THE DISTANCE BETWEEN: REPRESENTATIONS OF NEW WOMANHOOD IN FRENCH AND JAPANESE POSTERS By SARAH K. SLOAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2018
2018 Sarah K. Sloan
To my father, mother, and brother
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my committee chair Melissa Hyde not only for providing meaningful and helpful guidance throughout my thesis writing process, but for teaching me in multiple formative classes and seminars. I would also like to thank my committee member Guolong Lai for his suggestions on my thesis and his guidance in my research. I am grateful to the rest of the faculty of the School of Art and Art History who have spent their time reading my papers and engaging me in productive and enlightening discussi ons. My peers in the Department of Art History deserve gratitude for providing me with an inviting, supportive, and challenging environment for which to develop my thoughts. I am also grateful for Daniel Rodriguez, who spent endless hours reading my draft s and providing me with the support I needed to write those last couple of pages. Lastly, and most importantly, I would like to thank my family for encouraging me and enabling me to pursue my dreams.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 11 The Wo man Question ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 13 New Women in France and Japan ................................ ................................ .......................... 15 Modernity and Modernism ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 16 Thesis and Organization ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 17 2 THE MODERN STYLE: GRAPHIC ARTISTIC EXCHANGE BETWEEN FRANCE AND JAPAN ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 21 The Art Nouveau ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 23 Art Nouveau throughout the World ................................ ................................ ................. 23 The French Art Nouveau Style ................................ ................................ ........................ 27 Japonisme ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 29 Art Nouveau in Jap anese Graphic Arts ................................ ................................ .................. 34 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 36 3 FIN DE SICLE CRISIS?:THE FEMME NOUVELLE AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 37 The Fin de Sicle ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 38 The Femme Nouvelle and First Wave Feminism ................................ ................................ ... 40 New Womanhood in French Posters ................................ ................................ ...................... 43 Technology and the Femme Nouvelle ................................ ................................ ............. 45 Leisure and the Femme Nouvelle ................................ ................................ .................... 50 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 54 4 PROBLEM WOMEN: REPRESENTATIONS OF THE JAPANESE ATARASHII ONNA ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 57 The Meiji Era: Transition, Art, and Women ................................ ................................ ........... 58 Western Influence on Japanese Art Schools ................................ ................................ ... 59 ................................ ...................... 62 Ekanban ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 63 The Woman Problem and the Emergence of the Atarashii Onna ................................ ... 65 Aspects of New Womanhood in Japanese Graphics ................................ .............................. 66
6 Department Store Bijin Ga ................................ ................................ .............................. 67 Beer Bejin ga ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 71 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 73 5 FINAL REMARKS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 74 APPENDIX: ILLUSTRATIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 76 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 100 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 103
7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page A 1 John Moran Auctioneers, Favrile glass specimens. ................................ ........................... 76 A 2 Pablo Pater, Cast i ron balcony ................................ ................................ ........................... 76 A 3 Alphonse Mucha, Sarah Bernhardt/La Plume ................................ ................................ ... 77 A 4 The Japan Times . ................................ ........ 78 A 5 Sarah Bernhardt Reutlinger 1900s Postca rd ................................ ................................ .... 79 A 6 Le Japon artistique ; Kiyonaga ................................ .. 80 A 7 Henri de Toulouse Lautrec, La Goulue au Moulin Rouge ................................ ................ 81 A 8 Henri de Toulouse Lautre c, Le Divan Japonais ................................ ............................... 82 A 9 Alphonse Mucha, Job ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 83 A 10 Unsigned, Couple escaping through hole in the wall ................................ ........................ 84 A 11 Unknown artist, Cover of Miyojo Magazine ................................ ................................ ..... 84 A 12 Tsunetomi Kitono, poster promoting an export tr ade fair at Kobe ................................ ... 85 A 13 Le Grelot ................................ ................................ ............ 86 A 14 Theophile Alexandre Steinlen, Motocyles Comiot ................................ ........................... 87 A 15 Eugne Grasset, Cycles & Automobiles ................................ ................................ ............ 87 A 16 Alphonse Mucha, Cycles Perfecta ................................ ................................ ..................... 88 A 17 Henri Thiriet, John Griffiths Bicycle ................................ ................................ ................ 89 A 18 Jules Chret, Thtrophone ................................ ................................ ............................... 90 A 19 Henri de Toulouse Lautrec, The Chap Book Irish and American Bar ........................... 91 A 20 Alphonse Mucha, JOB ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 92 A 21 Georges Meunier, Papier Cigarettes Job ................................ ................................ ....... 93 A 22 Jane Atch, Hors Concours (Job, Unrivaled) Paris ................................ .......................... 94 A 23 Kunisada, ekaban for perfume ................................ ................................ ........................... 95
8 A 24 Goyo Hashiguchi, poster for Mitsukoshi Department Store ................................ .............. 95 A 25 Hisui Sugiura, poster for Mitsukoshi Department Store ................................ .................... 96 A 26 Hisui Sugiura, detail from poster for Mitsukoshi Department Store ................................ 97 A 27 Dai Nippon Brewery Company. ................................ ................................ ........................ 98 A 28 Hokuu Tada, poster for Kirin beer ................................ ................................ ..................... 99
9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts THE DISTANCE BETWEEN: REPRESENTATIONS OF NEW WOMANHOOD IN FRENCH AND JAPANESE POSTERS By Sarah K. Sloan August 2018 Chair: Melissa Hyde Major: Art History At the end of the nineteenth century, a unique type of woman was emerging known as the New Woman. She was a female type seen all across Europe and even developed in Eas tern countries like Japan. The New woman was known for being university educated, sexually independent, and self aware and often held changing viewpoints of the roles of women within society. This thesis examines representations of the New Woman within French and Japanese posters Both countries are connected through a series of artistic and social exchanges This thesis is grounded in the three main questions: To what extent were aspects of New Wo manhood and artistic styles exchanged between France and Japan in the later part of the 19th and the early 20th centuries?; Were these artistic and social changes one for one? and How did these exchanges contribute to the modernization of both France and J apan? While the extent of artistic influence between France and Japan is o ften characterized through the one sided exchange of japonisme I assert that artistic exchange was reciprocal between the two countries Additionally, the development of the French New Woman significantly influenced Japanese women to form their own feminist groups, such as the Seitosha which in turn inspired images of Japanese wom en in modern ways through posters While I posit that artistic exchange betw een France and Japan was rec iprocal, the social exchange of New Womanhood from France to Japan was largely
10 one sided. Both the artistic exchange of Japanese art in France and the Art Nouv eau style in Japan, along with the modern social type of the New Woman being represented through these styles, allowed for both countries to display their own unique types of turn of the century modernity
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION no social peace until women are intellectual [the] state of things is traceable to the lack of educa tion, in all senses of the word.. .I am driven frantic by the crass imbecility of the typical woman. That type must disappear, or at all events become altogether subordinate. And I believe that the only way of effecting this is to go through a period of what many people will call sexual anarchy. Nothing good will perish; we can trust the forces of nature, which tend to conservatio n George Gissing 1 The Collected Letters of George Gissing: Volume Six In an 1893 letter to his friend, German writer and philosopher Eduard Bertz, the novelist George Gissing wrote about the late nineteenth century calling for sexual anarch Gissing used the phrase sexual anarchy to mean the breaking down of dominant ideologies on sex and gender to allow for a more equal society. Just as the terms suggest, Gissing was describing an all out chaos dedicated to the shifting societal roles prescribed for certain genders. While sexual ana rchy could be applied in relevance to both men and women Gis sing stresses women by advocating for equality primarily through education. 2 to the lack of education, in all senses of the In essence, the condition of women needs to be improved and the best way of improving their condition is through education. Educated women will then bring about equality between the sexes, resulting in chaos, or sexual anarchy. 1 Paul F. Mattheisen Arthur C. Young and Pierre Coustillas, The Collected Letters of George Gissing: Volume Six, 1895 1897 (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1994), 113. 2 Elaine Showalter, Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Sicle (New York: Viking, 1990), 11. During the late 19 th century, not only were ideals of femininity being broken down, but masculinity as well. Women were expected to fulfill their biological duties as wives and mothers within the home. However, many women during this time chose to live out side of the home, breaking down conceptions of women in their domestic place. Men too were facing challenges with gender norms. On the one hand, a supposed threat of waning virility began to take hold all across Europe, causing even more rigid social roles as a defense against the feminization of men On the other hand, for creating more fluid gender dynamics.
12 passag e as a way of introducing the concept of sexual anarchy as an instigator for a new social type of unconventio nal women during the late nineteenth century the New Woman. In this thesis, I examine representations of New Women within posters in both the count ries of France and Japan. While the influence of Japanese art on European art is often examined through studies of japonisme questions of reciprocal exchange between the two countries are often left unanswered. Furthermore, the social influences of New Wo manhood are rarely examined in conjunction with artistic exchange. I argue that both France and Japan are connected through the artistic exchange of the graphic Art Nouveau as well as the social exchange of New Womanhood Both these artistic and social exc hanges worked together to form modern images of women, and thereby contribute to emerging concepts of modernity for both countries. the Western world prior to the nin eteenth century. In the sixteenth century, Japan underwent a thriving trade period referred to as the Nanban with the arrival of Portuguese and other European explorers, missionaries, and merchants. 3 Becaus e China had banned any contact with Japan during this time, Portugal often traded Chinese goods with Japan, acting as an intermediary between the two countries. By the Edo Period (1603 1858), Japan became largely isolated from the Western world due to Sako ku or Japanese citizens were restricted from leaving the country. 4 In 1854, Japan was forcibly opened 3 Nanban or barbarian, was ori ginally used to refer to South Asia and Southeast Asia. By 1543, the word began to refer to the Portuguese and other Europeans during the time. 4 Japan largely traded with other Asian countries such as China and Korea during this time. However, not all Wes tern contact was lost as Japan continued to trade with the Dutch through the port of Nagasaki, as well.
13 again by the American Commodore Matthew Perry, kick start ing the beginnings of modern Western influence on the country. A rt historian Shuji Takashina writes of the opening of Japan to the W estern world explaining West, the distance bet ween Japan and Europe had shrunk to the point where stylistic 5 I derive the title of my thesis from this quote, and ground my arguments by asking the following : To what extent were the graphic Art Nouveau style and aspects of New Womanhood exchanged between France and Japan in the later part of the 19th and the ea rly 20th centuries?; Were these artistic and social changes one for one, or did each country inco rporate them in different ways?; and How did thes e exchanges contribute to the moderniz ation of both France and Japan? In essence, how close was the distance between Japan and France during the turn of the twentieth century ? The Wom a n Question George were largely playing into debates regarding the fourteenth century, the Woman Question asked: what are th e roles of women within society? In a late nineteenth cent ury context, was a woman to adorn the domestic sphere with her beauty, as discussed by sch olar Deborah Silverman or could she actively engage in the public sphere by working or participating in politics? While some, like G issing, believed that women shoul d be equal to f urther society as a whole, others engaged with the idea that 5 evelopment of Western Style Painting During the Meiji Paris in Japan: The Japanese Encounter with European Painting ed. Shuji Takashina, J. Thomas Rimer with Gerald D. Bolas (St. Louis: Washington University, 1987), 31.
14 her charm , an idea first promoted in France by Rousseau in the 18 th century 6 For instance, women were often looked at as ob or a physical manifestation of beauty within the home. This viewpoint can be seen from the nineteenth century art critic feminine portrait was hence always speaking of visual representations, his observations can be aptly applied to viewpoints on c roles. Later on, however, he also notes changing depictions of women 7 Mauclair pe rpetuates the common viewpoint that women were decorative, however, he also recognizes their changing status and how art must change along with it. This thesis will further detail this observation through the medium of the poster. Before continuing, it mus t be noted that women as decoration was a particularly bourgeoisie outlook, and the New Woman was a middle class phenomenon. Silverman notes that, despite French feminist aims of uniting women of all middle class 8 bourgeoisie women were beginning to view their role in societ y with a perspective that resisted patriarchal values a role that was no longer meek, reliant, and submissive, but active, independent, and autonomous. 6 Jean Jacques Rousseau, Emile trans. Barbara Foxley (New York: Dutton, 1948), 959. 7 La Nouvelle Revue, 2, no. 1 (1899): 212 213. 8 Deborah Silverman, Art Nouveau in Fin de Sicle France (Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1989), 65.
15 New Women in France and Japan As a result of these beliefs, a unique type of woman was emerging at the end of the 19 th century: she came to be known as the New Woman or the Femme Nouvelle in France and the Atarashii Onna in Ja pan The New Woman was a female type seen all across Europe and even both characteristics that were only afforded to men previous to the late 19 th century. 9 Further, historian the New Woma n] was a heightened awareness of self and of gender distinctions, which led to changing views on such issues as 10 New Women were united together as a co mmunity through places like colleges and reform groups. Suffrage movements in both France and Japan provided places for women to express their political views and fight for a united cause. New Women often rejected a traditional domestic life as wife and mo ther to seek work outside of the home. Some even became active members of predominantly male career fields such as journalism, medicine, and the arts. This rejection of domestic life as a wife and mother posed a threat to some critics and commentators who believed that the family unit was deteriorating, and the New woman was indeed a sign of chaotic anarchy While New Womanhood is often examined through the lens of Europe and America, this type also developed within the East in countries like Japan. As m entioned above, it is from the work of historians like Dina Lowy in her book entitled that the s tudy of the type in its Meiji period context has begun to come to light. During the Meiji period 9 Ibid., 66. In France, women did not have access to secondary education until 1880 when the Camille Se Law was roles as wives and mothers under re prepare women for the work force, but for the home. 10 Dina Lowy, (Piscataway, N ew J ersy : Rutgers University Press, 2007), 2.
16 (1868 1912), Japan was undergoing majo 11 The roles of Japanese women were being redefined through new access to education and the opening of job prospects, as were women in France, yet the Japanese government during th e Meiji period continued to stifle women by limiting their influence t hrough the press and political means. In chapter four, I question if Japan was also going through d be applied to the Japanese context. Modernity and Modernism condition of post expression of this f 12 Coined by Charles Baudelaire, modernity has contingent; it is one half art, the other being the 13 Baudelair e focuses on the fleeting nature of the current time and how this experience is manifested through their art. In the late nineteenth century, France was no ex ception to adapting modernity characterized by capitalism, urban culture, technology, and secularism which was taking hold all over Europe. Modernity in Japan was characterized similarly, yet while modernity in the West 11 Ibid. 2. 12 H.H. A rnason and Elizabeth C. Mansfield, History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography, Sixth Edition (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2010), 3. 13 The Painter of Modern Life, and Other Essays ed. Jonathan Mayne (London: Phaidon, 1964), 6.
17 was built on a century of philosophi cal thought, Japan dealt with a rapid transition from feudal to For the purposes of this thesis, I claim that the Art Nouveau movement was a form of modernism, just as all modern art, howev er, in terms of the New Woman, I have chosen modernity as the more appropriate term. I argue that the New Women was formative in each the social exchange of N ew Womanhood along with the artistic exchange of the graphic Art throughout this thesis: How is modernity manifested in France and Japan at the turn of the twenti eth century; and also, what is modern about the New Woman and the graphic Art Nouveau style? While late nineteenth century modernity is often characterized by innovation, I will not only focus on this aspect rapid mechanization, but on how the artistic and social aspects mentioned above facilita ted representations of modern women in posters. Thesis and Organization In this thesis, I will explore how the New Women type was used in the visual culture of the poster at the turn of the twentieth century in both France and Japan. I emphasize that I am looking at visual culture, rather than high art, as the poster medium was often used for advertising purposes and nearly all m y examples are advertisements. In these posters, aspect s of new womanhood can be seen through images of new technologies, activity and leisure in the French context, while images of modern artistic techniques and beer consumption display aspects of moderni ty in Japan. I mages like these were encouraged by New Women in subject matter and even further influenced women into accepting modern aspects of the new woman, an assertion I will develop more in the coming chapters.
18 I seek to elucidate the culture surroun ding the graphics arts in Europe and Japan b y analyzing the Art Nouveau and role in forming representations of women in both countries With this knowledge, I provide a grounding for my artistic arguments on the images in analyzation. Art Nouve au artists were seeking innovative ways to merge a rapidly industrializing world with a natural one, often creating floral designs in curving patterns through modern materials such as iron. While the Art Nouveau style in France was brought to fruition thro ugh architecture, decorative objects, and even fashionable jewelry pieces, its manifestation through the graphic arts is distinctively influenced by Japanese woodblock prints. Thus, in the medium of the graphic arts, a connection between France an d Japan i s formed Equally as influential, the European Art Nouveau influenced Japanese graphic artists, as well. This was manifested through a circular exchange which I will detail in the following chapters. Graphic artists in both France and Japan portray women i n both progressive and regressive ways through the poster medium. I look into the artistic and social exchange between France and Japan at the end of the century, debating whether this exchange w as equal. Also, I explore to what extent Question in the West Problem the East as well as the emergence of first wave feminism and new women themselves in both countries What was it that made the emergence of the modern twentieth in Japan different than in the French context, and how did this social context translate into an artistic one? In considering thes e questions, I hope to parse the dynamics of French New Womanhood alongside Japanese New Womanhood through the lens of the posters of graphic artists w orking in France and Japan in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. By doing this, I want to
19 effect on France and the way artists portrayed wome influence on Japanese art a nd culture as a form of mutual relationship. Each culture is going womanhood a product of moderni ty. While it is well known that French art was influenced by Japanese art, I differ from usual studies by focusing on the exchange that went both ways. In other words, I focus not solely on what France gleaned from Japanese culture, but what Japan embraced from French culture, as well. I have chosen to focus on the work of graphic artists working in France during the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, as well as graphic artists in Japan during this time. Specifically, I will analyze works by Alphonse Mucha, along with Jules Chret, and Henri de Toulous e Lautrec as they provide excellent examples of this late 19 th century cultural exchange, along with other graphic artists at the time. In the Eastern context, it is important to note, as art historian Ri chard 14 W hile the French New Woman was typically resistant of pa triarchal domination, the Japanese New Woman was maneuvering through not only resistance of this patriarchal domination, but also working to maintain her Japanese culture in the process, which could have easily been subsumed by Western ideals. In connecti ng French and Japanese posters at the turn of the 20th century, I consider dynamic portrayals of New Womanhood in bot h countries. My second c hapter discusses the Art Nouveau movement and its connections with japonisme In this chapter, I provide examples o f how Art Nouveau style as well as Japanese style can be seen in both French a nd Japanese 14 Richard S. Thornton, Japanese Graphic Design (London: Laurence King Ltd 1991), 28.
20 posters, providing evidence of the intrinsically circular artistic relationshi p between the two countries. In my third chapter when focusing on France, I situate my chapter i n an analysis of the prevailing fin de sicle perspective of the time period a nd what the characteristics were of the French malaise I then continue by looking at representations of New Women through techno logies, such as the bicycle and the th trophone, and leisure activities, like drinking and smoking, detailing how women were characterized in multiple ways as a reaction to what some In my fourth chapter I will focus on the Japanese context of the Me iji period, the time peri od when New Womanhood was emerging in Japan. While it has been difficult to find images that parallel the images I have used for the French c ontext exactly, I focus on late Meiji period department store advertising posters that p ortray Japanese women in modern ways through their artistic depictions. Additionally, I focus on beer advertisements that provide a nice parallel wi th the posters I have chosen that depict leisure in the French context.
21 CHAPTER 2 THE MODERN STYLE: GRAPHIC ARTISTIC EXCHANGE BETWEEN FRANCE AND JAPAN the poster is the epitome of instability: it breeds incessantly, keeps changing, and lacks substance. Maurice Talmeyr 1 According to art historian Ruth Iskin, late nineteenth cen inspire a younger generati on of artists working in Paris made up of artists such as Henri de Toulouse Lautrec, Alphonse Mucha, Alexandre Steinlen and Eugne Grasset all artists I will speak about in this and the coming chapters. 2 Commenting on the poster in the quote above, the con servative French journalist and novelist Maurice Talmeyr writes about the fleeting nature of mass produced posters which are undeniably characteristic of French modernity. He describes While Talmeyr is obviously wr iting about the poster, his statements too, could be thought of in terms of common sentiments about women prior to and during the nineteenth century. He these wer e not characteristics of the Femme Nouvelle but rather conservative views on the characteristics of women generally: they were mothers, emotional, and uneducated. Just as the Art Nouveau encompassed both tradition and modernity, so too were women changing to fulfill 1 Maurice Talmeyr Revue des Deux Mondes 137, no. 9 (1896): 207. 2 Ruth Iskin, The Poster: Art Advertising, Design and Collection, 1860s 1900 (Hanover, New Hampshire: Dartmouth College Press, 2014), 2.
22 roles outside of the home as well as maintaining their traditional roles. In fact, New Women mothers, they did not let themselves be reduced to their e motions, and they had a great deal of substance through their educations and jobs. Thus, in the midst of changing technologies of mass While Chret was busy developing the p oste r in France during the 1860 s, Japan was dealing with an influx of Western influence. In 1854, Commodore Matthew C. Perry, along with between the two countries. 3 Th e ports of Japan were finally open, not only to America but to Europe as well, after a 250 year abstention from Western trade. Not only were goods exchanged, but the social ideology of New Womanhood and the artistic influences of the graphic Art Nouveau st yle propelled the country into a modern twentieth century a twentieth century characterized by the booming mechanization of industrialism all across the world. After giving an overview of the Art Nouveau, its origins, and international context, I will focu s on the necessarily evident in all posters made during this time, it is a valuable source for understanding the artistic aspects of the New Woman in posters du ring the turn of the twentieth century. Through an analysis of the graphic Art Nouveau style first in France and then in Japan, I lay out the underlying artistic forms which tether the two countries together making them vital to the development of each ot 3 Julia Meech and Gabriel P. Weisberg, Japonisme Comes to America: The Japanese Impact on the Graphic Arts 1876 1925 (New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc. Publishers, 1990), 7.
23 The Art Nouveau While the Art Nouveau is often characterized in scholarship as an international movement, the scope of its geographical reach has been regularly limited to European and American contexts. However, a study of Japanese graphic arts at the turn of the 19 th century has 4 W hen the A merican Commander Perry opened trade between the West and Japan in 1854, Europeans themselves, along with their goods, ideas, and artistic practices, were welcomed by the Meiji regime and used by the Japanese to transform Japan into a modern global competi tor. So often, Art Nouveau artists working in France are recognized for taking influence from Japanese woodblock prints, but it is rarely explored whether this influence was felt in a Japanese context and to what extent Japanese artist s were influenced by Western art movements. In this section, I seek to explain what constitutes Art Nouveau style and to detail it s iterations in both France and Japan, as well as the general iconography of women in both contexts. This information will allow me to make clear t he connections between the Art Nouveau movement as a circular transfer of artistic styles between France and Japan. Art Nouveau throughout the World At the core of the Art Nouveau movement was a paradox between tradition and modernity both aspects that could describe the wider time period of the fin de sicle as well. The movement has occurred throughout the world in many different contexts. Below I us e the American and Argentinian context to display this, before diving more in the French in Japanese. 4 Stephen Escritt, Art Nouveau (London: Phaidon, 2000), 5.
24 However, before understanding these different contexts, it is valuable to know the origins of the movement. The Art Nouveau gained its name from the open Nouveau in 1895. Bing had become familiar with the term in the Brussels based magazine moderne when it was used to describe a group of artists in Brussels called the Les Vingt from the traditional Salon system of showing art and to focus more on symbolist painting which emphasized mystery, allusion, and symbol rather than daily life presented by the Impr essionists. 5 European and American debut was not until the 1900 Universal Exposition in Paris where it was formally recognized as the contemporary style of decor ative and applied arts. Rather than manifesting itself through painting, as earlier movements like Impressionism had done, the style was applied to architecture, interior design, furniture, ceramics, textiles, and jewelry, allowing for its design to take o n utilitarian as well as decorative purposes. 6 As Escritt guiding principles of traditional craftsmanship and elegance, to update them rather than 7 Thus, some Art Nouveau artists found themselves seated in traditional art styles such as the Medieval, Gothic, and Rococo even working to reclaim them, but others 5 Ibid., 6. 6 Ibid., 11. 7 Ibid., 7.
25 ende avored to work with the industrial world in the pursuit of modern materials. Scholar Iain Art Nouveau embodied a deep seated duality in its constitution and expression: on the one hand, it sought to addr ess the experience of modernity directly, drawing upon new technological possibilities to express the excitement and vitality of modern industrial society; on the other, it provided a creative space for those who rejected the levelling qualities of machine age production to escape into a world of spiritualism, fantasy, and myth. 8 different mediums that we find these contradictions played out fully. For instanc e, in America Louis Comfort Tiffany was the most well known artist participating in the movement and is exemplary of more conservative aspects of the Art Nouveau. He worked in many of the above medias and genres (glass, ceramics, jewelry, furniture, interi or design) selling his services and wares in his New York shop in Paris, adding a particularly commercial element to the art he produced. Tiffany was most known for creating pieces, such as vases, out of a particular type of glass he dev eloped called favrile (Figure A 1 ). Favrile glass was characterized by an iridescent sheen meant to resemble the natural patinas found on ancient Greek glass discovered by archaeologists. The word favrile was inspired by the Old English word fabrile meanin crafted objects. However, Tiffany altered the word to favril adding a V to make it more accessible to French speakers, a primary portion of his clientele. 9 8 The London Journal 25, no. 2 (2013): 111. 9 Charles Dekay, The Art Work of Louis C. Tiffany (Poughkeepsie, New York: Apollo, 1987): 25. This combination of old English, ancient Greek glass, and modern French preferences displays the fusion of old and new working diverse preferences, producing a lucrative business of selling pieces that stood out in a per iod of mass production.
26 favrile glass exemplifi es the use of traditional modes of craftsmanship to produce modern objects objects that were distributed all across Europe and America. American style was largely derived fro m the same sources as the French Art Nouveau (various international sources rooted in Japan, Greece, and the Middle East), South American Art immigrants entering the coun try at the time. 10 For instance, in Argentina the French born architect Pablo Pater designed eclectic ironwork on many historic buildings. In a cast iron the b Arts ornamentation on the faade with elaborate geometric stylizations of floral forms Figure A 2 ). 11 Indeed, the balcony displays the blooming floral bouquet of flowers framed by two intersecting semi circles. The bouquet of flowers is then framed again by a series of geometric patterns, creating a symmetrical composition. Pater ventures into displaying classic European decoration, while also incorporating modern geometric patterns, merging styles to create a uniq casting industry which was anxious to display the combination of styles and industry forming the S outh American Art Nouveau. Through these examples of the Art Nouveau style in both the United States and Argentina, its global reach is evident. To come in this section, I will further define the Art N ouveau style and speak about it s 10 Escritt, Art Nouveau 289. 11 Ibid., 292.
27 iteration in Japan more clearly, demonstrating how each country pulled from the other to form their own artistic styles of modernity. The French Art Nouveau Style To understand Art Nouveau style, it is helpful to outline some of its primary artistic chara but also geometric ones, floral and natural elements, and most importantly in terms of this thesis, the presence of women, and even sometimes the New Woman. Alphon involving the French actress Sarah Bernhardt displays these motifs within a graphic context nicely. Take for instance a poster he designed for the French magazine La Plume done in La Prince after the name of one of one of her most successful plays (Figure A 3 ). laden tiara, also designed by Mucha. 12 The poster displays Bernhardt at the cent er of the composition. She is shown from the shoulders up and faces directly forward with her chin slightly raised. Around her face is a profusion of flowing red hair. This is a common motif of massive bundles of flowing hair. Much like vines hanging from a tree limb, curls end in perfect semi circles, here displaying the curvilinear lines so often present in Art 12 Jack Rennert and Alain Weill, Alphonse Mucha: The Complete Posters and Panels (Boston: A Hjert & Hjert Books, 1984), 110.
28 This i s only mimicked by the smaller arched circles which appear directly below the blue circle d display a use of geometrical pattern. is particularly indicative of the Art Nouveau use of floral motifs. Mucha has designed a tiara incorporating actual lilies as a decoration adornin rendering of the lilies to the actua l headpiece created in Figures A 4 and A 5 In an actual photograph of Lastly, while both images of Bernhardt hold their mouths slightly open, the angle of their bodies are different; in the poster she faces front while in the photo she is slightly angled. Taken together, the two express the difference between the pictorial Art Nouveau and its reality. This demonstrates the tendency for male Art Nouveau artists to project women as sources for mystery, allusion, and symbolism within the graphic Art Nouveau medium. aspect constantly heightened by Art Nouvea u artists, and as I claim, a reaction to the changing out chaos, is not type. By objectif ying Bernhardt as an image of ideal beauty, Mucha is downplaying a progressive image of womanhood that was common during the time images I will analyze thoroughly in the next chapter. While Bernhardt, an extremely successful actress, displayed
29 many aspects photograph, she is subjected into not only the literal role she is playing, but a social one one that casts her as an adornment rather than a highly autonomous and working woman. With images like this in mind, it is clear that Art Nouveau artists working in France were not necessarily pushing for progressive images of women aligning with the Femme Nouvelle but often perpetuating a feminine beauty tethered to nature and patriarchal spiritual fantasy. While the Femme Nouvelle in both pictorial and physical form, pushed to contradict images of women as adornments for the domestic space, many Art Nouveau artists seemed to cherish these images as a reaction to a changing of gender role beauty and of fears regarding the femme nouvelle these representations of women could serve as 13 While Bernhardt in this po ster does not display characteristics of the femme nouvelle though she was one herself, it does prove to display artistic conventions established throughout the Art Nouveau style, and provides a contrast by showing the conservative image of women at the t ime. Japonisme While I have mentioned that the Art Nouveau style largely drew from artistic movements of the past, the style also pulled heavily from Eastern influences. Artists were influenced by ancient Eastern cultures such as the Egyptians and Assy rians, incorporating scarabs or arabesque qualities into their art. 14 However, I would like to focus on the influence that Art Nouveau artists took from Japanese art. During the late 19 th century, Siegfried Bing was largely responsible for the popularizatio n of Japanese art within France through his shops and journal Le Japon 13 Escritt, Art Nouveau 89. 14 Malcom Haslam, In the Nouveau S tyle (London: Thames and Hudson, 1989), 16.
30 Artistique (Figure A 6 ) 15 Hence, Wes tern styles of art drew from with Eastern styles, producing a creative new French style. This incorporation of Japanese elements into Western art was known as japonisme While its influence can be seen in Post Impressionist painting, such as that of Van Go gh, its presence in the Art Nouveau graphic arts is particularly pertinent to evaluating artistic exchanges between France and Japan in conjunction with images of new womanhood. The term japonisme was coined in 1872 prior to the culmination of the style. The French Japonisme was the process of understanding Japanese art, 16 The first major r etrospective of Japanese art in France was held on April 10 th themes and styles of ukiyo e 17 However, it was not until 1889 that Japanese aesthetics began to have an impact on in which the process of woodblock printing techniques and color printmaking began to dominate. 18 Japanese printing techniques became indispensable to artists like Denis, Bonnard, Vuillard, and Lautrec who could not refrain from usi ng aspects from the works of Japanese Searching for innovation, these artists learned not to merely imitate Japanese art, but to incorporate its method and design into their own style of Art Nouveau poster. 15 Gabriel Weisberg Art Nouveau Bing (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1986), 26. 16 Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854 1910 ed. Gabriel P. Weisberg, Phillip Dennis Cate, Gerald Needham, Martin Eidelberg and William R. Johnston (London: Robert G. Sawers Publications, 1975), 54. 17 Ibid., 53. 18 Ibid., 55.
31 Many Art Nouveau graphic artist incorporated the newly di scovered Japanese style into their art. For instance, after being introduced to Japanese prints by the American artist Harry Humphrey Moore in 188 2, Henr i de Toulouse Lautrec latched onto this current in contemporary La Goulue au Moulin Rouge and Le Divan Japonais Japanese aest het ics are fully present (Figure A 7 and A 8 ). Phi l lip making by borrowing compositional systems from the Japanese wood cut to negate illusionist space and unite the rom the Japanese way to the artist Kiyonag a For instance, in Le Divan Japonais Cate claims that Lautrec pictures on the same plane as the sinuously and monochromatically delineated grey orchestra, yellow 19 With examples like those of Lautrec, it seems that wester n women stylized in Japanese form were both captivating and pleasing to the eye this eye which I will assert in the next chapter was not solely male. Japonisme in French Art Nouveau Graphic Arts Again, looking at the works of Alphonse Mucha, a spects of j aponisme can be found in his well know n JOB poster from 1898 (Figure A 9 ). Seemingly floating in space, much like the floating world of Japanese ukiyo e prints, the maiden pictured here sits, legs crossed with her hand resting on her right leg. In her rest ing hand, she casually holds a packet of JOB cigarette papers between her thumb and index fingers. Thoughtfully looking, she examines the cigarette she has presumably just rolled and holds it in front of her face in her right hand. A stream of smoke is emitted from the cigarette, but 19 65.
32 held together like a stiff piece of tissue paper, perhaps reflecting the paper product in han d. Making a reference to ancient dress, as many of the clothing worn by do, the woman wears a long flowing blush pink strapless dress, not held together or accented by any visi ble seam work. Only a metal bro ch that subtly spells out the wo rd JOB in a geometric pattern is placed in between her bosom however, this seems to be more for decorative purposes rather than utility. The pattern of the broach is echoed in the yellow background that lines the picture like wallpaper According to Jack Renner t and Alain Weill this circle 20 However, this eroticism is not a threatening erotic allure, but more contained within the parameters of selling the product. I t is obvious Mucha is playing yet again, upo n a female erotic allure, that runs counter to more progressive displays of femininity at the time. It is clear that the poster borrows visual ly from Japanese art black flowing hair, along with the background are fields of unmodulated color, a common feature in Japanese prints. Only in her skin and dress do we see slightly differing shades of pink. Additionally, the heavy contours of the figure s shoulders and arms contributes to a sense of flatness that is also reminiscent of the Japanese style. It is curious that Mucha has decided to endow his maiden with dark hair, when so many of his women are blonde or light brow n He also gives her what appears to be a combination of European and Japanese facial features. Perhaps she evokes a courtesan in a Japanese woodblock print from the Edo period? Her hair is 20 Jack Rennert and Alain Weill, Alp honse Mucha: The Complete Posters and Panels (Boston: A Hjert & Hjert Book, 1984), 204.
33 pinned up, a bulbous bun messily sitting atop her head full of flo wing curls of long hair. In this regard closely resembles the elaborate hairstyles of a Japanese courtesan, yet he allows her hair to curl and twist in a way commonly sh own on European woman. Thus, we see common artistic To confirm this comparison, I will examine an actual Japanese Edo print. Referring back to the hairstyle, there is a long hairstyle in p rints like one presumabl y by Rigyoku from 1765, even though this hairstyle was uncommon in Edo prints (Figure A 10 ). Prints like the one by Rigyoku were known as mitate and commissioned by poets to provide retellings of literature. In these retellings, the 21 Perhaps in Japan m the Tale of Ise the mitate shows Prince Narihira sneaking through a wall to meet his lover who wears her hair long and pulled half up with a large clip. ht pink kimono, also made of flowing fabric, parallel s more closely re. Both artists use of geometry and florals (seen in n the background could have been influenced by Edo prints like this. Again, also in this pri nt, we see the modular color fields of Japanese prints, as well as the heavy contours of the style. In this print, the heavy contour is particularly seen in the outline of the opening in the wall. Additionally, the flatness of the print is emphasized throu gh the diagonal lines on the wall, as well as the cloud in the sky. 21 Roger S. Keyes, Japanese Woodblock Prints: A Catalogue of the Mary A. Ainsworth Collection (Oberlin: Oberlin College, 1984), 31.
34 However, the mo st convincing argument link s finds confirmation in the representation of the Prince, framed by a circular opening in the wall, who presses his hand down on the train of his seductively in a circle of pleasure, the Prince is going th rough a circle into a world of which his lover is already a part making the transition from the fussy rituals of the court in order pass into a world of sexua l bliss, which is only made dreamier by the floating cloud above their heads. Art Nouveau in Japanese Graphic Arts I would like to elaborate the circular artistic exchange that occurred between France and painting commonly consider the influence of Japanese art on European art during the nineteenth century, scholarship on the emergence of the Art Nouveau in Japan occurs less. After Japan was opened to the West, Japanese artists strove to create realistic works of art in the Western style which often abandoned the flatness of tr aditional Japanese woodblock prints. This Western style of painting was referred to as yoga However, according to Shuji Takashina, Japanese artists painting in the yoga style did not fully understand the aesthetic principles dating back to the Renaissance which formed the basis for Western techniques creating three dimensionality, such as spatial depth and solidarity, but simply used these techniques as a way of rendering realism. 22 Japanese yoga painters often focused more on revitalizing Neo Classicism as well as Impressionism, and did not incorporate Art Nouveau style into paintings in the Western style. However, Japanese graphic artists who were willing to push beyond traditional practice, did develop new styles that incorporated Art Nouveau elements. In fact, Art Nouveau influence was 22 24.
35 particularly relevant for late nineteenth century Japanese graphic arts. While perhaps the style was not as prevalent in Japan as it was in Europe, it still made an impact in terms of depicting a Modern Japan primarily thro ugh their representations of women. Let us return to the first Mucha image of Sarah Bernhardt mentioned in this chapter. In their book Alphonse Mucha: The Complete Posters and Panels Jack Rennert and Alain Weill describes different variations by other a rtists of the La Plume poster. Among these variations, they point out one that was printed as the cover of the Japanese magazine Miyojo in 1901 (Figure A image. Whil e many of the elements of the Japanese image appear underdeveloped (such as the figures face, the background, her dress, the circle around her head, and even the coloring of the image), the lengths this artist went to to captu l y tiara suggest an importance that was given to these elements of femininity even in Japanese culture. After all, the giving even more emphasis to the fact that this woman evokes an ethereal and fantastical feminine beauty. Though it is unclear whether the Japanese public would have known that this image was modeled after Bernhardt, as her name is nowhere to be found on the cover, the symbolism of her beaut the name of the magazine written in the Western alphabet. This certainly takes emphasis away from who the woman is and puts more emphasis on her image in general, perhaps promoting her as a more universal image of femininity. In the Japanese version, Bernhardt displays an ideal and dreamlike version of Western beauty,
36 any idealized Western woman. Here, Bernhardt is clearly not displaying a Japanese femininity, but stands more as an ephemeral symbol of the West one meant to be consumed and then thrown out like the magazine she is printed on. Also in reference to Mucha, we see the direct influence of the West on Japanese graphic arts in a poster by Tsunetomi Kitano for the export trade fair at Kobe (Figure A 12). Here, the floating maiden resembles the figure in Mu Japanese, a similar unce maiden, but the fact that the poster is advertising an international fair (hence the many different flags), could suggest a hybridization of both Japanese and European artistic styles. Kitano also frames his figure with a clearly Art Nouveau influenced circle, almost identical to ones used by Conclusion In this chapter, I have made a case for a better understanding of the cross cultural graphic Art Nouveau style. As I have established earlier in the chapter, women were undeniably tangled within its aesthetic web as subjects. While often depicted as alluring maidens adorned with floral decor ations, in the following chapter I will discuss the Art Nouveau new woman and all her ambiguities within French posters. However, equally important is how these depictions of women are connected to japonisme as both France and Japan have taken artisticall y from each other establishing a somewhat circular exchange: with opening of trade in 1854, Europe was exposed to Japanese art and Japan to French art. Thus, the line of influence was not only jump ad been imitated after them. With this
37 CHAPTER 3 FIN DE SICLE CRISIS?:THE FEMME NOUVELLE AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY He snarls about the end of all true womanline ss, cants on the subject of the S phere, and threatens that if we . shall be afflicted with short hair, coarse skins, unsymmetrical figures, loud voices, tastelessness in dress, and an unattractive appearance and character generally .... then he will not love us any more or marry us. And this is one of the most amusing of his threats, because he has said and proved on so many occasions that he cannot live without us whatever we are. . True womanliness is not in danger. . Sarah Grand 1 The New Aspe ct of the Woman Question Sarah Grand, the Irish feminist writer, is best known for coining the term New Woman in explains how women were subjected into submissive gend er roles by men. In the quote above marriage Grand musing of his threats, because he has said and proved on so describes one of the main fears of men regarding the new woman: that perhaps women will not marry him Sarah Grand exemplifies a fear regarding the proliferation of the New Woman that wever. Others, as Deborah Silverman describes, were the social question, or Women question as I have ne in the birthrate and relative 1 The North American Review 158, no. 448 (1894), 274.
38 2 While these fears were limited to the realm of women, late nineteenth century France also held other wider fears, as well. In this chapter, I seek to elucidate fin de sicle France in order to contextualize the place within it. Once I have established this historical background, I will look into a series of images depicting women in France at the turn of the century, while also continuing to contextualize her within the first wave feminist movement. While some of the images in question could provide multiple readings, and are rather ambiguous, I will analyze them asking to what extent they pose aspects of New Womanhood, and by extension modernity. Using work by graphic a rtists working in France, one finds French women energetically participating in modernity through the technology of the bicycle and even such devices as the thtrophone as well as through the leisure of drinking and smoking. I will evaluate these images three questions underling my thesis stated in my introduction, as well. Rephrasing my three questions to fit this chapter specifically, I ask of the French posters in question: To what extent was the graphic Art Nouveau style used in representing the Femme Nouvelle ?; How did graphic artists working in France incorporate the Femme Nouvelle into their work?; and How did representations of the Femme Nouvelle contribute to the moderniz ation France? The Fin de Sicle When Max Nordau, an eccentric and often dismissed social critic, wrote in his first chapter of Degeneration was engaging in a prevailing dis cussion of the day: one pertaining to the late 19 th century proclivity toward malaise Malaise was a general discomfort at the prospect of an impending 20 th 2 Silverman, Art Nouveau 63 66.
39 century. While expressed across Europe, this discomfort was particularly felt by the French bourgeoisie for a vari ety of different reasons. In the wake of the French loss in the war against citizens considered themselves in declining times. 3 This discomfort about the coming of a new century led to characterizations of this time period as a fin de sicle or the end of the century, with an emphasis placed on t fin The first usage of the expression derives from around 1890 when it was often used in his first chapter, the word carried multiple meanings in different contexts. 4 Even in contempo rary discourse, the definition of fin de sicle is rarely fixed and is ofte n surrounded by such negative terms as fin fin de sicle e some during the 1890 s saw the close of the nineteenth century as apocalyptic a destruction of morality and defined social roles of biblical proportions still to others it provoked uneasiness, a mere changing of the times. With thrive, and the Femme Nouvelle was at its core. While discrepancies in the meaning of fin de sicle may shed light on an attitude the French felt toward the coming century, it is important to address that the malaise of the fin de sicle was just one reaction to the ending of the century. Some embraced the dawn of the 20 th 3 de sicle: On c Journal of Contemporary History 31, no. 1 (1996): 5. 4 Nordau, Max. Degeneration Degeneration which gives multiple examples of the usage of fin de sicle descripti ons of a king, a police official, a bishop, and others in situations that were described as fin de sicle during the time period. All of these situations display inconsistent meanings of the term.
40 century and even recalled it positively in late r years, referring to it as a Belle poque. For these optim ists, the coming century was characterized by a variety of innovation that contributed to modernizing society. As Walter Laqueur recalls, this was, after all, the period in which the Eiffel Tower stood over the city as an exciting symbol of French industri alism. This was the time The Dreyfus Affair for the first time. Because of achievements like these, there was optimism for a better time to come a citizens of France. 5 Thus, with this backdrop of differing viewpoints on the period, representations of the Femme Nouvelle can better be understood. The Femme Nouvelle and First Wave Feminism Despite Fra such feminist goals as suffrage, France has provided a fertile ground for feminist thought and reform dating back to the Frenc h revolution. 6 The movement when women all across the world were taking legal action into their own hands, first wave feminism began to come to fruition at the turn of the twen tieth century. As detailed in C hapter 4, Japan was no exception to this movemen t. At the turn of the twentieth century French women were still fighting against a patriarchal culture in the hopes of gaining e qual rights. One of the most pressing issues was suffrage. Though French women did not gain suffrage until 1945, putting them some years behind America where women got the vote in 1920 and in Britain in 1928, the French suffragette 5 de 22. 6 Walters and Steven C. Hau se, introduction to Feminisms of the Belle Epoque: A Historical and Literary Anthology ed. Jennifer Waelti Walters and Steven C. Hause (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994), 2 3.
41 movement was a key aspect to first wave feminism in France. In 1909, the French Union for or their right to vote in an officially organized manner. However, while this group was secular, other groups like the right to divorce. By building their base through 7 Why did gaining suffrage take so long in France? While protestant countries tended to Waelti e attribute not only but also to it s legal and political systems. For instance, wome legally required wives to obey their husbands and a n imposed number of other restrictions. Also, political ly the French could not escape C atholic conservatism under monarc hial rulers such as the Bourbon s and even after establishing the Third Republic (1871 1940), it was feared that giving women equal rights would enable them While suffrage was delayed due to Catholicism and the legal system, this did not hinder the formation of the Femme Nouvelle as an agent for feminist action Outside of suffrage, feminist groups pushed proposa ls concerning marriage, education paternity, work, the right to own property and even the wording of laws t hemselves made up the 7 France, 1896 The Catholic Historical Review 67, no. 1 (1981): 11.
42 reformist agendas of many feminist groups such as the Congress on the Condition of Rights of Women and The French Group of Fem inist Studies. 8 These issues appeared simultaneously on the different groups agendas, but each group varied in stance. As mentioned above multiple and, while a dvocating for women, they also pushed for more conservative reforms that were against divorce, abortion, and birth control. 9 The C atholic groups Fminisme chrtien (Christian Feminism), Action social de la femme (Social Action of Women) and Devoir des femm es franaises (Duty of French Women) were active in 1900 1901, and display some of the differences in feminisms of the 19 th century as compar ed to our contemporary thinking about feminist initiatives 10 The newspaper La Fronde was also formative in providing French women with a form of representation outside of government restrictions. Founded in 1897 by Marguerite Durand, the newspaper was made up of an all female staff. Not only was the staff all female, many of them were the first women to achieve notoriety within their chosen fields outs ide of the paper. Clmence Royer for example, was the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne and Sverine, the first woman reporter, were just two of the staff producing female firsts. 11 Focus ing on the coverage of politics, news, sports and the stock marke t, the newspaper did not immediately present itself as f eminist; at least not in its early years. 12 8 Feminisms of the Belle Epoque: A Historical and Literary Antho logy ed. Jennifer Waelti Walters and Steven C. Hause (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994), 50 54. 9 Waelti Walters and Hause, introduction, 4. 10 Ibid. 5. 11 Ibid., 5. 12 Ibid., 9.
43 neither an organ of the feminist movement nor a jour nal devoted to fashion and the domestic 13 But just when women were entering the public male sphere, La Fronde provided an entrance for women to engage in affairs outside of the home. While feminist views came in lots of different iterations, it is i mportant to point out that each of these groups were devoted to giving political representation to women when the government body would not. The opening of secondary education to women and the right to divorce enacted in 1884 (which had been revoked by the Napoleonic Code in 1804) while not small reforms, were only the beginning of establishing women as more autonomous politically and paved a way for them to leave their domestic lives and become productive citizens of t he state. With this in mind, I now tur n to representations of women shown engaging in autonomous acts outside the authority of men. New Womanhood in French Posters It is at this transition that I remind the reader of the questions I posed at the beginning of this chapter: To what extent was th e graphic Art Nouveau style used in representing the Femme Nouvelle ?; How did graphic artists working in France incorporate the Femme Nouvelle into their work?; and How did representations of the Femme Nouvelle contribute to the moderniz ation of France? Ad extent it is displayed. Though I realize that not all posters displaying the Femme Nouvelle are done in the Art Nouveau style, I perpetuate that it was one of the main st yles that displayed ambiguities in representation. To begin, in fact, I have chosen a political cartoon that is not done in the Art Nouveau style, but one that shows one example through which the Femme Nouvelle was satirized. As 13 Ibid., 5.
44 mentioned before, the Femme Nouvelle rem ained a bane to the bourgeois male, and was often written about and satirized in papers such as the Journal des dbats the Revue des deux mondes, La Nouvelle Revue and La Revue encyclopdique hating 14 In an 1896 cover of the April issue of Le Grelot a Republican satirical newspaper, the perception of the Femme Nouvelle A 13 ). Le Grelot shows this sor t of womanhood in timely fashion as Paris then was in the midst of receiving women from all over the world for an international feminist congress being held in the city. 15 The caption reads, Je vais Congrs fministe! Tu prparearas le dner pour huit heur 16 T he woman, who is obviously a wife and mother, is taking off on her bicycle to go to the feminist congress. She looks back at her husband, who is slaving away over a wash bucket of dirty dishes a nd dema nds her dinner at precisely at eight In this deeply satirical image, the woman takes on a masculine demeanor, while her husband is in a feminized role. T he woman displays many common motifs of new woman hood, but here I have chosen to focus on two: the bicycle and the cigarette, one demonstrating activity through a new technology, and the other leisure through what was then a socially taboo medium. Before delving too far into the bicycle and cigarette, I would like to analyze this satirical representation of the Femme Nouvelle representing the all out chaos that Gissing predicted? In a word: yes. While this image is clearly not one reflecting a stark r eality, it situates itself in the midst of humorous depiction. Whether or 14 Roberts, Disruptive Acts, 6. 15 Roberts, Disruptive Acts 23. 16 you hear me? And above all, make sure nothing goes wrong
45 not women were actually reversing the roles of men and women or husband and wife within their hat his wife is doing is rather outrageous. Here, we see the artist grappling with the woman question. The man is no longer a figure of the public sphere, as his wife is becoming through her access to independent travel through the bicycle and her attendan ce at the feminist conference, but he is forced into the domestic role as a housewife. Indeed, his wife is rebelling against typical gender roles at his expense. This image does the work of displaying the fears mentioned in previous sections above of an on a period in which the world has been reversed. Technology and the Femme Nouvelle Modern w oman and modern technology were often displayed together in turn of the century advertisements, and two products in these advertisements were t he bicycle and electrical devices In the Le Grelot cover, the technol ogical device of the bicycle is intertwined with the woman Femme Nouvelle Sin Re ynolds quotes the famous Sarah Bernhardt y to transforming our way of life more deeply than you might think. All these young women and girls, who are devouring space are refusing domestic 17 image in the face of the ch anging times. The proliferation of women who could not only cross the city alone but had the convenience of a speedier means of transit than walking were aspects that allowed new women the freed om of mobility that separated them all the more from the confi nes of the home. 17 Mtro French Society and Culture 1890 1914 edited by Diana Holmes and Carrie Tarr. (New York, Berghahn Books, 2007), 85.
46 A poster by Theophile Alexandre Steinlen created for the company Motocy cle Comiot offers a representation of the Femme Nouvelle as this woman rides her bicycle through a gaggle of geese who with their mouths open, convey surprise (Figure A 14) While again, this representation of the new woman is not done in the Art Nouveau style, it does the work of representing a more realistic image of the Femme Nouvelle In the background two workers stare at the modern young woman as she rid es past. In a comical sense, the geese convey an exaggerated reaction that the bystanders would have perhaps felt, but not have readily displayed. 18 The woman appears to be in somewhat of a rural setting, with a town behind her. Here, we see her mobility as she travels from a more urban place out into the country. She is indeed, not letting anything stand in her way of freedom not even t he gaggle of geese. While this image is not as clearly anarchic as the Le Grelot comic, it suggests the a more autonomous r ole taken by the Femme Nouvelle as enabled through the bicycle. Another poster this one by Eugne Gasset uses the bicycle as a way to direct attention to other iteration of a modern woman whic h catered to a female clientele (Figure A 15 ). While the past two images have not been exemplary of the Art Nouveau style, this poster by Gasset is obviously displaying the style. In here light pink and fashionable dress, the woman stands amidst a backdrop of wavy lines, which provide a rather stylized landscape. The geometric pattern on her dress, is also indicative of the Art Nouveau style, as well as the three four leaf clovers that she holds, providing an element of nature. Additionally, the Japanese el ements mentioned in the previous chapter incorporated in the style, are there as well unmodulated color, heavy contours, and flatness. 18 Ebria Feinblatt and Bruce Davis, Toulouse Lautrec and His Contemporaries: Posters of the Bell Epoque from the Wagner Collection (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1985), 65.
47 modern and traditional in the f ace of the changing time. With her bicycle, this modern woman, if not a Femme Nouvelle is an active member of a modern France, and no longer an adornment for the home. I n advertisements like this however, n ot all women are readily set realistically in th e changing times. In Mucha for Perfecta Cycles, a young red headed woman leans languidly on the handle bars of her bicycle, her hair, as seen in the Job poster previously in this chapter, floats behind her in volumino us Art Nouveau fashion (F igure A 16). Reynolds notes that that 19 We see both ar tistic style and technology, the bic ycle, merge together to produce a depiction of modern woman is showing passiv ity, but that she is there more to display a sort of dreamy depiction of new womanhood t hat may not have been as challenging to the male ga not look rooted in a reality, but rather draws upon a classical aesthetic that suggests a dem ur e mystery, as is present in the other examples I have given in previous chapters. The Femme Nouvelle here, is not unapproachable or displaying masculine fears but invites the viewer in as the poster of Bernhardt does, to observe her and her magnificent bicycle. While the Le Grelot cover and the Steinlin poster portray new womanho od in comical ways, the Mucha stands as an alluring attempt to get both women and men on board, suggesting that modernity is not something to be feared but embraced. 19
48 Also showing the Art Nouveau style, I turn to another poster done by Henri Thiret done for John Griffiths bicycles from 1898 (Figure A 17). Much like the Mucha, the woman and her bicycle are made up of dozens of curving lines from the shape of her body to her flowing hair. She is placed amidst the backdrop of a natural scene of trees and a patch of green grass. The extent to which this poster shows the woman on the bicycle as a Femme Nouvelle remains debatable, as she is clearly an object meant to be looked at for beauty, however, she is using the bicycle as a means of independent transport. In the lower right hand corner, an older woman sits in a blue cloak, her staff resting on her shoulder. Clearly showing her age through the curv ed, brown, and dead thistles around her, Thiret shows her looking off into the distance perhaps as a foil to the younger woman. In this poster, it is clear that the younger woman is being placed in a narrative or sorts next to the older one. It is the natu ral elements of the white roses, full of life, that starkly juxtapose the lifelessness of the brown thistles. Here again, natural motifs take prominence in the Art Nouveau style, while showing a narrative different from the other posters I have discussed. Woma d electrical devices is also of interest in exploring technology and byway modernity. This is predominate ly seen in the work of Jules Chret who uses women in decorative fashion, to compl iment lamps and telephones T he lightbulb, invented in 1879 and t he telephone, invented in 1876 were the beginning of electrical devices in many public spaces and homes during the nineteenth century. With these new ways of harnessing e lectricity came other types of electrical devices an important one was dvertising the device (Figure A 18 ). Often installed in hotels, cafes, clubs, and even available by subscription for in home use, one could l is ten to complete operas using the same technology that a regular
49 telephone used by simply inserting a coin. 20 The woman, dressed in a yellow evening gown that could have been worn to the theatre itself leans forward with the thtro phone to her ear. She smi les in delight as her eyes drift to the side. She is the start of a line of other fashionably dresses people, a man with a top hat and two ladies, waiting to partake in this wonderful new device. n than Gasset or Mucha, his posters still display an Art Nouveau style, which is a common feature of displaying Modern women and by extension the Femme Nouvelle 21 In the thtrephone poster, Chret uses the lithograph form, which he developed, as essential to the Art Nouveau poster. This is largely seen background. Again, this flatness of color translates well into an analysis of Japanese influence on the Art Nouveau poster. However, while Gasset and Mucha adorn their figures with curvilinear crinkled feeling. Why would Chret have chosen this woman, say rather than the man standing behind her, devices like this have seemed ements for automobiles suggested that they were so easy to use a woman could drive them, technology was often thought of as too complicated for women to operate. Perhaps not. fashionable woman suggest s the Femme Nouvelle as an operator of technology, which I argue is an aspect of the new woman. assistance in using the thtro phone. She is 20 Feinblatt and Davis, Toulouse Lautrec, 36. 21 uality of the Arts in Nineteenth Design Issue 2, no. 1 (1985): 49.
50 partaking in enjoyment without regard toward her husband or the domestic sphere. In these representations of new womanhood, it is important to notice the active nature iterated in each. With the exception of the Mucha, as it shows a woman of controversial conception, all of these women are making their own decisions, and maintaining their own autonomy in a wor ld of emerging invention. Whether through the technolo gy of the bicycle or the thtro pho ne, women have become deeply en tangled in the changing of the times modern mavericks of the new era. Leisure and the Femme Nouvelle Returning to the Le Grelot cover, I want to address other aspects of new womanhood I mentioned earlier having to do with leisure: the cigare It only adds to the crass nature of her voice as presented through the caption. Why, in between her lips, does the ci garette hold more weight? New Women were associated with leisure I argue both as fictive agents in advertisements for products associated with cigarettes and alcoholic beverages as well as in the public sphere of bars and clubs. Through these representations, new wom e n were, yet again, shown exercising their own form of independence. masculine power in 19 th century art. W omen smokers were rarely depicted and then usually 22 Indeed, women, like the one in Le Grelot were cast as art in this activity at all, especially in the public arena. However, it seems applicable to ask where were they smoking and with whom were they smoking? The answer lies in two words: bars and men. 22 Journal 12, no. 1 (1991): 3.
51 In the context of male leisure, I posit that by the new wo men entering into the male activities of male communities formed of bachelors an d married men who retreated from their wives and children to spend most of their t ime as if they were bachelors. 23 Smoking and drinking were a large part of these male cultures, in which afte r dinner, men would withdraw with other men into smoking rooms. 24 In a poster by Lautrec for the magazine American magazine The Chap Book he illust rates a scene at an Irish and American bar in Paris exemplifying this culture. In the poster, the men wear top hats and converse as the bartender mixes a drink in a cocktail shaker (Figure A 19). It is not uncommon for advertisement, such as those for JOB cigaret te papers, to portray fantasies of sexual ized women. Could images like this be seen as displaying characteristics of woman sits similarly to his poster prev i ously mentioned in C hapter two, with her right hand lifted ho lding a lit cigarette (Figure A 20 ). Except in this image, the woman closes her eyes with her head tilted back in a tobacco induced bliss. Rather than reading the paper like smoke as a reminder of the product the ad is selling, I will focus on its sexual connotations. Mitchell writes mind, the cigarette takes on usual phallic characteristics, while th e smoke is reminiscent of climax, snaking away into the background in her unending pleasure. In this image, sexual connotations are more present than in the previous Mucha JOB poster, due to the woman face lost in pleasure Mucha has coopted the masculinity of smoking into a sexy woman. While 23 Showalter, Sexual Anarchy 11. 24 Mitche
52 perhaps the woman takes on new womanhood because of the act of smoking, this conclusion is only made more ambiguous by the ads overtly sexual connotations. Even in other JOB advertisements, s uch as the one by Georges Meunier from 1984, the woman is posed similarly Again, she can be read in a similar sexual way and is her bare chest, which is strategically blocked by her right arm and her attention to a c at a French refe rence to prostitution ( Figure A 21 ). For these images, I claim aspects of the Femme Nouvelle for their rebellious act of smoking, as she is taking a traditionally masculine activity and using it for her own pleasure, and even sexual liberat ion. However, these two representations of women, clearly directed toward male viewers, do not stand for all representations of women smoking. For instance, in a poster by Jane At ch new womanhood is displayed in a less sexual way A tch was one of the first and only fema le poster artists. In her JOB poster from 1889, she presents a woman who is in 22 ). 25 Still positioned in the same way as all of the women in the previous JOB advertisements, she stan ds alone in the defiant attitude her portrait gives off. Shrouded in a black cloak, which takes up nearly a fourth of the page, its high collar suggests the woman is in a private moment removed from men. This is clearly a new woman rebelling against the pa in order to portray her own autonomy? We cannot know for sure, but her work stands as a prominent image of defiance of the norms. Toulouse Lautrec displays women i n the cafs of Montmartre, a seedy part of Paris not frequented by the bourgeoisie. R eturn ing Divan Japonais poster, this poster 25 Jeannine Falino, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2017), 30.
53 advertises one of the caf concert commonly shown in Montmartre He pictures Jane Avril, a performer and Toulouse close friend, as a spectator. Sitting next her is a coupe glass from which she is presumably consuming an alcoholic beverage. Avril, who was not only a performer but active in the intellectual and literary circles of Montmartre, clearly displays the dominated p laces but for partaking in activities, such as drinking and intellectual discussions, that were traditionally exclusively male. These images of women participating in the male acti vities of smoking and drinking were Meunier posters remains a safe place for which men can ease into images of women pa rtaking in such scandalous activities as smoking. However, underneath their sexualized characteristics, the women in the Mucha and Meunier women have taken the male activity of smoking for themselves, not men. Atch, on the other hand, is clearly not pande ring to a male gaze as she portrays her women less sexualized. This completely covered, even wearing a high necked dress, does not display the same femininity as the Much Lastly, Jane Avril in Toulouse time Femme Nouvelle he vague frame of an advertisement, like the women in the JOB posters, but in an actual place. Her image, I women I have looked at were simply pushing boundaries in order to form more equal sexual roles. Providing two specific tropes of the new wom a n, the 1896 cover of Le Grelot stands to
54 represent critiques and displays of new women stereotypes. New woman refused to be confined to t raditional domestic spheres, a nd her insistence on movement from a confining domicile existence to one of activity and freedom. I have expressed how both the technological advances such as the bicycle and thtro phone, and leisure activities, such as smoking and drinking, have womanhood stand as influential catalyst for wome n all around the world to begin embracing modern values and lifestyle. In the next chapter, I will elaborate furt her on this in the Japanese context. Conclusion I will now answer the three main questions posed at the beginning of this chapter more directly in order to provide a sound conclusion. The first question I asked was: To what extent was the graphic Art Nouveau style used in representing the Femme Nouvelle ? Having addressed these multiple times throughout my examples, it is clear that the Art Nouveau style is used widely in depictions of women containing characteristics of the Femme Nouve lle However, while not all of my examples display this style (such as in the Le Grelot comic and the Steinlen poster), the majority of my examples either display all or a combination of curvilinear lines, geometric patterns, and natural motifs allowing fo r the claim that the Art Nouveau style is prominent when display modern women. Additionally, aspects of japonisme or the influence of Japanese art on European art, is present in many French posters, as they often display unmodulated color, flatness, and h eavy contours. Secondly, I asked: How did graphic artists working in France incorporate the Femme Nouvelle into their work? Through this chapter, I have proven that the aspects of the Femme Nouvelle can be seen in turn of the twentieth century French poste rs through their interacting with both the technologies of the bicycle and electrical devices like the thtrophone, as well as
55 through the traditionally male leisure activities of smoking and drinking. In regards of depiction, some graphic artists, such a s Mucha, often portray women acting in progressive ways, yet displaying themselves in sexual or objectified ways. This complicates questions regarding representations of the Femme Nouvelle in French poster. While, I argue that all of these posters display modern women with aspects of the Femme Nouvelle not all of them necessarily belong under that title, such as those of the women smoking by Mucha and Menier However, with the exception of these two posters, I argue that all of my examples display active F emme Nouvelles Lastly, I will address my third question: How did representations of the Femme Nouvelle contribute to the moderniz ation of France? Through women interacting with modern technologies such as the bicycle and electrical devices like the th trophone characteristics of modernity in and of themselves they are linked with being modern. However, it is not simply this linkage, but these devices paired with their social contexts that make the women using them modern and by extensions Femme Nouvelle s For instance, women riding a bicycle were considered scandalous, as they would have to straddle the seat to ride. The clothing worn by women while riding the bicycle, (often a nineteenth century style of pants referred to as knickerbockers, but still ma ny wore skirts) was also scandalous, as well. Women choosing to wear more sensible clothing for riding displayed a rebellion against gender structures requiring women to wear skirts. Additionally, the bicycle allowed for more independent mobility away from public transportation and the escort of men. The thtrophone, which was boasted as being easy to use, also showed women progressively using technology something was no longer restricted to men. Aside from technologies, which were inherently modern, wome in the male dominated leisure activities of smoking and drinking allowed women access to male
56 Women possession of the male activities of smoking and drinking presented them on the same level as men, which enabled a more equality between the genders. In an ev er changing world, the Femme Nouvelle sto od as someone to be considered within graphic representation for her rebellious and revol utionary depictions
57 CHAPTER 4 PROBLEM WOMEN: REPRESENTATIONS OF THE JAPANESE ATARASHII ONNA I am a New Woman. I am the sun. I am simply a person. At least, everyday I strive to be the being I want to be. Hiratsuka Raicho 1 Atarashii Onna The above quote is taken from an essay by Hiratsuka Raicho, one of the founders of the Japanese feminist magazine Seito Originally published in a 1911 issue of Chuo Koron Raicho atarashii onna in Japanese. She is proudly claiming her identity, along with the rest of the women in Seito, as a woman against convention. This move was largely anarchical in the eyes of much of the Japanese press, and Seito woman were often derided for wearing Western clothes, spending time with men in public, and visiting geisha houses. 2 In the press, New Woman had become a pejorative term, but one which some Seito women were beginning to declaim. However, Raicho claimed New Woman as the title of her essay working to redefine what being a New Wo man meant to her personally. It is in the above an ideal world of gender equality. While Raicho is speaking of the work New Women must do, her statements about period, a time of vigorous modernization for the country. I n this chapter, I examine the social exchange of New Womanhood from France to Japan, and how both this exchange and movement figured within the Japanese graphic arts. I will precede my analysis of images with background 1 Chuo Koron (1913): 193. 2 Pauline C. Reich and Atsuko Fukuda, "Japan's Literary Feminists: The "Seito" Group," Signs 2, no. 1 (1976) 284.
58 on the Meiji period, including its a discussion of ekanban a transitional poster medium that was common during the late Edo and the early Meiji Period. I will then transition into looking at Bijin ga a means of displaying characteristics of New Womanhood. In many department store advertisements, these pictures display women in a traditional styles, yet also present them as modern and Western through their actions or artistic styles. The Meiji E ra: Transition, Art, and Women The Meiji Period in Japan was bound by imminent change however, this change was modernize. This modernization was not based purely o n Western influence, as is sometimes thought, but a combination that was rooted in contemporary practices taken from the West along with extreme Japanese nationalism. Though not often included in accounts of the period, women played a vital role in pushing Meiji government aims to both remain true to their Japanese roots while also establishing what were thought to be enlightened Western sensibilities. In this section, I will provide a background on the Meiji Era, Western artistic influence on Japan and how Japanese women were being used to instill national identity. To understand the emergence of the Meiji period, one must look about 15 years prior to its beginning. Until 1854, Japan had remained largely isolated from the outside world, with the exception of trade with China and Holland through the port of Nagasaki. D ue to this isolation, there was a flourishing of distinctively Japanese art and culture which produced such artistic works as ukiyo e prints and rinpa or a type of painting often designated for the wealthy, along with lacquerwares and poetry. 3 However, du 3 Thornton, Japanese Graphic Design 22.
59 Tokugawa shogunate was forced to end this isolation by signing the Treaty of Kanagawa which opened multiple ports on Japanese shores to the West. This enabled artworks, like the ones listed above, to be shipped t o Europe. This transfer of goods influenced artists like Henri de Toulouse Lautrec, and even art dealers like Sigfried Bing, to feed their passion for Japanese arts. Being a feudal military based government, the Tokugawa shogunate was no match for modern W estern military warfare. The Tokugawa shogunate, the governing body at the time, was unable to deal adequately with this new influx of trade and could not protect Japan from threats on its sovereignty. 4 to any foreign countries and began pushing for the Emperor Meiji to take power. 5 Therefore, in 1868, the Tokugawa were toppled and Emperor Meiji became the governmental leader in Japan. As a result, the capital d thus the Meiji Restoration began. In the years grow into a world power. Once Meiji was put in power, anti foreignism slowly went away and bred new revolutionary zeal for Western culture a Western culture that was not exclusively concerned with goods but fostered social customs and artistic influence. Western Influence on Japanese Art Schools During the Meiji period, there was also a massive amount of Western inf luence on artistic styles and practices. According to art historian Shuji Takashina, the first two thirds of the Meiji periods spanning from 1868 1896 can be divided up into two artistic periods. The first, spanning from 1868 1882, was largely dominated by 4 Store, 1868 Journal of Design History 17, no. 4 (2004): 318. 5 Thornton, Japanese Graphic Design 28.
60 following what was thought to be a superior Western model. The second, however, spanning from 1882 1896, was lar bringing back Japanese traditional art, such as the painting style known as nihonga With these two distinct periods came two distinct Japanese arts schools which determined the painting practices of the day: the Kobu bijitsu gakko (Technical Art School) in the first period and the Tokyo bijustu gakko (Tokyo School of Fine Arts) in the second. 6 The painting practiced at the Technical Art School was largely referred to as yoga or Western style painting, and was taught by European professors such as Antonio Fontanesi, an Italian artist. Here, artists wished to depict the visual world by using Western techniques such as chiaroscuro to show depth and solidity, differing from the two dimensionality that characterized traditional Japanese art. Takashina writes of the Western technique that Japanese yoga artists yoga movement displayed no interest in the aesthetic underpinnings of Western art; it focused only on the techniques to which those principle 7 This lack of interest in the theory behind artistic concepts was a symptom of a larger governmental aim. The Technical Art School was the first government run art school in Japan, and its approach Technology suggested that it was contributing to aims for industrialization, as it stood alongside schools of engineering, architecture, and chemistry. In this context, art was no longer meant to 6 Shuji Takashina Style Oil Painting During the Paris in Japan: The Japanese Encounter with European Painting (St. Louis: Washington University, 1987) 22. 7 Ibid., 23.
61 just please the eye, but was as a sign of progress for the Japanese government in their quest for modernization. In 1 883 the Technical Art School was closed due to a change in government ideology. No longer did the Meiji regime take on Westernization as a means for industrialization, but it began to revitalize Japanese traditions in order to boost nationalism. Thus, a ne w art school was established in reaction to this governmental shift: the Tokyo School of Fine Arts. The school was a proponent of traditional Japanese art, however, it did not mean to merely replicate it, but to make Japanese art modern, in much the same w ay as the conservative members of the Art Nouveau movement in France. In 1887, the school was founded by the American Ernest Fenollosa who had originally come to Japan to teach political science. However, Fenollosa was also trained in oil painting and draw ing and worked with artist Takahashi Yuichi to grow Western style painting in Japan. Though the two had hoped to hold lectures and programs on the subject, their plans were never achieved and Fenollosa decided to spend his time focusing on nihonga instead. nihonga he established himself as a proponent of the traditional arts and met other like minded individuals such as Okakura Kakuzo who helped him found the Tokyo School of Fine Arts. 8 While the proliferation of and shi ft between each school largely outlines the Japanese incorporation of Western artistic styles into their established art practices, this has often been focused on through the lens of painting. However, these transitions are also important in the adoption o f Western graphic styles into Japanese design, as well. For instance, by 1901 the Tokyo School of Fine Art had established new departments for architecture and design, suggesting its importance. Additionally, the Kansai Painting School was founded in 1905, as 8
62 well as the Kyoto Painting School in 1909. Furthermore, Wasada University organized the organizations, Japanese graphic arts were formed out of Western concepts to shap e modern Japanese design. Western influence was also exchanged socially as well. Specifically, the roles of women in Meiji Japan were beginning to change with the times, allowing women a more vital role in th e a political act in and of itself, as Japanese women were expected to raise good citizens for the state. While women gained more access to education, they were also bound by ideas that this education would be used to better their children the future citizens of Japan. publically served her nation through her private and now respected 9 The idea of Republican motherhood was especially prevalent after the French Revolution, and provided women with an e ssential role within France. and daughter in law responsible for the smooth 10 9 Lowy, 4. 10 Ibid., 5.
63 receive a well rounded education so that she could raise children properly and interact contemporary ideas, the Meiji period produced women who were educated to progress beyond domestic life, yet subsumed into roles of subservience based on outdated beliefs and national obligation, making an independent and autonomous life unattainable. While the Meiji Constitution of 1889 and the Meiji Civil Code of 1898 were introduced to help modernize Japan, and distance it from its previously feudal state, these did little to change 11 Thus, while we find that under ize that during the early 20 th century, Japanese women were beginning to find outlets to voice their opinions. As mentioned in the introduction to this chapter, it was near the end of the Meiji period that a group of women gathered in Tokyo to form the or ganization the Seitosha and began writing the feminist journal Seito 12 This journal was similar to feminist newspapers such as La Fronde in not out rightly identif y as feminist. Thus, we find here Japanese women beginning to take on new conceptions of womanhood beyond that dictated by their culture. Ekanban I now turn to a style from the late Edo and Early Meiji periods, called ekanban as a way of displaying a tra ditional womanhood within a graphic medium. Ekanban 13 This was the printing process used in late 11 Mara Patessio, Women and Public Life in Early Meiji Japan: The Development of the Feminist Movement (Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, The University of Michigan, 2011), 2. 12 Lowy, The J 13 Thornton, Japanese Graphic Design 2.
64 19 th century Japan before lithography was taken up in the early 20 th century and was continually used to portray women in traditional ways. Thus, ekanban stands as a good example of how women were represented throughout Japan prior to the emergence of the New Woman. Let us look at an early advertisement from 1860 (Figure A 23). This ekanban image appears in the reflection of a hand mirror. However, in the poster, the mirror is not held by anyone, but balances on its handle, tilting upward as if it were in use. The woman appears to be at her toilette as the image displays her robe held loosely onto her right shoulder while it is not even visible on the left. Her right arm is positioned across herself with her fingers on the back of her neck. However, whil e she is in a relative state of undress, her hair is perfectly pinned and pulled back, even ornamented with an elaborate clip. Her face is clearly made up as well, as her lips are bright red suggesting that she is wearing lipstick, and her skin is especial ly pale with powder. The woman also holds another hand mirror behind her head. However, this is relatively difficult to see at a first glance, as the frame of the main hand mirror cuts off her arm, which must be extended upward, and only shows her thumb an d a little of her index finger grasping the ad is selling, the perfume. However, as this is an early version of bejin ga or beauty pictures, the product traditional beauty. Ekanban for the home, or perhaps in this case the court, in a Japanese cont ext. Perhaps advertisements like this were not just meant to be sexualized images of a woman at their toilette, but also ones meant
65 14 Thus, Kunisada, along with the perfume company, must clearly be thinking of women as their primary target for this product; if not men buying the product for women. The Woman Problem an d the Emergence of the Atarashii Onna The quest that 15 The Seitosha were active commentators in this debate and, while all of the members did not see exactly eye to eye, they push ed for women to 16 However, this agenda was lace in the home were essential to achieving a modern Japan. While women were meant to stay informed of modern trends, such as new womanhood, this did not mean that they were meant to follow them. In essence, women were told by the government that staying at home would make them happier because they could create relationships with their families rather than searching for independence. 17 14 Japanese Graphic Arts 29 15 Lowy, 1. 16 Ibid., 39. 17 Ibid., 31.
66 Edo period had left the nation se verely out of date on modern European philosophies. Additionally, the established feudal system was based on patriarchal values that were essential to its livelihood, making debates about gender roles impossible. This was not helped by Confucian ideology e ither, which was built on hierarchal structures and, even in the Meiji Period, still relied upon for the concept contemporary current of humanistic thought. Humanistic thoug this including women, despite its lack of practice in real society. 18 While Japanese society had not been confronted with Western thoughts on gender duri ng the Edo period, no longer were they able to Aspects of New Womanhood in Japanese Graphics With this historical and artistic background established for the Meiji period, I can now turn to a discussion on representation of the Japanese New Woman. While many images of New surfacing some 10 years la ter. Just as the first issue of the Seito launched in 1911, so too were images of progressive women surfacing around the early 20 th century near the end of the Meiji Period. While is not difficult to find images of New Women after 1914, it is more difficul t to find them during the later years of the Meiji period, and thus I will examine how these earlier 18 Midori Wakakuwa 1912): Reconsidering Their Significance Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future ed. Kumiko Fujimura Fanselow and Atsuko Kameda (New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1995), 62.
67 images, though they may appear conservative, display changing ideas that align with New Womanhood. I ask here, did images of women in the graphic arts sho w representations similarly in Japan, as they did in Europe, and were images of New Womanhood the same? Here, I am especially interested in bijin ga traditional Japanese clothing, and their prominence in Japanese graphic culture. Meiji bijin ga prints often incorporated the colorful Western Art Nouveau style into its advertisements and this can be seen throughout advertisements for many department stores. Furthermore, beer advertisements at this time period are also prevalent in Japan at the beginning of the 20 th century, and display a similar sense of autonomy to French women, such as Jane Avril, consuming alchol. It is important I focus on the use of bijin ga prints rather than ukiyo e as ukiyo e we re associated with the Edo period, a time Japan was working to get away from. Thus, though derived from ukiyo e bijin ga prints displayed a modern Japan, often incorporating new printing techniques and Western artistry by adding more realistic elements to traditional subject matter. Department Store Bijin Ga While there are many depictions of French women consuming products in a department store setting, these images are not necessarily charged with the same kinds of meanings as ones that are displayed wi thin Japan. By the early 20 th century, the Japanese department store had were Japanese stores confined to small individualized shops but expanded their merchandising t o European items such as parasols, tablecloths, and tapestries. Department stores like the Takashimaya Department Store in Kyoto began using European techniques that they had observed at international expositions. Show windows, glass display cases, and man nequins were all newly incorporated into stores to allow for higher product visibility. As in Europe, department
68 stores began to hire artists to create items to decorate the stores. 19 These department stores even hired yoga boards, posters, flyers and publicity magazines to 20 In many of these materials, women are a prime symbol of 21 poster standby in the West 22 Thus, Japan was no exception to displaying women within their advertising materials. Two examples of modern women displaying characteristics of New Womanhood are to be found in posters done for the Mitsukoshi Department S tore by Goyo Hashiguchi and Hisui A 24). In her navy blue kimono, a traditional color for Japanese textiles, a woman sits holding a book of Edo ukiyo e prints in her lap. However, w hile the kimono is in a traditional color, it is important to note the kimono is in very modern fashion. Hashiguchi angles her body with her right shoulder appearing closer to the viewer. Her head is also turned, as well, looking at the viewer This is uncommon in many other prints, as the figures eyes are normally directed off to the side. This direct gaze does not display passivity, and suggests that that the women is one who holds values of the Atarashii Onna Behind her, the ornate golden bench she sits on is visible as well as the red wall behind it, contrasting the gold bench dramatically. Above the wall a tree with pink flowers blooms behind d name of Mitsukoshi Department Store appears to the right of her head. 19 design studio in 1895 and the store employed students as well as graduates of the nihonga section of the Tokyo 20 Ibid., 319. 21 Ibid., 330. 22 Thornton, Japanese Graphic Arts, 36.
69 The Western influence in this print is particularly clear through the colors, design and the depth depicted. Bright and contrasting, the colors of the poster are clearly taken from the Art Nouveau movement, especially that of the gold background, which was also common in Japanese rinpa painting. The design dominated by florals, again suggests influence of Art Nouveau. The lines which mark the seams of the shoulders of the kimono are cur ved, the tugging a more realistic rendering. Compare this to the ekanban introduced earlier in the chapter and you have images that are compositionally differen t entirely. However, it is the contrast between old and new that is particularly prevalent in this image. While Hashiguchi clearly displays Western characteristics that suggests the circular relationship between France and Japan, yet again. In modern Art Nouveau, the woman in the poster is clearly modern, denoting her as a New Woman. While the woman would be considered relatively conservative by the standards of the French Femme Nouvelle this poster clearly displays aspects of modernity away from the traditional meek and quiet Japanese woman. For instance, the woman looks directly at her viewer. Though subtle, she works to incorporate her gaze, compiling a dichotomy of gazes between her and the consumer. This is certainly not a meek move. Equally as important, her gaze attracts attention away from the traditional role of the women, as seen in the court, and to the viewer to look into her face. Her left hand could equally be read in the ac t of closing the book of Edo prints. These are all subtle ways of suggesting that this woman is no longer in a weakened position, as those women of the Edo court, but that she has the ability to assert her gaze and her
70 opinion. By this very act, this new w oman in this poster is closing the book on her past, in order to gaze confidently into her future. A later poster done by Hisui Sugiura for the Mitsukoshi Department Store in 1914, displays an even more apparent connection with the Art Nouveau style (Figu re A 25). In this print, a woman sits in a similar pose as the woman in the Hashiguchi print, however, this woman is angled the opposite way, and holds a Mitsukoshi catalogue in her hand rather than a book of Edo ukiyo e prints. As Thornton expresses, she 23 In this poster a merging of styles is seen. However, in this particular print, the woman displays an interest in Western dcor, as opposed t o the woman in the Hashiguchi print, as she has decorated her home with a European print on her wall. This print is juxtaposed on the opposite side of the wall with the name of the distinctively Japanese Mitsukoshi department store name. The European pri woman is in touch with the political debates about the Woman Problem going on in Japan (Figure A 26). Perhaps the European print is not just there as a decoration of her home, but one that su ggests her viewpoint as an Atarashii Onna After all, the print is of a woman, standing on what appears to be a river bank with a modern industrial city behind her. The woman is also wearing what appears to be an Art Nouveau style dress, as well, complete with long, vertical, alignment with New Womanhood? Yes. Because she is taking up the modern Art Nouveau style, it clear that she is a modern woman and by extens ion a New Woman. 23 Thornton, Japanese Graphic Arts 35.
71 Beer Bejin ga While it is less common to find Meiji Japanese women smoking in posters then in France, it is quite common for Meiji women to be posed with beer in many advertisements. Perhaps here, a link can be made between advertisements for JOB cigarettes or even images of Jane Avril drinking in bars. Ho wever, in these Japanese iterations, women are not necessarily seen directly merely posed by it all together. Take for instance, in an advertisement from 1912 for t he Dai Nippon Brewery Company by an unknown artist: two kimono clad Japanese women lean outside of a train car window (Figure A 27). The woman in the front, who appears in a navy colored kimono, with a richly patterned obi casually gestures toward a basket tray of beers directly out the window. The tray is attached to red strap which is presumably strapped to the seller, who is out of view but made known through the small piece of apron exposed at the bottom left corner of the poster. A second woman, who ap pears slightly younger than the woman in the front and in an even more richly dead gaze, neither looking directly at the beers, nor at anything seemingly in the dist ance. While this is not necessarily characteristic of new womanhood, other aspects of the picture suggest that these women are participating as modern, new women in Japanese society. For instance, behind them is a tall industrial smokestack along with othe r industrial buildings from what perhaps may the period. This advertisement is interesting for two reasons: 1) because the first woman is supposedly reaching for a beer and 2) because the two women are on a train. Each of these aspects suggest progressive womanhood, as similar to the French Femme Nouvelle The
72 They are not in the upward, almost in a gesturing position, her middle fingers curled more tightly in than her exterior to travel alone together, on their own without a man shows independence, as well. In an age of growing technology, train travel was a moder n way to get around. Thus, more than either of the Mitsukoshi advertisements, these women are not merely fashionable, but display real signs of new womanhood, and thus are themselves new women. Another image of a woman with a beer in a Kirin Beer advertise ment by Hokuu Tada from 1917 is also relevant (Figure A 28). As previously stated, while women were common accompaniment to bottles of beer in advertisements, it was uncommon for them to be rendered as partaking in the actual drinking of it. In the Kirin a dvertisement, however, the woman is leaning over what appears to be a bar. Many unopened bottles of Kirin beer appear in front of her. Instead of portraying her straight on or at a slight angle, Tada draws her in profile. In her hand, she holds an overflow ing glass of golden beer up in front of her face. The woman smiles, a feature more common in Japanese advertising outside of the Meiji period. Here, as opposed to the Dai Nippon advertisement, it is rather obvious that the woman is about to partake in enjo ying her beer, and in this way appear more active in her decision. Perhaps she is in a bar with men? If so, she displays qualities like those of Jane Avril and is a new woman indeed. While Japanese women in late Meiji graphic arts are not displayed in exac tly the same ways as the French Femme Nouvelle it is still pertinent to see that not only were goods traded between the two
73 counties, but artistic practice and social customs that allowed for Japanese women to be shown in ways aligning with new womanhood. Conclusion Though isolated for nearly 250 years before, during the Meiji period Japan emerged as a world power, engaging in modern and Western economic, artistic, and social practices. In these years of such radical change, no group was more effected th an women. In comparing the representations of women in the graphic arts in France and Japan, much is to be gleaned about the circular relationship each county had on the other. For instance, without the opening of Japan in 1854, the Art Nouveau graphic sty le would not be present in the department store bejin ga as a sign of modernity. While it is clear that the Art Nouveau style is not present in all depictions of the Atarashi Onna just as it is not present in all depictions of the Femme Nouvelle it still plays a vital role is perpetuating Western modernity in Japan. Thus, while the Japanese women in the posters I have analyzed may at first appear conservative in terms of the Femme Nouvelle they are all displaying active aspects of modernization as new wo men through autonomous acts.
74 CHAPTER 5 FINAL REMARKS In this conclusion I will address the three main questions I posed at the beginning of this thesis. To begin, I will address the question : To what extent were the graphic Art Nouveau style and aspects of New Womanhood exchanged between France and Japan in the later part of the 19th and the early 20th centuries ? Discusse d in Chapter one, French artist s adaptation of Japanese art referred to as japonisme is a pri me example of how Europe adopted Japanese style in an attempt to create a new type of art. While japonisme is largely associated with painting, I advertisements for JOB ci garettes and an Edo print by Rigyoku. This is largely seen through similarities of unmodulated color, flatness, and heavy contours. In terms of Japan, the Art al ong with Kitano print, as well. This Japanese Art Nouveau style is even seen in both of the department store bijin ga that I look at in my fourth chapter. Additionally, the social exchange of ationship. While the images of new women are not the necessarily the same in Japan as they are in France, aspects of modern artistic style, in the case of Japan, is used to perpetuate the West as its prime example of the modern. In Japan, department store advertisements display new womanhood as fashionable, while Japanese beer advertisements at the beginning of Taisho period show even more confidently new women participating in travel as well as in the act of alcohol consumption both aspects that were not t ypically associated with women. Secondly, I asked : Were these artistic and social changes one for one, or did each country incorporate them in different ways? As I have established, in an artistic sense, France and Japan styles to form a circular and somewhat mutual exchange
75 France incorporated aspects of Japanese ukiyo e prints into their posters, as can be seen in the works of artists like Toulouse like Hisu i Sugiura who then incorporated Western Art Nouveau style into their work. Japanese artists were pulling from their own natural artistic styles which were incorporated into the graphic Art Nouveau. In terms of New Womanhood, the exchange between France and Japan was much more one sided. Where Japanese women were being introduced to ideas of the arriving to New Womanhood through their access to education and a questionin g of patriarchal roles. Addressing my last question, How did these exchanges contribute to the modernization of both France and Japan? I root the answer in the theme of change that runs through my thesis. Modernization, through artistic style, in both countries can be seen through a merging of both old and new aspects of art. While some proponents of the Art Nouveau movement sought to completely reinvent art, others sought to pull from traditional techniques in order to form a new type of tradition al art. Similarly, during the Meiji period, Japan both accepted and rejected schools. For the sake of this thesis, I chose to focus on japonisme as a way Art Nouve au graphic artists incorporated Japanese aesthetics to form their own unique style, and also chose to focus on those Japanese graphic artists who drew direct influence from Art Nouveau artists like Mucha for their work. Additionally, New Women provided sub jects for graphic artists in both countries, enabling images of modern women to emerge. Thus, through incorporating both new artistic styles taken from each other as well as social thought, both France and Japan modernized together but to different extents
76 APPENDIX ILLUSTRATIONS Figure A 1. John Moran Auctioneers Favril e glass speci me ns [n.d.], Louis Comfort Tiffany, https://www.johnmoran.com/auction archive/2010/20100316/32827 lot 1133 a group of seven louis c omfort tiffany iridescent favrile art glass objects Figure A 2. Pablo Pater, Cast iron balcony, 1175 Robamba Street, Buenos Aires, 1909, cast iron, in Art Nouveau by Stephen Escritt ( London: Phaidon, 2000 ,) 239
77 Figure A 3 Alphonse Mucha, Sarah Bernhardt/La Plume 1897 lithograph, in Alphonse Mucha: The Complete Posters and Panels, by Jack Rennert and Alain Weill ( Boston: A Hjert & Hjert Books, 1984 ), 111
78 Figure A 4. The Japan Times 1895, A lphonse Mucha, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/culture/2015/08/04/arts/art nouveaus jewels crown/#.Wqq38WbMzOQ
79 Figure A 5 Pintrest. Sarah Bernhardt, 1900, Reutlinger 1900s Postcard, https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/227431849910294192/
80 Figure A 6. Digital Library for the Decorative Arts and Material Culture. Le Japon artistiqu e ; documents 1889 Kiyonaga, http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi bin/DLDecArts/DLDecArts idx?type=article&did=DLDecArts.JaponArtistiqueII.i0075&id=DLDecArts.JaponArt istiqueII&isize=M
81 Figure A 7 Henri de Toulouse Lautrec, La Goulue au Moulin Rouge 1891 color lithograph in Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854 1910 by Gabriel P. Weisberg, Phillip Dennis Cate, Gerald Needham, Martin Eidelberg, and William R. Johnston (London: Sawers Publications, 1976), 108
82 Figure A 8 Henri de Toulouse Lautrec, Le Divan Japonais 1892 color lithograph in Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854 1910 by Gabriel P. Weisberg, Phillip Dennis Cate, Gerald Needham, M artin Eidelberg, and William R. Johnston (London: Sawers Publications, 1976), 108
83 Figure A 9 Alphonse Mucha, Job 1898 lithograph, in Alphonse Mucha: The Complete Posters and Panels, by Jack Rennert and Alain Weill ( Boston: A Hjert & Hjert Books, 1984 ), 205
84 Figure A 10 Unsigned, Couple escaping through hole in the wall, 1765 woodblock print, in Japanese Woodblock Prints: A Catalogue of the Mary A. Ainsworth Collection by Roger S. Keyes ( Oberlin, Ohio: Oberlin College, 1984 ) 31 Figure A 11. Unknown artist, Cover of Miyojo Magazine, 1901 lithograph, in Alphonse Mucha: The Complete Posters and Panels, by Jack Rennert and Alain Weill ( Boston: A Hjert & Hjert Books, 1984 ), 112.
85 Figure A 12. Tsunetomi Kitono, poste r promoti ng an export trade fair at Kobe 1911, lithograph, in Japanese Graphic Design by Richard S. Thornton ( London: Laurence King Ltd., 1991 ), 42.
86 Figure A 1 3 Le Grelot 1896 lithograph, in Women in French Society and Culture 1890 1914 by Diana Holmes and Carrie Tarr. (New York, Berghahn Books, 2007), 86
87 Figure A 14 Theophile Alexandre Steinlen, Motocyles Comiot 1899, lithograph, in Toulouse Lautrec and His Contemporaries: Posters of the Bell Epoque from the Wagner Collection by Ebria Feinblatt and Bruce Davis (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1985), 65. Figure A 15 Eugne Grasset, Cycles & Automobiles Marque Georges Richard/Cyles & Automobiles, 1899, color lithograph, in Posters by Jeannine Falino (Chicago: The Univer sity of Chicago Press, 2017), 45
88 Figure A 16. Alphonse Mucha, Cycle s Perfecta 1902 lithograph, in Alphonse Mucha: The Complete Posters and Panels, by Jack Rennert and Alain Weill ( Boston: A Hjert & Hjert Books, 1984 ), 295
89 Figure A 17. Period Paper, John Griffiths Bicycle, 1898 Henri Thiriet, https://www.periodpaper.com/collections/art styles/products/1973 print poster ad french john griffiths bicycle art nouveau henri thiriet 013194 bike1 006
90 Figure A 18 Jules Chret, Thtrophone 1890, lithograph, in Toulouse Lautrec and His Contemporaries: Posters of the Bell Epoque from the Wagner Collection by Ebria Feinblatt and Bruce Davis (New York: Harry N. Abr ams, Inc., P ublishers, 1985), 117
91 Figure A 19 Henri de Toulouse Lautr ec, The Chap Book Irish and American Bar 1896, lithograph, in Toulouse Lautrec and His Contemporaries: Posters of the Bell Epoque from the Wagner Collection by Ebria Feinblatt and Bruce Davis (New York: Harry N. Abr ams, Inc., Publishers, 1985), 98
92 Figure A 20. Alphonse Mucha, JOB c. 1896 97, color lithograph, in Alphonse Mucha : The Complete Posters and Panels, by Jack Rennert and Alain Weill ( Boston: A Hjert & Hjert Books, 1984 ), 83.
93 Figure A 21 Georges Meunier, Papier Cigarettes Job 1894, lithograph, in Toulouse Lautrec and His Contemporaries: Posters of the Bell Ep oque from the Wagner Collection by Ebria Feinblatt and Bruce Davis (New York: Harry N. Abr ams, Inc., Publishers, 1985), 240
94 Figure A 22 Jane Atch, Hors Concours (Job, Unrivaled) Paris, 1889, color lithograph, in by Jeannine Falino (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2017), 30.
95 Figure A 23 Kunisada, ekaban for perfume, about 1860 woodblock print in Japanese Graphic Design by Richard S. Thornton ( London: Laurence King Ltd., 1991 ), 29 Figure A 2 4 Goyo Hashiguchi, poster for Mitsukoshi Department Store, 1907 lithograph, in Japanese Graphic Design by Richard S. Thornton ( London: Laurence King Ltd., 1991 ), 36.
96 Figure A 25 Hisui Sugiura, poster for Mitsukoshi Department Store, 1914, lithograph, in Japanese Graphic Design by Richard S. Thornton ( London: Laurence King Ltd., 1991 ), 35.
97 Figure A 26 Hisui Sugiura, detail from poster for Mitsukoshi Department Store, 1914 lithograph, in Japanese Graphic Design by Richard S. Thornton ( London: Laurence King Ltd., 1991 ), 35.
98 Figure A 27. Pintrest. Dai Nippon Brewery Company, 1912, artist unknown, https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/337066353330580773/
99 Figure A 28. Hokuu Tada, poster for Kirin beer, 1917, lithograph, in Japanese Graphic Design, by Richard S. Thornton (London: Laurence King Ltd., 1991), 46.
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103 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH English and art history. She gai museum studies from the University of Florida. She plans to continue with her doctorial studies in art history.