Citation
Adequate Funding for Primary Education in the Artibonite Department of Haiti

Material Information

Title:
Adequate Funding for Primary Education in the Artibonite Department of Haiti
Creator:
Nylund, Clayton C
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (4 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ed.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Educational Leadership
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education
Committee Chair:
WOOD,R C
Committee Co-Chair:
ELDRIDGE,LINDA BURNEY
Committee Members:
MOUSA,BRUCE E
DANA,THOMAS M
Graduation Date:
12/17/2016

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic achievement ( jstor )
Education ( jstor )
Educational administration ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Finance ( jstor )
Funding ( jstor )
Mathematics ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
World Bank ( jstor )
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
achievement -- adequacy -- education -- funding -- haiti -- mathematics
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Educational Leadership thesis, Ed.D.

Notes

Abstract:
Since its formation following a slave revolution in 1804, the Republic of Haiti has a long history of political instability, civil unrest and poverty. As of 2015, Haiti's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$1,732, per capita, making it the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. Haiti's education sector was no exception to this sparsity, receiving only 2.5 percent of the nation's overall GDP. The purpose of this study was to determine adequate funding for Haitian primary schools based upon mathematical achievement levels and the professional judgment of site-based administrators. A Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), originally administered to Florida's third-grade students in 2006, was utilized to determine mathematical achievement. In 2015, the translated FCAT was administered to 207 students, enrolled in four schools, located in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti. The results indicated that the sample answered sixteen of the forty mathematics questions correctly, on average. Based on these results, the four site-based administrators recommended the funding amounts necessary to increase mathematical achievement by 15 percent. The average annual amounts, in US dollars, included $461 per teacher salary, a $540 administrative salary, $40 per student for instructional materials, $367 per student for meals, and $37 per student for uniforms. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2016.
Local:
Adviser: WOOD,R C.
Local:
Co-adviser: ELDRIDGE,LINDA BURNEY.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Clayton C Nylund.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Copyright Nylund, Clayton C. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Classification:
LD1780 2016 ( lcc )

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ADEQUATE FUNDING FOR PRIMARY EDUCATION IN THE ARTIBONITE DEPARTMENT OF HAITI By CLAYTON CARL NYLUND A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2016

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2016 Clayton Carl Nylund

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To God Almighty

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I want to first acknowledge my Lord Je sus Christ I thank Him for the example He set, the mandate He established, and for the love He has for each of us. I thank Him for laying the vision of this study on my heart in 2011 and for moving every mountain along the way. To my wife, Natalie, I owe so much I am thankful that she was willing to marry me in the midst of this study, and spend our first years visit ing the schools o f Haiti instead of more attractive destinations. She inspired me. She reassured me. She pushed me. She fed me. She clothed me. She took care of me when I was ill. She rode with me in the exhausting streets of Port Au Prince and beyond. She spent hours with me in crumbling, neglected schools. She watched over me. She watched over our teams. She always wore a smile. She was, and will always be, the love of my life. I must thank my family Everyt hing I am is because of what they instilled in me from a young age. I thank my parents, Robert and Sandy, for raising me, loving me and supporting me every day of my life. I thank my father for showing me that I had the ability to solve, design, create and fix anything. I thank my mother for having high expectations, insisting that college was the only option, and for pushing me beyond mediocrity. I thank my sister, Annie, and her husband, Jared, for taking me in after my undergrad and introducing me to Haiti. They exposed the need that existed beyond my family, my community and myself. I thank them for opening my eyes and showing me the world. I need to thank Reid Fleshman for standing by my side these past five years The first two trips would not have been possible without him and Ellie being there wi th us. They believed in the vision they believed in me, and they always came to serve. I must also acknowledge the

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5 other team members that came as well. The Konen Family, my mother Sandy, Peggy Huestis, Emily Rachel Keyes and Caleb Cruz all ga ve tremendously to this project. I must thank Rick Alford for allowing my team to stay at his orphanage for all three trips. His staff shuttled us, fed us, translated for us, and kept us safe and secure. Although we returned each day with burdened hearts the hope within the children of Destiny Village lifted our spirits every night as we saw what Haiti could be. Several of my colleagues from Howard W. Blake High School must be acknowled ged I must thank Jacqueline Haynes Madam Musial, Isaiah Pierrelus and Moise Civil for their contributions to the assessment translation and the assessment copies. I must also thank the numerous donors who s upported this study financially. The Mission Church, Annie and Jared Brown, Jeffrey and Leslie Nylund, Anthony Stranges, Emily the Spaier Family, the Konen Family and the Fernandez Family. This study would not have been possible without their support. I must thank my committee, the faculty, and the staff at the University of College of Educa tion. Each of my professors equipped me with the tools necessary to pursue this study, and be successful in doing so. I thank my committee chair, Dr. R. Craig Wood, for his guidance, efficiency and expertise. A world renown scholar of education finance, hi s wisdom helped to navigate me through this tumultuous journey. Lastly, I must thank the students, parents and administrators from the four testing sites. The fact that they agreed to let our team administer the assessment in their schools reflected thei r kind hearts their trust and their hope for a better tomorrow. They understood why we were there, they understood the vision, and they und ersto od the implications that this study could have.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 11 Haitian Education (Pre Earthq uake) ................................ ................................ ....................... 11 Haitian Education (Pos t Earthquake) ................................ ................................ ..................... 14 Statement of Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 18 Purpose of Stu dy ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 19 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 19 Significance of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 20 Limitations of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 20 Organization of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 21 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERA TURE ................................ ................................ ........................ 24 Education Expend iture ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 Student Achievement in Haiti ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 Defining and Determining Adequate Funding ................................ ................................ ....... 30 Professional Judgment Approach ................................ ................................ .................... 31 Evidence Based Approach ................................ ................................ .............................. 34 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 38 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ........................... 47 Measures of Haitian Mathematical Achievement ................................ ................................ ... 47 The Sample of Haitian Students ................................ ................................ ...................... 47 Instrument of Measurement ................................ ................................ ............................. 4 8 FCAT 1 .0 Development a nd Construction ................................ ................................ ...... 48 Translation of the Instrument ................................ ................................ .......................... 51 Administration of the I nstrument ................................ ................................ .................... 51 Comparative Data Source ................................ ................................ ................................ 52 Descriptive Statistics ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 52 Sample Mean ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 52

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7 Median ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 5 3 Range ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 53 Standard Deviation ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 53 Pearson Correlation Coefficient ................................ ................................ ...................... 5 4 Measures of Adequ acy ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 54 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 55 4 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS ................................ ................................ .......................... 57 Haitian Mathematical Achievement Results ................................ ................................ .......... 57 Achievement by Grade ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 58 Achievement by Age ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 58 Achievement by Category ................................ ................................ ............................... 59 Third Grade Achievement for Haitian and Floridian Students ................................ .............. 59 Adequacy Measures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 60 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 61 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ................................ 7 2 Implications an d Suggestions for Future Research ................................ ................................ 7 3 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 7 4 LIST OF REFEREN CE S ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 76 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 79

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Allocations to education secto r, FY2002 2007 ................................ ................................ 41 2 2 Composition of spending, FY2002 2007 ................................ ................................ ........... 42 2 3 Commitments and disbursements by donor, framewor k and areas of intervention and axis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 45 2 4 School comparison from 2007 EGRA administration in Ma ssade, Haiti ......................... 46 3 1 Test administration calendar ................................ ................................ .............................. 56 4 1 Descriptive statistics of Haitian achievement ................................ ................................ .... 62 4 2 Haitian achievement by grade level ................................ ................................ ................... 6 3 4 3 Haitian achievement by age ................................ ................................ ............................... 6 5 4 4 Third grade, mathematics FCAT categories ................................ ................................ ...... 6 7 4 5 Haitian achievement by assessment category ................................ ................................ .... 6 8 4 6 Third grade Haitian achievement and third grade Floridian achievement by assessment category and overall ................................ ................................ ........................ 7 0 4 7 Adequate funding information according to Haitian administrators ................................ 7 1

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 geographical departments and the sample location ................................ ................ 23 2 1 Public expenditure in education, Haiti and selected comparable countries 2006 ............. 40 2 2 Non public sector enrollment share in primary education ................................ ................. 43 2 3 Shares of financing of educa tion sector ................................ ................................ ............. 44 4 1 Haitian achievement by grade level ................................ ................................ ................... 6 4 4 2 Haitian achievement by age ................................ ................................ ............................... 6 6 4 3 Haitian achievement by assessment category ................................ ................................ .... 69

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10 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to t he Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education ADEQUATE FUNDING FOR PRIMARY EDUCATION IN THE ARTIBONITE DEPARTMENT OF HAITI By Clayton Carl Nylund December 2016 Chair: R. Craig Wood Major: Educational Leadership Since its formation following a slave revolu tion in 1804 the Republic of Haiti has a long history of political instability, civil unrest and poverty. As o f 2015, Hai gross domestic product (GDP ) was US $1,732, per capita, making it the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. education sector was no e xception to this spars ity, receiving only 2.5 percent of the overall GDP. The purpose of this study was to determine adequate funding for Haitian primary schools based upon mathematical achievement levels and the professional judgment of site based administrators. A Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), originally administered to Fl third grade students in 2006, was utilized to determine mathematical achievement. In 2015, the translated FCAT was administered to 207 students, enrolled in four schools, located in the lower Artibo nite department of Haiti. The results indicated th at the sample answered sixteen of the forty mathematics questions correctly, on average. Based on these results, the four site based administrators recommended the funding amounts necessary to increase mathematical ac hievement by 15 percent. The average an nual amounts, in US dollars, included $461 per teacher salary, a $540 administrative salary, $40 per student for instructional materials, $367 per student for meals, and $37 per student for uniforms.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Throughout the Eighteenth Century, the French colony of Saint D omingue was in a state of rapid monetary growth. Located on the western third of the island of Hispaniola, this region became France chief exporter from the New World. 1 Despite great wealth and prosperity, the colony fell into turmoil at the end of the Eighteen th Century. The social spectrum at the time was severely fragmented racially. In 1789, it was estimated that of Saint 556,000 inhabitants, 32,000 were European colonists, 24,000 were free mulattos or b lacks, and 500,000 were African slaves. 2 This imbalance eventually led to a rebellion by the African slaves against the French colonists. Although Napoleon Bonaparte sent military forces to quash the rebellion, the French eventually relinquished Saint Domi ngue, and in the year 1804, the Republic of Haiti was established. 3 Haitian Education (Pre Earthquake) Prior to the rebellion, the educating of slaves was severely prohibited. The Black Code of 1685, implemented by Louis XIV, had mandated that slaves be kept in a state of ignorance so as to reduce the chances of insurgency. 4 Even the Black freedmen typically had a limited education, partly due to the predominantly agrarian culture, but mainly due to the brutal nature of the colonial system. In short, educ ation was a luxury almost exclusively available to the white elite 1 Encyclopedia Britannica Online s.v. accessed July 25, 2014, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/251961/Haiti 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid., Haitian 4 Jean Marie Salien, World Education Encyclopedia, 2 nd ed., s.v. 549.

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12 of Saint Domingue. Following the revolution, however, the black leaders greatly prioritized the education of Haitian citizens to ensure the healthy development. 5 In his 1807 constitution, Henry Christophe, the King of Haiti, mandated that a central school be established in each of the ten departments. Later on, in his 1816 Constitution, Alexandre Sabs Ption, the President of southern Haiti, stipulated free ed ucation for all and mandated that each de school provide free public education to school age children. By 1852, compulsory education was constitutionally mandated throughout Haiti. 6 The 1860s marked significant growth and advancement in Haiti education sector, particularly due to the efforts of President, Fabre Geffrard. During his term he was responsible for the establishment of School of Music and Law School, while reinstituting the nation s Medical School. 7 He established and reorga nized schools throughout the count r y and emphasized teacher quality and training. Around the same time, parochial schools were introduced into Haiti. Following the signing of the Concordat by Geffrard and Pope Pius IX, the Vatican began sending Catholic educators to Haiti for the establishment of parochial schools in every department and major city. 8 Although intended to attract young Haitian men and women to the clerical life, these private schools in evitably attracted students whose families could afford the tuition. As a result, the gap between the affluent and the impoverished only widened. 9 5 Jea n Marie Salien, World Education Encyclopedia, 2 nd ed., s.v. 551. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid., 552. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid.

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13 At the turn of the Twentieth Century, large scale academic initiatives ceased and Haiti education system never fully matured. The government suffered from political instability, which led to financial insufficiency, leaving the country unable to maintain the mandates set forth early on. By 2014, there had been forty four different Presidents, twenty five of w hom were overthrown by political coups d This instability is commonly attributed to the social structure that remained deeply stratified following the revolution. Although the elite group of white colonists had been expelled, the wealthy m ulattos and blacks adopted this elite status, inevitably removing the middle class that had once existed. Simultaneously, those pre viously enslaved remained at the bottom end of the spectrum, becoming increasingly impoverished with the depletion of agraria n resources In short, Haitian education never truly evolved following the rebellion, resulting in high quality educations for the elite and an underdeveloped and underfunded public system for the poor. 10 At the turn of Twenty First Century, Haiti was the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. By 2006, t he nation population had reached 9.389 million and had a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$4.757 billion, resulting in a per capita GDP of only US$520 11 In 2006, the country spent only 2.5 percent o f the GDP, on education. 12 This resulted in approximately US$50 per student, annually. In comparison, the United States spent, on average, 10 Jean Marie Salien, World Education Encyclopedia, 2 nd ed., s.v. 552. 11 The World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/country/haiti 12 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 95.

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14 US$10,403 per student in 2006 13 Although private spending contributed an additional three percent of the GDP to education, institutions received the least amount of funding, per student, of any country in the western hemisphere 14 Also in 2006, at the primary level, only two thi rds of children entering the system actually completed their primary education. The first grade enrollment was roughly 574,000, while its sixth grade enrollment was only 204,000. 15 Furthermore, 72 percent of primary students were two, or more, year s older than their grade would indicate. 16 Three separate studies, conducted between 2007 and 2009, indicated that, in general, Haitian students not able to read at a sufficient speed with comprehension to understand a simple text until grade three, or 17 Haitian Education (Post Earthq uake) In January of 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake ravaged Haiti capital city of Port Au Prince, and crippled the nation even further. It was determined that over 316,000 people were killed, over 300,000 peo ple were injured, over 1.3 million people were displaced, and 97,294 homes were destroyed. 18 An estimated 80 percent, of the educational infrastructure in Port Au 13 National Center for Educational Sta tistics, expenditure per pupil in average daily attendance in public elementary and secondary schools, by state or jurisdiction: Selected years, 1959 60 through 2006 h ttp://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/tables/dt09_186.asp 14 The World Bank, spending on education, total (% of http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS 15 Ministry of Education and Professional Formation (MENFP), 2007, Strategie National pour pour Port Au Prince. Note that these figures are estimates for 2006 but reflect 2002 2003 data, the last year for which education statis tics are available. 16 Ibid. 17 United States Agency for International Development, Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in http://www.eddataglobal.org 18 United States Geological Survey, hquakes with 50,000 or more http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usp000h60h#impact

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15 Prince, namely 3,804 schools, were destroyed, along with the death of 600 teachers. 19 Estimates indicate that the earthquake represented a cost of 120 percent of 2009 GDP. Despite this tragic loss of life and property, the earthquake spurred the international community into action resulting in close to US$10 billion in donations. 20 Haiti ministry of education (MENFP) also received significant support following the earthquake, particularly with the funding of two large scale d reform initiatives. The first initiative was aligned with the United (UN) movement titled Education for All (EFA). 21 Funded by the World Bank, the MENFP launched a US$70 million push toward the EFA goal of providing six years of quality education to every Haitian child. 22 To reach this goal, the initiative looked to education system through th e implementation of sustainable programs 23 The campaign was broken into four components. The first was to improve access to quality primary education by providing tuition wavers to students and by rehabilitating and 19 Ministry of Education and Professional Formation, Oper ationnel Pacte Nationale sur et la (MENPF, Port Au Prince, Haiti, 2010). 20 Cable News Network, Earthquake Fast http://www.cnn.com/2013/12/12/world/haiti earthquake fast facts/ 21 Education For All is a global movement led by the United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), aiming to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and ad ults. UNESCO has been mandated to lead the movement and ensure that all children were receiving six years of quality education by 2015. Currently 164 countries, along with development agencies, civil society, non government organizations and the media are working toward reaching these goals. 22 The World Bank, for all project in support of the second phase of the education for all http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P124134/education all project support second phase education all program?lang=en 23 Ibid., 4.

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16 constructing school facilities. 24 The second component focused on improving pedagogic approaches by expanding the teacher training program, and the support of teachers already in the classroom. 25 The third component focused on strengthening the MENFP by modernizing and transforming the offices in Port Au Prince and in rural areas. The fourth and final component covered the project management costs, namely monitoring and evaluation. Sustainability was an additional objective of the project, expecting the Haitian government to finance the communit y teachers. 26 The project was approved in late 2011 and was expected to conclude in the summer of 2015. 27 According to a status report released by the World Bank in May of 2014, the project was considered to be moderately satisfactory toward achieving the project objectives. 28 The report concluded that 162,186 students had been enrolled through the waiver program during the 2013 2014 school year, exceeding the 100,000 student goal. 29 In addition, 2,669 primary teachers had graduated from the teacher training program, 631 teachers short of the program goal. 30 Furthermore, it was found that no classrooms had been constructed or rehabilitated. The original 24 The World Bank, for all project in support of the second phase of the education for all 5, http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P124134/education all project support second phase education all program?lang=en 25 Ibid., 6. 26 World Bank, Status & Results Haiti: Haiti Education for All Project Phase http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P124134/education all project support second phase education all program?lang=en 27 Ibid. 28 Ibid. 29 Ibid., 2. 30 Ibid., 4.

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17 2011 goal was to have 700 new, or rehabilitated classrooms, by 2015. 31 Lastly, it was determined that the Gov ernment of Haiti, despite a goal to pay 90 percent of teacher salaries, had paid nothing. 32 As a result, the project was restructured in June of 2014 in order to a more achievable and measurable Project Development Objective The project was ext ended until the summer of 2017. 33 The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) also allotted significant funding to Haitian education, following the earthquake. The agency determined that constructing new schools was paramount, and theref ore redirected the American Institutes of Research (AIR), along with US$44.2 million, toward the of provisional school 34 According to a 2011 audit conducted by the Office of Inspector General (OIG), AIR had constructed 322 prefabr icated classrooms in the three development corridors. 35 The OIG was critical of the program, however, since AIR did not out end use checks to verify that the completed classrooms were being used for their intended 36 At the time of this study the outcome of this project had not been made available by USAID. 31 World Bank, Status & Results Haiti: Haiti Education for All Project Phase http://www.worl dbank.org/projects/P124134/education all project support second phase education all program?lang=en 32 Ibid., 2. 33 The World Bank, Status & Results Haiti: Haiti Education for All Project Phase http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P124134/education all project support second phase education all program?lang=en 34 The Office of Inspector General, of Education https://oig.usaid.gov/auditandspecialbyyear/USAID 35 Ibid., 1; USAID targeted Port Au Prince, Cap Haitian and St. Marc, which were considered the by the Haitian Government. 36 The Office of Inspector General, of Education https://oig.usaid.gov/auditandspecialbyyear/USAID

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18 In 2012, USAID shifted its focus from classroom construction to the improvement of student reading skills. In partnership with RTI International, USAID devoted US$13 million to a new act ivity titled Tout Timoun Ap Li (TOTAL). 37 objective was to the MENFP develop and test an instructional model to improve the reading skills of children in first through third 38 The activity was to be implemented and assessed over a 2.4 year period, and was to conclude in December of 2014. To meet this objective RTI created French and Creole instructional materials and provided these materials to 300 schools in the three development corridors. Teacher training and support were also to be provided. According to a 2014 audit conducted by the OIG, the activity did not achieve all of its expected goals, was significantly behind schedule, and was inaccurately reported. 39 As of May 2015, the outcome of this activity had not been made available by USAID. Statement of Problem Prior to the earthquake, the Republic of Haiti education system was severely underfunded when compared to developing countries, and even most third world countries. As indicated previously, the United States allotted over 1 00 times more U.S. dollars, per pupil, when compared to Haiti. The effects of this insufficiency were known to an extent by attendance data, completion rates, and intermittent literacy tests in the lower, primary grades. Following the earthquake, large int ernational organizations spent millions of U.S. dollars on educational reforms of their own, most of which were discredited by internal and external audits. 37 The Office of Inspector General, of Education https://oig.usaid.gov/auditandspecialbyyear/USAID 38 Ibid. 39 Ibid., 2.

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19 Furthermore, there continued to be no evidence of how Haitian students were performing academically following the earthquake. Purpose of Study T he purpose of this study was two fold. First, the investigation sought to broaden the literature regarding student achievement in Haiti. Prior studies had exclusively focused on literacy in grades one through three. This study focused on mathematical achievement in grades three and above. Achievement was determined through the administration of the mathematics, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 1.0 (FCAT 1.0 ). The mathematics FCAT 1.0 was a standardized assessment produced by the Florida Department of Education (FLDOE) and annually adm inistered, statewide, to grades three though ten. For this study, the 2006, 3 rd grade, mathematics FCAT 1.0 was administered to the sample. Furthermore, the application of the FCAT 1.0 enabled a certain degree of comparison between Haitian students and Flo ridian students. Second, the investigation sought to determine the adequate funding necessary to increase student achievement as determined by site based admini strators, rather than by large international organizations or the MENFP. Research Questions Th e study sought to answer the following questions based on the case study data: 1. What was the mathematical achievement level of Haitian primary students, grades three through six, in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti? 2. How did the mathematical achi evement of Haitian, primary students in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti compare to their Floridian peers? 3. According to site based administrators, w hat was the adequate funding necessary to increas e student achievement by 15 percent ?

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20 Significance of Study As of 2015, there was no literature pertaining to the mathematical achievement of Haitian students, particularly in grades three and above. Furthermore, the fact that a translated FCAT 1.0 was the instrument of measurement allowed for a certain level of comparability with primary students. As a result, this study had implications not only for education in Haiti, but also for underdeveloped countries around the world, due to its rep roducibility. Aside from adjusting the translation, this study could be applied worldwide Furthermore, this study allowed for adequate funding to be determined by site based administrators, rather than by the Haitian government or other government organiz ations. This provided an opportunity for the individuals operating the schools to provide insight regarding the needs of their respective schools. Limitations of Study There were three significant limitations of this study. The first were the threats against the statistical significance, due to the sample. Clus ter sampling had to be utilized, as access to Haitian primary schools was limited. The sample, theref ore, was not selected randomly but by availability. T he sample was selected within a ten mile radius of the researchers base in Pierre Payan, Haiti. (See Figure 1 1). The schools were not selected according to private/public status, nor were they directly influenced by the World EFA grant. Availability also had an impact, limiting the samp le to 200 primary students from four different elementary schools. This selection from a small region, in a single department, threatened the ability to draw inferential conclusions for primary students throughout the Artibonite department. The second li mitation related to the instrument of measurement. The assessment was a third grade, mathematics FCAT 1.0 from 2006. Since the study was conducted in 2015, the exam was nine years old at the time of the administration. Although Florida achievement on the t hird

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21 grade, mathematics FCAT had only varied minimally, the achievement comparisons would be between Haitian primary students in the year 2015, and Florida third graders from 2006. Standards also produced limitations, as Haitian, third grade standards vari ed, to a small degree, from Florida third grade standards. As a result, several topics had never been taught to the Haitian students in the sample. The third and fourth limitations were the choice of language and student literacy. Haiti national lang uage for educational and scientific arenas is French, however, the majority of Haitians speak Haitian Creole. Although most institutions teach mathematics in French, since that is the language that their textbooks are printed in, some rural schools instruc t completely in Haitian Creole. Following the recommendations of Haitian administrators and students, the assessment was translated, and administered, in French. In terms of literacy, the vast majority of the students were unable to read the assessment, an d therefore the teachers were instructed to read the assessment to the students; first in French, and then translated into Haitian Creole. Organization of Study This study cont ained five chapters. Chapter 1 reviewed Haitian educ ation since the establishment in 1804. This overview was intended to illuminate the causality that has led to the current state of education system. It was also intended to provide information regarding the efforts of the MENPF and the international community, to reform education following the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Chapter 2 provided an overview of povert y, student achievement and the relationship to funding adequacy. Various approaches to determining adequacy were then discussed, focusing mainly on American approaches, but also focusing on those applied abroad. A final summary of adequacy studies were tabulated and discussed t o determine international applications C hapter 2

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22 concluded with an overview of which adequacy calculations could be implemented in Ha iti. Chapter 3 outlined the methodology used to determine the mathematical achievement of the sample, including the translation of the assessment, the pilot study, and the actual administration. In addition, the chapter also outlined the prototype metho dology used to determine adequate funding. Chapter 4 contained a discussion of th e results. Finally, Chapter 5 summarized the findings of the study and impl ications for Haiti. Chapter 5 concluded with recommendations for future studies.

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23 Figure 1 1. geographical departments and the sample location.

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24 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Education Expenditure In 2008, the World Bank conducted a comprehensive review of government spending within the Republic of Haiti. Included in the report was the country education expenditure via the National Ministry of Education (MENFP). Focusing on the period between 2002 and 2007, the committee determined that the spending toward education had inc reased over the five year period, increasing from 1.92 percent of GDP to 2.5 percent. 1 In spite of this increase, Haiti public education expenditure still fell below the average of the Latin America and Caribbean Region (4.3 percent of GDP) and below the average of sub Saharan Africa (3.4 percent of GDP) (See Figure 2 1). Furthermore, the review determined that in 2007, 80 percent of public spending (U S$ 109.3 million) was being devoted to recurrent, educational expenses while only the remainder was being devoted to educational investments (See Table 2 1). 2 Of the recurrent spending, half was allotted to wages and salaries while the other half was devoted to goods, services and subsidies (See Table 2 2). The review concluded that with an enrollmen t of 2.1 million primary and secondary students in 2007 (both public and private), Haiti was allotting a meager US$52 for each student, each year. 3 This lack of public resources birthed the development of a large, privatized portion of Haiti education sector. The World investigation determined that over 80 percent schools were privately operated (See Figure 2 2). Furthermore, the report indicated that 1 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 95. 2 Ibid., 102. 3 Ibid. The report compared this per pupil expenditure to sub Saharan African standards of spend ing which the report estimated to be US$110.

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25 private arena was receiv ing funding equal to 3 percent of GDP, whil e the pub lic arena received less than 2 percent of GDP (See Figure 2 3). 4 With respect to these findings, the report had the following remarks: The large share of non public education provision makes it difficult to assure quality of education in Haiti as non public schools largely ignore government regulations, accreditation standards, and are rarely visited by MENFP school inspectors. More than 75 percent of all non public schools function illegally (no permit or license from the MENFP). However, the non public ability to respond to demand for education services obliges the government to accept the current situation. Indeed, the non public sector offers both lower unit costs and faster supply response capacity, with greater accountabilit y to (parents) than the public sector, with comparable results on national exams. 5 As for public investment programs, the World Bank report indicated that eighty percent of these programs were funded by foreign aid. European Union, the Inter American Development Bank, USAID and CIDA made the largest financial commitments to Haiti an education between 2004 and 2007 (See Table 2 3). Although the commitment of foreign aid was significant, the report found that, on average, only 20 percent of comm itted funds were actually disbursed by foreign investors. 6 The World Bank concluded its investigation with strong critiques of Haiti expenditure procedures regarding education. These critiques included the poor quality of management of public resources and the lack of specific timetables and accurate data when it pertained to budget execution. 7 Furthermore, the report concluded that the government had a severe lack of 4 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 100. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid., 106. 7 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Fi nancial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 110 111.

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26 defined procedures, transparency and accountability in the use of public fun 8 The World financial review of the Haitian Government provided the most detailed and thorough investigation of education expenditure, to date. Student Achievement in Haiti Between 2007 and 2009, the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) was administered in Haiti on three separate occasions. A product of the USAID funded program, EdData, the EGRA was designed to assess the most basic foundation skills for literacy acq uisition in early grades, including pre reading skills such as listening 9 Unlike other international reading tests (PISA or TIMSS), the EGRA sought to determine if low performance was due to students not knowing the content or due to their inability to read. 10 At the time of this study, the EGRA had been administered in over thirty countries in sixty different language. 11 Save the Children conducted the first administration of the EGRA in Haiti in 2007. 12 The assessment focused on the studen to recognize letters, read words in isolation, and read a short section of third grade level 13 The assessment was administered in Haitian Creole. The sample consisted of 161 third grade students, attending nineteen schools, in the city 8 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 110 111. 9 The United States Agency for International Development, ly Grade Reading Assessment 1, https://www.eddataglobal.org/documents/index.cfm?fuseaction=pubDetail&id=95 10 Ibid., 1. 11 The United States Agency for International Development, Grade https://www.eddataglobal.org/reading/index.cfm 12 Joseph DeStephano & Emily Miksic, Effectiveness in Massade, (written for EQUIP2, 2007), http://www.equip123.net/docs/e2 HaitiSchoolEffectiveness2_WP.pdf 13 Ibid., 8.

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27 o f Massade, located in the Centre Department of Haiti (See Figure 1 1). Of the 161 students, 121 attended community, privately operated schools while forty attended national, publicly funded, schools. 14 Results from Save the administration of t he EGRA indicated that, on average, the sampled students could read twenty five correct words per minute (cwpm) of text. 15 This average fell far below the range of thirty five to sixty words per minute, which is considered fluency or speed associated w ith reading 16 Comparing the national schools to community schools, national school students averaged a rate of thirty seven cwpm, while the community school students averaged a rate of twenty two cwpm. The researchers attributed this limited fluency to poor living and school conditions, unpaid and underpaid teachers, and limited instructional materials. 17 One interesting finding from the 2007 EGRA administration was the fluctuation in achievement between the community schools (See Table 2 4) Although three of the community schools had no students reading thirty or more cwpm, the top school in the sample had ninety percent of its students above the thirty cwpm threshold. 18 In addition, two other co mmunity schools had over 70 percent of its stu dents reading thirty cwpm as well. Following causative 14 Joseph DeStephano & Emily Miksic, Eff ectiveness in Massade, (written for EQUIP2, 2007), 9, http://www.equip123.net/docs/e2 HaitiSchoolEffectiveness2_WP.pdf 15 Ibid. 16 Helen Abadzi, Luis Crouch, Marcel a Echegaray, Consuelo Pasco, and Jessyca Sempe, basic skills acquisition through rapid learning assessments: a case study from Prospects 53, no. 2 (2005): 137 156. 17 Joseph DeStephano & Emily Miksic, Effectiveness in Massade (written for EQUIP2, 2007), 9 10, http://www.equip123.net/docs/e2 HaitiSchoolEffectiveness2_WP.pdf 18 Ibid., 12.

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28 analysis, the investigators attributed this disparity to each number of school days, student attendance rates, staff stability, enrollment and school support staff. 19 In March of 2009, the EGR A was administered twice more in the Republic of Haiti. The first administration was a collaborative effort between RTI International, MENFP, and the World Bank. 20 The sample consisted of 2,515 students, in eighty four schools within the Nippes and Artiboni te Departments of Haiti (See Figure 1 1). 21 Two thirds of the sampled schools were privately operated while the remainders were government funded. The World Bank supported approximately one half of the sampled schools. The EGRA was administered in French and Haiti Creole and the tested students were in grades one, two and three. The students were asked to read a story in French and a story in Creole, and answer five questions following each story. In addition, the students were also assessed on listening c omprehension, in which they were asked to listen to a story in French and a story in Creole, and asked to answer five questions following each story. The study found that, on average, the third graders were reading only twenty three cwpm. 22 Furthermore, e third grade students could correctly answer only 10 percent of questions in the French story they read, and 17 percent about the Creole 23 When listening, rather than reading, these same 19 Joseph DeStephano & Emily Miksic, Effect iveness in Massade, (written for EQUIP2, 2007), 13, http://www.equip123.net/docs/e2 HaitiSchoolEffectiveness2_WP.pdf 20 The United States Agency for International Dev elopment, Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in 2, https://www.eddataglobal.org/ 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid. 23 Ibid.

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29 studen ts could correctly answer 20 percent of the questions f rom the French story and 51 percent from the Creole story. 24 In all cases, student performance had a positive correlation with grade level. The second administration of the EGRA in 2009 was conducted by the USAID PHARE project. The sample consisted of 3,1 61 students attending 160 project schools from eight urban centers, including Cap Haitien, Gonaives, Les Cayes, Limbe, Montrouis, Petit Goave, Port au Prince, and St. Marc. 25 The EGRA instrument used was the same as the one developed for the World 20 09 study. Students in grades one and two were tested in Haitian Creole, while students in grade three were tested in Haitian Creole and French. 26 Results for reading comprehension indicated reading fluency in Haitian Creole were nine cwpm, twenty thre e cwpm and thirty nine cwpm in grades one, two and three, 27 Third grade reading comprehension was approximately 55 percent for Haitian Creole stories, and 34 percent for French stories. Listening comprehension for the third grad ers was 72 percent for Haitian Creole stories. 28 Students from Les Cayes and Port Au Prince had the highest averages on the assessment. 24 The United States Agency for International Development, Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in 2, https://www.eddataglobal.org/ 25 The United States Agency for International Development, Grad e Reading Assessment (EGRA) in 2, https://www.eddataglobal.org/ ; Cap Haitien (Nord Department), Gonaives (Artibonite Department), Les Cayes (Sud Department), Limbe (Nord Department), Montrouis (Artiboni te Department), Petit Goave (Ouest Department), Port au Prince (Ouest Department), and St. Marc (Artibonite Department). 26 Ibid. 27 Ibid. 28 Ibid.

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30 Defining and Determining Adequate Funding Near the end of the Twentieth Century, school funding in the United States began to e volve. Prior to the 1990s, State legislators sought to ensure that schools were funded equitably, based upon enrollment. 29 Because of this, the focus was entirely on inputs, supported by the assumption that each education required the same dollar amount. By the 1970s, following the Civil Rights Movement, districts began bringing suit in state courts regarding the disparities within the subgroups of their student populations. 30 The lawsuits, paired with the National Commission on Excellence in Educat 1983 report, A Nation At Risk, provided the impetus for nationwide reform in school finance. 31 By the 1990s, the legislative focus began to shift from inputs to outputs, minimizing subgroup disparities based on student achievement. Adequacy replaced e quity, and would later be defined by Clune as resources which are sufficient to achieve some education result, such as a minimum passing grade on a state achievement 32 Since the 1990s, four fundamental approaches have emerged for determining ade quate, state level funding in US public education. These approaches include Professional Judgment, Evidence Based, Successful Schools and Statistical Analysis. 33 Each method addresses adequacy uniquely, and all four vary in popularity. The subsequent secti ons 29 Allan Odden and Lawrence D. Picus, School Finance: A Policy Perspective (Boston: McGraw Hill, 2008). 30 Patricia F. First and Barbara M. DeLuca, Meaning of Educational Adequacy: The Confusion of Journal of Law and Education, 32, no. 2 (2003). 31 Patricia F. First and Barbara M. DeLuca, Meaning of Educational Adequacy: The Confusion of Journal of Law and Education, 32, no. 2 (2003). 32 William H. Clune, Education as a Remedy for High Poverty Journal of Law Reform 28, no. 3 (1995); Adequacy was also explained as early as the by Benson; Charles S. B enson, The Economics of Public Education (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1978). 33 R. Craig Wood and R. Anthony Rolle, Adequacy Concepts in Education Finance: A Heuristic Examination of the Professional Judgment Research Educational Considerations 35, no. 1 (2007).

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31 define and examine the Professional Judgment and Evidence Based approaches for determining adequacy. The Successful Schools and Statistical Analysis approaches were excluded due to the lack of assessment and school data within the Artibonite Department of Haiti. Professional Judgment Approach The Professional Judgment Approach, or Resource Cost Model, is currently the most widely used method for state level funding in the US and utilizes the expertise of a panel of educational practitioners. 34 This panel collaboratively determines the inputs necessary in providing particular academic outcomes, and from this determination, generates a prototype school that is then used as a base model for funding. 35 The use of an expert panel is considered to be the greatest strength, and weakness, for the Professional Judgment Approach, due to its subjectivity. In 1992 and 1994, Jay Chambers and Thomas Parrish proposed adequate spending systems in Illinois and Alaska, respectively. 36 During each devel opment, Chambers and Parrish recruited groups of educators, administrators and local officials to determine the resources required in providing an adequate education. Visiting schools across each state and interviewing teachers and various stakeholders, the committees focused on personnel, class sizes, materials, supplies and equipment. In both the cases, the funding recommendations were ultimately rejected due to the statistical complexity of the proposal. 37 34 Jay Chambers and Thomas Parrish, The Development of Resource Cost Model Funding Base for Education Finance in Illinois, (Stanford, CA: Associates for Education Finance and Planning, 1983); Jay Chambers and T homas Parrish, State Level Education Finance, ed. Herbert Walberg (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1994). 35 R. Craig Wood and R. Anthony Rolle, Adequacy Concepts in Education Finance: A Heuristic Examination of the Professional Judgment Research Prot Educational Considerations 35, no. 1 (2007). 36 Jay Chambers and Thomas Parrish, State Level Education Finance, ed. Herbert Walberg (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1994). 37 National Research Council, Making Money Matter: Financing Schools, eds Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990): 120 123.

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32 In 1995, in Campbell v. State of Wyoming the Wyoming Supreme Court determined that the school funding system was unconstitutional due to a lack of equity and adequacy. 38 Campbell imposed guidelines to the legislature, mandating a quality education for Wyoming students. This quality education w as to include small class sizes, appropriate provision for at risk students, and meaningful standards and assessments. 39 In 1996, Wyoming also applied the Professional Judgment approach in accordance with the State legislative mandate. 40 In this case, and un like the cases in Illinois and Alaska, adequate funding was not solely determined by practitioners, and but also through extensive research. 41 Furthermore, the complex statistics used previously were avoided in Wyoming, and more transparency was pursued. Ev entually this model was adopted by the Wyoming legislature, and in 1995, a per pupil cost of $6,580 was determined. funding model has been recalibrated on several occasions since 1995 but has retained a Professional Judgment approach. 42 In 1994, adequacy cases were also coming before the North Dakota Supreme Court. In Bismarck Public School District v. State of North Dakota, along with several subsequent cases, the plaintiffs believed that the education finance system violated the equal protection 38 Campbell County School Dist. v. State of Wyoming, 907 P.2d 1238 (1995). 39 Ibid. 40 Allan Odden et al., An Evidence Based Approach to Recalibrating Wyoming Block Grant School Funding Formula, (Prepared for the Wyoming Legislative Select Committee on Recalibration, 2005). 41 Ibid. 42 Allan Odden et al., An Evidence Based Approach to Recalibrating Block Grant School Funding Formula, (Prepared for the Wyoming Legislative Select Committee on Recalibration, 2005).

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33 provisions of the State Constitution. 43 Although these early cases came close to achieving funding reform in North Dakota, e ach was unable to garner four of the five votes necessary in the North Dakota Supreme Court. 44 In 2003, funding reform was brought before the North Dakota District Court in Williston Public School District v. State of North Dakota In Williston the plain tiffs again claimed that the education finance system violated both the education and equal protection provisions of the State Constitution. 45 In this case, the plaintiffs leaned heavily on the North Dakota Supreme Court precedent, along with the No Child L eft Behind Act of 2001. 46 That same year, the case provoked the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction to prepare an adequacy study within its K 12 system. 47 The Department of Public Instruction hired Auge nblick, Palaich and Associates to conduct the adequacy assessment. The group applied the Professional Judgment model, establishing seven panels of 6 8 North Dakota educators. Four of the panels consisted of school level personnel while the remaining three panels consisted of members from the district level. These panels determined the resources needed in the prototype schools and districts. In addition 43 Bismarck Public School District No. 1 v. State of North Dakota 511 N.W.2d 247 (1994). 44 Ibid. 45 Williston Public School District No. 1 v. State of North Dakota, Civil No. 03 C 507 (2003). 46 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107 110 (2001). 47 John G. Augenblick et al., Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in North Dakota in 2002 2003 Using the Professional Judgement Approach, (Prepared for the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2003).

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34 1 ten member, system wide, panel was created to review the district level panels and oversee the pricing of personnel resources. 48 Once assembled, the eight panels created a separate prototype for K 8 districts, single school K 12 districts, moderate K 12 districts and large K 12 districts. Next the panels determined the resources that were needed within each prototype school(s) and districts. Once the resources were determined, the resources were priced out by looking at statewide, and interstate, cost averages. 49 In its totality, the assessm ent eventually recommended the s tate of North Dakota to increase K 12 funding from $660 million to $866 million. Highlights in the recommendation were greater allocations toward students with special needs, low income students, English language learners, and a 10 percent increase in teacher salaries. Despite t he findings, the recommendatio ns were not implemented by the s tate of North Dakota. Although the original suit was stayed until 2007, a new funding formula was signed into law that year, and the plaintiffs subsequently dropped the suit. 50 The Eviden ce Based Approach The Evidence Based Approach, or Effective Strategies Method, is a process whereby investigators identify educational inputs that are most effective at delivering a high quality, adequate education. Rather than adopting a single, pre exi sting, reform model, the Evidence Based Approach seeks to integrate the most effective strategies, from a variety of models, to 48 John G. Augenblick et al., Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in North Dakota in 2002 2003 Using the Professional Judgement Approach, (Prepared for the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2003). 49 Ibid. 50 Sara Kincaid, Lawsuit Bismarck Tribune, May 2, 2007.

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35 create a single, comprehensive funding model. 51 Once identified and blended, the components are then given a cost and agg regated to determine an adequate base funding. A major limitation of the Evidence Based Approach is that the cost of implementing certain successful strategies can often be difficult to determine. 52 A major advantage of the method is that its findings can serve as a guide to spending since the basis of the approach relies on the extensive research from a variety of preexisting funding models. 53 In September of 2003, Odden, Picus and Fermanich applie d the Evidence Based Approach i n their adequacy study for the s tate of Arkansas. The study created an evidence based matrix describing the resources each school needed in order to provide students with an adequate education. The matrix included the followi ng successful strategies: A pupil/teacher ratio of 1 to 15 for grades K 3, and a pupil/teacher r atio of 1 to 25 for grades 4 12 Adding additional teachers for e nrichment programs for students Adding i nstructional facilitators, or coaches, at each schoo l to assist teachers with instruct ional methods and best practice Adding staff members in schools with high concentrations of low income students and stud ents with learning disabilities Elimination of the instructional aide an d assistant principal positions 54 51 R. Craig Wood and R. Anthony Rolle, Adequacy Concepts in Education Finance: A Heuristic Examination of the Professional Judgment Research Educational Considerations 35, no. 1 (2007). 52 Ibid. 53 Ibid. 54 Allan Odden et al., An Evide nce Based Approach to School Finance Adequacy in Arkansas (Prepared for the Arkansas Joint Committee on Education Adequacy, 2003), 57 59.

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36 According to Odden et al., the statewide implementation of the matrix would cost an additional $224.6 million. Furthermore, the team recommended an additional $356 million for teacher compensation, $100 million for Early Childhood Education, and $167.7 million for a needs based funding formula. 55 The s tate of Arkansas subsequently adopted the recommendations, and in a 2006 recalibration, Odden et al. found that most of the original funding needs were being met. 56 Also in 2006, Odden et al. were re cruited by the K 12 Advisory Committee of Washington Learns to co nduct an adequacy study in the s tate of Washington. Deriving its standards from the Washington Academic Learning Requirements and the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, the study so ught to isolate effective strategies and the team made recommendations based thereon. Taking a more qualitative approach, the recommendations focused on six core strategies: 1. rate goals for student learning. 57 2. engineer schools to have them deploy more powerful instructional strategies and use resources more productively. 58 3. teacher development so that all teachers acquire the instructional expertise to educate all students to proficiency and the ability to think, understand problem solve and communicate. 59 55 Allan Odden et al., An Evidence Based Approach to School Finance Adequacy in Arkansas (Prepared for the Arkansas J oint Committee on Education Adequacy, 2003), 57 59. 56 Allan Odden et. al., Recalibrating The Arkansas School Funding Structure, (Prepared for the Adequacy Study Oversight Sub Committee of the House and Senate Interim Committees on Education, of the Arkansas General Assembly, 2006). 57 Allan Odden et. al., An Evidence Based Approach to School Finance Adequacy in Washington, (Prepared for the K 12 Advisory Committee of Washington Learns, 2006). 58 Ibid. 59 Ibid.

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37 4. achievement for struggling students by providing a series of extended learning opportunities. 60 5. technology so they can tap the educating potential of the 61 6. teacher compensation so the state begins to move away from paying teachers on the basis of just years of experience and education 62 In alignment with these six core strategies, Odden et al. made seven research supported recommendat ions: 1. To implement a full day of kindergarten 2. To maintain schools sizes of approximately 432 students in elementary schools (grades K 5), 450 students in middle schools (grades 6 8), and 600 student s in high schools (grades 9 12) 3. To limit class sizes t o 15 for gr ades K 3 and 25 for grades 4 12 4. To increase the number of specialist teachers by 20 percent of the current number of core teacher in elementary and middle schools, an d by 33 percent in high schools 5. To allocate 1 instruction al coach for every 200 students 6. To a llocate one tutor for every 100 students eligible for free and reduced price lunch, with a minimum of one in each Washington school. In addition, Washington schools should provide an extended day program, along with summer school, to prov ide additional he lp after the normal school day 7. To a llocate an additional 1.35 FTE posit ions for every 100 ELL students 8. To a llocate $250, per pupil, for acquiri ng and maintaining technologies Although the model sought to encourage the s tate of Washingto n to implement evidence based strategies into its funding formula, the recommendations were not ultimately adopted, at least not in their entirety. 60 Allan Odden et. al., An Evidence B ased Approach to School Finance Adequacy in Washington, (Prepared for the K 12 Advisory Committee of Washington Learns, 2006). 61 Ibid. 62 Ibid.

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38 Summary Chapter 2 contained an overview of Haiti education expenditures, the achievement of Haitian students and two applicable methods for determining adequate funding In general, schools were severely underfunded, even when compared to countries with similar From the minuscule allotm ent received by education sector, the vast majority was used for maintaining the current system, and not for improving or expanding it. This paradigm birthed a large, but equally deficient, private sector of education in Haiti. This neglect had a s ignificant impact on student learning. Although achievement research was minimal, at best, what existed indicated critical deficiencies in the learning of Haitian students. With respect to the EGRA studies, Haiti students were unable to read at a sufficient speed with comprehension until grade 3 or beyond. Based on listening comprehension results, the participants seemed to understand Haitian Creole significantly better than French in grade 3, regardless of the curricular material. However, comprehension scores were low for both languages suggesting the need for additional instructional and material solutions. Furthermore, the EGRA studies found high variability in performance with no clear distinction emerging b etween public and private schools. However, there was much more variability within the private schools than within the public schools. Each of the EGRA studies concluded that teacher support in reading instruction, resources, and school management all had significant effects on student achievement. Apart from reading fluency and comprehension assessments, there was minimal research quantifying student achievement in other content areas. Due to the limited availability of Haitian student achievement data, only two of the four funding methods were addressed. T he Professional Judgment and Evidence Based approaches

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39 were most appropriate for determining adequate funding in Haiti due to each minimal dependency on student achievement data.

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40 Figure 2 1. Public Expenditure in Education, Haiti and Selected Comparable Countries, 2006 (Percent of GDP). [Figure from World Bank Database and Government Statistics.] 63 63 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 99.

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41 Table 2 1. Allocations to education s ector for F Y 2002 2007 (in millions of real gourdes) 64 F Y 02 04 F Y 05 07 Total education b udge t 2887.2 3825.3 Total education r ecurrent b udget 2252.0 2995.4 Total education investment b udge t 635.1 829.9 Total recurrent in % of total e ducation budget 81.0 80.0 Total investment in % of total e ducation budget 19.0 20.0 Total nation recurrent budget (excl. interest payments) 14073.6 11792.5 Percentage of recurrent in total nation recurrent budget (excluding interest payments on debt) 15.2 25.0 Total nation budg et 21264.6 35191.0 Shares of e d ucation in nation b udget (in % ) 13.1 10.8 64 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 102.

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42 Table 2 2. Composition of spending for F Y 2002 2007 (in millions of real gourdes). 65 F Y 02 04 F Y 05 07 Wa ges and salaries 2373.1 1276.7 Goods and services 780.5 222.0 Others NA 908.7 Total 3168.8 2407.4 Share of wages and salaries in total (in %) 74.3 53.0 Share of goods and services and others in total (in %) 25.7 47.0 65 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 103.

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43 Figure 2 2. Non Public Sector Enrollment Share in Primary Education (percent). [Figure from World Bank Database and Government Statistics.] 66 66 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 101.

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44 Figure 2 3. Shares of Financing of Education Sector. [Figure from World Bank Database and Government Statistics.] 67 67 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 100.

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45 Table 2 3. Commitments (2004 2007) a nd d isbursements (as of December 2005) by d onor (US$ thousands) 68 Donor Commitments Disbursement percentage (%) CIDA 10,973.8 41.2 World Bank 500 37.0 IDB 8,989.2 24.6 Spain 409.5 0 France 1,080.0 44.7 EU 1,600.0 12.5 UNICEF 1,612.0 100 UNESCO 50.0 80.0 USAID 21,572.8 0 Total 46787.3 19.8 68 The Wor ld Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 108 109.

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46 Table 2 4. School comparison from 2007 EGRA a dministration in Ma ssade, Haiti. 69 School Community School +National School Average words per minute % of students reading more than 30 wpm % of students reading more than 40 wpm Ossenande 1.5 0% 0% Bateille 5.0 0% 0% Gazard 5.8 0% 0% Grande Savane 10.7 9% 0% Callebassier 14.5 20% 10% Coeur Unis 16.2 18% 0% Citron 16.6 20% 20% Cinquieme 17.3 20% 10% Boukan Joumou 21.1 40% 20% Enfants Demunis 21.8 25% 25% Tarte 27.2 50% 17% 29.5 50% 20% 30.8 40% 30% Christ Capable 32.0 60% 40% 34.4 60% 60% Larique 39.3 70% 60% Ramier 51.8 75% 38% + 52.6 70% 50% Figue 53.7 90% 80% 69 Joseph DeStephano & Emily Miksic, Effectiveness in Massade, (written for EQUIP2, 2007), 11, http://www.equip123.net/docs/e2 HaitiSchoolEffectiveness2_WP.pdf

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47 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to determine adequate funding for primary schools in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti. The study addressed the following research questions: 1. What was the mathematical achievement level of Haitian primary students, gra des three through six, in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti? 2. How did the mathematical achievement of Haitian, primary students in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti compare to their Floridian peers? 3. According to site based administrators, w hat was the adequate funding necessary to increas e student achievement by 15 percent ? Measures of Mathematical Achievement The Sample of Haitian Students The population for this study consisted of the primary students, grades three through six, enrolled in four schools residing in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti. The town of Pierre Payan, which is located in the southern most tip of the Artibonite department, has historically served as this investi gators base for previous projects hence the selection of this region. In May o f 2014, six schools within a five mile radius of Pierre Payan were approached about participating in the study. Five of the si x schools originally granted permission to administer the assessment. In March of 2015, when the assessment was to be administered, one of the five sites had not completed the parental, informed consent letters. 1 Ultimately, only four schools completed the necessary documentation, r esulting in a sample size of 207 3 rd through 6 th grade, students. The sampling method was non probabilistic, convenience sampling, as not every 1 Clayton Nylund, Consent (Letter was provided to parents in November of 2014), http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008989/00001

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48 student in the lower portion of the Artibonite department had an equal opportunity of participating. Only those students residing in the four schools took part in the study. Instrument of Measurement For this investigation, a French translated version of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 1.0 (FCAT 1.0) was utilized to determine the mathematical achievement of the Haitian students. 2 The mathematics FCAT 1.0, which was first administered in the spring of 2000 by the Florida Department of Education (FLDOE), was a criterion referenced test that measured student proficiency with respect to Florida Sunshine State Standards (SSS) benchmarks. 3 Administered to all of students in grades three through ten, the mathematics FCAT 1.0 was eventually phased out in spring of 2010. For this study, the third grade mathematics FCAT 1.0 from 2006 was utilized. This particular version consisted of 40 multiple choice questions focusing exclusively on numbe r sense, measurement, geometry, algebraic thinking and data analysis. 4 FCAT 1.0 Development and Construction Each of the 40 items that appeared on the third grade, mathematics FCAT 1.0 were passed through the eight stage review process listed below: 5 1. Ite m Writing 2. Pilot Testing 2 Clayton Nylund, of Measurement (The assessment was administered to 204 Haitian students in March of 2015), http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008990/00001 3 Florida Department of Education, Handbook A Resource for (Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education, 2005), 1. 4 Ibid., 25. 5 Ibid., 41.

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49 3. Committee Reviews 4. Field Testing 5. Statistical Review 6. Test Construction 7. Operational Testing 8. Item Release or Reuse Each item, for each subject and grade level, was written according to the FCAT Test Item Specifications. Thes e specifications were based upon the recommendations of a 15 24 member group of specialists referred to as a Content Advisory Committee. Each of the four FCAT 1.0 content areas had a Content Advisory Committee, consisting of members from the school level, district level and university levels. 6 Each member was required to have teaching experience and was to attend a training session that included a review of item specifications, cognitive complexity levels, good multiple choice item characteristics examples of good performance task items, scoring criteria, and an explanation of bias 7 Each of the accepted items were later compiled and piloted to small groups of students outside of Florida. The purpose of the pilots was to gain qualitativ e information about the items, according to the sampled students. Sampled students were interviewed to identify confusing vocabulary, graphics or concepts. 8 Following the pilot studies, items were reviewed by the Bias Review Committees, composed of Florid a educators, seeking out items that may provide 6 Florida Department of Education, Handbook A Resource for (Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education, 2005), 43. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid.

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50 advantages to students with personal characteristics, such as those related to gender, race, ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, disability, or geographic 9 Following the bias review, Florida teachers and administrators, from the targeted grade levels, reviewed the items in Item Content Review Committees. 10 These members determined the following about each item: 11 Whether or not each item measured the appropri ate benchmark. Whether or not each item evaluated the specified levels of cognitive complexity. Whether or not each item was clearly worded. Whether or not each item had only one correct answer. Whether or not each item was appropriate grade level diff iculty. Following the committee review, each item was field tested within an administered, mathematics FCAT 1.0. Field tested items were subsequently analyzed, and either discarded or added to the item bank. 12 Once added to the item bank, questions qualif ied as potential operational, or scored, items that appeared on the mathematics FCAT 1.0. 13 The item development process took two school years for each item. 14 9 Florida Department of Education, Handbook A Resource for (Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education, 2005) 44. 10 Ibid., 45. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid., 46. 13 Ibid., 47. 14 Ibid., 48.

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51 Translation of the Instrument The instrument used for this study was a translated version of the 2006, third grade, mathematics FCAT 1.0. It was originally translated into Haitian Creole in February of 2014. A Haitian American, employed as a translator for the School District of Hillsb orough County (SDHC), completed the translation. After a trip to the Artibonite department in May of that year, it was determined that students in that region learned mathematics in French, despite speaking Haitian Creole. This was due to the limitations o n available instructional materials, almost all of which are in French. During the summer of 2014, a doctoral student of French, from the University of Florida, translated the assessment into French. Three SDHC employees subsequently proofed the translatio n. This included the aforementioned Haitian American translator, a high school French instructor, and a Haitian American mathematics instructor. In November of 2014, the assessment was piloted to the bilingual students of an American operated orphanage out side the sample. The pilot students were all enrolled in grades three through six. These students found no problems with the translation or syntax, but did not believe the village students would be able to read the questions. Furthermore, the piloted stude nts were unfamiliar with the statistics topics, namely the central tendency terms. Administration of the Instrument In March of 2015, the translated, mathematics FCAT was administered to 207 Haitian students, enrolled in grades three through six, from ea ch of the four testing sites. Table 3 1 represents the calendar that was followed during the administration. When originally conducted in 2006 to Florida 3 rd graders, the test was conducted in two parts, on two consecutive days, with each section taking one hour. This same format was applied for this investigation. A ten member team carried out the investigation, with one American proctor in each testing location.

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52 As predicted by the piloted students, the students within the four sites were unable to read the questions. As a result, the teacher within each classroom read each question aloud, once in French and once in Haitian Creole. For quality as surance, four French/Creole speaking interpreter s monitored the reading of the test. 15 Comparative Data Source Mathematics FCAT data for Florida 3rd grade students, during the 2005 2006 school year, were used for the comparison portion of the investigation. The data were provided by the Florida Department of Education for the 2005 2006 school year. Descriptive Statistics Sample Mean The sample mean ( ) is a measure of the central tendency for the distribution of a sample of observations. The mean represents the average value in the distribution and all observations are used in the calculation. The formula for calculating arithmetic mean is as follows: w here: represents the summation of the subsequent quantities, X i represents each test score in the sample, and N represents the number of students tested. The arithmetic mean was calculated for the following data set s: Overall Floridian achievement, overall Haitian achievement, Haitian achievement by grade, Haitian achievement by age, Haitian achievement by category and data from the adequacy measures. 15 Clayton Nylund, http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008991/00001

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53 Median The median is a measure of centra l tendency that represents the midpoint of a data set. The median is preferred for determining central tendency in skewed data sets, or when extreme outliers exist: The median was calculated for the overall Haitian achievement Range Another measure that can be used to examine the width of a distribution is the range. The smaller the range, the less variation there is in the observations. Likewise, the larger the range, the more variation exists in the observations. The formula for calculating the ran ge is as follows: w here: X represented each test scores in the sample. The range was calculated for the overall Haitian achievement. Standard Deviation The standard deviation ( s ) is a measure that description of the variability within a distribution. The formula for calculating the standard deviation is as follows: where: represents the summation of the subsequent quantities represents the mean of all tested students, X i represents each test score in the sample, and N is the number of students tested. The standard deviation was calculated for the overall Haitian achievement.

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54 Pearson Correlation Coefficient The Pearson correlation coefficient ( r ) is a measure of the linear dependence between two data sets. The value of the coefficient falls between +1 and 1, where +1 represents total positive linear correlation, 0 represents no linear correlation, and 1 represents total negative c orrelation. The formula for calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient is as follows: where: represents the summation of the subsequent quantities, X i represents each test score in the sample, Y i represents the age of each student in the sample, and N represents the number of students tested, The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for the Haitian achievement by age. This statistic was used to identify if achievement increased with age, decreased with age, or remained constant. Measures of Adequacy To determine funding adequacy, the Professional Judgment Approach was applied to this investigation. This selection was based on the limited num ber of sites, the limited amount of achievement data available, and the fact that the site administrators had the most knowledge regarding the monetary needs of their respective sites. To ascertain this knowledge, the administrator of each of the four site s completed an administrator questionnaire in April of

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55 2016. 16 Each questionnaire contained three categories of questions. In addition, each school received their achievement data from the mathematics FCAT that was administered in 2015, along with details about the categories and which questions fell within each of the categories. The questionnaire first category inquired about the schools contact information, and whether that information had changed since the previous year. The second category inquired about the schools current economic information. The third category asked for the opinions regarding adequate funding, and the amounts of funding necessary t o reach a particular, third grade, achievement level. The goals varied for each site depending on how each third grade students achieved on the mathemat ics FCAT the previous year. The goal ranged from 15 to 20 percent and was determined by the inv estigator. Five funding topics were focused upon, and these included teacher salaries, administrator salaries, instructional materials, food services and student uniforms. Summary Cha pter 3 presented the method used to determine the mathematical achievement of a sample of primary students in the Artibonite depa rtment of Haiti. T he procedures and formulas for comparing the Haitian achievement and Floridian achievement were also presented. From these statistics, a dministrator questionnaires were created and administered. Based upon their unique data, each administrator provided his professional opinion regarding the necessary funding for increasing third grade mathematical achievement by a specified amount 16 Clayton Nylund, Questionnaire http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008987/00001

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56 Table 3 1. Test administration c alendar Monday (03/09/15) Tuesday (03/10/15) Wednesday (03/11/15) Thursday (03/12/15) Friday (03/13/15) Early m orning (9:0 0 10:00 AM) Site #1 (Part 1) Site #1 (Part 2) Site #3 (Part 1) Site #3 (Part 2) Flex t ime Late m orning (10 :00 AM 12:00 PM) S ite #2 (Part 1) Site #2 (Part 2) Site #4 (Part 1) Site #4 (Part 2) Flex t ime

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57 CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS The purpose of this study was to determine the adequate funding necessary to increase the mathematical achievement of primary students in the lower Artibonite Department of Haiti. This purpose was pursued through the administration of a third grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in order to determ ine student achievement at the time of the study, and the Professional Judgment approach for determining adequate funding. Chapter 3 detailed the methodology utilized for this study, and Chapter 4 details the results thereof. The questions specifically a ddressed in this study were: 4. What was the mathematical achievement level of Haitian primary students, grades three through six, in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti? 5. How did the mathematical achievement of Haitian, primary students in the lower A rtibonite department of Haiti compare to their Floridian peers? 6. According to site based administrators, what was the adequate funding necessary to increas e student achievement by 15 percent? Haitian Mathematical Achievement Results Descriptive statisti cs were utilized to determine the mathematical achievement of the sampled, Haitian students. These st atistics included the mean me dian, range, standard deviation and Pearson correlation coefficient of the student achievement data These statistics were u tilized for the entire sample, and each of the four sites, individually. The sample earned a mean score of sixteen correct answers out of the forty total questions. The mean scores for Site 1, Site 2, Site 3, and Site 4 were thirteen, thirteen, sixteen a nd twenty two correct answers, respectively. The sample earned a median score of fifteen correct answers out of the forty total questions. The median scores for Site 1, Site 2, Site 3, and Site 4 were thirteen, twelve, fifteen and twenty two correct answer s, respectively.

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58 The range of scores, which represents the difference between the highest score and lowest score, was twenty seven questions for the sample. The range of scores for Site 1, Site 2, Site 3, and Site 4 were twenty questions, twenty three qu estions, twenty two questions, and fourteen questions, respectively. The standard deviation, which represents the variability of a data set, was 5.9 for the sample. The standard deviation for Site 1, Site 2, Site 3, and Site 4 were 4.3, 5.7, 5.5, and 3.9, respectively. The descriptive statistics for the sample and four sites are summarized in Table 4 1. Achievement by Grade Student achievement was disaggregated by the grade levels tested within the sample and within each of the four sites individually. Grades three, four, five and six were the only grades tested in this investigation. Grade level results were calculated as the mean percentage of correctly answered questions out of the forty, total questions. For the sample, thi rd graders answered 33 perc ent of the questions correctly, four th graders answered 37 percent of the questions correctly, f ifth graders answered 54 percent of the questions correctly, and sixth graders answered 41 percent of the questions correctly. Site specific statistics, by grad e level, are summarized in Table 4 2 and Figure 4 1. Achievement by Age Student achievement was disaggregated by age within the sample and within each of the four sites individually. Students of ages eight to eighteen were tested in this investigation. Achievement results by age were calculated as the mean percentage of correc tly answered questions out of the forty, total questions. These statistics are summarized in Table 4 3 only, due to the quantity. The correlation between age and achievement was also calculated, indicating a moderate, positive correlation of 0.36 between a ge and mathematical achievement. Figure 4 2 is

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59 a scatter plot, with each data point representing a achievement percentage and the age. The best fit line in Figure 4 2 indicates a positive relationship between age and mathematical achiev ement. Achievement by Category Student achievement was disaggregated by test category within the sample and within each of the four sites individually. The five testing categories included Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry, Algebraic Thinking and Data Analysis. Table 4 4 provides a description of each of the five categories, and which items from the instrument full under each category. Categorical results were calculated as the mean percentage of correctly answered questions out of the forty, total ques tions. For the sample, 47 percent of the Number Sense questions were answered correctly, 39 percent of the Measurement questions were answered correctly, 35 percent of the Geometry questions were a nswered correctly, 41 percent of the Algebraic Thinking q uestions were an swered correctly, and 26 percent of the Data Analysis questions were answered correctly. Categorical data, by site, is summarized in Table 4 5 and Figure 4 3. Third Grade Achievement for Haitian and Floridian Students The mathematics F CAT that was utilized for this investigation was originally administered in 2006 to third grade students enrolled in public schools. In that year, proficiency was determined by the mean percentage of correctly answered questions out of the forty, total questions. According to the Florida Department of Education, in 2006, third gra de students answered 63 percent of the questions correctly. 1 In comparison, the third 1 Florida Department of Education, Score http://www.fldoe.org/accountability/assessments/k 12 student assessment/history of fls statewide assessment/fcat/scores reports/2006/

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60 grade achievement levels for Site 1, Site 2, Sit e 3, and Site 4 were 24 pe rcent, 30 percent, 34 percent and 42 percent, respectively. Categorical data for each third grade students and third grade students is summarized in Table 4 6. Adequacy Measures In this investigation, adequate funding was determined usi ng the Professional Judgment method. An administrator questionnaire was created and utilized for determining the funding recommendations of the four Haitian administrators. The questionnaire consisted of two funding sections. The first section inquired abo ut each current funding. The second section inquired about adequate funding for increasing student achievement. Each administrator elected not to complete the first section. However, each of the four administrators completed the second section. Th e second section consisted of five funding prompts, and each prompt had six values that the administrator could choose from based on their achievement data. Each prompt requested the funding amount necessary, in Haitian Gourdes (HTG), to increase th ird grade student achievement by approximately fifteen percent. The first prompt asked the administrator to circle the minimum, annual, teacher salary necessary to reach the mathematics achievement goal. Site 1 and Site 2 each circled 30,000 HTG, Site 3 circled 24,000 HTG, and Site 4 circled 33,000 HTG. These amounts equate to $473 USD, $378 USD and $520 USD, respectively. The second prompt asked the administrator to circle the minimum, annual, administrator salary necessary to reach the mathematics ac hievement goal. Site 1 circled 29,000 HTG, Site 2 and Site 3 each circled 35,000 HTG, and Site 4 circled 38,000 HTG. These amounts equate to $457 USD, $552 USD and $599 USD, respectively.

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61 The third prompt asked the administrator to circle the minimum, a nnual, cost of providing books and instructional materials in order to reach the mathematics achievement goal. Site 1 and Site 4 each circled 3 000 HTG per student, and Site 2 and Site 3 each circled 2 000 HTG per student. These amounts equate to $47 USD per student and $32 USD per student, respectively. The fourth prompt asked the administrator to circle the minimum, annual cost of providing food to students in order to reach the mathe matics achievem ent goal. Site 1 circled 27,000 HTG per student, Site 2 and Site 3 each circled 16,200 HTG per student, and Site 4 circled 32,400 HTG per student. These amounts equate to $426 USD per student, $255 USD per student, and $511 USD per student, respectively. The fifth prompt asked the administrator to circle the minimum, annual cost of providing uniforms to students in order to reach the mathematics achievement goal. Site 1 and Site 4 each circled 2 700 HTG per student, Site 2 circled 1 800 HTG per student, and Site 3 circled 2 100 HTG per student. These amounts equate to $43 USD per student, $28 USD per student, and $33 USD per student, respectively. Summary The r esults presented in Chapter 4 represent the mathematical achievement of students enrolled in four primary schools located in the Artibonite Department of Haiti. According to the administered mathematics FCAT, the sampled students underperformed third grade students, who took the ass essment in 2006, by 23 percent, on average. Based on th ese achievement levels, the administrator from each of the four schools indicated the funding that would be necessary to increase their mathematical achievement level by approximat ely 15 percent.

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62 Table 4 1. Descriptive statistics of Haitian achi evement. Sample mean score Median score Range Standard deviation of score s Si te 1 13 13 20 4.3 Site 2 13 12 23 5.7 Site 3 16 15 22 5.5 Site 4 22 22 14 3.9 All s ites 16 15 27 5.9

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63 Table 4 2. Haitian achievement by grade level (correctly answered questions represented as a percentage of the total number of questions). 3 rd g rade 4 th g rade 5 th g rade 6 th g rade Site 1 24% 29% 46% 33% Site 2 30% 33% NA NA Site 3 34% 31% 54% 59% Site 4 42% 60% 64% 48% All s ites 33% 37% 54% 41%

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64 Figure 4 1: Haitian achievement by grade level.

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65 Table 4 3. Haitian achievement by age (correctly answered questions represented as a percentage of the total number of questions). Age 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Site 1 23% 26% 29% 30% 43% 36% 36% 39% 46% 20% 38% Site 2 24% 26% 30% 31% 35% 29% 39% 46% 63% 48% 55% Site 3 34% 35% 35% 36% 45% 46% 35% 55% NA NA NA Site 4 41% NA NA 61% 59% 55% 63% 59% 54% 40% 63% All s ites 30% 29% 32% 37% 43% 41% 44% 49% 53% 33% 45%

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66 Figure 4 2: Haitian achievement by age (each data point represents a sampled age versus his or her corresponding achievement level The slope of the best fit line indicates a direct relationship between age and achievement).

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67 Table 4 4. 2006, t hird grade, mathematics FCAT categories. Category Description Items in each category Number sense and the effects of operations Knowing how numbers are used #1, #4, #6, #8, #11, #21, #22, #25, #30, #31, #34, #39 Measurement Recognizing measurements and units of measurement Compares and contrasts measurements #3, #9, #16, #23, #24, #29, #33, #40 Geometry Describing, identifying and analyzing two dimensional shapes Visualizing changes in shapes #2, #7, #13, #14, #20, #27, #28 Algebraic thinking Writes and uses expressions and equations #5, #10, #19, #35, #37, #38 Data analysis Analyzes and interprets data Identifies patterns Uses probability and statistics #12, #15, #17, #18, #26, #32, #36

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68 Table 4 5. Haitian achievement by assessment category (correctly answered questions represented as a percentage of the total number of questions). Number sense Measurement Geometry Algebraic thinking D ata analysis Site 1 40% 29% 27% 44% 24% Site 2 42% 32% 25% 31% 21% Site 3 43% 43% 40% 44% 24% Site 4 61% 60% 54% 57% 43% All s ites 47% 39% 35% 41% 26%

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69 Figure 4 3: Haitian achievement by assessment category.

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70 Table 4 6. Third grade Haitian achievement and third grade Floridian achievement by assessment category and overall (correctly answered questions represented as a percentage of the total number of questions). Number sense Measurement Geometry Algebraic thinking Data analysis Overall Site 1 27% 20% 21% 26% 25% 24% Site 2 40% 26% 26% 28% 17% 30% Site 3 36% 39% 28% 48% 21% 34% Site 4 42% 63% 29% 33% 43% 42% Florida (2006) 75% 63% 57% 67% 57% 63%

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71 Table 4 7. Adequate funding information according to Haitian administrators. Values are represented in the Haitian Gourde (HTG) and the U.S. Dollar (USD). Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Minimum, annual teacher salary necessary to reach the mathematics achievement goal. 30,000 HTG ($473 USD) 30,000 HTG ($473 USD) 24,000 HTG ($378 USD) 33,000 HTG ($520 USD) Minimum, annual administrator salary necessary to reach the mathematics achievement goal. 29,000 HTG ($457 USD) 35,000 HTG ($552 USD) 35,000 HTG ($552 USD) 38,000 HTG ($599 USD) Minimum, annual cost of providing books and instructional materials in order to reach the mathematics achievement goal. 3 000 HTG ($47 USD) per student 2 000 HTG ($32 USD) per student 2 000 HTG ($32 USD) per student 3 000 HTG ($47 USD) per student Minimum, annual cost of providing food to students in order to reac h the mathematics achievement go al. 27,000 HTG ($426 USD) per student 16,200 HTG ($255 USD) per student 16,200 HTG ($255 USD) per student 32,400 HTG ($511 USD) per student Minimum, annual cost of providing uniforms to students in order to reach the mathematics achievement goal. 2 700 HTG ($43 USD) per student 1 800 HTG ($28 USD) per student 2 100 HTG ($33 USD) per student 2 700 HTG ($43 USD) per student

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72 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this study was to determine the adequate funding necessary to increase the mathematical achievement of primary students in the lower Artibonite Department of Haiti. This purpose was pursued through the administration of a third grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in order to determine student achievement at the time of the stu dy, and the Professional Judgment approach for determinin g adequate funding. Chapter 5 provides a summary of the findings, and their implications, along with recommendations for future studies. The questions specifically addressed in this study were: 1. Wh at was the mathematical achievement level of Haitian primary students, grades three through six, in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti? 2. How did the mathematical achievement of Haitian, primary students in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti compare to their Floridian peers? 3. According to site based administrators, what was the adequate funding necessary to increas e student achievement by 15 percent? The results of this study indicate that the sampled Haitian students had a low mathematical proficiency. According to the administered mathematics, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) the sample answered only 40 percent of the questions correctly, on average, which was 23 percent less than the Floridian, third grade students who took t he assessment in 2006. Unlike the 2006 administration, the sample for this investigation consisted of Haitian students in grades three through six, and ranging from eight to eighteen years of age. Based upon the achievement, the administrators f rom the four testing sites made funding recommendations for increasing the mathematical achievement of the students within their respective schools. Annual salary recommendations ranged from 24,000 HTG to 33,000 HTG ($378 USD to $528 USD) for each teacher and 29,000 HTG to 38,000 HTG ($457 USD to

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73 $599 USD) for each administrator. Annual funding recommendations for instructional materials ranged from 2 000 HTG to 3 000 HTG ($32 USD to $47 USD) per student, and annual funding recommendations for school unifor ms ranged from 1 800 HTG to 2 700 HTG ($28 USD to $43 USD) per student. Lastly, annual funding recommendations for school lunches ranged from 16,200 HTG to 32,400 HTG ($225 USD to $511 USD) per student. Implications and Suggestions for Future Research Based on the most recent estimates of government spending, conducted by the World Bank in 2006, Haiti was spending approximately $50, annually, per primary student. 1 This expenditure equated to only 2.5 percent of the GDP, ranking Haiti far below the average of the Latin America and Caribbean region (4.3 percent of GDP), as well as the average for Sub Saharan Africa (3.4 percent of GDP). 2 This investigation found that the administrators from the sampled sites recommended a per pupil expenditure of $285 USD to $601 USD for materials, uniforms and lunches. If these recomme ndations were applied to 2015, nationwide enrollment of 4,621,492, an amount ranging from 15 to 30 percent of 2015 GDP would need to be applied to wards education. 3 Considering that the vast majority of developed countries contribute less than 10 percent of their to education, t hese recom mendations represent an unrealistic increase in educational spending. 4 1 The World Bank, Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (Washington D.C., 2008), 95. 2 Ibid., 102. 3 Institut Haitien de Statistique et in Haiti: accessed on December 3, 2015, http://www.ihsi.ht/haiti_en_chiffre_education.htm 4 The World Bank, Expenditure on Education, total (% of accessed September 20, 2016, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

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74 This particular study could be extended in a n umber of ways. A much larger, randomly selected sample would be advantageous for generating inferential statistics. This would allow a certain level of generalizability to the entire country. In terms of the instrument, cultural adjustments could be made t o better assess each mathematical achievement. Furthermore, an instrument that was recently administered to American students would provide current achievement data for comparisons. Lastly, longitudinal studies could be extended from this investi gation if the funding recommendations were met. Correlations between funding and mathematical achiev ement could then be determined. Recommendations Due to its simplicity and reproducibility, this investigation could be duplicated in other third world cou ntries. Very little is known about the achievement levels and educational spending within these nations, and that which is known is often outdated; as was the case with the Republic of Haiti. By broadening this research field, the fiscal needs of primary i nstitutions, worldwide, could be determined. These determinations could then provoke more funding from the local governments. In cases similar to where the government is unable meet the recommended funding amounts, the international community m ust actively participate in supplementing these costs. Howeve r, such supplements are only beneficial if they are utilized appropriately. Foreign contributors must establish disbursement protocols and follow them with fidelity. It was the lack of such proto cols that ultimately curtailed many of the recent, large scale initiatives in Haiti, as was detailed in Chapter 1. These protocols must ensure that disbursements are timely, that the disbursements are used as intended, and that the institutions are held ac countable for these disbursements long term, via follo w up visits and expenditure records In the event that funding

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75 needs are accurately quantified, foreign investors are identified and the appropriate protocols are put in place, this investigator forese es significant opportunities for improving the academic conditions of the poorest regions.

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76 LIST OF REFERENCES Abadzi, Helen, Luis Crouch, Marcela Echegaray, Consuelo Pasco, and Jessyca Sempe. Basic Skills Acquisition Through Rapid Learning Assessments: A Case Study From Prospects 53, no. 2 (2005): 137 56. Augenblick, John G., Palaich, and Associates. Calculations of the Cost of an Adequate Education in North Dakota in 2002 2003 Using the Professional Judgement Approach. Prepared for North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2003. Benson, Charles S. The Economics of Public Education Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1978. Cable News Network. Earthquake Fast Facts Accessed July 21, 2014. http://www.cnn.com/2013/12/12/world/haiti earthquake fast facts/ Campbell County School Dist. v. State of Wyoming, 907 P.2d 1238 (1995). Chambers, Jay, and Thomas Parrish. State Level Education Finance, ed. Herbert Walberg. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1994. Chambers, Jay, and Thomas Parrish. The Development of Resource Cost Model Funding Base for Education Finance in Illinois. Stanford, CA : Associates for Education Finance and Planning, 1983. Clune, W. H. Education As A Remedy For High Poverty Journal of Law Reform 28, no. 3 (1995). DeStefano, Joseph, and Emily Miksic. Effectiveness in Massade Written for EQUIP2, 2007. http://www.equip123.net/docs/e2 HaitiSchoolEffectiveness2_WP.pdf Encyclopedia Brittanica. French colonial Accessed July 2 5, 2014. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/251961/Haiti/217448/Early period First, Patricia F., and Barbara M. De Luca. Meaning of Educational Adequ acy: The Confusion of Journal of Law and Education, 32, no. 2 (2003). Florida Department of E ducation. Score http://www.fldoe.org/accountability/assessments/k 12 student assessment/history of fls statewide assessment/fcat/scores reports/2006/ Florida Department of Education. Handbook A Resource for Tallahassee, FL, 2005. Institut Haitien de Statistique et Informatique. in Haiti: Education A ccessed on December 3, 2015 http://www.ihsi.ht/haiti_en_chiffre_education.htm

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77 Kincaid, Sara. Lawsuit Bismarck Tribune, May 2, 2007. Ministry of Education and Professional Formation. "La Strategie National d'Action pour l'Education pour Tous." Port Au Prince, 2007. Ministry of Education and Professional Formation "Plan Operationnel Pacte Nationale sur l'Education et la Formation." Port Au Prince, 2010. National Center for Educational Statistics. Expenditure Per Pupil In Average Daily Attendancein Public Elementary And Secondary Schools, By State Or Ju risdiction: Selected Years, 1959 60 Through 2006 Accessed April 10, 2015. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/tables/dt09_186.asp National Research Council. Making M oney Matter: Financing Schools. eds. Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990. Nylund, Clayton. Questionnaire (French) http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008987/00001 Nylund, Clayton. Consent Le http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008989/00001 Nylund, Clayton. trument of Measurement http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008990/00001 Nylund, Clayton Script http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00008991/00001 Odden, Allan, and Lawrence O. Picus. School Finance: A Policy Perspective. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2008. Odden, Allan, Lawrence O. Picus, and Mark Fermanich. An Evidence Based Approach to School Finance Adequacy in Arkansas. Prepared for the Arkansas Joint Committee on Education Adequacy, 2 003. Odden, Allan, Lawrence O. Picus, and Michael Goetz. Recalibrating The Arkansas School Funding Structure. Prepared for the Adequacy Study Oversight Sub Committee of the House and Senate Interim Committees on Education, of the Arkansas General Assembly, 2006. Odden, Allan, Lawrence O. Picus, Michael Goetz, Mark Fermanich, Richard C. Seder, William Glenn, and Robert Nelli. An Evidence Based Approach to Recalibrating Wyom Block Grant School Funding Formula. Prepared for the Wyoming Legislative Select Committee on Recalibration, 2005. Odden, Allan, Lawrence O. Picus, Michael Goetz, Michelle Turner Mangan, and Mark Fermanich. An Evidence Based Approach to School Finance Adequacy in Washington, Prepared for the K 12 Advisory Committee of Washington Learns, 2006.

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78 Salien, Jean Marie. "Haiti." In World Education Encyclopedia 549 555. The Office of Inspector General. "Audit of USAID/Haiti's Edu cation Activities." A ugust 11, 2014. https://oig.usaid.gov/auditandspecialbyyear/USAID The World Bank. "Education For All Project In Support Of The Second Phase Of The Education For All Program." Accessed Jul y 25, 2011. http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P124134/education all project support second phase education all program?lang=en The World Bank (Current Accessed July 21, 2014. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD/countries/HT?display=graph The World Bank. Expenditure on Education, total (% of A ccessed September 20, 2016. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS The World Bank http://data.worldbank.org/country/haiti The World Bank. Public Expenditure Management and Financial Washington D.C., 2008. The World Bank. "Implementation Status & Results Haiti: Haiti Education for All Project Phase II." Access ed January 8, 2015. http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P124134/education all project support second phase education all program?lang=en The World Bank. Spending On Education, Total (% of Accessed July 21, 2014. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS The United States Agency for International Development. Grade Accessed March 26, 2016. https://www.eddataglob al.org/reading/index.cfm United States Agency for International Development. "The Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Ha iti." Accessed August 31, 2014. http://www.eddataglobal.org United States Geologica l Survey. with 50,000 or more deaths Accessed July 21, 2014. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usp000h60h#impact Wood, R. Craig and R. Anthony Rolle. Adequacy Concepts in Education Finance: A Heuristic Examination of the Professional Judgment Research Educational Considerations 35, no. 1 (2007).

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79 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Clayton Carl Nylund was born in 1984 in Missoula, Montana. He graduated from Cascade High School located in Cascade, Montana in 2002. In 2006, he earned his Bachelor of Science in physics from the University of Montana in Missoula, Montana. In 2009, Clayto n continued his graduate work at the University of Phoenix to obta in his Master of Arts in curriculum and instruction. In 2012, Clayton was accepted into the University of LEAD program to pursue his Doctor of Education. Clayton graduated from the University of Florida in 2016 with his Doctor of Education in educational leadership. Clayton is a high school physics teacher and the mathematics department chair for Howard W. Blake High School located in Tampa, Florida. He has been teaching for eight years in Hillsborough County and holds an active Professional Educators Teaching Certificate in secondary physics and secondary mathematics. In 2008, Clayton cofounded Project 81 Incorporated, a non profit organization that focuses on education reform in the nation of Haiti. Clayton has been married to Natalie Nylund for three years. They reside in Saint Petersburg, Florida.



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Permission to Reproduce Copyrighted Material 10/04/14 : Original request to use 2006 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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Permission to Reproduce Copyrighted Material 11/25/14 : Permission granted by Florida Department of Education to use 2006 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test for dissertation purposes ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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Permission to Reproduce Copyrighted Material 10/10/16 : Attempt to get the "Permission to Reproduce Copyrighted Material" form completed. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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Permission to Reproduce Copyrighted Material 10/13/16 : Response from Florida Department of Education regarding the "Permission to Reproduce Copyrighted Material" form. !