Citation
Microtonality, Technology, and (Post)Dramatic Structures in the Theatrical Music of Harry Partch and Manfred Stahnke

Material Information

Title:
Microtonality, Technology, and (Post)Dramatic Structures in the Theatrical Music of Harry Partch and Manfred Stahnke
Creator:
Bargrizan, Navid
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Music
Committee Chair:
DOS SANTOS,SILVIO
Committee Co-Chair:
RICHARDS,PAUL S
Committee Members:
THOMAS,JENNIFER S
REMSHARDT,RALF E
Graduation Date:
8/11/2018

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
microtonality
opera
partch
postdrama
stahnke

Notes

General Note:
Setting the stage to address his new philosophy of music, in 1940 Harry Partch allegorically described the predominant Western musical tradition as a great Cathedral, from which a keen thinker, in the words of Partch: a zealot, shall depart. He intended to revolutionize the tenets of Western musical culture, from harmonic structures and the prevalent subdivision of the octave to the musical instruments and dramatic music. The scholarly literature has examined the revolutionary aesthetic of Partch mostly in terms of his music-theoretical, and to a smaller extent in term of his dramatic, impact in the United States. However, the ideas of Partch have affected not only American, but also European composers of microtonal music. This dissertation approaches the rebellion of Partch not as an isolated paradigm, but in relation to the aesthetic and music of Manfred Stahnke, a German composer who has also sought to expand the intonational and tuning idioms of Western art music, whom the microtonal theories of Partch have influenced. The analysis of the interrelationships between aesthetic decisions, microtonal structures, technological aspects, and theatrical innovations in the stage works of Partch and Stahnke articulates the link between both composers. These interrelationships go beyond functioning as mere formative elements; they become means to mediate the philosophical, mythical, ritual, and psychological connotations of the music-theatrical works of Partch and Stahnke, as well their cultural discourse. Examining Oedipus (1950), The Bewitched (1955), and Delusion of the Fury (1966) created by Partch, as well as Der Untergang des Hauses Usher (1981), Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung (1982), Heinrich IV (1986), and Orpheus Kristall (2001) created by Stahnke, demonstrate the scope of their cultural criticism and the link between them.

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UFRGP
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Embargo Date:
8/31/2020

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MICROTONAL ITY TECHNOLOG Y, AND (POST)DRAMATIC STRUCTURES IN THE THEATRICAL MUSIC OF HARRY PARTCH AND MANFRED STAHNKE By NAVID BARGRIZAN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2018

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2018 Navid Bargrizan

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To my parents whose passion for both music and academic education has inspired me

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my sincere gr atitude for their mentorship and constructive criticism to m y advisor D r. Silvio dos Santos and the members of my doctoral committee Dr. Jennifer Thomas Dr. Paul Richards and Dr. Ralf Remshardt I am very much obliged to Dr. Manfred Stahnke for his generosity and wisdom ; Ms. Susanne Stahnke for her cordial hospitality ; Dr. Georg Hajdu for sharing his knowledge, and Dr. Albrecht Schneider for evoking my interest in microt onality. I appreciate the support of the following individuals and organization s, without whom I could not have realized this dissertation: DAAD (Ge rman Academic Exchange Service); t he past and present directors of UFs Music Department Dr. John Duff and Dr. Kevin Orr; UFs College of the Arts; UFs Graduate School and Office of Research; UFs Center f or the Humanities and the Public Sphere; UFs Student Government; Singer and Tedder Families; director of the Sousa Archives and Center for American Music at the University of Il linois Dr. Scott Schwarz ; the staff of the Uni versity of California San Diego Special Collections and Northwestern University Library. My fa mily friend s, and early mentors have encouraged and supported me throughout my academic education. I would particularly like to thank m y parents, sister, and brother in law ; Mr. Bahram and Ms. Mali Bargrizan; Dr Ramin Zand and Dr. Vida Abedi; Dr. David A ssatiani, Mr. Hamidreza Dibazar, and Dr. Mehran Rouhani I am grateful to Dr. Morgan Rich for h er endless enthusiasm and helpfulness. She has read and listened to my research or compositional ideas; has read and liste ned to them as they have been realized in texts or pieces ; and has brought her questioning insight, pushing me to re think and revise my sketches I would also like to thank my friend Emily Theobald for helping me with the final revisions of the text.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 4 LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ 7 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... 8 LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES ................................................................................... 11 ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... 14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 16 Rationale ................................................................................................................. 16 Literature Review .................................................................................................... 21 Chapter Outline and Analytical Key Concepts ........................................................ 29 Methods of Research .............................................................................................. 31 2 MUSIC PHILOSOPHY AND AESTHETIC IDEAS ................................................... 33 Cultural Criticim Ingrained in Partchs and Stahnkes Music Philosophies .............. 33 Partchs MusicPhilosophical and Aesthetic Views ................................................. 34 Stahnkes Music Philosophical and Aesthetic Views .............................................. 50 Partchs and Stahnkes Music Philosophies and Aesthetics Juxtaposed ................ 60 3 FROM MONOPHONY TO MELOHARMONY: MICROTONALITY AND COMPOSITIONAL PROCEDURES ........................................................................ 66 Microtonality in Partchs and Stahnkes Music ........................................................ 66 Partchs Microtonality and Compositional Techniques in His Theatrical Music ....... 71 Stahnkes Microtonality and Compositional Techniques in His Theatrical Music .... 99 4 TECHNOLOGY, MEDIATION, AND INTERMEDIALITY ....................................... 142 Art and Technology ............................................................................................... 142 From Digital Theater to Digital Theatrical Music ................................................... 145 The Multimedia Concept in Orpheus Kristall ......................................................... 155 The Role of the Interactive Interface Quintet.net in Orp heus Kristall .................... 162 Various Trajectories in the Multimedia Design of Orpheus Kristall ....................... 169 5 CORPOREALITY AS THE FOUNDATION OF PARTCHS OEUVRE .................. 181 Partch beyond Intonation and Tuning ................................................................... 181 Partchs Corporeality and the Concept of Gesamtkunstwerk ................................ 186

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6 Corporeality in Delusion of the Fury ...................................................................... 188 Partchs Monophony and Corporeality .................................................................. 195 Partchs Corporeality: a Historical and Ethnographical Discourse ........................ 199 6 (POST)DRAMATIC THEATRICAL MUSIC ........................................................... 208 Postdrama in Partchs and Stahnkes Works ........................................................ 208 Postdramatic vs. Dramatic Theater ....................................................................... 209 Dramatic and Postdramatic Elements in Partchs Theatrical Music: Oedipus The Bewitched and Delusion of the Fury .......................................................... 215 Dramatic and Postdramatic Elements in Stahnke s Theatrical Music: Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung and Orpheus Kristall ........................................ 236 7 CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................... 245 Theatrical Music in the Service of Cultural Discourse ........................................... 245 The Lineage from Partch to Stahnke .................................................................... 246 Theatrical Structures in Partchs and Stahnkes Stage Works .............................. 248 Digital Media in Stahnkes Theatrical Music .......................................................... 250 Influence of Partch on European Microtonal Music ............................................... 251 APPENDIX A LIBRETTO OF WAHNSINN DAS IST DIE SEELE DER HANDLUNG ................. 253 B LIBRETTO OF ORPHEUS KRISTALL .................................................................. 256 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 264 Primary Sources ................................................................................................... 264 Secondary Sources .............................................................................................. 264 Internet Sources ................................................................................................... 271 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................... 273

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 List of scenes and titles in Harry Partchs The Bewitched .................................. 85 6 1 List of types, or manners, of dancing in Harry Partchs The Bewitched ............ 225 6 2 List of scenes in Harry Partchs Delusion of the Fury ....................................... 236 6 3 List of sections i n Manfred Stahnkes Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung .......................................................................................................... 238

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Bitter Music ; Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Arc hives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois. .......................... 47 2 2 Bitter Music ; Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois. .......................... 48 2 3 Bitter Music ; Harry Partch Estate Archiv e and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois .......................... 49 3 1 Partc hs forty threet one to octave s cale ............................................................ 66 3 2 Cloud Chamber B owls ........................................................................................ 67 3 3 Mazda M arimba .................................................................................................. 68 3 4 Adapted V iola ..................................................................................................... 68 3 5 Partch s elevenlimit tonality diamond ................................................................ 73 3 6 Five limit tonality diamond .................................................................................. 74 3 7 Manuscript of Oedipus ; cover page and first page of legend. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music of the University of Illinois ....................................... 77 3 8 Manuscript of Oedipus ; second page of legend. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music of the University of Illinois. ....................................................... 78 3 9 Manuscript of Oedipus ; third page of legend. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Part ch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American music of the University of Illinois. ....................................................... 79 3 10 Partchs chromelodeon; the rati os of the just intervals are marked on the keyboard. ............................................................................................................ 83 3 11 Manuscript of The Bewitched; legend, page 1. Located the library of U niversity of California San Diego. ..................................................................... 86 3 12 Manuscript of The Bewitched; legend, page 2. Located the library of University of California San Diego. ..................................................................... 87 3 13 Manuscript of The Bewitched; legend, page 2 Located the library of University of California San Diego. ..................................................................... 88

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9 3 14 Manuscript of The Bewitched; legend, page 3. Located at the library of University of California San Diego. ..................................................................... 89 3 15 Quadrangularis R eversum; Partch uses this instrument in Delusion of the Fury for the first time. ......................................................................................... 94 3 16 Eucal B lossom; Partch uses this instrument in Delusion of the Fury for the first time. ............................................................................................................. 94 3 17 Manuscript of Delusion of the Fury ; legend, p. 8. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music of the University of Illinois. ....................................................... 95 3 18 Manuscript of Delusion of the Fury ; l egend, p. 9. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music of the University of Illinois. ....................................................... 96 3 19 Overtone series of the fundamental tone C2, up to the twenty first overtone. This figure indicates the quadratic differencetone and the summationtone of the ratio f2/f1. .................................................................................................... 108 3 20 Overtone series of the fundamental tone C2, up to the twenty first overtone. This figure indicates the cubic differencetones of the ratio f2/f1. ..................... 109 3 21 Harps tuning in Der Untergang des Hauses Usher ; cent deviation from equal temperament are shown below the notes. ........................................................ 114 3 22 Stahnkes autograph score, with notes, for Der Untergang des Hauses Usher ; legend; about tuning of the harp. .......................................................... 115 3 23 Equidistant pentatonic scale. Cent numbers are shown below the staff. By means of approximately onesixth tone deviations, we can reconstruct such a scale. ................................................................................................................ 120 3 24 Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung; v. 2012; legend. ............................ 124 3 25 Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; cover page; harps tuning at the bottom of the page. ...... 130 3 26 Equidistant heptatonic scale, approximated with the use of 1/6tones; cent numbers are shown below the staff. ................................................................. 139 4 1 Orpheus Kristall in 2002 Munich Biennale for Contemporary Opera. ............... 157 4 2 D ialogue box of Quintet.net, designed by George Hajdu in MAX/MSP ............ 163 4 3 F unction of the Internet in Orpheus Kristall ..................................................... 166 4 4 Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung (1983 version), legend; the explanation of the function of the electronic tapes on top of the page. ............. 178

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10 5 1 Scenes from the accompanying booklet to a film by Madeline Tourtelot, based on the 1974 premier of Delusion of the Fury at UCLA. ......................... 191 5 2 Scenes from the accompanying booklet to a film by Madeline Tourtelot, based on the 1974 premier of Delusion of the Fury at UCLA. .......................... 192 5 3 Scenes from the accompanying booklet to a film by Madeline Tourtelot, based on the 1974 premier of Delusion of the Fury at UCLA. .......................... 193 5 4 An outline of various facets of Partchs corporeality. ........................................ 199 6 1 C over of the Gate 5 (Partchs own label) recording of Oedipus on vinyl. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music of the University of Illinois. ............... 222 6 2 F irst page in the booklet of the Gate 5 (Partchs own label) recording of Oedipus on vinyl, containing the list of the characters and scenes.. ................. 223 6 3 C over of the Gate 5vinyl (Partchs own label) of The Bewitc hed released 1956. The face of the Witch is interwoven in the musical staff. ........................ 229

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11 LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES Example page 3 1 Manuscript of Oedipus; Third Chorus, p. 51. The sopranos sing the exact, written pitches and rhythms. ............................................................................... 81 3 2 Manuscript of Oedipus ; Opening Scene, page 11. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music of the University of Illinois. ....................................................... 82 3 3 Manuscript of The Bewitched, scene 5, p.102; witchs voice and Partchs instruments. Located the library of University of California San Diego. .............. 90 3 4 Manuscript of The Bewitched, scene 1, p.56; instrumental dance. Located the library of U niversity of California San Diego. ................................................ 91 3 5 Manuscript of Delusion of the Fury ; Act 1 (Exordium), p. 36. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music of the University of Illinois. ....................................... 97 3 6 Ma nuscript of Delusion of the Fury ; Act 2 (Sanctus), p. 22 23. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music of the University of Illinois. ................................ 98 3 7 Orpheus Kristall scene I, measures 84 89; microglissandi in the strings, microtonal deviations, and the differencetone chords; the fundamental tones are stated below the s taff. ................................................................................ 102 3 8 Orpheus Kristall scene I, measures 90 95; microglissandi in the strings, microtonal deviations, and the differencetone chords; the fundamental tones are stated below the staff. ................................................................................ 103 3 9 Orpheus Kristall scene I, measures 96 100; micr o glissandi in the strings, microtonal deviations, and the differencetone chords; the fundamental tones are stated below the staff. ................................................................................ 104 3 10 Orpheus Kristall scene V, measures 123 128; differencetone chords; the fundamental tones are stated below the staff. .................................................. 110 3 11 Der Untergang des Hauses Usher score; measures 185 197; harp interchanges with and accompanies Usher. ..................................................... 116 3 12 Der Untergang des Hauses Usher ; measures 130133; equidistant pentatonic scale in the strings. ......................................................................... 120

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12 3 13 Der Untergang des Hauses Usher ; measure 423; the character of Roderick Usher; the microtonal accidentals demonstrate all the inflections of the reciting voice. .................................................................................................... 121 3 14 Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung; v. 2012: Galamusik; overlaid just chords. .............................................................................................................. 125 3 15 Wah nsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung; v. 2012; Knarrmusik ; measures 9 24; scratchtone by the means of the overpressure of the bow. ....................... 126 3 16 Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung; v. 1982; Sphrenmusik I; the approximate inflections of the voice. ................................................................. 129 3 17 Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act II, Scene 2, measures 182193; juxtaposition of Harps just intervals and the Sprachmelodie of the voice. ................................ 132 3 18 Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act II, Scene 1, measures 6972; Heinrich commands the orchestra to stop playing. ............................................................................ 134 3 19 Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act II, Scene 1, measures 71 73; Heinrich sings, and the orchestra plays, the previous sections of the music backward. .................. 136 3 20 Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act II, Scene 1, measures 74 77; Heinrich sings and the orchestra plays the previous sections of the music backward. ................... 137 3 21 Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act I, Overture, measures 1 7; just major thirds and just minor seventh in the overtonechords. ............................................................. 138 3 22 Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act I, Scene 3, measures 48 52; Heinrich sings based on an equidistant heptatonic scale taken from harps tones. ............................ 140 4 1 Manfred Stahnke, Orpheus Kristall ; incoming Internet Sounds, in Pome Internet of the Act I, measures 6 10. .............................................................. 167 4 2 Manfred Stahnke, Orpheus Kristall ; incoming Internet Sounds, in Pome Internet of the Act I, measures 11 16. ............................................................ 168 4 3 Heinrich IV Overture zur Overture, measures 9 17; the prerecorded string sections and synthesizer accompany the live s ynthesizer. ............................... 176 4 4 Heinrich IV Overture zur Overture, measures 18 29; the prerecorded string sections and synthesizer accompa ny the live synthesizer. ..................... 177 4 5 Der Untergang des Hauses Usher closing scene, measures 555 559; Tonband (electronic tape) plays white noise. ................................................... 179

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13 6 1 Manuscript of The Bewitched, page 38 of the Prologue. The Witch produces meaningless, ritual sounds; see the top staff. Located at the library of University of Califo rnia San Diego. ................................................................... 230

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14 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy MICROTONALITY, TECHNOLOGY, AND (POST)DRAMATIC STRUCTURES IN THE THEATRICAL MUSIC OF HARRY PARTCH AND MANFRED STAHNKE By Navid Bargrizan August 2018 Chair: Silvio dos Santos Major: Music Setting the stage to address his new philosophy of music, in 1940 Harry Partch (1901 1974) allegorically described the predominant Western m usical tradition as a great Cathedral, from which a keen thinker in Partchs words: a zealot shall depart. He in tended to revolutionize the tenets of Western musical culture, from harmonic structures and the prevalent subdivision of the octave to the musical instruments and dramatic music. The scholarly literature has examined Partchs revolutionary aesthetic mostly in terms of his music theoretical and to a smaller extent in term of his dramatic impact in the United States. However, Partchs ideas have affected not only American, but also European composers of microtonal music. This dissertation approaches Partchs rebellion not as an isolated paradigm, but in relation to Manfred Stahnkes aesthetic and music a German composer (born 1951) who has also sought to expand the intonational and tuning idioms of Western art music, whom Partchs microtonal theories have influenced. The analys i s of the interrelationships between aesthetic decisions, microtonal stru ctures, technological aspects and theatrical innovations in Partchs and Stahnkes

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15 stage works articulates the link between both composers T hese interrelationships go beyond functioning as mere formative elements; they become means to mediate the philosophical, mythical, ritual, and psychological connotations of Partchs and Stahnkes mus ic theatrical works, as well their cult ural discourse. Examining Partchs Oedipus (1950), The Bewitched (1955), and Delusion of the Fury (1966), as well as Stahnkes Der Untergang des Hauses Usher (1981), Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung (1982), Heinrich IV (1986), and Orpheus Kristall ( 2001), demonstrate the scope of their cultural criticism and the link between them.

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16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Rationale Setting the stage to address his new philosophy of music, in 1940 Harry Partch (1901 1974) allegorically described the predominant Western m usical tradition as a great Cathedral, from which a keen thinker in Partchs words: a zealot shall depart: The Great Cathedral of Modern Music, erected in trial and labor and pain through most of the Christian era, is a safe and beautiful sanctuary. Its one sad aspect is that it seems to be finished there is so little, if anything, that is significant that can be added to it. On the other hand, in the wild, little known country of subtle tones beyond the safe cathedral the trails are old and dim, they disappear completely, and there are many hazards.1 Partch chose to confront the hazards and to relinquish his sa fe sanctuary . He intended to revolutionize the tenets of Western musical culture, from harmonic structure s and the prevalent subdivision of the octave to the established musical instruments and dramatic music. The scholarly literature has explained Partchs revolutionary aesthetic mostly in terms of his music theoretical and to a smaller extent in term of hi s dramatic impact in the United States. However Partch s ideas affected not only American, but also European composers of microtonal music. This dissertation examines Partchs rebellion not as an isolated paradigm, but in relation to Manfred Stahnkes aesthetic and music a German composer (born 1951) who has also sought to expand the intonational and tuning idioms of Western art music, whom Partchs microtonal theories have influenced. 1 Harry Partch, Patterns of Music, in Bitter Music: Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 160.

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17 C omparative analysi s of Partchs and Stahnkes aesthetic decisions in their stage works articulates the link between both composers. The ways in which Stahnke perceived Partch, as well as his urge to study, explain, and incorporate elements of Partchs ideas in his articles and compositions, prompted this dissertation. Aiming to illuminate the scope of Partchs and Stahnkes critical posture toward Western musical culture and the link between both composers, t his dissertation analyzes the music theatrical works of Partch and Stahnke from four distinct perspectives : F irst, it explores the aesthetic ideas, which underpin these theatrical pieces, and the relationships of such ideas to the composers individual music philosophies as rooted in their discourse. Sec ond, it analyzes the microtonal architecture and related compositional procedures implemented in the pieces correlating them with the composers aesthetics. Third, it expounds upon the mediational role of the technological aspects of these works In the c ase of Partch, the idiosyncratic mus ical instruments that he built inform the technological artifacts employed in his music Since the principles of constructing music instruments go beyond the scope of this dissertation, Partchs instruments are only discussed in relation to his intonational system and aesthetic concepts. Stahnkes use of electronic media, especially the function of the Internet in his multimedia opera Orpheus Kristall on the other hand, is explained in detail. Finally, this dissertat ion expounds upon the dramatic and postdramatic structures of both composers stage works, tackling the ir theatrical facets It juxtaposes the theatrical elements of these works which remain in the scope of the conventional, plot based, dramatic tradition and the ir scenic, visual,

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18 aural, ritual, and corporeal elements, which gain as much, or more, importance as the story line Such elements inform the postdramatic structures of these works These four perspectives, as applied to the music of Partch and Stahnke, clarify the interrelationships of microtonality, technology and theatrical structure s in their pieces I argu e that these interrelationships go beyond functioning as mere formative elements; t hey become means to mediate the essential philosophical, mythical, ritual, and psychological connotations of these music theatrical works composed between 1950 and 2002, as well as the composers cultural discourse. As case studies, the following five chapters expound upon the microtonal, technological, and (post)dramatic structures in Partchs Oedipus (1950), The Bewitched (1955), and Delusion of the Fury (1966), as well as Stahnkes Der Untergang des Hauses Usher (1981), Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handl ung (1982), Heinrich IV (1986), and Orpheus Kristall (2001). The analysis of Par t chs and Stahnkes theatrical music stands on three linked pillars : F irst and foremost both composer s have rejected the dominance of twelve tone equal temperament the prevalent tuning and intonational system in Western mus ic They have grappled with just intonation, non Western and ancient tonesystems, and have even developed innovative intonational concepts based on already existing models. Their experiments with into nation and tunings have, therefore, centered microtonality as an essential element in their compositional toolbox es Since the beginning of the twent ieth century, several composers who have attempted to t ranscend the limited scope of twelve tone equal temperament have employed microtonality as fundamental compositional vehicles. C omposers such as Alois Hba and Ivan Wyschnegradsky for instance, attempted to e xpand the twelve

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19 tone to twenty four or thirty sixth tone equal temperaments while others, such as Ben Johnston, Lou Harrison, and La Monte Young have ex perimented with just intonation. Furthermore, the spectralists led by Grard Grisey and Tristan Murail have used spectral compo sitional techniques based on possibilities offered by computer analysis of the spectrum of partials, while figures including Julin Carrillo Franz Richter Herf and Rolf Maedel have constructed ins truments with up to seventy two tones per octave. From the long list of composer s who have delved into various degrees of experiment ations with microtonality, Charles Ives, Gyrgy Ligeti Giacianto Scelsi John Chowning, James Tenney, Georg Friedrich Haas Johannes Kotchy, Wolfgang von Schweinitz and Georg Hajdu, have also implemented not eworthy attempts A few scholarly texts have dealt with the music theoretical and aesthetic precepts of microtonal s tructures in the hands of such artists particularl y in their nontheatrical music. M usic research has however, not yet explored the ways in which the compositional tool of microtonality has functioned in constructing theatrical music and in delineating the fundamental extra musical implications of the music theatrical conceptions, let alone Partchs and Stahnkes stage wor ks. This dissertation hence, examines for the first time in the scholarly literature, the implementation of microtonal structures as constructive elements in theatrical music, specifically Partchs and Stahnkes stage works. The lineage f rom Par tch to S tahnke informs the second pillar upon which this dissertation rests Motivated by Ligetis fascination with Partch, whom he met in California in 1970s and whose vinyls he brought back to Germany, Stahnke, a pupil of Ligeti, encountered Partchs music and ideas for the first time in Ligetis composition

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20 class. He subsequently came to the United States in 1979 80 to study with Partchs apprentice and friend Ben Johnston (born 1926) ; at t he same time, he beg a n composing his first opera Der Untergang des Hauses Usher W e can therefore, draw a direct lineage between Partch and Stahnke, mediated by Johnston. Even though Johnstons few music dramas, such as Carmilla (1970) and Calamity Jane to her D aughter (1989), do not use microtonal ity he often applies extensive just intonation in his instrumental pieces, such as his ten string quartets and other chamber works While t his dissertation does not discuss Johnstons nonmicrotonal theatrical music, i t does articulate the role of Johnstons teac hings and his own approach to just intonation in transferring Partchs legacy to Stahnke. Finally I argue that Partchs aesthetic and theoretical ideas, as much as his intonational innovations, instruments, and music theatrical conceptions have affected two generations of both American and European composers of microtonal music Partch s ideas triggered the socalled just intonation movement in the United States mostly late in his life and after his death. As examples of projects prompted by Partchs achievements, t he New Ensemble led by the late Dean Drumond, who had also worked with Partch, and the m asters degree of Harry Partch/ Microtonal Music Studies minor, both at the Montclair State University, resulted from the recognition of Partchs legacy in the United States since the 1970s. In Germany, sparked by Ligeti in Hamburg, various composers, particularly Stahnke, have established a tradition of experimen tation and research into Partchs heritage of just intonation, extended to other intonational practices from around the world. Furthermore, t he German Ensemble Musikfabrik has recently embarked on building their own copies of Pa r tchs instruments and performing

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21 his music, including the staging of Delusion of the Fury in the 2013 Ruhrtriennale, directed by the dist inguished theater director Heiner Goebbels. Examining the impact of Partchs acoustical, aesthetic, and compositional concepts on German contemporary music, in this case S tahnkes vast oeuvre, is another aim of this dissertation Litera ture Review One of the most comprehensive studies of Partchs aesthetic and music is his own treatise Genesis of a Music which stands out as an essential primary source.2 F irst published in 1949 and republished in 1974, Genesis of a Music illustrates Part chs critical perception of the history of Western music, from ancient Greece to the twentieth century. Interwoven in his discourse, Partch juxtaposes his own conception of corporeal music the actuality and amalgamation of all artistic media to portray the substance of the dramatic text and his conception of abstract music which refers to either purely instrumental music, or music wit h melismatic, musicalized words. Partch expresses his distaste for abstract ion a nd preference for corporeal ritual theatrical music which, in his own case, uses the acoustically correct just intonation and instruments built based on this tuning system. He subsequently justifies the necessity of his various just tuned music instruments, his percussion instrume nts that he was not able to exactly tune according to just intonation, his forty threetoneto octave scale and his key concept of corporeality, while introducing readers to his corporeal theatrical works. Partchs collected journals, essays, introduction, and librettos, titled Bitter Music edited by Thomas McGeary and published in 1991, comprises materials from Partchs 2 Harry Partch, Genesis of a Music (New York: Da Capo, 1974).

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22 entire oeuvre. In this source, Partchs introductions to and programs for the performances of his theatrical music among others Oedipus The Bewitched, and Delusion of the Fury, include invaluable information for analyzing such pieces Bitter Music also contains Partchs short essays, for instance Bach and Temperament (1941), Patterns of Music (1940), Monoliths in Music (1966), and A Quarter Saw Secti on of Motivation and Intonation (1967), which have contributed to my understanding of Partchs music philosophical views and aesthetic approaches. Elsewhere, in Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music Partchs articl e Experiments in Notation elucidates the intricacies of Partchs peculiar notational system, which employs just ratios as its basis, combing it with tablature and common Western notation. Partchs notation differs in the case of each of his instruments.3 Th e late musicologist Bob Gilmore was one of the few individuals who have published not only on Partch, but also on Johnston and his relation to Partchs music Gilmores 1998 Harry Partch: A B iography gives an overview of how Partchs musical language ha d evolved during his fruitful, yet solitary, life.4 The article The Climate since Harry Partch written by Gilmore, touches on the legacy and impact of Partch as music philosopher, theorist, instrument builder, and composer, on the next generations of Am erican and European composers, including Johnston and Stahnke.5 Prior to both aforementioned publications, Gilmores 1996 dissertation deals with Partchs ear ly vocal 3 Harry Partch, Experiments in Notation, in Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music ed. b y E. Schwartz et al. (New York: da Capo, 1978), 209 221. 4 Bob Gilmore, Harry Partch: a Biography (New Haven & London: Yale University, 1998). 5 Bob Gilmore, The Climate since Harry Partch, Contemporary Music Review 22, 1/2 (2003): 15 33.

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23 works, which exemplify major steps in the evolution of his concept of monophony.6 Partch s monophony in his early works, such as Seventeen Lyrics by Li Po (1933), later becomes integral to the corporeality of his major theatrical music Ronald Wieckis article, Relieving 2 Tone Paralysis: Harry Partch i n Madison, Wisconsin, 19441947 summarizes Partchs theoretical achievements based on the few compositions he finished during his three years of residency at the University of Wisconsin Madison.7 Both Thomas McGearys Introduction t o the Music of Harry Partch: A D escriptive Catalogue and Philip Blackburns Harry Partch and the Philosopher Tone, present a generic overview of the Partchs aesthetic, theoretical, and compositional achievements, while S. Andrew Granades recent book Harry Partch: Hobo Composer examines Partch s music and li fe from historical, cultural, political, and musical perspectives.8 Granade analyzes Partchs so called hoboperiod, in the context of the American hob o, transient, and migrant culture, during the era of the Great Depression. Granades dissertation I W as a Bum Once Myself : Harry Partch, U.S. Highball, and the Dust Bowl in the American Imagination, and his articles Rekindling Ancient Values: The Influence of Chinese Music and Aesthetics on Harry Partch and Decoding Harry Partchs Aesthetic: Satire, Duality, and Water! Water! , respectively deal with how hobo culture, Chinese music and P artchs disdain for American musical popular culture, affected his 6 Bob Gilmore, Harry Partch: the Early Vocal Works 193033 (PhD diss., The Queens University of Belfast, 1996). 7 Ronald. V. Wiecki, 12 Tone Paralysis: Harry Partch in Mad ison, Wisconsin, 1944 1947, American Music 9, 1 (1991): 43 66. 8 Thomas McGeary, Introduction to the Music of Harry Partch: A Descriptive Catalog (New York: Institute for Studies in American Music, 1991). Philip Blackburg, Harry Partch and the Philosophers Tone, Hyperion II, 1 (2008): 1 20. S. Andrew Granade, Harry Partch, Hobo Composer (Rochester: University of Rochester, 2014).

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24 aesthetic.9 On the other hand, in his book Mavericks and other Traditions in American Music Michael Broyles situates Partch as one of most influential outsider composers in the twentieth century United States, besides figures such as Frank Zappa and John Cage.10 While Jake Johnsons article Unstuck in Time: Harry Par tchs Bilocated Life expl ains how Partch built his identity based on his affinity for ancient Greek themes, a handful of dissertation s have dealt with the music theoretical and acoustical tenets of Partchs music and other followers of the just intonation movements.11 Alexander Gor don Lanes recent dissertation From Archean Granite: The Rational Pitch System of Harry Partch, Lou Harrison, and Ben Johnston, stands out as a notable example.12 Both Johnston and Stahnke have written essays and articles engaging with diverse aspects of Partchs heritage. In various essays within Maximum Clarity and Other Writings on Music his collected writings edited by Bob Gilmore, Johnston discusses Partchs leg acy from different perspectives; i n The Corporealism of Harry Partch, for example, Jo hnston expounds upon the realization of Partchs aesthetic of corporeality in his compositions, w hile in Harry Partch/John Cage, he juxtaposes both compose rs as two contemporary counter poles. Johnston expounds on Partchs 9 S. Andrew Gra nade, I was a Bum Once Myself: Harry Partch, U.S. Highball, and the Dust Bowl in the American Imagination (PhD. diss., University of Illinois, 2005). S. Andrew Granade, Rekindling Ancient Values: The Influence of Chinese Music and Aesthetics on Harry Partch, Journal of the Society for American Music 4(1), 1 32. S. Andrew Granade, Decoding Harry Partchs Aesthetic: Satire, Duality, and Water! Water! , American Music 35(2), 172 196. 10 Michael Broyles, Mavericks and other Traditions in American Music (N ew Haven: Yale University Press, 2004). 11 Jake Johnson, Unstuck in time: Harry Partchs Bilocated Life, Journal of the Society for American Music 9, 2 (2015): 163 177. 12 Alexander Gordon Lane, From Archean Granite: The Rational Pitch System of Harry Partch, Lou Harrison, and Ben Johnston (PhD diss., Brandeis University, 2017).

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25 percussion instrument cloudchamber b owls and explains its function in Partchs compositions in his essay Harry Partchs CloudChamber Music. Finally, in Beyond Harry Partch, Johnston articulates the relevance of Partchs achieveme nts for future generations.13 On the other hand, Stahnke, not only a composer but also a widely published musicologist, has expressed his thoughts on Partchs intonational system and aesthet ic repeatedly. Most importantly in Gedanken zu Harry Partch, Stahnke examines Partchs intonational effort s and their relation to his philosophical ideas from the perspective of a fellow microtonalist.14 Stahnke explores the concept of just intonation and the di sparate compositional approaches of Partch and Grisey to this concept i n Zwei Blumen der reinen Stim mung im 20. Jahrhundert: Harry Partch and Grard Grisey, 15 In Meloharmonik, Stahnke explains his ow n concept of meloharmony and its realization in his music, while bringing the function of Partchs forty threetoneto octave tuning system into his own compositions, as an example of a meloharmonic microtonal configuration .16 Stahnke himself is the author of most of the theoretical, aesthetic, and compositional criticism of his music. In About Backyards and Limbos: Microtonality Revisited, Stahnke elaborates on his solo guitar piece Ansichten eines Kfers and his 13 Ben Johnston, Maximum Clarity and Other Writings on Music ed. B. Gilmore (Urbana and Chic ago: University of Illinois, 2006). 14 Manfred Stahnke, Gedanken zu Harry Partch, Neuland: Anstze zur Musik d. Gegenwart : Jahrbuch 2 (1982): 243 251. 15 Manfred Stahnke, Zwei Blumen der reinen Stimmung im 20. Jahrhundert: Harry Partch und Gerard Grisey , Hamburger Jahrbuch fr Musikwissenschaft 17 (2000): 369 388. 16 Manfred Stahnke, Meloharmonik, in Mikrotne und mehr: auf Gyrgy Ligetis Hamburger Pfaden, ed. M. Stahnke (Hamburg: Von Bockel, 2005), 207 224.

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26 solo harp piece Diamantenpracht as two ex amples of his approaches to establishing microtonal structures He further explains the influence of Partchs elevenlimit just intonation on his harp t uning system in Diamantenpracht .17 Stahnke illustrates his concepts of differencetone harmony in his opera Orpheus Kristall i n Ein Tonsystem fr eine Internetoper, while in Infinite Meloharmonik: Vermutungen ber den Wind, he explains the realization o f the same concept in his orchestral work Trace des Sorciers .18 Mein drittes Streichquartett Penthesilea: Anmerkungen zur Entstehung eines Musikstckes mit Program m deals with Stahnkes approach to microtonal i ty in order to reconstruct Greek enharmonic modus, which, in turn, points to depict ion of the mythical implications of his music.19 Stahnkes article Mein Weg zu Mikrotnen describes his mathematical thoughts and the resulting microtonal ratios, as well as his relati o nships to Harry Partchs and Ben Johnstons just intonation.20 Partch Harp: (Er)findung einer nicht oktavierenden Musik , analyzes Stahnkes composition Partch s Harp based on the intervals of just third and just seventh, which draws from Har ry Partchs mi crotonal system and the panpipe music from the Solomon Island. 21 Finally, in Orpheus unter den ganzen 17 Manfred Stahnke, About Backyards and Limbos: Microtonality Revisited, in Concepts, Experiments, and Fieldwork: Studies in Systematic Musicology and Ethnomusicology ed. by R Bader et al. (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2010), 297 314. 18 Manfred Stahnke, Infinite Meloharmonik: Vermutungen ber d en Wind, in Neue Musik 2000 (Medienkombination): Fnf Texte von Komponisten. Series: Schriften der Hochschule fr Musik Wrzburg, No.6, ed. Cornelia Barthelmes (Wrzburg: Knigshausen & Neumann, 2001), 19 26. 19 Manfred Stahnke, Mein drittes Streichquartett Penthesilea: Anmerkungen zur Entstehung eines Musikstckes mit Programm, Hamburger Jahrbuch fr Musikwissenschaft VI (1983): 347 363. 20 Manfred Stahnke, Mein Weg zu Mikrotnen, Musik Konzepte SonderbandMu sik der anderen Tradition: Mikrotonale Tonwelten, Heinz Klaus Metzger et al. eds.(Mnchen: edition text + kritik: 2006.) 21 Manfred Stahnke, Partch Harp: (Er)findung einer nicht oktavierenden Musik, in Musikkulturgeschichte: Festschrift fr Constantin F loros zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. P. Peterson (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hrtel, 1990), 11 26.

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27 Zahlen: Ein Essay ber Schwellen, Stahnke reflects on the world of the contemporary composition from a personal perspective. He then focuses o n the concept of the hearing threshold and the ways in which his peculiar tonal system in Orpheus K ristall attempts to cross this threshold.22 Stahnkes collected writings Mein Blick auf Ligeti/Partch & Compagnos published in 2017, contains the republication o f several aforementioned articles, and aided my research immensely.23 His doctoral dissertation Struktur und sthetik bei Boulez: Dritte Sonate Formant Trope mit Mallarm & Joyce although not directly related to microtonality or his own music, provides insight to Stahnke s analytical approach to the music of t he Darmstadt School. 24 All three volumes edited by Stahnke, Mikrotne und mehr: Auf Gyrgy Ligetis Hamburger Pfaden; Musik nicht ohne Worte: Beitrge zu aktuellen Fragen aus Komposition, Musiktheorie und Musikwissenschaft ; and 1001 Mikrot ne/1001 Microtones (co edited by Sarvenaz Safari), contain chapters by composers, performers, and researchers, dealing with issues related to microtonality tuning, and intonation .25 In addition to Stahnkes own articles, a few authors have published on diverse aspects of his compositio ns and aesthetic s. In Aktualitt eines Mythos: Orpheus Kristall 22 Manfred Stahnke, Orpheus unter den ganzen Zahlen: ein Essay ber Schwellen, in Melodie Und Harmonie: Festschrift fr Christoph Hohlfeld zum 80. Geburtstag, ed. R. B ahr (Ber lin: Weidler, 2002), 196. 23 Manfred Stahnke, Mein Blick auf Ligeti/Partch & Compagnos (Norderstedt: BoD, 2017). 24 Manfred Stahnke, Struktur und sthetik bei Boulez: Dritte Sonate Formant Trope mit Mallarm & Joyce (Norderstedt: BoD, 2017). 25 Manfred Stahnke, ed. Mikrotne und mehr: auf Gyrgy Ligetis Hamburger Pfaden ( Hamburg: Von Bockel, 2005) Manfred Stahnke, ed. Musik nicht ohne Worte Beitrge zu aktuellen Fragen aus Komposition, Musiktheorie und Musikwissenschaft ( Hamburg: Von Bockel, 2000). Sarvenaz Safari et al. ed. 1001 Mikrotne / 1001 Microtones ( Hamburg: Von Bockel, 2014)

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28 im Quintet.net, Georg Hajdu explains the func tion of his owndeveloped interactive performance system Quintet.net in Stahnkes opera Orpheus K ristall.26 Lutz Lesles article Ars subtilior im Computerzeitalter: Der Hamburger Komponist Manfred Stahnke, deals with Stahnkes compositional procedures f ro m aesthetic and theoretical perspectives.27 I n Diamond Splendor, Sarvenaz Safari analyzes Stahnkes piece Diamantenpracht for solo harp in scordatura, focusing on the aspects of tuning, scale structures, and microtonal elements.28 Jason DAuosts recent article Orpheus in New Media: Images of the Voice in Digital Operas situates Orpheus Kristall within the article s epistemological discourse, explaining how voice can render an illusion of embodiment in immersive, multimedia artworks .29 Lastly, in my publ ished articles, Technology, Microtonality, and Mediation in Manfred Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall and Parallel Trajec torie s in Manfred Stahnke s Internet Opera Orpheus Kristall I employ di stinct conceptual frameworks to analyze Stahnkes synthesis of digital media, microtonal structures and contemporary reinvention of the ancient myths in his opera. 30 26 Georg Hajdu, Aktualitt eines Mythos: Orpheus Kristall im Quintet.net, Positionen: beitrge zur neuen Musik 51 (2002): 47 50. 27 Lutz Lesle, Ars subtilior im Computerzeitalter: Der Hamburger Komponist Manfred Stahnke, NZ: Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 15 0, 11 (1989), 18 23. 28 Sarvenaz Safari, Diamond Splendor, Sonus: A J ournal of I nvestigations into G lobal M usical P ossibilities 32, 1 (2011) 40 57. 29 Jason DAuost, Orpheus in New Media: Images of the Voice in Digital Opera, International J ournal of P erformance Arts and Digital Media 8, 1(2012), 31 48. 30 Navid Bargrizan, Technology, Microtonality, and Mediation in Manfred Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall, Mzik Bilim Dergisi, The Journal of Music and Science 2015 Vol.1, Issue 6 (2015) Navid Bargrizan, Pa rallel Trajectories in Manfred Stahnkes Operas , e C ontact! Online Journal for Electroacoustic Practices 18, 4.

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29 In addition to Partchs and Stahnkes own writings Steven Dixons extensive study of the tech nological integration in the theater, Digital Performance: A History of New Media in Theater Dance, Performance Art, and Installation, contributed to conce iving chapter 3, Technology, Mediation, and Intermediality 31 Furthermore, various c hapters in Freda Chapples and Chiel Kattenbelts edited volume Intermediality in Theatre and Performance, helped to frame the concept of Intermediality as an analytical framework in chapter 3.32 Chapter 5 owes much to Hans Thies Lehmanns momentous book Postdramatic Theatre, in which he explains his theory of postdramatic theater the borro wed analytical core of this chapter .33 Chapter Outline and Analytical Key Concepts Chapter 2 of this dissertation delves into the nuances of Partchs and Stahnkes music philosophical points of view and aesthetic preferences. It explains each composers standpoints individually, before juxtaposing them, intending to clarify their discrepancies and similarities. Since Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical music mirrors their aesthetic views C hapter 2 works as a prelude to the analysis of their pieces from the perspective of microtonal structures, technological devices, and theatrical elements in the following chapters. In the case of Partch, his idiosyncratic notion of corporeality, juxta posed with his appropriation of the notion of abstraction inform his core aesthetic. In the case of Stahnke, on the other hand, his wssrig es System , a flexible and inclusive compositional system, as much as the concept of self reflection 31 Steve Dixon, Digital Performance: A History of New Media in Theater, Dance, Performance Art, and Installation (Cambridge, M A : The MIT Press, 2007). 32 Freda Chapple and Chiel Kattenbelt, eds. Intermediality in Theater and Performance (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006). 33 Hans Thies Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, trans. Karen Jrs Munby (New York: Routledge, 2006).

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30 demonstrates his central aesthetic s. These concepts, hence, substantiate the analysis of Partchs and Stahnkes music philosophies and aesthetics in C hapter 2. Chapter 3 examines the microtonal constructions and related compositional procedures in each of the seven music theatrical case studies. The analysis follows an introduction to each composers approach to integrating microtonal elements and tuning systems other than the twelve tone equal temperam ent Partchs concept of monophony, the theoretical basis of his forty threetone to octave scale and microtonal instruments, as well as Stahnkes concept of meloharmony, the term that he formulated to refer to his flexible approach to harmonic and mel odic microtonal fabrics, function as the main analytical frameworks of C hapter 3 The discussion of the historical evolution of technological integrations in the theatrical per formances, and subsequently in music theatri cal conceptions, opens C hapter 4, before delving into Stahnkes multimedia opera Orpheus Kristall and the interface Quintet.net, which enabled the Inte rnet musicians to participate in the opera. The concept of intermediality, proposed and employed by an array of theater scholars espec ially Freda Chapple and Chiel Kattenbelt, constitutes the m ain analytical tool in C hapter 4.34 This concept articulates the mediational role of the Internet as a digital medium in Orpheus Kristall The chapter also employs the concept of trajectories, introduced by Steve Benford to explain the interaction of multiple constituents in mixedreality performances, unfolding the relation of various onstage and offstage performing forces to the fundamental philosophical associations of Orpheus Kristall 34 Chapple and Kattenbelt, eds. Intermediality in Theater and Performance.

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31 Chapter 5, which examines the notion of corporeality, begins with a brief introduction to the significant use of t his notion in scholarly publications in the context of disciplines other than music and theat er. C hapter 5 then, shifts toward Partchs peculiar appropriation of the notion of corporeality, conceptualizing it as an extension of Wagners notion of Gesamtkunstwerk (total artwork). While it situates Partchs notion of monophony as dependent on his n otion of corporeality, C hapter 5 also expounds on Partchs use of the term abstraction as the counter pole to corporeality. Since Partchs discourse about corporeal vs. abstract music hinges upon his historical and ethnographic analysis, the last sec tion of C hapter 5 exp lains Partchs perception of the history of Western and nonWestern musical cultures. C hapter 6 borrows the theory of postdramatic theater from Hans Thies Lehman n to identify and differentiate the dramatic and postdramatic facets of Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical music.35 Chapter 6 explains the precepts of the theory of postdramatic theater, shedding light on the theatrical elements in Partchs and Stahnkes works, which display postdramatic tendencies. It claims that even though certain aspects of these pieces remain faithful to the dramatic theatrical tradition, other aspects manifest clear postdramatic characters. Methods of Research In addition to the scholarly literature, five hours of recorded intervie ws with Manfred Stahnke in 2011 and six teen hours of interviews in 2015, including a threehour session with the participation of Georg Hajdu comprise the most crucial source for the part of this research related to Stahnkes idea s and music. A month of archival research 35 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre.

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32 during summer 2015, at Harry Partch State Archive and Harry Partch Collection, both located at the University of Illinois, Harry Partch Music Scores located at the University of California San Diego, and Ben Johnston Archive at Northwestern University has underpinned my understanding of and critical approach to, Partchs a esthetic, music, and life. T he study of the primary and secondary literature along with the analysis of scores and recordings of both composers has guided the structure of each chapter and the entire dissertation.36 In other words, none of the key concepts used as the tool of analysis have been taken a priori but have resulted from analyzing the scores recordings, and archival as well as scholarly sources 36 Stahnkes scores and recordings are generously made available by, and used with the permission of, StahnkeVerlag. Partchs manuscripts, scores, and recordings are use made available by, and used with the permission of, Harry Partch Estate Archive and Har ry Partch Collection at the Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, and Harry Partch Music Scores,19221972 at the University of California San Diego Library, Special Collections.

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33 CHA PTER 2 MUSIC PHILOSOPHY AND AESTHETIC IDEAS Cultural Criticism Ingrained in Partchs and Stahnkes Music Philosophies The music philosophies and aesthetic choices of Partch and Stahnke not only underpin their compositional decisions but also inform their cultural criticism of the standardized and commercialized Western art music Their approaches to integrating microtonal structures and technological renderings spring from their individual critical thoughts ; the analogies, discrepancies, and correlations o f their views from their philosophical similarities and differences. Considering that both Partch and Stahnke as opposed to a plethora of their contemporaneous colleagues stepped into the world of unconventionality, developing unexplored conceptual and tonal horizons, their personal, cultural, and exist ential perspectives add essential context to our unders tanding of their cultural discourse, as well as the musical structures in their theatrical works This chapter explains the most important aspects of Partchs and Stahnkes music philosophical views and aesthetic approaches ingrained in their polemical stance toward the predominant Western art music. Before juxtaposing both composers views, it examines each separately. As an introduction to the discussi on of the microtonal, technological, and theatrical facets of both composers stage works in the next sections, C hapter 2 builds on their published texts and conducted interviews. It aims to reveal the scope of Partchs and Stahnkes cultural discourse, while comparing them to illuminate the link between their ideas.

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34 Partchs MusicPhilosophical and Aesthetic Views Writing about a pivotal shift in his musical language, Partch makes the following statement in his theoretical, philosophical, and historical tr eatise Genesis of a Music : Sometime between 1923 and 1928, I finally became so dissatisfied with the body of knowledge and usage as ordinarily imparted in the teaching of music that I refused to accept, or develop my own work on the basis of, any part of i t. With respect to current usage, this refusal was a rebellion; from the standpoint of my creative work it was the beginning of a new philosophy of music, intuitively arrived at.1 With this statement, Partch, who was already a prolif ic composer, sought to abandon the dominant tenets of the Western musical culture. He went so far as to destroy all of his previous compositions, which reportedly included a symphonic poem, a string quartet, and a few other post R omantic orchestral pieces .2 Even though Partchs invention of novel music instruments and a microtonal intonational system from scratch, as well as his t urn toward absorbing nonWestern and ancient musicodramatic rituals, shall be considered a revolution, his music, at the same time, furthers the Wagner ian concept of Gesamtkunstwerk Partchs aesthetic extends Gesamtkunstwerk an intertwined total artwork consisting of various artistic media toward an even more integrated music theatrical concept. Partch however, viewed his paradigmatic breakthrough, not as an extension, but as an antithesis to the prevailing states of Western musical culture, stating: I speak from my own mental experience in breaking with the accepted ways. Mine is a procedure more of antithesis than of simple modification []. T he break came first, by intuition; the justification came second, by 1 Harry Partch, Genesis of a Music (New York: Da Capo, 1974), 4. 2 Mentioned by Partch, in the introduction to Genesis of a Music X.

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35 critical and historical analysis.3 But, although Partchs legacy demonstrates an antithesis, it simultaneously informs a continuation of the Western Romantic musical tradition. To justi fy the necessity of his paradigmatic shift, Partch discusses the nuances of Western musical practices, not only in Genesis of a Music but also in his essays and concert programs. His view toward these practices demonstrates doubts and disappointment with the course of the Western music since the Middle A ges. F or instance, he explains the destiny of a composer shackled by the conventions of the Western musical traditionin which he found himself prior to his paradigmatic breakthroughas follows: Before he [a composer shackled by the conventions] ever writes a note, the most brilliant composer is doomed to a system that is not capable of growth at his hands or even of elasticity and thus to a weary sea of wornout forms, phrases, progressions, cadences, and chords.4 On the same note, t he nonconformist Partch expressed his distaste for not onl y the avant garde, but also most of the conventions of the Western musical tradition, including popular music and the academy. He often re ferred to the Western art music in harsh, bitter, and sardonic remarks which bolstered the controversies surrounding him. In his words: The notion that there must be a standard pattern of tonal belief (the piano scale), of behavioral belief (the concert), even of dress belief (ties an d tails), without which music cease to exist is a crag so monstrous that it blots out vision.5 His solution to confront conventions, however, 3 Partch, Genesis 4. 4 Partch, Patterns of Music, 160. 5 Martin Bernheimer, Partch: A Latter day Don Quixote, New York Times September 8, 1968.

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36 proved not to be the experimental or electronic music common of the mid twentieth century Partch disapproved of the abstraction inherent in electronically produced sounds. Although he used some prerecorded tapes in a few of his pieces, he found electronic music too impersonal asserting: Man, not machine, is the ultimate instrument.6 He preferred the actual eng agement of the physical human body in addition to mental presence in the action of composition during th e whole process of creating and performing. Partch formulated his appropriated concept of corporeality, which informs his preference and the revolution that he intended to launch, in the age of the progress of the electronic music at institutions such as ColumbiaPr inceton Electronic Music Center and Cologne Electronic Music Studio of West German Radio. Partch articulates his central aesthetic of corporeality his revolution to renounce the autocracy of the older and contemporary Western traditionas follows: I believe in musician s who are total constituents of the moment, irreplaceable, who may sing, shout, whistle, stamp their feet; in costume, always, or perhaps half naked, and I do not care which half.7 He pursued his desired corporeality in the hobo folk songs, and in the ancient Greek, Asian, African, or Native American rituals a path removed from the critics or artists supportive of cutting edge tec hnological advancements, or the conventions of the commonperiod music. Juxtaposed with corporeality, Partch proposes the term abstraction to refer to some common forms in the Western art music, such as symphonies and operas, where 6 Bernheimer, P artch: A Latter day Don Quixote. 7 Bernheimer, P artch: A Latter day Don Quixote.

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37 the in tricacy of the sound structures or melismatic vocal lines rule over the clarity and intelligibility of the text or the drama. As instances of corpor eal music Partch counts stories sung or chant ed and poems recited or intoned in folk music and some popular music; d ramas, as in early seventeenthce ntury Florentine music dramas; ancient or modern dancemusic, which tell s a story or describes a situation. He considers all purely instrumental music and songs or dramas with words that are not intended to convey meaning but sim p ly to set the mood of the music as instances of abstract music .8 Partch intended to implement a different sort of reformation to the common musical tradition in compar ison to his contemporaries, such as John Cage, who also sought to reform Western art m usic. Apart from Partch, perhaps no other figure aimed to turn the precepts of the Western musical tradition upside down more than Cage. A comparative explanation of Cages and Partchs views two iconoclastic figures of the mid twentieth century sheds ligh t on the ways in which Partchs anti establishment aesthetic differ s from the predominant discourses of his time, spe cifically from Cages aesthetic As Michael Broyles accurately demonstrates, both composers maintained vastly different aesthetic convictions.9 Cage advocated restraining the composers role in favor of experimentation and fostering spontaneity, whereas Partch sought maximum control over both the creative process and the performance. Dismissing the precepts of aleatoric music Partch mentions: For me everything must make its own kind of logic. 8 Partch, Genesis 9. 9 Michael Broyles, Mavericks and other Traditions in American Music (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), 203 242.

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38 Everything must be predetermined, systematically preconceived.10 He elaborat es on Cages experimental music, I laugh and say, come again? What?tickling a big brass gong with a toothpick? Drinking carrot juice with an ampl ified gullet? Prepared piano? Zen Buddhism? (a gimmick that has contributed substantially to a couple of care ers.) showmanship? Fine. Innovation? Not for me.11 As the music critic Martin Bernheimer formulated in 1969: Partch does not suffer as do many of his contemporaries, from a twentieth century complex.12 Rather than conforming to the prevailing Western musi cal tradition, or to the avant garde, Partch chose to remain an outsider absorbing elements from ancient and nonWestern practices into his own. While shunning the common period and avant garde aesthetics Partch looked to the past as far back as the anci ent Greek and Chinese cultures to find inspiration. In his words: nothing could be more futile or downright idiotic than expressing ones own time. The prime obligation of the artist is to transcend his age, therefore to show it in terms of the eternal my steries.13 Reiterating Partchs endeavors to retrieve the corporeal and ritual past, Ben JohnstonPartchs apprentice and long lasting friend characterizes Par tchs music as socially conscious. He mentions: Partchs art is in the best sense of the term socially conscious, encompassing the role of the musician in his community as well as his responsibility to his materials. Whether in his intimate, folk 10 Bernheimer, P artch: A Latter day Don Quixote. 11 Bernheimer, P artch: A Latter day Don Quixote. 12 Bernheimer, P artch: A Latter day Don Quixote. 13 Bernheimer, P artch: A Latter day Don Quixote.

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39 song like chamber pieces, or in his large and complex dramatic works, Partch remains the individualist, glorifying the unorthodox, rediscovering the orthodox.14 But what is the orthodox that Partch rediscovered through his unorthodox ways? This crucial question illustrates, in fact, an instance of the descriptive problems that escalated the common misunderstanding of Partch s works. In January 11, 1969, Bernheimer explained in the Los Angeles Times that in his view a c omplex primitivism is the orthodox that Partch strives through his very unorthodox independent 20thcentury visions. The orthodox complex primitivism refers to the ancient, corporeal music dramatic traditions th at Partch idealized and attempted to rediscover, while his unorthodox intonational system and instruments inform Partchs independent 20thcentury visions. Bernheimer elabor ates : t he profundity of Partchs endeavor, with its convoluted mysticism and self conscious programmatic gestures, remains open to question. But its freshness, vitality, and ingenuity are unmistakable.15 The complex primitivism and convoluted mysticism partially emerge from the fact that as opposed to most composers, Partch singlehandedly and meticulously created every element in his dramatic works: t he philosophical libretti, the intonational and notational system, the instruments, the music, and ev en the dramaturgical concepts. In Michael Broyles words: The Partch Myth has taken on several guises: There is Partch the theorist and composer known and written about precisely for his tuning system, the composer who inspired the entire just intonation movement. There is Partch the Orientalist, the man who turned his back on the West and retreated to his parents adopted roots, Asia. There is Partch the dramatist, the creator of a twentiethcentury G esamtkunstwerk a total 14 Bernheimer, P artch: A Latter day Don Quixote. 15 Found in Partch E states Archive, University of Illinois; it is typed on a sheet by Partch himself, where he listed some of the reviews of his music here and there.

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40 theatrical experience, with roots in ancient Greece and at its heart his music, including his own unique instruments. And there is Partch the defiant, the man who rejected, in one grand epiphany in New Orleans, the entirety of modern Western musical culture, only to start over and to re main ever aloof from Western institutions.16 As Broyles implies, these descriptive problems exacerbate the mixed and inconsistent reception of Partchs theories and music throughout his lifetime and beyond. Drawing an analogy between the aesthetic s of composers devoted to the conventions and a weary sea of wornout forms, Partch explains his s tandpoint toward such composers: b efore he ever writes a note the most brilliant composer is doomed to a system that is not capable of growth at his handor even of elasticity and thus to a weary sea of wornout forms, phrases, progressions, cadences, and chords.17 Whether Partch uses the most brilliant composer sarcastically or not, it is safe to say that he dismisses composers, who do not seek ways outside the abstracted Western musical culture, and who do not challenge its established paradigms. Articulating th is view and his personal wish to challenge the established paradigms o f Western musical culture, the young Partch says in 1942: I hold no wish for the obsolesce of the widely heard instruments and music. My devotion to our musical heritage is great and critical. I feel that more ferment is necessary to a healthy musical culture. I am endeavoring to instill more ferment.18 What Partch devoted himself to, however, proved not to be the pre dominant musical culture, underpinning of the academic studies of music. He left the academy to find his autonomy. 16 Broyles, Mavericks 207. 17 Partch, Patterns of Music, 160. 18 Quoted by Thomas McGeary as an opening to Bi tter Music

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41 Partch, in fact, expressed his pessimism toward the academies frequently a pessimism that le d to him dr opping out of the University of Southern California, where he begun studying music in the 1920s. Ranting about his acerbic view of the veneration of Bachs music in the academies, Partch cynically suggested the academic degrees of B.B., Bachelor of Bach; For the female students: M.F., Mistress of the Fugue; D.B., Doctor of Bach; and D.B.D, Doctor of Bachic Divinity; all of which, as Partch states, would require the candidates to undergo twelve solid years (one for each scale degree of the twelve tone equ al temperament) of incarceration in a labyrinth lined with Bach biographies, each shelf dedicated to one minute of the masters life.19 According to Partch, the final degree is supposed to be the B.V.D., Bach Verus Dominus, which would require the candidat e to rewrite the entire B minor Mass as Part ch elsewhere refers to it: the Excuse Me Mass under massive doses of sodium pentathol.20 Opposing every aspect of the academic studies of music, as the following quote demonstrates Partch saw himself as a zealot abandoning the safe sanctuary of the Western musical tradition: The zealot driving into this wilderness should have more than one life to give: one to create instruments within the tyranny of the fivefingered hand, to play the tones he finds; on e that will wrestle with notation and theory, so that he can make a record of what he finds, and give it understandable exposition; still another that will create and recreate significant music for his new old instruments and in his new old media; and finally, another that will perform it, give it as a revelationto the general wealth of human culture.21 19 Philip Blackburn, ed. Enclosure 3: Harry Partch (Saint Paul: American Composers Forum, 1997), 86. 20 Blackburn, Harry Partch 86 21 Partch, Patterns of Music, 160 161.

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42 Partch, the zealot, however, did not offer simple renderings of the precepts of the Western music; in his own words, his alternative was rather an antit hesis Although Partchs fundamental aesthetic of corporeality is reminiscent of significant historical models, ranging from ancient Greek, or Chinese rituals, to the Florentine and Wagnerian dramas, it is not a mere imitation of these models. He consciou sly attempted to justify his original aesthetic through addressing these prototypical models in the course of history, particularly in the first chapter of his treatise Genesis of the Music (19491974). The following examination of Partchs discourse about his reception of the history of Western music what he approved and what he dismissed will in fact, lead to a better assessment of his own aesthetic standpoints. Partchs conceptions in his major dramatic works such as Oedipus The Bewitched, and Delusion of the Fury derive from the way he characterizes Greek drama In Genesis of the Music Partch begins his critical discussion of the Western music al culture, expounding upon the ancient Greek dramahis enduring ideal of a corporeal, integrated theatrical music : For the Greeks the noblest purpose of music was to enhance drama. Dramatists were frequently the composers of the music for their words. This music took the form of recitative in some of the dialogue, accompanied note for note by aulos or kithara or both. In the economy of accompaniment, the words were perfectly understood by the audience. There were also lyrical passages and, at critical dramatic points, floods of music, by chorus, actors, and instruments.22 Partch observes that even Plato noted a tr end toward the abstraction of the Gr eek musico dramatic archetypes. H e exalts every historical case where thinkers attempted to revive such archetypes He, therefore, underlines the efforts of the Florentine 22 Partch, Genesis 10.

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43 Camerata to re store Greek paradigms in their operas and monodies. Discussing the theories of Galilei as realized in the music of Caccini and Monteverdi, Partch explains the rebellious practice of the Florentine composers, who pursued a corporeal theatrical music based on Greek dramatic models. In these dramas, the voice of an individual, which presents the essence of the drama, is the target of the unified artistic aspects. Partch elaborates on the Florentine r ejection of the abstract, polyphonic vocal lines, stating : The first operas in the Florence of about 1600, which in expressed theory have so little in common with opera as currently practiced, were a reaction, a rebellion, an insurgence, written by composers who happened also to be scholars and aristocrats. In general terms the movement was the scholars counterpart of the troubadours reaction to the dry theology and restrictive bans of the Church, but it was specifically a reaction against word distortion in the florid secular polyphony and word distortion in the restrictive liturgical polyphony.23 Partch perceived the early seventeenthcentury operas, for instance Monteverdi s works as efforts to turn away from the intricate polyphony of the late Renaissance to ward the Greek ideal of a single, intelligible vocal melody and accompaniment, which, does not hav e much i n common with the lateRomantic or early t wentieth century opera. Intending to challenge the melismatic texts of Renaissance music as did the Florentine masters Partch articulated the importance of capturing all the inflections of spok en words. He, therefore, designed his int o national system consisting of forty t h ree tones which granted him the ability to intone the text as clear ly and thoroughly as possible, and to assign the music t he task of harmonizing the text In his own words: Some seventeen years ago I abandoned the traditional scale, instruments, and forms in toto (I had begun to abandon them as early as 1923), and struck out on my own. I came to the realization that the spoken word was 23 Partch, Genesis 21.

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44 the distinctive expression my constituti onal makeup was best fitted for, and that I needed other scales and other instruments.24 According to Partch, the accompaniment music and the text intoned by the voice of an individual shall work handin hand to depict the essence of the dramatic content. P artchs critical view of the canonical Western composers as a means to justify his own paradigmatic shift extends also to Bach and Beethoven. He scorned, for example, Bach or Beethoven for the musical abstraction realized in their instrumental works, or in their vocal works where the dramatic text is less significant than the instrumental lines; in Partchs words: The drama and the intimacy of the individual are superseded by a different esthetic or sociological quality.25 He favored individual efforts of Berlioz or Mussorgsky, among others, where the corporeal drama and the voice of the individual as Partch formulates it: a monophonic concept play a major role. Although Partch dismisses the grand symphonic orchestras accompanying Wagners operas, he praises Wagner for his emphasis on an integrated music drama conceptualized as his concept of Gesamtkunstwerk where all the artistic elements serve the essential dramatic content.26 Explaining the flaw that he perceived in Wagners music dramas, Partch mentions: It is sufficient to note that Wagner defeated himself (in the light of the Corporeal) by prescribing a full symphony orchestrathe right bower of the Abstract concept as an accompaniment to the subtle drama of spoken that is, musically declaimedwords, a situation which goes the limit in human contradiction.27 As inst ances of post Wagnerian music in f in de sicle Vienna that he 24 Partch, Genesis 5. 25 Partch, Genesis 7. 26 Partch, Genesis 28 33. 27 Partch, Genesis 31.

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45 appreciated, in Genesis of a Music Partch addresses the indispensable supremacy of the dramatic spoken words in Mahlers Das Lied von d er Erde and Schoenbergs Pierrot Lunaire. He sets apart these two works f rom Mahlers and Schoenbergs other works, considering them as exceptions of corporeal drama in the AustroGerman school at the turn of the twentieth century.28 Advocating his own aesthetic Partchs historical discourse includes his American experimental peers, as observed in the case of Cage. By documenting the American h obo culture while living as one for years, and by composing pieces based on hobo experiences, texts, a nd songs, using his idiosyncratic intonational system and instruments imbued with American experimental spirit Partch forged an identity as an American composer unlike any of his contemporaries As Andrew Granade argues, Partchs music became conceptually American, as opposed to us ing American themes or melodies as decorative elements within the apparatus of common EuroAmerican art music. To elucidate the magnitude of Partchs cultural and artistic value in the United States, Granade articulates that Part chs conceptual exoticism and his documentary imagination were unprecedented. The fact that Partch collected and set the inflections of hobo texts to music while he was hoboing grants his works an exoticism that emerges from the existential underpinnings o f the American folk culture.29 In Granades words: Partch presents life as hoboes lived it and allows the audience to infer what it will.30 He demonstrates that decorative exoticism, that is, the superficial integration of 28 Partch, Genesis 34 40. 29 Partch lived a s a hobo among the multitude of unemployed, homeless men during the Great Depression and after, from 1928 to 1943. 30 S. Andrew Granade, Harry Partch, Hobo Composer (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2014), 12.

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46 folk elements within the apparatus of Euro American art music, deviates from Partchs complete immersion in the U.S. folk tradition in pieces such as Barstow U.S. Highball, or The Letter On the other hand, even as he lived it, Partch was also documenting hobo culture. His direct engagem ent with hobo songs took on the aspects of documentary, as we observe in his Bitter Music a musical, visual, and literary journal of his hobo years ( see F igure s 2. 1, 2. 2, and 2. 3 ) The unparalleled conceptual exoticism of Partchs aesthetic and music gave him a ground to criticize the scene of the modern electronic and experimental music in the United States, again, as a way to justify his own approach.

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47 Figure 2 1 Bitter Music ; Ha rry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois

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48 Figure 2 2. Bitter Music ; Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois

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49 Figure 2 3. Bitter Music ; Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois In his book, Granade expounds upon the cultural value of Partchs musical doc umentary imagination, rightfully setting Partch alongside such figures as Dorothea

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50 Lange in photography and John Stei nbeck in literature, who contributed to the documentation of the hobo, transient, and migrant traditions.31 Explaining the sorts of texts that he set to music in his unique speechmusic style, Partch elaborates on his experience as a hobo as follows: I set lyrics by the eight century Chinese Li Po, intoning the words and accompanying myself on my Adapted Viola, scenes from Shakespeare, Biblical Psalms; later, drawing on my experiences as a wanderer I wrote music exploiting the speech of itinerants ( Bitter Music ), hitchhiker inscription copies from a highway railing (Barstow), a crosscountry trio ( U.S Highball), and newsboy cries ( San Franci sco ), generally using an ensemble of my own instruments.32 Th is remark illuminates the vast extent to which Partchs aesthetic hinges not only upon his years of hoboing during the era of the Great Depression, but also upon his affection for nonWestern, rit ual, and ancient musical cultures. This dependency extends from Partchs smaller speechmusic pieces to his corporeal theatrical music such as Oedipus The Bewitched, and Delusion of the Fury As the following chapters of this dissertation will demonstrate, Partch intertwined nonWestern cultures, for example Japanese Noh tradition and Ethiopian folk tales, in his ambitious dramatic conceptions. Stahnkes MusicPhilosophical and Aesthetic Views Manfred Stahnke, a key figure of microtonality, has establ ished microtonal structures as substantial tool s to create not only instrumental pieces but also dramatic music Stahnke has elevated microtonality from a mere structural element to a paramount mode of mediating the essential philosophical, mythical, and psychological connotations of his music. As a pupil of Ligeti, Stahnke was influenced by Ligetis 31 Granade, Harry Partch 32 Partch, Genesis 6.

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51 constant curiosity for diverse tonal systems and rhythmical organizations in various musical cultures, as well as his experiments with intonation and tuning among other concepts. In the late 1970s, Stahnke also studied in the United States with Harry Partchs apprentice, the microtonalist Ben Johnston, inheriting Partchs just intonational legacy from Johnston Akin to Partchs and Johnstons music, structures base d on just intonation have, consequently, underpinned many of Stahnkes pieces, including his four major stageworks. We can, therefore, draw a direct lineage between Partch and Stahnke, as I will constantly do in this dissertation. Although both Partchs and Johnstons just intonation and Ligetis v iew of the process of composing as analogous to scientific research have had major imprints upon Stahnkes thinking, his own personal hybrid, flexible, and nondogmatic compositional approach has evolved. 33 In hi s own words: Basically, I do not tend to work within the tradition of the European microtonality, e.g. Hba Wyschnegradsky but rather the American one (Partch and Johnston). [] Yet, I dismiss Partchs idea that the pure intervals could be precisely realized without any beating. On the contrary, through working with computers, I have experienced that impurity, to some extent, lends soul to sound. With his chromelodeon, a detuned reed organ, Partch i ntended to generate pure sounds up to th e eleventh partial. I believe that the absolute purity of intervals is just a utopia. 34 33 By making analogy between scientific research and his way of composing music, Ligeti by no means meant to state that the precepts of scientific research and composition are the same. But he rather saw them analogous in the sense that the composer would ask a critical musical question, or would tackle a new and curious compos itional structure, or would search to find new tonal horizons; then, he would work to find a musical solution, and to make sense of his tonal structure. See Manfred Stahnke, Gyrgy Ligeti und Manfred Stahnke: Gesprch am 29. Mai 1993, in Musik nicht oh ne Worte, ed. Manfred Stahnke (Hamburg: Von Bockel, 2000), 121 152. 34 Die Richtung, in der ich arbeite, folgt grundstzlich nicht der europischen Mikrotontradition (wie etwa Hba, Wyschnegradsky usw.), sondern eher der amerikanischen (Partch, Johnston). [] Ich versuche jener Vorstellung Partchs aus dem Weg zu gehen, reine Intervalle seien am besten bei totaler Schwebungsfreiheit, also 100% exakter Realisierung. Im Gegenteil habe ich bei meiner Arbeit mit Computern die Erfahrung gemacht, dass erst gewiss e Unreinheiten den Klang beseelen. Partch wollte bei seinem Chromelodeon [einem umgestimmten Harmonium] Schwebungsfreiheit bis hinauf zu Intervallen mit dem 11. Ton erzielen. Ich erkenne die pure Reinheit der Intervalle aber als Utopie. I n

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52 Stahnkes compositional approach, hence, projects as a constant effort to avoid being shackled by any compositional or artistic ideology and mannerisms, even in regard to microtonal configurations.35 Stahnkes experiments with microtones, intonations, and tunings are utterly in line with his music philosophy. In fact, he does not confine himself within the boundaries of the twelve tone equal temperament, other r enderings of equal temperament, e.g. twenty four tone and thi rty sixtone equal temperaments or even just intonation. He is steadily in search of new tonal structures inspired by folk musical traditions combined with the possibilities that the spectrum of partials grants him, while experimenting with electronics, micro rhythms, tunings, intonations, and other kinds of equal temperaments. Fro m the early 1980s to the early 2000s, Stahnkes artistic mindset went through a gradual shift f rom a sort of monotone thinki ng to a rather critical one. In other words, his microtonal structures solely based on just intonation evolved into structures, where he took intonational elements f rom non Western musical culture to critically challenge his rigid just intonational fabri cs. The way Stahnke has resynthesized improvisation and nonWestern rhythmical patterns in his music also inform his gradual transition from a monotone t o a critical aesthetic approach, where he constantly questions and revises his aesthetics. Stahnke came to the USA in 1980 to study with Ben Johnston at the University of Illinois, where he examined Partchs theory of just Manfred Stahnke, Mein Weg zu Mikrotnen, Musik KonzepteMusik der anderen Tradition en: Mikrotonale Tonwelten Sonderband (2003), 129. Hereafter, all translations are mine. 35 Here, I have used Mannerism to imply the repetitive, or habitual, mode of artistic creativity. It does not refer to the infamous artistic style in the sixteenth century.

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53 intonation his initial impulse to delve into world of microtonality. He beg a n to research and compose pieces to experiment with just int ervals of, among others, 5/4 (just major third), 7/4 (just minor seventh), or 11/8 (just tritone ). His o pera Der Untergang des Hauses Usher ( 1981) his first theatrical work based on Edgar Allen Poes The Fall of the House of Usher originates from around the same time. Returning to Germany, the ensemble that he in collaboration with Ligetis other students founded, was an attempt to demonstrate, among other aspects their innovative microtonal experiments with just intonation. The Ensemble Hamburg (later E nsemble Chaosma) led Stahnke to several countries, where, through ethnological research, he collected microtonal music beyond the boundaries of just intonation for example the strange microtonal p entatonic scales of the Andes, or the microtonal equidistant pentatonic scales in the Indonesian Slendro. A s a result of his ethnomusicological research, in addition to his constantly increasing interest in the world of computer music Stahnkes aesthetic horizon expanded. He reflected on his aesthetic by asking himself: What is the phenomenon of tone at all? How can we organize the tones? Is tone a fixed phenomenon? Dont the tones constantly shif t? Can I logically delve into an unstable tonal world? Should I confine myself within a certain mannerism? Or should I remain open? But what happens when I a m open? Dont I lose my safety?36 36 Paraphrased and summarized f rom: Da entsteht die Frage: Was ist berhaupt der Ton? Wie kann er geordnet werden? Ich kam dann sehr schnell in ein Feld hinein, eigentlich eine Art wssrige Umgebung, wo der Ton keinen festen Ort haben muss, sondern eigentlich unendlich flexibel behandelt werden kann. Das fhrte in meiner Komposition aber zu sehr starker Infragest ellung: Pltzlich habe ich gar kein System mehr, also auch kein System wie Naturreine Stimmung (Just Intonation), das geht verloren. Letzteres ist sozusagen ein extremer Punkt, fast wie ein Kristall. Slendro z.B. war fr mich nur ein mgliches System. Alle Systeme, die ich dann bis Ende der 90er Jahre erfahren habe, waren dann eigentlich nur Eckpunkte, die ich in ein wssriges System von groer Flexibilitt reingeschmolzen habe. Meine groe Frage ist entstanden: Habe ich berhaupt einen Ton? ndern al le Tne sich nicht stetig? Kann ich sinnvoll in eine Welt, die keine Stabilitt mehr hat, reinsteigen? Es entsteht die grundstzliche Frage, die eigentlich jeder Komponist an sein eigenes Denksystem stellt: Ist das sinnvoll? Wo stehe ich berhaupt? Darf ic h mich in so einen Manierismus hineinsteigern? Also Manierismus als Beengung eigentlich, als Stil

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54 These critical questions guided Stahnke to an inclus ive aesthetic standpoint, where his tonal fields are not limited to any particular intonational system, and rhythmical, technolog ical, and extramusical aspects of his compositions are flexible, not bou nded by any specific approach; i n his own words, a wssriges System : a fluid, or pliable system. As a composer, Stahnke has always cultivated two parallel compositional worlds : one of precisely constructed microtonal proportions and harmonies, and at the same time improvisation. Several of his pieces, in fact, emerge from his transcribed improvisatio ns on the piano (or Disklavier) as a contrast to his meticulous just intonation fabrics. Articulating his parallel compositional worlds, Stahnke says: I believe that we should always remain multifaceted and should always have diverse worlds, to avoid boring and disgusting ourselves by constantly repeating ourselves.37 In line with hi s artistic philosophy, since the early 1980s, Stahnkes compositional approaches have demonstrated his inclination toward research, recombining, and resynthesizing microtonal and microrhythmical elements from various musical traditions. Stahnkes music de monstrates in fact, both pure, well proportioned mathematical structures, as much as the spontaneity and freedom imbedded in improvisation; in other words, strict structuralism vs. rejection of structuralism; a floating position inbetween hermetic art and the primordial charm of folk traditions. Both of these seemingly contrasting aesthetics are evident not only in Stahnke chamb er music, but also in his stage works. oder als Denkweise. Oder sollte ich nicht offenbleibe? Aber was passiert, wenn ich offen bin? Verliere ich dann nicht alle Sicherheit? Geht der Boden unter meinen Fen nicht verloren? In Navid Bargrizan, Aspekte m ikrotonaler Komposition (Masters thesis, University of Hamburg, 2012), 104. 37 Ich glaube, dass wir immer reich sein mssen und auch immer verschiedene Welten haben mssen, damit wir uns selbst n icht langweilig sind und uns durch Wiederholung vor uns selbst nicht ekeln. I n Bargrizan, Aspekte m ikrotonaler Komposition 98.

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55 In Orpheus Kristall for instance, the way he juxtaposes sections consisting of rhythmical figures played by the African p ercussion instruments and the just intonational sections attests to this approach. In both Der Untergang des Hauses Usher and Heinrich IV Stahnkes use of equi pentatonic and equi heptatonic scales, common in some non West ern musical cultures, on top of just intonation, demonstrates how he constructs pieces based on resynthesis of his two compositional approaches. Expressing his distaste for an artistic philosophy saturated by conventions and aloof to research, Stahnke expresses: In the West, our tendency to construct systems has forced us to the conviction that the equal temperament is the standard state. We constantly seek standardization. We seek rules, because the flow of the [unknown] nature intimidates us. Its a pit y that humans confine themselves within small categories. In other words, simplification! Red or green; not the whole range of colors between these two poles.38 To avoid simplification and standardization of systems Stahnke has viewed the notion of cultur e as a conglomerate of diverse components. He has constantly s ought ways outside the exclusive norms of Western musical culture; he strives for the hybridization of approaches ( Hybridisierung des Denkens ). Another significant constituent of Stahnkes music philosophy is the concept of self reflection. About self reflection in his theatrical music, St ahnke asks: What is theater ? Theater shows us something. But because it is like a mirror, it shows us to 38 Wir haben durch Systembildung im Westen, auch durch Fixierung auf das Klavier, durch die Stimmung des Klaviers, durch gleichschwebende Temperatur, unsere heutige Temperatur, gedacht, dass das sozusagen der Standard ist. Wir suchen immer Standardisierung, wir suchen nach Gesetzen, weil wir zu groe Angst vor dem Fluss der Natur haben. berall verengen sich die Menschen in kleinen Kategorien und bleiben drin, und das ist leider sehr schade! Vereinfachungen! Es gibt Rot und Grn, also nicht die super Bandbreite zwischen diesen Farben. In Bargrizan, Aspekte m ikrotonaler Komposition, 103.

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56 ourselves.39 Expressing his affection for an art, which, like a mirror, reflects us back to ourselves, Stahnke elaborates: Making music is the possibility for me to reflect on myself; simply to reflect on what I have perceived, and on what I have not. It gives me the chance to see and recognize my limit ations very clearly.40 Relating the concept of self reflection to the notion of madness a recurring fundamental element in all of his operas and to his music philosophical views, Stahnke states: If we scrutinize our mind and actions, we see that everything we do is a sort of a preoccupation with ourselves. Then, we might figure out our sane and insane dimensions. What are my insane aspects? Why do I compose such a music that is difficult to be performed and to be accepted? Why do I make it difficult for my self? Why am I insane? Why not write a simpler music that is easier to tune, and easier to be acknowledged by others? It can be the c ase that we compose as therapy for ourselves; to find and define ourselves.41 Speaking of self reflection, a sort of music t hat captivates the listener by its emotional lure does not appeal to Stahnke. He seeks to reflect on his personal and cultural existence by building structures which grant himself and the listeners the chance to keep their distance, to contemplate, and to reflect on the ontology of the art, the function of art in society, and its cultural importance. According to Stahnkes music philosophy, being confined within systems, without the urge to conduct research, leads to 39 was ist ein Schauspiel? Ein Schauspiel zeigt uns etwas, aber weil es wie ein Spiegel ist, zeigt es uns selbst. (Navid Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke, summer 2015.) 40 Musik zu machen ist eine Mglichkei t fr mich, sich zu reflektieren; Einfach zu reflektieren, was ich bisher verstanden habe, oder wo ich eine Unmglichkeit sehe etwas zu verstehen; Ich sehe ganz klar meine eigene Begrenzung, die ich akzeptiere. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.) 41 Wenn wir uns wirklich tief mi t uns selbst beschftigen alles was wir tun, ist eine S elbstbeschftigung. Dann wirst du vielleicht selbst sehen, was ist Normalitt, und was ist Wahnsinn. Was ist an dir selbst wahnsinnig? Warum schreibst du solch eine Musik, die eigentlich so kompliziert zu spielen ist, zu stimmen ist, zu akzeptieren von den anderen ist. Ich mache es mir schwer. Warum bin ich so wahnsinnig? Und warum mache ich nicht einfachere Musik? Sehr mer kwrdig, wie Menschen sind! Es ist wahrscheinlich so, dass wenn wir selbst etwas bauen, wir vielleicht uns therapieren; uns selbst finden, uns selbst definieren. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.)

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57 commerci alization, the most detrimental hazard facing art. Commercialized art loses its value as a constituent of the culture, and facilitates the evolution of a society insensible to the cultural nuances and subtleties In his music, Stahnke seeks to avoid commercialization, while enabling the listeners to reflect on its threat. Explaining the abovementioned aesthetic, Stahnke expresses his distaste for the overwhelming and hypnotic magnetism of Wagners music, as follows: I would like to take dist ance. Am I influenced by Bertolt Brecht, who al so seeks distance? In the theatrical music, even though I see the possibility of a sort of a medial reflection, I dislike the aspect of Wagners music, which overwhelms the listener; which sucks you in; from which you cannot liberate yourself. I, therefore, despise the endlessness of Tristan und Isolde, although its concept and its music are fantastic.42 Juxtaposing the duality of composed microtonal structures vs. improvisational sections, Stahnke views music as a means to produce distance and to facilitate self reflection. Expounding upon the juxtaposition of microtonality and improvisation in his opera Heinrich IV Stahnke mentions: In Heinrich the medieval [entertainment] music illustrates the medieval narratives in the plot. On the other hand, the synthesizer not only display s the superficial aspects of Mathildes soul as much as the superficiality of todays world, but it also produces tempered jazz chords on top of the microtonal strings or harp to generate a contrasting position; a dichotomy of real ities. I see the danger of my [sheer] microtonal wssriges System in Heinrich without creating distance and building a contrasting stance to reflect on it. In Heinrich I seek the multi phony of postures ( Multiphonie von Haltungen).43 42 Ich mchte immer eine Art Abstand. Bin ich beeinflusst von Bertold Brecht, der auch Abstand sucht? Also das Theater hat eine ganz andere Befindlichkeit: die Uneigentlichkeit des Theaters. [] Das sehe ich auch als eine Mglichkeit fr mich, dass Musik, wenn sie klingt, nicht was Wahres ist, sondern sie muss als etwas Reflektierendes erscheinen. Alles ist doch eine Art mediale Reflexion. Aber das ist kein E i ntauchen wie bei Wagner in eine berwltigung. Vielleicht knnte man sagen dass ich die berwltigung hass e; dass ich dann wie ein e Droge Musik mache, um die Hrer einzusaugen; und sie knnen sich nicht befreien. Ich hasse deshalb diese Endlosigkeit von Tristan, obwohl die Idee und die Musik fantastisch sind. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.) 43 Also in Heinrich ist die M ittelaltermu sik eine Illustration von Mittel la l terkomponente in der Geschichte. Oder der Synthesizer ist nicht nur die Seele der Mathilde oder ein Zei chnen vom oberflchlichen Heute.

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58 In other words, Stahnke seeks the confrontation of his hermetic microtonal fabrics and the flexibi lity of improvisation, the extreme concrete and extreme abstract; in his words, he dances upon possibilities.44 Emphasizing his desire for a sort of a positive n aivet, w hich ena bles him to reflect critically on his precisely constructed microtonal configurations, Stahnke points to Partchs early pieces and their influence on his own compositional approach, as follows: Partchs early pieces, which are not as professional as Delusion have a peculiar charm, like a child who gradually explores the world. I know this charm, and I sometimes try to reach it in my works cons ciously. I try to retrieve the n aivet constantly. One of my favorite poets, the Russian Daniil Kharms [1905 1942], talks about t he concept of half illiterate sis kin; t he siskin is illiterate but he has learned the alphabet to some extent, and he reproduces what he has learned; yet not so skillful and adept.45 This sort of an intentional self reflective approach, as opposed to Stahnk es intricate microtonal structures derives partially from his avid interes t and consistent research into non European musical traditions. Since the early 1990s, Stahnke has emulated intonational and rhythmical elements from these traditions e.g. Slendro, Gamelan, Andes, Persian, and Africannot only into his multi layered instrumental pieces, but S ondern dadurch, das s Jazz Akkorde in Temperierung ber die mikrotonale n Streicher oder Harfe schwanken, schafft er eine Dualitt von Wahrhaftigkeit ber dem, was die Streicher machen. Also ich sehe die Gefahr, dass die mikrotonale wsserige Welt in einer komponierten positiven mikrotonalen Welt kme ohne Abstand. Das ist die M ultiphonie von Haltungen, die ich eigentlich in Heinrich suche. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.) 44 Bin ich vielleicht ein Tnzer ber Mglichkeiten. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.) 45 Die frhen Sachen Partchs, die nicht so professionell sind wie Delusion, haben einen Charme des Frhen; des Ersten; des Kindes, das eine Welt entdeckt. Ich kenne das und ich versuche das bewusst manchmal zu bauen. Ich versuche das Naive, das Unverstandene, immer wie der zu holen. Der russische D ichter Daniil Kharms, den ich sehr liebe, hat das Konzept von halbanalphabetische m Zeisig. Er ist analphabeti sch, aber hat schon was gelernt und erzhlt, was er gelernt hat; Allerdings nicht wirklich von der Warte des Knner s oder Professionellen. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.)

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59 also in his theatrical music such as Orpheus Kristall and Heinrich IV as I will demonstrate in the next chapters. Self reflectio n enables Stahnke to challenge the commercialization of Western music. For him rather than being just means of entertainment, music has the pertinent role of enriching his understanding of nature and history Explaining his distaste for commercialization and relating it to his critique of the commercialized contemporary composers, Stahnke mentions: Western music is co mmercialized; hence, it is doomed! Music has always been a metaphor for the universe, as we clearly see in the ancient Greeks by Pythagoras f or example, or in the medieval times, or the contemporaneous Indian music. Music has mirrored the divine principles of the world. We observe this, for instance, in the Platonic and a stronomical aspects of music. Nowadays, it would have been great if music would not only have been a type of entertainment but also a means of returning to the natural principles of the world, far from commercialization. I am glad to explore new elements, which I am not fami liar with. I have a hard time understanding Penderecki s and Berios late phase, or even certain piano pieces, where I would like to ask the composers: Schumann did that beautifully! Why do you repeat it? When something works well, some people keep on repeating it; like Arvo Prt, for example. Ligeti was di fferent, though! He constantly attempted to find new ways. Real art means to abandon the already established ways, as did Picasso constantly!46 Stahnkes questioning, critical, and hybrid wssriges System his aspiration for recombining and resynthesizing t he mathematical proprieties of the phenomenon of 46 Die Westliche Musik ist kommerzialisiert und damit tdlich! Das E rhalten der Freiheit ist wichtig! Musik war immer eine Art Gleichnis; im Mittelalter ein Spiegel d es gttlichen Prin zips der Welt. Zum Beispiel ist Musik bei Pythagoras ein Bild des Universums. Das ist so bei den Griechen ganz klar; oder bei der heutige n indischen Musik; Platonische und astronomische Aspekte der Musik. Das wre schn, dass Musik nicht nur ein Unterhaltungsmittel wre, aber ein Transportmittel; ein Weg zur Welt z urckzukommen; Wegzukommen von Kommerzialisierung. Ich bin immer froh im Entdecken von den Dingen, die ich nicht kenne. D as ist nicht einfach fr mich, den spten Penderecki zu verstehen, oder den Berio von Wassermusi k, oder bestimmte Klavierstcke wo ich sage, Leute! Das hat Schumann so schn gemacht! Warum macht ihr das nochmal. Wenn etwas einmal funktioniert, bleiben die Leute dabei. Arvo Prt bleibt bei sich! Ligeti war doch anders! Er hat i mmer wieder versucht, neue Sachen zu finden. Die w irkliche Kunst ist wegzugehen! Wie bei Picasso! (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.)

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60 sound with intonational or rhythmical elements of nonWestern musical culture on top of improvisationinforms his inclination to comprehend the physical and cultural dimensions of the world, and his urge to avoid superficiality and intellectual stasis imbedded in commercialization. Partchs and Stahnkes Music Philosophies and Aesthetics Juxtaposed Even though Partchs legacy his theoretical research and innovations as much as his concept of corporeality and his keen desire to explor e the distant musical cultures left a major imprint on Stahnkes aesthetic approaches, their music philosophies also feature significant discrepancies. W hat then, are the anal ogies and correlations as well as the differences and i n congruences of Partchs and Stahnkes aesthetic standpoints? The following comparative analysis aims to establish the lineage from Partch to Stahnke, as much as it aims to illuminate the contrasts in their music philosophical points of views and aesthetic modus operandi Aspiring to create novel sound structures that will expand the tonal boundaries imposed by the twelve tone equal temperament stands out as the most significant mutual music philosophical view of both composers. Studying Helmholtzs On the Sensation of Tone took Partchs path to the examination of the acoustical phenomenon of tone the physical spectrum of the natural sounds realized in his 11limit just intonation and the language of ratios.47 Somewhat similar to Partch, Stahnkes long lastin g curiosity for investigating the issue of intonation as much as his exposure to 47 Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmhol t z, Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage fr die Theorie der Musik (Braunschweig: Druck und Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1863); t ranslated to English by Alexander J. Ellis under the title: On the Sensation of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music (London: Longmans, Green and C o., 1875).

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61 Ligetis critical compositional mindset took him to Illinois in 1979, where he witnessed Ben Johnstons teachings of Partchs theories. S ince then, the properties of natural harmonics, just intoned configurations, and the mathematical language of the ratios have become essential elements in Stahnkes compositional toolbox. Thinking in terms of the pure ratios of the natural harmonics, e mbedded in the spectrum of partials and the microtonal relationships emerging from these ratios, therefore, demonstrate an integral correlation between Partchs and Stahnkes aesthetic s. On the other hand, both composers have sought to find inspirations beyond the safe zone of common Western musical practices in nonWestern cultures. While Partchs scrutiny extended mostly to the ancient Greek and Chinese aesthetic as well as the theatrical and music theoretical concepts, Stahnke, in addition to emulating Partchs approach, explored Ande ans, I ndonesian, Africa n, and Persian musical cultures, among others. Whereas the microtonal and microrhythmical concepts of these nonWestern traditions, as well as their characteristic scales and exotic instruments have frequently found their way into Stahnk es compositions for common Western ensembles, Partch constructed his whole squad of visually spectacular and acoustically compelling instruments to emulate nonWestern elements in his compositions. On the same note, both composers have been fascinated wit h marginalized musical cultures While Partch not only lived as a hobo, but also synthesized hobo culture in his music, in the case of Stahnke, we observe his tendency toward the artists existing outside the mainstream in his passion not only for Partch, b ut also Edgar Allen Poe an author who was perceived as an outsider during his life, and whose works

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62 Stahnke explored in two of his theatrical pieces: Der Untergang des Hauses Usher and Wahnsinn das is die Seele des Handlung.48 Stahnkes instrumental pieces inspired by street musicians demonstrate another form of his re synthesis of marginalized cultures.49 Underlining his enthusiasm not only for Partchs precisely constructed intonational system and instruments based on natural p hysics, but also for Partchs role as an observer, collector and integrator of marginalized cultures, Stahnke mentions: Partch had also these two worlds: precisely constructed intonation, but also the freedom and discovering the nature. [Like Partch] I a lso look for various situations.50 Various situations means for Stahnke the critical juxtaposition of the mathematical just intoned proportions, improvisation, and concepts taken from non Western and outsider traditions, all of which are featured in his theatrical and instrumental pieces. While Partchs works display similar approaches, he disregarded improvisation in an attempt to control as many elements in the performance of his music as possiblea maximalistic Gesamtkunstwerk Partchs obsessive cont rol of all aspects of his works partially arises from his eccentric instruments based on an unconventional intonational system as much as his idiosyncratic notation.51 In other words, since his artworks consisted of several unorthodox elements, he tended t o remain pedantically in control of 48 Poe (1809 1849) was seen as a maverick in his own time. 49 E.g. Street Music I V and Harbor T own Love at the Millennium s End 50 Partch hatte auch di ese zwei Welten: przis gebaute Just Intonation, aber auch Freiheit und Naturbeobachtung. Ich suche auch verschi edene Situationen. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.) 51 For instances o f Partchs idiosyncratic notational system s ee the next chapter Partch uses a combination of rations, traditional notation, and tabular, tailored in the case of each instrument. His notational systems for his different instruments, therefore, differ.

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63 the whole process of performance. Partaking in a per formance of Partchs music most often meant submitting to months and months of strict apprenticeship to comprehend his intonational system, to learn to read his notational system, and to master his unique instruments a fact that has caused the performance of his works to be prohibitively difficult and costly. The most significant difference between Partchs and Stahnkes music philosophy, however, is undoubtedly their co ntrasting views of academies and institutions. Partch, famously, dropped out of the University of Sou thern California because he believed that the academy could not fulfill his d esire to explore unexplored or forgotten theoretical and c onceptual territories. He remained adverse toward academies throughout his life, although he accepted some engagements as lecturer or researcher at the University of Illinois, University of Wisconsin, and University of California San Diego. A large number of the most memorabl e performances of Partchs grand dramatic works, e.g. Oedipus The Bewitched, Revelation in the Courthouse Park and Delusion of the Fury, in fact took place at u niversities such as Mi lls College, University of Illinois, and UCLA. Moreover, while Partch lived in the Northeast attempting to establish his reputation, eminent figures such as Howard Hanson, Otto Leuning, and Douglas Moore invited him to give lectures and demonstrations of his works at institutions such as the New England Conservatory or the Eastman School Music multiple times. Whereas the students at these and other institutions often cheerfully lauded his presence, the faculty repeatedly neglected his significance arguing for not extending his expiring contracts or ending his engagements premat urely. The negative reception by academic colleagues in addition to Partchs inherent pessimism

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64 toward Western educational system, in turn, caused him an autodidactic outsider to remain mostly distant to, and harshly critical of, the academies. Partchs detachment from academies was one of the most relevant reasons for the mixed and incongruent reception of his music, throughout his life. As opposed to Partch, Stahnkea lecturer of music theory (1983 1989) and professor of composition and music theory since 1989 at the Hochschule fr Musik und Theater Hamburgha s always remained devoted to academic educat ion, even though his own music philosophical ideas and compositional procedures demons trate his keen pursuit of paths beyond the scholastic routine of Western institutions. Stahnke himself a pupil of Klaus Huber, Robert Fortner, Bryan Ferneyhough, Gyrgy Ligeti, Ben Johnston, John Melby, and John Chowning in composition, and Constantin Flor os in musicology argues for a nondogmatic and inclusive compositional approach based on acoustical and ethnographical research, while working within academies and attempting to expands the, at times, monotone and biased frameworks of academic studies in m usic. Although both composers have been mainly perceived as outsiders, who have expressed their aesthetic and theoretical ideas in publications to propose ways of reassessing the prevailing musical culture, their conflicting perspectives in terms of the ro le of academies in this reassessment could not be more divergent; one persisted in his anti establishment ways stubbornly resisting his inclusion, while the other promoted ways of avoiding the commercialization of the mainstream culture, negotiating a com promise. To set the stage for the scrutiny of the microtonal, technological, and dramatic or postdramatic facets of Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical works, this chapter put into

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65 perspective the music philosophical views and aesthetic approaches of both composers fundamental to their compositional process by explaining their foundations and underpinnings as much weighing and comparing them. These views, in fact, inform the tenets of most of the theoretical concepts and musical analysis that follows in the next sections of th is dissertation. Like this chapt er, the following chapters analyze the aforementioned aspects of Partchs and Stahnkes music separately, before juxtaposing their frameworks and details to shed light on their correlations.

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66 CHAPTER 3 FROM MONOPHONY TO MELOHARMONY: MICROTONALITY AND COMPOS ITIONAL PROCEDURES Microtonality in Partchs and Stahnkes Music The music theoretical underpinning of Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical music consists of microtonal configurations that extend beyond functioning as mere tonal frameworks; they become a part of the music theatrical conceptions and a means to underscore the theatrical dimensions Partchs notorious forty thr eetoneto octave scale, which authors and critics have wrongly perceived as his most significant milestone, goes far beyond providing tonal materials to compose with. I t not only substantiates Partchs unique instruments and the way he handles voices, but it is also firmly entrenched in his idealized Greek, or nonWestern, ancient rituals, and hence, closely related to his music philosophic al standpoints. F igure 3. 1 demonstrates a graphic representation of the forty threetone scale .1 Figure 3 1. Partchs forty threetone to octave scale2 1 Partch, Genesis, 134 2 Partch, Genesis, 134

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67 M usic critics and scholars tend to focus on Partchs microtonal scale and his instrument s, while ignoring t heir aesthetic foundations in Partchs ideal of ancient Greek, Chinese, or other nonwestern musical cultures a fact that Partch objected to repeatedly. Rejecting the controversial idea of the absolute dependency of his aesthetic on his for ty threetone scale, an assumption common in journal articles written about him during his life, Partch states: News stories, and even reviews, have almost consistently latched onto the number forty three, as though this were somehow the touchstone of my life. [] It is totally misleading. Even on instruments of fixed pitch, I do not necessarily limit myself to forty three, just monophonic tones.3 Partch in his own words a philosophic music man seduced into carpentry designed a plethora of percussion instruments, for example the cloud chamber bowls, or the mazda marimba, both of which he was indeed not able to perfectly tune according to his just forty threetone scale ( see F igures 3.2, 3.3, and 3. 4 ) .4 Figure 3 2 Cloud Chamber B owls5 3 Harry Partch, A Quarter Saw Section of Motivation and Intonations, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 197. 4 The phrase philosophic music man seduced into carpentry comes from Partchs own narration in the 1958 documentary film: Music Studio Harry Partch in Harry Partch : Enclosure one: four films; with the music by Harry Partch directed by Madleine Tourtelot (1958 1961; Saint Paul, MN, Innova recordings, 1995), VHS. The music critic Martin Bernheimer also mentions A Philosopher Seduced into Carpentry, quoting Partch in Los Angeles Times January 5, 1969. 5 Partch, Genesis, 299.

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68 Figure 3 3 Mazda M arimba6 On the other hand, not only did Partch exploit all possible sorts of pitches in between the forty three tones on his fretless instruments such as the adapted viola (the body of a viola att ached to fingerboard of a cello, see F igure 34 ) but he also used common wind instruments such as clarinets and trumpets in pieces such as Oedipus (1950), or Ulysses Departs from the Edge of the World (1955). Figure 3 4 Adapted V iola7 6 Source: www.harrypartch.com accessed 04.12.2017. 7 Source: http://partch.virb.com/instruments new accessed 4.12.2017.

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69 These misconceptions caused such controversies. F or example, Partch sarcastically threatened to curse John Cage if he insisted on using only forty three words to describe Partchs music and aesthetic for Source a publication devoted to the documentation of the experimental composers and their musical works. On October 14 1967, Partch writes to Cage: I tried not to get difficult. But when you insist on a statement from me that is exactly 43 words you are being difficult. [] Again however, if you dare to mention that number 43 you are deliberately misrepresenting me. It i s the onehalf truth of the one fourth factor. And I shall curse you. You have been cursed before, but never by me, and if you are cursed by me there will be a difference.8 Adopting Partchs sarcastic tone, on October 26, 1967, Cage replies: For Heavens Sake, please dont curse me! Id never recover. I promise, of course, not to mention numbers again.9 These remarks demonstrate the extent of Partch disapproval of perceiving his achievements merely in terms of his intonational system. There is, however, no doubt that his microtonal scale, derived from elevenlimit just intonation, not only represent s his longing for ancient, nonWestern musical cultures, but it also substantiates his unique instruments, which in turn, underpin his dramatic works. As Partch himself devotes a large part of his treatise, Genesis of a Music to the explanation of his micr otonality, this chapter expounds upon the historical and theoretical basis of his intonational system, realized in Partchs conception of monophony and in his instruments. It illuminates the relationship of Partchs theories 8 This letter is located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, The Sousa Archives and Center for American Music of the University of Illinois. 9 Ibid.

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70 to his aesthetic views, and t o the dramatic narrative of his major theatrical works, Oedipus The Bewitched, and Delusion of the Fury On the other hand, even though he was influenced by Partchs intonational ideas, Stahnkes approach to microtonality exceeds the realm of just intonat ion. On top of just intonation, since late 1970s Stahnke has developed his own flexible way of handling the element of pitch, as his concept of melohar m ony informs. Stahnke explains melohar mony a term that he himself coined to define the crux of his micr otonal mindset as follows: Meloharmony is a word that I came up with to denote the interrelationship of vertical and horizontal pitch organization within an open microtonal field. By definition, this field is open to every aspect of pitch organization; int erval relationships may exist within this field regardless of whether or not they are also related to older forms of melodic harmonic relationships. The only restriction lies in the avoidance of addressing anonymous fields, where neither horizontal nor v ertical pitch relationships play a distinct role.10 Building upon Stahnkes concept of meloharmony, this chapter explains the melohar m onic structures of Stahnkes operas and their signif icance in the (post)dramatic structures of these works, which represent facets of Stahnkes music philosophical beliefs. It also illustrates their relation to Partchs theories as well as other Western and nonWestern intonational systems. The range of Stahnkes microtonal procedures is more complex than those of Partch. We w ill, therefore, encounter a variety of compositional techniques, scales and intonational systems, as well as ways of conceiving vertical and horizontal microtonal structures in each of Stahnkes theatrical pieces. 10 Manfred Stahnke, 2007, Hybrid Thinking in Meloharmony, in Proceedings of the International Conference: Composer au XXIe Sicle Processus et Philosoph ies 2007, 1 17. Montral (Qubec) Canada.

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71 In his four dramatic works, Stahnkes integration of digital media and electronics enhance the function of his meloharmonic construction in the dramatic narrative of his works. In his multi dimensional approach to the art, Stahnke creates new opera concepts, which rest upon incorporating and synthesizing exotic intervallic and harmonic ideas; improvisation; electronic sounds; and digital media, all the while basing his constructions on elaborated versions of literary sources, which contain philosophical, psychological, and existential connotations. Stahnke assigns an essential role to the meloharmonic structures as well as technological devices, in the context of his hybrid operas. Partchs Microtonality and Compositional Techniques in H is Theatrical Music Partchs concept of monophony informs his intonational system in all of its aspects. While his intonational system privileges the reciting voice, it is also a monophonic one. In the early 1930s, while Partch conceptualized hi s intonational fabric and lived as a hobo, he envisioned a more comprehe nsive system than twelv e tone equal temperament a system that would enable him to capture all the inflections of the human speech in the hobo folk songs he was collecting and reworking. His frequent excursions away from transient camps and part time jobs m ostly picking fruit in Northern Californiabrought him to public libraries, where he delved into the theoretical precepts of ancient Greek and Chinese music as well as into Helmhol tzs seminal text On the Sensation of Tone, all of which influenced him immensely. Soon thereafter, Partch conceived his just intoned, eleven limit, forty threetoneto octave intonational system a system that rests upon the simple ratios of the harmonic series up to the eleventh harmonic deriving from divisions of octave on a

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72 simple monochord.11 In Genesis of a Music Partch explains his use of the term monophony and its historical background as an intonational system, as follows: An organization of musical materials based upon the faculty of t he human ear to perceive all intervals and to deduce all principles of musical relationships as an expansion from unity, as 1 is to 1, or as it is expressed in this work 1/1. In the sense of growth from unity, monophony is a development of the theories ded uced by Pythagoras of Samos on his monochord, in the sixth century B.C.; beginning with the whole string of the monochord, or 1, Pythagoras divided the string into two parts and produced the interval 2/1, then into three parts and four parts, producing the intervals 3/2 and 4/3. In another sense monophony may be regarded as an organization deducible from the sounding of one tone, or the sounding of 1, or 1/1; in this sense it is an evolved expression of the phenomenon of the overtone series, first perceived by Martin Mersenne, French monk of the seventeenth century.12 A s it was the case in the ancient world and still is in several folk musical cultures, Partch intended to revitalize the dominance of the natural tones, rejecting the boundaries of the prevaili n g equal temperament. He theorized a new intonational system on the basis of ancient models and constructed his own instruments designed to realize this system. Partchs affection for the ancient Greek instruments, a substantial source of inspiration for his own instruments, served as a model for him to build a new just tuned intonational system, using the simple ratios of the harmonic series up to the eleventh harmonic. He, accordingly, built several, original instruments based on his extended just intonation, which apply the possibilities of the overtone and undertone series, realized through his concepts of otonality and utonality in his elevenlimit Tonality 11 In five limit just intonation, like most Western tunings, the primenumbered harmonics up to the fifth harmonic produce all the frequencies. Likewise, seven limit, eleven limit, and thirteenlimit just intonati ons point to the primenumbered harmonics up to the seventh, eleventh, and thirteenth harmonics as the foundation of all the frequencies. Partch created his elevenlimit just intoned system and built several instruments on its basis. See Navid Bargrizan, review of Ben Johnston: String Quartets Nos. 6, 7 & 8 by Kepler String Quartet. New World 807302, 2016, CD , Journal of the Society for American Music 11, 1 (2017), 118 120. 12 Partch, Genesis, 71.

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73 Diamond. Partchs terms otonality and utonality refer respectively to a collection of pitches of a harmonic series analogous to major tonality in the common period harmony, and a collection of pitches of a subharmonic series (an exact inversion of a harmonic series) analogous to minor tonalities. Partch designed an arbitrary twodimensional diagram c alled a tonality diamond, where one dimension presents the otonalities and the other dimension the utonalities ( see F igure 3. 5 ) 13 Figure 3 5 Partchs elevenlimit tonality diamond14 The monophonic intonational system, demonstrated in the above tonality diamond, presents the interrelationships of just tonalities stemming from unison (1/1) within an octave (2/1). Because it expands the fivelimit to the elevenlimit intonational system, it offers twenty eight possible tonalities, more than the number of tonalities inherent in the common fivelimit twe lve tone equal temperament, or in f ive limit just intonation ( see Figure 3. 6 ) .15 13 See Bargrizan, review of Ben Johnston: String Quartets Nos. 6, 7 & 8. 14 Partch, Genesis 159. 15 Partch, Genesis 160.

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74 Figure 3 6 F ive limit tonality diamond16 In the elevenlimit tonality diamond, as in the fivelimit diamond, otonalities appear between solid lines from left to right, and utonalities between dotted lines from right to left. For example, in the elevenlimit diamond, the ratios of 8/5 ( just min or sixth) otonality are 9/5 ( large just minor sixth), 5/5 (unison), 11/10 (undecimal neutral second), 6/5 ( just minor third), and 7/5 ( lesser septimal triton e also known as Huygens tritone).17 The tonalitys numerary nexus is 5, and the odentities (otonality ide ntities) are 8, 9, 5, 11, 6, and 7. The line of the six ratios demonstrates the maximum number of the consonance that can be achieved by expanding the identities 13 5 of the five limit system to 1 3 5 7 9 11 of the eleven limit system. Partchs elevenlim it just intonation, therefore, makes hexads (chords consisting of six notes) possible, instead of triads (chords consisting of three notes).18 The intonational system explained above is 16 Partch, Genesis 110. 17 Christiaan Huygens (1629 1695), the Dutch theorists, invented an equal tempered, thirty onenoteto octave scale, which Adriaan Fokker (1887 1972) revived and built an organ on its basis. 18 Partch, Genesis 72. Partch explains numerary nexus as the number common to all identities in the ratios of one tonality the common anchor; the characteristic of a series of rations that determines them as a tonality.

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75 the foundation of Partchs instruments as well as his theatrical compos i tions, in which Partch emulates his microtonal system and his instruments as part of the dramatic narrative. After two decades of composing small chamber pieces influenced by the hobo or nonW estern cultures e.g. Seventeen Lyrics by Li Po (193033), Barstow (1941), and The Wayward (1941 43) Partch conceived the grand dancedrama Oedipus his first effort to compose large theatrical music prior to The Bewitched and Delusion of the Fury Based on William Butler Yeats s version of Sophocles s drama, Part ch staged this piece under the title King Oedipus at Mills college on M arch 14 16, 1952. 19 I n Oedipus several of Partch s unique instruments such as adapted viola, adapted cello, adapted guitars, kithara, harmonic canon II (Castor and Pollux), chromelode on, diamond marimba, bass marimba, marimba eroica, gourd tree and cone gongs, and cloud chamber bowls, in addition to the common clari net and bass clarinet in B flat, accompany the singers and the chorus.20 As the following figures demonstrate, Partch devis ed a notational system that combined the language of ratios (as necessary for certain instruments) and conventional notation. A comprehensive legend at the beginning of the score and months of strict training for the musicians were required for the musicia ns to be able to read, comprehend, rehearse, and stage this work, as was the case in Partchs subsequent music dr amas ( see F igures 3.7, 3. 8 and 3. 9 ) In these 19 In 1934, Partch received a Carnegie Corporation grant to conduct research on microtonality in Europe. He traveled to the United Kingdom and worked in the British Museum for a whole year. H e also managed to meet Kathleen Schlesinger, the distinguished music archaeologist, and Yeats, the prominent Irish poet, who Partch was f ond of, and whom ideas regarding speechmusic resonated with Partch. 20 Although Partch made his first Kithara in 1938, he redesigned it extensively until 1960s, see Genesis of a Music 220 235. His exchange with Schlesinger, the curator of the music instruments at the British Museum and an authority on the ancient Greek instruments, was determining for Partchs revisions. He also built other innovative sorts of Kitharas, among others, surrogate kithara and kithara II (bass kithara).

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76 three pages of the legend, Partch explains the structures and ranges of the instruments and voices, as well as the notational system used for each. Partchs notational system differs in the case of each instrument For some instruments, he employs tablature, for some traditional notation, and for the other s a co mbination of just ratios and tablature, or just ratios and traditional notation. As opposed to the common Western musical culture, depending on the construction and function of each instrument, Partch adopts a different notational system, which makes learning and performing his music even more cumbersome. Partch constructed these instrument s based on the just, elevenlimit, forty threetoneto octave scale, not only to accompany human dance and movement essential components of his conception of corporealit y but also to accompany the human voice, another significant element of his concept of corporeality. Although I will elaborate on Partchs corporeality and its constituents in the following chapters, here, I explain Partchs peculiar approach to incorporating human voice Partch sought a sort of non musicalized singing analogous to human speech that would enable the audience to perceive the intonations of the words and, consequently, the essence of the drama.

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77 Figure 3 7 Manuscript of Oedipus ; cover pag e and first page of legend L ocated at Harry Partch Es tate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American M usic of the University of Illinois

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78 Figure 38 Manuscript of Oedipus ; second page of legend. L ocated at Harry Partch Es tate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Ar chives and Center for American M usic of the University of Illinois

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79 Figure 3 9 Manuscript of Oedipus ; third page of legend L ocated at Harry Partch Es tate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American music of the University of Illinois Draw ing upon ancient Greek theater Partch conceptualized corporeal dramatic works, where all the artistic aspects including the instruments, staging, acting, costumes, and lighting join the voices intoned as close as possible to the human

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80 speech, to delineate the essence of the philosophical plots His aforementioned early chamber works are therefore, often called speechmusic pieces. The over exaggerated microtonal scale of Partch was, in fact, a necessity; a tool for him to capture all the inflections of the human speechthe subtle inflections that the twelvetone equal tempered scale is not capable of capturing. Partchs microtonal scale realized in his instruments and the way he ha ndles voices is inextricably attached to the musical and theatrical foundation of Partchs aesthetic ideas. In Oedipus Partch writes for the voices in two di stinctive ways: first, sections of voices choir or solo sing the exact written pitches and rhythm s. Second, in sections of long, recitative like speeches for solo voices, where Partch demands the singers to intone words more or less in a free style, yet as close as possible to the human speech in a certain duration of time and with certain i nstrumenta l accompaniment. As visible in Exampl e 3. 1 the soprano intones the exact, written pitches and rhythms, whereas in Example 3. 2, the characters of Oedipus, Creon, and the Priest intone words in a rather free manner.

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81 Example 3 1. Manuscript of Oedipus ; T hird Chorus p. 51 The sopranos sing the exact, written pitches and rhythms. L ocated at Harry Partch Es tate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Ar chives and Center for American M usic of the University of Illinois

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82 Example 3 2 Manuscript of Oedi pus ; opening s cene p age 11. L ocated at Harry Partch Es tate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for Amer ican M usic of the University of Illinois Although Partchs just elevenlimit intervals and his forty threetone scale are the music theoretical foundations of this piece, whether in the fully instrumental sections, or in the mixed vocal and instrumental parts, Partch rarely employs microtonality in terms of just harmonic intervals, unless chromelodeon accompanies the voices, or if relatively

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83 static moments of two, vertical just pitches on top of each other appear. Not only Partchs Oedpius but also his other theatrical pieces often sound, in fact, as a constant percussive pattern, interrupted with microtonal glissandi, and barely just ly tunedwhat Stahnke names Partchs strange intonation.21 When Partchs chromelodeon, an adapted organ capable of demonstrating just intervals sounds however, we delve into pur e just intonation ( see Figure 3. 1 0 ) Figure 31 0 Partchs chrome lodeon ; the ratios of the just intervals are marked on the keyboard.22 In other words, even though elevenlimit just intonation underpins every aspect of Partchs conceptual and acoustical terrain, because of the clashes of the timbres, various instrumental techniques, limitations of certain instruments, and oftentimes fast and percussive rhythmical patterns, it is difficult to perceive and categorize the resulting 21 In my interviews with Stahnke, he used strange intonation to refer Partchs music repeatedly. 22 Photo by Stan Sadowski Source: http://www.sonoloco.com/rev/innova/401405406/partch.html accesse d 05.03.2017.

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84 sounds as just intoned. On the other hand, some strange intervals emerging from simultaneity of r ich layers of microtones hinder our perception of the pure ratios, throughout. In 1957, Ben Johnston at the time a professor of composition and music theory at the University of Illinois invited Partch to the annual Festival of the Contemporary Arts in UrbanaChampaign, for which Partch conceptualized his dance satire The Bewitched. After months of rehearsals, the scandalous premi ere fueled by the vastly different artistic visions of Partch and the choreographer Alwin Nikolais took place on March 26, 1957. Partchs iconoclastic story of the interaction of a witch, witchs chorus (the orchestra), and the bewitched (the dancers) has proved to be his most successful theatrical piece having been reworked by Partch and restaged, among others, at Julliard in 1959, Columbia University in 1962, and at the University of California San Diego in 1975. In The Bewit ched, Partchs in struments do minate the stage set; t heir sculptural beauty work as an essential part of the dcor on the stage.A accompanying witchs chorus, they are fully integrated in the psychological story line Partch s social and cultural criticism: in his words, stories of rele ase through salutary and whimsical witchery; from prejudice; from individual limitations; even from the accidents of physical form; of sex that create mental obstacle to vision.23 Partch arranged the stories in the following ten scenes of witchery, in which the witch is supposed to release the lost 23 Harry Partch, The Bewitched, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 307.

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85 musicians from their m ental and physical limitations. Table 3.1 lists the scenes and their titles 24 Table 31. List of scenes and t itles in Harry Partchs The Bewitched Scene Title 1 Three Undergrads Become Transfigured in a Hong Kong Music Hall 2 Exercise in Harmony and Counterpoint Are Tried in a Court of Ancient Ritual 3 The Romancing of a Pathologic Liar Comes to an Inspired End 4 A Soul Tormented by Contemporary Music Finds a Humanizing Alchemy 5 Visions Fill the Eyes of a Defeated Basketball Team in the Shower Room 6 Euphoria Descends a Sausalito Stairway 7 Two Detectives on the Tail of a Tricky Culprit Turn in Their Badges 8 A Court in its Own Contempt Rises to a Motherly Apotheosis 9 A Lost Political Soul Finds Himself among the Voteless Women of Paradiso 10 The Cognoscenti Are Plunged into a Demonic Descent While at Cocktails Epilogue The Witch Van ishes, and the Lost Musicians Wa nder Away Partch applies a combination of female solo voice, dancers, chorus leader (the chorus members are the instrumentalists), kithara, koto, harmonic canon, surrogate kithara, chromelodeon, cloudchamber bowls, spoils of war, diamond marimba, boo, bass marimba, and some common Western instruments such as piccolo, clarinet, bass clarinet, and cello in The Bewi t ched Except for the common instruments, Partch gives a detailed legend at the beginning of the score, explaining the ranges, tunings, and notational subtl eties of every instrument. These instruments are all based on Partchs elevenlimit just intonation, with all the pitches emulated in his forty threetone scale, and the emerging hexads. Because of the intricate and novel design of each instrument and diff erent styles of notations used for each, however, the individual instruments required indepth explanation in the score ( see Figure 3.11 through 3.14) 24 Partch, The Bewitched , 308 318.

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86 Figure 311. Manuscript of The Bewitched; l egend, page 1. Located the library of University of California San Diego.

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87 Figure 312. Manuscript of The Bewitched; l egend, page 2. Located the library of University of California San Diego.

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88 Figure 313. Manuscript of The Bewitched; l egend, page 2 Located the library of University of California San Diego

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89 Figure 314. The Manuscript of The Bewitched ; l egend, page 3. Located at the library of University of California San Diego.

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90 The dancemovements in The Bewitched are based on Partchs impression of Non European dance and theater cultures, for instance kabuki, albeit in the disguise of a fictional story. Considering that microinterval s substantiate these musical cultures, Partchs just and strange intonations emerging from his microtonal scales, just chords, and instruments seem particularly suitable to depict these nonWestern dance movements. They are fully absorbed into the absurd dramatic and sounding body of the work. Partch handles the w itchs voice, the only singing part in the piece, in a way that t he role of the w itch does not have any words to sing; she just intones specific sounds from the throat to reinforce the essential mood o f the scene accompanied by the witchs chorus, which is actually an orchestra. In The Bewit ched purely instrumental dance scenes, occasionally joined by w itchs voice, dominate. The corporeal presence of the character of the witch, the bewitched dancers, and the w itchs chorus (orchestra) featuring Partchs microtonal instruments and exotic soundstructures become therefore, an integral element in the dramatic construction of the work, without which the whole c onception would cease to exist ( see Examples 3.3 and 3. 4 ) Example 33 Manuscript of The Bewitched scene 5, p.102; w itchs voice and Partchs instruments. Located the library of University of California San Diego.

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91 Example 34 Manuscript of The Bewitched sc ene 1, p.56; instrumental dance. L ocated the library of University of California San Diego.

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92 Partchs magnum opus Delus ion of the Fury (premiered 1972 at UCLA) portrays six main characters: the slayer, the ghost of the slain, and the son of the slain in the first act; and a young vagabond, an old female sheph e rd, and the judge in the secondin addition to several instrumentalists who also sing, act, and dance. The characters, surprisingly, do not have much text to sing; ten words in the first act, and forty four in the second, all written by Partch in colloquial English. This fact seems to contradict the way Partch deals wi th the voice in his earlier speechmusic pieces, as well as his music dramas prior to Delusion of the Fury where the reciting voice plays a significant role. Regarding the sparse handling of the voices in Delusion of the Fury, Partch says: I feel that th e mysterious perverse qualities of these story ideas can be conveyed through music, mime, lights, with more sureness of impact than with spoken or sung lines, and spoken or sung lines in reply.25 Although individuals vocalized words remain a relevant el ement of Partchs corporeal medium, in Delusion of the Fury he employs voices in a fundamentally distinctive manner than his early speechmusic pieces, and even Oedipus Delusion of the Fury features tragic and comic existential stories about life and death inspired by Japanese Noh drama (first act) and Ethiopian folk tales (second act), written by Partch himself. In this piece, the used, seemingly, meaningless sounds from the throat rather than words which are meaningful in the verbal communicative lan guage are not actually meaningless in the music; according to Partch, They are vibrations from assembled throats.26 Accompanying the human voice and the dances, 25 Partch, Bitte r Music 252. 26 Partch, Bitter Music 253.

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93 in Delusion of the Fury Partch exploits almost all of the instruments that he had ever built based on his extended just intonation. With the exception of Partchs self made koto, whichalthough not the sameis inspired by the Japanese version, Partch employs neither Japanese music instruments, nor Japanese scales in this piece. Furthermore, even t hough Partch applies several percussion instruments of his own design, he does not integrate any African element in the piece. According to Partch: I am not trying to depict African ritual, although African ritual, as I have heard it on records, has obviously influenced my writing, in this and several other works.27 Much as in his earlier works, Part chs forty threetone scale and his elevenlimit just intonation substantiate his writing for both the voices and the instruments in Delusion of the Fury Partch fully integrates his array of microtonal instruments into the dramatic concept ion of this piece as much as if not more, in The Bewitched and Oedipus He employs his adapted guitar, chromelodeon, kithara, harmonic canon, bloboy, koto, crychord, diam ond marimba, boo, mbira bass dyad, gourd tree and cone gongs, cloudchamber bowls, spoils of war, zymoxyl and several other large and small handinstruments in Delusion of the Fury Displaying Partchs most comprehensive instrumentation, this piece also features, for the first time, two of his most intriguing instruments: quadrangularis reversum and eucal blossom ( see F igure s 3.15 and 3.16 ) 27 Partch, Bitter Music 252

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94 Figure 3 15. Quadrangularis Reversum; Partch uses this instrument in Delusion of the Fury for the first time .28 Figure 3 16. Eucal Blossom; Partch uses this instrument in Delusion of the Fury for the first time .29 Partchs own explanation reveal s how deeply his just tuned instruments, the instrumentation, and the instrumentalists are integrated into the corporeality of this ritual music drama: The Instrumentalists are the Chorus. [] the choral voice sounds do not come from a separate body of persons appearing just occasionally, but from among the instruments, from the musicians who are deeply involv ed throughout. In the Delusion of the Fury, I wanted to progress even beyond this concept. There are many musicians on stage, but almost never do all of them play simultaneously. In fairly long periods only a small ensemble 28 source: https://undergoers.wordpress.com/2011/02/18/partch/harry partchquadrangularis reversum 1965/ accessed 04.19.2017. 29 source: http://www.microtonal synthesis.com/instruments.html accessed 04.19.2017.

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95 is employed, and the tacit music ians may thus become actors and dancers, moving from instruments to acting areas as the impetus of drama requires. This must be a move toward a sealing of the bond between the theater arts.30 This remark reveals the extent of the dependency of Partchs aest hetic on his instruments conceived by means of his microtonal system. As in his previous theatrical pieces, i n Delusion Partch felt the necessity of a detailed legend at the beginning of the score, articulating the realization of his intonational system i n his instruments, for the musicians largely unfamiliar with the intricacies of his theories, notational system, and sound structures ( see Figures 3.17 and 3.18, as well as Examples 3.5 and 3.6) Figure 317. Manuscript of Delusion of the Fury ; l egend, p. 8. L ocated at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Ar chives and Center for American M usic of the University of Illinois 30 Partch, Genesis, 351.

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96 Figure 318. Manuscript of Delusion of the Fury ; l egend, p. 9. L ocated at Harry Partch Estate Archive an d Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Ar chives and Center for American M usic of the University of Illinois

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97 Example 3 5 Manuscript of Delusion of the Fury ; A ct 1 (Exordium), p. 36. L ocated at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Ar chives and Center for American M usic of the University of Illinois

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98 Example 36 Manuscript of Delusion of the Fury ; A ct 2 (Sanctus), p. 22 23. L ocated at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Ar chives and Center for American M usic of the University of Illinois Although the preparation and performance of Delusion the most complicated of Partchs works, proved to be an imm ense burden for the aged Partch and his assistant Danlee Mitchell, the audi ence and also the critics received it sensationally ; a

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99 magnificent and final exposition of Partchs unique concept ual and intonational oeuvre. Ending the discussion of microtonality, tuning, intonation, tone system, and compositional procedures in Partchs works with his grand music drama, the next section begins with Stahnkes last opera, Orpheus Kristall moving, then, back in time to analyze the microtonal configurations in his earlier theatrical works Stahnkes Microtonality and Compositional Technique s in H is Theatrical Music In Orpheus Kristall Stahnkes multimedia opera for stage and remote musicians (2001), he constructs an intricate microtonal fabric consisting of three main layers: he uses a finely tuned system of fifty three tones per octave, hi s own concept of Differenztonharmonik (d ifferencetone harmony), and extensive m icro glissandi to characterize Orpheus inner battle within his extended technological world. Stahnke borrowed the term Kristalla metaphor for the notion of nature from Erwin Schrdingers concept of aperiodic crystal in his influential book What Is Life? .31 In this seminal text, in an era before the biological structure of the humanDNA was fully exposed, Schrdinger proposes the concept of aperiodic crystal as the molecular material carrier of life. He juxtaposes this concept, which stands for the rather complicated and nonrepetitive structure of a gene, and the rigid and plain structure of the natural periodic crystals, as it was already understood in the physic s.32 In his words: An Organisms astonishing gift of concentrating a stream of order on itself and thus escaping the decay into atomic chaos of drinking orderliness from a suitable environment seems to be connected with the presence of 31 Schrdinger was a Nobel prize winning Austrian Physicist (1887 1961). In What is Life? (Cambridge, 1944), he investigates issues related to genetics from the standpoint of the physics. 32 Erwin Schrdinger, W hat Is Life? The Physical Aspects of the Living Cell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1944, 60 61.

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100 the aperiodic solids, the chromosome molecules, which doubtless represent the highest degree of well ordered atomic association we know of much higher tha n the ordinary periodic crystal in virtue of the individual role every atom and every radical is playing here.33 Inspi red by Schrdingers thesis, the complicated and rigorous structure of periodic crystals (natural crystals) metaphorically represents Stahnkes intricate microtonal system, comprising fifty three tones to octave.34 Regarding this scale, which he employs f or the improvisation of the remotemusicians exclusively Stahnke mentions: How are we able to deal with an Internet opera which includes building crystals (tone systems) and Internet? Tone systems are analogous to crystals. But in this omnivorous Europe, the crystal is already very old (our great grandfather: the twelvetone equal temperament).35 Stahnkes scale facilitates the inclusion of partials up to the twenty first harmonic in the harmonic series. His system consists of fifty three equal intervals, which linearly would build a scale of oneeighth tones.36 33 Schrdinger, What Is Life? 77. 34 As opposed to his metaphorical use of the concept of aperiodic crystal, informing his system of differencet one h armony, which I will explain in the next pages. 35 Wie ist so ein Ding Internetoper zwischen Kristallbauen und Internet Laufenlassen zu planen? Tonsysteme gehren zu Kristallen, aber in diesem allesfressenden Europa sind die Kristalle gealtert (uns er Urgrovater ZwlftonTemperierung). In Manfred Stahnke, Ein Tonsystem fr eine Internetoper, in Positionen: Beitr ge zur neuen Musik 48, ed. Gisela Nauck (M hlenbeck: Verlag Positionen, 2001), 27. 36 A scale of oneeight tones does not give exactly f ifty threetones per octave; 1200 cents (octave) / 53 = 22.6 cents, whereas 25 cents (eight tones) x 53 = 1325 cents. In other words, we have a difference of about 2.4 cents per tone, or 125 cents (halftone + a quarter tone) per octave. T he steps in the fi fty threeto ne equal tempered scale (22.6 cents ) are, hence, not exactly oneeighthtones (25 cents), but something between oneeight and oneseventhtone (28.5 cents ). However, the ca. three c. of difference between the steps in the fifty threetone equal tempered scale (22.6 cents) and oneeight tones (25 cents ) are so small that th e steps can be approximated to oneeight tones. We can, hence, say that in the fifty threetone equal tempered scale, we have a scale of approximately oneeight tones. On the other hand, in the ancient China, and later theorists observed that the succession of fifty three just fifths on top of each other would get very close to thirty one oct aves. Besides, we know that tempered fifths in the fifty threetone equal tempered scale are very close to the just fifths (701.8 cents vs. 701.9 cents), and the major thirds in fifty threetone equal tempered scale are very cl ose to just major thirds (384 cents vs. 386 cents). The fifty threetone equal tempered scale, with very small appr oximation, can, hence, accommodate the intervals in the fivelimit just intonation. Stahnke s use of fifty threetone equal tempered scale can, therefore, accommodate t he harmonics. But why up to twenty first harmonic? That is in fact, just one instance of the just intervals that this scale can accommodate. The twenty first

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101 Using intervals e mbedded in the harmonic series, Stahnke creates an approximate elaboration of equal temperament, extending the realm of twelve tones to fifty three tones to octave. About the relati onship of this scale to the ancient musical cultures and their characteristics, Stahnke states : That is an old Bosanquet and Baroque system. Even the ancient Chinese people knew that building up a scale of fifty three natural fifths, practically results i n the octave. Fifty three tempered steps in an octave approximately results in one eight tone steps. Using fifty three tones to octave opens the door to a lexicon of perverse and useful intervals. There, we are suspiciously close to world of noises .37 He re, we observe that Stahnkes tonal concept has its roots in the ancient world as well as in the nature, representing the world of Orpheus and the world of the natural, untempered tones; questioning our dominating, equal tempered tonal world.38 The slow and long microglissandi, where we can experience a diverse and constantly morphing microtonal world, informs the second significant m icrotonal element in the opera ( see Examples 3. 7 throu gh 3. 9 ) .39 While Stahnke often applies micro glissandi in his compositions, in Orpheus Kristall the extensive use of microglissandi refers to the continually mutating thoughts of the autistic Orpheus harmonic (ratio 21/16) is an equal tempered major fourth minus twenty nine cents, about oneseventhtone lower than the equal tempered major fourth. Having a scale of oneeight tone can accommodate, for instance, this interval Fifty threetone equal tempered scale can, therefore, become a way to approach just intervals e.g. up to the twenty first harmonic. 37 Das ist ein altes System. Bosanquet, Baroc k. Sogar die alten Chinesen wussten dass nach 53 reinen Quinten bereinander praktisch die Oktave erreicht ist. 53 temperierte Schritte pro Oktave ergeben linear zirka Achteltnen. Mit 53 Tnen ffnet sich ein Lexikon des Perversen und Ntzlichen, wir sind dem rauschen verdchtig nah. In Stahnke, Ein Tonsystem, 27. Robert Holford Macdowell Bosanquet (18411912) was a British music theorists and an expert in tuning and intonation. An Elementary Treatise on Musical Intervals and Temperament (London: MacMillan and Co, 1876) is his seminal t ext. 38 Navid Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation in Manfred Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall . Mzik Bilim Dergisi, The Journal of Musicology 6 (1 ), 16 17 39 In this dissertation, all the figures and examples from Manfred Stahnkes scores are reproduced with the permission of the StahnkeVerlag.

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102 The scale consisting of fifty three tones to octave used by the remote musicians and the micro glissandi used by the stageorchestra are therefore the most essential elements in the tonal construction of this opera. 40 Example 37. Orpheus Kristall scene I, measures 84 89; micro glissandi in the strings, microtonal deviations, and the differencetone chords; the fundamental tones are stated below the staff. 40 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 16.

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103 Example 38 Orpheus Kristall scene I, measures 90 95; micro glissandi in the strings, microtonal deviations, and the differencetone chords; the fundamental t ones are stated below the staff.

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104 Example 39 Orpheus Kristall scene I, measures 96 100; microglissandi in the strings, microtonal deviations, and the differencetone chords; the fundamental tones are stated below the staff. Stahnke relates the extensi ve use of microglissandi to the story line if there is such thing as a clear story line in this opera as follows: There is the threshold of form recognition in the constantly mutating meloharmonic image as a consequence of micro-

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105 glissandi and pulsefluct uations as if Hades is the world of formlessness, and as if form comes from an inaccessible, different world.41 In other words, the vague microtones located between the fixed half and whole tones as opposed to the familiar tones of the equal tempe red twelve tonescale underlines the juxtaposition of the notions of formlessness and form. Explaining the reasons for his interest in micro glissandi, a technique he employs in several of his pieces, Stahnke elaborates: It is the idea of a gradual shifting of intervals, which slowly produce new harmonies. I find this interesting, because, as many voices slide simultaneously, sometimes, they generate simple pure chords. Imagine that I take a major third, then I slowly slide to a narrow fourth; then, I gradually arrive in an equal tempered fourth, where all the tones fall in a simple chord: I come from a familiar sound structure to a vibrating and strange one, and then again fall in a new simple chord. This morphing fourth produce various differenceand sum tone s. These transitions interest me.42 Alongside juxtaposition of the stageand Internet music, the aforementioned tonal elements reinforce the contrast between the notions of formlessness and form, already integrated in the Orpheus story. Orpheus desperately desires to reach his now dead, formless Eurydice. He, therefore, travels to Hades, where the distinction between form and formlessness is vague. He nearly regains his Eurydice, but he loses her again, and 41 For explanation of the concept of meloharmony, see page 34. Es gibt die Schwelle des Gestalterkennens in einem stets mutierenden meloharmonischen Bild infolge von Mikroglissandi, Pulsschwankungen als wre der Hades der Ort der Gestaltlosigkeit und als kme Gestalthaftes aus einer anderen unerreichbarenWelt. In Manfred Stahnke Orpheus unter den ganzen Zahlenein Essay ber Schwellen, in Melodie und Harmonie: Festschrift fr Christoph Hohfeld zum 80. Geburtstag ed. R. Bahr (Berlin: Weidler, 2001), 196. 42 Das ist diese Idee vom ganz langsamen Vernder n der Intervalle, die dann ganz langsam neue Harmonien erzeugen. Das interessiert mich, weil man manchmal im Glissando vieler Stimmen in einfache Natur Klnge fllt. Also stellen Sie sich vor, ich nehme eine groe Terz, komme langsam in die zu enge Quart e; dann komme ich allmhlich in die richtige Quarte und pltzlich fallen hier alle Tne in einen einfachen Akkord: Ich komme von einer Welt, wo alles stimmt, in einer merkwrdigen Welt, wo alles vibriert und schillert; und pltzlich komme ich wieder in ein en neuen einfachen Akkord. Eben mit dieser Quarte baut sich ihr Summations und Differenztonschatten. Diese bergnge, diese Transitionen interessieren mich. In Navid Bargrizan, Aspekte m ikrotonaler Komposition.

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106 therefore, loses himself as well. Stahnke conceives the dichotomy between form and formlessness by the means of a contrast between the realm of half and whole tones and the domain of microtones, all of which is amplified by the improvisatory world of Internet sounds, in contrast to the stageproduced soun ds. To realize the dichotomy of form and formlessness in the music, Stahnke expands the world of fixed half and whole tones to a world of endless tones, where the tone is an unfixed phenomenon. By allegorical adoption of a multi layered microtonal structur e, Stahnke breaks the barrier of the equal temperament that had characterized our somewhat limited world of the tempered fixed tones.43 As an allegory to Schrdingers concept of aperiodic crystals , Stahnkes concept of differencetone harmony ( Differen ztonharmonik ) underpins the operas harmonic structure. About his system of differencetone harmony and its significance in the conception of Orpheus Kristall Stahnke states: If this enormous apparatus, the Internet, with its uncontrollable character has to be integrated on the stage, as a counterbalance, a precisely built crystal should also be present on the stage. My differencetone harmony could become a comprehensive meloharmonic concept for the entire opera.44 In pieces such as his fourth string quartet, titled Schrdingers Kristall inspired by Schrdingers concept, Stahnke applies his system of differencetone harmony extensively. In Orpheus Kristall Stahnkes meloharmonic construction also rests upon differencetone harmony. This concept refers to the psychoacoustical phenomenon that 43 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 16. 44 Wenn schon dieser riesige Apparat des Internet mit seinem unsteuerbaren Spielcharakter in die Oper einbrechen soll, msste als starkes Gegengewicht ein sehr przise gebautes Kristall auf die reale Opernbhne gestellt werden. Meine Differenztonharmonik knnte zu einem umfassenden meloharmonischen Konzept fr die Oper werden. In Stahnke, Ein Tonsystem fr eine Internetoper, 27.

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1 07 happens naturally in our ears when we hear any interval, especially a very narrow interval, e.g. A 440 HZ and A 440 HZ + tone. As soon as we hear such an interval, its sum tone ( Summationston) emerges as overtone, and its quadratic as well as its cubic differencetones ( Differenztne) emerge as undertones.45 We, however, only perceive this naturally occurring phenomena in specific acoustic conditions accompanied by enough amplification, correct intonation, and the lack of vibrato. 46 Taking any ratio (f2/f1) from the overtoneseries (f2 has a higher frequency than f1), the quadratic differencetone of this ratio is f2 minus f1 (f2f1). For example, as illustrated in Figure 3.19, based on C2 as fundamental, its eleventh overtone (f2) is F#5 49 cents, or the natural tritone (11/8), which is about a quarter tone (50 cents) smaller than equal tempered tritone. On the other hand, its seventh overtone (f1) is Bb4 31 cents, or the natural minor seventh (7/4), which is about onesixth tone (33 cents) smaller than the equal tempered minor seventh. According to the form ula f2f1, the quadratic differencetone of these two frequencies sounding harmonically is 117=4, the fourth partial which is C4. The sum tone of these two frequencies (f1+f2) is 7+11=18, in this case the eighteenth partial, which is D6.47 45 See, for example, James O. Pickles, An Introduction to the Physiology of Hearing (Bingley: Emerald, 2010), or, Stanley A. Gelfland, Hearing: An Introduction to Psychological and Physiological Acoustics (New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004). 46 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 20. 47 Bargrizan, Technolog y, Microtones, and Mediation, 20.

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108 Figure 319. O vertone series of the fundamental tone C2, up to the twenty first overtone. This figure indicates the quadratic differencetone and the summationtone of the ratio f2/f1. More complicated and not as well known is the phenomenon of cubic differencetone (2* f1 f2), which actually is not just one tone, but usually a cascade of differencetones consisting of the undertones of any ratio based on a specific fundamental. Take, for example, the ratio 11/10 (tenth partial is E5 based on the fundamental C2), the firs t cubic differencetone is 2*1011=9, which is D5 4 cents. Then if we take D5 as f2, the next cubic differencetone in the cascade will be 2*910=8, which is C5. If we keep on calculating according to the same formula, the rest of the cubic differenceton e will be: 2*8 9= 7 2*7 8= 6 2*6 7= 5 2*5 6= 4 2*4 5= 3 2*3 4= 2 2*2 3= 1 W e observe ( see

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109 Figure 3.20) that all the undertones of the ratio 11/10 build a cascade of cubic differencetones (the ninth, eighth, seventh, sixth, fifth, fourth, third, and the s econd partials, as well as the fundamental tone itself).48 Figure 320. Overtone series of the fundamental tone C2, up to the twenty first overtone. This figure indicates the cubic differencetones of the ratio f2/f1. Extending the scope of his microtonal system throughout Orpheus Kristall, Stahnke uses this natural phenomenon and builds just intoned c hords based on both sorts of differencetones, constructing the harmonic structure of the opera. In other words, his harmonic system makes us perceive consciously what we most often, unconsciously hear ( see Example 3. 10 ) 48 Bargr izan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 21.

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110 Example 3 10. Orpheus Kristall scene V, measures 1 23 128; differencetone chords; the fundamental tones are stated below the staff. Throughout the opera, Stahnke deliberately uses various meloharmonic possibilities, which his microtonal conceptions grant him. He relates the microtonal world of differencetones to the Orpheus story, using a triple Eurydice character, which could be interpreted as both Eurydice and the tree headed dog, Cerberus, as follows:

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111 A triple Eurydice is generated as the composed differencetoneshadows of Orpheuss voice. The woman, from the world of shadows, pulls the man (escaping love) underneath. Orpheus appears as a double of the triple E urydice; as her projection. The sung tones are actually the projection of a modified sound space: each sung tone is instrumentally projected in a differencetone space, which unfolds in a strict and obsessive tonesystem.49 In Orpheus Kristall the low so unding musical instruments often realize the differencetones of the vocal or higher instrumental parts to build complex, microtonally tuned chords. 50 In addition to the natural intervals, the complex unordinary intervals also play a significant role in S tahnkes opera. What happens if we move from the natural fourth (4/3) to a slightly distorted fourth of 4.1/3? Then, some extremely exotic differencetones emerge. Using the technique of microglissandi, we, in fact, experience a diverse world of these strange tones between the just intoned tones. The natural intervals, the distorted intervals, and their complicated differencetones build the harmonic structure of Orpheus Kristall all of which, in turn, draw upon meticulous mathematical calculations. 51 Stahnke has also written microtones for the singers In order to intone these intervals as precisely as possible, Stahnke and the conductor practiced for a long time with the singers, using the exact computer versions of the microtones, while the microtonal voice parts are also frequently accompanied by ins trumental background as 49 Eine dreifache Eurydice erzeugt sich als komponierten Differenztonschatten der Orpheusstimme. Die Frau, hier durchaus kein Wesen aus der Schattenwelt, zieht den (vor der Liebe Fliehenden) Mann herab. Or pheus erscheint wie ein Doppel der DreifachEurydice, wie Ihre Projektion. berhaupt sind die gesungenen Tne Projektionen eines vorgeformten Klangraums: Jeder gesungene Ton wird instrumental in ein differenztongeschehen eingebettet, ergibt sich so aus einer strengen Ordnung, aus einer Obsession. In Stahnke, Ein Tonsystem fr eine Internetoper, 27. 50 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 21. 51 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 23.

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112 reference frequency. According to Stahnke: without the instruments as references for the vocalists, it would be very hypothetical to realize these microintervals in the voice.52 One of the important reasons for the persistence of the composer to revive the predominance of the natural tones in Orpheus Kristall which sound to our ears ironi cally unnatural, and to base his whole meloharmonic construction upon just intonation, is the centrali ty of the element of nature in the whol e Orpheus myth, which, as the following chapters reveal, is of a particular relevance in the conception of the opera.53 In Orpheus K ristall, a duality arises from the conflict of the indefinite, improvisatory world of the Internet sounds, and the definite, intricately built m icrotonal system of the opera. The notion of duality, in fact, overshadows the opera: duality of the ancient myth and the modern, technological world; duality of our solid universe (or multiverse) and the underworld (Hades); duality of t he world of fixed tones and the realm of nonfixed, finely tuned tones, all of which the amalgamation of Stahnkes multi layered microtonality allegorically realize.54 Prior to Orpheus K ristall, Stahnke had employed microtonal structures and technology as i ntegral parts of the (post)dramatic fabric in his three other theatrical works. He based his chamber opera Der Untergang des Hauses Usher ( The Fall of the House of Usher ) commissioned by Kiel Opera and premiered in 1981 on Edgar Allen 52 Wir sind immer von den Gesangstnen, die von Instrumental Tnen getragen sind, ausgegangen. Also es gibt niemals den reinen Gesang ohne den Hintergrund der Instrumente. So haben wir auch mit Computer gebt, damit die Snger hren, wie die Mikrotne klingen und sich anpassen knnen. Sonst wre das sehr hypothetisch. In Bargrizan, Aspekte m ikrotonaler Komposition, 110. 53 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 23. 54 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 23.

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113 Poes novel of the same name (published 1839), as well as an assortment of Poes other poems, which Stahnke himself selected and arranged. In this opera, Stahnke employs microtonal structures based on just i ntonation to evoke an intricate web of psychological issues implied in Poes plot, such as hypochondriasis, hysteria, and melancholy as well as its grotesque aspects, for example, incest, vampirism, and horror. Stahnkes pedantically laid out microtonality in Usher projects Poes style of story telling, where every element and all details are meticulously interwoven and relevant. The microtonal configurations, hence, are of a great importance in the dramatic narrative of the opera. Stahnkes peculiar harp t uning a tuning which he developed during his studies with Ben Johnston at University of Illinois in 1979 with the cooperation of the harpist and computer composer Carla Scalleti stands at the center of his multifarious microtonal fabric in Usher .55 In this opera, the harps special tuning based on just intonation illustrates an image of the old and pleasant days of the House of Usher in Poes infamous novel. Its microtonal tuning the dissolution of the twelvetone equal temperament symbolizes the relentless decay of the house of Usher which, throughout the plot, is collapsing. As much as the concept of differencetone harmony interwoven in the narrative of Orpheus Kristall Stahnkes intertwines harps metaphorical tuning in the narrative of both Usher and H einrich IV The reference to the old days nostalgia for the past embedded not only in Poes Usher but also in Pirandellos Enrico IV as well as in the Orpheus story has 55 Scalleti (born 1956) received her DMA at the University of Illinois in 1984. She designed, among others, Kyma, a pioneering sound design workstation, see www.carlascaletti.com accessed 04.12.2017.

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114 underpinned Stahnkes theatrical conceptions in all of his operas to the extent that he exploited microtonal elements as a musical means to associate with the nostalgia inherent in these story lines. Although I will analyze the function of the concept of nostalgia in Partchs and Stahnkes dramatic designs in the following chapters, here, I shed light on the function of the related microtonal elements emulated in the operas dramatic design. Through hours of experiments and with S ca l letis help, Stahnke conceptualized his innovate harp tuning, which rests upon just major thirds and just minor sevenths based on a B fundamental ( see F igure 3.21 ) Figure 321. Harps tuning in Der Untergang des Hauses Usher ; cent deviation from equal temperament are shown below the notes. In this tuning system, harps first string is tuned B (the fundamental tone), the second string is tuned a just major third ( 14 cents, or about oneeight tone, lower than the equal tempered major third used in the twelve tone equal temperament) above B, a just Eb. This Eb itself generates the just G (just major third above Eb) of the third string, which, in turn, generates the just Cb of the fifth string (just major third above G). These leave out the fourth, sixth, and the seventh strings, which are tuned a just minor seventh (31 cents, or about onesixth tone, lower than the equal tempered minor seventh used in the twelvetone equal temperament) above B, Eb, and G, respectively a just C, just Db, and just F ( see F igure 3.22)

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115 Figure 3 22. Stahnkes autograph score with notes, for Der Untergang des Haus es Usher ; l egend; about the tuning of the harp. All the other octaves of the harp follow this just tuning of the first octave, expanding its capability to upper ranges. This system gives birth not only to the possibility of arranging horizontal and vertical just intervals producing a very different sound effect than the harps usual tuning, but also to a variety of idiosyncratic and complex proportions generated through use of the harp s pedals capable of sharpening and flattening each single note in all the octaves. These extraordinary proportions would fall under the category of strange intonation, a term as mentioned earlier coined by Stahnke to refer to Partchs intonational practic e, which, although based on just intonation, most often does not sound just. In Usher the harps sound world plays an

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116 essential role in the narrative, signifying Roderick Ushers constant feverish yearning for the beautiful, old days of the mansion. Roder ick Ushers character is, hence, associated with the harp, thro ugh out the opera ( see Example 3.11) Example 311. Der Untergang des Hauses Usher score; measures 185 197; harp interchanges with and accompanies Usher. Stahnke, however, seeks the tonal contradictions imbedded in his harp tuning as much as the just intervals on which it rests He relates these contradictions to Partchs aforementioned strange intonation, as follows: In several of my pieces the harps tuning demonstrates a contradiction i mposed by a sort of tonal falseness. In this tuning, the tones are only in a specific context just intoned; all of a sudden the intervals are not just any more, because [using pedals] I work with twenty one tones per octave.

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117 There I build a strangeintonation, which I actually learned from Partc h. Partchs music is rarely just intoned; it largely projects a sort of strange intonation. Most of his instruments, e.g. cloud chamber bowls, or marimba eroica, do not really sound just. They, however, make for a wonderful sound. He could not tune them according to just intonation precisely. But w here he uses chromelodeon, he builds exact just intervals. Such complicated strangeintonation appears in my harp tuning as well. 56 As Stahnke implies, he embraces the unexplainable tonal proportions emerging from the harps microtonal tuning, as Partch does in his own pieces. Influenced by the nineteenthcentury theoretical works of Arthur von Oettingen and Helmholz as well as Partchs explanation of harmonic and subharmonic series Stahnke appoints a significant role for the concepts of otonality and utonality in the microtonal structure of the opera. He in fact intertwines otonality and utonality in the dramatic narrative of the opera, as much as he links the harp and its peculiar tuning to evoke nostalgia.57 Highlighting the ways in which the theoretical works of von Oettingen, 56 Wie die H arfe in vielen von meinen Stcken gestimmt ist, ist durch eine Art Falschheit voll von Widersprchen Die Tne sind in einem bestimmten Zusammenhang Just Intonation, aber die Intervalle stimmen pltzlich nicht wirklich. Ich spiele mit 21 Tne pro Oktave in meiner Harfenstimmung. Eine Strange Intonation habe ich dann gebaut und das habe ich eigentlich von Partch gelernt, weil Partchs Musik nur zum einen kleinen Teil Just Intonation ist. Zum einen groen Teil ist er einfach Strange und er suchte das auch. Partchs Instrumente sind nicht genau Just Intonation. Das ist einfach ein wunderbarer Sound, den er von Cloud Chamber B owls nimmt oder das wunderbare Marimba Eroica; ein wunderbarer H olzklang. Die kann er nicht so genau stimmen. Das hat nichts Di rektes mit J ust Into nation zu tun. Dort wo er sein C hromelodeon nim mt, geht er aber sehr przis auf Just I ntonation. Solche komplizierte Strange Intonation taucht bei meiner Harfenstimmung auch auf. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.) 57 Arthur von Oettingen (1836 1920) a German scientist, musical theorist a nd a proponent of just intonation coined the dualism of major and minor triads, the latter being the inversion of the former. He proposed this concept in his book Harmoniesystem in dualer Entwicklung: Studiens zur Theorie der Musik (1866), which, allegedly, influenced Riemans theories. According to Mark Hoffman and Bernd Wiechert in New Grove Dictionary : Oettingen designed his dual system as the antithesis to Helmholzs Lehre von den Tonempfindungen (1863) [Translated to English by Alexander J. Ellis, under the title On the Sensation of Tone, 1875]. He believed that Helmholtz was wrong in his concept of consonance and dissonance. Because even a single tone has beats caused by the higher harmonics approaching each other in pitch, he believed that Helmholtz was measuring merely a greater or lesser dissonance. He thought that Helmholtz's approach was negative, and he advocated simply considering dissonance as a positive meeting of two or more different chords, major and minor chords thus being of equal value. Partchs concepts of otonality and utonality, which Stahnke adopted in his Usher rest upon Oettingens theories. (See New Grove and MGG entries for Arthur von Oettingen).

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118 Helmholz, and Partch, on top of his own experiments with computer in the USA have contributed to his integr ation of otonality and utonality as a musical means in the dramatic narrative, Stahnke explains: Working with John Chowning [ at Stanford], I tried to build computer versions of choir sound structures singing otonality and its mirrored spectrum, utonality. I took one central [fundamental] tone and built its harmonic and subharmonic series, which sounds in the computer, interestingly, marimbalike. I, then, used this structures in Usher which is directly associated with Partch. I took a chain of upward and downward, just major thirds intervals [14 cents narrower than the equal tempered major third], up to the eleventh harmonic. These major thirds become narrower as they ascend and descend. In Usher I have plenty of such otonality and utonality structures. V o n Oettingen discussed this duality of the overtone and undertone series, in the nineteenth century. He stated that minor (utonality) is the inversion of major (otonality). Reading Helm holzs text [ On the Sensation of Tone], who speculated on this theory, l ed me to this idea. In Usher otonality manifests the image of clarity, beauty, simplicity, and brightness, whereas utonality manifests the image of darkness. 58 In other words, otonality and utonality stand, respectively, for the old days and the present days of the house of Usher metaphorically relating these acoust ical structures to the elements in the Poes story line. Stahnkes use of otonality and utonality goes even beyond this metaphorical function; it also demonstrates Partchs influence on his com positional process, emphasizing a central theme of this dissertation: the philosophical, theoretical, and compositional lineage from Partch to Stahnke. 58 Ich hatte bei Chowning in Amerika bestimme Chorklnge aus probiert; also mit menschlichen S timmen am Computer in Otonality und gespiegelt in Utonality. Ich habe sozusagen ein en Zentralton genommen nach oben und ganz gespiegelt nach unten, der sehr merkwrdig klingt. Dieses Utonality klingt am Computer interessanteweise m arimbaartig. Dieser klang, den ich im Usher im Chor habe, ist direkt auf Partch gezogen. Otonality: groe Terz Intervalle gehen nach oben. Die verkleinern sich nach oben und sie verkleinern sich, wenn ich sie wieder nach unten nehme. Ich gehe hoch und tief zum elften Teilton. In Usher habe ich ganz viel die Mischung von Obertonund Untert onstrukturen. In 19. Jh. hatte v on O e ttingen diesen Dualismus vom Oberton und Unterton gebaut und behaupte t, dass Moll ist die Umkehrung v on Dur. Das kam zu mir ber Helmholz. Er hat ber diesen Dualismus spekuliert. In Usher habe ich das Bild der Klarheit und Schnheit und Einfachheit und des Strahlendes als Otonality; u nd die Dunkelheit manifestiert sich dann durch Utonality. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.).

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119 The j ust tuning of the harp and the use of otonality and utonality inform merely the first and second layers of Stahnkes microtonal construction in Usher ; he applies, in fact, various sorts of microtonal accidentals to integrate four other layers of microtonality. 1. a ccidentals with plus and mi nus signs (# #+, etc.) demonstrate just major thirds (ratio 5/4; about fourteen cents lower than the equal tempered major third); and just major sixths (ratio 5/3; about twelve cents lower than the equal tempered major sixth) for choir. The choir is supposed to intone these two intervals throughout the opera. 2. Accidentals with plus and minus s igns (# #+, etc.) in the solo voices and instrumental part signify d eviations of circa less than oneeight tones, almost always used in conjunction with just ma jor thirds and just minor sixth. 3. Accidentals with plus and minus signs (#, #+, etc.) in the solo voices and instrumental parts, within measures 714, 1 31 133, and 209215, indicate an approximate, equidistant pentatonic scale, which includes five equal intervals of 240 cents (wholet one plus onesixth tone) per octave. Indonesian Slendro music, or Baganda mus ic in Uganda, for example, make use of this scale, which Stahnke has adopted in Usher ( see Figures 3.23 and Example 3. 12) .59 4. Accidentals with arrow head signify deviations of quarter tones. Stahnke employs quarter tones in the both vocal and instrumental sections to expand his intonational inventory of twelvetone equal temperament to the possible twenty four tone equal temperament. 59 By using an equidistant pentatonic scale, S tahnke refers to Claude Debussy and his opera Le c hute de la maison Usher on which he worked 19081917, but never completed. Debussy based his opera on Charles Baudelaires translation of Poes works, through which also Stahnke found a gateway to Poe. There have been three attempts to reconstruct the opera: 1 By Carolyn Abbate, performed at Yale University in 1977; 2 By Juan A llendeBlin, performed at Berlin State Opera 1979; 3 By Robert Orledge, performed several times since 2004. The last two versions are recorded on CD and DVD. Debussys sound world in his Usher reminds us of his Pellas et Mlisande composed in 1902. Stahnkes use of equidistant pentatonic scale implies Debussys favorite pentatonic scales, as apparent in his Le c hute de la maison Usher as well as several of his other pieces. See JeanFranois Thibault, "Debussy's Unfinished American Opera" in Opera and the Golden West ed. John Louis DiGaetani and Josef P. Sirefman ( Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1994)

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120 Figure 323. E quidistant pentatonic scale. C ent numbers are shown below the staf f. B y means of approximately onesixth tone deviations, we can reconstruct such a scale. Example 312. Der Untergang des Hauses Usher ; measures 130133; e quidistant pentatonic scale in the strings. The way Stahnke handles the solo voices, inspired by Partchs recitativelik e speechmusic pieces, necessitates the use of broader intonational possibilities to

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121 capture all sorts of inflections of the voice, as we have seen in the case of Partch s music ( see Exam p le 3. 13) Example 313. Der Untergang des Hauses Usher ; measure 423; the character of Roderick Usher; the microtonal accidentals demonstrate all the inflections of the reciting voice. All of the aforementioned microtonal elements on top of the harp in scordaturathe central instrument in this opera as well as the concepts of otonality and utonality, work to depict Ushers dense psychological and grotesque story line. Stahnke expands the intonational prospect of the voices and the instrum ents, realized through his use of a chamber ensemble consisting of four solo voices, choir, oboe (also English horn), clarinet (also bass clarinet), trumpet (also piccolotrumpet), trombone, harp, percussion, two violas, two celli, and tape. Regarding his unconventional orchestration in Usher Stahnke says:

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122 I wanted to employ solo instruments characterizing a strong, anonymous sound: bass clarinet; trombone with microtones; trumpet with a slider, which enables it to perform microtones quite easily. This way of orchestrating interests me in all of my operas. A post Richard Strauss or post Alban Berg orchestra sound has never appealed to me. But I was interested to get the individual strengths of the instruments; a way to get the pure and bare soundworld, in which the solo instruments communicate. 60 In Usher the clarity of the timbres conceived through the sparse chamber ensemble and Stahnkes interwoven and multi layered microtonal fabric, hand in hand, capture the phantasmagoric, uneasy, and anxious mood imbedded in the plot. Stahnkes 1982 music theater piece Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung (Madness is the Spirit of the Plot) last produced at the Berlin State Opera in 2012is a collage of Edgar Allan Poes poems for string quartet, female voice, and electronics, chosen and arranged by the composer himself.61 Wahnsinn, as a surreal psychogram, articulates the inner psychological challenges of the main female character, a way for the composer to reflect on the dichotomy of the notions of terror and beauty intrinsic to 60 Ich wollte einzelne Instrumente. Ich suchte Instrumente, die einen sehr starken anonymen K lang charakterisieren knnen: Bassk larinette, Posaune mit M ikrot nen, Trompete, die auch durch eine kleine Slider recht einfach mikrotonal arbeiten kann. Das interessiert mich fr alle meine Opern. Ein Post RichardStrau oder post Alban BergOrchesterklang hat mich eigentlich nie interessiert. Sondern war ich interessiert sozusagen die Originalkraft eines Instrumentes zu bekommen: den W eg z u unverflschten nackten Einzelklang; vor allem im Kalt Nackt und K larklang die Instrumente immer wieder sprechen zu lassen. (Bargrizan, Intervie ws with Manfred Stahnke.) 61 Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung was premiered at Staats theater Braunschweig in 1983 and re produced during the same year at the Kammeroper Gelsenkirchen. The composer revised the work for its 2012 production at Staatsoper Berlin Since the vocal part in Wahn sinn rather demonstrate the characteristics of declamation than singing, either a singer, or an actress, can perform the main female role Stahnke arranged the voice rather as in a theater piece (play) than in an opera. In a way, the declamation becomes, therefore, like singing, similar to Schoenbergs Sprechstimme in Pierrot Lunair e ; a middle ground between singing and speaking. According t o Stahnke, I sought a simple way of singing/declamation. It is indeed difficult to train the singers to realize this effect, because it is not opera singing. Reducing vibrato is taxing for the opera singers. They do what they have learned, automatically; especially vibrato and resonance to fill the big halls. (Ich suchte eine einfache Gesangsweise. Da muss man die SngerInnen trainieren und das ist sehr schwer. D as ist keinen Operngesang. Das V ibrato zu reduzieren ist sehr schwer fr die SngerInnen. Sie machen automatisch was s ie gelernt haben: Resonanz und V ibrato ber allen, um die groe Sle zu fllen.) (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.)

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123 human life.62 Although the prevalent just intonation, live electronics, and the literary sources that Stahnke builds upon in Wahnsinn are of a very different nature compared to Orpheus Kristall they are somewhat similar to Usher ; Wherea s Stahnke undertakes philosophical issues in Orpheus Kristall in Wahnsinn he concentrates on constructing a narrative dealing with physiological matters, to which his microtonal and technological structure as well the assortment of Poes poem contribute. Stahnkes music depicts the duality of the concepts of beauty and terror inherent in Poes poems in various layers. The three sections titled Sphrenmusik (Spheres Music) in which the soundstructures emerge from the simple rations of the primenumbere d harmonics rest upon the ancient philosophical idea of musica mundana or musica universalis as a metaphor of the concept of beauty .63 In these sections, the intonational possibilities of the string instruments make the construction of the pure just intoned chords all based on numbers and mathematical proportions possible. As in Usher throughout Wahnsinn Stahnke demands the realization of just major thirds (5/4) and just major sixth s (5/3). In addition to these two intervals, the just minor seventh ( ratio 7/4; thi rty one cents lower than the equal 62 Paraphrased from the program notes of the 2012 production at the State Opera Belrin. The sentence Wa hnsinn, das ist die Seele der Handlung is actually a verse written by Poe, which Stahnke uses not only as the title, but also in the section Sphrenmusik I 63 This theory regards the proport ional movements of the stars and planets as a form of music, whic h gives birth to the mathematical and harmonic relationships, as underlying principles of the world of sounds. Several thinkers, ranging from ancient Greek theorists such as Pythagoras, to the Renaissance humanists have expounded upon this concept. According to the Oxford Music Online entry for Sphere, music o f the written by Bryan Rumbold Music thought by many medieval philosophers to be produced by the movements of the planets either inaudible to the human ear or not involving sound at all, but nevertheless an all pervading force in the universe. It was considered the highest form of music, itself interpreted in terms of mathematical proportion. Boethius ( c. 480 c. 524) in De institutione musica contrasted this musica mundana with musica humana, th e harmonious relationships of the human body and soul, and musica instrumentalis the lowest form of music (produced by voices and instruments), which was also based on numerical proportions .

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124 tempered minor seventh), the just tritone (ratio 11/8; forty nine cents lower than the equal tempered tritone), and the just minor sixth (ratio 13/8; forty one cents higher than the equal tempered minor sixt h) also feature the other three fundamental intervals in Wahnsinns h ar monic structure ( see Figure 3.24) Figure 324. Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handl ung ; v. 2012; l egend Since our ears are used to the complicated proportions of the twelve tone equal temperament imposed by the tyranny of the piano, we, in specific contexts, perceive the pure harmonies as impure especially if multiple just intervals are layered on top of each other. This layering of just intervals, which creates extreme and bizarr e microtonal proportions unfamiliar to our ears, demonstrate the concept of terror a contrast to the beautiful, pure just harmonies of the Sphrenmusik sections ( see Example 3.14)

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125 Example 3 14. Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung; v. 2012: Galamusik; overlaid just chords Using extended techniques for string instruments such as scratch bowing, Stahnke also integrates noises in parts of the work to reinforce the duality of the terror vs. beauty for example in the section: Knarrmusik (C reaking Music), ( see Example 3 15)

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126 Example 315. Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung; v. 2012; Knarrmusik ; measures 9 24; scratch tone by the means of the overpressure of the bow Referring to his integration of strings extended techniques in the opera and their dramatic function, Stahnke states: Everything in Wahnsinn is linked with the idea of the music of the spheres. At the margin of the just sounds, there is also the scratchtones, where the overpressure of the bow does not make a conventional musical sound. The scratch tones demonstrate the hybrid form of the noise vs. the

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127 beautiful sound of the pure intervals. The string player should, in fact, realize different shades of scratchtones in Wahnsinn. 64 Ev en though just intonation remains the underpinning source of microtonal construction in Wahnsinn, the aforementioned dichotomy of the two poles of pureintervals emerging from ratios of the primenumbered harmonics and a sounding body close to the world of noises created by layering of the just intervals or the use of the extended instrumental techniques informs the juxtaposition of the notions of terror and beauty conceived by the composers arrangement of Poes poems. A third element in the opera articul ates the aforementioned dichotomy: The freedom given to the vocal and formal structure of the work. Stahnke himself relates this element to the notion of open form and the ways in which he himself came to this notion, as follows: In Wahnsinn, the singer, or the actress, intone s high or low pitches, without having to target concrete, fixed tones. Giving freedom to the musicians interested me since the 1950s. This subject was discussed in the 1950s quite a lot and there were several articles wr itten abo ut it. I, in fact, wrote my dissertation on Boulezs third piano sonata and his idea of open work [1979]. I also studied Umberto Ecos discussion of this concept [ The Open Work Harvard University Press, 1989; originally published as Opera Aperta, 1 962]. A mong the students in Ligetis class, we often talked about improvisation; about freedom given to the aspect of time organization, or restrictions imposed on this aspect. Ligeti himself insisted on students writing traditional pieces, although he, before he became an instructor, had explored the notion of open work in his installation piece Pome Symphonique for 100 Metronomes [1962]. Along the same lines, he had also given a talk about nothing; actually about the future of music, which became about nothi ng; he wrote nonsensical, quasi mathematical formulas on the whole blackboard without saying anything! I, as a child, improvised on piano, which now I do often on my viola. On the other hand, I have an active improvisation ensemble: TonArt Hamburg. I 64 Alles in Wahnsinn ist verbunden mit der Musik der Sp hre. In der Spanne zum reinen K lang, gibt es auch die Krtze, wo man mit berdruck keinen schnen Klang macht. Das ist fr mich in dem Sinne wichtig gewesen, weil das die hybride Form vom Gerusch und der Schnheit der reinen Klnge darstellt. Im Wahnsinn mssen die Streicher eigentlich verschiedene Farben der Krtzen erreichen. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.)

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128 love the concept of open form and improvisation. That is, again, a contradiction, or a sort of schizophrenia, thinking about my very precise just intonation structures. In the voice in Wahnsinn, I draw the upward and downward curve of singers voice based on t he int onation of the text; a sort of written improvisation. I constantly feel that I sometimes need to leave my meticulously built, microtonal harmonic structures. I am not only interested in the finedifferences of the strict microtonal configurations, but also in floating freely in sound. 65 Throughout the piece, the nonfixed, almost free declamations of the singer/actress on top of the idea of the open work integrated in the dramatic configuration of the opera reinforce the dichotomy of the beauty vs. ter ror, and purity vs. impurity. Stahnke realizes this dichotomy by jux taposing the mathematically just proportions and the freedom given to the formal and vocal aspects of the piece.66 Example 3. 16 shows the juxtaposition of the approximate declamations of the singer/actress and the just chords in the strings. 65 In Wahnsinn kann die Schauspielerin oder Sngerin hoch oder tief sprechen ohne konkrete Noten berhaupt bauen zu mssen. Das hat mich damals ab den 50er Jahren sehr interessiert. Das wurde Ende der 50er Jahren sehr diskutiert. Du denkst vielleicht auch an meiner Dis sertation ber Boulez und sein offenes Werk. Ich habe dann Umberto Ecos The Open Work dur chgearbeitet. Wir haben in der G ruppe um Ligeti herum ber Improvisation sehr diskutiert; offenlassen des sozusagen Zeitpfeil s fixieren vom Zeitpfeil. Ligeti ging sehr darauf sehr konkret ein Werk noch im alten Sinne zu schreiben, obwohl er, bevor er ein Lehrer war, diese Installationswelt, das offene Werk, in seinem Poem Symphonie fr 100 Metronomen gemacht hat; oder denken wir mal ber seinen Vortrag ber Nichts; ber die Zukunft der Musik, der ein Vortrag ber Nichts geworden ist, weil die Zukunft ist einfach unfassbar. Derselbe Vortrag, wo er quasi mathematische Formel auf der Tafel schreibt; einfach Bldsinn. Ich habe als Kind sehr viel am Klavier improvisiert, was ich jetzt oft auf Bratsche mache. Oder habe ich eine Gruppe, wo wir sehr intensive improvisieren; es heit TonArt Hamburg. Also ich liebe die Idee von offener Form und Improvisation als Konzept. Das ist wieder wie einen kleine n Widerspruch oder eine S chizophrenie zu meinen Just IntonationStrukturen. In der Stimme in Wahnsinn ma le ich Tonhhen als hoch oder tief basiert auf die Intonation des Textes; eine sozusagen geschriebene Improvisation. Ich habe immer wieder das Gefhl, dass ich aus dieser sehr s pezifisch gebauten mikrotonalen harmonischen Welt rausgehen muss. Mich interessieret diese ganz feine Unterschiede; aber auch die Grounterschiede der beiden Welten von sehr strenger Komposition und sehr frei Schweben im Klang (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.) 66 In regard to the freedom given to the formal structure of the piece, the composer has arranged different sections of the work in a way that, in the production, they can be repeated as many times as necessary, or totally omitted, according to the dramaturgical conception. A sort of formal flexibility, or an open formal structure hence emerges.

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129 Example 316. Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung; v. 1982; Sphrenmusik I; the approximate inflections of the voice. Stahnkes 1986 chamber opera, Heinrich IV ( Henry IV ), afte r Luigi Pirandellos 1921 play of the same name, was commissioned by Kiel Opera in 1983 and produced in 1987.67 As much as in the previously discussed works, in Heinrich Stahnkes use of various microtonal elements as well as electronics is related to the storyline. Of part icular significance is his use of the same innovative harp tuning as in Usher based on just major thirds and just minor sevenths, which delineates Heinrichs self 67 In 2015, Stahnke revised the opera and prepared a new version to be staged in the future.

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130 imposed madness, his narrative of the old mediaeval times, as well as the comic and tra gic featur es of the play ( see Figure 3.25) Figure 325. Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; cover page; harps tuning at the bottom of the page. The harp the instrument of the main character who pretends to be the German medieval emperor Heinrichstands in the center of Stahnkes microtonal construction in this opera.68 Similar to the character of Roderick Usher in Der Untergang des Hauses Usher where the harp often accompanies Ushers voice, in Heinrich IV it often accompanies the character of Heinrich as he speaks of hi s inner life. On the other hand, while the microtonally tuned harp becomes the instrument of the supposedly delirious main character who pretends to be the notorious twelfthcentury German Kaiser 68 In my interviews with Stahnke in summer 2015, he mentioned that, in the process of conceptualizing harp as the Kaiser Heinrichs instrument, he thought of the biblical story of King David and his harp.

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131 Heinrich it also delineates the mediaeval narratives embedded in the plot, in the time in which Heinrich lives.69 The voices in Heinrich, often a form of Sprechgesang, also reference the old vocal arts of monody and prosody, intensifying the all egorical representation of the M iddle A ge s in the music ( see Example 3. 1 7 ) .70 The harps just tuning, the pure as well as strange intervals emerging from this tuning, and the harmonic and subharmonic vertical and horizontal lines inspired by Partchs concepts of otonality and utonality, grant a strong medieval ethos to the char acter of Heinrich, and in turn, to the whole opera. In Heinrich perhaps more than his other theatrical works, Stahnke seeks to confront his hermetic microtonal fabrics, by means of constructing a sort of intelligibility, avoiding sheer structuralism. In this regard, he states: Heinrich seeks to distance itself from h ermeticism, even though the her m e ticism of the microtonal structures is a key element; almost a dual compositional approach. Intelligibility is an important element in the opera; intelligibility, while deep structuralism remains integral. Both of them are interwoven in Heinrich .71 69 In Pirandellos play (1921), the main character falls from a horse, while playing the role of the mediev al emperor Heinrich (Henry IV). Because of a severe concussion, he goes mad and delves into a phantasmagoric world, where he is the emperor Heinrich. His caring and wealthy nephew rents a castle and hires actors to simulate Heinrichs eleventhcentury cour t in the German city of Goslar. But after some years, although Heinrich secretly recovers from his insanity, he keeps on acting as the insane Heinrich. Pirandello develops this dual narrative a sort of a play within a play that makes for the dramatic tensi on in the story mainly by the essential complexity of the character of Heinrich. 70 Similar to Partchs speech music pieces, or even his Oedipus in Heinrich the voices often follow the accents of the spoken words a sort of a Sprachmelodie emerged from the inflections of the speaking voice. As it is the case in Partchs conception, juxtaposing this singing technique and the fixedwritten just proportions makes for a hybrid dichotomy in Stahnkes opera. 71 Heinrich sucht eine Position weg von Hermetik, obwohl die Hermetik der Mikrotonali tt doch sehr zentral da ist. D as ist fast eine doppelte Denkweise. In Heinrich ist Verstndlichkeit ein wichtiges Element; Verstndlichkeit, aber tiefste Konstruktion nicht zu vermeiden. In Heinrich kommen beide zusammen. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.)

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132 Example 3 17. Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act II, Scene 2, measures 182193; juxtaposition of Harps just intervals and the Spra chmelodie of the voice As explained regarding his music philosophical views, this reflective confrontation pertains more to Stahnkes thinking in his theatrical music, and to a lesser degree in his street m usic pieces, than in, fo r example, his String Quartet No.4 (titled

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133 Schrdingers Kristall ). In the latter, Stahnke seeks a profoundly hermetic microtonal configuration related to Schrdingers discussion of the intricate structure of the human DNA the same scientific research which triggered his tonal conception in Orpheus Kristall. In Heinrich Stahnkes use of a chamber orchestra predominantly appearing in groups of a few instruments, and partially simple vocal lines often in the speech music manner, makes for the intelligibility of the dramatic narrative, all the while the microtonal elements contribute to the depiction of the subtleties imbedded in the psychological plot. Similar to Partchs music dramas, Stahnkes chamber orches tra in Heinrich consisting of fifteen instruments plus synthesizer stands not in the orchestra pit, but on the stage around the characters. The corporeal presence of the instruments and instrumentalists on the stage, hence, evolves into a part of the narrative; the actors often interact with the conductor and instrumentalists commanding them to play, or to stop playing, as opposed to merely accompany ing the voices ( see Example 3. 18) Explaining his own orchestrational concept intertwined in the narrati ve and its relation to Partchs corporeal instrumentational concepts in his theatrical pieces, Stahnke says: I came to the idea of not separating the orchestra from the narrative. The orchestra should be on the stage. There is no separation of the musici ans and the plot. The musicians interact [as part of the plot]. The harpist and the conductor are addressed [called by e.g. Heinrich to play or stop playing]. That is to some extent similar to Partch. He built [in Delusion of the Fury ] an illusionary reali ty; a dream, a delusion, a dual story taken from Africa and Japan. [in Heinrich ] the flute and harp, for example, not only contribute to the beautiful sound of the orchestra; but they are themselves! They are addressed in the plot.72 72 In Heinrich habe ich die Idee gehabt, dass ich die Handlung vom Orchester nicht trenne. Das Orchester muss auf der Bhne sein. Es gibt nicht die Trennung der Musiker von der Handlung. Die

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134 Example 318. Heinric h IV ; v. 2015; Act II, Scene 1, measures 6972; Heinrich commands the orchestra to stop playing. Musiker interagieren. Die Harfe wird angesprochen; den Dirigenten wird angesprochen. Einigermaen wie Partch, der die illusionierte Realitt baute; der Traum, Delusion doppelte Geschichte aus Afrika und Japan. Die Flte und Harfe z.B. dienen nicht nur des schnen Gesamtklangs des Orchesters, sondern sie sind selbst; sie werden angesprochen. (Bargrizan, Interviews with Manfred Stahnke.)

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135 In Heinrich every tonal and compositional element, in fact, inform s a constructed medial reflection of the intricacies in the plot, depicting the dual theater of Pirandello; a play within a play. Among others, the harp illustrates the soul of Heinrich; the percussion instruments the amusing and humorous world of Heinrichs servants; or the woodwind instruments an image of the medieval, entertainment court music.73 In my interviews with Stahnke, he articulated that he has chosen Renaissance dance music for the eleventhcentury Heinrich consciously, although it is historically incorrect; in the eleventh century, music in Germany was actually monophonic and under dev eloped. An interesting case is in Act II, scene 1, where the music moves backward. Heinrich asks the orchestra to play their notes from the end to the beginning, and he sings his texts also backward. Pirandellos plot depicts a dual world constantly moving back and forth between the present world and Heinrichs medieval world, about ninehundred years back. The abovementioned scene, therefore, allegorically suggests this abyss in the centuries, moving backward in time; it is a sort of intellectual jest con structed by the com poser ( see Examples 3.19 and 3. 20 ) 73 Where, for the first time in the story, Heinrichs arrival is announced, Stahnke uses trumpet and trombone in a fourthinterval to construct a medieval dance (Act I, scene 3). Another example is the use of synthesizer tuned in twelvetone equal temperament, improvising jazz and pop music (e.g. Act I, Scene 2), again, building a contrast to harps and chamber orchestras mi crotonal configuration.

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136 Example 3 19. Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act II, Scene 1, measures 71 73; Heinrich sings, and the orchestra plays, the previous sections of the music backward.

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137 Example 320. Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act II, Scene 1, measures 74 77; Heinrich sings and the orchestra play s the previous sections of the music backward. The operas microtonal fabric demonstrates a distinction between the vertical just intonat ion harmonies and the linear onesixth tone deviations, which are mainly responsible to distort the just intoned chords. The strings, for example, often take a just major third referenceinterval from the harp and expand it, or they take a fundamental tone and build an over tone chord. The linearity of onesi x th tone deviations, however,

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138 distort the just proportions delving into a contorted microtonal world. The contorted intonations reinforce not only the predominantly erratic psychological conditions of the characters, but also the unsteady timeline of the opera, floating between the present time and Heinrichs imagin ary medieval life ( see Example 3. 21) Exampl e 321. Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act I, Overture, measures 1 7; just major thirds and just minor seventh in the overtonechords Returning to the chara cter of Heinrich, although he often sings to the accompaniment of the harp, at times he follows not the harps just intoned chords, but a mode extracted from the harps string: an equidistant heptatonic mode with intervals of ca.171 cents; in other words, a narrower whole toneabout twenty nine cents narrower than the equal tempe red whole tone ( see F igure 3.26)

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139 Figure 326. Equidistant heptatonic scale, approximated with the use of 1/6tones; cent numbers are shown below the staff. Heinrich sings these parts of his vocal line based on the equidistant heptatonic scale imbedded in harps t uning a fundamental mode in African musical culture, suc h as in Malawi ( see Example 3. 22 ) Stahnkes remarkable harp tuning, has, in fact enabled him to develop hybrid and intricate intonational structures, not only in his Usher and Heinrich but also in his other works for solo harp, and for solo harp and synthesizer, Partch Harp (1987) and Diamantenpracht (2005)

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140 Example 322. Heinrich IV ; v. 2015; Act I, Scene 3, measures 48 52; Heinrich sings based on an equidistant h eptatonic scale taken from harps tones. The analysis of the microtonal concepts and the related instrumentational, orchestrational, vocal, and formal elements in Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical pieces aim not only to illuminate the scope of the correlation of these concept s with the story lines, but also the lineage from Partch to Stahnkethe extent to which Stahnkes

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141 aesthetic relates to his avid interest in and research into Partchs world. We observe that the microtonal concepts designed by both composers rest upon their music philosophical standpoints as much as their reflection upon the common forms and conceptions of the old and new theatrical music. Whereas Partchs holistic aesthetic and intonational system under pins all of his dramatic works whether based on nonWestern cultures, old Greek myths, or conceptualized in a contempora ry context of his own inventionStahnke has developed a flexible approach to microtonality, instrumentation, orchestration, and form, albeit being vividly influenced by Partchs ideas. The discussion of the technological and theatrical facets of these work s in the following chapters will further shed light on the interrelationships of the musical structures and extramusical implications of these theatrical piece, articulating the influence of Partchs theories on Stahnkes mindset.

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142 CHAPT ER 4 T ECHNOLOGY, MEDIATION, AND INTERMEDIALITY Art and Technology T h is chapter expounds upon the te chnological constituents of Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall, demonstrat ing the essence of this multimedia opera.1 At the same time, the chapter delves into the i dentity, substance, and function of such technological features My analysis of the technological features in Orpheus Kristall is largely based on Marti n Heideggers argument on the relationship between art and technology in the art technology world. In his 1954 essay T he Question Concerning Technology , he asserts: Because the essence of technology is nothing technological, essential reflection upon technology and decisive confrontation with it must happen in a realm that is, on the one hand, akin to the essence of technology, on the other, fundamentally different from it. Such a realm is art. [] Yet the more we ponder about the essence of technology, the more mysterious the essence of art becomes. The closer we come to the danger, the more brightly do the ways into the saving power begin to shine and the more questioning we become, for quest ioning is the piety of thought.2 Heidegger proposes the medium of technology as a means to question the essence of art, and at the same time, the medium of art as a means to question the essence of technology. In other words, he asserts that art and technology demonstrate a symbiotic 1 Throughout this dissertation, I have used the adjective multimedia to refer to Orpheus Kristall because this opera incorporates a variety of artistic or communicative media (see the entry for multimedia in Oxford English Di ctionary ). The Oxford English Dictionary defines multimedia also as with reference to computers or Internet: that uses or combines various forms of digital content such as text, audio, video, and animation; of or relating to multimedia. The fact that O rpheus Kristall integrates the Internet as a performance medium shows that it is indeed a multimedia artwork. However, Multimediality differs from Intermediality, a concept that I use to analyze the integration of digital media in Orpheus Kristall Inter mediality refers to the interaction of various artistic media on a performance space (hypermedium), in this case the stage. In other words, I use the concept of Intermediality to analyzes the function of digital media in Orpheus Kristall a multimedia oper a. 2 Martin Heidegger, T he Question Concerning Technology in Readings in the Philosophy of Technology ed. D. M. Kaplan (Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield, 2009), 23. This essay was published in 1954, as Die Frage nach der Technik , and was translated to English in 1977.

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143 interaction, where reflecting on the nature of one can reveal the nature of the other, illuminating their interrelationship. To address such interrelationship s in Orpheus Kristall, the key concept of i ntermediality, proposed by various theater scholars such as Freda Chappel and Chiel Kattenbelt, substantiates the following analysis. Explainin g the intermedial aspects of the theatrical performance, media theorist Chiel Kattenbelt a rgues that theater the long lasting paradigm of a ll arts can incorporate other media in one performance space. While the other integrated media function as parts of the theater conceiving sign s of the theatrica l signs, theater becomes, hence, a hypermedium, realizing the interaction of all incorporated media.3 Juxtaposing film as the medium of absence which has partially taken over the role of the theater as a dramatic hypermedium and theater as the corporeal art of the presence, Kattenbelt further argu es for theater n ot as a composite nor as dramatic art, but as a stage for intermediality.4 Reit erating Kattenbelts point, drama and theater scholar Peter M. Boenisch states: I ntermediality as a concept is no longer reduced to being the mere use of various media technologies in live performance; nor as being confined to the computerized mediacultural economy in the early years of the twenty first century. Rather, it is an effect performed inbetween mediality, supplying multiple perspectives, and foregrounding the making of meaning rather obediently transmitting meaning.5 3 Chiel Kattenbelt, Theatre as the Art of the Performer and the Stage of Intermediality, in Intermediality in Theatre and Performance, ed. Freda Chapple and Chiel Kattenbelt (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006) 29 38. 4 Kattenbelt, Theatre as the Art of the Performer, 29 38. 5 Peter M. Boenisch, Aesthetic Art to Aisthetic Act: Theater, Media, Intermedial Performance, in Intermediality in Theater and Performance, eds. Freda Chapple and Chiel Kattenbelt (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006), 103.

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144 Both Kattenbelt and Boenisch assert that the notion of intermediality is indispensable to the analysis and comprehension o f the modern digital theater I n order to analyze the multimedia components of Orpheus Kristall and t heir extramusical implications, the notion of intermediality assumes a central role in this chapter. Integrating digital media, in fact, elicit s a deeper, multi layered intermediality in terms of the structural and representational theatrical possibilities that it triggers. According to theater scholar s Freda Chapple and Kattenbelt : I ncorporation of digital technology into theater practice, and the presence of other media within the theatrical and performance space is creating new modes of representation; new dramaturgical strategies; new ways of structuring and staging words, images, and sounds; new ways of posit ioning bodies in t ime and space; new ways of creating temporal and spatial interrelationships. These new modes of representation are leading to new perceptions about theater and performance and to generating new cultural, social, and psychol ogical meanings in performance.6 In Orpheus Kristall Stahnke, in fact, g rapples with psychological, cultural, and existential is sues by means of the conceptual and dramaturgical possibilities that intertwining Orpheus myth, the medium of Internet (Internet performers) and microtonality granted him, creating a hybrid and pioneering mode of representation crossing the boundaries of the theatrical music. Although this chapter examines the technological aspects of theatrical music based on the notions of intermediality, it also explains the historical context in which the relationship between digital media and the performing arts has emerged and thrived. Articulating the importance of the historical circumstances in which the technological media evolves, Walter Benjamin wrote, during long periods of history, the mode of 6 Freda Chapple and Chile Kattenbelt, Key Issues in Intermediality in Theatre and Performance, in Intermediality in Theatre and Performance, eds. Freda Chapple and Chiel Kattenbelt (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006), 11.

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145 human sense perception changes with humanitys entire mode of existence. The manner in which human senseperception is organized and the med ium in which it is accomplished is determined not only by nature but by historical cir cumstances as well.7 Building on Benjamins diachronic conception of the technological media advancing in historical circumstances, this chapter analyzes the role of the digital media in Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall not only from conceptual and technical perspectives, but also historical and philosophical ones. The following sections, therefore, articulate the function and evolution of the integration of digital media in the theatrical music A historical overview of the pioneering concepts and methods used in digital theatrical performance precedes the scrutiny of the role of the digital mediathe Internet and the Internet performance interface Quintet.net in Orpheus Kristall As an overarching framework, the key concept of Intermediality, which refers to the interactive artistic media interwoven on the theater stagein this case by the means of the Internet as a metamedium sheds light on various technological facets of this work. From Digital Theater to Digital Theatrical Music Throughout the history of digital theatrical performance, computer based technologies, especially the Internet, have played a germane role in implementing intermediality and maintaining the function of the theater stage as a hypermedium. Among all sorts of possibilities they have facilitated, the networked performance over a distance stands out as an important function of such technologies. Relating the roots of 7 Walter Benjamin, The Work of Ar t in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, in Illuminations: Essays and Reflections ed. Hannah Arendt (New York: Schocken, 1968), 222.

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146 the netw orked performance to human primal communicational methods, performing arts scholar Steve Dixon explains, n etworked art and creative collaboration over a distance has an ancestry that can be traced back to the earliest handdelivered messenger correspondence of antiquity, through the literary relationships and collaborations which blossomed via postal system, to the postcard, telex, fax, email, and telematics arts of the twentieth century.8 R einforcing the bond between the performing and musical arts, the artist s involved i n contemporary theatrical music have increasingly incorporated experimental comp uter based technologies in the performance, giving birth to genres such as interactive theatrical music, or participatory installations. Regarding the roots of the technological integration into theater t he drama scholar Michael J. Arnd t states: Theater has always used the cutting edge technology of the time to enhance the spectacle of productions. From early Deus ex machina, to the guildproduced Medieval pageant wagons, to the innovation of perspective painting and mechanical devices on Italian sixteenth century stage sets, to the introduction of gas, and later electric, lighting effects, to the modern use of computer to control lighting, sound and set changes, technology has been used in ways that have created incredible visual and auditory effects.9 Not only the visual technological enhancements but also the auditory ones which Arndt hi ghlights, substantiate several modern operatic projects, including Orpheus Kri stall. I n compariso n to other arts, music has been, in fact a forerunner in consolidating digital technologies both in the theatrical and nonthe atrical performances. As Dixo n states, music was one of the first artistic fields to experiment significantly with and embrace computer technologies, and in terms of both creative production and 8 Steve Dixon, Digital Performance: A History of New Media in Theater Dance, Performance Art, and Installation (Cambridge, M: The MIT Press, 2007), 419. 9 Michael J. Arndt, Theater at the Center of the Core: Technology as a Lever in Theater, in Theater in Cyberspace, ed. Stephen A. Schrum (New York: Peter Lang, 1999), 66.

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147 com mercial (as well as illegal) distribution, music has arguably been more r adically revolutionized by the digital revolution than the ot her performance arts we explore. 10 The e xistence of numerous scholarly publications devoted to the analysis of the tech nological auditory innovations in the last onehundred years implies the outstanding and pioneering rank of digi tal media in the world of nontheatrical music. M usic and theater scholars have, however mostly left the discussion of the role of digital med ia in the theatrical music untouched, as we, for instance, observe in the case of Dixon, who modestly mentions his lack of sufficient knowledge and expertise to approach a worthy analysis as the reason for excluding digital theatrical music in his monumental text Digital Performance: A History of New Media in Theater Dance, Performance Art, and Installation.11 His invaluable book, nevertheless, comprehensively examines the contemporary technological trends in the nonmusical digital performance- bro adly all non musical performances where computer technologies play a key rolefrom a non postmodernist perspective.12 In the world of theatrical performance, artists such as The Gertrude Stein Repertory and Kunstwerk Blend incorporated Internet videoconfer encing software to bring performers from remote locations together, live on the stage.13 On the other hand, 10 Dixon, Digital Performance, x 11 Dixon, Digital Performance 3. 12 Throughout the book Dixon challenges the deconstructive and critical postmodernists view of technology, in favor of the optimistic potentialities of the digital media. In Dixons words: Despite the popular proclamation that new technol ogies and the internet are quintessentially postmodern since they utilize nonlinear, nonhierarchical systems, we suggest an opposite argument, but an equally strong thesis. New digital technologies are by definition modern. Computer systems are logical, pr ogressive, existentialist, and rational, pushing technological progress to the fore (Dixon, Digital Performance, 660) 13 Intending to use digital media and focusing on emulating new technologies in the theater, Gertrude Stein Repertory, an awardwinning theater company, was established in the 1990s in New York (see http://www.gertstein.org/ accessed 05.26.2017). Kunstwerk Blend was founded in 1977 by Sophia Lycouris in London, committing to interdisciplinary, hybrid, and collaborative art projects, such as live

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148 performance artists such as Stelarc wired their body up to the Internet and by the means of touch screen computers was manipulated by audiences in other countries, realizing the amalgamation of digital media and corporeal performance.14 Articulating this amalgamation and to avoid the danger of noncorporeal digital media, members of the New York Dance group Troika Ranch explain that they create live, interactive, digital systems in Max/MSP to bring life to the dead electronic media, to imbue it with the same sense of liveness as the corporeal performance: We are drawn to do this because most electronic media are dead, in the sense that it is precis ely the same each time it is presentedquite different from what happens when a dancer or actor performs the same material twice. We want the media elements in our performances to have the same sense of liveness as the human performers it accompanies. We i mpose the chaos of the human body on the media in the hope of bringing it to life.15 As Partch aspired to revive the corporeal interrelationships of arts in a nondigital context, a plethora of artists such as the Troika Ranch group, have endeavored to inf use art with corporeality in highly digital spheres. Similar to the function of the Internet as a performance medium in Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall but in the realm of theater The Builder s Association a digital theater co mpany in the United States produced Opera in 2000: a music and video production, performed by the onstage and offstage performers using MIDI and real time loop.16 Highlighting the role of the Internet as a performance medium in such projects, Dixon performance, videoinstallations, and Internet based projects (see http://www.kunstwerk blend.co.uk/ accessed 05.26.2017). 14 Dixon, Digital Performance 1 2. See also http://stelarc.org/?catID=20239, accessed 05.26.2017. 15 Dixon, Digital Performance 197. See also http://troikaranch.org/ accessed 05.26.2017. 16 Dixon, Digital Performance 74. The New York based performance and media company The Builder s Association, founded by Marianne Weem s in 1994, attempts to overcome the boundaries of theater using new and old multimedia devices (see http://www.thebuildersassociation.org/ accessed 05.26.2017).

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149 states : the Internet has proved particularly significant in its development, not only as an immense interactive database, but also as a performance collaborations and distribution medium.17 The relevance of the Internet as a medium, has however, exceeded the scope of the nonmusical performing arts, facilitating audiovisual, collaborative, music theatrical conceptions. The incorporation of the digital media in the theater a growing trend in the twentieth and twenty first centuries, did not appear out of nowhere; it in fact, conti nues a long history of integrating technologies in the theatrical spectacle, for aesthetic, semiotic, and allegorical goals. In this regard, some dominating artistic movements in the last two centuries have influenced the emergence and development of the digital technologies in the theatrical performance. For instance, as Dixon argues, Wagner s concept of Gesamtkunstwerk in Wagner s words: the artwork of the future is central to the lineage of the digital performance both in its advocacy for grand theatri cal spectacle and in the paradigm of convergence that unites the notion of Gesamtkunstwerk with contemporary understanding of the Internet as a metamedium a medium that unifies all media (text, image, sound, etc.) within a single interface.18 Theater his torians therefore, consider Wagner s musico dramatic concepts as seminal influences on the modern experimental theater .19 An essential text about the history of digital multimedia, Multimedia from Wagner t o Virtual Reality edited by 17 Dixon, Digital Performance 3. 18 See, for example, three essays written by Wagner: Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft, Oper und Drama, and Die Kunst und die Revolution, all in Richard Wagner, Gesammelte Schriften und Dichtungen von Richard Wagner 3rd ed. (Leipzig: E.W. Fritzsch, 1897). 19 S ee e.g. Dixon, Digital Performance 41 42.

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150 Randal Packer and Ken Jordan, builds upon the lineage of the digital theatrical performance to Wagners operatic conceptions.20 Considering Partchs theatrical music, if we ignore the device paradigm and the role of the digital media in the performance, Partchs concept of cor poreality is akin to Kattenbelts notion of intermediality.21 Partch idealized a kind of theatrical music, where the interaction of various artistic media, including the storyline, music, acting, lighting, costumes, and even the sculptural beauty of his mus ical instrument s, contribute to delineating the essence of the ritual drama. In other words, in the hands of Partch, the stage becomes a hypermedium that facilitates the intermedialit y of all other artistic aspects in the service of Partchs ideal of corporeal and ritual theatrical music. On the other hand, Partchs numerous visually spectacular and acoustically astonishing, just tuned music instruments work as technologies, which become fundamental elements of Partchs aesthetic of corporeality. Although obvious similarities between Wagners concept of Gesamtkunt swerk as the Artwork of the Future, and Partchs concept of corporeality exist Partchs emphasis on the ritual and theatrical dimensions of the artwork prioritizes the significance of his theat rical music as a stage for intermediality. As the core of his Gesamtkunstwerk Wagner argued for the unification of music, act ing and staging to depict the essence of his philos ophical dramas, while he assigned a superior role for music to his total artwork. In Wagners conception, however, the 20 Multimedia from Wagner to Virtual Reality eds. Randal Packer and Ken Jordan (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001). 21 Device paradigm a term coined by the technology philosopher Albert Borgmann in his 1984 book Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life: A Philosophical Inquiry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984) refers to the function and perception of the technological apparatus in modern societies. Kattenbelt builds upon this concept in his Theater as the Art of the Performer and the Stage of Intermediality.

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151 orchestra, separated from the stage, only accompanies the plot based actions. Partch, on the other hand, sought the corporeal, onstage presence of his instruments as sculptural contributions to the stageset and mus icians who are also dancers and singers in costumes, performing the ritualistic theatrical music. He sought to amalgamate all artistic media equally, while he emphasized the corporeal, ritual performance, rather than a performance, where the music merely accompanies the actions. Partchs corporeality hence, demonstrates an extension of Wagners Gesamtkunstwerk pushing it toward an even more integrated musicodramatic experience. In addition to Wagners Gesamtkunstwerk some artistic movements in t he first half of the twentieth century influenced the emergence and evolution of the digital theater significantly. The Bauhaus artists who questioned the notion of space in their exhibitions and architectural projects, were predecessor s for the common spatial conceptions in the digital theater As Oscar Schlemmer stated, he and the other Bauhaus artists endeavored to break the narrow confines of the stage and extend the drama to include the building itself, not only the interior but the building as an ar chitectural whole [] to demonstrate a hitherto unknown extent of the validity of the space stage as a spectacle.22 C ritical approaches to th e notion of performance space, or attempts to broaden the scope of the immediate stage, have, in fact, become const ant endeavor s in the digital theater for instance in Stahnkes Orpheus K ristall, t he main case under investigation in this chapter. 22 Quoted in Bauhaus 1919 1928 eds. Herbert Bayer, Ise Gropius, and Walter Gropius (Bos ton: Charles T. Branford, 1959), 162.

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152 Pointing to the artists attempts to break the barrier between the physical and virtual performance spaces, or to intertwine both, media scholar Christian Paul states: In one way or another, all [digital artworks and environments] are concerned with possible relationships between the physical space and the virtual, and what distinguishes them are the balanc e between these two realms and the methods employed to translate one space into the other. Some artworks try to translate qualities of the virtual world into the physical environment, other strive to map the physical into the virtual; and yet others are ai med at fusing the two spaces.23 Problematizing the issue of the performance space i n interactive, multimedia art projects, hence, appears after Bauhaus artists confrontation with the notion of space in general, and the subject of extending the constrained breadth of the traditional performance space in particular. But perhaps most import ant the emphasis of the early twentiethcentury futurist artists on the technological advancement s and apparatus implem ented in various artistic media ranging from painting and sculpture to music and literature happens to be the most pivotal historical precedent to the digital theater As several scholars, including Dixon, have argued, there is no doubt that digital performances ancestry is precisely and inextricably linked to the philosophies, aesthetic, and practices of the futurist movement.24 As one of the most significant consequences of, among others, the Bauhaus and futurist archetypes their critical approach to the traditional notions of performance space and technologi es t he networked, or telematic performance projects have exponentially grown in the last fifty years.25 23 Christiane Paul, Digital Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 2003), 71 72. 24 Dixon, Digital Performance 47. 25 Telematic performance refers to the performances which utilize telecommunication devices, sending and receiving information v ia networks. According to the Oxford English Dictionary telematics is The use of computing, information technology, and telecommunications for the longdistance transmission of information, especially (in later use) for the purpose of monitoring, automat ing, or controlling certain

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153 As one of the most influential early discussions of the capacities of telematic arts, i n 1984 the pioneering artist Nam June Pai k published a manifesto titled Art and Satellite contemplating the potentialities of the integration of remote performers in performances. 26 Billy Klver an electrical engineer who conducted innovative experiments at the intersections of art and technology, implement ed some early seminal, networked experimentations, such as Telex: Q and A (1971). 27 In the words of Randal Packer and Ken Jordan, in the 1960s, Klver more than anyone, saw the potential for the integration of art and technology. Inspired by Aristotles notion of Technein which there was no differentiation between the practice of art and science Klver proposed the active and equal participation of the artists and engineers. 28 In another celebrated instance of pre Internet telematic performance s, in Hole in Space (1980), Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinovitz used a live video satellite link to connect the Broadway department store in Los Angeles and the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City, r ealizing the cooperation of remote performers. 29 Later on, the Canadian performance company Le Corps Indice has also telemetrically linked remote perfor mers in their hybrid projects, such as Le Sang Des Reseaux (1998), processes in motor vehicles; the field of st udy concerned with this. See the entry for Telematics at http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/198700?redirectedFrom=telematic#eid18836439, accessed 06.06.2017. 26 Nam June Paik, Art and Satellite, in Multimedia from Wagner to Virtual Reality eds. Randal Packer and Ken Jordan (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001), 41 43. 27 Telex: Q and A (1971) which linked different places in the world by telex allowing people to converse about the future, was one of the several projects at the intersections of art and technology realized by E.A.T (Experiments in Arts and Technology). This organization was founded in 1966 by the engineers Klver and Fred Waldhauer and artists Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Whitman. See Billy Klver : E.A.T. Archive of Published Documents, in http://www.fondationlanglois.org/html/e/page.php?NumPage=306 accessed 05.26.2017. 28 Introduction to: Billy Klver The Great Northeastern Power Failure (1966), in Packer et al. Multimedia from Wagner to Virtual Reality 34. 29 See Dixon, Digital Performance, 420.

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154 Sojourn in Alexandria (1999), and Q uarry (2000), tackling issues related to the notions of, among others, identity, reality territory, spirituality and corporeality 30 All of the abovementioned projects illuminate t he growing incorporation of remote performers and performance spaces through the use of digital networked technologies, leading to multimedia artworks such as Orpheus K ristall in the early age of the Internet Analogous to Orpheus Kristall a networked mus ic theatrical project which reinvents the Orpheus myth, during the Net Congestion International F estival of Streaming Media in 2000 WAAG Society (Amsterdam) and Audioroom (London) created 0 + E (2000) based on the Orpheus story Their performance project ran in parallel in London, Ams terdam, and the Internet, respectively representing the underworld, the natural world, and the transitory world, all inherent in the myth. Whereas Stahnkes opera confronts the audience with three Eurydice characters represen ting Cerberus the threeheaded dog, in 0 + E (2000) Orpheus dealt with several simultaneous Eurydice characters In this production the public coul d manipulate the performance the means of the computer application Keystroke . As Dixon articulates, t he O rpheus and Eurydice narrative has proved a potent and seductive myth for digital adaption, with examples ranging from a live hypertext version by the Playtext Players to Opera Norths multimedia opera 04E (2000), an update of Monteverdis LOrfeo ( 1607) that incorporates beautiful, multilayered projections on a hanging sphere and back screen, designed by Rowan May. 31 I shall add Stahnkes 30 See Dixon, Digital Performance, 425; and http://www.isabellechoiniere.com/CorpsIndice.htm accessed 05.25.2017. 31 Dixon, Digital Performance 432.

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155 monumental opera Orpheus Kristall to Dixons list a pioneering, telematic, musical theatrical artwork. T he multimedia concept in Orpheus Kristall and its structure, engage with various cultural and existential discourses From the perspective of a theater scholar, Chapple explains the reasons that the importance of the intermedial, digital [ opera] performance s goes beyond mere structural values: In the age of the intermedial, the digital technology that is the language of the new media is the new medium appropriate to engage with interculturalism and globalization. Digital technology creates worlds that cu ltivate capacities of judgment and sensitivity as well as facilitating almost instant inter active communication with global communities. Opera in performance that utilizes the structure of the digital also creates worlds that cultivate capacities of judgment and sensitivity, as well as facilitation of inter active readings of the represented global communities on the intermedial opera stage.32 Building upon Chapples argument, the next section presents an analysis of the ways in which Orpheus Kristall cultivates cultural and existential discourses, while conceptually and technologically challenging the operatic conventions. The Multimedia Concept in Orpheus Kristall In the context of the digital theater the concept of intermediality gains particular si gnificance in relation to Stahnkes utilization of the I nternet as a performance medium in Orpheus Kristall In this opera, the composer presents an autistic Orpheus bewildered by the complexity of his multimedia environment. Extending the borders of the i mmediate, live music on stage, Stahnke integrates an external world by means of the Internet, effectively creating the tension between Orpheus inner self and external influences. Orpheus reacts to the incoming sounds that emerge from the Internet in an 32 Fre da Chapple, Digital Opera: Intermediality, Remediation and Education, in Intermediality in Theatre and Performance, eds. Freda Chapple and Chiel Kattenbelt (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006), 89.

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156 at tempt to get to know and locate himself in this mediaworld. He is trapped within his thoughts until three imaginary Eurydice characters appear on the stage, confronting him and his hallucinations of the most traumatic ev ent in his life: the loss of Eurydi ce. As he attempts to face his memories express his thoughts, and confront his loss, he constantly endeavors to remember what happened to his Eurydice throughout the course of the opera.33 Orpheus Kristall Stahnkes opera in two media for stage and remot e musicians, resulted from a cooperative project initiated by the Munich Biennale for Contemporary Opera 2002 and the Siemens Art Program see Figure 4.1. This collaboration intended to explore the subject of Oper als virtuelle Realitt ( o pera as virtual r eality), the central theme of the 2002 Biennale.34 In this pio neering work, the composer extends the boundaries of the onstage live music through integration of a vast external world via the Internet as an integral part of the performance medium. In addition to his multifaceted microtonal construction, Stahnkes innovative approach to integrating digital media in the performance, in fact, underpins Orpheus Kristall 33 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 11 12. 34 See http://archive.muenchener biennale.de/archiv/2002/startseite/ accessed 05.30.2017.

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157 Figure 41 Orpheus Kristall in 2002 Munich Biennale for Contemporary Opera.35 In this opera, Orpheus uses the Internet as a tool to relate to the large, confusing world. As the technology philosopher Peter Paul Verbeek expounded upon the notion of mediation, using objects as a mediator between an individual and the external world is i n fact, not new to humans: I articulate an approach to technological artifacts in human existence. The key concept of this approach is mediation. [ ] When technological artifacts are looked at in terms of mediation- how they mediate the relation between humans and their world, amongst human beings, and 35 Source: http:/ /archive.muenchener biennale.de/archiv/2002/startseite/ accessed 05.30.2017.

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158 between humans and technology itself technologies can no longer be pigeonholed simply as either neutral or determining.36 In ot her words, technology is able to shape th e nature of the humanworld relationship; it becomes a possible form of mediation for human beings to be confronted with reality. In Orpheus Kristall the allegorical relation of Orpheus to his extended world symbolizes the reflections of Orpheuss memories of Eurydice and her catastrophic death. Orpheuss external world is realized in the pe rformance by the remote musicians sounds coming to the stage through the medium of Internet, filtered by control boards and amplified by speakers.37 With Orpheus Krista ll Stahnke comments on the foundation o f our existence in an enormous exterior nature, which is itself a fundamental element in the Orpheus myth. In the present time, using various possibilities of the digital media, our existence is strictly tied to the outer world other countries and continents and even space. Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall conceives of a world wher e Orpheuss existence is represented not merely by the small stage where the performance takes place, but also by an external world made available through the Internet musicians sounds. The incoming sounds, reflected in the hall, leave Orpheus to deal with his memories, as they leave us to question our existence through the operas content. The opera seeks to break the barrier betwee n int erior and exteriors realm sto overcome the old Kristall of the equal temperament and the boundary of the immediate stage.38 36 Peter Paul Verbeek, What Thing s Do (Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University press, 2005), 11. 37 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 12 13. 38 Bargrizan, 23 2 6.

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159 Breaking the barrier between the exteriors is the Int ernets role in this productionan allegorical mediation between technology, the opera, and its message. From one standpoint, Orpheus Kristall could be interpreted as the aesthetic product of the artists involved in the production and the technological possibilities that the use of th e Internet granted the project ; i n other words, a s pecific mythological and microtonal structure conceptualized by the composer, librettist, director, and the dramaturge on one side, and the technological structure of the Internet on the other. In Orpheus K ristall, Stahnke placed Orpheus as the central fig ure on the stage, who communicates with multiple locations around the globe, while t he I nternet mediates the projection of the autistic Orpheuss thoughts (voice), attempting to come to terms with his memories. The remote musicians react to his thoughts and improvise. Their reflections flow bac k to the stage through the medium of Internet, and Orpheus, now confronted with the reflections keeps trying; and that is how this interaction begins to exist. 39 Emphasizing the aesthetic significance of incorporating the digi tal media in a contemporary art work, Stahnkes use of the Internet as a medium in his opera gives credence to the importance of collective creativity and digital participation.40 According to media artist and fashion designer Andrea Zapp: [The Internet] should be understood not only as an instrument for transfer and distribution of information, but rather as an open resource of a participatory order. The net is a comparatively unique cosmos of invented identities, partakers, and accompli ces in joint forces, hidden in the endless 39 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 23 26. 40 See Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 24.

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160 labyrinth of home pages, chatrooms and communities. 41 U sing the Internet as a participatory platform to integrate the collective creative imagination has been a recurring subject in the twenty first century. In th e context of Internet art projects such as crowdsourced art, Iona Literat highlights the importance of collective creativity and digital participation as follows: With the rise of the Internet, artists interested in collaborative or participatory art foun d an ideal platform to reach an infinitely wider and more diverse pool of potential contributors.42 T here is however, a simple difference between Stahnkes concept of Internet opera and digital, participatory projects such as Crowdsourced art: Stahnke s c oncept is participatory in the sense that it involve s remote musicians, participating in shaping Orpheus s musical world. Although it does not integrate the creativity of audiences in the hall or in remote locations, it makes an intermedial exchange between the stage and the remote musicians possible. Furthermore, through its innovative, pioneering approach to tonal systems, digital media, and myth, it successfully mediates its existential message to the audience.43 In Orpheus K ristall, although the dramatic actions happen on the live stage, by employing digital media, the composer extends th e live music to the offstage realm which, in a sense, adds more layers to the intermediality of the onstage theatrical music. Moreover, Orpheus is supposed to constantly react to the incoming sou nds flowing to the stage from the offstage spaces In short in Orpheus Kristall the multivalent st ructure of the music is analogous to the multivalent structure of th e plot; the vague plot 41 Andrea Zapp, net.dr ama://myth/mimesis/mind_mapping In New Screen Media: Cinema/Art/Narrative, eds. Martin Rieser and Andrea Zapp, 77 89 (London: British Film Institute, 2002), 68. 42 Iona Literat, The Work of Art in the Age of Meditated Participation: Crowdsourced Art and Collective Creativity, International Journal of Communication 6 (2012), 2972. 43 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 24.

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161 hinges upon the incoming improvisatory music which impacts the stage music.44 I n Orpheus K ristall not only does the stage become a hypermedium but the I nternet also function s as a hypermedium that facilitate s the intermediality of al l the artistic media including multiple plots, live stage music, and the external music from around the world, all of which shape a hyperreal plot which contains various philosophical connotations. As Marshall McLuhan formulated that the medium is the message, in a multimedia opera such as Orpheus Kristall the hypermedium in this case the I nternet becom es the essence of the opera: its message. 45 As an essential message of the opera, the Internet symbolizes the disarray of the information transferred to us from the outer spaces through digital technologies. By integrating the I nternet, we suddenly delve into a chaotic world of signs the chaos of multiple incoming data streams processed in the real time expanding the scope of the live music in Munich. Stahnke has, in fact, expressed his passi on for such a productive chaos where the whole conception is a rhizome consisting of various possibilities.46 The Internet granted him the possibility to create such a medial chaos as a reflection upon the complexity of our multimedia world on the verge of amalgamating physical and virtual realities. In Orpheus Kristall as muc h as the differencetone harmonies mirror the su btleties of our existence rooted in the natural world, the I nternet symbolizes our virtual (ly) boundless locations and limitless times, upon which now adays our lives hinge. T he alle gorical 44 I will elaborate on the characteristic of the plot in the next chapters. 45 See the first chapter in Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1964). 46 Bargrizan, I nterviews with Manfred Stahnke.

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162 incorporation of the medium of the I nternet manifests a primary concern of the opera: the possibility of borderlessness. Orpheus Kristall synthesizes the objective, onstage live music with the subjective, offstage improvisations of the remote musicians reacting to the stage music, all of which rely on the virtual interaction that the hypermedium of the Internet enables. In the opera, we explore the inner world of the composers visions, reconciled with the actuality of the immediate stage extended to the outer stages, in an intermedial and interactive collaboration. The Role of the Interactive Interface Quintet.net in Orpheus Kristall Orpheus K ristall features Q uintet.net a real time Internet performance environment which allows remote musicians to participate in the performance. To realize the interactive conception of the opera Stanhke applies Quintet.net, which t he m ultimedia composer Georg Hajdu has developed in MAX/MSP see Figure 4.2 .47 47 I n 2002 Hajdu was appointed professor of multimedia composition at Hamburg University for Music and Theater, where in 2004 he established Germanys first Masters program in multimedia composition as well as in 2012 the center for microt onal music and multi media. Hajdu often integrates diverse electronic and multimedia concepts in his creative works. He has composed several pieces for electronic ensembles, tape, laptop quartet, live electronic, MIDI fied carillon, and other interactive media, individually or in combination with acoustic instruments, e.g. his multimedia opera Der Sprung Beschreibung einer Oper (1998), and two installations : Drei Allegorien Von C.D. Friedrich (2006), and Flying Cities (2003). He is also the author of sev eral articles, essays, and book chapters, explaining his ideas on the intersection of art and science, see http://georghajdu.de/ accessed 05.15.2015.

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163 Figure 42 D ialogue box of Quintet.net, designed by George Hajdu in MAX/MSP Hajdus initial impulse to design this interactive interface was the idea of connecting networked, electronic soundgenerators with real time notation. P redecessors of Hajdus work go back to the 1960s, for instance Max Neuhaus s interactive project Public Supply or Henri P ousseurs opera Votre Faust and later th e computer network music ensemble The Hub, or Tod Machovers Brain Opera .48 48 In Public Supply (1966), the percussionist and sound artist Max Neuhaus (1939 2009) used telephone lines installed in the WBAI radio studio in New York. Using the technical system he himself had designed, he manipulated, mixed, and bundled the incoming feedback from the r adios of multiple callers, see http://www.max neuhaus.info/ accessed 05.27.2017. In Henri Pousseurs opera Votre Faust (1968), the

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164 Quintet.net enables up to five musicians to perform over the Internet under the control of a conductor. The environment consists of four components: t he Server, Client, Conductor, and the Listener. In addition, there is a Viewer addon for the Client and Lis tener components, see Figure 4.3.49 According to Hajdu: The players interact over the Internet or local networks by exchanging musical streams (contro l messages) via the Quintet.net server. For this, various inputs ranging from the computer keyboard, MIDI controllers, sensor input and/or the built in pitch tracker can be used. On the server, the streams get multiplied, processed by algorithms, and sent back to the clients as well as to the listeners. In addition, a sixth performer, the conductor, can control the musical outcome by changing settings remotely and sending streams of parameter values either manually or by utilizing a timeline. The environment uses two network protocols for exchanging data: OpenSoundControl/UDP for timedependent events, as well as TCP for safe data transmission. It also uses a mechanism to compensate for network jitter. Quintet.nets open architecture accommodates various out puts such as the built in sampler, MIDI as well as VSTi instruments and custom designed software patches for instrumental playback. It also features granular synthesis controllable by the players and the conductor.50 Because of the small bandwidth and slow speed of the Internet in 2002, during the performance in the Munich Biennale, t he engineers recorded the live onstage percussion and baritone sounds first transformed them to MIDI data, and then transpor ted them to the remote locations all in real time The musicians in Amsterdam, audience determines the course of the music and the plot, based on an intricate set of rules, see, for example, MGG Online s entry for Henri Pousseur, written by Mark Delaere. According to the Grove Music Onlines entry for Hub, written by Anne Beetem Acker, The Hub is an experimental computer network founded in 1985 by Tim Perkis and John Bischoff. The concept of Hub is to create transformable live music by the means of unpredictable interactions of interconnected computer systems. About Tod Machovers Brain Opera, Stephen Mantagues write in Grove Music Online : In Brain Opera (1998) the audience moves first through a room which he calls an interactive Mind Forest where they play a variety of one hundred or so hyperinstruments. They next occupy an adjacent space for a performance of their musical input mixed with his own music plus numerous devices like the sensor chair and digital baton. The final part is in the Net Music space, a website that provides the audience with an online introduction to the system and facility for those wishing to participate from home where they ma y also visit previously recorded performances. 49 http://georghajdu.de/ accessed 05.17.2015. 50 http://georghajdu.de/ accessed 05.27.2017.

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165 New York, and Berkeley reacted to the stage music accordingly, and improvised upon it. The sound engineers received the improvisational MIDI responses of the remote musicians. U sing mix consoles they could take one or more of these new incoming MIDI data streams modify them through a pitchtracker dev ice, and by means of sampleplayers transform them back to audio sounds. The audio sounds were, then, filtered through specific overtone chords, as written in the score, and play ed as electronic samples in the hall, see Figure 4.4 which demonstrates a schema of the interactive process explained above, and Examples 4.4 and 4.5 from the score. The video of the performa nce in Munich was also transmitted to Amsterdam, Berkeley, and New York, where, besides the involved musicians, both large and small audiences attended the slightly delayed performances. As illustrated in Example 4.5, at some points the incoming internet sounds were intri guingly filtered up to their thirty third overtone, filling the hall with chords consisting of a wide range of natural tones Sometimes they even filtered the Orpheus voice through the incoming Internet sounds. Therefore, the audience heard his voice in a kind of strange, blurred, and deformed manner. A ligned with the constant confrontation of the improvisational freedom of the incoming music and strict structuralism of the microtonal fabric of the stage music Quintet.net underpinned Stah nkes interactive conception in Orpheus Kristall enabling him to extend the breadth of the immediate stage to the improvisations of the remote musicians, all based on the philosophical implication of the whole project.

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166 Fi gure 43 T he function of the I nternet in Orpheus Kristall .51 51 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 27.

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167 Exam ple 41 Manfred Stahnke, Orpheus Kristall ; incoming Internet Sounds, in Pome Internet of the Act I, measures 6 10.

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168 Example 42 Manfred Stahnke, Orpheus Kristall ; incoming Internet Sounds, in Pome Internet of the Act I, measures 11 16.

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169 Various Trajectories in the Multimedia Design of Orpheus Kristall Another framework to explore the structure and function of the digital media in Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall is the concept of trajectories, proposed by Steve Benford i n his article Performing Musical Interaction: Lessons from the Study of Extended Theatrical Performances. 52 In his article, Benford discusses the ways in which a mixedreality performance could emerge, through interaction of physical or live performance and virtual or digital media. Benford appr opriates the plural form of the term trajectory as his central concept, to refer to the individual construction of each of the constituent s in a multimedia performance. The path that each of these constituents take converge duri ng the performance, realizing the artwork. Therefore, the meaning of Benfords concept of trajectories go beyond this terms literal implication s in the physics.53 It informs the underlying plot based, virtual, or performative ideas that construct the artwo rk. Elaborating on the hybrid structures generated by combining multiple physical and virtual spaces, multiple timescales, different performative roles, and diverse interfaces, Benford argues t hat the overarching concept of trajectories facilitate s our per ception of such intricate structures. Accord ing to Benford, the concept of t rajectories informs the ways in which the performers construct coherent experiences, while each of them might follow their own individual path, meeting at a point to build a social construct 52 Steve Benford, Performing Musical Interactions: Lessons from the Study of Extended Theatrical Performances, Computer Music Journal 34, 4 (2010), 49 61. 53 Oxford English Dictionary defines trajectory as the path of any body moving under the action of given forces (in physics), and A curve or surface passing through a given set of points, or intersecting each of a given series of curve or surface according to a given law, e.g. at a constant angle (in geometry).

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170 of mixed reality. In other words, i ndependent trajectories of each participant transform to a complex whole, producing an interactive performance.54 In the context of Orpheus K ristall, the concept of trajectories illuminates the interrelationship of the various existing plots, the relat ion of the Internet musicians to the onstage music and the multifarious tonal factors. I argue that not only we are able to observe singular trajectori es within each of these three fundamental aspects of the opera namely the plot, the digital media, and the microtonal system but as overarching trajectories, they also constitute the whole artwork. This section analyzes various canonical, participant, and historic trajectories within the technological con figuration of the opera, conceived by the function of the Internet as a digital hypermedium As one of the three fundamental kinds of trajectories, Benford explains the notion of canonical trajectories as f ollows: Artists create canonical trajectories that express one or more ideal journeys through a performance.55 He elaborates: canonical trajectories capture the design of the underlying narrative that guides the performance, although this is broadened to include all aspects of the experience from ticketing and admissions, framing and engaging with interfaces, to the structure of the digital media, to the ending of the performance.56 In Stahnkes opera, the underlying ideas on which the whole interaction b etween the stage an d external musicians is based illustrates its canonical trajectories. The medium of Internet made the realization of these underlying ideas the canonical trajectories and the resulting intricate interaction, possible. 54 Benford, Perform ing Musical Interactions, 57 59. 55 Benford, Performing Musical Interactions, 57. 56 Benford, Performing Musical Interactions, 58.

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171 W ith Orpheus Krista ll, Stahnke comments on the foundation of our existence in an enormous, complicated exterior, articulating the fact that u sing various possibilities of the digital m ediaour existence is nowadays strictly tied to the outer world. In this opera, Orpheuss existence is represented not merely by the small stage where the performance takes place, but also by an external world made available through the Internet musicians sounds As the most significant canonical trajectory of the opera, the incoming sounds, r eflected in the hall, leave Orpheus to cope with his memories of losing Eurydice, as they leave us to contemplate the ever growing inter dependence of our lives on the digital technologies the vast external world, and the infinity of nature. The second fu ndamental kind of trajectories, the participant trajectories informs the actual journey of each participant through t he work. According to Benford, t hese individual experiences are shaped by an interactive environment, in which participants make their own choices about how to act and how to drive their trajectories based on the underlying canonical trajectories.57 Benford explains that the convergence and divergence of multiple participant trajectories expresses the social dynamics of a particular performance, reflecting moments at which different participants are brought together to share aspects of an experience, as well as important moments of contemplative isolation in which they are deliberately separated.58 In Orpheus Kristall Q uintet.net enables the remote musicians to shape their own improvisatory participant trajectories, as opposed to the fixed, notated music of the orchestra on the stage, which 57 Benford, Performing Musical Interactions, 58. 58 Benford, Performing Musical Interactions, 58.

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172 in turn, inscribes another participant trajectory. These participant trajectories converge on the stage, to construct the dramatic tension of the opera. The very last sort of the trajectories, which grants us a conceptual framework to analyze the interactive aspects of Orpheus Kristall is the notion of historic trajectories According to Benford, his toric trajectories involves selecting and recombining segments from among different participant trajectories that have been recorded by the underlying system. In the simplest case, this may involve replaying a given participant trajectory to recreate a par ticular individuals experience as it took place.59 As previously mentioned, d uring the 2002 production of Orpheus Kristall in Munich, a crew consisting of the composer and the sound engineers worked on mix consoles, computers, and pitch tracker devices, r ecei ving the incoming MIDI data from the Internet musicians. While filtering the incoming data through their spectrum of partials, they could take one or multiple harmonics and play them in the hall at the particular spots marked in the score, using samples or electronic sounds. This very process of real time selecting, recombining, and replaying one or some participant trajectories illustrates the notion of historic trajectories. It goes without saying that these historic trajectories, as much as the parti cipant trajectories, are subjugated to the essential canonic al trajectories of the operat he latent and intrinsic philosophical narrative inscribed into the whole process. The historic trajectories in Orpheus Kristall also demonstrate a modular characteristic. Theater scholar Hadassa Shani expounds on the notion of modularity in the context of the interactive digital theater as follows: The concept of modularity, in its broadest sense, indicates the organization of elements according to loose o r unstable connections, in 59 Benford, Performing Musical Interactions, 58.

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173 which all of the elements continue to maintain their separate identities. This type of organization enables reconstruction through shifts in direction, often by jumping or skipping over different sections of a complex structure. The main characteristics of modularity are: multiplicity of options, independent units, free associations, personal choice, continual change, the opening of unanticipated horizons, and accessibility.60 The interaction of all the constituent elements in Orph eus Kristall are modular in the sense that although the various participant trajectori es follow their individual path maintaining their individual identities, they can be manipulated, recombined, and resynthesized based on the anticipated and unanticipat ed historic trajectories, all the while the canonical trajectories determine the underpinning path. One major challenge that the composer and the sound engineers dealt with however, was the fact that in 2002, the Internet was not fast enough to tra nsfer sounds. Although, by utilizing MIDI, they solved the problem to some extent, in my 2015 interviews with Stahnke, he stated that they were not quite satisfied with the final result. He mentioned that the Internets slow speed and the resulting delay that it caused to transform the incoming MIDI data to audiosounds mildly impaired the whole process.61 Benford, in fact, warns against such pitfalls, stating : Although the concept of trajectories is intended to capture a sense of a continuous journey through a p erformance, this ideal of continuity is in fact often threate ne d by various transition and significant moments in the structure of a performance that require careful design to maintain an overall sense of coherence.62 Recognizing this issue, Stahnke has 60 Hadassa Shani, Modularity as Guiding Principle of Theatrical Intermediality, in Intermediality in Theatre and Performance, eds. Freda Chapple and Chiel Kattenbelt (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006), 213. 61 Bargrizan, Aspekte mikrotonaler Komposition, 134 137. 62 Benford, Performing Musical Interactions, 58.

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174 ex pressed a wish for a re production of Orpheus K ristall, which, by utilizing the present progressive technologies, would surely lead to a much better outcome.63 Regardless of the pitfalls, in Orpheus Kristall the participant and historic trajectories cooperate to delineate the ca nonical trajectories the philosophical implications of the whole artwork. These implications point to the origins of our existence in an external, enormous nature. T he predominance of the just tuned natural tones, the theme of nature imbedded in the plot, and the external sounds coming to the stage from far away, imply this existential issue. Furthermore, the use of the digital media hints to another existential issue, na mely how nowadays our lives depend on the vi rtual world of the Internet and other forms of digital media. Lastly, Stahnkes search toward new soundstructures, which break through the limited scope of the prevailing equal temperament as well as the immediate stage, illustrates a personal tendency of the composer to not confine himself within the already established and old idioms, and his constant longing for new paradigms. Orpheus Kristall is not Stahnkes only opera to utilize electronic devices; his use of the technological tools in his three earl ier operas were, however, rather minimal in comparison to Orpheus Kristall Confronting the predominantly just intoned microtonal structures, i n Heinrich IV the synthesizer presents jazz and p op chords, symbolizing the superficiality of characters such as Matilde, while the previously recorded strings and synthesizer sections, play backed in the hall, accompany the live synthesizer at the beginning of the piece, see Example 4.1 and 4.2. I n the 1983 version of Wahnsinn, das ist die Seele der Handlung, on the other hand, electronic tapes record the whole live 63 Bargrizan, Aspekte mikrotonaler Komposition, 138.

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175 performance and play it back in the hall with eight seconds of delay creating a reminiscence of the already declaimed poems, see the legend from the score in Figure 4.1.64 In Der Untergang des Hauses Usher white noise played by the electronic tape appears at the end of the opera, as the sum information of all over and undertones, symbolizing the dichotomy of nothing vs. everything, or, analogous to the events in the plot, as death vs. l ife, see Example 4 .4 Furthermore, both in Usher and Heinrich microphone amplification techniques made the central instrument of the harp more audible amidst all the instruments and voices. 64 In the 2012 production in Berlin, the real time recording techniques replaced the analogue tapes employed in the original 1983 version.

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176 Example 43 Heinrich IV Overture zur Overture measures 9 17; the prerecorded string sections and synthesizer accompany the live synthesizer.

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177 Example 44 Heinrich IV Overture zur Overture measures 18 29; the prerecorded string sections and synthesizer accompany the live synthesizer.

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178 Figure 44 Wahns inn das ist die Seele der H andlung (1983 version), l egend; the explanation of the function of the electronic tapes on top of the page.

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179 Example 45 Der Untergang des Hauses Usher closing scene, measures 555 559; Tonband (electronic tape) plays white noise.

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180 Although the concept of trajectories contributed to analyzing the function of the internet in Orpheus Kristall this concept could also inform the construction of the musical and dramatic aspect of this work. Benford uses this concept as a way to examine the digital performances. However, it could be as well applied to analyzing other aspects of such works as Orpheus Kristall which incorporate improvisation and participatory approaches. A s we have observed in the case of Orpheus Kristall which integrates digital media as an essential performance interface, in their theatrical music both Partch and Stahnke have combined technological structures Partchs unique instruments and Stahnkes use of electronic devi ces with microtonal f abrics as fundamental elements in shaping the (post)dramatic structures of their music While the three last chapters expounded upon the subtleties of the microtonal systems, the digital media, their interaction, and their inextricable link to both composers music philosophical ideas, the next t wo chapters deal with the components o f the pieces related to the ritual and corporeal aspects as well the conformation of the dramatic and postdramatic structures .

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181 CHAPTER 5 CORPOREALITY AS THE FOUNDATION OF PARTCHS OEUVRE Partch beyond Intonation and Tuning While scholars have largely focused on aspects of Partchs creative output, such as his tuning system, his music instruments, or his solitary and partially transient lifestyle, the philosophical underpinnings of his music have yet to be adequately analyzed in the scholarly literature.1 Partchs new musical aesthetic owes much to his revolut ionary concept of corporeality that not only fundamentally informs his music dramas but is al so central to his compositional and theoretical achievements. Pointing to the existential pertinence of Partchs concept of corporeality and its centrality in his aesthetic, Michael Broyles states: Partch spoke of corporeality throughout his life, and lik e life itself, the term evolved. But neither its core meaning nor its importance ever changed dramatically.2 While Broyles work articulates the significance of the concept of corporeality in Partchs oeuvre, it does not analyze this concept as such. T he present chapter however, grapples with the core meaning, and the importance, of Partchs notion of corporeality. C orporeality is a particularly ambiguous notion. N umerous discourses within the disciplines of humanities and the social sciences have employed it in the context of 1 For studies of Partchs tuning and int o national system see, for example, Manfred Stahnke, Gedanken zu Harry Partch, Neuland: Anstze zur Musik d. Gegenwart: Jahrbuch 2, ed. Herbert Henck (Bergisch Gladbach: Neuland Musikverlag, 1982), 243 51; Manfred S tahnke, Zwei Blumen der reinen Stimmung im 20. Jahrhundert: Harry Partch und Gerard Grisey, Hamburger Jahrbuch fr Musikwissenschaft 17, ed. Constantin Floros, Friedrich Geiger, and Thomas Schfer (Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang, 2000), 369 88 ; Manfred Stahnke, Partch Harp:(Er)findung einer nicht oktavierenden Musik, in Musikkulturgeschichte: Festschrift fr Constantin Floros zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Peter Peterson (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hrtel 1990), 11 26. For studies of Partchs biographical aspects see, for example, Bob Gilmore, Harry Partch: a biography ( New Haven & London: Yale University, 1998); and S. Andrew Granade, Harry Partch, Hobo Composer ( Rochester: University of Rochester, 2014) 2 Broyles, Mavericks, 224.

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182 diverse, and often disparate, discourses, for instance in linguistic, gender studies, disability studies, kinesiology, media studies, psychology, and arts The Oxford English D ictionary defines corporeality as t he quality or state o f being corporeal; bodily form or nature; materiality, and traces its roots back to the mid sevent eenthcentury text authored by medical practitioner and social reformer Noah Biggs 3 Although this chapter mainly expounds upon Partchs idiosyncratic use of the term corporeality to address the underpinning concept which informs his aesthetic, an introduction to the most significant adoptions of this term in distinct disciplines precedes the analysis of Partchs notion. L anguage scholar Horst Ruthrof uses this term in his book Semantics and the Body : M eaning from Frege to the Postmodern to suggest a conception of meaning as the activation of linguistic expression by way of haptic, olfactory, tactile, aural, visual, and other signs a corporeal description of the semantics.4 Ruthrof criticizes, among others, Frege, Kripke, Saussure, Lacan, and Baudrillard, for their blindness to the importance of nonverbal signs both within and without the linguistic.5 His study intends to fill the gap bet ween various disciplines, by means of offering an interdisciplinary and corporeal revision to the question of semantics. As another significant use of the term corporeality, distinguished British philosopher and psychologist Rom Harr studies the importance of the concept of body in discursive practices, such as giving of reasons, anticipating the future, and the 3 Noah Biggs, : The Vanity of the Craft of Physick (London: Edward Blackmore, 1651). See the entry for corporeality in Oxford English Dictionary 4 Horst Ruthrof, Semantics and the Body: Meaning from Frege to the Postmodern (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), xii. 5 Ruthrof, Semantics and the Body xi xiii.

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183 making of judgements according to criteria and norms. 6 In Physical Being: A Theory of a Corporeal Psychology h e coins the theory of corporeal psychology as the conceptual foundation of his pioneering study. Diane L. Prosser MacDonalds Transgressive Corporeality: The Body, Poststructuralism, and the Theological Imagination, on the other hand, attempts to deconstruct the binary modes of thinking and analysis with regard to the notions of body and embodiment, predominant in the post Enlightenment Western culture, especially in the works of Nietzsche, Eco, MerleauPonty, Foucault, and Kristeva. 7 In the social theory and feminist studies, philosopher Moira Gatens draws upon Spinozas theory of imagination to suggest the shortcoming of the dichotomy of sex/gender argument to account for the psychoanalytic notion of imaginary body. In her Imaginary Bodies: Ethics, Power, and Corporeality Gat ens argues for body image as a double; an other; or a complement for the corporeal body, which refers to the physical and actual body. 8 Another outstanding study at the intersection of gender stud ies and literature is Anna M. Klobuckas and Mark Sabines edited volume on the various dramatic personae, under which the Portuguese poet, Fernando Pessoa (18881935), wrote his poetry. Embodying Pessoa: Corporeality, Gender, Sexuality explores the relati onship of the corporeal physicality, gender, and sexuality to Pessoas 6 Rom Harr Physical Being: A Theory of a Corporeal Psychology (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991), 1 7. 7 Diane L. Prosser MacDonalds, Transgressive Corporeality: The Body, Poststructuralism, and the Theological Imagination (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995), xi xiii. 8 Moira Gatens, Preface to Imaginary Bodies: Ethics, Power, and Corporeality (New York: Routledge, 1996), vii xvi.

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184 constructed personae, which went beyond mere pseudonyms in Pessoas words: heteronyms, meaning fully developed dramatic characters. 9 In her Body Image: Embodiment as Intercorporeality philosopher Gail Weiss build s upon MerleauPontys and Schilders theory that proposes: body image is itself an expression of an ongoing exchange between bodies and body image.10 Weiss argues for e mbodiment as intercorporeality, which depends on interactions with other humans and nonhuman bodies as continuing, daily corporeal exchanges, leading to construction and reconstruction of the body image.11 Finally, in her polemical study Telling Flesh: The Substance of the Corporeal social scientist Vic ky Kirby criticizes the postmodern notions of corporeality with regard to nature/culture and body/mind dichotomies, and in relation to, among others, the concepts of feminism and cyberspace.12 Within c urrent discourses in the field of music technology, sou nd artist Bob Ostertag has problematized the corporeal absence of the artists body in electroacoustic music. By reviewing the historical evolution of electroacoustic music from Musique concrete ( Schaeffer) and Elektronische Musik (Stockhausen and Koenig) to turntable music Ostertag argues that the increasing control over the compositional process and electronic sound structures has sacrificed the corporeal involvement of the performers in the performance, leading to a sort of disembodying tension between b ody and 9 Ann a M Klobucka and Mark Sabine, Introduction to Embodying Pessoa: Corporeality, Gender, Sexuality (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007), 3 35. 10 Gain Weiss, Body Image: Embodiment as Intercorporeality (New York: Routledge, 1996), 1. 11 Weiss, Body Image, 1 6. 12 Vicky Kirby, Telling Flesh: The Substance of the Corporeal (New York: Routledge, 1996).

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185 technology.13 In the field of cognitive musicology, on the other hand, systematic musicologist Marc Lehman seeks a way to fill in the gap between music as encoded physical energy in modern digital media and the corporeal human way of handling music. He intends to demonstrate that an embodied music cognition approach, based on corporeal articulations and semantic descriptions, can contribute to the development of a mediation technology.14 Lehmans systematic study targets music not only from t h e standpoint of music philosophy but also from the perspectives of neuroscience, psychology, physics, and engineering. Though the examples discussed above represent different points of view they emphasize the materiality of the physical body intrinsic to the notion of corporeality, in relation to the mind, or in relation to the abstract and virtual crystallization of body image and the meaning of body in mind. Yet Partchs peculiar notion of corporeality also highlight s the relationship of the mind and the body, as Broy les states: C orporeality was Partchs term for his belief in the oneness of mind and body. It was his revolution stripped to its essence, and he worked on it as a man obsessed.15 Although Partchs concept of corporeality also articulates the actuality of body in relation to mind not only in the creative process but also in the performance his autonomous use of this term as his key aesthetic take s on a key role in his discourse, his aesthetic, his creative process, and his performances. T he following sections of this chapter differentiate and 13 Bob Ostertag, Human Bodies, Computer Music, Leonardo Music Journal 12 (2002), 11 14. 14 Marc Lehman, Embodied Music Cognition and Mediation Technology (Cambridge: the MIT Press, 2008), xi xv. 15 Broyles, Mavericks 219.

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186 analyze various aspects of Partchs concept of corporeality, while articulating the synthesis of all of thes e aspect s in his integrated music dramas. Partchs Corporeality and the Concept of Gesamtkunstwerk Expressing his distaste for a nonintertwined coexistence of the art of sounds and the art of drama, a non corporeal theatrical music, Partch says: The age of specialization has given us an art of sound that denies sound, and a science of sound that denies art. a music drama that denies drama, and a drama that contrary to the practices of all other people of the worlddenies music."16 Condemning this segregation and u nderlining his desired holistic, corporeal human experience in his music d ramas, Partch states in his remarkable metaphorical languagethat : I f understanding is a valuable personal asset, it is desirable for each participant in such a work to be aware of the total potential of any human involvement. The musician as dancer, the dancer as ditchdigger, the ditchdigger as physicist, the physicist as hobo, the hobo as messiah, the messiah as criminal, or any other conceivable metamorphosis.17 Partchs idiosyncratic notion of corporeality hence, refers to an art form where music or mu sicianship, is on ly one component in a total artwork. It joins the synthesis of dance, acting, voice, film, gymnastics, staging, lighting, costumes, and the sculptural beauty of musical instruments as integral par ts of the corporeal experience, each, in turn depicting the essence of a drama. Partchs performers on the stage are ideally musicians, actors, dancer s, and singers, all at the same time, demonstrating a th o rough corporeal fusion of the human 16 Harry Partch, The University and the Creative Arts: Comment, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: Univers ity of Illinois Press, 1991), 186. 17 Harry Partch, No Barriers, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 181.

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187 mental and physical capabilities, which targets the c rux of Partchs philosophical plots. Based on my analysis, the notion of t otal art work ( Gesamtkunstwerk ) or an extension of this originally Wagnerian notionis one significant component of Partchs concepti on of corporeal music which informs most of his m usic after 1950, including his larger music dramas, such as Oedipus The Bewitched, and Delusion of the Fury Prior to this study, scholars including Bob Gilmore and Andrew S. Granade, have considered Partchs conception of total artwo rk as evolving out o f his ide a of monophony, w hereas I suggest that both concepts conjointly and simultaneously constitute two components of Partchs overarching concept of corporeality .18 Demonstrating strict and clear unity of various aspects of a truly integrated theater on stage Delusion of the Fury more th an any other of Partchs pieces display s the integration of all artistic media in a corporeal theatrical music. Regarding Delusion of the Fury Par tch explains his conception of total artwork, as follows: t he concep t of this work inheres in the presence of the instruments onstage, the movements of musicians and chorus, the sounds they produce, the actuality of actors, of singers, of mimes, of lights; in fine, the actuality of truly integrated theater .19 The following overview of the way s in which the elements of the corporeal theatrical music function in Delusion of the Fury illuminate s the extent and format of the interaction of all artistic media, toward Partchs ideal of an integrated total artwork. 18 See Granade, Harry Partch, Hobo Composer 262 264. 19 Harry Partch, Delusion of the Fury: A Ritual of Dream and Delusion, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 445.

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188 Corporeality in Delusion of the Fury Partchs 1964 magnum opus, Delusion of the Fury the epitome of his concept of corporeality inform s thi s concept in all of its aspects, even more so than Oedipus and The Bewitched. I n Delusion of the Fury Partchs just tuned instruments, the performers, and the Japanese and Ethiopian rituals ( respectiv ely in the first and second act) characterize the aesthetic of corporeality, while granting a sense of unity to the work. Partchs integration of the Japanese Noh dramas and the Ethiopian folk tales as we ll as the characteristics of Partchs microtonal system and extensive instrumentation undergird this work Although Delusion of the Fury consists of two acts, there is no intermission between the acts making it a continuous ritual drama. Partchs goal was to create seventy five minutes of an uninterrupted, corporeal experience, controlling the work in minute detail. He arranged the instruments as an integral part of the stage, and also asked that the principa l artists be equally skilled in music, dance, act, mime, including Noh and Kabuki .20 Explaining his conception, Partch writes : My musical concepts are invariably involved with theater or with dramatic ideas dramatically presented, and many years have been given to provoking musicians into becoming actors, and singers into making occasional ugly and frightening (but dramatic) sounds, appealing to them through heavy layers of Puritan inhibitions and academic intimidations. Once they are gotten out of the soul destroying pit and the rut of bel canto and shown that they are an absolutely necessary ingredient in latter day rituals designed to castrate the machine age, their responses are positively electric.21 20 Partc h, Genesis, 351 21 Harry Partch, The Ancient Magic, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 186.

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189 Partch intended to challenge the norms of theatrical music and dramatic singing a long, exhaustive process of educating the performers to embody his corporeal ideal in order to push his theatrical music toward an interactive ritual of music, dance, act, and drama, as in the ancient Greek dramas, or nonWest ern rituals I use the word r itual Partch wrote, and I also use the word corporeal to describe music that is neither on the concert stage nor relegated to a pit. In ritual the musicians are seen ; their meaningful movements are part of the act, and collaboration is automatic with everything else that goes on.22 Going even further than in nonWestern theatrical rituals, Partch demanded that the performers fully memorize their parts, because t he effect of stand lights on white music paper onst age tend s to destroy almost any lighting concept.23 He also carefully adapted costumes, curtain calls, chorus, and the different scenes within each act, to demonstrate his profound corporeal concept In Delusion of the Fury every member of the stage experiencemu sicians, actors, instruments costumes, staging, and light interact in a corporeal unity of music, voice, dance, and theater to depict the essence of the drama. According to Philip Blackburn, In Partchs world, everyone is a mover/dancer/actor; the music ians are characters visible on the stage and thus demand as much meaningful, intentional, suggestive body movement as anyone else.24 This form of corporeal performance informs the crux of Partchs aesthetic of total artwork certainly a step toward the unification of various arts in the realm of corporeal music drama, and an extension of 22 Harry Partch, Monoliths in Music, in Bitt er Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991),194. 23 Harry Partch, Delusion of the Fury, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 253. 24 Philip Blackburn, Harry Partch and the Philosophers Tone, Hyperion III, 1 (2008), 13.

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190 the Wagnerian ideal of Gesamtkunst werk T he obsessive and detailed arrangement of the whole corporeal theater in fact, dominates not only in Delusion of the Fury but also Oedipus and The Bewitched Figures 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3 demonstrate scenes from the premiere of Delusion of the Fury and a movie made by Madeline Tour telot based on this performance. Such scenes feature Partchs corporeal integration of ritual dance, cost umes, make up his instruments, and the musicians who are also actors, dancers, and singers.

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191 Figure 51 Scenes from the accompanying booklet to a film by Madeline Tourtelot, based on the 1974 premier of Delusion of t he Fury at UCLA. L ocated at Harry Partch Es tate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American music of the University of Illinois

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192 Figure 52 Scenes from the accompanying booklet to a film by Madeline Tourtelot, based on the 1974 premier of Delusion of the Fury at UCLA. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American music of the University of Illinois.

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193 Figure 53 Scenes from the accompanying booklet to a film by Madeline Tourtelot, based on the 1974 premier of Delusion of the Fury at UCLA. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American music of the University of Illinois.

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194 Partch, however, intended to realize all aspects of his corporeal concepts by himself He states: The creator clears as he goes; he evolves his own techniques, devises his own tools, destroys where he must. If he wants a wholeexperience reaction from his audience, he employs or stipulates every possible stimulus at his command, singly or simultaneously; including music of any imaginable bastardy; dance and drama in any historical or anti historical form; noise, light, shadow, substance, or perhaps only the semblance of substance; and sounds from the mout h th at communicate only as emotion.25 Although the autodidactic Partch was a multifaceted artist capable of, among others, philosophizing, carpentry, writing, composing, and performing controll ing all aspects of his corporeal theater by himself was burdensome and problematic; they often caused quarrels with the other artists involved in his projects, such as the notorious confrontation with the choreographer Alwin Nikolais, hired by the University of Illinois to cooperate with Partch, during the premier of The Bewitched in 1957. Perceiving Partchs self reliant and singlehanded creative process as a flaw which caused him various difficulties, Ben Johnston, who worked with Partch closely, state s: Harry Partch had one flaw which is bad in an arti st. He wanted to make his own species of Gesamtkunstwerk with himself as sole creator of all the artistic components, like Orson Welles. Only he was not really equipped to do that successfully. He was a very good sculptor and a remarkable writer, within limits. The texts of U.S. Highball are beautiful, but Partchs translation of Oedipus, leaning heavily on the expertise of a Bay area Greek scholar and on Yeatss translat ion, leaves much to be desired.26 25 Partch, No Barriers, 182. 26 Ben Johnston, The Corporealism of Harry Partch, in Maximum Clarity and Other Writings on Music ed. Bob Gilmour (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2006), 224 225.

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195 Considering that the audiences and critic s often criti cized the rhythmical aspects of Partch s music as being rather simplistic in compar ison to its intonational aspects and the fact that some of Partchs instruments were not structurally perfect thus unable to realize his int o national system, Johnstons claim seem s to be precise. A Partchian archetype of a creative forcea single force who designs and conceives ev ery element of a total artwork nevertheless demonstrates his concept of corporeality as much as the notion of total artwork itself. The corporeal involvement of the mind and body of this archetypal figure in theorizing the philosophical, acoustical, and dramatic foundations of his music drama; in constructing t he instruments; composing; training other artists; and eventually performing an absolute and utter corporeality was unprecedented before Partch, and most likely after him. Partchs conception of total artwork which embodies his underpinning aesthetic of c orporeality informs the f oremost component of this concept Although some scholars, for example Andrew Granade, have argued that Partchs total artwork grew out of his concept of monophony, in the following section I will explain Partchs monophony and it s relationship to his corporeality, to illustrate that both notions of monophony and total artwork shall be considered, handin hand and equally as the two significant components of Partchs corporeality. Partchs Monophony and Corporeality G rowing out of his earl y speechmusic pieces, the other essential component of Partchs corporeality is his conception of monophony, which primarily in dicates the predominance of the individuals spoken or reciting voice. In his early speechmusic pieces such as Sev enteen Lyrics by Li Po (1930 1933) and The Letter (1943), Partch

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196 concentrates on individuals vocalized words to convey the meaning of the text.27 This individual, being the lyricist, composer, instr ument builder, instrumentalist, and the singer embodies Partchs concept of monophony as a component of his corporeality. In the course of twenty years, from 1930 to 1950, Partch set lyrics by Chinese poets, Shakespeare, Biblical psalms and even hitchhikers inscriptions on highway railings, to recite in his s peechmusic mann er. He accompanied these lyrics, for i nstance, with his adapted viola, while reciting the text s. But Partchs concept of monophony goes beyond highlighting the relevance of individuals reciting voice; as explained in chapter three, his intonational system is also a monophonic one based on the simple just ratios calculated on a monochordhence monophonic. As was the case in the ancient world, for example in the Pythagorean tuning system, and still is in several folk musical cultures, Partch intended to revitalize the dominance of the pure natural tones, rejecting the boundaries of the prev ailing acoustically incorrect equal temperament. He then theorized a new intonational system on the basis of ancient models and constructed his own i nstruments designed to realize this system. Partchs affection for the ancient Greek instruments as much as the Greek rituals served as a model for him to build a new just tuned intonational system, using the simple ratios of the harmonic ser ies up to the eleventh overtone, and an array of unique just tuned instruments. In this regard Partch states: t he experiential ritualistic dramatic area has constituted a very large part of my belief and work. And as for imaginative and sculptural forms of instruments, I have easily given as much time to this endeavor as to 27 Partch, Genesis, 9.

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197 intonation.28 He, accordingly, built several, original instruments based on his extended just intonation, which apply the possibilities of the overtone and undertone series, re alized through his conc epts of otonality and utonality in his elevenlimit tonality d iamond .29 Partc hs own precise explanation reveal s how deep these monophonic just tuned instruments, the instrumentation, and the instrumentalists are well integrated in the corporeality of Delusion of the Fury : The Instrumentalists are the Chorus. [] the choral voice sounds do not come from a separate body of persons appearing just occasionally, but from among the instruments, from the musicians who are deeply involved throughout. In the De lusion of the Fury, I wanted to progress even beyond this concept. There are many musicians on stage, but almost never do all of them play simultaneously. In fairly long periods only a small ensemble is employed, and the tacit musicians may thus become act ors and dancers, moving from instruments to acting areas as the impetus of drama requires. This must be a move toward a sealing of the bond bet ween the theater arts .30 Partchs concepts of total art work and monophony therefore, substantiate a holistic corporeal experience, informing all aspects of Partchs aesthetic of corporeality. The two crucial components of Partchs corporeality are tied together as much as they are related to his utopia of ancient rituals. According to Partch: For the essentially vocal and verbal music of the individual a monophonic concept the word Corporeal may be used, since it is a music that is vital to a time and place, a here and now. The epic chant is an example, but the term could be applied with equal propriety to almost any of the important ancient and near ancient cultures the Chinese, Greek, Arabian, Indian, in all of which music was physically allied with poetry or the dance. Corporeal music is emotionally tactile. It does not 28 Partch, A Quarter Saw Section of Motivations and Intonations, 196. 29 See explanation of Partchs microtonal system in Chapter 3, pages 66 98. 30 Partch, Genesis 351.

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198 grow from the root of pure form. It ca nnot be characterized as either mental or spiritual .31 While Partch articulates the importance of his notion of monophony as a substantial part of his aesthetic of corporeality drawing examples from non Western and ancient cultures, his emphasis on the concept of music drama as a corporeal genre, and the constituents of his conception of corporeality being monophony and total art work, remind us also of the Western artists who, prior to Partch, had based their aesthetics on ancient Greek models, pursuing the preeminence of word in music drama. The most significant representatives of these artists are certainly W agner who strongly believed in Gesamtkunstwerk as a means to d epict the essence of the drama, and the Florentine Camerata, asserting as Partch does the primacy of word in their monodies, intermedi, and early operas Partchs revolutionary concept of corporeality and its indispensable components: monophony and tota l art work, establish Partchs creative oeuvre in all of its facets theorizing, carpentry, and compositionwhile defining an overarching aesthetic concept that makes it possible to decipher his approach to the totality of the art. Based on my analysis of implications of Partchs corporeality in the two last sections, I propose a hierarchical schema, seen in F igure 5.4 as a way to approach and comprehend this convoluted notion. All the components and sub components of Pa rtchs corporeality interact to con ceive his ritual m usico dramatic conceptions. 31 Partch, Genesis 6.

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199 Figure 54 An outline of various facets of Partchs corporeality. Although Partchs aesthetic of corporeality is reminiscent of significant historical models, ranging from ancient Greek or Chinese, rituals to the Florentine and Wagnerian dramas, it is not a mere imitat ion of these models. He, however, consciously attempted to justify his original aesthetic through addressing these prototypical models in the course of the history. The next section di scusses Partchs discourse of these historical model s as related to his notion of corporeality. Partchs Corporeality: a Historical and Ethnographical Discourse As a theorist, Partch was keenly aware of the historical precedents for his musical aesthetic, which draws significant parallels with the achievements from the Corporeality Total Artwork Multi tasked Creator Multi tasked Performers Monophony Voice Intonational System Instruments

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200 Greeks to the Florentine Camerata and, eventually, Wagner. As Ben Johnston formulates, Partchs aesthetic and music theory were, in fact deeply imbedded in the ancient Greeks theatrical an d musical concept s: This procedure of reducing things to the physical, t o the most obvious, to the most tangible, and the most concrete is very Greek. The whole idea of the haptic the touchoriented in art, is very much alive in Partchs work. He was quite right to be attracted to the traditions of the Greeks. He was very perceptive: he did have something in common with them, something to add to their traditions.32 Partchs ideal of corporeality according to Johnston: a tangible, concrete, haptic, touc h oriented approach to conceptualizing, creating, and performing shall be, in fact, considered the most significant reformulation of th e concept of Gesam tkunstwerk since Wagner a reformulation primarily emerging from Partchs longing for the ancient Greek ideals, and secondarily, based on distinction between corporealism vs. abstraction. I n his theatrical music Partchs aesthetic hinges upon his conception of corporealism as opposed to his c onception of abstraction. He juxtaposes his notion of monophony, a component of his corporeality, and abstraction as follows: An important distinction, then, as regards the Corporeal and the Abstract, is between an individuals vocalized words, intended to convey meaning, and musicalized words that convey no meaning, w hether rendered by an individual or a group, because they are beyond the hearers understanding, because they have been ritualized, or because of other evolvements of rendition.33 Representing the importance of the spoken word Partchs notion of monophony serves his effort to conceptualize music drama as a corporeal total art work where various 32 Johnston, The Corporealism of Harry Partch, 231. 33 Partch, Genesis, 9.

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201 artistic media cooperate to del ineate the inflections of the text and the esse nce of the drama, by means of intoning individuals vocalized words. A rticulating Partchs juxtaposition of the concepts of corporeal vs. abstract music, or c orporealism vs. abstraction, Johnston explains: Corporealism was a theory that Partch lived. It is a vehement protest against what he considered the negation of the body and the bodily in our society. It resulted specifically in an attack on abstraction. What that meant to him was first of all that musi c should not be separated f rom words, or visible actions, whether theatrical, choreographic, or simply musically functional. He directed us to see People doing things He felt that aspect to be just as much music as tones or rhythms: as any of the parameters we have abstracted from the total musical experience to serve as elements of music.34 Based on Partchs classificationwhich according to Johnston makes distinction between total artwork and merely abstract musical structures s tories sung or chant ed and poems recited or intoned in folk music and some popular music; dramas as in early seventeenthcentury Florentin e music dramas; and a ncient or modern dancemusic which tells story or describe a situation, exemplify corp oreal music .35 Partch, on the other han d, includes in his category of abstract music all purely instrumental music and songs or dramas with words that are not intended to convey meaning but simply to set the mood of the music, for instance the most modern operas .36 The vernacular and folk rituals, for example, Chinese, African, and Oriental traditions actually come quite close to Partchs ideal of corporeal music, not only because of the bond between word, music, drama and action, but also because they have remained a part of the social e xperience; they have not become abstracted for the 34 Johnston, The Corporealism of Harry Partch, 219. 35 Partch, Genesis, 9. 36 Partch, Genesis, 9.

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202 sake of the artistic virtuosity and polished concert house performance. While highlighting the desired actuality of the body and mind in the corporeal concept, Johnston also explains Partchs distaste for the abstracted Western performance tradition and his preference of the nonWestern ritual s as follows: Corporealism refers not only to the reconstitution of music and speech, music and dance, music and theater but also a body orientation, emphasizing not only the psychological identity of the musicians, but their physical presence and appearance. Partch disliked most manners of performance because of their penchant for abstracting of the act of making art from its physical basis. Traditional European sing ing, for instance, he saw as too instrumental, as he saw European dance too pictorial. He preferred folk and vernacular music a nd their performing traditions.37 The element Partch valued most in the Greek, Florentine, or nonWestern traditions was the pree minence of an individual voice, following the rhythm of the speech and intoning the text as clear as possiblean indispensable defining component of his notion of monophony beside his intonational system. Partch s distaste for the Western ho mophonic, or polyphonic, singing manners in the art m usic, however, emerged from his interpretation of the church music, where he expresses: Antiphonal singing brought an entirely different spirit into music. It became a thing of dolorous chants in extreme sostenuto without spontaneity and ceased to be Corporeal in any sense. The hymns, a generic term that can be applied to all theistic adoration in music, was the inevitable musical vehicle to express the introspection and faith of the first converts, the zealots. And the hymn, like the philosophies that mother it, is a mass expression beyond the boundaries of the individual and the Corporeal, beyond this time and place (with ineludible exceptions), and it is not 37 Ben Johnston, Harry Partch/John Cage in Maximum Clarity and Other Writings on Music ed. Bob Gilmour (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2006), 233.

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203 particularly important that the words be understood; they assert a preknown transcendent belief, and they have no story to tell.38 Partch viewed the way voices were handled in sacred music as devoting no, or little, relevance to intoning the text as straightforward as possible in order to make the drama und erstandable Although he asserts the preknown transcendent belief that this genre of vocal music expresses he considers it to be anything but corporeal; about a sort of abstract truth than being about the actuality and physicality of the human rituals. Even though it is unclear to which tradition, or time, he is pointing, Partch brings old pagan rituals as an example of corporeal traditions, stating: The ancient pagans told stories in their language, accompanied by music. They gave dramas, accompanied by music. If words were not understood, the music had no power to excite.39 Here, again, Partch articulates the importance of music being subjugated to drama. In other words, if the corporeal music with or without the cooperation of other artistic media does not succeed in demonstrating the inflections of the text and delineating the essence of the drama, according to Partch, it is worthless and in vain. The metaphorical pagans music, the primitive humans art, featured in the true sense of the wordpure corporeality for Partch, because the primitives made in struments from everyday objects; they wrote dramas based on everyday experiences, and they imbedded their sound st ructures in their social ritual s. According to Partch: The direction in which I have been going the last forty four years has much in common with the activities and actions of primitive man as I imagine him. Primitive man found magical sounds in the materials around him in a reed, a piece of bamboo, a particul ar piece of wood held in a certain way, or a skin stretched over a gourd or tortoise shell (some resonating body). He then proceeded to make the object, the vehicle, the 38 Partch, Genesis 14 15. 39 Partch, Genesis 16.

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204 instrument, as visually beautiful as he could. His last step was almost automatic: the metamorphosis of the magical sounds and visual beauty into something spiritual. They become fused with his everyday words and experiences his ritual, drama, religion thus lending greater meaning to his life. These acts of primitive man become the trinity of this work: magical sounds, visual form and beauty, experienceritual.40 Partch intended to e mulate the primitive corporeal, ritualistic, theatrical tradition s in the contemporaneous concert scene as a means to confront what he considered to be dry and r igid stage music, and in order to bring the Western musical traditions back to its corporeal foundations. As Broyles explains: t o Partch corporeal music was common to many cultures, particularly primitive ones, but uncommon to recent Western, post Renaiss ance culture. In that sense it was diametrically opposed to the Western concert experience, which presented an abstract, disembodied music to passive audience. Ritual by nature demanded participation.41 Broyles emphasis on disembodiment, the elimination of or la ck of attention to, the bodily aspect s inherent in Western concert tradition, informs another aspect of Partchs distaste for the prevailing We stern musical culture, in addition to the ways voices and drama have been abstractly implemented. Partc h indeed believed that the sacred medieval and Renaissance music strip p ed the ancient, corporeal, Greek music dramas off its corporeality. Harping upon his discussion of the corporeal vs. abstract music, he states regarding church music that t he ecclesias tical, whatever its Abstract musical value in todays term, had and has almost no significance as a Corporeal expression. It was a forced miscegenation of the Abstract with the Greek musical creed.42 He elaborates to express that the corporeal 40 Partch, A Quarter Saw Section of Motivations and Intonations, 196. 41 Broyles, Mavericks 224. 42 Partch, Genesis 17.

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205 ideals of th e Greek music disappeared in the abstraction of sacred music: t he musical idea that had been cultivated into flower by the European Greeks was buried in the ashes of Rome.43 Whether Partchs discourse regarding the medieval and Re naissance church music is influenced by his personal beliefs and his natural, and at times fanatic opposition to the precepts of the dominating Euro American high culture, is obscure.44 Yet, the fact that the abstraction of the vocal structures in favor of vi r tuoso mus ical craftsmanship replaced the corporeality intrinsic into ancient Greek music dramas, or other predecessors to the ecclesiastical music is undeniable. Partch, however traced a hint of hope for returning to the Greek ideals in the early vocal works of the Florentine Camerata. He explains: The first operas in the Florence of about 1600, which in expressed theory have so little in common with opera as currently practiced, were a reaction, a rebellion, an insurgence, written by composers who h appened also to be scholars and aristocrats. In general terms the movement was the scholars counterpart of the troubadours reaction to the dry theology and restrictive bans of the Church, but specifically it was a reaction against word distortion in the florid secular polyphony and word distortion in the restrictive liturgical polyphony.45 Partch, intriguingly takes the Florentine reaction to the Renaissance polyphony as analogous to Troubadours reaction to the medieval church music both rebellions towa rd simplification and intelligibility of the vocal line and against enriching the vocal structures for the sake of musicality. For Partch, the efforts of the sixteenthcentury Florentine intellectuals occupy a superb rank in his historical discourse, to th e extent 43 Partch, Genesis 18. 44 Partchs parents were missionaries in China. His father, however, drifted toward atheis m, and spent the rest of his life challenging religion. Since Partch himself did not explicitly express tendency toward any religion, based on the implications hidden in his writings, we can assume that he either was an atheist, or, at least, was against any kind of organized religion, believing in a sort of esoteric spirituality. 45 Partch, Genesis 21.

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206 that he mentions: Here, at long last, was a highly conceived attempt to transfer the spirit of the Corporeal music of ancient Greece to a time and place characteristic of Western Europe; here, finally, was a musical phoenix rising from the ashes of ancient Rome!46 Along the same lines, Partchs own rebel lion was a reaction against the abstraction inherent in the Baroque to twentiethcentury music his own highly conceived revolution against the autocracy of the predominant Western musical culture. P artch, in fact, did not believe that he was the one and the only contemporaneous artist, who attempt ed to return the Western musical, theatrical, or music theatrical, forms to their ritualistic and corporeal roots Pointing to Bertolt B recht as an example of a figure who also aspired a sort of corporeality in his Epic Theater Partch notes : On the theater stage, with Bertolt Brecht, and occasionally with others, there is something like a ritualistic approach a cor poreal approach to music as an integrated part of the theater But the degradation of either the actual pit or the mental pit is the fate of nearly all other music. If this ritual or corporeal approach accomplishes nothing else, it frees the beautiful rhyt hmic movements of musicians from the inhibitory incubus of tight coat and tight shoes.47 Partch does not elaborate on the ways in which Brechtian concept s might be analogous to his own conceptions. We can, however, assume that Brechts intention to address the contemporary existential social, and political issues by means of interaction with the audience and infusing a sort of a documentary angle to the theater to confront the rigidness of the traditional theatrical forms, i s, in a way, analogous to Partch s efforts. 46 Partch, Genesis 22. 47 Partch, Monoliths in Music, 195.

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207 Moreover, similar to Partch, Brecht also attempted to unify and synthesize the older theatrical concepts as well as the vanished practices and rituals within his new theatrical forms.48 Although Partchs corporeality was undeniably a paradigmatic shift in his aesthetic it is still underestimated. He is one of the few composers in the music history to conceive his own philosophy of music on the basis of an exceptional intonational system; who also invented a plethora of visually specta cular and acoustically astonishing music instruments represented in his compositions. As I have explained in this chapter, the overarching notion of corporeality informs Partchs achievements in the field of intonational systems and tuning, constructing in struments, and composing music dramas, all of which he attempted to justify based on his historical discourse in Genesis of a Music and his essays. The following chapter shift s towards the dramatic and postdramatic structures in Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical music, relating these structures to the composers philosophical convictions and aesthetic decisions as much as to their music theoretical achievements. 48 See for example, Bertolt Brecht, Brecht on Theater: The Development of an Aesthetic, ed. and trans. John Willett (London: Methuen, 1964).

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208 CHAPTER 6 (POST)DRAMATIC THEATRICAL MUSIC Postdrama in Partchs and Stahnkes Works The fundamental elements of the postdramatic theater theatrical form s where the plot based actions assume equal or lesser significance compared with the visual, aural, bodily, scenic, and ritual aspects have also played a significant role in the production of the post World War theatrical music. While music theatrical conceptions with postdramatic tendencies have grown since 1970s, the scholarly literature has not yet examined the postdramatic facets of the theatrical music in the twentieth and twenty first ce nturies. T his chapter analyzes the characteristics of Par tchs and Stahnkes stage works as case studies that demonstrate strong postdramatic characteristics. This analysis juxtaposes the respec tive postdramatic components with the dramatic ones, which remain faithful to the older, yet still prevailing, theatrical tenets. The theory of postdramatic theater, conceptualized by performing arts scholar Hans Thies Lehman n in his seminal book Postdramatic Theatre supplies the analytical framework of this c hapter.1 Following an introductory discussion of the nuances of Lehman n s theory, I will examine the dramatic and postdramatic structures of Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical music. Approaching Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical works from the perspective of this theory not only underlines their philosophical implications, but it also illuminates the interrelationships of microtonality, technology, and the theatrical components in their multimedia conceptions.2 1 Hans Thies Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, trans. Karen J rs Munby (New York: Routledge, 2006). Original title: Postdramatisches Theater (Frankfurt am Main: Verlag der Aut oren, 1999). 2 Although th e t heory of postdramatic theater draws in many ways, on postmodernist and poststructuralist discourses, unlike the latter, it mostly remains within the threshold of the theatrical

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209 Postdramatic vs. Dramatic Theater According to Lehmann postdramatic theater di ssolves, more than any other theatrical element the narrative, dramatic external actions of the characters, and the story, in favor of scenically dynamic formations, maximum isolation of objects, quasi ceremonial and quasi ritual states, corporeality, simultaneous realities, and nonhierarchical use of signs.3 States, hence, repudiate the absolute supremacy of the plot and the dialectical dramatic actions. The c ategory appropriate to the new theater is not action, but st ates, says Lehmann Explaining the concept of state, he elaborates: T he state is an aes thetic figuration of the theater showing a formation rather than a story, even though living actors play in it. Postdramatic theater is a theater of states and of sce nically dynamic formation, as opposed to the traditional dramatic formation meaning the time base d, developing narrative, or plot. 4 He observes that innovative theater of the last fifty years drifts away from mimesis ( embodied r epresentational imitation of reality, as initially formulated by Aristotle), through diegesis ( epic narrative mode of narration, as formulated by Brecht), toward the theater of states, rejecting the dramatic narrative mode.5 Lehmann, however, considers the transformation of the dra matic text to be the most relevant foundation of the paradigmatic shift from the dram atic to postdramatic theater He also emphasizes the changed conc eption of the performance text, the deconstructive artistic practice of the momentary values, the simultaneity of signs, and concepts, rather than cultural, philosophical, and political ones See Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 14 15. 3 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 68 71. 4 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 68 69. 5 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 69.

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210 fragmentary structures all of which imply the pertinence of the abnegation of t he traditional, time based plot in the postdramatic theater .6 Lehman n s theory has, in fact, become a key reference for analyzing the novel theatric al trends that have surfaced since the late 1960s, all of whichdespite their disparities no longer articulate the dramatic text, traditionally the central element of the conventional theater as the stage for reflexivity and thematization. Theater shares with the other arts of (post)modernity the tendency for self reflexivity and self thematization, writes Lehmann 7 He elaborates: At the mention of self reflexivity and autothematic structure one may at first think of the dimension of the text, since it is language par excellence that opens up the free play of a self reflexive use of signs. Yet in theater the text is subject to the same laws and dislocations as the visual, audible, gestic and architectonic theatrical signs.8 According to Lehmann in the postdramatic theater, the visual, audible, scenic, an d bodily components are equally or more essential as the dramatic text. He considers text only as one element, one layer, or as a material of the scenic creation, not as its master.9 Articulatin g the renunciation of dramatic text, Lehmann combines historical survey and scrutiny of dramatic theory, examining discourses by Aristotle, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Pe ter Szondi, Berto t Brecht, Antonin Art aud, Walter Benjamin, Theodore Adorno, Roland Barthes, JeanFranois Lyotard, and Richard Schechner, 6 Lehmann, Post dramatic Theatre, 69 74. 7 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 17. 8 Lehmann, Postdra matic Theatre, 17. 9 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 17.

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211 among others.10 But according to Karen J rs Munby Lehman n s theory of postdramatic theater primarily reassess Szondis Hegelian theory of drama as a histor ical dialectic of form and content, where Szondi considers Brechts epic theater of the scientific age as the decisive break with the traditional Aristotelian drama.11 Even Barthes venerated Brechts concept as the one and the only absolute form of the new theatrical paradigm, which reveals the extent of Brecht the self named Einstein of the new dramatic formhaving been perceived as the sole pinnacle of the new theater. 12 While challenging this notion, Lehmann views Brechts concept merely as a part of t he dramatic tradition, asserting that Szondis Hegelian timebound concept ignores all theatrical developments beyond the AristotelianBrechtian dialectic; beyond the representation of a closedoff fictional cosmos and the mimetic staging of a fable, r ealized in, for instance, absurdist theater, the theater of scenography, the Sprechstck, visual dramaturgy, the theater of situation, and concrete theater.13 Regarding Brecht as a transition from the older form of dramatic toward postdramatic theater, Lehman n explains: Postdramatic theater is a post Brechtian theater It situates itself in a space opened up by the Brechtian inquiries into the presence and consciousness of the process of representation within the represented and the inquiry into a new art of spectating (Brechts Zuschaukunst ). At the 10 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 1 2. As J rs Munby who translated Lehmanns text from German to English, explains, the postdramatic theater does not dismiss the relevance of the text. It, rather, explores a turn to performance, intertextuality, and intratextuality even in the new theatrical texts. (Lehmann, Postdramatic Theater 6 8.) 11 See Pe ter Szondi, Theorie des modernen Dramas (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1956). A ccording to Lehmann, Bertol t Brecht chose the term dramatic theater to designate the tradition that his epic theater of the scientific age intended to put an end to. (Lehmann, P ostdramatic Theatre, 17.) 12 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 3032. For Barthess view on Brecht, see, for instance, Roland Barthes, S/Z trans. R. Miller (New York: Hill and Wang, 1974); Roland Barthes, The Grain of the Voice, Interviews 19621980 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992); or Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida: Reflections of Photography (London: Vintage, 1993). 13 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 3 and 30.

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212 same time, it le aves behind the political style, the tendency towards dogmatization, and the emphasis on the rational we find in Brechtian theater; it exists in a time after the authoritative validity of Brechts theater concept.14 As significant cases of the post Brechti an, postdramatic theater, Lehman n examines some of the most influential theatrical trends in in the last fifty years for example the practices of, among others: Robert Wilson, Tadeusz Kantor, Samuel Beckett, Heiner Mller and Klaus Michael Grber 15 Lehm an n also emphasize s the fact that other artistic disciplines among others music have accepted and absorbed the tenets of the postdramatic theater, more so than theater itself: Yet despite all the individual entertaining effects of the staging, the textual elements of plot, character (or at least dramatic personae) and a moving story predominantly told in dialogue remained the structuring components. They were associated with the keyword drama and informed not only its theory but also the expectations of t heater. This explains why many spectators among the traditional theater audience experience difficulties with postdramatic theater, which presents itself as a meeting point of the arts and thus develops and demands an ability to perceive which breaks away from the dramatic paradigm (and from literature as such). It is not surprising that fans of the other arts (visual arts, dance, music) are often more at home with this kind of theater than theatergoers who subscribe to literary narrative.16 As Lehmann argues, several, new music theatrical productions, and even the new productions of the older operas, for example Robert Wilsons projects, pay particular attention to cutting edg e scenic and visual conceptions by integrating the modern technologies or by questi oning traditional dramatic forms a practice that can be traced 14 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 33. 15 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, I. 16 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 31.

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213 back to Wagners Ges a m tkunstwerk or even to the early operas of the Florentine Camerata. The leading American theater director Robert Wilson, for instance, has brought his groundbreaking postdramatic visions into operatic projects ranging from Madama Butterfly and Der Ring des Nibelungen to Einstein on the Beach. 17 Considering that theatrical music has proved to be a prominent venue for reassessment of the musicodramatic conventions, examining the theatrical music of the last fifty year s in light of the theory of postdramatic theater, gains more importance. Although the following analysis focuses only on Partchs and Stahnkes major theatrical works, the theory of postdramatic theater can be as well applied to the scrutiny of other modernday, music theatrical ventures. Postdramatic theater grows out of engrained theatrical conventions. Even though the time based plot, the theatrical characters imitating real life actions to create a fictional w orld, and dramatic dialectic of th e characters predominate in the old theatrical paradigm, some of the components of the postdramatic theater might appear also in the old tradition. As Lehmann states: For instance, narrative fragmentation, heterogeneity o f style, hypernaturalist, grotesque and neoexpressionist elements, which are all typical of postdramatic theater can also be found in productions which nevertheless belong to the model of dramatic theater. In the end, it Is only the constellation of elem ents that decides whether a stylistic moment is to be read in the context of a dramatic or a postdramatic aesthetic.18 In other words, oftentimes, a thin line separates both paradigms. The predominance of one does not imply the lack of the other; but, some times, the coexistence or 17 See http://www.robertwilson.com/ accessed 07.16.2017. 18 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 24 25.

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214 amalgamation of dramatic and postdramatic elements constitute the theatrical conception. On the same note, Lehmann enunciates that postdramatic theater does not inform a categorical break with the dramatic theater. He expresses that it reassesses the older paradigm, intending to revolutionize its underpinnings: Postdramatic theater thus includes the presence or resumption or continued working of older aesthetics, including those that took leave of the dramatic idea in earlier times, be it on the level of text or theater Art in general cannot develop without reference to earlier forms. It is only a question of the level, consciousness, explicitness and special manner of reference.19 The arguments explained in the two last paragraphs are particularly significant regarding Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical music. By applying Lehman n s theory to the analysis of these works, this chapter does not intend to express that they are unequivocal examples of postdramati c theatrical music; rather, it aims to shed light on the interplay and interconnections of the dramatic and postdramatic components, interwoven in their theatrical conceptions. Partchs and Stahnkes music th eatrical works also rely on earlier forms, though Partch viewed his music o dramatic aesthetic as a break with the predominant European tradition. Reiterating the dependency of the new paradigm on the older forms, Lehmann states: The adjective postdramatic denotes a theater that feels bound to o perate beyond drama, at a time after the authority of the dramatic paradigm in theater What it does not mean is an abstract negation and mere looking away from the tr adition of drama. After drama means that it lives on as a structure however weakened and exhausted of the normal th eater : as an expectation of large parts of its audience, as a foundation for many of 19 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 27.

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215 its mean s of representation, as a quasi automatically working norms of its dramaturgy.20 As explained in relation to their aesthetic, microtonal, and technological dimensio ns, Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical pieces, however, sought to incorp orate unconventional components in order to revolutionize the common forms. The following sections deal with the creative theatrical elements, which, in addition to the aesthetic, micro tonal, and technological dimensions, shaped both composers music theatrical cosmos. Dramatic and Postdramatic Elements in Partchs Theatrical Music : Oedipus The Bewitched and Delusion of the Fury In the program of the 1961 performance of Partchs Oedipus in New York City, music critic and the provost of Columbia University Jacques Barzun addresses Partch, stating: I have long been convinced that you were making the most original and powerful contribution to dramatic music on this continent.21 If w e take Barzun at his words then the following questions arise: What elements of Partchs theatrical music were original? Is Barzun only pointing to Partchs music instruments and intonational system, or do the theatrical aspect of Partchs work also feature original elements? And if any, how do these original elements deviate from the fundamental elements of the conventional, dramatic paradigm? Partchs theatrical music demonstrates postdramatic constellations at various levels, while other elements of his theatrical conceptions remain within the boundaries 20 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 27. 21 Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Ar chives and Center for American Music of the University of Illinois.

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216 of the conventional dramatic paradigm. His aspiration to construct theatrical music first and foremost around primitive and corporeal rituals informs Partchs postdramatic tendencies. Ceremonial and ritual (or quasi ritual) dramaturgies substantiate various modern theatrical conceptions, which Lehman n classifies under the category of postdramatic practices. Pointing to ceremonial and ritual trends of the latenineteenthcentury and early twentieth century modernists, Lehman n states: The theme of mass, ceremony, and ritual had already surfaced repeatedly in early modernism. Mallarm was already talking about a theater of ceremony, and T.S. Eliots confession is well known: the only satisfaction that I find now is in a High Mass well performed. 22 Even though he considers Brecht as a continuation of the older paradigm, Lehman n also traces quasi ritual components in Brechts conceptualization of acrobats within the context of his epic theater: Here one sees the connection between t endency towards the ceremonial and the renunciation of the classical conception of a subject that represses the corporality ( Handgriffe) of its seemingly only mental intentions .23 He even goes further back in the history and juxtaposes the timebased dramatic theater and ancient rituals, where the integrated physicality of the performance, dance, costume, and music were equally important, or even more important, than the dramatic text: [] theater existed fir st: arising from ritual, taking up the form of mimesis through dance, and developing into a full fledged behavior and practice before the advent of writing. While primitive theater and primitive drama ( Ur theater and Ur drama) are merely the object of reconstructive attempts, it seems to be an anthropological certainty that early ritual forms of theater represented affectively highly charged processes (hunting, fertility) with the help of masks, costumes and props, in such a way that 22 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 70. 23 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 70 71.

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217 dance, music, and r ole play were combined. Even if this physically semiotic, motor practice already represented a kind of text before the advent of writing, the difference with respect to the formation of modern literary theater is still apparent. The written text, literat ure, took on the rarely contested leading role of the cultural hierarchy. Thus, even the connection of text with a musicalized from of speech, dancelike gestures, and splendid optical and architectonic dcor that was still present in baroque representatio nal theater could vanish in bourgeois literary theater: the text as an offer of meaning reigned; all other theatrical means had to serve it and were rather suspiciously controlled by the authority of Reason.24 While Lehman n explains the aspects of the Ur th eater which have lost on significance in the shadow of the autocracy of the dramatic text, he counts the eventful presence, the particular semiotics of bodies, the gestures and movements of the performers, the compositional and formal structure of languag e as a soundscape, the qualities of the visual beyond representation, and the musical and rhythmic process with its own time, among the fundamental traits of the postdramatic theater that the conceptual fabrics of the primitive rituals have influenced.25 Lehman n views postdramatic theater as replacement of dramatic action with ceremony, meaning that the corporeal, visual, musical, physical, and scenic elements come to the fore, liberating themselves from the shackle of the dramatic text. 26 The equal significance, and the synthesis, of dance, music, costumes, masks, roleplay, and text, predominant in the Ur theater manifest itself also in Partchs works through his notion of corporeality a central notion which validates the postdramatic characteristic of Partchs theatrical practice inspired by the primitive theater. In terms of the analysis of the postdramatic facets of Partchs pieces, the notion of corporeality becomes handy, 24 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 46 47. 25 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 35. 26 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 70.

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218 not only in its inherent meaning: the actuality and physicality of the body, but also in Partchs elaborated definition of corporeality as the onstage presence and fusion of all artistic media, including the body and mind of the multifaceted performers as musicians, dancers, and actors; the actual sculptural presence of the instrum ents as elements of set design; the light, costumes, the dramaturgy, and the dramatic text. Not only Partchs theatrical works, but also postdramatic theater embody corporeality. Articulating the shift from the outright tyranny of the dramatic text as the focal point of the old theater toward the establishment of corporeality as a quintessential factor in the postdramatic form, Lehman n explains: The physical body, whose gestic vocabulary in the eighteenth century could still be read and interpreted virtually like a text, in postdramatic theater has become its own reality which does not tell this or that emotion but through its presence manifes ts itself as the site of inscription of collective history.27 In the postdramatic theater, in other words, the predominantly incorporeal, old theatrical paradigm, saturated by the dialectic tensions imbedded in the plot, succumbs to a corporeal narrative, conceiving the actuality, and the equal prominence, of all artistic media on the stage. The ceremonial and ritual features of Partchs theatrical music as much as his stress on the notion of corporeality, the underpinning of his aesthetic, demonstrate its postdramatic character. Partch intended to reform theatrical music, injecting it with corporeal, ritual elements, extracted from what he understood as primitive traditions. For him, the specialization of concert music as much as the dramatic theater meant purismmusic 27 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 97.

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219 for the sake of music and theater for the sake of theater, drained from any corporeal, integrated human experience: To me the orchestra pit is a symbol of shame, the shame of both music and the theater. Each has gone its own way: music to the specialization of the symphony, drama to the specialization of the Broadway success. I, for one, do not believe that these specializations automatically exclude the capacity to integrate. Each needs the other; and the need is historical and constant.28 Although, as one might observe, Broadway musicals exemplify a bond between music and theater, Partch disapproved of them. For him, they merely demonstrate simple musicalization of dramatic text accompanied by incidental music while exalt ing the superfici al entertainment culture. Partch, as previous ly explained, also dismissed (Wagnerian) opera as a stage for the integration of artistic media: Music, in its cry for help from drama, has gotten opera; and music dearly loves this help from drama. In fact, it loves this help so much that it virtually loves it to death. In its grander forms, opera floods its drama in caressesthe caresses of massed strings and brasses, symphony orchestra, arias, and recitatives. I must not allow myself the liberty of elaboration that the word opera opens up. I want to get back to the theater, which, despite its orchestra pit, I honestly believe has the greater freedom from precise traditional limitations.29 The incidental symphony orchestra banished to the orchestra pit, detached from the actual onstage actions, sounded detrimental to Partchs intended corporeal and ritual theatrical music. He, instead, sought the solution in the ancient Greek and nonWestern rituals, yearning for a corporeal, interwoven, music theatrical experienc e. The ceremonial, quasi ritual, and corporeal facets of Partchs own theatrical music, 28 Harry Partch, A Soul Tormented by Contemporary Music Looks for a Humanizing Alchemy: The Bewitched, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 241. 29 Harry Part ch, A Soul Tormented, 241.

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220 therefore, illustrates its postdramatic structures, implemented, among others, in Oedipus The Bewitched, and D elusion of the Fury All the constituents of Partchs cor poreal theatrical music, including the ceremonial and ritual configurations, the equality of various artistic media, and the actuality of the instruments and performers on the stage inform Oedipus s postdramatic nature. The plot based, traditional version of Sophocles drama adapted by Yeats which Partch uses, defies, however, the postdramatic structure of the work. In other words, in Oedipus the visual, audible, scenic, and ritual aspects are subordinated to the primacy of text, a timebased narrative, a nd the dialogues of the characters. Gr eek mythology, its archetypal characters, and their actions containing philosophical implications to real human experience, captivated Partch as much as the Greek music theory, instruments, and ritualistic music theatr ical performances. While underlining that he did not mean to imitate the Greek concepts, Partch explains his conception in Oedipus articulating its postdramatic aspects, as follows: The work is presented as a human value, necessarily pinned to a time and place, necessarily involving the oracular gods and Greek proper and placenames, but nevertheless, not necessarily Greek. [] Yet, from the standpoint of dramatic technique, it is a historical fact that the Greeks used some kind of tone declamation in th eir dramatic works, and that it was common practice among them to present language, music, and dance as a dramatic unity. In this conception of King Oedipus I am striving such a synthesis, not because it might lead me to the Greek spirit, but because I believe in it.30 30 Harry Partch, King Oedipus, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 214.

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221 The corporeal, quasi ritual unity of music, dance, and tone declamation points to the postdramatic associations of Oedipus despite the plot based, dramatic narrative and the dialogical exchanges of words between the characters.31 The dialogues in Oedipus function less as discussions than what Lehman n calls Competition of speech ( Wettreden ). According to Lehman n : Modern drama was a world of discussion, while the dialogue in ancient tragedy despite the appearance of an antagonistic battle of words is basically not a discussion: the protagonists each remain unreachable in their own world, the opponents talk at cross purposes. The dialogue here is less conflict and altercation in the space of verbal exchange but appears rather as a c ompetition of speech ( Wettreden ), a race in words, reminiscent of the wordless wrestling in agon. The speeches of the antagonists do not touch one another.32 The dialogues, hence, become a sort of a ritualistic battle of words and sentences; a poetic stageor performancetext, as opposed to discussions being as an element of the dramatic text a tool in the hands of the dialectical roles. Even though Partchs Oedipus closely follows Sophocles dramatic plot and the actions of the characters mainly Oedipus, Jocasta, Creon, Tiresias, and the Priest by means of tonedeclamation ( Sp r echgesang) based on his peculiar speechmusic style, Partch grants a postdramatic aura to his piece on top of its quasi ritualistic and corporeal structures. 31 Refer back to Figures 6.1 and 6.2 for the list of characters and scenes in Partchs Oedipus 32 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 75.

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222 Figure 61 C over of the Gate 5 (Partchs own label) recording of Oedipus on vinyl. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Ar chives and Center for American M usic of the University of Illinois.

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223 Figure 62. F irst page in the booklet of the Gate 5 (Partchs own label) recording of Oedipus on vinyl, containing the list of the characters and scenes. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Archives and Center for American M usic of the University of Illinois. Illustrating his conceptual shift from Oedipus which governed by dialogues and conventional plot to The Bewitched, a corporeal dance satire containing almost no dialogues and no traditional, timebased narrative, Partch writes: In my vision of Sophocles Oedipus the K ing I tried to rediscover some of the stature that the Western theater has lost in its long divorce from

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224 integrated music. More recently, in The Bewitched, I ventured into satire, in the feeling that a people dedicated to satirical scholarship and causeandeffect rationality is hopeless only when it ceases to be able to laugh at itself intelligently. I wanted to prove that it could. Satire need not be heavy handed. It can descend lightly and with love, and imbue the listener and the viewer with a shaft of momentary recognition and delight. It can bring reevaluation and self perception, andwithout seeming labor a spontaneous feeling for humanity through art, something that lie within our bones and its precedent to all recorded history.33 Partch hoped that the satirical corporeality incorporated in The Bewitched would make the cultural and existential issues implied in the stagetext, which he wrote, more intelligible. The satirical, corporeal stage text, the nonWes tern dance rituals, and Partchs manner of handling the voices which drifts from the dialogical structure of Oedipus inform The Bewitcheds postdramatic fabric. The postdramatic theater of states, where, as previously explained, the dynamic onstage formations and corporeal structures replace the dramatic plot, defines The Bewitched In this dance satireA Latter Day Ritual Designed to Defertilize the Machine Age for a Period of Seventy Five Minutes although Partch has written ten separate scenes o f metaphorical witchery to release the Lost Musicians (dancers) from their mental limitations and prejudices, a conventional timebased plot does not exist. 34 Instead, in each scene a different ritualistic dance predominates, transferring, according to Le hmann the ritual or quasi ritual, the archaic, ceremonial, magical and mystical modes of imagination into a modern world. 35 33 Partch, The ancient Magic, 186 187. 34A Latter Day Ritual Designed to Defertilize the Machine Age for a Period of Seventy Five Minutes is the subtitle to Partchs following introduction to The Bewtiched : Harry Partch, Some New and Old Thoughts after and before The Bewitched, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 231. For the list of the ten scenes, see Table 3.1, on page 64 of this dissertation. 35 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 138.

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225 Articulating the emulat ion of corporeal magic [witchery ] ceremonies in the postdramatic theater, Lehman n elaborates: In any case the combination of nave or blasphemous execution of a magic ceremony, interactive performance, and production of presence is an illumination for postdramatic theater. It explains the latters insistence on presence, the ceremonial and ritual tendencies, and the tendency to put it on a footing with rituals prevalent in many cultures. 36 In The Bewitched, Partch reconciles a phantasmagorical world of witchery with dance rituals taken from different cultures, see Table 6.1. He constructed a scenically dynami c stage saturated by his instruments, functioning also as dcor, in addition to the dancers (Lost Musicians), instrumentalists (Witchs Chorus), and the main character of the Witch, all of which proclaims its postdramatic structure. Table 61 List of types, or manners, of d ancing in Harry Partchs The Bewitched37 Scene Title 1 The Witch [in all scenes]: Kabuki slow, dignified movements with rigid trunk, and occasional quick, furious movements Imitations of the Cantonese music hall 2 Eighteenth century formality, with satiric twentieth century expressionism, in part 3 East Indian, with I hope some tumbling 4 A formal solo, with modern dance farce at the end 5 Slightly satiric expressionism at first 6 Sa tiric ballet, almost throughout 7 Modern dance comedy throughout 8 Kabuki throughout 9 Near East throughout 10 Open 36 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 141. 37 Harry Partch, The Bewitched, in Bitter Music : Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos ed. Thomas McGeary (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 309.

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226 The corporeality of the nonWestern rituals as much as the integrated performances of dance, music, costumes, masks, and makeup, struck Partch as a vanished substance in the Western tradition: The value that w e have lost temporarily, I hopeis evident when we see a performance of the Japanese Kabuki. It is not to be explained merely as a different between widely separated cultures. The Japanese theater, which at the time of its revolutionary advent included all the skills of popular entertainment, such as juggling and tumbling, represents a quality in an integrated art, and however we may use music in conjunction with drama and dance, our value lies in purity.38 He, therefore, crafted a fictional, satirical stagetext dominated by the presence of an allegorical oracle, who undoes the biases of the modernday youngsters shaped by the machineage technologies and entertainment industry. The oracle accomplishes her mission and, by means of witchery ceremonies, exhorts the youngsters to dance in nonWestern, corporeal styles.39 As do several postdramatic theatrical performance, The Bewitched builds on magical, ancient rituals to address contemporary cultural issues. According to Partch, it, in fact, breathes in the dichotomous world, fluctuating constantly between an ancient time in the millenniums around the dawn of history and the immediate American present the immediate present of undergrads, basketball t eams, adolescent lovers, detectives chasing culprits, and politicians just as though all the intervening centuries never existed. 40 Among these groups of modern humanbeings, Partch elevates one group: the Lost Musicians, who, through ritualistic dancing in satirical situations, evoked by the Witch and accompanied by Witchs orchestra, come to perceive their 38 Harry Partch, Some New and Old Thoughts after and before The Bewitched, 236. 39 See Figure 6.3 for the depiction of the Witch on the cover of the 1956 vinyl of The Bewitched. 40 Harry Partch, A Soul Tormented, 242.

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227 musical disorientation in the age of an increasing bond between art and technology. By using dance rituals drained of a clear dramatic narrative, The Bewitched postdramatically tackles contemporaneous psychological and cultural discourses regarding the advantages and disadvantage of the technologies, as well as the dichotomy of entertainment and a rt music. Explaining the real life events, which prompted the notion of the bewitched lost musicians as the core of his dance satire, Partch states: To me the germination of The Bewitched was one of the most natural things in my life. The germ of the idea was the fact of The Lost Musicians. [] After l eaving Mills College [1952], I found a studio in Sausalito, just across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. During the four years I was there, young musicians came in to see me now and then; and I would say that easily 90 percent of them fell into a certain category. They grew up, musically, in dance bands, became bored and dissatisfied, and went to music schools looking for different and broader perspectives. Here they found what they wanted, for a time, but eventually realized that their music prof essors, generally speaking, simply marked certain areas terra incognita like the ancient geographers and the less said about them the better because they werent worth exploring. These musicians did not feel really at home in either musical world, either t he serious or not so serious. In my studio they generally played music I had written, although now and then they had jam sessions, one of which started at 9 P.M. and ended only at 4 A.M.; but they occasionally achieved a kind of magic perception through their music. Thus was created the Chorus of Lost Musicians, which is the basis for the dancesatire The Bewitched 41 Throughout his life, Partch struggled with the idea of the Western musical tradition, hence Western musicians being disconnected from their corporeal, ri tual, primitive roots. He conceived a majority of his pieces as means of reviving these roots, because the matter was of existential importance to him, interwoven into his worldview. But perhaps, m ore than any of his other works in The Bewitched Partch captured the 41 Harry Partch, A Soul Tormented by Contemporary Music, 243.

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228 Z eitgeist of the midtwentiethcentury, while crafting a philosophical, ritual dance satire. The Lost Musicians in The Bewitched emerged from Partchs experience with the young enthusiasts, who, even though attracted to his pioneer ing artistry were still children of the age of commercialization and easy access to art as entertainment. Partch transformed an amalgamation of his observati on and his philosophical grappling to a ritual dance satire, with one foot in the modern postdramatic theater and the other in the ancient, surreal magic practices. The way Partch uses the element of voice also articulates the postdramatic tendencies of The Bewitched. Except for occasional sounds from the throats made by the character of the Witch to evoke and encourage the ritual dances there are no meaningful words, sentences, and dialogues in this work.42 Pointing to this peculiar method of incorporating voice as a strong tool in a scenic oriented, postdramatic dramaturgy, which replaces the text oriented conceptions, Lehman n states: The Principle of exposition applied to body, gesture and voice also seizes the language material and attacks languages function of representation. Instead o f a linguistic re presentation of facts, there is a position of tones, words, sentences, sounds that are hardly controlled by a meaning but instead by the scenic composition, by a visual, not text oriented dramaturgy. 43 Not only in The Bewitched, but also in Delusion of the Fury Partch distances himself from the dialogical text as in Oedipus ; h e ceases employing language as representative of dramatic action, moving toward using voice as a 42 See Example 6.1. 43 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 146.

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229 reinforcing component within the ceremonial theater, which, as Lehman n explains, stresses the postdramatic character. Figure 63 C over of the Gate 5vinyl (Partchs own label) of The Bewitched released 1956. The face of the Witch is interwoven in the musical staff. Located at Harry Partch Estate Archive and Harry Partch Collection, Sousa Ar chives and Center for American M usic of the University of Illinois.

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230 Example 61. The Manuscript of The Bewitched, page 38 of the Prologue. The Witch produces meaningless, ritual sounds; see the top staff. Located at the librar y of University of California San Diego.

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231 While explaining the preeminence of the ritual and corporeal elements in the postdramatic theater, Lehman n hints at the southern Indian theatrical dance Katahakali and the classical Japanese Noh theater as two traditions which embrace ritual corporeality: For centuries a paradigm has dominated European theater that clearly distinguishes it from nonEuropean theater traditions. For example, Indian Kathakali or Japanese Noh theater are structured completely different ly and consist essentially of dance, chorus, and music, highly stylized ceremonial procedures, narrative and lyrics texts, while theater in Europe amounted to the representation, the making present ( Vergegenwrtigung) of speeches and deeds on stage through mimetic dramatic play.44 Lehman n s phrase, highly stylized ceremonial procedures of dance, chorus, and music resonates with Partchs notion of corporeality the actuality of the body and mind of the performers and integrated artistic media in a ritual theatrical music. Partch chose to study nonWestern, ritual practices, to be able to infuse the Western theatrical music with broad corporeal elements borrowed from these cultures, as obvious in the case of the dance movements in The Bewitched, see Table 6.1. He, subsequently, found in the Japanese Noh theater invoked in his monumental final work Delusion of the Fury a path toward recasting the conventional, EuroAmerican theatrical music. Following the ancient Greek theatrical model of a tragedy preceding a comedy, Partch constructed Delusi on of the Fury around the central theme of death based on tragic Japanese Noh dramas in the first act, juxtaposed with life based on farcical African legends in the second. Although each of the two acts contain individual timebased, dramatic plots whi ch somewhat defy their postdramatic structures the core 44 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 21.

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232 theme of death (or life vs. death), the ritualistic dance movements based on nonWestern traditions, the integrated corporeality of various artistic media, and the verbally meaningless, ritualistic vo cal sounds superseding the dialogical voices, manifest Delusion of the Fury s postdramatic character. Elaborating on the relationship of the notion of death and the ritual structures in the postdramatic theater, Lehmann asserts Jean Genets affirmation of ceremonial theater, as follows: Genet hits upon the idea that the true site of theater was the cemetery, that theater as such was essentially a mass for dead. [] Theater is a dialogue with the dead. 45 Lehmann also refers to Heiner Mller s idea of anci ent theater for instance Noh drama which rev olves around the return of ghosts being an incantation of the dead with minimum of mimesis (imitation of the reality).46 The first act of Delusion of the Fury the ultimate representation of Partchs concept of corporeality, rests, in fact, upon a recurring ancient Japanese legend of a princely warrior who falls in battle at the hands of a young rival, taken from the mediaeval Noh plays Atsumori by Z eami and Ikuta by Zembo Motoyasu. 47 Death (and the return of the dead) is the main theme of this act; as Partch mentions: A portrayal of release from the wheel of life.48 The theme of death and the world of spirits imbedded in the Noh play, on top of the 45 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 70. Jean Genet (1910 1986) was a seminal French playwright. 46 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 70. To Lehmann the works of the German theater director and author Heiner Mller (19291995) embodied postdramatic theater. He counts Mllers, Robert Wilsons and Tadeusz Kantors theater as indispensable representatives of the postdramatic paradigm. According to Lehmann : The postdramatic theater of a Tadeusz Kantor with its mysterious, animistically animated objects and apparatus, as much as the historical ghosts and apparitions in the postdramatic text of Heiner Mller, exist in this tradition of theatrical appearances of fate and ghosts, who, as Monique Borie has shown, are crucial for understanding the most recent theater. (Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre 58 ) 47 Partch, Delusion of the Fury , 250. 48 Partch, Delusion of the Fury , 250.

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233 ceremonial dance movements depict ing Samurai battle, articulate Delusion of Fury s postdramatic nature. Delusion of the Fury s first a ct, titled Pray for me, according to Partch, deals with death, and with life despite death.49 He has centered this act around three main characters: The son of the slain, who, while searching for his fathers soul enters the shrine where the father was killed. There, he finds the slayer, whom he wishes to fight, until the ghost of the slain appears, pardoning the slayer, and facilitating the redemption of all sides.50 By conceptualizing an allegorical, ritual plot floating in a world where supernatural agent intrudes the natural realm Partch pays homage to death, even though it is not quite clear if he himself believed in any metaphysical power. He nonethel ess uses Noh drama to conceive a postdramatic, corporeal music theatrical piece, dealing with existential question of death. Partch, however, did not intend to imitate Noh theater. He was rather captivated by the subtle corporeality of this tradition, wher e the equally integrated body movements, music, costumes, makeup, and the drama, delve into the philosophical esse nce of the plot. Pointing to Noh theater as a source of inspirationnot imitation for his last theatrical pieces, Partch states: In Act I, I am not trying to write a Noh play. Noh is already a fine art, one of the most sophisticated that the world has known, and it would be senseless for me to follow a path of superficial duplication. [] Act I is actually a development of my own style in dram atic music. I am using the basic motivation of the Noh as a springboard for my style.51 He discovered in Noh tradition, the ceremonial 49 Partch, Delusion of the Fury , 250. 50 See Table 6.2 for the list of the scenes in Delusion of the Fury 51 Partch, Delusion of the Fury , 251 252.

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234 total artwork that he missed in the Western theatrical music. As Lehman n mentions: Searching for a nouveau crmonial t htral ( Mallarm) one finds in Japanese Noh a total theater with a metaphysical horizon. 52 Taking it as an ironic coincidence or not, the elder Partch, approaching the end of his life, found in Noh drama his own nouveau crmonial thtral , engaging w ith the notion of death within a postdramatic fabric. As in Delusion of the Fury s first act, for the second act titled In the Advent of Justice, Partch has not written any meaningful words and sentences, but rather ritualistic sounds as a means to reinforce the communal dancemovements, which grants a postdramatic aura to the work. Building on the Ethiopian ancient folktale Justice from the book African voices by an anonymous author, in the second act Partch illustrates reconciliation with life.53 Although the second act also follows a plot based dramatic narrativeundermining the postdramatic character of the piecethe ceremonial use of voices, and its interwoven corporeality realized on the stage, feat ure extensive postdramatic traits. In the second act, Partch does not intend to revive any kind of African rituals, even though he applies several percussion instruments an indispensable component of various African music theatrical traditions of his own design. Beside percussion, the originally African farcical story, and ritualistic dancemovements, Partch incorporates no other African elements in the piece. But similar to the Noh in the first act, he perceived the embodied corporeality of the Ethiopian t raditions as suitable for his own conceptual aim. 52Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 58. 53 Partch, Delusion of the Fury , 250 251.

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235 The juxtaposition of the second acts comic al story representing life, and the tragedy in the f irst act representing the death, is quite atypical of the predominant dramatic tradition. The mai n characters o f the second act a young vagabond and an old shepherdwoman begin an argument, leading to extreme tension between them. Taken by the citizens to the court of a near sighted and deaf justice, they end up settling their problems, and celebrating their coexis tence; or as Partch says: life, and life despite life.54 The dichotomy of the nature of both acts based on ancient Greek porotypes in addition to the ritualistic dancemovements, peculiar vocal lines, and the interwoven corporeality challenges the dramati c narratives in Delusion of the Fury while articulating its postdramatic features. All three of Partchs major theatrical pieces demonstrate postdramatic idiosyncrasies realized in their ritualistic conceptions, gravitating toward nonWestern [music ] the atrical traditions as sources of corporeal revelation. Their largely plot based narratives especially in Oedipus resist howeve r, d efinitive classification of under the category of postdramatic musical theater. It is, rather, a matter of perspective; it depends on the types of the el ements that the analysis examines But Partchs theatrical works indisputably contain a variety of postdramatic components. He intended, after all, to reform Western theatrical music, and he was resolute in his mission. The foll owing section turns toward Stahnkes theatrical works, exami ning their postdramatic traits. 54 Partch, Delusion of the Fury , 250. See Table 6.2 for the list of the scenes in Delusion of the Fury

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236 Table 62. List of s cenes in Harry Partchs Delusion of the Fury55 Scene Title 1.1 Exordium (Prologue to Act I) Chorus of Shadows 1.2 Emergence of the Spirit 1. 3 A son in Search of his Fathers Face 1.4 Resentment beyond Death 1.5 Cry from another Darkness 1.6 Cry for me A gain Sanctus (Prologue to Act I) 2.1 Chorus of Villagers 2.2 The Quiet Hobo Meal 2.3 The Lost Kid 2.4 2.5 The Misunderstanding Arrest by the Dervish Dancers 2.6 2.7 The Trial and the Judgement How Did We Ever Manage without Justice? Dramatic and Postdramatic Elements in Stahnke s Theatrical Music: Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung and Orpheus Kristall Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung and Orpheus Kristall more than Stahnkes other theatrical pieces Der Untergang des Hauses Usher and Heinrich IV demonstrate characteristics informed by the theory of postdramatic theater. Since the latter works mainly remain within the precepts of the dramatic paradigm, the following analysis of the dramatic and postdramatic traits of Stahnkes theatrical pieces deals with Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung and Orpheus Kristall In Wahnsinn, Stahnkes use of a collage of Edgar Alla n Poes poems directly dismisses the conventional time based dramatic narrative, inclined to postdramatic paradigm. Stahnke, hence, conceives a new sort of stagepoetry, which, while depicting the universal dichotomy of the notions of beauty and terror intrinsic to life, defies conventional story telling drama.56 Explaining the ways in which Symbolist dramas at 55 Partch, Delusion of the Fury , 251. 56 See Appendix I for the complete libretto of Wahnsinn das ist der Seele der Handlung.

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237 the turn of the twentieth century, for example Maeterlincks works, creates a new poetry of theater, Lehman n states: Viewed thus from the point o f view of postdramatic theater, the lyrical and Symbolist drama of the Fin de sicle moves from the periphery to the center of historical interest. In order to reach a new poetry of theater it puts an end to the axioms of dramatic plot and story. 57 Stahnke as previously mentionedcame to Poes texts thro ugh Baudelaires translations. Baudelaire is considered one of the early influences on Symbolism, who also admired Poes detailed, figurative imagery in his works, especially his poems and The Fall of the House of Usher The [proto]S ymbolistic language of Poe and Baudelaireas much as the works of the protagonists of Symbolism Mallarm and Verlaineinfluen ced Stahnkes postdramatic theatrical poetry in Wahnsinn, revoking the traditional dramatic plot. The fragmentary nature of the text, reinforced by the open formal structure of t he piece where the dramaturgical concept can displace or omit the sections ( see footnote 66 on page 128), also articulates Wahnsinns postdramatic tendencies As Lehmann states: Enclosed within postdramatic theater is obviously the demand for an open and fragmentary perception in place of a unifying and closed perception. 58 Stahnke has arranged the whole work in ten distinct sections. Table 6.3 outlines the sections of the work, each containing Stahnkes own translation of a different fragment of Poes poems. Each individual poem delineates human life as a theatrical show of madness ( Wahnsinn) filled with terror and beauty. The fragmentary poetic libretto and the open formal structure of the work, therefore, feature postdramatic character. 57 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 59. 58 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 82.

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238 In Wahnsinn, the main female character, the sole vocal role, declaims the scattered verses, which, by means of metaphorical, grotesque snakes, angles, devils, worms, and puppets, depict an allegorical gala night in a theater, where the audience watch the paradoxical human life as a musical play with the notion of madness at the center. Since both the audience and the musical sections ( Sphrenmusik Wurmmusik, Herbstmusik, Knarrmusik ) are integrated in the text, a sort of corporeality the onstage actuality and fusion o f the music, symbolistic text, and audienceinforms Wahnsinn s postdramatic configuration on top of the fragmentary textual and formal section. Table 63 List of s ections in Manfred Stahnkes Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung Section Title 1 2 Vorspiel Sphrenmusik I 3 Sphrenmusik II 4 Galamusik 5 Knarrmusik 6 Herbstmusik 7 8 Teufelssolo Wur mmusik 9 Tusch 10 Sphrenmusik III The use of electronic tape, replaying the whole live performance with eight seconds of delay in Wahnsinn, makes for a simultaneous, repetitive stagetext, hence postdramatically neglecting any timebased narrative. About simultaneity as an essential element in the postdramatic theater, Lehmann says, i n certain performances, as for example in the performances of Oresteia and Giulio Cesare by Societas Raffaello Sanzio the visible events on stage are surrounded and complemented by a second reality of all manner of sounds, music, voices and noise structures, so that one has to

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239 speak of the simultaneous existence of a second auditory stage (Eleni Varopoulou).59 In the case of Wahnsinn Stahnke applies live electronic tape as a second audible layer. The electronics in addition the visual stage, a preconceived video playback (in Berlin 2012 production), and the string quartet being a part of the dramaturgical concept create a postdramatic simultaneity, opposing the traditional dramatic paradigm. Using electronic devices as a postdramatic means to forge parallel realities, reforming the traditional dramatic plot, also substantiates Orpheus K ristall, on which the following section expounds. During the collaboration leading to the creation of Orpheus Kristall the composer, the lib rettist Simone Homem de Mello, the director Bettina Wackernagel, and the dramaturge Peter Staatsmann agreed upon a different conception of the Orpheus myth which, by means of obscuring a clear storyline, illustrates postdramatic traits. Describing the plo t in Orpheus Kristall Stahnke states : This opera does not tell a story. The story is rather pushed far behind; only an echo of the story remains to be heard.60 He considers, however, at least two distinct, possible storylines: f irst the classic st ory of Orpheus, descending to the underworld ( Hades ) to ret rieve his beloved Eurydice, where he fails, and eventually collapses; second, a tra nsformation of the Orpheus myth, where Orpheus tries to escape from Hades, but Eurydice seduces him back when she realiz es that she would no longer be able to have contact with Orpheus.61 Both conflicting, 59 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 88. Societas Raffaello Sanzio is an Italian experimental theater company founded in 1981, see http://www.arch srs.com/ accessed 08.02.2017. Eleni Varopoulou is a renowned theater theorist, journalist, and author, see http://greekfestival.gr/en/epidaurus_lyceum/staff_view/eleni varopoulou, accessed 08.02.2017. 60 Trotzdem ist diese Oper kein Ding, das eine Geschichte erzhlt. Die Geschichte ist eher so tief eingesickert, dass nur ihr Echo zu hren bleibt. In Stahnke, Orpheus unter den ganzen Zahlen, 196. 61 Bargrizan, Technology, Microtones, and Mediation, 13 14.

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240 possible storylines disrupt the traditional dramatic narrative to generate simultaneous, surreal story lines, transfiguring the opera into a postdramatic construct.62 In Stahnkes opera, Orpheus rules a world that he created a world that extends beyond the borders of the stage. F rom New York and Berkeley to Amsterdam, the composer added some other islands across the world to Orpheus s territory of the opera hall, connected to the main stage through the Internet. Within this new extended world, the autistic Orpheus suffers from his memories of falling in love with Eurydice, wining her, and eventually losing her. He even may have murdered her, says Stahnke, leading to anot her possible element of the opera related to the plot: The desires to make, to build, but to build in vain, according to Stahnke; S ince we cannot win, we destroy what we have built.63 A ll these possible plots coexist simultaneously throughout the opera. Simultaneity of signs, along their density and sparsity dependent on each individual moment, predominates Orpheus Kristall reinforcing its postdramatic configuration. The simultaneity of possible plots causes a sort of chaotic and, at the same time cryptic, (post)dramatic structure in Orpheus Kristall as in several modern theatrical conceptions. While discussing polyvalence and simultaneity as fundamental elements in postdramatic theater, Lehman n refers to Marianne van Kerkhovens interpretation o f the new theatrical forms based on the chaos theory: In her essay The Burden of the Time, M arianne van Kerkhoven, who has gained a reputation as a dramaturg of new theater in Belgium, related the new theater languages to chaos theory, which assumes that r eality 62 See Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 83 87. 63 Er hat sie vielleicht auch gemordet, das ist eine mgliche Komponente in unserer Oper. Das hat uns die Texterin nahegebracht: Das Bauen, aber das Umsonstbauen, weil ich die Welt nicht gewinnen kann, deshalb zerstre ich sie. In Bargrizan, Aspekte m ikrotonaler Komposition, 108.

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241 consists of unstable systems rather than closed circuits; the arts respond to this with ambiguity, polyvalence, and simultaneity, the theater with a dramaturgy that fixes partial structures rather than whole patter ns. Synthesis is sacrificed in order to gain, in its place, the density of intensive moments. If the partial structures nevertheless develop into something like a whole, this is no longer organized according to prescribed models of dramatic coherence or comprehensive symbolic references and does not realize synthesis. This tendency applies to all arts.64 Orpheus Kristall as a modern mus ic theatrical piece, rejects reconciliation (or synthesis) as a result of the dialectical actions intrinsic to the dramatic tradition. Based on the dialectic of plethora and deprivation (plenitude and emptiness) as a significant characteristic of the postdramatic theater, Stahnkes o pera demonstrates strong postdramatic tendencies. 65 In Orpheus Kristall the concept of nature is even more important than in the original Orpheus story, as explained in chapter three regarding the relationship of operas microtonal structure and the natural phenomena. In terms of the significance of the notion of nature in operas (post)dramatic fabric, Stahnke addresses the following correlations of the original Orpheus myth, as well as his own rendered version, and notion of nature: Orpheus is a magi cian who reaches out to stones, animals, and plants, through his music. He has power over the cosmos, upon the humans. It is at once Animism, considering nature as the spirit of everything and everyone, but also Shamanism, an ancient culture, still par tially existing in Siberia, Korea, or Japan. In other words, Orpheus is a Greek version of the old Shamans.66 64 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 83. 65 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 89 91. 66 Orpheus ist ein Zauberer, er ist mit den Steinen, mit den Pflanzen, mit den Tieren verbunden. Er hat Macht ber das Universum, ber die Menschen. Eigentlich ist das Animismus, die Natur als die Seele des Ganzen zu betrachten, oder Schamanismus, der immer noch in Sibirien, Korea oder Japan existiert, das ist eine uralte Kultur. Orpheus ist sozusagen eine griechische Version der alten Schamanen. In Bargrizan, Aspekte m ikrotonaler Komposition, 107 108.

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242 Lehman n articulates the merit of the element of nature, landscape, and scenery, as well as the metamorphosis of the old myt h to neomythical const ructions in Robert Wilsons seminal postdramatic theatrical conceptions. According to Lehmann the emphasis on such aspects in the postdramatic theater results in dehierarchizing the traditional theater, where the plot based narratives rules over all other components. 67 While diluting a plot based narrative to the minimum, Orpheus Kristall utilizes the central elements of nature, landscape, and scenery inherent in the ancient version, as means to transfigure the original myth to a neomythical, postdramatic, music theatrical composition, containing various philosophical implications. The superimposition of sound landscapes made possible by the use of digital technologies (or previously, analogue electronic devices) inform the last element of not only Orpheus Kristall but also Wahnsinn das is Seel e d er Handlung which bolsters their postdramatic tendencies. The electronic sounds, samples, and noises add extra layers to the audible design of postdramatic theatrical music, weakening the centrality o f a plot based, dramatic narrative, while maintaining the audiovisual aspect of the work. Regarding the function of electronic sounds in the postdramatic theatrical, musical, or music theatrical conceptions, Lehman n states: In electronic music it has become possible to manipulate the parameters of sound as desired and thus open up whole new areas for the musicalization of voices and sounds in theater. While the individual tone is already composed of a whole array of qualities frequency, pitch, overtones, t imbre, volumewhich can be manipulated with the help of synthesizers, the combinations of electronic sounds and tones (sampling) result in a whole new dimension of sound in theater Heiner Goebbels conceptional composing as he calls it, combines the logic of texts and the musical and vocal material in many variations. It is becoming possible to manipulate and structure the entire sonic space of a theater in a 67 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 77 84.

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243 targeted fashion. Just like the progression of actions, the musical level is no longer constr ucted in a linear fashion but rather, for instance, through simultaneous superimposition of sonic worlds, as for example in the dance piece Roaratorio (1979) by John Cage and Merce Cunnigham.68 In Orpheus Kristall the incoming improvisations of the remote musicians, transfigured to electronic sounds and superimposed on the onstage orchestral music and vocal lines, conceives a nonlinear, multivalent, musical trajectory, and reinforces the ambiguous postdramatic structure. The live, electronic tape play bac k in Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung also makes for superimposition, simultaneity, non linearity, and dehierarchizing characteristic of the postdramatic paradigm. In terms of the use of electronic devices, both works, therefore, feature postdramatic structures. On top of depreciated, coherent dramatic narratives, both Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung and Orpheus Kristall contain simultaneous, fragmentary, and multi perspective structures, replacing a linear succession of events. They emphas ize the value of juxtaposition of individual fragments in Lehmann s words: multi or intermedially deconstructive artistic practice of the momentary values partially avoiding synthesis and producing perceptual distance.69 On the other hand, both works con tain sections saturated by the density of philosophical and psychological signs, signified by the integration of electronic media in addition to the audible and visual devices. The dense sections confront the scenes of just intoned musical constructions, i nforming, as Lehman n formulates, the dialectic of plethora vs. deprivation, or 68 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 92. About simultaneous superimposition of s onic worlds in Roaratorio, Lehmann writes: Significantly, when this piece was performed in Avignon, Cage read text from James Joyces Finnegans Wake, a text tha t opened up a new era of ways of dealing with language material: transgressions of the boundaries between national languages, condensations and multiplications of possible meanings, and musical architectonic constructions. Postdramatic theatrical signs are situated in the tradition of such textures. (Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 92.) 69 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 86.

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244 plentitude vs. emptiness.70 Finally, in both works, inherently fragmentary stagetexts, resumes the responsibility of a traditional dramatic text. The structure of the vocal parts, distanced from conventional arias and recitatives, also articulate the postdramatic character of both works. Although composed about twenty years apart, Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung and Orpheus Kristall shall be considered two significant music theatrical pieces, containing vigorous postdramatic components. 70 Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, 8990

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245 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION Theatrical Music in the Service of Cultural Discourse Examining Partchs and Stahnkes theatrical music from the perspective of aesthetic ideas, intonational and tuning systems, technological aspects, and theatrical elements demonstrates that the interrelationship between all components of these works go beyond functioning merely on structural levels. Both composers created innovative theatrical music according to thei r respective critical discourse about the past and present state of the predominant paradigms in Western art music. All components of their works and their interaction, therefore, target the essence of their criticism. Partch found the Western dramatic music drained from its ritual and corporeal roots. He reacted against the specialization inherent in Western music and theater, as well as in academies. He also viewed the acoustically incorrect twelvetone equal temperament as inferior to the acoustically correct just intonation. His effort to theorize a novel intonational system based on just intonation and a plethora of instruments that he built on its bas is inform his revolt against twelve tone equal temperament. The analysis of Partc hs intonational system and its realization in his instruments, as well as in Oedipus The Bewitched, and Delusion of th e F ury reveals the close interrelationship between Partchs theories and his central concept of corporeality an interrelationship appar ent in his revolutionary works and in the service of addressing his cultural discourse. My analysis shows that all intertwined aspects of Partchs corporeal music theatrical conceptions become means to delineate the philosophical, psychological, and mythic al crux of his works, in turn facilitating his polemical stance toward Western art.

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246 Focusing on Stahnkes aesthetic and the compositional procedures in his operas also reinforces the assumption of his theatrical music establishing instances of his critical posture toward commercialized and standardized Western art music. On the surface, the microtonal constructions, technological ideas, and dramatic innovations in Stahnkes operas merely depict their philosophical, psychological, and mythical implications. But further examination concludes that these implications fac ilitated by the interplay of microtonal, technological, and theatrical elements mediate Stahnkes polemics about the narrow reach of commercialized Western art music. To expand its tonal and dram atic scope, Stahnke has used just intonation, diverse tuning systems and scales taken from nonWestern cultures, and electronic media to restructure the musical and dramaturgical aspect of common Western operas. In sum, all musical, theatrical, and technological elements of Partchs and Stahnkes stage works convey their cultural criticism, crystallized in their aesthetic decisions. The Lineage from Partch to Stahnke Comparative analysis of Partchs and Stahnkes aesthetic decisions in their works articula tes the link between both composers, although their stage works embody different characteristics. The ways in which a composer (Stahnke) perceived the other (Partch), as well as his urge to study, explain, and incorporate some elements of Partchs thinking prompted this dissertation. I have concluded that even though Partch as opposed to Stahnke did not really land in the world of academy and scholarship, he tirelessly reached out to nonWestern musical and dramatic cultures to imbue Western theatrical mus ic with corporeality and ritualistic zest, as well as a more nuanced sound and intonation.

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247 Similar to Partch, Stahnke explores nonWestern musical cultures, extracting their fine tunings and rhythmical subtleties, while challenging the norms of Western ar t music by integrating them in his hybrid compositions. His intonational and dramatic innovations question conventional operatic tradition, asking us to rethink the standardized trends of Western theatrical music. Although Stahnke did not seek an integrat ed, corporeal total artwork as Partch did, he did find the Western musico dramatic tradition limiting. In addition to nonWestern cultures, both Partch and Stahnke have conducted extensive research on the acoustical properties of sound and just intonation. They derived the inventive scales and tone systems realized in their theatrical music from deep understanding of the spectrum of partials, as well as its mathematical and acoustical qualities. My analysis shows that two elements inform the link between P artch and Stahnke more than anything else; first, both of them sought to reform Western musical and dramatic conventions by looking at nonWestern cultures. Second, their curiosity for microtonality, tuning, and intonation guided their research. However, S tahnkes flexible, inclusive, and hybrid aesthetic differs from Partchs rigidly crafted world of one tuning system and a single, central aesthetic as his key principle. Their view of the academic establishment also differed. Partchs anti establishment posture caused him to remain for the most part of his life outside the academy, although most of the performances of h is stage works took place on University campuses. Stahnke, on the other hand, has mentored numerous pupils and maintained a career in the German university system, while pushing the boundaries of Western academic music.

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248 Links between two thinkers, the ways one shapes or transfigures anothers ideas, has always fascinated researchers. Although Ligeti influenced St ahnkes hybrid aesthetic, there is no doubt that Stahnke has cherished, emulated, and synthesized Partchs microtonal theories in his own aesthetic. The relationship between Ben Johnston and Partch as well as Lou Harrison and Partch inform other cases of s uch links that researchers can examine. The discussion of the lineage from Partch to Stahnke in this dissertation emphasizes the importance of investigating such lineages for instance, between Adorno and Berg, or between Webern and Schoenberg from the phil osophical, aesthetic and theoretical standpoints. In my future research, I will expand my study to the examination of the link between Partch and other microtonalists, such as Johnston and Harrison. My future research will also expound upon the ways in whi ch Stahnke has interacted with other European and nonEuropean microtonal composers, and the ways in which he transferred the legacy of Partch and Johnston, as well as his own experience, to his pupils Theatrical Structures in Partchs and Stahnkes Stag e Works Although composed in the span of about fifty years (19502001), the theatrical music of Partch and Stahnke shall be considered examples of stage works that contain postdramatic elements This is not to say that any of the seven case studies examined in this dissertation exclusively feature postdramatic structures; they in fact intertwine dramatic and postdramatic elements. Even Lehmann argues throughout his book that most instances of pos tdramatic theater combine a constellation of postdramatic structures with traditional, dramatic theatrical components. A nalysis of the theatrical elements in Partchs and Stahnkes stage works shows that The Bewitched, Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handl ung, and Orpheus Kristall

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249 contain postdramatic components more than Oedipus Delusion of the Fury Der Untergang des Hauses Usher and Heinrich IV However, the ir tendency toward ritualization and corporeality demonstrates that all of Partchs stage works to some extent contain postdramatic traits. In Stahnkes works, fragmentary structures, superimposition of the storylines or the lack thereof, and the use of electronic media inform their tendency toward postdramatic theater. Some of such characteristic ex tend to all of Stahnkes operas and some to the ones with predominant postdramatic components Because theatrical music has proved to be a suitable venue for reassessment of musico dramatic conventions, examining the modern music theatrical conceptions fo r instance Philip Glasss Einstein on the Beach (1976), Morton Subotnicks Jacobs Room (1985) Tod Machovers Brain Opera (1996), or Georg Hajdus Der Sprung Beschreibung einer Oper (1998) in light of the theory of postdramatic theater gains more pertinence. The theory of postdramatic theater can illuminate the innovative facets of other music theatrical ventures, beyond Partchs and Stahnkes stage works. As a dynamic analytical framework, this theory brings a fresh perspective to the scholarship of modern opera. It grants us an effective methodology to deconstruct the seemingly disparate, but coexisting, innovative theatrical elements in the contempo rary opera, juxtaposing them with traditional operatic structures An example of how a theory borr owed from another discipline would facilitate our understanding of an inherently multimedia genre such as opera, the theory of postdramatic theater enables us to examine theatrical music from the interdisciplinary perspectives of performance, sound,

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250 and li terature.71 Since opera breathes at the inter section of drama and music, these interdisciplinary perspectives can carry on a paradigm shifting and lasting effect on opera scholarship. Digital Media in Stahnkes Theatrical Music Stahnkes critical discourse about the limited reach of the predominant Western art music substantiate his incorporation of electronic media in his stage works, especially in Orpheus Kristall My an alysis of the underlying electronic structures in his theatrical music informs the link between Stahnkes critical stance and his urge to question the common operatic forms. Borrowed theories from performing arts studies, along the analysis of the microt onal and dramatic aspects of Stahnkes work s, articulate the need to further examine the rationales for integrating electronic devices as performance media in the moder n mixed reality opera. While Dixons monumental book Digital Performance, as well as an array of chapters in Chapples and Kattenbelts Intermediality in Theater and Performance, comprehensively discuss mixedreality theater, the scholarship lacks an indepth study of mixed reality opera. The chapter Technology, Mediation, and Intermediality in this d issertation, which goes handin hand with the analysis of postdramatic element s in Stahnkes opera, intends to open a door to an exhaustive study of digital opera and its cultural significance in my future scholarship. 71 My use of the adjective multimedia in this sentence does not necessarily refer to the integr ation of digital media in the modern operas. It rather implies that opera is essentially a mixed genre, which combines various media, for example, music, acting, staging, and literature, as well as the digital media in the modern operas.

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251 Influence of Partch on European Microtonal Music The theoretical and aesthetic analysis of the microtonal scales, t uning systems, and intonational concepts in Stahnkes theatrical music shed light on the scope of the influence of Partchs theories on Stahnkes music. Encouraged by Ligeti, many of his students in Hamburg during 1970s and 1980s delved into various degrees of research and absorption of Partchs ideas. Although German composers such as Georg Hajdu and Wolfgang von Schweinitz have also dealt with Partchs theories, no other figure has been theoretically and practically immersed in Partchs achievements as mu ch as Stahnke. The sheer number of his published texts on Partch attests to this fact. Yet from a practical perspective, several of Stahnkes instrumental and music theatrical pieces contain elements taken directly from Partchs theories, or are influenced by Partchs groundbreaking concepts. In solo instrumental pieces such as Diamantenpracht (2005) and Partch Zither (2007), both for harp in scordatura, Stahnke has developed new tuning systems for harp influenced by Partchs elevenlimit just intonation. These systems of harp tuning facilitate the integration of Partchs concepts of otonality and utonality as practical compositional procedures. My analysis of the functions of tuning and scales in Stahnkes operas Der Untergang des Hauses Usher and Heinrich IV demonstrates a case in which Partchs concepts underpin Stahnkes compositional ideas. Partchs approach to just intonation has affected any composer who, since the second half of the twentieth century, has dealt with Microtonality, tuning, and intonation. However, Stahnkes works represent one of the most significant cases of the vast influence of Partchs theories on the European counterpart. Future research can shed light on the influence of Partchs aesthetic and theories on other works created by

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252 Stahnke, or microtonal compositions by other artists. As a first step, this study hopes to begin a trend of research on the relationship between American and German experimental music in the twentiethcentury and their reciprocal interaction.

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253 APP ENDIX A LIBRETTO OF WAHNSINN DAS IST DIE SEELE DER HANDLUNG Manfred Stahnke 1982 Fassung 2012 WAHNSINN, DAS IST DIE SEELE DER HANDLUNG mit Texten von Edgar Allan Poe, arrangiert vom Komponisten Fassung fr Streichquartett (ad libitum mit Sprecher/in ) Libretto des ursprnglichen Musiktheaterwerks: Vorspiel: Die Schlange betrog mich die Schlange die Schlange betrog mich und ich a ich a die Schlange die Schlange betrog mich doch Sphrenmusik I: Oho dies ist eine Galanacht dies ist eine Galanacht oho eine Galanacht Galanacht in diesen einsamen Zeiten eine Engelschar sitzt im Theater um ein Spiel voller Hoffnungen und ngste zu seh'n und Wahnsinn und noch mehr Snde und Horror und Wahnsinn das ist die Seele der Handlung Wahnsinn ist die Seele der Handlung Wahnsinn die Seele Wahnsinn und das Quartett atmet die Musik der Sphren und die Sngerin geschaffen nach Gottes Ebenbild murmelt unverstndlich daher Sphrenmusik II: Oho dies ist eine Galanacht Ehre sei Gott in der Hh' eine Galanacht Galanacht und die Sngerin flattert hin hin und her auf Befehl eines riesigen formlosen Schattens Schattens hin hin hin und her der die Szenerie vor und zurckschiebt vor hin hin hin und her und zurck eine Puppe die kommt und geht geht hin geht ko mmt geht geht und geht Puppe kommt geht zurck vor hin Puppe her hin hin her Puppe geht Puppe Galamusik: Ach ja dies ist eine Galanacht und keine Sorge das Narrendrama soll nicht vergessen werden mit seiner Phantomjagd nach Immermehr Immermehr Immermehr Immermehr und die Narren kriegen's nicht sie jagen im Kreis immer zum selben Punkt zurck zurck zurck rck rck du bist das Alles fr mich Schatz ja ja ja ja

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254 du bist das Alles fr mich Schatz wonach meine Seele sich gesehnt eine grne Insel in der See S chatz eine Quelle und ein Heiligtum ganz umflochten mit Zauberfrchten und Blumen und alle Blumen waren mein mein mein meine Blumen meine Blumen Knarrmusik: oh Traum zu schn warst du zu dauern und alle alle Blumen waren mein meine Blumen stumm meine Blumen Herbstmusik: Damals als ich ein Kind war als die Sonne um mich rollte mit ihrem gold'nen Herbstton damals damals als ich ein Kind war wurde aus einem Abgrund von Gut und Bse das Geheimnis herausgezogen das mich weiter umklammert aus der Wolke die fr mich die Gestalt eines Dmons annahm eines Dmons oho dies ist eine Galanacht eine Engelschar sitzt im Theater um ein Spiel voller Hoffnungen zu sehn bleib bleib Azrael. Teufelssolo: Lass deine Hand ein wenig bei mir mehr mehr mehr mehr Wurmmusik: Still psst etwas kriecht heran etwas etwas schlngelt sich von drauen heran etwas Blutrotes Azrael etwas Kriechendes dringt ein Frst der dunklen Mchte und des Grabs Erbarmen lass mich jetzt nicht umkommen meine Paradieshoffnung blht von auerhalb etw as Ungeziefer von auerhalb Beiwerkzeuge und die Engel heulen Beiwerkzeuge

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255 etwas mich es mich es frisst es im Menschenblut mich auf es frisst frisst frisst es frisst Engel Engel Az mich ra auf el Beiwerkzeuge Ungeziefer frisst mich frisst mich Engel Engel Azrael es frisst frisst frisst ber die zitternde Gestalt fiel der Vorhang und die Engel im Theater nicken sich traurig zu und besttigen das Spiel heie Menschenkind aber der Held sei Tusch: Fresser Wurm Fresser Wurm Sphrenmusik III: Und das Quartett atmet die Musik der Sphre

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256 APP ENDIX B LIBRETTO OF ORPHEUS KRISTALL Orpheus Kristall Oper fr Bhne und Peripherie von Manfred Stahnke Libretto: Simone Homem de Mello Szene 1: Einbruch der Erinnerung pome percussion pome internet Improvisation mit Worten (Entstehung von Worten...) Bariton: dann bertne ich sie als du sie dich dann vollkommen berhren sahst... du reichtest ihr die hand und fandst das was dazwischen lag kalt berlief es dich whrend sich ihre haut wellte Sopran 2: hol aus dem mund raus, was das auge zu verlieren droht. Bar.: ich bertnte sie dort, wo sie sich nicht mehr blicken lie. Szene 2: Zerberus zerborsten Sopran 1 2 3 (als dreikpfiger Zerberus): jetzt kommst du du kommst jetzt Bar.: so kommst du S.3 (zartest, spaltet sich aus Zerberus): kommst du jetzt ... noch einen schritt Bar.: scheinbar gefesselt sahst du sie im kreis schwimmen (Zerberus spaltet sich vllig auf): S.2 (wie getrumt): tritt zurck S.1 (hrtest): bleib steh'n S.2 der raum den dein gang beschreibt ist kaum zu beschreiten S.3: wohin dich dein schatten fhrt Bar.: wie ihre haut das wasser frbte in wellen hrtest du sie kommen S.3: zhl die schritte

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257 S.1: deine schritte tragen dich nirgendwohin S.2: der schatten nimmt deinen rckgang vorweg S.3: zhle mit mit diesen worten vermisst du den weg zurck S.2: vermiss dich nicht S.1: vermessen bist du deine schritte selbst so trge drcken sich ab nirgendwo Bar.: an dieser stille fast erstickt S.1: schau zurck: keine sp ur von dir S.3: verweilt dein blick hier verzhlst du dich gleich mach die augen zu S.1: schau mich an Bar.: aus dem wirbel in dem du sie schwimmen sahst hielt sie deinen mund fest S.1: schau mich an dann vergisst du gleich Bar.: scheinbar gefesselt als du sie dich dann vollkommen berhren sahst und fandst das was dazwischen lag kalt berlief es dich S.2: der quelle kommst du nher Bar.: halbwegs nah sahst du deine hnde nach ihrem halbkrper tasten S.2: der quelle komm aber nicht nher Bar.: ein e handbreit S.2: wagst du das Bar.: fehlte bis dahin wo ihr atem ausreichte bis sie sich ausstreckte S.2: verlierst du den faden Bar.: scheinbar gefesselt sahst du sie im kreis schwimmen

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258 S.2: vergessen wirst du Bar.: sie sog sich voll wasser Szene 3: Verfhrung Erfindung des O. S. 1 2 3: komm gib mir deine augen deine zunge wie soll ich ohne sie seh'n singen schau mich an S.1: du gehrst hierher schau mich an nicht bewegen (als "Medusa", verfhrerisch:) warte doch einen augenblick S.2 (als "Sib ylle"): bleibst du steh'n verirrst du dich dein stillstand ist nicht zu orten S.3 (aufgeregt): vergessen wirst du dass ... S.1: blo nicht bewegen warte doch S.3: ...du jemals woanders warst hast du gehrt? S.1 2 3 (wie zu Beginn: "verfhrerisch"): dann komm gib mir deine augen deine zunge S.1: starrst du mich an erstarrst du gleich sobald ich dich mich sehen seh' nicht bewegen S.2: folgst du ihr wird ihr weg gleich zu deinem irrweg fnf finger hat die han d S.3: nicht fern von dir das and're wasser hinein sollst du tauchen diese quelle ... Bar.: das and're wasser hinein sollst du tauchen diese quelle... S.1: tauch nicht schau mich an S.2: fnf finger hat deine hand

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259 Bar. (erstmals wie selbstndig seine hand betrachtend): meine hand S.1 2 3: dann hre spaltet sich dein blick wird ... Bar.: sie rufen wieder und wieder hatte ich sie nicht bertnt? S.2 ... dein schritt die kluft kaum ... Bar.: woher kommen schon wieder diese stimmen? S.2: ... berbrck en Bar.: hatte ich sie nicht bertnt? S.1: bleib still rhre keinen finger handle nicht bevor dein augen... S.3: zeig mir deine hand Bar.: augenmerk S.3: merk dir Bar.: sie kommen immer nher dann ... S.3: schau dich nicht um, sonst ... S.1: umsonst wendest du deinen blick ab Bar.: abbild S.3: bild' dir nicht ein, der weg wr' S.1: whrend dein auge auf das zielt, was auer sicht Bar.: sichtgrenze S.3: grenzen siehst du keine, solange ... S.1: so lange warte ich schon auf einen wink Bar.: winkzeichen S.3: zeichen von dir Bar.: ich schrei' so laut ich kann S.3: ich suche immer Bar.: damit bertne ich sie dann ... S.1.: wieder tasten deine ...

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260 wieder und wieder tasten deine finger nach ... Bar.: nachklang S.3.: klang nur so, als httest du vor ... S.1: vorsicht du knntest leicht auer atem Bar.: atemlos S.3: los beeil dich die zeit ist um S.1: um ein haar verfehlt mich dein blick so blind Bar.: blindspiel S.3.: spiel nicht so, als httest du keine zunge mehr S.1.: je mehr du dich entfernst so still Bar.: stillschweigt S.1 2 3: dann S.2: spaltet sich dein blick, wird dein schritt die kluft kaum berbrcken dringt ihr dein blick unter die haut, klingst du bald durch ihre lippen nach S.3: schweigend httest du mich lieber S.1.: lieber jetzt als spter ffnest du den mund Bar.: mundtot S.3: tot stellst du dich Szene 4: Zweite Erinnerung und Klage der Frauen S.1 2 3 und Bar.: sie wuchs ber deine augen hinaus wie das, was dazwischen lag durch ihre haut schimmerte sahst du verschwimmen hrtest dich hauchen ihr etwas ins ohr von weitem kommen deine stimme reichte an ihren lippen vorbei bis du sie hrtest bis du es aussprachst whrend sich das wasser trbte

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261 im halbschlaf hrtest du sie rufen S.2: um das rauschen zu dm pfen, nicht zgern, sich blenden denn der tod beginnt im auge selbst aus der hhle rausgerissen, regt sich das auge, das dritte Bar. (Textbruchstcke): ... dessen atem der andere... ... verschollen... Trauer der S.1: S.1: um mich von den andern zu unterscheiden, schau erstmal mein abbild an. dann lsst du deine hand von einer andern frau fhren. um der rache zu entkommen, machst du dich mglichst unsichtbar. dann darfst du um deinen kopf frchten. S.1: er sonderte sich Bar.: ... zu vermuten: fluc ht ... S.1: weder der hier, dessen atem noch im spiegel Bar.: ... punkt alias der andre: er ... S.1.: der andere vielleicht im spalt verscholl... Bar.: verschollen nirgendwo ... S.1 2 3: wo lag er Bar.: zu vermuten ohne ... S.1: dazwischen Trauer der S.3: sein fingerabdruck berlebte ihn ber all gestempelt: hier spt er und oft woanders alles trug se ine handschrift ich verfolgte die sp ur bis ich verga w o i c h w a r auch im dunkeln war er immer zu orten seine hand sie berlistete mich auch im dunkeln ***

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262 (Bar. und S.2 ineinander verschrnkt singe nd. Bar. liest auch einem Buch ber Orpheus' und Eurydikes Schicksal vor. S.2 missversteht konstant und erzhlt die Geschichte des blinden Sehers Teiresias, der durch Schlangenttung zur Frau, dann spter wieder zum Mann wird:) Bar.: es steht da ihr au f der spur, heimlich... ...schlang sich die natter um sie sie bersah die schlange und... trat auf sie sie starb "spter geschah..." "als der mann zurck..." "als der mann ihre augen an der schwelle sah ..." "verschwand sie" S.2: ...immer noch... ... unheimlich... ich sehe sie noch vor mir, zwei schlangen... ... ich sehe die weibliche... ... ich schlag' sie tot ... ... und werd' zur frau... ... als sie red' ich ... ... jahre spter ... ... auf derselben stelle tte ich die mnnliche schlange und red' weiter als "er"... *** S.1 2 3 ("Drei Gttinnen"): wenn du dich umsiehst nach dem rckweg, den ich dir einst zeigte, wirst du mich nicht mehr sehen Trauer der S.2: S.1 2 3 (S.2 sehr hervor): mir ist ein mann begegnet, de r so war wie er. der hatte aber die stimme eines anderen, der pnktlich angekommen war. er flehte mich an, nie zu sterben. falls das trotzdem geschehen sollte, nahm er sich vor, meinen grabstein umzuschreiben. als es so weit war, war ihm mein name aber l ngst entfallen.

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263 Szene 5: Scherben Abdrcke, dritte Erinnerung Bar.: als ich sie bertnte klaffte schon der riss im boden (losen wir um die sch (erben? wir weiter ziehen sich die kreise (kreise ich immer noch gefesselt seltener zufall (fall s sie doch noch sprechen (rchen sie sich an meiner stimme (immer noch schweigen eigenartige stille stillen sie mein blut? nach der tat mit zerschnittenem (kopf ab!) finger ab abdruck (drcke ich ihr zufllig die kehle zu? fllig war ich schon... war ich das mi t so tauben fingern? da unter wasser hrt sich das nicht mehr so an anfllig fllig bist du es? es gab kein zurck als ich sie bertnte, klaffte schon der riss im boden bodenlos losen wir um die scherben erben wir weiter ziehen sich die kreise kreise ich immer noch gefesselt seltener zufall falls sie doch noch sprechen rchen sie sich an meiner sti still still still stillen sie mein blut nach der tat mit zerschnittenem kopf ab finger ab abdruck abdrcke ich ihr zufllig fllig die kehle zu zufllig fllig war ich schon war ich schon betubt? das schweigen die blinden nach der tat

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264 REFERENCES Primary Sources Booklet for the film The Dreamer That Remains by Madeline Tourtelot, 1972 1975 ( series 35/3/82), Box 17, Folder 11, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. Gate 5 Records, The Bewitched 1956 (series 35/3/82), Box 35 Item 5 Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. Gate 5 Records, Oedipus 1954 (series 35/3/82 ), Box 35, Item 3 Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. Harry Partch Music Scores. MSS 629. Special Collections and Archives, UC San Diego Library Illustrations from Harry Partchs Bitter Music 1965 1966 (series 12/5/45), Box 1 5 Folder 1 Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. Manuscript of Harry Partchs Delusion of the Fury 1965 1966 (series 12/5/45), Box 13 Folder 1 Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. Manuscript of Harry Partchs Oedipus 1951 1954 (series 12/5/45), Box 13, Folder 2 Sousa Archives and Center for American Music, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. Secondary Sources Bargrizan, Navid. Aspekte mikrotonaler Komposition. Masters Thesis, University of Hamburg, 2012. . A New Opera Concept: An Identity Quest Mediated by Digital Media and Microtones in Manfred Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall. In Proceedings of the 9th Conference for Interdisciplinary Musicology 2014, 43 46. Berlin: Staatliches Institut fr Musikforschung . Digital Media and the Internet in Manfred Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall In Proceedings of MUSICULT 15 Music a nd Cultural Studies Conference, 2015, 367 376. Istanbul : Istanbul Technical University and Turkish State Music Conservatory . Parallel Trajectories in Manfred Stahnkes Internet Opera Orpheus Kristall . econtact! Online Journal for Electroacoustic Practices 18 (4).

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265 . Review of Ben Johnston: String Quartets Nos. 6, 7, & 8. Kepler String Quartet. New World 807302, 2016, CD. Journal of the Society for American Music 11 (1), 118 120. . Review of Harry Partch, Hobo Composer by Andrew S. Granade. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2014. Journal of the Society for American Music 11 (2), 235 238. . Technology, Microtonality, and Mediation in Manfred Stahnkes Orpheus Kristall. Mzik Bilim Dergisi, The Journal of Music and Science 2015 Vol.1, Issue 6 (2015): 1 48. Barthes, Roland. The Grain of the Voice, Interviews 1962 1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida: Reflections of Photogra phy. London: Vintage, 1993. Bayer, Herbert, Isle Gropius, and Walter Gropius, eds. Bauhaus 1919 1928. Boston: Charles T. Branford, 1959. Benford, Steve. Performing Musical Interactions: Lessons from the Study of Extended Theatrical Performances. Computer Music Journal 34, 4 (2010), 49 61. Benjamin, Walter. The World of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. In Illuminations: Essays and Reflections edited by Hannah Arendt, 217 252. New York: Schocken, 1968. Biggs, Noah. Matotechnia : The Vanity of the Craft of Physick. London: Edward Blackmore, 1651. Blackburn, Philip, ed. Enclosure 3: Harry Partch. Saint Paul: American Composers Forum, 1997. . Harry Partch and the Philosophers Tone, Hyperion Volume II, issue 1 (2008): 1 20. Borgmann, Albert. Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life: A Philosophical Inquiry Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1984. Bowan, Kate. Living between Worlds Ancient and Modern: The Musical Collaboration of Kathleen Schlesinger and Elsie Hamilton. Journal of the Royal Musical Association 137:2 (2014), 197 242. Brecht, Bertolt Brecht on Theater: The Development of an Aesthet ic. Edited and Translated by John Willett. London: Methuen, 1964.

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266 Broyles, Michael. Mavericks and other Traditions in American Music New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. Chapple, Freda, and Chiel Kattenbelt eds. Intermediality in Theatre and Performance. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006. Cott, Jonathan. Back to a Shadow in the Night: Music Writings and Interviews 1968 2001. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard, 2002. DAuost, Jason Orpheus in New Media: Images of the Voice in Digital Opera, International Journal of P erformance A rts and D igital M edia 8, 1(2012), 31 48. Dixon, Steve. Digital Performance: A History of New Media in Theater, Dance, Performance Arts, and Installation. Cambridge, M: MIT Press, 2007. Duffie, Bruce. Verfhren, nicht vergewaltigen. Ben J ohnston im Gesprch. MusikTexte 144 (2015): 70 78. Dunn, David, ed. Harry Partch: An A nthology of Critical Perspectives. Amsterdam: Harwood, 2000. Eco, Umberto. The Open Work Translated by Anna Cancogni. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989. Gann, Kyle. Exzentrik der Tonarten. Zur Suite for Microtonal Piano, MusikTexte 144 (2015), 99 102. Gatens, Moira. Imaginary Bodies: Ethics, Power, and Corporeality New York: Routledge, 1996. Gelfland, Stanley A. Hearing: An Introduction to Psychological and Physiological Acoustics. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004. Gilmore, Bob. Harry Partch: A Biography. New Haven & London: Yale University, 1998. . Harry Partch: The Early Vocal Works 1930 33. PhD diss., The Queens University of Belfast, 1996. . The Climate since Harry Partch. Contemporary Music Review Vol.22, Nos.1/2 (2003): 15 33. . Wahrhaft radikale Music, Ben Johnston: eine Wrdigung. MusikTexte 144 (2015), 57 64. Granade, S. Andrew. I was a Bum Once Myself: Harry Partch, U.S. Hi ghball, and the Dust Bowl in the American Imagination. PhD. diss., University of Illinois, 2005.

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267 . Decoding Har ry Partchs Aesthetic: Satire, Duality, and Water! Water!. American Music 35(2), 172 196. . Harry Partch, Hobo Composer. Rochester: University of Rochester, 2014. . Rekindling Ancient Values: The Influence of Chinese Music and Aesthetics on Harry Partch. Journal of the Society for American Music 4(1), 1 32. Hackbarth, Glenn Allen. An Analysis of Harry Partchs Daphne of the Dunes . DMA diss., University of Illinois, 1979. Hajdu, Georg. Aktualitt eines Mythos: Orpheus Kristall im Quintet.net. Positionen: beitr ge zur neuen Musik 51 (2002): 47 50. Harr, Rom. Physical Being: A Theory of a Corporeal Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991. Heidegger, Martin. The Question Concerning Technology. In Readings in the Philosophy of Technology edited by D. M. Kaplan, 9 24. Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield, 2009. Helmer, Benjamin, and Georg Hajdu, eds. Just in Tone and Time: Assoziationen an Manfred Stahnke; eine Fettschrift Neumnste r : von Bockel, 2014. Johnson, Jake. Unstuck in time: Harry Par tchs Bilocated Life. Journal of the Society for American Music 9, 2 (2015): 163 177. Johnston, Ben. Maximum Clarity and Other Writings on Music. Edited by Bob Gilmore. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois, 2006. Kassel, Richard M. The Evolution of Harry Partchs Monophony. PhD diss., City University of New York, 1996. Kirby, Michael. Futurist Performance. New York: PAJ Publication, 1971. Kirby, Vicky. Telling Flesh: The Substance of the Corporeal. New York: Routledge, 1996. Klobucka, Anna M and Mark Sabine. Embodying Pessoa: Corporeality, Gender, Sexuality. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007. Lane, Alexander Gordon. From Archean Granite: The Rational Pitch System of Harry Partch, Lou Harrison, and Ben Johnston. PhD diss., Brandeis University, 2017. Lehman, Marc. Embodied Music Cognition and Mediation Technology Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008.

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268 Lehmann, Hans Thies. Postdramatic Theatre. Translated by Karen Jrs Munby. New York: Routledge, 2006. Lesle, Lutz. Ars subtilior im Computerzeitalte r: Der Hamburger Komponist Manfred Stahnke. NZ: Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 150, 11 (1989), 18 23. Levy, Beth Ellen. Frontier Figures: American Music and the Mythology of the American West. PhD. diss., University of California Berkeley, 2002. Literat, Iona. The Work of Art in the Age of Meditated Participation: Crowdsourced Art and Collective Creativity. International Journal of Communication 6 (2012): 2962 2984. MacDonalds, Diane L. Prosser. Transgressive Corporeality: The Body, Poststructuralism, and the Theological Imagination. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995. McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1964. McGeary, Thomas. Introduction to The Music of Harry Partch: A Descriptive Catalog, x. New York: Institute for Studies in American Music, 1991. Novak, Jelena. Postopera: Reinventing the VoiceBody New York: Routledge, 2016. Ostertag, Bob. Human Bodies, Co mputer Music, Leonardo Music Journal 12 (2002), 11 14. Packer, Randal, and Jordan, Ken, eds. Multimedia from Wagner to Virtual Reality. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001. Paik, Nam June. Art and Satellite. In Multimedia from Wagner to Virtual Reali ty edited by Randal Packer and Ken Jordan, 41 43. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001. Partch, Harry. Bitter Music: Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos Edited by Thomas McGeary. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois, 1991. . Experiments in Notation. In Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music, edited by Elliot Schwartz, and Barney Childs, 209 221. New York: da Capo, 1978. . Genesis of a Music New York: Da Capo, 1974. Paul, Christiane. Digital Art London: Thames and Hudson, 2003. Pickles, James O. An Introduction to the Physiology of Hearing. Bingley: Emerald, 2010.

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269 Pirandello, Luigi. Henry IV Translated by Edward Storer. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1922. Poe, Edgar Allan. Gesamtausgabe der Dichtungen und Erzhlungen. Edited by Theodor Etzel. Berlin: PropylenVerlag, 1922. Raulerson, Graham. The Hobo in American Musical Culture. PhD. diss., University of California Los Angeles, 2011. Rich, Alan. American Pioneers: Ives to Cage and Beyond. London: Phaidon, 1995. Rie ser, Martin, and Andrea Zapp, eds. New Screen Media: Cinema/Art/Narrative. London: British Film Institute, 2002. Safari, Sarvenaz. Diamond Splendor. Sonus: A Journal of Investigations into Global Musical P ossibilities 32, 1 (2011) 40 57. Safari, Sarvenaz, and Manfred Stahnke, eds. 1001 Mikrotne / 1001 Microtones. Hamburg: v on Bockel, 2014. Ruthrof, Horst. Semantics and the Body: Meaning from Frege to the Postmodern. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997. Schrdinger, Erwin. What Is Life? The Physical Aspects of the Living Cell Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1944. Schrum, Stephen A., ed. Theater in Cyberspace. New York: Peter Lang, 1999. Sheppard VI, William Anthony. Modernist Music Theater: Exotic Influences and Ritualized Performance. PhD. diss., Princeton University, 1996. Stahnke, Manfred. About Backyards and Limbos: Microtonality Revisited. In Concepts, Experiments, and Fi e ldwork: Studies in Systematic Musicology and Ethnomusicology Edited by Rolf Bader, Christiane Neuhaus, and Ulrich Morgenstern, 297 314. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2010. . Anmerkungen zur Sonata for Microtonal Piano/Grindelmusic. MusikTexte 144 (2015) : 8 7 91. . Gedanken zu Harry Partch. Neuland: Anstze zur Musik d. Gegenwart: Jahrbuch 2 (1982): 243 251. . Gyrgy Ligeti und Manfred Stahnke: Gesprch am 29. Mai 1993. In Musik nicht ohne Worte. Edited by Manfred Stahnke, 121 152. Hamburg: von Bockel, 2000. . The Hamburg Composition Class. In Gyrgy Ligeti : of Foreign Lands and Strange Sounds Edited by Louise Duchesneau and Wolfgang Marx. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2011.

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271 Szondi, Pter. Theorie des modernen Dramas. Fra nkfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1956. Toshie, Kakinuma. The Musical Instruments of Harry Partch as an Apparatus of Production in Musical Theater. PhD. diss., University of California San Diego, 1989. Thibault, JeanFranois. "Debussy's Unfinished American Oper a." In Opera and the Golden West edited by John Louis DiGaetani and Josef P. Sirefman, 198 206. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1994. Verbeek, Peter Paul. What Things Do. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University P ress, 2005. von Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand. Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage fr die Theorie der Musik Braunschweig: Druck und Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1863. Wagner, Richard. Gesammelte Schriften und Dichtungen von Richard Wagner Dritte Auflage. Leipzig: E.W. Fritzsch, 1897. Weiss, Gain. Body Image: Embodiment as Intercorporeality. New York: Routledge, 1996. Wiecki, Ronald.V. 12Tone Paralysis: Harry Partch in Madison, Wisconsin, 1944 1947. American Music, Vol. 9, No. 1 ( 1991), 43 66. Yang, Mina, New Directions in California Music: Construction of a Pacific Rim Cultural Identity, 1925 1945. PhD. diss., Yale University, 2001. Internet Sources Athens & Epidaurus Festival 2017. Eleni Varopoulou. Accessed September 1, 2017. http://greekfestival.gr/en/epidaurus_lyceum/staff_view/eleni varopoulou. Billy Klver: E.A.T. Archive of Published Documents. Accessed May 26, 2017. http://www.fondation langlois.org/html/e/page.php?NumPage=306 Carla Scalettis official website. Accessed April 12, 2017. http://carlascaletti.com/. Corey, Charles. Harry Partch. com. Accessed September 1 2017. https://www.harrypartch.com/. Georg Hajdus official website. Accessed September 1, 2017. http://georghajdu.de/ Le Corps Indice. Accessed September 1, 2017. http://www.isabellechoiniere.com/CorpsIndice.htm. Manfred Stahnkes official website. Accessed September 1, 2017. http://www.manfred stahnke.de/stahnkeenglish.html

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272 Max Neuhas.com. Accessed September 1, 2017. http://www.max neuhaus.info/. Mnchener Biennale. Oper a ls virtuelle Realitt. Accessed September 1, 2017. http://archive.muenchener biennale.de/archiv/2002/startseite/. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart Online. Accessed September 1, 2017. https://www.mgg online.com/. Oxford English Dictionary Accessed September 1, 2017. http://www.oed.com/. Oxford Music Online. Accessed September 1, 2017. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/public/. PARTCH Ensemble. Accessed September 1 2017. http://partch.virb.com/ Photo of Partchs quadrangularis reversum. Accessed September 1, 2017. https://undergoers.wordpress.com/2011/02/18/partch/harry partchquadrangularis reversum 1965/ Photo of Partch eucal blossom. Accessed April 19, 2017. http://www.microtonal synthesis.com/instruments.html. Robert Wilsons official website. Accessed September 1, 2017. http://www.robertwilson.com/wmc cover. Sadowski, Stan. Photo of Partchs chromelodeon. Accessed Septem ber 1, 2017. http://www.sonoloco.com/rev/innova/401405406/partch.html The Theater Archive of Societas Raffaello Sanzio. Accessed September 1, 2017. http://www.arch srs.com/.

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273 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH In summer 2018 Navid B argrizan received his Ph.D. in music (concentration: music history and literature, cognate area: composition, theory and technology) from the University of Florida. He received his M.A. and B.A. degrees in systematic musicology, historical musicology, art history, and composition, in 2012 and 200 4 from University of Hamburg, Germany and Azad University Tehran, Iran. Bargrizan s article s, reviews and interviews are published in Systematische Musikwissenschaft: Popular Music Studies Today Journal of the Society for American Music Mzik Bilim Dergisi: Journal of Musicology econtact! Online Journal for Electroacoustic Practices SCI Newsletter and proceedings of conferences in Berlin and Istanbul. He has presented papers in several conferences, including Society for American Music, German Studies Association, Conference for Interdisciplinary Musicology, International Association of t he Study of Popular Music, Canadian University Music Society, and chapter meetings of the Ameri can Musicological Society. Bargrizans music is performed in venues such as New York City Electroacoustic Festival, Toronto Electroacoustic Symposium, Eastern Music Festival, Florida Contemporary Festival, Midwest Music Consortium, and conferences of the Society of Composers Inc. His research and music have brought him honors, including being chosen as a finalist in the 2016 American Prize for Comp osition Chamber Music D ivision, DAADs Post Doctoral Research F ellowship (declined), DAADs Pre Dissertation G erman Studies Scholarship, UF s Best of College of the Arts Creative Research Award, UFa Graduate School Doctoral Dissertation Award and Doctoral Researc h Travel Award, as well as Tedder Family Fellowship of the Center for the Humanities and the Public Sphere at UF During summer 2018, Bargrizan was the composer in residence of the Harn Museum of Art in Gainesville, Florida.