that it had INFP certification, claiming to be the only school in Petit Goave that had it. It took students 3 years to obtain this INFP certified technical diploma and school has been open for many years. The requirement was the same as p revious institution, with a level of 3e required from students. Moreover, this school functioned under similar conditions as previous, without laboratories or any technology in the classrooms. One of the school directors mentioned a farm but teachers contr adicted this idea. School 03, was very young open ing in 2016 and had not graduated a cohort yet. It was yet another private technical school in Petit Goave, giving degrees in the agricultural option and other It took only 2 years to graduate with a dipl oma in the agricultural program. The school study. However, this school required a slightly higher entry level of schooling of 2 e from students, according to H aitian standard. This school, like the others, did not have the infrastructure that would be expected such as laboratories, land or technologically equipped classrooms. School 04 was actually part of a univers ity with three decades of existence, which had one of its campuses in the Montrouis area. The dean of the Faculty of Agriculture was
45 responsible for both the bachelor and the technical program that the Faculty offered. The students usually enrolled for the bachelor, but may request a switch to the tec hnical diploma, as the first two years of both programs are the same and take place on the Montrouis campus. This campus has farmland, dormitories, a cafeteria, a computer room but no laboratories. Since the t echnical diploma was obtained after 3 years of studies, the last year must be completed at their other campus. That campus was where the bachelor seeking students finished their program as well, with an additional 3 years of studies. The courses taken in t his campus were different for students seeking a bachelor or a technical degree at that point. These numbers were informational only, because the university used a credit system that allowed students to have more control over their progression. I t also all owed technicians to continue to the bachelor r oute the only of the institutions visited which required a level of studies of Philo, with or without the Baccal aureat II certificate, from students upon appl ication regardless of program. Subjectivity Statement I was born and raised in Haiti and as such, I have developed my own understanding of my people and the educational system. I have gone through school ther e personally, although it can be argued that th ere is not one kind of education in Haiti. I have an idea of the language intricacies in this country and this was a concern for me during the elaboration of the methodology. Should I address the people in Cre ole or French? This approach is crucial in determining the success of the relationship. However, I did not complete my higher education in Haiti. Like many of my peers, I studied abroad, specifically in Costa Rica. My background is in agricultural science s with a great emphasis on sustainabilit y, entrepreneurship and practical application. This situation may have
46 influenced my understanding of agricultural education. I value hands on instruction in realistic contexts because that is what I had experienced I have had many internships and other real life experiences throughout my studies and I may have gained a profound respect for educational activities of that sort. Now, as an international student in the United States, I have the opportunity to see my c ulture from yet another perspective and study it through different paradigms Summary The data sampling was to select all cases of the targeted population, which led to four schools within the Ouest department of Haiti. In each school the sampling metho d was stratified purposeful sampling of typical cases, except in one school where deviant cases were chosen This resulted in four directors and 12 teachers interviewed as three teachers per school were selected and 4 focus groups conducted. Data was coll ected using semi structured interviews w ith interview guides, and open ended questions written in english then translated to creole and french. General observations of the environment were also conducted. Data was collected in creole, reported in english, but not transcribed. Data analysis consi sted of many rounds of coding, using the constant comparative method, of the englih reports from the interviews until patterns emerged. Peer debriefing, member checking, as well as triangulation of data source and me thod s w ere used to ensure trustworthiness.
47 CHAPTER 4 WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF AGRICULTURAL TVET IN HAITI? Background Agriculture is an important activity because it produces food for human consumption and because it allows for rural development (Moehle r, 1997). However, in Latin America there are still many malnourished people, particularly in the Caribbean islands (FAO, IFAD & WFP, index severity (von Greb mer et al. 2016). Therefore, it is crucial to work on ways to improve food security status in Haiti. Fuglie and Wang (2012) have found that the obstacles which countries have to face for increase d agricultural production are linked to the access to techno logical re sources rather than to their existence. In Haiti, according to GFRAS (2017), graduates from Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) perform most of the extension work. Therefore, it is important to understand TVET in Haiti in order to improv e the food security status in this country. Literature R eview The definition of TVET, according to UNESCO (2017b, p educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related s ciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge the role of TVET in employment sustainable development, and social jus tice (UNESCO, reported that they are highly unpopular, because they are viewed as pertaining to a specific class of people, whom are not expected to enter the highe r education system for various reasons (King, 1993). In Ghana, enrollment in public and private TVET have decreased, because graduated
48 lower salaries, and it is perceived to be reserved for people with poor academic performance (Darvas & Palmer, 2014). In Latin America however, TVET provides much needed training to youth with disadvantages (King, 1993). Another complicating factor is the diversity of TVETs, which emerges from whether or not it is controlled by the state, the private sector or both (Koudahl, 2010) and the various types of institutions and outcomes of TVET, as well as the fact that it can be school based or at the post secondary level (King, 1993). Agricultural TVET need s to address human capacity development, government funding, ins titutional networking, curriculum modifications and physical infrastructure (Rivera, 20 0 6). However, depending on the cultural aspects of TVET in a specific country, many approaches may be appropriate to ensure quality of TVET (King, 1993). If the focus i s put on h uman development, inequality, poverty and other environmental and social issues, TVET can l ead to sustainable development ( McGrath & Powell, 2016 ). UNESCO (2015) also recognizes that TVET is holistic, in that beyond job skills, it provides charac ter education such as positive values and motivation, e ntrepreneurial skills and others. Theo r etical Framework Socially and cognitively, students benefit fr om constructivism ( Powell & Kalina, 2009). Social c onstructivism builds understanding and knowledg e from participative methods and must inform curricula and other instructional strategies and materials (Jaramillo, 1996; Powell & Kalina, 2009); although Pia areas. Piaget focuses on indiv Vygotsky, the social interactions are focal in the learning and meaning making processes for i ndividuals (Bozkurt, 2017). Backwards Design departs from the desired outcomes of learning to form the corresponding assessments, from which emerge the instructional activities and materials (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998). The study focused on the principles of Backwards Design to
49 and the role of perspective. Purpose T his study proposes to have a deeper understanding of Haitian TVET, specifically, to answer the question on what constit utes the purpose of Haitian agricultural TVET within the Haitian agricultural system. Methodology This study, which was a basic qualit ative study (Ary, Cheser Jacobs, Sorensen, & Walker, 2012), used semi structured interviews and focus groups. The study sampling method was to select all cases of the targeted population (Harding, 2013) within the Ouest department of Haiti, resulting in fo ur TVET schools. The school in Montrouis was also a university and three other schools were in Petit Goave. The directo r and three teachers were interviewed in each school, as well as one focus group conducted with nine students each, using the stratified purposeful sampling (Ary et al., 2012). Because it was a university, deviant cases had to be selected for the focus gro up in Montrouis (Ary focus and only one student was interviewed F or all the other schools typical cases were chosen (Miles, Huberman, & Saldaa, 2014). The interviews and focus groups were conducted in cr eole; however, the interview guides were first written in English, and then translated into French and Haitian Creole. I nterviews and focus groups were also audio recorded (Yin, 2016) and occur r ed enience. The r esearcher also kept a journal to record her observations and reactions. Data were analyzed directly from audio recordin gs (Green, Franquiz & Dixon, 1997 ) using a constant comparative method to identify initial codes. Axial coding was then us ed to organize initial codes into themes and sub themes
50 (Saldaa, 2016). Direct quotes were pulled from audio recordings and were tra nslated to English. To ensure trustworthiness t wo teacher interviews were randomly selected and reviewed by peers who speak Haitian Creole (Creswell & Miller, 2000). Member checking was also accomplished by sending a summary of the analysis of their interv iews to the directors (Cho & Trent, 2006; Hoffart, 1991) ; three out of four gave their feedback Additionally, the design o f this study allowed for t riangulation of data sources from directors, students and teachers as well as data collection approaches o f interviews, field notes and observations were also used to further ensure rigor (Carter, Bryant Lukosius, DiCenso, Blyth e & Neville, 2014). All the directors and teachers interviewed were male. Most of them were also young and agronomists. Only three o f them e Most of these educators did not work full time in their institutions, rat her, they had other teaching positions or managed their own businesses. Some of them were technicians as well. Most of the students w ere men (19 out of 28) T hey all came from rural communities and reported familial activities to be mostly agriculture and commerce. The age range seemed to include a wide group. Many had worked or studied in a different field before. T he schools were technical institutions with an agriculture option, except for school well, and 03 included other technical options. The program of study lasted between two and three years, with a cr edit system for school 04. School 03 required a minimum entry level of seconde, while 01 and 02 only demanded 3e; institution 04 on the other h and required students to have completed their philo. INFP recognition was awarded to only 02 school and 04 was a n accredited university.
51 Findings Social Mobility of Students A positive outcome for agricultural TVET is the social mobility it facilitates for the students. This idea of social mobility appears in the interviews with many directors, from most teachers and in the focus groups as well, under various forms: (a) training and education for the youth, (b) a step toward higher education (c) financ ial independence, (d) entrepreneurship (e) networking, and (f) reputation The director D 02 explained the idea of social mobility clearly, when he sa id T2 affirming that he is Train the youth. For nearly all the teachers, one direc tor and in two of the focus groups, the role of technical schools was mentioned as a way to help the youth and provide them with training that will allow them to get ahead in life. It is also a way to help the country as a whole s future. For teacher 01 the students to help themselves then to contribute to the development T3 expresse d n important T1). During focus group FG 03, a st hnical school, because he recognizes that to educati T3 got involved in education reinforces this idea that the current situation is difficult. In FG 01, a s tudent felt the same way and 01 fe lt
52 empowerment of the youth or speech for opening a technical school. All of the teachers interviewed, except one (02 T2), shared this sentiment. It was also noticed that eve n the teachers who are not teaching agriculture classes felt that they are motivated to teaching in these schools T3). Another teach er people are trained in a domain the more doors are open for positive things to (04 T2). T his t raining is even more important for those students who have not obtained their Baccalaurat (Bacc) II which is an exam some fail at the end of their studies. D 04 said some students c Bacc II is the government issued high school diploma need ed to access higher education after the last class my is that I was stuck in philo and if 03). This statement also represents another role of TVET in social mobility for students, which is a step toward the licen s e (bachelor ). Higher education/bachelor One form of social mobility linked to lack of Bacc II, which appear ed a lot in the interviews, is that the technical school is a step toward in agricultural sciences. It even seems to be an important aspect for the students themselves, because in all the focus groups the bachelor was mentioned at some point. Many students have an agronomist as a model not a technician; in degree in aquaculture. According to a student in FG in both FG 01 and FG 03 as a possible outcome for students in the future
53 03) the students would need to choose a school, which delivers a diploma recognized b y the state. M ost directors are also aware of the intent to pursue highe r degrees and embrace this notion fully as D schools help people start 04 understands this situation too, and t he school has towards a bachelor. Or as D However, at least one teacher 03 T1 s aw it as an alternative to the bachelor; he support ed that starting with a te chnical diploma may be a lack of Bacc II, it is often due to financial r easons. FG/E 04 exemplified s e [bachelor] at the beginning, I nding ; h e wasted gnized Financial independence. As perfectly stated by D A student at h is institution, F G/E 04 agree d or to a technical diploma. This idea is supported indirectly by all the other directors when they mention ed ot have money, reality is very 01). This situation is not easily solved because, according to D date have not paid anything to th year program. This exp lains why, for so many of them, the shorter program constitutes a benefit. As a teacher 04 T1 explain ed
54 ad d expect something T1). The situation is such that 04 T3 claim ed dents start but cannot and T1). Some student s may even finance their bachelor studies as well with the technical dip loma FG/E 04 intend ed to finance his bachelor upon completion of technical studies. A teacher (01 T1) reported that his former student has told him that he is currently own tuition, not my parents with [ legumes ] Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship was mentioned as the path to financial ( D 01 ) In this sense, agricultural TVET in Haiti is important to combat poverty fo r the graduates, by enabling them to start a new business. Entrepreneurship seems to be viewed as an essential vocation of agricultural TVET to many respondents ( FG/E 04; FG 03; F G 01; D 01; 04 T2; 03 T1; 03 T3; 01 T1) Many students ha d an entrepreneur as a model. For example, during FG was described as a great role model for student s In FG 01, entrepreneurship is described as an inherent char able to produce without the any teachers felt the same way as well. 04 T2 claim ed for every technicia T3 sa id ea of entrepreneurship was prevalent across all schools visited and for all levels of interviewees.
55 Networking. The way in which agricultural TVET and its subsequent social mobility for students, operates is through the network. Networking is essential to technical schools and technicians, both as a way to get to the school, and for the connections the student is able to create through the school A few teachers and directors have mentioned bringing guest teachers or taking the students to practices in the areas where they know they may be able to create bonds with important peopl e and organizations working in the agricultural sector ( D 04; D 02; 03 T2; 03 T3 ; 01T1; 01 T2) Moreover, some students are connected to TVET because of work relationships in the a gricultural sector. According to D someone to study agricultural technic ans and ed to be pa rticular to school 04 in which were students from other schools who were simply inspired to get a technical diploma because of agriculture related organizations and programs wo rking in their communities. A student in FG 01 said that [ name removed] been encouraged by someone in the agricultural sector to pursue a diploma in that field, whether that is a family member, a person connected to the school like a teache r, the director himself, current or former students. In certain cases, the opportunities that exist in t heir communities have prompted a demand for technical studies. D 02 explain ed students [attendance] than during the we especially the ones from Cote de a lot of students from Cote de de
56 students from this regio de Fer for [the t seems that wherever the organizations and people actively working in agriculture are is where the youth is most likely to know about and decide to at tend an agricultural technical school. Reputation. Finally, being a technician, in itself, is a tool to wards success. D 02 T1 ricultural sector. Being a technician legitimates decisions in the field as well. For example, this stud ent who was encouraged to enter a technical program by technici ed am a technician if communities like this student in FG be like the n be essential in building a career. In FG study animal health; by studying animal health, you ca n become a great veterinarian, not only for T2, standing and reputation is d eemed problematic by teacher 04 T3 who wonder ed kind of relationship should exist between ag d this question because he th ought exper present themsel what their job is; in their training they receive no orientation in that r 02 explain ed that
57 hey know that they wa s also noted by researcher on the loose use of certain words by students to describe thems 03 ). Improving L ocal Communities not just for the farmers we can say even in the 03) depicts some of the various ways in which a technician is expected to contribute to soc technician ( a ) supports rural development and (b ) helps reduce poverty and migration. Rural development. Helping farmers and agrono mists working in the field is contributing to rural development. Teacher 01 T1 th ought important for the agricultural system. 01 T2 state d cultural technic is extremely important in the development of the country, may it be on the environmenta l level, ve getal and why not animal T1 also care d because he believes tha t is what a technician is called to do. Students also know that this is a future endeavor for them as ag ricultural technicians. During FG 02 a student recognize d that the farmers ] the technique that we have to help them get a economically. A student in FG 01 explain ed impo the agricultural sector in Haiti is linked to the essential rol e that technicians play within it (D 03; FG 01; 03 T3). The technician belongs where the farmers are, which is in the mountains 01). Therefore, as mentioned during FG
58 see if the technicians want to go up the mountains or stay in the cities, they will see they pay the s and not contributing to rural development in that sense. D ag riculture technicians must go in the mountains, as mentioned many times becaus T1); and the mountains is where the peasants do agriculture in Haiti. Their work is necessary because it provides services that are needed. According to 01 t aims at protecting the environment and secondly its objective or goal is to change the lives of all th Migration/poverty. What happens when there are no technicians working at improving the livelihoods of families liv ing in the mountains is migration, notably rural out migration and more poverty both in the rural communi ties and the cities. Helping rural development means helping farmers stay in the rural communities, therefore, it means combating rural migration and po 02). The reality though, is tha 01) because they 01). Low p roductivity in agriculture ans, so they have to 01). FG in the streets rather than work in the m mostly, and a few teachers as well ( 04 T1 ; 01 T1; 0 1 T3) felt that thes e conditions can be improved with more technicians proper ly imparting knowledge to the population. However, the migration occurs also from the cities to the rest of the world. 01 T2 attest ed Dominican Republic doing gra
59 to stop the migration. This migration problem is noticed by 03 T2 who s aw t [the city] some youth have contempt and are not interested to go to technical schools because they do not Agricultural Extension M ensionist for the peasants, 03). The extension work agricultural technicians ought to perform are multiple but can be summed through the sub themes of (a) providing technical assistance, (b ) improving production practi ces, (c ) protectin g the environment, (d ) increasing food security and (d) training. Provide technical assistance The role of a te chnician is to provide technical assistance was shared by nearly all respondents. However, whom they assisted may consi T3). As 01 T2 upported by D 04 of the technicians seem ed agricultural technician our role is to accompany the ag student in FG ting in the field T1). Their role while accompanying the agronomist is crucial [ an agronomist ] has techn according to 01 T3) because T3). accompany the farmers T3). According to 04
60 trained agricultural technicians, so the farmers may get the support they helping/accompanying the farmers is so entrenched in the subculture that many students use the same wording when reflecting upon the work they project to do after graduation, like this one during FG 01 T3 also view ed Improving production practices Students view ed the purpose of their future work as 01). There seem ed to be a consensus amongst the students on the fact that Haitian farmers engage in activities tha t are detrimental to agricultural productivity. In FG 03 a student describe d [ the farmers] do not realize that land but yields keep going dow n, which is explained not by the low quality of the beans, like they claim, but by the bad practices they are attached to generati onally. It is the job of a technician to show them a better way in order for the production to yield more. According to studen ts in FG can enable the peasants to plant better. 02). In FG 01, someone t ook an example on their own progress in the but seems to affect the environment, which su bsequently lowers the productivity more, in a vicious cycle. FG rs and make them work the land [ farm ] in a different environment.
61 Protecting the e nvironment. Environmental issues are therefore also a huge component oposed by 01 environmental issues, particularly in reforestation campaigns. Like this student from FG 01 ther students we re inspired by people working for the improvement of the environment. In FG 03, a student mention ed a role model w was inspired to become a technician by watching other tech d ecided to pursue studies in the field as a result. Therefore, ecology is an attractive component of the job to these students and they feel that they are the most prepared to face these issues. For criticized someone from FG 03. According to students from rosion environmental issues is not limited to the rural areas, as ecology is holistic in nature. Reforestation is particularly a focal point as attested by this student during FG Increase food security. However, envir onmental issues do not exist in and of themselves; they are embedded within the agricultural system from which depend the whol e population for food. T he goal is to protect the environment, so that more food can be produced. FG bout helping the farmers know about how to plant and have higher
62 accom destructive practices give lower yiel agricultural technician show the peasants how to work to see improvement (FG yields 01). By improving agricultural yields and productivity, agricultural technicians also tackle the topic of food insecurity in the country. As teacher 01 T3 evoke d them to help the whole population with a series of food they need fo eating T1. But according to 01 T1 it is not an obvious goa er, the students fe lt it was hat 01). The wa y in which these agricultural technicians will attain the objectives is through proper training of the farmers and other agric ultural producers. Examples of technicians doing this type of work exist ed for some of these students, for instance in FG 03, who recall ed what they want to do in the agricultural sector in Haiti. Training. teacher 02 T 1. This idea was supported by 04 is to work
63 Many teachers and directors (D 02; D 01; 04 T1; 04 T2; 0 4 T3; 0 2 T1 ; 02 T2; 03 T1; 03 T2; 03 T3 ; 01 T3 ) you s ay agricultural technician that means peasants, so the technician has a very tight link wi people (03 T2). In con clusion as stated by 03 stoo d their role as such. They identif ie d zone and [give] some training which the peasants benefitted from. I remember that I participated someone from FG 03. In FG 01 another student r e veal ed [ s ] to train other people who may lack knowledge in this sector because 04 want ed to gain all the skills necessary for o 03 was [ as an ag ricultural agent ] I wa s working towards his diploma to do just that as well. All of these d r eams and aspirations point in the same direction, that (FG 03). Recom m endations and Implications Agricultural TVET in Haiti increases social mobility of s t udents, improves local communities, and enhances extension capacity in the country. Meaning making is socially constructed, context bound and is sensitive to cultural context (Doolittle & Camp, 1999; Powell o se has meanings that are inherent to the cultural context in which it was constructed by the different stakeholders within it.
64 Agricultural TVET increases social mobility of students through (a) additional training and education (b) providing a step tow a rd higher education (c) helping establish financial independence, (d) developing entrepreneurship skills, (e) building networks, and (f) establishing a solid professional reputation. The various experiential learning activities provided to students durin g their training ha ve allowed them to enhance the utility, purposefulness and practicality of the skills they have acquired for better competitiveness after their graduation, as TVET creates a connection between education and real life ( Buchmann & Schwille 1983; Cantor, 1997). The findings from the interviews and focus groups with various stakeholders within the Haitian agricultural TVET, ha ve revealed that TVET had potential to help vulnerable young people receiving training when they may not have had th e formal possibility to gain any skills otherwise. Developing countries in Latin America particular ly used this level of training to meet the needs of disadvantaged youth (King, 1993). The youth enrolled in these schools, was found to have less schooling and therefore would face issues being admitted into the universities. Most of the schools selected for the study required a lower educational level than universities, as also reported by King (1993). Those graduates often were able to finance their higher education themselves, although the majority of the schools, except the university, have a tradition of non terminal TVET (King, 1993 ; Swanson & Rajalahti, 2010 ). In Latin America, as it was found that there are both terminal and non terminal TVETs (King, 1 993) as the findings of this study also suggest However, the emphasis was put on job creation because these young people entering the TVET system are mostly the ones facing economic struggles; therefore, access to opportunities, academic and employment, m ay be a challenge to them in general. The main purpose of the [TVET] philosophy [in Nigeria] i s to give training and impart the necessary skills to individual who shall be self reliant economically According to the study
65 finding s, in the schools visited, the graduates were able to have access to these personal improvements through the network thy create and/or the reputation they gain through their agricultural technical studies and subsequent diplom a. Agricultural TVET schools also improve local communities through supporting rural development and reducing poverty and rural out migration In Honduras, it has been found that there is a direct correlation between TVET and higher rural productivity and incomes (Atchoarena, Wallace, Green & Gomes, 2003 ). TVET in Haiti also helped the youth to get out of pover ty as it did in India (Bisariya & Mishra, 2015) notably by allowing young people to find employment faster. More than just the students being dire ct beneficiaries of TVET, the findings also suggest that, according to the participants interviewed, it also had the potential to help the and Owenvbiugie (2017), Nigerian TVET had the potentia l to help youth develop this d sustainably. As this position was prevalent in teachers and certain directors, it can be inferred that it is an inherent part of their responsibilities as TVET educators. Finnish TVET teachers responsibility for enlightenm ent and for promoting economic and social progress; this is 420). Agricultural TVET schools also play a crucial role in developing the ca pacity for extension type acti vities in the country like: (a) providing technical assistance, (b) improving production practices, (c) protecting the environment, (d) increasing food security; and (d) training. The agricultural technicians are to help the r ural world, through the traini ng they ought to provide to the farmers about food production and environmental issues. If production increases, they contribute to food security in t h e country. Many countries employ graduates from agricultural schools, rathe r than university graduates, t o do the field level extension activities
66 (Swanson & Rajalahti, 2010). In developing countries, the government agencies train these workers for their own agricultural field level extension services in many areas like forestry, fisheries, etc. (Atchoarena e t al., 2003). Recommendations for research would be to further investigate private TVETs in other geographic departments of the country. It would be interesting to understand Haitian TVET from ferent types of teachers, the characteristics of their educational institutions and their professional development as it relates to INFP. It would also be important to investigate EMAs, which are the public agricultural TVET schools under the ministry of Agriculture, rather than the m inistry of Education that supervises these private TVET schools. This study did not include the view of farmers and rural communities on the work of technicians. Recommendations for practice stem from the participants themsel ves, who have expressed the ne ed for the state to provide more support to the sector through the ministry of Agriculture. It would make sense, first to define the relationship between these schools and the ministry of Agriculture, which is still unclear. A nother recommendation for the government would be that, as these schools propose entrepreneurship, the current state of agricultural microfinance in the country is a discrepant information. These schools also lack infrastructure and resources, the state ma y be able to intervene in that regard, since many of them could cong lomerate into learning centers with other technical and vocational options offered. The training provided in these centers should be non terminal, so that students who wish to do so may be able to naturally progress to An important recommendation should target the various trainings needed in the TVET schools. Their curriculum should include a module, or a unit within a module, t o address the roles of technic ians in the agricultural system, particularly their relationship with agronomists. It
67 was also made clear that these technicians needed to be formally trained on organic and other sustainable practices so as to better inform t he farmers they train. The tra ining they ought to provide to the farmers also creates needs for them to know about adult education principles and diverse communication skills.
68 CHAPTER 5 WHAT IS THE BALANCE OF THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL SKILLS IN HAITIA N AGRICULTURAL TVET CURRICULUM ? Background Agricultural activities are important because farming produces the food necessary to human consumption and survival (Moehler, 1997). However, still today, in many parts of the world food insecurity exists (FAO, IF AD & WFP, 2015) both on the n ational and at the household level (FAO, 2003). In the developing countries, as opposed to industrialized ones, agriculture is part of normal activities because a high percentage of the population is involved in production (Wi lkin, 1997). This situation ma y explain why developing countries produce less food per acre of land per worker (Fuglie & Wang, 2012) and why 70 to 75% of the poor of the world live in rural areas (FAO, 2002), because the normalization of agriculture may be at the root of its lack of ef ficiency. Haiti is a country that faces all of these obstacles, with an alarming hunger index severity (von Grebmer et al., 2016), with 25% of the population living in extreme poverty (WFP, 2018), but 39% of the total population living in rural communities according to FAOSTAT (2018). Since GFRAS (2017) found that graduates from the technical schools for the most part work in extension in Haiti, it would be important to understand the curriculum of Haitian agricultural TVET as it relates to the state of agr icultural production in the country. The Ministry of Education has reported that TVET has been declining in the country and quality of private TVET is not always gu aranteed (MENFP, 2012). It becomes crucial to investigate the types of qualification Haitia n TVET provides to its graduates. Literature Review Mouzakitis (2010) define d TVET as a type of education which trains people to work in a particular occupation t hrough suitable and relevant curriculum or enables lifelong learning for employed people in that occupation. From this definition, it can be inferred that the provision of
69 skills which address market demands ought to be included in a TVET program, so as to encourage employment (Mouzakitis, 2010). In a developing country like Ghana, TVET has been found to provide employable skills to the youth (Darvas & Palmer, 2014). In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region, TVET has incurred curricular modifications which add entrepreneurial and organizational skills to the technical (King, 1993), because there may not be enough demands, so employment must be created (UNESCO, 2015). However, TVET must provide quality skillset that is linked to the economy and meets e UNESCO (2015). This organization has also raised concerns about the link between academic education and components of curricula with curricula should aim to integrate elements of particip ative methodologies and hands on experiences (Minghat & Yasin, 2010). In Ghana, TVET curricu la is found to be overly theoretical and to fail at retaining the best teachers, as well as failing to encourage them to maintain practical relationships with the i nductry ( Darvas & Palmer, 2014 ). The different types of teachers which are involved in TVET, as well as the ir contribution in the specific characteristic s of the institutions where they work is important to consider when attempting to understand TVET as a n educational system ( Heikkinen, 1997 ). Quality of TVET must be improved, through the standa rdization of the curriculum and the development of non teechnical skills, innovative training and educational methods, professional development for teachers as well as ( Basu & Majumdar, 2009; Nooruddin, 2017 ). In reality, TVET is very diverse to respond to a variety of curricula needs based on clienteles, institutions, employment opportunities and outcomes ( King, 1993 ). Theoretical Framework The direct application of knowledge during the activities constitutes e xperientia l l earning in educational settings (Kolb, 2014), and the experiences accumulated by students allow them to
70 learn ( Beard & Wilson, 2013). Some of the practical exper iences may be gained through internships, field projects, hands on laboratory experiments, p racticums, educational placements, in class experiential activities, service learning (Cantor, 1997; Kolb, 2014). In agriculture related studies, internships are fo und to be beneficial (Roberts, 2006). However, the learning must also be situated, because i t permits more rapid and successful learning (Miller & Gildea, 1987). Situated learning is context specific and the concepts are not always abstract, making it an e nculturation process as well (Brown, Collins authentic activities and tools, which learners use thorough the cognitive apprenticeships, differ et al., 1989). St udents are motivated by in context practical application of learning, which also allows for appropriate assimilation of critical skills (Anderson, Reder & Simon, 1996; Voss, Wiley & Carretero, 1995). Purpose This study sought to gain insights into the types of skills Haitian agricultural technicians are receiving at the schools, most specific ally what was the balance of theoretical and practical skills within the Haitian agricultural curriculum. Methodology Thi s study used a basic qualitative study approach (Ary, Cheser Jacobs, Sorensen, & Walker, 2012), with semi structured in t erviews and focus groups The study sampling consisted of all the cases within the targeted population of TVET schools in the Ouest depa rtment of Haiti (Harding, 2013), resulting in four schools, one in Montrouis, which was a university as well, and three in Petit Goave. Within each school, the sampling method used was stratified purposeful (Ary et al., 2012) with typical cases chosen (Mil es, Huberman, & Saldaa, 2014). In each one, the director and three teachers were interviewed, and a focus group of nin e students conducted; however, in Montrouis deviant cases selected allowed for only one student interviewed, in order
71 to respect research et al., 2012). Researcher also made general observations of facilities. The interview guides were prepare d in English, and then translated into French and Haitian Creole; the interviews were conducted in Creole. The interviews and focus group s recorded and researcher kept a journal as well (Yin, 2016). The results analyzed directly from the audio were not transcribed (Green, Franquiz & Dixon, 1997), rather researcher took notes in English ( Ary et al., 2012; Miles et al., 2014 ) Initials codes em e rged using the constant com parative method ; axial coding was then used to organize initial codes into themes and sub themes ( Saldaa, 2016). Two peers fluent i n Eng lish and creole each reviewed randomly one teacher note for trustworthiness (Creswell & Miller, 2000). However, quotes were pulled directly from audio and translated to English were returned to them to ensure member checking validity (Cho & Trent, 2006; Hoffart, 1991) ; three of four gave feedback To further ens ure rigor, researcher also used triangulation of data sources from students, teachers and directors as well as method triangulation with interviews, field notes and observations (Carter, Bryant Lukosius, DiCenso, Blythe & Neville, 2014). Most of the direc tors and teachers were agronomist s; but some were technicians as well. They were all male and r elatively young Many were businesspersons or had other teaching positions and only worked part degrees and worked fulltime. All Th e students were from rural communities and nin e were women out of 28 students The y all reported family activity to be agriculture related and commerce. The age range seemed relatively wide; many had worked and had studied in ot her fields before. The institutions were technical schools with the agriculture option, except 03 offered othe
72 lasted 2 to 3 years, but 04 had a credit system. The minimal entry level was 3e (school 01 and 02); school 03 required seconde and 04 philo. Only 02 had INFP recognition a nd 04 was an accredited university. Findings Data yielded t hree themes related to the balance of theory and practice in the curriculum of agricu ltural TVET schools in Haiti. The first was the role of practical experiences in the curriculum. The second was instructional strategies used in TVET to provide practical expe riences The final theme focused on barriers to providing more practical experien ces. The Role of Practic al Experiences in the Curriculum All of the respondents thought that practices are at the core of technical studies, as attested by 02 T3) for technical studies Moreover, practic al experien ces serve many purposes in the program of studies, because they are an inherent expectation from technicians as well as a competitive advantage f 01 reveal e d Practic al experiences also help in preparing them for their future work in extension and they are the way to ensure best environmental practices are implemented. Each parti cipant also evaluated their level of satisfaction with current ratio of practice and theory, which may be summed up by 01 Three sub them e s emerged from the data: (a) the impo rtance of practical experiences, (b) the purposes of practical experiences, and ( c) the amount of practical experience in the curriculum. Importance of practic al experiences Teachers, students and directors gave similar responses about the importance of p ractic al experiences in the technical curriculum that is that, T1). That is
73 f or up to 60 70% and the theory could be 30 T3), backed up by 01 T2 who going in the field with them, we see that it has many good beneficial roles, it has a lot of worth more than a ton of it means that you go find out that 03). Therefore, practic al experiences enhance learning, as 04 T2 explain ed Some learning assessments, 01 stud ents for the job market and increase their employability. Therefore, according to 01 can spend a lot of time doing theory and you can even manage to finish the cycle of studies ever really studied the science for real T1 point ed cultural technician I must be well versed in the practice, which means that in the field we must have minimum 60 to 70% of the field, so they must learn the practical skills to be successful in their future j practice T3. Teachers also underst oo d that it is their respon sibility to provide such needed skills to them while they are studying or as 03 T2 said em to not only explore 3 T2 wa s the only who raised an
74 important point which elevates the importance of practic al experiences even more in the technical route. He expose d that the way technician s were taught in the past was positive, in that when the agronomist who teaches the c ourse goes in the field he should have an agricultural ; gs to students in the field rather than him, the teacher who already explained the th eory in class. In short, everyone agree d pillars for agricultural technic [...] because practice is the most important i n agricult (FG 02), because as D 01 recognize d 04 t old ut the interview, was however, contradicted by what the dean and all three teachers r making a difference between students from either route, bachelor or technical. Purposes of practical experiences Pr actic al experien ces have multiple purposes For 01 explain ed or in FG 02). This idea wa s supported by a few teachers as w ell, such as 03 heory or 03 because as mentioned during FG e without practice you will go nowhere, because as a technician practices are your th
75 Practices are essential to technicians for various other reasons, like the ones related to the types of work in which they ought to be involved. FG 01 sa id you cannot produce if 04 explain ed that the practic al experie nces help students produce real al exp eriences are important in enabling graduates to be productive members within the agri cultural system through effective entrepreneurship. They should also be involved in the extension system, helping the farmers produce better. Therefore, according to 03 T2 T1 thought focus means the field; the technician has to, for the most part, work in the field, practice and provide his d the sam e vision for technicians in the extension system as well, as attested by D 03, a studen t reveal ed must do the practices, so we may be able to execute them for bene ficial results not only for 01 expose d to them at all. The extension activities of technicians can also help enforce better practices with the farmers. As explained by D between parcels, for ex ample with different types of fertilizers, and prove that the synthetic ones are not necessarily the best ones to use. Practic al experiences in the curriculum are also necessary because it helps with learning T2 reveal ed T1 explain ed d
76 students from previous cohorts who have not had the practicum he t aught consider that they have not learned anything. Teach er 01 T1 explain ed how class content is chosen so that on the the students] a fast 03) However, there is a need to integrate better practic al experiences in the curriculum Teacher 01 T1 said uation is also linked to their future roles within thod called hand in the dough you are the activitie has no guarantee, you wi ll fail; you must have the guarantee that you will succeed. Finally, technicians are more competitive on the job market because of their technical skills, and organizations sometimes recruit them instead of agronomists. 01 T2 gave an example of his forme r student who was one in a group of three agronomists recruited in the organization T2 also clearl The technician is all ; went r project that exists in whatever institution, they want technicians more than they do agronomists, because the herent to the technician and his program of study there must be practic al experience because it is ultimat ely a competitive advantage, even compared to agronomists. Students wer e aware of that situation as well, like in FG 03, someone support ed technician does more practice than the agronomist; the technician is more practical than
77 0 3 report ed what an win 03). Amount o f practical experience In the focus groups, the amount of practice deemed necessary ranges between 60 to 8 0% across groups and inside each individual group as well. However, most focus groups were reluctant to give a number on what the actual balance betw een practice and theory looked like, but in FG 02, a student ventured to say that reality might be around 5 0% of each in her opinion. However, another student quickly disagreed with her, and be inferred that FG/E 04 fe lt the practice he g ot was insufficient, because he practices on his own volitio n with a few institutions to complement his training. The teachers, for the most part, did not think they are able to include the sufficient amount o f practice in their courses. 01 T1 bluntly state d that, in agricultural right now ; he agree d view is the most shared among teachers. 04 T3 claim ed 60/40, but I could say 70% theory and 30% practice ; T1 manage d to do less than his ideal 75 90%, ha ving only For teacher 01 T sacrifices it [ balance between practice and theory ] T2 th ought that sometimes learning is insufficient without the practice because students are amazed at how much easier it is than expected when they do practice, which i
78 Acc ording to 01 theory than prac T1 claim ed at the students have hand, the directors, in general, we re more optimistic than the teachers we re. As D 03 admit ted practice 60 75%; or D 04 reveal ed the reversed pyramid experiment that has been going on for 7 be more 02 even claim ed nical schools are 80% practice and 20% theory, but we do 50% theory and 80% Instructional M ethods Many teacher s revealed different instructional methods they use to ensure that there is a balance in the curriculum, starting with various (a) participative methods, (b) research assignments, and (c) field activities Participative methods. There are a few ways in wh ich teachers include participative methods in their teaching. For instance, teacher 04 T2 who taught a p racticum, sa id his classes do not have lectures in th the students g o t to compar e methods in the demonstration parcels and he derives the conclusion through the results. 03 T1 claim ed t aught by question ing the students rather than lecturing because he is not the only one who possess es knowledge. Others avo id ed the classic exams, for example, in 02 workshop 01 T2 who g ave and 03 T3, who said some exams
79 play and simulations as wel T1 innovate d in the grading, by making the students grade each other after an assignment, and he serve d as a jur y during this process 04 T2 said freedom to self T3 ma de groups of students present whole chapters of the course content instead of him and they are included in the evaluations without hi s having to lecture on them. He explain ed the students basically do the oth allows Research. Conducting their own research was said to help s tudents learn better. According to 03 ber more from research assignments than with lectures in ( 04 T3; 02 T3; 03 T1; 01 T2; 01 T3 ) mentioned giving research assignments to students. For example, 01 T 2 sa id T3 said and 01 T3 said T3 added was therefore, viewed as a positive to ol for learning. However, in only one of the focus grou ps ( FG 01 ) research was mentioned The students in general refrained from speaking abou t methods when prompted. Field activities. M ost teache rs ( 04 T2; 04 T3; 02 T1; 02 T2; 03 T1; 03 T2; 03 T3; 01 T1 ; 01 T2; 01 T3 ) and a few students mentioned field trips and visits as a way to integrate practical applications to the course content. Accordi ng to 04
80 field v 02 they express ed course. Sometimes it really is just a bout visiting what exists and allow st udents to see with their own eyes. Like 01 T3 who said This idea was supported by students in FG n the third week, he [the teacher] programs and tells u T1 expresse d recommendations t ed taking the students to do active observations in the field because of the type of course or because of the lesson need. As exampl es 03 T1 said m the different systems in the Haitian peasantry T1 who said the field to make observations and 03 T1 who also said more based on observation d more active practices like 02 T2 reveal ed the practice themselves. He was not the only one mentioning practices of that sor t. 03 T1 also claim ed d the practice not with observation but with demonstrations. For instance, 04 T2 said nment. Demonstrations we re also used by 02 T 1 who integrate d practical experiences through visits, trips and demonstrat ions and 01 T2 who mostly visited and did demonstrations with the students. These trips and visits t ook place in farms and other private b usinesses; like D 01 state d arms, we see some T3 added
81 Barriers to m ore P ractic al Experiences However, many obstacles were also revealed that get in the way of successful integration of practices in the program of study. The f inancial situation is very precarious according to 01 have the willpower Sub themes under barriers included schedul ing, resources, student attitudes, laborator ies, and the rural realities in Haiti. Scheduling. This problem is very straightforward and has been mentioned only by a very few teachers 03 T2 said ts, but when the students go out for them it make my courses 60% practice and 40% theory but it would require that the courses I co nduct them only in the field, but the way the schedule is established, the students may have two (04 T3). 04 T3 conc lude d hedule is set up, it makes it Resources M any participants ( D 01; D 03; 04 T 1; 04 T 2; 04 T3; 03 T2; 01 T1; 01 T3 ) expressed that the school lack ed in resources to realize more practices because students do not pay tuition and/or fees. 03 T2 reveal ed a contribution from students up and so it may be difficult to go financially, but also because the teacher would have to make up for the other two. That is T1). The director D 01 a gree d that he does not pay the teachers because the students do not pay him tuition T he He went on to say that
82 with my own money sue, because according to 01 T3 conditions, therefore automatically, if you ask them to contribute financially and pay the school 01 T1 there are too many constraints T3 disagree d t have many constraints when I 02 also mention ed the same financial constraints from students who do not pay tuition. Nevertheless, they d id not seem to have a problem for giving the augmented practice and theory they claim to give at the school. However a school seemed to have fewer issues than all the others and 04 T1 reveal ed 04 explained Studen t attitudes. When the inability to have more practice is not due to the students not paying tuition and fees, it is about their attitude. 03 T2 reveal ed lot, they find it tiring; so that becomes a constraint t o make more pr actice st explain ed Students seem ed to agree on the fact that it is also their responsibility. In FG 03 this students, sometimes by lazines 02 students disagreed to the amount of practice they received at the school One student argu ed for 70%, instead of the 50% proposed by another, claim ing that somehow suggesting that it varies across students. This idea was welcomed by the group and the disagreeing student as well. 03 use t he students
83 occur. In conclusion, as D 03 pu t learns the same, not everybody has the same and it can happen that only 50% of the Laboratories in Haiti. A big obstacle is the lack of infrastructure like labo ratories. T3. Even though he recognize d T2 fe lt methi ng you imagine 01 clarifie d oratory equipment cost more than having land parcels for demonstratio ns. T here wa s at least one teacher who d id not complain about the lab oratory situation, 04 This collaboration with external laboratories wa s confirmed by D laboratories, but they were destroyed during the 2010 ea rthqu ake and they have been in the process of rebuilding. It is a university, it has more resources in general, like dormitories, land as well, a credit system which has many advantages for students but they must pay tuition Rural reality and the enviro nment T eachers 0 1 T1 and 0 1 T 3 particularly fe lt concern for the type of information students get as it relates to the reality they will have to deal with. 01 T1 acknowledge d bree ding is done in Haiti F or example, pure improved breeds cannot survive in rural Haitian
84 went o n to rather than synthetic products as pesticides. 01 T3 t aught 01 st ate d connected to protecting the environment. 04 T2 explain ed that, in his course, students realize d demonstration parce ls experimenting about natural versus synthetic pesticides, he conclude d use the chem wa s elaborated to adapt to reality. A few director s and many teachers (03 T1; 03 T2 ; D 02 ) mentioned that the course content is elaborated based on what other technical schools are doing and the INFP required courses, but as 03 T2 c learly expresse d ith examples taken from the places having access to resources. Like 03 T2 explain ed enterprises, you find less entreprene entrepreneurship course than he would have desired. Recommendations and Implications Agricultural TVET schools in Haiti want to focus on practical issues as part of their mission, without neglec ting the theoretical aspect. A number of participative instructional methods emerged as a way to ensure sufficient amount of practice was covered during the training. However, there seemed to be real obstacles, financial mostly, to achieving the ideal rati o of practice and theory, which the school administration decisions influence as well. The constructivist approach in education posits that curriculum, as well as teaching methods an d tools
85 should enhance learners solving problems, through various p articip ative practices, which are conducive to all sorts of interactions among students and their subsequent engagement ( Doolittle & Camp, 1999; Jaramillo, 1996; Powell & Kalina, 2009). The relevance of practical experiences in TVET schools was expressed through the importance of practical experiences, the purposes of practical experiences, and the amount of practical experience in the curriculum. It has been recognized that there is a ne ed for practical experience within the curriculum in agricultural education, such as work experience on campus farms and greenhouses, hands on training, and internships (Coorts, 1987) The findings are consistent with this proposition. However, practice wa s found insufficient in the majority of cases because of lack of resources. With the exception of the university, no other schools had farms for practice. Nevertheless, they all collaborated with external entities to have access to resources for students, including internships after the program has been completed. A study in seven African countries revealed that educators in the post secondary agricultural training must ities such as private agribusinesses, farmer organizations, NGOs, or other, preferably with internship or other types of student placement in those institutions (Rivera, 2006). Teachers at agricultural TVET schools used a variety of instructional methods to help students gain practical experiences. These included participative me thods, research assignments, and field activities Many recognize the necessity to find new approaches to teach agriculture to students focusing on different learning styles and pr oblem solving (Coorts, 1987). Many teachers referred to participative method s, research and other instructional methods like reversed pyramid, they were experimenting with the students to enhance their learning. Freer (2015) citing Jordaan and Taylor (2014 ), suggested the reinforcement of entrepreneurial mentality in
86 students thro ugh participatory and experiential learning methods such as debates and discussions, teamwork and problem solving etc. Sustainable development in the curriculum requires industrial network, creativity, and participative teaching methods focused on hands on experiences, visits to factories, field work, laboratory work, and internships in specific industries (Minghat & Yasin, 2010). Participants revealed several barriers to providing practical experiences for students. These included scheduling, resources, st udent attitudes, laboratories, and the rural realities in Haiti. Facing the reality of the real world is what situated learning refers to as the enculturation process through the i ntegration of symbols or mental representations stored in memory, which cann ot be complete or accurate, nor applicable in real life if they are only learned in school setting (Brown, Collins & Duguid, 1989; Vera & Simon, 1993). A few teachers mentioned sch eduling conflict that do not accommodate extensive practical activities in t he field. This situation was not reported as frequently as the serious financial lack that these schools face. Similar to studies in seven African countries, this study revealed th at administrators and educators pointed out inexistent laboratory equipment, computers, financial sponsorship of students, instructional farms, and student lodging, as well as insufficient teaching materials and staff development (Rivera, 2006). Another st udy on African agricultural TVET also found that it faced financial problems due to lack of resources subpar working conditions, and obsolete teaching materials and farm equipment (Atchoarena et al., 2003, p. 262). Rivera (2006) has identified six critic al areas for p ost s econdary a gricultural edu cation and t raining, which are g overnment policy and funding, stakeholder representation, appropriate teaching methods, curriculu m relevance, and institutional l inkages. Ultimately, what is sought is more access to
87 laboratories, learning farms, libraries, and computers, availability of i nternet connectivity, equipment and communication technology, as well as better facilities (Rivera, 2006). Recommendations for r esearch would be to realize an in depth comparison of the curricula in TVET schools in this and other geographic departments of Haiti. It could also be helpful to gather more information about the INFP regulations and processes for certification of TVET sc hools. On the other hand, the ministry of Agriculture also has EMAs, which this study did not include. At this point, it would make sense to understand their cursus better as well. Recommendations for practice is that the curriculum may benefit from a bet ter coordination between two ministries, because some agricultural TVET institutions are under the Ministry of Agriculture and others report to the Ministry of Education. As the required skillset becomes more complex, it may b e essential for these students to interact with other concentrations, therefore, TVET learning centers integrated with extension activities, may be proposed as a solution which will allow students learning through real life experiences Learning centers may also help in catering to so me of the financial difficulties the schools face and their subsequent lack of infrastructure and resources, because the state may be able to provide a general access to these resources, which all options can utilize with proper scheduling. Recommendation s for faculty training are also crucial. The teachers may benefit from professional development on various agricultural methods but mostly from instructional strategies, which are culturally appropriate and relevant to Haitian realities, to better incorpor ate the practical application of learning. Specifically, using elements of backwards design to create syllabus, and using exper iential and situated learning to include more practices in the curriculum. The teachers may also benefit from other trainings on communication skills as well as adult education principles, which the students also need for their future endeavors.
88 CHAPTER 6 WHAT ARE THE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES OF HAITIAN AGRICULTURAL TVET GRADUATES ? Background According to FAO (2002), 70 to 75% of poor people live in rural communities. This situation suggests that food production is an issue in many countries. This organiz ation also reported that 39 countries in the world still had critical food insecurity status in 2005 (FAO, 2006). Food availabili ty and access to the available food are the main components of food security, along with nutritional values of food supplies (F AO, 2003). In order to increase availability of food, agricultural productivity would need to increase as well. Fuglie and Wang ( 2012) found that developing countries had less agricultural output per acre of land per worker than industrialized countries, t herefore had more potential to increase their food production in the future. On the other hand, increased agricultural activity h as been found to influence developing & Rogerson, 2002). H the country is also in a critical food in security status, with close to half of the population undernourished (WFP, 2018). However, Haiti only has half of its arable la nd currently being cultivated according to FAOSTAT (2018). The current picture informs on the need to modify the agricultural sys tem within it. Extension activities may be a convenient tool in introducing systemic changes in the Haitian agricultural sector On the other hand, it has been reported that graduates from technical schools conduct most of the extension work in Haiti (GFRA S, 2017). As a result, it becomes important to understand their expected and actual occupational roles within the agricultural system.
89 Literature R eview Basu and Majumdar (2009) found that TVET was a good strategy for poverty reduction and rural developm ent in developing countries, because it allows for human capital building. UNESCO (2017a) proposed TVET as a contributor to emp loyment and a way to reduce social inequities. This same organization identified the guiding principles of TVET, which were emplo yability, decent work, growth, equity and so on (UNESCO, 2015) A study in Nigeria also found that TVET allowed young people t o develop job creation skills (Edokpolor & Owenvbiugie, 2017) but i n general, the market required for workers with flexible sill s (King, 1993). However, TVET does not have a preferential position in developing countries because it is believed to be reserv ed for students from a specific economic class (King, 1993,). In Ghana, for example, TVETs tend to lead to lower salaries and lim ited mobility and growth (Darvas & Palmer, 2014). Although in this same country, TVET is a great contributor to combating youth unemployment and industry productivity issues (Darvas & Palmer, 2014). Generally, TVET institutions did not have sufficient conn ection with industry employers (Freer, 2015). Quality and relevance of TVET is improved by its link to labor markets, as well a s TVET institutions management and their ability to generate knowledge and research (UNESCO, 2016). This relationship will vary b ased on the type of TVET. In Europe, three models have been identified the market model, the state controlled model and the co operative or dual model (Koudahl, 2010 ). The dual model combines advantages of other models, such as high employability resulting from relationship with the industry, and broad training provided by the state (Koudahl, 2010 ). Theoretical Framework Constru (Powell & Kalina, 2009). Vyg
90 interactions build the meaning al constructivism emphasizes more on how individual cognition relates to social processes (Bozkurt, 2017). However, they both rely on participative methods in education, and need to transpire in teaching strategies, curriculum and instructional materials ( Jaramillo, 1996; Powell & Kalina, 2009). As technical workplace starts to demand higher order thinking, TV ET slowly adopts constructivism, because it has historically been behaviorist, competency based with external imposition of skills requirement (Doolit tle & Camp, 1999). Backwards Design uses the desired outcomes of instruction to inform appropriate assessm ents, which in turn determine the instructional activities and materials necessary to attain desired results (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998). The study inte grated the principles of Backwards Design to grasp the influence of employers of Haitian TVETs graduates i n the training provided in the agricultural TVET schools. Purpose This study sought to investigate the types of employment opportunities for graduate s from agricultural Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Haiti. Methodology This stu dy was basic qualitative (Ary, Cheser Jacobs, Sorensen, & Walker, 2012), using semi structured interviews and focus groups. The study sample was selec ted based on all cases within the targeted population (Harding, 2013) of the Ouest department of Haiti, wh ich consisted of three schools in Petit Goave and one in Montrouis. Strat i fied sampling was used at each school with the director and three teachers being interviewed and a focus group of nine students was conducted (Ary et al., 2012). Typical cases were selected for each school (Miles, Huberman, & Saldaa, 2014), except in Montrouis, which was a university, deviant cases were chosen to respect the res earch focus (Ary et al., 2012) and only one student was interviewed. Additionally,
91 the researcher made gen eral observations of school facilities. Interview guides were written in English and then translated to French and Haitian Creole I nterviews and focu s groups were conducted in Creole by researcher at the interviewees home, office or campus at their conve nience. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded The researcher also kept a journal (Yin, 2016). The r esearcher conducted the initial coding i n English directly from the audio recordings ( Ary et al., 2012; Miles et al., 2014), rather than transcribing and then coding (Green, Franquiz & Dixon, 1997). Initial codes were organized in to themes and sub themes using the constant comparative method ( Saldaa, 2016). Two peers, fluent in English and Creole, each reviewed an analysis of teacher i nt er views t o establish trustworthiness (Creswell & Miller, 2000). Quotes were reported verbatim translations directly from audio. Member checking was used to ens ure validity of data by returning to the directors synthesized versions of their individual inter views (Cho & Trent, 2006; Hoffart, 1991) ; three out of four gave their feedback Data sources were triangulated through multiple data sources ( directors, teach ers and students ) as well as data collection methods (inte rviews, field notes and observations ) to further ensure rigor (Carter, Bryant Lukosius, DiCenso, Blythe & Neville, 2014). The directors and teachers were all male and relatively young They were most of them agronomists and worked halftime A few had technical degrees as well. Only three of the worked fulltime in the institution. Most of them owned their businesses, or had teaching positions elsewhere In all four focus groups, students reported family activity to be commerce and/or agriculture. There were nine women, mostly in FG 03, and nineteen men in total. Their ages seemed to include a relatively wide group of people. Many had worked or studied before Except for 04, which was a university delivering bachelor degrees, the schools were technical i nstitutions offering the agriculture optio n In general, their program
92 was reported to last between two to three years, but 04 functioned on a credit system. I t also required the maximum an entry level of philo, while schools 01 and 02 required only 3e; 03 demanded seconde. School 04 was an accredited university, but only 02 had INFP certification as a technical school. Findings Three themes emerged from the d ata about employment opportunities for TVET graduates. The first theme focused on employers The second focused on the types of jobs they take. The third focused on external factors that affect employment. Employers According to the respondents interviewe d, most graduates from agricultural TVET from the schools selected either work for the publ ic sector particularly the BAC (Bureau Agricole Communal) or the private sector; they also massively seek employment in the Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) and International Organizations (IO) in the country. However, they are encouraged to start thei r own businesses, and some choose to pursue a to ask for a job or cr This is summarized in the three themes of: (a) public/pri vate sector, (b) NGOs and IOs, and (c) entrepreneurship Public/private. Many graduates go to work either in the private or in the public sector, especially BACs, which have been mentioned by a few respondents (D 02; D 01; 04 T 3; 01 T3) Students also recognize that there are multiple opportunities, in FG may be recruiting, or th e state may also be recruiting, and you can drop your documents so as to partic ipate in the competition [ entrance examination ] interest in technicians because of their roles in extension activities, which wa s broug ht up during FG farmers] the good technical
93 0 1). The school also desires it, like D 02 declare d with the state; we give students to the BAC; BAC employs them sometimes too A teacher ( 01 T3 ) said ssimistic amongst the students in FG/E [employ] peo ple, even the ones it trains T eachers like 04 T3 said en [ EMAs ] state used to 04 report ed that in his institution, the connection with employers start s e have studying technical are bureau, senate, the chamber of deputies (representatives), local and international organizations, not so much NGOs. Despite this relationship, many fe lt echnician cannot put in his head that after they can create own T1). Therefore, most teache rs, students and directors felt like 03 T2 who summed it up by saying these students not only to have the capacity to be able to work in public or private [sector], you also prepare them to be able to develop their own leadership and bec ome entrepreneurs in their NGOs and IOs. was the direct answer director D 02 gave when asked where his graduates go work, but then he add ed instinctive answer and its duality are ch aracteristic of most of the answers received throughout
94 the interviews. 04 T3 also t hought NGOs S ome students fe lt the same way ( FG/E 04 ) they take [employ] peo Teacher 01 T3 said always take [employ] agronomists but they also call T2) T herefore, according to 04 e many NGOs do more work in accompanying the farmers they need technici ans and hire s a result, they have a relationship with some of the schools which pro vide the graduates they need as D 02 attest ed [ at the school ] prevalent that it is linked to moments in rece nt history where NGOs multiplied in the country and od of 2010 there were many NGO s here [in Haiti ]; there were a lot of students 02). On the other hand, not everyone wa s as optimistic about the job opportunities from NGOs in current times as FG/E 04 reveal ed to be Vis i on, anymore... Food For T he P be the first employer, as 04 T3 claim ed ns employed or hired by the state now, wer e already working with NGOs, as someone in FG 03 explain ed There are NGOs that come to work, I work a d role models, who work ed in or h ave formed their local NGOs, like this student from FG f professional s have formed a local NGO wh ich do es extension work in th e rural area where he grew up. 04 T2 argue d that the reason students want to work in
95 [ Haiti ] every person who studied agronomy or technical, is a person who h here is an ambiguous relationship with NGOs though. 01 T2 shared sibility 01 describe d kids, they ma y still go work in an NGO, they may still go work in the public sector, and they Entrepreneurship. Making their own opportunities was also discussed. Teacher 01 T1, th ought th ovide 03). Teachers agree d that e own institutions or may be called by other T3). However, ideally, according to 03 graduated a cohort yet, D We heless, there is an underlying message that there are not enough employment opportunities so 01 T1 claim ed wa s mentioned by students, from FG/E 04 the techn ician ] can start own activity if he manages 03 said students and teachers really prefer this option ( FG/E 04; F G 03; FG 01; D 01 D 02; 04 T2; 02 T1 02 T2; 01 T1; 01 T2; 01 T3; 03 T1; 03 T2; 03 T3 ) 02 T1 said that Entrepreneurship seems to be the favored choice even if there were many employment
96 opportunities, like FG 03 state d Then you will not have to was te your time working with impression is that self sufficiency is a better option, which allow for more financial benefits than any salary could. Director D 01 declare d We Teachers we re convinced as well that it is the best option like 04 and 01 T2 said m, the class, to organize themselves and bui agreement, so much so that, according to D t now to have we have many of them that went out [graduated], they all have their own entrepreneurship rather than try to look for employment elsewhere. 01 T2 ha d even advised his graduate s to start their own activity and they have managed to do it; now they come back and tell Types of Jobs Taken by Graduates Graduates from agricultural TVET schools are taking man y kinds of jobs. Jobs were organized in to t he sub themes of: (a) extension, (b) entrepreneurship, and (c) versatility Extension. to accompany farmers for intensification of agr e (04 I n FG 01 they assert ed tha to work the land [farm], also give T2, ork in the community base organizations [so]
97 01). During FG 03 this student explain ed methods to w Fo r example, th e food insecurity issue, if the government, the ministry of agriculture, the ministry of environment, want to do serious work in the country they need to call ( 01 T3 ). The work they do is to help in incre asing food production, as D 01 clarifie d f we train more people, people will work more environmental issues as well, these students in FG 03 recognize d we stay, as agricultural technicians, in th T2 support ed of soil protection ] will help them e reported that they give an environmental f ocus to 5 20 years, I mean in the long term, we may not have the vegeta tion T3). Reforestation, among st the many facets of environmental issues w a s reiterated the most F or instance, a student in FG to protect the trees he believes is and something he is preparing his students to do FG/E 04 wa s the only one who made a clear distinction between extension agents and technicians. For him agents, who spent less time studyin g, but are now called technicians as well, s hould do the extension work, not technicians.
98 Entrepreneurship. The main message is that the students may find a job with an institution but agricultural TVET schools are not focused on training employees for i nstitutions. 01 T1 bluntly assert ed for jobs, become employees; we give them information to guide them tow (03 T1 ). according to 03 T1. Students also see their future through the same lenses, for example during FG 01, someone reveal e d If 01 instill ed tell them to come with a plan [ ] so I may start helpi ng them to realize it that went out [graduated], Versatility At the end of the day, what is desired is a technician, who is cap able of fac ing a variety of tasks and work situations Teacher 02 T1 said we are for all types of job s in agriculture lt they T2). Students also kn e w that must be versatile a student in FG 02 claim ed sources, soil conservation, and animal health 04 explain ed nts evoked these balanced competences as well in FG 03 who claim ed
99 03). He thought someone may choose one or the other based on his or her preference. In conclusion, it seems that 03). External F actors that A ffect E mplo yment There seems to be a few reasons why s tudents may have difficulty finding employment in the country and those reasons are external to the school and the TVET system. The employment negatively. 02 T1 state d rd for everyone to find jobs here in general other opportunities like government jobs, we re reported that are related to agriculture and technical studies in the country. Three sub themes e merged from the data: (a) unemployment, (b) g overnment jobs, and (c) government support. Unemployment. T2). The la ck of employment is a direct consequence of t T1 explain ed as a poor country first of all, and when we see poverty images we must see that there are no jobs ents towards entrepreneurship derives from th e realization T1. The educators think that they cannot hide from th is fact 01 T1 sa id very realistic, we know that there are no jo well, from certain people, like 01 T1 who abruptly answer ed In 04 recognize d for youth to find ask e d if he felt that his graduates were getting the jobs they were trained for, D d say no
100 students do not find jobs that allow them to apply directly what they have learned in school. He t old the story of doctor s who drive taxis in the USA and an agronomist in Haiti who owns a cement depot business. As FG/E 04 put the private Opportunities in agr iculture Despite the overall unemployment situation, agriculture seemed to offer more prospects to young people than other trades In the past the government of Haiti used to employ technicians as they graduate, 04 T3 explain ed of revolt from agronomists because the state only had technicians in the BAC because they think it offers opportunities. For instance, so me students, one in FG 01 fe lt grateful [ ] we can say that the m ost money 02, a student who was a nurse before d ecided to switch to agriculture because she has seen many technicians and other people in the agricultural field work, and s he was inspired by them S to make a little bit of money with them she said as the group laughed. She wanted to fin to agriculture. Not just agriculture, there seems to be opportunities for agricultural technicians. D 04 reveal ed and choose to get into the technical c II would allow them to enroll heir memoir, [so] they request the diploma to go work Although these graduates are technically agronomists, they request t he technical diploma and
101 meantime they have a legalized diploma from the ministry of education, which allows them to 04 went working with a technical diploma, nevertheless, they have completed the 5 year c ycle of studies Despite all this, tech degree. The competitive factor for them is how fast a technician gets employed as compared to an agronomist, because organizations need more technicians to realize the type of jobs they are qualified for. D 04 explain ed [ the agronomist and the technician ] work in microcredit, but one works as a microcredit agent, and the other as a coordinator He went on to say nd more social benefits than the technician s may, because for one coordinator there are many agents needed. This other director, D 02, d id not usually present hims elf as an agronomist, which he wa s as well, but as a technician as he has both degrees because there are more opportunities for him as a technician than as an agronomist. with some association of agricultural technicians in France and plans to take some of his students with him on a trip there. FG/E 04 bluntly state d benefitted from a scholarship from Government support Another issue external to TVET is migration. Teacher 02 T3 was an agricultural technician doing community outreach with friends on refo restation in the rural communities and the activities had to stop because of the flux of migration towards Chile T he ma
102 (02 T3). He became a lawyer. The rural communities are being deprived of their youth, therefore, of their workforc e. D 01 complain ed them. First of all, 01 T2 said even though they untry is going 01). Some of FG 01 students fe lt th at the government needs to help them with their businesses, either by providing start up money and/or materials, or by providing them w ith a market at the end of the production cycle. But they disagree on where in the value chain the government should help One of them, in FG Others think that the govern ment could assist throughout the cycle As an example, one student (FG 01) said n nurseries, example someone like me, should get support, getting land or materials to work The s tate could also buy the product even 01). They also think that it is the go technician, even after graduating, the state should continue to invest in him, he should receive 01). Ultimately, the model of success s eems to be a Haitian entrepreneur who is financially stable and decides to reside in Haiti. 01 T2 t ook the example of his successful te chnician friend who does not need to travel abroad because he is being successful with his business. Recommendation s and Implications Graduates from agricultural TVET schools are gaining employment with a variety of employers, including as self employed e ntrepreneurs. Within these organizations, TVET
103 graduates were taking a variety of different positions, many with extensio n like responsibilities. The ability of a technician to be versatile was noted. However, graduates faced many external barriers to find ing employment. TVET graduates are working in the public/private sector; working for NGOs and IOs; and working as self e mployed entrepreneurs. Most of the graduates worked in NGOs or IGOs, which are not local organizations and usually have short term span projects that function with donations from governments or individuals with a definite agenda, often contrary to Haitians interest (Zanotti, 2010). This type of employment does not ensure employment security, nor does it reinforce Haitian agriculture, on the contrary it has been found to hinder it (Zanotti, 2010). The state, who was an important employer of agricultural tec hnicians through the BACs, was no longer providing much employment to the graduates, which increases rural migration due to poverty. Th e private sector was reported to be absent from agricultural activities. Under these circumstances, the schools all decid ed to emphasize on entrepreneurship. Graduates from agricultural TVET schools are taking many kinds of jobs. Jobs were organized into the sub themes of: (a) extension, (b) entrepreneurship, and (c) versatile. This versatility required from the technicians justifies the constructivist approach newly introduced to TVET as it was mostly positivist behaviorist, with little emphasis put on internal building of knowledge by TVET students (Doolittle & Camp, 1999) Although the possibility to work in existing NG Os or public agencies was not eliminated and sometimes mentioned, the system seemed to prefer self employment, as Oketch (2007) also cl aimed to be a function of TVET in many African countries de velopment for job creation in the agricultural sector (Edokpolor & Owenvbiugie, 2017). Ma ny of the respondents recognized that technici
104 training to the farmers about how to increase yield while being sensitive to the environmental issues like it is the case in many other developing countries (Atchoarena, Wallace, Green & Gomes, 2003). Swanson and Rajalahti (2010) found that in many countries, diploma level graduates, rather than university graduates, are hired for field extension services. For this reason, they must be trained to work in a wide varie ty of agricultural subjects. The new trend is for these workers for their own agricultural field level extension services in many areas like forestry, fisheries, and so on (Atchoarena et al., 2003). Howe ver, the decline in demand prompted them to adapt the training to respond to diverse skillset needed across a wide range of organizations (Atchoarena et al., 2003). The teachers in the selected schools all seemed to have gotten to the same realizations tha t training must respond to important global issues, such as environment and ecosystems, self employment, etc. (Atchoarena et al., 2003). However, graduates also faced barriers in finding employment like chronic unemployment, lack of government jobs, and la ck of government support. These barriers were important to take into consideration because th ey influence the knowledge required to perform; to come up with the desi red end of key stakeholders. Based on types of employers only, these schools would have never realized that entrepreneu r ship courses and focus were necessary for graduates success upon completion of their studies. One of the most recurring themes during i nterviews about future employment was the fact that people generally claimed that there were no employment opportunities in the country. In developing countries, TVET funding depends on various sources such as the government, individuals and employers (Atc hoarena et al., 2003), suggesting that a lot of support from the government is generally reco gnized.
105 Recommendations for research c ould be to investigate the employment reality in other geographic departments of Haiti for agricultural TVET graduates and t he position of the schools on entrepreneurship as a possible countrywide movement. It can be helpful to understand better the relationship between public extension agencies with TVET school graduates. It seems crucial to discover the skills and competencie s that employing organizations look for in a technician, as well as the perspective of farmer s and rural communities on their extension requirements from technicians. Finally, a study with graduates themselves may be an important source of information abou t employment opportunities Recommendations for practice would be, as some participants ment ioned themselves, for proper microcredit is given to agricultu re related projects. In order to do so, the ministry of Agriculture would need to get involve d more closely to private TVETs, not just to the public EMAs it manages I t would also require it clarified its relationship to the ministry of Education, particul arly INFP. As a participant mentioned, it can be interesting for the state to combine the tec hnical schools with extension activities into the multi options technical and vocational learning centers. There are also a few recommendations for trainings that emerged from the findings. It would be justified for directors and teachers to understand th e importance of backwards design in program of study. Other professional development for the students of TVET can be related to their expected extension competencies more specifically, communication skills and those related to adult education.
106 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUS ION S AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study revealed that, in the TVET s chools visited, the directors, teachers and students identified various purposes for TVET. Specifically, TVET seemed to play a role in the social mobility of rural students, as well as a role in improving local commun ities and within the Haitian agricultur al extension system by providing various technical trainings to farmers for better production and environmental protection sector, the schools provide much needed tr aining and networking to the youth as w ell as an opportunity for impoverished young people to build a reputation for themselves in the future, gain financial independence sooner and even start a small business, often to finance their Ho wever, the training being offered suffe red from diverse obstacles, such as poor rural and environmental conditions, poor scheduling, the attitude shortcomings of students and t he lack of laboratories in the country in general because the type of equipment needed are too expensive The sever la ck of resources hindered the ideal balance between theory and practice within the curricula that all stakeholders recognized was necessary Despite this situation, many educators have implemented participative, resear ch and experimental instructional strat egies as well as various field activities that allowed for the transfer of versatile skills necessary for success upon graduation. G raduates were more likely to be employed by NGOs and other public entities performing versatile activities in agricultural e xtension tackling production practices and environmental issues in the rural communities Nevertheless, many external obstacles such as the unemployment rate in the country and the government support th e sector, impeded their employment. The schools acknowledged this situation by emphasizing entrepreneurship.
107 Table 7 1 Summary of findings Entrepreneurship is a key component of agricultural TVET in the schools visited It is the most repeated finding. However, the role of the government seemed to also matter quite a lot, according to the respondents even though these institutions are private enterprises. It may be explained b y the tough reality that must be faced and cultural inclinations Moreover, in accordance with the theoretical model presented, elements of instructional methods whic h foster experiential learning in situated contexts are present as well as the confirmatio n of literature on the role of technicians in the extension system in Haiti. Purpose of TVET Practice in the curriculum Employment for graduates Social mobility of students Train the youth Higher education Financial independen ce Entrepreneurship Networking Reputation Role of practical experiences Importance of practice Purposes of practice Amount of practice Employers Public/private NGO/IO Entrepreneurship Improving local communities Rural development Migration/pover ty Instructional methods Participative methods Research Field activities Types of jobs Extension Entrepreneurship Versatility Agricultural extension Technical assistance Improve production practices Increase food production Protecting environment Training Barriers to more practice Scheduling Resources Students attitudes Laboratories in Haiti Rural reality and the environment External factors affecting jobs Unemployment Opportunities Government support
108 As a result of the findings, the conceptual model has been updated to add these new elements as follows: Figure 7 1 Conceptual Model updated The findings suggest th at the purpose of Haitian agricultural TVET is closely tie d with the employment that technicians get at the completion of their studies specifically, entrepreneurship and extension type activities for increased productivity and better environment in the r ural communities. T he curricul um also intends to provide the necessary skills to perf orm either as entrepreneurs or as extension agents in the agricutural system However, m ore practices are required to get to the results expected of technicians working in the field. The reasons have very little to do with the schools themselves seemingly but mostly with the financial conditions of students who cannot pay tuition. Theory in the curriculum on the other hand, seemed to be more relevant for INFP exams and fo r recruitment entrance exams. Culture also plays a role in purpose and curricu lum, as the teachers do not try to replace traditional practices with Situated Le arning Experiential Learning Backwards Design Agricultural System State Market Culture TVETs role in Haiti Directors Teachers Students Infrastructure Employment Farmers/extension NGO/INGO Public/private Entrepreneurship Constructivism
109 new imported ideas; rather, they intend to improve knowle dge. The desire for involvement of the state is another cultural aspect that was prev alent. according to many interviewees. These private entities still expect substantial contributions from governmental agencies, particularly the ministry of a griculture, which they do not report to The findings also s uggest that the Haitian agricultural TVET schools visited operate d under a market driven system. In the communi ties where organizations worked in the agricultural sector, there was more student de mand for these trainings. The types of jobs they are expected to do in these organizations directly impacted the content of the program of study, as well as the INFP requi rements. It is unclear how INFP came up with the list of courses, but it was reported to be T he fragility of th is market however, is the main reason most of these schools emphasize on entrepreneurship in thei r curricula. Again, the government fails to support private enterprises through agriculture related microcredit. TVET within the agricultural system in Haiti is comple x. This study obviously does not offer a comprehensive picture of TVET in Haiti; therefor e, further research is needed. Recommendations for research are to further investigate TVET schools in other geographic regions of the country, including the public E MAs, to gauge the differences between curricular approaches, employment opportunities as well as roles served within the agricultural system. On that note, there is interest in understanding TVET from perspectives, integrating their character istic professional development needs, and difficulties as well. It would also be importa nt to contact graduates from some of these schools about their perspectives on their preparation for real life conditions and to become entrepreneurs, as well as some other obstacles they face. To get a sense of the connection between the role of TVET and the reality of
110 technicians, it seems essential to investigate the perspective of private employers of technicians as well as farmers who benefit from extension service s from technicians. Follow up research could be improved by adding a few elements to the methodology in this study. The researchers may want to collect some documents the ones used in the schools so as to compare the curricula asmongs t them as well as w ith INFP requirements. It can be useful also to conduct observations in classroom situati ons, to experience the various participative as report ed to impede more practice Recommendations for practi ce emerged during the interviews with the participants. Many of them have expressed a nee d for the state to be more cooperative with TVET and the agricultural sector in general; but first there would need to be a clear relationship between the Ministry of Agriculture, private TVETs and the Ministry of Education, which in turn would influence t he content of the curricula and its standardization The state could also provide them with access to a market. Learning centers, which merge with public extension office s would permit more access to resources and situated experiential learning for these students as well as interactions with other vocational options for broader skillse t; because even though these schools are private enterprises, they clearly have socially relevant advantages. There have been examples of Community skills development centers employment and regional employment need et al. 2003, p. 271). These training centers can be public private partne rships where both the government and private professionals share the responsibilities. Recommendations for training would include some of the skills that potential fu ture employers may need from graduates of TVET schools s pecifically, adult education pri nciples
111 and communication skills, to perform in the extension work they must do with farmers. In terms of course content, training on organic and other sustainable agr icultural practices came up as the areas where the entension agents would require more kn owledge Professional development for directors and teachers suggest that they use elements of backwards design in the writing of the curricula and cursus.
112 A PPENDI X A INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE D IRECTORS I. Who are the directors? 1. Where are you from? Have yo u graduated from a TVET school yourself? 2. What is yo ur highest academic degree? What is your specific academic expertise? 3. How many other technical schools do you know? Have you worked at a different school? 4. How and why did you become a director of TVET? 5. Wh at professional experiences did you have before beco ming the director (teaching, farming, extension, etc.)? II. What is TVET? 6. From your perspective, what is the role of TVET in the Haitian agriculture sector? 7. How do practicums belong in TVET? III. About the schoo l 8. How is your school funded? a. What ministry does agricultural TVET report to? (Agriculture, education, other?) b. What is the process for making changes in the curriculum? Who must approve the changes? 9. What qualities do you look for when choosing the instruc tors? a. How many instructors? How many full time/pa rt time? b. What is the gender break down? c. How do think practicums should be/are incorporated in the curriculum? 10. Who are the students? a. What is their profile (male/female ratio, age, academic level, origin)? b. Are they from the local area? Do you have dormito ry facilities?
113 11. Where do the students go work after they graduate? a. Is there as much demand as what the school provides?
114 APPENDIX B INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE TEACHERS I. Who are the teachers? 1. Where are you fro m? 2. Have you graduated from a TVET school yourself? 3. What classes do you teach? How long have you been teaching? 4. What is your highest academic degree? What is your specific academic expertise? 5. How many other technical schools do you know? 6. Have you worked / ar e you working at a different school? 7. How and why did you become a teacher in TVET? 8. Did you have other professional experiences before teaching (farming, extension, other)? II. What is TVET? 9. From your perspective, what is the role of TVET in the Haitian ag ricu lture sector? 10. How do practicums belong in TVET? III. About the curriculum 11. What type of jobs are you preparing the students for? 12. How do you design the class content? 13. How do you choose what to include in the syllabus? 14. How do you integrate practical experien ces in a course (field work, internship, other)? 15. What is the ratio of theory and practical skills in your courses? Why? 16. How does the practice ties to theory? 17. How do you structure the class delivery? 18. Where do the students go work after they graduate?
115 a. Do the skills that the students get match the demand?
116 APPENDIX C INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE STUDENTS I. Who are the students? 1. Where are you from? 2. What is your family business: agriculture or not? 3. How did you find out about this school? 4. Did you apply anywhere e lse before you came here? If yes, where? 5. What would be your dream job after graduation? 6. Who is a role model for you? 7. Did you know an agricultural technician before? A. If yes, how did that i nfluence your decision to study here? 8. What do you think your fut ure role will be as a technician within the Haitian agricultural system? II. What is TVET? 9. From your perspective, what is the role of TVET in the Haitian agriculture sector? 10. How do practicums b elong in TVET? III. About the courses 11. Why and how did you choose to s tudy at an agriculture TVET school? 12. What are the skills you wanted to learn? 13. What are the skills you are actually learning? 14. What do you think about the courses?
117 REFERENCE Ageyev V. S. (2004). Vygotsky in the mirror of cultural interpretations. In A. K ozulin, B. Gindis, V. S. Ageyev & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky's educational theory in cultural context (pp. 432 447). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from htt p://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/cam041/2002042902.pdf Anderson, J. R., Re der, L. M., & Simon, H. A. (1996). Situated learning and education. Educational Researcher, 25 (4), 5 11. doi: 10.3102/00131 89X025004005 Ary, D. Cheser Jacobs, L., Sorensen, L. K., & Walker, D. A. ( 2012). Introduction to research in education (9 th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth CENGAGE Learning. Atchoarena, D., & Sedel, C. (2003). Education and rural development: Setting the fr amework. In D. Atchoarena & L. Gasperini (Eds.), Education for rural develo pment: Towards new policy responses. A joint study conducted by FAO and UNESCO (pp. 35 68). Paris: IIEP. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001329/132994e.pdf Atc hoarena, D., Wallace, I., Green, K., & Gomes, C. A. (2003). Strategies and institutions for promoting skills for rural development. In D. Atchoarena & L. Gasperini (Eds.), Education for rural development: Towards new policy responses. A joint study conduct ed by FAO and UNESCO (pp. 239 302). Paris: IIEP. Retrieved from http://unes doc.unesco.org/images/0013/001329/132994e.pdf Basu, C.K., & Majumdar, S. (2009). The role of ICTs and TVET in rural development and poverty alleviation. In R. Maclean, D. N. Wilson (Eds.), International handbook of education for the changing world of work (pp. 1923 1933). Springer, Dordrecht: Springer Science Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978 1 4020 5281 1_130 Beard, C., & Wilson, J. P. (2013). Experiential learning: A handbook for education, training and coaching (3 rd ed.). London: Kogan Page Limited. Re trieved from http://library.books24x7.com/toc.aspx?bookid=53333 Birt L., Scott, S., Cavers, D., Campbell, C., & Walter, F. (2016). Member checking: A tool to enhance trustworthiness or m erely a nod to validation? Qualitative Health Research, 26 (13), 1802 1811. doi: 10.1177/1049732316654870 Bisariya, R. S., & Mishra, A. ( 2015). Vocational skills and training to empower citizens of India [PDF file]. Vindhya International Journal of Managem ent & Research, 1 (1), 68 73. Retrieved from http://vijmr.org/papers/VIJMR031513.p df Bowen S., & Graham I. D. (2015). Backwards design or looking sideways? Knowledge translation in the real world. C International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 4 (8), 545 547. doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2015.71. Bozkurt, G. (2017). Social constructivism: Does it succeed in reconciling individual cogni tion with social teaching and learning practices in mathematics [PDF file]. Journal of
118 Education and Practice, 8 (3), 210 218. Retrieved f rom https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1131532.pdf Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18 (1), 32 42. Ret rieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1176008 Buchmann, M., & Schwille, J. (1983). Education: The overcoming of exper ience. American Journal of Education, 92 (1), 30 51. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1084849 Camp, W. G. (2001). Formulating an d evaluating theoretical frameworks for career and technical education research. Journal of Vocational Education Resear ch 26 (1), 4 25. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5328/JVER26.1.4 Cantor, J. A. (1997 ). Experiential learning in higher education: Linking classroom and community [PDF file]. ERIC Digest Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404948.pdf Carter, N., Bryant Lukosius D., DiCenso, A., Blythe, J., & Neville, A. J. (2014). The use of triangulation in qualitative research. Oncology Nurs ing Forum, 41 (5), 545 547. doi : 10.1188/14.ONF.545 547 Cervantes Godoy, D., & Dewbre, J. (2010). Economic importance of agriculture for sustainable development reduction: The case study of V ietnam [PDF file]. Paris: OECD Global Forum on Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/agriculture/agricultural policies/46378758.pdf Cho, J., & Trent, A. (2006). V alidity in qualitative research revisited. Qualitative research, 6 (3), 319 340. doi : 10.1177/1468794106065006 N ACTA Journal, 31 (2), 20 21. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stab le/43764483 http://www.nactat eachers.org/attachments/article/1098/Coorts_NACTA_Journal_June_1 987 5.pdf Creswell, J. W., & Miller, D. L. (2000). Dete rmining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory Into Practice, 39 (3), 124 130 doi: 10.1207/s15430421tip3903_2 Darvas, P., & Palmer, R (2014). Demand and supply of skills in Ghana: How can training programs improve employment and productivity? Washington DC: World Bank Study. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/18866 DeGiacomo, J. A. (2002). Experiential l earning in higher education [PDF file]. The Forestry Chronicle 78 (2). Retrieved from http://pubs.cif ifc.org/doi/pdf/10.5558/tfc78245 2 Dernova, M. (2015). Experiential learning theory a s one of the foundations of adult learning practice worldwide. Comparative Professional Pedagogy, 5 (2), 52 57. doi: 10.1515/rpp 2015 0040
119 Doolittle, P. E., & Camp, W. G. (1999). Constructivism: the career and technical education perspective. Journal of Ca reer and Technical Education, 16 (1). Retrieved from https://ejournals.lib.vt.edu/JCTE/article/view/706/1017 Edokpolor, J. E., & Owenvbiugie, R. O. (2017). Technical and vocational edu cation and training skills: An antidote for job creation and sustainable development of Nigerian economy. Problems of Education in the 21St Century 75 (6), 535 549. Retrieved from http://oaji. net/articles/2017/457 1513710378.pdf FAOSTAT. (2018). Haiti. Retrieved f rom http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#country/93 Food and Agriculture Organization. (2002). Anti Hunger Programme: Reducin g hunger through agriculture and rural development and wider access to fo od [PDF file]. Rome, Italy: FAO. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/y7151e/y7151e00.pdf Food and Agr iculture Organization. (2003). Food security: Concepts and measurement. I n Trade reforms and food security: Conceptualizing the linkages (chap. 2). Rome, Italy: FAO. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e00.htm#Contents Food an d Agriculture Organization. (2006). Food security [PDF file]. Policy Brief (2). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/forestry/13128 0e6f36f27e0091055bec28ebe830f46b3.pdf Food and Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development, & World Food Program. (2015). The state of food insecurity in the world. Meeting the 2015 internat ional hunger targets: Taking stock of uneven progress [PDF file]. Rome: F AO. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a i4646e.pdf Freer, T. J. (2015). Modernizing the agricultural education and training curri culum. InnovATE Retrieved from https://innovate.cired.vt.edu/wp content/uploads/2015/09/Thematic Study Modernizing AET Curr iculum_112415_ FINAL.pdf Fuglie, K., & Wang, S. L (2012). Productivity growth in global agriculture shifting to developing countries [PDF file] Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm and Resource Issues, 27 (4). Retrieved from http://www.choicesmagazine.org /UserFiles/file/cmsarticle_273.pdf Global Forum For Rural Advisory Services. (2017). Haiti Retrieved from ht tp://www.g fras.org/en/world wide extension study/central america and the caribbean/caribbean/haiti.html#extension providers Gollin, D., Parente, S., & Rogerson, R. (2002). The role of agriculture in development. The American Economic Review, 92 (2), 160 164. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3083394 Green, J., Franquiz, M., & Dixon, C. (1997). The myth of the objective transcript: Transcribing as a situated act. TESOL Quarterly, 31 (1), 172 176. doi: 10.2307/3587984 Harding, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: From start to finish Los Angeles; London; New Delhi; Singapore; Washington, DC: SAGE.
120 Heikkinen, A. (1997). Education or training? Change ons of their work. Cambridge Journal of Education, 27 (3), 405 423. doi: 10.1080/0305764970270309 Hoffart N. (1991). A member check procedure to enhance rigor in naturalistic research. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 13 (4), 522 534. doi : 10.1177/019394599101300408 Ison, R. L. (2015). Teaching threatens sustainable agriculture. International Institute for Environment and Development IIED Gatekeeper Series (21). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238710404_Teaching_Threatens_Sustainable_ Agriculture_International_In stitute_for_Environment_and_Development the development of constructivist curricula. Education, 117 (1), 133 140. Retrieved from http://www.projectinnovation.biz/education_2006.html Kennedy, O. O. (2012). Philosophi cal and sociological overview of vocational technical education in Nigeria [PDF file] College Student Journal, 46 (2), 274 282. Retrieved f rom https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/25801184.pdf King, K. (1993). Technical and vocational education and training in an international context. The Vocational Aspect of Education, 45 (3), 201 216. doi: 10.1080/0305787930450302 Kolb, D. A. (2014). Experienti al learning: Experience as the source of learning and development, (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Kou dahl, P. D. (2010). Vocational education and training: Dual education and economic crises. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9 1900 1905. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.421. Lave, J. (1991). Situated Learning in communities of practice. In L. B. Re snick, J. M. Levine & S. D. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition (chap. 4). American Psychological As sociation. Retrieved from https://www.ecologyofdesigninhumansystems.com/wp content/uploads/2012/12/Lave Situatin g learning in communities of practice.pdf Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Aprendizaje situado: Participacin perifrica legtima [Situ ated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation]. (M. Espndola & C. Alfaro, Trans.). New York: Cambridge University Pr ess. Retrieved from http://www.universidad de la calle.com/Wenger.pdf Marriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case s tudy applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publis hers. Maxime, J. J., & Paul, B. (2017). La vulgarisation agricole alimentaire en Hati ? Hat i Perspectives, 5 (4), 25 30. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318216703_La_vulgarisation_agricole_un_outi l_de_reduction_de_l'insecurite_alimentaire_en_Haiti
121 McPhail, G. (2016). The fault lines of recontextualisation: The limits of co nstructivism in education. British Education al Research Journal, 42 (2), 294 313. doi: 10.1002/berj.3199 McGrawth, S. & Powell, L. (2016). Skills for sustainable development: Transforming vocational education and training beyond 2015 International Journal of Educational Development, 50 12 19. Retr ieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.05.006 Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaa, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3 rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications Miller, G. A., & Gildea, P. M. (1987). How children learn words. Scientific American, 257 (3), 94 99. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24979482 Minghat, D. A., & Yasin, R. M. (2010). Sustainabl e framewor k for technical and vocational education in Malaysia. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9 1233 1237. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.312 2 ). Vers l a refondation du systme ducatif hatien : Plan oprationnel 2010 1015 : Des [Towards the Rebuilding of the Haitian Education System : Operational Plan 2010 1015 : Recommendations of the Working Group on Education and Training]. Port au Prince, Haiti: MENFP. Moehler, R. (1997). The role of agriculture in the economy and society. In K. Hathaway & D. Hathaway (Eds.), Searching for common ground. European Union enlarge ment and agricultural policy Rome, Italy: FAO Agricultural Policy and Economic Development Series. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/w7440e/w7440e00.htm Morgan, D. L. (1996). Focus groups. Annu. Rev. Sociol., 22 129 152. Retrieved from https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.129 Mouzakitis, G.S. (2010). The role of vocational education and training curricula in economic development. Procedia S ocial and Behavioral S ciences 2 3914 3920. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.616 Ngulube, P., Mathipa, E. R., & Gumbo, M. T. (2015). Theoretical and conceptual frameworks in the social and management sciences. In E.R. Mathipa & M.T Gumbo (Eds.), Addressing research challenges: M aking headway in developing researchers (c hap. 4). Mosala MASEDI Publishers & Booksellers Noordywk. doi : 10.13140/RG.2.1.3210.7680 Nooruddin, S. (2017). Technical and vocational education and training for economic growth in Pakistan [ PDF file]. Journal of Education and Educational Development 4 (1), 130 141. Retrieved from http://journals.iobmresearch.com/index.php/JEED/article/view/1345/255 Oketch, M. O. (2007). To voc ationalise or not to vocationalise? Perspectives on current trends and issues in technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Africa.
122 Internat ional Journal of Educational Development, 27 220 234. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2006.07.004 Powell, K. C., & Kalina, C. J. (2009). Cognitive and social constructivism: Developing tools for an effective classroom. Education, 130 (2), 241 250. Retrieved from http://eds.b. ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=1e908849 7040 4a3e 86a0 6f8074d1f26d%40pdc v sessmgr01 Rivera, W. M. (2006). Transforming post secondary ag ricultural education and training by design: Solutions for Sub Saharan Africa [PDF file]. Retrieved f rom http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRR EGTOPTEIA/Resources/Post_Secondary_ Ag_Ed_final.pdf Roberts, T. G. (2006). A philosophical examinatio n of experiential learning theory for agricultural educators. Journal of Agricultural Education, 47 (1), 17 29. doi: 10.5032/jae.2006.01017 Saldaa, J. ( 2016). The coding manual for qualitative researchers London: SAGE Publications. Shumway, S., & Berr ett, J. (2004). Standards based curriculum development for pre service and in The Technol ogy Teacher, 64 (3), 26 29. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/ncete_publications/61/ Swans on, B. E., & Rajalahti, R. (2010). Strengthening agricultural extension and advisory systems: Procedures for assessing, transforming, and evaluating extension systems Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 45. Washington, DC: The World Bank. R etrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.or g/INTARD/Resources/Stren_combined_web.pdf The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2015 ). UNESCO TVET strategy 2016 2021: Report of the UNESCO UNEVOC virtual conference [pdf file]. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002439/243932e.pdf The United Natio ns Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2016). Recommendation concerning technical and vocational education and training (T VET) [PDF file]. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002451/245118M.pdf The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2017a). Skills on the move: Global trends, local resonances. International conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training Retrieved from https://en.unesco.org/inter national conference tvet 2017 The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2017b). Technical Vocatio nal Education and Training. New Delhi Office. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/newdelhi/areas of action/education/te chnical vocational education and training tvet/
123 Vera, A. H., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Situated Action: A symbolic interpretation [PDF file]. Cognitive Science 17 7 48. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1207/s15516709cog1701_2/pdf Von Grebmer, K., Bernstein, J., Prasai, N., Amin, S ., Yohannes, Y., Nabarro, D., Towey, O., Thompson, J., Sonntag, A., & Patterson, F. (2016). Synopsis: Global hunger index, Gett ing to zero hunger Washington, DC: IFPRI. doi: 10.2499/9780896292284 Voss, J. F., Wiley, J., & Carretero, M. (1995). Acquiring i ntellectual skills. Annual Reviews Psychol., 46 155 181. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ps.46.020195.001103 Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1998). What is backwards design? In U nderstanding by design (chap. 1). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/wp content/uploads/2016/01/backward design.pdf Wilkin J. (1997). The role of agriculture in the economy and society: Group discussion and a commentary. In K. Hathaway & D. Hathawa y (Eds.), Searching for common ground. European Union enlargement and agricultural policy Rome, Italy: FAO Agricultural Policy a nd Economic Development Series. World Food Program. (2018). Haiti Retrieved from http://www1.wfp.org/countries/haiti Yin, R. K. (2016). Qualitative research from start to finish (2 nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. Zanotti, L. (2010). Cacophonies of aid, failed state building and NGOs in Haiti: Setting the stage for disa ster, envisioning the future. Third World Quarterly, 31 (5), 755 771. doi: 10.1080/01436597.2010.503567 Ziderman, A. (1997). National programmes in technical and vocational education: Economic and education relationships. Journal of Vocational Education and training, 49 (3). doi: 10.1080/13636829700200026
124 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Marie Christelle Calixte was bo rn and raised in Port au Prince Haiti She got involved in many extracur r icular activities since high school mentoring children after school However, u pon graduation, she decided to at EARTH U niversity in Costa Rica During her four years at EARTH Christelle won the Entrepreneurial Game and was voted General Manager of the Entrepreneurial Project Humid Forest She graduated as a Distinguished Student with a degree in a gronomic e ngineering Chr istelle went back to Haiti where she worked for a private compa ny in the poultry industry. She then decided to add to her skillset by going to Montreal in Canada t o get a certificate in Supervision of Human Resources. While in Canada, she decided to make a career switch to wards education and went back to Haiti. She worked at her former school and taught English to middle schoolers. However, s he found the opportunity for a Master of Scienc e at the Univers ity of Florida in the Ag r icultural Education and Communication D epartment specializ ing in e xtension ed ucation ; therefore, she traveled to Gainesville While pursuing this degree, s he was invited to become a member of the Alpha Tau Alpha Na tional Honors Society. She also had the opportunity to participate in the AIAEE conference where she presented two research studies she has participated in After graduation, she plans to move back to Haiti and work in the extension field.