AN ASSESSMENT OF PROTOCOLS AND GUIDELINES THAT ADDRESS THE EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD (ELF EMF) RADIATION IN BUILDING S By SHABNAM RUMPF MONADIZADEH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE G RADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2018
2018 Shabnam Rumpf Monadizadeh
To my husband, Til man Rumpf our daughter, Hana Rumpf and my parents, Tooran and David Monadizadeh
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my deepest thanks to Dr. Charles Kibert for his guidance and vision to support me along my doctoral path and especially in realiz ing the value of this research. I am particularly grateful for the assistance given by Dr. Jon Dobson who helped me to understand and be critical to the biological aspects of this research. Also, my special thanks to my committee members from Rinker Schoo l of Construction Management, Dr. Ian Floo d, Dr. Ravi Srinivasan and Dr. Damon Allen who gave me educational and technical support to make this research possible. I also thank other Rinker school academic and administrative staff for their help and their s upport. I wish to acknowledge the help provided by a friend, Andreas Blank, who offered a valuable resource to accomplish the testing equipment. Finally, I would like to express my innermost gratitude to my family, Tilman and Hana Rumpf, who stood by me t o seek my doctoral path and accomplish this eventful journey.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 13 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 18 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 21 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 22 1.1 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 22 1.2 Design and Regulation ................................ ................................ ...................... 23 1.3 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ......................... 24 1.4 Limitation and Scope of Work ................................ ................................ ........... 24 1.5 Research Contributions ................................ ................................ .................... 25 1.6 Future Applications ................................ ................................ ........................... 25 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 26 2.1 Introduction to EMF and Its Effect ................................ ................................ ..... 26 2.1.1 Review of Physical Attributes of EMF ................................ ...................... 26 126.96.36.199 Fundamentals of electromagnetism ................................ ............... 26 188.8.131.52 Weak range radiation ................................ ................................ ..... 29 184.108.40.206 Midrange radiation ................................ ................................ ......... 31 220.127.116.11 Nonionizing optical radiation ................................ .......................... 35 18.104.22.168 Ionizing hi gh frequency range radiation ................................ ......... 38 2.1.2 EMF Effect in the Biological Environment ................................ ................ 39 22.214.171.124 Non thermal and thermal effects of EMF o n the living organism .... 39 126.96.36.199 Biology ................................ ................................ ........................... 43 188.8.131.52 EMF radiation affecting the human body ................................ ........ 49 184.108.40.206 Diagnostic and therapeutic value of EMF ................................ ....... 58 2.2 Regulations and Standards ................................ ................................ ............... 59 2.2.1 International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 59 220.127.116.11 ICNIRP reference levels ................................ ................................ 60 18.104.22.168 ICNIRP rationale for the m aximum exposure levels to EMF radiation ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 60 2.2.2 International Electro Technical Commission ( IEEE) Standards ............... 62 22.214.171.124 IEEE refer ence levels ................................ ................................ ..... 64 126.96.36.199 Chronological establishment of IEEE standards ............................ 64
6 188.8.131.52 Difference between the ICNIRP and national (US) gu idelines and standards ................................ ................................ ......................... 64 2.2.3 Baubiologie ................................ ................................ .............................. 64 2.2.4 Power Frequency Regulations ................................ ................................ 66 2.2.5 Threshold Levels ................................ ................................ ..................... 67 2.3 Traces of Electromagnetic Field in the Built Environment ................................ 68 2.3.1 Indoor Sources ................................ ................................ ........................ 68 2.3.2 Outdoor Sources ................................ ................................ ..................... 70 2.3.3 RF MF Near field and Far field Radiation ................................ ................ 71 2.3.4 UV Radiation ................................ ................................ ........................... 73 2.3.5 Space Typologies ................................ ................................ .................... 74 2.4 Manipulation and Mitigation of EMF ................................ ................................ .. 75 2.4.1 Measuring and Monitoring ................................ ................................ ....... 75 2.4.2 Mitigation Strategies and Field Management ................................ .......... 80 3 RESEARCH M ETHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ............. 125 3.1 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 125 3.2 Approach ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 125 3.2.1 Consolida ting Regulations ................................ ................................ ..... 125 3.2.2 Biological Data Input ................................ ................................ .............. 126 3.2.3 Strength and Weaknesses of the Protocols ................................ ........... 126 3.2.4 Uncertainties in the Proposed Study ................................ ..................... 127 3.3. Data Collection and Analysis Method ................................ ............................ 1 27 3. 3.1 Dependent and Independent Variables ................................ ................. 127 3.2.2 Justification of Variables ................................ ................................ ........ 129 3.3.3 Rankings of the Variables ................................ ................................ ...... 131 3.4 Experimentation ................................ ................................ .............................. 132 3.4.1 Designing a Set of Experiment (Mapping) ................................ ............. 132 3.4.2 Designing a Set of Experiment (Measurement Procedure) ................... 132 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ .................. 139 4.1 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ...................... 139 4.2 Overview of Data ................................ ................................ ............................ 139 4.2.1 Regulation ................................ ................................ ............................. 139 4.2.2 Source of Exposure ................................ ................................ ............... 140 4.2.3 Biological Area of Concern ................................ ................................ .... 140 4.3 Experimentation ................................ ................................ .............................. 142 4.3.1 Experime ntation A User and Indoor and Outdoor ................................ 144 184.108.40.206 General statistical information ................................ ...................... 145 220.127.116.11 On and off status comparison and ana lysis ................................ 145 18.104.22.168 X, Y, and Z values: Comparison and analysis .............................. 146 4.3.2 Experimentation B Grids ................................ ................................ ..... 146 22.214.171.124 Height 1.00 m (above ground level): ................................ ............ 146 126.96.36.199 Height 1.50 m (above ground level): ................................ ............ 146
7 188.8.131.52 Quadratic mean magnetic field spread of 60 Hz sections on grids 1 8: ................................ ................................ ............................... 146 184.108.40.206 Quadratic mean magnetic field spread of 60 Hz sections on grids A K: ................................ ................................ .............................. 146 4.3.3 Experimentation C The Effect of Rain During the Measurement ......... 146 4.3.4 Experimentation D MF Radius of Source ................................ ........... 147 4.4 Result ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 147 4.4.1 Experiment A ................................ ................................ ......................... 147 4.4.2 Experiment B ................................ ................................ ......................... 147 4.4.3 Experiment C ................................ ................................ ......................... 147 4.4.4 Experiment D ................................ ................................ ......................... 148 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ...... 194 5.1. Discussion on Findings ................................ ................................ .................. 194 5.1.1 Goals and Objectives of This Research ................................ ................ 194 5.1.2 Scientific Kno wledge ................................ ................................ ............. 196 5.2 Overview of Data ................................ ................................ ............................ 197 5.2.1 Health and Biology ................................ ................................ ................ 197 5. 2.2 Guideline and Regulations ................................ ................................ .... 198 5.2.3 Measurement ................................ ................................ ........................ 199 5.2.4 Mitigation ................................ ................................ ............................... 200 5.3 Synthesis of Literature Review and Result ................................ ..................... 201 5.4 Recommendation on Further Study ................................ ................................ 201 APPENDIX A POWELL CENTER PLAN ................................ ................................ ..................... 205 B POWELL CENTER MEASUREMENT DATA ................................ ........................ 207 C INSTRUMENTATION ................................ ................................ ........................... 211 Spec trum Analyzer ................................ ................................ ............................... 211 Technical Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 211 Measurement Conditions and Settings ................................ ................................ 213 D GLOSSARY ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 214 E UNIT CONVERSIONS ................................ ................................ .......................... 219 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 220 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 238
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Variation of frequencies and amplitudes create different types of waves ........... 88 2 2 Quantities and corresponding SI units adapted from ICNIRP guideline, 2011 ... 89 2 3 Physical variables and their units and scope of biological influence (Aurengo and Perrin, 2012) ................................ ................................ ................................ 90 2 4 Different behaviors of EM waves and the outcome ................................ ............ 90 2 5 Static field within the weak range of electromagnetic radiation .......................... 90 2 6 Extremely low frequency field within the weak range of electromagnetic radiation ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 91 2 7 Frequency fields in the midrange of electromagnetic radiation ........................... 92 2 8 Different zones of nonionizing optical radiation ................................ .................. 93 2 9 Ionizing zone of high frequency radiation ................................ ........................... 93 2 10 ................................ .............................. 94 2 11 ................................ .... 94 2 12 Electromagnetic parameters of some human tissues (Faria and Pedro, 2013) .. 95 2 13 (Ueno and Okano, 2012) ..... 95 2 14 ................................ ............................. 96 2 15 ................................ .......................... 97 2 16 ................................ ................................ 98 2 17 ................................ ..... 99 2 18 Studies of the effects of magnetic fields on melatonin production and on responses of cells to melatonin (Kulkarni and Gandhare, 2014) ........................ 99 2 19 ................................ ....... 100 2 20 ...................... 102 2 21 ................................ .............. 103
9 2 22 Basic restrictions for human exposure to time varying electric and magnetic fields ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 104 2 23 Reference levels for occupational exposure to time varying electric and magnetic fields (unperturbed rms values) ................................ ......................... 105 2 24 Reference levels for general public exposure to time varying electric and magnetic fields (unperturbed rms values ) ................................ ......................... 105 2 25 Reference levels for general public exposure to time varying electric and magnetic fields (unperturbed rms values) ................................ ......................... 107 2 26 Chronological establishment of ICNIRP ................................ ........................... 108 2 27 Frequency 0 5 MHz and its related electric field allowance in zone 0 and 1 applying to various regions of the body ................................ ............................ 109 2 28 Frequency 0 5 MHz and its related magnetic field allowance in zone 0 and 1 applying to head and torso ................................ ................................ ............... 109 2 29 Frequency 0 5 MHz and its related ma gnetic field allowance in zone 0 and 1 applying to limbs ................................ ................................ ............................... 109 2 30 Electric field ERLs whole body exposure: f = 0 Hz to 100 kHz ......................... 110 2 31 Induced and contact current limits for continuous sinusoidal waveforms f = 0 Hz to 3 kHz ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 110 2 32 Chronological overview of the development of IEEE EMF standards (IEEE, 2014) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 111 2 33 Difference between the European ICNIRP guides and the US IEEE Guides ... 111 2 34 A comparison of reference Levels of 50 Hz power frequen cies in microtesla ( T) (Bavastro et al., 2014) ................................ ................................ ............... 112 2 35 A comparison of reference Levels of 50 Hz power frequencies in microtesla (T) (Bavastro et al., 2014) ................................ ................................ ............... 113 2 36 Typical ELF MF personal exposure by home appliances at different distances (Bowman, 2014) ................................ ................................ ............... 114 2 37 Weighting factors of T exposure to electrical applianc es in a typical user distance (Behrens et al., 2004) ................................ ................................ ......... 115 2 38 Weighting factors of T exposure to electrical appliances in a typical user distance (Behrens et al., 2004) ................................ ................................ ......... 115
10 2 39 Near field and Far field radiofrequency producing devices (Frei and Rsli, 2014). ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 116 2 40 Typical RF EMF sources in the everyday environment a nd their associated frequencies in Europe adapted from (Frei and Rsli, 2014) (Tomitsch and Dechant, 2015) ................................ ................................ ................................ 117 2 41 Different receiving antennas register different values ................................ ....... 11 8 2 42 Two main passive shielding method (Bavastro et al., 2014) ............................. 122 2 43 Directive 2013/35/EU, Article 5 suggests ways to assess an EM polluted spac e ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 124 3 1 A comparison of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) reference limits ( T) ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 133 3 2 Independent variables affe cting dependent variables ................................ ....... 135 3 3 Rankings of the independent variables ................................ ............................. 137 3 4 Data gathering sample sheet ................................ ................................ ............ 138 4 1 A numerical comparison of the different reference limits values in Europe and US ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 149 4 2 Reference limit values of ICNIRP general public for the chosen frequencies used in the experimentation ................................ ................................ ............. 150 4 3 A comparison of the regulatory values and reported effec ts caused by ELF MF in T ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 153 4 4 Specific information on the surrounding and conditions of the experimentation ................................ ................................ ................................ 155 4 5 A comparis on of the B field values of selected grid points adjacent to the occupants between the zero (0) and the busy (1) state in an indoor office room (the values of the 60, 120, and 180 Hz are in nanotesla, nT) .................. 156 4 6 Spot measurements of the B field values of the heads of participants (A, B, C, D, and E) between the zero (0) and the busy (1) state ................................ 157 4 7 Outdoor measurements of northern southern, eastern and western side of the building ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 162 4 8 A comparison of the B field average values in status (0) and (1) ...................... 163 4 9 A comparison of the B field median values in status (0) and (1) ....................... 164
11 4 10 A comparison of the B field minimum values in status (0) and (1) .................... 164 4 11 A comparison of the B field maximum values in status (0) and (1) ................... 164 4 12 General public ICNIRP reference level values for the 8, 60, 120 and 180 Hz frequencies ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 164 4 13 Final result of all indoor points (grids and heads) ................................ ............. 165 4 14 Total quadratic mean values of all outdoor points (grids and heads) ................ 165 4 15 Final statistical result of all points (nT) on the grids close to the users and the heads of the users in the Powell Center and the comparison to different reference levels ................................ ................................ ................................ 166 4 16 Total quadratic mean values in (nT) ................................ ................................ 168 4 17 3D reading (quadratic mean) of all grid points in the Powell Center at 60 Hz frequency mea sured on 4 different heights, date of measurement 5 17 2018 172 4 18 Quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 0.0 m .. 174 4 19 Quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 0.45 m 175 4 20 Qua dratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 1.0 m .. 176 4 21 Quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 1.50 m 177 4 22 Numerical values of the measurement before and during the rainfall (values are of 60 Hz, quadratic mean, in nT) ................................ ................................ 184 4 23 Source of 60 Hz ELF EMF in Powell Ce nter ................................ .................... 189 4 24 Total quadratic mean values of the indoor spots (grids and heads) ................. 189 4 25 Final statistical result of all indoor po ints (nT) in comparison to different reference levels ................................ ................................ ................................ 190 4 26 Total quadratic mean values in (nT) and the differences ................................ .. 191 4 27 EL F EMF (60 Hz) increase in heavy rain ................................ .......................... 192 4 28 ELF EMF (60 Hz) values measured at 3 cm, 30 cm, and 100 cm way from the center of the source ................................ ................................ .................... 193 5 1 A comparison of all 50/60 Hz discussed limits and mean values in this research ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 203 C 1 Device setting suggestion by the manufacturer ................................ ................ 213
12 C 2 Device setting during the measurement procedure used for this experiment ... 213 E 1 Magnetic flux density unit conversion shown in SI and cgs (centimeter gram second) o r Gaussian unit system ................................ ........................... 219
13 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 E and H are perpendicular and propagate at the same speed ........................... 88 2 2 Variations of electromagnetic radiation ................................ ............................... 88 2 3 Effects via the Fenton reaction predict how a cell would respond to EMF .......... 98 2 4 Solutions suggested to cancel the waves by Institute for electromagnetic harmonization (IRP, 2017) ................................ ................................ ................ 100 2 5 Causes of brain disorders based on the Stutt gart Institute for communication and brain research (Haffelder, 2017) ................................ ................................ 101 2 6 Chronospectrogram showing disturbance when present to alternate current which is seen in the right hemisphere (Ha ffelder, 2017) ................................ ... 101 2 7 EEG diagram shows the left and right hemisphere and the Beta, Alpha, Theta, and Delta activity of the brain. (Haffelder, 2017) ................................ ... 102 2 8 Biomagnetic phenomena for magnetic fields having different intensities and frequencies affecting different organs and cells in the body (Ueno and M. Iwasaka 1996b; Ueno and Shigemitsu 2007) ................................ ................... 103 2 9 Basic restrictions for general public and occupational exposure in terms of internal electric field strength concerning central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) effects (ICNIRP LF Guideline, 20 10) .......... 104 2 10 Electric field (E) limit suggested by ICNIRP for general public and occupational exposure ................................ ................................ ...................... 106 2 11 Magnetic field (B) limit suggested by ICNIRP for general public and occupational exposure ................................ ................................ ...................... 106 2 12. Graphical representation of the zone 0 ERLs ................................ ................... 110 2 13 A comparison of power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz) within the extremely low frequency range within different regulations in microtesla ( T) (values are adapted from the paper by Bavastro et al, 2014) ................................ .............. 112 2 14 Determination of exposure limits using the hazard threshold and biological approaches (Repacholi, 1983) (WHO, 2006) ................................ .................... 113 2 15 Prototype datasheet suggested by the IEEE Magnetic Fields Task Force ....... 119 2 16 Based on the Measurement Protocol by IEEE std 644 1994 (Hosseini et al., 2014) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 120
14 2 17 Based on the Measurement Protocol by Regional Agencies for Environmental Protection (Arpa Liguria, Arpa Piemonte, Arpa Umbria, Arpa Veneto) (Strappini et al., 2015) ................................ ................................ ......... 120 2 18 Shielding methods for limiting magnetic field effect ................................ .......... 121 2 19 Shielding factor behavior of ferromagnetic and conductive material (Bavastro et al., 2014) ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 122 2 20 Shielding solution is achieved by a) wall coverage with multilayer plates (a combination of ferromagnetic and conductive layer), and b) transposition of transformers and cables (Bavastro et al., 2014) ................................ ............... 123 2 21 Building under an overhead power line is shielded by conductive plates on the ceiling level and an addendum on the top sides to remove the magnetically enhanced edge effect (Bavastro et al., 2014) .............................. 123 2 22 Shielding an MV/LV transformer with an addendum to mitigate the edge effect (Bavastro et al., 2014) ................................ ................................ ............ 124 3 1 General public and occ upational ICNIRP extremely low frequency magnetic field reference levels in microtesla ( T) ................................ ............................ 133 3 2 Biomagnetic phenomena for magnetic fields in the ELF EMF region (Diagram adapted from Ueno and M. Iwasaka 1996b; Ueno and Shigemitsu 2007) ........ 134 3 3 Time lag between exposure and disease for a cumulative exposure index; after 5 years of exposure, disease was initiated, and after 7 ye ars was diagnosed (R sli and Vienneau, 2014) ................................ ........................... 134 4 1 A graphical comparison of the extremely low frequency magnetic field reference limits in ( T) ................................ ................................ ...................... 149 4 2 Graphical representation of ICNIRP reference limits used in Europe within the ELF zone for general public and occupational spaces ............................... 150 4 3 Reference limits of general public and occupational levels in different countries 151 4 4 Magnetic field values of kitchen and household applianc es and their relationship to ICNIRP GP at 50 60 Hz (www.statesassembly.gov.je) ............. 152 4 5 A comparison of regulatory values and the effects of some of the harmful reported magnetic fields that i nterrupt the biological activity, values are in ( T) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 153 4 6 Relation between biological activity and ICNIRP GP regulatory reference guide ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 154
15 4 7 Schematic location plan and the spots/points close to the seated occupants .. 155 4 8 Participant (A), (P A), is using a laptop with a connected charger, and charging his ce ll phone within 0.5 m radius to the extension cord .................... 157 4 9 Magnetic field intensity X value shown on point E1 in a busy state when the participant A is working (1 Hz 300 Hz) frequency range ................................ 158 4 10 Magnetic field intensity Y value shown on point E1 in a busy state when the participant A is working (1 Hz 300 Hz) frequency range ................................ 159 4 11 Magnetic field intensity Z value shown on point E1 in a busy state when the participant A is working (1 Hz 300 Hz) frequency range ................................ 160 4 12 Magnetic field intensit y Z value of (45 Hz 75 Hz) frequency range shown on point E1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 161 4 13 Spot measurements taken from northern, eastern, southern, and western side of the building ................................ ................................ ............................ 163 4 14 A comparison of the grid point values (h = 0.45m) and the head mean values (h = 1.0 m) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 166 4 15 Graphical representation of all points on the gri ds close to the users (h=0.45 m) and the heads of the users (h= 1.0 m) in the Powell Center and the comparison to different reference levels ................................ ........................... 167 4 16 A comparison of the on and off status of the 8, 60, 120, and 180 Hz frequency ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 168 4 17 Comparison of the quadratic mean values of the indoor space in status off and on, and the outdoor values ................................ ................................ ........ 169 4 18 Comparison of the different frequencies in indoor space in off and on status, and the outdoor values ................................ ................................ ..................... 169 4 19 A comparison of X, Y, and Z values within 8 Hz frequency .............................. 170 4 20 A comparison of X, Y, and Z values within 60 Hz frequency ............................ 170 4 21 A comparison of X, Y, and Z values withi n 120 Hz frequency .......................... 171 4 22 A comparison of X, Y, and Z values within 180 Hz frequency .......................... 171 4 23 3D representation of the quadr atic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 0.0 m ................................ ................................ ............. 174 4 24 3D representation of the quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 0.45 m ................................ ................................ ........... 175
16 4 25 3D representation of the quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 1.0 m ................................ ................................ ............. 176 4 26 3D representation o f the quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 1.50 m ................................ ................................ ........... 177 4 27 Quadratic mean magnetic field spread of 60 Hz room sections on grid 1 through grid 8 ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 179 4 28 Quadratic mean magnetic field spread of 60 Hz room sections on grid A through grid K ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 183 4 29 Grid points in Powell Center measured for this experiment .............................. 183 4 30 3D representation of the 60 Hz values of measurement before and during the rainfall on 0.0 m ground level ................................ ................................ ............ 184 4 31 3D representation of the 60 Hz values of measurement before and during the rainfall on 0.45 m above ground level ................................ ............................... 185 4 32 3D representation of the 60 Hz values of measuremen t before and during the rainfall on 1.0 m above ground level ................................ ................................ 185 4 33 3D representation of the 60 Hz values of measurement before and during the rainfall on 1.50 m above ground level ................................ ............................... 186 4 34 Magnetic field radius reading of the 60 Hz frequency of the electrical sources, ground plan view ................................ ................................ .............................. 187 4 35 Magnetic field radi us reading of the 60 Hz frequency of the electrical sources, ceiling plan view ................................ ................................ ............................... 188 4 36 Graphical representation of all points on the grids close to the users (h=0.45 m) and the heads of the users (h= 1.0 m) in the Powell Center and the comparison to different reference levels ................................ ........................... 191 A 1 Powell Center plan, Rinker School of Construction Management, University of Florida ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 205 A 2 Rinker School of Construction Management site plan ................................ ...... 205 A 3 Electrical plan of the Powell Center ................................ ................................ .. 206 A 4 Third floor plan of the Rinker School ................................ ................................ 206 B 1 Measured points of selected grid points on 8 and 60 Hz frequency in Powell Center when all electrical equi pment and lighting system in the room were turned OFF ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 207
17 B 2 Measured points of selected grid points on 120 and 180 Hz frequency in Powell Center when all electrical equipment and lighting s ystem in the room were turned OFF ................................ ................................ .............................. 208 B 3 Measured points of selected grid points on 8 and 60 Hz frequency in Powell Center when all electrical equipment and lighting system in the room were turned ON ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 209 B 4 Measured points of selected grid points on 120 and 180 Hz frequency in Powell Center when all electrical equipment and lighting system in the room were turned ON ................................ ................................ ................................ 210
18 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS T Microtesla AC Alternating current AM Amplitude modulation B (Field) Magnetic flux density The magnitude of a field vector at a point that results in a force (F) on a charge (q) moving with the velocity (v). Th e force F is defined by F = q*(v x B) and is expressed in units of Tesla (T). BBB Blood Brain Barrier CNS Central nervous system DC Direct current DECT Digital enhanced cordless telephone DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid E (Field) Electric field strength is the force on a stationary unit positive charge at a point in an electric field measured in volt per meter (V/m) EEG Electroencephalogram EHS Electromagnetic hypersensitivity ELF Extra low frequency (also ELF EMF) EMF Electromagnetic field FCC The fed eral communications commission agency overseeing the regulation of radio, TV and broadcasting technology FM Frequency modulation F M is often used at VHF frequencies (30 to 300 MHz) for broadcasting music and speech. GSM Global system for mobile communica tion H (Field) Magnetic field strength The magnitude of a field vector that is equal to the magnetic flux
19 expressed in units of a mpere per met er (A/m). Hz Frequency in Hertz IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer ICNIRP International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation kHz Kilohertz Laser Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation Melatonin Anti oxidant hormone produced in brain by pinea l gland MF Magnetic field MG MF Motion gradient magnetic field MHz Megahertz MODIS Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiameter MRI Magnetic resonance imaging mT Millitesla NRPB National radiation protection board nT Nanotesla PEMF Pulsed electro magnetic field RF Radiofrequency radiation between 100 kHz and 300 GHz SAR Specific absorption rate measured in watts per kilogram (W/kg) SE Shielding factor UMTS Universal mobile telephony system VDT Video display terminal VDU Video display unit for computers, videos, TV, that use cathode tubes WHO World Health Organization Wi Fi Wireless internet access
20 WiMAX Worldwide interoperability for microwave access with coverage 10 miles WLAN
21 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy AN ASSESSMENT OF PROTOCOLS AND GUIDELINES THAT ADDRESS THE EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO E XTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD (ELF EMF) RADIATION IN BUILDINGS By Shabnam Monadizadeh August 2018 Chair: Charles Kibert Major: Design, Construction and Planning Today, more than ever, we are witnessing the presence and exposure of humans to electric and wireless devices in pr ivate and public spaces, related either to day to day activities or occupational exposure These devices produce radiation and operate over a wide range of electromagnetic field (EMF) frequencies that can have major a nd minor impact s on biological cells and related biological function impacts in the human body. These impacts should raise awareness and concern for building designers, planners and occupants to motivate them to first understand the quality and behavior of EMF, and subsequently, to reduce its impact on human health. In this short introduction to EMF in buildings and its possible health effects, current regulations and standards and methods of assessment in the extremely low frequency field is presented. The result of this research is to introduce a protocol where measurements and reference levels are observed and assessed.
22 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview Today, more than ever, we are witnessing the presence and exposure of humans to electric and wirele ss devices in private and public spaces, either related to day to day activities or occupational exposures. These devices produce radiation and operate over a wide range of electromagnetic field (EMF) frequencies that can have major and mino r impact on the type s of EMF radiation should raise concern and awareness for building designers, planners and occupants to first understand the quality and behavior of electromagnetic radiation and subsequently, to reduce and elimina te its influence In this research the following topics are addressed: different kinds of EMF and their effect on human health, published European and US regulations and the comparisons on reference levels to limit EMF exposure and mitigation strategies. The methodology focuses on consolidating the various regulations into one resource, creating a protocol on how to measure and monitor EMF and providing guidance on how to mitigate EMF in the indoor environment. The purpose of this research is to enhance a n optimal i ndoor e nvironmental q uality (IEQ) one of the main features of sustainable building princip les, to support the h ealth of building occupants. The m otivation is to influence building design, health qualities and building science to detect and miti gate electromagnetic field s using an interdisciplinary approach best performed by specialists.
23 1.2 Design and Regulation In addition to the known components of the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) such as air quality, lighting, views, odors, chemicals, t oxic and combustible materials, and thermal and acoustic comfort, electromagnetic fields have been proven to have an impact on the physical and mental human wellbeing. This research aims to investigate the severity of EMF radiation in a typical work place and where exposure exceeds the reference levels, to provide mitigation measures addressing the potential occupant health impacts of the lower range of the EMF spectrum: extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) due to its effect on cellular responses such as alteration in protein synthesis, hormone production, immune system, cell growth and cell differentiation. There is much debate within the scientific community on how adverse the effect of EMF is. It is necessary to do more research on rec ognizing the adverse qualities of EMF and apply the findings in regulations and design guidance and protocols Based on the princip le of healthy electromagnetic field environment, that is compatible with natural circumstances, designers should be aware of the EMF source allocation and take the mitigation factors into design strategies. Further on, for future application, the design and control of an optimum zone of electromagnetic field of a new construction can be simulated in a building information model l ing tool and applied and implemented further into the physical space. Questions. The initial questions that were motivating this research are the following: 1. 2. What ranges of the spectrum are more questionable than others? 3. What guidelines are out and published by specialized authorities?
24 4. Are these guidelines actively followed and mitigated? 5. What reliable tools are there to accurately read and detect the harmful magnetic zone? 6. How well and acce ssible are the material explained and taught to the general public? Product. The product of this study is an assessment and consolidation of the measurement protocols, and guidelines within the extremely low frequency magnetic field. Specific result is dem onstrated through a set of experimentation. 1.3 Research Objectives Reviewing existing guidelines for addressing the ELF EMF frequencies in buildings. Conducting an experiment to determine the nature of E LF EMF in a typical work place. Assessing guidelines for project teams to design buildin gs with minimal ELF EMF impact. Introduce an action plan 1.4 Limitation and Scope of Work Because of the possib ility of direct biological engagement with the ELF zone, this research methodology aims to narrow the assess ment strategies and scope of work limited to the research is focusing on the lower range of the EMF spectrum: Each EMF range (ELF, RF, Microwave, UV, ionizing range) behaves and affe c ts the body in a different way, e.g. infrared radiation affecting the eyes and skin versus radiofrequency radiation causing heat. D ata measurement tools through receiving antennas and sensors of the testing equipment differ in each range. Some ranges of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF EMF ) frequencies, when present in the working and living environment may interfere with the natural funct ion of the body and therefore may create health hazard. Electric field (EF) and magnetic field (MF) coupling behave differently in different ranges.
25 Because of the power frequency used in the electric wiring and equipment used in buildings, ELF is very common in the living environment. 1.5 Research Contributions The contribution attributes of this resear ch are as follows: Development of an ELF EMF measurement protocol for occupied spaces New consolidated ELF EMF guidelines addressing the human health impact A set of suggested mitigation design strategies to minimize the effects of ELF EMF 1.6 Future Appl ications These are the f uture design applications on limiting the availability of electromagnetic field radiation: Research and testing on all areas and rooms in a variety of building settings and considering the structure and typology of the affected bui ldings Building Information Modeling (BIM) Plug in for electromagnetic field inspection and simulation Same experimentation procedure mentioned in this research within other ranges of EMF: RF, IR, UV, microwaves and ionizing zone Detailed guidelines and p ublic accessible tools that takes all recent and updated biological and medical found data into account Research on the biological data gap regarding ELF EMF and related health effect Field M anagement as a new field of study should be introduced, developed expanded and taught in the design, engineering, and construction schools to develop technicians and specialists in this field to learn the principles and quantitative aspects of managing and reducing EMF. Training EMF specialists to measure, assess, and mitigate Research on camera systems to perceive different ranges of EMF Research on the effect of rain and thunderstorm on different buildings and different ranges of EMF
26 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE RE VIEW 2.1 Introduction to EMF and I ts E ffect In Chapter 2 a brief introduction to EMF (electromagnetic field) its physical property and health effects of different bandwidth, the regulations based on the European nonionizing radiation agency (ICNIRP), a nd the US standards based on I nstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards the sources of EMF in the building, and some mitigation strategies is presented. 2.1 .1 Review of Physical Attributes of EMF 2.1.1 .1 Fundamentals of e lectromag netism The first time electricity was linked to magnetic force was by Hans Christian Oerstedt in 1820. In 19 th Century, Gauss, Ampere, Coulomb, Faraday, Henry and Maxwell added to the knowledge and the mathematical framework for describing the relationship between electricity and magnetism (Lambrozo and Souques, 2012). Based on the effect on atoms or molecules, EMF is categorized into two major the level that ionizes hydr ogen (H) and oxygen ( O) atoms (E <13.6 eV), removing electron s from the atom or molecule. Within the scope of NIR, sub categories include static field (0 Hz), extremely low frequency (ELF; 0 300 Hz), intermediate frequency (IF; 300 Hz 100 kHz) and radi ofrequency EMF (RF; 10 MHz 300 GHz). The sources of EMF radiation are numerous and include many of the electrical and wireless devices such as electrical household devices, telecommunication devices, wireless devices, radiofrequency identification (RFID) tagging systems, industrial induction heating, microwave ovens, data transmission systems, radars, antennas,
27 medical diagnostic and treatment devices, X Rays, computerized tomography (CT) scans, radon gas emitted from soil and rocks, food contaminants nu clear leakage and many others. The building itself is also equipped with electric conduits, switches, plugs, panel boards and other devices that are run by electric power and are therefore sources or pathways for EMF. Chapter 2 .3 presents the sources of EM F in the building environment in more detail. Electromagnetic radiation has properties such as propagation, absorption, reflection, transmission, refraction, diffraction, diffusion, polarization and interference. The effect on any surface is dependent on e ither one or a combination of these actions that happens when the waves interact with matter (Court, 2012). The magnetic field oscillates based on how far it is located in reference to the source. With a single conductor, the intensity weakens as the inver se of the distance (1/d), in an electrical network with the inverse of the distance squared (1/d 2 ), and from a point source such as household appliances with the inverse of distance squared (1/ d 2 ). For example, an electric shaver emits 1,000 microt eslas ( T ) 3 centimeters away from the source point, followed by 6 T when moved to 30 centimeters away from the point source and 0.2 T when moved to 1 meter away the point source (Lambrozo and Souques, 2012). Physical b ehavior of EMF Electromagnetic (E M) radiation is a type of expressed energy that has no material support. It interacts with matter either in the form of a) wave pattern or wave model, or as b) flux of photons or particle model (Aurengo, 2012). Wave m odel The wave model is based on Maxwe describe the EM waves as a combination of electric field (E), with the unit s of volts per
28 meter (V/m), and magnetic field (H), with the unit amperes per meter (A/m). E and H are normal and propagate at the same speed and frequen cy ( S ee Figure 2 1 ). The magnetic induction or magnetic flux density is called B with unit (T). The EM wave is described by its frequency (f) with a unit of hertz (Hz or S 1 ) ; its period of time T = 1 / f with a unit of (s) ; its wavelength in vacuum def ined as lambda = c / f where c (speed of light) = 3 x 10 8 m/s (lambda is the distance of a point on the wave to the same point of wave in the cycle ) with unit meter (m); and its energy intensity with unit watts per steradian (W/sr) within a unit of time, a solid angle and a given direction, but when described for a target, it is named as irradiance expressed in watts per square meter (W/m 2 ) (Aurengo and Perrin, 2012). Radiation can be a mixture of different frequencies. For example, a laser contains a limited quantity of separate frequencies (discrete) whereas the sun emits all of the frequencies between the low and high values (continuous). The EM radiation can be permanent or stable (maximum strength and constant frequency), modulated (variable in amplitude and freque ncy), or pulsed (within short periods and repetitions between intervals like Figure 2 2 and Table 2 1 (Aurengo and Perrin, 2012). Magnetic field is expressed in two ways: a) m agnetic flux density B with unit tesla (T) or b) m agnetic field strength H with u nit amperes per meter (A/m or Am 1 ). The two values are related within the expression B = H where = 4 x 10 7 with unit H enry per meter (H m 1 ) is the constant of proportionality or magnetic permeability (ICNIRP 2011). The quantities of measurement in SI unit is shown in Table 2 2 Different expressions and units are used within different zones or bandwi dths of the fields because the EMF effect varies based on the frequency range and its entanglement with
29 the affected matter. Table 2 3 shows the physical variables and units that are used to measure each frequency range and the scope of effects on organism s. Particle m odel Within the particle model, the EM radiation behaves like a discontinuous flux, with packets of energy defined as photons. In a vacuum, a photon propagates in a straight line and at the same speed as light (c = 3 x 10 8 m/s in vacuum). The transmits the energy E, known as quantum or photon energy which is proportional to the frequency wave (See Table 2 4 ). The energy E is expressed through the unit joules (J) or electr ovolts (eV). Based on the frequency of the EM wave, photons behave and interact differently with matter (see Table 2 3 ) (Aurengo and Perrin, 2012). The interaction between wave and matter can result in elastic diffusion (no transfer of energy or change in frequency) or inelastic diffusion (transfer of energy and lowering frequency). Inelastic diffusion has a biological effect which changes the energy and/or results in a thermal effect (Aurengo and Perrin, 2012). 2.1. 1. 2 Weak r ange r adiation Static f ields S tatic electric and magnetic fields are not like electromagnetic fields; they do not propagate, nor do they correspond to wave of flux (Aurengo and Perrin, 2012) A fixed electrically charged body creates electrostatic field (V/m). A direct moving electrica l current (DC) running in a circuit causes static magnetic field H with unit (A/m) and do not vary over time. H is proportional to the intensity of a current (Lambrozo and Souques, 2012). One of the examples of an intense static magnetic field that is perm anently present, is in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device (Perrin, 2012).
30 The causes of electric and magnetic fields (MF) are different; static electric field is associated with the presence of a fixed electrical charge, whereas magnetic field is related to the movement of the electric charge. Some of the main causes of static electric field are created by the s urface of the eart h (100 150 V/m) in good weather and (10 15 kV/m) in stormy weather a round equipment p laced at high potential, transmissi on lines and r ubbing electrically insulated objects causing a separation of positive and negative charges. For example, a person walking on the ground with insulated floor covering or shoes receives a n accumulated charge. The origins of the static magnetic fields are varied: for instance the g eomagnetic field which is linked to the magma at the center of the earth ( 30 to 70 T depending on the geographic location ), t ransmission lines rail transport (traction and magnetic levitation ), m agnetic resonance im e lectrochemical industry g enerators and a ccelerators (Perrin, 2012) Extremely l ow f requency e lectric and m agnetic f ields ELF electromagnetic range is below 300 Hz frequency and has very long wavelengths (around 108 meters) (See Table 2 6). The uncoupled electric and magnetic component of the field interacts differently on the human body. The electric field E (V/m), and the magnetic induction (magnetic flux density) B with the unit tesla (T) a re the symbols used for quantifying these fields. The past research in the area of biochemistry shows that this range of frequencies have effects on cellular and tissue responses, alterations in the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins, changes in the hormon e production, immune responses, gene expressions, changes in cell growth rate and cell differentiation (Tenforde, 1991).
31 Bowman (2014) suggests that frequency is a key indicator of EMF toxicity because it determines the severity of molecular activity such as ionization, photochemistry, and heating. The frequency of near fields and the resulting magnetic induction caused by everyday usage of electronic devices can determine what kind of effect is generated in the body. Earth produces an electromagnetic field that controls a daily rhythm in organism. s inner core is responsible for the daily and seasonal physiological cycles affecting organisms, plants and animals to manifest their inner biological clock. Malyshkov and colleagues (2017) describe the changes of EMF and solar influence, the lunar spiral movement can have an override influence on the solar annual path of the circadian path. Also, the EMF cycles, certain hours of peak activity, and natural events such as earthquakes or tides are areas that could be lin ked directly to this phenomenon 2.1. 1. 3 Midrange r adiation This range of radiation is nonionizing and incl udes low frequency (LF), medium frequency (MF), high frequency (HF), very high frequency (VHF), ultrahigh frequency (UHF), super high frequency (SHF), and extremely high frequency (EHF) waves ( S ee Table 2 7). The frequency range of the intermediate zone is between 300 Hz and 10 MHz. The radiation is produced by a variety of manmade sources including longwave and mediumwave radio systems, TV broadcasting and anti theft devices. The sources of these electromagnetic fields include AM and FM radio waves, televi sion signals, long range navigation (LORAN), commercial radar systems, cellular telephones, microwave ovens and alarm systems.
32 Intermediate frequencies (IF) are a wide range that cause two kinds of effects: induction (induced currents) seen in radiofreque ncy (RF) waves and thermal influence seen in microwave bands. Induction is also used to generate heat which is seen in induction cooking. Induction cooking is a new cooking method that is becoming more commonly used in the household cooking devices due to its energy efficiency and safety features in regards to the non burning capability. The mechanism is based on eddy currents which is the energy produced by electrical currents formed in a conducting mass. If the field is emitted by a loop, the magnetic qua lity predominates, and if it is omitted by a linear current like a long wave antenna, the electric current prevails (Souques and De Seze, 2012). Radiofrequency identification ( RFID ) In some of the commercial buildings radiation caused by RFID systems are present. RFID systems are all wireless communication identification systems that use radiofrequency fields. The system constitutes of a label or readable bar code and a reader or an interrogator. The labels or tags can be read by a fixed or mobile RFID tra nsmitter, and can be identified, located, modified and stored. The tags are either active (emits signals to transmitter) or passive (requires an interrogator to be read). The tags have the stored information within a chip and an antenna which is usually co iled to take less space transmitting the data. Depending on the area of influence the usage is varied and is activated within different frequency operating modes. For example, an anti theft security device employs multiple frequencies to be able to cover the entire range. There are diverse designs and applications of such systems based on different scope and frequency range. Some
33 examples of these devices are animal tagging units, car anti theft, access controls, payment procedures and warehousing (Debouzy and Perrin, 2012). Radiofrequency f ields This range is mostly caused by wireless communication receiving and transmitting systems. There has been many research and a high number of studies performed on the radiofrequency field: around 2,421 papers writte n by 2012 under health, biology, epidemiology, reviews and dosimetry topics. Radiofrequency range of electromagnetic field are often referred to as RF. This frequency range is from 10 MHz to 300 GHz, with the wireless communication frequency around 1 GHz. The power of the propagating wave decreases in a scale of one over the square of the distance to the point source (1/d 2 ). The interaction to the biological tissue consists of mostly absorption and therefore heating in the case of high power (microwave or wave) range. In the case of wireless communication, the waves produce a lower power level. Wireless communication is consisted of two devices with two way communication systems: emitters and receivers. In radar systems, the information goes only in one dir ection (Veyret and Perrin, 2012). In the FM and television range, powerful emitters are used (up to 25 kW per analogue and 10 kW per digital TV channel). The antennas are positioned within a 40 350 meter range of height and to cover an area of radius 30 ki lometers. Currently, there are many RF sources of wireless communication devices. It can only be concluded that in time, new versions of such devices will develop and their quantity will increase. Some of the examples of such devices are the late generatio n mobile telephony, DECT, Wi Fi, Bluetooth, ULB, RFID, remote controls, etc. In mobile telephony systems, there are honeycomb cells to break down the overall coverage. Most of the wireless technologies
34 work based on the two way communication between the ba se and emitters receivers; each mobile phone is a radio emitter receiver operating within 800 2100 MHz. For instance, the maximum power emitted by a GSM 900 is 2 W; 50% of the power will be absorbed by the head of the user if the source is held close to th e ear. By using UMTS instead of GSM, there is a hundredth times less power and therefore a reduction in the amount of the absorbed energy (SAR). When RF radiation interacts with matter or tissues, either absorption or reflection occurs. This effect depends on the water content and the dielectric property of the substance. The more water content in the tissue, the more absorption takes place (blood fluid). If the body can dissipate the heat through thermoregulation, and blood flow, no temperature is risen in the body (Veyret and Perrin, 2012). Microwaves Microwaves are higher in frequency in the radio frequency range. They are grouped further under sub bands (L, C, X, and Ku) to provide various identification information to scientists. Medium length or C ban d waves penetrate clouds band is used for Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and can penetrate plant life to measure the moisture in the soil. The C band, X band, and Ku band ranges are used b y satellites to send signals to ground stations. Natural sources of radio frequency waves include other planets, stars, and the sun emitting electromagnetic field and radio waves. NASA (2010) uses radio telescopes to capture the emitted waves and recreate informative images of the planets. Terahertz r egion (T Rays) This region in the spectral band includes parts of microwave (wave) and infrared (IR) zone ranging from 0.1 to 10 THz (10 12 Hz).
35 Terahertz region relates to the biological cells for the spatial resolution of imaging ability, scattering properties in tissues and biomolecular excitation. The territory referred to as the terahertz gap is fairly new in the industry and has been recently researched upon, and used in different applications (Wilmink an d Grundt, 2012). A few of these developments and applications are the far infrared (far IR) gas laser, spectroscopy medical imaging, body scanners used at the security checkpoints and data transmitters The primary affected organ in this range is the skin where the radiation can penetrate within a few hundred micrometers and therefore reach the small blood vessels under the skin. An exposure of 0.1 THz shows that no DNA damage and DNA strand breaks are reported (Hintzsche et al. 2012). Future research and expansion of this region of electromagnetic field in advanced technology is to be expected (Wilmink and Grundt, 2012). 2.1. 1. 4 Nonionizing o ptical r adiation Optical radiation frequency range includes infrared (IR), visible light (VIS), and ultraviolet (UV ) spectrums (see Table 2 8 ). The manmade sources for this range of electromagnetic fields include lasers, incandescent lights, medical holography, medical material processing, optical radar, optical fiber communication, surgical applications, dermalogical applications, and photo coagulation (Tenforde 1995). Infrared radiation All bodies emit IR due to their certain temperature of the black body law To e valuate IR radiation, irradiance E (W/m 2 ) and energy exposure H (J/m 2 ) are measured. The biological effect caused by IRs are of thermal nature, and the depth of their influence is w ithin millimeters in the skin. Normally, t he skin plays a major role to control the thermal regulation through its pore s The IR can disturb this process and cause an unwanted
36 2012). In organs, the measurement or dose has to be calculated from the readings on the energy distribution in a function of wavelength and integrating it to the notion of time. The final concerning dose in the organs is presented in (J/m 2 ) (Csarini, 2012). Natural sources of the infrared range include planets as well as earth. The analysis of infrared radiation as thermal emission or, in other words, heat is used to study the changes in the land and the sea surfaces. The instrument that detects infrared radiation is called a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameter (MODIS). This instrument detects and monitors any heat activity on earth e.g., forest fires and volcano activities (NASA 2010). Ultraviolet radiation Visible light is the only range that human eyes receive. The sun is one of the natural sources that emits the full spectrum of the optical range, whic h includes visible light and ultraviolet (UV A), (UV B), and (UV C) (See Table 2 8) UV radiation is in the range of 100 to 400 nanometer (nm) wavelength which emits a photon energy equivalent to the amount needed to break the biological chemical bonds. Th ese photochemical reactions are caused by the absorption of the energy through chromophores and cause benign and deleterious result to the cells. The biological effects are a product of direct absorption of photons and photosensitization causing reactive o xygen species which chemically react with molecules and enzymes leading to cancer. From the three spectral bands, UV C is the most dangerous one due to affecting all of the cell constituents (Csarini, 2012). The UV B range causes sunburns and cell damage and is absorbed by the ozone layer in the atmosphere. The most
37 harmful ultraviolet range is UV (NASA 2010). The skin and the eye are the most affected organ by the UV radiation. Genetic modification cau sed by UV changes the normal process of cell division and proliferation. After a period of time, the unregulated proliferation of cancer cells create tumors. The adverse effect of UV A has recently been proven to be a concern. In the past, it was thought t hat the usage of UV A applied in solariums (sun tanning beds) is safe, but research has shown that this range also is aggressive and has carcinogenic symptoms (Csarini, 2012). Laser Laser stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiatio n Since 1960, the birth year of laser by Professor Maiman in California, laser technology has created diverse types of lasers that are used in many industries such as military, space, telecommunication, medicine, show business, bar code readers and domest ic products. Light is produced by excited atoms emitting photons which is normally emitted incoherent like sun rays or regular light sources. Laser beams, however, are created by exciting the atoms with the same wavelengths through a pumping energy device repeatedly to generate coherent light. If the flux of photons passes through an emissive substance in a multiplying fashion, it amplifies and creates a certain wavelength laser beam. The variety of laser radiation corresponds to a variety of the wavelength s and the more specific functional applications. In the biomedical engineering, lasers are used to create thermal, photochemical, photo ablative or disruptive effects on the living tissues for therapeutic or cell eliminating applications. The nature of the effects is dependent on several factors: wavelength, exposure time, energy delivered, and the type of affected tissue. Eye is one of the main targets of the visible optical radiation exposure followed
38 by the less sensitive organ, the skin which is linked to some cutaneous damage through exposure. Laser devices are grouped into seven classes of 1, 1M, 2, 2M, 3R, 3B and 4 starting from very weak to very dangerous (Courant, 2012). 2.1. 1. 5 Ionizing h igh f requency r ange r adiation The ionizing radiation with hig h energy and very short wavelengths include gamma and x rays. This range of radiation include particulate sources of neutrons and electrons (beta and alpha particles). Unlike waves and neutrons that can penetrate the body, the alpha and beta particles are unable to enter the organic tissues. But nevertheless t he risk that the particles impose is through inhalation or ingestion. Radioactive substances are the main sources of the radiation and are measured in terms of their radioactive decay rate with unit Becquerel (Bq) which equals to one nuclear decay event per second. Natural sources include radon 222, uranium 238, and cosmic rays. Manmade sources are the by product activities and leakages in nuclear facilities, uranium 235, X rays, computerized tomograp hy (CT) scans, radiotherapy (medical applications) and also seen in food sources (McColl et al., 2015) The effect of ionizing radiation on the biological body is adverse, carcinogenic and in high dosage s, fatal (See Table 2 9) The absorbed quantity in t he body is measured by the unit gray (Gy) which equals to 1 J/kg. In the buildings, the most prominent source is radon, an inert natural gas with several radioactive isotopes that penetrates the living space through ground. Radon is a single greatest sourc e (41.6%) of all radioactive exposures. It is available in rocks and soils and can penetrate through cracks and openings in buildings (McColl et al., 2015).
39 2.1.2 EMF Effect in the Biological Environment 220.127.116.11 Non thermal and t hermal e ffects of EMF on t he l iving o rganism Wh ere there is an electromagnetic field (EMF) change in time, there are two recognized types of biophysical effects in the body: A non thermal induced internal electric field ( E i ) A thermal behavior resulted by the higher range of MF frequency that functions as an energy absorption mechanism in the organic tissue per unit of mass quantified as the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) measured in ( watts per kilogram ) or ( W/Kg ). The physical interaction of EMF with the biologica l object is complex; depending effect varies. Mainly, three groups can be identified: 1. Below 30 MHz: W avelength > the dimension of the biological object 2. From 30 MHz to 10 GHz: Wavelength compatible with biological cells, organs, and body. In this frequency range the body absorbs more energy than passing through the cross section. 3. Over 10 GHz: Wavelength < biological objects (Kolcunova et al., 2016) Based on various research began in the 1960s, there has been many controversial concerns and reports on the health hazards caused by the magnetic fields and the resulting electrical charges in the body. In 1979, Wertheimer and Leeper found that the risk of leukemia was doubled for children who lived close to power transmission lines but later was found that the reason was connected to the electric current in the water pipes (Blettner and Merzenich, 20 08 ) (R sli, 2014). But based on the research on the childhood leukemia, Merzenic h and colleagues found no elevated risk between childhood leukemia and transmission lines (Merzenich et al., 2008).
40 The electromagnetic oscillations are generated in many levels of the living unar and central circadian biological clock that controls many important functions related to health and regeneration of the cell. Nature keeps the organisms in resonance with their natural environment. The subtle field interaction (0 300 Hz) within the bo dy and the cells_ endogenous (internally caused) electric currents, the intracellular electric oscillations, the cell membrane electrical potential, and the circadian biological clock_ is also affected by the environment and the natural or manmade electrom agnetic field around the body. This interaction may cause distortion within the form, frequency range, intensity and direction of the fields and the natural equilibrium of a healthy performance causing biological changes and health effects (Panagoloulos, 2 013). Panagoloulos mentions that the amount of absorbed radiation (thermal) energy alone does not verify all biological distortions, but it is the non thermal effect of the external field that disrupts the endogenous physiological field. Liboff (2009) ment ions that wellness can be polarization by environmental EMFs. Living organisms have adapted within the ( Panagoloulos, 2013). Induction c oupling Coupling is the wireless transfer of electrical energy from one electric system to another. In order to study and simulate the induced electric field in the human body, a digital simulation model named the phantom m odel has been developed. The dosimetric ( calculation of the absorbed dose of EMF in tissue s) methods involve macro and micro interactions MRI and CT scanners allow researchers to create realistic human models at millimeter resolution level that can be
41 po sitioned in different situations. The individual body parts are modeled into small volume s or block s and voxel based on different conductivities. Homogeneous models in the past were designed with a single conductivity material whereas latest h eterogeneous models have been consisted of over 30 distinct human organs and tissues The dosimetry includes the measurement of induced currents inside the biological system during the ELF ex posure (Shigemitsu and Yamazaki, 2012). Induction c oupling in the e xtremely l ow f requency r ange (ELF) The authors Shigemitsu and Yamazaki summarize the ELF summary of coupling as below. Exposures occur in the near zone or inductive region of the source. Induced electric and magnetic fields in bodies are quasi static Electric (EF ) and magnetic fields (MF) in bodies are decoupled Internal magnetic field equals to the external applied field. The applied EFs are 10 8 times weakened when entering the body. EF are perpendicular to the surface in the vicinity of the body. EFs are enhan ced near the points at sharp curvature. EFs encircle the MF axis and produce an eddy current with increasing magnitude moving away from the center of the body. Eddy currents must be calculated separately to each different conductive area of the body. Highe st E i and Eddy current occur at the outer layer of the body (skin). The value of the coupling is relative to the size of the body and the biological properties of the body. Biological material behaves as a conducting medium exposed at low frequencies. (Shi gemitsu and Yamazaki, 2012) Induction c oupling in the r adio f requency r ange (RF) Within RF range the influence is dependent upon geometry, and composition of the recipient, and the
42 frequency and the configuration of the source. Moreover, the distance and strength field of the aff ected area has to be considered. The distance within a near field is on the order of a few wavelengths. For example, in a typical dipole the reactive near field distance is around near which is around 5 cm in air at 900 MHz, or 2 cm at 2400MHz typical frequencies used for wireless mobile cell phones. In far zone the radiated RF energy propagates as plane waves. The other effect of the RF frequency is the heating effect of the energy absorption rate in the organic tissue which is quan tified as SAR (Shigemitsu and Yamazaki, 2012). Far f ield coupling summary: Coupling is characterized by plane wave field behavior Interaction is independent of the source configuration EF and MF are in time phase with each other EF and MF are uniquely defi ned and related through intrinsic impedance of the medium Determination of EF is sufficient to characterize the interaction Coupling of RF power from air into planer tissue ranges from about 20% to 60% at wireless communication frequencies Enhanced couplin g can occur at greater depths in bodies with curved surfaces from the RF refraction Enhanced RF energy absorption rate in the inside of the head 400 1500 MHz: SAR Maxima or hot spots The coupling of RF energy depends on electric field polarization for elo ngated bodies whose height to width ratio is large. Average SAR in the head of homogenous and inhomogeneous models are the same. Near field coupling summary: EF and MF are decoupled, independent, and non uniform.
43 rgent and small compared to the dimensions of human head Wave impedance varies from point to point in the near field RF EF and MF are in time quadrature (90 o out of time phase) Maxima of EF and MF occur at different locations as in a standing wave field R F energies are transferred back and forth between the source (antenna) and the body Body SAR level is influenced directly by the source The EF is weaker because the dielectric permittivity of tissue is high Current generated MF dominates EF and SAR SAR val ue varies with antenna configuration, and the vicinity to head/body Anatomical shape and tissue composition can influence SAR Maxima and distribution A large amount 40% 50% of the radiated RF power is absorbed by the body A bulk of the power deposition occ urs on the side of the head (using cell phones) SAR distribution follows an exponential trend away from the antenna side SAR Maxima and the related distribution are a function of distance and the current distribution on the antenna (Shigemitsu and Yamazak i, 2012) 2. 1.2. 2 Biology It is believed that for ELF frequency (>300 Hz), the oscillating movements of charges in organisms caused by electric field are extremely reduced due to the skin which acts like a Faraday Cage. However the magnetic field generate s induced currents. Current density is what to be calculated from the intensity of the current over a given section with the unit (A/m 2 ) (Aurengo and Perrin, 2012). Microorganisms and p lants In Chapter 2 influence are discussed to show that EMF radiation is present in all forms of organic
44 recognized as a biologically influencing medium. Also, the wide spectrum of EMF has different impa ct s on different parts and organs. The types of nonionizing ELF and RF, and ionizing influence the organic matter through specific attributes of frequency and intensity which plays a role to be adverse or enhancing the natural state of the biochemical inte ractions. Microorganisms and plants respond to manmade and natural EMF radiation. For example, the magnetotactic bacteria are microorganisms that orient and migrate alo ng magnetic field line (Komeili, 2012 ). The system used by the bacteria acts as an intra cellular compass allowing the bacteria to move in a water based environment. An external EMF exposure applied to a natural habitat of a bacteria can also act as a stressing factor and can be therefore used as an antibacterial agent (Cellini et al, 2008). T able 2 1 0 shows some of the effects that EMF has on various types of plants. Cell e nvironment ways: in vivo (within the living or living tissue of a whole living organism in its natural environm ent), and in vitro (within the glass or within a controlled environment). Kuzniar and colleagues (2017) have done a series of analysis on human and mouse cells in WIFI (5. 8 GHz), radiation. The result is that less than 1% of the human or mouse proteome (a complete set of proteins expressed by an organism) respond ed to the EMF radiation through small changes in protein abundance. Overall, the data do es not support that the s hort time non ionizing exposure has a significant change on mammalian cells.
45 EMF with its different properties of electric and magnetic behavior has a wide range of effect on a number of different organic systems. For example the near field of ELF can rea ch a very long distance whereas the RF range is within the range of centimeters (e.g. 1 GHz with wavelength 3 cm) (Blank and Goodman 2011). Some of 11 Animals Biological sensing has been frequen tly researched in the vivo ( performed or taking place in a living organism ) area such as bacteria and animals and also for the navigation and migration purposes. migratory system, Ritz, Adem and Schulten (2000) propo sed the possibility of magnetoreception and radical pair process of sensory organs with the earth geomagnetic field. European robins were used in the study; the magnetic orientation was disturbed when introduced to a vertically aligned broadband field of 0 .1 10.0 MHz frequency range and 0.085 mT (millitesla) intensity or the single frequency of 7MHz and 0.47 mT together with the geomagnetic field (Ritz et al. 2004 ) The disorientation was based on the angle between the 7 MHz and the geomagnetic field. The r esult of this experimentation was the recognition of a magnetic compass that is based on a radical pair mechanism and because of the resonance effect on single triplet (S T) transition in the oscillating field. Similarly, Nishimura et al. (2010) suggested that a diurnal agamid lizard can perceive and respond to ELF EMF. They experimented by exposing the lizards to a sinusoidal ELF EMF of 6 and 8 Hz, 2.6 T, 10 V/m for 12 hours a day. The result show s that the average number of tail lifts of the experimented was greater than the control group. Also, Fu et al. (2008) investigated the short and long term effects of ELF EMF on spatial recognition memory in mice. The findings suggest that depend ing
46 on the field strength or/and the duration of the exposure the int roduced field impairs the (Ueno and Okano 2012). Dosim etry of the tissue and the b ody. The exposure in general is a substance or an agent that comes into contact with the human body. The agent may be chemical or physical and may refer to environmental factors such as nonionizing radiation (NIR). There are two areas of study when NIR is concerned: exposure pathway (the course through the environment that an agent takes to reach a subject) and exposure route (the mode by which a substanc e enters the body). There are three parameters that has to be identified to study the NIR effect on the body: 1. Frequency and signal modulation 2. Intensity or concentration (intensity decreases with increasing distance) 3. Duration and temporal pattern NIR expos ure creates induction within the ELF zone, and heating within the microwave (MW) and radiofrequency (RF) zone (R sli and Vienneau, 2014). Tracing EMF in the human body The effect of EMF may be for therapeutic purposes or may have been caused by an unwan ted source causing harming outcome. As previously discussed, this outcome depends on the frequency and the intensity of a given field, the duration of exposure and the organism itself. There is a recent technological development that records human bio elec tromagnetic (BEM) field which uses Electronphotonic Imaging (EPI) or Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) technique based on the Kirlian effect (Bhargav et al. 2016). Kirlian effect of photography or electrograph is discovered by Semvon Kirlian (1939) who di scovered when object is connected to a high voltage source, an image is produced on a photo plate.
47 In the field of bio electromagnetics, the method used for determining the magnitude of induced current density is called dosimetry Both types of experimenta l and numerical dosimetry need the electrical properties ( electric conductivity and relative dielectric constant defined as permittivity ) of the object (Table 2 12) These values are dependent on the frequency and type of the affected tissue and can cause kinetic and thermodynamic effects. Numerical dosimetry presents essential information on quantitative aspect of the external and internal electric values in the living tissues. The propagation of the EM microwave range (experimented with 2.55 GHz frequenc y wave) along the flat and curved surfaces are different. The types of waves that propagate on the surface of the human body can be grouped under leaky, surface and creeping waves. The leaky waves are attenuated during propagation, emitted at an angle depe nding on the dielectric permeability of the surface. The surface waves propagate along the flat surface. The creeping waves can bend around the surface moving to a shadow area of the object (Vendik et al., 2016). Phantom models In the past, a simplistic homogenous human model (phantom) was used to estimate the electric field dosimetry, but recently with the help of MRI scanned data, there is a more anatomically real version, a heterogeneous simulated model (2D and/or 3D) that represents up to 30 dielectri cally different organs and tissues of 1 to 10 mm3 voxels (Shigemitsu and Yamazaki, 2012) I n computer modeling, a voxel represents a point or value on a grid within the three dimensional space. EMF e ffect on tissues By exposing electric pulses to the tiss ue, charges move. This is possible because all biological fluids are conductors due to the surrounded saline concentration. Tissues also have a capacitative behavior because the cell
48 membranes are electric insulators. When the ions and therefore the result ing charges move a current occurs. The movement of currents lead to heating and the transportation of biological molecules known as electrophoresis cause a transmembrane potential difference defined as induced Heating is only one of the outcomes of the i nduced effect (within the RF range ). B y applying electric pulses with electrodes in direct contact with the tissue, electrochemical behavior is created which can change the PH level and damage or kill the tissue. Electroporation or electropermeabilisation is employed to excite cells to move molecules between the when exposed to the EM frequencies, dielectric constants decrease while conductivity increases. Biological substances have high di electric constants which is the property of an electric insulating material, when there are low frequencies. Cell membranes have a relatively high capacitance at low frequency behaving like a short circuit for frequencies above 1 kHz. The conductivity incr eases when the frequency increases (Lin, 2012) Coupling of electromagnetic fields into biological systems In a layered tissue structure the coupling characteristic can be very complex. This can be a resultant of the phenomenon called the standing wave and reflection coefficient that occur di fferently in each tissue layer. On the other hand, the dielectric constant decreases in the frequency range of (10 kHz and 30 MHz). For higher frequencies, water molecules rotate losing the viscosity where the conduc tivity increases. (Shigemitsu and Yamazaki, 2012) (Interaction of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields). Tissue polarization alters when external EMF is applied. Exposure can cause endogenous physiological
49 field alterations, or tissue polarizatio n representing stress. A healthy organism can overcome the stress factor by additional energy (ATP) consumption, but a young or weak organism may not overcome this additional stress (Panagopoulos, 2013). In vitro studies look at the magnetic field (MF) eff ects independent of the living organism. The area of these studies are cell growth, proliferation ( rapid reproduction of a cell, part, or organism ), cell differentiation, cell membrane and metabolic activity, and genotoxicity. Table 2 1 3 presents some of t he findings on this topic. 2. 1.2. 3 EMF radiation affecting the h uman b ody Human body interacts with the MFs because it consists of ionized water that makes it conductive. A California electric line worker, for instance, working on a distribution line with a 0 3000 Hz probe has MF traces from four sources. First, a static MF with magnitude B 0 steel. Second a 60 Hz MF caused by the three phase AC electricity producing elliptical shaped field. Third, there are the 180 and 540 Hz harmonic frequencies coming from steel structure. To be more precise, the formula below shows the existing MF around the power line worker (Bowman, 2014): (2 1) ( f power is the power frequency (e.g. 60 Hz in North America, 400 Hz on airlines), harmonic index n limited to 3 and 5, motion gradi ent is the time varying exposure from a
50 Proliferation of cells ( c ancer) Cancer is the unregulated proliferation of cells having the tendency to spread to the neighboring areas through metastasis. The cause may be genetic (DNA alteration) or epigenic (alteration in gene expression). EMF exposure may be the cause of the epigenic changes which plays a role on cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis (normal death of cells), or modified adaptive responses resulting i n cancer (Vijayalaxmi and Prihoda, 2009). Based on The International Agency for Research on Cancer ( IARC), IARC2002, the studies on the relationship between EMF and cancers are not definitive, but there is still a risk factor that has to be recognized. The IARC result is that the RF range emitting from the mobile carcinogen. In Table 2 4 some of the research that connect EMF and carcinogenic behavior is shown. The strongest but overall weak link has emerged with the results of the adult brain cancer and adult leukemia. Most of the residential and occupational research regarding ELF EMF is focused on cancer studies and lacks other opportunistic observation. Overall, a direct caus al relationship between ELF EMF exposure and cancer has not been confirmed (Mezei and Vergara, 2008 ). Regarding the RF radiation, there is much debate in proving whether there is any relationship to cancer. For example based on experimentation and researc h, there are increased risks associated with mobile phone users (Hardell et al., 2002, 2006 2009 ), but replicable experiments shown by international INTERPHONE study done by Cardis and Colleagues (2007) shows a negative result.
51 Childhood l eukemia (CL) is a most common cancer among children. This condition has a clear risk factor when there is a present source of ionizing and/or medium frequency (MF) radiation. There ha ve been many studies in this regard and most of them have resulted in acknowledging the r elationship between the radiation exposure and an increased risk. Kheifet and Swanson ( 2006 ) mention that the consistent association between CL and an average MF exposure of >0.3 0.4 T could be due to chance and bias, but nevertheless based on the studie s, this association is substantial ( Rsli, 2014 ). Behavior and the n ervous s ensation Several investigations show a disruptive pattern in the psychological and mental behavior and the central nervous system, learning and memory of the organisms (See Tabl e 2 1 5 ) (Ueno and Okano, 2012). For instance, one of the areas that show improvement by long term use of pulsed low research done by Piatkowski et al. (2011) shows not onl y a reduced fatigue with the EMF treatment are possible but also a decrease in depressive symptoms, bladder control, spasticity and quality of life. DNA EMF is proven to affect DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid, a hereditary material in all organisms ). DNA acts like a fractal antenna receiving and transmitting EM radiation. A fractal antenna is an antenna that can operate at many different frequencies similarity where all substructures have a geo metric shape that is similar to the structure as a whole (See Table 2 16) DNA molecule conducts electrons within the double helix (Wan et al., 1999) and the DNA in the cell nucleus acts as a fractal antenna which its range is much
52 greater than the normal antenna that receives the RF ranges. Electron transfer or oxidation leads to a stress response, induction of protein synthesis, DNA damage or cell proliferation (See Table 2 16). DNA strand, breaks not only in the ionizing range but through a wide range of frequencies. Historically, the fractal quality of the DNA is many new species have evolved after the appearance of the fractal DNA (Blank and Goodman, 2010). However, among the scientific community, there is still much debate and controversy on the effectiveness of EMF on DNA damage. Also depending on what frequency and what intensity the result may differ. DNA damage is related to the activity of free radicals This fu rther supports the view that EMF affects DNA via an indirect secondary process, since the energy content of ELF EMF is much lower than that of RFR. C ells with high antioxidant potentials would be less susceptible to EMF. These include the amount of antiox idants and anti oxidative enzymes in the cells. Furthermore, the effect of free radicals could depend on the nutritional status of an individual, e.g., availability of dietary antioxidants, consumption of alcohol, and amount of food consumption. Various li fe conditions, such as psychological stress and strenuous physical exercise, have been shown to increase oxidative stress and enhance the effect of free radicals in the body. Thus, one can also speculate that some individuals may be more susceptible to the effects of EMF exposure More research has to be carried out to prove the involvement of the free radicals in the biological effects of EMF. However, the Fenton reaction obviously can only explain some the genetic effects observed (See Figure 2 3) For ex ample, RF and ELF EMF induced DNA damages have been
53 reported in normal lymphocytes, which contain a very low concentra tion of intracellular free iron (Lai, 2007). Reale and Amerio (2013) suggest that based on the general acceptance, 50 and 60 Hz ELF frequ ency do not transfer energy to cells causing a direct DNA damage however the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and a potential change of the inner and outer membrane of the living cell (70 mV) can be changed indirectly (Liburdy et al., 1993) (Mattsson et al ., 2001) (Conti et al., 1985) (Walleczek et al., 1992). The application of pulsed magnetic fields can even help tissues to restore a healthy state. Cardiovascular s ystem chick embryos, long term GSM mobile phone radiation exposure could result in myocardial pathological changes, DNA damage and chick embryo mortality increase, but has little influence on vascular development. Jauchem (1997) concludes that ELF and RF exposures were not likely to cause adverse cardiovascular effects (Elmas, 2016). Table 2 1 7 shows other findings in this area: Brain and the nervous system. In the center of brain, there is a pine cone shaped organ that is called the pineal gland. It is one of the endocrine glands that produces and discharges the hormone melatonin directly into the blood. Melatonin plays a central role in the regulation of circadian (a cycle of 24 hours associated to the natural light period of biological activities) and seasonal rhythm. This hormone adjusts the bod y temperature, weight, tumoral growth, and even life span. Various studies have shown that t he ELF (50, 60 Hz) has effect s on the production of melatonin (Kulkarni and Gandhare, 2014). Table 2 1 8 shows the result of the studies in controlling melatonin pro duction and the responses of the cells to this hormone.
5 4 Kulkarni and Gandhare conclude that based on their literature review they have found that the exposure and duration of ELF EMF affect brain, anxiety, sleep disorder, behavior disorders, and electroph ysiological signals. The amount of risk of disease in brain and the central nervous system (CNS) tumors with regards to RF radiation produced by mobile phone use is still controversial. The two main groups that have resulted the International Agency for R esearch on Cancer ( IARC ) classification are based on the ongoing studies done by Hardell and colleagues (2011) in Sweden and countered by the international INTERPHONE study is area but the INTERPHONE study shows no clear evidence of CNS tumors in mobile phone users. However, there has been increased odd ratios for glioma and acoustic neuroma. The indecisive result of the relationship between RF and cancer in brain and CNS is found in Table 2 1 9 Little and colleagues (2012) analysis indicates that observed rates in the US are inconsistent with relative risks reported by Hardell and colleagues but could be consistent with the risks reported in the Interphone study Overall, th ere is no solid evidence that the brain is directly connected to the mobile use, but there is a need to study this subject further especially based on a long term effect of mobile phones and its development that starts from childhood usage (Deltour and Sch z, 2014). Based on the research performed by the Stuttgart Institute for communication and brain research, the Institute for Electromagnetic H armonization (IRP) introduce s a harmonization solution to cancel the electromagnetic waves through active shieldi ng or
55 cancellation mode on how to specifically overcome the adverse effect of the electromagnetic influence on brain activity (See Figure 2 4 ). The result shown on their model, show s a significant increase of the brain ac tivity after the harmonization ( IPR 2017 ). Based on their research, the causes for brain and learning disruption are varied, but since the brain works with ELF EMF frequencies, it is prone to be affected by manmade fields (See Figure 2 5). In an ex periment with turning the light switch on with dimmer and the resulting EEG CD, a standard lamp caused a disturbance in the right hemisphere due to alternating current or AC (See Figure 2 6) When the source was switched off after 2 minutes and 11 seconds, the brain activity returned to normal. Brain works with different frequencies. Beta frequencies indicate alertness and highly concentrated attention to external stimuli, while alpha frequencies indicate relaxed, concentrated, receptive, inwardly oriented states, and theta frequencies indicate that the person is in a meditative state, engaged in relaxed visualization (creating mental images). Delta activity is present during sleep, and also during all communicative, interpersonal interaction of a non verbal nature (See Figure 2 7) Cognitive f unction Frey (1998) mentions that headache is related to microwave radiation and has been reported constantly during the last 30 years. The blood brain barrier seems to be a main cause of headaches because the radiatio n exposure caused by cellular phones affects the barrier and the dopamine opiate systems of the brain. Tinnitus is associated with an increased intracellular calcium level and local oxidative stress that affects cochlea in the inner ear (Pall and Bedient, 2007). The calcium levels are affected by the electromagnetic fields depending on the specific
56 frequency range. Redmayne and colleagues (2013) found that mobile phone users are more prone to experience headaches, feeling down, depression and insomnia resu lting in day time fatigue. Also, there is a relationship between the WIFI systems at home incorporating a transmission resulting in around 10 Hz falling within the alpha range of ELF brain activity (transition from waking to sleep) (Hung et al. 2007). Redm ayne concludes that young people who used heavier than others reported an increased headache. The author suggests to use the speaker instead of the direct contact of the wireless device and the headset close to the ear. Reproduction and d evelopment At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca 2+ ]i (ionized calcium) may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding and DNA breaks. The effect of EMF exposure on reproductive function differs according to freq uency and wave, strength (energy), and duration of exposure. The authors Gye and Park (2012) mention that based on in vivo and in vitro studies, many reproductive related attributes such as cellular homeostasis endocrine function, male germ cell death, th e estrous cycle reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm mobility, early embryonic development and pregnancy success and fetal development in animal systems can be altered by EMF. In the present study the effects of EMFs on repr oductive function are characterized based on the types of EMF, wave type, strength and duration of exposure at cellular and organism levels ( Gye and Park 2012 ). The result of Solek and colleagues (2017) suggest that pulsed and continuous electromagnetic field (PEMF/CEMF) induces oxid ative and nitrosative stress mediated DNA damage which leads to malfunction in the reproduction system of
57 male mice. Free oxygen radicals are formed within the organism at equilibrium with the rate at which they are eliminated by intra and extracellular p rocesses; this is known as the oxidative balance (Shoji and Koletzko 2007) Cheboteraba and colleagues (2009) have experimented on the development of roaches and have come into the conclusion that EMF affects earlier hatching of prelarvae, increase in the morphological diversity of juvenile fish, decrease in body lengths and weights and changes the number of vertebrae in yearlings O ther results from research performed on the reproduction and development are s hown in Table 2 20 Psychological s ymptoms and i diopathic e nvironmental i ntolerance (IEI) Due to reported EMF sensitivities and reactions, there exist many research to find whether there are traceable symptoms in individuals or any other apparent indication of EMF sensory presence and an associated exp osure discomfort. The term Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance (IEI) is often used for patients to describe symptoms or illnesses that are not connected to any diagnostic physical attributes, and may be originating from behavioral or psychiatric causes. M ost of the experimentations conclude that IEI EMF sufferers have no direct physical symptoms associated with EMF (Rubin et al., 2010; Nakatani Enomoto et al., 2013; Dieudonn, 2016, Szemerszky et al., 2016; Eltiti et al., 2015). However, Yang and colleague s (2012) found that there is a stress response from a 2.45 GHz EMF at a SAR of 6 W/kg in the rat hippocampus. Szemerszky et al., (2015) concluded that people with IEI EMF might be able to detect the presence of the magnetic field to a small extent, but the ir symptom reports are memory ability shows that a lifelong exposure to 900 MHz with a SAR of 0.4 kg/W
58 impairs the social memory performance of adult male rats (Schneider and Stangassinger, 2014). 2.1.2 .4 Diagnostic and t herapeutic v alue of EMF From the ancient times, biological and therapeutic effects of electric pulses was known to humans. For example, paintings on the walls of the Ti tomb in Saqqara, Egypt shows the trea tment of a person by exposing him to the electric discharges of an electric catfish from the Nile (Mir, 2012) (Perrin and Souques, 2012). In the 17 th century, the German Jesuit Atanasius Kircher advocated the method of magnetic cure. In 18 th c entury, Franz Anton Mesmer developed the theory of animal magnetism (magnetisonum animalem) and suggested that a healthy body has a universal fluid; when the circulation is deficient a body develops disease ( Lambrozo and Souques, 2012). Today, electromagnetic phenomena are being increasingly used in the health and medical industry. The therapy that uses magnets of medium intensity is called bio magnetic therapy. This kind of restorative therapy is claimed to be natural and safe by to a healthy cell environment. On a microscopic level, Luo (2009) suggests that it is possible to reverse the entropy production rate of transferring disease or harmful information from cancerous cells to healthy cells. The entropy flow or information flo w can be introduced by a low intensity electromagnetic frequency or ultrasound irradiation The frequency and intensity of the EMF radiation have different effects on different parts of the body. Figure 2 8 shows a map of the magnetic wave and the affected area in the body. Major medical EMF applications deliver energy for treatment in different ways: Stimulating nerve and muscle cells by induced electric current densities
59 Converting field energy into heat or diathermia (long term low temperature), hyperth ermia (moderate temperature), thermotherapy Acquiring diagnostic information by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Triggering functional responses such as by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Electronic implants Injecting magnetic sources into tissues The biological interaction involves with in different scales and zones of the body such as molecular, cellular, organ, and/or system level (See Table 2 12). However, magnetic therapy device manufacturers provide a considerable list of side effects such as a ngina, depression, headache, etc. These devices generate different fields of a) s inusoidal field b) p ulsed field and c) s tatic field (Leitgeb, 2011) (Lin, 2012) 2.2 Regulations and Standards 2.2.1 I nternational Commission on Non I onizing Radiation Prote ction (ICNIRP) ICNIRP is an independent organization based in Germany that provides scientific advice on electromagnetic radiation within the non ionizing range to the public to protect them from the harmful radiation effects and exposure. ICNIRP a im and o bjective: To protect people and the environment against adverse effects of non ionizing radiation (NIR) To develop and disseminates science based advice from e xperts from different countries and disciplines such as biology, epidemiology, medicine, physics and chemistry on limiting exposure to NIR To provide exposure guidelines publicly and freely available online To organize workshops informing the public on scientific knowledge (ICNIRP LF Guidelines, 2010).
60 The mentioned classification of the subcategor ies of the non ionizing radiation (NIR) are as follows: Static Magnetic Fields (0 Hz) Static Electric Fields (0 Hz) Low Frequency (LF) (1 100 kHz) High Frequency (HF) (100 kHz 300 GHz) Ultra Violet (UV) (100 400 nm) Visible (V) (380 780 nm) Infrared (780 n m 1 mm) 18.104.22.168 ICNIRP r eference levels There are two subcategories for the different safety zones: 1. Occupational exposure 2. General public exposure For the purpose of this research, the suggested guidelines by ICNIRP on the LF is discussed. LF fields are mostly related to the electric power supplies, AC current and basic restrict ions for human exposure to time varying electric and magnetic fields (www. Icnirp.org). Tables 2 22 to 2 25 and Figures 2 9 to 2 11 show some of the published basic restrictions of ICNIRP. Table 2 26 shows the chronological establishment of ICNIRP as an in dependent agency. 22.214.171.124 ICNIRP rationale for the maximum exposure levels to EMF radiation The restrictions in ICNIRP guidelines were based on established e vidence regarding acute effects to protect workers and general public from the adverse effect of EL F EMF Careful review of epidemiological and biological data concerning chronic conditions showed no evidence related to low frequency EMF exposure
61 Biological effects of exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields have been reviewed by the Internation al Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ICNIRP, and the World Health Organization (WHO) (IARC 2002; ICNIRP 2003a; WHO 2007a) and national expert groups. Those publications provided the scientific basis for the 2010 (current) guidelines (ICNIRP, 2010) T he basis for the guidelines is two fold: Exposure to low frequency electric fields may cause well defined biological responses, ranging from perception to annoyance, through surface electric charge effects. In addition, the only well established effects in v olunteers exposed to low frequency magnetic fields are the stimulation of central and peripheral nervous tissues and the induction in the retina of phosphenes, a perception of faint flickering light in the periphery of the visual field. The retina is part of the CNS and is regarded as an appropriate, albeit conservative, model for induced electric field effects on CNS neuronal circuitry in general (ICNIRP, 2010) Dosimetry: H istorically, magnetic field models assumed that the body has a homogeneous and isot ropic conductivity and applied simple circular conductive loop models to estimate induced currents in different organs and body regions. Electric fields induced by time varying electric and magnetic fields were computed by using simple homogeneous ellipsoi d models. In recent years, more realistic calculations based on anatomically and electrically refined heterogeneous models (Xi and Stuchly 1994; Dimbylow 2005, 2006; Bahr et al. 2007) resulted in a much better knowledge of internal electric fields in t he b ody from exposure to electric and magnetic fields (ICNIRP LF Guidelines, 2010) Role of representatives in enforcing the regulation Based on the European regulations, a residential or public building shall be assessed and the areas of the affected frequen cy range be identified. The European Parliament suggests that all building owners should conduct an assessment procedure. It is especially important that employers guarantee a healthy and safe condition for their employees. There are certain rules that are set by Directive 2013/35/EU where it is required that competent persons and services identify EMF and suggest ways to reduce them to meet the permitted reference levels. The provided data shall have all the traceable information such as the frequency, dur and over the volume of the work place, direct biophysical effects, particular risks, particular workers wearing active or passive implanted medical device (pacemakers,
62 insulin pumps, pregnancy), effect of multiple sources of exposure or simultaneous exposure to multiple frequency fields and any other specific information regarding that particular environment. Moreover, the risk assessmen t information has to be updated on a regular basis. Electromagnetic (EM) radiation in Sweden is perceived as a hazardous exposure. Due to various health complaints and job losses, electromagnetic hypersensitivity ( EHS ) is recognized as a functional impair ment, therefore the health system offers them assistance and service in accordance with the Swedish Act concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments, and the Swedish Social Services Act (prop. 1999/2000:79): It is consider ed that no human being is in itself impaired, but instead there are shortcomings in the environment which cause the impairment (Hagstr m et al., 2012). 2.2.2 International Electro T echnical Commission ( IEEE) Standards EMF measurement standards have been de veloped by the International Electro technical Commission ( IEC ) IEEE, European standardization in the area of electrical engineering (CENELEC), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and other standardization bodies (WHO, 2017 ) In 1960, the Amer ican Standards Association approved the initiation of the Radiation Hazards Standards project under the co sponsorship of the Department of the Navy and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Prior to 1988, C95 standards were developed by a ccredited standards committee C95 and submitted to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for approval and issuance as ANSI C95 standards. Between 1988 and 1990, the committee was converted to Standards Coordinating Committee 28 under sponsorship of the IEEE Standards Board, and in 2001, became also known as the International Committee on
63 Electromagnetic Safety (ICES). In accordance with policies of the IEEE, C95 standards will be issued and developed as IEEE standards, as well as being submitted to ANSI for recognition (IEEE, 2002) The present scope of ICES is: electromagnetic energy in the range of 0 Hz 300 GHz relative to the potential hazards due to exposure of such energy to man, volatile material s, and explosive devices. The committee will coordinate with other committees whose scopes are contiguous with ICES (IEEE, 2002). ICES is responsible for this standard. There are five subcommittees concerned with: I Techniques, Procedures, Instrumentation and Computation, II Terminology, Units of Measurements, and Hazard Communication, III Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure, 0 3 kHz, IV Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure, 3 kHz 300 GHz, V Safety Levels with Respect to Electro Explosive Devices. Two standards, two guides, and three recommended practices have been issued. Current versions are: 1999 Edition, IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz 300 GHz (Replaces IEEE Std C95.1 1991). 1999, IEEE Standard for Radio Frequency Energy and Current Flow Symbols (Replaces ANSI C95.2). 1991 (Reaff 1997), IE EE Recommended Practice for the Measurement of Potentially Hazardous Ele ctromagnetic Fields RF and Microwave (Replaces ANSI C95.3 1973 and ANSI C95.1 1981). ANSI C95.5 1981, American National Standard Recommended Practice for the Measurement of Hazardous Electromagnetic Fields RF and Microwave. 1996, IEEE Guide for the Measurement of Quasi Static Magnetic and Electric Fields.
64 ANSI C95.4 1978, American National Standard Safety Guide for the Prevention of Radio Frequency Radiation Hazards in the Use of Electric Blasting Caps (IEEE, 2002) This standard was develope d by an ICES Subcommittee 3 (SC 3) formed in 1991 to address the frequency range from 0 3 kHz (SC 3). In the early years, the subcommittee discussed the science relating to both long term and short term exposures and concluded that the effects of long term (chronic) exposure were not convincingly established as were effects of short term exposures (IEEE, 2002) 126.96.36.199 IEEE r eference l evels Tables 2 27 to 2 31 show some of the IEEE published basic restrictions. Table 2 32 shows the chronological overview of IEEE standards formation. 188.8.131.52 Chronological establishment of IEEE standards Table 2 32 explains the chronological establishment of IEEE standards. 184.108.40.206 Difference between the ICNIRP and national (US) guidelines and standards Some of the observed d ifferences in the two ICNIRP and IEEE documentation and standards are explained in the table below (Table 2 33). There are also different units that are used in different standards. 2.2.3 Baubiologie Baubiologie is t he Institute of Building Biology and Su stainability (Institut fr Baubiologie + Nachhaltigkeit) ( IBN ) which is a non profit foundation established in 1996 to promote a healthy, ecologically and socially responsible living environment. This foundation Architektur for Building Biology Architecture Environmental Medicine). T h e i s t h at t h e h o mes or dwellings can be seen as organisms ; t he term third skin accurately describes the intimate relationship between
65 humans and their living space. It vividly illustrates how closely we are interrelated with our living environment and also in how many ways we are dependent on it. We define building biology as the study of the holistic interrelationships between humans and their living environment. B ased on this vision, a set of guidelines and standard conditions consisting of 25 principles has been proposed and written on how to perform specific measurements and assess ment to address the possible health risks. From the 25 points mentioned in below points 15 and 16 are addressed to reduce nonionizing and ionizing electromagnetic ef fects in the living environment. 1. Residential homes away from sources of emissions and noise 2. Building site without natural and human made disturbances 3. Low density housing with sufficient green space 4. Personalized, natural, human and family oriented housing and settlements 5. Building without causing social burdens 6. Natural and unadulterated building materials 7. Natural regulation of indoor air humidity throu gh humidity buffering materials 8. Low total moisture content of a new building that dries out quickly 9. Well balanced ration between thermal and heat retention 10. Optimal air and surface temperatures 11. Good indoor air quality through natural ventilation 12. Heating s y st em based on radiant heat 13. Natural conditions of light, lighting, and colo r 14. Changing the natural balance of background radiation as little as possible 15. Without human made electromagnetic and radiofrequency radiation exposure
66 16. Building materials with lo w radioactivity levels 17. Human oriented noise and vibrations protection 18. Pleasant or neutral smell, without outgassing toxins 19. Reduction of fungi, bacteria, dust, and allergens as much as possible 20. Best possible drinking water quality 21. Causing no environmen tal problems 22. Minimizing energy consumption and utilizing as much renewable energy as possible 23. Building materials preferably from the local region without promoting exploitation of scarce and hazardous materials 24. Application of physiological and ergonomic findings to interior and furniture design 25. Consideration of harmonic measures, proportions, and shapes 2003, electromagnetic fields, waves and radiation are integral parts of the tested ite ms. AC electric fields (ELF) AC magnetic fields (ELF) Electromagnetic waves (RF) Static electric fields (DC) Static magnetic fields (DC) Terrestrial radiation Radioactivity (gamma radiation & radon) Sound & vibrations (airborne and solid conducted) 2.2.4 Power Frequency Regulations In the buildings, the most found frequency range and exposure of electric and magnetic field is the power range of 50/60 Hz. Table 2 35 and Figure 2 13 show a comparison of the suggested limiting reference values at this range. Although the ICNIRP sets the limits to 200 T for the general public and 1000 T for the occupational exposures, within the European community there are different local sensitivities and
67 protection obligations. For example, in Switzerland, the refe rence limits should be respected in all places especially sensitive spaces such as apartments, schools, power lines transformer stations, substations and electric railways are present, the limiting value is 1 T. In Italy, for the older installations, the value is 10 T and after 2003, the quality target value has to be compliant to 3 T with a median value over 24 hours (Bavastro et al., 2014). 2.2.5 Threshold L evels There are a number of a pproaches that can be taken to determine threshold levels. First, a threshold exposure level may be derived on the basis of a health risk assessment of the scientific data. The threshold is judged as being the lowest exposure level, below which no health h azards have been found. Since there will be some imprecision in determining this threshold, primarily because of an incomplete knowledge of the biological effects, a range of uncertainty will exist. The degree of uncertainty will then be directly proportio nal to the value of a safety factor that should then be incorporated to arrive at the final exposure limit (See Figure 2 14). As seen on the diagram, the hazard threshold is highest based on the acute conditions and the lower biological threshold on chroni c conditions. This approach has been the basis of most western standards, and in particular the ICNIRP international guidelines (ICNIRP, 1998) and the IEEE/ICES standards (IEEE, 2004, 2005) (WHO, 2006). In IEEE standards procedure (1995) for outdoor AC pow er lines, it is mentioned that measurement uncertainties are due to calibration, temperature effects, etc., the measured values shall be combined (square root of the sum of the squares) and reported as total estimated measurement uncertainty. The total unc ertainty should not
68 exceed 10%. IEEE Std 1308 1994 describes uncertainties associated with the calibration process and uncertainties during measurements. 2.3 Traces of Electromagnetic Field in the Built Environment The sources of EMF pollution have electr ic, magnetic, or electromagnetic outcome called electro smog or electromagnetic smog In order to identify, register, and mitigate the environmental electromagnetic field data for either modeling or simulating purposes, the primary and secondary EMF source s and the radius of their influence along with the specific intensity and frequency range have to be identified. These sources vary depending on the location and the building types. For example, the type of field found in residential areas are very differe nt than hospitals or manufacturing surroundings. The information presented in Chapter 2 is intended to cover and target the sources found in residential, school and office building types. 2. 3 .1 Indoor S ources The sources of exposure may be primary or seco ndary. In the presence of a strong primary source, there may be secondary sources due to the induced electric energy found in the metal objects (Karpowicz et al., 2016). In a residential surrounding, the ELF MF varies between less than 0.01 T to above 0.3 T. The hot spots could be resulting from interior ground currents or exterior power lines. Usually, the EFs in residences are not influenced by the outdoor electrical lines. In offices, schools and stores, there is normally a higher ELF MF emission rate because within less distance to source the duration spent around the source is higher. The devices include computer servers, metal detectors, theft detectors, and electronic article surveillance. Wires (electrical distribution system) In a built environm ent, there are numerous kinds of wires to be found. The EMFs produced by wires add up vectoral and
69 result in a net exposure. When two insulated wires in a cable touch, the resultant MF cancels. With separated electric lines, the cancellation is incomplete resulting in a vectoral and quantitative outcome. Table 2 35 shows different wires and the resulting magnetic field vector and their magnitude fall (Bowman, 2014). Stati c magnetic field The static magnetic field B (0) field which uses static magnetic fields (Bowman, 2014). Motion gradients Motion gradient B(t) is the time varying exposure from a moving body, it creates a motion gradient magnetic field of B motion gradient (t). A surrounding with steel structure can also perturb this field (Bowman, 2014). Power frequency and its related harmonics The formula 2 1 mentioned body. The power frequency is shown by f power which varies in different countries. Here the f power is the power frequency caused by the AC current (e.g. 60 Hz in North America, 50 Hz rest of the world, 400 Hz on airlines). The harmonic index n is usuall y limited to 3 and 5 which in the case of a 60 Hz, the resulting outcome is 180, and 540 (Bowman, 2014). Building elements Some of the building components are the sources of MF in the building and have to be considered through EF, and MF assessment. These elements are below.
70 Transformers in larger apartments Currents from water pipe grounds, electrical grounding systems known as ground currents affected by metal pipes Fluctuations in weather and occupancy power usage such as daily and seasonal activity cyc les, air conditioner use, between weekdays, and weekends Sources of dirty electricity such as high frequency transients (HFT) caused by flipping a switch that creates an abrupt surge of electricity (Bowman, 2014) Appliances Appliances and household electr ical equipment emit ELF MF radiation which is either a byproduct of the current usage (e.g. light, heat, and electronics), or electromagnetism is used in the operating mechanism (e.g. electric motors, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in previous generations o f televisions and monitors). The recent technology of plasma and liquid crystal displays emit lower emissions. The amount of emissions in residential and work places depend on the duration of time spent using the equipment (Bowman, 2014). It has been repor ted that one MF exposure is caused by appliances (Behrens et al., 2004). Table 2 3 6 and Table 2 3 7 show a number of appliances and their area of influence used in everyday life. 2.3.2 Outdoor S ources In an urban setting, electric ge nerations, nearby transmission lines (primary and secondary), substations, and distribution lines (overhead or underground) transport electrical currents into homes, schools and offices. A comparison between Norway and US shows that the level of exposure in Norway is significantly less and this result is due to the usage of secondary lines with no neutrals which create balanced currents and cancellation of the fields. Table 2 3 8 shows the outdoor sources and the related values of EF and MF. Determinants of ELF MF exposures are the electric currents, degree of
71 cancellation, distance from the line, and duration of the exposure. The base of ELF EF exposure is the voltage, distortion, and/or shielding from the metal objects, distance to the lines, and the durat ion of exposure (Bowman, 2014). 2.3 3 RF MF N ear field and F ar field R adiation Near field source of RF MF is the region where the distance from a radiating antenna is less than the w avelength of the radiated EMF. Far field radiation is created at a distan field, physical conditions are complex; the waves may be absorbed, or transmitted, but in the far field zone, the energy is conserved and diminishes with the inverse or inverse square of the distance to the source. The exposure from the near field is typically localized in parts of the body area measured by SAR which stands for specific absorption rate. It is a calculation of how much RF energy is absorbed into the body, for example when a cell phone o r cordless phone is pressed to the head, the radiation causes heat. SAR is expressed in watts per kilogram of tissue (W/Kg). The near field exposure is short term, whereas the far field exposures affect homogenously within the whole body. Unlike ELF EMF, f or this range of radiation (near field and far field), the primary effect in the body is mainly a heat generation (Frei and Rsli, 2014). Table 2 39 shows the near and far field radiofrequency devices used in the living and working spaces. Table 2 4 0 sh ows radiofrequency producing sources and the related frequency values in a typical urban e nvironment. Increasingly, the duration of smartphone device usage is constantly rising. The everyday phone usage goes far beyond than calling and texting. Data transm ission, organizational communication and the type of used network are main factors to be considered in identifying the spectral range, and the duration of the effect. In a
72 European study, it has been reported that the UMTS network has an improved power con trol technology, around 100 500 times lower than GSM. DECT cordless phones on the other hand, have no power regulations emitting 10 mW on a constant basis (Frei and Rsli, 2014). The network operation in homes and offices transfer data through a low volta ge distribution power line referred to as power line communication (PLC). The frequency band that these transmission systems operate is from 1 to 30 MHz that creates complex EMC patterns and problems such as electromagnetic noise interfering with the radio frequencies (Korokvin et al., 2003). GSM and UMTS antenna base stations are often installed on the outside of the buildings or the close vicinity of the buildings. Some of the places that the antennas are installed: Antenna systems on the edge of the roo f Antenna systems on the mast on the roof Antenna systems on the side wall Antennas at the level of ground floor The measurements that Koprivica and colleagues (201 6 ) performed show that the maximum recorded EF value exceeds the European guideline values in Serbia. The maximum values seen on the antennas installed on the masts on the roof were more distant than other scenarios (Koprivica et al., 201 6 ). The antennas seen on the buildings are denser in areas with high population density. These antennas emit radiation in frequency range of 0.9, 1.8 and 2.1 GHz (Kolcunov et al., 2016). A secondary source of EMF through the high voltage alternative current transmission lines (HVACL) have electrostatic coupling, resistive coupling and inducing effect on the und erground metallic pipelines (UMPs). Possible accidents incur due to
73 close vicinity of the electrical systems and the water pipes and therefore the appropriate safety measures have to be taken (Purcar and Munteanu, 2014). 2.3 4 UV R adiation Ultraviolet radi ation sources are either solar or artificial. Most glasses used in the building windows absorb the solar radiation. Identifying the spectrum range of this group of radiation referred to as the UV quality and the irradiance referred to as UV quantity is the main characteristic to find its effect. It has been reported that UV B is more biologically effective than UV A (Vecchia et al. 2007). Here we look at both sources and the qualitative and quantitative factors to consider. Solar r adiation T he frequency r ange and the irradiance of terrestrial UVR depends on the angle and the elevation of the sun in the sky. The decreasing natural elements are the ozone layer the stratosphere (~10 to 50 km above sea level) and the pollutants such as ozone, NO2 and SO2 in th e troposphere (Madronich 1993) The clouds are an important factor to express the intensity or irradiance of the UV radiation. The cloud cover factor (C) and the cloudiness factor (F) (the amount of water in the cloud) express this value. Interestingly, t he solar UV radiation exposure can increase high in a high sun and light overcast because the light clouds scatter the UV radiation even further causing more exposure in relationship to a clear sunny sky (Sliney, 1995). Ground and water surface reflection factors are also influencing the UV radiation exposure (Vecchia, 2007). Artificial sources The sources of artificial UV radiation can be produced by arc discharge, lamps and lasers. A few of these examples are g ermicidal lamps, f luorescent lamps, g eneral lighting fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, mercury lamps, x enon lamps, q uartz halogen lamps w elding arcs u ltraviolet lasers and light
74 emitting diodes (LEDs) To eliminate the UV radiation emitted by the lamps, a plastic cover or diffuser can be us ed. Also optical projection systems that use filters, mirrors, lenses and optical fibers have the ability to change the concentration and the spectral distribution of these radiations (Vecchia, 2007). 2.3.5 S p ace Typologies The intended space typology to be monitored is the living space. Residential spaces, schools and offices share more or less the same characteristic and fall into this category because the occupants spend most of their time in homes and offices. Other typologies such as transportation a reas; e.g. high speed trains, navigation systems, etc., industrial zones; e.g. welding machines, metal detectors, etc., hospitals; e.g. MRI, CT scan, surgery equipment, X r ays, etc., commercial facilities ; e.g. RFID devices have each their own unique circ umstances that cause different kind of fields. Main sources of electrosmog in residences: The main determinants of residential ELF MF exposures are the electric power system (including water pipe grounds as well as power lines) and appliance use. Applianc e sources of ELF MFs are lighting, heating, electronics, electric motors, and the direct use of MFs in applications such as induction cooking ranges. EFs in residences are low and not affected by outside electric lines. (Bowman, 2014) Main sources of elec trosmog in schools and offices: In schools and offices, sources of ELF MF are generally similar to residential sources, but TWA exposures are usually higher because of the time using electric equipment. Students, on average, have less TWA exposures to ELF MFs than teachers, who have less than office workers. However, exposure distributions overlap between these three groups.
75 Although metal detectors and EAS (theft detectors) have introduced elevated MFs into schools, offices, and stores, their emissions hav e a short range, so exposures are limited to people who are near them regularly (Bowman, 2014) 2.4 Manipulation and Mitigation of EMF Many objects and materials in the living environment conduct and alter EF, but MF is more complex. Field management is a recently proposed field that studies the quantitative aspect of the radiation and suggests solutions for mitigation 2.4.1 Measuring and Monitoring In order to control the level of EMF in an environment, the appropriate measuring device has to be used. The general principle must be based on measuring the EF and the MF independently. There are certain qualities of measurement that are important to find the most accurate result. One is the type of antenna or sensor to be used for the declared area of propagati on which includes the near and the far field. The systematic requirement to measure the near field is not yet available because this area is not covered in the regulatory legislations and standards. In the near field zone, the relation between the EF and t he MF is not predictable, therefore both need individual frequency ( f ), amplitude (B) and (E) measurement. Sensors and measuring equipment should be sensitive and limited to either one of the fields while resisting the other field. The effect of the fields from different sources vary in space. For example, under a high voltage power line, the electric field strength is more prominent than the magnetic field which diminishes over a long distance (Karpowicz et al., 2016). Geospatial propagation models are use d to measure the exposure from fixed site transmitters such as broadcasting and mobile phone base stations. The quality of the input parameters like topography, building geography, and specific data for the fixed site
76 transmitters such as radiation pattern frequency, max imum power output are essential key elements to consider to create an accurate model (Frei and Rsli, 2014). The volume of the field shall be defined by measuring the field around a source. Measuring different points within this volume giv es different values of registration entries varying in relation to the distance from the source point (or line). One of the basic metrological characteristics in the measurement procedure is that the frequency level to be defined and the sensitivity of the sensor to this frequency range would be adjusted. Also, the response of the device within the amplitude or intensity of the magnetic or electric reference point should be measured, and the numeric result to be averaged out (Karpowicz et al., 2016). The p ossible errors in measuring EMFs are as follows: The measurement device itself and its function may be affected by a strong source of EMF exposure within the frequency bandwidth. In order to get an accurate result, the device must be immune to such an inf luence. It may be difficult to isolate and block the device to a specific external EMF exposure therefore there is often a 10% indication of error to be assumed for this effect. Immunity test is to make sure that the device is not affected by the upper and lower limit frequencies. The tests are recommended to be performed in a guessed most apparent frequency zone such as 50 Hz, 1 kHz, 500 kHz, 27 MHz, 100 MHz, 450 MHz, 0.9 GHz and 2.5 GHz. If a sensor is intended to be used in a certain frequency band, and in addition, reacts to other bands, the sensitivity of the reading is affected and may not be as accurate as anticipated. Other errors may include the disturbance caused by the body of the measurement device itself and moreover the spatial electric fields caused by the operator of the device. Also, the repeatability of the selected parameters,
77 the response of the measurement device within the function of field polarization and modulation, the uncertainty of the calibration, and the thermal and moist condit ion o f the environment are factors that should be considered for an error reduced reading (Karpowicz et al., 2016). EMF p rotocols for spot measurement in indoor spaces Here are a few protocols that explain some aspects of the measurement procedure. In cas e (a), only a centered point in the room has been examined. In the case (b) which was based on the Italian protocol, an external signal generator was purposefully used for the conduction of the experiment. In the IEEE guide (c), a set of guidelines are sug gested to be performed with the conjunction of the mentioned standard procedures. a) IEEE Magnetic Fields Task Force 644 1994 IEEE Standard Procedures for Measurement of Power Frequenc y Electric and Magnetic Fields f rom AC Power Lines reaffirmed 2001, 2008 status: active approved content from literature review: In 1993, a report was written by the IEEE Magnetic Fields Task Force of the AC Fields to achieve the goals of creating a level of uniformity in measurement procedures, specification of occu limitation identification. Figure 2 15 shows the suggested data sheet and a plan view of the measured residence. In this protocol, the items to be considered are as follows: Lights and applia nces should be left as found. The probe information has to be mentioned on the datasheet (date, time of measurement, temperature, meter model, etc.) All measurements to be performed at the height of 1 meter. Spot measurements (average value) of MF shall b e recorded in the center of 3 different rooms.
78 Spot measurements should be continued on the outside perimeter of the room, 1 to 2 meters away from the wall at 3 meter interval. Spot measurements should be repeated to test the short term stability of the MF Spot measurements should be performed at the locations of the interest defined by the occupant (See Figure 2 15). Occupants should be told that the data is only a snapshot in time, and does not cover a temporal lity of the suggested data collection is limited and not all inclusive because additional locations in the residence and longer periods of time are not counted for (Misakian et al., 1993). Based on this protocol (IEEE 644 1994), Hosseini and colleagues (20 14) have performed spot measurements in a grid system (See Figure 2 16). This schematic view shows the sensor device type and the visualization program that are used in the experiment. b) I talian National Institute for the Environmental Research (ISPRA) a nd the Environmental Regional Agencies (ARPA) : In 2012, a measurement protocol written by the Italian National Institute for the Environmental Research (ISPRA) and the Environmental Regional Agencies (ARPA) documents the measuring procedures with regards to the telecommunication equipment installations. In a case study, Strappini and colleagues (2015) set up an experiment based on this protocol to measure the interior values caused by the exterior sources. The measurement procedure is as follows: A refere nce signal is generated on the transmission side: CW signal generator transmitting two types of frequency /2 dipole antennas of 400 MHz and 900 MHz The field level is measured by a spectrum analyzer (set to less than 100 kHz to minimize noise), with a t ri axial or a linearly polarized antenna on the interior side The distance between the source and the point of measure is 10 meters
79 The experiment was done on closed and opened windows of a building to find out the penetration value and loss of the electro magnetic fields on buildings with apertures. The conclusion showed that the in field measurements were affected by the diffraction due to the window and the reflection caused by the ground. It can be concluded that the EM field inside the building can be e ven larger than the outside source due to the diffraction and reflection effects (Strappini et al., 2015) (See Figure 2 17 ). c) IEEE Guide for the Measurement of Quasi Static Magnetic and Electric Fields Sponsor: IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee on No n Ionizing Radiation (SCC28) a pproved 10 December 1996 r eaffirmed 12 June 2008 IEEE Standards Board : References : This guide shall be used in conjunction with the following publications: IEEE Std 539 1990, IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Corona and Field Effects of Overhead Power Lines (ANSI). IEEE Std 644 1994, IEEE Standard Procedure for Measurements of Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields from AC Power Lines (ANSI). IEEE Std 1140 1994, IEEE Standard Procedures for the Measuremen t of Electric and Magnetic Fields from Video Display Terminals (VDTs) from 5 Hz to 400 kHz (ANSI). IEEE Std 1308 1994, IEEE Recommended Practice for Instrumentation: Specifications for Magnetic Flux Density and Electric Field Strength Meters 10 Hz to 3 kHz (ANSI). Sensors Radiation detectors convert a segment of the particle energy into an end chip is used in different functions such as amplification, filtering, analog to digital conversion and high speed data transmissi on. The selection of the data to be transmitted can either be processed in the chip, or sent
80 further to an external control signal processing system. So far, there are many different kinds of electromagnetic reading sensors that have been developed Hera a re a few types of sensors that can be found in the industry: Proportional counters Gas electron multipliers Silicon strips Pixels and drift detectors DEPFETs CCDs Active pixel sensors Vacuum tube photomultipliers Avalanche photodiodes Silicon photomultipli ers (Rivetti, 2015) 2.4.2 Mitigation Strategies and Field Management Mitigation strategies vary on a case to case basis and are conditional to the regions of interest, types of sources, frequency, field geometry and attenuation requirement. Field Managem ent is a field of study where electric and magnetic sources can be created, simulated, eliminated and modified to alter the spatial distribution of the EFs and MFs of a region. At lower frequencies, EF management is straightforward due to the conductivity of almost all objects terminating external EF. The alteration of MF on the other hand, can be achieved by shielding, and active cancellation (coils) producing opposing MF. For example, in residential and office buildings, most of the EM spectrum is caused by power frequency fields of 50 60 Hz. These power frequencies are accompanied with low order harmonics. In residential single phase wiring, there is a hot wire and a neutral wire where the current flows in the opposite direction. Within the three phase p ower transmission systems, the three wires carry equal currents but with different phases where the sum equals to zero at all times. The magnetic field caused by opposite currents cancel therefore the MF decreases rapidly away from the source.
81 One of the w ays to reduce magnetic field is to keep the spacing between the sources (of hot wires), and return currents as small as possible. However, the grounding of the return wires disrupts this arrangement causing even higher magnetic field effects (Fugate et al. 1995). In electromagnetic field management, the magnitude of different fields are identified (measurement), and the placing of the sources (planning and rearranging), and the limitation of their influe nce ( shielding ) are suggested. By r ecognizing in what way the spatial distribution changes the field, and minimizing large current loops, decreasing the spacing between source and return wires, field management can be achieved (Fugate et al., 1995). Power line communication systems Korovkin and colleagues ( 2003) propose a technique to reduce the EMF radiated by indoor power line communication (PLC) and not affecting them. Their idea is to take advantage of the additional ground conductor, and to introduce a same value but reversed phase signal to reduce the currents that are created by the antenna mode and the transmission line mode radiation. The experiments have confirmed this theory resulting in a significant reduction (20 dB) of the PLC radiation in the frequency range of 1 to 30 MHz. Shielding Shieldin g is to change or to alter the MF to lower its magnitude in space. EF shielding is straightforward; by placing a conductive enclosure that creates a Faraday Cage effect, around an object, EF is eliminated. The enclosure may be a wire mesh because it acts t he same way as a solid conducting sheet. The shielding is also affected by connecting the conductor to the ground. A way to alter the MF effect is to produce additional MF source through cancellation. However, it has to be noted that by
82 lowering one region there may be a field increase showing in other regions. Also, ferromagnetic materials can act as secondary sources where an external field charges and activates their macroscopic structure. In the case of very strong source field application, the ferroma gnetic shield may saturate and therefore reduce its effectiveness (Fugate et al., 1995). Shielding is quantified by the value of the shielding factor the ratio of the outside field to the inside field within the shielded area; the smaller the number is, t he better shielding is present. The inverse of the shielding factor is the attenuation factor with unit decibel (dB). In Figure 2 18 classification of various shielding types is demonstrated. Magnetic materials are ferromagnetic and interfere with the MF with a mechanism called flux shunting (Fugate et al., 1995). A shielding enclosure is used to attenuate EF, MF, and EMF in order to reduce their impact on equipment and biological systems. The shielding effectiveness depends on the below parameters: EMF fr equency Dielectric permittivity Magnetic permeability of the shielding material Thickness of the shielding barrier The overall shielding effectiveness (SE ) is explained through the EM wave reflection coefficient R from the shielding barrier, and the absor ption coefficient A of the waves in the barrier material. For example, in two different paint coatings used as relative permittivity r is the most effective shielding mater ial (Kolkunov et al., 2016). Active shielding. Active shielding is caused by introducing and/or controlling other sources or currents that are designed to cancel the original MF. This kind of
83 shielding is possible through cancellation coils. In active shi elding, the current in the conductive loop is not induced but rather controlled to have a proper phase and magnitude to cancel the unwanted MF. It usually is accompanied with sensor feedbacks for automation in generating the right cancelling effect. Revers ely, the fields may increase when the cancellation is not properly performed. For example, multiple coil systems are used on naval vessels to generate magnetic silencing to avoid detection and weapons. Also, this type is used in MRI machines since the deta ils of the radiation is known. Passive shielding. Passive shielding in general occurs in response to an applied field by placing a material between MF source and the shielding region (See Table 2 4 2 ). An example of passive shielding is a flat steel plate, or a multilayer enclosure. Passive conducting materials: Examples of this kind of shielding are enclosures made of non ferromagnetic metals such as copper or aluminum. Passive conducting materials with conductor loop: In this kind of shielding which is oft en used near the transmission and distribution power lines, instead of allowing currents to flow throughout enclosures, the induced current is bound to flow in a conductive loop. Passive conducting and magnetic materials: An example of this type of shield ing is a box enclosure made of steel which is both conductive and ferromagnetic (Fugate et al., 1995). Passive loops are used for overhead lines. By introducing capacitors the eddy current is maximized and therefore cancels out the source field (Bavastro et al., 2014) Multilayer shielding. Figure 2 19 shows different qualities of the ferromagnetic and induced or conductive shields. Within the near field of the source, ferromagnetic material is more effective than the conductive material. To increase the ef fect and coverage of the shielding effect, a combined layer of the two materials can be used.
84 This solution increases the performance of the shield up to 5 to 10 times. An example of the multilayer shield is the combination of 2 mm thick aluminum plates fo r the conductive shielding and two plates of grain oriented iron of 0.35 mm (See Figures 2 20, 2 21 and 2 22) (Bavastro et al., 2014). Hybrid shielding. Hybrids are a combination of both active and passive shielding to maximize the effect of all kinds of shielding. Another effective method which is used in hybrid shielding is called shakin g In shaking, coils are used to create strong fields at other frequencies enhancing the ferromagnetic effect (Fugate et al., 1995). One example of shielding is used in a n experiment to re s pond to health complaints of computer users in Finland. Hagstrm and colleagues (2012) suggested a way to reduce the radiation that was caused by visual display units (VDUs) by building a shielded cabinet around them. The cabinet constit utes of 1 mm thick rolled galvanized steel, welded with continuous seams, with a front window, 3 mm thick sheet of shielded optolite clear high scratch resistant filter ( HSR ) with 0.25 mm pitch steel mesh laminated inside with an angle to reduce the moire effects They tested the cabinet usage on 5 volunteers who had elevated skin and fatigue symptoms. The physical measurements showed that the designed cabinet clearly decreased the EMF irradiation. Screens and filters The historical development of the Ele ctromagnetic Bandgap (EBG) structures started in 1999 when the idea of a high impedance electromagnetic surface for band stop filters was proposed. These filters are used to isolate EMF noise and stop unwanted propagation of multiple overlapping waves. By designing the property of the metal sheets, and the special texture on the conducting surfaces, it is possible to alter the EM properties. For example, a smooth conducting sheet has a low
85 surface impedance; but with a specially designed textured surface, i t can reach a high surface impedance, therefore preventing the currents to flow within a specific bandwidth (Orlandi et al., 2017). By using EBG structures, Bait Suwailam and Ramahi (2011) propose that more than 20 dB of the EMF leakage can be achieved. Ac tion plan Fugat e and colleagues (1995) propose an action plan list on how to measure and mitigate the EMF effect in the buildings: Identification of field magnitude, type of field, physical characteristics of source, the function of the sources, the atten uation requirement, the region over where the attenuation is required, and field management constraint. Physical layout of wires is critical because based on the distance between the source and the return path of the currents, the MF increases therefore mi nimum spacing between wires shall be used. Sources should be placed away from the areas where the occupant spends most of his time. Control of alternate current (AC) paths that result in large current loops. Shielding: The procedure to the best shielding results is to identify the sources, field characterization, accurate material property calculation, understanding the basic passive shield mechanism and design tradeoffs between the alternatives (Fugate et al., 1995). In Europe, w ithin Article 5 of the doc ument Directive 2013/35/EU, an action plan explains how to reduce risk for an occupational space (See Table 2 4 3 ). Moreover, Bavastro and colleagues (2014) propose a magnetic field evaluating action plan. They suggest that the initial phase of mitigation i s based on the below factors that have to be identified: Proper source layout is the geometric layout of the sources Identifying the current phase: a) putting the phase conductors close to one another is not suggested, b) a conductor arrangement and dispos ition in the older installations can minimize the MF effect, e.g. phase sequences of power line
86 Identifying the shielding method: a simulation and comparison of the two methods of conductive and ferromagnetic shielding can be helpful to determine the shiel ding method Within an EMF mitigation handbook that has been generated by the Australian Energy Networks, several approaches are suggested: Incr easing the distance from source: e.g. raising the height of the supporting structure or tower, M odifying the p hysical arrangement of the source : e.g. reverse phasing cables R educing the conductor spacing e.g. moving the phases of the power line closer R earranging equipment layout and equipment orientation e.g. delta and vertical construction have the smallest phas e separation phasing relationship between busbars and equipment in the substation F or low voltage, bundling the neutral conductor with other phases : design busbars to minimize separation between phases and the neutral bus, use multicore or trefoil cables instead of three single phase cables, eliminate neutral path causing stray currents, balance loads across all phases to reduce neutral currents, orientate LV end of the substation furthest from receiver, install and group the LV cables between transf o rmers and switchboard and consumer mains cable Modifying the load O ptimally phasing and balancing circuits : arrange the phases of double circuit lines to cancel MF, reverse phasing double circuit vertical configuration, split phasing O ptimal ly configuring down stream loads a pplying demand management : choice of voltage, a powerline operating at a high voltage will produce a lower MF than a line operating at a low voltage F or low voltage, balancing phases and minimize residual currents a dditional measures which are less likely to satisfy the cost and convenience criteria which apply to precautionary measures but may be considered include: I ncorporat ing a suitable shielding barrier betw een the source and the re ceiver A ctive and p assive compensation Medical impla nt risk management
87 Appropriate signage Communication (www.energynetworks.com)
88 Figure 2 1. E and H are perpendicular and propagate at the same speed Figure 2 2. Variations of electromagnetic radiation Table 2 1. Variation of frequencies and ampli tudes create different types of waves Radiation Type Amplitude Frequency Function Permanent Maximum Constant Laser Modulated Variable Variable Radio transmission Pulsed Repetitive with intervals Repetitive with intervals Radars, therapeutic devices
89 Table 2 2 Quantities and corresponding SI units adapted from ICNIRP guideline 2011 Quantity Definition Formula Symbol Unit Conductivity electricity (cross sectional area) Siemens per meter (S m 1 ) Current Ratio of the electric charge quantity (Q) and time (t) I Ampere (A) Current density Quantity of charge passing per unit time and cross se ctional area perpendicular to the direction of the charge flow (vector) J Ampere per square meter (Am 2 )(A/m 2 ) Dielectric constant Property of an insulating material is the ratio of the capacitance of a given material C m to the capacitance of an identical capacitor in a vacuum C 0 k Energy of photon An electron volt e V is the energy required to raise an electron through 1 volt, thus a photon with an energy of 1 eV = 1.6 10 19 J. 34 E Electron volt (eV) Joules (J) Frequency One whole crest to crest wave cycle per second, T (time in second), N (number of cycles), t (amount of time) f Hertz (Hz) Electric field strength/intensity Magnitude of force on a small unit charge, F (force), q (quantity of charge) E Volt per meter (V m 1 )(V/m) Permittivity Measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium 0= 8.85 x 10 12 Farads (Free space) Farad p er meter (F m 1 )(F/m) Power surface density rate of energy transfer per unit area, E (electric field strength) H (magnetic field strength) (Volts/meter Amperes/meter) Pd (W/m 2 )
90 Table 2 3. Physical variables and their units and scope of bi ological influence (Aurengo and Perrin, 2012) Model Range of Frequencies Physical Variables Unit Effects on Organisms 0 1 Hz Magnetic induction B for static fields T (Muscular) Cardiovascular system Electrical surface charges Induction of electric fie ld in moving tissue 1 Hz 100 kHz Current Density J for time variable fields A/m 2 Simulation of the central nervous system (CNS) 100 kHz 10 MHz Current Density J Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) A/m 2 W/kg Simulation of CNS Generalized thermal stress Localized warming 10 MHz 10 GHz SAR W/kg Generalized thermal stress Localized warming (Wave) 10 300 GHz Power Density W/m 2 Warming up of surface tissues (Particle) >300 GHz (Ionizing range) Energy of the Photons eV Warming up of surface tissues Photochemical reactions Table 2 4. Different behaviors of EM waves and the outcome Frequency Wavelength Outcome Low Range Long Radiation behaves like a wave. High Range Short atomic dimension Radiation behaves like particles. Table 2 5. Static fi eld within the weak range of electromagnetic radiation Frequency Range (Hz) Electromagnetic Field Region Abbreviation Source Effect 0 Static field SF Direct Current (DC) Earth surface Rubbing insulated objects Cathode ray tube screens MRI Gas welding Diz ziness Nausea Magnetophosphenes
91 Table 2 6 Extremely low frequency field within the weak range of electromagnetic radiation Frequency Range (Hz) Electromagnetic Field Region Abbreviation Source Effect 1 10 2 < 30 Hz 30Hz 300Hz Extremely Low Frequency ELF Schumann Resonance (8, 14.1, 20.3, 26.4, 32.5 Hz) Natural phenomena Electricity usage (50 60 Hz) and appliances Transmission lines Lighting Stimulus on cells, and tissues Alteration in DNA, RNA and proteins Changes in hormones 10 2 10 4 3kHz 30kHz Very Low Frequency VLF Induction heating devices Electronic surveillance systems Visual display units
92 Table 2 7 Frequency fields in the midrange of electromagnetic radiation Frequency Range (Hz) Electromagnetic Field Region (Nonionizi ng) Abbreviation Source Effect 10 5 Low Frequency LF Radio Base stations Navigation Systems RFID Enzymes Cerebral blood flow 10 6 Medium Frequency MF AM Radio, Long range Communication, Welding and Sealing Devices Stimulation of excitable tissues (varies with intensity) >100 kHz 10 7 High Frequency HF FM Radio RFID GPS Stimulation of excitable tissues (varies with intensity) 10 8 Very High Frequency VHF TV 10 9 (300 MHz 3 GHz) Ultra High Frequency Microwave (L, C, X, and Ku band) UHF TV Medical Dia thermy Microwave ovens RFID Molecular agitation (varies with time (T) and measured by SAR) <10 MHz 10 10 (3 GHz 30 GHz) Super High Frequency SHF Cell Phones Radar Satellite Long and shortwave radio RFID Molecular agitation (varies with time (T) and me asured by SAR) 10 11 (30 GHz 300 GHz) Extremely High Frequency EHF Radar Satellite Communication (300 GHz 3 THz) Terahertz T Rays Medical imaging Security body scanner
93 Table 2 8. Different zones of n onionizing optical radiation Frequency Range (H z) Nonionizing Electromagnetic Field Region (Nonionizing) Abbreviation Source Effect 10 12 Far Infrared IR C Heat & incandescence lamps Furnaces All living organisms Nature Remote viewing Lasers Planets Earth Starbursts Laser surgery Eye (from cornea to retina, thermal damage to lens) Skin burns Warming effect Heat stroke Laser welding Mid Infrared IR B Near Infrared IR A 10 13 Visible Light VIS Human Eyes Lasers Laser photo chemotherapy 10 14 Ultraviolet Near UV A UV Lamps (Germicide) Sun Ray s Printers, photocopiers (drying of inks) Arc welding Solarium Eye (cataracts, blindness AMD, inflammation of cornea) Skin (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), aromatic amino acids) Immunity System Near UV B Far UV XUV Table 2 9. Ionizing zone of high frequency r adiation Frequency Range (Hz)Nonionizing Electromagnetic Field Region(Ionizing) Abbrev iation Source Effect Cosmic Rays X Rays (X) Gamma Rays (Y) >770 THz CR X rays GR Radon Uranium 238 and 235 Cosmic rays Nuclea r facilities X rays Computerized tomography (CT)scans Radiotherapy Food sources Cancer DNA damage Childhood Leukemia
94 Table 2 10. EMF Effect on plants Source Increased Photosynthetic efficiency Shine, Gurupra sad, and Anand, 2011 Enhanced activities of hydrolyzing enzymes Enhanced seed germination, speed of germination, seedling length Enhanced root length, root surface area, and volume in chick pea and sunflower Vashisth and Nagarajan, 2010 Vashisth and Naga rajan, 2008 Reduced oxidative stress Hajnorouzi et al., 2011 Increased osmotic pressure, increased dry biomass in wheat Cakmak, Dumlupinar, and Erdal, 2010 Enhanced effect on the early growth of mung beans Huang and Wang, 2008 Table 2 11. ult on EMF affecting cells and their function EMF Effect on cells and their function Source ELF, ELF 60 Hz peak membrane ion transport enzyme, the Na, K ATPase Blank (1995b) Blank and Soo (1996) EMF effect on protein synthesis in cells suspensions, vivo in muscle tissue Blank et al. (1992) Goodman and Blank (1998) Goodman et al. (1994) EMF_RF effect on protein Synthesis DePomerai et al. (2000) EMF_ELF effect on DNA strand breaks Lai and Singh 1997 Pathophysiology 2009 Reflex Project Report 2005 EMF_RF effect on DNA activation DePomerai et al. 2000 Pathophysiology 2009 Reflex Project Report 2005 EMF_ELF (800 Hz peak) effect on Cytochrome (cellular respiration), C oxidase Blank and Soo 1998 EMF_ELF effect on cytokines (proteins interacting with immune system) production Reale and Amerio 2013 EMF_ELF effect on Intercellular Ca 2+ concentration (one of the universal intracellular messengers) Liburdy et al. 1993 Mattsson et al. 2001 Conti et al. 1985 Walleczek 1992 Temuryants et al., 2012 Ionizing EMF effect on Various cells Spitz et al. 2004 Water changes constantly due to the free radical processes and transformations of hydrogen bonds Temuryants et al., 2012
95 Table 2 12. Electromagnetic parameters of some human tissues (Faria and Pedro, 2013) f = 50 Hz f = 1 kHz Tissue Conductivity (S/m) Permittivity (F/m) Conductivity (S/m) Permittivity (F/m) Bone cortical 2.00 x 10 2 7.85 x 10 8 2.01 x 10 2 2.39 x 10 8 Brain grey matter 7.53 x 10 2 1.07 x 10 4 9.88 x 10 2 1.45 x 10 6 Brain white matter 5.33 x 10 2 4.68 x 10 5 6.26 x 10 2 6.18 x 10 7 Heart 8.27 x 10 2 7.67 x 10 5 1.06 x 10 1 3.12 x 10 6 Skin (dry) 2.00 x 10 4 1.00 x 10 8 2.00 x 10 4 1.00 x 10 8 Skin (wet) 4.27 x 10 4 4.54 x 10 7 6.57 x 10 4 2.84 x 10 7 Table 2 13 EMF affecting cells and tissues (Ueno and Okano, 2012) EMF Effect on cells and tissues Source Both in vitro and in vivo gradient SMF (B max 400mT, 2.09 T/m, for 11 days) might inhibit or prevent the formation of new blood vessels Wang et al., 2009 PEMF ( 15 Hz, 100 T, 5 millisecond bursts with 5 microsecond pulses) on human bone marrow derived stromal cells exposure enhances mineralization and induces differentiation at the expense of proliferation Jansen et al., 2010 Based on the result of their experim ents, authors suggest that weak SMF may open new avenues in vascular therapies Martino, Perea, et al., 2010 SMF increase cell differentiation Chiu et al., 2007 ELF EMF (50 Hz, 0.8 mT) affects the intracellular calcium ion ([Ca 2+ ]) concentration Zhang et al., 2010 A link between ELF EMF exposure and increased level of intracellular Ca 2+ and metabolic activity Morabito et al., 2010 EMF has been shown to reduce antioxidant enzyme activities in rat tissues Khadir et al. 1999 Exposure to high dose static magnetic fields caused malformations including polydactyly, fused ribs, cerebral herniation and curled tail in rat fetuses Saito et al. (2006)
96 Table 2 14. EMF and carcinogenic behavior Source Breast cancer may be related to the production of the pineal gland hormone melatonin; a melatonin reduction would result in increased risk of breast cancer (ELF) Stevens and Davis, 1996 Davis et al., 2002 Increased odds ratio for glioma and acoustic neuroma Interphone study group 2010 The odds ratio for all types of leukemia was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 1.67) among children living within 2 km of the nearest broadcast transmitter compared with those living at a distance of 10 <15 km. The data did not show any elev ated risks of childhood leukemia associated with RF EMFs Merzenich et al., 2008 An exposure can lead to apoptosis (programmed cell death) deficiency which could contribute to the development of tumoral cells Lambrozo and Souques, 2012
97 Table 2 15 Stu EMF Effect on Behavior Source SMF effect on male rats alters emotional behavior and leads to cognitive impairment, attention disorders Ammari et al., 2008 ELF_EMF (50 Hz) impairs spatial recognition memory in the Y maze) behavioral test for measuring the willingness of rodents to explore new environments (depending on the field strength and/or the duration of the exposure) Fu et al., 2008 ELF_EMF (50 Hz, 2mT) improves learning and memory functions Liu et al., 2008 ELF_EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT, 1 h/day for 1 or 7 days) enhances dopamine levels, D 1 like receptors Shin et al., 2007 T MRI affects the visual perception, and hand eye coordination De Vocht et al., 2007 Occurrence of analge sia (the inability to feel pain) by ELF EMF in snails, rodents, healthy humans Analgesia in mice Prato, Thomas, and Cook, 2005 Prato et al., 2005 EMF (60 Hz, 2.5 mT) induces hyperalgesic (oversensitive to pain) in rats Jeong, Choi, Moon, et al., 2005 EL F_EMF decreases alpha band of frontal and central brain Shafiei et al., 2014 A significant increase in frequencies around 4Hz at electrode Fz during the regulation the regul ation condition (p=.017).Additionally, the strength of theta power was positively correlated with the regulation success as reported by the participants (r=0.463, p<.05). Ertl et al., 2013
98 Table 2 16. Stu EMF Effect on DNA Source ELF_EMF (2 hr.) exposed to a 6O Hz. sinusoidal magnetic field at intensities of 0.1 0.5 millitesla (mT) shows increases in DNA single and double strand breaks in rat brain cells Exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field initiates an iron mediated process (e.g., the Fenton reaction) that increases free radical formation in brain cells, leading to DNA strand breaks and cell death Lai and Singh, 2004 ELF EMF influence proliferation and DNA damage in both normal and tumor cells through the action of free radical species Wolf et al., 2005 ELF EMF exposure results in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks at 3 mT, whereas RF EMF exposure had insufficient energy to induce such effects. RF_EMF exposure in duces oxidative DNA base damage at a SAR value of 4W/kg ELF EMF and RF EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage Duan et al., 2015 Mobile phone associ ated EMF do not induce MN formation (genome damage) in buccal cells at the observed exposure levels De Oliveira et al., 2017 Symptoms of retarded memory, learning, cognition, attention, and behavioral problems of young people have been reported in numerou s studies and are similarly manifested in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, as a result of EMF and radiofrequency ration (RFR) exposures where both epigenetic drivers and genetic (DNA) damage are likely contributors Sage and Burgio, 201 7 Figure 2 3. Effects via the Fenton reaction predict how a cell would respond to EMF
99 Table 2 17. EMF Effect on Cardiovascular System Source Electromagnetic fields promote severe and unique vasc ular calcification in an animal model of ectopic calcification Shuvy et al., 2014 Exposures to electromagnetic fields have the potential to inhibit immune system response by means of an eventual pathological increase in the influx of calcium into the cyto plasm of the cell, which induces a pathological production of reactive oxygen species, which in turn can have an inhibitory effect on calcineurin. Calcineurin inhibition leads to immunosuppression, which in turn leads to a weakened immune system and an inc rease in opportunistic infection. Doyon and Johansson, 2017 Short and long term exposure to ELF PEMF induces a adrenergic (receptor) response at molecular, functional and adaptive levels (molecular and cellular cardiology) Cornacchione et al., 2016 Table 2 18. Studies of the effects of magnetic fiel d s on melatonin produ ction and on responses of cells to melatonin (Kulkarni and Gandhare, 2014)
100 Table 2 19 Brain and Nervous System Source No elevated risk for meningioma No increased risk of glioma except glioma of tem poral lobe and cerebral ventricles No increased risk of vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) Danish cohort: Johansen et al., 2001; Schz et al., 2006b, 2011b; Frei et al. 2011 Increased pituitary gland tumor Increasing RR of vestibular schwannoma UK s tudy: Million Women Study collaborators 2002 Increased risk of glioma Increased risk of vestibular schwannoma Hardell et al. 2011 Hardell et al. 2002, 2006 No increased risk of glioma except glioma Little et al., 2012 ELF_EMF causes cognitive impairment associated with alteration of the glutamate level, MAPK pathway activation, decreased CREB phosphorylation in mice hippocampus Duan et al., 2014 900 MHz EMF causes degeneration of cellular edema and neural cell organelle, damage of blood brain barrier pe rmeability, spatial memory impairment Tang et al., 2015 RF_EMF that increase brain temperature by 1 C can increase the permeability of the blood brain barrier for macromolecules Stam, 2010 brain of guinea pigs and vitamin level changes Meral et al., 2007 ELF_EMF of 50, 16.66, 13, 10, 8.33 and 4 Hz stimulates brain with a significant increase in Alpha1, Alpha2 and Beta1 at the frontal brain region, and decreases the Alpha2 band in the parietal and o ccipital region Cvetkovic and Cosic, 2006 Figure 2 4. Solutions suggested to cancel the waves by Institute for e lectromagnetic h armonization (IRP 2017 )
101 Figure 2 5. Causes of brain disorders based on the Stuttgart Institute for communication and br ain research ( H affelder 2017 ) Figure 2 6. Chronospectrogram showing disturbance when present to alternate current which is seen in the right hemisphere ( H affelder 2017 )
102 Figure 2 7. EEG diagram shows the left and right hemisphere and the Beta, Alp ha, Theta, and Delta activity of the brain. ( Haffelder, 2017 ) Table 2 20. Source Long term exposure to EMF_RF of 1800 MHz during the pregnanc y lead to chronic stress, which has detrimental effects on pre & postnatal development Alchalabi, 2016 Spermatogenic cells due to the lack of antioxidant enzymes undergo oxidative and nitrosative stress mediated cytotoxic and genotoxic events, which contr ibute to infertility by reduction in healthy sperm cells pool. In conclusion, electromagnetic field present in surrounding environment impairs male fertility by inducing p53/p21 mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis Solek et al., 2017 Exposure to resul ts in 900 MHz EMF for 1 h each day during days 13 21 of pregnancy higher apoptotic index, greater DNA oxidation levels and lower sperm motility and vitality in the NEMFG compared to controls Odaci et al., 2015
103 Figure 2 8. Biomagnetic phenomena for mag netic fields having different intensities and frequencies affecting different organs and cells in the body (Ueno and M. Iwasaka 1996b; Ueno and Shigemitsu 2007) Table 2 21. S EMF and Healing Source PEMF incr ease oxygenation to the blood, improve circulation and cell metabolism, improve function, pain and fatigue from fibromyalgia Sutbeyaz et al., 2009 Treats depression Martiny et al., 2010 May reduce symptoms from multiple sclerosis (MS) Lappin et al., 2003 In orthopedics treats non union fractures and failed fusions Fiorani et al., 1997 PEMF accelerates the re establishment of normal potentials in damaged cells Fiorani et al., 1997 Increases the rate of healing, reducing swelling and improving the osteog enic phase of the healing process Cane et al., 1993 It promotes the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts Wei et al., 2008 Long lasting relief of pelvic pain of gynecological origin Jorgensen et al., 1994 Reduced electrophysiological abnormal ity and cognitive Sandyk, 1999
104 Table 2 22. Basic restrictions for human exposure to time varying electric and magnetic fields Figure 2 9. Basic restrictions for general public and occupational exposur e in terms of internal electric field strength concerning central nervous system ( CNS ) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) effects ( ICNIRP LF Guideline, 2010)
105 Table 2 23 Reference levels for occupational exposure to time varying electric and magnetic fi elds (unperturbed rms values) Table 2 24 Reference levels for general public exposure to time varying electric and magnetic fields (unperturbed rms values)
106 Figure 2 10. Electric field (E) limit suggested by ICNIRP for general public and o ccupational exposure Figure 2 11. Magnetic field (B) limit suggested by ICNIRP for general public and occupational exposure
107 Table 2 25. Reference levels for general public exposure to time varying electric and magnetic fields (unperturbed rms values )
108 Table 2 26. Chronological establishment of ICNIRP Chronological formation of ICNIRP Year Development of ICNIRP 1973 During the 3rd International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), for the first time, an (interna tional) session (of experts) on non ionizing radiation protection was organized. 1974 Formation of a Working Group on non ionizing radiation 1975 Formation of a Study Group to review the field of non ionizing radiation 1977 During the 4th IRPA Internati onal Congress, the International Non Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) was created. 1992 During the 7th IRPA International Congress in Montreal, ICNIRP was chartered as an independent commission (of forerunners) to continue the work of the Internationa l Non Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA). 1998 Low frequency part of the 1998 guidelines was formed. 2002 General principles for the development of ICNIRP guidelines were published. 2009 Gu idelines for static magnetic fields have been issued. 2010 Guidelines for limiting exposure to time varying electric and magnetic fields (1 Hz to 100 kHz) Current (2017) Currently revising the guidelines for the high frequency portion of the spectrum (ab ove 100 kHz). Future Guidelines applicable to movement induced electric fields or time varying magnetic fields up to 1 Hz will be published separately. Future Guidelines will be periodically revised and updated as advances are made in the scientific know ledge concerning any aspect relevant for limiting exposure of low frequency time varying electric and magnetic fields.
109 Table 2 27 Frequency 0 5 MHz and its related electric field allowance in zone 0 and 1 applying to various regions of the body Ta ble 2 28. Frequency 0 5 MHz and its related magnetic field allowance in zone 0 and 1 applying to head and torso Table 2 29 Frequency 0 5 MHz and its related magnetic field allowance in zone 0 and 1 applying to limbs
110 Table 2 30. Electric field ERL s whole body exposure: f = 0 Hz to 100 kHz Table 2 31. Induced and contact current limits for continuous sinusoidal waveforms f = 0 Hz to 3 kHz Figure 2 12 Graphic al representation of the zone 0 ERLs
111 Table 2 32. Chronological overview of th e development of IEEE EMF standards (IEEE, 2014) Year Development of IEEE s tandards 1960 American Standards Association approved the initiation of the Radiation Hazards Standards project under the co sponsorship of the Department of the Navy and the Insti tute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Till 1988 C95 standards were developed by Accredited Standards Committee C95, and submitted to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for approval and issuance as ANSI C95 standards 1988 1990 The com mittee was converted to Standards Coordinating Committee 28 (SCC 28) was under the sponsorship of the IEEE Standards Board. 1995 IEEE Standards Board approved the establishment of Standards Coordinating Committee 34 (SCC34), product performance standards relative to the safe use of electromagnetic energy. 2001 IEEE Standards Association Standards Board approved the name better reflect the scope of the committee and its international membership. 2005 Standards developed by SCC34 do not specify limits for human exposure to electromagnetic fields, but refer to established limits found in science based respect to Hum an Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz SCC 28 and SCC 34 became Technical Committee 95 and Technical Committee 34, respectively, under a new IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee, SCC 39, which is now called ICES.1 1 Standa rds Coordinating Committees are established by the IEEE SA Standards Board and provide a mechanism to oversee the development of standards that are societies. Table 2 33. Difference betwe en the European ICNIRP guides and the US IEEE Guides ICNIRP Guidelines on low frequency field IEEE (National Standards) Guidelines on low frequency field They do NOT address product performance standards, which are intended to limit EMF emissions from spe cific devices under specified test conditions, They do NOT deal with the techniques used to measure any of the physical quantities that characterize electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Compliance with the present guidelines may not necessarily preclude interference with, or effects on, medical devices such as metallic prostheses, cardiac pacemakers and implanted defibrillators and cochlear implants. Comprehensive descriptions of instrumentation and measurement techniques for accurately determini ng EMF physical quantities are found in (IEC 2004, 2005a; IEEE 1994, 2008). Standards produced by IEEE are more focused on the measurement methods Information and reference levels are not open to the general public or very difficult to navigate
112 Table 2 3 4 A comparison of reference Levels of 50 Hz power frequencies in microtesla ( T) (Bavastro et al., 2014) ICNIRP Switzerland Poland IEEE Russia Italy General Public 200 1 48 904 10 3 Occupational 1000 NA 160 2710 100 NA Figure 2 13. A comparison of power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz) within the extremely low frequency range within different regulations in microtesla ( T) (values are adapted from the paper by B a vastro et al, 2014) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 ICNIRP Switzerland Poland IEEE Russia General Public Occupational
113 Figure 2 14. Determination of exposure limits using the hazard threshold and biological approaches (Repacholi, 1983) (WHO, 2006) T able 2 3 5 A comparison of reference Levels of 50 Hz power frequencies in microtesla (T) (Bavastro et al., 2014) Wire Current I Magnetic field vector MF magnitude decreases Single line DC electricity Circular around the wire B0 1/r Two lines (hot & return) DC circuit opposed Vector linear due to cancellation B0 1/r Single phase Two same phase wire AC circuit opposed 0 Vector linear B(t) 1/r 2 Three phase currents in power lines AC cir cuit 0 E lliptically polarized B(t) 1/r 2 Coils in electric motors and solenoids 1/r 3
114 Table 2 3 6 Typical ELF MF personal exposure by home appliances at different distances (Bowman, 2014) Source f (Hz) 5 cm distance MF (T) Mean, P95 C Manual work dist ance (0.5m) MF (T) Mean, P95 C Far distance ( ) MF (T) Mean, P95 C Light (fluorescent lamp) 50 0.10, 0.34 0.02, 0.08 Heat Hair dryer 13.01, 45.82 Heat Electric range 0.07, 0.22 Heat Baseboard heater 0.04, 0.09 Heat Electric Oven 0.82, 1.62 Electronics Cell phone (3G, 4G) 217 6. 00, 10.76 Electronics Clock radio 0.01, 0.06 Electronics Stereo 0.01, 0.07 Electronics Microwave 0.67, 1.15 Electric motors Electric razor 164.75, Electric motors Electric can opener 1.67, 2.15 Electric motors Heat pump 0.07, 0. 28 MF based electronics Computer w /CRT monitor 0.13, 0.27 MF based electronics TV with CRT 0.02, 0.06 MF based electronics Induction range 20 50 kHz 1.00, 1.72 Electronic article surveillance (short range emission) continuous 340.5, 843.9 M etal detectors (short range emission) 1 100kHz pulsed 5 (handheld) Up to 100 (fixed) Distribution lines 0.024, 0.063 Electrical panel 0.023, 0.117 Office equipment 0.023, 0.073
115 Table 2 3 7 Weighting factors of T exposure to electrical app liances in a typical user distance (Behrens et al., 2004) Table 2 3 8 Weighting factors of T exposure to electrical appliances in a typical user distance (Behrens et al., 2004) Source MF (T) Mean MF (T) P95 C EF (V/m) Generator bus bar 8.82 37.23 Ma x Boiler house 0.09 0.36 Max High Voltage transmission lines 1.80 942 2200 Max 10,000 32,000 Substations 4.68 156 Max 15,000 47,000 Underground vaults 9.0 7700 Max Administration building 0.04 1.18 Max Apartment building transformers 0.59 1.30 Transmission lines 0.09 0.49 Overhead primary lines 0.04 1.58 Underground distribution lines 0.03 0.50 Ground currents 0.01 0.70
116 Table 2 39 Near field and Far field radiofrequency producing devices (Frei and R sli, 2014). Distance RF MF Source 1 mm Near field Mobile phone 1 mm Close to body Cordless phone 1 cm Tablet 1 cm Laptop 1 m W LAN access point 10 m 100 m 1 km Far field Broadcast transmitter 10 km Environment Mobile phone base station
117 Table 2 4 0 Typical RF EMF sources in the everyday environment and their associated frequencies in Europe adapted from (Frei and R sli, 2014) (Tomitsch and Dechant, 2015) Source Frequency (MHz) FM radio broadcas t 88 108 Digital video (TV) & digital audio broadcast (DAB) 174 230 Terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA)mobile communication for closed groups 380 399.9 TV broadcast (DVB T) Ultra high frequency (UHF) television 470 790 Mobile phone handset (GSM, UMTS, LT E) 832 862 Global system for mobile telecommunications_900MHz band (GSM900) 880 915 Global system for mobile telecommunications Railway (GSM R) 921 925 1710 1785 Global system for mobile telecommunications_1800MHz band (GSM1800) 1920 1980 2500 25 70 Mobile phone base station (GSM, UMTS, LTE) 791 821 925 960 1805 1880 2110 2170 2620 2690 Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) cordless phone 1880 1900 Universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) 2110 2170 Industrial Sc ientific Medical band 2400 MHz (W LAN), Bluetooth 2400 2500 Long term evolution (LTE) 2600 MHz band mobile telecommunication 2620 2690 5150 5350 5470 5795 5815 5875
118 Table 2 4 1 Different receiving antennas register different values Sensors Fie ld Type of field Type of sensor Dipole antenna Electric field Static EF Piezoelectric/field mill Time varying EF Electrically short dipole Loop antenna Magnetic field Static and low frequency MF Hall sensors Time varying MF Small loop antenna
119 Figure 2 15. Prototype datasheet suggested by the IEEE Magnetic Fields Task Force
120 Figure 2 16. Based on the Measurement Protocol by IEEE std 644 1994 (Hosseini et al. 2014) Figure 2 17. Based on the Measurement Protocol by Regional Agencies for Env ironmental Protection (Arpa Liguria, Arpa Piemonte, Arpa Umbria, Arpa Veneto) (Strappini et al. 2015)
121 Figure 2 18 Shielding methods for limiting magnetic field effect Magnetic Shielding Methods Active Cancellation Coils Passive Hybrid Conducting & Magnetic Materials Conductive Material Conductor Loops Magnetic Material
122 Table 2 4 2 Two main passive shielding method (Bavastro et al., 2014) Shielding Material Behavior Eddy currents Passive Ferromagnetic Perfect magnetic conductor (PMC), Grain oriented iron (FeGO) ( 0.35 mm thickness) High conductivity, high magnetic permeability Stops eddy currents when exposed to AC Conductive Perfect electric conductor (PEC), Aluminum Plate (2 mm thickness, 1.5 m x 3 m, 50% welded on edges) Good conductivity, negligible magnetic permeability Creates eddy current when exposed to AC Ferromagnetic Flux shunting Close to source To be used at l east 2 layers and overlaid orthogonal Conductive Eddy currents cancels out the source field Away from source, used in open configurations, e.g. substations Creates edge effect (increased MF values at the edge of the shielding material) Figure 2 19 Shielding factor behavior of ferromagnetic and conductive material (Bavastro et al., 2014)
123 Figure 2 20. Shielding solution is achieved by a) wall coverage with multilayer plates (a combination of ferromagnetic and conductive layer), and b) transpositio n of transformers and cables (Bavastro et al., 2014) Figure 2 21. Building under an overhead power line is shielded by conductive plates on the ceiling level and an addendum on the top sides to remove the magnetically enhanced edge effect (Bavastro et a l., 2014)
124 Figure 2 22. Shielding an MV/LV transformer with an addendum to mitigate the edge effect (Bavastro et al., 2014) Table 2 4 3 Directive 2013/35/EU, Article 5 suggests ways to assess an EM polluted space Provision aimed at avoiding or reducing risks: 1 Identifying the source 2 Technical measuring of the EM radius 3 Identifying replacement strategies 4 Use of interlocks, shielding or similar protective solution 5 Warning markings or signals 6 Measuring spark discharges and contact currents 7 Limitation of duration and intensity of exposure 8 Availability of personal protection equipment 9 Appropriate equipment grounding, human to equipment bonding, clothing
125 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Methodol o gy The research methodology is based on the interpretation and comparison of the consolidated existing data in the form of guidelines. The field of interest for this research is the ELF zone (0 300 Hz), chosen due to its compatibility and overlap with the natural intracellular activit y in the human body. The spot measurement strategy is based on the findings of different available protocols and guidelines. Further, the experiment uses the suggestions mentioned in the protocols and tests the procedure to find the discrepancies and compa risons of the quantitative result among measured points and reference values. The location of the experiment is an office/classroom located in a university campus building where the occupants use personal electronic equipment, and work and study in a norma l office setting. The comparison and assessment of the quantitative values are based on the frequency of the MF, and the magnetic flux density or the intensity of the MF. The data generated in the experiment is collected by an electrosmog detecting device, a spectrum analyzer (Spectran NF 5035) that is designed to detect the frequency ranges of 1 Hz to 30 MHz. Based on the information provided by the manufacturer, this device has an accuracy level of 3%. Additional technical information for this device can be found in the Appendix C. 3.2 Approach 3.2.1 Consolidating Regulations Based on the ELF reference limits shown in Table 3 1, it is apparent that the ICNIRP reference limits designed for the general public has the most conservative approach and the lowest limitation values, therefore is the best regulatory resource for
126 mitigation purposes. Figure 3 1 shows that the general public reference levels are more conservative than the occupational values, and is more relaxed in the lower frequency zone (1 Hz 8 Hz) 3.2.2 Biological D ata Input Based on recent scientific data, many biological reactions operate within the ELF zone. Figure 3 2 suggests that brain biological rhythm or the natural sleep rhythm and some cell functions are affected by the ELF field. 3.2 .3 Strength and W eaknesses of the P rotocols By comparing the US and the European protocols, there are differences in the measurement and assessment procedures. Some of the points that were observed are mentioned below: The IEEE protocol 644 1994 IEEE Sta ndard Procedures for Measurement of Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields from AC Power Lines is designed to measure fields caused by outdoor AC power lines. A protocol for spot measurements of residential power frequency magnetic fields by IEEE, 19 characterize the temporal and spatial variability of magnetic field levels in residences. It lacks frequency field value directed at the measured spot, electrosmog source allocation around the spot and the radius of influence, intended frequency range detection. Most of the European protocols that are based on the ICNIRP guidelines are not accessible to public and are offered as part of a workshop, learning or service agenda, e.g. the French Nat ional Agency of Frequency, Agence Nationale des Frquencies (www.anfr.fr) offers a service for spectrum planning, international negotiations, natural frequency management and spectrum monitoring. IEEE Guide for the Measurement of Quasi Static Magnetic and Electric Fields, IEEE Std 539 1990, IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Corona and Field Effects of Overhead Power, Lines (ANSI), IEEE Std 644 1994, IEEE Standard Procedure for Measurements of Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields from A C Power Lines (ANSI), IEEE Std 1140 1994, IEEE Standard Procedures for the Measurement of Electric and Magnetic Fields from Video Display Terminals (VDTs) from 5 Hz to 400 kHz (ANSI), IEEE Std 1308 1994, IEEE Recommended Practice for Instrumentation: Speci fications for
127 Magnetic Flux Density and Electric Field Strength Meters 10 Hz to 3 kHz (ANSI) are not protocols oriented for indoor measurements, but guidelines to help create custom made protocols. 3.2.4 Uncertainties i n the Proposed S tudy The reference li mits published by IEEE and ICNIRP are directed at two main groups: General Public (higher standards) Occupational Hazard There are also recent studies that are not confirmed by the agencies indicating that the mentioned reference levels do not address all of the harmful effects _especially chronic conditions_ that some ranges of frequencies impose on human health. With regards to chronic symptoms, these studies create uncertainty factors and require a more solid ground to be able to influence the suggested limits. Figure 3 3 shows the uncertainty involved in the prediction of disease when there has been an exposure to a certain range of radiation. The uncertainty factors within this research are: Biologically disrupting field values affecting cells and orga ns in the body (ELF EMF region) Cognitive performance disrupting field values affecting the natural process of left and right brain for learning and thinking performance (ELF EMF region) The hazard levels of exposure and creating permanent obvious health d isorders The time lag from and between the exposure time until the disease symptoms occur 3.3 Data Collection and Analysis Method 3.3 .1 Dependent and Independent V ariables Based on the literature review and the ELF EMF related protocols, there are sever al parameters that must be considered.
128 Magnetic and electric fields produced by power lines, appliances, and other electrical equipment may be characterized by their magnitude, frequency, waveform (harmonic content), degree of polarization, spatial variati on, and temporal variation (582155 IEEE Guide, 1996, reaffirmed 2008) When developing a protocol, the following sources of magnetic fields and items should be considered, when applicable: Electrical sources serving the facility Types and locations of tran sformers Locations of main cables and breakers Magnitude of supply voltages, periods of peak power use Frequencies (including dc) of power supplies and electrical devices Location of people relative to known field sources Presence of any motors and generat ors Presence of small heaters Any electrical device with coils of wire Grounding systems and connections The information that may be provided when reporting the results of measurements can vary, depending on the goals of the measurements (582155 IEEE Guid e) A clear indication of the measurement goals should be provided at the outset. The following information pertaining to the instrumentation used to measure the ELF fields is desirable in all cases: Manufacturer Model/serial number Date Time Total measure ment uncertainty Date of last calibration/calibration check Probe size/geometr y (some exposure standards present limits in terms of a spatially averaged field through the specification of a loop surface area)
129 A clear indication of what field quantity is be ing reported, e.g., the maximum magnetic field, the resultant magnetic field, the vertical field component, TWA, etc. The recommended units are SI, with common units expressed in parentheses. Other information that may be provided when appropriate includes : Magnetic field sampling frequency and descriptions of human activity when human exposure data is presented Drawings that describe the area and locations where measurements are performed Statistical information, e.g., the largest and smallest field values median, geometric mean, standard deviation, etc. Measurement height Source identification W eather conditions Based on the discussed parameters and data mentioned in the protocols and guidelines, Table 3 2 gathers the variables and groups them into indepe ndent and dependent category. Based on the independent variable, a diagnostic can be run to find the priority and importance of the targeted frequency range. 3.2.2 J ustification of Variables The World Health Organization (WHO, 2017) provides a f ramework f or developing health based EMF standards and requirement To ensure that an exposure standard has all the elements necessary to be complete, the following points must be addressed: Frequency S ince the absorption of electromagnetic radiation is frequency d ependent, the same limits cannot be applicable over the whole frequency range. Thus, in the development of the standard there is a need to address the issue of frequency extrapolation from regions where there is little information on health effects, and t o set
130 limit values that harmonize with other standards; for example at the high frequency end of the standard, the limits should harmonize with the infrared standard (WHO, 2017) Exposure level T he level of exposure can be practically expressed and compa red with in terms of reference levels. Situations where simultaneous exposure can occur to multiple frequency fields must be accounted for in the standard (WHO, 2017) Exposure duration T he time of exposure to various power levels should be quite precise. In many standards a certain power level is set for continuous exposure for 8 or 24 h per day, but higher levels of exposure are generally permitted for short periods of time. In this respect, the time over which the exposure level is averaged is important The exact means of averaging exposures must be clearly indicated so that no confusion arises in the minds of persons responsible for compliance (WHO, 2017) The temporal variations of the magnetic field is a function of load current variations, e.g., dur ing heavy usage of electrical energy, the load currents increase and produce greater magnetic fields If more definitive measurements of the magnetic field are required, magnetic field meters with recording capability may be used at locations of interest f or times thought to be representative for producing the full range of field values. For example, in residences this might involve several 24 hour records repeated during each season of the year For example, measurements recorded every 15 s econds will, in general, show more fluctuations than if hourly averages are used to characterize the fluctuations Bio effects researchers may be consulted for guidance on how to define an index of fluctuations ( IEEE Guide 582155 ).
131 Harmonics Sinusoidal currents produce s inusoidal magnetic fields free of harmonics; non sinusoidal currents (e.g., the saw tooth waveforms from television deflection coils) produce non sinusoidal magnetic fields that can be rich in harmonics (582155 IEEE Guide). Whole body and partial body expo sure For cases where only part of the human body is close to the EMF source (near field), supplementary guidelines should be provided for partial body exposure in addition to whole body exposure. In general, partial body exposures may have higher limits t han the whole body, but this depends on the mechanism of interaction (or alternatively on the operating frequency) (WHO, 2017) This can be translated into distance away from the source. Distance to source The magnitudes of magnetic fields produced by cur rents in an infinitely long straight wire and a circular loop of wire decrease as 1/r and 1/ r 2 respectively, where r is the distance from the field source Other commonly encountered sources of magnetic fields are straight conductors (e.g., connections to grounding systems/electrodes) and approximately circular turns of wire (e.g., found in transformers, motors, video display terminals, etc.) with single phase currents. In the case of the extremely low frequency (ELF) fields there is no heating effect, only induction. Within the domain of this study, the ELF range (0 300 Hz) magnetic field is tested in the three axis of X, Y and Z. The B value will be averaged as quadratic mean result (IEEE Guide 582155 ). 3.3 .3 R anking s of the V ariables As shown in Tab le 3 3, i ndependent variables ranked (1) are interdependent (See Table 3 3); together they create a measuring system to find out the result. To measure the spot values, the variables are ranked under (1), (2), (3) and (4) priority.
132 The independent variable s marked (2), are the external variables that affect ranked (1) variables. For example, temporal variation affects the power usage and therefore affects the resultant values. Same can be explained by ranked (4) and (5) variables. 3.4 Experimentation 3 .4.1 Designing a S et of E xperiment ( M apping ) IEEE Std 1308 1994 describes uncertainties associated with the calibration process and uncertainties during measurements. Sketches of areas and locations where measurements will be made are often very useful. Electr ical diagrams of buildings may be helpful in identifying sources of fields in the office s and similar buildings, although excessive reliance on such documentation should be avoided because of incomplete documentation and unrecorded changes in the building electrical system. While many sources of magnetic fields are visible, e.g., overhead lighting or electrical appliances, others are not, e.g., electrical equipment in adjacent rooms or on upper or lower floors. During pilot studies, decisions may be made re garding spacing between measurements, measurement locations, sample size, formats of data sheets, questionnaires for job/task classification, etc. If determining human exposure is the goal of the measurement examination of measurement procedures as descri bed in the epi demiological studies is strongly recommended as part of the process for developing a final measurement protocol ( IEEE Guide 582155 ). 3.4.2 Designing a S et of E xperiment ( M easurement P rocedure ) Before starting to measure, a structured data s heet has to be developed where all of the necessary conditions of the location, time, typology, source allocation, instrumentation, targeted reference level, targeted bandwidth, etc. will be recorded.
133 Table 3 1. A comparison of extremely low frequency ma gnetic field (ELF MF) reference limits ( T) Frequency (Hz) ICNIRP General Public (T) ICNIRP Occupational (T) IEEE zone 0 Unrestricted (T) IEEE zone 1 Restricted (T) 0 400000 2000000 <0.153 118000 353000 0.153 118300 354901 1 40000 200000 181 00 54300 8 625 3125 2262.5 6787.5 20 250 1250 904 2715 25 200 1000 904 2710 50 200 1000 904 2710 167 200 1000 904 2710 300 200 1000 904 2710 400 200 750 904 2710 751 106.52 399.46 904 2710 Figure 3 1. General public and occupational ICNIRP extr emely low frequency magnetic field reference level s in microtesla ( T) 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 0 1 8 20 25 50 167 300 400 751 B Field (T) Frequency (Hz) ICNIRP GP ICNIRP OCC
134 Figure 3 2. Biomagnetic phenomena for magnetic fields in the ELF EMF region ( Diagram adapted from Ueno and M. Iwasaka 1996b; Ueno and Shigemitsu 2007) Figure 3 3. Time lag betw een exposure and disease for a cumulative exposure index; after 5 years of exposure, disease was initiated, and after 7 years was diagnosed (R sli and Vienneau, 2014)
135 Table 3 2. Independent variables affecting dependent variables Independent variables (Input/ Cause/ Controlled) Dependent variables (Outcome/ Effect/ Measured) Spatial location Frequency (f) X, Y, and Z plane magnitude (B) X, Y, and Z plane polarization (E) Distance to source(s) (r) Measurement height Frequency (f) Magnitude (B) Polarization (E) Distance to source(s) (r) Typology of space and human activity Limiting factors (B), and (E) Topography and specific data (Structure of building, urban and natural surroundings, year of construction, electrical planning, source a llocation, radiation pattern, volume and mapping, max. power output) Frequency (f) X, Y, and Z plane magnitude (B) X, Y, and Z plane polarization (E) Distance to source(s) (r) Health related reference levels Limiting factors (B), and (E) Time of D ay Frequency (f) Magnitude (B) Polarization (E) Temporal variation Time (T) Frequency passband of instrumentation Frequency range observed Probe size Certainty and accuracy Duration of measurement (T) Certainty and accuracy Metering i nstrument (device and operator conducting behavior) Total measurement uncertainty based on manufacturer data (e.g., pass band, probe size, magnitude range) Source Source identification Interior/exterio r Frequency (f) Magnitude (B) Polarization (E)
136 Ta ble 3 2. Continued Independent variables (Input/ Cause/ Controlled) Dependent variables (Outcome/ Effect/ Measured) Radiation type (modulated, pulsed, or continuous) Geometry and intensity of propagation (r 1 r 2 or r 3 ) Harmonic values (B) Electric g rounding systems Frequency (f) Magnitude (B) Polarization (E) Geomagnetic effect caused by magma and geographical location on earth Magnitude (B) (30 T< B of earth<70 T) Polarization (E) Exposure level and safety factors Magnitude (B) Polarization (E) Indication of field quantity Average or Peak Weather conditions and seasonal change (Temperature, humidity, air pressure) Frequency (f) Magnitude (B) Polarization (E) Distance to source(s) (r)
137 Table 3 3. Ranking s of the independent variables Ra nking Independent variables (Input/ Cause/ Controlled) 1 Frequency passband of instrumentation 1 Spatial location 1 Measurement height 1 Source identification Interior/exterior Radiation type (modulated, pulsed, or continuous) 2 Topography and specifi c data (structure of building, urban and natural surroundings, year of construction, electrical planning and grounding, source allocation, radiation pattern, volume and mapping, max. power output) 2 Temporal variation 2 Certainty and accuracy: Meterin g instrument (device and operator conducting and shielding behavior, total measurement uncertainty based on manufacturer data ) Indication of what field quantity Probe size 3 Time of day 4 Weather c onditions and seasonal change (t emperature, humidity, air pressure) 5 Geomagnetic effect caused by magma and geographical location on earth
138 Table 3 4 Data gathering sample sheet Project name Date of measuremen t Frequenc y passband Time of day Building s tructure Urban surrounding Natural surrounding Ye ar of construction Building typology Space function Metering data Temperature Humidity Air pressure Measured point/spot Grid coordinate on plan (A 1) Height of measure ment from ground (m) f (average) Frequenc y (Hz) E (average) Electric f ield (V/m) (vo lt per meter) B (average) Magnetic f ield (T) (tesla) 1 X 1 Y 1 Z 2 X 2 Y 2 Z 3 X 3 Y 3 Z 1 X 1 Y 1 Z 2 X 2 Y 2 Z 3 X 3 Y 3 Z 1 X 1 Y 1 Z 2 X 2 Y 2 Z 3 X 3 Y
139 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Purpose of the S tudy This chapter develops and tests the assessed measurement protocols within the ELF EMF sc ope of the magnetic spectrum. The target study is oriented toward assessing indoor spaces of buildings with educational type of usage. The existing guidelines are consolidated into the most stringent reference level, ICNIRP GP, and can be adapted for futur e reference limit values. This research has touched on biological data and the importance of their input into the guideline limits on a preliminary basis. Further biological data input from the specialized field of studies are to be expected to be investig ated in future and be given easily and accessible to general public by the biomedical specialists. The result of how strong the field in a normal working of experiments. 4.2 Overview of Data 4.2.1 Regulation Two major sources of published guidelines that are followed in Europe and the US are the IEEE and ICNIRP. Table 4 1 shows a comparison of the ELF EMF values by both agencies each grouped in the two categories of strin gent and less stringent values. Figure 4 1 shows the four groups all together from which the ICNIRP GP has the most preventive attribute. For the purpose of the experimentation, ICNIRP GP values are used to compare the spot measurement values and their haz ardous effect. Figure 4 2 shows the graphical representation of the ICNIRP reference limits. For the experimentation, there
140 are four frequencies being examined and accordingly the reference limit values are used and compared (See Table 4 2). As mentioned e arlier, some of the individual countries have their own limiting levels that are even more stringent than the ICNIRP GP levels. For example, in Russia the field intensity of the power frequency range is (10 T) and in Switzerland (1 T) versus ICNIRP GP (2 00 T) (See Figure 4 3). 4.2.2 Source of Exposure The most common sources of exposure within the ELF MF zone are directly close areas to appliances such as electric stove, TV set, Hi fi systems, hair dryers, electric blankets, dimmers, wall outlet, fuse b oxes, computer screens, etc. Figure 4 4 shows the magnetic field values of some of the kitchen and household appliances. As shown, very close distance (0 15 cm) to certain equipment (vacuum cleaner, electric saw, drill, electric shaver, hairdryer, hand hel d mixer) are above the ICNIRP GP reference values. 4.2.3 Biological A rea of C oncern By comparing the IEEE and ICNIRP reference limit lines it is obvious that ICNIRP designed for the general public zone is the only regulatory limiting reference that addre sses the avoidance of the magnetic field related to the power frequency and the i ntensities in question. Figure 4 5 shows the reported magnetic field intensities of the 50 Hz frequency and the cellular level effects related to possible DNA interruption. Th e ELF EMF frequencies found in the normal living and working situations are 50 Hz in Europe and parts of the world and 60 Hz in US. The intensity of the magnetic field s that are generated by domestic conduits and wiring vary between 0.01 and 1 millitesla ( mT )
141 (Reale and Amerio, 2013). Appliances generate fields of 0.1 100 mT (Swanson and Renew, 1994) (Merchant et al., 1994). This data, although several decades old, is still valid since mos t buildings are still using older version s of wiring and appliance s that were designed and used when the buildings were built. Table 4 3 shows some of the published research that has been done using the European frequency (50 Hz) and estimated field intensities that are present in a typical public environment. The WHO fa ct sheet (2017) mentions that common daily exposure to EMF ranges from 0.07 T for an average European residential power frequency magnetic field to about 20 T under power lines. All in all, the correct frequency and waveform are important (Li et al., 2 003), but not the only factors for the effects. The intensity of the exposure, the age of the recipient, and the diet affect the immune system and consequently biological susceptibility (Reale and Amerio, 2013). Some of the examples of possible positive bi ological effects, either harmful or therapeutic, are listed below: Effect (1): (1 a; 2 mT or 2,000 T), (1 b; 10 mT or 10,000 T) : In vitro effects of low level, ELF on DNA damage in human leucocytes by comet assay, exposure of 50/60 Hz, resulted in magne tic field millitesla (mT) range, blood samples were exposed to 5 doses of EMF (2,3,5,7 and 10mT at 50 Hz), Reference journal: Ahuja YR, Vijayashree B, Saran R, Jayashri EL, Manoranjani JK, Bhargava SC. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 36(5):318 322, 1999. Effect (2): (2 a; 0.2 mT or 200 T), (2 b; 6.4 mT or 640 T) : Effects of ELF EMF on DNA of testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure in mice exposure of 50 Hz, 0.2 mT or 6.4 mT, duration: 4 weeks, the percentage of sperms with abnormal chromatin structure, i ncreased in the two exposed groups. Hong R, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Weng EQ, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 23(6):414 417, 2005. Effect (3): (3; 1 mT or 1,000 T) : Cell type specific genotoxic effects of intermittent ELF EMF, exposure of 50 Hz, si nusoidal, resulting magnetic field 1 mT, duration for 1 24h, identified three responder s (human fibroblasts, human melanocytes, rat granulosa cells, Ivancsits S, Pilger A, Diem E, Jahn O, Rudiger HW, Mutat Res. 583(2):184 188, 2005.
142 Effect (4): (4; 1 mT or 1,000 T) : Induction of DNA strand breaks by intermittent exposure to ELF_EMF in human diploid fibroblasts, exposure of 50Hz, sinusoidal, resulting magnetic field 1000 micro T, duration for 24h, a genotoxic potential of intermittent EMF, reference: Ivancs its S, Diem E, Pilger A, Rudiger HW, Jahn O. Mutat Res. 519(1 2):1 13, 2002. By looking at the above table (Table 4 3), the reference ICNIRP GP guideline zoned for the general public is the best limiting factor to keep the mentioned effects caused by power frequency (50 Hz) magnetic field away from reaching to the building occupants (See Figure 4 5). Figure 4 6 shows some other activities that are based on the ELF MF and very low level magnetic field intensity levels. Obviously, ICNIRP GP does not address t he field activities. Some of the areas that may not be covered by the reference limits are MF effects that are involved in for example bone mineralization, cellular act ivities and brain activities. 4.3 Experimentation To test the ELF MF measurement protocols and to find the critical values of the magnetic flux intensities, a set of measurement experimentation is done in an office/ classroom at the Rinker School in the Un iversity of Florida. This room is designed to seat 9 students and is chosen because it represents a typical working condition that is found in an office where computers, laptops, printers, and charging cables are used. The lighting is a typical office ligh ting source: Arrayed multiple fluorescent light fixtures. For the purpose of this research, an experimentation with the frequency points of 8, 60, 120 and 180 Hz are used, and compared with the ICNIRP GP reference limits. Justification. The 8 Hz frequency
143 power frequency; 60 Hz is the common frequency found in the US. The second harmonic value of 60 Hz is, (60 x 2=120), 120 Hz, and the third harmonic value of 60 is, (60 x 3=180) 180 Hz. Spots MF found in their surrounding and th e overall pattern of found MF in the room. The height of measurement in Experiment A is 0.45 m, same height as the electrical outlets on the wall. Within the measuring process, first, the measured values are recorded within status (0) where no device opera tes, no occupant is present, and no lighting is turned on. Next, the measured values are an outcome of status (1) where all equipment are turned on, and the occupants use their laptops, computers, phone chargers, and turn on the overhead lighting. Spatial location: A room on the west side of the building on the third floor is chosen for this experimentation (Refer to Appendix A, Figure A 4) Measurement height in Experiment B: 0.00 m, 0.45 m, 1.00 m, and 1.50 m Typology of space and human activity: Multipur pose (office, classroom, and meeting room) Topography and specific data: Campus, free standing building surrounded by roads from South and East side, open parking lot on West, and another building in the North side Structure of building, urban and natural surroundings, year of construction, electrical planning, source allocation, radiation pattern, volume and mapping, max. power output : H ybrid construction, steel framing with reinforced concrete, aluminum cladding campus, 2002 200 KW Health related refer ence levels: ICNIRP (general public) is used to assess the result. Time of d ay: Measurement taken between 10:00 am and 2:00 pm for multiple times, performed in April and May 2018
144 Temporal variation: Measurement taken within the period of 5 weeks, 2018 Freq uency passband of instrumentation: 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz for reading between 1 Hz and 300 Hz frequencies Probe size: 1,000 samples, 50 m/s Duration of measurement (T): Varied Metering instrument (device and operator conducting behavior) (See Appendix C) Sour ce: Estimated building elements to be various such as wiring, panels, etc., office devices, printers, computers, lighting Interior/exterior: Measurement carried out in one room of the building and four outdoor sides of the building Electric grounding syste ms: Unknown Weather conditions (outdoor) and seasonal change ( t emperature, humidity, air pressure): Around 73 Degrees Fahrenheit 81% humidity with dew point 66, air pressure 30.06 in The specific project information is shown in Table 4 4. 4.3.1 Experiment ation A User and Indoor and Outdoor The purpose of this experiment is to compare the values found close to the occupants/participants and assess and compare a) the values to the reference limit values, and b) the statistical information of all the points ( minimum, maximum, average, and standard deviation) within the group and between the indoor and outdoor values. Table 4 5 shows the recorded values of the X, Y, and Z axis with the status (0) and status (1) taken specified grid points (h = 0.45 m) chosen to be as close as possible to 7). Table 4 6 shows the measured spots status (1) measurement as seen in Figure 4 8, the occupa nt is using a personal laptop, charging the laptop with a cable charger, and charging his cell phone with a second
145 cable charger. Figures 4 9, 4 10 and 4 11 show the overall frequency activity of the grid point (E1) and between 1 and 300 Hz. Figure 4 12 s hows the activity on the grid point (E1) within the power frequency (60 Hz). Outdoor. In order to have a comparison between the indoor and the outdoor values (See Table 4 7), four points on the North, South, East and West side of the building have been cho sen (See Figure 4 13). 220.127.116.11 General s tatistical information As suggested by the discussed IEEE protocols, the largest and smallest field values, median, geometric mean, and standard deviation are the values that determine the end numerical result in the measurement process Table 4 8 through Table 4 12 look at and groups these values for each frequency in a (0) and (1) status. The final quadratic mean result of the g rid and the head points are found in Table 4 13. Table 4 14 shows the final quadratic mea n results of the outdoor measurement. Table 4 15 and Figure 4 15 show the final statistical result of all indoor points. In Figure 4 14, at 8 Hz frequency, the mean of the head values (h = 1.0 m) is higher than the mean of the grid values (h = 0.45 m) 4. 3.1.2 On and off s tatus comparison and analysis In Figure 4 16, a graphical representation shows a slight change of the points on the 4 tested frequencies of 8, 60, 120, and 180 Hz. Total quadratic mean changes of the On and Off status measurements and the outdoor values are shown on Table 4 16. Figure 4 17 and Figure 4 18 further show the differences of the four frequencies in an On/Off/Outdoor comparison.
146 18.104.22.168 X, Y, and Z values: Comparison and a nalysis Figure 4 19 through Figure 4 22 show the spread o f the X, Y, and Z values on an Off and On status 4.3.2 Experimentation B Grids The purpose of this experiment is to map and observe the pattern of the (60 Hz) (in nT) magnetic field in the experimented room on 4 different levels of 0.00 (ground level), 0.45 m, 1.00 m, and 1.50 m (above ground) (See Table 4 17). The points are on the grid shown on Figure A 1 and sorted based on their common height (See Tables 4 18, 4 19, 4 20 and 4 21) (See Figures 4 23, 4 24, 4 25, and 4 26). 22.214.171.124 Height 1 .00 m ( abov e ground level): 126.96.36.199 Height 1.5 0 m ( above ground level): 188.8.131.52 Quadratic mean magnetic field spread of 60 Hz sections on grids 1 8: 184.108.40.206 Quadratic mean magnetic field spread of 60 Hz sections on grids A K: 4.3.3 Experimentation C The Effect of Rain During the M easurement Most of the measurement was taken during a dry climate condition. There was an increased reading values during an unexpected heavy rainfall. In Table 4 22, the registered values are shown. Figure 4 29 through Figure 4 32 show a 3D representation of the measured values before and during the rainfall. The measurement shows that certain points especially on the ground floor have higher values compared to the other levels. The sections also confirm that most of the higher values are seen on the ground level.
147 4.3.4 Experimentation D MF Radius of Source In this experiment an antenna that reads 60 Hz frequency reads the radius around the magnetic sources in the room. In Figure 4 33 the magnetic influence, radius and distance of the s ources are shown. 4.4 Result s 4.4.1 Experiment A The statistical result of the experiment A is shown in Table 4 24 through Table 4 26, and Figure 4 35. 4.4.2 Experim ent B These are the main points and o bservati ons re sul ted b y this set o f exp eriment s : The highest level MF intensity of ELF EMF 60 Hz was found on the ground level (0.0 m ). The highest point MF intensity of ELF EMF 60 Hz was registered on point D 2 (95 nT) on the ground level. The intensity of D 2 on 0.45 m, however, is reduced to (9 nT). By reaching to the higher planes, (1.50 m), the 60 Hz field on most points is reduced to zero. The highest found point D 2 (95 nT) MF intensity is very small compared to the ICNIRP GP (200,000 nT) reference limit. The underlying MF of 60 Hz source on the ground level to be investigated are within the area of the these points: D 2 (95 nT), E 2 (32 nT), D 1 (25 nT), E 12 ( nT), E 3 (93 nT), A 8 (35 nT), B 8 (14 nT), C 8 (10 nT), D 7 (28 nT), and D 8 (28 nT). 4.4.3 Experiment C The result of the ELF EMF 60 Hz increase in heavy rain is shown in percentage in Table 4 27.
148 4.4.4 Experiment D The result of the 60 Hz sources of ELF EMF found in the experimented room ordered from most to the least is shown in Table 4 28.
149 Table 4 1. A numerical comparison of the different reference limits values in Europe and US Frequency (Hz) ICNIRP g eneral p ubli c (T) ICNIRP o ccupational (T) IEEE zone 0 u nrestricted (T) IEEE zone 1 r estricted (T) 0 400000 2000000 <0.153 118000 353000 1 40000 200000 18100 54300 8 625 3125 2262.5 6787.5 20 250 1250 904 2715 25 200 1000 904 2710 50 200 1000 904 2710 1 67 200 1000 904 2710 300 200 1000 904 2710 400 200 750 904 2710 751 106.52 399.46 904 2710 Figure 4 1. A graphical comparison of the extremely low frequency magnetic field reference limits in ( T) 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000 0 1 8 20 25 50 167 300 B Field ( T) Frequency (Hz) ICNIRP GP ICNIRP OCC IEEE-zone0 IEEE-zone1
150 Figure 4 2. Graphical representation of ICNIR P reference limits used in Europe within the ELF zone for general public and occupational spaces Table 4 2. Reference limit values of ICNIRP general public for the chosen frequencies used in the experimentation Reference Level (ICNIRP) Freq. (Hz) GP ( T) OCC (T) 8 625 3125 60 200 1000 120 200 1000 180 200 1000 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 0 1 8 20 25 50 167 300 400 751 B Field (T) Frequency (Hz) ICNIRP GP ICNIRP OCC
151 Figure 4 3. Reference limits of general public and occupational levels in different countries
152 Figure 4 4. Magnetic field values of kitchen and household appliances and their relati onship to ICNIRP GP at 50 60 Hz ( www.statesassembly.gov.je ) 3 30 100 Electric cooker top 50 8 0.04 Microwave oven 200 8 0.6 Refrigerator 2 0.3 0.04 ICNIRP GP 200 200 200 Coffee machine 10 0.2 0.02 Hand-held mixer 700 10 0.25 Toaster 20 1 0.02 Hairdryer 2000 7 0.3 Electric shaver 1500 9 0.3 Drill 800 3.5 0.2 Electric saw 1000 25 1 Vacuum cleaner 800 20 2 Washing machine 50 3 0.15 Clothes dryer 8 2 0.1 Clothes iron 30 0.3 0.03 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 B Field (T) Distance away from source in centimeters:
153 Table 4 3. A comparison of the regulatory values and reported effects caused by ELF MF in T (Hz) Regulatory values and biological effect caused by ELF MF MF B (T) 50 ICNIRP General Public (GP) 5 50 ICNIRP Occupational (OCC) 22818 50 IEEE zone 0 (Unrestricted) 17394 50 IEEE zone 1 (Restricted) 52182 50 Effect 1 2000 50 Effect 1 10000 50 Effect 2 200 50 Effect 2 640 50 Effect 3 1000 50 Effect 4 1000 Figure 4 5. A comparison of regulatory values and the effect s of some of the harmful reported magnetic fields that interrupt the biological activity values are in ( T) 50 Hz, 10000 50 Hz, 2710 50 Hz, 2000 50 Hz, 1000 50 Hz, 1000 50 Hz, 1000 50 Hz, 904 50 Hz, 640 50 Hz, 200 50 Hz, 200 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 0 20 40 60 B Field (T) Frequency (Hz) Effect 1-b: 10,000 T IEEE zone-1: 2,710 T Effect 1-a: 2,000 T Effect 4: 1,000 T Effect 3: 1,000 T ICNIRP-OCC: 1,000 T IEEEzone-0: 904 T Effect 2-b: 640 T Effect 2-a: 200 T ICNIRP-GP: 200 T
154 Figure 4 6. Relation between biological activity and ICNIRP G P regulatory reference guide
155 Table 4 4. Specific information on the surrounding and conditions of the experimentation Project name : Powell Center Date of measurement : 1 15 April, 10 20 May 2018 Frequency passband : 10Hz, 100Hz Time of day : between 10:00am 2:00pm Building s tructure : concrete post and beam Urban surrounding : road, building, parking lot Natural surrounding : Limited green space Year of construction : 2002 Building typology : Prof. School Space function : University Metering data : Spectran NF 5053 Temperature : 73 79 DF Humidity : 81% Air pressure : 30.06 Measured point/spot Occupant Head: PA, PB, PC, PD, PE Grid coordinate on plan : A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, K8 Height of measure ment from ground (m) 0, 0.45, 1, 1.5 f (average) Frequency (Hz) E (average) Electric f ield (V/m) (volt per meter) : NA B (average) Magnetic f ield (T) (tesla) : Figure 4 7. Schematic location plan and the spots/points close to the seated occupants
156 Table 4 5. A comparison of the B field values of selected g rid points adjacent to the occupants between the zero (0) and the busy (1) state in an indoor office room (the values of the 60, 120, and 180 Hz are in nanotesla, nT) Powell Frequency (Hz) Spot Height = 0.45 m 8 60 120 180 Status 0 ( T) 1 (T) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) E1 X 0.5 1.5 13.2 8.5 9.3 9 0 0 Y 0.4 1.8 11 22 12.5 14 0 0 Z 0.4 1.5 17 19 12 12 5.7 6 E2 X 1.44 1.4 6.2 8.3 10 8.5 0 0 Y 2.1 1.8 12.7 11.4 15 13.3 0 0 Z 1.15 1.2 16.6 4 10 8.8 5 .4 3.2 G1 X 1.2 1.4 6 18 9 9 0 0 Y 1.8 2 12 11 12.9 14 0 0 Z 1.4 1.5 7.5 9 9.2 10 0 0 G2 X 1.2 1.5 7.5 13 9.6 10 0 0 Y 1.6 2.2 12 8.5 14.3 14 0 0 Z 1.4 1.5 7.7 20 10 9 0 0 H4 X 1.4 1.5 6.2 9 9.5 9.7 0 0 Y 1.9 2.4 11.2 12 14.3 14 0 0 Z 1.4 1.5 8 8 9.7 9.7 0 0 I4 X 1.4 1.4 7.4 8.7 8.4 9 0 0 Y 1.8 2.2 8.4 10 12.3 13 0 0 Z 1.2 1.4 8 7.7 9.6 9.3 0 0 J4 X 1.5 1.3 7.8 8 9.5 9 0 0 Y 1.7 2 12.5 12.5 14 15 0 0 Z 1.2 1.4 8.5 10 9.5 9.8 0 2 F7 X 1.5 1.5 6 4 10 10 0 0 Y 1.8 1.8 3.3 17 15 14 0 0 Z 1.5 1.2 9.3 14 9 9 0 0 F8 X 1.4 1.5 5.5 6.2 9.2 9.3 0 0 Y 2 2.2 8.5 15 13 13 0 0 Z 1.4 1.4 7 14 8.8 9.5 0 0 B7 X 1.4 1.6 10.5 11.5 9.5 9.5 0 0 Y 1.6 2.3 3 13 13 13 0 0 Z 1.3 1.5 10.5 10 9 10 0 0
157 Table 4 6. Spot measurem ents of the B field values of the heads of participants (A, B, C, D, and E) between the zero (0) and the busy (1) state Powell Frequency (Hz) Spot of heads Height = 1.0 m 8 60 120 180 Status 0 ( T) 1 (T) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) P A X 2 1.4 8 2 10.4 9.2 0 0 Y 4 1.7 12 8.4 14 14 0 0 Z 2 1.1 10.7 8.5 10 8.8 0 0 P B X 1.4 1.5 7.7 9 9.4 9 0 0 Y 1.8 2.2 9.7 12 14 13.5 0 0 Z 1.1 1.5 10 9 10 9 0 0 P C X 1.5 1.2 8 6 9 9 0 0 Y 1.7 2.2 9 11 13 13 0 0 Z 1.5 1.5 8 7 9.5 9 0 0 P D X 2 1.5 6.7 14.5 9.5 13 0 9.5 Y 2.9 2.3 9.4 12.5 15.4 14 0 0 Z 2 1.4 7.4 4 9.9 9 0 3 P E X 1.4 1.2 8.3 8.2 8.8 10 0 0 Y 2.2 1.8 13.5 12.6 13 13.5 0 0 Z 1.5 1.4 12 14 10 8.6 0 0 Figure 4 8. Pa rticipant (A), (P A), is using a laptop with a connected charger, and charging his cell phone within 0.5 m radius to the extension cord
158 Figure 4 9. Magnetic field intensity X va l ue shown on point E1 in a busy state when the participant A is working (1 H z 300 Hz) frequency range
159 Figure 4 10. Magnetic field intensity Y va l ue shown on point E1 in a busy state when the participant A is working (1 Hz 300 Hz) frequency range
160 Figure 4 11. Magnetic field intensity Z va l ue shown on point E1 in a busy st ate when the participant A is working (1 Hz 300 Hz) frequency range
161 Figure 4 12. Magnetic field intensity Z va l ue of (45 Hz 75 Hz) frequency range shown on point E1
162 Table 4 7. Outdoor measurements of northern, southern, eastern and western side o f the building Instrumentation Resolution B andwidth (RBW) in (Hz) 10 10 100 100 Height 0 m Spot Frequency (Hz) 8 60 120 180 (T) (nT) (nT) (nT) North X 1.6 8.3 9 0 Y 2.13 10.5 13 0 Z 1.45 11.5 9 0 South X 2.2 7 9 0 Y 2.1 12 .5 13.5 0 Z 1.5 13.5 9 0 East X 1.5 11 10 0 Y 2 22 14 0 Z 1.5 18 9 0 West X 1.5 5 10 0 Y 2.08 42 19 0 Z 1.6 30 12.5 0
163 Figure 4 13. Spot measurements taken from northern, eastern, southern, and western side of the building Table 4 8. A comparison of the B field average values in status (0) and (1) Powell: Height Frequency (Hz) Spots 0.45 m 8 60 120 180 Status 0 (T) 1 (T) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) Average X 1.294 1.46 7.63 9.52 9.4 9. 3 0 0 Y 1.67 2.07 9.46 13.24 13.63 13.73 0 0 Z 1.235 1.41 10.01 11.57 9.68 9.71 1.11 1.12
164 Table 4 9. A comparison of the B field median values in status (0) and (1) Powell: Height Frequency (Hz) Spots 0.45 m 8 60 120 180 S tatus 0 (T) 1 (T) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) Median X 1.4 1.5 6.8 8.6 9.5 9.15 0 0 Y 1.8 2.1 11.1 12.25 13.5 14 0 0 Z 1.35 1.45 8.25 10 9.55 9.6 0 0 Table 4 10. A comparison of the B field minimum values in status (0) a nd (1) Powell: Height Frequency (Hz) Spots 0.45 m 8 60 120 180 Status 0 (T) 1 (T) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) Minimum X 0.5 1.3 5.5 4 8.4 8.5 0 0 Y 0.4 1.8 3 8.5 12.3 13 0 0 Z 0.4 1.2 7 4 8.8 8.8 0 0 Table 4 11. A comparison of the B field maximum values in status (0) and (1) Powell: Height Frequency (Hz) Spots 0.45 m 8 60 120 180 Status 0 (T) 1 (T) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) Maximum X 1.5 1.6 13.2 1 8 10 10 0 0 Y 2.1 2.4 12.7 22 15 15 0 0 Z 1.5 1.5 17 20 12 12 5.7 6 Table 4 12. General public ICNIRP reference level values for the 8, 60, 120 and 180 Hz frequencies Powell: Height Frequency (Hz) Spots 0.45 m 8 60 120 180 St atus 0 (T) 1 (T) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) Ref. Lev. X 625 625 200 200 200 200 200 200 (ICNIRP) Y 625 625 200 200 200 200 200 200 GP Z 625 625 200 200 200 200 200 200
165 Table 4 13. Final result of all indoor points (grids and heads) Powell: Frequency (Hz) Spots Height 45 cm 8 60 120 180 status 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) Q Mean E1 436 1606 14 17 11 12 3 3 E2 1613 1488 13 8 12 10 3 2 G1 1488 1654 9 13 11 11 0 0 G2 1409 1764 9 15 11 11 0 0 H4 1584 1849 9 10 11 11 0 0 I4 1488 1709 8 9 10 11 0 0 J4 1481 1597 10 10 11 12 0 1 F7 1606 481 7 13 12 4 0 0 F8 1625 1737 7 12 11 11 0 0 B7 1439 1835 9 12 11 11 0 0 PA 2828 1421 10 7 12 11 0 0 PB 1462 1764 9 9 11 11 0 0 PC 1570 1686 8 8 11 11 0 0 PD 2339 1780 8 11 12 12 0 6 PE 1737 1488 11 12 11 11 0 0 Total Points 1 5 00 16 00 9.6 12.3 11.1 10.6 1.4 1.3 Heads 21 00 16 00 9.5 9.7 11.3 11.1 0.0 2.6 Indoor 18 00 16 00 9.6 11.1 11.2 10.8 1.0 2.0 Table 4 14. Total qua dratic mean values of all outdoor points (grids and heads) Instrumentation Resolution B andwidth (RBW) in (Hz) 10 10 100 100 Height 0 m Spot Frequency (Hz) 8 60 120 180 (T) (nT) (nT) (nT) Q Mean N orth 1.8 10.2 10.5 0 S outh 2.0 11.4 10.7 0 E ast 1.7 17.6 11.2 0 W est 1.7 29.9 14.3 0 Total Mean 1.8 19 11.8 0
166 Table 4 1 5. Final statistical result of all points (nT) on the grids close to the users and the heads of the users in the Powell Center and the comparison to dif ferent reference levels Powell Center Max Min Av g. Ref Level (ICNIRP) GP Q uad. Mean Ref Lev el (Swiss ) Ref Lev el (Poland) Ref Level (Russia) 8 Hz status (0) 2100 400 1400 625000 1780.1 NA NA NA 8 Hz status (1) 2400 1200 1647 625000 1625.7 NA NA NA 60 Hz status (0) 17 3 9 200000 9.6 1000 48000 10000 60 Hz status (1) 22 4 11 200000 11.1 1000 48000 10000 120 Hz status (0) 15 8 11 200000 11.2 1000 48000 10000 120 Hz status (1) 15 9 11 200000 10.8 1000 48000 10000 180 Hz status (0) 6 0 0 200000 1.0 1 000 48000 10000 180 Hz status (1) 6 0 0 200000 2.0 1000 48000 10000 Figure 4 14. A comparison of the grid point values (h = 0.45m) and the head mean values (h = 1.0 m) Mean Grids Mean Heads 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0 5 10 B Field ( T) Frequency (Hz)
167 Figure 4 15 Graphical representation of all p oints on the grids close to the users (h=0.45 m) and the heads of the users (h= 1.0 m) in the Powell Center and the comparison to different reference levels 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 8 Hz-status (0) 8 Hz-status (1) 60 Hz-status (0) 60 Hz-status (1) 120 Hz-status (0) 120 Hz-status (1) 180 Hz-status (0) 180 Hz-status (1) B Field (nT) 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 B Field (nT) Frequency (Hz) Maximum Minimum Average Reference Level (ICNIRP) Quadratic Mean Reference Level (Switzerland) Reference Level (Poland) Reference Level (Russia)
168 Figure 4 16. A comparison of the on and off status of the 8, 60, 120, and 180 Hz frequency Tabl e 4 16. Total quadratic mean values in (nT) Total Quadratic Mean Values Indoor OFF Indoor ON Outdoor 8 Hz 1800 1600 1800 60 Hz 9.6 11.1 19 120 Hz 11.2 10.8 11.8 180 Hz 1 2 0 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 0 50 100 150 200 B Field ( T) Frequency (Hz) E1 E2 G1 G2 H4 I4 J4 F7 ON (nT) OFF (nT) ON (nT) OFF (nT) ON (nT) OFF (nT) OFF ( T) ON ( T)
169 Figure 4 17. Comparison of the quadratic mean values of the indoor space in status off and on, and the outdoor values Figure 4 18. Comparison of the different frequencies in indoor space in off and on status, and the outdoor values 1800 9.6 11.2 1 1600 11.1 10.8 2 1800 19 11.8 1 10 100 1000 10000 8 Hz 60 Hz 120 Hz 180 Hz B Field ( T) Indoor OFF Indoor ON Outdoor 1800 1600 1800 9.6 11.1 19 11.2 10.8 11.8 1 2 1 10 100 1000 10000 Indoor OFF Indoor ON Outdoor B Field ( nT) 8 Hz 60 Hz 120 Hz 180 Hz
170 Figure 4 19 A comparison of X, Y, and Z values within 8 Hz frequency Figure 4 20. A comparison of X, Y, and Z values within 60 Hz frequency 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 B Field ( T) 8 Hz 8-X(0) 8-X(1) 8-Y(0) 8-Y(1) 8-Z(0) 8-Z(1) 0 5 10 15 20 25 B Field (nT) 60 Hz 60-X(0) 60-X(1) 60-Y(0) 60-Y(1) 60-Z(0) 60-Z(1)
171 Figure 4 21. A comparison of X, Y, and Z values within 120 Hz frequency Figure 4 22. A comparison of X, Y, and Z values within 180 Hz frequency 0 5 10 15 20 25 B Field (nT) 120 Hz 120-X(0) 120-X(1) 120-Y(0) 120-Y(1) 120-Z(0) 120-Z(1) 0 5 10 15 20 25 B Field (nT) 180 Hz 180-X(0) 180-X(1) 180-Y(0) 180-Y(1) 180-Z(0) 180-Z(1)
172 Table 4 17. 3D reading (quadr atic mean) of all grid points in the Powell Center at 60 Hz frequency measured on 4 different heights date of measurement 5 17 2018 Room Detection Spot (3D) (T) Height: 0.00 m 0.45 m 1.00 m 1.50 m 58 Hz < Frequency < 61 Hz Height (m) A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 H1 I1 J1 K1 0 0 0 4 25 38 7 2 0 0 0 0 0.45 0 0 4 10 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 10 10 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 H2 I2 J2 K2 0 0 0 5 95 32 5 0 0 0 0 0 0.45 NA 0 4 9 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 NA 0 4 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 .5 NA 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3 H3 I3 J3 K3 0 NA NA 12 2 93 9 0 0 0 0 0 0.45 0 0 5 1 25 7 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 9 4 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 F4 G4 H4 I4 J4 K4 0 2 0 6 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.45 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 F5 G5 H5 I5 J5 K5 0 4 3 5 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A6 B6 C6 D6 E6 F6 G6 H6 I6 J6 K6 0 9 4 7 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.45 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A7 B7 C7 D7 E7 F7 G7 H7 I7 J7 K7 0 14 8 10 28 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0.45 5 4 4 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A8 B8 C8 D8 E8 F8 G8 H8 I8 J8 K 8
173 Table 4 17. Continued Room Detection Spot (3D) (T) Height: 0.00 m 0.45 m 1.00 m 1.50 m 58 Hz < Frequency < 61 Hz Height 0 35 14 10 28 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.45 15 10 5 10 3 0 0 0 20 0 0 1 4 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 1.2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
174 Table 4 18. Quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 0.0 m h=0.0 0m A B C D E F G H I J K 1 0 0 4 25 38 7 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 5 95 32 5 0 0 0 0 0 3 NA NA 12 2 93 9 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 0 6 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 3 5 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 9 4 7 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 14 8 10 28 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 8 35 14 10 28 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 Figure 4 23. 3D representation of the quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 0.0 m A B C D E F G H I J K 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 3 5 7 h=0.00 m 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100
175 Table 4 19. Quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 0.45 m h=0.4 5m A B C D E F G H I J K 1 0 0 4 10 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 0 4 9 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 5 1 25 7 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 4 4 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 15 10 5 10 3 0 0 0 20 0 0 Figure 4 24. 3D representation of the quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 0.45 m A B C D E F G H I J K 0 5 10 15 20 25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 h=0.45 m 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25
176 Table 4 20. Quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 1.0 m h=1.0 0m A B C D E F G H I J K 1 0 0 3 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 0 4 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 9 4 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 4 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Figure 4 25. 3D representation of the quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 1.0 m A B C D E F G H I J K 0 2 4 6 8 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 h=1.00 m 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10
177 Table 4 21. Quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 1.50 m h=1.5 0m A B C D E F G H I J K 1 10 10 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 1.2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Figure 4 2 6. 3D representation of the quadratic mean values of X, Y, and Z of 60 Hz frequency in nT at h = 1.50 m A B C D E F G H I J K 0 2 4 6 8 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 h=1.50 m 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10
178 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 H1 I1 J1 K1 Grid 1 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 H2 I2 J2 K2 Grid 2 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3 H3 I3 J3 K3 Grid 3 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 F4 G4 H4 I4 J4 K4 Grid 4 0-2 2-4 4-6
179 Figure 4 27. Quadratic mean magnetic field spread of 60 Hz room s ections on grid 1 through grid 8 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 F5 G5 H5 I5 J5 K5 Grid 5 0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 A6 B6 C6 D6 E6 F6 G6 H6 I6 J6 K6 Grid 6 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 A7 B7 C7 D7 E7 F7 G7 H7 I7 J7 K7 Grid 7 0-10 10-20 20-30 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 A8 B8 C8 D8 E8 F8 G8 H8 I8 J8 K8 Grid 8 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40
180 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 Grid A 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 Grid B 0-5 5-10 10-15 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 Grid C 0-5 5-10 10-15
181 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 Grid D 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 E8 E7 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E1 Grid E 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 F8 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1 Grid F 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10
182 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 G8 G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 Grid G 0-0.5 0.5-1 1-1.5 1.5-2 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 H8 H7 H6 H5 H4 H3 H2 H1 Grid H 0-0.2 0.2-0.4 0.4-0.6 0.6-0.8 0.8-1 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 I8 I7 I6 I5 I4 I3 I2 I1 Grid I 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20
183 Figure 4 28. Quadratic mean magnetic field spread of 60 Hz room s ections on g rid A through grid K Figure 4 29. Grid points in Powell Center measured for this experiment 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 J8 J7 J6 J5 J4 J3 J2 J1 Grid J 0-0.2 0.2-0.4 0.4-0.6 0.6-0.8 0.8-1 0.00 0.45 1.00 1.50 K8 K7 K6 K5 K4 K3 K2 K1 Grid K 0-0.2 0.2-0.4 0.4-0.6 0.6-0.8 0.8-1
184 Table 4 22. Numerical values of the measurement before and during the rainfall (values are of 60 Hz, quadratic mean, in nT) N o R ain R ain D E F D E F 1 25 38 7 1 58 96 10 2 25 38 7 2 50 95 13 3 2 93 9 3 45 88 11 D E F D E F 1 10 8 2 1 17 23 5 2 9 8 0 2 16 22 6 3 1 25 7 3 20 22 6 D E F D E F 1 2 3 1 1 7 9 4 2 2 0 2 2 6 13 4 3 0 9 4 3 6.5 8 5 D E F D E F 1 0 0 0 1 4 2 1 2 0 0 0 2 3 3.6 0 3 0 0 0 3 2 3 3 Figure 4 30 3D representation of the 60 Hz values of measurement before and during the rainfall on 0.0 m ground level
185 Figure 4 3 1 3D representation of the 60 Hz values of mea surement before and during the rainfall on 0.45 m above ground level Figure 4 3 2 3D representation of the 60 Hz values of measurement before and during the rainfall on 1.0 m above ground level
186 Figure 4 3 3 3D representation of the 60 Hz values of measurement before and during the rainfall on 1.50 m above ground level
187 Figure 4 3 4 Magnetic field radius reading of the 60 Hz frequency of the electrical sources, ground plan view
188 Figure 4 3 5 Magnetic field radius reading of the 60 Hz frequency of the electrical sources, ceiling plan view
189 Table 4 23. Source of 60 Hz ELF EMF in Powell Center 60 Hz Source in Powell Center Values in (nT) Distance away from source 3 cm 30 cm 1.0 m Exit sign 566 60 0 Daylight saving photo detector 17 14 5 Ceiling mounted fluorescent light 125 14 0 Light switch 130 9 0 Thermostat 9 0 0 Light keypad switch 14 0 0 Laptop 14 4 0 Electric wall outlet 20 0 0 TV 340 13 0 Monitor 51 3 0 Cables of extension chord 372 16 5 Printer 33 13 0 Table 4 24. Total quadratic mean values of the indoor spots (grids and heads) Powell Center Indoor Spots Frequency (Hz) Quadratic Mean h= 45 cm 8 Hz 60 Hz 120 Hz 180 Hz Status 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) 0 (nT) 1 (nT) Points 1500 1600 9.6 12.3 11.1 10.6 1.4 1.3 Heads 2100 1600 9.5 9.7 11.3 11.1 0.0 2.6 Total 1800 1600 9.6 11.1 11.2 10.8 1.0 2.0
190 Table 4 25. Final statistical result of all indoor points (nT) in comparison to different reference levels Powell Center Ref Level ICNIRP GP Indoor Q ua dratic Mean Outdoor Q uadratic Mean Ref Lev el (Switzerland ) 8 Hz status (0) 625000 1780.1 1800 1000 8 Hz status (1) 625000 1625.7 NA 1000 60 Hz status (0) 200000 9.6 19 1000 60 Hz status (1) 200000 11.1 NA 1000 120 Hz status (0) 200000 11.2 11.8 1000 120 Hz status (1) 200000 10.8 NA 1000 180 Hz status (0) 200000 1.0 0 1000 180 Hz status (1) 200000 2.0 NA 1000
191 Figure 4 3 6 Graphical representation of all points on the grids close to the users (h=0.45 m) and the h eads of the users (h= 1.0 m) in the Powell Center and the comparison to different reference levels Table 4 26. Total quadratic mean values in (nT) and the differences Indoor OFF Indoor ON Difference between Indoor OFF and ON Outdoor Difference between Indoor OFF and Outdoor 8 Hz 1800 1600 200 1800 0 60 Hz 9.6 11.1 +1.5 19 +9.4 120 Hz 11.2 10.8 0.4 11.8 +0.6 180 Hz 1 2 +1 0 1 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 B Field (nT) Frequency (Hz) Maximum Minimum Average Reference Level (ICNIRP) Quadratic Mean Reference Level (Switzerland) Reference Level (Poland) Reference Level (Russia)
192 Table 4 27. ELF EMF (60 Hz) increase in heavy rain No Rain Rain Increase in P ercentage (%) (0 in no rain colu mn is as sumed 0.1) D1 (0m) 25 58 232 D1 (0.45m) 10 17 170 D1 (1.0m) 2 7 350 D1 (1.5m) 0.1 4 4000 E1 (0m) 38 96 253 E1 (0.45m) 8 23 288 E1 (1.0m) 3 9 300 E1 (1.5m) 0.1 2 2000 F1 (0m) 7 10 143 F1 (0.45m) 2 5 250 F1 (1.0m) 1 4 400 F1 (1.5m) 0.1 1 1000 D2 (0m) 25 50 200 D2 (0.45m) 9 16 178 D2 (1.0m) 2 6 300 D2 (1.5m) 0.1 3 3000 E2 (0m) 38 95 250 E2 (0.45m) 8 22 275 E2 (1.0m) 0.1 13 13000 E2 (1.5m) 0.1 3.6 3600 F2 (0m) 7 13 186 F2 (0.45m) 0.1 6 0 F2 (1.0m) 2 4 200 F2 (1.5m) 0 0 0 D3 (0m) 2 45 22 50 D3 (0.45m) 1 20 2000 D3 (1.0m) 0.1 6.5 6500 D3 (1.5m) 0.1 2 2000 E3 (0m) 93 88 95 E3 (0.45m) 25 22 88 E3 (1.0m) 9 8 89 E3 (1.5m) 0.1 3 3000 F3 (0m) 9 11 122 F3 (0.45m) 7 6 86 F3 (1.0m) 4 5 125 F3 (1.5m) 0.1 3 3000
193 Table 4 28. ELF EMF (60 Hz ) values measured at 3 cm, 30 cm, and 100 cm way from the center of the source 60 Hz Source in Powell Center Values in (nT) Distance 3 cm 30 cm 1.0 m 1 Exit sign 566 60 0 2 Cables of extension chord 372 0 3 TV 340 0 4 Light switch 130 9 0 5 Ceiling mounted fluorescent light 125 14 0 6 Monitor 51 3 0 7 Printer 33 13 0 8 Electric wall outlet 20 0 9 Daylight saving photo detector 17 14 0 10 Laptop 14 4 0 11 Light ke y pad switch 14 0 0 12 Thermostat 9 0 0
194 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONC LUSION 5.1. Discussion on F indings 5 1 .1 Goals and Objectives of T his R esearch The initial quest that motivated this research were based on understanding what electromagnetic fields are and finding the facts on its polluting behavior and allowance. The ans wer to this question is not simple and requires a map based on the frequency spectrum and the related intensity of individual frequency waves showing the possible effects on the body. To answer the question of what range is more threatening than others, we have to understand that each range affects the body in a different way. The published guidelines addressing the limitations of the EMF exposure are constantly evolving based on the scientific facts of the time, but also are behind catching up to cover all the recent scientific data. When it comes to buildings, like so many indoor environmental and indoor construction pollutants, the more aware of the toxins, particles in air, and other unhealthy situations we are, the better we can avoid and address the ca uses of such pollutants. Therefore, the first step to enact on EMF exposure is to detect and actively measure their quantitative behavior. This is possible if there is a public awareness and the specialists who can share and connect their data into a valua ble resource where patterns and observations lead to procedures and systems. The result would be a valuable data tool to draw conclusions and influence the makers of EMF producing equipment and building elements. EMF public awareness and education is the k ey to create safe EMF zones, and introduce these safe zones into green building requirement and agendas.
195 The product of this study is to find whether there exist s sets of measurement protocols that are workable, reliable, and accessible to public in buildi ng settings. Also, to find a comparison and consolidation among the most reputed published guidelines in ecause it requires a comprehensive biological data input and resultant guidelines with reasonable risk factors that correspond to the scientific awareness. Further, with the experimentation, the principles of the protocols were tested, and in a probe room, numerical frequency and intensity values were detected and registered. Only after a thorough measurement and accurate detection process, an assessment is possible. Due to different required instrumentation and biological effect of the field ranges, the sc ope of ELF EMF was chosen for the experiments. The probe room is a typical working space that has a typical set up of an office space. One of the most important challenges in buildings is that usually electric wires and EMF causing sources may be hidden in side walls, ceilings, and floors. Also, the electric plans lack the information on the direction, quantity and traffic of the cables and conduits. This can be easily resolved if there would be a 3D building information modeling software to plan, register c hanges, and simulate the fields. With this tool, it is possible to properly plan and locate the EMF sources in less human traffic areas. Another challenge is the instrumentation to measure the fields. Finding a cost effective instrument that covers many ra nges of the fields and is simple to use and accurate is challenging. Using the devices need experience and technical knowhow on how to read, interpret and use the right setting to avoid reading errors.
196 Education is the key to awareness, detection, and miti the quantitative aspect of the radiation and suggests solutions for mitigation This field can be taught as an independent field of study in building technology schools to train on site techn icians, building designers and electric planner specialists (See Table 5 1) 5 1 2 Scientific Knowledge There is a current debate among scientists. One group of scientists warn the general public through reports (Bio Initiative Report, 2012), manifestos a nd initiatives to emphasize on the importance of EMF radiation and its health impact. The other group in contrast see the sensitivities out of proportion. What is apparent is that we are learning more in time and for example we now know a lot more than the initial EMF warnings of the 60s. For instance, recently (May 2018) brain cancer has been recognized as a possible product of mobile use where ICNIRP states that there is no evidence in health related chronic symptoms and no proof of the carcinogenic effec t although WHO low frequency fields cause irreversible cardiovascular effects, but no evidence on possible symptoms such as sleep quality, cognitive function, and therefore n ot detrimental heath effect. On the other hand, within the Bio Initiative Report, a group of scientists drive their argument based on the reasoning behind the math described by the 1993 Noble Prize winner, Josephson, that that there are biological oscillat ors in the oscillations. These rhythms can be altered by a wide variety of agents such as brain, ss factors all affected by EMF.
197 5 .2 Overview of Data 5 .2.1 Health and B iology The summary of the literature review on health and biology are as follows: We live and are exposed to an unlimited pool of EM radiation. We require a transparent and all inclusi ve EMF assessment tool that engages all frequency ranges and bandwidths based on the intensity of exposure. This assessment tool There i s a controversy on the reliability and convincing establishment of biological data among the scientific community and the specialists. Frequency is the key indicator to EMF toxicity. Depending on the MF frequency range, there may be various biological effe cts. Ionizing frequencies produce photochemistry and heating. Non ionionizing frequencies produce heating (RF) (microwaves), photochemistry (UV) and cellular responses (ELF) through internal electric currents in the body, intracellular electric oscillation s and cell membrane potential such as alterations in protein synthesis, DNA, RNA, hormone production, immune system, cell growth and differentiation, and inner biological circadian and seasonal clock. EMF radiation produced by RF range that causes thermal energy alone is not causing biological distortions, but ELF EMF causing non thermal energy through coupling and syncing is. The effect caused by ELF EMF may be positive (therapeutic) or negative (harmful) affecting different organs in different ways. Futur e research and educational material is necessary to understand what frequency and intensity cause what effect in the body. Some people may be more sensitive to the radiation than others, e.g., older people versus younger people, children versus adults Rele vant analogy on how ELF EMF affects DNA is due to the coiled structure in the nucleus which acts as a fractal antenna and is being affected by a wide range of frequencies that leads to DNA changes. The mechanism is the direct involvement and interaction of the EMF with DNA molecules. The EMF activated cell causes a stress response as a protective mechanism such as stress proteins. The safety standards are aimed at the heating and acute symptoms whereas EMF mechanisms may harm cells at much lower rates.
198 ELF EMF affects the cells both positively and negatively through these mechanisms: Cellular proliferation and differentiation (Folleti et al., 2009) (Lisi et al., 2006) (Ventura et al., 2000) (Sadeghipoor et al., 2012), DNA synthesis (Focke et al., 2010) (Lito vitz et al., 1994), RNA transcription (Goodman et al., 1983), Protein expression (Goodman and Henderson, 1988), p rotein phosphorylation (Wetzel et al., 2001) ATP synthesis (Zrimec et al., 2002), cell damage and apoptosis (Tasset et al., 2012) (Simko, 2007 ) (Santini et al., 2005), micro vesicle motility (Glfert et al., 2001), inhibition of adherence (Pokorny et al., 1983), Metabolic activity (Stolfa et al., 2007), Hormone production (Forgacs et al., 1998), antioxidant enzyme activity (Buldak et al., 2012), redox mediated rises in NF kB (Wolf et al., 2005) (Vincenzi et al., 2012), Thromboxane release (Conti et al., 1984), CD markers and cytokines expression (Conti et al., 1999) (Cossarizza et al., 1989, 1993), ELF and cytokine production (Reale and Amerio, 2 013) Result. We can address the health issues in these ways: Designing for lower levels, detecting and mitigating, understanding and learning the updated result, and enacting through public and building policies based on the updated data. There is a an accessible data resource for the public. 5 .2. 2 Guideline and Regulations The summary of the literature review on health and biology are as follows: Guidelines are based on acute effects and not chronic conditions which requires more research, evidence, and a longer time of study. Between the reference levels of IEEE and ICNIRP, ICNIRP (general public) ELF EMF reference limit has the most conservative approach. EMF regula tions in some countries are more regulated and practiced than others, e.g., European regulations demand an EMF risk assessment. The rules are set by Directive 2013/35/EU to meet the suggested reference levels which have to be updated on a regular basis. By comparing the range between 8 Hz and 300 Hz, the most conservative reference level is 1 T, 1/200th of the ICNIRP GP level of 200 T, found in the living, educational and health spaces in Switzerland There is a demand for an all inclusive and well tested data sheet and protocol that is easy to follow and can be run by building specialists with recommended
199 instrumentation and settings. The protocols may be created and performed to suit different building typologies, and bandwidth targets. The uncertainties are based on incomplete knowledge of biological data, and the quality and accuracy level of the instrumentation. Based on IEEE, the total uncertainties should not exceed + 10%. B uilding Assessment programs. Result. Table 5 1 show s the numerical values of the collected result on all mentioned reference limits and the quadratic mean values of the experime nts performed for this research. 5 .2. 3 Measurement The summary of the literatur e review on measurement are as follows: on the body are: Frequency and signal modulation Intensity or radiation concentration and Duration and temporal pattern Primary sou rces (e.g. generators, transmission and distribution lines, substations, wiring, appliances (ELF), antennas (RF), sun (UV), etc.), and secondary sources (metal frames or structures of a building, etc.) should be considered when measurement and assessment i s practiced. Among all three axes Y value is more than X, and Z values Although, values of X, Y, and Z are varied and either one axis value may be higher than the reference level, the final quantified data to be expressed is Quadratic Mean= (5 1) Result. The result of the experiments in general are as follows: The quadratic mean value (60 Hz) of all the points measured indoors in Powell Center is 9.6 nT in an Off status, and 11.1 nT in an On status. The magnetic field intensity difference from an Off to On status is: a decrease of 200 nT or 0.2 T in 8 Hz range, an increase of 1.5 nT in 60 Hz range, a decrease of 0.4 nT in 120 Hz range, and an increase of 1 nT in 180 Hz range
200 Highe st intensity level of power frequency (60 Hz) magnetic field was on the ground level The highest difference (between minimum and maximum) change of field oscillation is in the 8Hz frequency range. are much lower than the most conservative published reference limits, e.g. Switzerland Heavy rain causes a steep increase in magnetic field value (60 Hz) of more than double in average nce away from the source. Most radius of influence ends before 1 meter. 5 .2. 4 Mitigation The summary of the literature review on mitigation are as follows: For new buildings, a design of a less emissive wiring should be demanded to be delivered by the ele ctrical engineers. The design should aim for a balanced current and field cancellation solution. Identification of field magnitude, type of field, physical characteristics of source, the function of the sources, the attenuation requirement, the region over where the attenuation is required, and field management constraint. Physical layout of wires are critical because based on the distance between the source and the return path of the currents, the MF increases therefore minimum spacing between wires shall be used. Sources should be placed away from the areas where the occupant spends most of his time. Control of alternate current (AC) paths that result in large current loops. Shielding: The procedure to the best shielding results is to identify the sources field characterization, accurate material property calculation, understanding the basic passive shield mechanism and design tradeoffs between the alternatives Provision aimed at avoiding or reducing risks: Identifying the source, Technical measuring of the EM radius, identifying replacement strategies, Use of interlocks, shielding or similar protective solution, Warning markings or signals, Measuring spark discharges and contact currents, Limitation of duration and intensity of exposure, Availability of personal protection equipment, Appropriate equipment grounding, human to equipment bonding, clothing
201 5.3 Synthesis of Literature Review and Result As shown in Table 5 1 the result ed values of the extremely low frequency ma gnetic field measurement experimentation in Powell Center ( around 0.01 T) which can be counted as a typical condition of an office space are significantly below a level of concern raised by the most conservative reference limit (Switzerland, 1 T), and ev en the preferred reference limit suggested by the Bio Initiative group of scientists (0.1 T) Therefore, based on the published guidelines and suggested values no mitigation and shielding is required. In the case of other building type s such as hospitals and laboratories with other operating devices more examination is needed and this conclusion does not apply. However, based on the content of many papers and the findings of the literature review, brain and cellular activit ies especially within the DNA s cope and areas of biological effects there is still a precautionary stand toward the availability and exposure of ELF EMF in the building environment where occupants spend most of their activities. Also, the published values of the mentioned reference lim it s which are based on acute and not the chronic health symptoms most likely do not address the area of ELF EMF biological influence. 5.4 Recommendation on Further Study Research and testing on al l areas and rooms in a variety of building setting s and considering the structure and typology of the affected building s Building Information Modeling (BIM) Plug in for electromagnetic field inspection and simulation Same experimentation procedure mentione d in this research within other ranges of EMF: RF, IR, UV, microwaves and ionizing zone Detailed guidelines and public accessible tools that takes all recent and updated biological and medical found data into account
202 Research on the biological data gap re garding ELF EMF and related health effect Field M anagement as a new field of study should be introduced, developed, expanded and taught in the design, engineering, and construction schools to develop technicians and specialists in this field to learn the p rinciples and quantitative aspects of managing and reducing EMF. Training EMF specialists to measure, assess, and mitigate Research on camera systems to perceive different ranges of EMF Research on the effect of rain and thunderstorm on different building s and different ranges of EMF
203 Table 5 1. A comparison of all 50/ 60 Hz discussed limits and mean values in this research
204 ( (values in 60 Hz only) > (more than)
205 APPENDIX A POWEL L CENTER PLAN Figure A 1. Powell Center p lan, Rinker School of Construction Management, University of Florida Figure A 2. Rinker School of Construction Management site plan
206 Figure A 3. Electrical plan of the Powell Center Figure A 4. Third f lo or p lan of the Rinker School
207 APPENDIX B POWELL CENTER MEASUREMENT DATA Figure B 1. Measured points of selected grid points on 8 and 60 Hz frequency in Powell Center when all electrical equipment and lighting system in the room were turned OFF
208 Fi gure B 2. Measured points of selected grid points on 120 and 180 Hz frequency in Powell Center when all electrical equipment and lighting system in the room were turned OFF
209 Figure B 3. Measured points of selected grid points on 8 and 60 Hz frequency in Powell Center when all electrical equipment and lighting system in the room were turned ON
210 Figure B 4. Measured points of selected grid points on 120 and 180 Hz frequency in Powell Center when all electrical equipment and lighting system i n the room were turned ON
211 APPENDIX C INSTRUMENTATION Spectrum Analyzer Manufacturer: Aaronia AG, DE 54597 Euscheid, Germany Model: Spectran series NF 5035 (Germany) or NF 5030 (US) Type: Portable Date: April 2018 Special feature: Product of the year (f irst prize) in passive building elements in the field of electronics (Europe) Technical D ata Frequency range: 1Hz to 1MHz (30MHz) Typ. level range E Field: 0,1V/m to 5.000 V/m at 50Hz Typ. level range H Field: 1pT to 500T at 50Hz Typ. level range Analog in: 200nV to 200mV / 150dBm (Hz) Typ. accuracy: around 3% sensitivity is dependent upon factors such as measured frequency, noise floor in lower frequencies, filter settings, Spectran model, temperature, and reproduc e ability 65 MSPS 30MHz Option Superfast FFT spectrum analysis High performance DSP (Digital Signal Processor) 3D magnetic field measurement Frequency and signal strength display High resolution multi function display DIN/VDE 0848 Exposure limit calculation Simultaneous M Display X, Y, Z axes
212 True RMS signal strength measurement Average (AVG) measurement Internal d ata logger Internet Flash Software Updates USB 2.0 Interface Dimensions (L/W/D): (260x86x23) mm Weight: 420gr Warranty: 10 years
213 Measurement C onditions and S ettings Table C 1 Device setting suggestion by the manufacturer Frequency Range (Hz) Multiple o f 15 Hz RBW R esolution of Bandwidth (Hz) Atten uator (dB) Sample Time (ms) Marker Detector Sweep Trace 0 300 10 0 50 RMS 20 clear 0 15 1 0 3000 3, min. 30 RMS 20 clear 15 30 1 0 3000 3, min. 30 RMS 20 clear 30 45 1 0 3000 3, min. 30 RMS 20 clear Table C 2 Device setting during the measurement procedure used for this experiment Frequenc y Range (Hz) Multiple of 15 Hz RBW R esolution of Bandwidth (Hz) Atten uator (dB) Sample Time (ms) Marker Detect or Sweep Trace 0 300 10 0 50 RMS 20 Max Hold 5 35 10 0 50 RMS 20 Max Hold 45 75 10 0 50 RMS 20 Max Hold 105 195 100 0 50 RMS 20 Max Hold
214 APPENDIX D GLOSSARY Absorption In radio wave propagation, attenuation of a radio wave due to dissipation of its energy, i.e., con version of its energy into another form such as heat. Alpha band of frontal and central brain Neural oscillations (7.5 12.5 Hz) produced by brain cells occurring during relaxed wakeful brain activity. Apoptosis Death of cells in an expected normal life c ycle, activated by a stimulus Athermal effect Any effect of electromagnetic energy on the body which is not heat related, also known as non thermal effect Blood brain barrier A functional concept developed to explain why many substances that are transpor ted by blood readily enter other tissues but do not enter the brain; the "barrier" functions as if it were a continuous membrane lining the vasculature of the brain. These brain capillary endothelial cells form a nearly continuous barrier to entry of subst ances into the brain from the vasculature. Charge Charge or Q, q is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges: positive and negative (commonly carr ied by protons and electrons respectively). It is expressed by Coulomb or Ampere per second (A/s). Conductivity is expressed by Siemens per meter (S m 1 ) Continuous wave An electromagnetic wave having a constant amplitude Coupling Wireless transfer of electrical energy from one electric system to another Current Current or I is expressed in Ampere (A). Curren t density A vector of which the integral over a given surface is equal to the current flowing through the surface; the mean density in a linear conductor is equal to the current divided by the cross se ctional area of the conductor, e xpressed as J and the u nit is in ampere per square met er (A / m2). Cytokines Cytokines are secreted or membrane bound small proteins that regulate the growth, differentiation and activation of immune cells and may act as regulators of responses to
215 infection, inflammation and trau ma, modulating the behavior of adjacent and distant cells Decibel Decibel (dB) is used to measure sound level, but it is also widely used in electronics, signals and communication. The dB is a logarithmic way of describing a ratio. Diffraction The bendin g and spreading of a wave around the edge of an object Dielectric properties The properties of the materials determining conductivity and permeability Eddy current A localized electric current loop that is induced by varied magnetic field produced in a c onductor Electro hypersensitivity A phenomenon where indivi duals experience adverse health effects while using or b eing in the vicinity of devices with electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Electromagnetic field Electromagnetic ph enomena expressed in vector functions of space and time. Electromagnetic radiation The propagation of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves through space Exposure Exposure occurs wherever a person is subjected to electric, magnetic or electromagnet ic fields or contact currents other than those originating from physiological processes in the body. Extra low frequency Extra low frequency fields include, in this document, electromagnetic fields from 1 to 300 Hz. Alternately, ELF Extremely low frequen cy where the European convention is extremely low frequency, US is extra low frequency. Fenton reaction T he formation of OH, OH and Fe3+ from the nonenzymatic reaction of Fe2+ with H2O2; a reaction of importance in the oxidative stress in blood cells a nd various tissues. Field management Field management studies the quantitative aspect of the radiation and suggests solutions for mitigation Flux shunting Magnetic shunts are often used to adjust or divert the amount of flux in the magnetic circuits. F ar field/zone The region where the distance from a radiating antenna exceeds the wavelength of the radiated EMF; in the far field,
216 field components (E and H) and the direction of propagation are mutually perpendicular, and the shape of the field pattern is independent of the distance from the source at which it is taken. Fractal antenna Fractal antennas unlike normal antennas are capable of operating with good to excellent performance at many different frequencies simultaneously Frequency The number of s inusoidal cycles completed by electromagnetic waves in 1 second usually expressed in hertz (Hz). Gauss One tesla equals to 10 4 gauss. Idiopathic environmental intolerance IEI is often used for patients to describe symptoms or illnesses that are not conne cted to any diagnostic physical attributes, and may be originating from behavioral or psychiatric causes. Internal electric field Ei, measurement of electric field in different parts of the body Kirlian effect The effect of electro photonic glow in livin g objects in response to excitation caused by ambient radiation or electric field was observed by Tesla late in 19th century, but is called "Kirlian effect" after Semion Kirlian and his wife who first recorded and studied it in detail since 1930s. Magneto phosphenes Magnetophosphenes are flashes of light that are seen when one is subjected to a changing magnetic field such as MRI. Th e changing field causes stimulation of the retina or visual cortex which results in an illusion of light. Melatonin Melatonin is a hormone produced in the brain by the pineal gland, It is a potent anti oxidant that protects against oxidative damage from free radicals that can cause DNA damage. Microwaves Microwaves are defined in the frame of this expertise as electromagnetic w aves with wavelengths of approximately 30 cm (1 GHz) to 1 mm (300 GHz). Motion gradient B 0 is the time Near field The region where the distance from a radiating antenna is less than the w avelength of the radiated EMF. Occupational exposure All exposure to electromagnetic field experienced by individuals in the course of performing their work. Safety limits
217 are five times higher for allowable occupational exposures than for general public in US. Phantom The t issue equivalent models that simulate real electromagnetic effects are used instead of real bodies in the experimental dosimetry of electric and magnetic fields Permeability or magnetic permeability A property of materials that indic ates how much polarization occurs when an electric field is applies (). Permittivity A constant defining the influence of an isotropic medium on the forces of attraction or repulsion between electrified bodies, expressed in farad/meter (F/m). Plane wave field A homogeneous plane or surface in which all points have an equal phase value and is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Public exposure All exposure to EMF experienced by the general public excluding exposure during medical procedures an d occupational work environments. Public exposure limits in US are five times lower than for occupational exposure where informed consent by employees is required. Power density The power as measured in free space (ambient) as opposed to measured by SAR o r specific absorption rate (within tissues or the body). The unit of measurement can be watts per square meter, milliwatts per square meter or microwatts per centimeter squared. Radiofrequency (RF). Any frequency at which electromagnetic radiation is usefu l for telecommunications, or broadcasting for radio and television. Frequency range is usually defined as 300 Hz (300 hertz) to 300 GHz (300 gigahertz). Radiofrequency The frequencies between 100 kHz and 300 GHz of the electromagnetic spectrum Resonance The change in amplitude occurring as the frequency of the wave approaches or coincides with a natural frequency of the medium Shaking In shaking, coils are used to create strong fields at other frequencies enhancing the ferromagnetic effect Shielding fa ctor A shielding factor is the reduced intensity of radiating beams that are absorbed and scattered by an effective material.
218 Shielding effectiveness Shielding effectiveness or (SE) is a parameter used for shielding evaluation defined as the ratio of the field strength, at a given distance from the source, without a shield and the field strength with the shield Specific absorption rate SAR stands for specific absorption rate. It is a calculation of how much RF energy is absorbed into the body, for exampl e when a cell phone or cordless phone is pressed to the head. SAR is expressed in watts per kilogram of tissue (W/Kg). Static electric field Static fields are produced by fixed potential differences. Static magnetic field Static fields established by pe rmanent magnets and by steady currents Terahertz gap A band of frequencies ( 0.1 to 10 THz ) in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum between radio waves and infrared light In this region there are very few technologies for generating and de tecting the rad iation. Voxel In computer based modeling or graphic simulation) each of an array of elements of volume that constitute a notional three dimensional space, especially each of an array of discrete elements into which a representation of a thr ee dimensional object is divided Wavelength is expressed in meter. Wi Fi Stands for wireless fidelity; WI FI systems create zones of wireless RF that allow access to wireless internet for computers, internet phone access and other wireless services. A ccess points that provide WI FI to access Land Area Networks (LANs) can be installed on streets (for city wide coverage) or indoors in buildings. The range of typical WI FI systems is about 300 feet. WiMAX and is a tele communications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances. Like WIFI, WI MAX systems are designed to provide wireless access but over much broader geographic areas, with some systems transmitti ng signal up to 10 miles.
219 APPENDIX E UNIT CONVERSIONS Table E 1. Magnetic flux density unit conversion shown in SI and cgs ( centimeter gram second) or Gaussian unit system Tesla (SI) milliTesla (SI) microTesla (SI) nanoTesla (SI) Gauss (cgs) milliGauss (cgs) T mT T nT G mG 10 10 4 10 7 10 10 10 5 10 8 1 1000 10 6 10 9 10 4 10 7 0.1 100 10 5 10 8 1000 10 6 0.01 10 10 4 10 7 100 10 5 0.001 1 1000 10 6 10 10 4 10 4 0.1 100 10 5 1 1000 10 5 0.01 10 10 4 0.1 100 10 6 0.001 1 1000 0.01 10 10 7 10 4 0.1 100 0.001 1 10 8 10 5 0.01 10 10 4 0.1 10 9 10 6 0.001 1 10 5 0.01
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238 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Shabnam was born in Tehran in 1971 and immigrated to Vancouver after she graduated in 1993 from a b achelor program in fine arts from the Azad University of Art and Architecture in Tehran. Later, she received a m aster in a r ch itecture at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada in 2000 She worked as an architect and designer in Iran, Canada, and Germany and was involved in artistic and cultural projects in Germany. In 2013, she moved with h er family, husband and daughter, to Gainesville, Florida where she studied and received her PhD in construction management from the University of Florida in the summer of 2018. The strong theme that motivated and drove Shabnam to fulfill her personal and professional quest was a search to create a transcendental high q uality living space. This influence along with a cross disciplinary approach and interest motivated Shabnam to seek previously within the art istic and architectural realm and later on within the building science studies to engage deeper in what makes an inviting and uplifting healthy living and working space. The content of this dissertation is a byproduct and valuable outcome of this endeavor.