Citation
Toward an Itinerary of Stone

Material Information

Title:
Toward an Itinerary of Stone Investigating the Movement, Crafting, and Use of Obsidian from Caracol, Belize
Creator:
Martindale Johnson, Lucas
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (488 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Anthropology
Committee Chair:
BRANDT,STEVEN ANDREW
Committee Co-Chair:
OYUELA-CAYCEDO,AUGUSTO
Committee Members:
MILBRATH,SUSAN
D'AMICO,ROBERT
CHASE,DIANE
CHASE,ARLEN FRANK
Graduation Date:
12/17/2016

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Archaeology ( jstor )
City centers ( jstor )
Drills ( jstor )
Eggshells ( jstor )
Excavations ( jstor )
History of technology ( jstor )
Mayan culture ( jstor )
Obsidian ( jstor )
Rejuvenation ( jstor )
Rituals ( jstor )
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
archaeology -- belize -- caracol -- crafting -- itinerary -- markets -- maya -- obsidian -- ritual
City of Orlando ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.

Notes

Abstract:
This dissertation explores the movement, transformation, and use of obsidian artifacts from the Classic Maya city of Caracol, Belize during most of its occupational history (ca. 300 BC - AD 900). Through a comprehensive approach, including geochemical sourcing and chaine operatoire as well as contextual and distributional data, the research reconstructs and traces various disparate, yet interconnected regional and local "object itineraries." Obsidian sourcing using handheld portable X-Ray Florescence and flake stone analysis assesses the regional pathways and sources/forms of obsidian before it entered Caracol. Inferred local obsidian craft production and material transformation, including workshop maintenance and the curation of obsidian debitage and exhausted blade-cores, is addressed through an aggregate analysis of various contextual assemblages. Internal exchange mechanisms (e.g., markets) are understood through a detailed distributional analysis of all obsidian artifacts (not just blades). Contextual analysis of various household deposits demonstrates that different kinds of obsidian objects were used for specific purposes. These varied purposes (e.g., quotidian and ritual) help to inform the pace at which households interacted with markets and the potential exchange of knowledge and practice between crafter and consumer. These data from Caracol highlights the ways that obsidian pervaded much if not all aspects of ancient life. Further, obsidian distributional patterns demonstrate that although some elite control over resources likely occurred to some extent, obsidian was accessible by most regardless of status. Through contextual and technological artifact analysis residential use and deposition becomes relatively predictable, thus allowing stronger inferences to be made regarding the nature of exchange in both commodities, knowledge, and a shared ritual tradition. Finally, the research concludes by situating the (re)production in aspects of household identity by relating or enchaining (1) regional obsidian circulation and Caracol's regional connectivity generally; (2) the dynamic social relationships that likely occurred at local markets; (3) the materially transformative aspects at inferred local obsidian workshops and the segregation of stage within blade-core reduction strategies; and (4) household quotidian use and the ritualization of varied obsidian forms. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2016.
Local:
Adviser: BRANDT,STEVEN ANDREW.
Local:
Co-adviser: OYUELA-CAYCEDO,AUGUSTO.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Lucas Martindale Johnson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Copyright Martindale Johnson, Lucas. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Classification:
LD1780 2016 ( lcc )

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1 TOWARD AN ITINERARY OF STONE: INVESTIGATING THE MOVEMENT, CRAFTING, AND USE OF OBSIDIAN FROM CARACOL, BELIZE By LUCAS R. M ARTINDALE JOHNSON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2016

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2 2016 Lucas R. M artindale Johnson

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3 To my late father, Richard T. Johnson; t o my fa mily for their enduri ng support, encouragement and optimism ; and to all those who helped to recover, protect, catalogue, and curate artifacts from Caracol, Belize

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4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The completion of the research, analysis, and writing would not be possible without the help of many individuals and institutions. First, I want to thank Lisa Johnson my wife, partner, and best friend for her never ending support. She was especially helpful paying attention and allowing me to discuss ideas as I went on a d nauseam about Cara She did this all while conducting her own archaeological research. I hope I am as much help to her as she was /is to me. Second, I want to thank my dissertation chair, Steve n A. Brandt for his support and mentorship. He e nsured I kept to the appropriate archaeological language and made the disparate points of research connect. Next, this research owes a huge debt to Diane Z. Chase and Arlen F. Chase. They trusted me with over three decades of obsidian artifacts. They have mentored me since my undergraduate years at the University of Central Florida (UCF) There is a lot I could write to acknowledge their positive involvement in my education, but I must just say, thank you for the opportunity, trust, and encouragement you ha ve given me for nearly 17 years. Augusto Oyuela Caycedo and Susan Milbrath have and continue to be inspiration al and vital to this project and my education more bro adly. Without their support, encouragement, and constructive criticism throughout my graduat e career I fostered an atmosphere of creativity and free thinking while offering guidelines to follow All the staff of the Department of Anthropology at the University of F lorida (UF) helped greatly with grant and coursework logistics. Susan deFrance, acting chair of the

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5 Department of Anthropology at UF was very supportive T hank you Susan. The Institute of Archaeology of Belize (IOA) was critical for this research to begin I owe a huge debt to Mellissa Badillo, Jaime Awe, John Morris, and Silvia Batty for helping to organize the collection and authorize the export permit Particular s taff and faculty at the University of California Berkeley also played instrumental roles in the research. Rosemary Joyce and Lori Wilkie supported me as a Visiting Student Scholar at the Archaeological Research Facility (ARF). Nicholas Tripcevich also at the ARF aided me with portable XRF analysis by allowing me to use their Bruker unit. Brend a Arjona aided in some of the XRF scanning and took diligent notes about each piece she assayed. Mike Glascock and Jeff Ferguson at the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) were gracious and trusting by loaning me and the ARF their Mesoamerican obs idian source library collection. The quality of the sourcing study was only possible through their willingness to share and help confirm my interpretation of my results Thank you both for your help and support. Similarly, staff at Bruker elemental was ext remely helpful. Bruce Kaiser, Lee Drake, and Andrea Tullos helped to provide education on XRF and were/are willing to work together and to provide a loaner for the pilot study in 2013 Many member s of the Caracol Archaeological Project (CAP) were fundamen tal for this research to occur. Amy Morris helped located obsidian in the field lab. Max Sedita, Marc Marino, Jacklyn Rumberger and countless others over the years were essential provided their attention to detail during cataloging and helping with data e ntry I also want to thank Carlos Ivan Mendes, Jaime Iglesias, Saul Galeano, Asterio ( Don

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6 Teo) Moralez, and Eric Manzanero for contributing to my field excavation training over the years. Don Teo and Don Jamie always made sure we pulled the correct stones tire section wall crumble. Talking about arc haeology with these friends was /is exciting. I am truly honored to have worked with you. You are all wonderful people and I hope our friendship endures as much as the ob jects we excavate d together. I want to thank James Crandall. James, I want you to know that your willingness welcome party for new students in 2006 has been more than he lpful. I hope we can continue to work play, and share ideas as best friends and colleagues for many decades to come. I want to thank Kenneth G. Hirth for his comments on some dissertation ideas and one chapter in particular. Also I want to thank Michelle Rich for her optimism and encouragement regarding the research questions and general interest in obsidian from Caracol. My family at Far Western Anthropological Research Group also aided directly and indirectly during the course of this research. First t hey ensured my dissertation would be completed in a timely manner. Mike Darcangelo (Darkman) was/ is always a source for support and clarity Jill Eubanks aided in tagging the collection before return ing it to the IOA. Nicole Birney and Kathleen Montgomery shared their knowledge of imaging obsidian artifacts. Bryan Bird and Tamara Norton helped to inform a few important figures. Paul Brady recommended some ArcGIS methods. Steve Neidig (Rainman) was a joy to talk to about obsidian and refitting. Pan and Kaley h elped discuss some of the statistical methods.

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7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 11 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 15 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 19 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND DOC UMENT OUTLINE ................................ ...................... 21 2 THEORY AND METHOD ................................ ................................ ........................ 37 Life History, Object Biography, and Itinerary: A Short Review of Theory and Method ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 43 Toward an Itinerary of Obsidian: Reconstructing Its Movements, Routes, and Transformations ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 50 Assessing Regional Exchange through an Itinerary Approach ......................... 51 Obsidian Itineraries at Workshops ................................ ................................ .... 53 Embedded Itineraries during Exchange Negotiating Social Relationships ....... 54 Quotidian Use and the Ritualization of Obsidian at Caracol, Belize ................. 55 ................................ ..... 5 6 3 A REVIEW OF CARACOL, BELIZE AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS .................... 59 Settlement Background ................................ ................................ ........................... 60 Regional Relationships and Research Objectives ................................ .................. 63 Domestic Crafting Economic Research Objectives: Chert and Obsidian ................ 70 Hous ehold Provisioning Objectives: Markets and the Power of Crafters ................ 77 Quotidian Use and Ritualization of Obsidian: Crafter and Household Interaction ... 83 ................................ ........................ 89 Exclusions and Limitations of the Research ................................ ........................... 96 4 SOURCIN G AND MOVING OBSIDIA N INTO A CITY ................................ .......... 100 Significance of Obsidian Sourcing ................................ ................................ ........ 100 Data and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ 105 Obsidian Source by Artifact Type ................................ ................................ ......... 115 Spatial and Chronological Considerations in Obsidian Sourcing .......................... 123 Observations and Interpretations from Sourcing Obsidian ................................ .... 135 Technological Classification ................................ ................................ ........... 135 Spatial Distribution ................................ ................................ ......................... 136 Temporal Changes ................................ ................................ ......................... 137

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8 Summary and Further Regional Considerations ................................ ................... 141 5 THE ORGANIZATION OF CRAFTING AND PRELIME NARY DEPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 143 Overview and Social Significance ................................ ................................ ......... 143 Percussion Tech niques: Core Shaping ................................ ................................ 159 Macro Debitage and Objects from Macro Debitage ................................ ........ 159 Small Percussion Debitage ................................ ................................ ............ 165 Objects from Blade Core Shaping Debitage Summary and Contexts ............ 170 Pressure Techniques: Blade Production ................................ ............................... 173 Initial ................................ ................................ ... 173 Final ................................ ................................ ................ 179 Other Blade Objects ................................ ................................ ....................... 190 Percussion Rejuvenation Techniques: Maintaining Core Bodies .......................... 191 Core Top Debitage ................................ ................................ ......................... 191 Blade Core Sections ................................ ................................ ...................... 196 Platform Preparation Debitage ................................ ................................ ....... 197 Distal and Lateral Orientation/Rejuvenation ................................ ................... 198 Error Correction and Indeterminate Blade Core Rejuvenation Debitage ........ 200 Blade Cores and Blade Core Fragments ................................ .............................. 205 Non Blade Core Related Objects and Undiagnostics ................................ ........... 221 Organization of Obsidian Crafting at Caracol: Summaries and Interpretations ..... 230 6 OBSIDIAN EXCHANGE: F ROM CRAFTER PRODUCER S TO RESIDENTIAL CONSUMERS ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 242 Contrasting Models of Exchange: A Short Review ................................ ............... 246 Economic Integration, Markets, Sampling, and Wealth at Caracol, Belize: A Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 248 Testing Centralized and Decentralized Models of Obsidian Exchange ................. 261 Test 1: Equality of Access to Obsidian and Analysis of Variation (ANOVA) ... 261 Results: Analysis of Variation (ANOVA) ................................ ......................... 265 Test 2: Dilution of Obsidian Sources into Residential Settlement ................... 265 Results: Obsidian Source Distribution ................................ ............................ 266 Relations between Obsidian Consumption and Household Wealth ...................... 270 Test 3: Measuring Differential Access to Obsidian Based on Household Size ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 270 Results: Houshold Wealth and Obsidian Consumption ................................ .. 273 Considering Non Market Exchange ................................ ................................ ...... 276 Crafters ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 278 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 281 7 QUOTIDIAN AND RITUALIZED USE OF OB RESIDENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 283

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9 Summary of the Recovery Contexts for Obsidian ................................ ................. 283 Evidence of Quotidian T ool Use ................................ ................................ ........... 284 Situating Ritual and the Ritualization of Obsidian at Caracol, Belize .................... 295 ................................ ................... 301 ................................ ..................... 315 Summary: Quotidian Practices and Ritualizing Obsidian ................................ ...... 327 8 RETRACING A ROUTE AN D FUTURE DIRECTIONS ................................ ......... 338 Toward an Itinerary of Obsidian as Reflected from Caracol, Belize ...................... 338 Distant Quarries, Extra local Production, and Importation into Caracol ................ 339 ................................ ................................ 343 Transformation at Workshops ................................ ................................ ............... 344 Movement through Local Exchanges ................................ ................................ .... 346 Residential Use, Taking Objects out o f Circulation, and Concluding Remarks ..... 348 Future Directions and Broader Impacts ................................ ................................ 351 APPENDIX A COUNTS OF OBSIDIAN A ND CHERT ARTI FACTS BY OPERATION (PROJECT SEASONS 198 5 2015) ................................ ................................ ...... 356 B HYPERLINK TO HANDHEL D ENERGY DISPERSED P ORTABLE XRF CHEMICAL PART PER MI LLION DATA FOR ARTIF ACTS AND SOURCE SAMPLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 358 C HYPERLINK TO HANDHEL D ENERGY DISPERSED P ORTABLE XRF COMPTON PEAK INTENSI TY DATA FOR ARTIFACT S AND SOURCES SAMPLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 360 D HYPERLINK TO HANDHEL D ENE RGY DISPERSED PORTAB LE X RAY FLORENCES FILES ................................ ................................ ............................. 362 E ABBREVIATED OBSIDIAN CATALOG ................................ ................................ 364 F ARTIFACTS NOT AVAILB LE FOR ANALYSIS ................................ .................... 448 G HYPERLINK TO PERCUSS ION TECHNIQUE DATA ................................ .............. 452 H HYPERLINK TO PRESSUR E TECHNIQUE DATA ................................ .............. 454 I HYPERLINK TO PERCUSS ION REJUVINATION TEC HNIQUE DATA ............... 456 J HYPERLINK TO BLADE C ORE AND BLADE CORE F RAGMENT DATA ........... 458 K HYPERLINK TO NON BLA DE CORE RELATED OBJE CT DATA ....................... 460 J HYPERLINK TO UNDIAGN OSTIC DEBITAGE DATA ................................ .......... 462

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10 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 464 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 488

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11 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 1 Summary of analyzed obsidian artifacts from Caracol, Belize. ........................... 31 3 1 The diversity of local and non local materials from the GRB Group case study ................................ ................................ .... 87 4 1 Summary ppm data for all sour ce samples scanned with HHpXRF. ................ 111 4 2 Artifact Type by Obsidian Source ................................ ................................ ..... 116 4 3 Number of Caracol obsidian artifacts sampled by time period for all available obsidian sources. ................................ ................................ .............................. 129 4 4 Percentage by time periods and obsid ian sources present at Caracol. ............ 129 4 5 Sampled technological classification of obsidian artifacts by time period and obsidian source. ................................ ................................ ............................... 140 5 1 Attributes and descriptive statistics for types of macro objects. ........................ 161 5 2 Distribution of macro debitage by broad context. ................................ .............. 163 5 3 Organization of analysis attributes and descriptive statistics about types of small percussion debitage. ................................ ................................ ............... 166 5 4 Distribution of small percussion debitage by broad context. ............................. 169 5 5 Contexts of objects from blade core shaping debitage. ................................ .... 172 5 6 Showing initial ................................ .......... 175 5 7 Contexts by type of initial ................................ ...... 177 5 8 Type by attribute for final ................................ .................... 183 5 9 Contexts of final ................................ .................... 188 5 10 Type by attribute of other blade objects or blade production by products ........ 190 5 11 Contexts by type of other blade objects or blade production by products ........ 191 5 12 Summary data for core tops from obsidian blade cores. ................................ .. 194 5 13 Summary data for blade core section rejuvenation debitage ............................ 196

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12 5 14 Summary data for platform preparation rejuvenation debitage ......................... 197 5 15 Summary data for distal and lateral orientation/rejuvenation debitage ............. 199 5 16 Summary data for other rejuvenation debitage. ................................ ................ 201 5 17 Contexts of blade core rejuvenation by type. ................................ ................... 203 5 18 Counts and total weights for blade cores and blade core fragments. ............... 210 5 19 Average notch widths (mm) and depths (mm) by notch type on blade cores and blade core fragments. ................................ ................................ ................ 213 5 20 Standard deviation ( SD ) f or notch widths (mm) and depths (mm) by notch type on blade cores and blade core fragments. ................................ ............... 214 5 21 Coefficient of variation ( CoV ) expressed as a percent (%) for notch widths (mm) and depths (mm) by notch type on blade cores and blade core fragments. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 215 5 22 Contexts of blade core and blade core fragments by type and by context. ...... 218 5 23 Types by context for non blade core related debitage and formed objects. ..... 224 5 24 Undiagnostic objects by context. ................................ ................................ ...... 228 5 25 Summary of technological stages and type by contexts with percentages found per sampled context ( p =0.05). ................................ ................................ 232 6 1 Summary table of total excavations or Sub ops from Caracol s howing a total of 207 operations were investigated with a total of 953 separate Sub ops or individual excavations. ................................ ................................ ...................... 250 6 2 Obsidian to chert ratios by group size type where ratios are less tha n 1.0. ...... 264 6 3 Summary of ANOVA test data. ................................ ................................ ......... 265 6 4 Chi square distribution testing the null hypothesis that there is no signific ant difference in mean obsidian consumption counts between the four ranked groups. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 272 6 5 Chi square distribution testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in mean o bsidian consumption counts between the large, medium, and small ranked groups. ................................ ................................ ................. 272 6 6 Chi square distribution testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in mean obsid ian consumption counts between the large and small groups. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 272

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13 6 7 Chi square distribution testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in mean obsidian consumption coun ts between the medium and small groups. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 273 6 8 Chi square distribution testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in mean obsidian consumption counts between the larg e and medium groups. ................................ ................................ ................................ 273 7 1 Summary counts of types of obsidian artifacts by context and percentages of total analyzed. ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 283 7 2 Summary of utilized percussion rejuvenation debitage artifacts from refuse/construction fill (non special) deposits. ................................ .................. 285 7 3 Summary of utilized blade core artifacts from refuse/construction fill (non special) deposits. ................................ ................................ .............................. 286 7 4 Summary of non blade core related artifacts from refuse/construction fill (non special) deposits. ................................ ................................ ..................... 287 7 5 Summary of utilize d final series obsidian blades from refuse/construction fill (non special) deposits. ................................ ................................ ..................... 290 7 6 Probability ( p =0.05) of recovering types of blade production relat ed artifacts from refuse/construction fill (non special) deposits. ................................ .......... 292 7 7 Summary of utilized obsidian artifacts from refuse/fill contexts. ........................ 294 7 8 The presence ( ) or absence ( ) of blade production and non blade production ar tifacts from 61 cache contexts. ................................ ................... 305 7 9 The estimated probability ( p =0.05) of recovering di fferent types of obsidian artifacts from cache contexts. ................................ ................................ ........... 307 7 10 The presence ( ) or absence ( ) of blade core and blade core fragment refits by vessel type in those cache special deposits wi th blade cores and/o r blade core fragments (n= 32). ................................ ................................ ................... 313 7 11 The presence ( ) or absence ( ) of blade production and non blade production artifacts from 124 burial contexts. ................................ ................... 316 7 12 The estimated probability ( p =0.05) of recovering different types of obsidian artifacts from burial contexts. ................................ ................................ ............ 320 7 13 Summary of obsidia n from Operations C12 (A.D. 695), C19 (A.D. 613), and C87 (c.a. A.D. 677 700). ................................ ................................ ................... 325 7 14 Summary of broad technological types by above tomb context. ....................... 327

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14 7 15 Obsidian summary for four above tomb deposits, three are from Caracol, Belize and one is from Dos Hombres, Belize (see Trachman 2002). ............... 331 7 16 Summary of obsidian workshop findings from a sample of Maya sites. ............ 333 7 17 Reduction profile and summary of averages of four Maya above tomb deposits, Maya obsidian workshops, and non Maya obsidian workshops. ....... 334 7 18 Summary of obsidian workshops from a sample of non Maya sites. ................ 335

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15 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE page 1 1 Overview of Mesoamerica, regional areas, location of Caracol, and important sites of Classic Period obsidian research mentioned in the text. ........................ 22 1 2 A model for obsidian mov ement as it relates to research at Caracol, Belize. ..... 25 3 1 Site overview map with terrestrial survey grid, roads or sacbes and a 15 meter hillshade layer created from the LiDAR aerial survey digital elevation model (DEM). ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 62 3 2 Southern section of axial trench through the eas tern building at the GRB Group. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 88 3 3 Dis tribution map showing the three burial associated obsidian deposits in and near the city center and one possible de posit located to the southeast. ............. 92 4 1 Obsidian sources used in study and men tioned in text. ................................ .... 108 4 2 Strontium and Zirconium bivariate plot of MURR (Missouri University Research Reactor) and ARF (Archaeological Research Facility at UC Berkeley) source samples with 95% confidence ellipses. ................................ 112 4 3 Strontium and Zirconium bivariate plot of all obsidian source samples (Table 4 1) and all Caracol artifact samples with 95% confidence ellipses. ................. 112 4 4 Strontium and Zirconium bivariate plot of only Caracol artifact samples with 95% confidence ellipses. ................................ ................................ .................. 113 4 5 Rubidium, Strontium, and Zir conium ternary plot of all obsidian source samples available for study. ................................ ................................ ............. 113 4 6 Rubidium, Strontium, and Zirconium ternary plot of all obsidian source samples and all Caracol artifact samples. ................................ ........................ 114 4 7 Rubidium, Strontium, and Zirconium ternary plots of only Caracol artifact samples. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 114 4 8 Art ifact types by obsidian s ource. ................................ ................................ ..... 118 4 9 Spatial distributions of El Chayal obsidian at Caracol.. ................................ ..... 126 4 10 Spatial distributions of Ixtepeque obsidian at Caracol. ................................ ..... 126 4 11 Spatial distributions of oth er obsidian sources at Caracol. ............................... 127 4 12 Distribution of obsidian sources through time at Caracol, Belize. ..................... 130

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16 4 13 Distribution of obsidian sources through time at Caracol, Belize. ..................... 130 4 14 Regional trade map. Modified after Nazaroff et al. (2010:889, Figure 3) and Demare st et al. (2014:188, Figure 1). ................................ ............................... 142 5 1 A Model for Obsidian Reduction, Movement, and Use within Caracol, Belize .. 145 5 2 Idealized percussion reduction technique. ................................ ........................ 146 5 3 Idealized pressure reduction technique. ................................ ........................... 147 5 4 Idealized pressure reduction and percussion rejuvenation technique. ............. 148 5 5 Idealized pressure reduction technique after rejuvenation. .............................. 149 5 6 Idealized percussion and/or pressure technique to destroy cores. ................... 150 5 7 Distribition of refuse and/or construction fill contexts containing obsidia n. Major platforms are labeled. ................................ ................................ ............ 156 5 8 Distribition of burial contexts containing obsidian and presented in tables. Major platforms are labeled.. ................................ ................................ ............ 157 5 9 Distribition of cache contexts containing obsidian and presented in tables. Major platforms are labeled.. ................................ ................................ ............ 158 5 10 Sample of three macro debitage pieces with traces of cortex.. ........................ 162 5 11 Distribution map of macrocore shaping debitage. ................................ ............. 164 5 12 Sample of small percussion debitage. ................................ .............................. 167 5 13 Distribution of small percussion debita ge sample from Caracol, Belize. .......... 169 5 14 Sample of objects from blade core shaping macro debit age (A G) and s mall percussion debitage (H I). ................................ ................................ ............... 171 5 15 ........ 172 5 16 Sample of initial series blades. ................................ ................................ ......... 176 5 17 Distribution map of initial ................................ ....... 178 5 18 Sample of final series blades. ................................ ................................ ........... 185 5 19 Laterally notched blades (A C); utilized blade (D); hafted tool with opposing bilateral notches (E); drill end (F); complete drill (G) : repeatedly and bilaterally notched blades (H J); drilled blades (K), (L), (M).. ............................ 186

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17 5 20 Distribution map of final ................................ ..................... 189 5 21 Sample of core tops showing alternative dorsal/ventral/cross sectional views in additi on to the type of core top. (A) striated; (B) pecked and ground; (C) cortical. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 195 5 22 Sample of three blade core sections.. ................................ .............................. 196 5 23 Sample of platform preparation debitage from C12A/47 1j.. ............................. 198 5 24 Sample of distal orientation rejuvenation debitage. (A) dorsal surface; (B) ventral surface. ................................ ................................ ................................ 200 5 25 Sample of indeterminate blade core rejuvenation debitage from (A) C138C/5 4 and (B) C138C/6 3. ................................ ................................ ....................... 201 5 26 Distribution map of blade core rejuvenation debitage. ................................ ...... 205 5 27 Sample of blade cores and blade core fragments. ................................ ........... 211 5 28 Sample of notche d blade core eccentric objects. ................................ ............. 216 5 29 Distribution map of blade cores and blade core fragments. ............................. 220 5 30 Obsidian pebble. ................................ ................................ ............................... 225 5 31 ................................ ............................ 225 5 32 (A) Two obsidian bifacial point s within a ceramic box with lid deposited with jadeite artifacts (B) Set of obsidian ear flares with ceramic backings ............. 226 5 33 Distribution map of non blade core related objects. ................................ ......... 227 5 34 Summary probability plot ( p=0.05 ) for each major artifact type by context. ..... 233 6 1 Distribution of excavation Operations that hav e one to two individual SubOperations. ................................ ................................ ................................ 251 6 2 Distributions of excavation Operations that have three to four individual SubOperations. ................................ ................................ ................................ 252 6 3 Distribution of excavation Operations that have five to six individual SubOperations. ................................ ................................ ................................ 253 6 4 Distribution of excavation Operations that have seven to eight individual SubOpera tions. ................................ ................................ ................................ 254 6 5 Distribution of excavation Operations that have nine to 24 individual SubOperations. ................................ ................................ ................................ 255

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18 6 6 Examples of differen t size classes of residential groups based on number of structu res per a given raised platform ................................ ............................. 259 6 7 Subsample distribution of different size household types ................................ 260 6 8 Distribution of Mexican obsidian (clustered around city center) and one La Union piece (plotted to the northeast). ................................ .............................. 268 6 9 Distribution of Guatemalan obsidian. ................................ ................................ 268 6 10 Obsidian distribution spline interpolation map predicting distribution of obsidian counts fo r sampled and un sampled areas. ................................ ...... 269 6 11 Inverse distance weight (IDW) interpolation density model showing the spatial relationships between those sampled larger groups (mean = 44.3) to other medium (mean = 33.2) and small (mean = 19.8) sized groups. .............. 275 7 1 Probability ( p =0.05) plot for obsidian from refuse/construction fill. ................... 293 7 2 The estimated probability ( p =0.05) for different types of obsid ian artifacts from cache contexts. ................................ ................................ ........................ 307 7 3 Sample of modified exhausted blade cores and a representation of a skate fish egg capsule (sp. Dipturus ). ................................ ................................ ....... 310 7 4 Distribution of blade core refits by cache and vessel type.. .............................. 314 7 5 Distribution of blade core without refits by cache and vessel type.. .................. 314 7 6 The estimated probability ( p =0.05) for different types of obsidian artifacts from burial contexts. ................................ ................................ ........................ 320 7 7 Reduction profile showing the percen tages of broad technological types present in above tomb context. ................................ ................................ ......... 327 7 8 Percentages of major reduction categories or stages for three above tomb contexts. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 331 7 9 Percentages of major technological categories or stages of reduction at four Maya workshops. ................................ ................................ .............................. 333 7 10 Reduction profiles showing averages of major reductio n stages for above tomb deposits, Maya workshops, and non Maya workshops ........................... 334 7 11 Percentages of major technological categories or stages of reducti on at three non Maya workshops. ................................ ................................ ..................... 335

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19 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy TOWARD AN ITINERARY OF STONE: INVESTIGATING THE MOVEMENT, CRAFTING, AND USE OF OBSIDIAN FROM CARACOL, BELIZE By Lucas R. M artindale Johnson December 2016 Chair: Steve A. Brandt Major: Anthropology This dissertation explores the movement, transformation, and use of obsidian artifacts from the Cl assic Maya city of Caracol, Belize during most of its occupational history (ca. 300 BC AD 900). Through a comprehensive approach, including geochemical sourcing and lithic technological analysis as well as contextual and distributional data, the research reconstructs and traces various disparate, yet interconnected regional and local "object itineraries." Obsidian sourcing using handheld portable X Ray Florescence and flake stone analysis assesses the regional pathways and sources/forms of obsidian before it entered Caracol. Inferred local obsidian craft production and material transformation (i.e., reconstructing reduction sequences) including workshop maintenance and the curation of obsidian debitage and exhausted blade cores for later ritual use, is ad dressed through an aggregate analysis of various contextual assemblages. Internal exchange mechanisms (e.g., markets) are understood through a detailed distributional analysis of all obsidian artifacts (not just blades). Contextual analysis of various hous ehold deposits demonstrates that different kinds of obsidian objects were used for specific purposes. These varied purposes (i.e., quotidian

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20 and ritual) help to inform the pace at which households interacted with markets and the potential exchange of knowl edge and practice between crafter and consumer. Obsidian distributional patterns demonstrate that although some elite control over resources likely occurred, obsidian was accessible by most people regardless of status. Through contextual and technologica l artifact associations, residential use and deposition become relatively predictable, thus allowing stronger inferences to be made regarding the nature of exchange in commodities, knowledge, and a shared ritual tradition across a broad city scape. The wor k concludes by situating the (re)production in aspects of household identity and the potential social meanings of obsidian by enchaining (1) Caracol's regional connectivity and broader obsidian circulation; (2) the varied social relationships that likely o ccurred at local markets; (3) the materially transformative aspects at inferred local obsidian workshops and the segregation of consecutive stages within blade core reduction strategies; and (4) household quotidian use and the ritualization of varied obsid ian forms. Through an itinerary approach, the flaked stone data from Caracol highlight the ways that obsidian pervaded much if not all aspects of ancient Maya life.

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21 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND DOCUMENT OUTLIN E This work presents a technological, elemental, distributional, and contextual analysis of more than 17,000 obsidian artifacts from the ancient Maya site of Caracol, Belize ( Figure 1 1 ). The main goal is to show that obsidian was an essential material for the s Here social reproduction refers to the to obtain and use obsidian in their daily li ves as well as during historical, event ful rituals. W ide spread continued provisioning and use helps to show just how alike most residential practices were and that these practices endured for multiple generations Additionally, o bsidian was a non human material that moved, that followed certa in pathways and that was part of a human network of situations that ultimately aided in defining an ancient Maya identity both regionally and locally. Through exploring and working toward this itinerary of obsidian (see Hahn and Weiss 2013; Joyce and Gill espie 2015) I reconstruct a network of social, historical, and physical relationships. To be sure, the network that is explored through the itinerary of obsidian may have been established and coexisted alongside broader exchange relationships involving ot her material classes (e.g., ceramics, jadeite, and shells) or artifact types (e.g., manos and metates). Despite the exclusion of researching other materials, the movement and exchange of obsidian was indeed vast and included many actors. Obsidian was embe dded in daily and ritual life and may have embodied a cycle of life and death. In many ways, obsidian as it moved from quarries through regional exchange networks to then be locally crafted, used, and deposited, constructed reaffirmed notions of anci ent Maya identity and personhood. Obsidian in these ways

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22 was an active non human player in a process that reproduced ancient Maya domestic, ritual, and political economic life. Figure 1 1 Overview of Mesoamerica, regional areas, location of Caracol, and important sites of Classic Period obsidian research mentioned in the text. Obsidian had a socially and physically transformative life as it moved between places with the aid of human agents. Studies of obsidian offer an oppo rtunity to study multiple places or stages along an itinerary while reconstructing a vast network of social relationships. Obsidian can be sourced to known quarries by recording and analyzing its unique geochemical signatures. Both crafting and household a ctivities left macroscopic (and microscopic) traces on glassy surfaces. And potential meanings of certain artifact types for the ancient Maya may be indexically linked with their archaeological context. Like human biographies or life histories, obsidian had an origin place (e.g., a

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23 quarry) or a birth place and a place of rest (e.g., depositional context) or a death place but unlike human biographies, obsidian itineraries were not necessarily linear, but could be fractal, fragmentary, and traverse different temporal and spatial trajectories. As I will argue, some obsidian objects may have had long periods of stasis prior to being deployed in rituals thus introducing tempora l components to craft production practice and workshop maintenance Obsidian can be broken apart through knapping practices or through intentional or unintentional breakage. Analysis includes these separate pieces as they follow different paths or stay together as indicated by a contextual and distributional analysis They can be re cycled or transformed into other objects as they moved In a way, situating a study of obsidian within an itinerary approach compliments a rigorous chane opratoire approach. Obsidian is a durable material that does not break down in an archaeological context. (Its itinerary continues even through this research and the production of knowledge about the ancient Maya past.) Obsidian itineraries could be punctuated depending on various human projects they enabled and maintained. As I will demonstrate, obs idian objects were continually being negotiated as people prepared, conducted, or resolved daily tasks and ritual events. Thus obsidian, like other durable materials was an important economic commodity and a frequently ritualized material because of its im portance in everyday life. The broad flow of this document is designed to guide the reader through a series of itineraries (see Hahn and Weiss 2013; Joyce and Gillespie 2015) moments and l ment in human projects w hile also providing a model for obsidian exchange explored using archaeological data. By reconstructing

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24 attribute analysis, and an elemental sourcing study, the research focus es on specific moments and places in the overall movement and transformation of obsidian from quarries to various archaeological contexts. The movement of obsidian can be modeled at two general levels that includes a variety of places and human agent s. T he first level research aims identi fy and trace obsidian from various quarries to depositional contexts within Caracol ( Figure 1 2 ). Obsidian from particular sources could have passed through other sites prior to arriving at local workshops and/or locations of exchange within the city (i.e., for redistribution) perhaps from prior obsidian workshops. In this model, research can test whether or not obsidian crafts could have moved from various locations (e.g., o ther sites, local workshops) in various forms (e.g., blades, biface, tools, eccentrics) through marketplace or non marketplace exchange mechanisms before use and deposition at city center and/or at smaller sized ho usehold groups throughout the 200 sqkm mapped settlement area (A. Chase and D. Chase 2016). Analyses of various broad depositional contexts and their distributions are employed to help operationalize how and in what form obsidian was most commonly used and deposited. Distributional analysis will provide a measure of how widely obsidian objects circulated and argue through what type(s) of exchange mechanism These four contexts refuse construction fills, burials, and caches are described and justified bel ow as I summarize the obsidian research objectives and questions at Caracol, Belize. In the contextual analysis (see C hapters 5 and 7 ), refuse and construction fill contexts are lumped into a single contextual category refuse/fill

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25 because in many cases architectural construction fills have yielded substantial refuse deposits ( Johnson et al. 2015 ). Many of these refuse deposits that are incorporated into the construction fill of structures have contributed to a more detailed understanding of household li thic production for extra household distribution ( Johnson 2008; Pope 1994 ). Figure 1 2 A model for obsidian movement as it relates to research at Caracol, Belize. At the second level, research assesses the movement and tra nsformation of obsidian by focusing on workshop crafting strategies in the reduction or transformation of obsidian into formed and shaped objects. When obsidian arrived at local crafting workshops, obsidian was transformed into two broad technological cate gories: blades and non blades. Traditional models follow an idealized reduction sequence or chane

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26 opratoire for the production of blades and the associated non blade debris (e.g., macro pieces, rejuvenation debitage, exhausted cores) for producing blades Additionally, these same reduction sequences focus on the technological strategies of blade production and the kinds of objects (i.e., reduction debitage, rejuvenation debitage, and exhausted cores) to determine if variations in production strategies exi sted (Hirth and Andrews 2002). Separate research then assesses how obsidian was distributed to consumers. Distributional studies typically focus on control and access to blades specifically (see Aoyama 1999) whereas this research will trace the distributi on of all obsidian objects. Obsidian research at Caracol does adapt previous reduction organizational models and definitions (see Hirth 2006), but differs by highlighting the flexibility or fractal nature of other non blade objects also moving out from wor kshops to consumers for various purposes. Non obsidian crafting consumers may have used specific (retouched) obsidian forms or stages in the reduction sequence differently (Hruby 2007). For example, was macro debitage, rejuvenation debitage, and/or exhaust ed cores curated at workshops with the explicit intent to later use these as domestic tools or perhaps deploying them in rituals? Therefore, the organizational scheme employed in this research is technological, temporal, and contextual while consider ing an y obsidian object, not just blades, as they may have been use d in daily or ritual practice. Each place (e.g., quarrying, moments along a trade path in route to workshops or sites, and further movement to local consumers) is discussed with the intention of establish ing specific relationships among objects, people, places, and times during

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27 analysis of crafting obsidian that include s the reduction of raw material to produce b lades and other related obsidian objects what relationships and knowledge did crafters have in order to procure raw materials and make highly standardized blade tools and ritualized objects like eccentrics? Can we determine who they communicate with in o rder to obtain raw materials? Or determine where might these communications have taken place? What was the history and nature of these relations? In terms of actual transformation of raw materials, what skills did individuals o r apprentices have to learn t o become crafters? Who were their crafts intended to provision? Who did crafters possibly cooperate/communicate with to facilitate provisioning? Although some of these queries are beyond the scope of this work many are explored within and are intended to position obsidian research within broad areas of socially important issues. The places and contexts that are presented in this document have been selected to present a relational and inclusive study of the organization of a lithic industry where questions like the above are posed to better understand how obsidian was embedded in everyday life and the production of a Caracol identity. Another aim is to situate obsidian population. I intend to demonstrate how obsidian was used by nearly everyone at Caracol for daily and eventful practices. Because this is a broad research objective, the project attempt s to study obsidian at Caracol from specific archaeologically investigated context s that have shown to be important moments in the use, movement, and transformation of obsidian. This should enable a more informed discussion of the role of crafters and of obsidian in the ancient Maya past. These contexts are summarized below as well as a summary outline of C hapters 2 through 9

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28 Outline of Chapters : Chapter 2 This approach forms the fundamental framework and the scalar nature of In order to utilize the a pproach, I will review various T he theoretical framework is articulated with a discussion of methods useful in exploring the movement and transformation of obsidian and by reconstructing the pathways or routes that obsidian traveled which then provide an opportunity to reveal and discuss dimensions of ancient Maya social life. Chapter 3 reviews the site of Caracol, Belize and presents a bro ad understanding of Caracol by which to situate the current obsidian research project. In the subsections of this review specific research questions are posed. For example, the broad settlement of Caracol is described followed by background literature to s ituate viewed by discussing the breadth of materials coming in and flowing through the site and questions address the particularities of obsidian importation This is fo llowed by an understanding of the organization of the local economy and exchange as seen through current research on local marketplace exchange during the Classic period (A.D. 250 900). These more macro level concerns then transition into what is currently posited regarding the organization of craft production, specifically concerning multi crafting and the potential identities of flaked stone specialists. This identity is viewed through shared production practices. Finally, a broad discussion of ritual pra ctices at the site is described Ritual at Caracol is a complex topic to synthesize completely; therefore, the discussion is presented through a summary of materials and

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29 places that were continually ritualized at particular architectural structures (e.g., eastern residential shrine buildings). The goal of this type of review is to simply describe the regular and often predic table associations certain materials share with ritualized spaces. It is not intended as a grand narrative regarding ancient Maya ritu al, but rather a directed review that is based in a materials contextual analysis. Chapter 3 also provides a brief presentation of the obsidian collection as it was known prior to this research project. A summar y of obsi dian is presented Most of these references pertain to the use of obsidian in various residential rituals while others describe larger, more numerous obsidian deposits associated with city center burial tomb chambers. After this short review, the exclusio ns and limitations of the research is presented. This is done with the explicit intent of considering any bias in the data and to address any sampling issues that might affect interpretations. Exclusions in the research are also specified and justified. Fo r example, I will not attempt to relate each obsidian object/assemblage to other material objects or assemblages in every case; the catalogue is simply too complex for a dissertation project. This project does, however, help to initiate such a project by a ssembling all the obsidian data collected over the 32 year project history and relating them in a digital catalog to their locational, contextual, and temporal context. Once these relationships are understood, further studies can then target specific objec ts and their assemblages in certain contexts at particular times. As I wrote this work other artifacts were being recovered and paper records were being entered into a master digital database system. Chapter 4 discusses obsidian handheld por table energy dispersed x ray

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30 fluoresce ( or HHpXRF hereafter) sourcing from Caracol, Belize. I present findings from 1,768 assayed artifacts. The s election of this 10% sample was design to understand the various sources and forms that moved into Caracol, and also to exp lore any chronological changes in resource exploitation /importation into Caracol proper This sample is comparable to other sourcing studies in the Maya area ( Moholy Nagy et al. 2013 ). Sourcing obsidian artifacts to particular quarries also underscores an understanding of the starting stage and location(s) in an itinerary and enables Caracol to be connected to the ancient regional obsidian exchange landscape. Recent models have excluded Caracol, but now data are available. I present the chronological import ation of obsidian into Caracol as well as discuss the synchronic distribution at recovery contexts. I will show that these two dimensional data will allow for a broad understanding of obsidian trade patterns, internal site exchange mechanisms, and ( now tha t data from Caracol are available ) a revisiting of existing regional models. C hapter 5 contends with what happens to obsidian as it moves into craft production workshops. This chapter follows importation because issues of crafting organization and reducti on technique (s) before being circulated to households through some local exchange mechanism(s). Chapter 5 serves two broad purposes. First, it presents the analytical schema used to re evaluate the bulk of obsi dian from Caracol (see Table 1 1 for a summary or findings) and thus provides a standard for future laboratory analyses of Caracol obsidian. This scheme is adapted from other obsidian studies in an effort to create commonalities a nd comparative criteria between the Caracol collection and other research projects (Aoyama 1999; Clark 1997, 1998 ; Clark and Bryant 1997; Clark and Lee 1979; Hirth

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31 2006; Hruby 2007; Trachman 2002). A major hurdle of this project is to standardize the analy sis and implement analytical conventions in order to build the dataset after each field season Previous scholarship has critiqued the use of non standard or less than transparent analysis schema (Clark 2003:23). Therefore, I have made every effort to make artifact analysis transparent by providing technical definitions and images. It is worth restating, the analysis strategies and definitions are adapted from previous research to create continuity and comparability. I show the reduction strategies used by crafters to produce or transform obsidian into objects for consumers. Therefore, knowledge and technique of crafters is discussed in terms of prior research. Table 1 1 Summary of analyzed obsidian artifacts from Caracol, Beliz e. Technological Stage/Type n= % of Analyzed % of Total Percussion: Core Shaping 1,780 9.96 9.11 Macro 418 2.34 2.14 Small Percussion 1,362 7.62 6.97 Pressure: Blade Production 10,832 60.64 55.42 Initial Series 4,008 22.44 20.50 Final Series 6,791 38 .02 34.74 Other 33 0.18 0.17 Rejuvenation: Core Maintenance 2,139 11.97 10.94 Core Tops 203 1.14 1.04 Core Sections 100 0.56 0.51 Platform Prep. 1,193 6.68 6.10 Distal/Lateral 592 3.31 3.03 Other 51 0.29 0.26 Blade Cores and Frags 749 4.15 3.80 No n Blade Core Related Objects 54 0.30 0.28 Undiagnostics 2,314 12.97 11.85 Total Analyzed 17,868 100 91.38 Total Unanalyzed 1,724 8.82 Total Recovered ** 19,592 100.00 *Unanalyzed sample explained in Chapter 3; **as of 2015 Second, C hapter 5 also summaries the importance of artifact contextual analysis and distributions to introduce shared access of particular obsidian objects and their contextual associations. In order to accomplish both of these goals, I present the raw

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32 analysis criteria with de finitions, counts, percentages, and weights as well as a preliminary contextual analysis for each broad reduction technique by artifact type. For example, the reduction sequence or chane opratoire of obsidian blade production begins by presenting macro c ore shaping percussion techniques. The subsequent subsections deal with more fine pressure techniques, percussion core rejuvenation techniques, and finally with percussion strategies to destroy, terminate, or decommission exhausted cores. Each stage is pre sented and then a discussion of their contextual distributions is described. These contextual associations and the probability or t test distribution ( p = 0.05) of recovering certain technologies from par ticular contexts is presented as background for C hap ter 8 that contends with both ritual and quotidian uses of obsidian at Caracol. Unlike other sites where workshops have been found ( Neives and Libby 1976 ; Olson 1994 ), no obsidian workshop has yet been located at Caracol, so the construction of a detailed chane opratoire is a result of understanding an aggregation of multiple assemblages. Through this analysis, substantial evidence of local obsidian working is evident even though no workshops are currently known. It is important to note here that investig ations at Maya sites rarely expose obsidian workshops and only a few studies expose primary refuse associated with workshop activities ( see Olson 1994 ). The bulk of research on the organization of ancient Maya obsidian blade production is derived from deta iled analyses of secondary ritualized contexts like those presented in this document (i.e., deposits associated with vaulted tombs, other burials, or caches) or other less ritualized contexts (i.e., test excavation units adjacent to residential architectur e). For example, I will discuss the details of obsidian reduction to produce

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33 Both of these context date to the Classic period, so the bulk of materials to infer production practices are controlled temporally. Similar contexts have been investigated from sites such as Tikal (Moholy Nagy 1994, 1997 ) and Dos Hombres (Trachman 2002). I draw broad interpretations at the end of C hapter 6 by making comparison to other studies of cr afting organization to determine if obsidian crafters at Caracol reduced obsidian with similar or significantly different reduction strategies. Chapter 6 diverges from technological descriptions and the preliminary contextual associations (which is taken up again in C hapter 8 ), to contend with how obsidian moved from the crafting workshop to the broader population. This is done through mapping and interpreting the site wide distributions of the technological ly distinct artifact types described in C hapter 6 Which households had access to blades, cores, points, or the like? And how much was accessed in comparison to other kinds of flaked stone used as tools? Essentially, I show how the bulk of obsidian moved through markets at Caracol to create a pattern of relative equality of access. This is supported through three tested hypotheses. It is important to note that markets have been argued to exist prior to this research ( see A. Chase 1998; A. Chase and D. Chase 2001) so a goal herein is to test whether or no t markets influenced the distributions of obsidian rather than to test for the presence of markets Before theses interpretations can be made, however, I review the appropriate literature and discuss some of the lingering, yet important concerns, over whet her or not the ancient Maya possessed markets for local or regional exchange. This chapter is also situated strategically because the local exchange mechanism is the next stage in the movement of obsidian out of workshops

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34 into the hands of consumers. It al so foreshadows and lends evidence to show how important obsidian crafters were to the local markets and those who obtained blades and other obsidian goods used in household settings. Although markets appear to be critical for provisioning households at Car acol with goods, I do introduce the likelihood of more interpersonal exchange mechanism between crafter and household by beginning my discussion of the ritualization of obsidian in caches and burials. Chapter 7 presents obsidian data from household quotid ian deposits (i.e., refuse / construction fills), burials, and caches. These four broadly defined depositional contexts represent a next stage in the itinerary of obsidian which occurred after procurement of obsidian from a market or possibly some other non market interaction. Refuse and construction fill discard locations are evidence for domestic tool use and not necessarily evidence of ritual behavior. C onstruction fills (which can include secondary deposits of domestic refuse) make up the bulk of areas e xcavated during residential archaeological investigations and most often is the matrix that surrounds burials and caches. This matrix is therefore likely made up of redeposited domestic refuse to add volume to structures during initial construction or addi tional modifications. In some cases, particular structures went through regular modification that corresponded with calendrical or death related events ( A. Chase and D. Chase 2013; D. Chase and A. Chase 2011 ; Johnson et al. 2014). Therefore, modifications can be timed and likely occurred over multiple generations at a single residential dwelling (see also A. Chase and D. Chase 2013) Fill is required to cover older surfaces, and add volume and footing for new ones. In addition to these types of matrices, re fuse can also occur on floors of some building. V acant terrain excavations may also recover refuse deposits

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35 adjacent to residential structures. The amount of obsidian from refuse contexts, as well as ritual contexts, contributes to a quantitative analysis of domestic consumption. The ritualization of obsidian in burial and caches at households is presented separately from daily tool use later in the same chapter. Burial and cache contexts are those deposits that are situated within or situated next to const ruction fill areas and redeposited domestic refuse recorded during excavations. These contexts can be defined as social events different from the everyday and/or intentional deposits that often yield dateable materials. Chapter 8 concludes the work by sta ting that, while research on previously collected artifact assemblages can be difficult to situate in current models and theories of exchange or the social organization of craft specialization, there is much knowledge t o acquire from an approach that is as comprehensive as possible that follows obsidians from quarries to consumers. The study demonstrates the importance of obsidian for the ancient Caracol Maya and how crafters helped to integrate the local economy through their knowledge and socioeconomic connections via markets and inter personal relations. Through an itinerary approach I contend that obsidian for the Maya at Caracol, and arguably other sites, pervaded many parts of life. Ancient peoples were dependent on the obsidian crafts as much as on those who produced them. I summarize by explaining that through my analysis the network of relations that the crafter and their crafts were involved in aided in reproducing daily and ritual life. Crafters provisioned households with materials they needed t o reproduce household ritual traditions as well as their quotidian practices. Unlike other studies, this project views crafters and those consuming crafts as part of a collective where communication and

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36 cooperation is given priority as opposed to models we re hierarchical power was employed Prior research at Caracol provides support for this cooperative and integrative model (A. Chase and D. Chase 2009). Power relations influenced ancient Maya economics, politics, and rituals, but at Caracol a different pic ture continues to emerge where sharing and integration appears to be omnipresent in much of daily and ritual life.

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37 CHAPTER 2 THEORY AND METHOD Below I review complementary approaches (i.e., life history, object biography, and itinerary) that guide this re search and positions the following analyses of obsidian within a broader conceptual framework. After a concise literature review, a model for obsidian movement and transformation is outlined. This proposed model confronts obsidian at various stages (or seg ments) along its itinerary and in so doing highlights are the routes by which things circulate in and out of places where they come to rest or an itinerary highlights the non methods of analyzing obs idian artifacts to understand ancient Maya economics, politics, domestic activities, and ritual practices, also attempts to imagine the route by which obsidian traveled and was transformed. Transformation can refer to physical changes as well as changes in social meaning, value, or relevance in society. Obsidian possesses many unique properties that afford, facilitate, and enable it to be active in multiple places during human lives both in the past and present. Through analyses of multiple properties or at tributes (e.g., color, elemental composition, and formed shape) archaeologists can understand aspects of human behavior via obsidian ( see Schiffer 1999; Skibo and Schiffer 2008 ). Some properties are useful to determine procurement habits from specific geoc hemical sources, while technological attributes help archaeologists understand how skilled (or unskilled) flint knappers transformed raw materials, through subtractive methods, into usable and very sharp tools. These formed

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38 objects could be traded with oth ers or used by their makers for a variety of tasks. There are numerous examples of these studies, but the dynamic being introduced here is that obsidian geochemical (or visual), spatial, and technological analysis has the ability to reconstruct certain rel ationships humans had with their geologic landscape, other trade partners, as well as to describe aspects of crafting knowledge critical for the reduction of stone into formed objects. The movement of obsidian artifacts can link together places, people, an d activities as well as inform human behavior. After sourcing obsidian and assessing the archaeological (or cultural) context, at least two stable points along a route can be plotted in the movement of stone. According to both life history and object biog raphy approaches ( Gosden and Marshall 1999; Joy 2009 ), the source can represent a beginning, an origin, or a birth place and the archaeological recovery context an ending point or a death. For example, finding obsidian blade artifacts in secondary refuse d eposits from architectural construction fills under plastered floors at ancient Maya dwellings demonstrates one end point during an life trajectory. Because of its color and texture, it may likely be geochemically sourced to highland Guatemala Analysis of a few of these blades may show lateral use related edge damage, but attributes on their distal ends show small pressure flaking extending over previous lateral use. Through observing these different use related surfaces an apparent change in use life is identified. Tools can be discarded and then reused, recycled, or experience a reincarnation as something else. These use related attributes may also highlight behaviors by household inhabitants to work particular materials as part of quotidian or daily life. Another excavated space within this same structure above and in association

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39 with what appears to be a line of stone, perhaps capping a human burial, exposed a crushed or smashed ceramic urn. It seems crushed with the weight of soil, roots, a nd time. Emerging out from the sherds of the crushed vessel are black shiny stones. After brushing these stones free of matrix, it is apparent some are notched exhausted polyhedral blade cores. Other exhausted blade cores from the cache are mere fragments. After further brushing and trimming roots, more obsidian objects emerge. Later lab analysis shows these to be debitage or waste flakes from rejuvenating blade cores and initial efforts to shape macrocores an early stage in core preparation. These object related damage on them. Even closer examination of the cache obsidian assemblage reveals two of exhausted blades cores fragments from the cache once thought to be two items, actually refit. It is i mmediately apparent that these two pieces form the medial and near complete distal portion of the blade core; however, the proximal pressure platform is missing and lateral percussion scars on the medial segment indicates it was intentionally removed. This third core fragment is not among the other pieces recovered as part of the cache deposits. Attributes on the medial and distal core segments shows they were separated from each other through direct percussion as the core sat on an anvil. These acts of sec tioning the core essentially destroyed the already exhausted core. The above vignette illustrates one type of archaeological encounter, which at first glance appears to be two assemblages with different types of obsidian artifacts extensively utilized bl ades from refuse /fill and non blade items from the cache. Both life history and object biography approaches may trace each within its own linear trajectory,

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40 there is the life (and after life) of blades and there is the life (and after life) of non blades. Situated within Maya obsidian studies, however, it is clear that each artifact is a knappable stone (cf. Hruby 2007). The chane opratoire analytical method ensures we keep t rack of these different yet technologically interconnected pieces. Each was removed during a different stage of core preparation, reduction, and rejuvenation in the process of blade tool production. Some of these artifacts show macroscopic evidence of quot idian use wear, while others, potentially retouched to form other shapes, were ritualized during their inclusion in a lidded cache vessel that was placed to potentially mark a burial feature. Ritualized actions do not necessarily relate to religious or sym bolic action, but rather refer to repeated practices, using like kinds of objects, that are embedded in historical processes. Faced with these artifacts and contexts, how can we make sense of them to discover something new or to test previous interpretatio ns about similar contexts excavated elsewhere? Certainly contextual and artifact attribute analysis is a necessary life post production which can help to inform past human tool use behaviors? Or do we begin earlier to determine tool production practices or the transformation of materials through employing an operational chane technique ( Edmonds 1990; Hirth and Andrews 2002; Sellet 1993 )? Or is it to study the pathways, routes, or itineraries that moved and transformed (i.e., shaped) these objects to the point of archaeological discovery? Archaeologists can contribute to any of these research objectives. I advocate that we seek to understand the routes or itineraries by which materials moved and we re transformed to better

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41 inform how and why people, places, and things are linked in complex networks. Objects of course cannot necessarily move by themselves and therefore understanding people still remains an ever present goal. Regional research using ge ochemical obsidian signatures enables us to encounter obsidian after it has been formed through geological processes. (Although we could go back further with the geological circumstances that led to the formation of obsidian deposits. We could also begin b y understanding that some obsidian sources were exploited for millennia before even more rock was quarried during the Maya Classic period). While traveling away from quarries, an obsidian block or nodule may be transformed at other sites into smaller sizes efficient for travel via a land and/or water route. Sometime later, obsidian arrived at yet another site (i.e., consumer sites) and perhaps directly to those skilled craftspeople that transformed it from reduced nodule or macrocore into tools. Those bring ing obsidian to consumer sites would have possessed the knowledge of what the intended crafters and consumers had planned. Potential merchants operating between quarries and consumer sites also had to be knowledgeable operators (and prospective itinerate c rafters [Hirth 2013]) accountable to both regional producers, local consumers, and potentially those elites sponsoring places of exchange ( Tokovinine and Beliaev 2013). Simply put, those traveling between quarries and sites would ensure obsidian macrocores were large enough to be of value to crafters so that local crafters could meet the demands of their local markets to provision households. Workshops are yet another place where we can encounter obsidian. Workshops are transformative loci where significant reduction and material fragmentation occurred.

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42 Each step in the reduction process can be imagined as another place along a route. Each step representing the actions of skilled labor to shape cores, rejuvenate errors, and produce blade tools. The now fragm ented or fractal core is visible by viewing its now exhausted state and through the accumulation of waste debitage and blades. Each process of blade tool production. Tools an d potentially other obsidian objects then circulated through an exchange place (e.g., market), where even more material and people interact. Household which are obsidian, b y exchanging other wares for items they wish to possess but do not directly produce. At these confluent places of exchange, different routes cross and are therefore linked, setting in motion (or maintaining) relationships between producer and consumer and exchange of this/these object(s) for that/these object(s). Consumers after returning home make use of their eventful acts. They can be used right away, curated for later, or further exchanged with others not present at the m arket that particular day. After use, these objects are discarded or intentionally deposited by their users. Archaeologists can term these The situations described above do not encompass all the points at which objects pass through and although this route may be filled with gaps (Joyce and Gillespie 2015:3), Joyce (2015:29) reminds us that, Even when we cannot be sure of the entire route, seeking to trace a ries forces us to ask where it came from and where it might be going and stops us from ignoring the current segment of its itinerary or from treating that segment as discontinuous from its past.

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43 Life History, Object Biography, and Itinerary: A Short Review of Theory and Method Analyses of flaked stone artifacts commonly employs linear and semi cyclical schematics that show stages at which materials go through physically (and culturally) transformative steps. These schematics illustrate a reductive sequence or operational chain of events. Frdric Sellet (1993) positions the reduction sequence of stone the actual steps preformed to manufacture a tool within the broader chane opratoire approach. For Sellet (1993) and others (see Bleed 2001; Chazan 2009; Mauss 1973; Leroi Gourhan 1964; Tostevin 2011) the chane opratoire method is just as social as it is technological. Sellet (1993:106) states, t he chane opratoire aims to describe and understand all cultural transformations that a specific raw material had to go through. It is a chronological segmentation of the actions and mental processes required in the manufacture of an artifact [an object] and in its maintenance into the technological system of a prehistoric group. The initial chain is the raw mate rials procurement, and the final stage is the discard of the artifact. Right away with this definition, lithic analysists in particular are granted a at least of four scalar analytical levels: (1) raw material sourcing; (2) post procurement reduction prac tices; (3) tool use (and reuse); and (4) tool discard/depositional behavior. This approach, although often implicit, concerns itself with the use life or life history of a singular object. Therefore, reduction sequences, use related attributes, and tool di scard studies follow one item during its use life (Gosden and Marshall 1999:169; LaMotta and Schiffer 2001:21; Tringham 1994:175) even though each followed item is part of a larger process. The use life approach foreshadowed the positioning of artifacts al ong linear trajectories not unlike those of humans. An object has a birth place and a death place a nodule was birthed from a quarry, a core from a nodule, a blade from a core, a tool

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44 from a blade, another tool from a recycled blade. These artifact life histories were fundamental to behavior chains (La Motta and Schiffer 2001:21). Because the archaeological record is always incomplete, it is seldom possible to reconstruct an entire life history, so in this regard LaMotta and Schiffer (2001:21 24) explain One of these segmen ts is tool manufacture, another is use, and still another is tool deposition. Behavioral chains as a broader theoretical approach still center on following singular objects, yet consider them within larger social and physical fields of research. Within each behavioral chain segment (defined by the analyst), an object can have multiple lives and multiple deaths as there was an effort to emphasize that an item may be discarded, abandoned, or lost, but that later it may be encountered and reclaimed, recycle d, or reused (see LaMotta and Schiffer 2001:21 Figure 2.2; Schiffer 1976:46). In this regard some objects are reincarnations (Joy 2009:541). During the biography of an obje ct it may have been deliberately broken or fragmented. A fragment of a whole object may be deposited during an event while the other piece(s) whole object as well as to the act and place of its fragmentation (see Chapman and Gaydarska 2007). Through the consideration of these fractal object biographies the metaphor of birth life death afterlife was continually likened and linked to human lives.

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45 Objects were assumed to li ve out the lives of their makers and index or stand in for human activities, local histories, and specific places (Joyce 2007; Preucel and Bau e r properties. (1986) and Appaduri (1986) respectfully infused archaeology with a critical theoretical and methodological framework as well. Specifically, this framework helped to chart the changing mean ing or value of particular objects during its respective biography. total [emphasis in original] trajectory from production, through exchange/distribution he was discussing singular objects and how they move in and out of fields of commoditization ( Fontijn 2013:187). Kopytoff (1986:66 67) while proposing we follow objects in motion equated the biographies of things to those of people. Clark (2007:31) likewise re thought aspects of craft specialization and the economic/non economic value of crafted objects calls for also Clark 2004). Clark (2007:31) states grained analyses of attributes of many different kinds of objects [emphasis mine], with particular attention to techniques of by Clark there is continued emphasis on how object biographies, yet varied, are equated to human biographies; the lives of objects inform us about the lives of their makers.

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46 personh ood of their makers, givers, and receivers (Hoskins 1998; Joyce 2015:11; Mauss 1954; Weiner 1992) and are therefore active in the lives of humans. Joyce (2015) and others (Hans and Weiss 2013; Joyce and Gillespie 2015) argue that although the object biogr aphy and life history metaphor has contributed to archaeological studies of artifacts and whole classes of materials generally, the metaphor by default is prefigured to treat objects like people. A major shortcoming of object biography, as Hahn and Weiss ( 2013:7) point out is that, m oments like birth are difficult to pinpoint, and similar problems death remodeling of other objects, and objects that have been buried receive much m ore attention up on rediscovery. The object biography approach prefigures when analysts start the use life of an object as it was finished or nearly finished (Joyce 2015:27). More generally, however, a life history approach could describe the life of quarried nodules to their initial stages of reduction into macrocores. Now a macrocore, the nodule is no longer in existence. The macrocore then takes on a life of its own only liv ing until it is even further reduced to create an even more refined shape. The debitage produce d from this process may take on a life of its own as well. Other products produced during core reduction (e.g., blades) can have their own lives within the hands of tool users. This process continues until cores are exhausted. As studies have shown, these exhausted cores are then ( Hirth 2006:78 ). Each item involved in the process of tool production can have a life of their own and some may even have an after life or be reincarnated as something else. It is up to the analyst to relate these seemingly separate analytical artifacts each with their own lives to a broader industry of blade making. In other words, and in terms of

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47 obsidian objects do not necessarily lead l ives like those of humans. An itinerary approach does not assume to know or determine a beginning nor an end, but rather sees objects as mobile, passing between multiple places and handled by many individuals (Joyce 2015:29) as part of a network or meshwor k of relations in the flow of matter (Ingold 2012). Therefore, each object produced as part of blade tool manufacture is never disparate it is forever enchained or linked to the prior places and transformations, each with their potential future. For exam ple, Haskell (2015) analyzes the itinerary of a chunk of obsidian in to Tarascan o ntology, the chunk of obsidian embodied the guardian deity Curucaueri a central Mex ican deity. In discussing the fractal itinerary of obsidian Haskell (2015) explains that the deity the single obsidian chuck or core was, according to historical narratives, present within each obsidian blade removed from the core. These blades now separate idols would circulate and come to rest at sites, thus creating ideological network. Haskell (2015:77) explains however, that treating each as a separate idol or object, after being split off of a core, would neglect their boarder historicity and connectivity. He goes on, The multiple idols were not merely objects unconnected to anything else; they were and had been constructed to be, the same thing. The idols in their collectivity were all one single thing because (Heskell 2015:77). Similarly, flint can be a reliquary or receptacle for scared subjects in much the same ways objects can index other relations, other objects, deities, or people (Joyce

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48 2012). Pohl (1998:188) notes: an object dedicated to the goddess Citlalicue Cihuacoatl personification of the Milky Way who guarded the first level of heaven. As an avatar for Cihuacoatl she was also invoked by midwives and curers together with Chalchiuhtlicue the water goddess. Citlalicue Cihuacoatl once gave birth to a knife blade that she treated as her child by keeping it in a cradle. When her sons [including Quetzalcoatl, and Tezcatlipoca] learn ed of the object, they were enraged and hurled it to earth. The flint struck at Chicomoztoc the seven caves of creation, and 1,600 gods burst forth from its body. Here another central Mexican historical narrative of creation is embodied in flake stone. The myth references a female, a birth/death, and a curation, while keeping the knife in a bundle or a cradle. Furthermore, the account involves jealous siblings or other figures with an aim to destroy another, and once the act of destruction occurs (flakin g stone), the knife gives birth to other deities or causes the creation of gods. Each god then goes on to live their unique existence, yet being forever linked to the original object and act. The itinerary approach allows for seeming singular objects to st ay connected to temporally and spatially distant, sometime mythical, places. Just as illustrative in the above accounts is the relationship of the materiality to flaked stone. Conchoidal fracture and the physical act of the shattering of stone is central t o the construction of the myths, the act of creation, and the associated gods and events. The materiality or physical properties of these objects are what allow for the intersection and relationships with other culturally constructed gods and other humans, or as Jones (2004:330) states, It [Materiality] promotes the view that the material qualities of the environment actively affect how they are perceived, used and symbolized, and importantly it emphasizes how those material properties are enrolled in t he life projects of humans. Furthermore, it promotes a historical perspective to the processes of interaction between person and envir onment.

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49 Conchoidal fracture is a fundamental material property that affords obsidian and flint (or chert) a place within h istorical and mythological narratives. Other properties may include a general shape, a fine cutting edge, a color, or some other physical attribute attributes take center stage or affect change depending on unique circumstance or field Keane 2005 ). As an object moves and is transformed it may retain all that happened before and all that may happen in the future. In objects exist their materials properties as well as their accumulated and potential histories (i.e., individual life history or biography, as well as their broader fact or of [this] copresence, or what we might call bundling Bundling in this regard may help to explain in part why certain objects can become ritualized or be subject to ritualization because of their recognized social and historical depth and importance. Here ritual is treated as eventful, as a practice set apart from the nominal ebb and flow of daily life ( Conn ol ly 2013 ). According to Bradley concerns of society, and a process by which certain parts of life are provided with an added emph loci where humans can acknowledge a shared local history with one another and potentially recognize that they too are enchained in the itineraries of non human objects. I have tried to emphasize the depth and complexities of seeing non human

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50 objects as active players in human lives. An itinerary approach helps to better articulate not have to know these two points to discuss how an obje ct as part of a network operated with other objects, materials, places, and people to transform and/or maintain human social life. And like DeLanda ( 1997 ) purports with his non linear history, Joyce o understanding how things work both on the intimate scale of the human life span and on the vast scales of geology, perspective is an outgrowth of recent material cult ure studies, a reaction against humanist analysis of objects (i.e., to de material world independent from human perception and our existence (Bennett 2010 Dolphijn and van der Tuin 2012:39; Knappet and Malafouris 2008; Olsen 2010 ; see also Joyce and Gillespie 2015:5 9). Toward an Itinerary of Obsidian: Reconstructing Its Movem ents, Routes, and Transformations At a multiscalar level, regional obsidian trade, local use/depositional patterns, and artifacts in the hands of an analysts represents stages along an itinerary. However, while discussing these as well as other selected points in between, the movement of obsidian can be seen as fractal and not exclusively linear as some biographical or life history approaches trace. It is in this fractal, non linearity that a biographical approach to the study of obsidian movement is insu fficiently comprehensive. Like the properties of flaked stone, the study of the reduction and movement of obsidian is full of pieces that get spread out over an area through various intentional and unintentional (human)

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51 activities. T he study of this fragme ntation and movement will help to show how obsidian was integral for both quotidian and ritual life at an ancient Maya city. As obsidian moved and was transformed it increased in socioeconomic importance and connected various disparate populations formin g a wider cultural identity. While I present a number of one, but rather aim to develop the complexities of obsidian movements and how it was entangled with the lives of humans. Assessing Regional Exchange through an Itinerary Approach yet it traveled significant distances prior this arrival. Using HHpXRF and technological analysis some obsid ian arrived as macrocores those objects that were initially shaped by those working at a quarry or those somehow associated with early stages of reduction in preparation for transport while others were imported as finished objects. As others have shown macrocores from the Guatemalan highlands were normally transported into the southern lowlands ( Braswell 2010; Braswell and Glascock 2007; Moholy Nagy et al. 2013 overall size and weight of macroc ores and the knowledge and skill of transporters. Multiple scholars have speculated on these possible routes ( Demarest et al. 2014 ). These routes likely included crossing land as well as water (i.e. both river and sea) and would have passed by or through p otential competing polities. Obsidian could have been a common denominator H owever i t may have been a material that structured alliances rather than competitions. Braswell (2010) cites at least one case where this may not be true, but it appears from t he Caracol data and sites

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52 northward, that obsidian was fairly ubiquitous ( e.g., Trachman 2002; Meierhoff et al. 2012 ). It was not significantly transformed until it arrived at consumer sites, although the amount moving northward was likely contingent on th ose receiving it first ( Braswell 2010 ). Because of the network of people working (and learning) together to ensure Wenger 1991) to emerge as he assesses the movement of geological resources within an Andean context. In regional exchange from geological sources to consumer sites, communities of practice help to model human cooperation, lear ning, and sharing of particular practices that everyone may use and benefit from. This concept also helps to link the identity of those seeming disparate regional merchants to those anticipating the arrival of more obsidian. exchange relations potentially at workshops, it traveled extensively, being cared for along its journey with those looking to provision others and extend their regional reach. If it broke along the way, particular relations could be at risk. It may have been exchanged multiple times, all the while building socioeconomic value. Its color, texture, and other surface features may have provided selling points as it was transported and exchanged : thus its mat eriality could have structured social relations far beyond its quarry location. This macrocore as well as those transporting it carried a significant social as well as economic and physical burden.

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53 Obsidian Itineraries at Workshops As we encounter obsid ian at workshops, we assume it was still in the same form as it traveled. If so, crafters would have to start their reductive practices by first continuing to shape the core into a pressure blade core by trimming various margins. If recently imported mater ials were broken, crafters may have had to troubleshoot the now broken core to regain some predictability in removing blades. Regardless of the form of the core, crafting activities or reductive techniques were contingent on those others that brought obsid ian into the local area (see Hirth 2006 ). Crafters may have had to communicate directly with regional merchants or direct their attention to other intermediaries who accepted regionally exchange d goods. After this process of exchange, initial stages of co re reduction, and further shaping, waste material was produced and had to be managed. Other waste was also managed as cores were rejuvenated due to production errors or when cores were initially exhausted. These materials too had to be managed to prevent l ocal residences from accidentally stepping on sharp waste. Aggregate analyses of all obsidian artifacts can show that these various stages of lithic reduction occurred locally at Caracol, while non obsidian crafting households lend s evidence to support the idea that reduction waste was extensively managed and appropriated for various uses far beyond obsidian workshops. Artifact analyses may also demonstrate that the techniques used to reduce cor es and produce blades is similar or near identical to other blade making techniques employed at other sites, even those outside the Maya area. If this is the case, it would again signal that obsidian crafters at Caracol, at some point during their training

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54 learned established techniques, thus enabling them to reproduce a multi generational tradition. Embedded Itineraries during Exchange Negotiating Social Relationships Once we follow obsidian in and out of the workshop a number of other dimensions also e merge. The training and duties of crafters may have also included social engagements with regional traders and/or local intermediaries at local points of contact (e.g., markets) necessary to obtain obsidian. Likewise, those crafters could communicate with other market attendees. Crafters would have to be knowledgeable about local demand for both ritual as well as quotidian provisioning. Likewise, non obsidian producing households were depended on obsidian workers a great deal to reproduce daily and ritual l ife. Here again, crafters and obsidian have a significant social, economic, and ritual burden. Markets as historically situated within a landscape create a space were people 2006 ) or market conting ent on many actors, their wares, and their unique station in life is a point of communication, negotiation, and potential integration. Through person to person dialogue obsidian is transformed, not in form per se, but in socioeconomic meaning. Similarly, alienable products, while others may retain some connection to their makers. But although competition during exchange may occur, it also established a point where those living far apart can establish, maintain, or alter their social relations. In this regard markets are not apathetic places of purely economic interaction full of rational human automatons, but rather are places where social relations can be fostered through

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55 negotiat ions of materials. In this regard, markets and transactions are likely embedded in older established traditions of negotiating complex social relationships (Garraty 2010:15). These older traditions likely did not include humans gathering at marketplaces, b ut rather occurred through person to person engagements. Quotidian Use and the Ritualization of Obsidian at Caracol, Belize Residential use of obsidian can be discussed in two broad ways. First, the quotidian ordinary every day use of obsidian can bee n seen in the analysis of domestic trash or refuse deposits. Because these deposits represent daily and repeated activities, they should include the same kinds of artifacts and be mixed with other domestic refuse items, such as ceramic sherds. Second, ritu alized obsidian should be evident in the inventories of residential burials and caches. in many different forms. Residences would have obtained blades for daily tasks. They may have obtained ritualized obsidian (usually not blades), often termed eccentrics, for intentional deposition within eventful space. As we will see, eccentrics ritualized obsidian can be formed from just about any stage of obsidian reduction. Hruby (2007) explains that because religion structured production, these can be ritualistically produced as crafters retouched blade cores during rejuvenation. They are often described in terms of their symbolism. Despite cognitive references, it must be rememb ered that eccentrics as only symbolic or representational objects have been de assembled from their history. They have been objectified and cut off from their history and context (Gillespie 2015:61). Their history includes the stages up to the point at w hich we encounter it as an eccentric; it is what remains after all the travels and

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56 transformations. Households may have selected these non blade objects specifically because of their unique itinerary in their movement through both regional and local social field of action. These ritualized obsidians can be thought of as an object with Household inhabitants could have obtained obsidian for each of these uses through engaging in local markets. Ultimately, however, pr ovisioning both quotidian and ritual objects was contingent on the work and organization (and social relationships) of obsidian crafters. Likewise, households needing these objects would have had to prepare for their exchange by either producing crafts of their own or gathering potential food stuffs and timing exchanges to when markets operated. The pace and rhythm of market cycles is not known, but probably depended on availability of local resources both perishable and nonperishable. Here the itinerary of obsidian begins to bleed into a vast network of social relations that have come to define a n urban or political entity Thus far I have repeated ly artifacts ually for a practical purpose; or an object Merriam Webster 2002:80 ), whereas arrest our attention (Brown 2001:3). Brown (2001:4) asserts that, objects because there are codes by which our interpretative attention makes them meaningful, because there is a discourse of objectivity that allows us to use them as 2012 ),

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57 Gillespie 2015:4). It is within this framework that archaeological ana lyses of artifacts purports material remains from the past to be something created by humans for tasks, but also something ancient, pretty, sharp, or something that will h elp advance our career), but that these same items may have also arrested the attention of those in the past during their daily lives. In this regard, each (nonhuman) object, depending on where we encounter it along its unique itinerary, has the potential to affect change as an agent or actant alongside their human counter parts (Braswell 2011:1; Callon and Latour 1981; Gosden 2005; Gosden and Marshall 1999; Latour 2005). In summary, irrespective of the theoretical orientation that inspires this research pr ogram to move forward and be organized in a particular way, each topic addressed in the subsequent chapters may exist as separate case studies depending on the topic of interest to other researchers. The obsidian sourcing data link Caracol to regional exch ange. The technological chapter Chapter 5, describes the local production of blades and related obsidian objects. C hapter 6 on exchange demonstrates and reaffirms the importance of market places in provisioning households with commodities (e.g., blades) a nd potentially ritualized obsidian objects. Distributional data further emphasize a well integrated economic and ritual landscape. Analysis of recovery contexts by artifact type further refines how obsidian was used at residences. During analysis it became predicable where certain forms of obsidian would occur (e.g., notched blade cores, aka eccentrics, in caches). These and other data then create the opportunity to describe and understand regularized practices and potentially inferred

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58 power of obsidian cra fters in ancient life. It is expected however, that through the use of the itinerary approach, which incorporates object biographies and life histories, we will gain a deeper understanding of what obsidian material and its uses may have meant to local Cara col inhabitants during the Classic period. Through reconstructing the places obsidian was involved in with human lives and the movements through these same places, we study an itinerary as well as people with their objects. In this case, obsidian is the material that helps reveal an itinerary that structured and was structured by human lives. The itinerary of obsidian included and includes places that are spatially and temporally distant. Their itinerary extends further even now as objects in multiple box es just beside my desk. They represent the weight, burden, and angst of trying to finish this project and share the results. They are still traveling and influencing life. It is only through their itinerary as excavated artifacts and (re)assembl ing it in o ne place that this research can occur. We can say something about these objects (i.e., produce knowledge about the past) because of their durability and their route as objects in the present.

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59 CHAPTER 3 A REVIEW OF CARACOL, BELIZE AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS Th is review of Caracol outlines many important contributions to Maya archaeology and also demonstrates the major topics that relate to a study of obsidian at depth of C then outlined to show how Caracol interacted outside its known boarders to obtain a diversity of materials through and up to its eventual abandonment after A.D. 900. In this sectio n, the obsidian sourcing study that considers both spatial and temporal exchange relations with their nearby and more distant political neighbors. cal economy is presented in terms of integration and the importance of marketplace exchange (A. Chase and D. Chase 2009; A. Chase et al. 2015; D. Chase and A. Chase 2014). Both the regional and local economy are provided greater emphasis through understand ing the personal and inter personal relations involved in the mechanisms for provisioning households and the organization of the local crafting of both local and extra local raw materials. Obsidian research in this regard focuses on the technical practice by local lithic crafters and then a discussion of how crafts were distributed to consumers. Broadly, how did local obsidian crafters produce blades? This is fundamental to understanding how local crafting practice was similar or dissimilar to other Mesoame rican sites. In terms of exchange, were obsidian blades and other non blade objects exchanged through marketplaces or some more intra personal, restricted mode? If obsidian access was widespread, thus reinforcing an already supported marketplace model, wer e there potential differences in overall

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60 consumption amounts with regard to household size or wealth? After presenting regional, crafting, and macro economic exchange topics, research questions are presented that pertain to how obsidian was used as quotidi an domestic tools and also ritualized during human burial and caching events. In terms of domestic tool use, obsidian macroscopic analysis will help to emphasize the regularity in how flaked stone was employed in daily life. Existing knowledge produced fro m understood through an analysis of obsidian because nearly all investigated households exhibit both lithic materials and materials crafted to produce blades. Chert and obsidian were fundamental to how the a ncient Maya changed their landscape, provided for families, and expressed their identity. Likewise, the ritual nature of obsidian in the Maya area is undeniable. One case study from Caracol is presented to demonstrate the importance of the ritualization of obsidian and shows that an analysis of ritual obsidian research can add greater depth to our current understanding of the materiality of Maya rituals. Finally, as part of the overall site review and the presentation of research questions, a brief descri pt ion of what was formerly known about the local obsidian industry prior to the current study is provide followed by any limitations of the data Settlement Background During the Classic period (AD 250 900), Caracol was an urban area supporting approximatel A. Chase and D. Chase 1996; A. Chase et al. 2001 ) population residing in more than 4,732 elevated households situated among some 200 sqkm terraced agricultural land, as seen fr om a recent LiDAR aerial survey (A. Chase and D. Chase 2010; A.

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61 Chase et al. 2013). This kind of tropical settlement is characteristic of an agrarian low density urban landscape in that the settlement at Caracol is widely dispersed across a vast area in th e form of clustered house groups interspersed among open terraced land ( Fletcher 2009 ; Isendahl and Smith 201 3 ). This type of household proximity is hypothesized to most aptly have represented social neighborhood units (A. Chase et al. 2013; A. Chase and D Chase 2012 a ). A prominent feature of Caracol is its roads or sacbes that connected distant termini to the city center (A. Chase and D. Chase 2001) The dispersed population situated in neighborhood units and intensively terraced agricultural landscape oc cupied nearly every square meter in between these sacbes ( A. Chase et al. 2011 :394, Figure 8 ). Figure 3 1 shows the area surveyed by both terrestrial mapping and areal LiDAR (light detection and ranging in 2009 ), as well as the distribution of archaeological investigations dealt with in this work

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62 Figure 3 1 Site overview map with terrestrial survey grid, roads or sacbes and a 15 meter hillshade layer created from the LiDAR aerial survey digital elevation model mentioned in this dissertation

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63 Regional Relationships and Research Objectives gical inventory of household and epicentral excavations. Here the regional economy is discussed briefly using a control, and access. Next, data and perspectives on the Classic period loca l economy is presented to further demonstrate how materials were used and that their distributions are highly suggestive of a well integrated economy due to the presence and influence of markets (D. Chase and A. Chase 2004, 2014 a ). onal economic influence and access to resources is dependent upon its unique location on a karstic plateau in the Maya Mountains. At first glance being situated on this karstic landscape seems to provide little in the way of access to good local resources like quality flaked and/or ground stone or more importantly water. However, a vast anthropogenic landscape emerged during the Classic period to provide agricultural resources for more than 100,000 people ( A. Chase and D. Chase 1998, 2016; D. Chase and A. C hase 2014 b ). And a quick study of a Belize geological map shows how lithic resources (slates shale, granite, and perhaps some basalts) were available to the north, west, and south ( Cornec 2003 ). These materials were crafted to create personal adornments, manos and metates, and were probably used as polishing stones for working jadeite and obsidian. Caracol seems to be at the confluence of many regional trade routes like other si tes in the Petn area (A. Chase and D. Chase 2012 b ) through a review of the epigraphic record ( Grube 1994; Martin and Grube 2000 ), a ke written texts and

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64 a regional political history, by studying the wide range of materials ancient inhabitants we also begin to examine local supply/demand economics and how those materials were distributed or provisioned to the loc al population. Marine resources from the Belizean sea coast, off the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as the Pacific Ocean have been recovered from a variety of archaeological investigations and are typically associated with burials and caches an d shell workshops (Cobos 1994:143 144, Table11.1). Cobos (1994) reported that of the 3,650 shell artifacts he sorted 1,101 (30.1%) were formed objects (e.g., pendants, beads, disks, rings, earflares). He also reports that many of these objects were locally crafted, thus indicating the importation of whole shells from varied and distant coastal regions (Cobos 1994; Pope 1994). More recent investigations also confirm the presence of worked shell artifacts and deposits of whole shells and fragments of coral i n cache contexts (A. Chase and D. Chase 2014:165, Figure 114d, Figure 129, 2015 a :59, Figure 26a). Other marine resources were also imported into Caracol. Cunningham Smith (2011 ; Cunningham Smith et al. 2014 ), from her analysis of fish remains from a ritual cache (A. Chase and D. Chase 2008) convincingly showed that an efficient route from the Caribbean Sea to Caracol was in place where knowledgeable navigators could transport live stingrays for ritual offerings. Deposits such as this one also show that othe r resources were available and likely traveled the same route. In particular, the cache (S.D.C179 1) containing the live stingray, chert eccentrics from northern Belize as well as jadeite, spondylus obsidian, metamorphic rock, and locally available chert were all present. This single deposits represents the confluence of both local and extra local materials and

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65 Classic. A. Chase and D. Chase (2008) also describe this Early Classic cache as being this cache dirt was full of small chips of valuable materials. In the case of S.D. C179D 1, the cache dirt consisted of 747 jadeite chips and 4751 spondylus chips. Also recovered within the cache dirt were 23 chert chips, 32 quartz chunks, 4 obsidian blade fragments, 2 unworked shells, and 138 slate mirror pieces; the scattered distribution of the slate mirror pieces suggests that they did no t constitute a single artifact. The cache dirt is intri guing on a number of levels, but an interesting topic should be (A Chase and D. Chase 2015b ) All the little chips of stone and bits of shell and other materials had to be obtained from some local crafting workshop or workshops No crafting evidence from this house group was recovered during the 2008 investigations. The presence of these materials indicates that those residing at this residence during the Early Classic had a connection with said workshop crafters. Again, this si ngle deposit and others like it help to show that households had access to a breath of materials, they participated in local exchange mechanisms, and potentially crafters themselves to provision household rituals. Ceramic data from Caracol also demonst rate the breath of regional interaction. A salient case to briefly describe is the Belize Red pottery assemblage. A. Chase and D. Chase (2012 b ) state that, These redware ash tempered ceramics are widely distributed, being recovered along a corridor that e xtends from a northern boundary with the Yalbac Plateau in central Belize possibly all the way to the Naco Valley in Honduras. Their area of distribution extends westward into the Sibun River Valley and throughout southern Belize. They are reported in arch aeological contexts from Lubaanatun, Nimli Punit, and Pusilha and at least two burials at Pusil ha contain a Belize Red vessel. These standardized ceramics (A. S. Chase and A. M. Chase 2015) are commonly

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66 burials and are evidence for both widespread regional exchange and local market exchange (A. Chase and D. Chase 2012 b :3 4). A. Chase and D. Chase (2012 b :11) conclude that Belize Red trade routes may have existed even further back in time during the Late Pr eclassic (based on E Group prevalence in the SE Petn) and was certainly thriving into the Terminal Classic. This trade route was therefore likely influencing the import and export of all sorts of materials between sites near the Belizean coast and those m ore inland as far as the Petn area and points in between. Caracol was centrally located within this route (A. Chase and D. Chase 2012 b ). These brief introductions into the breath of materials available and used by Caracol over some 500 years shows that Ca racol was a center of gravity for regional exchange. Also important is that these materials were widely available to many if not all local households. With this background perspective, obsidian research can help to add additional depth with regard to both regional and local exchange. Prior to this obsidian study little detail was known about how Caracol articulated with obsidian sources and sites nearby that were involved in regional trade and blade production. Many Maya sites in the southern and northern Maya lowlands have high amounts of obsidian blade and eccentric artifacts (Hruby 2007; Moholy Nagy 2003 a ). Chemical sourcing studies at many of these sites indicate that particular sources were predominantly circulated northward into the lowlands (Moholy N agy et al. 2013). In the central Petn of Guatemala, western Mexico, and northern Belize, neutron activation analysis (NAA), x ray florescence (XRF), and portable XRF (pXRF) sourcing studies show that El Chayal obsidian from the highlands of Guatemala was more widely

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67 available or traded northward compared to other sources like Ixtepeque in southern Guatemala (Aoyama 1996; Arnauld 1990; Braswell and Glascock 2007; Fowler et al. 1989; Healy et al., 1984; McKillop 1989; Moholy Nagy et al. 1984; Moholy Nagy et al. 2013; Nazaroff et al., 2010; Rice 1984; Stross et al. 1983). For example, Moholy Nagy (n=2,073) of obsidian came from the El Chayal obsidian source. This is in drastic contrast to a combined 6. 9 percent (n=155) being imported from San Martin de Jilotepeque (5. 4 %, n=120) and Ixtepeque (1. 5 %, n=33). Sites in Honduras, like Copan, show a greater proportion of Honduran obsidian sources such as San Luis/La Union and La Esperanza or other sources closer to Copan like Ixtepeque (Aoyama 1996). Aoyama (2001:348, Table 1) reports that Copan received 98.5 percent of its obsidian from Ixtepeque and only 0.3 percent from El Chayal. These two examples Tikal and Copan demons trate an opposing procurement comparison where obsidian consumption was related to overall distance and established trade routes. Distance also affected the distribution of green Pachuca obsidian, from central Mexico. It is so rare at many Maya sites durin g the Classic period that it is thought of as a gift between elites and is often found in unique central Mexican style ritualistic burials (A. Chase and D. Chase 2011; Johnson et al. 2011; Pendergast 1971, 2004; Spence 1996). Most green obsidian from Carac ol reflects this pattern as well; however, almost half of the green obsidian blades at Caracol has been recovered from household refuse /fill contexts. This form of consumption and use suggests that not all obsidian from Mexican sources were used in elite r ituals. As a result of these data, regional obsidian trade is logically modeled where

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68 proximity to source or established trade routes along river courses are important elements in access to exotic goods (Demarest 2004:159, Figure 7.5; Demarest et al., 2014 ; Nazaroff et al., 2010:889). Although these models have significant support from existing data, even more data can be taken into account that contends with the demands of large populations residing in sites such as Caracol in eastern central Belize. There fore, I investigate (1) which obsidian source is predomina nt in the Caracol assemblage, (2) how the exploitation of sources might change over time, and (3) what regional networks existed during the Classic period that help to explain the presence and/or ab sence of certain obsidian sources. Obsidian sourcing studies often link artifact types to material sources in order to better inform how obsidian was imported into sites (Aoyama 1999; Hirth 2006; Moholy Nagy et al., 2013). For example, the presence of cort ical macro debitage in a local assemblage indicates that blade core preparation took place at the site rather than another location closer to the obsidian source. Aoyama (1999) asserts that some obsidian imported into Copan came in the form of roughed out nodules that still retain ed a percentage of cortical material. Moholy Nagy et al. (2013:78) in contrast state that, his lack of cortical material from Tikal may demonstrate that, although a massive consumer of obsidian, Tikal did not have access to roughed out nodules that still retain cortical surfaces, but rather that obsidian was reduced elsewhere. Therefore Tikal m ay only have had access to prepared cores but in great amounts. Because of the recovery contexts she reports on (Moholy Nagy 1997), it is entirely likely that there is bias in her sample and that further excavations or

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69 additional analysis may reveal cortic al materials; Caracol presents similar sampling bias. Notwithstanding, the Tikal and Copan data both provide opportunities for comparison as both sites produced tens of thousands of obsidian artifacts. In another example of this dimension of Mesoamerican regional obsidian exchange Hirth (2006) defines multiple workshops at Xochicalco, Mexico, none of which have macro core shaping debitage. This absence of cortical material and a high amount of blade core rejuvenation debitage led Hirth to conclude tha t already reduced cores were imported into workshops, most of which were in need of platform rejuvenation. Hirth concluded that obsidian was likely funneled through sites where blade cores were prepared, used, and exhausted, thus showing the politics and e conomics that affected regional trade and access at Xochicalco. This kind of relationship could have occurred in the Maya area as well. Caracol most likely participated in obsidian trade networks alongside Tikal, Copan and many other s ites as other artifac tual materia ls have indicated Is it likely that sites like Dos Hombres, Xunantunich, El Pilar, El Laton, and hundreds of others further north had their eventual supply of obsidian funneled through Caracol similar to what Braswell (2010) has suggested for Calakmul north of Tikal. Although this research does distribution to other sites per se although ritual practices that included obsidian exposes shared regional connectio ns the current study does ask: Did Caracol receive roughed out obsidian nodules that retained cortical material or receive prepared polyhedral cores that were either ready for blade removal or in need of rejuvenation? Caracol was a major consumer of a broad suite of materials generally. The

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70 above questions situated within regional considerations helps to establish the necessary trade routes prior to any intra site t ransformations at local workshops and subsequent circulations through potentially varied exchange mechanisms. Domestic Crafting Economic Research Objectives: Chert and Obsidian Lithic crafting activities and its role in the local Caracol economy is curre ntly adding to the knowledge about Caracol. While only a few studies were conducted on the locally available chert a complex picture of crafting organization is emerging where the sharing and learning of practice is wide spread and not segregated by statu s group per se. Cynthia Pope Jones (1994, 1996) presented initial findings and interpretation of craft production and the materials involved. She was the first to seriously address the kinds of chert flaked stone tools involved in crafting and noted that m any households reduced shell to make a variety of crafted objects for domestic use. Her broader interpretations regarding the social organization of craft production was that knapping locally available chert was standardized across many investigated househ olds to produce small robust blade like tools. These blade like drill tools were commonly used at multiple residences to craft materials such as shell and bone. Later, these same materials and organization al issues were addressed to better understand the standardized nature of tool production and used in the crafting process ( Johnson 2008; 2014 ). Also, there was a need to better understand the nature of control of the crafting process given that Pope (1994; see also Jones 1996) summarized data from far o my sample derived from intensive production epicenter Not surprising was that the

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71 studies was highly standardized (Johnson 2008, see also Johnson 2014 for a summary). Standardization was observed in (1) the general method in producing short robust blades with high dorsal ridges, and thick striking platforms, (2) the choice to laterally and dist ally shape the blades to specific ratios of particular sides while also creating either a useful edge angle or an edge appropriate for backing into a haft, (3) the general method of use determined by the presence of macro scale use wear on the distal tip, and (4) methods of resharpening the distal end by removing a small pressure flake from the ventral surface. Due to this quantitatively specific understanding of chert co mmonly found in architectural fill contexts at many investigated residences, it has been suggested that these tools are evidence for the shared knowledge of tool Johnson 2014 ; Johnson et al., 2015). Here the conc operationalized with archaeology (see Lave and Wenger 1991; Roddick 2009). The qualitative and quantitative data from areas that exhort control of production and distribution of crafted objects also shows that it is like ly that knowledge of the tool production process was open to all residences regardless of status, wealth, or location. Further studies of investigated households and ritual special deposits showed that although these tools do appear highly standardized, chert blade production included many of the same technological choices in core preparation, blade production, and core maintenance seen in polyhedral obsidian blade production (Johnson et al. 2015; Johnson and Johnson 2016). Although similarities exist, t he amount of blade

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72 removal was significantly less due to the smallness of the locally available chert nodules as well as the typical inclusions in the raw stone. Two major contexts show this evidence. The first was recorded in 2015 (A. Chase and D. Chase 2 014 a ; Johnson et al. 2015) and showed that a modest residence, with only three low laying structures most likely supporting perishable structures was a major consumer of local chert raw materials and learned the knowledge of two different kinds of blad e production. The first observed method consisted of simply creating a striking platform on a nodule and then removing one to five blade like flakes before the core was exhausted. These exhausted cores still retain cortical surfaces. The second observed me thod is much more complex in that a striking platform was created and blades were then removed from all around a core face, like that of obsidian polyhedral cores. Exhausted polyhedral blade cores along with platform rejuvenation debitage was found at this humble residence although in much lower numbers that the first method described (see Johnson et al. 2015:83). The second context where this later method of chert blade production was encountered was during a reanalysis of the large chert assemblage from an elite tomb also included thousands of obsidian artifacts as well (see C hapter 6 ). The obsidian assemblage is presented below as part of this work and the chert assemb lage is currently being written up for a later publication on flaked stone artifacts from Caracol (Johnson and Johnson 2016). Due to these somewhat unexpected finds and the opportunity for a reanalysis of a context that was excavated during the early years of the Caracol Archaeological Project ( see A. Chase and D Chase 199 7 ), new perspectives and models are being developed about the organization of craft production during the

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73 Classic period. Of similar importance, these kinds of tools have been recorded at a number of other sites. Sites such as Tikal (Puleston 1969 ) and those in the Belize Valley (Braswell 2010 ) show striking similarities in overall tool form, use, and context s of recovery, all of which demonstrat e s how small chert tools can help to underst and regional dynamics in the sharing and transference of crafting knowledge. Although this work does not do more to engage the larger organizational issues of crafting at Caracol except as it relates to obsidian blade core reduction, this short review of chert flaked stone does demonstrate that crafting was a normal part of within distant settlements. Other forms of craft production also took place at Caracol, but th e evidence and interpretat ions for this do not come from the investigation of actual workshops, but rather from proxy measures of production discerned from detailed recovery and D. Chase and A. Chase 199 8 ). In terms of obsidian, we know through experimentation ( Titmus and Clark 2003 ) that blade production was a highly skilled yet variable practice (Hirth and Andrews 2002). And as stated above, standards can be more or less applied to how much blade outp ut may come a single core. Although the intent of core reduction was to produce blades, different kinds of practices in core reduction and maintenance existed (Trachman 2002; Trachman and Titmus 2003 industry attempts to better fit Caracol within other studies of blade production and organization. Mesoamerican obsidian scholarship has dealt with variation or standardization in

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74 blade production practices across the cultural landscape. Hirth and Andrews (2002) introduced a volume on the subject and state d that lithic analysts and those concerned with knowledge produced form lithic studies must implement a standard artifact classification scheme so that comparisons may be made across sites, regions, and time periods (see also Clark 2003). Hirth and Andrews (2002) additionally asserted that the implementation of a standard scheme would blade production i s a varied process especially given the physical nature of conchoidally fractured stone; thus lithic analysts speaking a common analytical language is an essential first step in understanding cultural and technological factors that structured practice an d enable assertions of transmitting knowledge. Obsidian lithic analysis research at Caracol was conducted to further these research directions. Thus crafters use a blade production technique different from or similar to previously recorded reduction technique s in other areas of the Maya region ? Evidence of obsidian craft production is present at many Classic period Maya cities in the southern and northern Lowlands (Ford 2004; Neives and Libbey 1976; Trachman 2002), but some sites show technical variations in obsidian blade production. Some of this variation might be due to the overall access to obsidian (Trachman 2002:118). These interpretations are based on observations of pecked and scored obsidian cores that represent a conservative blade production strategy to maximize blade output from a single core (Hirth and Andrews 2002:14). Trachman (2002; Trachman and Titmus 2003) interprets a conservative

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75 reduction strategy that maximized blade output in northern Belize. She noted that a conservative method of pecking and scoring blade core platforms maximized blade output and because of this practice obsidian may have been restricted and/or scarce resource in the southern Maya lowlands during the Early Classic period at Dos Hombres (A.D. 250 350 [Trachman and Titmus 2003:108]). Other nearby sites, however, do not display these types of variations and suggests obsidian was not restrictive or scarce, but that obsidian workshops m ay have been managed by secondary centers (Ford 2004), simply showing varied technical practice rather than restricted access to raw material. Based on the cursory understandings of Caracol obsidian and according to D. Chase and A. Chase (2014 a ), obsidia n was consumed broadly by the local population. Because of this seemingly broad access to obsidian, I argue that obsidian crafters at Caracol may have also practiced a conservative technique to maximize obsidian blade output This assertion is based largel y on an argument that Caracol, like other sites, did not have regular access to obsidian raw materials through time; this hypothetical punctuated model although not tested here, is conservative and may with additional study to be incorrect. As stated abo ve, Trachman (2002) working at Dos Hombres near La Milpa in the Belize Valley argues that a pecked and scored core technique was used to remove blades from cores and rejuvenate cores to maximized blade output due to unpredictability in availability of raw obsidian resources. The presence of macrocore shaping debitage would help to argue this point as we ll (Ch apter 6 ) because macro core shaping debitage indicates that larger nodules were available and imported rather than

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76 prepared blade cores that have less material overall. If Caracol did have regular access to obsidian raw materials as indicated by the presence of macro debitage then a conservative reduction strategy may not have been necessary and Caracol obsidian crafters did not practice an alternati ve reduction technique following a broader Mesoamerican tradition of blade production that was not specifically conservative (see Trachman 2002). Chapter 6 describes the kinds of artifacts recovered and the technical attributes that help to describe the c hoices made by obsidian crafters. Understanding the kinds or broad reduction strategies juxtaposed with the presence/absence of core shaping debris provides multiple lines of evidence to better understand if and why conservative or non conservative reducti on techniques were employed. Ultimately, the primary goal of the obsidian lithic analysis is to situate core reduction to produce blades and other non blade objects within existing research. Testing for the presence or absence of conservative crafting tech niques is just one method of engaging earlier detailed studies. The above concerns with crafting practice ( C hapter 5 ) and access to resources ( C hapter 4 ) relate to the ways in which obsidian crafters were or were not managed by other status groups as wel l as what role they may have played in ancient Maya society. The next part of the dissertation ( C hapter 6 ) addresses the modeling of resource provisioning to the broader population. This research underscores the need to better understand the management or non management of crafters by elites or other status groups/individuals. Because of this relationship, I review crafting models at Caracol vis vis lithic evidence briefly to show how management or control of crafting practice by elites is not strongly su pported and therefore helps to reinforce a decentralized model

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77 for the organization of craft production and resource provisioning through markets. Household Provisioning Objectives: Markets and the Power of Crafters D iane Chase and A rlen Chase (2014 a ) arg ue that most households likely either crafted and/or had access to many quotidian and ritual items through participation in various markets. Furthermore, like the distributions of goods, certain intensive lithic and shell crafting households in various lo cations inside and outside the city center suggests that crafting was possibly not a highly controlled elite activity ( A. Chase and D. Chase 1994 a ; Johnson 2008, 2014; Pope 1994), but may instead reflect a general pattern of Maya household diversity ( A. Ch ase and D. Chase 2015 b ; A. Chase and Scarborough 2014). Both intensive household multi crafting and markets placed throughout Caracol connected through roads during the Classic period seem to provide significant evidence for a well integrated economy ( A. Chase 1998; A. Chase and D. Chase 2001 2009; D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 a ). The wide distribution of markets is supported through multiple lines of evidence (D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 a ). (1) The configuration of many architectural features that may hav e functioned as open spaces for markets. (2) The contextual yielded a diverse suite of both local and exotic (extra local) goods and that household craft production was widespread (see also Johnson et al., 2015:79, Figure 1). (3) The distributional data from house groups showed that this diverse suite of goods was 200 sqkm [A. Chase et al 2014 a ; A. Chase and D. Chase 2016 ] ). Finally, all these data combined showed that macroeconomic reach was vast and t hat regional connections enabled the (A. Chase and D. Chase 2012 a )

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78 However likely markets are in the Pre Columbian past, the presence and dynamics of markets in the Maya area and Mesoamerican generally is a debated t opic ( Fienman and Garraty 2010 ; Garraty and Stark 2010 ) Shaw (2012:124), states that, from the Classic through the Postclassic periods [Calakmul, Caracol, Maax Na, Palenqu e, Quirigua, Seibal, Tikal, Xunantunich, Yaxha, Chichen Itza, Chunchucmil, observing an even distribution of artifacts across a settlement area. Hirth (1998) developed t analyze elite control. This method assesses the end locations of where commodities were consumed in households and searches for the dispersed patterns of materials in household as semblages. Hirth (1998, see also Hirth 2006), like others in the Maya area (Dahlin 2009; Hutson et al. 2010) has systematically sampled a statistical majority of households from Xochicalco, Morelos, Mexico to validate the marketplace exchange interpretati on. Likewise, Hutson et al. (2010) and Masson and Freidel ( 2012, 2013) operationalize this distributional approach to determine market exchange. They use physical features at sites (i.e., open spaces and stalls), while more quantitatively measuring equal r atios between local and exotic consumables (i.e., chert to obsidian) that crosscut different locations and status distinctions ( Masson and Freidel 2013 ). A major finding of this research at three different sites (Chunchucmil, Mayapan, and Tikal) is that ob sidian blade consumption ratios to other artifacts vary by status groups, yet most residences obtained obsidian (see also Meierhoff et al. 2012). Greater amounts of obsidian at higher status residences are thus most likely due to the increased

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79 purchasing p ower of elite or wealthy families (Hutson et al. 2010:92 93 ; see also Smith 1987 ). Taking these studies together, in addition to the observation that obsidian and other crafts were provisioned or consumed by most households, archaeologists now have the opp ortunity to position obsidian crafters within economic exchange and social production networks in a complex system of material and social engagement that includes markets. At Caracol it is difficult to assign a strict dichotomy of high status or low status groups based on the known variety of different sized residential groups (e.g., A. S. Z. Chase 2017) and their associated material culture. Despite this difficultly, those who e community and were after buried with status objects. In terms of mass consumption of city center also exhibit access to like objects for similar purposes (e.g., polychrome ceramics in bur ials, obsidian eccentrics in caches). Their living spaces were more modest in size varying in number of architectural features. This characteristic may demonstrate subtle, yet measurable differences in status (A. Chase and D. Chase 2014 b :8 Figure 2). Even though status differences are argued to exist, most of these residences still obtained proportional amounts of wealth related items, such as polychrome and regional trade ware ceramics, jadeite, and shell (D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 a ). Given the presence o f these non local objects in the broader settlement, it is currently unclear if obsidian consumption corresponds to certain status (or wealth) groups or if consumption is present at different sized residences across the site. Different sized households are measured by counting the number of raised mounds of structures on a given raised

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80 platform (see C hapter 6 ). The size of a given residential group is used in this research as a proxy for wealth (with the caveat that larger groups could also measure resident ial longevity) For example, those larger households can be argued to exhibit greater purchasing power when participating in local market exchange. These larger households may also be generationally older and well established local lineages. In contrast, t hose smaller residences less wealthy and potentially not as generationally old may still obtain a diverse suite of materials through markets, but did not obtain as much on average. D iane Chase and A rlen Chase (2014 a ) argue that a large middle status po pulation had unrestricted access to exotic materials and that multiple local markets were the primary mechanism for provisioning the broader population both for quotidian and ritual activities. Given these broad understandings of localized exchange, the c urrent research can focus specifically on obsidian. To w hat extent did markets influence the distribution of flaked stone and obsidian more specifically to all members of the population? If obsidian consumption was widespread, was there differential access to obsidian by assigned wealth as measured by residential size? Many scholars argue that market exchange caused obsidian distributions to be relatively equal at all households regardless of rank status assignment based on architectural size and propor tional to the distributions of exotic ceramics or other imported objects (Hirth 1998; Huston et al. 2010; Masson and Freidel 2013). At Caracol, D. Chase and A. Chase (2014 a ) provide general amounts/percentages and the research reported here aims to add det ailed numbers and different statistical tests to the body of knowledge to more accurately account for whether or not obsidian circulated through markets, elite redistribution, gift giving, or a combination of strategies and to

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81 determine if those with more purchasing power (i.e., those living in larger households) obtained more obsidian overall when compared to small er less wealthy groups. If we take architectural complexity (i.e. size) to be a proxy or general marker for wealth and therefore access (i.e., greater purchasing power) to resources, this research measure s the degree of variations in obsidian consumption across a sample of large to small residences with the majority dating to the Late Classic period (AD 550 800) First, I measure access to obsidi an compared with the overall consumption of chert flaked stone. As both of these are commonly found in residential investiga tions and are normally blade tools (see above), comparing these items provides an opportunity to measure the locally available chert tool stone against the extra local obsidian material. Is there statistical difference in the ratios of obsidian to chert by architectural complexity (i.e., wealth)? Was obsidian exchanged through markets similarly to other tool stone materials? To address these questions, I present and test three hypotheses pertaining to whether or not markets influenced the distribution of obsidian objects to households settled in all tested areas of the site. A first null hypothesis asserts there is a significant differe nce in ratio amounts (obsidian:chert) between different sized groups. In other words, those larger groups or those possessing greater wealth, are expected to have a higher ratio or proportion of obsidian to chert because they could exercise greater purchas ing power during exchange Alternatively, There is no significance between group size and consumption ratio (obsidian:chert). In other words, the size of the group, a proxy for wealth, does not influence the proportion of different types of flaked stone ob tained through exchange, implying that markets influenced the distribution of obsidian The result of this hypothesis testing is then

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82 spatially mapped across the site. If there is no statistical difference in the obsidian to chert ratio between residential size classes and these are randomly distributed across with relatively equal access to proportions of local chert and extra local obsidian goods. landscape is known as a complex mosaic of social activity, including crafting, agricultur e and ritual, but through these questions and distributional mapping we can further assert the connectivity of people, places, and things. A second distributional an alysis is used to test for the presence of marketplace exchange. Braswell (2010:132, Table 6.1), citing Hirth (1998), asserts that a market exchange system is present in the Maya area based on two observations: (1) the is related to need rather than status; and (2) the is tested by HHpXRF geochemical data. If markets effected the distribution of obsidian, then the dominate sources of obs idian (e.g., El Chayal and Ixtepeque) should be evenly distributed across the sampled area. Alternatively, if sources are clustered or unevenly distributed, then perhaps obsidian was being procured through more restricted, non market exchange mechanisms. A third test concerning markets explores the mean amounts of obsidian specifically, excluding locally available chert, by household size aimed at measuring wealth and general differences in access within a market bases exchange system. In particular, if mar kets did effect the distribution of obsidian and household size (or wealth) is not a factor that influenced differential access, then we should see no statistically difference in mean obsidian consumption between household s of different

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83 sizes In order to address these research objectives, I deploy a proxy for wealth by classifying residences into four groups modeled after previous research (A. Chase and D. Chase 2014 b :8, Figure 2). Pyramidal/Special Use Groups (i.e., high status and royal) are those taller city center and those more modest residential groups close by that appear to be workshops that are not organized like other households that exhibit structures arranged around a central open plaza. There are thr ee other classes of groups defined by the number of raised structures atop a given platform that encircle a central patio or open space: structures (i.e., high wealth); 5 4 structures (i.e., middle wealth), and structures (i.e., low wealth). Through demonstrating that markets may have played a critical role in provisioning households with obsidian, we can then position crafters wi thin this form of goods, such as blades, how can obsidian crafters be given greater agency (i.e., influence to affect change) through understanding how they may have operated to provision households? Crafters could have cooperated directly with market managers or communicated directly with households in need of obsidian. In either case, if the distribution of obsidian is widespread, we must begin to consider the role a nd identity of obsidian crafters in ancient Caracol society. Quotidian Use and Ritualization of Obsidian: Crafter and Household Interaction House groups throughout the Maya area used obsidian for both domestic and ritual activities, yet earlier distributi onal data led some scholars to argue that access was restricted and controlled by elite or higher status groups ( Rathje 1972 ; Sidrys

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84 1976). With more obsidian being recovered since these seminal interpretations from beyond monumental civic centers, Mayanis ts now know that obsidian distribution and access was not restricted to only elites, but was widespread and accessible to households of varying social status es (Braswell 2010; A. Chase and D. Chase 2014 b ; Hutson et al. 2010; Meierhoff et al. 2012; Moholy N agy et al. 2013 ; Rice et al. 1985:601 ) domestically used a tools and ritually included in cache offerings and in many burials (D. Chase and A. Chase 1998, 2014 a ), and data are now av ailable from over three decades of research to quantify many of these associations in order to investigate to what degree obsidian pervaded household activities and timed ritual events. In particular, and in order to investigate household identity and the role of obsidian crafters, I focus largely on the ritualization of obsidian and to a less er degree on quotidian practices. Obsidian use in quotidian or every day activities by most ancient Maya households demonstrates to what extent houses shared a commo n way of doing things. This common daily action can be measure through an investigation of tool type and the recording of macroscopic use wear and potential tool sharpening or retouching. It may also show that households participated in the same networks o f exchange to obtain stone tools do households that had obsidian show evidence of doing In terms of quotidian activities, I investigate whether or not obsidian blades or other tools were used in similar wa ys by presenting macroscopic use wear/retouch analysis of those obsidian objects recovered from construction fill and/or refuse deposits.

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85 Likewise, ritual use of obsidian can be analyzed for the same reason. Evidence of ritual activity is commonly recover ed during investigations of both monument al and household archaeological investigations and provides significant evidence for local craft production of both local and extra local raw materials ( e.g., D. Chase and A. Chase 1998 ). The sampling strategy at th e site recover ed significant numbers of caches and burials in monumental and household residences. Burial special deposits (S D ) form the basis for: (1) human life histories, such as diet and individual identities; (2) the use gs in residential groups; (3) chronologies of pottery and other ceramics; and (4) the local production of personal adornments and related production debris. Caches provide much of the same data, but most often exclude the presence of human bone. In particu s occurs in approximately the same frequency as human interments and caches often correspond to punctuated calendric events and/or mark significant locations (A. Chase and D. Chase 2010; 2013; D. Chase and A. Chase 1998). For the ancient Maya, rituals formed much of the backdrop for the formation and maintenance of their identity ( D. Chase and A. Chase 2004 ) and therefore their political economy was embedded in the production and distribution of ritually used objects Part one where crafters fashioned objects specifically for distribution to residences for rituals certainly elevated the status of those either doing the actual work and/or controlling production ( Clark 2007; Hruby 2006 ; Inomata et al. 2001; Kovacevich 2007 ). Clark (2007) advocates for a practice theory approach where human action and intentionality is related to what it means to do specialized production at various scales, including how the identity of the cra fter is tied up in their crafted objects

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86 (see Weiner 1992). At Caracol, it seems as if the production and distribution of ritualized items was not exclusively performed by elites or somehow attached to elite management. Production and distribution of works diversity ( e.g., A. Chase and D. Chase 2015 b ; Cobos 1994; Pope 1994 ) and workshops are not typically spatially adjacent to elites or royals living in the city center ( A. Chase and D. Chase 2001 ). House groups of varying size also exhibit wide ranging access to different materials. The GRB group investigated during the 2007 field season is an appropriate example to better understand the breath of access to materials and how household practices defined aspects of their identity through rituals (see A. Chase and D. Chase 2007 a ; Johnson et al. 2015). Table 3 1 shows a general inventory of materials from Special Deposits (S D s) and refuse and/or construction fill (i.e., non the GRB group. Figure 3 2 shows the excavation section of the axial trench through the eastern building at the GRB group.

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87 Table 3 1 T he diversity of local and non local materials from the GRB Group case city center Special deposits (S D s) most often consist of cache deposits and human interments. Non special deposits (Non S D ) most often consists of household refuse and/or construction fill con texts and make up the bulk of excavated space at Caracol. Operation C177 Contents Contexts Classification and Type Special Deposits (SDs) Non SDs Local Stone 25 318 Chert 15 314 Shaped Limestone 10 2 Quartz 0 2 Nearby Stone 6 42 Slate 5 17 Granite 1 15 River Cobble 0 10 Distant Stone/Mineral 77 30 Obsidian Blade 3 30 Obsidian Core (eccentric) 65 0 Jadeite 8 0 Malachite 1 0 Ceramic Vessels (whole/partial) 79 19 Shell Marine 146 6 Bone Faunal 11 19 Human Interment 7 0 Totals 351 434

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88 Behavioral Sequence Deposit Description 1 SDC117D 13 Construction of Plaza floor, cache placed, then capped with next floor 2A SDC117D 7A Floors intruded and burial placed under 1st plaza floor 2B SDC117D 12 Intruded into 1st structure an d burial placed within 3 SDC117D 10 2nd phase of construction cut to place cache vessel and objects 4 SDC117D 9 2nd phase of construction cut to place cache vessel and objects 5A SDC117D 3 Latest phase of architecture modified to house deposit 5B SDC11 7D 11 Latest phase of architecture modified to house deposit 6 SDC117D 8 Latest plaza floor cut and two cache vessels placed within 7 SDC117D 2 Burial placed within latest phase of architecture 8 SDC117D 1 Latest phase of architecture modified to house deposit 9A SDC117D 7B Cache placed during modification of structure and deposited more vessels 9B SDC117D 6 Stairs cut to construct crypt and then capped with latest stairs 10 SDC117D 5 Cache vessel with lid placed in association with latest stair ? SD C117D 4 Human bone deposited in front of structure Figure 3 2 Southern section of axial trench through the eastern building at the GRB Group. Numbers in parenthesis next to S D number correspond to the sequence of depositi on. Areas around Special Deposits and in between floors represent construction fills and redeposited residential refuse materials. Image taken from Johnson et al. 2015:116, Figure 2. However unlikely it is that elites figure d into the management of craft p roduction and distribution, intensive crafting did take place at a variety of locations throughout although no obsidian workshop(s) have been located to date at Caracol, determining distribution and common use of certain items ca n provide proxy or indirect measures for how to examine the ways in which obsidian crafters articulated with the broader political and ritual economy. Therefore, I will examine to what extent research on the ritualization of obsidian helps address commonal ities or differences in

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89 and ritual economy. objects and were these practices shared among a wide v ariety of residences? How might understanding these shared or unshared practices better situate the role of Previous investigations, both the within the city center an d settlement areas of Caracol, explored the relationships between households of various size and status groups (e.g., Jaeger 1994 ) A significant amount of flaked stone, both chert and obsidian, was recovered and has enabled greater emphasis on relations b etween flaked stone crafters and consumers. Intensive work at many of the residential and monumental architectural constructions revealed secondary refuse deposits in the form of construction fills that yield significant evidence of intensive and standardi zed crafting activity of chert flaked stone (Johnson 2008, 2014) and although workshop locales may be debated, it is very likely the same was true for obsidian based on numerous explorations of secondary contexts (e.g., large assemblages of obsidian produ ction debris above three tombs). Large depositional contexts of obsidian and chert artifacts recovered in association with larger elite tomb chambers are seen at many Classic period Maya sites (Moholy Nagy 1997). At sites such as Uaxactun, Ro Azul, Lamana i, Altar de Sacraficios, Copan, Quirigua, and Buenavista del Cayo this kind of deposit is found above and adjacent to large vaulted tombs (Moholy Nagy 1997:306; see also Andrieu 2001). Moholy Nagy (2011) argues that the presence of obsidian eccentrics abo ve tombs in these larger deposits at Tikal could signal them as ritual offerings. She

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90 asserts that these large amounts of flaked stone were obtained through a redistribution exchange system in contrast to simply adding volume to structures during building efforts (Moholy Nagy 1997, 2011). At least three similar obsidian dumps were initially presented as summary finding by the Caracol Archaeological Project during the earlier years of investigations in or near the city center (A. Chase and D. Chase 1987). A t the time there was little presented on the technological composition of these deposits, but it was clear that there was a diversity of chipped stone present, not just obsidian blades. During the re analysis of these three context s as part of this dissert ation project, it was evident that a reduction sequence or profile could be reconstructed could illuminate local obsidian crafting practices. The same is true for the Dos Hombres above tomb deposit (see Trachman 2002). The first above tomb deposit to be r ecorded at Caracol was during the 198 6 field season. Part of Operation C12 explored the top of structure A3. A. Chase and D. Chase addition to the structure to encompass and cover a tomb chamber had been intruded 8,913 pieces of obsidian and 7,840 chert flaked stone artifacts, through refitting and re analysis there was more conservatively at least 6,266 obsidian artifacts. The chert materials are currently being analyzed and final counts are not available. This tomb chamber included a single individual, other artifacts, and a painted capstone with a Caracol emblem glyph and a date of AD 695. A second tomb chamber investigation at the Machete Group (Operation C19)

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91 during the same field season also exposed a layering of obsidian. Although far less obsidian was recovered, a wide range of debris was recovered. This tomb from within Structure L3 als o included a painted capstone with a date of AD 613. A. Chase and D. Chase (1987:43) state, The contents of chamber were broken and strewn about its entire length. The tomb, however, proved to contain the remains of a single adult male, four pottery vessel s, and a multitude of jadeite mosaic pieces. Red pigment was noted on the frontal bone of the individual. In the cut above the capstone, 435 pieces of obsidian were recovered; an additional 179 pieces of obsidian were within the tomb. Thus, the pattern of depositing freshly struck obsidian above the painted capstone which was noted over the Structure A3 tomb is also found, albeit on a smaller scale, in association with the Structure L3 tomb. This pattern has also been noted for Burials 24 and 116 at Tikal ( Coggins 1975:373); the Caracol example in Structure L3, however, predates the appearance of this trait at Tikal by at least 60 years. In total, 624 obsidian artifacts from this deposit were analyzed during the course of the current project. Third, invest igations at the base of Structure A34 at the Central Acropolis exposed yet another lens of obsidian associated with a tomb entryway. The lens of obsidian from this investigation (Operation C87) yielded 5,236 pieces of obsidian crafting debitage and blade c ore fragments. Although the initial tomb construction dates to A.D. 577 or 582 based on text from a painted capstone (D. Chase and A. Chase 1996), the obsidian deposition occurred during a re entry event some 100 years later (AD 682 700 (D. Chase 1994:138, Table 10.1, D. Chase and A. Chase 1996 ). This later date was assigned because of the ceramic assemblage ( D. Chase and A. Chase 1996 ). The distribution of these three above tomb chamber deposits is shown in Figure 3 1 Additionally, a fourth potential tomb deposit is far from the city center Although explored sometime after Operation C87 during the mid

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92 approximately 96 obsidian artifacts. This is much less obsidian than the other dep osits described above, but the kinds of obsidian artifacts recovered during the investigation of yet another tomb chamber were very similar. Given the type of excavation conducted at the Tres Grades Group during the 1997 field season, that did not expose t he area above capstones, it is likely that continued excavations outside the tomb chamber would yield significantly higher quantities of obsidian. Figure 3 3 Distribution map showing the three burial associated obsidian de posits in and near the city center and one possible deposit located to the southeast. Numbers indicated the amount of obsidian recovered from these investigations. In addition to these burial deposits, investigations at many eastern residential structures

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93 eccentrics were first recorded by Satterwaite in 1951 during excavations under rlen Chase and D iane Chase onsisted of 3 vessels, 7 possible obsidian eccentrics, 2 jadeite fragments, 12 shell fragments, 8 pieces of pyrite, 1 stone bead, and hundreds of explorations of erected monuments, but are instead primarily re covered from caches placed on axis to eastern structures. Maya eccentrics have long been studied in Mesoamerican archaeological literature and have been interpreted as an indication of social status differentiation because of their inclusion with high status individuals at larger architectural complexes ( Coe 1959; Iannone 1992; Iannone and Conlon 1993 Moholy Nagy 1997 ). In contrast to other studies that may assert eccentrics signify high status, explorations of both large and small residences at Caracol show that eccentrics were fairly common. Also preliminary analysis of eccentrics at Caracol and elsewhere shows this often used term is misleading as it disregards the technological identifications of these objects that are rec overed from distributed household contexts. Eccentrics may include pieces such as exhausted cores, notched exhausted cores, unifacially pressure flaked polyhedral cores, macro flakes, core platform rejuvenations, core sections, distal orientation flakes, a nd/or retouched blades (Johnson 2015). The presence of technological diversity in eccentrics coupled with attribute analysis and the possibility of refits may show that exhausted polyhedral blade cores labeled eccentrics in the Caracol catalog even appe ar to be systematically destroyed prior to a ritual deposition (Clark and Bry ant 1997; Hirth 2006:78). Most preliminary

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94 of obsidian suggests that crafters could have performed this task in order to disable bl ade removal from blade cores by positioning exhausted cores on an anvil and splitting them medially or laterally using cores appear to have had their proximal, lateral, and distal margins removed to disabl e any further blade removal by both crafters and non crafters. It is unclear if many or any of these killed or shaped exhausted blade cores, known as Maya eccentrics, were used as tools prior to being deposit ed in a ritual cache or other ritual context, bu t there is evidence to suggest stylistic conti nuity over time and space (see C hapter 6 ). This research considers the habitual practices on the part of the obsidian crafters to curate and then destroy cores rather than to potentially fit some type of visual aesthetic or symbolic style. It may well be that the technological morphology and symbolic representation s are linked and deserve more detailed attention (see Hruby 2007 ). And because many blade core fragments fit this general pattern of destruction through notching or removing proximal and/or distal ends of the core, it can be suggested that these should be defined as eccentrics that occur in burials at Caracol, although this context is less common than in caches. In terms of the broader distribution of obsidian, a review of the Caracol season reports ( caracol.org ) shows obsidian is a typical component in Caracol archaeological inv estigations, D. Chase and A. Chase (2014 b ) noted that obsidian is present in nearly 90 percent of investigated architectural groups as well as some vacant terrain excavations. Further analysis of non special deposit obsidian will be detailed and

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95 summarized in C hapters 5 and 7 but the intention here is to simply present initial understandings of the obsidian data that can be gleaned from published data, whether peer reviewed or in season reports. Taken together, the current body of published data does show that obsidian was significant and often present in both ritual and domestic activities throughout the sampled contexts. T he key point is the omnipresence of obsidian in nearly all investigations and the fact that the majority of the sample dates to the Lat e Classic period. S amples come from a broad array of physical features and contexts household construction, refuse, and ritual deposits, as well as monumental ( and in some cases associated with erected monument s ) This work focuses on a more detailed presentation and discussion of how the obsidian industry and its agents articulate with the broader circulation of other crafted materials. For example, we do not know how Caracol articulates with other sites that o obsidian? How will these data help to inform regional trade connections? There is also a need to understand what form obsidian was imported into Caracol rough nodules, final polyhedral cores, or exhausted cores in need of rejuvenation. Regarding local crafts people, what were the strategies and knowledge of obsidian crafters to reduce the imported form to produce blades and eccentrics? In order to inform how crafters were invo lved within the local economy we need to better understand the nature of their technical and social organization within a proposed market economy. And finally, we may ask what can be said about the state of personhood, identity, and power relations crafter s had with others while interacting in a complex web of social relations at a site

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96 with a population of 100,000 or more? Exclusions and Limitations of the Research Because this dissertation uses a previously excavated dataset to address a number of quest ions regarding the ancient Maya, I must outline a number of important caveats. First, this research is about the obsidian artifacts from Caracol and therefore will not include analysis of other types of material remains. Despite this exclusion, other mater ials will be referenced in a general way. For example, obsidian from ritual deposits are often recovered alongside ceramics and/or other objects made of chert, limestone, shell, slate, and jadeite. In particular, it is common at Caracol to find eccentric o bsidians recovered from inside ceramic cache vessels or in associat ion with these vessels and accompanied by jadeite, shell, and other material residues. In these cases, the assemblage a suite of different materials situated in time and space are criti cal to understand the potential meaning of obsidian. Because of the scope of analysis and research needed to evaluate just the obsidian, future research will have to detail how obsidian materials articulate with other types of materials and artifacts. The artifact assemblage from Caracol is simply too large. Second excavations at Caracol, like those from of other Maya sites, recover other artifacts besides those explicitly sought to help answer research objectives. Through nearly 34 years of exploration a nd systematic research, the Caracol Archaeological Project has recovered nearly 20,000 obsidian artifacts. Thus, the knowledge produced from this dissertation research must be considered within the uction industry and those actors involved are possible only through an aggregate analysis. In other words, no

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97 single season or multi year research program at Caracol could have resulted in a recovered obsidian to date is therefore extremely important as it enables the opportunity to support or re evaluate past interpretations based on other material and contextual analysis. Third, no microscopic use wear study was done o n the collection for this dissertation research, although such a study is planned for the future. To prepare for such a study, artifact edge damage was recorded and coded for invasiveness. Edge damage, modification (retouch), and invasiveness refers to the extent to which an object was used by observing the presence or absence of macro scale (10x 20x magnification) flaking, notching, and/or other damage to an otherwise unused fine margin of a blade (see Appendix H edge modified tool ). Through relating edge wear with contextual associations, this recording scheme was also employed to determine where utilized tools were discarded in comparison with unused objects (e.g., blades without edge damage). This macro scale analysis produces evidence for determining w hat part of the blades were utilized, how invasive that use was, and the final depositional contexts of these utilized tools. Fourth, no obsidian workshop has been found at Caracol like the few recorded elsewhere ( Neives and Libby 1976; Olson 1994; Pulest on 1969 ). The presence of workshops is, however, very likely given the extent to which obsidian has been collected from about 200 household contexts. Also the objects collected from many ritual special deposits such as burials and caches shows that core shaping and rejuvenation debitage as well as exhausted cores were widely distributed to households. Basically, a

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98 full reduction sequence to shape and maintain cores for blade production can be inferred through an analysis of these types of contextual assem blages. In contrast to obsidian, shell and chert flaked stone crafting workshops have been investigated at Caracol and have yielded important information on the kinds of organization or production that were done the materials modified, and the techniques used to craft ( Johnson 2008; Pope 1994 ). It is anticipated that by focusing on obsidian through this research a better understanding of obsidian crafting and the most probable locations for workshops can be determined. Given the nature of reuse or the recy cling of many obsidian crafting by products such as exhausted cores and rejuvenation debitage in caches and burials, it seems likely that workshops were well kept and perhaps their residues erased as a result of this recycling practice. These issues will b e explored at greater length in later chapters. Fifth, possible limitations lie in accurately dating construction fills, refuse, and/or ritual contexts because dates w ere problematic or unavailable at the time of the research. Despite this potential shortc oming at some sites and the likelihood of it significantly changing interpretations, the bulk of recovery contexts date to the Classic period (AD 250 900). As D. Chase and A. Chase 2004 (see also A Chase and D. Chase 1994 b 2001 ; A. Chase et al. 2011) hav e shown, the majority of the settlement at Caracol is contemporaneous to the Late Classic period. Despite the problems of dating construction fills, I am operating under the presumption that unless otherwise stated, items within construction fills referenc ed to as secondary refuse or some other non ritual or non special deposit are contemporaneous to the Classic and/or Late Classic period. Finally, and because this project analyzed previously collected artifacts, not all

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99 artifacts were analyzed using the s tandard analysis scheme presented in C hapter 5 Due to time constraints, the 2015 season obsidian (C49D, C205 C208) is presented in analysis tables available on the (see Appendices F L), but is not included in each of the chapters that follow. For example, these recently collected artifacts were unavailable during the sourcing study and were not calculated in understanding domestic and ritual activities. Approximately 1,724 artifacts were not analyzed during this research and a sample (n=426) of these is li sted in Appendix F The artifacts not included in Appendices G L analysis tables still remain either (1) at the on site Caracol laboratory facility, (2) in the Belizean Institute of Archaeology (IOA) curation facility, (3) as part of a rotating museum exhi during the analysis, or (4) were otherwise unaccounted for during the course of this research project. In a few cases, greater counts were recorded during initial cataloging and counts were redu ced after subsequent refitting of broken fragments. Although these artifacts are not presented specifically in later chapters, some will be referenced in interpretative discussions. Again, the total unanalyzed obsidian is approximately 1,724 pieces, repres enting less than 10% of the collection. Thus the conclusions drawn from this analysis of 17,868 are not expected to change, but rather to be reinforced had the remaining pieces been analyzed.

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100 CHAPTER 4 SOURCING AND MOVING OBSIDIAN INTO A CITY Significanc e of Obsidian Sourcing C hapter 4 summarizes the importance of obsidian sourcing in the Maya area as well as explores the type of obsidian artifacts by source, the spatial distributions of obsidian sources that are present at Caracol, and finally discusses the temporal changes in the sources imported into Caracol. This last area will also position technological class and artifact type into discussion to better understand when particular crafting practices first began and which obsidian sources were first ut ilized for these practices. For example, when did local blade production first begin and did these crafting practices appropriate one or multiple obsidian sources? Was blade production did obsidian sources stay consistent over time in terms of provision ing local crafters for these specific practices? Recording geochemical elemental data on obsidian artifacts, assigning an core), and mapping the m temporally and spatially allows for the investigation of the beginning stages in the itinerary of obsidian. Elemental data tells us about the likely places where the raw material was quarried ( Figure 4 1 ). By cor technological description we can begin to see what form these materials took before being imported into a site (e.g., nodule, prepared core, biface) and which sources of obsidian were predominately used for certain pu rposes (i.e., El Chayal obsidian for blade production). These data also help to reinforce existing trade route models or provide an opportunity for their revision (see Demarest et al. 2014). Obsidian sourcing studies in the Maya area continue to contribut e to regional

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101 macro political economic models of exchange (Arnauld 1990; Braswell and Glascock 2007; Ford et al. 1997; Fowler et al 1989; Golitko and Feinman 2015; Hammond 1972 ; Healy et al. 1984; Moholy Nagy 1999, 2003b; Nazaroff et al. 2010; Rice 1984; S idrys 1976). In his review of obsidian studies in Mesoamerica, Clark (2002:36 37) argues that archaeologists cannot simply connect the dots between sources and sites using specific sources; more information is needed. Trade routes are dynamic social and ph ysical features that require human locomotion, knowledge of the landscape, communication, cooperation, and the ability to politically control resources. Some sites seem to be located at specific confluences where non locally available materials were funnel ed. Braswell (2010) argues that based on the near paucity of obsidian at Calakmul and the Nagy 1994, 1997, 2003), it is very likely that Tikal was controlling the distribution of obsidian as it m oved northward. Pasion, south of Tikal, in a transition area where local jadeite and obsidian production was intensive, Cancuen was a major power broker and focal point fo r regional trade. A large obsidian cache at Cancuen recovered from below a plain stela dating to the eight century shows Cancuen had ready access to exotic raw materials from the Guatemalan highlands (Demarest et al. 2014; Urquiz et al. 2013). The amount of blades produced from these cores far exceeded local demand. Due to the depositional context near elite areas, Demarest et al. (2014) claim that both local production and regional exchange of obsidian blades was under elite supervision and control. To be sure, the Rio Pasion and sites located along this route were important for circulating goods from the highlands to the lowlands, but the nature of local production and regional exchange by elites is

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102 debatable especially as other sites in the lowlands ( as well as earlier Maya sites ) yielded larger deposits of obsidian not necessarily associated with elites (Olson 1994; Neivens and Libby 1976). Other sites that exhibit larger obsidian dumps (see Aoyama 1999; Moholy Nagy 1997; Olson 1994; Trachman 2002) do highlight the diversity in the depositional context of obsidian blade production by products. They also demonstrate that many sites throughout the Maya lowlands had access to obsidian blade cores and not necessarily only to blades presumably imported from other sites of production. Sites with abundant amounts of obsidian spread throughout the Maya area do not support some older regional trade models (Sidrys 19 76 ). Obsidian dumps or redeposited workshop refuse are discussed further in C hapter 8 but they are relevant in discussing regional trade as a dynamic process where making correlations between elite control and extra local resources should be tested rather than assumed. However, as more data are recovered models will certainly change. In addition, these dumps do provide useful contexts to better characterize through which routes specific sources of obsidian were circulated For example, Aoyama (1999) used neutron activation analysis (NAA), XRF, and visual characterization to show that most obsidian from Copan was coming from the nearby Ixtepeque source (~90%) and far less from the more distant El Chayal source (~10%). Other sites in the southern and northern lowlands however, show a stronger association with the El Chayal obsidian source (~90%) and less so with the Ixtepeque source (~10%) during the Classic period (Meierhoff et al. 2012; Moholy Nagy et al. 2013). This contrasting distributional relationship is likely due to the kinds of trade routes that traversed the rivers of the central Petn and those that navigated the

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103 Motagua Valley (Dem arest et al. 2014; Hammond 1972 ; Nazaroff et al. 2010). The use of XRF and more specifically pXRF has brought archaeologists increasing amount of obsidian geochemical data. Neophytes as well as trained analysts are ra pidly generating datasets at unprecedented scales and therefore increasing attention to the suite of devi c es, methods, and methodological transparency that exists between analysts ( Shackley 2011). With this increase in data production and presentation, a r egional trend of lowland Maya obsidian trade has emerged and been largely reinforced. Nazaroff et al. (2010: 888 ) summarize this general temporal model as follows, In general, in the southern Maya lowlands, San Martin Jilotepeque was commonly traded during the Middle Preclassic (100 400 BC), but declined in use during the Late Preclassic through the Terminal Classic periods (400 BC to AD 900) when El Chayal became the dominate source, only to be overshadowed by Ixtepeque during the Post Classic (AD 900 1500 ). More recent data from Tikal in Guatemala (Moholy Nagy et al. 2013) and Chan in Belize (Meierhoff et al. 2012) also support this general trend with the exception of the Post c lassic. M any sites in the southern lowlands were either abandoned in the Postc lassic or have not produced datasets comparable with the Classic period. Even though data from the Postclassic is somewhat lacking in the southern Maya lowlands, trends at Tikal and Chan do show a slight decline in El Chayal and an equally slight incline i n Ixtepeque indicating that this change may have begun to occur before these sites were abandoned. Caracol participated within these same regional trade networks from 200 BC through AD 900 and therefore trends in obsidian source changing through time offer confident cases for comparisons. Sourcing obsidian to specific obsidian quarries in the Maya and non Maya regions presents an opportunity to continue to test

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104 domina n t models of exchange while amassing unprecedented geochemical data using nondestructive HH pXRF. Returning to the organization of this obsidian research program, an itinerary approach requires that another level of data be juxtaposed with XRF sourcing techniques to better understand relations of regional control. Specifically, following obsidia n from sources to sites must take into account raw material form to understand those involved in material transformations before, during, and after obsidian was exported from a quarry. For example, would assertions of elite control need revision if those e lite that managed blade producers only had access to nearly exhausted cores that were in need of immediate rejuvenation (see Hirth 2006)? Were sites such as Cancuen receiving nodules directly or already reduced blade cores? This would significantly change output estimates and assertions that Cancuen was a center of gravity for the region. Cancuen may have had a subsidiary relationship with another site that would have previously removed a significant portion of blades. Large, politically important sites app ear to only have access to prepared macrocores or pressure cores rather than rough nodules. While Tikal does not exhibit cortical macro core shaping debitage (Moholy Nagy et al. 2013:78), Aoyama (1999:141, Figure 8.9 and 8.10) shows that some cortical mate rial from Ixtepeque did reach the Copan Valley. Some of the absence of these kinds of core shaping debitage and/or cortical material at some sites could be accounted for by broad er sampling. The presence of large obsidian dumps shows that ancient Maya obsi dian crafters did manage production waste and that this waste was ritualized starting as early as the Early Classic in northern Belize (Trachman 2002) and perhaps during the same time and later from the Classic period in the central

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105 Petn (Moholy Nagy 1997 ). Moholy Nagy (1997:306) states that lithic deposits of both obsidian and chert are present in association with eight elite interments at Tikal and similar contexts at seven other sites. What these kinds of deposits in conjunction with technological and sourcing studies begin to show is that Maya obsidian moved over vast distances and had a highly fractal or transformative route before being deposited. It was part of a series of regional and local relationships that likely defined parts of life for many different social levels of society. This chapter will further engage with the above literature and dynamics of ancient Maya society as it pertains to the regional circulation of obsidian using Caracol as a case study. Data and Methods X ray florescence (X RF) methods have been useful in assigning artifacts to obsidian sources in Honduras, Guatemala, and Mexico using ten elements: Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Gallium (Ga), Thorium (Th), Rubidium (Rb), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr), and Niobium (Nb) and most published studies assign artifacts to geochemical obsidian sources using Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb. Because of previous research in the Maya area by other scholars (Nazaroff et al. 2010), I use elements Sr, Zr, and Rb specifically to assign artifacts to geochemical sources; these elements have proved the most useful in distinguishing between Mexican, Guatemala, and Honduran obsidian geochemistry. While I focus on three elements in particular I do provide part per million (ppm) quantit ies of other elements (see Appendix C). Using most other elemental quantities in combination with Sr, Zr, and Rb would also confirm the results presented below.

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106 All of the artifacts included in this sourcing study were also assigned approximate dates then Late Preclassic 1 ca. 300 BC 50 BC; (2) Late Preclassic 2 50 BC AD 200; (3) Early Classic 1 AD 200 350; (4) Early Classic 2 AD 350 5 5 0; (5) Late Classic 1 AD 5 5 0 700 ; (6) Late Cla ssic 2 AD 700 800; and (7) Terminal Classic AD 800 900. These assignments permit the exploration of temporal or periodic changes or continuities in obsidian obtainment The Caracol obsidian sourcing study assayed both artifacts and source samples us ing only one handheld portable energy dispersed XRF (HHpXRF). A Bruker Tracer III ED HHpXRF serial number T3S1330 from the University of California Berkeley, Archaeological Resource Facility (ARF) was used by the author to assay 1,786 available artifacts d uring 2013 through 2016. Each artifact and source sample was at least 3mm in thickness and in many cases samples were >8mm thick. Sample thickness can affect the peak intensity of the beam as it is returned to the instrument detector (Davis et al. 2010; Fe rguson 2012; Frahm 2016; Hughes 2010). An adapted method of elemental ppm ratios, not Compton peak net counts per second, was calculated and plotted to help correct for differing beam intensities returning to the X Ray detector due to thinner samples (see Hughes 2010). Compton net peaks are provided in Appendix C and a post ppm analysis using these Compton peak ratio data for the same elements reproduced the analysis of ppm quantitative data In addition to correcting for artifact thickness a n RGM 2 USGS p ressed pellet sample was assayed before ea ch scanning session (see Table 4 1 ). The use of this pressed pellet sample not only helped to determine the possibility for detector drift, but also ensured the reproducibi lity of the

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107 results presented below and the reliability of the ppm calibration equation (see Bruker white papers). The sampling strategy was both stratified and random Each investigated operation or general excavation was sampled by pulling at least a 10% sample of artifacts. When different types of artifacts were present, I made every effort to assay at least 10% of each type ; therefore a wide diversity of artifacts types were included in the HHpXRF study. In many of those operations that had less th an ten pieces of obsidian, ( artifacts typically less than 2mm thick ) Future research will incorporate very thin artifacts into the sample methods as new methods have been p roposed to determine sources for this artifacts (see Frahm 2016). When encountering obsidian from special deposits burials and caches each artifact was assayed unless not all artifacts from a given special deposit was available or if they were >2mm th ick. These un assayed artifacts were either on loan elsewhere or were not part of the original export permit by the IOA of Belize. In total, 1,768 obsidian artifacts were assayed using an HHpXRF instrument. Future research plans to scan a minimum of 20 per cent of the entire assemblage. Also assayed during the study was a source library loaned from the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) and the ARF ( Table 4 1 ). These included 12 sources provided by MURR (El Chayal n=5, Ixtepeque n=4, San Martin Jilotepeque n=5, Zaragoza n=5, Paredon n=5, Otumba n=5, Pachuca n=5, Tulancingo n=5, Zacualtipan n=5, Ucareo n=5, Cerro Varal n=5, and Fuentezuelas n=5) and one source from the ARF (La Union n=3). These source samples on loan were assayed on the

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108 same HHpXRF to ensure internal instrument consistency. Once these source samples were scanned they were returned to MURR and the ARF storage. Figure 4 1 shows the approximate location an d distribution of these obsidian sources. Figure 4 1 Obsidian sources used in study and mentioned in text. Each artifact (n=1,768) and source sample (n=62) was assayed at 40 kV and 12A for 180 live seconds with a 10mm2 X Flash detector (resolution approximately 145 eV at 2000,000cps) using a filter composed of 6 mil copper, 1 mil titanium, and 12 mil aluminum (see Nazaroff et al. 2010 for similar methods). A series of mass quantitative calibrations to ppm was performed us ing the GL1 calibration macro in Microsoft Excel developed by Bruker Elemental in conjunction with MURR (Speakman 2012). The raw spectra files, calibrated ppm data, and the Compton peak net counts per

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109 second are available for download and comparison (Appen dices B D ). A series of standard bivariate and ternary plots show the source geochemical distributions using elements Sr, Zr, and Nb ( Figure 4 2 Figure 4 3 and Figure 4 4 ). Initial organization of the ppm included constructing the source sample bivariate plots ( Figure 4 2 ) and then overlaying artifact scans on source samples ( Figure 4 3 ). Due to the variation in thickness and irregular surface of artifacts some samples were closely aligned with more than one source. Other plotting methods that used ratios of elemental ppm (Rb/Sr/Zr) were then used to confidently assign artifacts to source samples (Hughes 2010). Figure 4 3 shows those artifacts that are outside a 95 percent confidence ellipse for El Chayal, San Martin (de Jilotepeque ), and Ixtepeque. Pachuca obsidian artifacts also exhibited a wider geochemical variation when compared to the source samples provided by MURR ( Figure 4 3 and Figure 4 4 bottom right). This is an expected outcome as sub sources have been recorded at the Pachuca obsidian source (Glascock personal communication 2015). The La Union source samples and single Caracol artifact also exhibited a wide variation in geochemistry. The single La Union artifac t from Caracol, an obsidian pebble about 1.5cm in diameter with nearly 100 percent cortex, overlaps slightly with the confidence ellipsis of Ucareo, a Mexico obsidian source. Despite this overlap and the combination of artifact morphology and geochemistry it is very likely that this artifact is from the La Union obsidian source in northwestern Honduras (Glascock personal communication 2015). These types of obsidian pebble objects have been recorded by Joyce (1985) during her dissertation field work in the proximity of the La Union obsidian source and in subsequent work in the area (Joyce et al. n.d, Hendon 2004, 2009).

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110 eruptions near the site of Cerro Palenque, Honduras and are named after the modern town of La Union (Joyce et al. n.d.). Of the three La Union obsidian source samples, two were obsidian pebbles like the Caracol artifact. These objects are common from certain types of volcanic landscapes and often erode out of obsidian flows or are ejected short distances during eruptions. At the time of this research this is the only La Union obsidian artifact cited in the Maya lowlands outside Honduras and it also one of the earliest known obsidian artifacts recorded at Car acol (see below). It is currently unclear why this kind of object was imported into Caracol. Figure 4 4 shows a Sr and Zr bivariate plot for only the artifact HHpXRF assays. Note that the vast majority of artifact s can be assigned to the El Chayal obsidian source (n=1,595, or 90%). The ternary plots ( Figure 4 5 Figure 4 6 and Figure 4 7 ) b etter demonstrate and reinforce which obsidian sources are present in the Caracol sample. The ternary plots show a comparison to three elements (Rb/Sr/Zr). This ratio helps to assign artifacts to sources when those artifacts are relatively thin (<4mm) and do not provide the same return beam intensity like that of source samples back to the HHpXRF detector (see Ferguson 2012; Hughes 2010). All raw spectral data, calibrated ppm, bivariate and ternary plots, as well as initial source assignments were shared wi th the Archaeometry Laboratory at MURR. The source assignments were later confirmed by senior scientists (Ferguson and Glascock personal communication 2015). The findings by artifact typology are discussed in the next section as well as the spatial and te mporal shifts in overall obsidian importation into Caracol.

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111 Table 4 1 Summary ppm data for all source samples scanned with HHpXRF. Table modeled after Meierhoff et al. (2012:275, Table 14.1). A sample of RGM 2 (n=5), both cal ibrated with the Bruker method and recommended from USGS, is included for greater transparency. Source Sample Reference Library Mn**** Fe Zn Ga Th Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Present at Caracol Cerro Varal MURR** mean 404.42 6987.12 40.70 19.00 12.02 127.98 73.52 23.2 8 120.92 17.04 X 49.03 471.18 5.86 2.53 1.55 5.44 5.82 1.59 7.54 0.42 El Chayal MURR mean 603.06 6154.84 43.64 17.70 10.10 139.52 132.56 18.58 104.18 10.56 115.43 208.69 11.37 0.67 1.70 4.64 6.85 1.69 3.09 0.51 Fuentezuelas MURR mean 205.80 14344.58 148.26 24.24 20.36 171.26 1.26 97.32 611.26 34.22 X 75.20 203.38 6.45 1.86 2.35 4.45 0.36 1.13 4.03 1.68 Ixtepeque MURR mean 419.48 9148.73 43.95 20.40 7.68 99.70 145.65 18.13 160.65 9.65 36.76 257.25 3.74 1.36 2.12 2.21 7.89 1.02 6 .98 0.47 La Union ARF*** mean 451.17 7919.70 47.20 17.67 11.33 129.93 38.47 24.07 141.37 16.40 143.43 433.70 7.20 1.34 2.15 11.96 6.38 4.35 6.13 2.36 Otumba MURR mean 400.78 8865.70 49.54 19.12 10.06 123.58 118.14 21.80 135.96 12.44 22.72 363.74 6.97 2.36 1.08 5.08 6.16 1.32 3.07 1.23 Pachuca MURR mean 1049.54 15709.02 208.36 23.46 20.48 194.32 3.62 109.20 890.56 87.98 78.78 180.37 6.00 1.18 1.58 2.27 0.66 2.87 2.62 0.88 Paredon MURR mean 363.98 8776.44 62.12 21.98 17.20 164.54 4.34 48.12 200.74 41.40 X 27.57 316.51 1.89 1.65 1.23 7.18 0.74 3.12 8.88 2.27 San Martin* MURR mean 553.46 6510.04 46.78 18.12 7.80 108.62 172.06 15.28 110.00 8.76 28.08 153.34 2.76 1.02 1.50 4.10 3.63 1.62 2.60 1.38 Tulancingo MURR mean 4 35.50 18443.06 185.72 24.02 12.76 125.52 13.22 92.98 684.98 45.60 X 46.87 706.21 13.31 1.95 1.37 4.70 1.00 4.36 31.07 1.31 Ucareo MURR mean 207.98 7569.18 43.88 19.52 12.78 150.10 10.48 25.64 115.08 13.94 17.48 119.52 8.86 1.21 1.23 5.71 1.12 0.88 3.29 0.66 Zacualtipan MURR mean 183.40 10583.60 48.32 22.66 32.20 281.82 35.78 45.96 213.26 19.16 26.13 551.48 3.61 2.20 1.93 8.64 2.38 2.39 4.35 1.47 Zaragoza MURR mean 262.98 9594.58 45.90 21.90 17.20 137.60 25.76 31.88 189.28 17.46 X 29.33 342.56 5.81 1.08 1.79 4.60 1.85 1.80 8.45 0.69 RGM 2 ( measured ) USGS mean 290.93 11934.02 40.91 16.15 11.76 138.32 95.64 24.22 201.91 9.25 67.89 254.17 4.80 2.30 2.12 2.34 1.62 2.05 5.24 0.89 RGM 2 (recommended) USGS actual 273 33 16 147 108 24 222 9 8 2 1 5 5 2 17 *San Martin de Jilotepeque **Missouri University Research Reactor, ***Archaeological Research Facility, UC Berkeley, ****All spectra calibrated to pro duce parts per million (ppm) using the GL1 method prei nstalled on Bruker handheld portable energy dispersed XRF unit with serial number T3S1330

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112 Figure 4 2 Strontium and Zirconium bivariate plot of MURR (Missouri University Research Reactor) and ARF (Archaeological Research Facility at UC Berkeley) source samples with 95% confidence ellipses. Figure 4 3 Strontium and Zirconium bivariate plot of all obsidian source samples ( Table 4 1 ) and all Caracol artifact samples with 95% confidence ellipses.

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113 Figure 4 4 Strontium and Zirconium bivariate plot of only Caracol artifact samples with 95% confidence ellipses. Figure 4 5 Rubidium, Stronti um, and Zirconium ternary plot of all obsidian source samples available for study.

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114 Figure 4 6 Rubidium, Strontium, and Zirconium ternary plot of all obsidian source samples and all Caracol artifact samples. Figure 4 7 Rubidium, Strontium, and Zirconium ternary plots of only Caracol artifact samples.

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115 Obsidian Source by Artifact Type As state d above a ten percent sample of obsidian was taken with regard to quantity by archaeological operation and by technology type whenever possible. The resulting sample is presented in Table 4 2 and the distribution of artifact type by source is shown is in Figure 4 8 Blade c ore shaping debitage (n=247) makes up nearly 14 percent of HHpXRF sample and includes a variety of debitage with and without cortex. Because some of these debitage are the only pieces to have cortical material on them, they help to understand how and in wh at form some sources of obsidian were coming into Caracol. El Chayal obsidian was imported into Caracol with some amount of cortex when compared to other sources. Core shaping macro debitage from Ixtepeque is present and therefore Ixtepeque obsidian too ma y have been imported in the same roughed out macrocore form, like El Chayal, although in far fewer amounts. No Ixtepeque obsidian included in the HHpXRF study exhibited cortex and therefore may indicate the geological nature or different quarrying techniqu es of Ixtepeque obsidian.

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116 Table 4 2 Artifact Type by Obsidian Source Technology El Chayal Ixtepeque La Union Otumba Pachuca San Martin Ucareo unknown Zacualtipan Total % Blade core shaping debitage 231 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 247 1 4.0 M acroblade 33 1 34 M acroblade with cortex 4 4 M acroflake 37 9 46 M acroflake with cortex 16 16 O bject from macroblade 1 1 2 O bject from macroflake 1 1 S mall percussion blade 43 43 S mall percussion flake 96 5 101 Rejuvenation debitage 445 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 461 26.1 Core section flake 53 2 55 Cortical core top 11 11 Distal orientation fla ke 109 3 112 Faceted core top 7 1 8 Faceted/striated core top 7 7 Indeterminate core top 3 3 Indeterminate rejuv debitage 2 2 Lateral core re juv 8 1 9 Obj ect from core rejuv 6 6 Object from core rejuv debitage 4 4 Pecked ground core top 8 8 Platform prep flake 206 9 215 Striated core top 21 21 Blade cores and fragments 524 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 533 30.1 Bidirectional core 10 2 12 Bidirectional core frag ment 10 10 Blade core frag (non rejuv) 329 4 333 Exhausted core 15 3 18 Object fr om blade core frag 83 83 Object from exhausted core 77 77 Blades 379 79 0 0 7 5 0 1 0 471 26.6 Final series 339 74 7 5 1 426 Initial series 40 5 45

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117 Table 4 2. Continued Technology El Chayal Ixtepeque La Union Otumba Pachuca San Martin Ucareo unknown Zacualtipan Total % Misc Blades and debitage 13 12 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 30 1.7 Blade artifact 2 2 Chunk 1 1 2 Edge modified flake 2 2 Flake 4 4 1 9 Flake (edge mod. Tool) 1 1 Fragment 6 6 1 1 14 Bifaces and points 3 2 0 3 3 0 1 0 0 12 0.7 Biface 1 1 2 Point 2 2 2 3 1 10 Other and adornments 0 13 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0.8 (Undiag nostic) scraper 1 1 Adornment (earflare, set) 12 12 Obsidian pebble 1 1 Total 1 595 147 1 3 10 8 1 2 1 1 768 Percentage of Total 90% 8.20% 0.05% 0.16% 0.56% 0.62% 0.05% 0.16% 0.05% 100%

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118 Figure 4 8 Artifact types by obsidian source. Bar graph in log scale (Base 10). Note that blade core shaping debitage, rejuvenation debitage, and blade cores and fragments are specific to only the El Chayal and Ixtepeque sources. Blade-core shaping debitage Rejuvenation debitage Blade-cores and fragments Blades Misc blades and debitage Bifaces and points Other and adronments 1 10 100 COUNT (LOG SCALE) ARTIFACT TYPE BY OBSIDIAN SOURCE

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119 P e rcussion rejuvenation debitage (n=461) comprises 26 percent of the HHpXRF sample. A wide variety of rejuvenation debitage was assayed and included different technological sub types ( Table 4 2 ). The bulk of these su b types are core tops, platform preparation, and distal orientation flakes. These artifacts represent varied stages in the rejuvenation and preparation of a blade end of a blade core (see C hapter 5 ). Like b lade core shaping debitage, El Chayal and Ixtepeque sources are represented in the sample, although Ixtepeque occurs in far lesser amounts. The presence of El Chayal in all sub types of rejuvenation debitage is likely due to the abundant nature of this obs idian over all others. It also demonstrates the wide variety of techniques used to rejuvenate blade cores from one source as opposed to another; however, it is entirely likely that all technological classes would occur if the XRF sourcing study were expand ed to include more than 10 percent. Despite this sampling issue, these quantities from a 10 percent sample are consistent with other sourcing studies in the southern Maya lowlands (Ford et al. 1997; Moholy Nagy et al. 2013; Nazaroff et al. 2010). Blade co res make up about 30 percent of the HHpXRF sample (n=533). The bulk of these artifacts are from the El Chayal obsidian source (n=524), while only 9 are from Ixtepeque. Like the previous two classes of artifacts no other obsidian source i s present in this technological classification. These artifacts are either exhausted blade core, blade core fragments, or objects from blade cores (i.e., eccentrics). The vast majority of these artifacts are from El Chayal (n=524, or 98.3%) and therefore reinforc ing the da ta already described above. Obsidian blades that were scanned included both initial serie s and final series

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120 blades (see C hapter 5 ). Both of these blades could have been useful as cutting implements, but the vast majority of blades that exhibit use related wea r are final series blades (see Ch apter 5 ). These were also better represented in the Caracol assemblage and therefore more were assayed during the sourcing study. A total of 471 blades (initial series blades n=45, final series blades n=426) were assayed The results show that the majority of blades are sourced to El Chayal and secondarily to Ixtepeque. Initial series from both of these quarries further demonstrates that the local crafting or shaping of blade cores from both El Chayal and Ixtepeque occurr ed. Other sources for final series blades are present from Pachuca (n=7), San Martin de Jilotepeque (n=5) and an unknown source (n=1). The juxtaposition of these sourced blade with the complete absence of blade core shaping debitage, rejuvenation debitage, and exhausted blade cores, suggests that is very likely that these sources (e.g., Pachuca and San Martin) were being imported separately from other sources rather than locally produced. Miscellaneous blade and other debitage (n=30 or 1.7%) reflect a simil ar pattern to that of blades. Both El Chayal and Ixtepeque are well represented and make up more than 80 percent of this artifact type. Three other sources make up the remainder of this type and are probably associated with the importation and local retouc h of flake tools. Of bifacial artifacts bifaces and points twelve were scanned and the results show that 7 or 58.3 percent come from sources other than El Chayal (n=3) and Ixtepeque (n=2). Three bifacial artifacts from Otumba, 3 from Pachuca, and 1 fro m Ucareo demonstrate that exchange networks for obsidian went far beyond the Guatemalan source areas. It is important to note that only three large green Pachuca obsidian Stem B points were included in this study. A total of 6 were recovered from a

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121 cremati 2011; Johnson et al. 2010). These points were accompanied by the 18 green Pachuca blades not included in the HHpXRF study. A. Chase and D. Chase (2011) argue these and other art ifacts establish a direct connection to individuals from central Mexico being active at Caracol during the Early Classic period and were used as tools to interact with the burning remains while later being interred with the individuals (Johnson 2010). A de posit with similar obsidian has been recorded at Altun Ha (Pendergast 1971, 2004; Spence 1996). Other obsidian objects and adornments like bifaces and points make up less than one percent of the HHpXRF study. These include one scraper from an undiagnosti c piece of debitage, a set of earflares (6 pieces each), and one obsidian pebble. Both the scraper and set of earflares are sourced to Ixtepeque and the single obsidian pebble is from La Union. The pieces comprising the earflare s are from a single intermen t ; they are retouched and ground so extensively that they cannot be confidently assigned to a technological type, but the tabular nature of these objects might suggest that they are blade core tops or blade core section flakes. These were attached to a cer amic backing with some type of adhesive (see Figure 5 32 ). The single La Union obsidian pebble is similar to those objects described by Moholy Nagy (2003 a :51, Figure B 120a; see also Hildebrand Appendix H in Moholy Nagy 2003). Moholy Nagy (2003 a ) describes these similarly looking objects recovered from various excavations as tektites. Alan R Hildebrand (2003:100 101, Appendix H in Moholy Nagy 2003 a Figure B 120a] were f ound in general excavations widely scattered through the city, mostly in small

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122 structure groups that are presumed to be residential. Unlike the single small rounded form r itual contexts. Also dissimilar to Caracol, the small pebbles are not obsidian, but rather tektites. Hildebrand (Appendix H in Moholy Nagy 2003 a natural glasses quenched from superheated melts, produced and ejected at relatively appearance and size is similar to the single pebble recovered from Caracol, but their color and geochemistry are significantly different (see Koeberl and Sigurdsson 1 992; Hildebrand et al. 1992 cited in Moholy Nagy 2003a ). No elemental concentrations were provided in Moholy Nagy Appendix H (2003 a :100 101) and no response from received from the laboratory that conducted elemental analysis in time for further discussion in this research A technological differentiation of artifacts by obsidian source demonstrates that there is a fairly clear difference between raw material form, local reduction, and tool type as it pertains to sources. Both El Chayal and Ixtepeque provid ed the bulk of tool stone for the production of blades and it appears that at least El Chayal obsidian was imported in the form of roughed out macrocores that still retain ed minor traces cortex. Ixtepeque may have been imported in a similar form albeit in far fewer amounts and did not retain any cortical material. The other forms those of bifaces, points, adornments, or other objects appear to be more aligned with sources apart from El Chayal and Ixtepeque. These data enable a broader discussion of othe r regional trade that included finished or unmodified objects imported from Mexican as well as Honduran obsidian sources.

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123 Spatial and Chronological Considerations in Obsidian Sourcing Both Braswell (2010:132, Table 6.1) and Hirth (1998) explain that the existence commodities and obsidian sources at a given site. Although marketplace exchange has been argued to exist at Caracol (D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 a ), the degree t o which markets influenced the distribution of obsidian and how there may be differential access with regard to residential status remains untested using statistical methods (see C hapter 6 ). Nevertheless, obsidian source data from Caracol does introduce a first line of evidence to argue that obsidian was moving through a local marketplace system. A benefit of this research was that each artifact could be mapped to its approximate location within Caracol, thus enabling a distributional analysis using multipl e datasets. This type of distributional analysis allows for an actual visualization of what homogeneity may look like in terms of obsidian source distribution. A distributional analysis is also performed on different technological classes as well (see C hap ter 6 ) to better frame further discussions regarding the nature of local exchange. Despite the caveats in C hapter 4 regarding previously excavated collections, there is sufficient data from the existing obsidian database to draw a series of conclusions. It is also extremely 200 sqkm of settlement would continue to occur, the data gathered would reinforce many of the conclusions presented in earlier research that asserted a well integrated local economy where households throughout the city relied on market exchange (A. Chase and D. Chase 2009; D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 a ). El Chayal obsidian was the most accessible source of obsidian at Caracol and

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124 therefore was the most abundant source for blade tool pro duction. If markets were a mechanism for this source to move about within Caracol, then we should expect to see a dispersed, non clustered distribution. Figure 4 9 shows the distribution of El Chayal obsidian throu ghout the site. The distributional pattern does not support the supposition that source distribution was restricted to certain areas or status groups. Similarly the distribution of Ixtepeque obsidian is also widely distributed ( Figure 4 10 ). However, other sources apart from these two Guatemalan sources (and the single La Union pebble) do appear to cluster and are limited to the city center and areas just adjacent to it ( Figure 4 11 ). It could be likely that these items were only accessible through a marketplace located in the city center and therefore did not disperse far beyond. D. Chase and A. Chase (2014 a :243, Figure 4) show that a marketplace located within the city ce nter had a projected 3km service area and therefore these finished artifacts were readily available to those closest to this market. It is also likely these foreign objects were traded directly with local elites living in epicentral palaces and therefore m ay have not circulated through markets. These sources (e.g., Otumba Pachuca, San Martin de Jilotepeque Ucareo, Zacualtipan, and an unkno wn source) also correspond to the transition between Early Classic 1 and Early Classic 2 period (AD 3 30 ) (see Figure 4 12 Northeastern Acropolis suggests that people with ties to central Mexico were present at Caracol during this time and may have brought trade items with t hem from outside the Maya lowland areas (Pendergast 1971, 2004; Spence 1996). This time period also corresponds to marked decrease in El Chayal obsidian and a slight increase in Ixtepeque (see Figure 4 13 ) and ther efore this may provide evidence for some general

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125 changes in trade relations that eventually reverted to a n earlier trajectory. Artifacts from these sources entered Caracol as blades and bifacial tool forms, some of which were exclusively used in city cent er rituals. This will be discussed further below, but it is important to note that there are three lines of evidence technological, source geochemistry, distribution, and temporal to suggest that the transition between Early Classic 1 and Early Classic 2 constitutes a unique time of change and influence with regard to obsidian importation.

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126 Figure 4 9 Spatial distributions of El Chayal obsidian at Caracol. Note the wide distribution of sources from the sampled residenti al settlement. Figure 4 10 Spatial distributions of Ixtepeque obsidian at Caracol. Note that although less dense overall, the distribution is still wide spread from the sampled residential settlement.

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127 Figure 4 11 Spatial distributions of other obsidian sources at Caracol. Note that sources other than El Chayal and Ixtepeque (with the exception of a single La Union artifact) are limited to elite complexes in and just outside the city center As the previous sections have shown, the bulk of obsidian coming into Caracol was from the El Chayal obsidian source (90.2%) and the second most abundant source was that of Ixtepeque (8.3%). Other sources combined make up approximately 1.5 percent of the total assemblage. This next section will address how might the importation of these sources changed or stayed consistent through time. Table 4 3 and Table 4 4 show the tim e periods represented at Caracol and obsidian distribution by

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128 source. These time periods are derived from dating primary contexts and ceramics assemblages ( e.g., A. Chase 1994; A. Chase and D. Chase personal communication 2012). Many Maya sites in the regi on also have obsidian assemblages that date to these broad time periods; however, their bracketed limits can be slightly different than those presented here, therefore further comparison must take this into account. For example, Moholy Nagy et al. (2013:89 Table 6) defines multiple time periods which makes specific temporal comparisons difficult, while others more or less align with Caracol (see Kosakowsky 2012:44, Table 3.1). Because the Classic period can be defined broadly and are commonly done by lead researchers, I use the local Caracol chronology with comparisons to other sites nearby that likely obtained obsidian alongside Caracol for more than 500 years. I begin my data with a slightly different order. I display my data from the earliest dated obsid ian artifact through to the most recent data. These dates and counts by time period are listed in Table 4 3

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129 Table 4 3 Number of Caracol obsidian artifacts sampled by time period for a ll available obsidian sources. Period Dates Cerro Varal El Chayal Fuentezuelas Ixtepeque La Union Otumba Pachuca Paredon San Martin Tulancingo Ucareo unknown Zacualtipan Zaragoza Grand Total Late Preclassic 1 ca 300 BC 50 BC 1 2 3 Late Prec lassic 2 50 BC AD 200 7 3 1 11 Early Classic 1 AD 200 350 15 4 3 22 Early Classic 2 350 5 5 0 49 29 2 1 1 82 Late Classic 1 5 5 0 700 308 35 1 2 1 1 348 Late Classic 2 700 800 1 147 62 2 5 4 1 1 221 Terminal Classic 800 900 68 12 1 81 Grand Total 0 1 595 0 147 1 3 10 0 8 0 1 2 1 0 1 768 Table 4 4 Percentage by time periods and obsidian sources present at Caracol. Number sampled is in parenthesis after t ime period. Period (n=) El Chayal Ixtepeque La Union Otumba Pachuca San Martin Ucareo unknown Zacualtipan Late Preclassic 1 (3) 33.3 66.7 Late Preclassic 2 (11) 63.6 27.3 9.1 Early Classic 1 ( 22 ) 68.2 18.2 13.6 Early Classic 2 (8 2 ) 59.8 35.4 2.4 1.2 1.2 Late Classic 1 (348) 88.5 10.1 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.3 Late Classic 2 (1 221) 93.9 5.1 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.1 Terminal Classic (81) 84.0 14.8 1.2 Percentage of total 90.2 8.3 <0.1 0.2 0.6 0.5 <0.1 0.1 <0.1

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130 Figure 4 12 Distribution of obsidian sources through time at Caracol, Belize. The number in parentheses is total number of artifacts scanned using a HHpXRF. Figure modeled after Meierhoff et al. (2012:278, Figure 14.1). Figure 4 13 Distribution of obsidian sources through time at Caracol, Belize. Graphic shows sources that make up <15% of total by time period (La Union, Otumba, Pachuca, San Martin, Ucareo, Zacualtipan, and Unknown). 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 Late Preclassic 1 (3) Late Preclassic 2 (11) Early Classic 1 (22) Early Classic 2 (82) Late Classic 1 (348) Late Classic 2 (1221) Terminal Classic (81) Obsidian Sources by Period (%) El Chayal Ixtepeque La Union Otumba Pachuca San Martin Ucareo unknown Zacualtipan 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 Late Preclassic 1 (3) Late Preclassic 2 (11) Early Classic 1 (22) Early Classic 2 (82) Late Classic 1 (348) Late Classic 2 (1221) Terminal Classic (81) Obsidian Sources by Period, <15% El Chayal Ixtepeque La Union Otumba Pachuca San Martin Ucareo unknown Zacualtipan

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131 The general tempor al trends observed at Caracol are similar to other studies in Belize and the Petn area (Cecil et al. 2007; Dreiss and Brown 1989; Meierhoff 2012; Moholy Nagy 1999; Moholy Nagy et al. 2013) and technological type by time period demonstrates that crafting o history beginning in the Late Preclassic (see Table 4 5 ). A few observations are notably different when compared to other studies. Particularly some of thes e differences may be due to alternative sampling strategies across different projects in the Maya lowlands. The Late Preclassic 1 period (ca 300 50 BC) represents a time that yielded the least amount of datable obsidian. Only three obsidian artifacts can b e dated to this time period. But these data begin the long term trend that is seen throughout the Classic period both El Chayal and Ixtepeque dominate the overall assemblage through time. These trends are evident from other s tudies but the overall percen tages reported from different sources may vary. Again, this is likely due to sample differences. During the Late Preclassic 2 (50 BC AD 200), there is a notable increase in the presence of El Chayal obsidian and a marked decrease in Ixtepeque obsidian. Th is change in percentages by source during this time period marks the beginning of a general trend toward greater El Chayal importation ex cept with some interruption during the Early Classic 2 period. Also present during the Late Preclassic 2 is the presenc e of a single obsidian sample from La Union. This artifact described above and further in C hapter 6 was recovered from a cache (S.D.C118F 6) located in the eastern ritual presence in this obsidian source in this cache deposit may signify some early

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132 connection with the Copan Valley and some obsidian sources nearby. The Early Classic 1 period ( AD 200 350) shows a growing trend to the increasing importation of El Chayal and further decrease in Ixtepeque; however, this trend reverts to an earl ier pattern during the Early Classic 2 (AD 350 5 5 0) where Ixtepeque makes about one third of the total obs idian sources. This ratio is reflected earlier during the Late Preclassic 2 Also during the transition from Early Classic 1 and Early Classic 2 there is an introduction of Mexican sources of obsidian. As stated above this might be due to some new populat ions moving in or a broader trade network influencing the region; it may likely be both of these scenarios. Regional relationships were certainly growing during beginnings of the Classic period around AD 200 5 5 0. Moholy Nagy et al (2013:89, Table 6) show t hat obsidian from Mexican sources first appears during the transition from Terminal Preclassic (A.D 150 250) into Early Classic (A.D. 250 500). A Mexican population, or individuals identifying with central Mexico did make a presence at Caracol during this time ( A. Chase and D. Chase 2011). The same types of obsidian sources first appear at Caracol during this period as well ( Table 4 3 Figure 4 12 ). Whil e some green obsidian was recovered from domestic refuse and/or construction fills in the form of utilized medial blade fragments (n= approximately 34), nearly half of green obsidian (n=32 or 48%) was recovered from an elaborate cremation burial from withi A. Chase and D. Chase 2011). The presence of these objects and others demonstrates that individuals from or in relation to a people identifying with Teotihuacan were present at Caracol and were aligned with el ites living in the city center The distribution of geochemically sourced city center elite.

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133 This may due to direct exchange with foreign merchants or that these objects entered direct ly into a city center market and therefore circulated within a given provisioning radius (see D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 b ). Braswell (2010:136) and Aoyoma (1999) redistribut ed to lesser status groups. At Caracol, however, some green obsidian blades A cursory examination of the remaining 34 artifacts does not demonstrate that all green obsid ian was restricted like the cremation burial. Rather it looks like some green obsidian was accessible to the wider population and the burial context may have been the exception. During the Late Classic 1 period (AD 5 5 0 700 ) a drast ic shift in obsidian importation is apparent. Not only does there appear to be greater access overall, but El Chayal again dominates the sampled assemblage. A preliminary assessment of technological types by time period suggests that the Late Classic 1 per iod shows the first time that core shaping debitage with cortex is present. The presence of this debitage during the noted increase in importation suggests that this period is when Caracol began having access to roughed out macrocores rather than prepared pressure cores. Although preliminary, these types of debitage are also reflected in the Late Classic 2 period (AD 700 800) through Terminal Classic (AD 800 900) deposits, signaling a continued trend until the site was abandoned. The Late Classic 2 period (AD 700 800) exhibits nearly 95 percent reliance on El Chayal obsidian. Most Mexican obsidian sources are also present during this time period with the exception of Ucareo and an unknown source. The majority of obsidian

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134 assayed for geochemical data dating to this time period was from two above tomb deposits locat ed in the city center Both Operations C12 (Structure A3) dating to ca. AD 695 and C87 (Structure A34) dating to ca. AD 682 (see A. Chase and D. Chase 1987:13 15, D. Chase and A. Chase 1996; D. Chas e personal communication 2014), ritual deposits. These and two other similar deposits are discussed later in C hapter 7 but it is important to note here that the tra nsition between Late Classic 1 and Late Classic 2 period is marked by the occurrence of these deposits not only at Caracol, but also at other sites (see Moholy Nagy 1997:306). A geochemical sourcing study of these contexts may distort overall consumption p atterns. Because Operation C19 (Structure L3), like C12 and C87, also yielded a larger obsidian deposit associated with a tomb style burial and may reflect an organized and well managed effort on the part of obsidian crafter to curation production debitage it may be possible that these deposits were made up from obsidian that likely predate the tombs by serval years or perhaps decades. Crafters may have had to wait sometime for the backlog of production waste to build up before it could be moved to these s ingular ritual events surrounding the death of these elite individu als. As will be discussed (see C hapter 6 ), these deposits may introduce problems into an obsidian sourcing study, but it is important to note that the debitage reflected in the HHpXRF sampl e is representative of the activities occurring during the Late Classic 1 to Late Classic 2 periods. The general trend is still clear despite potential sampling errors obsidian supply while the other Guatemalan s ources make up less than 10 percent of the total for the Late Classic 2 period.

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135 Obsidian counts for the Terminal Classic period are not what they were for the Late Classic periods and are only slightly higher than the Early Classic 2 period. While overall counts appear to tapper off after the Late Classic 2 period into the Terminal Classic, the kinds of overall sources being acquired by Caracol does not drastically change, with the exception of obsidian from Mexican sources These data continue to support a wide range of networks still in place before the site was abandoned sometime around A.D. 900 (A. Chase and D. Chase 2007 b :23). All Guatemala obsidian sources are present, but in fewer sampled amounts, and there is an absence of Mexican obsidian during th is era regional demand for Guatemalan obsidian, the transition away from trading a lack of access to Mexican obsidian objects and/or a product of sampling bias. Observations and Interpretations from Sourcing Obsidian Technological C lassification A number of broad observations are apparent from an analysis of the technological types by obsidian source. First, El Chayal obsidian was used to manufacture the widest range of obsidian objects. Ixtep eque too was used much the same way as El Chayal, although with less overall percentages Second, other sources were nearly exclusively reserved to specific artifact forms (e.g., many finished blades manufactured elsewhere and bifaces and points) and t hese were most likely imported rather than locally manufactured. These observations therefore suggest that Caracol was more closely aligned with sites in the Petn region and those in both southern and norther n Bel ize during the Classic period.

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136 Spatial D i stribution Spatial mapping of artifacts by obsidian source has shown that both El Chayal and Ixtepeque were widely distributed during the Classic period broadly and especially during AD 5 5 0 800. Other sources however, c ity center Interestingly these other sources (i.e., those excluding El Chayal, Ixtepeque, and La Union) first appear by the Early Classic 2 period (AD 350 5 5 0) and, with the exception of San Martin, tapper off quickly through the next few hundred years The single La Union obsidian pebble from a cache within the eastern structure at the Monterey group is clearly an outlier when compared to the other data. This piece located within the city center had connections to exchange partners that brought materials from the southeast into Caracol. Lomitola (2012) describes the Monterey group: The Monterey Group is outside of the epicenter and may have been ion. While it is similar in architectural layout and size to within the eastern structure are similar to many of the Early Classic [Late Preclassic] caches found in the public struc tures of Caracol, Hatzcap Ceel, and Cahal Pichik, all exterior to and at least 3 km from the group. Monterey and the surrounding area may have been attempting to establish itself as a distinct political unit during the Late Preclassic [Late Preclassic] Per iod, a contemporary to both Hatzcap Ceel and Cahal Pichik directly to the east (A. Chase Personal Comm. 2011). A ballcourt located in close proximity to the Monterey Group may serve as evidence for an early political entity. However, Monterey and the surro unding area were all consumed by Classic polity. The sample size for earlier time periods is not as well represented as later time periods and therefore spatially mapping these samples would not enable a broader discussion of obsidian excha nge. The later time periods, however, do exhibit a marked pattern ( Figure 4 9 Figure 4 10 and Figure 4 11 ). As stated above, bot h El Chayal and

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137 Ixtepeque do exhibit a broad distribution and therefore it is likely that local markets were present beginning as early as the Early Classic 2 period (AD. 350 5 5 0). Further studies of earlier material are required to better understand whe n markets were influencing obsidian distributions, that is assuming they existed prior to the Early Classic 2 period. Other non market transaction s may have occurred between merchants and those high status individuals living in or near to the city center As Figure 4 11 has already shown, sources such as Otumba, Pachuca, Ucareo, and others are limited to the city center and do not circulate beyond the 3 km provisioning radius modeled for this location (D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 a :243, Figure 4). One of two scenarios is likely. Either (1) this city center market was the only market to receive these objects and therefore they did not circulate to other areas or (2) these objects were exchanged directly with those indi viduals living in or near to the city center The second scenario may allow for a cursory examination of elite gift giving between non Caracol merchants or other elites and local Caracol elites. Further analysis is required to better engage non market exch ange options during the Classic period as it pertains to obsidian research. Temporal C hanges One issue that has not been discussed in the above presentation is that obsidian sources were not mapped with respect to time period because greater sampling and temporal resolution is needed. This is an important dimension for understanding when in time sources become widely distributed and accessible to the population. Further research is needed to better understand when local markets may have impacted the

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138 inter nal distribution of obsidian even though D. Chase and A. Chase (2014 a ) argue that markets were influencing distributions during most of the Classic period (AD 250 900). During the time periods that are represented in the obsidian sourcing study, both El Ch ayal and Ixtepeque obsidian increase in amount and it is therefore likely that with the increase in source acquisition there was a greater dispersal of obsidian to the local population. Despite spatially mapping obsidian source data by time period, the bul k of obsidian assayed during the source study indicate that 1,569, or 88.7% date to the Late Classic period broadly ; therefore if mapped, a wide distribution would likely indicat e that markets were certainly influencing the distribution of obsidian beginn ing as early as AD 5 5 0. A second observation is evident from reviewing data presented in Table 4 5 Table 4 5 shows artifact type by time period and by source. The Late Pr eclassic is the earliest known date in the assayed material. The typology of the three artifacts shows that obsidian blade production did occur on obsidian from both the El Chayal and Ixtepeque sources. The later Late Preclassic shows the same kind of data but with the absence of Ixtepeque cores probably due to sampling and during this time period we begin to see that El Chayal obsidian was likely arriving in the form of already reduced macrocores where macro debitage was removed to further prepare pre ssure blade cores. The Early Classic 1 period is when evidence of objects made from exhausted blade cores first appears. These typically are called eccentrics will be discussed later in C hapter s 6 and 8. Beginning in the Early Classic 2 period both El Ch ayal and Ixtepeque began arriving as macrocores that are further reduced producing macro debitage and

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139 other percussion debitage to form pressure blade cores. The Late Classic periods (1 and 2) show similar data in terms of the available raw materials a nd the continued trend to import raw materials that need initial shaping before primary pressure blade cores were formed. The second half of the Late Classic exhibits the greatest amounts of various types of artifacts. The importation of obsidian persiste d into the Terminal Class ic period although the percentage diminished drastically. Despite being caused by sampling the collection, both El Chayal and Ixtepeque still arrived in similar forms (e.g., reduced macrocores) as indicated by the presence of macro and other percussion debitage. Blade production on these sources of obsidian persisted up until the time of the site abandonment where as it appears that no other sources are present except for a single final series blade from San Martin.

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140 Table 4 5 Sampled technological classification of obsidian artifacts by time period and obsidian source. Time period / tech. class El Chayal Ixtepeque La Union Otumba Pachuca San Martin Ucareo Unknown Zacualtipan Totals Late Preclassic 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Blade core 1 1 Final series blade 1 1 2 Late Preclassic 2 7 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Blade core 1 1 Final series blade 4 3 7 Initial series blade 1 1 Macro debitage 1 1 Pebble 1 1 Early Classic 1 15 4 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 21 Blade core 7 1 8 Core rejuv. debitage 2 2 Final series blade 4 1 1 6 Initial series blade 1 1 Macro debitage 1 1 Point 2 2 Undiagnostic 2 2 Early Classic 2 49 29 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 82 Adornment 12 12 Biface 1 1 Blade core 12 1 13 Core rejuv. debitage 4 4 Final series blade 28 11 39 Initial series blade 2 2 4 Macro debitage 1 2 3 Point 1 1 2 Small perc. debitage 1 1 Undiagnostic 2 1 3 Late Classic 1 308 35 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 348 Biface 1 1 Blade core 144 1 145 Core rejuv. debitage 30 5 35 Final series blade 107 18 2 1 1 1 29 Initial series blade 7 2 9 Macro debitage 15 5 20 Small perc. debitage 2 2 Undiagnostic 3 4 7 Late Classic 2 1 147 62 0 2 5 4 0 0 1 1 221 Blade core 349 4 353 Core rejuv. debitage 400 11 411 Final series blade 165 32 4 3 204 Initial series blade 26 1 27 Macro debitage 64 3 67 Point 2 1 2 1 6 Small perc. debitage 132 4 136 Undiagnostic 9 6 1 1 17 Terminal Classic 68 12 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 81 Blade core 11 1 12 Core rejuv. debitage 9 9 Final series blade 30 8 1 39 Initial series blade 3 3 Macro debitage 10 1 11 Small perc. debitage 4 1 5 Undiagnostic 1 1 2 Grand Total 1 595 147 1 3 10 8 1 2 1 1 768

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141 Summary and Further Regional Considerations This chapter presented the results of a handheld portable energy dispersed X Ray florescence study of 1,768 obsidian artifacts from Caracol, Belize. C hapter 4 began the analysis of movement of obsidian from quarries far from the site. It explored how and in what forms obsidian was moved or tra nsported, and discussed temporal changes within a broad regional exchange network. Through this elemental analysis, the initial story and increased in amount and complexity over t ime. These general trends regarding the increasing complexity and amount of obsidian mov e ment into Caracol would certainly be better understood if an increased sample size was considered. In addition, for the first time data are available that situate Cara col among other studies and demonstrates that Caracol, like other established centers was a major consumer and may have influenced overall access to obsidian by other sites. We are also now in a better position to redraw linkages and relationships between Caracol and obsidian quarries as well as those sites in between and far beyond ( Figure 4 14 relationship to sites to the south and north of it borders? Did sites northward have t heir obsidian funneled through Caracol? Did sites to the south of Caracol influence what was available locally? It is anticipated that these linkages to other sites will be explored in the near future.

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142 Figure 4 14 Regiona l trade map. Modified after Nazaroff et al. (2010:889, Figure 3) and Demarest et al. (2014:188, Figure 1). Note the inclusion of La Union and routes from El Chayal and Ixtepeque through southern Belize.

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143 CHAPTER 5 THE ORGANIZATION OF CRAFTING AND PRELIME N ARY DEPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS Overview and Social Significance The goals of C hapter 5 are to (1) describe the organization of blade production at Caracol broadly through presenting the obsidian artifacts and the methods of artifact analysis, (2) introduce de scriptions and discussions of obsidian artifacts by archaeological context, and (3) relate obsidian blade production at Caracol to other studies in the Maya area and broadly in Mesoamerica. In terms of the itinerary approach, this chapter follows Chapter 5 where the reduction sequence outlined below occurred after obsidian arrived at Caracol. The vast majority of the artifacts that are included in this description of obsidian craft production come from both the El Chayal and Ixtepeque obsidian sources. As m entioned in Chapter 3 there is no evidence to other Mesoamerican studies of blade production in that it does use a l inear sequence broadly ( Figure 5 1 Figure 5 2 Figure 5 3 Figure 6 4 Figure 5 5 Figure 5 6 ; Hirth and Andrews 2002:3 4, Figures 1.1 and 1.2). But it is important that the background of this study be explain ed in order to see how this research is similar to other studies, but diverges from them. Creating si milarities and distinguishing the differences within the research is done for explicit reasons. In terms of similarities to other studies, I recognize a combination of techniques (1) percussion (2) pressure and (3) percussion rejuvenation as well as di fferent types of objects: (4) blade cores and blade core fragments and (5) non blade core objects (e.g., bifaces, projectile points, adornments these did not include those objects that were made from recycled blades or related debitage), and (6) undiagno stics those artifacts that cannot be easily assigned to the

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144 first five categories. These six categories are organized to record the initial stages of core shaping from obsidian macrocores through undiagnostic artifacts, like shatter and flake fragments, via different reduction strategies. It is important to note here that while sorting and analyzing the collection, analysis fields were added and the analysis scheme was modified when necessary.

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145 Nodules Percussion Technique (Figure 5 2): Core Preform > Core Shaping Debitage > [Exchange*] > Mod/Use/Reuse** > Movement***> Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse Primary Macrocore > Macro debitage > [Exchange] > Mod/Use/Reuse > Movement > Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse Secondary Macrocore > [Exchange] > Mod/Use/Reuse > Movement > Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse Pressure Technique (Figure 5 3): Polyhedral Core > Initial Series ( ) Blades > [Exchange] > Mod/Use/Reuse > Movement > Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse Secondary Polyhedral Core > Initia l Series ( ) Blades > [Exchange] > Mod/Use/Reuse > Movement > Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse > Platform Preparation > Cortical Grinding Striating Pecking Other First Pressure Core > Final Series ( ) Blades > [Exchange] > Mod/Use/Reuse > Movement > Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse Percussion Rejuvenation Technique (Figure 5 4): Core Rejuvenation Process > Core Top/Sections/Distal/Lateral > [Exchange] > Mod/Use/Reuse > Movement > Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse > Platform Preparation > Cortical Grinding Striating Pecking Other Pressure Technique (Figure 5 4 and Figure 5 5): Second Pressure Core > (possibly shorter blades) > [Exchange] > Mod/Use/Reuse > Movement > Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse > Bidirectional Technique Errors> Overshots > [Exchange ] > Mod/Use/Reuse > Movement > Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse Exhausted Core Percussion and/or Pressure Technique (Figure 5 6): [Exchange] > Mod/Use of Exhausted Core > Core Destruction**** (Termination) > Sectioning [proximal platform removal, medial, dist al removal, lateral (notching), Other] > Movement of Fragments > Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse Modified Exhausted Core > [Exchange] > Use > Movement > Burial, Cache, Use/Refuse ________________________________________________________________________________ ____________ Exchange may occur before or after modification/use; ** Abbreviation for Modification/Use; *** Refers to macro market exchange, micro interpersonal exchange, and/or movement into a burial, cache, or refuse /fill context; **** This refers to t echnological and social process of transforming an exhausted core into another kind of object, designed for another purpose Figure 5 1 A Model for Obsidian Reduction, Movement, and Use within Caracol, Belize. Note that objec ts produced during the reduction stages may enter various contexts and therefore reflects management of debris at primary workshops.

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146 Figure 5 2 Idealized percussion reduction technique. Adapted from Hirth and Andrews 2004:3 4, Figures 1.1 and 1.2.

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147 Figure 5 3 Idealized pressure reduction technique. Adapted from Hirth and Andrews 2004:3 4, Figures 1.1 and 1.2.

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148 Figure 5 4 Idealized pressure reduction and percussi on rejuvenation technique.

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149 Figure 5 5 Idealized pressure reduction technique after rejuvenation.

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150 Figure 5 6 Idealized percussion and/or pressure technique to destroy cores.

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151 While analysis did include standard measures of maximum and minimum length, width, thickness, and weight, the analysis also recorded distinct attributes by type of artifact when applicable. For example, exhausted blade cores and blade core fragments were often reworked and notched laterally to create objects commonly termed of the domina nt (i.e., widest and deepest) lateral, proximal, or distal notch to better understand potential st andards in notching practice and morphology. Also with regards to blade cores and fragments, refits were also present and fairly easy to discern within a single archaeological special deposit. Refits were recorded and are presented below, but are given gre ater attention in Chapter 8 For blade artifacts, edge damage was recorded along with the extent or invasiveness of retouch when applicable. These descriptive attributes should enable a clearer picture about household use of blades as quotidian tools. Th e attributes for specific artifact types will also enable future use wear studies. Blade artifacts were also separated by part (e.g., proximal, medial, distal) to learn more about the potential intentional alteration (e.g., snapping or sectioning) and use of thin sharp blades. More details like these are provided below for each stage and type of obsidian artifact. R aw tabular data are available via a web link in Appendices G L and an abbreviated catalog is provided in Appendix E. Non blade core objects are p resent in the assemblage as well. As mentioned above these are predominately bifaces, hafted points, and adornments. These are described below and it should be noted that they do not necessarily relate to the local blade production sequence. The sourcing data have already shown that these artifacts have their origins somewhere outside the Maya area (i.e., central Mexico). Lithic

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152 analysis too shows the near paucity of bifacial thinning flakes ; therefore little obsidian biface production took place at Carac ol. Some research has been presented on certain hafted points from Caracol (A. Chase and D. Chase 2011; Johnson 2010 ), but a greater treatment is presented below on these and other points. C hapter 5 is organized in somewhat linear terms employing an ideali zed reduction sequence common to Mesoamerican obsidian blade studies (see Hirth and Andrews 2002: 3 4, Figures 1.1 1.2 ), t hus I use a standard set of terms and definitions to record standard measurements that enable this study to be situated among other st udies in the Maya area and from Mesoamerica in general (see Aoyama 1999; Clark 1988, 1997; Clark and Bryant 1997; Healan 1986; Healan et al. 1983; Hirth 2006; Hirth and Andrews 2002; Moholy Nagy 2011; Santley et al. 1986; Sheets 1972, 1975 ; Trachman 2002; Trachman and Titmus 2003). For example, as discussed above, we need not isolate the Caracol obsidian study from others where the primary purpose of core reduction was to produce blades ; rather the research is presented as a discovery of the obsidian indust ry broadly. By applying standard conventions to the analyses we can better understand how the crafting practice (s) at Caracol differs from other sites or cultures in the Americas. Is the process of core shaping, core rejuvenation and blade production more similar to published studies? And how does this kind of determination enable the cross cultural analysis of learning and the deeper understanding in the general history of blade production (Hirth and Andrews 2002)? There are obvious social archaeological implications for organizing the description of lithic technology with these foregrounded goals and these implications will be discussed further in other chapters after the analyzed assemblage is presented.

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153 This study diverges slightly from others in that as it describes the stages of reduction, defines the categories, and presents the associated attributes per artifact type, it includes the associated context. A total of 1,769 investigated contexts included obsidian and were analyzed. The bulk of context s that yielded obsidian were from 1,584 refuse contexts or construction fills, followed next by 124 human burials, or 121 when three burials ( C12, C19, and C87 ) are excluded, and lastly 61 caches ( Figure 5 7 ; Figure 5 8 ; Figure 5 9 ). Including context is explicitly intended to foreshadow later discussions of where these objects were used and deposited in the past. By defining each ob ject by attribute and seeing the context of recovery, a picture of the obsidian industry begins to emerge where the relationships between materials, objects, places, and persons becomes visible. These contexts also represent a stop in the itinerary of obsi dian as it moved about between merchant, crafter, market, and consumer. Here I present a slightly divergent chane opratoire approach that results in a more eventful, historicized, temporal, and intentionally fractal notion of obsidian transformation and mobility For example, for the ancient Maya at Caracol, macro debitage was a n initial stage in core reduction, but it was also connected to the materiality of some household rituals. These stages in the itinerary are temporally and very likely spatially d ifferent practices, but are linked by technology and the knowledge of obsidian reduction. So unlike other Mesoamerican studies, I attempt to see obsidian objects at Caracol as part of a moving flow of relations. The presence of macrocore shaping debitage a nd from specific contexts helps in the recognition of the initial moments of the creation of a core, and at the same time these same core shaping objects were retouched (or not retouched), ritualized, and included in ritual deposits.

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154 After removal from a m acrocore, they may have been curated and later moved circulated and/or exchanged as part of some other set of relations that moved the macro piece away from a workshop in order to provision a ritual event at a Caracol residence. The possible set of relat ions that took place outside the craft workshop are buried in their archaeological context of recovery. Macrocore shaping debitage pieces, like other objects, were a ritualized item from the blade industry and are recovered from both burial and caches. Thi s kind of observation will be described below for each stage in the obsidian industry at Caracol when applicable. To better quantify these associations each artifact within a reduction stage is separated into it respective context of recovery and a proba bility (at the 95% confidence level or p = 0.05 ) is provided. The probability statistic or t test (see Drennan 2010 :156 157) in the below dataset calculates a statistical range of probability or statistical likelihood of encountering a given artifact in a given archaeological context. By understanding the associations between artifact type and context, the probability aids in better estimating how each kind of artifact was utilized in the past and how we might be able to better predict the very active and i ntentional behavior that took place in the past. Ultimately, the inclusion of context, descriptive statistics, and envisioning obsidian as a moveable material provides greater depth to how a workshop s reduction debitage may have been managed as well as th e connections obsidian crafters shared with non obsidian crafting residences. In summary, this chapter outlines the broad technological stages and artifact types seen in the Caracol obsidian assemblage and at the same time present s each artifact in term s of its archaeological context of recovery. All these data enable a more

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155 specific discussion of techniques of obsidian crafting or the technological choices of crafters. These technological choices or techniques of the body (Lemonnier 2013; Mauss 1973) are representative of the kinds of relationships or correspondences (Ingold 2012) crafters had with stone. The definitions below should also allow this study to be compared to others from Mesoamerica. The reduction stages and artifacts types presented be low begin with core shaping macro debitage and not with obsidian nodules. There is no evidence to suggest that obsidian nodules were worked at Caracol ; they were likely worked elsewhere at their respective quarry sites.

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156 Figure 5 7 Distribition of refuse and/or construction fill contexts containing obsidian. Major platforms are labeled. Note that 1,584 refuse/construction fill contexts were analyzed for obsidian and some of these overly one another in the distribution map.

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157 Figure 5 8 Distribition of burial contexts containing obsidian and presented in tables. Major platforms are labeled. Note that 124 human burials were analyzed for obsidian and some of these overly one another in the distri bution map.

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158 Figure 5 9 Distribition of cache contexts containing obsidian and presented in tables. Major platforms are labeled. Note that 61 caches were analyzed for obsidian and some of these overly one another in the dis tribution map.

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159 Percussion Techniques: Core Shaping Macro Debitage and Objects from Macro Debitage P ieces of macro debitage are typically some of the larger and more robust obsidian artifacts from the obsidian blade industry. They are from the initial st ages of core reduction and thus, if they are present in an archaeological collection, demonstrate that polyhedral blade core production was performed on site at a workshop. On the other hand, if there is a paucity of these kinds of objects in a collection then the operating proposition is that the crafters obtained already prepared pressure cores (Hirth 2006). As I have already stated in Chapter 5 Caracol appears to have imported roughed out obsidian macrocores, some with cortex, rather than importing al ready prepared polyhedral pressure blade borders. Core shaping debitage was associated with the El Chayal and Ixtepeque sources. The presence of these types of debitage in the collection also shows that obsidian crafters at Car acol possessed the knowledge and skill to create highly standardized polyhedral pressure blade cores. Despite no actual workshop being excavated at Caracol, there are many contexts with these objects and therefore it can be argued that the processes that resulted in these kinds of objects were taking place somewhere Macro debitage or core shaping debitage is generally larger than other kinds of debitage. These are mainly flakes, but c an also be more blade like, although very different in attributes to formal obsidian blades (see below). Macro flakes are removed from a macrocore those cores produced from the percussion reduction of quarried nodules with rough, hard or soft hammer pe rcussion. Macro debitage is usually curved

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160 from proximal to distal end with steep dorsal ridges. Some of the dorsal surface can have cortex. The dorsal surface is defined not only by its irregular arrises, but also by the negative flake scars indicating t hat flakes were struck from varied directions. One goal of removing these flakes is to create a flat surface either for platform preparation or to later remove blades or to create flat linear adjacent surfaces to remove longer sion flakes (see below). This process continues to flatten the longer lateral core surfaces perpendicular to the anticipated blade core platform. Table 5 1 shows the attributes for this artifact category and metri c averages from the macro debitage assemblage. This table also summarizes the suite of macro debitage analyzed and includes both retouched and non retouched (i.e., utilized and unutilized) objects. Figure 5 10 show s a sample of macro debitage. The context of retouched core shaping debitage or objects from blade core shaping debitage will be discussed in more detail further in a sub section of this chapter (see Figure 5 14 ). Items of m acro debitage were measured for length, width, thickness, and weight. Most macro debitage were not retouched further (n=387), while others were (n=31). Retouched macro objects those pieces of debitage that exhibit extensive edge wear or retouch were sorted into three broad categories: (1) edge modified tools that have visible edge damage using 10 20x magnification; (2) drills that have a salient bit or tip; and (3) notched objects that have a single or repeated notch either unilaterally, bilat erally, and/or distally. Many notched objects have been traditionally termed eccentrics, but I avoid the use of this term. Referring to these artifacts as eccentrics obscures quantitative and qualitative attributes such as notching. These attributes may be relevant to their use as tools and/or any standardized practice by either obsidian

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161 crafters or household consumers to modify these objects prior to deposition. When present, measurements of the most prominent notch were taken for notch width (or opening ) and depth. Table 5 1 Attributes and descriptive statistics for types of macro objects. Type by Attribute Macroflake Macroblade Macroflake with cortex Macroblade with cortex Object from Macroflake Object from macroblade Total s % N= 235 41 101 10 19 12 418 2.34 Avg. Max length (mm) 37 47.1 36.5 44.2 36.8 46.8 Avg. Max width 24.6 22.1 24.2 18 29.8 20.6 Avg. Max thickness 8.3 7.6 8.5 5.5 7.8 6.6 Avg. Max weight (g) 6.3 9.1 6 3.7 7.2 5 Avg. Min length 25.9 29.5 22.9 17.8 Avg. Min width 16.1 15.2 15.3 13.4 Avg. Min thickness 6 4.72 4.3 3.5 Avg. Min weight 1.7 1.3 1.2 0.8 Total weight (g) 937.21 224.85 352.4 11.5 136.4 60.42 1 722.78g Sub type (n=) Edge m odified 10 2 Drill 1 Notched 9 9 Absent Single 5 3 Repeated 4 6 Notch location (n=) Unilateral asym 2 Unilateral sym Unilater al 2 Bilateral asym 4 1 Bilateral sym 1 1 Bilateral 2 3 Distal 2 Avg. Notch width (mm) 9.2 6.8 Avg. Notch depth (mm) 4.7 2.5 Comments

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162 Figure 5 10 Sample of three macro debitage pieces with traces of cortex. Dorsal surface on left and ventral surface on right. Contexts of macro debitage : The context of recovery for macrocore shaping artifacts varies, but the vast majority (n=342 o r 81.8%) come from three burials (Structure A3, S.D.C12A 2 [n=261]; Structure L3, S.D.C19A 2 [n=29]; Structure A34, S.D.C87B/E 1 [n=52]), specifically from deposits above the vaulted burial chambers (see Chapter 8 where these three context are described in detail). Of macro objects from burials (n=6 occurrences), only nine are utilized or retouched and may represent deposited tools. Caches have the next highest percentage (n=17 occurrences) of macrocore shaping objects (n=37 or 8.8%) and fifteen of these (4 0.5%) are utilized or retouched. Note that 11 of the 37 (27.9%) from caches are notched. Lastly, refuse /fill deposits (n=26 occurrences) make up the vast majority of recovery contexts, but yielded

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163 the least amount of macro core shaping objects (n=27 or 6.4 %), only seven of which are visibly utilized or retouched ( Table 5 2 ). One pattern that seems clear is that there is a significantly higher probably for recovering macro debitage from caches ( P = 27.9 9.59 ) and an extremely low probability of recovering them from refuse or construction fills ( P= 1.6 0.51 ). The spatial distribution of macro debitage is not clustered around any given area and is widely dispersed throughout the sampled area ( Figure 5 11 ). Table 5 2 Distribution of macro debitage by broad context. Contexts/Assoc. Macroflake Macroblade Macroflake with cortex Macroblade with cortex Object from macroflake Object from macroblade Total n= % P= Refuse /fill (n=) 14 4 2 0 7 0 27 6.45 1.6 0.51 Edge modified 6 Notched 1 Burial (n=) 209 31 95 10 4 5 354 84.68 2.5 2.25* Edge modified 1 1 Drill 1 Notched 3 3 Cache (n=) 12 6 4 0 8 7 37 8.85 27.9 9.59 Edge modified 3 1 Notched 5 6 Total N= 235 41 101 10 19 12 418 2.34 Probability excluding three above tomb deposits

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164 Figure 5 11 Distribution map of macrocore shapi ng debitage.

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165 Small Percussion Debitage Blade core percussion debitage is varied and does not always fit into an idealized sequence. Because of the trouble of accurately identifying different kinds of percussion debitage, all debitage that was not macro d ebitage (see above) and also clearly not first series or second series blades, was lumped into the small percussion debitage type. These have been described by a number of obsidian analysts and share many morphological characteristics with these studies (H irth 2006; Trachman 2002). The first obvious morphological feature to discuss is that many, if not all, of these flakes/blades are fairly large when compared to other forms of debitage excluding macro pieces. They are, however, markedly thinner and relativ ely short. Hirth with percussion flake scars on their dorsal surface and developed bulbs of force on their rth (2006:313) describes these as 1.5cm or less in width, the percussion artifacts from Caracol are slightly wider on average ( Table 5 3 ). Small percussion debitage at Caracol is generally as wide as it is long. These kinds of fla wide striking platforms, and often have feather terminations ( Figure 5 12 ). The resulting removal of these flakes would create a flat somewhat concave late ral face on a core. The protruding platform created from removing two adjacent percussion flakes could have provided a good striking platform (or pressure platform) for removal of initial series blades or further percussion flake or blade removal to furthe r shape the core. This likely indicated a local variation in core shaping. Additionally, Hirth summarized central Mexican workshops where he demonstrate d that most cores were immediately

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166 rejuvenated prior to blade removal (Hirth 2006:88 90). Caracol appear s to have imported roughed out obsidian macrocores with remnants of cortex, so the associated range and variation of percussion debitage is likely to be very different than if only formed polyhedral pressure blade cores were imported into Caracol. Table 5 3 Organization of analysis attributes and descriptive statistics about types of small percussion debitage. Type by Attribute 'Small' percussion flake/blade Object from 'small' percussion Totals % N= 1 359 3 1 362 7.62 Avg. M ax length (mm) 33.6 24.9 Avg. Max width 20.5 2.6 Avg. Ma x thickness 4.5 5.2 Avg. Max weight (g) 2.3 2.4 Avg. Min length 20.7 Avg. Min width 14.4 Avg. Min thickness 3.2 Avg. Min weight 0.7 Total weight (g) 2 356.4 7.2 2 363.6g Sub type (n=) Disk 1 1 Notched 2 2 Absent ( ) Single 1 1 Repeated (double) 1 1 Notch location (n=) Unilateral asym Unilateral sym 1 1 Unilateral Bilateral asym Bila teral sym 1 1 Bilateral Distal Avg. Notch wi dth (mm) 12.8 Avg. Notch depth (mm) 8 Comments

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167 Figure 5 12 Sample of small percussion debitage. (A) dorsal view; (B) ventral view

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168 Context s of small percussion debitage : Small percussion flakes/blades, like other core shaping debitage, were recovered in great numbers from above burial chambers. The vast majority (n=1 347 or 98.8%) of these debitage have been recovered from above burial chamb ers in Structures A3 (S.D.C12A 2, n=1 243) and A34 (S.D.C87B/E 1, n=100). This phenomenon of including these objects in association with burials, although in far fewer amounts, is also recorded from Structures L3 (S.D.C19A 1, n=2) and B20 (S.D.C1H 2, n=2). Refuse/fill contexts account for the next highest amount of these types of debitage (n=9). Further analysis of these seven refuse /fill deposits is necessary to account for their presence in these contexts. A number of explanations are likely however and include that these objects were used as cutting tools. The distal feather termination of these tools with the wide robust proximal portion could have provided residences with a tool resource. Another explanation may be that these are residual traces of ob sidian workshop practices. This later interpretation will be explored in future studies. S Interestingly, all of these artifacts come the same excavation (C184B) and from three sep arate caches within an eastern structure (Structure F39): S D.C184B 4, n=2; S.D.C184B 5, n=2; and a third cache not assigned a special deposit number (n=2). This potential, yet unassigned, cache is associated with a niche in front of a shrine room and a bu rial. Like macrocore shaping debitage there is a higher probability of recovering these small percussion objects from caches ( P= 4.9 4.61 ) in contrast to burials ( P= 1.7 1.95 ) or refuse /fill ( P= 0.4 0.26 ) contexts ( Table 5 4 ). The spatial distribution of this debitage type is somewhat clustered around the city center within an approximate 500

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169 meter radius ( Figure 5 13 ). Table 5 4 D istributio n of small percussion debitage by broad context. Context/Assoc. 'Small' percussion flake/blade Object from 'small' percussion Totals % P= Refuse/fill (n=) 9 0 9 0.66 0.4 0.26 Burial (n=) 1 346 1 1 347 98.89 1.7 1.95* disk 1 Cache (n=) 4 2 6 0. 44 4.9 4.61 notched 2 Total N= 1 359 3 1 362 7.62 Probability excluding three above tomb deposits Figure 5 13 Distribution of small percussion debitage sample from Caracol, Belize. Note that most are cluster ed around the city center Note Operation C184B is the western most plotted item.

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170 Objects from Blade Core Shaping Debitage Summary and Contexts The bulk of core shaping debitage is unmodified, but a small portion of the assemblage exhibits edge use damag e or intentional edge modification. A total of 34 (or 1.9% of core shaping debitage) objects were crafted from core shaping debitage. These include edge modified flakes (probably used as cutting tools), several notched flakes, two drills, and a single disk All these were modified through either use on harder materials or edge modified through percussion and pressure flaking. A sample of these objects is presented in Figure 5 14 and summarized in Table 5 5 The spatial distribution of utilized macro debitage is more spread out across the sampled area as the above figure has shown ( Figure 5 11 Figure 5 15 ). Small percussion utilized debitage is localized at and just outside the city center ( Figure 5 15 ). Furthermore, contextual analysis of these artifacts also shows that half (n=17, or 50%) were recov ered from caches while just under 30% are from burials ; therefore, the majority of objects from macrocore shaping debitage are typically ritualized in either burials and more often caches. Lastly, all but one other artifact type is from refuse and/or const ruction fill contexts and classified as edge modified tools.

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171 Figure 5 14 Sample of objects from blade core shaping macro debitage (A G) and small percussion debitage (H I). Dorsal surface is shown. (A) C39B/6 5; (B) C177B /52 29; (C) C177B/52 25; (D) C177B/52 24; (E) C177D/36 3; (F) C189B/23 7; (G) C189B/23 1; (H) C184B/31 5; (I) C184B/32 2.

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172 Table 5 5 Contexts of objects from blade core shaping debitage. Contexts/Assoc. Object from macroflake Object from macroblade Object from 'small' percussion Total n= % Refuse/fill (n=) 7 0 0 7 20.5 edge modified 6 notched 1 Burial (n=) 4 5 1 10 29.5 edge modified 1 1 drill 1 notched 3 3 disk 1 Cache (n=) 8 7 2 17 50 edge modified 3 1 notched 5 6 2 Total N= 19 12 3 34 100 Figure 5 15

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173 Pressure Techniques: Blade Production The dominant reduction method o f obsidian production at Caracol was the pressure technique to remove blades from blade cores. This practice can be stated broadly for most studies of Mesoamerican obsidian lithic technology. Earlier studies of Mesoamerican blade technology have traditiona lly used a three part division when discussing pressure techniques on polyhedral blade cores. The first stage in pressure reduction of a core aids in regularizing the core for production of longer more parallel sided blades (Hirth 2006:176). Many analysts divide the initial pressure stages into first and second followed by the final stage or third Due to time constraints in sorting the large obsidian collection and the fragmentary nature of many b lade artifacts these first and second series blades were lumped into the initial series classification ( Table 5 6 ). Other studies often lump these two classifications as well or state that first and second series blades are difficult to identify due in part to time constraints and the subtle differences between first and second series blades (Hirth 2003:176; Hruby 2006, Trachman 2002:109). Further study of these initial series blade artifacts would probably demon strate subtle differences that would fit within more specific classifications, like first and second series blades. Initial The initial pressure stage is identified in the Caracol assemblage and follows t ypical pan Mesoamerican technical definitions. These initial series blades are defined by their irregular, non parallel, and often wavy converging dorsal ridges and converging lateral margins ( Figure 5 16 ). Hirth ( 2006:309) states, that [initial series blades] have percussion flake scars on their dorsal surface and

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174 final series blades that exhibit pressure attributes on both their do rsal and ventral surfaces Final series blades exhibit straight lateral sides and parallel dorsal ridges (see below). Initial series blades recovered from Caracol are also shorter on average (e.g., average range of complete blades: 23.8 mm to 43.3 mm) when compared to final series blades (e.g., average range of complete blades: 40.1 mm to 61.2 mm). A total of 4,008 initial series blades and blade fragments have been recovered from all contexts at Caracol, although the majority (n=3,795 or 94.6% of all blade s) were excavated from three above tomb burial deposits containing macrocore shaping debitage. The vast majority of these 3,795 artifacts were blade fragments. These artifacts were so numerous in two y was created to efficiently sort these. As stated above, further analysis is necessary to better classify these kinds of blades. Despite some lumping as shown in Table 5 6 the presence of initial series pressure blade artifacts demonstrates that pressure blade cores were being shaped at Caracol and that a minority of these blades were used further as tools exhibiting edge damage or retouch edges (n=40 or 0.99%). Initial series blades that exhibit edge wear or ret ouch include edge modified tools (e.g., blades with macroscopic edge wear), notched or retouched blades, and a single projectile point ( Figure 5 16 ).

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175 Table 5 6 Showing initial series Type by Attribute Complete Complete and Fragments Proximal Proximal/ Medial Medial Medial/ Distal Distal Totals % N= 89 3 710 90 43 64 1 11 4 008 22.44 Avg. Max length (mm) 43.3 24.4 29 22.5 39.7 26.2 Avg. Max width 15.7 13.9 12.5 12.4 13.3 11.2 Avg. Max thickness 3.8 3.2 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.1 Avg. Max weight (g) 2.7 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.5 Avg. Min length 23.8 20.7 19.1 15.1 20.8 Avg. Min width 10.4 12.5 11.7 9.8 10 Avg. Min thickness 2. 6 2.9 2.9 2 2.3 Avg. Min weight 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.3 Total weight (g) 108.2 2 539 74.1 43.9 39.7 0.9 5.2 2 811 g Sub type (n=) Edge modified 1 7 11 9 28 Overhang removal 32 4 1 1 38 Point 1 1 Notched n= 10 1 11 Single Repeated 10 1 11 Notch location (n=) Unilateral asym Unilateral sym Unilateral Bilateral asym Bilateral sym Bilater al 10 1 11 Distal Avg. Notch width (mm) 4.8 3.9 Avg. Notch depth (mm) 2.6 1.9 Comments

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176 Figure 5 16 Sample of initial series blades. Contexts of initial : T he vast majority of initial series blades come from three separate above burial tomb deposits. These large sample deposits provide a proxy measure for the range of blade production related debitage that would have originally occurred at a local workshop or workshops. Moving this amount of blade core shaping debitage certainly required careful cooperation and logistics. These above tomb assemblages are discussed furth er in Chapter 8 but here it is important to point out that a far lesser quantity has been recovered from household refuse /fill contexts (n=183) and even less so from caches (n=30). In terms of the household refuse /fill material, it is likely that these in itial series blades were in

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177 circulation much like the final series blades and thus were used a s a source of tool stone for daily tasks. The cache contexts on the other hand would have been selected specifically to be placed within these contexts. From t he few cache contexts that had initial series blades (n=8 occurrence out of n=61 caches) as part of the assemblage is unlikely that these were regularly used for ritual events ( P = 11.5 6.82 ). The spatial distribution of initial series blades is much like final series blades (see below) in that a wide distribution is observed ( Table 5 7 ). Although the vast majority has been recovered from city center burial deposits, others were more widely distributed as tool stone for residential use far outside the city center ( Figure 5 17 ). Table 5 7 Contexts by type of initial Context/Assoc. Complete Complete and Fragments* Proxi mal Proximal/ Medial Medial Medial/ Distal Distal Totals % P= Refuse/fill (n=) 11 77 23 33 33 1 5 183 4.56 5.2 0.91 Edge modified 6 11 7 1 Overhang removal 1 Burial (n=) 68 3626 62 5 28 0 6 3795 94.68 8.3 4.16* Edge modifi ed 1 1 2 Overhang removal 32 Notched 1 Point 1 Cache (n=) 10 7 5 5 3 0 0 30 0.75 13.1 7.21 Edge modified 2 Overhang removal 1 4 Notched 9 Total N= 89 3710 90 43 64 1 11 4008 22.44 Probability excluding three above tomb deposits.

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178 Figure 5 17 Distribution map of initial

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179 Final Final series prismatic blades comprise about a fourth (38.01%) of the entire analyzed Caracol obsidian collection. These types of pressure blades are highly standardized and are parallel sided with medially parallel yet distally converging dorsal ridges created from previously removed pressure blades. These blades have defined pressure platforms and some exhibit small traces of the types of core platforms (e.g., cortical, striated, etc ). These variations in platform classification are discussed below when describing core top debitage a nd proximal blade core fragments. Only 334 complete blades were encountered and analyzed from Caracol and only 40 of these complete blades were utilized. The bulk of complete blades are not utilized at the macroscopic level. In contrast, fragmentary final series blades in the collection are sections (e.g., proximal, medial, distal, or lateral). Medial sections account for 3,094 or 45.5% of the total final series blades and about half of these (n=1,532 or 49.5%) are laterally or bilaterally used. Macroscopic edge damage and retouch is present on 2,495 (or 36.7%) blades and blade segments The pattern of edge damage or use wear on these blade segments and their archaeological context suggest blades were used as domestic, quotidian tools and either broken durin g use or were intentionally snapped and then used. Most of these blade segments are rectangular and exhibit slightly obtuse or right angle breaks. Some of these break types do indicate that blades were intentionally snapped to create shorter tools from lon g blades. These snap breaks are identical to those shaped fragment tie shaped fragments were recovered during excavations at Caracol, but the negative scars observed on blades fragment s supports claims for the

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180 intentional snapping of obsidian final series blades. As stated above, the majority of blade segments were medial (n=3,094), but two other categories of blade segments are also of note in the collection. Proximal blades (n=1,340) segments, measuring 23.2 mm in length on average, and proximal/medial blades segments (n=809) measuring 33.7 mm on average appear to be important for tool use ( Table 5 8 ). This is not surprising given that the pro ximal to medial portions of an obsidian blade has the most robust or thickest portions. The distal end of a blade on the other hand, although sharp, is thin and brittle. Other blade artifacts included plunging or overshot pressure blades. These exhibit a distinct distal end. These production errors in blade removal are caused by excessive force that detaches part of the distal end of the blade core (see also Hirth 2006:311; plunging blade segments ). These kinds of blades are easily classified even if the distal end of the blade is not present because unlike feather terminations on final series blades, an overshot distal end becomes wider and thicker in contrast to being more narrow and thin. Although these may be classified as a production error, they co uld have been desirable as sources for tools (n=17). During the analysis of these plunging blades and later during the analysis of exhausted blade cores, these plunging blades appear to be one of the last attempts at blade removal before a blade core was exhausted. This may be likely because of the small overall surface area of the pressure core platform and the difficulty in placing a pressure flaker at the ideal location and at the correct angle. Table 5 8 also shows that objects were produced from final series blades. These formed objects are listed under the sub type in Table 5 8 Analysis of a single

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181 adornment fragment showed that the recycled blade fragment was drille d in the center. This object broke in half at this drilled location and only a lateral blade margin remains. The lateral edges of this reworked final series blade were retouched to create a circular object. This object was termed an adornment because it ma y have been suspended by the drilled hole. Drills are those bilaterally retouch tools that have a distinct pointed or beaked end. Drilled blades on the other hand are those complete or nearly complete final series blades that have a drilled hole in them. There were three of these in the collection and these have one to two small drill holes in one or both ends of the blade. This was likely done for suspension as all three come from two burials within the same structure (S.D.C3C 1, n=1; S.D.C3C 2, n=2). Ec centric blades also are retouched laterally like other adornments. This single eccentric blade is similar to other blades catalogued as notched blades. Some notched blades could have been termed eccentric blades, but efforts were made during cataloguing an d analysis to simply record attributes rather than lump all shaped objects as eccentrics. The bulk of blades show macroscopic use wear and often lateral retouch. These were termed edge modified tools Hafted tools are those blade tools with distinct bilat eral notches that are directly opposite one another and may have been created to affix the blade to a shaft. Although further microscopic analysis is necessary, these kinds of composite tools may have been used in domestic crafting. Thirty five other blade s show evidence of intentional notching or were notched through excessive use. Investigations recovered some of these as broken fragments and therefore some of these could have been parts of hafted or composite tools but were discarded after breakage occur red.

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182 Inlays are those small rounded medial blade fragments that could have been affixed to another surface. Not surprising, one of these came from a burial context (S.D.C29A 1). Other blades that are typically associated with ritual special deposits are often termed lancets These final series blades did not receive unique attribute analysis, but there are morphological differences exhibited from these blades. These blades are typically thinner than other wider final series blades. These blades often have a triangular cross section as opposed to a more trapezoidal cross section common to final series blades. This appears to be a result of removing these blades from the apex of the core platform were previous pressures blade scars converge. These blades are by far the most brittle when compared to other wider and robust final series blades. Twenty three of the 34 (67.6%) are complete and 32 (94.1%) come from special deposits (burials n=16; caches n=16). According to these data and contextual associations the re may have been a clear craft production practice intended to remove these lancet blades and these blades were specifically chosen for ritual activities. Other final series blades are miscellaneous blade fragments, the single overhang proximal blade fra gment that has a pronounced dorsally lipped platform portion that may have been removed to regularize the pressure core platform, and lastly two small hafted points fashioned from retouched final series blades. Figure 5 18 shows a sample of final series blade artifacts. Figure 5 19 show a sample of retouched final series blade objects.

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183 Table 5 8 Type by attribute for final Type by Attribute Complete Proximal Proximal/ Medial Lateral Medial Medial/ Distal Distal Plunging Complete Plunging Distal Plunging Medial Plunging Medial/Distal Total n= % N= 334 1 340 809 1 3 094 141 896 20 151 2 3 6 791 38.02 Avg. Max length (mm) 61. 2 23.2 33.7 9.6 22.3 36.3 22.5 66.9 26.9 34.5 25.7 Avg. Max width 11.1 11.9 11.4 10.9 10.7 10.1 10 19.7 11.7 15.6 9.4 Avg. Max thickness 3 3.1 3.1 2.2 2.6 2.6 2.5 10.5 6.4 4.3 4 Avg. Max weight (g) 2 1 1.5 0.2 0.8 1.3 0.6 13.8 1.8 2.9 1.1 Avg. Min length 40.1 17.7 23.7 15.1 23.3 18.2 81.2 21.3 Avg. Min width 8.6 9.7 10.2 9.4 8.7 8.2 9.7 9.7 Avg. Min thickness 2.4 2.5 2.9 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.3 4.8 Avg. Min weight 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.4 2.5 0.8 Total weight (g) 456.2 1 213.5 1 103.9 0.2 2 155.7 175.2 491.6 266.4 228.2 5.8 3.4 6 100.1 g Sub type (n=) Adornment 1 1 Bidirectional 1 1 Blade 269 1 155 277 1 543 74 834 1 1 146 4 309 Drill 2 2 1 1 6 Drilled bl ade 2 1 3 Eccentric blade 1 1 Edge modified 25 183 520 1 532 59 58 6 5 1 3 2 392 Hafted tool 1 1 1 3 Inlay 2 2 Lancet 23 1 2 6 2 34 Notched blade 9 12 11 1 1 1 35 Single 3 10 22 1 n.d Repeated 6 2 10 n.d 2 1 Other 2 2 4 Overhang removal 1 1 Point 1 1 2

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184 Table 5 8. Continued Type by Attribute Complete Proximal Proximal/ Medial Lateral Medial Medial/ Distal Distal Plunging Complete Plunging Distal Plunging Medial Plunging Medial/Distal Total n= % Notch location (n=) 57 Unilateral asym 1 3 1 5 Unilateral sym 8 1 9 Unilateral 2 8 14 24 Bilateral asym Bilateral sym 1 1 2 Bilateral 7 2 6 1 1 17 Distal Avg. Notch width (mm) 7.2 5.7 4.2 3.6 9.1 10.3 Avg. Notch depth (mm) 2.5 2 1.7 2.4 3.5 2.8 Comments n .d.= no data

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185 Figure 5 18 Sample of fina l series blades.

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186 Figure 5 19 Laterally notched blades (A C) C186D/6 14; utilized blade (D) C186D/8 25; hafted tool with opposing bilateral not ches (E) C186D/8 24; drill end (F) C186B/4 2a; complete drill (G) C193G/4 1; re peatedly and bilaterally notched blades (H J) C3C/6 2a, SDC 3C 2; drilled blades (K) C3C/6 3, SDC3C 2, (L) C3C/6 1a, SDC3C 2 (M) C3C/15 2a, SDC3C 1. Note inset boxes are 200% or double actual size to show drilled holes. Contexts of final : Final series blades are recovered from nearly every investigation at Caracol. Of the total archaeological investigations at the site (n=209 Operations) approximate ly 90 percent of those (n=189) yielded obsidian.

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187 This wide spread distribution was also rep orted in D. Chase and A. Chase (2014). Both Table 5 9 and Figure 5 20 show the distribution of final series blades by context and across the site area. Refuse/fill context account for 3,393 (49.9%) of final series blade deposits and the majority (n=2,073, or 61%) of these are described as edge modified tools and represent domestic tools found during archaeological investigations at residential structures throughout the sampl ed area at Caracol ( p =90.51.21). The second most significant contextual association is from investigations of human burial interments (n=3,155, or 46.4%). Of these burial investigations, 2,668 (84.5%) come from the three above tomb chamber deposits descr ibed earlier and these artifacts are listed in greater detail in Chapter 7 Although in far few amounts, final series blades are commonly found in human burials excavated from residential settlements outside city center ( p =90.14.5). Burials that do have blades often have one or more blades and just over a third of these ( or 35%) are complete or near ly complete. Further analysis is necessary to quantify the actual average number of final series blades found with human interments, but provided the high prob ability of expecting to recover these objects, the average number included with human internments may be unimportant in terms of making further interpretations. Ritual caches also provide evidence for the inclusion of final series blades. Over 62% of cache s have final series blades associated with them ( p =62.310.36). Many of the blades are complete or near ly complete (n=132, or 54.3%; e.g., complete, proximal/medial, medial/distal, and plunging complete ).

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188 Table 5 9 Contexts of final Context/Assoc. Complete Proximal Proximal/Medial Lateral Medial Medial/Distal Distal Plunging Complete Plunging Distal Plunging Medial Plunging Medial/Distal Total n= % P= Refuse/fill (n=) 26 345 639 1 2 097 90 178 1 14 2 3 393 49.96 90.5 1.21 Adornment 1 Blade 10 184 190 717 40 128 11 Drill 2 1 1 Edge modified 12 160 439 1 367 47 48 3 2 Hafted tool 1 1 1 Inlay 1 Lancet 1 1 Notched blade 9 8 1 1 Other 2 Point 1 1 Burial (n=) 269 981 111 917 33 711 3 129 1 3 155 46.45 90.1 4.50* Bidirectional 1 Blade 237 963 56 783 21 702 3 128 Drill 2 Drilled blade 2 1 Edge modified 13 18 53 129 10 8 1 1 Inlay 1 Lancet 10 1 2 2 1 Notched blade 4 2 Cache (n=) 39 14 59 80 18 7 16 8 2 243 3.57 67.2 10.04 Blade 22 8 31 43 13 4 8 7 Eccentric blade 1 Edge modified 5 28 36 2 2 5 1 1 Lancet 12 3 1 Notched blade 5 1 1 Other 2 Overhang removal 1 Total N= 334 1 340 809 1 3 094 141 896 20 151 2 3 6 791 38.02 Probability excluding three above tomb deposits.

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189 Figure 5 20 Distribution map of final

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190 Other Blade Objects Other blade objects are those artifacts that were not easily assigned into the initial or final series blades classifications. Table 5 10 sh ows that although most are complete or fragments, their general morphology did not allow a distinction between initial or final series. It is likely that a reanalysis of these artifacts may determine they are blade products from initial shaping of the cor e with pressure and/or indirect percussion reduction technique Standard measurements were recorded for these artifacts, but no averages were provided in the below table due to the general diversity of these artifacts (but see Appendix G). Table 5 10 Type by attribute of other blade objects or blade production by products Type by Attribute Complete Complete and Fragments Medial Medial/Distal Totals % N= 5 24 3 1 33 0.18 Avg. Max length (mm)* Avg. Max width* Avg. Max thickness* Avg. Max weight (g)* Avg. Min length Avg. Min width* Avg. Min thickness* Avg. Min weight* Total weight (g) 30.4 g Sub type (n=) Edge modified 2 2 Notched blade 1 1 2 Flake 3 3 Bipolar 1 1 B lade 1 1 Other 24 24 Comments Note: data not provided because different types have varied morphologies and data on averages is not appli cable (see Appendices for measurements). Contexts of other blade objects : The bulk of these blade artifacts came from Operation C138C/4 (S.D.C138C 1) and it is likely that these were included in the fill matrix around and above the investigated to mb similar to the other larger deposits

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191 described earlier ( Table 5 11 ). The presence of these kinds of artifacts in association with this kind of context may suggest a fourth burial tomb context like those from the city center (e.g., C12 and C87) and the Machete Group (C19). A reinvestigation of this context may encounter even more obsidian artifacts suggesting a redeposit of production material in association with a tomb or perhaps highlight potential residual trac es of a production locale. It is important to note that these possible interpretations are discerned f rom brief descriptions of archived project records; however, these records do indicate a large portion of the tomb remains unexplored, especially the matr ix above the tomb chamber. Only a portion of the tomb was explored to access the burial chamber through a collapsed and largely visible entrance. Table 5 11 Contexts by type of other blade objects or blade production by produc ts Context/Assoc. Bipolar Flake Notched Blade Edge Modified Blade Other Total % P= Refuse/fill (n=) 1 1 2 4 12.12 0.1 0.13 Burial (n=) 1 2 24 27 81.81 NA* Indeterminate (n=) 2 2 6.06 NA Total N= 2 3 2 2 24 33 0.18 Probability excluding three above tomb deposits. No artifacts found outside the three burial contexts. Percussion Rejuvenation Techniques: Maintaining Core Bodies All analyzed types of percussion rejuvenation debitage are presented first and then lat residential settlement. While the vast majority do come from the three above tomb chamber deposits, others were recovered from caches and less so from household refuse and/or construc tion fills. Descriptions of rejuvenation debitage is organized from the proximal to distal in terms of where on a given blade core they were removed. Core Top Debitage Blade core core tops are morphologically distinct artifacts. The objects are

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192 generally round in plan view if complete and if incomplete still retain lateral characteristics revealing negative blade removals on proximal, lateral, or distal margins. A core top proximal margin is generally thick and usually ha s ground down or abraded ridges o f its negative blade scars. This abrading helps to create a rough percussion sticking platform to remove the core top. These core top flakes were removed for at least two reasons. The first was to begin the rejuvenation process if the core became oblong an d narrow at the proximal end. Removing this portion of the core would result in the core becoming shorter overall but retrieve a greater width closer to the medial portion of the core. The second reason why these were removed is more difficult to demonstr ate, but was likely to destroy the core. Removing this pressure platform from exhausted or nearly exhausted cores could function to disable further blade removal. The size of core tops does not help to quantitatively tease out these potential differences a s in both cases the top of the core would be small overall. Further analysis and a larger sample size may help to demonstrate core rejuvenation versus core destruction or termination. Analysis of many exhausted blade cores, includ ing those recovered from c aches, does demonstrate that missing core tops (as well as distal margins) is common. Core tops in the Caracol collection exhibit a wide range of attributes. Table 5 12 summarizes the range of types and average sizes by type. A total of 203 core tops were recovered and analyzed from Caracol and a sample is shown in Figure 5 21 Most of these debitage pieces are unused after being removed exhibiting no macroscopic edge wear or retouch, but a portion of them do exhibit use or retouch. All core top artifacts were measured length, width, and thickness, and also detail attribute

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193 analysis collected of edge damage or retouch. Of the 203 core top artifacts, cortical core tops occur red with the hig hest percentage (n=50 or 24.6%). These cortical core tops exhibit 100 dorsal cortex. A handful of exhausted blade cores still retain cortical platforms. Because this cortical surface is so uniform, it may also be likely the surface was slightly ground. The next highest occurrence is that of faceted/striated core tops (n=44 or 21.6%). These core tops are defined by the numerous flake facets along with striations incised along the pressure platform margins on their dorsal surface Following this type in amoun t are striated (n=40 or 19.7%) and faceted core tops (n=39 or 19.2%). These two different types, although often overlapping do occur separately in near the same amounts The least frequent clearly defined type is the pecked and ground core top (n=23 or 11. 3%). These have been recorded at Dos Hombres in the northern Belize (Trachman 2002). These can look very similar to cortical core tops because the surface is very rough, but less uniform than if the platform was cortical. The last remaining core tops (n=7 or 3.4%) were indeterminate because not enough of the original pressure platform exists. It is likely that these were removed directly after and opposite of a previous percussion removal of the majority of the core top had occurred Regardless of core top dorsal portion attributes they were all about the same size overall (average of averages: length=24.6, SD =7.2; width=23.6, SD =5.8; thickness=9.6, SD =3.2). This is probably a function of when they were removed to A last note about these core top artifacts is that the ir diversity represented in Table 5 12 may be due to variation in blade core pressure platform preparation as some have suggested (Hirth 2006; Trachman 2002). This diversity may also be a result of the

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194 changing strategies of platform preparation as cores were rejuvenated. In the latter scenario, cortical core tops were the initial platform type and then as cortical core tops were removed, other platforms were created such as, pec ked, group, faceted, or striated. More research is planned to better explain variation in platform types among the Caracol obsidian assemblage. Table 5 12 Summary data for core tops from obsidian blade cores. Core Top Debitage n= % Avg. Length (mm) Avg. Width Avg. Thickness Total Weight (g) Avg. Weight (g) Cortical core top 1 0.33 19.8 12.0 12.6 3.4 3.4 Cortical core top fragment 49 24.13 28.8 30.7 7.6 111.5 2.2 Faceted core top fragment 39 19.21 33.5 28.0 8.7 116.4 2.9 Fa ceted/striated core top fragment 44 21.67 29.4 27.7 7.1 81.2 1.8 Indeterminate core top fragment 7 3.44 21.9 24.5 10.6 23.5 3.3 Pecked ground core top fragment 23 11.33 28.4 24.6 4.6 61.9 2.6 Striated core top 1 0.33 10.3 21.22 14.6 2.2 2.2 Striated co re top fragment 39 19.21 24.9 20.5 11.1 100.6 2.5 Totals/% 203 1.14 500.7 2.4

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195 Figure 5 21 Sample of core tops showing alternative dorsal/ventral/cross sectional views in addition to the type of core top. (A) C12A/ 47 1e, striated; (B) C12A/47 1f, pecked and ground; (C) C12A/47 1f, cortical.

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196 Blade Core Sections Blade core sections are very similar to platform preparation flakes (see below) with one distinct difference. Percussion or bipolar removal of these pieces extend across the entire width of a rejuvenated blade core (see Hirth 2006:72; Figure 3.8b). Hirth in his reduction sequence has blade core sections positioned prior to the removal of platform preparation flakes. This is entirely likely the case at Caracol as well, because some core tops have remnant facets from platform preparation flake removal while blade core sections do not. Table 5 13 presents a brief des cription of these artifacts and Figure 5 22 shows a sample of these artifacts. Table 5 13 Summary data for blade core section rejuvenation debitage Blade Core Section Debitage n= % Avg. Length (mm) Avg. Width Avg. Thickness Total Weight (g) Avg. Weight (g ) Bidirectional core section flake 1 1 31.3 30.2 8.18 5.7 5.7 Core section flake 99 99 28.8 24.9 7.7 317.17 3.2 Totals/% 100 0.56 322.87 3.2 Figure 5 22 Sample of three blade core sections. Dorsal surface left an d ventral surface right. Top right core section flake shows cross section.

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197 Platform Preparation Debitage Because blade core rejuvenation was required to extend the production use life of blade cores, once core tops and core sections were removed, subseque nt flake removals were necessary to create a relatively flat surface which could then be striated, pecked, or ground (see core tops). Many flakes may be removed to create this flat surface and the Caracol assemblage consists of almost 1,200 of these flakes ( Table 5 14 ). These flakes are very distinct much like core tops flakes ( Figure 5 23 ). Platform preparation flakes are generally round and at least two lateral margins and the proximal end may include the negative blade removal scars perpendicular to the direction of percussion that removed these flakes. Platform preparation flakes do not exhibit this blade core remnant feature on their distal ends as platform preparation flakes do not typically extend across the entire width of a blade core (Hirth 2006:72; Figure 3.8c). Core sections on the other hand do extend across the entire blade core width (see above). Platform preparation proximal percussion striking platforms retai ned negative blade scars and many of the flakes exhibited abrading marks on negative blade scars. Abrading was performed to create a friction surface for a striking platform. Table 5 14 Summary data for platform preparation r ejuvenation debitage Platform Preparation Debitage n= % Avg. Length (mm) Avg. Width Avg. Thickness Total Weight (g) Avg. Weight (g) Platform prep flake 1 193 6.68 24.9 22.1 5.0 1 595.65 1.33

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198 Figure 5 23 Sample of platfor m preparation debitage from C12A/47 1j. Ventral surface shown and striking platform is oriented upward. Distal and Lateral Orientation/Rejuvenation Due to overshots or other blade production errors that a ffect the distal portion of a blade core, there may be a need to rejuvenate or remove and reorient the distal portion. This reorientation relates to the desire to create continued uniformity of the core and to maximize the standard removal of blades from around the circumference. It may also be a blades. Distal orientation debitage is also very distinct in morphology, but depending on how many dorsal scars are present and their direction, they can look very similar to smaller mac ro, core shaping flakes or blades. Distal orientation debitage consists of a striking platform that is the distal end of the blade core, which is usually ground or abraded. In other words, the proximal end of these types of debitage is pointed in that it

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199 i s the actual distal end of the blade core. The dorsal surface consists of two or more negative blade removal scars that were removed earlier in the opposite direction. This type of debitage is usually thin in width and the dorsal portion is domed proximal to distal ( Table 5 15 Fig ure 5 24 ). Later al orientation or rejuvenation is necessary if a blade removal terminates prematurely thus resulting in step or hinge termination s (see Hirth 2006:87 88, Figures 3.22 and 3.23). Lateral rejuvenations can occur for at least two reasons. Premature blade terminations can be removed by using indirection percussion at the point of the step termination on the core to continue to remove wh at would have been the distal end of the blade. The other method is to laterally strike the core to remove a larger portion of the core that includes the termination error. Some lateral core fragments which were cataloged as lateral rejuvenation did not ha ve obvious errors on them however These could be from destroying cores by laterally striking them. A more detailed study of these artifacts might determine how these obsidian debitage fit into the broader reduction sequence, but they retain the general m orphology of lateral rejuvenation debitage so they described as such rather than creating an additional classification. Table 5 15 Summary data for distal and lateral orientation/rejuvenation debitage Distal/Lateral Orient/ R ejuv. Deb. n= % Avg. Length (mm) Avg. Width Avg. Thickness Total Weight (g) Avg. Weight (g) Distal orientation flake 482 81.42 34.8 19.0 7.4 1 168.3 2.4 Lateral core rejuv 110 18.58 27.7 22.7 4.9 113.2 1.02 Totals/% 592 3.31 1 281.88 2.16

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200 Fig ure 5 24 Sample of distal orientation rejuvenation debitage. (A) dorsal surface; (B) ventral surface. Error Correction and Indeterminate Blade Core Rejuvenation Debitage These debitage types could not be confidently situated within the above types of rejuvenation debitage. Only one of these could have been produced while fixing an error in pressure blade removal; however, the other fifty of these artifacts were classified as indeterminate and do not retain sufficient diagnost ic morphological attributes or features. Because of the small number of these artifacts ( Table 5 16 Figure 5 25 ) it is unlikely that a reanalysis of these artifacts would significantly change the overall

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201 understanding in the organization of blade core rejuvenation strategies. Table 5 16 Summary data for other rejuvenation debitage. Other Rejuvenation Debitage n= % Total Weight (g) Avg. Weight ( g) Indeterminate rejuv. Debitage 50 98.03 37.28 0.74 Error correction 1 1.96 1.3 1.3 Totals/% 51 0.29 38.58 0.75 Figure 5 25 Sample of indeterminate blade core rejuvenation debitage from (A) C138C/5 4 and (B) C138C/6 3 Contexts of all core rejuvenation debitage : The distribution of rejuvenation debitage is much like that of blade cores and blade core fragments wide spread both within and beyond the city center ( Figure 5 26 ). The majority was recovered from the three above burial chamber deposits (n=2040, or 95.3%), while much smaller amount s were recovered from refuse /fill (n=55, or 2.5%) and cache deposits (n=44, or 2.0%). In terms of the burial chamber deposits, these most l ikely represent a redeposit of a significant portion of workshop debris (see Moholy Nagy 1997, 2011, Trachman 2002).

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202 With regard to the three large deposits associated with burial chambers, it is entirely likely that obsidian crafters at their workshops an d through curating, collecting, and moving crafting evidence essentially erased archaeological evidence of the workshop. The other contexts are most likely explained in part by the possibility that some amount of obsidian crafting or reduction was taking place at a given investigation. Future work would benefit from revisiting these groups that had rejuvenation debitage in refuse /fill contexts to determine if part of an obsidian workshop was partially excavated. As has been argued for chert workshops at Ca racol, the total number of lithic artifacts greater than 100 is suggestive of an intensive workshop area and a detailed analysis usually shows a diversity of related reduction debitage (see Johnson 2008). Therefore, even if overall numbers of obsidian debi tage is low for a particular refuse /fill context, the presence of these kinds of debitage and possibly tools should also be considered to infer a workshop area. These debitage can also be recycled into tools and then circulated to non obsidian crafting hou seholds as retouched tools or other kinds of objects that elude current classification. Some of these tools may end up in refuse /fill contexts even if the probability of recovering these from refuse /fill is relatively low (n=55, p =2.7 0.67 ) ( Table 5 17 ). These types of debitage are also present in caches (n=44, p =21.3 8.75 ) and likely represent intentional selection and inclusion of these in ritual caching practice; the same is argue for the three burial chamber deposits (n=2040) and from human burial interments excluding the three aforementioned larger deposits (n= 68, p =6.6 3.74 ). These contextual associations especially those from ritual contexts are explored further in Chapter 7 and are summarized later in this chapter (see Table 5 25 ).

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203 Table 5 17 Contexts of blade core rejuvenation by type. Context/Assoc. Bidirectional core section flake Core section flake Cortical core top Cortical co re top frag Distal orientation flake Error correction Faceted core top frag Faceted/striated core top frag Indeterminate core top frag Indeterminate rejuv deb Lateral core rejuv Object from core rejuv deb Pecked ground core top frag Platform prep flake Str iated core top Striated core top frag Total n= % P= Refuse/fill (n=) 0 5 1 0 7 1 0 0 1 10 2 0 1 25 1 1 55 2.57 2.7 0.67 Complete 4 1 6 1 19 1 1 Disk 1 Edge modified 1 5 1 5 Flake 4 1 Fragment 1 Inlay 1 Notched, fragment 1 Scraper, notched, hafted 1 Burial (n=) 0 81 0 47 476 0 36 44 6 38 108 2 22 1 144 0 36 2 040 95.37 6.6 3.74* Comp lete 78 47 475 36 44 6 13 106 22 1 137 36 Disk 1 1 Edge modified 1 1 Fragment 2 5 1 Ind. Rejuv. Debitage? 4 Inlay 1 Notched 1 1 1 Other 1 Scraper 1

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204 Table 5 17. Continued Context/Assoc. Bidirectional core section flake Core section flake Cortical core top Cortical core top frag Distal orientation flake Error correction Faceted core top frag Faceted/striated core top frag Indeterminate core top frag Indeterminate rejuv deb Lateral core rejuv Object from core rejuv deb Pecked ground core top frag Platform prep flake Striated core top Striated core top frag Total n= % P= Cache (n=) 1 14 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 3 0 17 0 2 44 2.05 21.3 8.75 C omplete 4 2 1 1 7 2 Other 1 Notched 1 Edge modified 2 1 1 1 3 Fragment 8 3 Notched 1 4 Notched core section 1 Total N= 1 100 1 49 483 1 39 44 7 50 110 5 23 1 186 1 39 2 139 11.97 Probability excluding three above tomb deposits

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205 Figure 5 26 Distribution map o f blade core rejuvenation debitage. Blade Cores and Blade Core Fragments Obsidian polyhedral blades cores are present in the Caracol collection. These artifacts are usually uniform in overall symmetry due to the way in which blades were removed by pressu re technique as a core was rotated during blade removal. The technique that appears to have occurred at Caracol is similar to those recorded elsewhere in the Maya area (Hruby 2006; Trachman 2002). This technique is either hand held pressure and/or foot hel d pressure with a chest punch (see Flenniken and Hirth 2003; Pelegrin 2003; Titmus and Clark 2003). No experimental research was

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206 conducted during this project. The likelihood of similar techniques employed by local Caracol obsidian crafters is made by comp aring the general similarities in exhausted core morphology, weight, and average morphometric s A standard set of analytical techniques were developed and adapted from other research to characterize these artifacts and treat each a unique object, hence th ey were catalogued individually (see Appendix I). Although these core objects show uniform qualities, the analysis scheme employed was designed to describe and quantity potential differences as well Potential differences are relevant when these objects ar e situated within discussions of ritual behavior rather than simply evidence for crafting for blade production. A goal of the research was to record crafting practices as well as additional intentional modifications of blade cores that appears to relate t o ritual associations (e.g., caches) Background research of obsidian lithic technology in the Maya area shows that blade cores were a regularly ritualized object s and that many of these ritually used blade core objects were termed eccentrics and are usual ly associated with some symbolic reference (Hruby 2006; Iannone 1993, Moholy Nagy 1997, 2003). As I will argue later ( see Chapter s 7 and 8 ), research interests of both the crafting and ritualization of blade cores are intertwined. That said, the analysis scheme was designed to capture the final form of a blade core recovered from the archaeological record and not necessarily record the reduction steps leading up to the finished form of an eccentric blade core. Many of these observed reduction steps to make core do not fit easily into an analysis scheme, so the comments fields in the blade core table in Appendix I outlines many observations. For

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207 example, both complete and fragmented blade cores are present in the collection and both may cores (e.g., those with missing platforms and/or distal portions) are exhausted cores where further blade removal is extremely difficult provided the small pressure platform and/or the presenc e of production errors that could not be fixed through rejuvenation. Complete blade cores can also refer to finished objects or objects where further reduction occurred to create some type of other form. These forms could easily be term al ready have a legacy in Maya scholarship. I avoid this term as much as possible in this discussion, because there is a need to understand the form prior to further transformation common for m or style recovered from ritual contexts. These are recovered at other sites as well (Hruby 2006; see also Iannone 1993:63, Figure 9; Moholy Nagy 2003). Their form is dependent on the nature of the exhausted core and does not exist apart from it (see also Hruby 2007). Thus, a finished form or style, like that of an eccentric, may actually be a subjective classification if the analyst does not take the larger technological behavior into consideration. It also is contingent on the agency of people in the pas t to transform one thing into another. For example, cache deposits will be described that have a range of obsidian debitage and both worked and unworked exhausted blade cores, therefore the term eccentric obscures what these objects really are within the b roader understanding of the obsidian industry at a given site ; some cores, while others may be notched blade cores, and even other s retouch ed or unretouched rejuvenation debitage. Blade cores account for 3.78% (n=74 2) of the total obsidian collection (n=19,592,

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208 or 4.15% of the total analyzed) ( Table 5 18 ). These objects are complete or nearly complete, in various fragments (e.g., proximal, medial, distal, lateral), and are of ten Objects from Complete or near complete blade cores make up 10.64% (n=79). Other counts and descriptions of blade core fragments are provided in Table 5 18 Figure 5 27 shows a sample of exhausted blades cores and fragments. Metric data for complete or near complete blade cor es are provided as well to demonstrate the similarity in average weight and overall size when compared to some sites from Mesoamerica. For example, Hirth (2006:67,73) at Xochicalco, Mexico describes the maximum and minimum length of 122 exhausted blade cor es as 88mm and 19mm respectfully, with an average length of 50.5 mm. Trachman (2002:113, Table 9.2) at Dos Hombres, Belize presents 11 complete exhausted blade cores exhibiting a maximum and minimum length of 64.09 mm and 43.71 mm respectfully, and an aver age length of 50.5 mm. Caracol exhibits similarities in overall dimension of complete exhausted blade cores (n=10) with an average maximum length slightly different (80.7mm) than those seen elsewhere and an average weight of 36.9 g. The length dimension of all complete blade cores (n=79) shows a maximum and minimum length of 100 mm and 21.9 mm respectively an average length of 66 mm, and, an average weight of 54.4 g. Table 5 18 also presents numerical and average w eight data on blade core fragments. Measurements of these artifacts are available in the online appendices tables (see Appendix A). A sample of these artifacts is presented in Figure 5 27 As Table 5 18 shows there was a directed effort to describe which parts of blade core

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209 fragments were present in the collection. The goal behind this analysis scheme choice eated and what parts of the cores were used or left over after their production. One interesting observation as Objects from multiple forms (i.e., medial/lateral core fragment s) and so there is likely a subjective judgement call in some cases regarding what archaeologists actually think eccentrics to ms were most often found in ritual contexts. But a pattern at Caracol is that not all blade were more generally intentionally destroyed (see Hirth 2006:78) were more often than not ritualized in caches or burials (see Table 5 22 ). Thus, there is a need to draw attention appropriating destroyed or retouch exhausted cores in general. The presence of refits i n at least 11 of 31 (35.48%, see Chapter 8 ) caches and a 52.5%10.68 probability of recovering blade cores from ritual caches supports this argument. As stated earlier, many of these ritualized blade cores were simply destroyed cores where their proximal, distal, and/or lateral margins were removed. In some cases, these core s were destroyed by placing them laterally on an anvil before being split (Hirth 2006:76, Figure 3.13). These acts of destruction will be described further below and in Chapter 7

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210 Table 5 18 Counts and total weights for blade cores and blade core fragments. Summary data for complete exhausted blade cores are also presented below. Type Bidirectional core Bidirectional core frag Blade core frag Exhausted core Object from blade core frag Objects from exhausted core Total n= % Total Weight (g) Avg. Weight (g) Complete 6 3 10 13 47 79 10.64 4 298.05 54.4 Avg. Length (mm) 51.1 84.3 80.7 71.6 Avg. Width 21.7 23.8 21.0 25.9 Avg. Thickness 15.9 18.6 17.1 14.6 Dista l 7 37 3 2 1 50 6.73 412.09 8.2 Distal/lateral 44 1 6 2 53 7.14 414.04 7.8 Distal/medial 3 1 13 3 20 2.69 695.05 34.7 Flake 2 2 0.26 2.3 1.1 Indeterminate 2 69 1 72 9.7 149.6 2.07 Lateral 2 63 8 8 81 10.91 680.61 8.4 Med ial 47 2 10 8 67 9.02 937.3 13.9 Medial/distal/lateral 1 2 3 0.4 34.3 11.4 Medial/lateral 1 142 5 19 8 175 23.58 1 178.7 6.7 Plunging 1 1 0.13 41 41 Prox/med/distal 3 3 6 0.8 447.8 74.6 Proximal 2 49 1 1 1 54 7.2 470.05 8.7 Proximal/lateral 43 8 3 54 7.2 461.4 8.5 Proximal/medial 2 4 2 7 2 17 2.29 431.1 25.3 Proximal/medial/lateral 1 6 1 8 1.0 81.9 10.2 Total N= 6 16 511 25 97 87 742 4.15 10 735.29 14.4

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211 Figure 5 27 Sample of blade cores and blade core fragments. (A) C24D/1 4; (B) C189B/23 5; (C) C104B/1 1; (D) C188B/18 2; (E) C184B/30 3; (F) C51B/4 2; (G) C90B/15 1; (H) C189B/23 6; (I) C70B/ 45 1. D uri ng sorting, cataloguing, and analysis it was apparent that exhausted blade cores were intentionally destroyed and that the major method for destruction was to laterally notch a given core (e.g., bilaterally, unilaterally, medially, etc.). Because of this r epeated observation, a blade core analysis scheme was adapted to record at least one notch on these types of formed objects. In total 127 ( or 17.1%) blade cores exhibited

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212 notching. A list and analysis of the metrics and location of notching is shown in Table 5 19 Appendix I describes additional observations that are not provided in the below tables. It is important to note at the outset of this kind of description that the size of notching (i.e., general width and depth) is dependent on the overall size and shape of the exhausted blade core being notched. Interpretations from general metrics and descriptive statistics should take this into account. Table 5 19 shows the act ual widths and depths of notching on various portions of blade core fragments and objects from blade cores. In hindsight, it is likely that the ten artifacts that exhibit notching as seen in Table 5 19 should have been catalogued as blade core fragments (non rejuv) Notwithstanding, notching is an important attribute that occurred intentionally of these objects. The average width of all notched blade core objects is 15.12 mm ( SD =8.06 mm) and the average depth is 7.07 mm ( SD =3.60 mm). The depth of the notch is restricted by the overall width of the exhausted blade core, which results in less overall variation ( Table 5 20 ). Other descriptiv e statistics calculated the coefficient of variation ( CoV or standard deviation divided by the mean or average multiplied 100 [ CoV= /]) in notching practice to better understand actions on the part of either crafters or non crafter to standardize notching morphology through percussion/pressure techniques. Table 5 21 shows that although there appears to be less variation in depth overall, both widths and depth exhibit very little variation suggesting directed effort s by those involved to regularize notching ( Figure 5 28 ).

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213 Table 5 19 Average notch widths (mm) and depths (mm) by notch type on blade cores and blade core fragments. Blade core fragm ent (non rejuv) Object from blade core frag Object from exhausted core Notch Location n= Width Depth n= Width Depth n= Width Depth Total n= Total Avg of Width Total Avg of Depth Bilateral 1 17.48 3.00 17 14.42 4.63 17 14.97 6.55 34 14.46 5.42 Bilateral prox/distal 1 6.80 5.00 1 6.80 5.00 Bilateral/distal 1 22.07 8.17 1 22.07 8.17 Bilateral/distal/proximal 1 14.77 6.45 1 14.77 6.45 Bilaterally 2 14.08 5.79 2 14.08 5.79 Distal 8 17.00 9.92 8 17.00 9.92 Distal/proximal 1 0.00 0.00 1 0.00 0.00 I rregular 1 11.42 3.92 1 11.42 3.92 Lateral 2 12.56 12.19 3 22.12 11.49 5 18.30 11.77 Lateral medial 2 14.95 7.00 2 14.95 7.00 Lateral/ distal* 1 n d n d 1 n d n d Medial 1 11.35 5.00 1 11.35 5.00 Multi lateral 2 14.52 6.81 2 14.52 6.81 Proximal 1 11.76 4.00 4 9.99 2.75 4 10.97 3.00 Proximal/unilateral 1 16.27 9.14 1 16.27 9.14 Single unilateral 1 9.56 3.00 1 9.56 3.00 Unilateral 6 15.39 6.24 23 15.67 6.30 31 18.01 7.47 61 16.70 6.85 Total n= 10 55 63 127 15.12 7.07 n d =no data

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214 Table 5 20 St a ndard deviation ( SD ) for notch widths (mm) and depths (m m) by notch type on blade cores and blade core fragments. Blade core fragment (non rejuv) Object from blade core frag Object from exhausted core Notch Location n= Width Depth n= Width Depth n= Width Depth Total n= Total STD of Width Total STD of Depth Bilateral 1 n/a* n/a 17 8.00 2.42 17 8.00 2.48 34 7.90 2.63 Bilateral prox/d istal 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Bilateral/distal 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Bilateral/distal/proximal 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Bilaterally 2 1.19 1.22 2 1.19 1.22 Distal 8 4.79 8.21 8 4.79 8.21 Distal/proximal 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Irregular 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Lateral 2 6.17 0.52 3 1.76 3.03 5 6.20 2.19 Lateral medial 2 5.09 1.41 2 5.09 1.41 Lateral/ distal 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Medial 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Multilateral 2 4.29 4.88 2 4.29 4.88 Proximal 1 n/a n/a 4 2.25 0.50 4 2.44 0.63 Proximal/unilateral 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Single unilat eral 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Unilateral 6 2.44 2.12 23 7.61 3.61 31 8.41 3.40 61 7.75 3.38 Total n= 10 55 63 127 8.06 3.60 n/a=not applicable

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215 Table 5 21 Coefficient of variation ( CoV ) expressed as a percen t (%) for notch widths (mm) and depths (mm) by notch type on blade cores and blade core fragments. Blade core fragment (non rejuv) Object from blade core frag Object from exhausted core Notch Location n= Width Depth n= Width Depth n= Width Depth Total n = Total CoV of Width Total CoV of Depth Bilateral 1 n/a* n/a 17 55.40 52.20 17 53.40 37.80 34 54.63 48.52 Bilateral prox/distal 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Bilateral/distal 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Bilateral/distal/proximal 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Bilaterally 2 8.45 21.07 2 8.45 21.07 Distal 8 28.17 82.76 8 28.17 82.76 Distal/proximal 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Irregular 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Lateral 2 49.10 4.26 3 22.12 26.37 5 33.87 1 8.60 Lateral medial 2 34.04 20.14 2 34.04 20.14 Lateral/ distal 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Medial 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Multilateral 2 29.54 71.65 2 29.54 71.65 Proximal 1 n/a n/a 4 22.52 18.18 4 22.52 18.18 Proximal/unilateral 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Single unilateral 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a Unilateral 6 15.85 33.97 23 48.56 57.30 31 46.69 45.51 61 46.40 49.34 Total n= 10 55 63 127 15.60 % 37.90 % n/a=not applicable

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216 Figure 5 28 Sample of notched blade core eccentric objects. (A) C177D/3 6; (B) C177D/3 7; (C) C177D/3 10; (D) C177D/46 21; (E) C85C/18 1; (F) C177D/42 16; (G) C4E/26 2d; (H) C4E/26 2c; (I) C4E/25 1; (J) C189B/3 1b.

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217 Contexts of blade cor es and blade core fragments : The distribution of blade cores, blade core fragments, and objects from blade cores appears wide spread throughout the Caracol settlement; however, the majority of them were recovered during investigations within no more than 1 city center ( Figure 5 29 ). This is likely due to the greater intensity by the Caracol Archaeological Project to sample these residential areas. However, other excavations have take n place in a similar fashion beyond this 1km arbitrary limit and have also recovered blade cores, thus suggesting that the distribution on these objects was possibly more wide spread if future investigations are undertaken far beyond the city center This distribution, like other artifacts have shown (see above), suggests that an exchange mechanism was in place that aided in these objects moving far beyond crafting workshops. It also demonstrates that blade cores had an intentional role to play within the m aterialization of residential ritual space. In addition, the distribution and contextual analysis suggests that there were efforts by obsidian crafters to curate and then distribute these objects to non obsidian crafting households. Furthermore, a contextu al analysis demonstrates that there was a significant link or direct association with ritual practices at many residences. Blade cores from cache deposits in particular accounts for 31.3% and although less overall in comparison to all burials (61.1%, p =5.8 3.52), have a greater probability of being found ( p =52.5 10.68) ( Table 5 22 ; see also D. Chase and A. Chase 1998:319). Other blade cores have been recovered from non ritual investigations (i.e., refuse /fill ) but are not as l ikely to be recovered ( p =3.2 0.72). It is likely, however, that many of these blade cores and fragments may have been left behind as the ancient Maya disturbed and possibly

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218 removed earlier cache deposits as they remodeled their residential eastern ritual structures (A. Chase and D. Chase 2007 a ). Table 5 22 Contexts of blade core and blade core fragments by type and by context. Context/Assoc. Bidirectional core Bidirectional core frag Blade core frag Exhausted core Object from blade core frag Objects from exhausted core Total n= % Total Weight (g) P= Refuse/fill (n=) 2 1 34 9 2 8 56 7.47 288.6 3.2 0.72 Biface 1 1 23.8 Complete 2 2 4 79.1 Core section 2 2 7.9 Distal 1 1 2 8.1 D istal/lateral 2 1 3 5.8 Edge modified 1 2 2 5 11.4 In determinate 4 4 7.2 Lateral 3 1 4 18 Lip plug 1 1 19.4 Medial 4 2 6 27.7 Medial/lateral 11 2 1 14 32 Proximal 1 1 0 .8 Proximal/lateral 5 5 9.5 Proximal/medial 1 2 3 36.6 Uniface 1 1 1.3 Burial (n=) 1 12 414 4 5 20 456 61.14 3 091.64 5.8 3.52* Complete 1 2 3 105.9 Core section 10 348 1 359 2 271.84 Distal 2 6 8 29.5 Distal/lateral 1 2 3 15.9 Eccentric 5 5 91.7 Edge modified 1 6 7 98 Indeterminate 8 8 12.3 Lateral 1 1 9.8 Medial 6 6 65.8 Medial/lateral 33 33 72.4 N otched 4 5 9 191.8 Other 3 2 5 55.6 Proximal 1 1 11.6

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219 Table 5 22. Continued Context/Assoc. Bidirectional core Bidirectional core frag Blade core frag Exhausted core Object from blade core frag Objects from exhausted core Total n= % Total Weight (g) P= Burial (n=) ( continued ) Proximal/lateral 6 6 16.8 Proximal/medial 1 1 28.8 Uniface 1 1 13.9 Cache (n=) 3 3 62 12 90 60 230 31.37 7,355.45 52.5 10.68 Biface 1 1 2 34.6 Complete 3 1 6 10 378.6 Distal 1 2 3 28.2 Distal/lateral 6 6 46 Distal/medial 1 1 24.8 Eccentric 31 29 60 3,057.5 Edge modified 1 11 12 126.25 Flake 2 2 7. 45 Indeterminate 1 1 1.2 Lateral 1 1 2 8.4 Media l 4 4 47 Medial/distal/lateral 1 1 13.1 Medial/lateral 1 10 3 2 1 17 129.3 Notched 8 27 26 61 2,113.16 Other 17 17 799.49 Proxima l 1 1 8.9 Proximal/lateral 5 3 8 64.7 Proximal/med ial 2 2 4 124.4 Proximal/medial/lateral 1 1 13.8 Scorpion 1 1 29.3 Scraper 2 2 18.6 Uniface 12 2 14 280.7 Total N= 6 16 5 10 25 97 88 742 4.14 10,735.69 Probability excluding three above tomb deposits.

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220 Figure 5 29 Distribution map of blade cores and blade core fragments.

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221 Non Blade Core Related Objects and Undiagnostics Non blade core o bjects are those artifacts that are not related to the production of pressure blades ( Table 5 23 ). These include d obsidian objects that cannot be linked through their general morphology to the blade production indu stry and include: (1) body adornments and inlays those objects that were most likely part of bodily display or used to adorn another object; (2) bifaces and points those bifacial objects that include a hafting element like a proximal stem and were not modified from blade related debitage or blades; (3) general tools those objects that have macro scale edge damage, modification, and/or retouch and are not blades; (4) flakes and flake fragments those objects that are debitage not related to core shapi ng and maintenance, but may relate to the production or retouching of bifaces or projectile points; (5) chunks, shatter, and other undiagnostic debitage those objects that are fragmentary pieces and do not have diagnostic morphological attributes; and (6 ) unmodified obsidian objects those objects that are raw material, a nodule or pebble, or some other culturally unmodified material. Included in this last classification is only one unmodified artifact. This single small obsidian pebble was recovered fro m a cache and described in Chapter 4 It originated from the La Union obsidian sour ce area in modern day Honduras Each general category of these non blade related and undiagnostic artifacts is described generally below. These objects comprise approximate ly 13% of the total obsidian assemblage. Because of the difficultly in effectively presenting all metrics per these kinds of artifacts, Appendices J and K offer detailed measurements on each and include comments when applicable. Table 5 23 presents non blade core related debitage and formed objects by context. Figure 5 30 Figure 5 31 and Figure 5 32 each

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222 show a sample of these artifacts and Figure 5 33 maps their distribution across the sampled Caracol settlement area. Considering all three contexts it is unlikely that these kinds of artifacts will b e recovered ( e.g., refuse /fill p =1.50.5; caches, p =1.67.92), but there is a slightly higher chance or probability that these will be recovered from burial contexts ( p =4.12.99). In total, however, the majority were recovered from residential refuse and/ or construction manufactured from Pachuca green obsidian (A. Chase and D. Chase 2011 ; Johnson et al. 2011). Metrics on four of these was recorded during this research pr oject while each was initially measure, weighed, and catalogued in the field lab directly after recovery (A. Chase and D. Chase 2010). Although these objects are described as non blade core related objects a detailed study of these during the 2010 field season showed that these larger bifaces were probably manufactured on long green obsidian blades ( Figure 5 31 ). A sufficient amount of ventral scaring on their proximal stems was still visible on these points to in dicate that pressure flaking was likely the only reduction technique employed after these larger blades were removed from even larger blade cores. There is no data presently available to indicate these points were made locally. Another similar point, altho ugh much smaller was recovered from a cache indicating that there were ritual uses of these objects in a caches as well as in a burial. A total of 18 bifacial objects were studied as part of th e analysis Other points B Po and two other larger points recovered from a ceramic box cache from early excavations of a large stucco statue on the rear of structure A1 (A. Chase and D. Chase 1997, 2002 )

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223 Figure 5 32 ). A cursory analysis shows these artifacts are curved and therefore it is likely that these points may have also been fashioned from long obsidian blades, but further analysis is needed for confirmation. Figure 5 32 also shows a set of obsidian ear flares with a ceramic backing recovered from an Early Classic tomb burial in the Southern Acropolis (S.D.C88C 7). Lastly, u ndiagnostic obsidian artifacts are listed by context in Table 5 24 These objects comprise about 13 percent ( or n=2,314) of the total analyzed obsidian collection. By reviewing their contextual associations, it is just as likely to find objects such as these in any of the three broad con textual typologies ( Refuse/fill p =13.6 1.41; Burials, p =19.8 6.01; Caches, p =16.4 7.92). Again, metric analysis of these artifacts is provided in Appendix K. Although non blade core related artifacts were mapped ( Figure 5 33 ), undiagnostic objects were not.

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224 Table 5 23 Types by context for non blade core related debitage and formed objects. Context/Assoc./Type Biface Edge modified flake Flake Pebble Point Pressure flake Scraper Total n= % Total Weight (g) P= Refuse/fill (n=) 3 0 29 0 8 1 1 42 7.77 97.55 1.5 0.50 Biface 7 7 56.8 Complete 1 1 Distal 2 2 Medial 3 3 Proximal portion 1 1 Biface fragment ? 1 1 0.9 Proximal 1 1 Biface thinning 23 23 4.4 Complete/frags 23 8 Complete and frags 15 15 7.25 Complete 3 1 4 Distal 1 1 8 Edge modified 1 1 2.1 Complete 1 1 Medial 1 1 1 3 14.7 Point 1 1 0.4 Distal 1 1 Proximal 1 1 3 Burial (n=) 0 0 1 0 6 0 0 7 12.96 146.1 4.1 2.99* Biface 1 1 8.5 Proximal 1 1 Bipointed tool? 1 1 2.9 Complete 1 1 0.5 Larger Stemmed B Point 4** 4 *134.2 Cache (n=) 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 5 9.25 85.3 3.2 3.76 Pebble 1 1 3.1 Complete 1 1 0.2 Eccentric 2 2 71.8 Smaller Stemmed B Point? 1 1 10.2 Com plete 1 1 Total N= 3 2 31 1 15 1 1 54 0.3 328.95 Probability excluding three above tomb deposits; **A total 6 were recovered; only 4 were available for analysis

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225 Figure 5 30 Obsidian pebble. C118F/24 3. Figure 5 31 24; (B) C117F/8 25; (C) C117F/8 26; (D) C117F/8 27.

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226 A B Figure 5 32 (A) Two obsidian bifacial points within a ceramic box with lid deposited with jadeite artifacts (SDC141C 2). Ceramic box and artifacts placed inside the chest area of a large stucco human statue within Structure A1. (B) Set of obsidia n ear flares with ceramic backings from SDC88C 7. Used by permission from the Caracol Archaeological Project.

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227 Figure 5 33 Distribution map of non blade core related objects.

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228 Table 5 24 Undia gnostic objects by context. Context/Assoc./Type Adornment Blade frag? Chunk Edge mod. Tool Flake Flake fragment Flake fragments Flakes Fragment Inlay Lateral core frag? Shatter Various debitage Total n= % Total Weight (g) P= Refuse/fill (n=) 0 2 4 1 45 1 0 6 216 1 0 12 2 290 12.61 154.65 13.6 1.41 3 1 31 1 6 183 12 2 239 100.05 Biface? 1 1 1.2 Blade core frag? 1 1 2 10 14 12.7 Drill? 1 1 0.3 Edge mod 1 1 9 11 15.2 Edge mod blade? 1 1 1.6 Edge mod tool 1 1 1.8 Edge mod? 1 1 2.5 Flake 1 1 0.9 Fragment 4 4 2.1 Ground flake? 1 1 0.4 Macro flake? 1 1 1.5 Macro? 1 1 3.7 Macroblade? 1 1 1.5 Macroflake frag? 1 1 1 Notched 1 1 2.8 Platform prep? 4 1 5 2.1 Pointed flake tool 1 1 0.9 Pointed tool 1 1 0.2 Rejuv debitage? 1 1 0.5 Various 2 2 1.7

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229 Table 5 24. Continued Context/Assoc./Type Adornment Blade frag? Chunk Edge mod. Tool Flake Flake fragment Flake fragments Flakes Fragment Inlay Lateral core frag? Shatter Various debitage Total n= % Total Weight (g) P = Burial (n=) 2 0 2 0 6 0 5 0 174 0 0 1 1825 2 015 87.03 754 19.8 6.01* 2 2 5 165 1 1825 2 000 717.55 Blade frags? 3 3 0.6 Blade core frag? 1 1 2 1.6 Ear flare 2 2 29 Edge mod 1 1 2 3.3 Platform pre p? 2 3 5 1.1 Possible blade 1 1 0.85 Cache (n=) 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 0 1 1 0 9 0.34 6.31 16.4 7.92 2 2 1 1 6 2.91 Edge mod 3 3 3.4 Total N= 2 2 6 1 53 1 5 6 395 1 1 14 1 827 2 314 12.93 914.96 Probability excluding three above tomb deposits

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230 Organization of Obsidian Crafting at Caracol: Summaries and Interpretations From the abov e data (n=17,868) and contextual associations (e.g., refuse and/or construction fill, burial, and cache) a series of observations and interpretations can be stated These interpretations enable a model of obsidian blade production and debris management to emerge from Caracol for the first time. It is important to note here that more research can be performed on the Caracol obsidian collection if more time was available but that the artifact analysis included above and in Appendices F K demonstrate s a signi ficant first step to better situate Caracol within established models of obsidian craft production including how crafters figure within the larger socioeconomics of ancient Maya household reproduction. As stated above, this research follows an idealized linear reduction sequence (see Hirth and Andrews 2002:3, Figure 1), but also includes contextual associations to better historicize the distribution of artifacts and how/why workshop debitage and other debris was managed. In other words, some research infe rred the general nature of obsidian reduction from particular contexts (Demarest et al. 2014; Olson 1994; Trachman 2002, 2006); but a main concern of the current research is to not only infer the nature of obsidian reduction techniques and practices by cra fters, or power of elites, but to also infer, through the analysis of contexts, how artifacts moved about and how workshops were potentially managed. Workshop management by crafts people is extremely important in obsidian reduction. Volcanic g lass is dange rous and therefore directed efforts were most certainly made to remove both products (e.g., blades) and waste (e.g., debitage and cores) from areas common to human locomotion. Moholy Nagy (1997, 2013) asserts that larger obsidian dumps in association with at least two of

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231 city center tombs functioned to remove this dangerous debris from household workshops. To be sure, these dumps would have fulfilled this function, but why these locations, why were eccentrics included (Moholy Nagy 2013:36) and why i n such a direct ritual juxtaposition? These phenomena are also present at Dos Hombres (Trachman 2002) and numerous other Classic period sites (see Moholy Nagy 1997). Another large deposit is in association with a stela at Cancuen (Demarest et al. 2014). If any re appropriated or recycled obsidian object not just those notched or in a particular style then each context where waste occurs could be associated with a ritualized behavior. Lending further support, eccentric bla de cores, or other core shaping debitage, were also commonly associated with caches, and their nature of production is most certainly linked to ritual behavior (Hruby 2007). In order to explore these broader more social components of an obsidian indus try, I explore the contexts for each broad type of classification presented earlier. Obsidian analysis is more often than not concerned with the production of blades as goods or commodities and then research follows these blades to consumers exploring loca l economics. But to what extent would we understand other internal social relations if we followed the itinerary of both blades and non blade objects as they exited workshops? Although this section discusses the organization of production, I do introduce a summary of contexts where obsidian is often recovered. This contextual analysis will be explored in greater detail in later chapters. A discussion of the actual kinds of potential exchange mechanisms (e.g., markets, non markets) that help to explain distr ibutions will be explored in Chapter 6 A summary table of technological stage and type by its probability of occurrence in one of the three contextual

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232 associations is shown below ( Table 5 25 ) and this table is als o converted into probability plots ( Figure 5 34 ). Table 5 25 Summary of technological stages and type by contexts with percentages found per sampled context ( p =0.05). Refuse /fill (sam pled=1,584) Burials (sampled=121) Caches (sampled=61) Technological Stage/Type present p= Present* p=** present p= Macro core shaping 26 1.6 0.51 3 (6) 2.5 2.35 17 27.9 9.59 Percussion debitage 7 0.4 0.26 2 (5) 1.7 1.95 3 4.9 4.61 Initia l series blades 83 5.2 0.91 10 (13) 8.3 4.16 8 13.1 7.21 Final series blades 1 434 90.5 1.21 109 (112) 90.1 4.50 41 67.2 10.04 Other blades 2 0.1 0.13 0 (1) 0.0 0.0 0 Rejuvenation debitage 42 2.7 0.67 8 (11) 6.6 3.74 13 21.3 8.75 Blade cores and blade core frags 51 3.2 0.72 7 (10) 5.8 3.52 31 52.5 10.68 Non blade core related objects 24 1.5 0.50 5 (6) 4.1 2.99 2 3.2 3.76 Undiagnostics 215 13.6 1.41 24 (27) 19.8 6.01 10 16.4 7.92 *Number in parenthesis is occu rrences from all 124 human burial contexts; **P robability calculated not including the three above tomb burial contexts.

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233 Figure 5 34 Summary probability plot ( p=0.05 ) for each major artifact type by c ontext. Sample size for Refuse /fill context is 1,584. Sample size for Burials is 121 and excludes three above tomb chamber deposits. Sample size for Caches is 61. *Refuse in figure refuse/construction fill 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Refuse* Burials Caches Refuse* Burials Caches Refuse* Burials Caches Refuse* Burials Caches Refuse* Burials Caches Refuse* Burials Caches Refuse* Burials Caches Refuse* Burials Caches Refuse* Burials Caches Percent x x Max Mean Min Macrocore shaping Initial series blades Other Blades Blade cores and frags Undiagnostic s Percussion debitage Final series blades Rejuvenation debitage Non blade core related

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234 Initial percussion technique on some sources of obsidian (El Chayal and Ixtepeque) was performed by striking roughed out macrocores to create a core preform or primary macro core By referring to Table 4 2 the only macrocore shaping debitage that exhibited cortex came from the El Chayal obsidian source. Other macro debitage is present, however, from the Ixtepeque source and therefore it is likely that roughed out prepared primary macrocores were imported into Caracol, and that these d id not contain cortical surfaces. No other sources are known to have enter ed Caracol in the form of macrocores. In fact, according to the sourcing data, no other core material from any other source other than El Chayal and Ixtepeque entered Caracol. Based on an overall impression of percussion debitage and exhausted core length, macrocores were not very larger, perhaps 20 30cm in length. More research and a greater sample size of percussion core shaping debitage is required to further refine this estimate. El Chayal was by far the most abundant source material followed by a fraction of Ixtepeque (see Chapter 4 ). Regardless of the quantity, both El Chayal and Ixtepeque cores were being shaped locally at Caracol. In further support, smaller percussion debitage which is a byproduct of polyhedral core shaping is also present in high amounts. The presence of both of these data furthers suggest the reduction of macrocores occurred at local workshops. Debitage from the reduction of cores were managed at workshops. E vidence for this interpretation is garnered from the contextual analysis of percussion debitage. By far the highest amount of this debitage type came from obsidian dumps in association with city center tombs and these would have been moved from workshop lo cales after it was internally managed by crafters. Although these dumps exhibit a significant amount

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235 of these debitage types, caches show a much greater probability for recovering macro core shaping debitage in comparison to both burials and refuse /fill de posits ( Figure 5 34 ). This probability with regard to macro core shaping debitage in particular suggests that at the very least, crafters were managing this debitage in sufficient numbers to then provide other hous ehold residences with these for domestic rituals. This same assertion is repeated for other types of obsidian debitage. Small percussion flakes on the other hand do not show up with the kinds of counts but when they are present at Caracol, they come fro m one specific eastern structure excavation (C184B). Pressure technique on blade cores to shape the cores into polyhedral cores for blade removal certainly took place locally. This technique involved intentional unidirectional knapping to create a circular blade core for the further removal of final series pressure blades. In terms of the overall reduction and shaping of blade cores, not every stage other lithic analysists have reported is seen in the Caracol assemblage. What appears to have occurred is th at after the core was shaped by percussion and indirect percussion, initial series blades were removed. These blades exhibit irregular dorsal flake scars and often have percussion attributes on their dorsal surfaces and pressure attributes ventrally. Some of these blades, however, could have been removed by indirect percussion as well. The result, however was the same a uniform pressure core. Removal of final series blades then occurred and according to the counts and archaeological contexts, this blade t ype was the most desired. The occurrence of finding pressure blades in refuse and/or construction fills has become an expected phenomenon at Caracol (D. Chase and A. Chase 2014). Initial

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236 series blades comprised only a small handful of these pressure blade s in comparison to final series blades. Final series blades were recovered from nearly every context with statistical significance ( Figure 5 34 ). The blades are commonly found during residential investigations as w ell as during excavations of human burial s and less so from caches. Final series blades appear to be the only obsidian artifact type that was used in all of these ways for a variety of purposed It is important to note that the majority of complete final s eries blades (n=68, or 76.4%) came from burials and therefore suggests the intentional act of procuring or curating and using complete blades for this purpose. After blade cores are initially exhauted from the removal of final series blades percussion tec hniques were applied to rejvenate cores. The resulting rejuvenation debitage shows evidence of direct or indirct percussion technique. Hirth (2006:72 78, Figure 3.8) outlines and illustrates a reconstruction of blade core rejuvenation techniques used in Xo chicalco, Mexico. Although a different cultural group, the techniques reconstructed at Caracol fit well into this well established schematic. A range of rejuvenation debitage is present in the Caracol collection ( Table 5 17 ). Exactly 78% of these are distal orientation (n=483) and platform preparation flakes (n=1,186). This shows more effort was directed to create platforms and maintain distal core symmetry. A significant amount of core sections as well as core tops were also present in the collection. The diversity of core tops or core platform types ( Table 5 12 ) demonstrates a range of practices to create a stable pressure platform. Many of the core tops exhibit cortical platforms, while o thers are striated, faceted, or otherwise modified. Core sections were also included in this category if they were similar to platform preparation flakes, crossed the entire width of the blade core, and therefore

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237 have negative pressure blade scars on all m argins. Unlike the blade core sections (non rejuv) classification, core sections were relatively thin and not blocky. These blockier sections were recorded as medial blade core fragments that were most likely produced from intentional core destruction. Due to the presence of substantial amounts and diversity of rejuvenation debitage, it appears that there was a substantial labor and time investment to maximize the productivity of blade cores (see Trachman 2002). Like other debitage, the majority of rejuvena tion debitage, when combined, was recovered in various amounts from three burial chambers within the city center ; however, the likelihood of these being included in other non city center burials are unlikely and even less likely from investigations of hous ehold refuse and construction fills. Caches exhibit a significantly higher probability, but not as significant as macro core shaping or exhausted blade cores and blade core fragments. Cache deposits specifically have included various types of rejuvenation debitage: core section (n=14), cortical core tops (n=2), faceted core tops (n=3), shaped objects (n=3), striated core tops (n=2), indeterminate rejuvenation debitage (n=2), and finally platform preparation flakes (n=17). Again, the presence of these debita ge types from a specific kind of reduction, during an important step in maintaining the usefulness of a blade core shows a concerted effort by crafters to maintain or curate these debitage pieces before circulating them to non obsidian crafting residen ces. Blade cores are complex objects for lithic analysis and a complete summary of these artifacts is beyond the scope of this summary. Important elements to summarize are as follows. A total of twenty two bidirectional blade cores either whole or fragme nted were recovered, just over half of which from large tomb deposits (n=12, or

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238 54.5). Analysis of these objects show ed that only one to two blades were removed from the distal end of cores and that these were removed after the distal portion of the core was removed. This action appears to have been one of the last attempts at removing blades from nearly exhausted cores. Some final series blades also exhibit these kinds of opposition dorsal scaring. Additionally, complete or near complete exhausted unidir ectional blade cores were also recovered from similar contexts although the majority were recovered from investigations of ritual caches. At least 150 of these were were notched, unifacially flaked, or seem ing arbitrarily flaked to further destroy the core or core fragment. One object in particular was formed into a scorpion shape (A. Chase and D. Chase 2015 a :87, Figure 52c). The creation of this representation took advantage of the larger overshot portion t hat makes up curved tail. The tips of its pinchers are slightly flat and exhibit residual traces of the striated core platform. In general, blade cores from ritual caches fit well within already defined shapes that are present from sites suc h as Tikal ( Moholy Nagy 2003c) Not all destroyed or retouched blade cores were crafted into symbolic or representational shapes. Most blade cores were recovered during the excavation of three large tombs and these contexts represent a redeposit of craftin g debris (n=458, or 61.1%); however, this act only took place at these city center burials and only seven others from the more modest residential house groups. Burials, therefore are not as likely to include these objects ( p =5.8 3.52). They are even less likely to be recovered from household non ritual investigations ( p =3.2 0.72). On the other hand, caches exhibit the highest probability of including exhausted blade cores in general and not just retouched blade

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239 core objects ( p =52.5 10.68). This stati stical significance is striking in comparison to the other contextual associations and suggests a further effort by crafters to curate these objects for ritual s performed at various households beyond a given obsidian crafting workshop. Also intriguing abou t the analysis of cache contexts that did include blade cores is the observation that many caches (n=1 2 or ~ 40 %) have blade core refits. These observations are presented with greater detail in Chapter 7 but pointing this out here demonstrates the link be them (i.e., destroying them) and maintaining these fragments together for a ritual offering. It will also be considered later that this act of destruction took place beyond the workshop loc ale, and by those household inhabitants directly performing the ritual and making the offering. In either case, crafters curated these objects before they were circulated through a local exchange mechanism to then move to residences. At some point along an itinerary, many cores were destroyed through a fairly regular or standardized notching technique (see Table 5 21 ). Blade cores on their itinerary within and outside a workshop experienced times of active handlin g by crafters and times of stasis before moving again to become part of the materiality of household ritual. Non blade core related objects and undiagnostics comprise about thirteen percent of the total analyzed obsidian collection. Non blade core related debitage are those artifacts that do not exhibit local manufacture and are not associated with local blade production. Thirty one (or 54.7%) of these are flakes, probably from bifacial reduction; while eighteen (or 33.3%) are bifaces or projectile points. Debitage analysis shows there appears to be some biface finishing or retouching taking place at Caracol,

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240 yet despite this negligible activity, no green bifaces appear to be locally manufactured. These green Pachuca points were most likely imported with th ose foreigners entering the site ( A. Chase and D. Chase 2011 ). A last object of note among others (see Table 5 23 ), is the single obsidian pebble. As shown in Chapter 4 this object is from the La Union obsidian s ource area in northeastern Honduras and has been recorded by Joyce (n.d.). This object is one of the earliest obsidian objects recovered from Caracol and was found in a cache with other non obsidian objects (Lomitola 2010). No attempt to explore the moveme nt of this object has been attempted before, but the movement of this single object is probably tied to early relations Caracol had to the developing Copan polity and/or those sites nearby and perhaps exchanging with it. The object could have traveled on t he same routes that brought ceramics and other materials, like jadeite, to Caracol. Non blade core related objects are rarely recovered in any great amount from any of the three contextual classifications. Undiagnostic artifacts also have little chance of being recovered from one of the three contextual classifications. In summary, crafters followed broad similarities in obsidian reduction, blade an aggregate analysis of all obsidian artifacts from separate assemblages preformed the same types of tasks as other studies have shown. In terms of introducing the contextual analysis, crafters appear to have known about how Classic period household inhabitants ritualized cer tain kinds of obsidian objects (e.g., blade cores, rejuvenation debitage, and macro debitage). Thus planning for events at households and

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241 (see Trachman 2002:117). It is also likely that this maintenance behavior to curate and then provision others with more than just blades, resulted in crafters erasing the dominate traces of their work areas. This may, in part, explain why that in over thirty years of investigation at Caracol no definitive traces of an obsidian workshop have been discovered. This is also asserted against known data for other workshops that were clearly visible in the archaeological record (Johnson 2008, 2012, 2014, Jones 199 6 ). The absence of obsidian worksho ps may also be likely because there were simply far fewer of them in comparison to chert workshops.

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242 CHAPTER 6 OBSIDIAN EXCHANGE: F ROM CRAFTER PRODUCER S TO RESIDENTIAL CONSUMERS Although the nuances of markets and market exchange in Mesoamerican and the Maya area in particular are still be worked out, sufficient data have emerged from a number of sites to demonstrate the existence of local markets and show how these markets influence the distribution of raw materials and crafted objects ( A. Chase and D Ch ase 2014; Masson and Freidel 2012; Masson, Freidel and Hirth 2013 ). In a recent treatment of the nature of market exchange in ancient societies some have suggest ed that markets in pre capitalistic societies were net works that predate the existence of market exchange (Garraty 2010:24 25; Hirth 2010:229 230). As Hirth (2010:229) asserts, embeddedness directs attention to the social relationships which can be fostered during social events and exchange, like those that c economy, I focus on this embeddness perspective because it offers a window to the exchange of materials and finished objects acted as reminders of social relations (see also King and Shaw 2015:3 4) As could be argued broadly, a constant negotiation of social relations was fundamental for the longevity and resiliency of Maya cities and states. From an itinerary standpoint, the embeddness of markets within established and contingent social networks offers a point at which obsidian and places of exchange (i.e., market places) influenced the lives of humans. For example, before markets, obsidian objects may have been controlled by local elites making abil ity to associate with elites through (non market) taxation or some other political economic relationship. Yet with the advent of markets and a greater reliance on

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243 s centered in spheres of exchange, thus allowing broader access and new social relations to develop with those closer to or in control of the actual production of finished objects. Broader population access at these new points of connection (i.e., markets) within the landscape could have also influenced the pace and scale at which obsidian circulated regionally. Greater access to obsidian at markets could have put a strain on local crafters as well. Perhaps this broader access and need led to existing crafters teaching neophytes crafters ( i.e., apprentices) so th at demand could be met. Despite the lack of data available to help support these scenarios, markets were important points at which people and their materials influenced the pace and kind of life that was led Literature on the nature of Maya markets contin ues to reinvigorate the dynamism of ancient Maya economics (see Hirth and Pillsbury 2013; King and Shaw 2015). C hapter 6 aims to add to these newer and revisited datasets by focusing on particular material as it enter ed and le ft the marketplace. Specifical ly, I aim to test whether or not obsidian circulated through markets and if so what was the nature of consumption? The nature of consumption can help to inform the types of social relations that took place either at or apart from markets. The presence an d influence of markets on obsidian exchange can also inform certain types of transformations. If obsidian circulated through markets, it would have been transformed from a product into a sumer. The market and those interacting were also transformed through each transaction. Social relations were built, negotiated, maintained, or dissolved. The objects exchanged were an inseparable dimension of these social relations; without the material, the social

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244 would have been in jeopardy. This chapter begins where others may otherwise struggle. The presence of A. Chase 1998; A. Chase and D. Chase 2001 ); therefore there is no need to establish their existence per se I do, however, address whether or not markets influenced the exchange and circulation of obsidian because this has not been rigorously tested until now As a result, this chapter has a number of explicit goal s. First, I briefly summarize the debates over market exchange research in the Maya area by contrasting market exchange with non market exchange ( or centralized with decentralized exchange ) Second, I use Caracol as a case study to better understand if ma rkets influenced the distribution of obsidian specifically. Simply put, if markets influenced the distribution of obsidian, then it should be widely distributed during the Classic period. Like other literature which addresses market influence, I also take To test this hypothesis, I apply three tests using a sample of residential households. Each test is designed to better understand the general pattern of consumption as well as to determine any nuances in consumption between residential units. These tests are: (1) an analysis of variation (ANOVA) which asserts whether or not there was a significant difference in flaked stone consumption (i.e., a ratio of obsidian to chert) between different kinds of grou ps ; (2) a map of the distribution of obsidian sources to better visualize if obsidian source material was diluted across the landscape or somewhat clustered ; and (3) a third statistical method is applied to better determine whether the average amounts of o bsidian consumed was dependent on some social factor. Braswell (2010; see also Hirth 1998) has argued that dilution of

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245 obsidian sources across a widely sampled area supports the likelihood for markets influencing exchange and household consumption. I use r esidential size as a proxy for obsidian count present at different sized groups or do wealthier groups exhibit a statistically significant higher mean amount of obsidian whe n compared to smaller Before I present the test case data, I summarize the sampling strategy as it relates to these above objectives keeping in mind that inferences are drawn from testing hypotheses against previously investigated residential gro ups. Despite possible sampling biases, I am confident that even with future investigations at the site, the results w ill continue to reinforce the conclusions present below. Third, while markets likely influenced the overall access to both local and extra local resources, was there a co occurrence of non market exchange? What evidence might we have or look for in the archeological record? To address this question, I present preliminary data regarding the importation of central Mexican obsidians as well as t he distribution of certain ritualized obsidian artifacts to potentially determine the operation of non market transactions. The three larger obsidian deposits within the city center add greater emphasis to the likelihood of non market provisioning as rela ted to specific ritual events. Attempts to operationalized non market exchange could focus on ritual practice and ritualized obsidians because they occur with less frequency overall in comparison to daily activities. As I have already shown in Chapter 5 th ere does appear to be some obsidian objects that are ritualized over others and therefore an analysis of their distribution may help to illuminate alternative exchanges that occurred outside

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246 market locales. Fo u rth, I discuss briefly how these two broad ex change mechanism s may have impacted local flaked stone crafters? And finally, I summarize and relate the discussion of exchange via markets or other forms to the movement of obsidian along its itinerary Contrasting Models of Exchange: A Short Review A mo del that stresses elites or top down political economic management is often referred to as a centralized redistribution economy. The Classic Maya were once predominately characterized as having this type of political economy ( Masson 2002 ). Elites in this c entralized redistribution economy collectively controlled aspects of craft production and distribution of exotic or non local goods (e.g., obsidian, shell, jadeite) ( Aoyama 2001 ; Rice 2009), resulting in the uneven distribution of raw materials and crafted items at non elite residences at some given distance to city center s or elite residential locales (Hirth 1998; Stark and Garraty 2010:50 51). However, with the or royal households in civic centers, increased attention was directed to the possibilities of marketplace exchange at Maya sites ( A. Chase 1998; A. Chase and D. Chase 2001; D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 a ; Hirth 1998; Masson and Freidel 2012). Investigations directed attention to the material inventories of residential dwelling s ( Masson and Freidel 2012 ). Many of these settlement locales exhibited proportional access to non local goods similar to those city center elites ( see also Masson and Freidel 2013 ). In consideri ng of the possibility of a market economy, Mayanists have begun thinking about Maya political economy and exchange as decentralized, or as not being primar il y managed by ritually charged royal elites. This decentralized model downplays

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247 the role of elites a s vital to the access of both local and extra local goods. Furthermore, decentralized exchange refers to a system that is open to multiple participants not restricted by status, wealth, or subject to elite management, and where goods and services are avail able to a population through multiple places of commerce. These marketplaces may not have been directly managed by the elite, but rather involve d the integration of high to low status groups ( Huston el al. 2010 ). A result of this form of exchange is the relative equal access of goods and therefore goods become e.g., D. Chase and A. Chase 1992; Hirth 1998 ). While providing equality of access across a given area, marketplaces act to integrate a population and therefore are involved in facilitating a place where individuals, groups, and a population identity is constructed and maintained over space and time ( D. Chase and A. Chase 2004 ). Much of the reason for this research in Mesoamerica is due in part to four things: (1) r premodern markets were not likely a mechanism for allocating specific resources (see Garraty 2010:10 14 ; Feinman and Garraty 2010; Garraty and Stark 2010 ); (2) the increased sam pling and greater artifact inventories of non local goods (e.g., obsidian, shell, and jadeite) at many non elite households ( e.g., A. Chase et al. 2015 ); (3) the actual documentation and excavation of physical marketplaces ( King and Shaw 2015 ), some of whi ch are located near civic centers, while others are not ( A. Chase et al. 2015 ); and (4) the systematic study of the distributions of various kinds of materials and spatial relationships between workshops, civic centers, marketplaces, and non elite or non r oyal consumers ( D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 a; A. Chase et al. 2008 ; Hirth 1998,

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248 2010; Hutson et al. 2010; Masson and Freidel 2012 ). With the advent of research into the presence and involvement in market exchange, archaeologists have to consider not only t he movement of alienable goods those goods that can be separated from those who produced them distributed through markets but also the inalienable items that may have been exchanged through non market exchanges directly between persons. The Classic May a are argued to have multiple exchange mechanisms operating simultaneously (Braswell 2010 Rice 2009 ), thus a study of the movement of things must consider at least two forms of exchange: markets) and one that limits the exchange of certain materials and objects to certain contexts or between social status groups (e.g., non markets). Here both decentralized (market) and individualized (non market, person to person) models may be applicabl e. Discussions of person to person exchange often applies to a gifting economy. Operationalizing all that gifting includes is extremely difficult because much of this exchange fulfills some social obligation and cannot be measured in an archaeological anal ysis of commodities. These connections are difficult to establish in the archaeological record, but may sometimes be indicated in the analyse s of restricted distributions. Economic Integration, Markets, Sampling, and Wealth at Caracol, Belize: A Review A t Caracol, multiscale excavations have investigated monumental civic city center royal residences and continue to cross cut a significant sample of different sized residential households. In Chapter 2 I presented a summary of the multiple lines of evidence in support of both a market economy and the presence of marketplaces at Caracol, Belize. Specifically, D. Chase and A. Chase (2014 a ) argue (1) that the

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249 configuration of certain architectural groups supports open market spaces and (2) that artifact context ual evidence from systematic sampling across an array of (3) distributed extra local and local materials. These data and interpretations continue to support earlier claims for a well integrated economic landscape (A. Chase 1998; A. Chase and D. Chase 200 1; D. Chase and A. Chase 2004 ). Obsidian distribution data likewise should reinforce the presence of markets; however, before the findings are presented, project sampling methods are described generally to address any biases In addition, because wealth may be a consideration affecting rates of residential material consumption, I define what I mean by wealth and how it may be measured using architectural data. Archaeological excavations at Caracol follow a hierarchical order. Operations (Op or Ops ) are the first order and are defined as the investigation of a given space. In most cases, a single household or residential plazuela group comprises an operation. Suboperations (SubOp or SubOps) as smaller units are typically investigations of single str uctures or other discrete areas within the given operation. These suboperations are further subdivided into excavated Lots or arbitrary excavation units usually defined on cultural strata. A typical investigation can be abbreviated as C100A/1, where C stan ds for Caracol, Op 100, SubOp A (B, C, D, and so forth), and Lot 1. SubOps are defined on the basis of further in more detail as their count helps normalize my subsampling strategy in the absence of excavated volume (m 3 ) or excavated surface area (m 2 ). Th e number of SubOps or individual excavations within one larger investigated

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250 that these sampled areas are comparable when seen through the number and distribution of investig ations. Table 6 1 provides the total Operations and SubOperations investigated at Caracol as of the 2014 field season. Figures 6 1 through 6 5 show that 62 operations were investigated by one (n=19) to two (n=43) S ubOps ( Figure 6 1 ), 72 operations were investigated by three (n=39) to four (n=33) SubOps ( Figure 6 2 ), 41 operations were investigated by five (n=22) to six (n=19) SubOps ( Figure 6 3 ), 14 operations were investigated by seven (n=6) to eight (n=8) SubOps ( Figure 6 4 ), and 18 operations were investigated by nine and up to 24 separate SubOps ( Figure 6 5 ). Table 6 1 Summary table of total excavations or Sub ops from Caracol showing a total of 207 operations were investigated with a total of 953 separate Sub ops or individual excavations. Sub Ops per Excavation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 15 18 21 22 23 24 Count of e ach 19 43 39 33 22 19 6 8 3 3 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 207 Total 19 86 117 132 110 114 42 64 27 33 36 13 30 18 21 44 23 24 953

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251 Figure 6 1 Distribution of excavation Operations that have one to two individual SubOperations.

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252 Figure 6 2 Distributions of excavation Operations that have three to four individual SubOperations.

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253 Figure 6 3 Distribution of excavation Operations that have five to six individual SubOperations.

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254 Figure 6 4 Distribution of excavation Operations that have seven to eight individual SubOperations.

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255 Figure 6 5 Distribution of excavation Operations that have nine to 24 individual SubOperations.

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256 In total, 953 suboperations have been conducted to investigat e a variety of questions over the past 30 plus years of archaeological work at Ca racol leading up to this obsidian research. A terrain excavations (represented by SubOps) were typically placed in front, perpendicular, and on axis to structures to explore the interface betwee n platforms edges and open plazas. These investigations often uncover ed stairs that were sometimes built upon bedrock. A Caracol test pit excavation usually measure s 1 .5 m x 1 .5 m but can be 2 m x 2 m. Test pit excavations were also placed within the cente rs of residential plaza either to explore vacant terrain areas or possible mounded areas that may be small collapsed altars or other collections of cut limestone blocks. SubOps may m axial trench excavations that usually expl ore d, structures, expos ing more interior architecture and construction history. Trenches wall(s). These more penetrative excavations when placed in eastern structures at Caracol typically reveal burials and caches. For perspective, field research is still ongoing and therefore this sample represents what was available for analysis as of the end of the 2015 field season. The importance behind providing the count and general descriptions of the kinds of excavation s is to show the sampling strategy and that groups of different sizes were sampled in similar ways and are therefore generally commensurate for this distributional study of obsidian. For example, regardless of the size of structures most residential samples outside the city center includes explorations of eastern and northern or southern structures as well as general surface collections when available. A minimum

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257 of three SubOps were carried out in most residen tial groups. The operations that occurred within city center however, usually have many more SubOps on average given that the architectural spaces are usually larger and more complex. Investigation methods therefore required broader separation of space d uring excavations. In addition, a significant amount of conservation and architectural stabilization work has also occurred in the city center and therefore more earth has been moved, screened, and sampled as a necessary part of this work. Most investigati ons at Caracol are continually directed towards understanding local economic diversity as reflected from residential artifact inventories. As a result of these excavations, A. Chase and D. Chase (2014 a ) have assert ed that economically diverse house groups The sampling strategy as well as artifactual data have enabled this assessment as well as documented the presence of a market economy during the Classic period. As a component of this general ho usehold diversity, status distinctions appear to be present at the site. These status or wealth differences are manifest in household artifact inventories in tomb size (A. Chase 1992; D. Chase and A. Chase 1996), and general residential size (A. Chase and D. Chase 2014 a ) as well as in dietary evidence (A. Chase et al. 2001). Because of these social differences manifest in different lines of evidence the obsidian research is better positioned to also assess the equality of access across different status or wealth classes. These status differences are reflected broadly in household size or complexity ( Figure 6 6 ) and a distributional sample shows that there is a frequent juxtaposition of large, medium, and small g roups over the residential landscape ( Figure 6 7 ). Those house groups with more structures are

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258 presumed to have greater wealth overall. Smaller house groups area assumed on the other end of the continuum. One cave at must be noted before these distinctions are operationalized using the flaked stone data. Although much of the following sample does demonstrate measurable proxies for wealth, larger household may have simply been around longer and thus over time have gather ed greater volume and complexity. Smaller households therefore may be newer and not as architecturally complex. However, if this were the default position, we would expect to see equal kinds of materials across both large and small households. This issue is addressed below using mean counts of obsidian by architectural size types ; it is possible to look at this because of years of directed systematic research and sampling at various sized residences.

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259 Figure 6 6 Examp les of different size classes of residential groups based on number of structures per a given raised platform: Special use/royal residential Northeast Acropolis Operations C117, C18 Bimbo, Operation C193; 4 5 structures Mono, Tortilla, Operation C197. Image adapted from A. Chase and D. Chase (2014 b :8, Figure 2).

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2 60 Figure 6 7 Subsampl e distribution of different size household types, ( Pyramid/Special Use n= 9; Large n= 30; Medium n= 28; Small n= 24). Note that all Pyramid/Special Use groups are located in the city center where causeways converge and other classes are randomly distri buted across the sampled settlement area.

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261 Testing Centralized and Decentralized Models of Obsidian Exchange O ne goal of this part of the research is the need to test for an equality of access to obsidian in order to further assert the already supported market interpretation proposed by D. Chase and A. Chase (2014 a ). An analysis of variation or a one way ANOVA test was applied to a sample of both the obsidian and chert flaked stone data to determine if there is a significant difference or variation in the overall consumption of obsidian compared to chert by different household s or residential size types. The hypotheses are: Null hypothesis: There is a significant difference in ratio amounts between different sized groups. In other words, those larger group s or those possessing greater wealth, are expected to have a higher ratio or proportion of obsidian to chert because they could exercise greater purchasing power during exchange. Alternative hypothesis: There is no significance between group size and consu mption ratio (obsidian:chert). In other words, the size of the group, a proxy for wealth, does not influence the proportion of different types of flaked stone obtained through exchange implying that markets influenced the distribution of obsidian. Test 1: Equality of Access to Obsidian and Analysis of Variation (ANOVA) Figure 6 6 showed four architectural groups based on the number of structures per a given raised residential platform. I used published survey maps (A. Chase and D. Chase 1987:63 84) as well as project field reports ( caracol.org ) to determine actual structure counts. These groups were analyzed for the recovered amounts of both obsidian and chert (see Appendix A ). These two tool stone types were chosen for comparison because Caracol inhabitants used both as blade tools (Johnson 2008;

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262 Johnson et al. 2014; Johnson and Johnson 2016; Pope 1994; Jones 1996 ). Chert was chosen as part of this hypothesis because previous research has shown it could have substituted for obsidian tool stone and that production techniques and finished tools were also comparable (Johnson and Johnson 2016 ) R ecent research into chert production has further demonstrated that crafters were producing chert blades from both polyhedral pressure cores ( like those of obsidian ) as well as unidirectional percussion cores (Johnson et al. 2014). Other research on chert artifacts shows that regardless of core type, the product was the same: pro duc ing fairly robust blades with both a cutting edge and a sharp distal bit or tip. No other artifact data (e.g., ceramics, shell, jadeite) or volume/surface area excavated was available at the time of this research project with which comparisons could be made. (see Masson and Freidel 2012 Hirth 1998 Hutson et al. 2010 ), but it is likely that comparisons of other distributed materials would be similar to those presented below (see also A. Chase and D. Chase 2014 b ). A ratio ( obsidian:chert ) was developed that divided obsidian raw material counts by chert raw materials counts where the count of obsidian is always less than chert so that the ratio is always less than one. This calculation method is reasoned by the presumption that chert was both more accessi ble, and more abundant ; it was a local resource and widely available in the karstic bedrock that forms most of the Maya Mountains. Therefore an obsidian:chert ratio value of 0.1 is interpreted as one obsidian artifact per every ten chert artifacts ( 0.01 w ould indicate one obsidian object for every 100 and so forth). Obsidian consumption amounts should be less overall in quantity because this resource was subject to irregular importation from distant quarries in the

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263 highlands of Guatemala or elsewhere in th e Mesoamerican region. Another discriminating factor in sampling architectural groups was to exclude known or presumed chert workshops from the sample. This was done so that the proportion (obsidian:chert) of lithic consuming households could be properly assessed without introducing bias through the inclusion of major consumers/producers of lithic tools (see Johnson et al. 2015). Likewise, the three above tomb chamber deposits were also excluded from the analysis. These eventful burial deposit s would have introduce d significant bias into analyses of variation in lithic consumers A review of Appendix A provide s raw obsidian and chert counts for each operation and therefore other tests can be conducted using a wider sample. Even though the sample did utilize some discriminating factors, 90 Operations (or 639 SubOps) were included in the analysis. The analytical methods compare raw counts of obsidian and chert and does not concentrate on comparisons of just blade tools (see Masson and Freidel 2013 ) because of the reasons stated above regarding the similarity in reduction technique and blade tool usage. Although obsidian certainly provides a sharper cutting edge overall, lithic crafters at Caracol appear to have utilize d both materials as quotidian blade tools. Table 6 2 shows the sample size and ratio per Operation within each group size type.

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264 Table 6 2 Obsidian to chert ratios by group size type where ratios are less than 1.0. Actual numb er of both chert and obsidian artifacts is listed in Appendix A Note: Pyramid/Special Use groups included 24 operations with 283 suboperations or an average of 12 per operations, but are eight broader city center investigations. Large group sample size is 30 operations with 154 suboperations and an average of 5 suboperations. Medium group sample size is 28 operations with 113 suboperations and an average of 4 suboperations. Small group sample size is 24 operations with 89 suboperations and an average of 3 suboperations. Suboperation count (SubOp Ct.) by individual Operations (Op #) is provided in parentheses. Pyramid/Special Use (Subop Ct.) Ratio by Op # (Subop Ct.) Ratio Medium (4 5) by Op # (Subop Ct.) Ratio by Op # (Subop Ct.) R atio A Group/Plaza* (Various Op #s) (64) 0.178 5 (6) 0.750 6 (2) 0.173 9 (1) 0.138 Ball Courts (Various Op #s) (3) 0.085 38 (6) 0.125 19* (1) 0.829 51 (3) 0.344 Barrio (Various Op #s) (35) 0.069 60 (3) 0.109 29 (1) 0.313 57 (3) 0.071 Caana (Various Op #s) (93) 0.068 64 (2) 0.500 36 (2) 0.355 58 (3) 0.018 Camp Excavations (Various Op #s) (6) 0.326 67 (1) 0.031 42 (2) 0.176 98 (4) 0.393 Central Acropolis* (Various Op #s) (47) 0.267 116 (4) 0.475 63 (3) 0.021 197 (4) 0.244 Northeast Acropolis (Various O p #s) (11) 0.067 119 (6) 0.034 65 (2) 0.106 14 (5) 0.291 South Acropolis (Various Op #s) (24) 0.188 121 (3) 0.286 74 (2) 0.625 22 (6) 0.352 180 (5) 0.412 79 (5) 0.242 31 (4) 0.033 185 (4) 0.249 83 (5) 0.143 33 (2) 0.214 195 (4) 0.260 85 (5) 0.079 34 (3) 0.034 46 (3) 0.034 110 (5) 0.267 49** (4) 0.418 59 (2) 0.905 127 (6) 0.010 68 (2) 0.526 66 (2) 0.043 147 (3) 0.036 99 (3) 0.021 75 (8) 0.292 191 (5) 0.214 105 (5) 0.056 102 (6) 0.017 84 (3) 0.017 106 (4) 0.091 104 (5) 0.058 107 (4 ) 0.028 108 (5) 0.068 172 (5) 0.199 118 (6) 0.387 109 (4) 0.069 179 (8) 0.144 124 (4) 0.127 123 (7) 0.100 184 (7) 0.186 125 (6) 0.019 131 (4) 0.018 188 (6) 0.118 129 (4) 0.022 139 (3) 0.013 190 (4) 0.095 130 (6) 0.013 143 (3) 0.162 194 (4 ) 0.269 132 (6) 0.056 198 (3) 0.017 196 (5) 0.089 138 (3) 0.142 201 (4) 0.614 199 (5) 0.240 158 (5) 0.136 140 (8) 0.133 171 (4) 0.158 169 (9) 0.369 192 (3) 0.094 111 (5) 0.029 204 (2) 0.864 193 (8) 0.219 189 (4) 0.354 Total obsidian 2,737 1,329 931 476 Total chert 18,864 7,831 7,252 3,171 Total of obsidian included in sample 5,473 or 27.9% Total of chert included in sample 37,118 or 45.7% Total of obsidian not included in sample 14,119 or 72.1% Total of chert not included in sample 44,006 or 54.3% Ratio calculated from obsidian not associated with burial chamber deposit ** R atio calculated does not include Op C49D investigations during the 2015 field season

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265 Results: Analysis of Variation (ANOVA) Table 6 3 shows the results of the ANOVA test data. Through the analysis of variation of ratio data, the null hypothesis is rejected. There is no statistical significance between size type and the ratio of obsidian to che rt consumption. This lends further support to the assertion exchange distributed an equal proportion of obsidian to chert across the sampled settlement area. Those pyramid and larger groups do not show a statisti cal difference when compared to those small and possibly likely less wealthy groups especially when the overall variations in proportions of extra local to local flaked stone materials is compared Table 6 3 Summary of ANOV A test data. Group Type n= Sum Mean Mean 2 Pyramid Groups and/or Special Use 8 1.249 0.156 0.024 Large (6 or more structures) 30 7.023 0.234 1.299 Medium (4 5 structures) 28 5.648 0.202 1.427 Small (3 or fewer structures) 24 4.306 0.179 0.727 All group s 90 18.226 SSW (sum of squares within groups) 3.525 SSBG (sum of squares between groups) 0.068 SST (sum of squares total) 3.593 d.f. (degrees of freedom) SSBG 3 (0.022) Numerator d.f. SSW 86 (0.040) Denominator 0.55 < 2 .7 Must reject null hypothesis f ratio 0.55 f critical 2.7 ( P =0.05) Test 2: Dilution of Obsidian Sources into Residential Settlement Braswell (2010) and Hirth (1998) both assert that in market economies many materials will be widely distributed ac ross a provisioning area. In particular, Hirth (1998:461) states : homogeneity of household assemblages in type of obsidian consumed, as all households will have access to the same sources

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266 develop and evaluate another set of hypotheses using obsidian data from Caracal. It has already been demonstrated that El Chayal obsidian was the most abundant obsidian source imported into Caracol, while Ixtepeque, San Martin (de Jilotepeque) and other non Guatemalan obsidian comprise very little of the source assemblage (see Chapter 4 ). Contrasting Guatemalan obsidian sources to non Guatemalan sources, their distributions can be mapped during the Classic period to bett er understand the impact of markets. As already presented in Chapter 4 the presence of Ixtepeque obsidian in particular is very low (8.3%), and widely diluted across the sampled area. This also adds greater weight to interpretations (i.e., there is less t o go around, but it is still widely diluted). The hypotheses are: Null Hypothesis: The distribution of obsidian sources during the Classic period is diluted across the sampled settlement area. Obsidian sources are not clustered in one area, nor are they un equally distributed among the wealthy and most architecturally complex house groups. Alternative Hypothesis: The distribution of obsidian sources is not diluted and is therefore spatially clustered due to some non market form of exchange or some other yet unexplored factor. Results: Obsidian Source Distribution Through a summary of the HHpXRF data presented in Chapter 5 a decentralized distributional model is also evident in that the dominant sources imported into Caracol (e.g., El Chayal and Ixtepeque) a re present throughout the sampled residences (see Figure 4 9 and Figure 4 10 ); however, in contrast Mexican obsidian sources tend to be clustered ( Figure 6 8 and Figure 6 9 ). This concentration could

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267 perhaps signal two likely scenarios. First, Mexican obsidian (imported as finished objects usually included in ritual deposits) could have been traded directly with those intended users. This scenario supports a more gifting based exchange or alliance building between non locals. Second, as these items entered Caracol they were exclusively traded through those markets that directly provisioned lo cal elites living in the city center Despite contrasting interpretations, the distribution of Guatemalan sources was likely caused by the dilution of obsidian to all households through market interaction (Braswell 2010; Hirth 1988). Based on these two tes ts (i.e., ANOVA and source distribution), we can see statistically similar proportions or amounts of obsidian to chert as well as the wide dilution of Guatemalan obsidian sources across different sized residences through out the sample area. The distribu tion of Mexican obsidian, however, cluster s tightly around the city center and may suggest different types of exchange for objects that traveled even greater distances that those coming from the Guatemalan highlands. Figure 6 10 uses actual counts of obsidian from the sample data provided in Table 6 2 to create an obsidian density (e.g., spline interpolation) map that shows the dilution of obsidian across the sampled area. T his density map illustrates that obsidian is predicted to occur in the sampled area regardless of proximity to city center

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268 Figure 6 8 Distribution of Mexican obsidian (clustered around city center ) and one La Union piece (p lotted to the northeast). Figure 6 9 Distribution of Guatemalan obsidian.

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269 Figure 6 10 Obsidian distribution spline interpolation map predicting distribution of obsidian counts for sampled a nd un sampled areas. Colored values are derived from the real count of obsidian from excavations. Obsidian counts from three above tomb chamber deposits are excluded. Dashed circles represent 3 km provisioning radii of local markets located at various loca tions (adapted from D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 a :243, Figure 4). Note that nearly the entire settlement area is predicted to at least have 1 21 pieces of obsidian based on the available sample and that many areas within and outside the city center exhibit h igher actual counts.

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270 Relations between Obsidian Consumption and Household Wealth The above analytical tests support the assertion that markets did influence the distribution of obsidian across the residential settlement. The next section takes the distri butional analysis one step further to better understand the possible influence of differential access to obsidian based on wealth (measured by residential size) within the market economy. This more nuanced test of the data does not aim to undermine the pre sence of markets. Rather the intention is to better understand whether differences existed between the purchasing power of presumed wealthier groups in comparison to those groups with less overall wealth. A rlen Chase D iane Chase and C. White (2001) have already asserted that dietary differences did exist at the site with those of higher status (i.e., greater wealth) having a better diet. The tests below are designed to further analyze these interpretations. Test 3: Measuring Differential Access to Obsidi an Based on Household Size Household size or the number of structure s per a given residence is used to develop the following statistical analysis to discuss differential access to obsidian via a particular social and physical marker of wealth. The hypothes es are: Null Hypothesis: Like the first test that showed a lack of significant variation across the four types of architectural complexity, I assert that when assessing the overall consumption of obsidian specifically not a proportion of flaked stone there will continue to be no significant difference between the mean amounts of obsidian in comparison to indicators of wealth. In other words, assuming commensurate sample sizes there will be no statistical difference between residences of different size.

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271 Alternative Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in obsidian consumption between the four residential size types. These differences will be, like others have shown (see Hutson et al. 2010), that those wealthy and larger groups have a statistical ly significant greater mean amount of obsidian due to greater purchasing power. A series of chi square test iterations were performed to better examine and understand differing mean obsidian counts by residential size type ( Table 6 4 Table 6 5 Table 6 6 Table 6 7 and Table 6 8 ). A chi square test compares an observed distribution to a theoretical or expected value: Is the observed value (or association) statistically different from an expected value (or association)? In this implementation, this stati stic is used to test hypotheses regarding whether or not those groups that are larger over all (i.e., more structures on a single raised platform [ Figure 6 6 ]) had a greater access to obsidian. As stated before, th e greater number of structures at a given residence is used here as a proxy for wealth or overall greater status when compared to those with lesser and smaller structures on a given raised platform.

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272 Table 6 4 Iteration one. Chi square distribution testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in mean obsidian consumption counts between the four ranked groups. Obsidian Pyramid/Special Use Large ( 6) Medium (4 5) Small ( 3) Totals Observed mean 342.1 4 4.3 33.2 19.8 Expected mean (60.8) (60.8) (60.8) (60.8) Sample size= 8 30 28 24 90 Obsidian Total= 2,737 1,329 931 476 5,473 Chi square statistic 1301.5 4.5 12.5 27.6 706.8 Reject Null Hypothesis. 706.8 > 7.8 (critical value), p=.05, 95% confidence, d.f. 3 Table 6 5 Iteration two. Chi square distribution testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in mean obsidian consumption counts between the large, medium, and small ranked grou ps. Obsidian Large ( 6) Medium (4 5) Small ( 3) Totals Observed mean 44.3 33.2 19.8 Expected mean 33.3 33.3 33.3 Sample size= 30 28 24 82 Obsidian Total= 1,329 931 476 2,736 Chi square statistic 3.6 0.0 5.4 9.1 Reject the Null Hypothe sis. 9.1 > 5.9 (critical value), p=.05, 95% confidence, d.f. 2 Table 6 6 Iteration three. Chi square distribution testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in mean obsidian consumption counts betwee n the large and small groups. Obsidian Large ( 6) Small ( 3) Totals Observed mean 44.3 19.8 Expected mean 24.4 24.4 Sample size= 30 24 74 Obsidian Total= 1,329 476 1,805 Chi square statistic 16.2 0.8 17.0 Reject the Null Hypothesis. 17.0 > 3.8 (critical value), p=.05, 95% confidenc e, d.f., 1

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273 Table 6 7 Iteration four. Chi square distribution testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in mean obsidian consumption counts between the medium and small groups. Obsidian Medium (4 5 ) Small ( 3) Totals Observed mean 33.2 19.8 Expected mean 27.0 27.0 Sample size= 28 24 52 Obsidian Total= 931 476 1,407 Chi square statistic 1.4 1.9 3.3 Cannot Reject the Null Hypothesis. 3.3 < 3.8 (critical value), p=.05, 95% confidence, d.f. 1 Table 6 8 Iteration five. Chi square distribution testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in mean obsidian consumption counts between the large and medium groups. Obsidian Large ( 6) Medium (4 5) Totals Observed mean 44.3 33.2 Expected mean 38.9 38.9 Sample size= 30 28 58 Obsidian Total= 1,329 931 2,260 Chi square statistic 0.7 0.8 1.5 Cannot Reject the Null Hypothesis. 1.5 < 3.8 (critical value), p=.05, 95% confidence, d.f. 1 Results : Houshold Wealth and Obsidian Consumption Iteration one suggests that there is a fundamental inequality when comparing mean amounts of obsidian across all four groups ( Table 6 4 ). This observation therefore warranted other iterations. The second iteration logically eliminated the royal residential sample based on the high mean obsidian count by comparing those groups located beyond the city center ( Table 6 5 ). This t est also showed there is a fundamental inequality of mean obsidian access between groups even with the largest city center groups excluded. The next series of iterations compared the likelihood of equality of mean obsidian access across different combinati on of group size type. There was a significance difference when comparing large to small groups ( Table 6 6 ), but not a significant difference when comparing large to medium types ( Table 6 7 ) and medium to

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274 small group types ( Table 6 8 ). These data show, that the size of the group or wealth does affect the mean amount of obsidian consumed. There is a correlation or relationship betwee n the sizes of group and the mean amount of obsidian. Those with more wealth could purchase more obsidian overall and those with less wealth those living in small groups could purchase obsidian, but less than other groups overall. In other words, the d ifferences shown through this statistical method, as some may argue (Hutson et al. 2010; Masson and Freidel 2012), could be due to subtle wealth differences where larger households have greater purchasing power at their nearby market and smaller households have less purchasing power. Sampling among each type of household size is generally commensurate so these differences are not likely due to sampling error. As I have already shown, access to obsidian was not restricted overall, but there are statistical differences in mean obsidian counts by residential size type and this perhaps was caused by differences in wealth and therefore greater purchasing power at local markets. Figure 6 11 shows a density map derived fr om using inverse distance weight (IDW) that interpolates an elevation like surface based on mean obsidian count by the size of group. This figure shows that although access to obsidian is widespread there was a difference between the mean amounts of obsid ian consumed. As noted earlier, ano ther possible explanation may include larger household groups may also have longer occupational allowing more obsidian to accumulate.

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275 Figure 6 11 Inverse distance weight (IDW) interpolat ion density model showing the spatial relationships between those sampled larger groups (mean = 44.3) to other medium (mean = 33.2) and small (mean = 19.8) sized groups. Notice that obsidian distribution is predicted throughout the un sampled area (see Figure 6 10 ). The difference in mean count is statistically dependent on the possibly greater purchasing power of large residences located adjacent to and far outside the city center Pyramid/Special Use areas within the city center area were excluded from this IDW interpolation model because the group mean of these eight investigations is statistically higher than ot her size classes (n=2,737; mean =342.1).

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276 Considering Non Market Exchange While the bulk of the data thus far have supported the interpretation that markets significantly influenced the distribution of obsidian, I would like to consider the co occurrence of non market transactions. There are at least two examples to describe. These include: (1) the import ation and distribution of non Guatemalan obsidian objects and (2) the deposition of large quantities of obsidian above three elite vaulted tombs. (A potential third example could be included that contends with the distribution of ritualized obsidian eccent rics (see Chapter 6 and 8 ), but their overall distribution appears to be indicative of access through markets. The sample size of these is such that I cannot confidently claim their circulation through non market exchange.) I will take each in turn and dis cuss their possible exchange outside the market economy. The examples presented, with the exception of the distribution of non Guatemala obsidian, are intended to foreshadow Chapter 8 where data distinguishes between quotidian and ritual uses of obsidian. Interestingly each of these examples contends with objects that add to the materialization of ritual activities; A the materialization of socially negotiated values and beliefs through the acquisition and ords, going an occur

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277 through different types of exchange, but their distributions may reflect more intra personal exchanges by being more restricted in overall distribution. Mexican obsidian sources are clustered around the city center A significant amount of green Pachuca obsidian was recovered from a cremation burial deep within an earlier plaza surface of the Northeast Acropolis signaling a particular status distinction with the acquisition and use of these items in a burial rite (A. Chase and D. Chase 2011 ). Oth er Mexican obsidian, however was not recovered from ritual deposits. These were recovered during general excavations within city center architecture. Despite these non ritual excavations, the distributions (see Figure 4 11 ) suggests limited or restricted circulations either through elite gifting or through their availability only from the epicentral marketplace Technological attributes also help to show the form in which the objects were traded. Eight of the fifte en (or 53%) objects scanned using HHpXRF are bifaces or finely crafted projectile points. No evidence thus far suggests these were locally produced. As stated above, objects traded into Caracol could have been traded directly with city center elites there power. Alternatively, obsidian resources could have entered directly into city center markets and rather than other markets further afield. Also at odds with markets being the only mode o f exchange is the presence of dense obsidian concentrations associated with at least three elite tombs (n= 12,458, see also Table 7 13 ). Arguabl y, these larger amounts of obsidian could not have been obtained from markets due the logistics in carrying such quantities to markets, and then carrying to their final deposition above a vaulted tomb. It is rather more likely that

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278 obsidian workshop crafters must have had some more interpersonal relationship with those invol ved with interring the deceased elite individuals and may have directly planned the movement of this material accordingly. The first occurrence of this type of relationship was at the Machete group in AD 613. This group was certainly a high status group, b ut the other two occurrences of depositing obsidian with elite tomb burials occurred almost one hundred years later. Other sites may have practiced these acts even earlier (Trachman 2002:116 117). The obsidian from the three above tomb context s is primaril y El Chayal and Ixtepeque obsidian ; thus central Mexican connections were not expressed in the ritual use of thousands of obsidian artifacts. alliance or some other soc materials which embodied extensive labor and time investment as well as the importance of obsidian for the broader population provides the opportunity to materialize and negotiate the value s of a larger population through the ritual action (Graeber 2001:45; Wells 2006). Here value is not measured in supply and demand, but rather through shared activity during significant events surrounding the death and interment of seemingly royal individua ls. Those sharing in these rituals through providing their materials could have elevated their station in life, while hon oring the Crafters Even though an itiner ary approach emphasizes that we discover and assess the route, a consideration of the human agents involved is necessary. As obsidian is circulated in and out of markets or non market exchange along a particular route, those

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279 that crafted and transformed ra w materials into finished objects certainly were a ffected. What can we infer about the status or social position of obsidian crafters at Caracol based on the supported market exchange model? In trying to answer this question, I do not aim to discover the s pecific identity of obsidian crafters, but rather to situate them among a current understanding of lithic production at Caracol. Does obsidian distributional data allow obsidian crafters to occupy the same kind of social position like that of other stone c rafters at Caracol? As noted earlier, no obsidian workshop has been found to date at the site and no data have yet demonstrate d that obsidian crafting took place close to or within the city center like some recovered examples of chert lithic production (J ohnson 2008). Given the data collected thus far regarding lithic craft production through various analyses of domestic secondary lithic deposits (Pope 1994, Jones 1996, Johnson et al. 2015), the current understanding of Caracol domestic craft production appears to follow that of Hirth (2006, 2009) both: Intermittent crafting is, when craft activity is carried out within the household on a periodic or part time basis alongside, or as a secondary feature of, other subsistence activities. Multi crafting crafts are pract iced within the same household. A major difference, as Hirth (2006:276) descr ibes is that multi crafting crafting households could include those households that were not i mmediate land owners or that did not possess the ability to produce the bulk of their own food. These households

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280 could have traded crafts at local markets to obtain food stuffs. Notwithstanding, terraced agricultural land is widespread at Caracol ( A. Chase and D. Chase 1998; D. Chase and A. Chase 2014 ) and it is not fully clear how intensive lithic producers articulated with property ownership or food production. Most of the evidence for intensive craft production at Caracol is visible through incomplete t races ( Johnson et al. 2015 ) as opposed to other sites (Aoyama 2007). But based on the data thus far, intensive lithic domestic craft production was common at Figure 1 ; A. Chase and D. Chase 2015 ). Intensively studied chert producers were involved in the manufacture of chert blades ( Johnson 2008; Johnson et al. 2015; Jones 1996; Pope 1994 ) and potentially used these tools to also modify other materials, such as shell ( P ope 1994 ). These data support a multi crafting like model where chert blades crafts (Johnson et al. 2015 ). Some of these households appear to be situated within neighborh ood units ( e.g., A. S. Z. Chase 2016 that has considerable face to face interaction and is distinctive on the basis of physical organization unit provides much in the way for the potential to share and cooperate. If we position flaked stone crafters generally and obsidian crafter s, in particular clust ered, ( 2) thereby offering significant face to face interaction and the potential for shar ing

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281 see Lave and Wenger 1991 ), then obsidian crafters may have been integral t o and integrated within Caracol society. One line of evidence that supports this multi crafting techniques used to reduce both chert and obsidian via a pressure technique (Jo hnson et al., 2015, Johnson and Johnson 2016). However, without the actual workshops, this remains an untested model. Crafters certainly provisioned city center elites as can be seen in the deposition of thousands of obsidian blade production artifacts a bove at least three vaulted tomb chambers. However, when markets are considered ( which enabled crafters to provision nearly the entire population ), marketplaces introduce another locus (i.e., in addition to inter household communication) for the possible s haring of crafting knowledge. Crafters situated within close proximity to their neighbor as well as acting through markets to provision the population could be seen as essential agents in the reproduction of the domestic economy. Edge damage on blades sh ow they were extensively used a s commonly recovered from a wide assortment of ritual contexts (see Chapter 5 and 6 ): thus crafters were also integral for the reproducti on and materialization of household ritual expression. Summary The reality of ancient Maya exchange is that multiple forms of exchange likely existed coevally; meaning that interpersonal exchange also happened apart from markets, but at least at some sites markets appear to be the domina n t mechanism for household provisioning. Distributional data as presented above supports this assertion

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282 at Caracol. Now with the advent of greater amounts of data from multi decade long projects which sampled ancient M aya residential groups similarly during each field season archaeologists can better understand which forms of exchange appear predominant and which materials were subject to particular modes of exchange ( e.g., Masson and Freidel 2012). Crafters were cert ainly affected by different kinds of negotiations and future research at Caracol is expected to put a greater emphasis on this dynamic. moves from workshops to markets and then to household consum ers. Analysis of this segment or stage allows inferences to be made that aid in revealing the types of social relationships that involved craft producers in the exchang e of both products and knowledge. The resiliency of this network is contingent on their ability to access raw materials, transform them into desired objects, and access a space from where they c ould circulate their crafts to consumers.

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283 CHAPTER 7 QUOTIDIAN AND RITUAL IZED USE OF OBSIDIAN NCES Summary of the Recovery Context s for Obsidian Chapter 6 discussed the general distribution of obsidian at Caracol to infer the dominant form of exchange durin g the Maya Classic period. Chapter 7 e laborates further on these distributions to better describe the nature of obsidian use aft er a household had already procure d material It establishes another stage through which obsidian traveled during its existence. For reference, Table 7 1 presents a summary of artifact data by context. Table 7 1 Summary counts of types of obsidian artifacts by context and percentages of total analyzed. Type by Context Refuse/Constr. Fill Burial Cache Totals % of Total n= % n= % n= % Macro core shaping 27 0.66 354 2.68 37 6.07 418 2 .34 Percussion debitage 9 0.22 1,347 10.21 6 0.98 1,362 7.62 Initial series blades 183 4.51 3,795 28.76 30 4.92 4,008 22.43 Final series blades 3,393 83.55 3,155 23.91 243 39.84 6,791 38.01 Other blades 4 0.10 27 0.20 2 0.33 33 0.18 Rejuvenation debit age 55 1.35 2,040 15.46 44 7.21 2,139 11.97 Blade cores and blade core frags 56 1.38 458 3.47 235 38.52 749 4.19 Non blade core related objects 42 1.03 7 0.05 5 0.82 54 0.30 Undiagnostics 292 7.19 2,014 15.26 8 1.31 2,314 12.95 Totals 4,061 100 13,197 100 610 100 17,868 100 This chapter covers two broad topics. First, the quotidian nature of obsidian tool use at residential groups is shown by summarizing obsidian artifacts that exhibit macroscopic wear patterns. R etouched artifacts are also summarized and a summary of probability statistics on different artifact types from refuse or construction fill contexts is presented to better contrast quotidian obsidian use with those obsidian objects used in ritual contexts. Probability testing was performed f ollowing Drenna n (2010 :156 157) and calculated at the 95% ( p=0.05) confidence level. These probabilities were first introduced in Chapter 5

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284 Second, I revisit the diversity of obsidian recovered from ritual caches and human burials. Attempt s are made to elaborate on the contextual analysis that was preliminarily presented in Chapter 5 From this analysis and the use of statistical probability, the intentional ritualization of obsidian can be highlighted For example, I present the statistical likelihood o f finding retouched exhausted blade cores (e.g., eccentrics) in caches In addition, I present the likelihood of finding refits within these same type s of ritual deposits. A brief description of refits is also provided. The discussion of refits informs reg cores. All these data may be combined to develop a complex model of workshop management and the use of obsidian by non obsidian crafters to reproduce and materially express their ritual and quotidi an life. At the end of this chapter, I return to discussed in Chapter 2 to explore potential reasons why some objects were ritualized with greater frequency over othe rs. Evidence of Quotidian Tool Use Below I summarize the obsidian tool assemblage by technological type. I begin with macro debitage that has edge use wear damage and conclude this section by demonstrating that the vast majority of household obsidian tool s were utilized blades. Other non blade tools do not represent a significant percentage of utilized obsidian. The summary of quotidian tool use is generally descriptive and attempts to preliminarily imply tool function (i.e., working hard or soft materials ) except for when some tools may have been used as drills or as scrapers Future research aims to assess micro abrasions on a sample of the tools provided below. A future micro use wear analysis

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285 would amplify household activities that involved obsidian to ols. Better still, micro use wear studies should compare obsidian to chert blade tools. Since 1985 the Caracol Archaeological Project has recovered a substantial sample inventory of residential refuse /fill materials. These are sometimes recovered from exc avations between residential structures, but more often are recovered construction fill contexts from within mounded ( built ) architecture. The obsidian artifacts described below are a summary of the tools recovered from these secondary refuse deposits. Mac ro percussion debitage tools include two notched flakes, one edge rounded flake, one possible projectile point base, and three flakes that exhibit edge damage on one or more margins. Other percussion debitage was also used as tools ( Table 7 2 ). Table 7 2 Summary of utilized percussion rejuvenation debitage artifacts from refuse/construction fill (non special) deposits. Tool type / technology n= Avg. max length (mm) Disk 1 15.06 Platfo rm prep flake 1 15.06 Edge modi fied tool 12 21.75 Core section flake 1 33.42 Indeterminate rejuv debitage 5 19.21 Lateral core rejuv 1 17.14 Platform prep flake 5 21.25 Inlay 1 13.04 Indeterminate core top fragment 1 13.04 Notched, fragment 1 13.92 Distal orientation flake 1 13.92 Scraper, notched, hafted 1 16.99 Pecked ground core top fragment 1 16.99 Total 16 Obsidian polyhedral blade cores were also utilized as tools and it is likely that those included in caches those that were notched or otherwise retouched may also have been used as some sort of tool prior to deposition. Notches are usually lateral and exhibit many step fractures. These step fractures could have been a result of use on a

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286 harder surface or have result ed from intention al edge dulling. Micro use wear studies would provide an opportunity to better understand whether or not notched blade cores, although ritually significant, also served a nother function prior to their deposition in caches or burials. Future use wear studie s would provide an opportunity to compare these non ritually associated tools to those recovered from ritual deposits. Table 7 3 summarizes those utilized blade cores from non ritual deposits. Table 7 3 Summary of utilized blade core artifacts from refuse/construction fill (non special) deposits. Technology / tool type / part n= Avg. max length (mm) Blade core frag (non rejuv) 1 28.77 Edge modified tool Medial/lateral 1 28.77 Ob ject from blade core frag 2 16.03 Edge modified tool Medial/lateral 1 20.45 Proximal/ lateral 1 11.62 Objects from exhausted core 5 41.06 Biface Proximal/medial 1 57.92 Edge modified tool Medial/lateral 1 32.06 Proximal/lateral 1 35.66 Lip plug Medial 1 18.79 Uniface Complete 1 60.91 Total 8 Non blade core related artifacts and debitage includes 42 objects, only 12 of which show evid ence of use related attributes ( Table 7 4 ). Th e remaining 30 artifacts are either pressure flakes (n=1) or biface thinning flakes (n=29). These flakes do not appear to have been utilized after their removal from a biface or point.

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287 Table 7 4 Summary of non blade core r elated artifacts from refuse/construction fill (non special) deposits. Tool type / part n= Avg. max length (mm) Biface 2 20.34 Medial 1 21.85 Proximal 1 18.84 Point 9 32.79 Complete 1 51.9 Distal 3 25.81 Medial 4 31.79 Proximal portion 1 38.61 Scr aper 1 29.04 Distal 1 29.04 Total 12 Utilized final series pressure blades are presented last since they make up the bulk of utilized tools from non ritual deposits at Caracol. These tools are commonly recovered from construction fills and/or refuse d eposits associated with household activities. Given the nature of archaeological sampling test pits, axial trenches, and aerial exposures the vast majority of these tools are recovered from the front (i.e., plaza construction levels), middle (i.e., con struction fill matrix), and back s of structures. A total of 3,392 blades were analyzed for macroscopic use related wear ( e.g., edge damage or retouch). A total of 2,107 final series blade artifacts exhibit these types of wear ( Table 7 5 ). Twenty five additional blade tools are initial series blades and were not included in the table. Analysis attributes recorded edge damage on multiple areas (proximal, medial, and distal) and recorded whether or not damage was unila teral or bilateral. While most of the edge damage recorded on blade tools was done through extensive use, some did exhibit intentional retouched margins. Appendix H shows that where retouch was semi e tools were described as points (n=2), hafted tools (n=3), drills (n=6), and notched and/or resharpened blades (n=67). No edge angles were recorded during the analysis, but future micro use wear will record edge angle as well as micro abrasions to bette r

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288 assess tool function and household tool use behavior. The data on utilized blades show that 1,367 (or 65%) are utilized medial fragments and that the majority of those (n=1,230, or 90%) are bilaterally worked along the entire length of each margin (i.e., bilateral prox/med/dist). These observations suggest that blades were used to their maximum capacity before being discarded. These medial portions, like proximal blade portions would have provided very adequate cutting edges while still being resilient or rigid enough to withstand the force of scraping and/or cutting. These edges were also robust enough to be retouch ed if resharpening was necessary. Proximal and medial portions could also be retouched or notched bilaterally in order to insert them in a haf t. In contrast, utilized distal blade fragments make up a small percentage of the tool assemblage (n=48, or 2%). Drills (n= 4, or 0.2%) have a defined bit and use wear consistent with rotation to create and/or widen holes on softer materials, such as bone, shell, or wood. The use wear on these artifacts appears consistent with that of small chert drills from Caracol. Generically edge modified tools (n= 2,079, or 98.6%) refer to those obsidian objects that exhibit minor to extensive macroscopic use wear and/ or retouch. This visible wear is typically present on one (unilateral) or more (bilateral) lateral margins D epending on the completeness of length of the blade, this wear is present in isolated spots along a single margin location (e.g., just proximal or just medial) or can be extensive along the entire length of a given margin (i.e., coded as prox/med/dist). For example, a medial blade segment can exhibit unilateral use wear on its proximal margin (e.g., unilateral prox). This kind of wear indicates that only this portion was utilized, while the other portions appear sharp and unutilized. Alternatively, an extensively used final series blade shows

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289 bilateral use at proximal, medial, and distal portions (e.g., bilateral prox/med/dist). These blades show no o riginal lateral blade feather terminations as each edge is damaged through use or retouch depending on the tool function or the extensiveness of wear that occurred on the tool prior to its discard. Hafted tools (n=3, or 0.1%) are those tools that have i ntentional bilateral notching where those notches are directly opposite one another. Only one of these is complete, but its form did not justify its inclusion with the drill or point sub description. The other two are a proximal and a proximal/medial segme nt. The presence of these segments shows that when the hafting of final series blades occurred, it appears to have taken place on the proximal or medial portions of blades. These areas of blades are the thickest and most robust. Analysis of the breaks on t hese two incomplete tools suggested they broke as the blade twisted. one or more shallow notches (n= 19, or 0.9%) ; however, but these are not positioned in such a way to facili tate a haft into a shaft to for a composite tool. Lastly, some final series blades were formed into small points or those objects that exhibit unifacial or bifacial retouch and a hafting element (n=2, or 0.1% ) One of these is complete, while the other is a proximal fragment. T he high quantity and probability of recovering final series blade s those that exhibit uniformity in both their lateral margins and thickness provides evidence for argu ing that these were the most sought after tools for domestic ac tivities. This is not surprising when positioned with other studies of household flaked stone tool industries, but it is the first time that such interpretations can be made for Caracol with descriptive

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290 probability statistical methods. T able 7 6 shows the probability of recovering utilized final series blades and other artifact types from a sample of refuse/construction fill context lots in comparison to other artifact types. Figure 7 1 plo ts these probabilities and give a statistical error range at the 95% ( p= 0.05 ) confidence level for each major artifact type. Table 7 5 Summary of utilize d final series obsidian blades from refuse/construction fill (non special ) deposits. Tool type / part / location of wear (or retouch) n= Avg. max length (mm) Drill 4 25.0 Distal 1 24.4 Not recorded (n/r) 1 24.4 Med/dist 1 26.8 Bilateral prox/med/dist 1 26.8 Medial 2 24.4 Bilateral prox/med/dist 2 24.4 Edge modified tool 2 079 25.9 C omplete 12 50.3 Bilateral medial 1 51.3 Bilateral prox/med/dist 9 46.4 Unilateral distal 1 71.2 Unilateral medial 1 64.0 Distal 48 21.8 Bilateral medial 1 27.6 Bilateral prox/med/dist 34 21.6 Bilateral proximal/medial 1 22.1 Distal 5 19.5 Distal end 1 26.7 Lateral med/dist 2 26.4 Unilateral prox/med/dist 4 21.6 Med/dist 47 33.4 n /r 1 19.4 Bilateral medial/distal 2 23.8 Bilateral prox/med/dist 36 34.5 Bilateral proximal/medial 1 33.4 Distal 2 25.1 Unilateral distal 2 34.3 Un ilateral media l 2 25.9 Unilateral medial/distal 1 60.1 Medial 1367 23.4 N/r 20 36.6 Bilateral (various) mostly prox/med/dist 7 34.6 Bilateral distal 2 22.3 Bilateral medial 16 23.4 Bilateral medial/distal 2 32.8

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291 Table 7 5. Continued Tool type / part / location of wear (or retouch) n= Avg. max length (mm) Edge modified tool (continued) Medial (continued) Bilateral prox/med/dist 1,230 23.5 Bilateral proximal/medial 5 28.0 Distal 5 17.1 Unilateral distal 15 28.7 Unilateral med ial 22 21.5 Unilateral medial/distal 1 16.1 Unilateral prox/med/dist 36 21.3 Unilateral proximal 3 31.6 Unilateral proximal/medial 3 21.4 Edge modified tool (continued) Plunging distal 3 18.8 Bilateral prox/med/dist 1 21.9 Unilateral proximal 2 1 7.2 Plunging medial/distal 2 22.5 Bilateral prox/med/dist 1 20.3 Unilateral prox/med/dist 1 24.7 Plunging overshot 1 21.9 Bilateral prox/med/dist 1 21.9 Prox/med 439 31.4 n /r 2 23.2 Bilateral prox/med/dist 409 31.4 Bilateral proximal 1 23.1 Unila teral distal 8 27.4 Unilateral medial 3 34.8 Unilateral medial/distal 2 33.6 Unilateral prox/med/dist 9 33.7 Unilateral proximal 4 41.1 Unilateral proximal/medial 1 32.6 Proximal 160 23.9 n /r 4 25.5 Bilateral medial 1 35.8 Bilateral prox/med/dist 129 24.6 Unilateral distal 5 25.8 Unilateral medial 6 18.3 Unilateral medial/distal 1 28.4 Unilateral prox/med/dist 11 18.0 Unilateral proximal 2 20.2 Unilateral proximal/medial 1 18.9 Hafted tool 3 26.8 Complete 1 28.2 Bilateral prox/dist 1 28.2 Medial 1 25.3 n /r 1 25.3 Prox/med 1 26.9 Bilateral prox/med/dist 1 26.9 Notched blade 19 27.3 Distal 1 26.6 n /r 1 26.6

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292 Table 7 5. Continued Tool type / part / location of wear (or retouch) n= Avg. max length (mm) Notched blade (continued) Me d/dist 1 33.9 n /r 1 33.9 Medial 8 23.8 n /r 4 25.9 Bilateral prox/med/dist 4 21.6 Prox/med 9 31.0 n /r 3 33.8 Bilateral prox/med/dist 6 28.2 Point 2 28.8 Complete 1 36.5 n /r 1 36.5 Proximal 1 21.0 Bilateral prox/med/dist 1 21.0 Total 2,107 T able 7 6 Probability ( p =0.05) of recovering types of blade production related artifacts from refuse/construction fill (non special) deposits. Refuse/Construction Fill Lots (sample size n=1,584) Type No. of Lots Positive for O bsidian p= Macro core shaping 26 1.6 0.51 Percussion debitage 7 0.4 0.26 Initial series blades 83 5.2 0.91 Final series blades 1,434 90.5 1.21 Other blades 2 0.1 0.13 Rejuvenation debitage 42 2.7 0.67 Blade cores and blade core frags 51 3.2 0.72 Non blade core related objects 24 1.5 0.50 Undiagnostics 215 13.6 1.41

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293 Figure 7 1 Probability ( p =0.05) plot for obsidian from refuse /construction fill contexts. Sample size is 1,584. Number in parenthesi s is number of occurrences from sample. Obsidian Tools: Observations and Interpretation : Despite a micro use wear study, macroscopic use wear shows that 52.8% of obsidian from refuse /fill context s was utilized ( Table 7 7 ) and most of these (2,107 or 98.3%) were utilized final series blades. The majority of these blades were utilized medial segments (n=1,367 or 64.8%). When present in refuse /fill deposits only 17.6% of percussion debitage exhibited use related dama ge. Two thirds of these percussion debitage is comprised of generic edge modified tools were lateral edge damage is present. These tools do not exhibit a form that would allow inference of more specific tool functions, such as scraping. These were 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage x

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294 likely u sed as general cutting tools. Blade cores appear to minimally be used as tools when present in refuse /fill context (n=8 or 14.3%). When use wear is visible, blade cores appear to be recycled into tools for general cutting and more typically being formed into laterally flaked tools like unifaces or bifaces. Although blade core retouched and utilized artifacts are present in refuse /fill it is likely that such finds were once part of a now disturbed cache assemblage. This may also be the case for the non ut ilized blade cores because of the statistical association blade cores share with ritual caching. Non blade core objects also are present in refuse /fill in similar quantities to that of blade cores and blade core fragments. The majority of these (n=11 or 97 .9%) are bifacial objects (e.g. points and bifaces) ; therefore obsidian points, although few, are Table 7 7 Summary of utilized obsidian artifact s from refuse / fill context s Utilized Non Utilized Type n= % n= % Totals All percussion debitage 16 17.6 75 82.4 91 Final series blades 2 107 62.1 1 286 37.9 3 393 Blade cores and blade core frags 8 14.3 48 85.7 56 Non Blade core related objects 12 28.6 30 71.4 4 2 Other obsidian artifacts 0 0.0 479 100.0 479 Totals 2 143 52.8 1 918 47.2 4 061 In summary, refuse /fill contexts at Caracol do yield all types of obsidian artifacts (see Table 7 1 and T able 7 6 ), but not all appear to be important for the domestic tool economy. In terms of the obsidian data, final series blades were the most sought after quotidian tool at Caracol. This interpretation is supported not only in the amount and probability of encountering this type of blade in refuse /fill context s (see Figure 7 1 ), but also by the fact that when they are present in refuse /fill more than half are utilized. Of these utilized final series blades, it a ppears that medial segments were utilized with

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295 greater frequency that any oth er final series blade fragment. Situating Ritual and the Ritualization of Obsidian at Caracol, Belize Investigations at Caracol have revealed a significant amount of information regarding household ritual behavior ( A. Chase and D. Chase 1994 b 201 0 :3 15; D. Chase and A. Chase 1998, 2003, 2004, 2009, 2010, 2011 ). Although a review of all these data and associated interpretations are beyond the scope of this project, I do wish to hi ghlight some relevant examples that emphasize the ritualization of obsidian in both burials and caches. Each of these broadly defined contexts existed as part and parcel of normal household activity and identity at Caracol ( A. Chase and D. Chase 1994 b ; D. Chase and A. Chase 1998 ), and certain caches in particular appear to be timed with calendrical cycles ( A. Chase and D. Chase 2013 ). Obsidian was commonly included in mate rialize regular household ritual traditions. Two residential samples and their respective burial and cache assemblages are chosen to illustrate exemplars of ritual behavior. The first is a Late Preclassic to Early Classic example from within the city cente r and the second is a Late to Terminal Classic example that also shows intensive caching and burials activities but at a more modest sized household located at some distance from city center The presentation of these two examples is intended to illustrate broad patterns of ritual activities that span from the Late Preclassic until the Terminal Classic. and tallest architectural construction. As neighbors with those potentiall y living atop Caana, the individuals residing at the Northeast Acropolis were most certainly part of or

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296 somehow affiliated with the ruling elite. Investigations during the 1994 1995 field seasons explored the eastern structure, B34. An axial trench, Oper ation C117B (and Operation C117) measuring 12.75 meters east/west by 2 meters north/south explored the area just in front (or west) of the structure as well as the western sloping area and so Brown 2003:14). The trench was excavated to a depth of 5.5 meters where bedrock was encountered. These initial investigations recovered 11 caches and seven human interments, two of which were from formally constructed tombs. With the exception of one o f a cist burial (S.D.C117B 5), all ritual deposits were dated between Late Classic to Terminal Classic periods. Of the six caches recorded during these investigations, three had obsidian artifacts. During the obsidian analysis, one special deposit, S.D.C11 7B 2 was included below with the list of caches, it could have readily been assigned to the burial analysis as well. These types of ritual deposits reflect problems in a dual approach to separate burials and caches (see also Becker 1992 ). Despite this issue, each of these three caches (S.D.C117B 1, 2, 6) included a combination of final series blades, initial series blades, rejuvenation debitage, and objects from blade co res and/or blade core fragments. Two caches (S.D.C117B 1, and 6) included face cache vessels and over 50 percent of their obsidian assemblage was retouched blade core fragments or eccentrics (see D. Chase and A. Chase 1998:310 311). Work undertaken at the Northeast Acropolis during the 2010 field season included the excavation of an intact or partially intact architecture for subsequent stabilization and recovery of on floor trash from a variety of contexts (see A. Chase and

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297 D. Chase 2010) In addition to these excavations, a test excavation measuring 2 meters by 2 meters was placed in the central part of the plaza directly south and on axis from the northern building and directly west and on axis with the eastern structure (A. Chase and D. Chase 2010:7 20 11 ). With the eventual expansion of this test excavation with an overlapping 2 meter by 2 meter excavation, S.D.C117F 1 was encountered at an approximately depth of 2.2 meters below the current ground surface. This sealed deposit contained a substantial as semblage of human bone, ceramics vessels, obsidian, and other objects (A. Chase and D. Chase 2010:9 11 ; 2011 ). Based on the contents and nature of the deposit, A. Chase and D. Chase (2010:11 2011 ) interpret it to be a cremation burial similar to those rec orded for Teotihuacn, Mexico. While the burial itself was identified as unusual for the Maya area and stratigraphically and artifactually dating to c.a. AD 330, the artifact inventory also added direct lines of evidence for a non local affiliation. For ex ample, there was a considerable quantity of green Pachuca obsidian in the form of Stem B points (see Spence 1996 ), large lenticular bifaces, and blades (see A. Chase and D. Chase 2010, Figures 10 22 2011 ). Because this was a cremation type of burial, most of the obsidian exhibited crazing and some points were bent due to excessive pressure and high heat ( Johnson et al. 2010 ). In 2015 the Caracol Archaeological Project explored the area in between the 1994 1995 eastern structure and the 2010 central plaza e xcavations to determine how these two spaces articulate d (see A. Chase and D. Chase 2015). During the Operation C205B investigations, measuring 8.9 m east/west by 2.0 m north/south, a series of plaster floors and 10 in situ caches were encountered directly under a 2 meter thick layer of fill containing thousands of ceramics sherds and a vast inventory of other

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298 materials (A. Chase and D. Chase 2015 a :15). A. Chase and D. Chase (2015 a :14 18, see also 2015 a :70 91, Figures 37 56) situate the ten ritual special d eposits temporally: A total of 10 caches were found either cut through or sealed by the lower plaza floorings (Figures 42, 48, 51, 54, 55). Based on the stratigraphic relationships of the floors, four of these caches date to before the placement of the Teo tihuacn related deposit [S.D.C117F 1] and 6 dates to after the placement of this deposit. These caches indicate that finger bowls and eccentric obsidians were in ritual use by the middl e of the Early Classic period. As early as the middle of Early Classi c (c.a. A.D. 150, or certainly before A.D. 330) both obsidian blades and shaped exhausted blade cores (i.e., eccentrics) were ritualized (A. Chase and D. Chase 2015 a :14). The ten caches, some of which predate A.D. 330, included: two caches with obsidian bl ades, human phalanges, and finger bowls (S.D.C205B 1, 8); one lidded vessel with human phalanges, but no obsidian (S.D.C205B 2); four finger bowl caches with human phalanges, but no obsidian (S.D.C205B 3, 6, 7, 10); one finger bowl cache with obsidian, but no human phalanges (S.D.C205B 4); one finger bowl cache with one with obsidian eccentrics, finger bowls, and human phalanges (S.D.C205B 5); and finally one cache with only obsidian eccentrics (S.D.C205B 9) (see A. Chase and D. Chase 2015 a :16 18 for a complete inventory). Of the ten caches, four included obsidians. Although these most recent finds are not directly included in the cache analysis due to time constraints, the investigations at the Northeast Acropolis demonstrate that early ritualization o f obsidian in both burials and caches took place at larger, potentially royal, residential compounds directly adjacent to Caana the center of the site. These traditions, less the green Pachuca obsidian, are a fairly common occurrence during the Late Preclassic through Terminal Classic periods

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299 throughout the residential settlement as well. In contrast to city center typical residential plazuela settlement groups als o exhibit similar practices that seem to continue this earlier city center tradition later in time and at a similar scale. One noteworthy example among many, dating to the Late Preclassic through Terminal Classic, is the many caches and few burials from th e eastern structure K26 at the city center and has at least six raised mounds atop its basal platform. Although a small sample of ceramic art ifacts from a Terminal Classic period tomb dated to the Early Classic, the majority of ritual activity at this residence occurred during the Late to Terminal Classic (A.D. 5 5 0 900) (A. Chase and D. Chase 2012 a :13 14). A. Chase and D. Chase (2012 a :14) sta Early and Late Terminal Classic] tomb materials may represent re collected ritual materials d 7.2 meters east/west by 2.0 meters north/south and recovered fourteen special deposits (A. Chase and D. Chase 2012 a :13 18 and 80 129 Figures 39 83). These fourteen special deposits included: two caches that included cache vessels, including finger bowls and lidded vessels, with obsidian (eccentrics and blades) and a host of other local and non local materials (S.D.C1 and S.D.C 9); three cache deposits with different types of vessels, but no obsidian ( S.D.C 2, S.D.C 3, and S.D.C 5); two face cache deposits wit h obsidian eccentrics ( S.D.C 4, S.D.C 13); two finger bowl caches with no obsidian ( S.D.C 8 and S.D.C 10); a face cache deposit with obsidian eccentrics, shell, and jadeite ( S.D.C 6);

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300 one tomb human burial with eight interred individuals, obsidian blades, one o bsidian inlay piece, and a host of other artifacts ( S.D.C 7); and finally three simple burials neither of which contained obsidian ( S.D.C 11, S.D.C 12, and S.D.C 14) (A. Chase and D. Chase 2012 a :13 18). Taken together, there appears to be an association of obs idian eccentrics those obsidian objects that are not usually blades accompanying either inside or outside, caches and cache ceramic containers (sometimes also found in other residential groups; see Jaeger 1991, Op C59) Many of these types of caches a re larger lidded vessels (serving as containers for objects), some of which have appliqued faces and other features that frame facial elements, while other caches do not include ceramic vessels or any vessel(s) large enough to contain obsidian objects. Bur ials from the eastern building at Zumba do not contain obsidian eccentrics, but rather, when obsidian is present, individuals were interred with obsidian blades, some of which are complete, while others are fragments. This practice is supported with a larg er sample size as well (see below). Given these two examples, the importance of rituals that included obsidian should be apparent. To further emphasize the occurrences and nature of ritualized obsidian usage, I summarize a sample of obsidian from caches a nd burials separately from some 88 eastern shrine structures those structures commonly used to inter the dead and deposit ritual caches. Explicitly, I present obsidian inventories of 61 caches and 124 human burials. Included in the burial analysis, I pre sent the obsidian inventory of three above tomb deposits. The se were initially described in Chapter 3 The below summaries are intended to better understand and potentially discover the particularities of how and which obsidian objects were commonly ritua lized.

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301 Likewise, through understanding these potentially regularized behaviors, archaeologists can better inform discussions of a shared ritual identity across a landscape ( D. Chase and A. Chase 201 1 ). This shared ritual identity can be seen and further re inforced through an analysis of probability statistics and therefore aid in modeling normally ritualized obsidian objects. Because of standardized sampling at most eastern shrine structures, Caracol provides a unique opportunity to address how obsidian was used in potentially hundreds of ritual activities. Finally, after summaries of burials and caches, I discuss a major implication of provisioning ritualized obsidian by comparing known obsidian workshop inventories from both Maya and non Maya sites. These comparisons suggest local Caracol obsidian crafters managed nearly all of their blade production by products in order to provision local rituals. In other words, when the contextual analysis of burials and caches is paired with the technological/typologic al analysis (i.e., artifact typologies) and the associated implications for local crafters, the fractal nature of obsidian movem ent receives greater emphasis. As I have described generally in Chapter 5 and will sh ow in greater detail in this section, the caching of obsidian was a continued practice at Caracol and that this practice dates to as early as the middle of the Late Preclassic and was not exclusive to elite residences located in or near the city center ( se e Figure 5 9 ). As a way to introduce the next section that presents an obsidian inventory of 61 caches, two other residential examples are described to illustrate the diversity of the kinds of caches that contain o bsidian. While I do not analyze the kinds of obsidian artifacts by cache types per se

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302 (e.g., eccentrics blade cores in face caches or blades with finger bowl caches), the research does present the diversity of obsidian inventories from caches to begin to b etter understand which objects are most commonly ritualized as part of a cache event. Caches that contain obsidian do vary in type. In addition to the caches described above, two examples show the general diversity of caches that include obsidian. One exa mple demonstrates that vessels are not necessarily included during the ritualization of obsidian, while a second shows the association of face caches with ritualized obsidian. Investigations at southern eastern structure, C21 (Operation C179D), from the anchors the southern part of the city center (A. Chase and D. Chase 2008:6 7). A. Chase and D. Chase (2008:11 12) describe this cache as follows: S.D. C179D 1 (Figures 32, 33, and 34) was a very impressive cache deposit placed within the earlier plaza fill in front of Structure C21. Even though placed directly into the dirt plaza fill, the artifact s were embedded in what is colloquially referred to as "cache dirt;" this cache dirt was full of small chips of valuable materials. In the case of S.D. C179D 1, the cache dirt consisted of 747 jadeite chips and 4751 spondylus chips. Also recovered within the cache dirt were 23 chert chips, 32 quartz chunks, 4 obsidian blade fragments, 2 unworked shells, and 138 slate mirror pieces; the scattered distribution of the slate mirror pieces suggests that they did not constitute a single artifact. The central ele ments of the cache consisted of a jadeite bead (Figure 34aa), a hard stone ball (Figure 34z), and a lump of brain corral (Figure 34g) overlaid by 3 chert eccentrics (Figure 34a c). Distributed about the chert eccentrics were 8 obsidian eccentrics, 2 obsidi an lancets, 6 complete spondylus shells, and 3 stingray spines. As 52 "fish vertebrae" were also recovered, it may be that the 3 stingray spines really represented 3 complete rays, as is noted for other caches at Caracol (Teeter and Chase 2004). S.D. C179D 1 dates to the Early Classic Period and contains the first chert eccentrics recovered at C aracol in 24 years of research. Also close to the city center Group about 170 meters to

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303 the northwest of Caana explored ritual space. An ax ial trench measuring 12.05 meters east/west by 2 meters north/south was explored the eastern structure, Structure I5. As series of ritual events were recorded during these excavations (see A. Chase and D. Chase 2007 a :9 12; Johnson et al. 2015:116, Figure 2 ). In total thirteen ritual deposits were encountered. Of these five were human interments, five caches without obsidian, and three were caches with obsidian. One of these caches with obsidian was designated S.D.C177D 9) and consisted of two face caches, m ore than 30 obsidian eccentrics jadeite beads, whole marine shells, stingray spines, and miscellaneous faunal bone (see A. Chase and D. Chase 2007 a :11; Johnson et al. 2015:118, Figure 4). Each of these face cache vessels and the area outside of them conta ined retouched blade cores and other obsidian objects, such as overshot blades and lateral blade core margins. Refits among this special deposit cache assemblage were also present demonstrating that some exhausted blade cores were laterally flaked and the n the remainder of the core was laterally notched. Both of these examples show impressive artifactual assemblages and at least two cache types where obsidian is commonly recovered. Future research would benefit from an analysis of cache type and the type o f contents each type may have, but the examples presented thus far should help to present the diversity in caching practices and the breadth of other materials, most of non local, that accompany ritualized obsidian objects. The analysis of obsidian from 6 final series blades (n=41, or 67.2%) followed by blade cores and/or blade core fragments (n=31, or 52.5%). Table 7 8 presents the obsidian inventory from those

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304 caches t hat contain obsidian. Other caches have been recovered but a complete list and comparison between those that contain and do not contain obsidian is beyond the scope of this research. The immediate goal of the cache analysis was to determine which obsidian objects are typically recovered from caches. Table 7 9 shows the number of caches that contain particular types of obsidian artifacts. This table also presents probability statistics which helps to better estimate the likelihood of finding certain objects ; Figure 7 2 shows these probabilities with their associated standard errors. A few patterns are evident from the analysis of these probabilities. The probability of recove ring blade cores (and fragments) (i.e. eccentrics) is almost equal to finding cached final series blades. Both core shaping and core rejuvenation debitage also have a significant presence in caching activities. Small percussion debitage is less likely to o ccur in caches as is initial series blades and non blade core related objects (e.g., points). Undiagnostic debitage is similar to rejuvenation debitage in terms of being cached and a cursory look at these indeterminate flakes and flake fragments shows tha t A. Chase and D. Chase 2015 a :20: D. Chase and A. Chase 1998) What is apparent from this analysis is that every domina nt obsidian artifact type was rituali zed during caching activities; however, there was a greater emphasis on includ ing final series blades and retouched and/or destroyed exhausted blade cores and blade core fragments in caches

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305 Table 7 8 T he presence ( ) or abs ence ( ) of blade production and non blade production artifacts from 61 cache contexts. Note that the general reduction sequence is left to right for blade production. Each context is labeled with its unique special deposit of S.D. number. Cache Special D eposits Blade Production Non Blade Core Related Objects and Undiagnostic Debitage macro debitage percussion debitage final series blade initial series blade rejuvenation debitage exhausted core (frag) core fragment (?) misc. blade artifacts chunk modifie d flake flake (fragment) various debitage adornment pebble point SDC3C 3 SDC3C 5 SDC4C 1 SDC4C 2 SDC4E 2 SDC4E 3 SDC4E 5 SDC4E 9 SDC4F 1 SDC6B 4 SDC18G 1 SDC32C 1 SDC32A 2 SDC39B 2 SDC39B 3 SDC39B 5 SDC45B 1 SDC49D 4, 5 2015 FIELD SEASON DAT A BEING TABULATED (NOT INCLUDED IN ANALYSIS) SDC59A 4 SDC63A 2 SDC64B 1 SDC65A 1 SDC68A 1 SDC70B 2 SDC71E 2 SDC71E 3 SDC73B 1 SDC85C 1 SDC86C 3 SDC95C 4

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306 Table 7 8. Continued Blade Production Non Blade Core Related Objects and Undiagnostic Debitage Cache Special Deposits macro debitage percussion debitage final series blade initial series blade rejuvenation debitage exhausted core (frag) co re fragment (?) misc. blade artifacts chunk modified flake flake (fragment) various debitage adornment pebble point SDC98B 1 SDC109B 1 SDC116C 1 SDC116C 2 SDC117B 1 SDC117B 6 SDC117B 2 SDC118F 6 SDC121C 1 SDC140G 1 SDC177D 1 SDC177D 3 SDC177D 7 SDC177D 8 SDC177D 9 SDC178C 1 S DC179D 1 SDC184B 4 SDC184B 5 SDC188B 1 SDC188B 4 SDC189B 1 SDC189B 13 SDC189B 4 SDC189B 6 SDC189B 9 SDC201B 3 SDC203B 11 SDC203B 12 SDC203B 19 SDC203B 9 SDC204B 1 SDC205B 1, 4, 5, 8, 9 2015 FIELD SEASON DATA BEING TABULATED (NOT INCLUDED IN ANALYSIS)

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307 Table 7 9 T he estimated probability ( p =0.05) of recovering different types of obsidian artifacts from cache contexts. Cache (sample size n= 61) Type No. of Caches Positive for Obsidian p= Macro core shaping 17 27.9 9.59 Percussion debitage 3 4.9 4.61 Initial series blades 8 13.1 7.21 Final series blades 41 67.2 10.04 Other blades 0 Rejuvenation debitage 13 21.3 8.75 Blade cores and blade core frags 31 52.5 10.68 Non blade core related objects 2 3.2 3.76 Undiagnostics 10 1 6.4 7.92 Figure 7 2 T he estimated probability ( p =0.05) for different types of obsidian artifacts from cache contexts. The sample size is 61. The number in parenthesis is number of occurrences from sample. Because of the probability of finding blade cores in caches overlaps with the likelihood of recovering obsidian blades, further analysis was conducted to determine 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage x

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308 whether or not there was a sub pattern within these objects. Of the 61 caches included in the analysis 30 had at least two exhausted blade cores or blade core fragments. Two general observations are of note in the analysis of blade cores from the 32 caches (two additional caches from C205B were included). First, most are fragments (n= 67, or 80.7%) and t he morphology of the core fragments suggests that they were intentionally destroyed once they were exhausted. Generally, the nature of core destruction can include one or several of the following features : (1) the removal of either or both of the proximal and distal ends (some of these end removal result in deep notching as well); (2) laterally (or bilaterally) flaking the core ; (3) often followed by the creation of deeper notches which can be unilateral or bilateral; (4) unifacially or bifacially flak ing a n exhausted core; and /or (5) medially split ting cores. All of these acts are performed by hard or soft hammer percussion, while techniques used to split cores included indirect percussion and an anvil. It is currently unclear where cores were destroyed, bu t refit evidence suggests that core destruction may have occurred at the caching residence ; c hert flaked stone evidence from nearly every residential Alternatively, it may have be en performed at the crafting workshop, but this would have created even more fragments that then had to be managed. In either case, a fairly standard practice was followed. Objects produced as a result of these activities at Caracol include non uniformly s uniface or biface cores, or those with proximal and distal notching ( Figure 7 3 ). Interestingly, this last type resembles skate fi sh egg capsules generally and those

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309 specific to the Dipturus species of skate fish (see Ishihara et al. 2012:17, Figure 11A). These fish are common to the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea which boarders the Belizean coast. Skate egg capsules can wash up on the beach and if these are intended to look like skate egg capsules, they would add another dimension to the marine component of some caches (see A. Chase and D. Chase 2007:11, S.D.C177D 9 ; see also Cunningham Smith et al. 2014 ). Each of these type of co the descriptive morphological attributes and past actions are generally lost when they are termed eccentrics by archaeologists. Because the term eccentric obscures actions to destroy cores with some p atterned regularity, the term also disables the opportunity to describe a significant transformative process during a particular stage in the itinerary of some obsidian objects.

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310 Figure 7 3 Sample of modified exhausted blade cores and a representation of a skate fish egg capsule (sp. Dipturus ). (A) non uniformly shaped (also note excessive step fractures on blade core platform), C95B/8 17; 28; (D) scorpion shaped, C205B/17 7; (E) partially shaped scorpion? C189B/3 1; (F) partially shaped scorpion? C189B/3 3; (G) uniface, C117B/7 21; (H) biface, C117B/14 8; (I) proximally and distally/laterally notched, C177D/46 33; (J) distally notched, C117D/46 35; (K) distally notched, C177D /46 18; (L) silhouette of skate fish egg capsule at 50% actual size.

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311 Second, and as a result of detailed descriptive study of blade core fragments and core destruction, it became apparent that a substantial amount of caches with blade cores had at least o ne refit with another fragment from the same cache; however, no across cache refits were noticed. This was initially observed during cursory infield analysis and artifact illustration. The summary of refits by cache type is presented in Table 7 10 The nature of refits generally show s that refits include lateral or platform removals that refit with the larger portion of the remainder of a core. Some of these refit pieces show evidence for minor use as well, suggesti ng that they may have been used prior to their deposition in caches. Further analysis is needed to understand this potential stage of use prior to ritual deposition. The likelihood of finding refits in caches is significant as just about 40 percent of cach es with blade cores contain refits (n=12, or 37.5%). When present, refits most often occur in association with face caches (n=7), but are also associated with undecorated lidded cache vessels ( n=2) and caches that do not include a ceramic container (e.g., The distribution of caches with and without refits is similar in that they are clustered with in 1 km or so of the city center ; however, those caches without refits are present in the sampled area to the southeast of the city center (se e Figure 7 4 and Figure 7 5 ). These distributional patterns are likely a legacy of sampling bias inherent in the current sample of 61 caches included in this analysis. Furt her distributional studies with larger sample sizes may reflect general homogeneity of this practice across the entire settlement landscape and if true, it would continue to reinforce the current market exchange model. When refits are present, the entire exhausted blade core is typically not

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312 reconstructable. This means that there is usually one or more pieces that would have been curated elsewhere after a core was destroyed or terminated in anticipation of future rituals. Generally speaking, a destroyed bl ade core can fragment into two to more than eight pieces depending on the nature of destruction or if there was an intended shape that was to be created as a result of destructive transformation. More work is needed to actually quantify the possibilities, but it is important to mention that there could be as many ritual caches as the number of pieces created during core destruction, deposition of some objects, and intentio nal curation of others are fractal components that tie or link specific actions and meanings to these kinds of objects. Furthermore, acts of destruction, transformation, and separation or fractality (or keeping together in the case of refits) are part of t he ritualization process (see also Hruby 2007 for a discussion of ritual production of obsidian eccentrics).

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313 Table 7 10 The presence ( ) or absence ( ) of blade core and blade core fragment refits by vessel type in those cach e special deposits with blade cores and/or blade core fragments (n= 32). Note that one cache special deposit was not included in table below because it was unavailable at the time of refit analysis (S.D.C193 3) and that this table included two additional c aches from the 2015 excavations in on axis front of Str. A34. Caches with whole blade cores or fragments ABSENCE of refits by vessel type PRESENCE of refits by vessel type face cache* cache vessel* no vessel face cache* cache vessel* no vessel SDC3C 5 SDC4E 2 SDC4E 3 SDC4E 9 SDC4F 1 SDC32C 1 SDC39B 3 SDC70B 2 SDC71E 2 SDC71E 3 SDC73B 1 SDC98B 1 SDC109 B 1 SDC116C 1 SDC116C 2 SDC117B 1 SDC117B 2 SDC117B 6 SDC121C 1 SDC177D 1 SDC177D 9 SDC177D 7 SDC179D 1 SDC184B 5 SDC188B 1 SDC189B 1 SDC189B 6 SDC189B 9 SDC189B 13 SDC203B 9 SDC205B 5** SDC205B 9** Total of occurrences 4 4 12 7 2 3 T hese ve ssel typ es are typically lidded; ** 2015 field season caches added to table but not discussed in text.

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314 Figure 7 4 Distribution of blade core refits by cache and vessel type. Note that these are concentrated around the city center Figure 7 5 Distribution of blade core without refits by cache and vessel type. Note that these are not exclusively concentrated around the city center

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315 Burials at Caracol take the form of at least four general types. These include simple burials, cist burials, somewhat more elaborate crypts, and the tombs which are most architecturally complex (A. Chase and D. Chase 1987:56 57; D. Chase 1994) Each of kind of burial can have one to multiple individuals and tomb re entry is common (D. Chase and A. Chase 2011). A. Chase and D. Chase (1987:56 57) describe each of these four types: Simple burials show no distinct outline. They are often found in construction fill and are frequently assum ed to be non intrusive in nature [i.e., no floor or other intact surface was disturbed during an interment of a simple burial]. Cists are prepared areas with clear outlines, marked either by soil changes or by stones. They may be capped and some actually h ave air space inside; however, there is no formal construction or either walls or roof. Cists are often cut into previously existing constructions. Crypts are distinguished from cists in having formal walls and roofs and are generally open air inside. They vary form tombs in that the side walls are usually composed of either a single line of upright slabs or several courses of smaller stones. These are not much larger than necessary to hold their contents. Tombs are formal constructions larger than necessar y to hold their contents They are chambers in which there is always enough room to cr Obsidian is not a main focus of deposition in residential burials in terms of quantity, but they are commonly recovered alongside human re mains and other deposited objects (e.g., ceramics, jadeites, shells, or other shaped stone, like spindle whorls). Table 7 11 shows the presence of obsidian artifacts from 124 burials sampled during the obsidian analysis. Note that while the vast majority of burials have final series blades (n=112, or 90.3%), a small portion have other obsidian objects, such as eccentrics (see above) and/or bifaces or points ( Table 7 12 and Figure 7 6 ). Although the probability of including exhausted blade cores, for example, like other non final series blades is lower overall, there is some desire to include these with human

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316 interments. However, these non blade objec ts associate much stronger with caches. It is important to note that analysis of obsidian from burials did not take into account the type of burial that had obsidian, but preliminary observations suggest that those more complex burials (i.e., crypts and to mbs) often contain more objects and by association usually include more obsidian. Table 7 11 Th e presence ( ) or absence ( ) of blade production and non blade production artifacts from 124 burial contexts. Note that the gener al reduction sequence is left to right for blade production. Each context is labeled with its unique special deposit of S.D. number. Burial Special Deposits Blade Production Non Blade Core Related Objects and Undiagnostic Debitage macro debitage percuss ion debitage final series blade initial series blade rejuvenation debitage exhausted core (frag) core fragment (?) misc. blade artifacts chunk modified flake flake (fragment) various debitage adornment pebble point SDC1H 2 S DC3C 1 SDC3C 2 SDC3C 6 SDC4C 3 SDC4H 1 SDC5B 1 SDC6B 1 SDC6B 2 SDC7B 1 SDC7B 2 SDC12A 2* SDC19A 2* SDC22A 1 SDC29 A 1 SDC29A 2 SDC31B 2 SDC32A 1 SDC32B 1 SDC32C 2 SDC33B 1 SDC35A 1 SDC36A 1 SDC36B 1

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317 Table 7 11. Continued Blade Production Non Blade Core Related Objects and Undiagnostic Debitage Burial Special Dep osits macro debitage percussion debitage final series blade initial series blade rejuvenation debitage exhausted core (frag) core fragment (?) misc. blade artifacts chunk modified flake flake (fragment) various debitage adornment pebble point SDC39B 4 SDC39C 2 SDC39E 1 SDC39E 3 SDC39E 4 SDC39E 5 SDC39E 6 SDC40A 1 SDC40C 1 SDC48A 1 SDC49A 3 SDC49A 4 SDC49A 5 SDC4 9D 1 2015 FIELD SEASON DATA BEING TABULATED (NOT INCLUDED IN ANALYSIS) SDC49D 9 2015 FIELD SEASON DATA BEING TABULATED (NOT INCLUDED IN ANALYSIS) SDC50A 1 SDC50B 3 SDC52B 2 SDC53B 6 SDC56C 3 SDC60B 1 SDC60B 2 SDC67A 2 SDC67A 3 SDC7 2B 1 SDC73B 2 SDC74B 1 SDC75B 2 SDC79B 2 SDC79B 4 SDC85C 3 SDC85C 4 SDC85C 5 SDC85C 7 SDC86C 5 SDC87B 1 SDC87E 1*

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318 Table 7 11. Continued Blade Production Non Blade Core Related Objects and Undiagnostic Debitage Burial Special Deposits macro debitage percussion debitage final series blade initial series blade rejuvenation debitage exhausted core (frag) core frag ment (?) misc. blade artifacts chunk modified flake flake (fragment) various debitage adornment pebble point SDC88C 1 SDC95B 1 SDC95C 4 SDC95C 6 SDC95C 7 SDC95C 8 SDC98C 1 SDC101D 2 SDC102B 2 SDC104C 1 SDC105C 1 SDC117B 3 SDC117B 4 SDC117B 5 SDC117C 4 SDC117F 1 SDC118F 4 SDC121C 5 SDC124B 1 SDC138C 1** SDC138C 2 SDC143C 1 SDC147B 1 SDC158B 6 SDC164B 1 SDC164B 2 SDC164B 4 SDC177D 2 SDC177D 6 SDC177D 7 SDC179B 7 SDC179D 2 SDC180B 2 SDC180D 1 SDC184B 4 SDC184B 6 SDC184D 6

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319 Table 7 11. Continued Blade Production Non Blade Core Related Objects and Undiagnostic Debitage Burial Special Deposits macro debitage percussion debitage final series blade initial series blade rejuvenation debitage exhausted core (frag) core fragment (?) misc. blade artifacts chunk modified flake flake (fragment) various debitage adornment pebble point SDC185B 13 SDC185B 4 SDC185C 1 SDC186B 3 SDC186B 4 SDC186D 1 SDC186D 2 SDC188B 8 SDC189B 7 SDC193B 2 SDC193B 3 SDC194B 2 SDC194B 5 SDC195B 4 SDC 195B 5 SDC196B 1 SDC198B 4 SDC199B 18 SDC199B 2 SDC199B 3 SDC200B 2 SDC201B 6 SDC203B 10 SDC203B 14 SDC203B 16 SDC203B 2 SDC203B 20 SDC204B 4 *One of three above tomb deposits **A possible fourth obsidian deposits associated with a burial tomb

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320 Table 7 12 T he estimated probability ( p =0.05) of recovering different types of obsidian artifacts from burial contexts. Note that final series obsidian blades are highly selected for deposition in human burials. Type All Burials (sample size n =124) Burials excluding C12, C19, C87 (n=121) No. of Lots Positive % No. of Lots Positive p= Macro core shaping 6 4.8 3 2.5 2.35 Percussion debitage 5 0.4 2 1.7 1.95 Initial series blades 13 10.5 10 8.3 4.16 Final series blades 112 90.3 109 90.1 4.50 Other blades 1 0.8 0 Rejuvenation debit age 11 8.9 8 6.6 3.74 Blade cores and blade core frags 10 8.1 7 5.8 3.52 Non blade core related objects 6 4.8 5 4.1 2.99 Undiagnostics 27 21.8 24 19.8 6.01 Figure 7 6 T he estimated probability ( p =0.05) for diff erent types of obsidian artifacts from burial contexts. The sample size is 121. The number in parenthesis is number of occurrences from sample. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage x

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321 Obsidian above v aulted t omb c hambers : As described in Chapter 3 the bulk of obsidian found at Caracol was re covered from above three vaulted tomb contexts, two of which are within city center monument al architecture and the third is just outside this area. While these three tombs are definitive evidence for larger deposits of obsidian, others may be likely. Thes e other possible deposits are discussed below. Operation C12A Structure in the A Group have established that eastern caching ritua ls may have begun at Caracol as early as A.D. 40 (A. Chase and D. Chase 1987:13 2006, 2013 ). Initial construction of the A Period, pyramidal structures, some more than 20 met ers in height enclosed all four sides of a large plaza space where a number of stelae and altars had been erected. During the Late Classic Period Structure A3 would have been elaborately decorated with stucco designs and painted red. Two rooms with a cent ral entrance were built at the summit of the structure. And in one of these rooms, a bench was constructed to cover a tomb that was intruded into the central doorway as shown by a cut in the plaster. The tomb (S.D.C12A 2) was constructed for just one indi vidual and sealed with a series of capstones. One of these capstones was painted with text that included a Caracol glyph in association with the burial of this individual has led the principle investigators to Chase 1987:15, Figure 10). More than six thousand pieces of obsidian and nearly eight thousand pieces of chert were encountered as excavated ne ared the capstones. A.

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322 throughout the cut, while the obsidian was concentrated above the southernmost Operation C19A explored the eastern str ucture, Struct The Machete Group is within 1 kilometer of the city center and is a Late Classic period house mound group (A. Chase and D. Chase 1987:40 43). A number of special de posits were found during excavations including crypt burials and a single tomb. The tomb (S.D.C19A 2) like the A3 tomb had a painted capstone that recorded a date of A.D. 613 (A. Chase and D. Chase 1987:43, Figure 37). As investigations proceeded, it was determined that the deposit had been partially disturbed in antiquity by the way some capstones were (A. Chase and D. Chase 1987:43). A. Chase and D. Chase (1987:43) a lso note that, capstones, 435 pieces of obsidian were recovered; an additional 179 pieces of obsidian s context. Operation s C87B C87E and C87F were designated for investigations in excavations explored two separate areas associated with the northern structure during the 199 2 field season. The first was a 2 meter by 2 meter excavation that investigated the interface of where the structure abuts the plaza level (C87E and C87F). The second excavation (C87B) was of a similar size and explored the summit of Structure A34 (see A. Chase and D. Chase 1996 66 67, Figure 4) Both excavations encountered tomb

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323 chambers. The lower tomb (S.D.C87E 1) was presaged by large amounts of obsidian encountered soon after excavations had begun. A total of 5,208 pieces of obsidian were recovered. So me of this obsidian was inside the tomb chamber as well. A. Chase and D. Chase (personal communication) state that the obsidian deposit is associated with a date of approximately A.D.682; however, this later date is associated with a re entry event ( D. Cha se and A Chase 1996). The initial tomb construction occurred at c.a. A.D. 577 or 582 (D. Chase and A. Chase 1996:75), but a secondary interment was placed inside during a re entry about 100 years later (D. Chase and A. Chase 1996:71). The earlier date and initial construction of the tomb is supported by the presence of a red painted panel on the northern wall with faint remains of hieroglyphic texts. This tomb also had a painted capstone that yielded the original date of the chamber (see A. Chase and D. Ch ase 1996:68). An inventory of the three above tomb contexts is presented in Table 7 13 C omparisons of these three tomb contexts shows that complete reduction profiles are present in each, although their respective percentages vary slightly ( Table 7 14 and Figure 7 7 ). Other tombs investigated at Caracol may also exhibit deposits of obsidian above capstones that form the roof of vau lted tomb chambers. These may include those tomb burials in Structure B20, the eastern structure atop Caana. While excavations did not explore the areas directly above capstones in this structure, it was noted that there was an unusual amount of obsidian f rom within at least one tomb chambers, leading Chase personal communication 2013). As mentioned in Chapter 4 obsidian data from Operation C138 may also suggest some degree o f obsidian deposition within and

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324 did not explore the area above the capstones, but rather followed the partially exposed tomb entrance on the eastern side of the structure Excavations from within this tomb (S.D.C138C 1) recorded at least 96 pieces of obsidian and probably double this amount in chert flaked stone. Below this tomb was an even lower chultun burial (S.D.C138C 2). No obsidian was recovered from the lower chultu n burial.

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325 Table 7 13 Summary of obsidian from Operations C12 (A.D. 695), C19 (A.D. 613), and C87 (c.a. A.D. 677 700). Stage/Context C12 Str. A3 C19 Str. L3 C87 Str. A34 Totals Prismatic Blade Production n= Wt. (g) n= Wt. (g ) n= Wt. (g) N= Wt. (g) Percussion Technique: Core Shaping 1,504 3,138.5 32 83.6 152 302.7 1,688 3,524.8 Macroblade 1 9.1 30 99.9 31 109 Macroblade with cortex 9 18.3 9 18.3 Macroflake 185 686.9 15 41.8 7 27.2 207 755.9 Macroflake with cortex 73 244.4 6 19.9 15 46.8 94 311.1 Object from macroblade 2 5.9 2 5.9 'Small' percussion blade 337 551.8 2 3.6 51 63.2 390 618.6 'Small' percussion flake 906 1,640.4 49 65.6 955 1,706 Pressure Technique: Blade Production 3,167 2,357 .7 352 208.92 2,900 2,059 6,419 4,625.62 Final 975 671.4 37 33.22 1,676 1,315.7 2,688 2,020.32 Blade (macro wear absent) 970 665.7 34 29.82 1,664 1,302.6 2,668 1,998.12 Complete 8 4.9 8 8.04 179 146 195 158.94 Distal 342 180.1 1 1 336 197. 9 679 379 Med/dist 2 1.04 2 1.04 Medial 292 143.8 7 2.7 407 229.6 706 376.1 Plunging distal 99 152.7 29 52.6 128 205.3 Prox/med 2 1.1 6 7.04 9 9.2 17 17.34 Proximal 227 183.1 10 10 704 667.3 941 860.4 Edge mod. Tool (macro wear present) 5 5.7 3 3.4 12 13.1 20 22.2 Distal 1 1.8 1 1.8 Med /dist 1 1.4 1 1.4 Medial 2 1.6 6 4.2 8 5.8 Plunging distal 1 1.2 1 1.2 Proximal 2 2.9 2 2 5 7.1 9 12 Initial 2,192 1,686.3 315 175.7 1,224 743. 3 3,731 2,605.3 Blade 2,190 1,684.4 315 175.7 1,222 741.3 3,727 2,601.4 Complete 1 0.8 15 14.5 16 15.3 Complete and fragments 2,190 1,684.4 313 173.6 1,131 651.7 3,634 2,509.7 Distal 1 0.3 1 0.3 Medial 2 1.4 2 1.4 Overhang re moval 32 28.5 32 28.5 Prox/med 1 2.5 1 2.5 Proximal 1 1.3 40 42.4 41 43.7 Edge mod. Tool 2 1.9 1 0.5 3 2.4 Distal 2 1.9 2 1.9 Medial 1 0.5 1 0.5 Point 1 1.5 1 1.5 Complete 1 1.5 1 1.5 Percussion Rejuvenation Debitage 1,131 2,005.4 72 66.1 779 1,365.1 1,982 3,436.6 Core section flake 30 79.7 14 22.5 35 1,48.9 79 251.1 Cortical core top fragment 45 92.7 2 2.6 47 95.3 Distal orientation flake 257 695.4 9 12.9 206 440.6 472 1, 148.9 Faceted core top fragment 30 65.7 6 9.5 36 75.2 Fa ceted/striated core top fragment 38 64.1 6 17.1 44 81.2 Indeterminate core top fragment 4 7.5 2 15.1 6 22.6 Indeterminate rejuv debitage 3 4.9 4 6.6 7 11.5 Lateral core rejuv 86 74.6 22 34.4 108 109 Pecked ground core top fragment 22 60.9 22 60.9 Platform prep flake 623 872.3 42 18.3 458 599 1,123 1,489.6 Striated core top fragment 36 87 36 87 Objects from core rejuv 2 4.3 2 4.3

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326 Table 7 13. Continued Stage/Context C12 Str. A3 C19 Str. L3 C87 Str. A34 Totals Prismatic Blade Production n= Wt. (g) n= Wt. (g) n= Wt. (g) N= Wt. (g) Blade Cores and Blade Core Fragments 39 235.1 65 234.2 335 2,200.14 439 2,669.44 Bidirectional blad e core 3 28.7 3 28.3 7 151.3 13 208.3 Complete 1 13.3 1 13.3 Distal 1 4.2 2 15 3 46.1 6 65.3 Indeterminate 2 24.5 2 24.5 Lateral 2 30.8 2 30.8 Proximal 2 74.4 2 74.4 Unidirectional blade core 33 189.8 62 205 .9 318 1,928.24 413 2,323.94 Complete 1 10.1 1 10.1 Distal 3 15.5 6 14.5 23 209.6 32 239.6 Distal/ lateral 1 13.9 33 223.34 34 237.24 Indeterminate 8 12.3 56 95.3 64 107.6 Lateral 18 89.9 1 9.8 37 171.8 56 271.5 Medial 3 22.4 6 65.8 26 326 35 414.2 Medial/lateral 33 72.4 84 551.6 117 624 Proximal 5 23.6 1 11.6 39 225.3 45 260.5 Proximal/ lateral 3 24.5 7 19.5 19 115.2 29 159.2 Objects from exhausted core 3 16.6 10 120.6 13 137.2 Edge modified tool 3 16.6 3 40.4 6 12 Complete 1 6.1 1 6.1 Distal/ lateral 1 5.7 1 5.7 Lateral 1 4.8 1 4.8 Medial 2 31.1 2 31.1 Medial/lateral 1 9.3 1 9.3 Notched 4 50.8 4 50.8 Distal 1 17.4 1 17.4 Lateral 1 21.9 1 21.9 Proximal/ lateral 2 11.5 2 11.5 Other 2 25.4 2 25.4 Medial/lateral 2 20.1 2 20.1 Striated core top platform 1 9.3 1 9.3 Non Blade Core Objects 1 0.3 1 8.2 2 8.5 Biface thinning flake 1 0.3 1 0.3 Point 1 8.2 1 8.2 Undiagnostic Debitage 784 369.8 102 27.9 1,042 302.15 1,928 699.85 Flake 1 0.3 1 0.3 Fragment 102 27.9 102 27.9 Various debitage 784 369.8 1,041 301.85 1825 671.65 Tota l from above Tomb chambers n = 6,626 8,106.8 624 628.92 5,208 6,229.09 12,458 14,964.81

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327 Table 7 14 Summary of broad technological types by above tomb context. Type C12 % C19 % C87 % Total % Macro Core Shaping 261 3.9 30 4.8 52 1.0 343 2.8 Small Percussion 1,243 18.8 2 0.3 100 1.9 1,345 10.8 Initial series 2,192 33.1 315 50.5 1,224 23.5 3,731 29.9 Final series 975 14.7 37 5.9 1,676 32.2 2,688 21.6 Rejuvenation Debitage 1,131 17.1 72 11.5 779 15.0 1,982 15.9 Cores 39 0.6 65 10.4 335 6.4 439 3.5 Non blade Related 1 <1 1 <1 2 <1 Undiagnostics 784 11.8 102 16.3 1,042 20.0 1,928 15.5 Totals 6,626 100 6,24 100 5,208 100 12,458 100 Figure 7 7 Reduction profile showing the percentages of broad technological types present in above tomb context. Notice that all major technological types are present in each of the three contexts. Summary: Quotidian Practices and Ritualizing Obsidian Obsidian inventories from quotidian refuse/construction fi ll and from caches and burials shows that obsidian was used for many different types of household activities. Chapter 6 and seven have already shown that markets facilitated much of household provisioning. Provisioning of ritual items may also have occurre d through market 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Macro Coreshaping Small Percussion Initial-series Final-series Rejuvenation Debitage Cores Non-blade Related Undiagnostics v C12, Str. A3 C19, Machete Group C87, Str. A12

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328 transactions; however, provisioning the three tomb contexts described just above was probably much different probably due to the labor that was needed. These burial events were most likely provisioned by gifting or more likely, some othe r non market form of exchange (direct transaction) between obsidian crafters and those related to the deceased. All this provisioning has implications for how we discuss : (1) aspects of craft organization particularly the maintenance of space ; (2) unders tand the formation of archaeological record : and First, there is a contrast between provisioning quotidian activities and more ritualistic residential practices. The contrast can be situated within the timing of specific residential activities. Those daily activities likely required a need to acquire blade tools from markets on a regular basis throughout a given month or year whereas ritualized obsidian appears to be necessarily acquired during the preparation for rituals involving a human interment in association with important calendrical or other recurring historicized events (see A. Chase and D. Chase 2013). Therefore, th e pace of market visitation is contingent not only on daily need and regular visits to a given local market, but also on human deaths and cyclical ritual events. The provisioning of rituals likely effected the regular rhythm and atmosphere of markets durin g the time leading up to ritual events. This has implications for the organization of obsidian craft activity as well. Obsidian crafters must have not only produce d and curate d blades before supplying a market on a fairly regular basis, but they must have also acted to curate all the related debitage and spent cores that would later become transformed and ritualized elsewhere. This was done in preparation for rituals and to materially express a shared notion of the

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329 passage of time. And because many ritual caching cycles are argued to occur at 20 to 40 year intervals (see A. Chase and D. Chase 2013), it may be that some obsidian objects were curated either at workshops or at other residences for quit e some time before being positioned alongside other materia ls and additional human participants. Furthermore, crafters may have had to transport more to markets just before shared events that appear to be acknowledged by potentially hundreds or even thousands of residences. Second, these practices on the part of obsidian crafters to maintain their work areas, first for safety, as well as for any anticipated need to provision daily and ritual life archaeological record. More direc tly, the data presented above shows that while blades were used daily by basically every residence, other non blades (as well as blades) were used for many rituals. In order to provision these practices, a given workshop area saw significant efforts to man age production waste and at particular times was effectively cleaned of all craft production refuse. The three above tomb deposits also show that once these materials were moved to above a burial chamber, there may have been little left at a workshop. Thes e kinds of redeposits may reflect creative refuse disposal (see Moholy Nagy 1997 ) as well as a significant ritual offering especially if we think of these deposits as larger versions of household caches. An unintended consequence of ritual provisioning wa s the maintenance of work space. If this is true, it might explain why very few obsidian workshops have been recovered from the Maya area, and no workshop has been directly investigated at Caracol. A summary of the general types of obsidian from the three tomb deposits at

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330 Caracol, the one tomb deposit at Dos Hombres, Belize (see Trachman 2002), and those published inventories of Maya and non Maya workshops helps to illustrate and argue this point. T able 7 15 lists a general invent ory of the three above tomb deposits at Caracol and one present from the northern Belize site of Dos Hombres. In contrast to the more detailed categories presented in Table 7 14 many were conflated into even more broadly labeled categories based on differences in analysis. Despite the lumping, the kinds of artifacts are very similar or near identical from both sites ; hence the comparison. All three contexts at Caracol sampled 100 percent of the assemblages, while Trachman (2002:107) sampled 25 percent. The relative percentages are quite similar and the reduction profile ( Figure 7 8 ) shows a similar trend line overall between deposits. No other above tomb context has suffici ent published data to be included at the time of this comparative analysis (see Moholy Nagy 1997). General trends include about 4 to 40 percent percussion debitage, 50 70 percent blades (at Caracol, these are mostly initial series blades), 13 to 20 percent rejuvenation debitage (no rejuvenation debitage was shown from Dos Hombres), and lastly 1 to 13 percent were blade cores (most of which were fragments). Although some variation exists, it would seem from this sample of four contexts that there are relativ ely equal amounts of major artifact types being deposited above tombs. In other words, these deposits are more alike than different.

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331 T able 7 15 Obsidian summary for four above tomb deposits, three are from Caracol, Belize a nd one is from Dos Hombres, Belize (see Trachman 2002). Tomb Context Tomb, A Group Str. A3 Tomb, Machete Str. L3 Tomb, Central Acrop. Str. A34 Tomb, Dos Hombres Reference C12 (this document) C19 (this document) C87 (this document) Trachman 2002 Stage % % % % Percussion 26 6.1 3.6 38.2 Blades 53.7 67.5 69.6 49.1 Rejuvenation 19.5 13.8 18.6 no data Cores/Frags <1 12.4 8 12.6 Totals (n=) 5,778 521 4,166 5,711 Figure 7 8 Percentages of major reduction categories or stages for three above tomb contexts. When compared to published inventories of Maya obsidian workshops it becomes evident that workshops are being cleaned of waste debris. Four workshop areas were used for comparison ( Table 7 16 ): El Laton, Ojo d e Augua, Kaminaljuyu, and El Pozito. Each of these workshops produced blades, but do not necessarily date to the same time period. For example, the Kaminaljuyu workshop is earlier than both El Laton and El Pozito (see Hir th 2006). If the above tombs represent redeposited workshop materials their general reduction profile should be similar ( Figure 7 9 ). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percussion Blades Rejuvenation Cores/Frags Percentage x Str. A3 Machete Group Str. A12 Dos Hombres

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332 Percussion debitage from obsidian workshops is similar, with the exception of t he Kaminaljuyu workshop. There is likely more percussion debitage at this workshop because they are closer to the El Chayal, Ixtepeque, and San Martin de Jilotepeque sources and there was greater attention to initial stages of core preparation. This stage of core shaping occurred less at site s further away because most core shaping occurred closer to quarries. Blades make up the majority of the inventor ies but it is unclear if these are mostly initial series blades, final series blades, or a combination of both. Rejuvenation debitage, when present in published tables, is between 1 to 15 percent. The percentages of blade cores do vary. The major difference is that many cores were recovered from the El Laton workshop and almost zero at the other workshops. Ov erall, the general trend is similar to those above tomb reduction profiles present ed above ( Tab le 7 17 and Figure 7 10 ). These like trends are slightly different when compa red to non Maya workshops investigated in central Mexico ( Table 7 18 and Figure 7 11 ). This difference is due to the location of some sites closer to sources (e.g., Tula an d Teotihuacan) and the nature of exchange that brought obsidian into workshops (e.g., Xochicalco).

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333 Table 7 16 Summary of obsidian workshop findings from a sample of Maya sites. Maya Workshop El Laton, Plaza Area El Laton, St r. 1 Ojo de Augua Kaminaljuyu El Pozito Reference Olson 1994:25, Table 1 Olson 1994:25, Table 1 Clark and Bryant 1997:117, Table 1 Hirth 2006:174, Table 1 Neiven and Libbey 1976 Stage % % % % % Percussion no data 4 2 44.4 1.5 Blades 50 42 89.5 54. 6 99 Rejuvenation 15 13 8.3 0.6 no data Cores/Frags 35 41 <1 <1 <1 Total (n=) 1,028 2,267 6,192 1,330 12,082 Figure 7 9 Percentages of major technological categories or stages of reduction at four Maya workshops. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percussion Blades Rejuvenation Cores/Frags Percentage x El Laton, Plaza Area El Laton, Str. 1 Ojo de Augua Kaminaljuyu El Pozito

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334 Tab le 7 17 Reduction profile and summary of averages of four Maya above tomb deposits, Maya obsidian workshops, and non Maya obsidian workshops. Stage Avg. Above Maya Tombs Avg. Maya Workshops Avg. non Maya Workshops Percussion 18.5 10.4 47.7 Blades 60.0 67.0 38.3 Rejuvenation 13.2 7.3 12.3 Cores/Frags 8.4 15.3 1.7 Percentage total 100 100 100 Figure 7 10 Reduction profiles showing averages of major reduction stages for above tomb deposi ts, Maya workshops, and non Maya workshops (see T able 7 15 Table 7 16 Table 7 18 for actual percentages). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percussion Blades Rejuvenation Cores/Frags Percentage z Avg. Above Maya Tombs Avg. Maya Workshops Avg. non-Maya Workshops

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335 Table 7 18 Summary of obsidian workshops from a sample of non Maya sites. non Maya Workshop Xochicalco Tula Teotihuacan (surface collections) Reference Hirth 2006:67, Table 3.1 Healan et al. 1983:137 Andrews 2002:52, Table 5.5 Stage % % % Percussion <1 84.8 5 7.7 Blades 72 14.2 28.8 Rejuvenation 27.6 no data 9.27 Cores/Frags <1 0.5 4.1 Total (n=) 226,894 321,477 97 Figure 7 11 Percentages of major technological categories or stages of reduction at three non Maya worksh ops. Note that Hirth (2006) states that already exhausted cores were imported in Xochicalco and therefore no percussion or macrocore shaping debitage is present. during different social interactions in the past and that an itinerary approach that follows the movement of materials emphasizes how workshops were maintained to provision not only domestic life but also to materialize ritual expression. Blades were used almost exclusive ly as quotidian tools and were deposited as part of a human burial assemblage. Both blades and non blades were used or ritualized to a significant extent during events that included caches. Taken together, the obsidian data shows that each 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percussion Blades Rejuvenation Cores/Frags Percentage x Xochicalco Tula Teotihuacan (surface)

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336 piece of obsidia n material was socially, economically, and ritually important depending on the circumstance of its use; however, obsidian could only have been useful in the materialization of quotidian and rituals practices after it was transformed into useable objects. Reconstructing the itinerary therefore shows that blades moved out of workshops with some regularity to keep up with market and consumer demand. Household s demanded blades for daily use as well as deposition with deceased individual s In contrast, obsidian blade production debitage and exhausted cores would have likely been curated at workshops (or at households preparing for caching rituals) exhibiting a longer period of stasis in one location. Most exhausted blade cores were also smashed, terminated, de stroyed, or Some fragments remained together, however, and reflect intentional acts of fragmentation ( Chapman and Gaydarska 2007 ) perhaps in preparation for additiona l rituals elsewhere. These practices of destruction and fragmentation could have acted to link distant places, other individuals (i.e., crafters, merchants, market managers those that facilitated the movement of stone), as well as to link or recognize pa st and future recurring events during present rituals. In this way, a single destroyed core was an indexical and bundled object ( see Haskell 2015; Joyce 2007 ; Keane 2005 ) containing unique properties which afforded it a ritual association. As the last blad e was removed the once productive core was exhausted and transformed. These exhausted cores were then, or sometime later destroyed and thus transformed again. During this latter stage of physical transformation, they were simultaneously ritualized and the ir properties recognized by those active human agents. Each piece had its intended place of use,

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337 existence, and impact on the living, but the pathways, the pace, and the forms at which each moved to consuming households varied markedly.

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338 CHAPTER 8 RETRACI NG A ROUTE AND FUTUR E DIRECTIONS Toward an Itinerary of Obsidian as Reflected from Caracol, Belize The preceding chapters presented various analyses of obsidian artifacts from Caracol, Belize These analyses were directed to operationalize a multi scalar research program that dealt with the movement of flaked stone from quarries (or other non local production places) through to their use and discard at ces The analytical methods used in this work are not unique to the study of lithics bu t it is the first time the y have been applied to Caracol obsidian assemblage s Consequently data are now available for a more in depth comparison with concurrent and future collections from other Mesoamerican archaeological sites. Future research will be directed at making these kinds of comparisons more explicit than may have been presented in the previous c hapters. The closing section of this dissertation discusses further future research and some broader impacts this research may have. In addition to st andard analytical methods utilized above that produce d descriptive and interpretive knowledge from lithic assemblage s I employed a theoretical framework that focused on itinerar ies This approach enable d cohesion between general and seemingly separate res earch questions presented within individual chapters. Since nearly every household residence in Caracol used obsidian, these itineraries (which are themselves a subject of study) exposed the numerous interconnected and historical relationships that existed between the many actors who moved, transformed, and used obsidian both regionally and locally To be sure, those human actors structured obsidian itineraries in the past yet the material qualities of obsidian simultaneously structured human actions Work ing in concert, human actors

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339 and non human actants played important roles in various social, economic, and physical transformations. It is within this context as seen through various types of analyses that I conclude by summarizing the routes obsidian t raveled In addition, I argue that many Maya peoples used obsidian to (re)produce domestic (residential) practices during the Classic period at Caracol These practices forming fundamental aspects of household identity were facilitated through an inter action between n on human actants (i.e., obsidian itself ) and human actors (i.e., obsidian craft producers and their extended social network ) T h e use of obsidian in both quotidian activities and ritual events at most provide materia l evidence of these interactions Distant Quarries, Extra local Production, and Importation into Caracol The general trends of the HHpXRF study showed that El Chayal obsidian dominated the sampled contexts from Classic period; however, this appears not to be the case earlier in time for the Late Preclassic. The shift from Ixtepeque obsidian to El Chayal during the Late Preclassic is likely due to insufficient sampling from early period deposits. Despite the lack of a robust Late Preclassic sample size, El Chayal obsidian increase s in frequency through time suggesting the quantity and routes it traveled concretize d or became more stable over time (see C hapter 4 ) Transportation of obsidian from the Guatemalan highlands into Caracol could have taken a number of routes Existing models show transport into and through the Petn area of present day Guatemala that included both land and riverine water routes. Proposed as an a lternative to or simultaneously with the Petn centered model data from Caracol suggest that obsidian from El Chayal, Ixtepeque, San Martin de

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340 Jilotepeque, and La Union (Honduras) could have entered from the south via land and water routes as well. Obsidian could have traveled the same route as jadeite materials from the Motagua Valley. Repo rts from Cancuen however show th at both obsidian and jadeite were transformed to a significant extent and moved through the area just south of the Petn. Perhaps after traveling through and past sites along the Rio Passion (i.e., Cancuen) obsidian was d iverted from a path in the northern Petn (that would have taken it to sites such as Tikal) and went to the southern and central areas of present day Belize (e.g., following the Classic period trade route from the Passion to the Belize River [A. Chase and D. Chase 2012]) During the Terminal Classic period there appears to be a drop in overall obsidian consumption when viewed through the obsidian sourcing results. Like the lack of a robust Late Preclassic obsidian source sample, this apparent decrease in p ercentage is likely due to small sample sizes from later deposits. Despite the existing sample issues the proportion of El Chayal to Ixtepeque obsidian between the Late Classic 2 (1 147:62 or 18.5 pieces of Ixtepeque to every one piece of El Chayal) and T erminal Classic ( 68:12 or 5.6 ) phases shows a marked decrease or relative equaling in the proportion o f El Chayal to Ixtepeque overall This shift suggests that Ixtepeque may have begun to be imported in higher or near equal amounts to that of El Chayal ju abandonment as was the case for the Post c lassic period in the northern Lowlands ( see Nazaroff et al. 2010:888 ) H ints of this shift may be present from the Caracol data. Technologically, both El Chayal and Ixt epeque obsidian were i mported as roughed with regional traders was such that obsidian was procured and modestly reduced close

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341 the al centers before arriving at the site In other words, Caracol received macrocores, some still with cortex, as opposed to percussion/pressure shaped polyhedral cores that were ready for blade removal and/or in need of rejuvenation (see Hirth 2006) This i s likely due to gravity for other kinds of commerce. T hus far no data suggest that other politically powerful centers close t o Caracol had significantly reduced macrocores from Ixtepeque and El Chayal sources prior to obsidian arriv al /markets It appears that macrocores were not shaped into polyhedral pressure blade cores before arriving at Caracol rather this reduction occurred locally ; Caracol wa s a primary importer of El Chayal and Ixtepeque macrocores. These data also imply that local obsidian crafters possessed the adequate knowledge to transform percussion macrocores into pressure blade cores. Once these macrocores were reduced to produce pris matic blades, exhausted blade cores, related percussion debitage, and pressure blades circulated throughout the site (see below) Unlike Guatemalan and Honduran obsidian, Mexican obsidian began to arrive at Caracol during the M iddle of the Early Classic a s ready made tools These forms included Stem B type projectile points, other projectile points, blades, and bifacial knives. Most of these and later imported objects were not circulated beyond the city center but were likely used during specific rituals soon after arrival (A. Chase and D. Chase 2011; Johnson et al. 2010 ) and therefore may have signi fied regional relationships that politically powerful non Maya (or non Caracol) elite partners. Some green, Pachuca, obsidian blades, however, did circulate to a very

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342 limited extent beyond the city center These blades, some of which were not included in the sourcing study, were used much like Guatemalan sourced blades and were part of obsidian assemblage s at a few non elite residences. These blades exhibited edge damage and were recovered from household refuse/construction fill contexts. In general, however, distributions of obsidian sourced from beyond the Maya area (i.e., outside of Guatemala or Honduras) do not appear to have been ava ilable to the wider Caracol population This suggest s that wh ile obsidian overall was accessible to the population, some objects from further afield were not. Certain finished objects followed an itinerary that lead them to a direct transfer to lite or a limited exchange within epicentrally located markets. Although it is difficult to ascertain the exact regional and local route(s) through which obsidian arrived at workshops, local importation did occur at a noteworthy scale and suppl ied most hou seholds with obsidian in generally consistent quantities when compared to distributions of locally available chert flaked stone Once obsidian arrived obsidian sources) may hav e passed through local markets at Caracol before arriving at local workshops. Alternatively, regional traders could have exchanged directly with workshop crafters bypassing markets all together (and the workshop crafters would then have brought finished ob jects to the market) If regional traders/transporters of obsidian interacted at markets to deal with obsidian specialists, they could have also interacted to a greater extent with other raw material consumers as well. These possible interactions at market s could have provided a larger social space for the sharing or exchanging of knowledge of both regional trade connectivity and lithic technology.

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343 These kinds of proposed relationships and interactions may help to explain why lithic crafters at Caracol appe ar to have work ed obsidian similarly to other sites. In addition, it may also help to used obsidian pressure blade production (Johnson et al 2014). In this scenario, the act of coming toget her to share knowledge of technological practice and the material qualities of stone may aid in identifying the processes by which ancient communities of practice form ed W idespread residential access to obsidian suggests that crafters had some ty pe of relationship (s) with markets (see C hapter 6 ). Initial dealings at markets could have been to acquire obsidian macrocores; however, acquisition of obsidian before blade production could have occurred through a few di fferent scenarios. C raft producers could have acquired bulk loads of obsidian from markets by dealing directly with regional traders as they entered the site Alternatively crafters could have traded with regional merchants outside of markets Although ob sidian crafters could have potentially dealt directly with regional traders, markets would have provided a space for visible negotiation and broader exchange. Regional traders may have been in lock step with local market cycles or vis versa and thus market s and visitation by traders would have provided some amount of predictability in local supply and demand. In other words, traders dealing with local crafters would have been visible to the larger population on Or obsidian specialists could ha ve acquired obsidian as an outcome of relationships between city center elites and regional obsidian traders. Elites as brokers could have negotiated the exchange of bulk obsidian goods that would have then

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344 traveled to specialized workshops. This relations hip may have be en likely because of the large amounts of obsidian recovered from above three elite tomb contexts at Caracol. At Caracol no definitive evidence of an obsidian workshop has been found; however, research elsewhere has shown that obs idian works hops were not common and w hen present, obsidian workshops are not necessarily located near city center elite dwellings ( e.g., Rice and Puleston 1981 ; Puleston 1969 ). The concentration of obsidian above many elite tombs at some major Maya sites, including C aracol, shows an effort by obsidian workers to locally curat e transport, and deposit huge quantities of debitage and terminated exhausted cores above at least three city center tombs These actions by local obsidian crafters may have been conducted to rec ognize and honor the significant relationship between themselves and particular royal elites. In any of these above scenarios, obsidian specialists received and locally reduced a sufficient amount of obsidian to provision the broader population with both quotidian blade tools, and ritual obsidian objects. Transformation at Workshops Once obsidian made it to local workshops, crafters transformed macrocores to remove standardized blades (see Chapter 5 ) The reduction process resulted in produc ing a complex collection of debitage and regular sized exhausted cores. The present study of Caracol obsidian assemblage s reveals a similarity both in technology and composition to other studies of Maya lithics and more broadly those in Mesoamerica, suggesting that Car acol obsidian crafters a ppear to have been following an existing structure d knowledge/skill of blade production in the wider region ( see Hirth and Andrews 2002 ) In particular, Caracol obsidian specialists employed a

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34 5 number of strategies to prepare blade core platforms throughout the reduction process and after blade core rejuvenation. They also practiced similar strategies for removing pressure blades as evidenced by the uniformity or blade width and length This physically transformative process produc ed obsidian goods (or blades) as well as other non blade pieces in the form of debitage and exhausted cores As C hapter 5 introduced (see also C hapter 7 ), many of these non blade pieces were ritualized during events of human burials and, more likely, cer emonial cache offerings T his typological and contextual correlation (see Chapter 7) suggest that there was likely a causal relationship between how non blade pieces were managed during the crafting process and the demand for household ritual obsidian obje cts (see also Hruby 2006, 2007) Thus, a t yet unknown local workshop locales, the itinerary of obsidian was changed significantly by becoming fragmented At this point, certain objects (i.e., blades) were likely readily and regularly moved from workshops t o provision residences, while other s (i.e., non blade debitage and exhausted cores) experienced potentially long periods of stasis at workshops and/ or at other households As part of ordered w orkshop management t hese objects would have be en gathered and cu rated in a safe location, away from regularly traveled pathways At some later point in time, t hey were then selected circulated /distributed, and ritualized during household events. Workshop waste management and provisioning state level and domestic ritua l events (including supplying large amounts of obsidian above elite tombs) could have therefore, resulted in the erasure of most macro scale archaeological evidence for locating obsidian workshops. These ritualized obsidian objects may have circulated vi a markets, but their pace

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346 of travel through markets probably was dependent on the timing of domestic ritual events some of which were cyclical and decades apart ( A. Chase and D. Chase 2013; D. Chase and A. Chase 2011) The morphology and presence of refit s among destroyed exhausted blade cores in caches (n=12, or 37.5%) lends support for the special treatment of non blade related objects (see Table 7 10 ) The presence and type of these refits suggests that knowledge of how to dest roy cores and produce standardized forms was known by many ( assuming core destruction occurred just prior to ritual deposition ) In most cases, n ot all pieces of a d estroyed exhausted blade core were present in a given cache thus showing that fragmentati on was common. This practice of fragmentation would separate pieces from the destruction process and individual actors could then potentially curate them for use in subsequent rituals. This act of fragmentation and curation for later rituals connected hum ans to the ritual acts of core destruction and ritual cache deposition through the act of enchainment (Chapman and Gaydarska 2007) Material recalls memory (Jones 2007) and as such, t he fragmented pieces of obsidian were a vehicle for both the remembrance of previous actions and for a preparation for future ritual events. Those moments in the itinerary of obsidian, changed the nature of the interaction between human and stone. O bsidian pieces separated from an exhausted core could remain immobile for decad es before being used in later rituals. Ritualized obsidian, such as those that were implicated in ritual events (now fragmented) most likely moved through personal exchanges, rather than markets. Movement through Local Exchanges After crafters brokered th e purchase of bulk obsidian from foreign traders and

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347 b efore regularly used blades and less frequently ritualized obsidian objects were used at non obsidian crafting households, they circulated through markets (see Chapter 7 ) This assertion is supported th rough fairly broad distribution across the site and its relationship with the consumption of more locally available chert flaked stone Because markets were important places of interaction, obsidian crafters or their representatives must have ha d some type of relation with market managers, other vendors, and consumers. Crafters also possessed the necessary knowledge of As stated earlier, m arketplaces provided a uniquely social and physical location by whic goods. These exchange interactions may have likely been the place whereby obsidian producers procure d other necessary materials they used during their crafting process and to supplement their subsistence needs In terms of just crafting interacting at markets could have enabled craft specialists (and their apprentices) to acquire necessary materials both durable and perishable to produce their contingent resources for the reduction of obsidian. These multi cra fting materials (see Hirth 2009) would have included grinding stones ( for platform preparation), wood for holding cores during the pressure flaking process, antler, and/or other stone for percussion flaking as well as possible ceramic containers to curate and transport reduction waste and exhausted cores away from workshops A detailed look at any flaked or ground stone reduction tool kit reveals a host of diverse materials ne cessary for a specialized task (see Hirth and Flenniken 2006 ) The same multi cra fting model (see Shimada 2007; Hirth 2009) has been described for ceramic production as well ( Van Gijn and Lammers Keijsers 2010 ).

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348 Ultimately, markets p rovide a place for producers, consumers and materials to interact, negotiate and/or maintain social r elations ( see King and Shaw 2015 ). Although a market exchange economy most likely included hundreds if not thousands of individuals (both customers and vendors assembling in a singular locale), account ing for of their non household produced items is extremely difficult. Notwithstanding, Caracol is argued to have multiple market places (D. Chase and A. Chase 2014a) and these were essential in how the operated (A. S. Z. Chase 2016 ). M arkets were place s that were socially and physically maintained, largely contingent on various actors and material resources and embedded within existing daily activities and the ebb and flow of ritual cycles. Through technolo gical and distributional analyse s of obsidian it appears that markets were critical locales for connecting various populations with in the city proper and perhaps regionally The data show just how extensive a single type of material has been transformed fragmented, and then moved along interconnecte d routes most of which included markets Residential Use Taking Objects out of Circulation and Concluding Remarks Analysis from three broadly defined contexts (refuse/construction fills, burials, and caches) as reflected from nearly 200 household inve stigations at Caracol demonstrates associations between obsidian technological form or artifact type and where/how certain pieces were used, then deposited (see C hapter 7 ) These contextual and artifact ual associations show that blades are more often found in refuse /fill and burial deposits (see Figure 7 1 and Figure 7 6 ) while other non blade artifacts ( i.e., blade cores and blade production debitage) are more likely to oc cur in caches (see

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349 Figure 5 34 and Figure 7 2 ). Correlations between arti fact type and context enables predictive modeling by which research can target investigation of the se kinds of contexts. Furthermore, being able to predict in a general way where certain types of obsidian objects are likely to occur sets up a framework by which to discuss and test for aspects of shared household consumption or use activities with regard to both quotidian and ritual practices. It also enables a more informed approach to consider the selective emphasis of particular objects. Patterned consumption and use activities indicate a shared as well as highlights similarities in household identity and cooperation to access similar kinds of objects (for the same purposes) via the same kinds of exchange networks (i.e., markets). Differences between households do exist, although these are not evident in wh ether or not a given household had access to obsidian, but rather with regard to how much obsidian each household could obtain This differential access using just flake stone counts and the measurement of a given household (a proxy for wealth), shows tha t those larger more architecturally complex, households or those with greater purchasing power could access more obsidian overall. Despite just using flaked stone counts and measurement s of household size comparisons of obsidian to locally available cher t show that nearly all reside ntial samples had proportionally consistent amount s of obsidian when compared to their supply of local ly available chert flaked stone. Clearly obsidia n was not a restricted material, thus suggesting ore alike tha n different when it came to quotidian use of flaked stone In other words, the distr ubutional and contextual analyse s demonstrated no clear division between elites and commoners in terms of the

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350 consumption of obsidian. Maya society at Caracol, during the Classic period, was networked integrated, and nuanced when considering the internal exchange of materials. Ritual use of obsidian was also fairly widespread. R esidential ritualization of obsidian appear ed to selectively include those criticall y transformative stages of core creation, maintenance (rejuvenation), and termination ( Hruby 2007; Johnson 2015) Early dated deposits of notched (i.e., destroyed) eccentric blade cores at city center elite residences suggest this practice beg a n as early a s the transition between the Late Preclassic 2 and the Early Classic 1 periods ( A. Chase and D. Chase 2015 a ) and then became part of the broader residential ritual repertoire. Following ancient Maya cosmology, t he technological stages of blade core shapin g (macro debitage), rejuvenation, and core destruction were likely ritualized because they mirrored aspects of livelihood or vitality in which the raw material was transformed, activated, and destroyed in acts of (re)production of social and technological practices. Core shaping debris embodied the creation of a useful body or in the case of obsidian, a productive blade core. Rejuvenation debitage signified the skill and work to maintain this body. Core destruction debitage and the act of destroy ing and e xhausted blade cores signaled the end of a life (Freidel 1998; Garber et al. 1998; Walker 1998). All of these separate pieces could move about on their separate itinerary, but be forever linked to broader processes and po tential social meanings. And as a material with bundled qualities leading to its ritualization (see Bradley 2003; Keane 2005) each of these kinds of obsidian objects, their materiality, and their potential meaning (s) was a recognition on the part of an

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351 in dividual household to acknowledge and maintain the historically contingent connections between household practices and each relatio nship / dependency on distant sources of raw materials, regional networks, non local actors, the local exchange eco nomy, other local crafters, quotidian practices, and ritual cycles. Future Directions and Broader Impacts The data and interpretations presented in this dissertation suggest a number of areas for idian with a focus on early and later temporal components would support current observations or suggest alternative interpretations. Although the obsidian sourcing analysis does have data from every major time period, context, and technological type, f utur e sourcing studies should target deposits that date to the Preclassic as larger data sets would help to inform the origins of trade, local obsidian crafting and use. Additionally, a greater sample size from the Term inal Classic would aid in understanding what kinds of changes in regional trade may have occurred prior to th urther investigations from sites in southern Belize and a more explicit concern with the circulation of other non obsidian, ma terials would help to highlig ht the complexities of potential southern routes juxtaposed with those established routes through the Petn ( see Demarest et al. 2014 ). Second, t he data have shown that significant reduction of stone took place locally although, t he obsidian workshops remains elusive. Few groups that were studied as a result of this dissertation may have retain ed minimal traces of obsidian crafting debris. Because it appears that significant waste management practices took place, future excavation m ethods should include sampli ng

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352 for micro debitage in potential workshop areas through fine screening and possibly micromorphology ( Angelucci 2010; Cap 2015 :115, Table 4.1 ; Maher 2005 ) With the advent of finding workshops, f uture research on the se locati on s m ay also help to determine their proximity to market locales major built pathways and the city center to better assess the social interactions local obsidian crafters had with regional traders, and everyone else Coupled w ith the locations of these areas, t he construction of crafting identity is entangled in knowledge of and interaction with multiple agents, groups, and communities in particular linking places The l ocation of work areas is particularly import ant if markets were places that provided a confluence for social interaction Third, Caracol provides an excellent place to study the roles of ancient household based craft producers Because the data show the wide distribution of obsidian in various for ms (most of which are linked to the local blade industry), further study can address how integral craft producers were connected to the provisioning of everyday /ritual life within a highly populated city ( and not necessarily as attac hed or independent spec ialists ) Although dualistic models of crafting can be problematic (see Costin 2007; Flad and Hruby 2007; Hirth 2009), obsidian crafters at Caracol did possess some type of important relationship with city center elites. This relationship is demonstrated b y the massive amounts of obsidian debitage and destroyed cores above three burial chambers (see Chapter 7) Although crafters certainly interacted with at important to t hose living at the edge as well as far beyond Because their crafts (i.e., blades) were distributed to most households (see Chapter 6 ),

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353 crafters and those they interacted with at local markets, were critical for daily household o perations. These tasks included using obsidian to cut, drill, and/or incise softer materials (perhaps shell). Additionally, obsidian workers facilitated and provisioned ritual events through curating and then distributing their waste flakes (from core shap ing, rejuvenation, and core destruction) and mostly fragmented exhausted cores for ritual household caches. Fourth, f uture research should explore the finer grained evidence for household developm ent and activity (i.e., individual residential history or d evelopmental phases ) with respect to (1) the uses of obsidian through micro wear and residue analysis ; (2) the location of such household practices (and degree of connectivity to other areas of the site via roads) ; and (3) overall household obsidian quanti ties in comparison to other material assemblages Access to obsidian was measured based on household wealth and other flaked stone data generally; therefore, f uture research should include an analysis of how multiple material datasets can provide a more d etailed picture of ancient household consumption Furthermore, distributional studies can be done with respect to the mapping of materials by descrete temporal components when possible Considering detailed changes in obsidian amounts with regard to time p eriod ( and within alternative models of exchange [e.g., market, gifting, redistributive]) will help to mitigate the potential for equifinality (see Stark and Garraty 2010 ). Finally, this study of obsidian shows we move beyond normal descriptions lithic in dustries In so doing, the research advocates archaeologists explore various interconnected aspects of ancient technology within a complex society The study of t echnology used here refers to how analysts research and understand the unfolding of

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354 relationships with the material world and ways in which these practices form part of their identity ( Dobres 2006, 2010 ) A lthough this research did not explicitly engage in such a (phenomenological) practice theory approach, it d id however, develop a use ful epistemology that focuses on assessing material movement, its transformation(s) (be it physical or social) and human material inter action ( Barad 2007; Ingold 2012 ; see also Joyce and Gillespie 2015:9 11 ) Other archaeological res earch using t his kind of perspective which follows matter can expand the use of existing anthropological methods that better address the shifting socioeconomic value of objects through actions (Graeber 2001) and the processes by which non human objects acquire and reproduce social meaning. The research charted new territory to better explore how the study of a singular material and its movement and transformations can identity the nature of macro/micro political economics as well as understand both quotidian and ritual ized p ractice. In order to do this, a suite of methods must be used in conjunction with a theoretical framework that does not privilege humans over non humans (i.e., materials in this case), meaning that in order to understand the identity practices and perfor mances of human a gents we mus t explore how the non human material world, co constructed social relations. Obsidian was an economically and socially valued material for the ancient Maya both in what it could do in daily life as well as in what it could in dex through its and fragmented, and pervaded much if not all, of ancient life at Caracol. Following the itinerar ies of obsidian exposes the inter connected ness of distant geologies, regionally powerful politi es and merchants and local ly diverse yet highly integrated Caracol inhabitants. The use and ritualization of

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355 obsidian provided the opportunity for residences to create express and maintain a shared identity. Even today, obsidi an continue s As a result of this research, each piece in some way can reference this work As archaeological artifacts, in that each piece was sorted, many measured, and still others exposed to X Rays. The obsidian materials described in this work were ne cessarily useful to reproduce social life In the past, many of the pieces helped people to live to express a form of identity, and to materially connect themselves with others T he obsidian objects presented above fulfill the same type of purpose today.

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356 APPENDIX A COUNTS OF OBSIDIAN A ND CHERT ARTIFACTS B Y OPERATION (PROJECT SEASONS 1985 2015)

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357 Op Obs. (n=) Chert Green obs. Op Obs. (n=) Chert Green obs. Op Obs. (n=) Chert Green obs. Op Obs. (n=) Chert Green obs. 1 145 314 1 61 0 24 0 121 24 84 0 181 37 347 1 2 14 34 3 62 4 339 0 122 0 72 0 182 49 449 4 3 38 107 0 63 5 242 0 123 2 20 0 183 50 930 1 4 232 1175 1 64 6 12 0 124 8 63 0 184 100 539 0 5 3 4 0 65 13 123 0 125 6 322 0 185 113 454 0 6 79 456 0 66 1 23 0 126 0 6 0 186 100 1231 0 7 17 9 0 67 3 98 0 127 3 311 0 187 0 115 0 8 145 1065 0 68 10 19 0 128 1 7 0 188 43 364 0 9 4 29 0 69 0 0 0 129 11 505 0 189 110 311 0 10 1 18 0 70 39 432 0 130 2 152 0 190 19 201 0 11 1 5 0 71 50 352 0 131 1 55 0 191 80 374 0 12 6626 8201 0 72 13 113 0 132 11 19 7 0 192 21 224 0 13 1 10 0 73 21 381 0 133 0 0 0 193 167 761 1 14 16 55 0 74 5 8 0 134 0 0 0 194 73 271 0 15 1 1 0 75 45 154 0 135 0 0 0 195 27 104 1 16 23 941 0 76 146 1633 0 136 4 79 0 196 24 271 1 17 35 3218 0 77 36 410 0 137 0 0 0 197 22 90 1 18 54 1559 0 78 12 98 0 138 96 678 0 198 6 351 0 19 636 41 0 79 36 149 0 139 1 75 0 199 71 296 0 20 1 5 0 80 0 1 0 140 22 165 0 200 35 3133 0 21 0 0 0 81 4 35 1 141 180 209 0 201 70 114 0 22 235 668 0 82 1 0 0 142 0 31 0 202 9 6 0 23 0 208 0 83 3 21 0 14 3 19 117 0 203 132 101 1 24 14 86 0 84 1 60 0 144 0 0 0 204 19 22 0 25 0 0 0 85 36 455 0 145 0 0 0 205 333** 113 2 26 0 0 0 86 77 145 0 146 11 0 0 206 9** 14 0 27 0 0 0 87 5236 229 0 147 28 781 0 207 143** 17 0 28 1 12 0 88 5 10 0 148 0 7 0 208 226** 9 0 29 10 32 0 89 2 0 0 149 0 3 0 209 2** 0 0 30 4 1 0 90 31 161 0 150 6 164 0 CD A 1*** 0 0 31 4 120 0 91 1 0 0 151 78 1426 0 CD B 1*** 0 0 32 14 1217 0 92 0 0 0 152 37 337 0 CD C 43*** 12 0 33 3 14 0 93 2 15 0 153 45 378 0 CD D 65*** 10 0 34 6 177 0 94 1 20 0 154 60 300 0 35 8 5 0 95 140 2332 1 155 29 1378 0 obsidian chert grn obs. 36 11 31 0 96 42 77 0 156 11 388 0 Total 19592 81124 66 37 11 242 0 97 1 7 0 157 62 410 1 38 2 16 0 98 22 56 0 158 62 457 0 39 77 829 0 99 1 48 0 159 O p not assigned 40 8 86 0 100 1 2 0 160 56 1269 0 41 14 2023 0 101 3 3 0 161 8 15 0 42 3 17 0 102 10 581 0 162 3 54 0 43 0 0 0 103 3 8282 0 163 7 40 0 44 0 6 0 104 9 155 0 164 66 318 0 45 7 5 0 105 2 36 0 165 40 59 1 46 1 29 0 10 6 1 11 0 166 11 31 0 47 15 4 0 107 5 180 0 167 2 22 0 48 2 494 0 108 14 207 0 168 56 222 0 49* 227 160 0 109 13 188 0 169 31 84 0 50 8 759 0 110 8 30 0 170 12 26 0 51 11 32 0 111 1 35 0 171 210 1325 0 52 15 726 0 112 0 31 0 172 29 1 46 0 53 8 1535 0 113 0 0 0 173 28 96 0 54 46 53 0 114 0 0 0 174 83 3014 2 55 1 151 0 115 0 0 0 175 0 4 0 56 11 3895 0 116 29 61 0 176 1 8 0 57 26 364 0 117 54 1698 32 177 309 104 1 58 3 165 0 118 183 473 0 178 65 38 0 59 38 42 0 119 30 881 0 179 142 985 9 60 10 92 0 120 0 4 0 180 70 170 0 I ncludes C49D 2015 field season; **2015 field season; *** O bsidian collected during conservation efforts, not included in dissertation analysis

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358 APPENDIX B HYPERLINK TO HANDHEL D ENERGY DISPERSED PO RTABLE XRF CHEMICAL PART PER MILLION DAT A FOR ARTIFACTS AND SOURCE SAMPLES

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359 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008319/00001 (see Appendix B worksheet)

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360 APPENDIX C HYPERLINK TO HANDHEL D ENERGY DISPERSED PORTABLE XRF COMPTON PEAK INTENSITY DATA FOR ARTIFACTS AND SO URCES SAMPLES

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361 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008319/00001 (see Appendix C worksheet)

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362 APPENDIX D HYPERLINK TO HANDHEL D E NERGY DISPERSE D PORTABLE X RAY FLORENCES FILES

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363 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008322/00001

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364 APPENDIX E ABBREVIATED OBSIDIAN CATALOG

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365 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C1A/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade distal 1 C1A/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series lancet complete 1 C1B/3 1 SD, but not assigned final series lancet complete 2 C1B/4 2a SD, but not assigned final seri es blade medial 3 C1B/7 1 SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1B/9 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment various 1 C1B/17 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1B/17 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C1B/23 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C1B/23 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C1B/24 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C1B/24 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade m edial 1 C1B/26 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1B/27 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1B/29 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1C/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1C/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1C/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C1C/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C1C/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1C/18 1 constr. fill/r efuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1C/22 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C1C/27 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1C/30 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1C/30 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C1D/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1E/2 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1E/4 2c constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C1E/4 2b constr. fill/ refuse final series blade distal 1 C1E/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1H/26 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C1G/2 14 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C1H/11 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1H/11 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1H/19 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1H/22 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1H/23 4b constr. fill/refuse final ser ies blade medial 1 C1H/23 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C1H/24 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1H/27 3a SDC1H 2 platform prep flake 7 C1H/27 4 SDC1H 2 'small' percussion blade core shaping 2 C1H/27 40c SDC1H 2 final series blade complete 1 C1H/27 40b SDC1H 2 final series blade complete 1 C1H/27 40a SDC1H 2 final series blade complete 1 C1H/27 5b SDC1H 2 distal orientation flake 2 C1H/27 5a SDC1H 2 platform prep flake 3 C1H/2 7 1c SDC1H 2 final series lancet complete 1 C1H/27 1b SDC1H 2 final series lancet complete 1 C1H/27 1a SDC1H 2 final series lancet distal 1 C1H/27 2 SDC1H 2 flake proximal 1 C1H/27 3b SDC1H 2 initial series blade proximal 5 C1H/27 3c SDC1H 2 fragmen t various 38 C1H/27 35a SDC1H 2 final series blade complete 1

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366 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C1H/27 6c SDC1H 2 final series blade proximal 1 C1H/27 6b SDC1H 2 final series blade medial 2 C1H/27 6e SDC1H 2 initial series blade complete 6 C1H/27 6d SDC1H 2 initial series blade medi al 10 C1H/27 6a SDC1H 2 initial series blade proximal 14 C2A/1 3 constr. fill/refuse fragment edge mod 1 C2A/6 2 constr. fill/refuse 'small' percussion flake core shaping 1 C2A/8 3 constr. fill/refuse bidirectional core complete 1 C2A/8 2 constr fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C2A/11 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C2A/11 7 constr. fill/refuse final series point complete 1 C2A/11 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade complete 1 C2A/14 1 constr. fill/refuse fina l series blade medial 2 C2C/3 6 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C2F/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C2F/3 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C2F/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C3B/3 12b constr. fill/refuse flake 2 C3B/3 12a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C3B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C3B/4 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C3B/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C3B/4 1d constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C3B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C3B/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade complete 1 C3C/5 2a SDC3C 6 final series blad e complete 8 C3C/5 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C3C/6 1a SDC3C 2 final series drilled blade complete 1 C3C/6 2a SDC3C 2 final series notched blade complete 3 C3C/6 3a SDC3C 2 final series dilled blade complete 1 C3C/6 4a SDC3C 2 final series blade plunging complete 2 C3C/9 5a SDC3C 3 final series blade prox/med 1 C3C/12 3a SDC3C 5 object from blade core frag scraper complete 1 C3C/12 2 SDC3C 5 objects from exhausted core eccentric medial/lateral 1 C3C/15 2a SDC3C 1 final ser ies drilled blade prox/med 1 C3C/15 3a SDC3C 1 final series lancet complete 1 C3C/15 4a SDC3C 1 final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C3C/15 5a SDC3C 1 final series blade prox/med 1 C3D/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C4A/1 1 const r. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C4B/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C4B/8 1b constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C4B/8 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C4B/9 1 c onstr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C4B/10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C4B/13 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade plunging distal 1 C4B/19 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C4B/26 2 con str. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C4B/26 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C4B/26 10 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) edge mod. tool medial/lateral 1 C4B/26 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C4B/26 5b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C4B/32 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C4B/45 25 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1

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367 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C4B/47 1 constr. fill/refuse final series ed ge mod. tool medial 1 C4C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C4C/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C4C/10 2 SDC4C 1 final series blade medial 1 C4C/11 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proxi mal 1 C4C/12 1b SDC4C 1 final series blade medial 1 C4C/12 1a SDC4C 1 final series blade proximal 1 C4C/13 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C4C/13 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C4C/13 1c constr. fill /refuse final series blade medial 2 C4C/15 1b SDC4C 2 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C4C/15 1a SDC4C 2 final series blade proximal 2 C4C/16 1 constr. fill/refuse flake fragment 1 C4C/17 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proxi mal 2 C4C/17 2b constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete and fragments 21 C4C/17 2c constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C4C/18 1e constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C4C/18 1d constr. fill/refuse initial series blade proximal 1 C4C /18 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C4C/18 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C4C/18 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C4C/19 3c constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) distal/ l ateral 1 C4C/19 3e constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 1 C4C/19 3k constr. fill/refuse distal orientation flake 3 C4C/19 3a constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C4C/19 3j constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete and fragments 46 C4C/19 3d constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C4C/19 3g constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C4C/19 3f constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C4C/19 3b constr. fill/refus e final series blade proximal 2 C4C/19 3i constr. fill/refuse flake blade core frag? 1 C4C/19 3l constr. fill/refuse flake 3 C4C/19 3h constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C4C/21 25a SDC4C 3 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 1 C4C/21 25c SDC4C 3 final series blade medial 1 C4C/21 25b SDC4C 3 initial series blade complete 6 C4C/21 26b SDC4C 3 initial series blade medial 1 C4C/21 26c SDC4C 3 initial series blade distal 3 C4C/21 26a SDC4C 3 initial series blade complete 3 C4C/21 26d SDC4C 3 fragment 4 C4E/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C4E/17 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C4E/18 8 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C4E/19 1 constr. fill/refuse final ser ies blade prox/med 1 C4E/19 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C4E/23 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C4E/23 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C4E/25 15 SDC4E 2 object from blade core frag edge mod. tool proximal/ lateral 1 C4E/25 16 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C4E/26 1a SDC4E 3 object from blade core frag eccentric distal/ lateral 1 C4E/26 1b SDC4E 3 object from blade core frag uniface lateral 1 C4E/26 1c SDC4E 3 object from blade core frag eccentric proximal/ lateral 1 C4E/26 1d SDC4E 3 object from blade core frag eccentric medial/lateral 1 C4E/26 2a SDC4E 3 object from blade core frag eccentric distal/ lateral 1

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368 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C4E/26 2b SDC4E 3 object from blade core frag uniface complete 1 C4E/26 2c SDC4E 3 object from blade core frag eccentric distal/medial 1 C4E/26 2d SDC4E 3 object from blade core frag eccentric distal/medial 1 C4E/26 5 SDC4E 3 fragment 1 C4E/26 4 SDC4E 3 final series blade proximal 1 C4E/28 3 SDC4E 5 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C4E/30 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C4E/30 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C4E/33 2 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C4E/33 1 constr. fil l/refuse final series blade distal 1 C4E/34 1a SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C4E/34 1b SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) distal/ lateral 1 C4E/34 1d SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C4E/34 1e SDC4E 9 b lade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C4E/34 1f SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 1 C4E/34 1g SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) distal/ lateral 1 C4E/34 1h SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 1 C4E/34 1i SD C4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) distal/ lateral 1 C4E/34 1c SDC4E 9 striated core top fragment 1 C4E/34 2a SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 1 C4E/34 2b SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) distal/ lateral 1 C4E/34 2c SDC 4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 1 C4E/34 2d SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) distal/ lateral 1 C4E/34 3d SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C4E/34 3a SDC4E 9 macroflake core shaping 1 C4E/34 3b SDC4E 9 ma croflake with cortex core shaping 1 C4E/34 4 SDC4E 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C4E/34 5a SDC4E 9 object from blade core frag uniface distal/ lateral 1 C4E/34 5b SDC4E 9 object from blade core frag medial 1 C4E/34 6 SDC4E 9 ob ject from blade core frag eccentric distal/medial 1 C4E/34 3c SDC4E 9 final series blade complete 1 C4E/34 3e SDC4E 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C4E/35 1 SDC4E 9? object from blade core frag eccentric distal/medial 1 C4E/35 2a SDC4E 9? blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 1 C4E/35 2b SDC4E 9? blade core frag (non rejuv) distal 1 C4E/35 2c SDC4E 9? blade core frag (non rejuv) distal/ lateral 1 C4E/35 3a SDC4E 9? blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C4E/35 3b SDC4E 9? blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C4E/35 3c SDC4E 9? blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C4E/36 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C4F/13 1 SDC4F 1 object from blade core frag eccentric indeterminate 1 C4F/14 6a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C4F/14 6c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C4F/14 6d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C4F/14 6b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 4 C4F/14 8 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C4F/14 8 constr. fill/refuse flake 2 C4F/15 10 SDC4F 1 object from blade core frag eccentric distal/ lateral 1 C4F/15 12 SDC4F 1 final series blade prox/med 1 C4F/15 4 SDC4F 1 flake comp lete 1 C4F/15 8a SDC4F 1 object from blade core frag eccentric distal 1 C4F/15 8b SDC4F 1 object from blade core frag edge mod. tool distal/ lateral 1 C4F/15 9a SDC4F 1 object from blade core frag edge mod. tool medial/lateral 1 C4F/15 9b SDC4F 1 objec t from blade core frag uniface medial/lateral 1

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369 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C4F/15 9c SDC4F 1 object from blade core frag uniface medial/lateral 1 C4F/15 9d SDC4F 1 object from blade core frag eccentric distal/ lateral 1 C4F/15 1 SDC4F 1 final series blade proximal 1 C4F/17 4 con str. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C4F/19 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C4F/31 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C4H/4 18 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C4H/5 12 SDC4H 1 final series blade medial 1 C4H/5 2 SDC4H 1 final series blade medial 3 C4H/5 26 SDC4H 1 final series blade prox/med 1 C4I/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C4I/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C4I/ 7 32c constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 1 C4I/7 32a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C4I/7 32b constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C4I/7 7b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C4I/7 7c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C4I/7 7a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C4I/7 8 constr. fill/refuse flake 4 C5B/2 1 SDC5B 1 final series blade prox/med 1 C5B/5 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C5C/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C5C/12 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C5E/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C5E/6 5 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C5E/9 2 co nstr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C5E/10 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C5E/10 3c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C5E/10 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C5F/8 5a constr. fill/r efuse final series blade prox/med 1 C5F/8 5b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C6B/1 4c constr. fill/refuse point biface distal 1 C6B/1 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C6B/1 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C6B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse exhausted core proximal/medial 1 C6B/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C6B/4 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C6B/4 3b constr. fill/refuse f inal series blade medial 2 C6B/6 1b SDC6B 1 final series blade medial 1 C6B/6 1a SDC6B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C6B/6 2a SDC6B 1 final series blade medial 1 C6B/6 3a SDC6B 1 final series blade proximal 1 C6B/6 6a SDC6B 1 final series edg e mod. tool medial 1 C6B/6 6b SDC6B 1 final series blade medial 1 C6B/6 8a SDC6B 1 fragment 1 C6B/6 7a SDC6B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C6B/6 9a SDC6B 1 final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C6B/7 1a SDC6B 1 final series blade proximal 1 C6B/7 1b SDC6B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C6B/7 1c SDC6B 1 fragment 1 C6B/8 2a SDC6B 4 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C6B/8 2b SDC6B 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C6B/8 3a SDC6B 4 macroflake edge mod lateral 1 C 6B/8 2c SDC6B 4 final series edge mod. tool medial 1

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370 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C6B/8 2d SDC6B 4 fragment edge mod 1 C6B/8 3b SDC6B 4 final series blade medial 1 C6B/10 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C6B/10 4b constr. fill/refuse final series bla de proximal 1 C6B/10 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C6B/10 4c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C6B/12 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C6B/13 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C6B/19 1a constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C6B/21 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C6B/21 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C6B/21 1c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C6B/22 1b constr. fi ll/refuse flake 1 C6B/22 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C6B/22 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C6B/22 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C6B/22 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C6B/22 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C6B/23 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C6B/24 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C6B/24 1b constr. fill/refuse fina l series edge mod. tool distal 2 C6B/25 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C6B/25 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C6B/25 3c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C6B/25 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C6B/25 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C6B/25 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C6B/26 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C6B/26 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C6B/27 1a SDC6B 2 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C6B/31 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C6B/31 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C6B/31 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C6B/35 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C7B/1 2 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete 1 C7B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. t ool medial 1 C7B/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C7B/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C7B/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C7B/8 1a constr. fill/refuse final serie s blade medial 1 C7B/8 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C7B/9 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C7B/9 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C7B/11 1a SDC7B 2 final series blade complete 1 C7B/11 1b SDC7B 2 final se ries lancet med/dist 1 C7B/12 4 SDC7B 1 final series lancet medial 2 C7B/23 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C7B/23 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C75H/3 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76F/1 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C8B/2 1a constr. fill/refuse objects from exhausted core uniface complete 1 C8B/2 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8B/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C8B/7 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1

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371 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C8B/9 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8B/11 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8B/16 4a constr. fill/refuse final series b lade medial 1 C8B/17 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8B/19 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8B/26 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C8B/41 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox imal 1 C8B/41 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8B/67 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8B/69 9a constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C8D/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool media l 1 C8D/7 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8D/10 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8D/23 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C8D/31 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C8D/3 2 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8D/34 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C8D/38 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8D/43 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medi al 2 C8E/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8F/13 9a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8F/14 9a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C8F/15 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8F/17 3a con str. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C8F/17 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C8F/18 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8F/18 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8F/18 1c constr. fill /refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C8F/18 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C8F/20 5a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade proximal 1 C8F/20 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8G/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C8G/2 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8G/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C8G/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C8J/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final s eries edge mod. tool medial 1 C8J/3 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8J/4 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C8J/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8J/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C8J/7 8a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C8J/7 8b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C8J/7 8c constr. fill/refuse blade frag? blade core frag? 1 C8J/8 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C 8M/2 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8M/1 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8M/1 6b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C8N/1 9a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8N/2 13a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C8N/1 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8N/1 9b constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C8N/2 8a constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C8O/2 10a constr. fill/refuse point biface medial 1 C8O/2 11a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1

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372 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C8O/2 12a constr. fill/refuse fragment macroflake frag? 1 C8O/2 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C8O/2 8a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C8O/2 9a constr. fill /refuse final series blade medial 1 C8O/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8P/1 1a constr. fill/refuse 'small' percussion blade core shaping 1 C8P/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C8P/3 1a cons tr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8P/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C8Q/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C8Q/6 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C8S/4 6b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C8S/4 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8T/1 7a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C9A/1 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 3 C9A/1 4b c onstr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C10A/3 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C11A/16 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C12A/45 1d SDC12A 2 distal orientation flake 5 C12A/45 1b SDC12A 2 platform p rep flake 7 C12A/45 1c SDC12A 2 'small' percussion blade overhang removal 3 C12A/45 1a SDC12A 2 'small' percussion flake core shaping 6 C12A/45 1g SDC12A 2 final series blade distal 1 C12A/45 1f SDC12A 2 final series blade medial 3 C12A/45 1e SDC12A 2 initial series blade complete and fragments 15 C12A/47 1q SDC12A 2 bidirectional core core section distal 1 C12A/47 1n SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 3 C12A/47 1o SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core se ction distal 2 C12A/47 1p SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 1 C12A/47 1r SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 1 C12A/47 1s SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section lateral 11 C12A/47 1h SDC12 A 2 core section flake 15 C12A/47 1bb SDC12A 2 core section flake scraper 1 C12A/47 1g SDC12A 2 cortical core top fragment 30 C12A/47 1k SDC12A 2 distal orientation flake 97 C12A/47 1d SDC12A 2 faceted core top fragment 23 C12A/47 1e SDC12A 2 faceted/striated core top fragment 19 C12A/47 1l SDC12A 2 lateral core rejuv 64 C12A/47 1dd SDC12A 2 lateral core rejuv other 1 C12A/47 1a SDC12A 2 macroblade core shaping 1 C12A/47 1hh SDC12A 2 macroblade medial notched blade 1 C12A/47 1ii SDC12A 2 macroblade distal notched blade 1 C12A/47 1jj SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 1 C12A/47 1b SDC12A 2 macroflake core shaping 152 C12A/47 1c SDC12A 2 macroflake with cortex core shaping 47 C12A/47 1 f SDC12A 2 pecked ground core top fragment 7 C12A/47 1j SDC12A 2 platform prep flake 358 C12A/47 1i SDC12A 2 platform prep flake 1 C12A/47 1u SDC12A 2 'small' percussion blade overhang removal 235 C12A/47 1gg SDC12A 2 'small' percussion b lade core shaping 1 C12A/47 1t SDC12A 2 'small' percussion flake core shaping 615 C12A/47 1cc SDC12A 2 'small' percussion flake disk 1

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373 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C12A/47 1ff SDC12A 2 final series blade prox/med 2 C12A/47 1z SDC12A 2 final series blade complete 3 C12A/47 1 m SDC12A 2 final series blade plunging distal 55 C12A/47 1w SDC12A 2 final series blade proximal 158 C12A/47 1x SDC12A 2 final series blade medial 254 C12A/47 1y SDC12A 2 final series blade distal 293 C12A/47 1v SDC12A 2 initial series blade complete a nd fragments 1549 C12A/47 1ee SDC12A 2 point biface proximal 1 C12A/47 1aa SDC12A 2 various debitage fragment 575 C12A/49 1g SDC12A 2 bidirectional core core section indeterminate 2 C12A/49 1c SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 1 C12A/49 1d SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 1 C12A/49 1e SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 4 C12A/49 1f SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section lateral 7 C12A/49 1l SDC12A 2 core section flak e 14 C12A/49 1h SDC12A 2 cortical core top fragment 15 C12A/49 1n SDC12A 2 distal orientation flake 155 C12A/49 1i SDC12A 2 faceted core top fragment 7 C12A/49 1j SDC12A 2 faceted/striated core top fragment 19 C12A/49 1o SDC12A 2 l ateral core rejuv 21 C12A/49 1b SDC12A 2 macroflake core shaping 33 C12A/49 1a SDC12A 2 macroflake with cortex core shaping 26 C12A/49 1x SDC12A 2 objects from exhausted core edge mod. tool complete 1 C12A/49 1cc SDC12A 2 objects from exhausted core edge mod. tool lateral 1 C12A/49 1ff SDC12A 2 objects from exhausted core edge mod. tool distal/ lateral 1 C12A/49 1k SDC12A 2 pecked ground core top fragment 15 C12A/49 1m SDC12A 2 platform prep flake 256 C12A/49 1dd SDC12A 2 platform pr ep flake disk 1 C12A/49 1p SDC12A 2 'small' percussion blade overhang removal 98 C12A/49 1r SDC12A 2 'small' percussion flake core shaping 284 C12A/49 1ee SDC12A 2 final series edge mod. tool plunging distal 1 C12A/49 1bb SDC12A 2 final series ed ge mod. tool medial 1 C12A/49 1aa SDC12A 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C12A/49 1z SDC12A 2 final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C12A/49 1y SDC12A 2 initial series edge mod. tool distal 2 C12A/49 1t SDC12A 2 final series blade complete 5 C12 A/49 1v SDC12A 2 final series blade medial 30 C12A/49 1q SDC12A 2 final series blade plunging distal 44 C12A/49 1w SDC12A 2 final series blade distal 47 C12A/49 1u SDC12A 2 final series blade proximal 66 C12A/49 1s SDC12A 2 initial series blade complet e and fragments 621 C12A/49 1gg SDC12A 2 various debitage fragment 205 C12B/1 2a SDC12A 2 final series blade medial 1 C12B/2 2a SDC12A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 1 C12B/2 2d SDC12A 2 final series blade distal 1 C12B/2 2c SDC12 A 2 final series blade proximal 3 C12B/2 2b SDC12A 2 initial series blade complete and fragments 5 C12B/2 2e SDC12A 2 various debitage fragment 4 C12B/5 6a SDC12A 2 final series blade medial 1 C12C/2 4 SDC12A 2 final series blade medial 1 C12E/13 1 SDC12A 2 final series blade medial 1 C12G/11 3 SDC12A 2 final series blade medial 1

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374 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C13A/19 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C14A/4 11b SD, but not assigned final series blade proximal 1 C14A/4 11a SD, but not assigned final series blade med/dist 1 C14A/5 6a SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C14A/5 6b SD, but not assigned final series blade distal 1 C14A/6 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C14A/12 1 SD, but not assigned final series blade media l 1 C14B/1 6a SD, but not assigned blade artifacts notched blade complete 1 C14B/1 6c SD, but not assigned blade artifacts notched blade medial 1 C14B/1 6b SD, but not assigned faceted core top fragment other 1 C14D/2 4 SD, but not assigned final ser ies edge mod. tool medial 1 C14E/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C16A/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C16A/13 4 constr. fill/refuse 'small' percussion flake core shaping 2 C16B/3 2 constr. fi ll/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C16B/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C16C/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C16C/3 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade proximal 1 C16I/16 1 const r. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C16J/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C16K/7 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete 1 C16L/19 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 1 C16R/9 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C16R/9 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C16T/1 5 constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C16T/2 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C17C/2 1 constr. fill/ refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C17C/19 8c constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C17C/19 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C17C/19 8b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C17C/25 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C17C/29 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C17C/29 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C17D/8 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C17D/11 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edg e mod. tool proximal 1 C17D/12 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C17D/12 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C17D/12 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C17D/20 1a constr. fi ll/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C17D/20 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 2 C17D/21 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C17D/21 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C17E/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C17F/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C17P/13 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C17K/4 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C17K/12 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C17K/37 1 constr. fill/refuse 'small' percussion flake core shaping 1 C17K/40 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C17K/43 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C17K/43 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C17O/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C17P/4 7 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C17P/15 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1

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375 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C17P/16 21 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C17P/33 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C17Q/21 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C18A/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C18A /10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C18B/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C18B/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C18B/15 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C18B/20 1 con str. fill/refuse fragment proximal 1 C18B/23 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C18B/33 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C18C/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C18C/11 1a constr. fill/refuse final s eries edge mod. tool proximal 2 C18C/11 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C18C/15 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C18C/15 3b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C18D/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final s eries edge mod. tool medial 1 C18D/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C18D/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C18D/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C18D/11 1 constr. fill/r efuse fragment proximal 1 C18E/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C18F/3 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 1 C18F/5 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C18F/6 1 constr. fill/refuse frag ment 1 C18G/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C18G/8 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C18G/8 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C18G/11 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade plunging distal 1 C18G/12 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C18G/12 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C18H/12 2 SDC18G 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C18N/1 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C18N /15 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C18N/17 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C18N/18 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C18N/18 7 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C18N/27 2a cons tr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C18N/27 2b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C18N/32 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C18N/32 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C18T/7 9 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. t ool proximal 1 C18U/3 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C18U/9 9 constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C18U/14 5 constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C19A/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proxi mal 1 C19A/6 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C19A/8 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade proximal 1 C19A/21 1a constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 2 C19A/21 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C19A/21 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C19A/24 1 constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C19A/25 1h SDC19A 2 bidirectional core complete 1 C19A/25 1m SDC19A 2 bidirectional core frag distal 2

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376 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C19A/25 1i SDC1 9A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) lateral 1 C19A/25 1j SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal 1 C19A/25 1k SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 4 C19A/25 1l SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 25 C19A/25 1n SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) distal 2 C19A/25 1q SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C19A/25 1r SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C19A/25 1v SDC19A 2 distal orientation flake 4 C19A/25 1t SDC19A 2 indeterminate c ore top fragment 4 C19A/25 1a SDC19A 2 macroflake core shaping 14 C19A/25 1b SDC19A 2 macroflake with cortex core shaping 5 C19A/25 1s SDC19A 2 platform prep flake 33 C19A/25 1c SDC19A 2 'small' percussion blade core shaping 2 C19A/25 1f SDC19A 2 final series blade proximal 8 C19A/25 1o SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) distal 4 C19A/25 1p SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) indeterminate 8 C19A/25 1w SDC19A 2 core section flake 13 C19A/25 1u SDC19A 2 indeterminate rejuv d ebitage 3 C19A/25 1e SDC19A 2 final series blade complete 1 C19A/25 1g SDC19A 2 final series blade medial 5 C19A/25 1d SDC19A 2 initial series blade complete and fragments 192 C19A/25 1x SDC19A 2 fragment 89 C19A/27 1 constr. fill/refuse initi al series blade complete 1 C19A/28 5j SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 7 C19A/28 5k SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 5 C19A/28 5l SDC19A 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C19A/28 5o SDC19A 2 core sect ion flake 1 C19A/28 5n SDC19A 2 distal orientation flake 5 C19A/28 5f SDC19A 2 macroblade with cortex core shaping 9 C19A/28 5e SDC19A 2 macroflake with cortex core shaping 1 C19A/28 5m SDC19A 2 platform prep flake 9 C19A/28 5d SDC19A 2 final series blade complete 1 C19A/28 5h SDC19A 2 final series blade prox/med 1 C19A/28 5i SDC19A 2 final series blade medial 1 C19A/28 5c SDC19A 2 final series blade med/dist 2 C19A/28 5b SDC19A 2 final series blade prox/med 3 C19A/28 5a SDC19A 2 f inal series blade complete 6 C19A/28 5g SDC19A 2 initial series blade complete and fragments 113 C19A/28 5p SDC19A 2 fragment 12 C19A/28 6a SDC19A 2 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C19A/28 6b SDC19A 2 final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C19A/33 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C19A/33 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete and fragments 8 C19A/34 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C19A/39 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C20A/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C22A/1 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C22A/1 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C22A/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C22A/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C22A/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22A/5 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade proximal 1 C22A/5 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edg e mod. tool medial 1

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377 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C22A/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C22A/7 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22A/7 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C22A/7 1b constr. fill/refuse final se ries blade medial 2 C22A/8 2a constr. fill/refuse final series other medial 1 C22A/8 2d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C22A/8 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C22A/8 2b constr. fill/refuse final se ries blade medial 3 C22A/9 1d constr. fill/refuse macroflake edge mod 1 C22A/9 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22A/9 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C22A/9 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod tool medial 1 C22A/10 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C22A/10 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C22A/10 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 5 C22A/12 1e constr. fill/refuse final se ries blade distal 1 C22A/12 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 3 C22A/12 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 3 C22A/12 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 4 C22A/12 1b constr. fill/refuse final serie s edge mod. tool medial 4 C22A/12 1f constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C22A/14 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C22A/15 3f constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C22A/15 3e constr. fill/refuse final series drill distal 1 C22A/ 15 3h constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22A/15 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C22A/15 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 3 C22A/15 3d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C22A/15 3g constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 3 C22A/15 3c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C22A/17 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C22A/17 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade med ial 2 C22A/17 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C22A/20 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C22A/22 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C22A/22 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C22A/24 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C22A/25 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C22A/26 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C22A/27 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22A/27 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C22A/27 1c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C22A/28 2a SDC22A 1 final series blade medial 1 C22A/28 2b SDC22A 1 fragment 2 C22A/30 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C 22A/31 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C22A/36 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C22B/2 1c constr. fill/refuse macroflake edge mod 1 C22B/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C22B/2 1a constr. fill/re fuse final series blade proximal 2 C22B/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C22C/2 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete and fragments 2 C22C/2 1b cons tr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2

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378 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C22C/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C22C/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C22C/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C22 C/6 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C22C/6 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C22C/7 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C22C/7 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade pr oximal 1 C22C/7 1d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C22C/7 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C22C/8 2d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C22C/8 2a constr. fill/refuse final series point pr oximal 1 C22C/8 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C22C/8 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C22C/9 2d constr. fill/refuse final series blade plunging distal 1 C22C/9 2b constr. fill/refuse final seri es edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C22C/9 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 7 C22C/9 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 3 C22C/11 3e constr. fill/refuse bidirectional core frag distal 1 C22C/11 3c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C22C/11 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C22C/11 3d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C22C/11 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 4 C22C/11 3f constr. fill/ refuse fragment 3 C22C/13 2c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C22C/13 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C22C/13 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C22C/14 2 constr. fill/refuse fin al series edge mod. tool medial 2 C22C/15 1c constr. fill/refuse final series other medial 1 C22C/15 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C22C/15 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 4 C22D/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C22D/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C22E/1 1 constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C22E/2 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C22E/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22E/16 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C22E/19 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C22E/20 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22E/23 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22E/24 1d constr. fill/refuse flake 2 C22E/24 1e constr. fill/refuse distal orientation flake 1 C22E/24 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C22E/24 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C22E/24 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C22E/28 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22E/29 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C22E/30 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. to ol medial 1 C22F/1 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C22F/1 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C22F/1 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C22F/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. too l medial 2 C22F/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C22F/4 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C22F/5 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2

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379 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C22F/5 4 constr. fill/refuse fragment 3 C22F/5 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C22F/6 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C22F/7 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C22F/7 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C22F/7 2c constr. fill/refuse fragment 5 C22F/7 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C24B/4 3 SD, but not assigned final series blade medial 2 C24B/5 2 SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C24C/2 1c SD but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C24C/2 1b SD, but not assigned final series blade proximal 1 C24C/2 1a SD, but not assigned final series blade complete 1 C24C/3 15 SD, but not assigned final series blade prox/med 1 C24C/3 2 SD, but not assigned final series blade prox/med 1 C24C/3 24 SD, but not assigned fragment 1 C24D/1 4 SD, but not assigned exhausted core complete 1 C24D/1 5 SD, but not assigned final series blade prox/med 1 C28A/4 7 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C29A/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C29A/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C29A/6 5 SDC29A 2 final series blade prox/med 1 C29A/6 7a SDC29A 2 final series blade proximal 1 C29A/6 7c SDC29A 2 fin al series blade distal 2 C29A/6 7b SDC29A 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C29A/7 6a SDC29A 1 final series inlay complete 1 C29A/7 6b SDC29A 1 fragment 1 C30B/2 1b SD, but not assigned macroflake core shaping 1 C30B/2 1a SD, but not assign ed macroflake with cortex core shaping 1 C30B/2 2a SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C30B/2 2b SD, but not assigned final series blade proximal 1 C31B/7 1a SDC31B 2 object from core rejuv debitage disk 1 C31B/7 2 SDC31B 2 final series blade medial 1 C31C/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C31D/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C31D/3 3 constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade medial 1 C32A/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series bla de medial 1 C32A/4 1 SDC32A 1 macroblade drill 1 C32A/4 5a SDC32A 2 initial series blade prox/med 1 C32A/4 5b SDC32A 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C32B/5 18a SDC32B 1 final series blade medial 1 C32B/5 18 SDC32B 1 final series edge mod. too l medial 1 C32C/2 8 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 2 C32C/4 5a SDC32C 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) other distal 2 C32C/4 5b SDC32C 1 core section flake fragment 8 C32C/4 5c SDC32C 1 platform prep flake fragment 3 C32C/4 5e SDC32C 1 final series blade distal 1 C32C/4 5d SDC32C 1 flake complete 1 C32C/4 1 SDC32C 1 platform prep flake 5 C32C/6 3 SDC32C 2 final series blade medial 1 C32C/6 8b SDC32C 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C32C/6 8a SDC32C 2 flake edge mod 1 C32C/7 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C32C/7 6b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1

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380 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C32C/8 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C32C/8 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C33B/3 2 SDC33B 1 final series blade proximal 1 C34B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C34B/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C34C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C34C/4 1b constr. fill/refuse initial se ries edge mod. tool distal 1 C34C/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C35A/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C35A/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C35A/9 1 SDC35A 1 fina l series blade medial 1 C35B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C35D/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C36A/2 15a SDC36A 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C36A/2 5 SDC36A 1 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C36A/2 15b SDC36A 1 platform prep flake 1 C36A/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C36B/4 5 SDC36B 1 final series blade proximal 1 C36B/7 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C36A/1 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C37B/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C37B/9 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C37B/13 1 constr. fill/refuse objects from exhausted core edge mod. tool proximal/ later al 1 C37B/44 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C37B/44 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C37C/7 7 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C37C/11 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool media l 1 C37C/30 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C37G/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C38B/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C38C/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proxi mal 1 C39A/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C39A/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C39A/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C39A/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C39A/7 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C39A/7 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C39A/7 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C39B/2 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade med ial 1 C39B/2 4b constr. fill/refuse flake complete 2 C39B/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C39B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C39B/6 5 SDC39B 2 object from macroblade eccentric 1 C39B/7 4b SDC39B 3 blade cor e frag (non rejuv) notched lateral 1 C39B/7 4g SDC39B 3 blade core frag (non rejuv) notched lateral 1 C39B/7 4h SDC39B 3 blade core frag (non rejuv) notched lateral 1 C39B/7 4a SDC39B 3 macroblade core shaping 1 C39B/7 4d SDC39B 3 macroblade core sha ping 1 C39B/7 4e SDC39B 3 macroflake core shaping 1 C39B/7 4f SDC39B 3 object from blade core frag edge mod. tool lateral 1 C39B/7 4i SDC39B 3 objects from core rejuv other proximal 1 C39B/7 4c SDC39B 3 final series blade medial 1 C39B/10 8a SDC39 B 4 final series blade distal 1 C39B/13 1a SDC39B 5 final series blade distal 1

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381 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C39C/2 1a constr. fill/refuse fragment edge mod blade? 1 C39C/6 4a SDC39C 2 final series blade proximal 1 C39C/6 5a SDC39C 2 final series blade medial 1 C39D/1 1b constr fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C39D/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C39D/1 1c constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C39D/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C39D/3 2b constr. fill/refuse fi nal series edge mod. tool medial 2 C39D/3 2c constr. fill/refuse distal orientation flake 1 C39D/3 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C39D/3 2d constr. fill/refuse fragment 3 C39D/5 2a constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C39E/2 1a constr. fill/refuse flake biface thinning complete 4 C39E/3 1a constr. fill/refuse flake biface thinning complete 1 C39E/4 1a constr. fill/refuse flake biface thinning complete 2 C39E/5 2a constr. fill/refuse flake biface thinning complete and frags 10 C39E/6 1a constr. fill/refuse flake biface thinning complete 1 C39E/8 1a constr. fill/refuse flake biface thinning complete and frags 5 C39E/9 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C39E/9 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C39E/13 5a SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C39E/15 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C39E/17 1a SDC39E 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C39E/22 1a constr. fill/refuse final ser ies blade distal 1 C39E/30 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C39E/30 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C39E/32 8b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C39E/32 7a constr. fill/refuse f ragment 1 C39E/32 8a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C39E/34 21a SDC39E 4 final series blade complete 1 C39E/34 21b SDC39E 4 final series blade distal 2 C39E/36 9a SDC39E 3 final series blade proximal 1 C39E/36 9b SDC39E 3 final se ries blade medial 1 C39E/37 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade complete 1 C39E/38 6a SDC39E 5 final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C39E/38 7a SDC39E 5 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C39E/40 13a SDC39E 6 final series edge mod. tool prox /med 1 C39E/40 13b SDC39E 6 final series blade medial 1 C39E/42 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C39E/46 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C40A/3 11a SDC40A 1 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C40A/3 11 c SDC40A 1 final series blade medial 1 C40A/3 11b SDC40A 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C40A/3 3a SDC40A 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C40A/3 3b SDC40A 1 final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C40C/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series bl ade medial 1 C40C/3 1b constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C40C/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C40C/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C40C/6 5b SDC40C 1 final series blade proximal 1 C40C/6 5a SDC40C 1 final series blade medial 1 C41A/1 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C41A/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C41A/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1

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382 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C41B/1 1 const r. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C41D/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C41D/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C41D/1 2c constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C41D/2 1a constr. fill/refus e final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C41D/2 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 3 C42A/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C42B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C45A/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C45B/3 2a SDC45B 1 final series blade medial 1 C46B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C47B/1 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C47B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C 47B/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 5 C47B/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C47B/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C47B/2 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C48A/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C48A/3 1 SDC48A 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C49A/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C49A/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C49A/2 1 c onstr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C49A/3 1b constr. fill/refuse exhausted core medial 1 C49A/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C49A/6 1 SDC49A 3 final series blade distal 1 C49A/8 4 SDC49A 4 initial series blade complete 1 C49A/8 5 SDC49A 4 final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C49A/9 5a SDC49A 5 final series blade complete 1 C49A/9 5c SDC49A 5 exhausted core distal/ lateral 1 C49A/9 5b SDC49A 5 final series blade medial 2 C49B/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C49B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 6 C49B/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C49B/2 1c constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C49B/2 1a constr. fill/refuse f inal series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C49B/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C49B/2 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C49B/2 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C49B/2 2c c onstr. fill/refuse flake edge mod. Tool complete 1 C49B/2 2d constr. fill/refuse fragment 3 C49B/2 6c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C49B/2 6a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C49B/2 6b constr. fill/refuse f inal series edge mod. tool medial 4 C49B/7 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C49D/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/1 2 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade 1 C49D/2 6 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/3 3 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C49D/4 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/5 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/6 2 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade 1 C49D/7 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/7 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/7 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1

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383 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C49D/11 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 2 C49D/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/13 1 constr. fill/refuse final s eries blade 1 C49D/14 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/14 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/15 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/15 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/16 5 SDC49D 1 fina l series blade 1 C49D/16 4 SDC49D 1 platform prep flake 1 C49D/16 1 SDC49D 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric 1 C49D/16 9 SDC49D 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric 1 C49D/16 2 SDC49D 1 objects from exhausted core uniface 1 C49D/1 6 3 SDC49D 1 objects from exhausted core notched 1 C49D/19 7 SDC49D 4 final series blade 2 C49D/19 10 SDC49D 4 final series blade 1 C49D/19 13 SDC49D 4 final series blade 1 C49D/20 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/20 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/21 3 SDC49D 5 final series blade 1 C49D/22 9 SDC49D 9 final series blade 2 C49D/22 8 SDC49D 6 fragment possible blade 1 C49D/24 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C49D/26 1 constr. fill/refuse f inal series blade 2 C49D/26 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C49D/27 8 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 2 C49D/27 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 3 C49D/28 7 SDC49D 9 final series blade 1 C49D/28 15 SDC49D 9 initial series b lade 2 C49D/28 16 SDC49D 4 final series blade 1 C49D/28 8 SDC49D 9 final series blade 1 C49D/28 9 SDC49D 9 final series blade 2 C49D/28 10 SDC49D 9 final series blade 1 C50A/3 1 SDC50A 1 shatter 1 C50B/1 3a constr. fill/refuse final ser ies edge mod. tool proximal 1 C50B/1 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C50B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C50B/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C50B/10 6 SDC50B 3 fina l series blade proximal 1 C50C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C51A/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C51B/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C51B/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C51B/4 2 SD, but not assigned exhausted core distal/medial 1 C51C/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C51C/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C51C/5 1 constr. fil l/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C52B/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C52B/7 1 SDC52B 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C52C/2 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C52C/3 1b constr. fill/ref use final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C52C/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C52D/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C52D/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C53A/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2

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384 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C53A/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C53B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C53B/14 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C53B/16 4a SDC53B 6 final ser ies blade proximal 1 C53B/16 4b SDC53B 6 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C53B/16 4d SDC53B 6 final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C53B/16 4c SDC53B 6 final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C53C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C54B/8 1c SD, but not assigned macroflake core shaping 1 C54B/8 1b SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C54B/8 1a SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C54C/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C54C/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C55A/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C52C/2 4b constr. fill/refuse shatter 1 C55N/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C56B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C56B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C56B/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C56C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C56C/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C56C/10 10 SDC56C 3 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C56C/11 6b SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C56C/11 6a SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. to ol prox/med 1 C57A/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C57A/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C57A/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C57A/4 2b constr. fill/refuse final series e dge mod. tool medial 1 C57A/4 2d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C57A/4 2c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 4 C57A/4 2e constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C57A/5 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C57A/5 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C57A/5 2c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C57A/5 2d constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C57A/6 2a constr. fill/refuse macroflake with cortex core shaping 1 C57A/6 2b con str. fill/refuse final series blade medial 4 C57B/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C57B/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C57C/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C57C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C58A/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C58B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C58C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C59A/1 1 constr. fill/refuse fi nal series blade medial 1 C59A/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C59A/11 1 SDC59A 4 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C60A/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C60A/3 1a constr. fill/refuse mac roflake fragments 2 C60B/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C60B/8 4 SDC60B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C60B/9 9 SDC60B 2 final series blade medial 1 C60C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C60C/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1

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385 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C62A/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C62A/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C62A/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C62B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C63A/2 1 SDC63A 2 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C63B/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C63C/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool me dial 1 C63C/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C63C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C64B/3 2a SDC64B 1 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C64B/3 2b SDC64B 1 final series blade medial 2 C64B/4 1b SDC 64B 1 final series blade proximal 1 C64B/4 1a SDC64B 1 final series blade med/dist 1 C65A/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C65A/3 1a SDC65A 1 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C65A/3 1b SDC65A 1 final series edge mod. tool media l 1 C65A/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C65A/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series hafted tool medial 1 C65B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C65B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C65B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C66B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C67A/8 3 SDC67A 2 final series blade prox/med 1 C67A/9 2 SDC67A 3 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C67A/9 10 SDC67A 3 final series blade medial 1 C68A/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C68A/2 1a SDC68A 1 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C68A/2 1c SDC68A 1 final series blade medial 2 C68A/2 1b SDC68A 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C68B/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C68B/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C70B/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C70B/3 5 constr. fill/refuse initial series bla de proximal 1 C70B/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C70B/12 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C70B/17 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C70B/21 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade dista l 1 C70B/26 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C70B/30 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C70B/30 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C70B/32 4a SD, but not assigned exhausted core proximal 1 C70B/32 4b SD, but not assigned exhausted core medial/lateral 1 C70B/32 4c SD, but not assigned exhausted core distal 1 C70B/32 5 SD, but not assigned object from blade core frag edge mod. tool medial 1 C70B/32 3c SD, but not assigned lateral core frag? 1 C70B/32 3b SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool distal 2 C70B/32 3a SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 6 C70B/34 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C70B/35 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C70B/38 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C70B/38 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C70B/39 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C70B/42 1b SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) othe r prox/med/distal 1 C70B/42 1n SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other proximal/ lateral 1

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386 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C70B/42 1s SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other medial 1 C70B/42 1j SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other prox/med/distal 1 C70B/42 1p SDC70B 2 bla de core frag (non rejuv) other proximal 1 C70B/42 1t SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other distal 1 C70B/42 1d SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other prox/med/distal 1 C70B/42 1v SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other distal 1 C70B/42 1r S DC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other proximal/ lateral 1 C70B/42 1q SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other proximal/ lateral 1 C70B/42 1o SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other proximal/ lateral 1 C70B/42 1m SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non re juv) other proximal 1 C70B/42 1a SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other distal/medial 1 C70B/42 1c SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other distal/medial 1 C70B/42 1u SDC70B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) flake proximal 1 C70B/42 1k SDC70B 2 objec ts from core rejuv other proximal 1 C70B/42 1l SDC70B 2 objects from exhausted core notched prox/med/distal 1 C70B/42 1i SDC70B 2 objects from exhausted core notched prox/med/distal 1 C70B/42 1h SDC70B 2 objects from exhausted core notched prox/med/dist al 1 C70B/42 1g SDC70B 2 objects from exhausted core notched distal/medial 1 C70B/42 1e SDC70B 2 objects from exhausted core notched distal/medial 1 C70B/42 1f SDC70B 2 objects from exhausted core notched medial 1 C70B/45 1 constr. fill/refuse blade co re frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C70B/48 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C70B/59 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C70D/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C70D/4 5 constr. fill/ refuse final series blade medial 1 C70E/1 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C70E/2 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C71E/2 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C71E/9 1a constr fill/refuse initial series blade proximal 1 C71E/12 2a constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C71E/16 10 SDC71E 2 objects from core rejuv other proximal 1 C71E/16 11 SDC71E 2 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C71E/16 12 SDC71E 2 m acroblade core shaping 1 C71E/16 3 SDC71E 2 objects from core rejuv other proximal 1 C71E/16 4 SDC71E 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other proximal/ lateral 1 C71E/16 5 SDC71E 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) notched lateral 1 C71E/16 6 SDC71E 2 blade co re frag (non rejuv) notched distal/ lateral 1 C71E/16 7 SDC71E 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) notched lateral 1 C71E/16 8 SDC71E 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) notched complete 1 C71E/16 9 SDC71E 2 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C71E/16 2 a SDC71E 2 final series blade complete 2 C71E/17 1a SD, but not assigned final series blade complete 2 C71E/17 1 SD, but not assigned final series lancet complete 2 C71E/18 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C71E/19 8a SDC71E 3 exhausted core medial/lateral 1 C71E/19 8a SDC71E 3 final series blade complete 1 C71E/21 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C71E/21 5b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C71E/28 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool pro x/med 1 C71E/34 7a constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C71E/35 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C71E/48 1a constr. fill/refuse flake edge mod tool 1 C71E/52 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C71E/52 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 2

PAGE 387

387 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C71F/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C72B/13 1a SDC72B 1 final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C72B/13 1b SDC72B 1 final series blade medial 1 C72B/13 2a SDC72B 1 final s eries blade proximal 1 C72C/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C72C/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C72D/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C72G/3 3a constr. fill/refus e final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C72I/17 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C72I/20 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C73B/4 3a constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C73B/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C73B/5 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C73B/6 1a constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C73B/7 6a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C73B/7 6b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C73B/7 6c c onstr. fill/refuse flake blade core frag? 1 C73B/8 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C73B/10 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C73B/18 1a SDC73B 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric proximal 1 C73B/21 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C73B/21 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C73B/23 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C73B/23 2a constr. fill/refuse flake macro? 1 C73B/24 1a constr. fill/ref use final series blade distal 1 C73B/27 2a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade proximal 1 C73B/27 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C73B/28 1a SDC73B 2 fragment 1 C73B/31 8a SDC73B 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C74B/ 2 2b SDC74B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C74B/2 2a SDC74B 1 final series blade medial 1 C74B/2 2c SDC74B 1 fragment 1 C74B/2 4a SDC74B 1 final series blade distal 1 C74B/3 3a SDC74B 1 final series blade medial 1 C75B/2 4a constr. fill/re fuse final series blade proximal 1 C75B/3 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C75B/3 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C75B/3 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C75B/3 8a constr. fil l/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C75B/11 1a SDC75B 2 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C75C/5 1a constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C75C/5 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C75C/5 2a constr. fill/refuse final series e dge mod. tool proximal 2 C75C/6 5b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C75C/6 5d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C75C/6 5c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C75C/6 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C75C/6 6a constr. fill/refuse blade frag? edge mod 1 C75C/13 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C75C/13 2d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C75C/13 2b constr. fill/refuse initial se ries blade proximal 2 C75C/13 2e constr. fill/refuse initial series blade distal 2 C75C/13 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C75C/15 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3

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388 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C75C/15 7a constr. fill/refuse fi nal series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C75C/15 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C75E/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C75E/11 1a constr. fill/refuse macroflake edge mod 1 C76B/14 10a constr. fil l/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76B/15 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C76B/15 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C76B/15 8a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C76B/15 8b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76C/5 6a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C76C/16 7a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C76C/17 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76C /19 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C76C/19 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C76C/23 5a constr. fill/refuse final series hafted tool complete 1 C76C/23 5b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C76E/23 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C76E/27 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76E/29 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C76F/4 11a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool media l 1 C76F/15 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C76F/20 7b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C76F/20 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76F/22 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76F/23 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76F/26 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76H/1 7a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C76H/5 27a constr. fill/refuse final ser ies edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C76H/5 27c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C76H/5 27b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C76H/5 27d constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C76H/6 13a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C76H/6 13b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C76H/7 14a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C76J/3 26a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76J/7 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C76L/2 7a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C76L/3 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76N/4 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C76N/5 5a constr. fill/refus e final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C76N/7 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76P/2 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76U/1 1a constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C76U/3 11a constr fill/refuse exhausted core proximal/medial 1 C76U/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76U/3 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C76U/3 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C76U/4 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C76U/5 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76U/6 14a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76U/6 14b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod tool medial 4 C76U/8 22a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C76U/9 22c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 5 C76U/9 22a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1

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389 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C76U/9 22e constr. fill/refuse final series ed ge mod. tool med/dist 1 C76U/9 22d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C76U/9 22b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 6 C76U/9 25a constr. fill/refuse flake fragment 1 C76U/9 7b constr. fill/refuse final seri es edge mod. tool medial 1 C76U/9 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C76U/11 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76W/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C76W/6 1b constr. fill/refus e final series blade medial 1 C76W/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76W/8 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C76W/10 2a constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade medial 1 C76W/10 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76W/10 3a constr. fill/refuse 'small' percussion flake core shaping 2 C76W/11 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C76W/11 4b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C76W/12 2a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 1 C76W/15 2a constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C76X/4 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76X/11 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C76 X/12 5b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76X/12 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C76X/13 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C76X/13 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod tool distal 1 C76X/14 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C77B/2 4a constr. fill/refuse fragment edge mod? 1 C77B/12 49g constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 1 C77B/12 48a constr. fill/refuse final series edge m od. tool medial 2 C77B/12 49d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C77B/12 49b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C77B/12 49f constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C77B/12 49c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mo d. tool medial 2 C77B/12 49e constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 3 C77B/12 49a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 5 C77B/13 11a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C77C/11 14a constr. fill /refuse exhausted core distal 1 C77C/11 13a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C77C/11 13b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 5 C77C/11 13c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C77D/3 5a constr. fill/refuse final seri es edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C78A/2 9a constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C78A/2 9b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C78C/1 9a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C78C/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C78D/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C79B/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C79B/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C79B/17 7a constr. fill/refuse fragment blade core frag? 1 C79B/18 7a SDC79B 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C79B/20 3a constr. fill/refuse fragment blade core frag? 1 C79B/21 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C79B/27 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C79B/35 5a SDC79B 4 final series edge mod. tool medial 6 C79D/3 4a constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade medial 1

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390 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C79D/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C79D/11 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C79D/12 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C8B/102 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C81A/4 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C81D/8 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C81H/1 3a constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C81K/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C81P/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C83A/3 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool me dial 1 C83A/5 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C83A/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C84B/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C85C/1 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. to ol proximal 1 C85C/1 5b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C85C/2 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C85C/2 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C85C/4 3a constr. fill/refuse core section f lake 1 C85C/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C85C/4 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C85C/4 3b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C85C/5 12 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool me dial 2 C85C/5 13 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C85C/6 17 SDC85C 1 final series blade medial 1 C85C/8 2 SDC85C 3 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C85C/8 7 SDC85C 3 final series blade medial 1 C85C/11 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod tool prox/med 1 C85C/13 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C85C/13 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C85C/15 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C85C/16 4 SDC85C 5 core section flake ed ge mod. tool 1 C85C/16 5a SDC85C 5 initial series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C85C/17 4 SD, but not assigned core section flake notched 1 C85C/18 1a SDC85C 5 objects from exhausted core eccentric lateral 1 C85C/18 1b SDC85C 5 objects from exhausted c ore eccentric distal/medial 1 C85C/21 12 SDC85C 4 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C85C/21 8a SDC85C 4 final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C85C/21 7 SDC85C 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C85C/23 1 SDC85C 7 final series edge mod. tool med ial 1 C86A/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C86A/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C86A/3 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C86A/3 2b constr. fill/refuse final serie s edge mod. tool medial 2 C86B/1 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C86B/1 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C86B/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C86B/2 1b constr. fil l/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C86B/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C86B/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C86C/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C86C/7 1 con str. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C86C/7 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C86C/7 2b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C86C/8 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1

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391 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C86C/12 1 SDC86C 3 objec t from macroblade notched 1 C86C/12 3 SDC86C 3 platform prep flake edge mod. tool 1 C86C/12 4c SDC86C 3 core section flake edge mod. tool 1 C86C/12 4a SDC86C 3 macroflake notched 1 C86C/12 4b SDC86C 3 platform prep flake notched 1 C86C/12 2b SDC86C 3 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C86C/12 2a SDC86C 3 final series blade med/dist 1 C86C/14 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C86C/15 2b SDC86C 5 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/medial 1 C86C/15 2a SDC86C 5 exhausted core complete 1 C86C/15 3e SDC86C 5 distal orientation flake notched 1 C86C/15 3c SDC86C 5 macroblade notched 1 C86C/15 3a SDC86C 5 macroflake notched 1 C86C/15 3b SDC86C 5 macroflake notched 1 C86C/15 3d SDC86C 5 platform prep f lake 1 C86C/15 4 SDC86C 5 final series blade medial 1 C86C/15 7a SDC86C 5 macroflake 1 C86C/15 5 SDC86C 5 final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C86C/15 6 SDC86C 5 final series blade prox/med 1 C86C/15 7b SDC86C 5 flake fragments 5 C86C/1 7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C86C/18 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C86C/22 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C86D/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C8 6D/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C86D/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C86D/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C86D/5 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool pro x/med 1 C86D/5 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C86D/5 2d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C86D/5 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C86D/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool di stal 1 C86D/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C86D/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C86F/2 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C86L/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C86L/1 2 constr. f ill/refuse fragment 2 C86L/3 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C86L/3 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C86L/3 3 constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C86M/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C86M/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C86M/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C87B/1 9a SDC87B 1 'small' percussion blade overhang removal 1 C87B/3 1a SDC87B 1 final series edge mod. tool medi al 1 C87B/3 1b SDC87B 1 final series blade medial 1 C87B/9 1a SDC87B 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C87B/9 2 SDC87B 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87E/1 1a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 1 C87E/1 2b SDC87E 1 dis tal orientation flake 3 C87E/1 2a SDC87E 1 objects from exhausted core notched proximal/ lateral 1 C87E/1 2c SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C87E/1 3a SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/1 3c SDC87E 1 final series blade prox/med 1

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392 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87E/1 3b SDC87E 1 initial series blade prox/med 1 C87E/1 4b SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 1 C87E/1 4a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 2 C87E/2 1d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 1 C87E/2 1a SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/2 1c SDC87E 1 macroblade core shaping 1 C87E/2 1b SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87E/2 2a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 1 C87E/2 2b SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87E/2 2c SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/2 3d SDC87E 1 initial series point complete 1 C87E/2 3c SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 3 C87E/2 3a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 3 C87E/2 3b SDC87E 1 final series blade prox/med 5 C87E/2 4a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C87E/2 4b SDC87E 1 initial series blade medial 1 C87E/2 5a SDC87E 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C87E/2 5c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87E/2 5b SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 1 C87E/ 2 6c SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 3 C87E/2 6b SDC87E 1 macroblade overhang removal 2 C87E/2 6a SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 3 C87E/2 6e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 2 C87E/2 6d SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 5 C87E/2 7a SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/2 7b SDC87E 1 initial series edge mod. tool medial 1 C87E/2 8a SDC87E 1 platform prep flake notched 1 C87E/3 1d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 1 C87E/3 1e SDC87E 1 b lade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 2 C87E/3 1a SDC87E 1 core section flake 2 C87E/3 1b SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 3 C87E/3 1f SDC87E 1 objects from exhausted core edge mod. tool medial 1 C87E/3 1g SDC87E 1 objects from exhaus ted core edge mod. tool medial 1 C87E/3 1c SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 1 C87E/3 1h SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 1 C87E/3 10a SDC87E 1 macroblade core shaping 1 C87E/3 13a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section di stal/ lateral 1 C87E/3 14b SDC87E 1 faceted/striated core top fragment 1 C87E/3 14a SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 1 C87E/3 15b SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87E/3 15a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 2 C87E/3 16a S DC87E 1 initial series blade medial 1 C87E/3 17e SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 1 C87E/3 17d SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/3 17c SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 2 C87E/3 17a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 3 C87E/3 17b SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 3 C87E/3 18b SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 1 C87E/3 18a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 2 C87E/3 19d SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/3 19c SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 1 C87E/3 19b SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/3 19a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 3

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393 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87E/3 19e SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 5 C87E/3 2a SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87E/3 2b SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/3 3a SDC87E 1 distal orientat ion flake 1 C87E/3 3b SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 1 C87E/3 4m SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 1 C87E/3 4n SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 1 C87E/3 4o SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section lateral 1 C87E/3 4i SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87E/3 4j SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 11 C87E/3 4l SDC87E 1 faceted/striated core top fragment 2 C87E/3 4k SDC87E 1 lateral core rejuv 3 C87E/3 4a S DC87E 1 macroflake with cortex core shaping 3 C87E/3 4h SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 21 C87E/3 4g SDC87E 1 'small' percussion blade overhang removal 2 C87E/3 4c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87E/3 4f SDC87E 1 final series blade plungi ng distal 2 C87E/3 4d SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 2 C87E/3 4e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 3 C87E/3 4b SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 75 C87E/3 4p SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 99 C87E/3 5g SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 1 C87E/3 5d SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 10 C87E/3 5f SDC87E 1 faceted core top fragment 1 C87E/3 5e SDC87E 1 lateral core rejuv 1 C87E/3 5c SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 4 C87E/3 5a SDC87E 1 'small' percussion blade core shaping 2 C87E/3 5h SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 1 C87E/3 5b SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 4 C87E/3 5i SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 3 C87E/3 6b SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section indeterminate 4 C87E/3 6a SDC87E 1 faceted core top fragment 1 C87E/3 7g SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 1 C87E/3 7f SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/3 7e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/3 7b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 2 C87E/3 7a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 2 C87E/3 7d SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 3 C87E/3 7c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 7 C87E/3 7h SDC87E 1 various debita ge fragment 1 C87E/3 8b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 2 C87E/3 8e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 3 C87E/3 8d SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 6 C87E/3 8a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 20 C87E/3 8c SDC87E 1 final s eries blade proximal 46 C87E/3 9a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 14 C87E/3 9b SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 21 C87E/3 9c SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 22 C87E/3 9d SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87E/4 1a SDC87E 1 blade core fr ag (non rejuv) core section proximal 2 C87E/4 1b SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 3 C87E/4 1c SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section lateral 1 C87E/4 1d SDC87E 1 objects from exhausted core notched distal 1

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394 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87E/4 12a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 1 C87E/4 13a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section indeterminate 1 C87E/4 2a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 1 C87E/4 3e SDC87E 1 indetermina te rejuv debitage fragment 1 C87E/4 3d SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 3 C87E/4 3c SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 3 C87E/4 3a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 4 C87E/4 3b SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 18 C87E/4 4b SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 1 C87E/4 4a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 2 C87E/4 4c SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 2 C87E/4 5k SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 3 C87E/4 5g SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 6 C87 E/4 5i SDC87E 1 faceted/striated core top fragment 3 C87E/4 5h SDC87E 1 lateral core rejuv 1 C87E/4 5a SDC87E 1 macroflake core shaping 3 C87E/4 5f SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 3 C87E/4 5l SDC87E 1 'small' percussion flake overhang remova l 1 C87E/4 5j SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 2 C87E/4 5d SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 1 C87E/4 5e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 6 C87E/4 5b SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 8 C87E/4 5c SDC87E 1 final series bl ade proximal 12 C87E/4 5m SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 24 C87E/4 6a SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87E/4 7a SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 2 C87E/4 8b SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87E/4 8c SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 4 C87E/4 8d SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete 1 C87E/4 8a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C87E/4 9e SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 1 C87E/4 9d SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 1 C87E/4 9c SDC87E 1 fin al series blade distal 6 C87E/4 9a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 7 C87E/4 9b SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 11 C87E/4 9f SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87E/5 1 SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/5 2a SDC87E 1 various debitag e fragment 1 C87E/6 1b SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 2 C87E/6 1c SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 2 C87E/6 1a SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 2 C87E/6 2a SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87E/6 7a SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 2 C87E/7 1d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 1 C87E/7 1e SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 2 C87E/7 1f SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section lateral 3 C87E/7 1g SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 1 C87E/7 1h SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 5 C87E/7 1c SDC87E 1 core section flake 5 C87E/7 1a SDC87E 1 distal orientation f lake 6 C87E/7 1b SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 1 C87E/7 11a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 1 C87E/7 11b SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 1

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395 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87E/7 12d SDC87E 1 bidirect ional core frag core section lateral 1 C87E/7 12a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section complete 1 C87E/7 12c SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 1 C87E/7 12b SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 1 C87E/7 13b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 1 C87E/7 13a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C87E/7 13d SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/7 13c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 6 C87E/7 14d SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 6 C87E/7 14a SDC87E 1 i nitial series blade complete and fragments 8 C87E/7 14b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 11 C87E/7 14e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 13 C87E/7 14c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 22 C87E/7 15a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 8 C87E/ 7 15c SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 11 C87E/7 15b SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 11 C87E/7 16a SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87E/7 17a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 1 C87E/7 17c SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 1 C87E/7 17b SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 1 C87E/7 18a SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 1 C87E/7 18b SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 2 C87E/7 19e SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section lateral 1 C87 E/7 19c SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87E/7 19d SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 4 C87E/7 19b SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 3 C87E/7 19a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 6 C87E/7 19g SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87E/7 19f SDC87E 1 'small' percussion blade overhange removal 2 C87E/7 2a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 2 C87E/7 20j SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section lateral 2 C87E/7 20h SDC87E 1 distal orient ation flake 5 C87E/7 20a SDC87E 1 macroflake with cortex core shaping 1 C87E/7 20g SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 10 C87E/7 20f SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/7 20e SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 1 C87E/7 20d SDC87E 1 final seri es blade proximal 3 C87E/7 20c SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 41 C87E/7 20l SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 56 C87E/7 20b SDC87E 1 'small' percussion blade core shaping 4 C87E/7 20k SDC87E 1 'small' percussion blade overhan g removal 1 C87E/7 20i SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 1 C87E/7 21a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C87E/7 22b SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 2 C87E/7 22c SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 2 C87E/7 22a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 4 C87E/7 23a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87E/7 24c SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 1 C87E/7 24d SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/7 24a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 2 C87E/7 24b SDC87E 1 final series bl ade proximal 5 C87E/7 25a SDC87E 1 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C87E/7 26a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 2 C87E/7 27b SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 2

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396 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87E/7 27a SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 4 C8 7E/7 3g SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87E/7 3h SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 3 C87E/7 3i SDC87E 1 indeterminate rejuv debitage 1 C87E/7 3a SDC87E 1 macroblade core shaping 1 C87E/7 3f SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 4 C87E/7 3c SDC 87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87E/7 3d SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 1 C87E/7 3e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 2 C87E/7 3j SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87E/7 3a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 3 C87E/7 4k SDC87E 1 bl ade core frag (non rejuv) core section indeterminate 5 C87E/7 4n SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 1 C87E/7 4i SDC87E 1 core section flake 3 C87E/7 4m SDC87E 1 cortical core top fragment 1 C87E/7 4j SDC87E 1 dista l orientation flake 17 C87E/7 4a SDC87E 1 macroflake with cortex core shaping 4 C87E/7 4o SDC87E 1 objects from core rejuv core section complete 1 C87E/7 4p SDC87E 1 objects from core rejuv distal orientation complete 1 C87E/7 4h SDC87E 1 platfor m prep flake 23 C87E/7 4d SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 1 C87E/7 4q SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 1 C87E/7 4g SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 7 C87E/7 4f SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 7 C87E/7 4e SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 33 C87E/7 4c SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 52 C87E/7 4s SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 164 C87E/7 4b SDC87E 1 'small' percussion flake core shaping 13 C87E/7 4r SDC87E 1 'small' percussion flake overhang re moval 7 C87E/7 4l SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 2 C87E/7 5a SDC87E 1 various debitage shatter 11 C87E/7 6a SDC87E 1 macroblade medial/distal 1 C87E/7 7g SDC87E 1 macroblade overhange removal 1 C87E/7 7d SDC87E 1 final series blade me dial 1 C87E/7 7f SDC87E 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C87E/7 7e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 2 C87E/7 7b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 2 C87E/7 7a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 4 C87E/7 7c SDC87E 1 final se ries blade proximal 9 C87E/7 8m SDC87E 1 macroblade overhange removal 3 C87E/7 8a SDC87E 1 macroflake with cortex core shaping 2 C87E/7 8h SDC87E 1 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C87E/7 8k SDC87E 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C87E /7 8i SDC87E 1 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C87E/7 8g SDC87E 1 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C87E/7 8j SDC87E 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C87E/7 8l SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 2 C87E/7 8c SDC87E 1 final ser ies blade complete 8 C87E/7 8b SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 12 C87E/7 8e SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 27 C87E/7 8f SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 28 C87E/7 8d SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 38 C87E/7 8n SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 2 C87E/8 1a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 1

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397 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87E/9 3a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87E/9 4a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 1 C87E/9 5a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87E/9 6a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87E/9 6c SDC87E 1 indeterminate rejuv debitage 1 C87E/9 6b SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 1 C87E/9 7a SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/11 1b SDC87E 1 blade core frag (no n rejuv) core section medial/lateral 2 C87E/11 1c SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 2 C87E/11 1d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 1 C87E/11 1a SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87E/11 1e SDC87E 1 objects from exhausted core edge mod. tool medial/lateral 1 C87E/11 10a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 1 C87E/11 11a SDC87E 1 initial series blade distal 1 C87E/11 12a SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 2 C87E/11 13c SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 1 C87E/11 13d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 1 C87E/11 13b SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87E/11 13a SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 2 C87E/11 14a SDC87E 1 initi al series blade complete and fragments 4 C87E/11 14d SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 5 C87E/11 14b SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/11 14c SDC87E 1 lateral core rejuv 1 C87E/11 15a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 2 C87E/11 16a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 2 C87E/11 16e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 2 C87E/11 16b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 4 C87E/11 16c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 7 C87E/11 16d SDC87E 1 final series blade me dial 7 C87E/11 17b SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87E/11 17a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C87E/11 18a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 2 C87E/11 2b SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 1 C87 E/11 2c SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 1 C87E/11 2d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 1 C87E/11 2a SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/11 3c SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 2 C87E/ 11 3a SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 5 C87E/11 3b SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 8 C87E/11 4b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 8 C87E/11 4e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 9 C87E/11 4d SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 9 C87E/11 4a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 15 C87E/11 4c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 19 C87E/11 5c SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 5 C87E/11 5g SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87E/11 5f SDC87E 1 blade co re frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 1 C87E/11 5d SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/11 5e SDC87E 1 indeterminate rejuv debitage 1 C87E/11 5a SDC87E 1 macroflake core shaping 1 C87E/11 5b SDC87E 1 'small' percussion blade cor e shaping 1 C87E/11 6c SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 3 C87E/11 6b SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 22 C87E/11 6h SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 34

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398 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87E/11 6g SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/late ral 1 C87E/11 6e SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 2 C87E/11 6d SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 21 C87E/11 6a SDC87E 1 'small' percussion blade core shaping 1 C87E/11 6f SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 1 C87E/11 7c SDC87E 1 various debi tage fragment 3 C87E/11 7b SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 1 C87E/11 7a SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 1 C87E/11 8a SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 1 C87E/11 8b SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C8 7E/11 9b SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87E/11 9a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 3 C87E/12 1b SDC87E 1 core section flake 3 C87E/12 1a SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 3 C87E/12 1c SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 1 C87E/12 1d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 2 C87E/12 1e SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 2 C87E/12 1f SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 3 C87E/12 10a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete 1 C87E/12 2c SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 1 C87E/12 2d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 1 C87E/12 2a SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87E/12 2b SDC 87E 1 indeterminate core top fragment 1 C87E/12 3a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 5 C87E/12 3e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 7 C87E/12 3d SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 7 C87E/12 3b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 17 C87E/12 3c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 31 C87E/12 4f SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 1 C87E/12 4g SDC87E 1 initial series blade overhang removal 1 C87E/12 4b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 2 C87E/12 4d SDC87E 1 final series blade med ial 2 C87E/12 4e SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 4 C87E/12 4a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 4 C87E/12 4c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 5 C87E/12 40c SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/12 40b SDC87E 1 final serie s blade proximal 1 C87E/12 40d SDC87E 1 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C87E/12 40e SDC87E 1 final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C87E/12 40a SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 1 C87E/12 40b SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/12 40a SD C87E 1 final series blade medial 2 C87E/12 5c SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 15 C87E/12 5a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 26 C87E/12 5b SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 37 C87E/12 5e SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 5 C87E/12 5d SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 1 C87E/12 6c SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87E/12 6b SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 1 C87E/12 6a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 3 C87E/12 7c SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87E/12 7a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 1 C87E/12 7b SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 1

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399 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87E/12 8a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 4 C87E/12 8e SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 4 C87E/12 8d S DC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 1 C87E/12 8c SDC87E 1 lateral core rejuv 3 C87E/12 8b SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 6 C87E/12 9j SDC87E 1 initial series blade overhang removal 5 C87E/12 9c SDC87E 1 final series b lade proximal 5 C87E/12 9d SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 6 C87E/12 9b SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 31 C87E/12 9i SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 63 C87E/12 9h SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ l ateral 1 C87E/12 9f SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 7 C87E/12 9g SDC87E 1 lateral core rejuv 3 C87E/12 9a SDC87E 1 macroblade core shaping 2 C87E/12 9e SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 31 C87F/1 3n SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging dist al 3 C87F/1 3j SDC87E 1 bidirectional core core section distal 1 C87F/1 3a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 1 C87F/1 3b SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section lateral 1 C87F/1 3c SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) c ore section proximal/ lateral 1 C87F/1 3d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 1 C87F/1 3e SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 1 C87F/1 3f SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 1 C8 7F/1 3h SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 2 C87F/1 3i SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 5 C87F/1 3k SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 18 C87F/1 3l SDC87E 1 blade core frag (n on rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 9 C87F/1 3m SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 6 C87F/1 3g SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 3 C87F/1 4f SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87F/1 4e SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 2 C87F/1 4d SDC8 7E 1 final series blade proximal 7 C87F/1 4c SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 96 C87F/1 4g SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 250 C87F/1 4m SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 4 C87F/1 4n SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section lateral 25 C87F/1 4o SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 2 C87F/1 4p SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section indeterminate 20 C87F/1 4j SDC87E 1 core section flake 5 C87F/1 4k SDC87E 1 d istal orientation flake 17 C87F/1 4q SDC87E 1 indeterminate core top fragment 1 C87F/1 4a SDC87E 1 macroflake with cortex core shaping 3 C87F/1 4i SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 100 C87F/1 4b SDC87E 1 'small' percussion flake core shaping 2 C87F/1 4h SDC87E 1 'small' percussion flake overhang removal 8 C87F/1 4l SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 9 C87F/1 5g SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 3 C87F/1 5i SDC87E 1 initial series blade overhang removal 9 C87F/1 5c SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 40 C87F/1 5f SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 62 C87F/1 5e SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 87 C87F/1 5b SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 113 C87F/1 5d SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 137

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400 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87 F/1 5m SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 75 C87F/1 5j SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 2 C87F/1 5h SDC87E 1 lateral core rejuv fragment 1 C87F/1 5l SDC87E 1 objects from exhausted core notched proximal/ lateral 1 C87F/1 5k SDC87E 1 platform p rep flake 3 C87F/1 5a SDC87E 1 'small' percussion flake core shaping 5 C87F/2 3a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 2 C87F/2 3b SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 2 C87F/2 4a SDC87E 1 flake complete 1 C87F/3 4e SDC87E 1 final series blade pl unging distal 3 C87F/3 4f SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 4 C87F/3 4g SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 3 C87F/3 4h SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 12 C87F/3 4i SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section indeterminate 3 C87F/3 4j SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) other lateral 3 C87F/3 4k SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 5 C87F/3 4c SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87F/3 4a SDC87E 1 macroflake with cortex core shaping 2 C87F/3 4b SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 4 C87F/3 4d SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 9 C87F/3 6p SDC87E 1 final series blade plunging distal 1 C87F/3 6d SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 4 C87F/3 6g SDC87 E 1 final series blade distal 9 C87F/3 6f SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 16 C87F/3 6e SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 21 C87F/3 6c SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 33 C87F/3 6q SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 90 C87F/ 3 6m SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 4 C87F/3 6n SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 1 C87F/3 6o SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section indeterminate 2 C87F/3 6i SDC87E 1 core section flake 1 C87F/3 6j SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 19 C87F/3 6k SDC87E 1 lateral core rejuv 7 C87F/3 6a SDC87E 1 macroflake core shaping 3 C87F/3 6h SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 51 C87F/3 6b SDC87E 1 'small' percussion flake core shaping 12 C87F/3 6l SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 4 C87F/3 7b SDC87E 1 bidirectional core core section lateral 1 C87F/3 7a SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 1 C87F/3 7c SDC87E 1 objects from exhausted core notched lat eral 1 C87F/3 5d SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 98 C87F/3 5a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete 1 C87F/3 5g SDC87E 1 initial series blade overhang removal 2 C87F/3 5c SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 26 C87F/3 5b SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 36 C87F/3 5f SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 43 C87F/3 5e SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 44 C87F/3 5h SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 3 C87G/1 3a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C87G/1 3c SDC87E 1 fin al series blade distal 1 C87G/1 3b SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 1 C87G/1 3g SDC87E 1 bidirectional core core section proximal 2 C87G/1 3d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 1 C87G/1 3e SDC87E 1 blade core frag ( non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 1

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401 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87G/1 3f SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 1 C87G/1 4a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete 3 C87G/1 4b SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 3 C87G/1 4f SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non re juv) core section medial/lateral 1 C87G/1 4d SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 7 C87G/1 4e SDC87E 1 lateral core rejuv 2 C87G/1 4c SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 3 C87G/1 5a SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C87G/1 5e SDC87E 1 final s eries blade distal 2 C87G/1 5d SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 4 C87G/1 5b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 7 C87G/1 5c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 12 C87G/2 1a SDC87E 1 macroblade core shaping 1 C87G/2 2b SDC87E 1 initial series bla de complete and fragments 3 C87G/2 2c SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 1 C87G/2 2a SDC87E 1 'small' percussion flake core shaping 1 C87G/2 4b SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C87G/2 4a SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 2 C87G/3 1e SDC87E 1 fi nal series blade distal 1 C87G/3 1b SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete 5 C87G/3 1c SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 9 C87G/3 1d SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 15 C87G/3 2f SDC87E 1 cortical core top fragment 1 C87G/3 1g SDC87E 1 dist al orientation flake 4 C87G/3 2e SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 8 C87G/3 1f SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 1 C87G/3 2d SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 11 C87G/3 1a SDC87E 1 'small' percussion blade core shaping 1 C87G/3 2c SDC87E 1 fin al series blade complete 2 C87G/3 2b SDC87E 1 initial series blade proximal 3 C87G/3 2g SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 4 C87G/3 2a SDC87E 1 'small' percussion blade core shaping 3 C87G/3 3e SDC87E 1 bidirectional core core section distal 1 C87 G/3 3c SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal 2 C87G/3 3d SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 3 C87G/3 3b SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87G/3 3a SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 2 C87G/3 4a SD C87E 1 objects from exhausted core other medial/lateral 1 C87G/3 4b SDC87E 1 objects from exhausted core other striated core top platform 1 C87G/4 1a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete 3 C87G/4 1d SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87G/4 1c SD C87E 1 distal orientation flake 1 C87G/4 1b SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 5 C87G/4 2b SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section proximal/ lateral 1 C87G/4 2c SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 2 C87G/4 2a S DC87E 1 distal orientation flake 3 C87G/4 2d SDC87E 1 objects from exhausted core core section medial/lateral 1 C87G/4 3a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 2 C87G/4 3d SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 3 C87G/4 3b SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 5 C87G/4 3c SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 5 C87G/4 3f SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 1 C87G/4 3e SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 1

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402 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C87G/5 6d SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 1 C8 7G/5 6a SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 4 C87G/5 6c SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 5 C87G/5 6b SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 6 C87G/5 7a SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 1 C87G/7 1m SDC87E 1 final series blade plungi ng distal 7 C87G/7 1o SDC87E 1 initial series blade overhang removal 15 C87G/7 1p SDC87E 1 final series blade complete 19 C87G/7 1q SDC87E 1 final series blade proximal 41 C87G/7 1s SDC87E 1 final series blade distal 43 C87G/7 1r SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 68 C87G/7 1c SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete and fragments 512 C87G/7 1t SDC87E 1 various debitage fragment 121 C87G/7 1v SDC87E 1 bidirectional core core section distal 1 C87G/7 1h SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core secti on proximal 11 C87G/7 1i SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial 6 C87G/7 1j SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal 4 C87G/7 1k SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 35 C87G/7 1l SDC87E 1 bl ade core frag (non rejuv) core section distal/ lateral 7 C87G/7 1n SDC87E 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) core section indeterminate 21 C87G/7 1e SDC87E 1 core section flake 5 C87G/7 1f SDC87E 1 distal orientation flake 36 C87G/7 1u SDC87E 1 face ted core top fragment 4 C87G/7 1a SDC87E 1 macroblade core shaping 17 C87G/7 1d SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 119 C87G/7 1b SDC87E 1 'small' percussion blade core shaping 33 C87G/7 1g SDC87E 1 striated core top fragment 10 C87H/1 2a SDC 87E 1 initial series blade proximal 1 C87H/1 2b SDC87E 1 platform prep flake 2 C87H/1 3b SDC87E 1 final series blade medial 1 C87H/1 3c SDC87E 1 initial series blade complete 1 C87H/1 3a SDC87E 1 final series blade prox/med 3 C88B/6 4 constr. fill /refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C88B/7 9 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C88C/14 98a SDC88C 1 adornment ear flare 1 C88C/14 98b SDC88C 1 adornment ear flare 1 C88C/14 101 SDC88C 1 final series drill complete 1 C88C/14 25 SDC88C 1 final series blade medial 1 C88D/1 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C88D/2 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C88D/4 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment rejuv debitage? 1 C88D/5 2 co nstr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C88D/6 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C88E/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C89B/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C89B/1 1 constr. fil l/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C90A/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C90B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C90B/4 1 constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake edge mod. tool 1 C90B /4 2 constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C90B/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C90B/6 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C90B/9 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C90B/9 1b constr. fi ll/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1

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403 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C90B/15 1 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C90C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C90C/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C90C/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C90C/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C90C/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C90C/4 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade pr oximal 1 C90C/4 3c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C90C/4 3d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C90C/4 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C90E/5 3 constr. fill/refuse final serie s blade proximal 1 C90I/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C90J/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C90K/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C90I/2 4 constr. fill/refuse final ser ies edge mod. tool medial 1 C90I/2 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C90I/2 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C91B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C93C/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final serie s blade proximal 1 C93D/1 2 constr. fill/refuse point biface distal 1 C94D/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C95A/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C95A/1 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C95A/1 2d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C95A/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C95A/1 2g constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C95A/1 2e constr. fill/refuse final se ries blade proximal 3 C95A/1 2f constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 4 C95A/1 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C95A/1 4 constr. fill/refuse pressure flake complete 1 C95B/1 33d SD, but not assigned final series blad e proximal 1 C95B/1 33f SD, but not assigned final series notched blade medial 1 C95B/1 33e SD, but not assigned final series blade medial 1 C95B/1 33a SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C95B/1 33c SD, but not assigned final se ries blade distal 2 C95B/1 33b SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C95B/2 18 SDC95B 1 final series blade distal 1 C95C/1 1b SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C95C/1 1c SD, but not assigned final series blad e medial 1 C95C/1 1a SD, but not assigned final series blade prox/med 1 C95C/1 19 SD, but not assigned final series blade medial 1 C95C/1 20 SD, but not assigned final series blade distal 1 C95C/4 11 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C95C/4 2b constr fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C95C/4 2ad constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C95C/4 2c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C95C/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C95C/4 5 constr fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C95C/7 10 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C95C/7 11b constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C95C/7 11a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C95C/8 1a SDC95C 4 object fro m blade core frag notched proximal/ lateral 1 C95C/8 1b SDC95C 4 object from blade core frag edge mod. tool plunging 1 C95C/8 1c SDC95C 4 object from blade core frag notched medial/lateral 1

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404 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C95C/8 2 SDC95C 4 object from blade core frag notched medial/l ateral 1 C95C/8 3 SDC95C 4 object from blade core frag notched medial/lateral 1 C95C/8 4 SDC95C 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C95C/10 1 SDC95C 6 final series blade medial 1 C95C/12 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C95C/13 8 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C95C/14 10 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C95C/14 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C95C/14 7c constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C95C/14 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 9 C95C/15 10 SDC95C 7 final series blade medial 1 C95C/16 13c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C95C/16 13a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C95C/16 13d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 7 C95C/16 13b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 11 C95C/16 14a constr. fill/refuse fragment 4 C95C/16 14b constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C95C/17 2b constr. fill/ refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C95C/17 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C95C/19 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C95C/19 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C95C/19 3 b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C95C/19 5a constr. fill/refuse chunk 1 C95C/19 5b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C95C/20 7 constr. fill/refuse final series lancet med/dist 1 C95C/21 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C95C/2 2 4a SDC95C 8 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C95C/22 4b SDC95C 8 final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C95D/1 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C95D/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C95D/1 1a con str. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C95D/1 2 constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C95D/2 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 3 C95D/2 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C95D/2 3 constr. fill/r efuse final series blade medial 2 C95D/3 3e constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C95D/3 3d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C95D/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C95D/3 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 5 C95D/3 3c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 6 C95D/3 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C95D/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C96A/2 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C96A/3 2 const r. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C96A/3 3 constr. fill/refuse fragment flake distal 1 C96A/3 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C96A/3 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C 96A/3 7 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete 1 C96B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C96B/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C96B/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C96B/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C96B/1 3b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C96B/1 3a constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1

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405 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C96B/2 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C96B/2 2b constr. fil l/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C96B/2 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 3 C96B/2 3 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C96B/2 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 2 C96B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse bla de core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C96C/1 11b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C96C/1 11a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C96D/1 5d constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C96D/1 5c constr. fill/re fuse final series blade distal 1 C96D/1 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C96D/1 5b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C96E/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C96E/6 1b constr. fill/ref use fragment 1 C96E/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C96E/7 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C96E/8 2c constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C96E/8 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox imal 1 C96E/8 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C96E/9 1c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C96E/9 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C96E/9 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C96G/1 10 constr. fill/refuse flake edge mod 1 C97B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C98B/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C98B/5 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C98B/6 1a constr. fill/r efuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C98B/6 2a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete 1 C98B/7 1a SDC98B 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C98B/7 1b SDC98B 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C98B/7 2a SDC98B 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C98B/7 3a SDC98B 1 object from blade core frag notched complete 1 C98B/7 3b SDC98B 1 object from blade core frag notched proximal/medial 1 C98B/7 4a SDC98B 1 object from blade core frag edge mod tool proximal/medial 1 C98B/7 4b SDC98B 1 object from blade core frag edge mod. tool complete 1 C98B/7 6a SDC98B 1 object from blade core frag notched complete 1 C98B/7 6b SDC98B 1 object from blade core frag notched complete 1 C98B/7 3c SDC98B 1 bla de core frag (non rejuv) edge mod. tool flake 1 C98B/7 9a SDC98B 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) flake 1 C98C/10 1a SDC98C 1 final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C98D/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C99C/6 3a constr. fill/refuse fi nal series edge mod. tool medial 1 C100C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C101C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C101D/4 3 SDC101D 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C101E/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C102B/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C102B/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C102B/7 13 SDC102B 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C102B/7 1 SDC102B 2 final serie s edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C102B/7 16c SDC102B 2 final series blade medial 1 C102B/7 16a SDC102B 2 final series blade complete 1 C102B/7 16b SDC102B 2 final series blade prox/med 1 C102B/7 9 SDC102B 2 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1

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406 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C102E/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C102E/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C102E/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C103B/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C103C/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C103C/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C104B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse exhausted core complete 1 C104B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse exhausted core complete 1 C104B/8 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C104B/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C104C/4 2a SDC104C 1 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C104C/4 19a SDC104C 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C104E/3 1 constr. fill/ refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C104E/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C104E/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C104E/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C104E /5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C104E/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C104E/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C105C/2 7 SDC105C 1 final series blade complete 1 C105C/2 9 SD C105C 1 final series blade prox/med 1 C106C/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C107C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C107C/4 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C107C/4 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C107C/4 4c constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C107C/5 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C107D/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. too l medial 1 C107D/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C108B/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C108C/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C108C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod tool prox/med 3 C108C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C108D/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C108D/3 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C108D/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final seri es blade medial 1 C108D/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C108D/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C108D/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C109B/2 2a SDC109B 1 bidirec tional core section flake notched 1 C109B/2 1b SDC109B 1 fragment edge mod distal 1 C109B/2 1a SDC109B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C109B/2 2b SDC109B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C109B/2 3a SDC109B 1 final series edge mod. tool p rox/med 1 C109B/2 3b SDC109B 1 final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C109B/4 1a SD, but not assigned object from macroflake notched 1 C109B/4 1b SD, but not assigned distal orientation flake 1 C109C/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade com plete 1 C109C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C109C/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C109D/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C109D/3 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool p rox/med 1 C110C/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1

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407 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C110C/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C110D/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C110D/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C110E/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C110E/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C111D/3 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade med/dist 1 C116B/2 2 constr. fi ll/refuse fragment 1 C116B/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C116C/2 3a SDC116C 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/medial/lateral 1 C116C/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C116C/2 1a con str. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C116C/2 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C116C/2 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C116C/2 3b SDC116C 1 object from blade core frag uniface distal/medial 1 C11 6C/3 1 SDC116C 1 bidirectional core frag proximal/medial 1 C116C/4 3 SDC116C 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) complete 1 C116C/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 4 C116C/5 2 SDC116C 2 object from blade core frag notched complete 1 C116C /8 1 SDC116C 2 object from blade core frag notched complete 1 C116C/8 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C116C/8 5b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C116C/9 6e constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C116C/9 6c cons tr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C116C/9 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C116C/9 6a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C116C/9 6d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C116D/2 1 a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C116D/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C117B/2 6b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C117B/2 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C117B /13 4 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C117B/3 5c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C117B/3 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C117B/3 5b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C117B/5 6b SDC 117B 1 object from blade core frag uniface medial/lateral 1 C117B/5 6c SDC117B 1 object from blade core frag uniface proximal/medial/lateral 1 C117B/5 6d SDC117B 1 object from blade core frag notched medial/distal/lateral 1 C117B/5 6e SDC117B 1 object f rom blade core frag notched medial 1 C117B/5 6f SDC117B 1 object from blade core frag notched medial 1 C117B/5 6g SDC117B 1 object from blade core frag notched proximal/medial/lateral 1 C117B/5 6j SDC117B 1 object from blade core frag notched medial/lat eral 1 C117B/5 6k SDC117B 1 object from blade core frag notched medial/lateral 1 C117B/5 6a SDC117B 1 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/5 6h SDC117B 1 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/5 6i SDC117B 1 objects from e xhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/5 7 SDC117B 1 objects from exhausted core notched medial 1 C117B/5 8a SDC117B 1 final series edge mod. tool plunging complete 1 C117B/5 9a SDC117B 1 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C117B/5 8b SDC117B 1 fina l series edge mod. tool plunging complete 1 C117B/5 9c SDC117B 1 final series blade distal 2 C117B/5 9b SDC117B 1 final series blade medial 4 C117B/7 15 SDC117B 2 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/7 16 SDC117B 2 object from blade cor e frag notched distal/medial 1 C117B/7 17 SDC117B 2 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1

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408 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C117B/7 18 SDC117B 2 final series plunging complete 1 C117B/7 21 SDC117B 2 objects from exhausted core uniface complete 1 C117B/7 22 SDC117B 2 faceted core top fragment complete 1 C117B/7 23 SDC117B 2 object from blade core frag scraper medial/lateral 1 C117B/7 24 SDC117B 2 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/7 25 SDC117B 2 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/7 26 SDC117B 2 object from blade core frag notched distal/medial 1 C117B/7 27 SDC117B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) notched medial/lateral 1 C117B/7 28 SDC117B 2 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/7 37 SDC117B 2 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/7 38 SDC117B 2 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/7 39 SDC117B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C117B/7 40 SDC117B 2 object from blade core frag edge mod. tool medial/lateral 1 C117B/7 41 SDC11 7B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C117B/7 42 SDC117B 2 object from blade core frag notched complete 1 C117B/7 43 SDC117B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/medial 1 C117B/7 44 SDC117B 2 object from blade core frag uniface distal/ medial 1 C117B/7 45 SDC117B 2 object from core rejuv debitage notched 1 C117B/7 46 SDC117B 2 object from blade core frag notched complete 1 C117B/7 47 SDC117B 2 object from blade core frag notched complete 1 C117B/7 48 SDC117B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) other medial 1 C117B/7 49 SDC117B 2 initial series blade medial 1 C117B/7 53 SDC117B 2 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/7 56 SDC117B 2 final series blade prox/med 1 C117B/7 57 SDC117B 2 final series blade med/dist 1 C117B/7 6 SDC117B 2 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C117B/7 50 SDC117B 2 final series edge mod. tool plunging complete 1 C117B/7 51 SDC117B 2 final series blade complete 1 C117B/7 52 SDC117B 2 final series blade complete 1 C117B/7 54 SDC117B 2 f inal series blade med/dist 1 C117B/7 55 SDC117B 2 flake 1 C117B/7 59 SDC117B 2 final series blade prox/med 1 C117B/9 2 SDC117B 3 final series blade prox/med 1 C117B/11 9 SDC117B 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C117B/11 14 SDC117B 4 final series blade medial 1 C117B/12 62 SDC117B 5 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C117B/14 10 SDC117B 6 object from blade core frag edge mod. tool medial 1 C117B/14 11 SDC117B 6 final series blade plunging complete 1 C117B/14 12 SDC117B 6 blade core fra g (non rejuv) medial 1 C117B/14 13 SDC117B 6 object from blade core frag notched proximal/medial/lateral 1 C117B/14 14 SDC117B 6 final series notched blade complete 1 C117B/14 15 SDC117B 6 final series blade plunging complete 1 C117B/14 16 SDC117B 6 object from blade core frag notched proximal/medial 1 C117B/14 17 SDC117B 6 object from blade core frag notched proximal/medial/lateral 1 C117B/14 18 SDC117B 6 object from blade core frag notched medial 1 C117B/14 19 SDC117B 6 objects from exhausted cor e notched complete 1 C117B/14 2 SDC117B 6 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C117B/14 20 SDC117B 6 objects from exhausted core biface complete 1 C117B/14 3 SDC117B 6 final series edge mod. tool plunging medial 1 C117B/14 4 SDC117B 6 object from blade core frag uniface medial/distal/lateral 1 C117B/14 5 SDC117B 6 final series blade complete 1 C117B/14 8 SDC117B 6 object from blade core frag biface complete 1 C117B/14 9 SDC117B 6 object from blade core frag notched medial/lateral 1

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409 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C117B/1 4 6 SDC117B 6 platform prep flake notched 1 C117B/48 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C117B/48 1a constr. fill/refuse lateral core rejuv flake 1 C117C/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C117C/5 1 SD, but not assigne d striated core top fragment complete 1 C117C/5 2 SD, but not assigned final series blade medial 1 C117C/7 8 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C117C/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C117C/9 3 constr. fill/refuse point biface medial 1 C117C/12 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C117C/13 4b SDC117C 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C117C/13 4a SDC117C 4 final series blade proximal 1 C117C/13 4c SDC117C 4 final series e dge mod. tool med/dist 1 C117C/14 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C117C/14 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C117F/4 2h constr. fill/refuse flakes 6 C117F/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med ial 2 C117F/4 2g constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade prox/med 1 C117F/4 2c constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C117F/4 2f constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C117F/4 2e constr. fill/refuse final series blade proxima l 3 C117F/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 9 C117F/4 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 13 C117F/4 2d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 15 C117F/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge m od. tool medial 1 C117F/5 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C117F/5 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C117F/8 10a SDC117F 1 final series blade prox/med 2 C117F/8 24 SDC117F 1 point Stem B Point complete 1 C 117F/8 25 SDC117F 1 point Stem B Point complete 1 C117F/8 26 SDC117F 1 point Stem B Point complete 1 C117F/8 27 SDC117F 1 point Stem B Point complete 1 C117F/8 8a SDC117F 1 final series blade med/dist 1 C117F/8 8f SDC117F 1 final series blade complete 1 C117F/8 8g SDC117F 1 final series blade complete 1 C117F/8 8h SDC117F 1 final series blade complete 1 C117F/8 8i SDC117F 1 final series blade complete 1 C117F/8 8j SDC117F 1 final series blade complete 1 C117F/8 8k SDC117F 1 final series blade compl ete 1 C117F/8 8d SDC117F 1 final series blade complete 1 C117F/8 8e SDC117F 1 final series blade complete 1 C117F/8 8c SDC117F 1 final series blade complete 1 C117F/8 8b SDC117F 1 final series blade complete 1 C117F/8 9c SDC117F 1 final series blade m edial 1 C117F/8 9a SDC117F 1 final series blade complete 1 C117F/8 9b SDC117F 1 final series blade prox/med 1 C117F/8 9d SDC117F 1 final series blade distal 1 C117F/8 10c SDC117F 1 final series blade distal 2 C117F/8 10b SDC117F 1 final series blade m edial 3 C117F/11 2d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 12 C117F/11 2e constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 3 C117F/11 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 5 C117F/11 2a constr. fill/refuse final serie s blade prox/med 8 C117F/11 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 12

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410 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C117F/12 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C117F/12 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C118B/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C118C/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C118C/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C118C/11 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C118C/15 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C118C/15 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C118C/17 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C118C/18 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C118C/19 1a constr. fill/refuse fina l series blade medial 1 C118C/19 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C118C/24 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C118C/24 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C118D/1 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete 1 C118D/6 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C118D/11 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C118D/22 8 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C118D/37 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C118D/40 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C118D/40 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C118D/40 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C118D/49 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C118F/4 1 constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C118F/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade plunging distal 1 C118F/14 4b constr. fill/refuse final series blade complete 1 C118F/1 4 4a constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool medial 1 C118F/14 4d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C118F/14 4c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C118F/18 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool m edial 1 C118F/20 6 constr. fill/refuse final series blade complete 1 C118F/20 9a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C118F/20 9b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C118F/22 14 SDC118F 4 final series edge mod tool medial 1 C118F/22 6c SDC118F 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C118F/22 6b SDC118F 4 initial series blade complete 1 C118F/22 6d SDC118F 4 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C118F/22 6a constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C118F/22 8 SDC 118F 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C118F/23 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C118F/24 3 SDC118F 6 pebble pebble complete 1 C118F/29 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C118F/29 1c constr. fill/refus e final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C118F/29 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C118F/29 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C118F/38 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C119B/5 6a constr. fill /refuse final series blade medial 1 C119C/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C119C/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C119D/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C119D/1 2b constr. fill/refu se final series blade medial 1 C119D/2 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C119D/4 1a constr. fill/refuse exhausted core medial/lateral 1 C119D/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1

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411 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C119D/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C119D/6 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C119D/6 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C119D/9 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 3 C119D/9 4b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C119E/6 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C119E/6 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C119E/12 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C119F/4 2a constr. fill/ref use final series blade prox/med 1 C119F/5 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C119F/5 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C119F/8 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C119F/9 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C119F/12 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C119F/13 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C119F/13 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C120B/3 2a c onstr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C121B/1 21a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C121B/1 3a constr. fill/refuse fragment edge mod 1 C121B/4 5a SD, but not assigned final series blade medial 2 C121B/8 11a constr. fil l/refuse final series blade medial 1 C121B/8 11b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C121C/4 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C121C/4 6b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C121C/5 2a constr fill/refuse macroflake edge mod. tool distal 1 C121C/9 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C121C/11 1a constr. fill/refuse exhausted core medial/lateral 1 C121C/11 14a constr. fill/refuse fragment edge mod. tool proximal 1 C121C/11 3 a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C121C/11 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C121C/12 8a SDC121C 1 exhausted core medial/lateral 1 C121C/15 3a constr. fill/refuse shatter 1 C121C/21 1a constr. fi ll/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C121C/21 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C121C/22 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C121C/24 10a SDC121C 5 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C121C/27 1a constr. fill/refuse shatter 1 C121C/32 8b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C121C/32 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C121C/33 2a constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade med/dist 1 C123D/1 1 constr. f ill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C123D/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C124B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C124B/2 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C 124B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C124B/5 2 SDC124B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C124B/6 1 SDC124B 1 final series blade medial 1 C124C/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C124D/2 1 cons tr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C125B/12 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C125C/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C125D/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C125D/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C125D/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1

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412 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C125D/6 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C125F/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C125F/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C127B/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C127C/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C127E/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C128B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse point biface proximal portion 1 C129B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C129C/2 2 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C129D/2 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C129D/2 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C129D/2 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C129D/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 4 C129D/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C130B/2 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C130D/4 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C131B/4 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C132B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edg e mod. tool proximal 1 C132C/1 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C132C/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C132C/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C132C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse fl ake 1 C132C/9 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C132D/2 1 constr. fill/refuse flake proximal 1 C132D/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C132D/3 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C132D/3 2 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C132F/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C138B/3 3 constr. fill/refuse blade production by products flake complete 1 C138B/3 3a constr. fill/refuse blade artifacts ed ge mod. tool medial 2 C138B/5 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C138B/5 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C138B/6 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C138C/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series hafted tool prox/med 1 C138C/3 1a SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C138C/3 1b SD, but not assigned final series blade medial 1 C138C/3 2a SD, but not assigned blade production by products flake complete 2 C138C/3 2d SD, but not assigned fragment 2 C138C/3 2c SD, but not assigned initial series blade medial 1 C138C/3 2b SD, but not assigned initial series blade complete 2 C138C/4 2b SDC138C 1 blade production by products other complete and fragments 24 C138C/4 2a S DC138C 1 initial series blade medial 5 C138C/4 2c SDC138C 1 platform prep flake indeterminate rejuv. deb? 13 C138C/4 3b SDC138C 1 blade production by products bipolar med/dist 1 C138C/4 3a SDC138C 1 final series prox/med 1 C138C/4 3c SDC138C 1 init ial series blade medial 4 C138C/5 3a SD, but not assigned initial series blade prox/med 2 C138C/5 3b SD, but not assigned initial series blade medial 2 C138C/5 4 SD, but not assigned indeterminate rejuv debitage fragment 10 C138C/6 3 SD, but not assi gned indeterminate rejuv debitage fragment 14 C138C/7 7c SDC138C 2 fragment edge mod distal 1 C138C/7 7b SDC138C 2 indeterminate rejuv debitage complete 7 C138C/7 7a SDC138C 2 platform prep flake complete 2 C139C/3 3 constr. fill/refuse blade cor e frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1

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413 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C140B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C140B/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C140C/1 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C140C/3 3b constr. fill/ref use final series blade medial 1 C140C/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C140C/3 3c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C140C/3 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C140E/1 1 constr. fill /refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C140F/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C140F/5 10c constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C140F/5 10b constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C140F/5 10a constr. fill/re fuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C140F/5 11 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C140F/7 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C140G/1 1 constr. fill/refuse macroflake edge mod. tool 1 C140G/2 1 constr. fill /refuse fragment edge mod 1 C140G/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C140G/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C140G/3 1 SDC140G 1 final series eccentric blade plunging medial 1 C141B/3 4 SD, but not assign ed final series lancet complete 1 C141B/3 5a SD, but not assigned final series blade prox/med 2 C141B/3 5b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C141B/4 7a SD, but not assigned final series blade complete 3 C141B/4 7b SD, but not ass igned final series blade prox/med 4 C141B/4 7c SD, but not assigned final series blade med/dist 13 C141C/6 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C141C/14 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C141H/4 7 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C143B/2 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C143B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C143B/3 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C143C/1 1 constr. fill/refuse i nitial series blade prox/med 2 C143C/2 2f constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C143C/2 2e constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C143C/2 2d constr. fill/refuse initial series blade distal 1 C143C/2 2c constr. fill/refuse initial ser ies blade medial 1 C143C/2 2b constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 2 C143C/2 2a constr. fill/refuse indeterminate rejuv debitage 1 C143C/2 2b constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 3 C143C/3 1a SDC143C 1 final series edge mod. too l prox/med 1 C143C/3 1b SDC143C 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C143C/3 1c SDC143C 1 final series blade medial 1 C146A/2 1d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C146A/2 1e constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C146A/2 1c constr fill/refuse initial series blade proximal 1 C146A/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C146A/2 1a constr. fill/refuse indeterminate rejuv debitage flake 3 C147B/1 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C147B/2 7b constr fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C147B/2 7c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C147B/2 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C147B/4 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C147B/8 7 SDC147 B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C147B/8 8 SDC147B 1 fragment blade core frag? 1

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414 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C147B/8 16 SDC147B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C147C/2 4e constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C147C/2 4f constr. fill/refuse frag ment blade core frag? 1 C147C/2 4d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C147C/2 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C147C/2 4c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C147C/2 4b constr. fill/refuse final s eries blade medial 3 C147C/3 6b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C147C/3 6a constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C147C/4 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C147C/4 6d constr. fill/refuse final series e dge mod. tool medial 1 C147C/4 6c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C147C/4 6a constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake edge mod. tool 1 C150B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C150B/1 1b constr. fi ll/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C150B/2 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C150B/2 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C150B/2 3 constr. fill/refuse chunk 1 C151B/1 1h constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C151B/1 1e constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete 1 C151B/1 1g constr. fill/refuse initial series overhang removal prox/med 1 C151B/1 1d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool plunging distal 1 C151B/1 1c constr. fill/refuse fina l series blade medial 1 C151B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C151B/1 1f constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 2 C151B/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 9 C151B/3 1a constr. fill/refus e final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C151B/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C151B/4 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 4 C151B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C151B/7 1b constr. fill/refus e fragment 2 C151B/7 1a constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/ lateral 1 C151B/8 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C151B/8 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C151B/8 1e constr. fill/r efuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C151B/8 1d constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade medial 1 C151B/8 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C151B/10 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C151C/1 1 const r. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C151C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C151C/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C151C/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C151 C/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C151C/9 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C151C/9 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C151C/11 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1 51C/11 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C151C/11 2c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C151C/12 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C151C/12 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C 151C/12 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C151C/13 1c constr. fill/refuse final series inlay complete 1 C151C/13 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C151C/13 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 8

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415 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C1 51C/13 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C151C/14 2 constr. fill/refuse point biface medial 1 C151C/14 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C151C/14 6c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C151C/14 6d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C151C/14 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C151C/15 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 4 C151C/15 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool me dial 4 C151C/16 8b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C151C/16 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C152B/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C152B/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C152B/7 1b constr. fill/refuse flake proximal 1 C152B/7 1a constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade prox/med 1 C152B/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C152B/9 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C152B/9 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade complete 1 C152B/11 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C152B/11 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C152B/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C152B/13 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C152B/13 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C152B/13 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C152B/15 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C152B/15 3d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C152B/15 3b constr. fill/refuse object from blade core frag edge mod. tool medial/lateral 1 C152B/15 3a constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C1 52B/17 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C152B/18 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C152B/19 1 constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade medial 1 C152C/1 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C152C/1 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C152C/1 4c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C152C/2 3b constr. fill/refuse fragment distal 1 C152C/2 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C15 2C/3 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C153B/1 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment drill? distal 1 C153B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C153B/2 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C153 B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C153B/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C153B/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C153B/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/ med 1 C153B/7 1f constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C153B/7 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C153B/7 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C153B/7 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 7 C1 53B/7 1e constr. fill/refuse object from blade core frag edge mod. tool proximal/ lateral 1 C153B/7 1a constr. fill/refuse object from macroflake edge mod. tool 1 C153B/8 3a constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C153B/8 3b constr. fill/refuse final serie s edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C153B/8 3c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C153B/10 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C153B/10 7c constr. fill/refuse flake fragment 2

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416 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C153B/10 7b constr. fill/refuse fi nal series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C153C/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C153C/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C153C/2 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C153C/2 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 6 C153C/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C153C/4 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C154B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C1 54B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C154B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C154B/5 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C154B/5 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool pro x/med 1 C154B/5 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C154B/6 1c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C154B/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C154B/6 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C154B/9 1c constr. fill/refuse fragment edge mod 2 C154B/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C154B/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C154B/10 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C 154B/10 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C154B/10 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 7 C154B/11 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C154B/12 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C154B/12 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C154B/13 2d constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C154B/13 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C154B/13 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C154B/13 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C154B/14 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C154B/14 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C154B/15 1b constr. fill/refuse final ser ies edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C154B/15 1d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C154B/15 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series other medial 2 C154B/15 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C154B/15 1e constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C154B/16 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C154B/16 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 8 C154B/16 1c constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C155B/1 1c const r. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C155B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C155B/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C155B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C155B/6 2 c onstr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C155B/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C155B/9 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C155B/9 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool m edial 2 C155B/9 1c constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C155B/10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C155B/11 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C155B/12 1 constr. fill/refu se final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C155B/13 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C155B/13 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C155B/14 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1

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417 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C155B/15 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C155B/15 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment macroblade? medial 1 C155B/18 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C155B/19 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C155B/19 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. t ool medial 1 C155B/20 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C155B/20 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C155B/21 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C156B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse f inal series edge mod. tool medial 1 C156B/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C156B/5 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 2 C156B/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool plunging distal 1 C156C/1 2 constr. fi ll/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C156C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 1 C156C/3 2b constr. fill/refuse fragment platform prep? 1 C156C/3 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C156C/6 2 constr. fill/re fuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C156C/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C157B/1 2g constr. fill/refuse final series blade plunging distal 1 C157B/1 2e constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C157B /1 2i constr. fill/refuse flake platform prep? 1 C157B/1 2j constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C157B/1 2h constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C157B/1 2f constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 2 C157B/1 2c constr. fill/refu se final series blade medial 2 C157B/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C157B/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C157B/1 2d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C157B/2 1b constr. fil l/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C157B/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C157B/2 1c constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal 1 C157B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C15 7B/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C157C/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 6 C157C/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C157C/1 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C157C/1 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C157C/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C157C/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C157C/3 3b constr. fill/refuse fina l series blade medial 1 C157C/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C157C/5 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C157C/5 1e constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C157C/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. t ool prox/med 2 C157C/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 5 C157C/5 1d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 7 C157C/6 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C157C/6 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edg e mod. tool medial 1 C157C/6 2c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C158B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C158B/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C158B/14 1a constr. fill/refuse final serie s blade medial 1 C158B/14 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C158B/16 1d constr. fill/refuse fragment blade core frag? 1

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418 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C158B/16 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C158B/16 1b constr. fill/refuse final se ries edge mod. tool proximal 1 C158B/16 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C158B/17 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C158B/17 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C158B/18 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C158B/18 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C158B/19 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C158B/20 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/ med 1 C158B/22 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 1 C158B/22 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C158B/22 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C158B/27 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C158B/28 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C158B/29 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C158B/30 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C158B/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C158B/32 1e SDC158B 6 chunk 1 C158B/32 1d SDC158B 6 final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C158B/32 1a SDC158B 6 final series blade proximal 1 C158B/32 1c SDC158B 6 final series blade medial 1 C158B/32 1b SDC1 58B 6 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C158D/1 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C158D/2 1a constr. fill/refuse biface proximal 1 C158D/2 1c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C158D/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C158D/3 1c constr. fill/refuse fragment biface? 1 C158D/3 1d constr. fill/refuse fragment blade core frag? 1 C158D/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C158D/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C158D/5 1c constr. fill/refuse fragment blade core frag? 1 C158D/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C158D/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C158D/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series bla de prox/med 1 C158D/6 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C158D/7 1 constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C158D/8 2 constr. fill/refuse core section flake 1 C158D/9 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C158D/9 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C158D/11 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C158E/1 2a constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C158E/1 2c constr. fill/refuse fr agment 1 C158E/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C160B/5 2 constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160B/5 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C160B/8 1 constr. fill/refuse f ragment edge mod distal 1 C160B/9 3 constr. fill/refuse macroblade core shaping 1 C160B/10 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C160B/10 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C160B/11 2a constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160B/11 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C160B/29 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C160C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160D/5 1 constr. fil l/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1

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419 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C160G/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C160G/11 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160G/11 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool prox/ med 1 C160H/5 9 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C160H/5 16 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160H/6 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C160H/11 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C160H/14 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C160I/3 1 constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake edge mod. tool 1 C160J/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160J/17 1 constr. fill/ref use final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160K/2 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C160K/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C160K/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C160K/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final s eries blade medial 1 C160L/1 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160L/1 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C160L/3 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160L/6 1 constr. fill /refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160L/7 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160L/9 11c constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C160L/9 11d constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C160L/9 11a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete 1 C160L/9 11f constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 2 C160L/9 11b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C160L/9 11e constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C160L/11 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C160L/11 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C160L/11 1b constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C160L/11 21 constr. fill/refuse fragme nt 2 C160L/11 32a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C160L/11 32d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C160L/11 32b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C160L/11 32c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 6 C162E/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C162D/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C162D/4 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C163B/2 1 constr. f ill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C163B/8 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C163B/9 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C163B/9 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C163B/10 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C164B/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C164B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C164B/3 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool m edial 1 C164B/3 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C164B/4 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C164B/5 4d SDC164B 1 final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C164B/5 4b SDC164B 1 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C164B/5 4a SDC164B 1 final series blade prox/med 1 C164B/5 4c SDC164B 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C164B/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C164B/8 2 SDC164B 2 final series blade med/dist 1 C164B/9 5 constr. fill/r efuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1

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420 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C164B/10 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C164B/12 6 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C164B/17 1b SDC164B 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C164B/17 1c SDC164B 4 final seri es edge mod. tool medial 1 C164B/17 1a SDC164B 4 final series notched blade complete 1 C164C/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C164C/3 5c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C164C/3 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod tool prox/med 2 C164C/3 5b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 7 C164C/5 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 6 C164C/5 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C164C/5 3a constr. fill/refuse final se ries edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C164D/2 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C164D/4 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C164D/4 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C164D/4 6c const r. fill/refuse distal orientation flake 1 C164D/6 6 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C164D/7 5 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C164D/7 6c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C164D/7 6a constr. fill/refuse fi nal series blade prox/med 1 C164D/7 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C164D/8 4b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C164D/8 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C164D/10 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 4 C164D/10 5c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C164D/10 5b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C165B/2 4 constr. fill/refuse edge mod. Tool 1 C165B/2 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C165B/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C165B/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C165B/5 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C165B/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool media l 1 C165B/10 2c constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 2 C165B/10 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C165B/10 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 5 C165B/10 3 constr. fill/refuse final series bl ade med/dist 1 C165B/11 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C165B/11 8c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C165B/11 8b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C165B/14 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C165B/12 7b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C165B/12 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C165B/14 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C165B/15 5 constr. fill/ref use final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C165B/18 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C165B/20 2a constr. fill/refuse blade production by products blade complete 1 C165B/20 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox /med 1 C166B/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C166B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C166B/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C166B/6 3b constr. fill/refuse final s eries edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C166B/6 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C166B/7 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C166B/7 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2

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421 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C166B/11 1 constr. fill/r efuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C166B/13 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C167B/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C167C/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C173C/3 5b c onstr. fill/refuse fragment edge mod 1 C173C/3 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C173C/5 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C173C/5 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C173C/11 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C173C/11 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C173D/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C173D/3 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C173D/5 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C173D/11 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C173D/12 2 constr. fill/refuse biface point distal 1 C174C/8 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade plunging distal 1 C174C/8 5b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C174C/8 5c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C174C/8 5d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C174C/10 2 constr. fill/refuse cortical core top 1 C174C/10 4c c onstr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C174C/10 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C174C/10 4d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 2 C174C/10 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C174C /12 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C174C/12 6c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C174C/12 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C174C/12 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. to ol medial 3 C174C/13 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C174C/13 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete 1 C174C/14 16c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 6 C174C/14 16e constr. fill/refuse fi nal series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C174C/14 16g constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C174C/14 16a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 2 C174C/14 16b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C174C/14 16f constr. fill/re fuse final series blade plunging distal 2 C174C/14 16d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C174C/14 17 constr. fill/refuse striated core top 1 C174C/15 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C174C/16 4 const r. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C174C/20 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C174C/20 2a constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) indeterminate 1 C174C/22 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C174C/22 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C174C/22 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C174C/23 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C174C/23 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C174D/3 2 constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C174D/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C174D/9 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C174D/11 2 constr. fill/refuse final se ries edge mod. tool medial 2 C174D/14 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C174D/15 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C174D/15 6 constr. fill/refuse final series adornment lateral 1

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422 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C174E/1 1a constr. fill /refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C174E/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C174E/3 7c constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C174E/3 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C174E/3 7a constr. fill/refuse fin al series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C174E/3 8 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) indeterminate 1 C174E/4 2b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C174E/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C174E/6 1 constr. fill/r efuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C174E/8 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C174E/8 2a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade proximal 1 C174E/9 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C177B/2 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C177B/10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C177B/20 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C177B/22 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C177B/24 2 constr. fil l/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C177C/3 4 constr. fill/refuse various debitage fragment 1 C177D/3 10 SDC177D 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric lateral 1 C177D/3 11 SDC177D 1 object from blade core frag eccentric medial/lateral 1 C177D/3 4 SDC177D 1 edge modified flake eccentric lateral 1 C177D/3 5 SDC177D 1 object from blade core frag uniface lateral 1 C177D/3 6 SDC177D 1 object from blade core frag eccentric lateral 1 C177D/3 7 SDC177D 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/3 8 SDC177D 1 final series blade plunging complete 1 C177D/3 9 SDC177D 1 edge modified flake eccentric lateral 1 C177D/11 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C177D/16 2 constr. fill/refuse various debitage fragment 1 C 177D/16 3 constr. fill/refuse core section flake 1 C177D/16 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade complete 1 C177D/22 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C177D/27 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C177D/3 1 8b SDC177D 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C177D/31 8a SDC177D 2 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C177D/34 1 constr. fill/refuse exhausted core medial 1 C177D/36 1 SDC177D 8 initial series notched blade complete 1 C177D/36 10 SDC177D 8 initial series notched blade complete 1 C177D/36 2 SDC177D 8 initial series notched blade complete 1 C177D/36 3 SDC177D 8 macroblade with cortex notched 1 C177D/36 4 SDC177D 8 initial series notched blade prox/med 1 C177D/36 5 SDC177D 8 initial seri es notched blade complete 1 C177D/36 6 SDC177D 8 initial series notched blade complete 1 C177D/36 7 SDC177D 8 initial series notched blade complete 1 C177D/36 8 SDC177D 8 initial series notched blade complete 1 C177D/36 9 SDC177D 8 initial series notch ed blade complete 1 C177D/37 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C177D/37 3c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C177D/37 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C177D/38 2 constr. fill/refuse point bi face medial 1 C177D/40 1 SDC177D 6 fragment 1 C177D/41 4 SDC177D 9 initial series blade medial 1 C177D/44 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C177D/46 1 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag proximal/ lateral 1 C177D/46 10 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric complete 1

PAGE 423

423 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C177D/46 16 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/46 17 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/46 18 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric medial 1 C177D/46 19 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric proximal/medial 1 C177D/46 2 SDC177D 9 final series notched blade plunging complete 1 C177D/46 20 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric proximal/medial 1 C177D/46 21 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/46 3 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric medial 1 C177D/46 31 SDC177D 9 final series blade plunging complete 1 C177D/46 32 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric lateral 1 C 177D/46 33 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/46 34 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric lateral 1 C177D/46 35 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric proximal 1 C177D/46 36 SDC177D 9 final series blade p lunging complete 1 C177D/46 37 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag medial/lateral 1 C177D/46 38 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric proximal/medial 1 C177D/46 40 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/46 41 SDC 177D 9 object from blade core frag edge mod. tool proximal/ lateral 1 C177D/46 42 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/46 43 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/46 44 SDC177D 9 object from blade c ore frag eccentric distal/medial 1 C177D/46 45 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric lateral 1 C177D/46 46 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric proximal/medial 1 C177D/46 49 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/46 5 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag medial/lateral 1 C177D/46 50 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/46 51 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric medial/lateral 1 C177D/46 6 SDC177D 9 object from bl ade core frag proximal/ lateral 1 C177D/46 7 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag proximal/ lateral 1 C177D/46 9 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag edge mod. tool lateral 1 C177D/46 15 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric medial/later al 1 C177D/46 22 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric medial 1 C177D/46 39 SDC177D 9 final series blade plunging complete 1 C177D/46 4 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric distal/medial 1 C177D/46 47 SDC177D 9 object from blade co re frag eccentric distal/medial 1 C177D/46 48 SDC177D 9 object from blade core frag eccentric distal/medial 1 C177D/46 8 SDC177D 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C177D/47 2 SDC177D 3 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C177D/48 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C177D/48 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C177D/51 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C177D/52 23 SDC177D 7 objects from core rejuv debitage core section compl ete 1 C177D/52 24 SDC177D 7 macroflake notched 1 C177D/52 25 SDC177D 7 macroflake notched 1 C177D/52 26 SDC177D 7 macroblade notched 1 C177D/52 27 SDC177D 7 initial series notched blade complete 1 C177D/52 29 SDC177D 7 object from core rejuv deb itage notched core section 1 C177D/52 28b SDC177D 7 fragment 1 C177D/52 28a SDC177D 7 final series blade prox/med 1 C177D/56 3 SDC177D 7 macroblade with cortex notched, edge modified 1 C177D/56 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C177D/58 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1

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424 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C177D/58 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C177E/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C177F/9 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/ med 1 C178C/1 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C178C/2 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C178C/2 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C178C/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C178C/7 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C178C/7 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C178C/8 4a SDC178C 1 final series lancet complete 4 C178C/8 5b SDC178C 1 final series blade prox/med 5 C178C/8 5a SDC178C 1 final series blade complete 5 C178C/8 4b SDC178C 1 final series lancet med/dist 2 C178C/8 6b SDC178C 1 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C178C/8 6d SDC178C 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C178C/8 6a SDC178C 1 final series blad e prox/med 11 C178C/8 6c SDC178C 1 final series blade medial 12 C178C/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C178C/10 3 SD, but not assigned platform prep flake edge mod. tool 1 C178C/10 2 SD, but not assigned final series lancet complet e 3 C178C/10 4d SD, but not assigned final series blade med/dist 1 C178C/10 4a SD, but not assigned final series blade complete 1 C178C/10 4c SD, but not assigned final series blade medial 1 C178C/10 4b SD, but not assigned final series blade prox/med 3 C178C/11 1a SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C178C/11 1b SD, but not assigned final series blade prox/med 1 C178C/11 1c SD, but not assigned final series blade med/dist 1 C178C/13 2 SDC178C 1 macroblade edge modified 1 C 178C/13 1 SD, but not assigned final series blade medial 1 C178C/14 5 SD, but not assigned final series blade prox/med 1 C178C/19 3 SD, but not assigned final series blade prox/med 1 C179B/4 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C1 79B/6 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool plunging medial/distal 1 C179B/6 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C179B/7 14 constr. fill/refuse biface medial 1 C179B/7 13a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mo d. tool prox/med 1 C179B/7 13b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C179B/7 8b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C179B/7 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C179B/8 5 constr. fill/refuse final s eries edge mod. tool medial 1 C179B/10 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C179B/12 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C179B/12 5b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C179B/12 5d constr. fill/refuse final s eries blade distal 1 C179B/12 5c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C179B/14 1 constr. fill/refuse objects from exhausted core biface proximal/medial 1 C179B/14 4 constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C179B/19 2 constr. fill/refuse final seri es blade medial 1 C179B/26 1c SDC179B 7 final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C179B/26 1d SDC179B 7 fragment 1 C179B/26 1a SDC179B 7 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C179B/26 1b SDC179B 7 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179B/26 22f SDC1 79B 7 fragment 1 C179B/26 22e SDC179B 7 final series blade distal 1

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425 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C179B/26 22c SDC179B 7 final series blade medial 2 C179B/26 22d SDC179B 7 final series blade med/dist 2 C179B/26 22a SDC179B 7 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 4 C179B/26 22b SDC179B 7 final series edge mod. tool medial 8 C179B/26 33 SDC179B 7 final series edge mod. tool plunging medial/distal 1 C179C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment blade core frag? 1 C176C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C17 9D/4 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179G/4 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179D/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179D/10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. t ool medial 5 C179D/10 2 constr. fill/refuse chunk 1 C179D/11 1 SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179D/11 3 SD, but not assigned point small Stem B Point? complete 1 C179D/11 4a SD, but not assigned initial series edge mod. tool overhang removal 1 C179D/11 4b SD, but not assigned initial series blade prox/med 4 C179D/11 4g SD, but not assigned final series blade med/dist 1 C179D/11 4h SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C179D/11 4f SD, but not assi gned final series notched blade medial 1 C179D/11 4e SD, but not assigned final series blade medial 2 C179D/11 4c SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool prox/med 10 C179D/11 4d SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 11 C179D/ 11 4i SD, but not assigned blade core frag (non rejuv) indeterminate 1 C179D/12 11 SDC179D 1 final series blade med/dist 1 C179D/12 12 SDC179D 1 final series blade complete 1 C179D/12 13 SDC179D 1 final series edge mod. tool plunging complete 1 C179D /12 14 SDC179D 1 core section flake 1 C179D/12 4 SDC179D 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric medial 1 C179D/12 5 SDC179D 1 final series edge mod. tool plunging complete 1 C179D/12 6 SDC179D 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C17 9D/12 7 SDC179D 1 objects from exhausted core uniface lateral 1 C179D/12 8 SDC179D 1 objects from exhausted core notched proximal/medial 1 C179D/12 9 SDC179D 1 objects from exhausted core eccentric complete 1 C179D/12 10 SDC179D 1 final series blade pro x/med 1 C179D/12 15b SDC179D 1 final series blade medial 1 C179D/12 15a SDC179D 1 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C179D/12 15c SDC179D 1 final series blade med/dist 2 C179D/13 1 constr. fill/refuse 'small' percussion blade core shaping 1 C179 D/14 2a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 1 C179D/14 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C179D/15 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C179D/16 5c constr. fill/refuse final series blade dista l 1 C179D/16 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C179D/16 5b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C179D/20 4 SDC179D 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C179E/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mo d. tool medial 1 C179E/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C179E/6 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179E/9 3 constr. fill/refuse fragment blade core frag? 1 C179F/5 4 constr. fill/refuse final s eries edge mod. tool medial 2 C179F/6 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C179F/7 5 constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade prox/med 2 C179F/8 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179F/8 6a constr. fill/refu se final series blade medial 1

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426 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C179F/10 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C179F/10 4c constr. fill/refuse flake pointed flake tool 1 C179F/10 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179F/11 6 constr. f ill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179F/11 8 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179F/12 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C179F/12 3c constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade medial 1 C179F/ 12 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C179F/13 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C179G/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C179G/10 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool me dial 1 C179G/10 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C179G/10 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C179G/13 10 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) indeterminate 1 C179G/13 9 constr. fill/refuse fin al series notched blade prox/med 1 C179G/14 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179G/15 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C179G/18 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C179G/18 1 b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179G/18 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C179G/19 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C179G/20 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C17 9G/21 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C179G/23 4a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 1 C179G/23 4c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C179G/23 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179G/25 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C179H/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C179H/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C179H/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mo d. tool medial 1 C179F/14 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C179F/14 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C180B/7 12a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180B/7 12b constr. fill/refuse f inal series blade medial 1 C180B/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C180B/8 1 constr. fill/refuse inlay ground flake? 1 C180B/8 8d constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C180B/8 8a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C180B/8 8b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C180B/8 8c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C180B/10 56b SDC180B 2 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180B/10 56a SDC180B 2 final series edge mod. too l proximal 1 C180B/10 56d SDC180B 2 final series blade distal 1 C180B/10 56c SDC180B 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C180C/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C180C/3 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C180C/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C180C/5 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C180C/6 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C180D/10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180D/17 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180D/17 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C180D/21 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C180D/25 2 constr. fill/refuse blade cor e frag (non rejuv) proximal/medial 1

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427 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C180D/26 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C180D/28 7c constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade medial 1 C180D/28 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C180D/28 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 6 C180D/29 7 SDC180D 1 point bipointed tool? distal 1 C180D/29 6a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C180D/29 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180 D/29 6c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C180D/30 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180D/30 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C180D/31 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C180D/32 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C180D/33 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180D/36 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C180D/36 6a constr. fill/ refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C180D/37 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180D/37 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C180D/37 3c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C180 D/40 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180D/41 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C180E/4 4a constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180E/4 4b constr. fill/refuse final series e dge mod. tool proximal 1 C180E/4 4c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C180E/5 8b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C180E/5 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C180E/11 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C180E/18 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C180E/21 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C181B/19 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade complete 1 C181B/25 1 constr. fill/refuse final se ries blade medial 1 C181B/26 4c constr. fill/refuse flake platform prep? 1 C181B/26 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C181B/26 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C181B/26 5 constr. fill/refuse plat form prep flake disk 1 C181B/27 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C181B/29 8 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C181B/33 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C181B/34 4 constr. fill/refuse final series ed ge mod. tool medial 1 C181B/34 5b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C181B/34 5a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C181B/35 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C181B/35 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C181B/35 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C181B/35 2d constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 2 C181B/35 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C181B/38 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C181B/41 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C181B/41 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C181B/51 1 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) med ial/lateral 1 C181C/5 1 constr. fill/refuse chunk blade core frag? 1 C181E/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C181E/6 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C181E/6 4 constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C1 81E/6 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1

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428 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C181F/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C181G/11 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C182B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medi al 1 C182B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C182B/9 5 constr. fill/refuse macroblade core shaping 1 C182B/10 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C182B/11 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C182B/14 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C182B/14 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C182B/15 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C182B/15 2 constr. fill/refuse final se ries edge mod. tool medial 2 C182B/16 6 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C182B/16 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C182B/16 7b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C182B/16 7e constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C182B/16 7c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C182B/16 7d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C182B/17 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C182C/1 2a co nstr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C182C/1 2b constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C182C/2 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C182C/2 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C182C/2 3a constr. fill/refuse fin al series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C182C/6 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C182C/6 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C182C/7 3 constr. fill/refuse shatter 1 C182D/1 11c constr. fill/refuse final series blade d istal 1 C182D/1 11a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C182D/1 11d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C182D/1 11b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C182D/2 4a constr. fill/refuse initial ser ies edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C182D/2 4b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C182D/4 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 1 C182D/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C182D/5 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C182D/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C182D/6 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C182E/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C182E/14 7 constr. fill/refuse core secti on flake edge mod. tool 1 C182E/16 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C182E/16 10 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C182E/22 3 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) distal/ lateral 1 C182E/ 30 4 constr. fill/refuse flake fragment distal 1 C182E/31 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C182E/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C183B/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C183B/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool plunging medial/distal 1 C183B/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C183B/2 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 1 C183D/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C183E/1 8a constr. fill/refuse macroblade core shaping 1 C183E/1 8b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C183E/3 8 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C183F/1 2a constr. fill/refuse fin al series blade distal 1

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429 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C183F/1 2b constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C183F/2 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C183F/2 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C183F/4 12b constr. fi ll/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C183F/4 12a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C183F/5 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C183F/6 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C183F/8 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C183F/8 4b constr. fill/refuse shatter 1 C183G/2 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C183H/2 8 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C183H/11 7 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C183H/16 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C183J/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C183J/4 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medi al 1 C183J/4 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C183J/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C183J/4 2d constr. fill/refuse shatter 1 C183J/5 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C183J/5 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C183J/7 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C183J/11 10 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C183J/11 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C183J/11 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 4 C184B/16 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C184B/16 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C184B/18 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 1 C184B/ 18 10 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C184B/26 9a SDC184B 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C184B/26 9b SDC184B 4 final series blade prox/med 1 C184B/26 9c SDC184B 4 final series blade medial 1 C184B/26 10 SDC184B 4 core section flake 1 C184B/26 11 SDC184B 4 macroblade core shaping 1 C184B/26 12 SDC184B 4 platform prep flake notched 1 C184B/26 13 SDC184B 4 macroflake core shaping 1 C184B/26 15 SDC184B 4 platform prep flake edge mod. tool 1 C184B/26 16 SDC184B 4 's mall' percussion blade core shaping 1 C184B/26 17 SDC184B 4 core section flake 1 C184B/26 18 SDC184B 4 macroflake core shaping 1 C184B/26 19 SDC184B 4 platform prep flake 1 C184B/26 14 SDC184B 4 'small' percussion blade core shaping 1 C1 84B/29 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C184B/30 1 SDC184B 5 bidirectional core complete 1 C184B/30 10 SDC184B 5 bidirectional core medial/lateral 1 C184B/30 11 SDC184B 5 core section flake 1 C184B/30 12 SDC184B 5 ma croblade core shaping 1 C184B/30 13 SDC184B 5 indeterminate rejuv debitage edge mod. tool 1 C184B/30 14 SDC184B 5 indeterminate rejuv debitage 1 C184B/30 15 SDC184B 5 'small' percussion blade core shaping 1 C184B/30 2 SDC184B 5 bidirectional core complete 1 C184B/30 3 SDC184B 5 exhausted core complete 1 C184B/30 4 SDC184B 5 bidirectional core proximal/medial 1 C184B/30 5 SDC184B 5 bidirectional core complete 1 C184B/30 6 SDC184B 5 exhausted core complete 1

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430 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C184B/30 7 SDC184B 5 c ortical core top fragment 1 C184B/30 8 SDC184B 5 cortical core top fragment 1 C184B/30 9 SDC184B 5 'small' percussion blade core shaping 1 C184B/31 5 SD, but not assigned 'small' percussion blade notched 1 C184B/31 6 SD, but not assigned ex hausted core distal 1 C184B/32 1 SD, but not assigned object from core rejuv debitage edge mod. tool 1 C184B/32 2 SD, but not assigned 'small' percussion blade notched 1 C184B/33 4 SDC184B 6 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C184C/4 1 constr fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C184C/5 5b constr. fill/refuse flake platform prep? 1 C184C/5 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C184C/6 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C184C/7 1 constr. fill/refus e final series blade medial 1 C184C/10 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C184D/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C184D/25 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C184D/37 15a SDC184D 6 fina l series blade prox/med 2 C184D/37 15c SDC184D 6 flake platform prep? 2 C184D/37 15b SDC184D 6 final series blade distal 2 C184E/6 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C184E/6 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C184E/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C184E/8 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C184E/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C184E/10 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool m edial 1 C184F/1 1 constr. fill/refuse flake platform prep? 1 C184F/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C184G/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C184G/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C184G/1 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C184G/1 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C184G/2 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C184G/3 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C184G/6 5 constr. fill/refuse lateral core rejuv edge mod. tool 1 C184G/6 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C184G/6 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C184G/6 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. too l prox/med 1 C184G/8 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C184G/10 6b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C184G/10 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185B/1 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C185B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185B/2 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C185B/3 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185B/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/me d 1 C185B/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 4 C185B/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185B/4 1c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C185B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade prox/med 1 C185B/5 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C185B/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185B/7 5a SDC185B 4 final series blade prox/med 1 C185B/7 5b SDC185B 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1

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431 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C185B/7 6b SDC185B 4 fragment 1 C 185B/7 6a SDC185B 4 final series blade medial 1 C185B/7 7 SDC185B 4 chunk 1 C185B/9 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment various 4 C185B/9 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C185B/14 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C 185B/16 1 constr. fill/refuse flake fragment 1 C185B/25 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C185B/31 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C185B/31 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C185B/31 1c constr. fill/refuse ini tial series blade medial 2 C185B/31 1a constr. fill/refuse indeterminate rejuv debitage flake 1 C185B/43 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade distal 1 C185B/44 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C185B/46 1 constr. fill/r efuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185B/49 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C185B/51 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C185B/53 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185B/53 1a constr. fill/refuse fin al series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C185B/55 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C185B/57 9 SDC185B 13 final series blade complete 1 C185B/58 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185C/1 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C185C/1 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C185C/1 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C185C/2 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C185C/2 4 constr. fill/ref use final series blade medial 1 C185C/2 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C185C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185C/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C185C/3 3 constr. fill/r efuse fragment 1 C185C/4 12 SDC185C 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185C/4 11b SDC185C 1 final series blade medial 1 C185C/4 11c SDC185C 1 final series blade med/dist 1 C185C/4 11a SDC185C 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185C/4 14 SDC185C 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185C/4 4 SDC185C 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185C/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C185C/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C185C/7 4 constr. fill/ refuse fragment 1 C185C/15 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185D/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C185D/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C185D/1 3 constr. fill/refuse f inal series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185D/2 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment macro flake? 1 C185D/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185D/2 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185D/2 2a constr. fill /refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C185D/2 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C185D/2 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C185D/2 4 constr. fill/refuse fragment notched medial 1 C185D/4 1 c onstr. fill/refuse final series blade complete 1 C185D/4 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C185D/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1

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432 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C185D/6 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185D/6 3 constr. fill/refuse fin al series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185D/7 4 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) indeterminate 1 C185D/7 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185D/7 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C185 D/10 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185D/13 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C185D/14 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185D/14 4b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C185D/14 5 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C185D/14 7 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 2 C185D/16 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C185D/18 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C185D/20 1 constr. fil l/refuse final series blade medial 1 C186B/4 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186B/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series drill medial 1 C186B/10 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186B/10 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C185D/10 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186B/11 8 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C186B/11 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186B /13 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C186B/14 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 1 C186B/15 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C186B/16 8 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186B/17 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C186B/18 6a SDC186B 3 final series blade proximal 1 C186B/18 6b SDC186B 3 final series blade medial 1 C186B/18 9 SDC186B 3 shatter 1 C186B/21 11 SD, but not assigned platform prep flake 1 C1 86B/23 15 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C186B/23 9 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C186B/24 17a SDC186B 4 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186B/24 17b SDC186B 4 final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C186B/24 18 SDC186B 4 fina l series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C186B/24 19 SDC186B 4 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186C/2 3 constr. fill/refuse fragment blade core frag? proximal 1 C186C/2 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186C/3 3 constr. fi ll/refuse final series blade medial 1 C186C/4 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C186C/5 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186C/7 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C186C/7 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186C/8 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186C/8 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186C/9 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186C/9 4 constr. fill/r efuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186C/10 13 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C186C/11 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186C/11 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C186C/1 2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186C/15 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186C/16 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186C/16 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod tool medial 1

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433 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C186C/19 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C186C/19 7 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186C/19 8 constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186C/29 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186C/32 15 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186C/32 5 constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1 C186D/1 9 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C186D/2 10d constr. fill/refuse f ragment 2 C186D/2 10a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C186D/2 10b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C186D/2 10c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C186D/2 11 constr. fill/refuse shatt er 2 C186D/3 11b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C186D/3 11a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C186D/4 11a SDC186D 1 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186D/4 11b SDC186D 1 final series edge mo d. tool medial 1 C186D/4 29 SDC186D 1 fragment 1 C186D/4 30b SDC186D 1 final series blade medial 1 C186D/4 30a SDC186D 1 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186D/5 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186D/5 3 constr. fill /refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186D/6 14 constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade prox/med 3 C186D/6 15 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C186D/6 16 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186D/6 5 constr. fill/refuse fragment pointed tool distal 1 C186D/6 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C186D/7 8 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186D/8 20 SD, but not assigned macroblade with cortex core sha ping 1 C186D/8 21b SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186D/8 21a SD, but not assigned final series blade medial 3 C186D/8 22 SD, but not assigned fragment platform prep? 3 C186D/8 23 SD, but not assigned fragment blade frags ? 3 C186D/8 24 SD, but not assigned final series notched blade medial 1 C186D/8 25 SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186D/8 26b SD, but not assigned initial series blade prox/med 1 C186D/8 26a SD, but not assigned final ser ies edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C186D/8 5 SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186D/9 12a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C186D/9 12b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C186D/9 25b co nstr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C186D/9 25a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C186D/9 25c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C186D/9 26 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C186D/10 6 SDC18 6D 2 fragment 2 C186C/1 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C188A/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C188B/2 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C188B/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final seri es edge mod. tool complete 1 C188B/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C188B/18 1 SDC188B 1 object from blade core frag notched distal/medial 1 C188B/18 2 SDC188B 1 blade core frag (non rejuv) distal/medial 1 C188B/23 2 SDC188B 4 fina l series blade complete 1 C188B/29 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C188B/29 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1

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434 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C188B/33 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C188B/37 37 SDC188B 8 pla tform prep flake inlay 1 C188C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C188C/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C188C/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C188C/19 2a constr. fill /refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C188C/19 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C188C/30 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C188C/30 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C18 8C/30 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C188C/31 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C188B/36 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C188B/36 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C188D/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C188D/5 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C188D/10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C188D/19 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C188D/19 2a const r. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C188E/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C188E/4 1b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C188E/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C188F/3 1 const r. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C188F/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C188F/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C188F/13 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C188F/16 1b c onstr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C188F/16 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189B/2 12 SD, but not assigned macroflake with cortex core shaping 1 C189B/3 1 SDC189B 1 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C189B/3 2 SDC189B 1 object from blade core frag notched lateral 1 C189B/3 3 SDC189B 1 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C189B/3 4 SDC189B 1 faceted core top fragment edge mod. tool 1 C189B/3 5 SDC189B 1 fragment edge mod 1 C189B/4 2 SDC189B 1 ma croflake core shaping 1 C189B/5 1 SD, but not assigned object from blade core frag notched proximal/medial/lateral 1 C189B/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C189B/7 2 SDC189B 1 macroflake core shaping 1 C189B/8 1 constr. fill/re fuse final series blade med/dist 1 C189B/14 1 SDC189B 4 macroflake with cortex core shaping 1 C189B/14 2 SDC189B 4 macroflake core shaping 1 C189B/14 3 SDC189B 4 macroflake core shaping 1 C189B/15 2 SD, but not assigned final series edge mod. too l prox/med 1 C189B/17 8 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189B/20 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189B/23 1 SDC189B 6 macroflake notched 1 C189B/23 10 SDC189B 6 object from blade core frag notched d istal 1 C189B/23 11 SDC189B 6 object from blade core frag uniface proximal/medial/lateral 1 C189B/23 2 SDC189B 6 blade core frag (non rejuv) proximal/medial 1 C189B/23 3 SDC189B 6 final series notched blade complete 1 C189B/23 4 SDC189B 6 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C189B/23 5 SDC189B 6 exhausted core complete 1 C189B/23 6 SDC189B 6 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C189B/23 7 SDC189B 6 macroflake notched 1 C189B/23 8 SDC189B 6 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/distal/latera l 1

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435 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C189B/23 9 SDC189B 6 object from blade core frag notched medial 1 C189B/24 66 SDC189B 7 macroflake edge mod. tool 1 C189B/24 67f SDC189B 7 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C189B/24 67g SDC189B 7 final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C189B/2 4 67c SDC189B 7 final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C189B/24 67a SDC189B 7 final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C189B/24 67b SDC189B 7 final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C189B/24 67d SDC189B 7 final series blade complete 1 C189B/24 67h SDC189B 7 final series blade medial 1 C189B/24 67i SDC189B 7 final series blade distal 2 C189B/24 67e SDC189B 7 final series blade prox/med 4 C189B/26 10 SDC189B 9 blade core frag (non rejuv) medial 1 C189B/26 11 SDC189B 9 macroblade core shaping 1 C189B /26 13 SDC189B 9 final series blade complete 2 C189B/26 14 SDC189B 9 macroflake with cortex core shaping 1 C189B/26 8 SDC189B 9 macroflake core shaping 1 C189B/26 9 SDC189B 9 initial series notched blade complete 1 C189B/26 12a SDC189B 9 final seri es edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C189B/26 12c SDC189B 9 final series blade med/dist 1 C189B/26 12b SDC189B 9 final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C189B/31 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C189B/32 3 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C189 B/33 1 SDC189B 13 objects from exhausted core notched complete 1 C189B/33 2 SDC189B 13 final series other plunging complete 1 C189B/33 3 SDC189B 13 final series other plunging complete 1 C189B/34 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189B/37 4a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C189B/37 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189C/2 16 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189C/4 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade pr ox/med 1 C189C/6 14 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C189C/7 14 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C189C/12 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189C/12 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C189C/13 9 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C189C/18 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 4 C189C/19 4a constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade prox/med 1 C189C/19 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C189C/20 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C189D/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C189D/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189 D/2 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C189D/2 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C189D/2 2c constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake edge mod. tool 2 C189D/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189D/3 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C189D/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189D/10 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C189D/10 3b constr. fill/ refuse final series blade medial 2 C189D/11 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C189D/15 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C190B/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C190B/14 6b constr. fill/refus e final series blade prox/med 1 C190B/14 6a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1

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436 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C190B/17 11c constr. fill/refuse flake complete 1 C190B/17 11a constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C190B/17 11b constr. fill/refuse final seri es blade prox/med 1 C190D/3 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C190D/2 9a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C190D/2 9b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C190D/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade med /dist 1 C191B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C191B/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C191B/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C191B/3 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C191B/3 4a constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) core section medial/lateral 1 C191B/3 1g constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191B/3 1f constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C191B/3 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191B/3 1e constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191B/3 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191B/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191B/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C191B/9 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C191B/10 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C191B/10 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C191B/11 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C191B/11 2b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191B/11 2c constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C191C/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C191C/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191C/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191C/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191C/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C191C/3 1d constr. fill/refuse f inal series blade medial 2 C191C/3 1c constr. fill/refuse core section flake 1 C191C/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C191C/4 1g constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191C/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C191C/4 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C191C/4 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191C/4 1f constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C191C/4 1e constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C191C/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C191C/5 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C191C/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191C/5 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191C/5 1a co nstr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191C/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C191C/9 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191D/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C191D/1 1b constr. fill/r efuse final series blade medial 1 C191D/3 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C191D/3 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191D/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191D/3 1d constr. fill/refuse final seri es blade medial 1 C191D/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1

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437 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C191D/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C191D/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C191E/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medi al 1 C191E/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C191E/3 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C191E/3 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C191E/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192B/1 2a constr. fill/refuse objects from exhausted core lip plug medial 1 C192B/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C192B/1 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C192B/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C 192B/2 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192B/2 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192B/2 1e constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192B/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 2 C192B/3 9a cons tr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192B/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192B/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192B/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C192C/1 1b constr. fill/refus e final series blade prox/med 1 C192C/1 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192C/1 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192C/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192C/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C192C/5 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C192C/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C192C/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C193B/4 7a constr. fill/refuse final series blade media l 1 C193B/4 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193B/7 2 constr. fill/refuse scraper distal 1 C193B/7 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193B/22 72e SDC193B 2 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C193B/22 72g SDC193B 2 fragment 2 C193B/22 72f SDC193B 2 final series blade distal 1 C193B/22 72b SDC193B 2 final series blade proximal 1 C193B/22 72a SDC193B 2 initial series blade prox/med 1 C193B/22 72d SDC193B 2 final series blade medial 2 C19 3B/22 72c SDC193B 2 final series blade prox/med 3 C193B/26 18c SDC193B 3 flake complete 1 C193B/26 18a SDC193B 3 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193B/26 18b SDC193B 3 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193C/1 7 constr. fill/refuse flake bi face fragment? proximal 1 C193C/1 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193C/1 8b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 6 C193C/2 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193C/3 16e constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C193C/3 16b constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 2 C193C/3 16c constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 3 C193C/3 16a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 4 C193C/3 16d cons tr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 10 C193C/5 18c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C193C/5 18b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C193C/5 18a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C193C/7 12 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1

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438 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C193C/8 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C193C/10 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193C/11 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193C/11 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193C/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193D/1 8 constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C193D/3 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C193D/4 8a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193D/4 8b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C193D/5 9a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193D/5 9b constr. fill/refuse final series e dge mod. tool medial 6 C193D/6 7 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C193D/8 10a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193D/8 10b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C193E/1 6 constr. fill/refuse f inal series blade medial 1 C193E/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C193E/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193E/8 7 constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C193E/10 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193E/11 6 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C193F/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193F/2 11a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C193F/2 11b constr. fill/refuse final ser ies edge mod. tool medial 1 C193F/2 11c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C193F/3 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C193F/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C193F/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C193F/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193F/5 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C193G/1 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C193G/1 3d constr. fill/refuse fin al series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C193G/1 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C193G/1 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C193G/2 1a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete 1 C193G/2 1b constr. fill/re fuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193G/2 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C193G/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193G/3 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C193G/4 1 c onstr. fill/refuse final series drill medial 1 C193G/4 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193G/4 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193G/4 2e constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C193G/4 2c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C193G/4 2d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C193G/5 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193G/5 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C193G/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C193G/6 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C193G/6 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193G/7 4a constr. fill/refuse final series bla de proximal 1 C193G/7 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C193G/7 4c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 5 C193G/8 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C193G/8 1c constr. fill/refuse initial seri es blade medial 1

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439 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C193G/8 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C193G/8 2 constr. fill/refuse indeterminate rejuv debitage edge mod. tool 2 C193H/1 2 constr. fill/refuse bidirectional core complete 1 C193H/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C193H/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C193H/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C193H/3 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C193H/3 1b constr. fill/refuse fin al series edge mod. tool medial 4 C193H/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C193H/4 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C193H/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 9 C194B/1 7 constr. fil l/refuse final series blade medial 2 C194B/4 8 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C194B/8 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C194B/11 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C194B/13 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C194B/14 9 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C194B/17 7 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C194B/18 24 SDC194B 2 flake blade core frag? 1 C194B/23 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C194B/23 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C194B/25 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C194B/26 31e SDC194B 5 final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C194B/26 31g SDC194B 5 final series blade complete 1 C194B/26 31d SDC194B 5 final series blade prox/med 1 C194B/26 31j SDC194B 5 final series blade medial 1 C194B/26 31f SDC194B 5 final series blade complete 1 C194B/26 31c SDC194B 5 final series lancet med/dist 1 C194B/26 31b SDC194B 5 final series e dge mod. tool med/dist 1 C194B/26 31a SDC194B 5 final series lancet complete 1 C194B/26 31h SDC194B 5 final series blade prox/med 1 C194B/26 31i SDC194B 5 final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C194C/1 8b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C194C/1 8a constr. fill/refuse final series notched blade medial 1 C194C/1 9 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) medial/lateral 1 C194C/4 12b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C194C/4 12a constr. fill/re fuse final series blade prox/med 1 C194C/4 12c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 6 C194C/5 7b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C194C/5 7a constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C194C/6 6 constr. fill/refuse final serie s blade medial 1 C194C/7 6a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C194C/7 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C194C/7 6c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 3 C194C/8 5c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C194C/8 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C194C/8 5b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C194C/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C194C/14 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C194C/14 4 constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C194C/16 5d constr. fill/refuse flake medial 1 C194C/16 5a constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C194C/16 5b constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C194C/16 5c constr. fill/refuse platform prep flake 1

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440 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C194D/2 1b constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C194D/2 1c constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C194D/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C194D/3 7 constr. fill/refuse striated core top fragme nt 1 C194D/3 8d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C194D/3 8a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C194D/3 8c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C194D/3 8b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. t ool medial 7 C194D/4 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C194D/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C194D/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C194D/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series drill med/dist 1 C194D/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C195B/5 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C195B/7 3 SDC195B 4 final series blade complete 1 C195B/8 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edg e mod. tool medial 2 C195B/9 4 SDC195B 5 final series blade complete 1 C195C/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C195C/2 6 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C195C/2 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edg e mod. tool proximal 1 C195C/2 7c constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C195C/2 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C195C/3 8 constr. fill/refuse indeterminate core top fragment inlay 1 C195C/4 10b constr. fill/ref use final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C195C/4 10a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C195C/5 6b constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C195C/5 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C195D/2 3 constr. fill/r efuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C195D/4 7c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C195D/4 7d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C195D/4 7a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 3 C 195D/4 7b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C196B/8 3 SDC196B 1 initial series blade medial 2 C196C/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C196C/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C196C/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C196D/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C196E/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C196E/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C196E/2 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C196E/2 2b constr. fill/refuse indeterminate rejuv debitage edge mod. tool 3 C196E/4 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C196E/5 4 constr. fill/refu se final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C197B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C197B/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C197B/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C197B/2 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C197B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C197C/1 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C197C/1 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. to ol med/dist 1 C197C/2 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C197C/3 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C197C/3 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2

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441 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C197C/6 2 constr. fill/refuse fin al series blade medial 3 C197C/7 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C197C/7 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C197D/5 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C198B/1 11 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C198B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C198B/10 1 SDC198B 4 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C198B/12 11 constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C198C/1 8a constr. fill/refuse final serie s blade medial 1 C198C/1 8a constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C199B/15 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C199B/15 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C199B/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade me dial 1 C199B/6 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C199B/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C199B/13 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C199B/14 1 constr. fill/refuse final seri es edge mod. tool medial 1 C199B/16 1 SDC199B 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C199B/17 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C199B/17 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C199B/18 12b SDC199B 3 final series edge mod. too l proximal 1 C199B/18 12a SDC199B 3 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C199B/18 13 SDC199B 18 blade core frag (non rejuv) distal & lateral 1 C199B/19 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C199B/19 2 constr. fill/refuse final se ries edge mod. tool medial 1 C199B/19 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C199B/19 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade med/dist 1 C199B/19 5 constr. fill/refuse macroblade edge mod retouch 1 C199C/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final seri es blade medial 1 C199C/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 2 C199C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C199C/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C199C/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final se ries blade medial 1 C199C/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C199C/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C199C/8 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C199D/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C199D/3 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C199D/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 4 C199D/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C199D/5 2 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) lateral 2 C199D/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C199D/6 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C199D/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade prox/med 1 C199 D/8 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C199D/10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C199E/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C199E/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C199E/5 1 constr. fill/refu se final series blade medial 1 C199E/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C199E/7 1 constr. fill/refuse pecked ground core top fragment scraper, notched, hafted 1 C199E/7 2 constr. fill/refuse shatter 2 C199E/7 3 constr. f ill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1

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442 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C199E/7 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C199E/7 5 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C199E/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C199E/9 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C199E/9 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C199E/10 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment blade core frag? 1 C199E/10 2 constr. fill/refuse fragment 2 C199E/12 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C199E/12 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C199E/12 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C199E/12 4 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C199E/12 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C200B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C200B/3 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med/dist 1 C200B/6 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C200B/8 1a SDC200B 2 final series blade proximal 1 C200B/8 1b SDC200B 2 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C200B/9 1 constr. fill/refuse error correction fragment 1 C200B/10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C200C/5 2 constr. fill /refuse final series blade proximal 1 C200C/5 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C200C/6 3 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C200C/6 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C200C/7 1c constr. f ill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C200C/7 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C200C/7 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C200C/7 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C200C/8 1 constr fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C200C/9 4a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C200C/9 4c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C200C/9 4b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proxi mal 2 C200C/10 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C200D/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C200D/6 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C200D/6 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod tool proximal 1 C200D/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C200D/8 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C200D/8 3d constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C200D/8 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edg e mod. tool proximal 1 C200D/8 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C200D/8 4 constr. fill/refuse objects from exhausted core distal, lateral? 1 C200D/8 5 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 2 C201B/5 1a constr. fil l/refuse fragment edge mod 1 C201B/5 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C201B/5 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C201B/7 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C201B/7 2b cons tr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C201B/15 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C201B/18 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C201B/21 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C201B/21 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C201B/21 3 constr. fill/refuse macroflake with cortex core shaping 1 C201B/22 2 SDC201B 3 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C201B/26 34c SDC201B 6 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1

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443 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C201B/26 34g SDC201B 6 final series blade complete 1 C201B/26 34e SDC201B 6 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C201B/26 34f SDC201B 6 final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C201B/26 34h SDC201B 6 final series blade medial 1 C201B/26 34d SDC201B 6 f inal series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C201B/26 34b SDC201B 6 final series blade prox/med 2 C201B/26 34a SDC201B 6 final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C201C/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C201C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse fina l series blade medial 1 C201C/4 2 constr. fill/refuse distal orientation flake notched, fragment 1 C201C/4 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C201C/4 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 11 C201C/5 2d c onstr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 1 C201C/5 2b constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool medial 1 C201C/5 2a constr. fill/refuse initial series blade proximal & medial 2 C201C/5 2c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. t ool medial 2 C201C/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C201D/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C201D/7 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C201D/7 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C201D/7 4 constr. fill/refuse shatter 1 C201D/8 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 2 C201D/9 3b constr. fill/refuse initial series blade complete 1 C201D/9 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C 201D/9 3c constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C201D/9 3d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C201D/10 3a constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C201D/10 3c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proxi mal 4 C201D/10 3b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 5 C201E/2 2 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade medial 1 C201E/2 3 constr. fill/refuse objects from exhausted core lateral 1 C202B/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blad e medial 1 C202B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series edge mod. tool medial 1 C202B/4 1d constr. fill/refuse final series blade plunging distal 1 C202B/4 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade plunging distal 1 C202B/4 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C202B/4 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C202B/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade distal 1 C202B/6 1 constr. fill/refuse objects from exhausted core edge mod. tool medial/lateral 1 C2 03B/1 2 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/2 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C203B/2 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/7 6a constr. fill/refuse final series edge m od. tool complete 1 C203B/7 6c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool distal 2 C203B/7 6b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C203B/8 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C203B/8 2b constr. fill/re fuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C203B/10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C203B/11 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/11 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C203B/11 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool plunging distal 1 C203B/13 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C203B/14 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C203B/15 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 1

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444 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C203B/15 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C203B/15 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 3 C203B/16 2a SDC203B 2 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C203B/16 2b SDC203B 2 final series blade distal 1 C203B/17 3a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/17 3b constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 2 C203B/20 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/20 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool med ial 4 C203B/21 7 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C203B/25 1c constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C203B/25 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/25 1f constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. t ool plunging overshot 1 C203B/25 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C203B/25 1d constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 2 C203B/25 1e constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 7 C203B/25 2 constr. fill/re fuse fragment 2 C203B/26 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C203B/27 28e SDC203B 9 initial series overhang removal proximal 4 C203B/27 28d SDC203B 9 initial series blade complete and fragments 7 C203B/27 28c SDC203B 9 fina l series blade medial 1 C203B/27 28b SDC203B 9 final series lancet distal 1 C203B/27 28h SDC203B 9 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C203B/27 28i SDC203B 9 final series blade proximal 2 C203B/27 28a SDC203B 9 final series lancet complete 3 C203B/ 27 28f SDC203B 9 final series blade medial 5 C203B/27 28g SDC203B 9 final series blade plunging distal 7 C203B/27 29 SDC203B 9 objects from exhausted core medial/lateral 1 C203B/27 30 SDC203B 9 macroflake core shaping 1 C203B/28 1a constr. fill/ref use final series blade distal 1 C203B/28 1b constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C203B/29 15a SDC203B 10 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C203B/29 15c SDC203B 10 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/29 15b SDC203B 10 final seri es edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/30 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade medial 1 C203B/31 11b SDC203B 11 initial series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/31 11a SDC203B 11 final series blade medial 3 C203B/32 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mo d. tool medial 1 C203B/33 10a SDC203B 12 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C203B/33 10b SDC203B 12 final series overhang removal proximal 1 C203B/33 9 SDC203B 12 shatter 1 C203B/36 29 SDC203B 14 fragment 1 C203B/36 30b SDC203B 14 final se ries blade complete 1 C203B/36 30c SDC203B 14 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C203B/36 30e SDC203B 14 final series blade medial 1 C203B/36 30d SDC203B 14 final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C203B/36 30a SDC203B 14 final series lancet complete 3 C203B/41 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool complete 1 C203B/41 1c constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/41 1a constr. fill/refuse final series blade plunging distal 1 C203B/42 28e SDC203B 16 final series lan cet prox/med 1 C203B/42 28f SDC203B 16 final series bidirectional medial 1 C203B/42 28d SDC203B 16 final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/42 28c SDC203B 16 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C203B/42 28a SDC203B 16 final series drill complete 1

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445 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C203B/42 28g SDC203B 16 final series blade distal 1 C203B/42 28b SDC203B 16 final series blade medial 2 C203B/42 29 SDC203B 16 objects from exhausted core eccentric medial 1 C203B/44 2a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203B/4 4 2b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool proximal 2 C203B/47 3 SDC203B 19 final series edge mod. tool plunging distal 1 C203B/48 32a SDC203B 20 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C203B/48 32e SDC203B 20 final series edge mod. tool comple te 1 C203B/48 32d SDC203B 20 final series edge mod. tool proximal 1 C203B/48 32c SDC203B 20 final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C203B/48 32f SDC203B 20 final series blade complete 1 C203B/48 32b SDC203B 20 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C203C /4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C203C/11 1b constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C203C/11 1a constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C203C/15 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mo d. tool proximal 1 C204B/5 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool medial 1 C204B/8 4c SDC204B 1 macroblade core shaping 1 C204B/8 4a SDC204B 1 macroflake core shaping 1 C204B/8 4b SDC204B 1 macroflake edge mod lateral 1 C204B/8 4d SDC 204B 1 macroflake core shaping 1 C204B/8 5 SDC204B 1 fragment 1 C204B/9 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C204B/10 1 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C204B/13 1 constr. fill/refuse objects from exhausted core medial/lateral 1 C204B/13 2 c onstr. fill/refuse macroblade core shaping 1 C204B/13 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade proximal 1 C204B/15 1 constr. fill/refuse final series edge mod. tool prox/med 1 C204B/16 14a SDC204B 4 final series blade proximal 1 C204B/16 14c SDC204B 4 final series edge mod. tool medial 2 C204B/16 14d SDC204B 4 final series edge mod. tool distal 2 C204B/16 14b SDC204B 4 final series blade medial 3 C205B/3 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C205B/4 6 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C205B/7 11 constr. fill/refuse flake 1 C205B/8 56 constr. fill/refuse object from macroflake notched 1 C205B/8 52 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C205B/8 53 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C205B/8 54 constr. fill/ref use initial series blade 2 C205B/8 55 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade 1 C205B/8 58 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 33 C205B/8 59 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 3 C205B/8 50 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C20 5B/8 60 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 2 C205B/8 61 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 17 C205B/8 51 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade 1 C205B/8 57 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C205B/9 16 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C205B/10 13 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C205B/10 13 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C205B/10 12 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 2 C205B/10 10 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 12 C205B/10 11 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 2 C205B/12 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1

PAGE 446

446 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C205B/13 3 SDC205B 1 final series blade 2 C205B/16 6 SDC205B 4 final series blade 2 C205B/16 5 SDC205B 4 final series blade 1 C205B/16 7 SDC205B 4 final ser ies blade 1 C205B/17 14 SDC205B 5 object from macroflake edge mod. tool 1 C205B/17 4 SDC205B 5 final series notched blade 1 C205B/17 9 SDC205B 5 final series blade 1 C205B/17 11 SDC205B 5 final series notched blade 1 C205B/17 17 SDC205B 5 fi nal series notched blade 1 C205B/17 19 SDC205B 5 core section flake edge mod. tool 1 C205B/17 18 SDC205B 5 platform prep flake 1 C205B/17 15 SDC205B 5 platform prep flake notched 1 C205B/17 7 SDC205B 5 objects from exhausted core scorpion 1 C205B/17 6 SDC205B 5 objects from exhausted core eccentric 1 C205B/17 8 SDC205B 5 objects from exhausted core eccentric 1 C205B/17 10 SDC205B 5 objects from exhausted core eccentric 1 C205B/17 12 SDC205B 5 exhausted core 1 C205B/17 13 SDC20 5B 5 exhausted core 1 C205B/17 16 SDC205B 5 objects from exhausted core eccentric 1 C205B/17 5 SDC205B 5 exhausted core 1 C205B/20 3 SDC205B 8 final series lancet 1 C205B/21 1 SDC205B 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric 1 C205B/21 3 SDC205B 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric 1 C205B/21 2 SDC205B 9 objects from exhausted core eccentric 1 C205B/7 12 constr. fill/refuse blade core frag (non rejuv) core section 1 C206B/1 8 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C206B/1 9 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 2 C206B/2 6 constr. fill/refuse macroflake core shaping 1 C206B/2 4 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade 1 C206B/2 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C206B/3 3 constr. fill/refuse 'small' per cussion flake core shaping 1 C206B/3 2 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade 1 C206B/3 1 constr. fill/refuse initial series blade 1 C206B/4 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C206B/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C206 B/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C206B/10 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C20C/1 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C207B/1 7 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C207B/1 8 constr. fill/refuse final series b lade 2 C207B/3 13 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C207B/3 12 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C207B/3 14 constr. fill/refuse fragment 1 C207B/4 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C207B/10 3 constr. fill/refuse fina l series blade 1 C207B/10 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C207C/1 5 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C207C/3 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C207C/4 7 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C207C/4 5 constr. f ill/refuse initial series blade 1 C207C/4 6 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C207C/6 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 2 C207C/2 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C208B/7 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1

PAGE 447

447 Catalog Number Context Description 1 Description 2 Part n= C20 8B/9 3 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C208B/9 4 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C208B/13 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C208D/7 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C208D/7 2 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C208D/11 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C208D/13 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1 C208F/2 1 constr. fill/refuse final series blade 1

PAGE 448

448 APPENDIX F ARTIFACTS NOT AVAILB LE FOR ANALYSIS

PAGE 449

449 Catalog number O bject_Lot Context(s) Description_1 Description_2 Part n= C117F/8 28 C117F/8 SDC117F 1 point Stem B Point complete 1 C117F/8 29 C117F/8 SDC117F 1 point Stem B Point complete 1 C117F/8 45 C117F/8 SDC117F 1 biface knife complete 1 C117F/8 46 C117F/8 SDC11 7F 1 biface knife complete 1 C141B/4 8 C141B/4 SDC141B 1? blade 47 C141B/5 7 C141B/5 SDC141B 1? lancet 36 C141B/5 8 C141B/5 SDC141B 1? blade 31 C141C/5 7 C141C/5 SDC141C 2? biface blade complete 1 C141C/5 8 C141C/5 SDC141C 2? biface blade complete 1 C168B/2 1 C168B/2 1 C168B/14 4 C168B/14 blade frag 1 C168B/15 2 C168B/15 blade frag 2 C168B/26 2 C168B/26 blade frag 1 C168B/29 1 C168B/29 blade frag 1 C168B/31 2 C168B/31 blade frag 1 C168B/34 1 C168 B/34 blade frag 1 C168C/2 1 C168C/2 nodule 1 C168C/3 2 C168C/3 blade frag 2 C168C/4 3 C168C/4 blade frag 1 C168D/2 3 C168D/2 blade frag 1 C168D/4 5 C168D/4 blade frag 1 C168E/1 1 C168E/1 blade frag 2 C168E/3 1 C168E/3 blade frag 1 C168E/4 1 C168E/4 flake 1 C168E/4 2 C168E/4 chunk 1 C168E/4 3 C168E/4 blade frag 2 C168E/10 1 C168E/10 blade frag 3 C168E/10 3 C168E/10 partial core 1 C168E/11 5 C168E/11 blade frag 4 C168E/14 1 C168E/14 blade frag 1 C168E/15 9 C168E/15 SDC168E 1 blade frag 11 C168E/15 10 C168E/15 SDC168E 1 flake 1 C168F/3 1 C168F/3 blade frag 4 C168F/3 8 C168F/3 blade frag 1 C168G/4 2 C168G/4 blade frag 4 C168G/5 1 C168G/5 blade frag 2 C168G/8 1 C168G/8 blade frag 1 C168H/2 1 C168H/2 blade frag 1 C168H/11 1 C168H/11 blade frag 1 C169B/5 1 C169B/5 blade frag 1 C169B/10 1 C169B/10 blade frag 3 C169B/11 1 C169B/11 blade fr ag 1 C169B/13 2 C169B/13 blade frag 9 C169B/17 6 C169B/17 blade frag 1 C169C/1 3 C169C/1 blade frag 1 C169C/4 1 C169C/4 blade frag 1 C169C/5 1 C169C/5 blade frag 1 C169C/10 2 C169C/10 blade frag 3 C169C/11 1 C16 9C/11 blade frag 2 C169D/2 1 C169D/2 blade frag 3 C169F/1 2 C169F/1 1 C169F/2 1 C169F/2 blade frag 2 C169H/1 2 C169H/1 blade frag 1 C170B/1 1 C170B/1 blade frag 1

PAGE 450

450 Catalog number O bject_Lot Context(s) Description_1 Description_2 Part n= C170B/1 2 C170B/1 chunk 1 C170B/5 1 C170B/ 5 blade frag 1 C170B/6 2 C170B/6 blade frag 1 C170C/1 1 C170C/1 lancet frag 1 C170C/2 1 C170C/2 blade frag 1 C170C/8 1 C170C/8 blade frag 1 C170C/9 1 C170C/9 blade frag 3 C170D/2 1 C170D/2 blade frag 1 C170D /4 1 C170D/4 blade frag 1 C171B/1 1 C171B/1 frag 6 C171B/3 5 C171B/3 frag 2 C171B/4 9 C171B/4 frag 11 C171B/6 6 C171B/6 frag 20 C171B/7 2 C171B/7 frag 5 C171B/8 2 C171B/8 frag 3 C171B/9 2 C171B/9 blade f rag 1 C171B/11 1 C171B/11 frag 2 C171B/13 1 C171B/13 frag 3 C171B/14 1 C171B/14 frag 1 C171B/15 4 C171B/15 SDC171B 2 frag 10 C171B/15 8 C171B/15 SDC171B 2 frag 1 C171B/15 12 C171B/15 SDC171B 2 blade 1 C171B/15 14 C171 B/15 SDC171B 2 frag 1 C171B/16 1 C171B/16 SDC171B 3 frag 4 C171B/16 8 C171B/16 SDC171B 3 frag 4 C171B/17 1 C171B/17 frag 2 C171B/18 5 C171B/18 frag 1 C171B/19 13 C171B/19 frag 2 C171B/24 1 C171B/24 SDC171B 6 frag 1 C171B/24 2 C171B/24 SDC171B 6 frag 8 C171B/24 3 C171B/24 SDC171B 6 frag 2 C171B/24 8 C171B/24 SDC171B 6 blade 1 C171B/25 1 C171B/25 blade 5 C171B/27 1 C171B/27 frag 1 C171B/28 1 C171B/28 frag 1 C171B/29 1 C171B/29 fr ag 1 C171B/29 7 C171B/29 frag 2 C171B/31 21 C171B/31 SDC171B 9 5 C171B/31 31 C171B/31 SDC171B 9 frag 1 C171B/31 32 C171B/31 SDC171B 9 frag 2 C171C/2 2 C171C/2 frag 1 C171C/3 1 C171C/3 frag 2 C171C/3 2 C171C/3 fr ag 1 C171C/4 10 C171C/4 frag 4 C171C/4 11 C171C/4 frag 1 C171C/4 12 C171C/4 frag 2 C171C/4 13 C171C/4 frag 4 C171C/5 1 C171C/5 frag 1 C171C/6 2 C171C/6 frag 1 C171C/6 3 C171C/6 frag 1 C171C/7 1 C171C/7 frag 1 C171C/7 11 C171C/7 frag 2 C171C/7 3 C171C/7 frag 1 C171C/7 4 C171C/7 frag 3

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451 Catalog number O bject_Lot Context(s) Description_1 Description_2 Part n= C171C/8 1 C171C/8 frag 1 C171C/8 7 C171C/8 blade 2 C171C/9 1 C171C/9 1 C171C/9 2 C171C/9 7 C171C/10 4 C171C/10 frag 1 C171C/11 1 C171C/11 frag 6 C171C/11 2 C171C/11 frag 1 C171C/11 10 C171C/11 blade 7 C171C/13 1 C171C/13 frag 1 C171C/16 1 C171C/16 frag 2 C171D/1 6 C171D/1 frag 2 C171D/1 7 C171D/1 blade 2 C171D/2 1 C171D/2 frag 1 C171D/2 10 C171D/2 frag 3 C171D/2 12 C171D/2 frag 3 C171D/2 13 C171D/2 chunk 1 C171D/3 1 C171D/3 frag 1 C171D/5 1 C171D/5 frag 2 C171D/5 3 C171D/5 frag 1 C171D/7 1 C171D/7 frag 2 C171D /7 2 C171D/7 frag 1 C172B/5 3 C172B/5 frag 1 C172B/10 1 C172B/10 frag 2 C172B/12 1 C172B/12 frag 1 C172B/17 1 C172B/17 frag 2 C172B/27 2 C172B/27 frag 1 C172C/2 2 C172C/2 frag 1 C172C/2 6 C172C/2 1 C172C/3 1 C172C/3 frag 1 C172C/5 3 C172C/5 frag 1 C172C/12 2 C172C/12 frag 1 C172C/12 3 C172C/12 frag 2 C172C/14 2 C172C/14 SDC172C 3 partial blade 1 C172C/14 3 C172C/14 SDC172C 3 frag 1 C172C/19 4 C172C/19 frag 3 C172C/20 2 C172C/20 frag 1 C172C/22 1 C172C/22 frag 1 C172D/2 1 C172D/2 frag 2 C172E/1 2 C172E/1 frag 2

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452 APPENDIX G HYPERLINK TO PERCUSSION TECHNIQUE DATA

PAGE 453

453 http://ufdc.uf l.edu/IR00008319/00001 (see Appendix G worksheet)

PAGE 454

454 APPENDIX H HYPERLINK TO PRESSURE TECHNIQUE DATA

PAGE 455

455 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008319/00001 (see Appendix H worksheet)

PAGE 456

456 APPENDIX I HYPERLINK TO PERCUSSIO N REJUVINATION TECHN IQUE DATA

PAGE 457

457 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008319/00001 (see Appendix I worksheet)

PAGE 458

458 APPENDIX J HYPERLINK TO BLADE CORE AND BLADE CORE FRAGMENT DATA

PAGE 459

459 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008319/00001 (see Appendix J worksheet)

PAGE 460

460 APPENDIX K HYPERLINK TO NON BLADE CORE RELAT ED OBJECT DATA

PAGE 461

461 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008319/00001 (see Appendix K worksh eet)

PAGE 462

462 APPENDIX L HYPERLINK TO UNDIAGNOSTIC DEBITAG E DATA

PAGE 463

463 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008319/00001 (see Appendix L worksheet)

PAGE 464

464 LIST OF REFERENCES Andrieu, Chloe 2001 Chipping A way at the Facts: What Chipp ed Stone Tells Us about Maya Daily Life. In Maya Daily Lives edited by A. Breton and P. Nondedeo, pp.11 23. Acta MesoAmericana, Volume 23. Proceedings of the 13 th European Maya Conference, Verlag, Paris. Anton Saurwein. Angelucci, Diego E. 2010 The Recog nition and Description of Knapped Lithic Artifacts in Thin Section. Geoarchaeology 25(2):220 232 Aoyama, Kazuo 1999 Ancient Maya State, Urbanism, Exchange, and Craft Specialization. University of Pittsburgh Memoirs in Latin American Archaeology No. 12 Department of Anthropology. 1996 Exchange, Craft Specialization, and Ancient Maya State Formation: A Study of Chipped Stone Artifacts from the Southeast Maya Lowlands PhD Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. 2001 Classic Maya State, Urbanism, and E xchange: Chipped Stone Evidence of the Copan Valley and Its Hinterland. American Anthropologist 103:346 360. Appaduri, Arjun 1986 Introduction: Commodities and the Politics of Value. In The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, pp. 3 63, edited by A. Appaduri. Cambridge Press, Cambridge. Arnauld, M. Charlotte 1990 El Comercio Classico de Obsidiana: Rutas Entre Tierras Altas y Tierras Bajas en el Area Maya. Latin American Antiquity 1(4):347 367. Barad, Karen 2007 Meeting the Univers e Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning. Duke University Press, Durham Becker, Marshall J. 1992 Burials as Caches; Caches as Burials: A New Interpretation of the Meaning of Ritual Deposits among the Classic Period Lowland May a. In N ew Theories on the Ancient Maya, edited by E. C. Danien and R. J. Sharer, pp. 185 196. University Museum Monograph 77. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Bennett, Jane 2010 Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things Duke University, Durh am.

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465 Bleed, Peter 2001 Trees or Chains, Links or Branches: Conceptual Alternative for Consideration of Stone Tool Production and Other Sequential Activities. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 8(1):101 127. Bradley, Richard 2003 A Life Less Or dinary: The Ritualization of the Domestic Sphere in Later Prehistoric Europe. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 13 (01), pp.5 23. Braswell, Jennifer 2010 Elite Craft Production of Stone Drills and Slate at Group D, Xunantunich. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands edited by L. LeCount and J. Yaeger, pp. 161 183. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Braswell, Geoffrey E. 2010 The Rise and Fall of Market Exchange: A Dynamic Approach to Ancient Maya Economy. In Archaeological Approaches to Market Exchange, edited by C. P. Garraty and B. L. Stark, pp. 127 140. University of Colorado Press, Boulder 2011 The Technology of Ancient Maya Civilization. In The Technology of Maya Civilization: Political Economy and beyond in Lithic St udies (Approaches to Anthropological Archaeology), edited by Z. X. Hruby, G.E. Braswell, and O. C. Mazariegos, pp. 1 14. Equinox Publishers, Sheffield, England. Braswell, Geoffrey E. and Michael D. Glascock 2007 El Intercombio de la Obsidiana y el Desarro llo de las Economias de Tipo Mercado en la Region Maya. XX Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueologicas en Guatemala, 2006, pp. 13 26. Editored by Juan Pedro Laporte, Barbara Arroyo, and Hector E. Mejia. Brown, Bill 2001 Thing Theory. Critical Inquiry 28(1): 1 22. Brown (Rich), Shayna 2003 An Analysis of a Protoclassic Female Costume from the Site of Caracol, Belize Thesis, Maya Studies/Liberal Studies, University of Central Florida, Orlando. Callon, Michel, and Bruno Latour 1981 Unscrewing the Big Leviathan: How Actors Macro Structure Reality and How Sociologists Help Them to Do So. In Advances in Social Theory and Methodology: Towards an Integration of Macro and Micro Sociologies edited by K.D. Knorr Cetina and A.V. Cicourel, pp. 277 303. Routl edge and Kegan Paul, Boston.

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466 Cap, Bernadette 2015 How to Know It When You See It: Marketplace Identification at the Classic Maya Site of Buenavista del Cayo, Belize. In The Ancient Maya Marketplae: The Archaeology of Transient Space edited by Eleanor Ki ng, pp. 111 137. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Chapman, John and Bisserka Gaydarska 2007 Parts and Wholes: Fragmentation in Prehistoric Context Oxbow Books, Oxford. Chase, Adrian S. Z 2016 Districting and Urban Services at Caracol, Belize: I ntra Site Boundaries in an Evolving Maya Cityscape. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 13: 15 28. 2017 Operationalizing the Inequality of Household Architecture at Caracol, Belize. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 14 (in press). Chase, Adri an S. Z. and Aubrey M. Z. Chase 2015 Ceramic Standardization and the Domestic Economy of the Ancient Maya: Belize Red Tripod Plates at Caracol, Belize. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 12: 65 76. Chase, Arlen F. 1994 A Contextual Approach to the Ceramics of Caracol, Belize. In Studies in the Archaeology of Caracol, Belize, edited by D. Chase and A. Chase, pp. 157 182. PARI, San Francisco. 1998 Planacion Civica e Integracion de Sitio en Caracol, Belize: Definiendo una Economia Administrada del Per iodo Clasico Maya. Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya 6(1):26 44, Universidad Autonoma de Campeche, Campeche. Chase, Arlen F. and Diane Z. Chase 1987 Investigations at the Classic Maya City of Caracol, Belize 1985 1987. PARI Monograph 3, San Francisco. 1994a Details in the Archaeology of Caracol, Belize: An Introduction. In Studies in the Archaeology of Caracol, Belize, edited by D. Chase and A. Chase, pp. 1 11. PARI, San Francisco. 1994b Maya Veneration of the Dead at Caracol, Belize. In Seventh Pale nque Round Table, 1989 edited by Merle Robertson and Virginia Fields, pp. 55 62, Pre Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco. 1998 Scale and Intensity in Classic Period Maya Agriculture: Terracing and Settlement lize. Culture and Agriculture 20(2):60 77.

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467 2001 Ancient Maya Causeways and Site Organization at Caracol, Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica 12(2):273 281. 2002 Southeast Sector Settlement, A Stucco Statue, and Substantial Survey: The Caracol 1997 Season. FAMSI Report. 2006 Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 3: 41 67. 2007a Late Classic Ritual Variation in a Maya Community: Continued Investigations of Report submitted to the Belize Institute of Archaeology. 2007b Caracol. Belize. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 4:13 27. 2008 Household Composition and Ritual Patterning. Continued Investigation of Archaeological Project. Report prepared for the Belize Institute of Archaeology. 2009 Symbolic Egalitarianism and Homogenized Distributions in the Archaeologica l Record at Caracol, Belize: Method, Theory, and Complexity. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 6:15 24. 2010 Checks: Continued Rep ort submitted to the Belize Institute of Archaeology. 2011 Status and Power: Caracol, Teotihuacan, and the Early Classic Maya World. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 8:3 18. 2013 Temporal Cycles in the Archaeology of Maya Residential Groups from Caracol, Belize. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 10:13 24. 2012a Interpreting Ancient Maya Society through Neighborhoods: Investigation of : Caracol Archaeological Project Investigations fo r 2012. Report submitted to the Belize Institute of Archaeology. 2012b Belize Red Ceramics and their Implications for Trade and Exchange in the Eastern Maya Lowlands. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 9:3 14 2014a Ancient Social Integration in a Maya Neighborhood: Investigations of Adjacent Investigations for 2014. Report prepared for the Belize Institute of Archaeology.

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468 2014b Houses, Households, and Residential Group s at Caracol, Belize. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 11:3 17. 2015a Investigating the Early Long Caracol Archaeological Project Investigations for 2015. Report prepared for the Belize Institute of Archaeology. 2015b The Domestic Economy of Caracol, Belize: Articulating with the Institutional Economy in an Ancient Maya Urban Setting. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 12: 15 23. 2016 The Ancient Maya City: Anthropogenic Landscapes, Settlement Archaeology, and Caracol, Belize. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 13: 3 14. Chase, Arlen F. and Vernon Scarborough 2014 Diversity, Resiliency, and IHOPE Maya: Using the Past to Inform the Present. In The Resilience and Vulnerability of Ancient L andscapes: Transforming Maya Archaeology through IHOPE, edited by A. F. Chase and V. L. Scarborough, AP3A Papers, American Anthropological Association, Arlington, VA Chase, Diane Z. 1994 Human Osteology, Pathology, and Demography as Represented in the Bur ials of Caracol, Belize. In Studies in the Archaeology of Caracol, Belize, edited by D. Chase and A. Chase, pp. 123 138. PARI, San Francisco. Chase, Diane Z. and Arlen F. Chase 1992 An Archaeological Assessment of Mesoamerican Elites. I n Mesoamerican Eli tes: An Archaeological Assessment edited by D.Z. Chase and A.F. Chase pp. 303 317. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman (reprinted 1994). 1995 Changing Perspectives on Caracol, Belize: Long Term Archaeological Research and the Northeast Sector Settlement Program Unpublished manuscript. 1996 Maya Multiples: Individuals, Entries, and Tombs in Structure A34 of Caracol, Belize. Latin American Antiquity 7(1):61 79. 1998 The Architectural Context of Caches, Burials, and Other Ritual Activities for the Classi c Period Maya (as Reflected at Caracol, Belize). I n Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture edited by Stephen D. Houston pp. 239 332, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C. 2003 Secular, Sagrado, y Revisitado: La Profanacion,alteracion, y reconsagra cion de los Antiguos Entierros Mayas. I n Antropologia de la Eternidad: La Muere en la Cultura Maya edited by A. Ciudad Ruiz, M.H. Ruz Sosa, and M.J Iglesias Ponce de Leon, pp. 255 277, Publicacion 7, Sociedad de los Estudios Mayas, Madrid.

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469 2004 Patrones de Enterramiento y Ciclos Res idenciales en Caracol, Belice. I n Culto Funerario en la Sociedad Maya: Memoria de la Cuarta Mesa Redonda de Palenque R. Cobos, pp. 203 230, INAH, Mexico, D.F. 2009 Changes in Maya Religious Worldview: Liminality a nd the Archa eological Record. I n Maya Worldviews at Conquest edited by L. Cecil and T. Pugh pp. 219 237, University press of Colorado, Boulder. 2010 Rituales Mezclados: Analizando Comportamientos Pblicos y Privados en el Regi stro Arqueolgico de Caracol. I n El Ritu al en el Mundo Maya: de lo Privado a lo Publico edited by A. Ciudad Ruiz, M.J. Iglesias, and M. Sorroche, pp. 107 128, Publicacion 9, Sociedad de los Estudios Mayas,Grupo de Investigacin Andalucia America, CEPHIS UNAM, Madrid. 2004 Archaeological Perspec tives on Classic Maya Social Organization from Caracol, Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica 15: 111 119. 2011 Ghosts Amid the Ruins: Analyzing Relationships between the Living and the Dead among the Ancient Maya at Caracol, Belize. In Living with the Dead: Mort uary Ritual in Mesoamerica, edited by J.L. Fitzsimmons and I. Shimada, pp. 78 101, University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 2014a Ancient Maya Markets and the Economic Integration of Caracol, Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica 25:239 250. 2014b Path Dependency in the Rise and Denouement of a Classic Maya City: The Case The Resilience and Vulnerability of Ancient Landscapes: Transforming Maya Archaeology through IHOPE edited by A.F. Chase and V.L. Scarborough, AP3A Paper 24(1), pp. 142 154, American Anthropological Association, Arlington, VA. Chase, Arlen F., Diane Z. Chase, Jaime J. Awe, John F. Weishampel, Gyles Iannone, Holley Moyes, Jason Yaeger, and M. Kathryn Brown, Ramesh L. Shrestha, William E. Carter, and Juan Fernandez Diaz 2014 A ncient Maya Regional Settlement and Inter Site Analysis: The 2013 West Central Belize LiDAR Survey. Remote Sensing 6(9): 8671 8695. Chase, Arlen F., Diane Z. Chase, Richard Terry, Jacob M. Horlacher, and Adrian S.Z. Chase 2015 Markets Among the Ancient Ma ya: The Case of Caracol, Belize. In The Ancient Maya Marketplace: The Archaeology of Transient Space, edited by E. King, pp. 226 250. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

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470 Chase, Arlen F., Diane Z. Chase, John F. Weishampel, Jason B. Drake, Ramesh L. Sh restha, K. Clint Slatton, Jaime J. Awe, and William E. Carter 2011 Airborne LiDAR, Archaeology, and the Ancient Maya Landscape at Caracol, Belize. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(2):387 398. Chase, Arlen F., Diane Z. Chase, and Christine White 2001 E l Paisaje Urbano Maya: La Integracion de los Espacios Construidos y la Estructura Social en Caracol, Belice. In La Ciudad Antigua: Espacios, Conjuntos e Integracion Sociocultural en la Civilizacion Maya Edited by A. Ciudad Ruiz, pp. 95 122, Sociedad Espan ola de Estudois Mayas, Madri Chase, Arlen F., Diane Z. Chase, Elayne Zorn, and Wendy Teeter 2008 Textiles and the Maya Archaeological Record: Gender, Power, and Status in Classic Period Caracol, Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica 19(1):127 142. Clark, John E. 1997 Prismatic Blade Making, Craftsmanship, and Production: An Analysis of Obsidian Refuse from Ojo de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 8:137 159. 1998 The Lithic Artifacts of La Libertad, Chiapas, Mexico. An Economic Perspective. New World Archaeological Foundation, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 2003 A Review of Twentieth Century Mesoamerican Obsidian Studies. In Mesoamerican Lithic Technology: Experimentation and Interpretation edited by K. G. Hirth, pp. 15 54. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City 2004 The Birth of Mesoamerican Metaphysics: Sedentism, Engagement, and Moral Superiority. In Rethinking Materiality: The Engagement of Mind with the Material World edited by E. DeMarrais, C. Gosden, and C. Renfew, pp. 205 2 24. Cambridge, McDonald Institute. 2007 In Rethinking Craft Specialization in Complex Societies: Archaeological Analyses of the Social Meaning of Production edited by Z. X. Hruby and R. K. Flad, pp. 20 36. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, No. 17. Chazan, Michael 2009 Pattern and Technology: Why the Chane Opratoire Matters. In Transitions in Prehistory: Essays in Honor of Ofer Bar Yosef, ed ited by John J. Shea, pp. 467 476. Oxbow Books. Oxford. Clark John E., and Douglas Bryant 1997 A Technological Typology of Prismatic Blades and Debitage from Ojo de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 8:111 136.

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486 Trachman, Rissa M 2002 Early Classic Obsidian Core Blade Production: An Example from the Site of Dos Hombres, Belize. In Pathways to Prismatic Blades: A Study in Mesoamerican Obsidian Core Blade Technology edited by K. Hirth and B. Andrews, Monograph 45, pp.105 120 University of California, Los Angeles. Trachman, Rissa M. and Gene L. Titmus 2003 Pecked and Scored Initiations: Earl Classic Core Blade Production in the Central Maya Lowlands. In Mesoamerican Lithic Technology: Experimentation and Interpretation edited by K. Hirth, pp. 108 119. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. Tokovinine, Alexandre and Dmitri Beliaev 2013 People on the Road: Traders and Travelers in Ancient Maya Words and Images. In Merchants, Markets, and Exchange in the Pre Col umbian World edited by K. Hirth and J. Pillsbury, pp. 169 200. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C. Tostevin, Gilbert. B. 2011 Introduction. In Special Issue: Reduction Sequence, Chaine Operatoire, and Other Methods: The Epistemologies of Different Approache s to Lithic Analysis Paleoanthropology pp. 293 296. Tringham, Ruth 1994 Engendered Places in Prehistory. Gender, Place, and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 1(2):169 203 Urquiz, Monic, Yasmin Cifuentes, and Carlos Fidel Tuyue Nij 2014 ACH 1A y 1B: Excavaciones en la zona El Achiote. In Proyecto Arqueolgica Cancun: Informe Final No. 13. Temporada 2013 edited by A. A. Demarest and H. Martinez, pp. 21 69. Vanderbuilt University and Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Direccin Gneral de Patrimonio Y Natural, Guatemala City. Van Gijn, Annelou and Yvonne Lammers Keijsers 2010 Toolkits for Ceramic Production: Informal Tools and the Importance of High Power Use Wear Analysis. Bulletin de la Societe Prehistorique Francaise 107(4):755 762. Walker, Debra Selsor 1998 Smashed Pots and Shattered Dreams: The Material Evidence for an Early Classic Maya Site Termination at Cerros, Belize. In The Sowing and the Dawning: Termination, Dedication, and Transformation in the Archaeological and Ethnogra phic Record of Mesoamerica edited by S. B. Mock pp. 81 100. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

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488 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lucas R. Martindale Johnson was born in up state New York, but grew up in Vero Beach, Florida. After high school and community coll ege, he attended the University of Central Florida where he began drafting ceramic artifacts for the Caracol Archaeological Project in Belize and participated in both the 2000 and 2001 field seasons. After graduating in 2001 with a Bachelor or Arts in Anth ropology, he moved to Davis, CA. and worked for Far Western Anthropological Research Group, Inc., a cultural resources management firm. While working in California, Lucas was able to work for a season in Ecuador and spend two lengthy seasons at Palenque, M exico. Later in 2006, he was accepted into the m continued to draft artifacts from the site. After grad uating again from the University of Central Florida with a Master of Arts degree in Anthropology which focused on Maya lithic technology and craft production from Caracol, Belize, he was accepted to the PhD program at the University of Florida in 2009 con tinued to work at Caracol, and graduated with a Doctor of Philosophy in 2016. He continue s to study lithic technology in hunter gather fisher and complex societies. Lucas is married to Lisa M. Johnson, living in Berkeley, CA, and they have three children. They moved to Berkeley in 2012 where Lisa is pursuing a PhD in Anthropology. Lucas is, currently working for Far Western Anthropological Research Group, Inc. as the lithic analyst and a senior archaeologist.