Citation
The Representation of Landscape in Contemporary South African Photography

Material Information

Title:
The Representation of Landscape in Contemporary South African Photography
Creator:
Kirkwood, Meghan L
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (352 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Art History
Art and Art History
Committee Chair:
ROVINE,VICTORIA L
Committee Co-Chair:
POYNOR,ROBIN E
Committee Members:
WILLUMSON,GLENN GARDNER
TAYLOR,BRON R
Graduation Date:
4/30/2016

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
African art ( jstor )
Apartheid ( jstor )
Art photography ( jstor )
Documentary photography ( jstor )
Landscape photography ( jstor )
Landscapes ( jstor )
Photographers ( jstor )
Photographs ( jstor )
Photography ( jstor )
Viewers ( jstor )
Art and Art History -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
landscape -- photography
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Art History thesis, Ph.D.

Notes

Abstract:
Land-based imagery has become increasingly pronounced in the work of emerging and established photographers in South Africa since the end of Apartheid in 1994. Recent graduates of public workshops and university art programs, as well as established artists are using landscape photography to examine a diversity of topics, such as: visual legacies of apartheid in the landscape, land use in South Africa, psychic connections to natural settings, and aesthetics of the urban and rural environment. Through analyses of work by eleven photographers, this dissertation advances three arguments regarding the use of landscape works by contemporary South African photographers. First, this study posits that the mode of landscape photography practiced today grows out of the social documentary tradition of the late 1970s and 1980s in South Africa and continues the legacy of this key period in the post-apartheid era. Rather than address social issues through documentary photography, many young artists use landscape images to draw attention to social and economic imbalance across the modern landscape, going beyond environmental issues to address land as a site of nation building, and very literally a surface on which visual legacies of the apartheid era have been imprinted. Second, this dissertation identifies a diversity of ways contemporary South African photographers use landscape imagery. In South Africa, many late nineteenth and early twentieth century photographers used to landscape images to celebrate the expansion of industry, spread of settlements, and to naturalize the presence of Europeans in contested spaces. Today, however, South African landscape photographers work in modes that are dramatically different from these predecessors. These artists use landscape images to interrogate and reflect on the legacies of apartheid in urban and rural spaces, and to reimagine their own relationship to the South African landscape after the advent of democratic rule. Finally, this study advocates for the use of multidisciplinary lenses and theories in the analysis of South African landscape photography. It draws most directly upon frameworks from religion and nature studies to explore ways South African photographers use landscape images to mediate a personal connection to land in a post-apartheid context. For many South African photographers, land acts as a spiritual resource, a materialization of the sacred, forms the basis of their community, and offers important analogy for social relations in the nation. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2016.
Local:
Adviser: ROVINE,VICTORIA L.
Local:
Co-adviser: POYNOR,ROBIN E.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Meghan L Kirkwood.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Copyright Kirkwood, Meghan L. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Classification:
LD1780 2016 ( lcc )

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REPRESENTATIONOFLANDSCAPEINCONTEMPORARYSOUTHAFRICAN PHOTOGRAPHY By MEGHANLAURELELIZABETHKIRKWOOD ADISSERTATIONPRESENTEDTOTHEGRADUATESCHOOL OFTHEUNIVERSITYOFFLORIDAINPARTIALFULFILLMENT OFTHEREQUIREMENTSFORTHEDEGREEOF DOCTOROFPHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITYOFFLORIDA 2016

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c 2016MeghanLaurelElizabethKirkwood

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ForDevan, andmyfather,DouglasH.Kirkwood. Andformylatemother,AnnM.Kirkwood: Yourabsencehasgonethroughme Likethreadthroughaneedle. EverythingIdoisstitchedwithitscolor. W.S.Merwin

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS WhenIwasfourteenyearsoldmymotherwasveryillandcomingtotheendofher life.AtonepointduringthisyearIdraftedalistofmy"goalsinlife"tosharewithher. Thelistoffourteenitemswasambitious;Iplannedtolearntorunaradiostation,swim withdolphins,seeDavidLettermanlive,andlearnfourlanguages.IalsoindicatedIwould earnaPhD.AtthetimeIhadnorealknowledgeofwhatitmeanttoearnaPhDoreven whatIwantedtostudy.Iknewitwasanachievementandadicultthingtodo;and morethananything,IwantedtosignaltomymotherthatIwouldnotwasteherexample. Mymother,AnnMaksimKirkwood,ledaninspiringlife.Borninasmalltownin Ohio,shelefthometoattendcollegeattheUniversityofColoradoatatimewhenwomen rarelydideitherofthesethings.IncollegeshestudiedabroadinMexico,participatedin collegiateathletics,andstudiedchemistry.Aftergraduation,sheworkedinachemistry labinCaliforniaandlatertraveledtoEuropeandtheMiddleEastbyherself.Shemet myfatherinBeirut,LebanonandtheyeventuallysettledinNewHampshire,whereshe workedintheeldofgroundwatertechnologyandraisedthreechildren.GrowingupI remembermymothertakingnightclassestowardsherMastersinchemistryplastics, traveling,andleadingsocietiesdedicatedtowardsthestudyofrockgardensandthe preservationofwildowers.Irememberherasonewhosawtheworldasaplacefull ofopportunitiestomeetnewpeopleandlearnnewthings.FromherevenbeforeI understoodwhatitmeanttoleadapurposefullifeIgraspedthatifIputmyselfina positiontolearnfromothers,IcouldbeenrichedinwaysIneverknewpossible. Myjourneythroughthedissertationprocesshasbeenanextraordinaryseriesof chancestolearnfromothers.IamtrulygratefulfortheopportunitiesIhavehadtostudy withoutstandingscholarsintheeldandtointeractwithaccomplishedSouthAfrican artistsandeducators.Thelistofpeopletothankislongandatteststothebreadthof experiencesIhavebeenfortunatetohavehadoverthepastveyears. 4

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MydeepestthanksgorsttothemanySouthAfricanphotographerswhospoke withmeabouttheirworkandwithoutwhomIwouldhavenostudy.Duringmyresearch tripsImetwithmanydierentartists,educators,andcriticswhoweregenerouswith theirtimeandpatientwithmylonglistsofquestions.Manyoftheseindividualsopened theirhomestomeandhelpedconnectmewithotherartists.Ioweparticularthanksto MoniquePelser,DavidSouthwood,andRenzskeScholtz-Hofmeyerfortheirhospitality. IinterviewedmorephotographersthanareincludedinthisdissertationandIwantto thankeachofthemfortheirtimeandinsight.Innospecicorder,Iacknowledge:Daniel Naude,VincentBezuidenhout,ThabisoSekgala,MackMagagane,MattKay,Graeme Williams,LisaKing,SveaJosephy,JoRactlie,CedricNunn,PeterMcKenzie,Paul Weinberg,AnnekeLaurie,IlanGodfrey,GuyTillim,TraceyDerrick,AshleyWalters, CarolineSuzman,JeanBrudnrit,andFranckiBurger. Inadditiontospeakingwiththephotographers,Ibenetedgreatlyfrommyconversationswitharthistorians,critics,educators,andgalleryprofessionalsinSouthAfrica. Inparticular,myinteractionswithMichaelGodbyenrichedallaspectsofthisproject. Michaelwelcomedmeintohishome,gaveearlyfeedbackonmyoutlineandideas,andalwaysoeredwordsofencouragement.Iamtrulygratefulforhisassistance.SeanO'Toole wasalsogenerouswithhistimeandprovidedusefulinsightintothetopic.JohnFleetwood oftheMarketPhotographyWorkshop,andPeterMcKenzieandLisaduPlessisofthe DurbanCentreforPhotographyoeredimportantresponsestotheprojectandthesubject asitrelatedtotheirrespectiveorganizations.IowemanythankstoarthistoriansRory Bester,FedericoFreschi,andStaceyVorsterfortheirkindconversationandfeedback duringmystaysinSouthAfrica.Finally,thoughnotinvolvedwiththearts,Iwantto thankKevinKirkmanattheUniversityofKwaZuluNatalforhishumorandhospitality duringmystaysinPietermaritzberg. ApartfrommygratitudetothephotographersandartsprofessionalsinSouthAfrica, Iammostindebtedtomyadvisor,VictoriaRovine.Withouther,thisdissertationcould 5

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nothavecometogetherasithas.Allpartsofthisdocumenthavebenetedfromher insightandclosereading.Dr.Rovinepossessesallthingsadoctoralstudentcouldwish forinadvisor:kindness,insight,andcandor.WhenIrstcontactedDr.Rovinetoinquire aboutthePhDprogramatFloridasherepliedwithathoughtful,thoroughresponsetoall ofmyquestions.Thisrstexchangewasindicativeofeverythingtocome;sheoeredfull assistanceatallstagesofthisprocess,evenwhentherehasbeensignicantdemandson hertime.Throughherremarkablescholarship,professionalism,andkinddemeanorDr. RovineisanexemplarymodelforaPhDstudentandIhavebeentrulyfortunatetohave hadtheopportunitytolearnfromher. MydissertationcommitteeBronTaylor,GlennWillumson,andRobinPoynor providedmewithinvaluablefeedbackatvarioustimesinthedissertationprocess.Iam gratefulfortheirinsight,commentsonmydrafts,andwillingnesstoreadthenaldocumentinashortperiodoftime.BronTaylor,aleadingscholarintheeldofreligionand naturestudies,inspiredmewithhiswritingandintroducedmetoabodyofliteraturethat hasdramaticallyshapedmythinkingaboutlandscapephotography.Likemanyinvolved inthisprocess,hehasbeenatirelesssupporter,andevenledafullroomofconference attendeesatthemostrecentmeetingoftheISSRNCinapplauseformysuccessfuldefense. Ihadthegreatfortunetoreceivefeedbackonthisworkfrompreeminentphotographyhistorian,GlennWillumson,whochallengedmetoconsidermystatementsandassessments regardingthehistoryofphotographyinSouthAfricainabroader,globalcontext.Robin Poynor,aleaderintheeldofAfricanarts,providedmewithvitalfeedbackthroughout thisprojectandwasalwaysasourceofwarmthandencouragement.Hegivemepagesof lineeditsonthenaldocument,withoutwhichthisdissertationwouldhavehadmany moreerrorsandsuperouscommas. WhileattheUniversityofFloridaIwasblessedtohaveaccesstoanumberof resourcesthatsupportedmyPhDwork.Apre-dissertationresearchgrantfromtheCenter forAfricanStudies,aswellassupportfromtheJeanneandHuntDavisResearchfund 6

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mademyinitialresearchinSouthAfricapossible.AFLASgrantthroughtheCenterfor AfricanstudiessupportedmystudiesandadissertationresearchgrantfromtheUniversity ofFloridaGraduateSchooloeredkeyassistanceformyeldwork.Apartfromthese nancialresources,IwasfortunatetoworkwithmanyindividualsatUniversityofFlorida thathelpedmestayadministrativelysorted.IwanttothankLauraRobertsonandPatrick Grigsyforalloftheirhelp,particularlyasItriedtonavigatedetailsfromafar! ItiswithoutadoubtthatIwouldnothavereachedthispointwithouttheearly supportandencouragementofDr.GittiSalami.IhadthegreatfortunetostudywithDr. SalamiwhileattheUniversityofKansasanditisbecauseofherthatIevenappliedto theUniversityofFlorida.SheintroducedmetotheeldofAfricanartsandchallengedme toproduceworkwellbeyondwhatIthoughtmyselfcapable.Dr.Salamiencouragedme topresentmyworkatprofessionalmeetingsand,eventually,topublishmyresearch.We shouldallbesofortunatetohavesuchprofessionalmentorsearlyinourcareers. InJanuary2014IacceptedapositionintheVisualArtsdepartmentatNorthDakota StateUniversity.AtNDSUIhavebeenblessedtoworkwithanincrediblechair,Michael J.Strand,andDean,Dr.KentSandstrom,bothofwhomdeservespecialrecognitionfor thesupporttheyhavegivenmetonishmydegree.Everthecheerleaderforhisfaculty, Michaelsecuredreleasetimeformeinthenalstagesofthewritingprocessanddid everythinginhispowertohelpensuremysuccess.WhenInishedmydefense,hewasone ofthersttocongratulatemeontheachievement.Icouldnotaskforabettercolleague andsupervisor. Myfamilyandmanyfriendsdeservespecialthanks.Myfather,Dr.DouglasKirkwood,encouragedmetopursuethePhD,evenifitmeantmovingtoFloridaandspending evenmoreyearsinschool.Hehasalwayssupportedmyendeavorsandoeredkindwords attryingmomentsintheprocess.Mysister,HeatherKirkwood,hasalwaysfoundways tocheermefromadistanceandshehasbeenakeysourceofsupporttomeoverthepast years.DianaKirkwoodandNancyWalkerParryhavebothbeensourcesofwarmthand 7

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cheerduringmygraduatestudies.DavidandSacieLambertson,my"Kansasparents," followedmyprogressfromafarandencouragedmethroughtheircorrespondance.MyfellowgraduatestudentsattheUniversityofFlorida,inparticular,CarleeForbesandChris Richardsprovidedanindispensablesourceofcommunityduringthisjourney.Evenafter IlefttheUniversityofKansas,Ibenetedgreatlyfromthecamaraderieandfriendshipof JenFriessandRebeccaRolph. Finally,Iwishtothankmydearestfriendandsupporterinallthings,DevanMcGranahan.EvenafterwritingthousandsofwordsinthisdocumentIamwithouttheright onestothankhimforallthathehasdonetoseemetothispoint.Andthoughhewould admittedlypreferabottleofnesinglemaltandsomecheesethanadissertation,Ioer thisworktohim. 8

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TABLEOFCONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................4 LISTOFFIGURES....................................10 ABSTRACT........................................11 CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONTODISSERTATIONANDLITERATUREREVIEW....13 1.1OverviewofDissertation............................13 1.2Methodologies..................................18 1.3MethodsofLandscapePhotography......................24 1.4DenitionofTerms...............................27 1.4.1Land...................................27 1.4.2Landscape................................29 1.4.3Apartheid................................33 1.5ReviewofRelevantLiterature.........................36 1.5.1HistoryofAfricanPhotography....................37 1.5.2ContemporaryAfricanPhotography..................39 1.5.3TheHistoryofPhotographyinSouthAfrica.............42 1.6OverviewofChapters..............................52 2ALTERNATIVEMETHODSINCONTEMPORARYSOUTHAFRICANLANDSCAPEPHOTOGRAPHY..............................57 2.1Introduction...................................57 2.2JeanBrundrit,Technology,andtheRepresentationofLandscapeinMakingtheWaves.................................61 2.3ActiveandActivistCaptions:CedricNunnand OneHundredYearsof Resistance ....................................66 2.3.1UseofExtendedCaptionsin OneHundredYearsofResistance ..71 2.3.2ConnectionsbetweenOneHundredYearsofResistanceandSocialDocumentaryPractice.......................80 2.4FranckiBurger,Belonging,andtheConstructionofLandscape......83 2.4.1AdditiveProcessesandtheInterpretationoftheVeldLandscapes inBelonging..............................89 2.4.2ExplorationofAfrikanerHistoryintheLandscapeinBelonging.91 2.4.3MetaphorandMaterialintheRepresentationofLandscapeinBelonging.................................97 3LANDASNATURALRESOURCE:REPRESENTATIONSOFMININGIN CONTEMPORARYSOUTHAFRICANLANDSCAPEPHOTOGRAPHY...101 3.1Introduction...................................101 9

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3.2PlaceintoSpace:IlanGodfreyandthe LegacyoftheMine .........107 3.3NetworksofPower:ThabisoSekgala,andtheSecondTransitionseries.122 3.4LandscapesofLabor:JerryObakengGaeganeandMarangaLetsatsi..140 4BETWEENSOCIALDOCUMENTARYANDAGLOBALAESTHETIC:THE USEOFLANDSCAPEBYEARLY-CAREERSOUTHAFRICANPHOTOGRAPHERS......................................151 4.1Introduction...................................151 4.2VincentBezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities,andtheConstructedLandscape.......................................153 4.2.1ThePoliticsofSpacein"SeparateAmenities"............158 4.2.2"SeparateAmenities"inanArtHistoricalContext..........163 4.3RenzskeScholtz,TheFarm,andtheDiscursivepowerofLandscapePhotography.....................................171 4.3.1TheFarmseriesasAtrocityPhotographs..............177 4.3.2RenzskeScholtz,TheFarm,andFeelingPhotography.......185 4.4MoniquePelser,J.H.Pierneef,andRe-engagementwiththeSouthAfrican landscape....................................193 5THESACREDLANDSCAPE:RELIGION,NATURE,ANDTHEREPRESENTATIONOFLANDINCONTEMPORARYSOUTHAFRICANPHOTOGRAPHY.....................................213 5.1Introduction...................................213 5.2ConnectingtotheLand:AnimalandEnvironmentalMetaphorsinthework ofDanielNaude................................218 5.2.1TheAfricanisSeriesasReligiousExperience............224 5.2.2TraditionalandExperimentalAnalysesofNaude'swork:Biophilia andDarkGreenReligion........................233 5.3BrentMeistre,Sojourn,andEnvironmentalHistoryandPhilosophy...240 5.3.1BrentMeistre,SojournandtheWildernessidea...........245 5.3.2TheSojournSeries,AldoLeopold,andtheLandAesthetic....251 6LANDSCAPEPHOTOGRAPHYANDTHEOBSERVANCEOFTHE1913 NATIVESLANDACTCENTENARY.......................258 6.1Introduction...................................258 6.2HistoricalContextofthe1913NativesLandAct...............264 6.3Umhlaba:1913-2013Commemoratingthe1913LandAct,IzikoSouth AfricanNationalGallery,CapeTown.....................271 6.4TheLoomoftheLand,StevensonGallery,Johannesburg.........287 6.5LandscapePhotographyinShowUsOurLand,MarketPhotographyWorkshop,Johannesburg...............................296 7CONCLUSION....................................312 10

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REFERENCES.......................................322 BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH................................345 11

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LISTOFFIGURES Figure page 1-1DavidGoldblattmonumentphoto,1993......................53 1-2DavidGoldblattmonumentphoto,2006......................54 2-1JeanBrundrit,untitledimagefrom MakingtheWaves ,2012,PigmentInkon mattepaper.46cmx100cm..............................58 2-2InstallationViewof MakingtheWaves atAVAGalleryinCapeTown......62 2-3PhotographerUnknown,ViewofthewreckoftheS.A.SeafareronJuly1,196665 2-4CedricNunn, FuneraloftwocomradeyouthabductedandkilledintheNatal War,Mpophomeni,KwaZulu-Natal,1987 ,1987,Silvergelatinprint.......70 2-5CedricNunn,untitledimagefrom OneHundredYearsofResistance,2013 .Silvergelatinprint....................................72 2-6CedricNunn,untitledimagefrom OneHundredYearsofResistance,2013 .Silvergelatinprint....................................75 2-7CedricNunn,untitledimagefrom OneHundredYearsofResistance,2013 .Silvergelatinprint....................................77 2-8CedricNunn,untitledimagefrom OneHundredYearsofResistance,2013 .Silvergelatinprint....................................78 2-9CedricNunn,untitledimagefrom OneHundredYearsofResistance,2013 .Silvergelatinprint....................................79 2-10FranckiBurger, AbsenceIII ,fromBelongingseries,2006,hand-printedsilver gelatinprints,20x20cm..............................85 2-11FranckiBurger, LandI ,fromBelongingseries,2008,hand-printedSilvergelatin prints..........................................90 2-12FranckiBurger, VeldVII ,fromBelongingseries,2007,hand-printedberbased silvergelatinprint,30x30cm.............................92 2-13FranckiBurger, MagersfonteinI ,fromBelongingseries,2007,hand-printed berbasedsilvergelatinprints,188x265cm....................93 2-14FranckiBurger,ProcessStudyimagefor MagersfonteinI ..............96 2-15FranckiBurger, HideI ,fromBelongingseries,2008,digitalPigmentPrint,52 x42cm.........................................98 12

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2-16FranckiBurger, HideIV ,fromBelongingseries,2008,digitalinkjetprint,52 x42cm.........................................99 3-1IlanGodfrey, Acidminewaterseepage,JackarooPark,EmalahleniWitbank, Mpumalanga,2011 ,2011,archivalpigmentprint..................102 3-2IlanGodfrey, PalaboraCopperMine,Phalaborwa,Limpopo,2013 ,2013,archival pigmentprint......................................110 3-3IlanGodfrey,Acidminedrainage,EastRandProprietaryMine,Johannesburg, Gauteng,2011.archivalpigmentprint........................112 3-4EdwardBurtynsky,Top: NickelTailings#34,Sudbury,Ontario1996 ,1996CPrint;Bottom: NickelTailings#31Sudbury,Ontario1996 ,1996,C-Print...115 3-5IlanGodfrey, TweelopieSpruit,KrugersdorpGameReserve,Gauteng,2012 , 2012,archivalpigmentprint..............................116 3-6IlanGodfrey, Riverleaminedump,MainReefRoad,Johannesburg,Gauteng, 2011 ,2011,archivalpigmentprint..........................117 3-7IlanGodfrey, PrayeronMelvilleKoppies,Johannesburg,Gauteng,2013 ,2013, archivalpigmentprint................................118 3-8IlanGodfrey, JeeryRamiruti,TudorShaft,MogaleCity,Krugersdorp,Johannesburg,Gauteng,2011 ,2011,archivalpigmentprint................120 3-9IlanGodfrey, JohanCelliss,Ermelo,Mpumalanga,2011 ,2011,archivalpigment print...........................................121 3-10IlanGodfrey, Informalgolddigger,disusedWesternHoldingsMine,Welkom, FreeState,2012 ,2012,archivalpigmentprint....................122 3-11IlanGodfrey, OupaKoos,informaldiamonddigger,Floors,Kimberley,NorthernCape,2013 ,2013,archivalpigmentprint....................123 3-12ThabisoSekgala, Passagebetweentwoschools,Pankop,formerBophuthatswana , 2000,archivalpigmentprint..............................127 3-13ThabisoSekgala,Untitled,from Homeland series.Archivalpigmentprint....129 3-14ThabisoSekgala,Untitled-1from SecondTransition series,2012.Archival pigmentprint......................................130 3-15ThabisoSekgala,Untitled-2from SecondTransition series,2012.Archival pigmentprint......................................131 3-16ThabisoSekgala,Untitled-3from SecondTransition series,2012.Archival pigmentprint......................................133 13

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3-17ThabisoSekgala,Untitled-4from SecondTransition series,2012.Archival pigmentprint......................................134 3-18ThabisoSekgala,Untitled-5from SecondTransition series,2012.Archival pigmentprint......................................139 3-19JerryObakengGaegane, Untitled from MarangaLetsatsi series,2013,archival pigmentprint......................................142 3-20JerryObakengGaegane, Booysens from MarangaLetsatsi series,2013,archival pigmentprint......................................144 3-21JerryObakengGaegane, InformalSurfaceMiners,Booysens from Maranga Letsatsi series,2013,archivalpigmentprint.....................145 3-22JerryObakengGaegane, Legomosha,InformalSurfaceMiner,Booysens from MarangaLetsatsi series,2013,archivalpigmentprint...............146 3-23JerryObakengGaegane, Untitled from MarangaLetsatsi series,2013,archival pigmentprint.....................................148 3-24GeorgeOsodi, Untitled from DeMoney series,2009,fujicrystalarchivalprint..149 3-25GeorgeOsodi, Untitled from DeMoney series,2009,fujicrystalarchivalprint..150 4-1VincentBezuidenhout, MonwabisiResort#2 ,2011,archivalpigmentinkon CottonPaper,31.5x79in..............................154 4-2VincentBezuidenhout, Oudekraal ,2011,ArchivalPigmentInkonCottonPaper,31.5x39in....................................161 4-3VincentBezuidenhout, SoetwaterResort ,2011,ArchivalPigmentInkonCotton Paper,31.5x39in...................................165 4-4AndresGursky, RheinII ,1999,C-Print,190cmx360cm.............167 4-5VincentBezuidenhout, MonwabisiResort#1 ,2011,ArchivalPigmentInkon CottonPaper,31.5x39inches............................168 4-6RenzskeScholtz, DieVoortrekkers,Voortrekkerdiorama,VoortrekkerMonument ,2010.......................................172 4-7RenzskeScholtz, TheWillows ,2011,archivalpigmentprint,60x192cm.....179 4-8RenzskeScholtz, TheTortureRoom ,2005,archivalpigmentprint.........181 4-9RenzskeScholtz, VlakplaasgrassI&II ,2005,archivalpigmentprint.......184 4-10RenzskeScholtz, TheCemetery ,50x175cm,2011,archivalpigmentprint....188 14

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4-11RenzskeScholtz, TheButterRoomtortureroom ,2011,archivalpigmentprint, 50x203cm.......................................189 4-12RenzskeScholtz, TheviewfromAalwynkoppe,Vlakplaas ,2011,archivalpigment print,50x227cm...................................190 4-13RenzskeScholtz, RiverandPicnicArea ,2011,archivalpigmentprint,60x152cm.192 4-14MoniquePelser, ApiesRiver,Tshwane ,2010,archivalpigmentprint,40x40cm.194 4-15J.H.Pierneef, ApiesRiver,Pretoria ,1932,OilonPanel..............196 4-16MoniquePelser, PremierMine,Cullian ,2009,triptychexhibitedasshiftingtime lapsesondigitalphotoframes,16x25cm.......................208 4-17MoniquePelser, TableMountain,CapeTown ,2010,archivalpigmentprint,40x40cm.210 4-18MoniquePelser, Railroad :03,2013,digitalvideoprojection...........211 5-1DanielNaude, Africanis21.Richmond,NorthernCape,17April2011 ,2011, 124x124cm,C-Print.................................220 5-2DanielNaude, Africanis3.Strydenburg,1April2008 ,2008,124x124cm,Cprint...........................................222 5-3DanielNaude, Africanis8.BarklyEasy,EasternCape,5July2008 ,2008,124 x124cm,C-print...................................223 5-4DanielNaude, StormapproachingAberdeen.EasternCape,3March2010 ,2010, 124x124cm,archivalinkjetprint..........................225 5-5DanielNaude, OutsideUnderberg.KwaZulu-Natal,29October2009 ,2009,124 x124cm,C-print...................................228 5-6DanielNaude, SneeubergPass.Sneeuberg,Murraysburgdistrict,2February2009 , 2009,124x124cm,C-print..............................230 5-7DanielNaude, Ankole1.LakeMburodistrict,Nyabushozi,WesternRegion,Uganda, 2012 ,2012,124x124cm,C-Print..........................231 5-8GeorgeStubbs, BayHunterbyaLake ,1787,oiloncanvas.............234 5-9DanielNaude, Africanis17.Danielskuil,NorthernCape,25February2010 ,2010, 124x124cm,C-Print.................................235 5-10BrentMeistre, WetRoad,Alwynsfontein,N.Cape,SouthAfrica ,2007,C-Print.243 5-11BrentMeistre, PipeTrench,CapeCross,WestCoast,Nambia ,2007,C-Print...246 5-12BrentMeistre, Grave,Brakbos,Keelafsnyleegte,N.Cape,S.A.2013 ,2013,88x 111.8cmC-Print....................................253 15

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5-13BrentMeistre, BlockedRoad,HoringBay,WestCoast,Namibia,2008 ,2008,88 x111.8cm,C-Print...................................256 6-1ImageofTerminalexhibition,TakenNovember23,2013.Photographsbyauthor.259 6-2ImageofTerminalexhibition,TakenNovember23,2013.Photographsbyauthor.260 6-3ImageofTerminalexhibition,TakenNovember23,2013.Photographsbyauthor.261 6-4BurningMuseum, TheBoys3 .Woodstock,CapeTown.2013.Locatedat:Shanon Street,SaltRiver,CapeTown............................264 6-5BurningMuseum, TheBoys2 .Woodstock,CapeTown.2013.Locatedat:Shanon Street,SaltRiver,CapeTown............................265 6-6BurningMuseum, LandAct2 .Woodstock,CapeTown.2013.Locatedat:Briar Road,SaltRiver,CapeTown............................266 6-7DijonDesign, Top :InstallationViewand Bottom DesignViewforUmhlaba exhibitionattheIzikoSouthAfricanNationalGallery,2013............273 6-8PhotographerUnknown,SouthAfricanmigrantworkersboundfortheGoldelds,'PlaceandDateunknown.FromMuseumAfrica,Johannesburg......275 6-9HughExton, IsaacandFriend ,1927.........................277 6-10PhotographerUnknown.F.W.Coetzersitswithhishandsonthe stoep ofhis farmhouse,1902....................................278 6-11DavidGoldblatt,Kasianyane'OuKas'Maintakeshiscattleouttograzeinthe earlymorning,Ledige,Bophuthatswana,n.d.....................279 6-12SantuMofokeng, AfoorFamilyBedroom,Vaalrand ,1988.GelatinsilverPrint..280 6-13SantuMofokeng, PensionersenRoute,Bloemhof ,1988.Gelatinsilverprint...281 6-14ThabisoSekgala, JaneNkuna,atLondingintheformerKwandebeleBantustan , 2010.Archivalinkjetprint..............................283 6-15GraemeWilliams,NearKakamas,NorthernCape,fromtheseries Paintingover thePresent ,2010....................................284 6-16StevensonGallery,InstallationView-LoomoftheLandexhibition,2013...287 6-17MackMagagane,Untitled4fromtheInThisCityseries,2011-2012.Archival pigmentprintonInnovaFibraprintmattpaper.40x60cm.............288 6-18PaulEdmunds,Moon,1997.Stone,PVC-insulatedcopperwire.9x13x12.5cm.289 6-19PieterHugo,MabonengPrecinct,Johannesburg,2011.Inkjetprint.Three images,each82x101cm................................290 16

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6-20AntonKannemeyer,BouldersBeach,Simon'sTown,2013.Penandinkonpaper.21x30cm....................................292 6-21AntonKannemeyerFisforFatCat,fromthe AlphabetofDemocracy series, 2010.Blackinkandacryliconpaper.18.5x21.5cm................293 6-22DavidGoldblatt, SheepfarmatOubip,betweenAggenysandLoop10,Bushmanland,NorthernCape.5June2004 .Archivalpigmentinkoncottonragpaper...........................................294 6-23InstallationviewsoftheSocialLandscapeProject.................297 6-24InstallationviewoftheTransitionsshowinsidetheBusFactory........298 6-25InstallationviewofNolanDavis'sdrawinginresponsetothe1913NativesLand Act...........................................299 6-26Imageofexhibitionin-transitbetweenvenues....................301 6-27InstallationviewofShowUsOurLandOutdoorExhibitioninKlerksdorp, March2013.......................................302 6-28InstallationviewofShowUsOurLandOutdoorExhibitioninGrahamstown, EasternCape,July2,2013..............................304 6-29MariettaKesting,Untitled,EntryforShowUsOurLand,exhibition,n.d...306 6-30DavidHarrison,Untitled,EntryforShowUsOurLand,exhibition,n.d....309 6-31ThulaniZikhali,Untitled,EntryforShowUsOurLand,exhibition,n.d....310 6-32ThembekileNhlapo,Untitled,EntryforShowUsOurLand,exhibition,n.d.311 7-1Screenshotfrom"TwentyJourney"Kickstartercampaign.Imagedisplaysa blackSouthAfricanyouthholdinganapartheid-eranationalag.........316 7-2WikusdeWet, RDPhousesinKwezinaledi ,2015..................318 7-3SiphoMpongo, ImaginationTree ,2015........................319 7-4SeanMetelerkamp, Untitled ,3July2015.......................320 17

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AbstractofDissertationPresentedtotheGraduateSchool oftheUniversityofFloridainPartialFulllmentofthe RequirementsfortheDegreeofDoctorofPhilosophy REPRESENTATIONOFLANDSCAPEINCONTEMPORARYSOUTHAFRICAN PHOTOGRAPHY By MeghanLaurelElizabethKirkwood May2016 Chair:VictoriaRovine Major:ArtHistory ThisdissertationpresentsadiscussionofcontemporarySouthAfricanlandscape photographythroughaclosereadingofpost-apartheidpracticesbyagroupofindividual photographers.Land-basedimageryhasbecomeincreasinglypronouncedinthework ofemergingandestablishedphotographersinSouthAfricasincetheendofApartheid in1994.Recentgraduatesofpublicworkshopanduniversityartprograms,aswellas establishedartistsareusinglandscapephotographytoexamineadiversityoftopics, suchas:visuallegaciesofapartheidinthelandscape,landuseinSouthAfrica,psychic connectionstonaturalsettings,andaestheticsoftheurbanandruralenvironment. Throughanalysesofworkbyelevenphotographers,thisdissertationadvancesthree argumentsregardingtheuseoflandscapebycontemporarySouthAfricanphotographers. First,thisstudypositsthatthemodeoflandscapephotographypracticedtodaygrowsout ofthesocialdocumentarytraditionofthelate1970sand1980sinSouthAfricaknownas Strugglephotographyandcontinuesthelegacyofthiskeyperiodinthepost-apartheid era.Ratherthanaddressconcernsthroughsocialdocumentaryphotography,many youngartistsuselandscapeimagestodrawattentiontosocialandeconomicimbalances acrossthemodernlandscape,goingbeyondenvironmentalissuestoaddresslandas asiteofnationbuilding,andveryliterallyasurfaceonwhichvisuallegaciesofthe apartheiderahavebeenimprinted.Second,thisdissertationidentiesthediverseways contemporarySouthAfricanphotographersuselandscapeimagery.InSouthAfrica,many 18

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latenineteenthandearlytwentiethcenturyphotographersusedtolandscapeimagesto celebratetheexpansionofindustry,spreadofcivilization,andtonaturalizethepresence ofEuropeansincontestedspaces.Today,however,SouthAfricanlandscapephotographers workinmodesthataredramaticallydierentfromthesepredecessors.Theseartistsuse landscapeimagestointerrogateandreectonthelegaciesofapartheidintheurbanand ruralspaces,andtoreimaginetheirownrelationshiptotheSouthAfricanlandscapeafter theadventofdemocraticrule.Finally,thisstudyadvocatesfortheuseofmultidisciplinary lensesandtheoriesintheanalysisofSouthAfricanlandscapephotography.Itdraws mostdirectlyuponframeworksfromreligionandnaturestudiestoexplorewaysSouth Africanphotographersuselandscapeimagestomediateapersonalconnectiontolandin apost-apartheidcontext.FormanySouthAfricanphotographers,landactsasaspiritual resource,amaterializationofthesacred,formsthebasisoftheircommunity,andoers importantanalogyforsocialrelationsinthenation. 19

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CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTIONTODISSERTATIONANDLITERATUREREVIEW 1.1OverviewofDissertation ThisdissertationpresentsadiscussionofcontemporarySouthAfricanlandscape photographythroughaclosereadingofthepost-apartheidpracticesofelevenindividual photographers.Since1994,anincreasingnumberofSouthAfricanphotographersare engagingwithlandscapephotographyandtheconventionsofrepresentingenvironments. Theseartistsmanyofthemyoungandearly-careerphotographerschoosetowork withlandscapeoverothergenresinordertoexpressviewsofandrelationshipswith landnewlyrelevantinapost-apartheidcontext.Landscapeisaglobalgenre,butithas distinctivemeaninginSouthAfricabecauserepresentationsoflandstillconnoteaspects ofthenation'stroubledpoliticalhistory.Throughlandscapeprojects,SouthAfrican photographersareinterrogatingspaceinapost-apartheidcontext,andexploringtheways landbothbearsthevisuallegaciesofapartheidandundergirdsavisionforequitable societyoutlinedintheprogressive1996SouthAfricanconstitution.Representationsof landaredynamicandlocal,andthisstudylooksathowthegenreservesthespecicneeds ofSouthAfricanartistsinadierentsocial,political,andenvironmentalcontexts. Throughanalysesofworkbyelevenphotographers,thisdissertationadvancesthree argumentsregardingtheuseoflandscapebycontemporarySouthAfricanphotographers. Theseideasformthecorecontributionofthisstudytothegrowingeldofscholarshipon SouthAfricanphotography,contemporaryAfricanphotography,andconstitutetherst dedicatedstudyoftherepresentationoflandbycontemporaryphotographersinSouth Africa. First,thisstudypositsthatthemodeoflandscapephotographypracticedtoday growsoutofthesocialdocumentarytraditionofthelate1970sand1980sinSouthAfrica andcontinuesitslegacyintopost-apartheidsetting.FollowingtheSowetouprisingin 20

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1976, 1 JohnPeernotesthattherewasariseinthecollectiveworkofprogressiveartists, andagrowthofasociallyrelevantstyleofdocumentaryphotographyinleaguewiththe antiapartheidstruggle. 2 ThisstyleknownasbothStrugglephotographyandResistance photographyformedakeyperiodinthehistoryofphotographyinSouthAfrica,and constitutesatraditionDarrenNewburydescribesasacomplexsetofphotographicideas andpracticesthatwereself-consciouslybothmodernandinternational,andyetatthe sametimethoroughlySouthAfrican. 3 InSouthAfrica,documentaryphotographymade visualtheviolenceandbrutalityoftheapartheidregimeandformedpartofabroader eorttodemandademocratic,majority-rulegovernment.RoryBesterandKatarina Pierreassertthat...documentaryphotographyplayedacrucialroleinassertingthe needforan`alternative'SouthAfrica,andtheactualrealizationofthedreamofafree anddemocraticnation. 4 IarguethatsocialactivistphotographyinSouthAfricahas undergoneasubstantialshiftfromStruggle-eradocumentaryandreportagetoapostIndependencefocusonlandscapephotographs.Youngartistsnowuseland-basedimages todrawattentiontosocialandeconomicimbalanceacrossthemodernlandscape,going beyondenvironmentalissuestoaddresslandasasiteofnationbuilding,andveryliterally asurfaceonwhichvisuallegaciesoftheapartheiderahavebeenimprinted.Thisnew 1.TheSowetoUprisingwasaseriesofstudentproteststhatbeganJune16,1976inSoweto,atownshipsouthwestofJohannesburg,andspreadnationally.Thousandsofstudentstookpartinmarchesto voiceconcernoverthecompulsoryuseofAfrikaansasthelanguageofinstructionforhalfoftheirsubjects.Theprotestmarchwasviolentlydispersedbypolice,whousedteargasandliveammunitionagainst demonstratingstudents.Foradiscussionoftheprotestsandtheirwidespreadimpactonthesocio-political landscapeinapartheidSouthAfrica,see:LeonardMonteathThompson, AhistoryofSouthAfrica New Haven:YaleUniversityPress,2001,228-35. 2.JohnPeer, Artandtheendofapartheid Minneapolis:UniversityofMinnesotaPress,2009,252. 3.DarrenNewbury, DeantImages:PhotographyandapartheidSouthAfrica Pretoria:UnisaPress, 2009,3. 4.KatarinaPierreandRoryBester,StatingtheNation,in Democracy'sImages:Photographyand VisualArtafterApartheid ,ed.KatarinaPierreandJan-ErikLundstromUmeauniversitet:Bildmuseet, 1998,14. 21

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landscapephotographycombinesneartpracticeswithanexplicitfocusonthesocial roleofthephotographerasactiveparticipantinpublicdiscourse.Ipositthatthisshift representsanimportantbroadeningoftheiconographyofstrugglewithinSouthAfrican photography,andfurtherdistinguishesSouthAfricancontemporaryphotographyin regionalandinternationalcontexts. Second,thisdissertationseekstohighlightdiversewaysAfricanphotographersuse landscapeimagery.ThroughoutAfrica,landscapephotographyiscloselyassociated withcolonialismanditsapplicationasanextensionofthecolonialimagination.James Ryanobservesthatphotographywasanintegralpartoftheprocessofconquest,asit producedunfamiliarlandscapeinlegibleways. 5 InSouthAfrica,manylatenineteenth andearlytwentiethcenturyphotographersusedtolandscapeimagestocelebratethe expansionofindustry,spreadofcivilization,andtonaturalizethepresenceofEuropeans incontestedspaces.Today,however,SouthAfricanlandscapephotographersworkin modesthataredramaticallydierentfromthesepredecessors.Theseartistsuselandscape imagestointerrogateandreectonthelegaciesofapartheidintheurbanandrural spaces,andtoreimaginetheirownrelationshiptotheSouthAfricanlandscapeafterthe adventofdemocraticrule.Writingofalandscapeseriesbyprominentcontemporary photographer,GuyTillim,MichaelGodbyobservesthatTillimportrayedthelandscape asanunknowable,ratherthanmeasurablelandscape,anAfrican,ratherthanEuropean space. 6 Takentogether,thisdissertationseekstopresentlandscapephotographyasan adaptivegenrewithmultiplediscoursesthatgobeyondeasyclassication. Finally,thisstudyadvocatesfortheuseofmultidisciplinaryframeworksandtheories intheanalysisofSouthAfricanlandscapephotography.MichaelBolligarguesthat 5.JamesRRyan, Picturingempire:PhotographyandthevisualizationoftheBritishEmpire UniversityofChicagoPress,1997,94. 6.MichaelGodby,NativeStudies,in Riseandfallofapartheid:photographyandthebureaucracyof everydaylife ,ed.OkwuiEnwezorandRoryBesterNewYork:Prestel,2013,161. 22

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Landscapehasbeenacrucialconcepttoproduce,store,andtopresentknowledgeon human-environmentinteractionsinvariousacademicdisciplinesandinworksofart. 7 Geographers,historicalecologists,anthropologists,architects,geologists,andhistorians explorelandscapeasadynamicinterplayofrelationsbetweenpeopleandnature,asa culturalprocess,asanarchiveofmemory,andexpressionofimaginedworlds. 8 These andotherdisciplinesoutsidearthistoryadvocateforauidinterpretationoflandscape, onethatisconstantlyevolvinginresponsetosocial,cultural,andbiologicalinuences. Insightsderivedfromtheirapplicationrevealnewperspectives,nuances,andconnections embeddedinlandscapeimagesabsentfromformalarthistoricalanalyses. Thisdissertationdrawsmostdirectlyuponframeworksfromreligionandnature studiestoexplorewaysSouthAfricanphotographersuselandscapeimagestomediatea personalconnectiontolandinapost-apartheidcontext.Therelevanceofthiseldwith respecttoSouthAfricanlandscapephotographyismadeclearbyMichaelGodby,who observes: Therehasbeenaremarkableoweringofphotographywithreligiousor spiritualcontentinSouthAfricasincethepoliticaltransformationoftheearly 1990s...therewouldseemtobeaclearconnectionbetweentheendofthe 7.MichaelBollig,Preface,in AfricanLandscapes:Interdisciplinaryapproaches ,ed.MichaelBolligand OlafBubenzerNewYork:Springer,2009,v. 8.Foradiscussionoftheinterpretationofthetermandconceptoflandscapeinthesedisciplines,see: MichaelBolligandOlafBubenzer,eds.,Introduction,in AfricanLandscapes:Interdisciplinaryapproaches NewYork:Springer,2009,1-38;DenisECosgrove, Socialformationandsymboliclandscape Madison:universityofWisconsinPress,1998,Foraselectionofimportantresearchintothetopicand ideaoflandscapefromoutsidearthistoricalsources,see:ChristopherYTilley, Aphenomenologyoflandscape:places,paths,andmonuments Oxford:Berg,1994;BarbaraBender,PlaceandLandscape,in Handbookofmaterialculture ,ed.ChrisTilleyetal.ThousandOaks,CA:Sage,2006,303-314;Yi-fu Tuan, Spaceandplace:theperspectiveofexperience Minneapolis:UniversityofMinnesotaPress,1977; MatthewJohnson, Ideasoflandscape Malden,MA;Oxford:Blackwell,2007;KennethOlwig, Landscape, nature,andthebodypolitic:fromBritain'srenaissancetoAmerica'snewworld Madison:University ofWisconsinPress,2002;TimIngold,Thetemporalityofthelandscape, Worldarchaeology 25,no.2 :152-174,accessedNovember28,2015;EdwardSCasey, Representingplace:Landscapepainting andmaps Minneapolis:UniversityofMinnesotaPress,2002. 23

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oppressivesystemofapartheidandthecelebration,byphotographersamongst others,ofnewdimensionsofhumanexperience. 9 FormanySouthAfricanphotographerslandactsasaspiritualresourceandamaterializationofthesacred;itformsthebasisoftheircommunityandoersimportantanalogy forsocialrelations.FollowingEmileDurkheim,DavidChidesterarguesthatthesacred isthatwhichissetapartfromeverydaylife,butsetapartinsuchawaythatitstands atthecenterofcommunityformation.Landscapephotography,inthisinstance,creates whatChidesterdescribesasanintersectionofpersonalsubjectivityandsocialcollectivitythatcanbeusedtoimaginecommunalrelationsinanewnation. 10 Forthese artists,landscapephotographsareimbricatedwitharichtextureofemotionandexperience,andoerawaytoreectonthechangingpoliticalandsocialenvironmentsin SouthAfricaaftertheendofapartheid. 11 Moreover,theprocessofphotographingland inandofitselfbecomesaritualizedwaytoaccessthesacred.JonathanZ.Smithspeaks tothispointwhenheassertsthatthesacredisproducedthroughritualizationthatis essentiallyawayofpayingattention,inmeticulousdetail,coordinatingeverymovement, gesture,andpostureintoaperfectpatternofactionthatfactorsoutalloftheaccidents 9.MichaelGodby,ShadowCatchers:AspectsoftheSpiritualintheWorkofThreeSouthAfrican Photographers,in Figuringfaith:imagesofbeliefinAfrica ,ed.FionaRankin-SmithJohannesburg: FourthwallBooks,2011,91. 10.DavidChidester, WildReligion:TrackingtheSacredinSouthAfrica Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,2012,5. 11.AnemotionalconnectiontothenaturalenvironmentthatisexpressedandmediatedthroughphotographyndsprecedenceandsimilaritytothepracticeofAmericanlandscapephotographer,AnselAdams. ForAdams,photographsofthelandscapecametostandforaninexplicablefeelingtowardsnature."We candescribeandexplainthephysicalelementsofthescene,theforest,therain,whiteblossoms,theowingstreamandthelichenedrock;"Adamswrote,"buttotrytoexpressthephotographer'semotionalaestheticresponsemightcauseconfusionforviewersandlimittheirresponse.AnselAdams, Examples: Themakingof40photographs Boston:Little,BrownandCompany,1983,79-80. 24

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ofdailylife. 12 ThisdissertationdrawsuponthemodelofDarkGreenReligion,astheorizedbyBronTaylor,tocontextualizethepracticeandworldviewofmanylandscape photographerswhereinnatureisviewedassacred,withinherentorderandvalue,and worthyofrespectaswellasE.O.Wilson'sBiophiliaconcept,whichdescribesaninstinctivebondbetweenhumansandnature,andgivesinsightintothespiritualconnection manyartistsfeeltowardsthelandtheyphotograph. 13 Theseframeworkssupportaninterpretationoflandscapephotographypracticesasreligiouswork,andinformanalysesofthe landimagesasspatialmetaphors. 1.2Methodologies TheuseoflandscapeimagesbycontemporarySouthAfricanphotographersisa broad,uid,andmultivalenttopic.Thisdissertationdrawsuponadiversesetofresources, includingartistbiographies,interviews,visualanalysis,multidisciplinarytheories,and archivalresearchtointerpretandcommunicatethevarietyofstrategiespursuedbySouth Africanphotographerswhoworkwithlandscape.Thissectionwilldescribetheresources used,methodsforselectingartists,andidentifyothermediatinginuences. Inordertopresentafocuseddiscussion,thisdissertationlooksatworkfromasmall numberofphotographersandconnectstheirprojectstoanexpandingeldofdiscourse inSouthAfricanlandscapephotography.Thesephotographerswereselectedaccording toanumberofcriteria.First,eachphotographerproducedasubstantiallandscape projectorworksprimarilywithlandscapeimages. 14 Second,selectiveprioritywas 12.JonathanZSmith, Imaginingreligion:fromBabylontoJonestown Chicago:UniversityofChicago Press,1982,53-65. 13.BronTaylor, DarkGreenReligion:NatureSpiritualityandtheplanetaryfuture Berkeley,C.A.:Univ ofCaliforniaPress,2010;EdwardOWilson, Biophilia Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,1984. 14.AfewofthephotographersunderconsiderationsuchasJeanBrundritorCedricNunndonot self-identifyaslandscapephotographers,andtheirprojectscanbesaidtorepresentadeparturefrom theirtraditionalfoci.Nonetheless,theirrespectiveusesoflandscapeoersimportantinsightintorangeof landscapepracticesincontemporarySouthAfricanphotography. 25

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giventoearlyandmid-careerartists,andphotographerswhoareeitherabsentfrom orunderrepresentedinthegloballiteratureonSouthAfricanphotography.Though attentiontocontemporaryphotographyinSouthAfricaisgrowinginWesternacademic andinstitutionalsettings,muchofthecriticalfocusattendstotheworkofasmallgroup ofprominentphotographers,suchasDavidGoldblattandSantuMofokeng,andoverlooks accomplishedphotographerswhohaveminimalprolesoutsideSouthAfrica.Third,the photographersallengagedthelandscapegenreforaspecic,criticalpurpose,andnot becausetheyareself-describedlandscapephotographersorchoose,bydefault,toworkin thisgenre.Discussionoftheirrespectivemotivationsinworkingwithlandscapeimages highlightstheutilitySouthAfricanphotographersperceiveinthegenre. EachphotographerwasinterviewedduringmyveresearchperiodsinSouthAfrica from2012-15,usingacombinationofstructuredandopen-endedinterviews. 15 Grabski andMageedescribethecentralroleofinterviewsinresearchonAfricanculturalproduction,notingthatarthistoriansuseinterviewstogenerateandacquireperspectives,gird ourinterpretations,authorizeourclaims,expandthepurviewofobjectsandothercreative expressions.Interviews,theyargue,representbodiesofknowledgethatgenerateother bodiesofknowledge. 16 Withrespecttothisdissertation,artistinterviewsprovidedcriticalinformationabouthowandwhyindividualphotographersutilizelandscapeimagery, detailsthatallowedforidenticationandassessmentoftrendsintheuseoflandscapein contemporarySouthAfricanphotography.Allphotographersdiscussedinthisdissertation wereaskedabouttheirlandscapework,howtheycontextualizedtheiruseoflandscape 15.Theuseofinterviewsandinterviewmethodsinthisdissertationhavebeeninuencedbyscholars inothereldsoutsidearthistory,suchashistoryandanthropology,whichemphasizetheimportanceof localvoicesinshapinganalyses.See:LuiseWhite,StephanMiescher,andDavidWilliamCohen, African Words,AfricanVoices:criticalpracticesinoralhistory Bloomington,IN:IndianaUniversityPress,2001; andPeterRSchmidt, HistoricalarchaeologyinAfrica:Representation,socialmemory,andoraltraditions Lanham,MD:Altamira,2006. 16.JoannaGrabskiandCarolMagee, Africanart,interviews,narratives:bodiesofknowledgeatwork Bloomington,IN:IndianaUniv.Press,2013,1. 26

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images,andthewaysinwhichthelandscapeprojectsalignedwiththeirbroaderpractice. DarrenNewburyaptlystatesIdonotconsiderphotographersthenalarbitersonmeaningoftheirimageswhilstatthesametimekeepinginmindthatphotographsaremade byphotographersandwithoutthemtherewouldbenovisualrecordtoinspect. 17 This dissertationadoptsasimilarviewtowardsmaterialobtainedthroughartistinterviewsand writings. Althoughartistinterviewsandvisualanalysesofphotographsweretheprimary resourcesforthisstudy,othermaterialsaccessedduringeldresearchinformedthis dissertation.ArchivalresearchattheSpecialCollectionsdivisionoftheUniversityof CapeTownLibrariesandtheMuseumAfricalibraryinJohannesburgoeredaccess toimportantvisualandtextualresourcesneededtocontextualizetheuseoflandscape photographyafter1994.ExhibitionsatpublicmuseumsandprivategalleriesinCape Town,Bloemfontein,Stellenbosch,Johannesburg,Durban,andPietermartizburgpresented opportunitiestovieworiginalimagesandobservediscussionoflandscapephotography asitunfolded. 18 Conferences,suchastheLANDmeetingattheGordonInstitutefor PerformingandCreativeArtsGIPCAinCapeTownandannualpresentationsfromthe SouthAfricanVisualArtsHistorians,alsoprovidedinstrumentstoengagewithcurrent conversationsontherepresentationoflandinthevisualarts.Finally,visitstovarious institutionsthattrainSouthAfricanphotographerssuchasindependentworkshops,large 17.Newbury, DeantImages:PhotographyandapartheidSouthAfrica ,7. 18.InCapeTown,museumsandgalleriessuchastheIzikoSouthAfricanNationalGallery,Stevenson GalleryCapeTown,GoodmanGalleryCapeTown,AVAGallery,andWhatiftheWorldGallerywere particularlyimportanttothisstudy.InBloemfontein,theOliewenhuisArtMuseum,andinDurbanthe KwaZuluNatalSocietyfortheArtsKZNSAbothdisplayedworkconsideredinthisdissertation.InJohannesburg,numerousgalleriesandmuseumsshowedcontemporaryphotographyrelatedtoland,suchas: ThePhotoWorkshopGalleryattheMarketPhotographyWorkshop,StevensonGalleryJohannesburg, GoodmanGalleryJohannesburg,MuseumAfrica,WitsArtMuseum,CircaGallery,GalleryMOMO, andtheJohannesburgArtMuseum. 27

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publicuniversities,andtechnikonsoeredinsightintohowyoungartistsaretrained, where,andbywhom. 19 Thisdissertationdiscusseslandscapephotographscreatedaftertheendofapartheid in1994.Severalscholarschallengetheuseof1994asdemarcationbetweenapartheid andpost-apartheiderasinSouthAfricanvisualculture. 20 Thisstudydoesnotdispute theseclaims,butrathertakestheyearoftherstdemocraticelectionsandocialendto minorityruleasusefulparameterforconsideringartisticpracticesimpactedbytheseand otherpoliticalshifts. Thefocusonpost-apartheidimageshastwopurposes.First,thetwenty-yearperiod establishesalimitedscopeforthestudyofSouthAfricanlandscapephotography,agenre withanextensivehistoricalrecordinthecountry.Second,theadventofdemocraticrule profoundlyaectedtheimperativesandconcernsofSouthAfricanphotographers,as forartistsinanymedium.Writingin2004MichaelGodbydescribedacollectiveshift amongphotographersawayfromthepolemicsofStrugglephotographyandobserved arenewedtrustthattheviewerisabletodecideuponissueswithoutbeingledbythe nose. 21 Inthedecadefollowing1994,hesawmanyphotographersexpandtheirpractices toincludenewgenresandforms;someartists,henotes,movedfromanunderstandingof beautifulformasinherentlyopposedtothecommunicationofmeaningtoarecognition thatbeautymaybeperhapsthemosteloquentvehicletheyhave. 22 Thisperceptionis 19.Examplesofinstitutionsinclude:MarketPhotographyWorkshopJohannesburg,DurbanCentre forPhotographyDurban,VaalUniversityofTechnologyVanderbijlpark,UniversityofCapeTown,and UniversityofJohannesburg. 20.RoryBesterandKatarinaPierrehavequestionedtheideaofpost-apartheidasitrelatestothe yearsafter1994:Ratherthanconceptualizing`post-apartheid'asatemporalmoment,itisusefultoconsiderthisnotionasaseriesofintersectingspacesthatarefracturedanddisjunctiveasmuchascohesive andconnected.PierreandBester,StatingtheNation,14;seealso:PatriciaHayes,Power,secrecy, proximity:AshorthistoryofSouthAfricanphotography, Kronos 33,no.1:139-162. 21.MichaelGodby,10SouthAfricanDocumentaryPhotographers, AfricanArts 37,no.4:41. 22.Ibid. 28

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echoedbyartistssuchasphotographerDavidGoldblatt,whoremarked:Inthe1990s theangerdissipated.Apartheidwasnomore.Therewerethingstoprobeandcriticise, buttheemphasiswasdierent.Lyricismseemednotonlypermissiblebutpossible. 23 Broadlyspeaking,theendofapartheidin1994ledtoanexpansionofthemediumin SouthAfricaandspurredinvestigationsinnewareasandtopics.Third,emphasison thepost-apartheiduseoflandscapeallowsforanexaminationofthewayslandscape photographyhasabsorbedthelegaciesoftheSouthAfricandocumentarytradition. Thisdissertationutilizesartistinterviews,writings,andbiographicalinformation toinformanalysesoflandscapeimagesandthecontextoftheirproduction.Therace ofeachartistisconsideredinmypresentationoftheirwork,andeortsweremadeto includeartistsofdierentracialandethnicbackgroundsinthisstudy.Thediverseways artistsadaptlandscapephotographstoconveymultipleperspectivesformsthecore focusofthisdissertation,andwhiletheraceoftheartistinformstheseuses,thespecic impactofraceinthecreationofthevariousphotographicseriesunderdiscussionhasnot beenaddressedasakeyquestioninthisrstiterationofmyresearchoncontemporary landscapephotographyinSouthAfrica. MyanalysisofSouthAfricanlandscapeimageshasbeeninuencedbywritingsby SouthAfricanscholarsandcriticsaswellasAmericanacademics.Numerousworksby MichaelGodby,anaccomplishedarthistorianoftheItalianRenaissanceandexperton SouthAfricanphotography,informsandsupportsmanyoftheargumentsinthistext. 24 23.See:SeanO'Toole,DavidGoldblatt, Frieze ,July2,2008,accessedNovember27,2015, http://www. frieze.com/shows/review/david_goldblatt/ . 24.See,forexample:MichaelGodby,TheEvolutionofDocumentaryPhotographyinSouthAfricaas ShowninaComparisonbetweentheCarnegieInquiriesintoPoverty,in Democracy'sImages:PhotographyandVisualArtafterApartheid ,ed.Jan-ErikLundstromandKatarinaPierreUmeaUniversitet: Bildmuseet,1998,34-7;MichaelGodbyandCherrylWalker, TheLieoftheLand:representationsofthe SouthAfricanlandscape CapeTown:Iziko,2010;andMichaelGodby,Forward,EverForward:areadingofRobertHarris,PhotographicAlbumofSouthAfricanScenery,PortElizabeth,c.1880, Social Dynamics 40,no.1:85-105. 29

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ThelyricalwritingofSeanO'Toole,aproliccriticandimportantanalyticalvoicein thepublicconversationsurroundingSouthAfricanphotographyalsoinuencedthis dissertation. 25 Finally,scholarshiponlandscapephotographybyarthistorianDeborah Bright,andthenarrativeanalyticalstyleofAnthonyW.Lee,respectivelyimpactedthe treatmentoflandscapeandthedesignofthestudy. 26 Allaspectsofthisresearchareshapedinsomepartbymyownexperienceasa photographerwhoworksinbothsocialdocumentaryandlandscapegenres.Anthropologist MichaelJacksonarguesthatourunderstandingofotherscanonlyproceedfromwithin ourownexperienceandthisexperienceinvolvesourpersonalitiesandhistoriesasmuch asoureldresearch. 27 AsapracticingartistIgiveparticularweighttoartistvoices, andtheroleoftechnologyinshapingartisticdecision-makingovercomposition,medium, andform.InaturallyinterpretthepracticesandviewsofthephotographersIinterview inrelationtomyownexperienceswiththemedium.ThebackgroundIbringtothis researchbothenhancesandqualiesmyinterpretationofthetopic,andtheinuenceof mypersonalexperiencemustbeacknowledged. Finally,itisalsoimportanttonotethatduringmyresearchperiodsItraveled extensivelythroughoutSouthAfricaandimmersedmyselfintheenvironmentsthe photographersinthisstudyrepresent.Idrovethrougheveryprovince,visitednearly allSouthAfricanecosystems,stayedatisolatedKaroosheepfarmsandJohannesburg 25.See,forexample:SeanO'Toole, TheAfterlifeofAfricanstudiophotography ,November28,2011,accessedOctober4,2015, http://africasacountry.com/2011/11/the-afterlife-of-african-studio-photography/ ;and ElsBarentsandSeanO'Toole, Apartheid&after Amsterdam:HuisMarseille,MuseumvoorFotograe, 2014. 26.See:DeborahBright,OfMotherNatureandMarlboroMen:Aninquiryintotheculturalmeanings oflandscapephotography,in TheContestofMeaning ,ed.RichardBoltonCambridge,MA:MITPress, 1992,125;AnthonyWLee, AShoemaker'sStory:BeingChieyaboutFrenchCanadianImmigrants, EnterprisingPhotographers,RascalYankees,andChineseCobblersinaNineteenth-CenturyFactoryTown Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,2008. 27.MichaelJackson, PathsTowardaClearingRadicalEmpiricismandEthnographicInquiry Bloomington,IN:IndianaUniversityPress,1989,17. 30

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high-rises,andphotographedwhereverIwent.Myinterpretationandexperienceofthe SouthAfricanlandscapeisundeniablyshapedbymyidentityasawhite,Americanfemale, aviewpointthatallowsmetolookatthelandinwaysdierentfromthephotographers Istudy.Nevertheless,theknowledgeofSouthAfricanlandscapesandpeopleIgained throughhoursofdriving,distancerunning,andindependentexplorationinformmy understandingoftheworkofSouthAfricanlandscapephotographers.SouthAfricais abreathtakingcountry,andIidentifywiththechallengeinherentinrepresentingthe beautyofthelandwhilesimultaneouslyacknowledgingtheviolenthistoryplayedouton itssurface. 1.3MethodsofLandscapePhotography Theprocessofcreatinglandscapeimagesechoesthatofotherphotographicgenres, butoftenrequireslargerequipment,expensivelm,andsignicanttimeinvestment foreachexposure.Thoughgeneralizations,manyattributesbroadlyassociatedwith thepracticeoflandscapephotographyhavesimilaritywiththoseofthephotographers underconsiderationinthisdissertation.Forexample,inordertorecreatedetailedviews ofagivenenvironmentmanylandscapephotographersuselarge-formatormedium formatcameras, 28 lensesthatcanproduceextensivedepthsofeld 29 andlarge,lowISOnegatives; 30 theyoftentravelwithmoreequipmentthanpeerswhoworkinother 28.Thetermlargeformatreferencesacamerathatworkswith4x5negativesandlarger.Mediumformatcameras,suchasaHasselblad,referencemachinesthatusenegativesbetween6cmx4.5cmand 6cmx9cmindimensionlargeformatlmsaredescribedininchesandmediumandsmallformatlms aredenotedincentimeters.Thoughnottermedassuch,asmallformatcamerauses35mmnegatives. Mediumformatandsmallercamerasuserolllm,whilelargeformatcamerasuselmholders,which containnegativesfortwoexposuresoneoneachsideoftheholder. 29.Thetermdepthofeldreferencestheamountoftheimagethatisinfocusandiscontrolledby adjustingthesizeofthelensopeningaperture.Animagewithashallowdepthofeldwillhaveonly asmallproportionofthesubjectinfocus,whileanextensivedepthofeldwillshowalmostallofa subjectinfocus. 30.TheISOinternationalstandardsorganizationratingofagivenlmreferencesitssensitivityto light.ThelowertheISOrating,thesmallerthesizeofthesilverhalidessuspendedinthelmsurface. Slowlmsproducephotographsthatenlargeeasilywhileretainingresolution.Slow,low-ISOlmsrequire 31

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genres,producefewerimages,andplanextensivelybeforecreatinganyexposure. 31 Thoughimmobile,landscapescontinuallyshiftinresponsetoweatherconditions;and determininganappropriatecoalescenceofformandsubjectdrawsuponacombinationof skill,experience,anddesign.Further,apartfromdierencesinequipment,thepractice oflandscapephotographyalsodepartsfromotherphotographicformsandgenresina notableway:landscapephotographerstypicallyworkalone,andwithnon-humansubjects. Theopportunitytophotographoutside,byoneself,andofteninnewplacesrepresentsa keyattractionformanylandscapephotographers. TheoristssuchasW.J.T.Mitchellarguethatmethodsandaco-evolutionwith colonialistregimessetlandscapephotographyapartfromothergenres.Mitchellfamously assertsthatlandscapephotographyshouldbethoughtofasaverb,notasanoun,and thatlandscapephotographershavegreatpowertoassertacollectiveviewofagivenspace. Hearguesinhis1994text, LandscapeandPower ,thatscholarsneedtothinkoflandscape imagesnotasanobjecttobeseenoratexttoberead,butasaprocessbywhichsocial andsubjectiveidentitiesareformed. 32 Mitchellalsocomparesglobal,historicalpeaks inlandscapediscourseandproductionandobservesthattheyoftencoincidewithperiods morelighttoexposethesmallersilverhalidesurfacessuspendedinthelmemulsions.Morelightreaches thelmwhentheaperturelensopeningisopenwiderand/orisleftopenforalongerperiodoftime. Yet,thelongerthelensapertureisleftopen,thegreatertheriskofshakingthecameraandblurringthe image.Forthisreason,photographerswhoworkwithlargeformatcameraandlowISOlmsalmost alwaysworkwithatripod. 31.Manylarge-formatphotographersworkattheirsitesforlongperiodsbeforecreatinganyimagesdue tothelimitednumberofexposuresintheirlmholderstwoineachholderandhighcostoflmand processingchemistry.Theymakephotographswithdigitalcameras,walkextensivelytoassessthebest viewpoints,andwaitforlightingconditionstobeperfect.Landscapephotographerscarefullyselectthe momenttheycapturewiththeircamerasandusesimilarstrategiestophotographersworkinginothergenres.HenriCartierBressonfamouslydescribedthedecisivemomentthataphotographerdiscernsthrough theirviewnder;heelaboratesfurtheronthisconceptinhismonographofthesamename:Tome,photographyisthesimultaneousrecognitioninafractionofasecond,ofthesignicanceofaneventaswell asofapreciseorganizationofformswhichgivethateventproperexpression.HenriCartier-Bresson, The decisivemoment NewYork:Simon/Schuster,1952,42. 32.W.J.T.Mitchell, Landscapeandpower Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1994,1. 32

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ofimperialpower. 33 RobGiblettsimilarlyobservesacorrelationbetweenlandscape photographyandtheagendasorcolonialismandsettlersocieties: Photographyaroseintheheydaynotonlyoftheassertionofindividualism exempliedinthe cartedevisite andportraituremoregenerallyandof individualrightsandpropertyillustratedinlandscapepainting...butalsoof theexpansionofimperialismdepictedinphotographsofcolonizedpeopleand places.Photographyisanopticaltechnologyofempire.Landscaperenders thelandsettleable.Thecolonialenterprise,settlersocietiesandlandscape photographyaremutuallyreinforcing. 34 InSouthAfrica,problematicassociationswithcolonialismcontinuetomarktheuseof landscapeasasubjectinphotography.Assettlersociety,thecountrywashighlyimpacted bytheuseofphotographytoclassifypeople,places,andthespreadofcolonialindustries suchasmineralresourceextractioninthenineteenthandearlytwentiethcenturies. 35 Whereasotherphotographicgenressuchasportraitureonceusedtoadvanceimperialist 33.Forexample,MitchellnotesthatarichlandscapetraditionourishedinChinauntiltheeighteenth centuryastheirpoliticalinuencedeclinedandChinabecameitselftheobjectofEnglishfascinationand appropriationatthemomentwhenEnglandwasbeginningtoexperienceitselfasanimperialpower.Accordingly,atthistimetheEnglishlandscapetraditionbeganitsascendancy.Mitchellasksifitispossible thatlandscapeimagesareintegrallyconnectedwithimperialism,tothedegreethatthegenrecannotbe separatedfromtheassociation.See:Mitchell, Landscapeandpower ,9. 34.RodneyJamesGiblettandJuhaPenttiTolonen, PhotographyandLandscape Bristol:Intellect, 2012,16. 35.See,forexample:Godby,Forward,EverForward:areadingofRobertHarris,PhotographicAlbum ofSouthAfricanScenery,PortElizabeth,c.1880,85-105;Ryan, Picturingempire:Photography andthevisualizationoftheBritishEmpire ;PaulLandauandDeborahKaspin, Imagesandempires:visualityincolonialandpostcolonialAfrica Berkeley,Calif.:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,2003,320-336; DavidKillingrayandAndrewRoberts,AnOutlineHistoryofPhotographyinAfricatoca.1940, HistoryinAfrica 16:197-208;andA.D.Bensusan, Silverimages:HistoryofphotographyinAfrica [in English]CapeTown:H.Timmins,1966. 33

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agendas 36 havebeenappropriatedtoasserttheagencyofAfricanpeople, 37 landscape hasnotundergonesuchatransition.SouthAfricanartistswhoengagewithlandscape photographymustcontendwiththeperceptionthatlandscapeimagesaremadeby,for, andinsupportofwhitepeopleofEuropeandescent,butbyexperimentingwithformats, tools,andpresentationsoflandscapes,photographersareexpandingtheconversation surroundinglandscapeimageryanditsapplication. 1.4DenitionofTerms 1.4.1Land Thetermlandhasbothliteralandgurativemeanings.Landdenotestheportionof theearth'ssurfacenotcoveredbywater;ithasobservablephysicalproperties,andcanbe directlyexperienced. 38 Land,however,isnotaxedentity;itischaracterizedbyconstant changeinresponsetobioticandabioticfactors. 39 Changesintheshapeandnatureof 36.See,forexample:AnneMaxwell, Colonialphotographyandexhibitions:representationsofthe"native"andthemakingofEuropeanidentities London:LeicesterUniversityPress,1999;MichaelGodby, AlfredMartinDuggan-Cronin'sphotographsfortheBantutribesofSouthAfrica-1954:theconstructionofanambiguousidyll, Kronos 36,no.1:54-83;WaltherCollectionandOkwuiEnwezor, Eventsoftheself:portraitureandsocialidentity [inEnglishwithGermantranslation]Gottingen:Steidl, 2010;andTamarGarb, Distanceanddesire:encounterswiththeAfricanarchive Gottingen,Germany: Steidl,2013. 37.Inparticular,theworkofphotographerssuchasMalickSidibeandSeydouKetaexemplifytheuse ofportraituretoportrayAfricansubjectsasmodern,dynamic,andincontroloftheirownrepresentation. ForadiscussionoftheworkoftheseartistsandtheirroleindevelopingcontemporaryAfricanphotographysee:JenniferBajorek,DislocatingFreedom:ThePhotographicPortraitureofSeydouKeta, CriticalInterventions 2,nos.3-4:100-113;OkwuiEnwezorandChinuaAchebe, TheShortCentury:IndependenceandliberationmovementsinAfrica,1945-1994 Munich:Prestel,2001;andElizabeth Bigham,IssuesofauthorshipintheportraitphotographsofSeydouKeita, AfricanArts 32,no.1: 56-67. 38.Anypropertiesthataremeasurablearephysicalproperties,suchas:mass,volume,area,density, opacity,andsolubility. 39.Bioticfactorsarelivingcomponentsofanecosystem,suchasanimalsandotherorganisms,whereas abioticfactorsreferencenon-livingphysicalandchemicalelementswithinanecosystem,suchaswater,air, minerals,andsoil. 34

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landareimportantbecausetheydirectlyaectresidentpopulations. 40 InSouthAfrica, JenniferBeningeldargues,landisboththesoilandthesensoryexperienceofnature, whichisexperiencedthroughtouch,sight,andthesmellofindividualswhohaveinvested spiritualmeaning,andpersonalandnationalidentity,intotheirrelationshipwithland. 41 Further,shewritesthatlandrepresentsthemedium,thebase,ofthepoliticsofracial divisionandoftheconictandviolencethatwasaconsequenceofpoliticalpolicies. 42 Beningeld'sinterpretationhighlightstheimportanceoflandasacarrierofmeaning forindividual,aviewthatrecallsthewordsofAmericannaturalistAldoLeopold,who observed:Tochangeideasaboutwhatlandisforistochangeideasaboutwhatanything isfor. 43 Tensionbetweenliteralandgurativeinterpretationsoflandconditionnearlyall photographicrepresentationofenvironmentsinSouthAfrica.Withinthespaceofthe image,photographersattendtoboththephysicallandscapebeforethecameraandthe unseen,metaphysicaldimensionsofagivenarea.Thisdissertationseekstoacknowledge thewaysmultiplewayslandcreatesmeaningforphotographersandviewers,andhighlight thewaysphotographersnavigatebetweenliteralandsubjectiveinterpretationsofland. 40.TimmHoman,forexample,arguesthatunderstandingchangesinlanduseandcoverasaresultof political,social,andculturalshiftsinSouthAfricaiscriticaltoestablishingastablesocietyandachieving successfullandreform.See:MTimmHoman,ChangingPatternsofRuralLandUseandLandCover inSouthAfricaandtheirImplicationsforLandReform, JournalofSouthernAfricanStudies 40,no.4 :707;andMTimmHomanandSimonTodd,AnationalreviewoflanddegradationinSouth Africa:theinuenceofbiophysicalandsocio-economicfactors, JournalofSouthernAfricanStudies 26, no.4:7438. 41.JenniferBeningeld, TheFrightenedLand:Land,landscapeandpoliticsinSouthAfricainthetwentiethcentury London;NewYork:Routledge,2006,1. 42.Ibid. 43.AldoLeopold,TheStateoftheProfession,in TheRiveroftheMotherofGodandotheressaysby AldoLeopold ,ed.SusanFladerandJ.B.CallicottMadison,Wis:UnivofWisconsinPress,1992,280. 35

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1.4.2Landscape Incontrasttoland,thetermlandscapeasawordandconcepthasaculturally specicmeaningthatderivesrstfromEuropeansources. 44 Thewordlandscapederives fromtheGermanword landschaft ,andDutchword landschap Anglicizedas landskip and wasadoptedintotheEnglishlanguageinthesixteenthcenturyasatechnicaltermused bypainters. 45 EricHirschwrites:whatcametobeseenasalandscapewasrecognizedas suchbecauseitremindedtheviewerofapaintedlandscape,oftenofEuropeanorigin. 46 Ineighteenth-centuryEngland,landscapepaintingspresentedanidealorimagined world,whichHirschnoteswas,linkedtotheperceptionofcountrysidesceneryand itssubsequentimprovement. 4748 Earlylandscapeart,Hirschargues,wasbuilton arelationshipbetweenagurativeforegroundandbackgroundofsociallifeinwhich 44.ForadiscussionoftheoriginofthetermlandscapeinEurope,see:MalcolmAndrews, Landscapeand Westernart Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,1999;Foradiscussionoftheearliestexamplesoflandscapeart,see:LarrySilver, Peasantscenesandlandscapes:theriseofpictorialgenresintheAntwerpart market Philadelphia:UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress,2006;Cosgrove, Socialformationandsymbolic landscape ,249-268. 45.Forathoroughdiscussionofthetermlandscapeanditsevolutionasadiscretegenre,see:Kenneth Clark, Landscapeintoart NewYork:Harper&Row,1976;Foracriticalexaminationoftherootsof thetermlandscapeinrelationtoprocessesofculturalmodernization,see:DenisCosgrove,Modernity, communityandthelandscapeidea, JournalofMaterialCulture 11,nos.1-2:49. 46.EricHirschandMichaelO'Hanlon, Theanthropologyoflandscape:perspectivesonplaceandspace Oxford:ClarendonPress,1995,2. 47.Ibid. 48.Duringthenineteenthcentury,landscapeswerefurtherpopularizedinEnglandandEurope,andtook holdasanantidotefortheimpactsofindustrialization.TheriseofRomanticismfurtheredthesedevelopmentsandinpainting,ledtoaninterpretationofamythical,spiritualdimensionintoenvironmental scenes,characterizedbyworkssuchasCasperDavidFriedrich's WandererAbovetheSea .Foradiscussion ofRomanticismandEuropeanlandscapepainting,see:CharlesRosenandHenriZerner, Romanticism andRealism:themythologyofnineteenth-centuryart NewYork:VikingPress,1984;Duringthenineteenthcentury,artistsfurtherexploredthesubjectoflandscapethroughthevisualrhetoricofthesublime andpicturesque.InthesublimepaintingsofartistssuchasJ.W.MTurner,naturewastransformedinto aboundlessforcethatcouldoverwhelm,awe,andbringterrortoviewers.See:AndrewWilton, Turner andthesublime Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1981;Inthevisuallanguageofthepicturesque, landscapesshowedanaturebothorderedandframedtoinvitetheviewer,asexempliedintheworksof artistssuchasJohnConstable.See:MalcolmAndrews, TheSearchforthepicturesque:LandscapeaestheticsandtourisminBritain,1760-1800 Stanford,Calif.:StanfordUniversityPress,1989. 36

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the"waywearenow"iscontrastedagainstanideal,orthe"waywemightbe." 49 DenisCosgrovewritesthatlandscapesrepresentawayofseeingawayinwhichsome Europeanshaverepresentedtothemselvesandtootherstheworldaboutthemandtheir relationshipswithit,andthroughwhichtheyhavecommentedonsocialrelations. 50 Manyscholarsarguethatlandscapeimagesconcealasmuchastheyrevealwith respecttosocialdynamics.KennethOlwigsaysthatlandscapeisatermloadedwith implicitmeaning,tothepointthatitbecomesintegraltoanongoing'hidden'discourse, underwritingthelegitimacyofchosewhoexercisepowerinsociety. 51 Moreover,he observesthatthewordslikelandscapetendtobeusedasiftheirmeaningwereunambiguousandGodgiven,sothatsuchterms'naturalis[e]'theparticularconceptionwhich remainshiddenbehindagivenusage. 52 SharonZukinobservesanimbalanceinrelations withrespecttolandscapes:landscaperepresentsthearchitectureofsocialclass,gender, andracerelationsimposedbypowerfulinstitutions...powerfulinstitutionshaveapreeminentcapacitytoimposetheirviewonthelandscapeweakening,reshaping,anddisplacing theviewfromthevernacular. 53 49.See:HirschandO'Hanlon, Theanthropologyoflandscape:perspectivesonplaceandspace ,3;A viewlandscapeartasanexpressionofanidealembracedbysocietypertainstothehistoryoflandscape photographyaswell.Earlylandscapephotographersadoptedpictorialstrategiesfrompainting,asthey existedinEuropeanartacademies.LizWellsarguesthattherearetwokeylinesofinheritancewithin thegenre:straightphotographs,topographicalinintent,onthewholeechoingthecompositionoftheclassiclandscapepainting,and...morepictorialimagesconstructedinaccordancewithapreconceivedidea, beitpoetic,mythologicalorcriticalinimport.LizWells, Photography:acriticalintroduction London: Routledge,2015,305. 50.Cosgrove, Socialformationandsymboliclandscape ,xiv. 51.KennethOlwigandBarbaraBender,Sexualcosmology:nationandlandscapeattheconceptual intersticesofnatureandculture,or:whatdoeslandscapereallymean,in Landscape:PoliticsandPerspectives ,ed.BarbaraBenderNewYork:Bloomsbury,1993,307. 52.Ibid. 53.Sharon.Zukin, Landscapesofpower:fromDetroittoDisneyWorld Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,2011,16. 37

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TheviewoflandscapearticulatedbyOlwigandZukinisevidentinSouthAfrica, whereEuropeansettlersandtheirdescendantsusedlandscapeimagestoasserttheir viewsandcontrolofnewterritory.RoryBesterassertsexplorationandphotographywere andaretwocomplementarypracticeswhichattemptedtodis/re-locatethephysicaland visualspacesofAfrica,andtheirconjoiningwaseectivelyusedtodelineateapoliticsof inclusionandexclusion. 54 Forexample,photographerssuchasRobertHarrisextensively documentedtheSouthAfricanlandscapeandusedEuropeanpictorialconventionsto portrayalandscapesubduedsubduedtothewantsandneedsofthesettlerpopulation thatwouldbludgeonitswaythroughmountainpasses,ordivertthecourseofriversto facilitatecommerce. 55 TheworkofSouthAfricanartistJ.H.Pierneefsimilarlyinterprets theSouthAfricanlandscapethroughEuropeanmodesthatmaskasocialreality:his viewsofmountains,sea,andindustryareframedunderneathbillowingclouds,bathed indramaticlight,andpositionedtoprivilegeasingleviewer.Thismodeoflandscape representationbyPierneefintriguedandinspiredcontemporaryphotographersasapoint ofengagementanddeparture,asdescribedinchapterthree. Thoughthegenreoflandscapedoesconnoteaspecic,constructed,andculturally mediatedmeansofviewingthenaturalenvironment,scholarsfromdisciplinessuch asanthropologyandgeographyadvocateforabroaderconceptualizationoftheterm landscape.Manyscholarspointoutthatthedenitionoflandscapeasarticulatedby Cosgroveandothersasawayofseeingprojectedontolandandhavingitsowntechniques andcompositionalformsislimitedinitsuse.EricHirschsuggeststhatthisviewof landscapeisoverlystatic,andtakesonepoleofexperienceintrinsictolandscapethe 54.RoryBester,ThepoliticsofthephotographicencounterincolonialsouthernAfrica,in Thomas Baines:AnArtistintheServiceofScienceinSouthernAfrica ,ed.MichaelStevensonLondon:Christie's, 1999,137. 55.Godby,Forward,EverForward:areadingofRobertHarris,PhotographicAlbumofSouthAfrican Scenery,PortElizabeth,c.1880,85. 38

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representationalandgeneralizesthisexperienceintolandscape toutcourt .Hirsch suggeststhatscholarsanalyzelandscapesasculturalprocesses,asentitiesthatare continuouslyevolvinginresponsetosocial,biological,andpoliticalfactors.DonMitchell furtherassertsthatthelandscapeisalwaysinastateofbecoming:itisneverentirely stable.Landscape,hewrites,isbestunderstoodasakindofproduced,lived,and representedspaceconstructedoutofthestruggles,compromises,andtemporarilysettled relationsofcompetingandcooperatingsocialactors:itisbothathingorsuiteof things...andasocialprocess,atoncesolidlymaterialandeverchanging. 56 Barbara Benderalsoarguesforamoreuidconceptionoflandscape: Thelandscapeisneverinert,peopleengagewithit,re-workit,appropriateand contestit.Itispartofthewayinwhichidentitiesarecreatedanddisputed, whetherasindividual,group,ornationstate.Operatingthereforeatthe junctureofhistoryandpolitics,socialrelationsandculturalperceptions, landscapehastobe'aconceptofhightension'...Italsohastobeanareaof studythatblowsaparttheconventionalboundariesbetweenthedisciplines. 57 Benderandothersadvocateforanadaptiveinterpretationofthetermandconceptof landscape,andurgethatlandscapesbeconsideredthroughmultipledisciplinesandin relationtorespectivesocialandculturalcontexts. Thisdissertationadoptsadenitionoflandscapeasadynamic,culturalprocess. Thewaysinwhichthephotographersitexploresuselandscapetoadvancesocialcritique andpersonalreectionsbelietheviewoflandscapeasastaticprojectionofunclear motivationsontoagivenenvironmentthatisusedtoevaluatecolonial-eraimages.Douglas Nickelarguesthatarthistoriansmustnowacknowledgethatwhatgetsclassiedas landscapewillnotfollowasetofrulesorconventionsaboutsubjectmatterorapproach, butmustcontinuallyevolve,becausetheprojectionswemakecontinuallyincorporate, 56.DonMitchell, Thelieoftheland:migrantworkersandtheCalifornialandscape Minneapolis:Univ. ofMinnesotaPress,1996,30. 57.BarbaraBender, Landscape:Politicsandperspectives Providence:Berg,1993,3. 39

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modify,andrejectpreviousrulesandconventionstoproducenewones. 58 Socio-political conditionsinpost-apartheidSouthAfricaestablishaspecicsettinginwhichlandscapes areproducedandexamined.Adenitionoflandscapeappliedtotheseimagesmustbe responsivetotheseconditions. 1.4.3Apartheid Acomprehensiveexaminationofthetermapartheidandthehistoricaleraitdenotes isbeyondthescopeofthisdissertation.Nevertheless,abriefdescriptionofkeypolicies relatedtotheoccupationandownershipoflandsuchastheGroupAreasActof1950and theBantuAuthoritiesActof1951provideimportantcontexttoanydiscussionoflandand landrepresentationinSouthAfricanphotography. ThetermapartheidisanAfrikaanswordthatsigniesthestateofbeingapart.It describesasystemofracialsegregationinstitutedthroughtheSouthAfricanNational Party,whichcontrolledthegovernmentinSouthAfricafrom1948until1994.Leonard Thompsonwritesthattherewerefourideasatthecoreoftheapartheidsystem.First, thepopulationconsistedoffourdistinctracialgroupsthateachhadtheirowninherent culture:African,Coloured,WhiteandIndiancitizens. 59 Second,Whitepeopleshould controlthegovernmentbecausetheywerethemostcivilized.Third,whiteinterestswere superiortothoseoftheotherracialgroups,andfourth,thewhiteracialgrouprepresented asinglenation. 60 ThelegislationenactedaftertheNationalPartycametopowerrealized andgaveliteralshapetotheseideas. 58.DouglasR.Nickel,DeborahBright,andJanHoward, Americainview:landscapephotography1865 tonow Providence:MuseumofArt,RhodeIslandSchoolofDesign,2012,28. 59.Thompson, AhistoryofSouthAfrica ,190.TheIndianandColouredgroupshadmultiplesubclassications.TheColouredgroupincludedpeopleidentiedashavingmixeddescent,andwhohad Khoisan,Malay,andBantuancestry.Underapartheidracialclassicationwasbasedonappearance. 60.Ibid.,190. 40

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Priorto1948,however,racialsegregationwaswidelypracticedandsanctionedby law,butnewpoliciesenactedbytheNationalPartyextendedandfurthertightenedthese restrictions.Legislativeactsintroducedintheearly1950slimitedaccesstoandownership oflandbasedonrace.TheGroupAreasActof1950establishedseparateresidential andbusinesssectorsinurbanareasformembersofeachracialgroup.Theseareaswere createdfortheexclusiveownershipandoccupationofadesignatedgroup. 61 Thisact extendedtheprovisionsandintentofearliersegregationistpoliciesputinplacebefore 1948,includingtheHousingActof1920,NativesUrbanAreasActof1923,andthe NativesUrbanAreasConsolidationActof1945. 62 Theestablishmentofdesignatedresidentialandbusinesszonesinurbanareasfor individualracialgroupsresultedinforcedremovalandrelocationofthousandsofcitizens. OneofthemorenotoriousexampleswasSophiatown,anareainJohannesburgwhere AfricansownedlandpriortothepassingoftheUrbanAreasActin1932,whichforbade thepurchaseoflandbyAfricancitizes.UndertheGroupAreasAct,Sophiatownwas rezonedasawhitearea,andblackSouthAfricansweremovedtwelvemilesfromthe citycentertoMeadowlands.TherezoningofDistrictSixinCapeTownresultedinthe forcedremovalofColouredcitizenswhohadlivedintheareasincetheearlynineteenth century. 63 FollowinginstallationoftheGroupAreasActtheapartheidgovernmentintroduced theBantuAuthoritiesActof1951,whichwasusedtorestructuretheadministrationof theAfricanpopulation.ThegovernmentremovedtheNativesRepresentativeCouncilan ocially-recognized,nation-wideAfricaninstitutionandgroupedreservesestablishedby 61.A.J.Christopher, TheAtlasofApartheid London:Routledge,1995,105. 62.See:AlanMabin,Comprehensivesegregation:theoriginsoftheGroupAreasActanditsplanning apparatuses, JournalofSouthernAfricanStudies 18,no.2:405. 63.Thompson, AhistoryofSouthAfrica ,194. 41

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theBritishbeforethecreationoftheSouthAfricanUnionin1910intoeightterritories latertenknownashomelands,whichwereadministeredbyBlackethnicgovernments underthesupervisionofwhites. 64 IneachHomeland,Thompsonwrites,anAfrican `nation'wasto`developalongitsownlines,'withalltherightsthatweredenieditin therestofthecountry. 65 AftertheestablishmentoftheHomelands,theapartheid governmentworkedtomoveAfricanpopulationsintotheseareas,andinsomecases, establishednewtownshipsalongsidemajorurbancenterstoaccommodateadditional people;theseareasweretreatedasextensionsofHomelands. 66 Duringthistime,the apartheidgovernmentalsoworkedtoeliminateBlackSpotsinthecountryside,aterm usedtodescribeareasoflandownedoroccupiedbyAfricansinwhitedesignatedareas. TheforcedremovalandrelocationofcitizensinSouthAfricaundertheselegislative programsreshapedtheSouthAfricanlandscapeandleftaspatiallegacythatcontinues tohindercurrenteortstoreformtheeectsofapartheidrule.LeonardThompson notesthatmorethanthreeandahalfmillionpeopleareestimatedtohavebeenremoved between1960and1983,andthepercentageofBlackSouthAfricanslivinginHomeland areasincreasedfrom39.7percentin1950to69percentby1980.Atthistime,heobserves, thepopulationdensityreached23peoplepersquaremileintheHomelands,comparedto 9peoplepersquaremileintherestofthecountry.Lackofresources,employment,and poorconditionsledmanytomigratetocitiesinsearchofemployment.Atthetimeofthe 2001,census43%ofSouthAfricanscontinuetoliveintheformerhomelandareas.Michael 64.ThehomelandsweredesignedforspecicethnicgroupsinSouthAfrica.Theapartheidgovernmentestablishedtenhomelandareas.FourofthetenwereeventuallygivensomeformofindependenceTranskei,Bophuthatswana,VendaandCiskeiandtheremainingsixhadlimitedself-rule: KwaZulu,Lebowa,Gazankulu,KaNgwane,KwaNdebeleandQwaQwa.Allofthehomelandareaswere reincorporatedintoSouthAfricainApril1994.See:WilliamBeinart, Twentieth-centurySouthAfrica Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,2001,201-227. 65.Thompson, AhistoryofSouthAfrica ,191. 66.Ibid.,193.OneexampleofthesenewtownshipsadjacenttometropolitanareasisUmlazi,whichis proximatetoDurban. 42

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NobleandGemmaWrightobservethattheseareasareusuallydescribedasremoteand `deeprural'...becausetheycontainveryfewtownsandnocities,and,asmuchasthere isemployment,thistendstobesubsistenceagricultureresultingin`ahighproportion[of thehomelandpopulation]livinginremotebutdenselysettledruralcommunities' 67 These guresdemonstratethecontinuedlegacyofcolonialandapartheid-erapoliciesinSouth Africaandindicatethechallengeofaddressingthespatiallegaciesthatcontinuetolimit theeconomicmobilityofblackSouthAfricans. Thisbriefdiscussionofkeyapartheidpoliciesthatimpactedthesettlement,movement,andaccesstolandinSouthAfricaprovideanimportantcontextforthediscussion oftherepresentationoflandscapebyphotographers.ThephotographersunderconsiderationeachengagewiththevisuallegaciesofapartheidintheSouthAfricanlandscape,and thehistoryofdispossessionguresprominentlyinthehostofissuestheyconfrontwhen depictingspacesandenvironmentsinapost-apartheidsetting. 1.5ReviewofRelevantLiterature ThisresearchengagesthescholarlydiscourseonAfricanphotography,contributesto currentscholarshiponcontemporaryartinSouthAfrica,addsacomprehensivetreatment oflatetwentiethandearlytwenty-rstcenturyphotographytotheliteratureonlandscape artinSouthAfrica,andoersanart-basedexaminationofhumanrelationstoland andlandscape.ThissectionwillreviewrelevantliteraturerelatedthehistoryofAfrican photography,thehistoryofphotographyinSouthAfrica,andthehistorylandscapeart. 67.MichaelNobleandGemmaWright,Usingindicatorsofmultipledeprivationtodemonstratethe spatiallegacyofapartheidinSouthAfrica, SocialIindicatorsResearch 112,no.1:188. 43

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1.5.1HistoryofAfricanPhotography PhotographyarrivedinWestandCentralAfricasoonaftertheintroductionofthe daguerreotypein1839,andreachedSouthAfricain1846. 68 ErinHaneyobservesthat ithaslongbeenassumedthatnineteenth-centuryphotographersinAfricawereforeign, buteventheearliesteortswerenotsimpleone-waytransmissionsoftechnologiesand processesfromEurope. 69 Newarchivesanddocumentaryevidencehaverevealedearly Africanengagementswiththemedium,andsupporttheexpansionofliteratureonthe workofnineteenth-centuryAfricanphotographers. 70 TheearlystudyofAfricanphotographywaslargelyshapedbytheeortsofanthropologistsandhistorians.ThesescholarslookedathowphotographytwithinAfrican culturaltraditionsandsoughttounderstandwhatmadeAfricanphotographydierent fromotherglobalexpressionsofthemedium.Theirresearchembodiedanalternative viewofthedevelopmentofphotography,onedescribedbyChristopherPinneyasamove awayfromthenotionthatphotographichistoryisbestseenastheexplosionofaWestern technologywhosepracticehasbeenmoldedbysingularindividuals,towardsaradically dierentaccountofagloballydisseminatedandlocallyappropriatedmedium. 71 Studies byLiamBuckley,HeikeBehrend,MarilynHoulberg,andStephenSprague,forexample, 68.See:ErinHaney, PhotographyandAfrica London:ReaktionBooks,2010;JurgSchneider,TheTopographyoftheEarlyHistoryofAfricanPhotography, HistoryofPhotography 34,no.2:134; Hayes,Power,secrecy,proximity:AshorthistoryofSouthAfricanphotography. 69.Haney, PhotographyandAfrica ,14. 70.See,forexample:ErinHaneyandJurgSchneider,BeyondtheAfricanArchiveParadigm, VisualAnthropology 27,no.4:307;ChristopherA.MortonandDarrenNewbury, TheAfrican photographicarchive:researchandcuratorialstrategies London:BloomsburyAcademic,2015. 71.ChristopherPinneyandNicolasPeterson, Photography'sotherhistories Durham:DukeUniversity Press,2003,1. 44

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identiedwaysinwhichphotographywaslocallyadaptedbyAfricanartists,creating accountsofthediversityofpracticeswithinthecontinent. 72 Publicationsbythesescholarsfocusonportraiture,agenrethathasbeenaprimary focusforarthistorianswhoresearchAfricanphotography.JohnPeerandElisabeth CameronobservetheprevalenceofscholarshiponAfricanportraitureinexaminations ofAfricanphotography,andsuggestthatmanyarthistoriansuseportraituretoexplore issuesrelatedtotheagencyandidentityofAfricansubjects.PortraitureinAfrica,they posit,goesbeyondsimplememorialillustrationofhistoricpersons,andhasrepeatedly andcontinuallyintothepresentbeenasiteforperformativeinterventions,reinscriptions ofmeaningandthelayeringofothernon-photographicmedia. 73 Scholarswhoexamine Africanportraitphotographyareengagedinexploringnegotiationsofsubjectivitybetween photographerandsitter,andseektoexplicatehowAfricansubjectsandphotographers manipulatetheirrepresentation. 74 Thesestudiesinparticular,thosethatexamine 72.ForexamplesofHeikeBehrend'sresearchineastAfrica,see:HeikeBehrend,'Iamlikeamoviestar inmystreet;'PhotographicSelf-creationinPostcolonialKenya,in PostcolonialsubjectivitiesinAfrica , ed.RichardP.WerbnerandHeikeBehrendLondon;NewYork:ZedBooks,2002,44;TobiasWendl andHeikeBehrend, Snapmeone!:StudiofotografeninAfrika [inGerman]Munchen;NewYork:Prestel, 1998;ForexamplesofLiamBuckley'sresearchonGambianphotography,see:LiamBuckley,Selfand accessoryinGambianstudiophotography, VisualAnthropologyReview 16,no.2:71;Liam Buckley,StudiophotographyandtheaestheticsofcitizenshipinTheGambia,WestAfrica,in Sensibleobjects:Colonialism,museumsandmaterialculture ,ed.ElizabethEdwards,ChrisGosden,andRuth PhillipsOxford:Berg,2006,61;ForStephenSprague'sinuentialresearchandwritingonYoruba portraiture,see:StephenFSprague,Yorubaphotography:howtheYorubaseethemselves, AfricanArts 12,no.1:52;Finally,forMarilynHoulberg'sresearchonNigerianportraiture,see:Marilyn Houlberg,FeedYourEyes:NigerianandHaitianStudioPhotography, PhotographicInsight 1,nos.2-3 :3. 73.JohnPeerandElisabethL.Cameron, PortraitureandphotographyinAfrica Bloomington,IN: IndianaUniversityPress,2013,7. 74.InvestigationsofAfricanportraiturearenumerousandacomprehensiveaccountisbeyondthescope ofthisdissertation.Thefollowingcitationsoeranoverviewofcriticalscholarshiponthetopic.Fora discussionoftheusestrategicuseofportraitphotographyduringthelatenineteenthandearlytwentieth intheBamunkingdominCameroon,see:NiiOQuarcoopome,ThroughtheLensesofAfricanPhotographer:DepictingForeignersandNewWaysofLife,1870-1950,in ThroughAfricaneyes:theEuropeanin Africanart,1500topresent ,ed.NiiOQuarcoopome,VeitArlt,andChristraudGearyDetroit:Detroit InstituteofArts,2009,86;ChristraudM.Geary, ImagesfromBamum:GermancolonialphotographyatthecourtofKingNjoya,Cameroon,WestAfrica,1902-1915 Washington,D.C.:Smithsonian 45

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portraitureinthepost-independenceerastandinoppositiontothewidespreaduse ofphotographyintheAfricancontinentbyEuropeancolonizerstoclassifyAfrican peopleaccordingtorace,ethnicity,andphysicaltraits. 75 Nevertheless,scholarssuch asDarrenNewburyarguethatthedominanceoftheAfricanportraittraditionwithin postcolonialphotographictheorythreatenstoobscureordevalueabroaderunderstanding ofphotographyinAfrica,particularlySouthAfricawheredocumentaryphotojournalism hasbeensoimportant. 76 1.5.2ContemporaryAfricanPhotography TheliteratureoncontemporaryAfricanphotographyhaslargelygrownfromthecuratorialeortsofindividualssuchasOkwuiEnwezor,whosemajorexhibitions In/Sight: AfricanPhotographers1940tothePresent and SnapJudgments:NewPositions inContemporaryAfricanPhotography areoftencreditedwithestablishinga InstitutePress,1988;ChristraudMGeary,ImpressionsoftheAfricanpast:interpretingethnographic photographsfromCameroon, VisualAnthropology 3,nos.2-3:289;Foradiscussionofstudio photographyandportraitureinWestandCentralAfrica,see:CAngeloMicheli,DoublesandTwins:A NewApproachtoContemporaryStudioPhotographyinWestAfrica, AfricanArts 41,no.1:66; ManthiaDiawara,Talkofthetown:ThephotographsofSeydouKeita, Artforum 36,no.6:64 71;VeraViditz-Ward,PhotographyinSierraLeone,1850, Africa 57,no.4:510;Katie McKeown,StudioPhotoJacques:AProfessionalLegacyinWesternCameroon, HistoryofPhotography 34,no.2:181;RouvenKunstmann,ThepoliticsofportraitphotographsinsouthernNigerian newspapers,1945, SocialDynamics 40,no.3:514;Foradiscussionofstudioportraiture inSouthernAfrica,see:SophieFeyder,ASpaceofOne'sOwn:StudioPhotographyandtheMakingof BlackUrbanFemininitiesinthe1950sEastRand, Safundi 15,nos.2-3:227;StevenCDubin, ImpersonationsandRevelations:MysteriesofaSouthAfricanPhotographyStudio, AfricanArts 47,no. 4:26;ForageneraldiscussionofissuesrelatedtoAfricanportraiture,see:LauriFirstenberg, Postcoloniality,Performance,andPhotographicPortraiture,in TheShortCentury:Independenceand LiberationMovementsinAfrica ,ed.OkwuiEnwezorandChinuaAchebe,175;ElizabethEdwardsandJaniceHart, Photographsobjectshistories:onthematerialityofimages NewYork:Routledge, 2004. 75.ForadiscussionofcolonialistmodesandapplicationsofphotographyinAfrica,see:Landauand Kaspin, Imagesandempires:visualityincolonialandpostcolonialAfrica ;MatthewG.Stanard, Selling theCongo:ahistoryofeuropeanpro-empirepropagandaandthemakingofBelgianimperialism. Lincoln, NE:UniversityofNebraskaPress,2015;TerenceRanger,Colonialism,ConsciousnessandtheCamera, Past&Present 171,no.1May2001:203;WolframHartmann,JeremySilvester,andPatriciaHayes, TheColonisingCamera:photographsinthemakingofNamibianhistory CapeTown:UniversityofCape TownPress,1999. 76.Newbury, DeantImages:PhotographyandapartheidSouthAfrica ,3. 46

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lineageforthedisciplinewithinthelargereldsofAfricanarthistoryandthehistoryof photography.The1996 In/Sight exhibitionwasoneoftherstsurveysofAfricanphotographyandbroughttogetherworkbyphotographersworkingthroughoutthecontinent. 77 The In/Sight showfocusedonAfricanportraitureandbroadlyexploredthenatureand characterofAfricanphotography.Thecuratorssoughttopresentphotographscreated anddisseminatedbyAfricanartistsengagedwithissuesofsubjectivitysuchasidentity, self-determination,anddierenceduringaperiodthatwitnessedthenadirofcolonialism andtheformationofmanyindependentAfricannations.Theimagesarelinkedbyasense ofpresence. 78 The2006 SnapJudgments exhibitionsimilarlypresentedabroadsurvey ofcontemporaryAfricanphotographythroughtheworkoffortyartists,butmovedaway fromanattempttotheorizeacommonAfricanphotography. 79 Thisexhibitionfocusedon ashortertimeperiod,andpresentedabroaderrangeofgenres,includingfashionphotography,urbanization,andpostcolonialidentity.InadditiontoEnwezor'sseminalwritings andexhibitions,othermajorsurveyshaveexpandedthescopeanddepthofinquiryinto contemporaryAfricanphotography.ExhibitionscuratedbySimonNjami,suchasAfrica Remix:ContemporaryArtofaContinent,featuredtheworkofmanyAfrican photographers. 80 From2001to2008Njamiservedasthedirectorforthephotography 77.ThisexhibitionshowedimagesfromthirtyAfricanphotographers,includinganumberofSouth Africanphotographerssuchas:PeterMagubane,SantuMofokeng,DavidGoldblatt,BobGosani,and GordonBleach. 78.OkwuiEnwezor,OluOguibe,andOctavioZaya, In/sight:Africanphotographers,1940tothepresent NewYork:GuggenheimMuseum,1996,10. 79.The SnapJudgments exhibitionalsofeaturedtheworkofanumberofSouthAfricanphotographers, including:MikhaelSubotzky,NontsikeleloVeleko,ZaneleMuholi,JoRactlie,DavidGoldblatt,andHenti vanderMerwe.See:OkwuiEnwezor, Snapjudgments:newpositionsincontemporaryAfricanphotography Gottingen:Steidl,2006. 80. AfricaRemix includedworkfrommanySouthAfricanphotographers,including:TraceyDerrick, DavidGolblatt,ZwelethuMthethewa,GuyTillim,TraceyRose,andSantuMofokeng.See:NjamiSimon, Africaremix:contemporaryartofacontinent Ostldern:HatjeCantz,2005,aswellastheforthcoming publicationbyAllisonMooreonthepan-AfricanBamakoPhotographyBiennale.Haney, Photographyand Africa . 47

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festivalRencontresAfricainesdelaPhotographie,heldbienniallyinBamako,Mali. Thethemed,Bamakobiennialphotographyexhibitionspresentworkfromemergingand internationallyestablishedphotographers.Theseexhibitionsandtheiraccompanying essayshaveestablishedaframeworkfortheevolvingeldofAfricanphotography,and createdopportunitiesformorespecic,localstudiesofphotographythroughoutthe Africancontinent. 81 Ofparticularimportancetothisdissertationisanewgrowthin scholarshiprelatedtolandscapeandtherepresentationofenvironmentsincontemporary Africanphotography.The2011Bamakobiennial,"ForaSustainableWorld,"presented therstsurveyoflandscape-relatedworkinAfrica,andestablishedaframeworkfor theevolvingeldofAfricanenvironmentalphotography.Thefestivalfeaturedimages ofhuman-impactedlandscapes,suchaselectronicwastedumpsandpollutedwaterways intheNigerDelta.TherecentEarthMattersexhibitionattheSmithsonianMuseum, curatedbyKarenMilbourne,presentsacomprehensivesurveyofartworksthatexamine personalanduniversalrelationshipswithland.Milbourne'ssurveyexaminesabroadrange ofartisticmediaandproductionrelatedtolandinAfrica,butgivesimportantemphasisto theexplorationofthetopicbyAfricaphotographers. 82 81.OtherEuropeanandAmericanpublicationshavecontributedtothegrowingeldofresearchon contemporarySouthAfricanphotography.RevueNoire's1998 AnthologyofAfricanandIndianOcean Photography presentedtherstencyclopedicsurveyofAfricanphotography.See:PascalMartinSaint Leon,N'GoneFall,andFrederiqueChapuis, AnthologyofAfricanandIndianOceanphotography Paris: RevueNoire,1999;ErinHaney's2010text PhotographyandAfrica providesanimportantsurveyofthe history.SeveraljournalsthatpublishcurrentscholarshiprelatedtocontemporaryphotographyinAfrica havefurtherdevelopedtheeld,inparticular: ThirdText:CriticalPerspectivesonContemporaryArt &Culture , NKA:JournalofContemporaryAfricanArt , CriticalInterventions:JournalofAfricanArt HistoryandVisualCulture , SocialDynamics , Kronos , AfricanArts ,and AfricaToday .Thecollection ofessaysin SevenStoriesaboutModernArtinAfrica examinethedevelopmentofmodernisminseven Africancountries,andfeaturesworkfromphotographers.See:ClementineDeliss, SevenStoriesabout modernartinAfrica Paris;NewYork:Flammarion,1995. 82.See:KarenMilbourneetal., Earthmatters:landasmaterialandmetaphorintheartsofAfrica NewYork,NY:MonacelliPress,2013;KarenMilbournehasalsoexaminedtheworkofphotographers, includingSantuMofokengandDavidGoldblatt,relatedtoclimatechangeandenvironmentaldegradation.See:KarenEMilbourne,AfricanPhotographersandtheLookofUnSustainabilityintheAfrican Landscape, AfricaToday 61,no.1:114. 48

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1.5.3TheHistoryofPhotographyinSouthAfrica ThehistoryofphotographyinSouthAfricahasalonghistorydatingtherstdecade afterthe"invention"ofthemediumin1839byLouis-Jacques-MandeDaguerre 83 Jules LegerbroughttherstcameratoSouthAfricain1846,andby1851daguerreotypestudios wereoperatingintheportcitiesofCapeTown,Grahamstown,andPortElizabeth.A.D. BensusanchroniclestheearlyhistoryofSouthAfricanphotographyin SilverImages: HistoryofPhotographyinAfrica fromitsarrivalinthenineteenthcenturyuntilthemidtwentiethcentury. 84 Bensusandescribestheestablishmentofearlystudios,theimpact oftheintroductionofwet-collodionprocessinspreadingphotographyacrossthecountry, thefoundingoftherstcameraclubsinthe1890sandtheintroductionandadoptionof pictorialismbySouthAfricanphotographers. PhotographywaswidespreadinSouthAfricaaftertheformationoftheUnionin 1910 85 andwasusedforavarietyofpurposes,includingethnographicstudiesandasan 83.ScholarssuchasGeoreyBatchenchallengetheaccuracyandutilityofadoptingaxeddateforthe inventionofphotography.Batchenarguesthatattentiontotheoriginsofthedesiretophotographasit tookholdwithinearlynineteenthcenturyphilosophicalandscienticdebatesoersgreaterinsightintothe inventionofphotographythandoesthelingofDaguerre'spatent.See:GeoreyBatchen, Burningwith desire:Theconceptionofphotography MITPress,1999. 84.See:Bensusan, Silverimages:HistoryofphotographyinAfrica ;A.D.Bensusanworkedinanumber ofprofessionalcapacities,includingasadoctor,scientist,andmayorofJohannesburg.Hewasanamateur photographer,therstpresidentofthePhotographicSocieyofSouthAfrica,andanavidcollectorofphotography.BensusanlefthiscollectiontotheMuseumAfricainJohannesburg,muchofwhichincludinga daguerreotypecamerathatrstbelongedtoWilliamHenryFoxTalbotisonpermanentdisplay.Though itoersanextensiveaccountoftheearlyhistoryofphotographyinSouthAfrica,Bensusan'shistoryprimarilydocumentsthegrowthofphotographyinrelationtotheexpansionofwhitesettlement.Atextby MajorieBullandJosephDeneldpresentsadetailedaccountoftherstdecadesofphotographyinCape Colony.See:MarjorieBullandJosephDeneld, Securetheshadow;thestoryofCapephotographyfromits beginningstotheendof1870 CapeTown:T.McNally,1970;Foramorerecentexpansiononthisperiod inSouthAfrica,see:MichaelStevensonandMichaelGraham-Stewart, Survivingthelens:photographic studiesofSouthandEastAfricanpeople,1870-1920 Vlaeberg,SouthAfrica:FernwoodPress,2001; Forresearchonearlytwentieth-centuryphotographyinSouthAfrica,see:KathleenGrundlingh, Linesof sight:perspectivesonSouthAfricanphotography CapeTown:SouthAfricanNationalGallery,2001. 85.In1910BritishleadersbroughttogetherthefourpreviouslyindependentcoloniesCapeColony,NatalColonyTransvaalColony,andtheOrangeRiverColonyunderasinglenationalentity,theUnionof SouthAfrica.ThiscongurationwasmaintaineduntiltheestablishmentoftheRepublicofSouthAfrica in1961. 49

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extensionofthegeographicimagination.PhotographerssuchasAlfredDuggan-Cronin usedphotographytodocumentpeopleandruralcommunitiesinSouthAfricaduringseveralexcursionstothegovernment-designatedNativeterritoriesbetween1919and1939. 86 Duggan-CroninexhibitedhisworkinKimberelyandpublishedhisphotographsinan eleven-volumeseries, TheBantuTribesofSouthAfrica:ReproductionsofPhotographic Studies .ModernistphotographersConstanceLarabeeandLeonLevsonalsosoughttodocumentBlacklivesinSouthAfrica,butwentbeyondtraditionalEuropeanrepresentations ofAfricansubjectstoincludecandidimages,andotherphotographsaimedatcelebrating, ratherthaninterrogatingtraditions. 87 TheexpansionofrailwaysinSouthAfricasaw furtherdemandforrepresentationsofSouthAfricanlandscapes. 88 TheelectionoftheNationalPartyin1948andinstallationofapartheidhadprofound implicationsforthedevelopmentandapplicationofphotographyinSouthAfrica.Darren Newburynotesthatthephotographythatemergedduringthisperiodwasinterwoven withthoseeventsandthathistory...thephotographerssomehowhadtopositionthemselvesinrelationtothecentralfactofapartheid. 89 Duringtherstdecadeofminority rule,imagespublishedinplaceslike Drum magazinechronicledtherangeofBlackurban experiences,fromtheculturalourishinginSophiatowntotheworseningpoliticaland 86.ForadiscussionoftheworkofAlfredDuggan-Cronin,see:Godby,AlfredMartinDuggan-Cronin's photographsfortheBantutribesofSouthAfrica-1954:theconstructionofanambiguousidyll. 87.ForadiscussionoftheworkofLeonLevsonandConstanceStuartLarabee,see:GaryMinkleyand CirajRassool,Photographywithadierence:LeonLevson'scamerastudiesandphotographicexhibitions ofnativelifeinSouthAfrica,1947-1950, Kronos 31:184;PhindezwaMnyaka,Fromsalons tothenativereserve:reformulatingthenativequestionthroughpictorialphotographyin1950sSouth Africa, SocialDynamics 40,no.1:106;Newbury, DeantImages:Photographyandapartheid SouthAfrica . 88.See:JeremyFoster,Capturingandlosingthe'LieoftheLand':Railwayphotographyandcolonial nationalisminearlytwentiethcenturySouthAfrica,in PicturingPlace.PhotographyandtheGeographicalImagination NewYork:I.B.Tauris,2003,141;JeremyFoster, Washedwithsun Pittsburgh Pa.:UniversityofPittsburghPress,2008. 89.Newbury, DeantImages:PhotographyandapartheidSouthAfrica ,5. 50

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economicconditionsforblackSouthAfricansunderapartheid.Moreover, Drum magazine oceswerecommittedtobeingnon-racialized,andprovidedtraininggroundsforblack photographers.Eventsintheearly1960ssuchastheSharpevilleMassacreusheredin increasingrestrictionsunderapartheidanddevelopedahostileclimateforphotographers. PhotographerssuchasErnestColeleftSouthAfricatopublishworkthatwascriticalof theapartheidregime. 90 In1982agroupofphotographersformedtherstcollectivededicatedtoproducing politicallyfocusedwork.Thenewagency,Afrapix,wasinspiredbyaseriesofcharged debatesattheFestivalofCultureandResistanceheldinBotswana,andhadcloseto fortymembersuntilitdissolvedin1991. 91 TheAfrapixcollectiveunitedphotographers committedtotheanti-apartheidstruggle,organizedandcirculatedtheirimagesinSouth Africaandabroad,andtrainedyoungphotographersdeniedaccesstoartseducation underapartheid.Thesephotographersproducedworkfornewspapersandothermedia outlets,aswellasextendedphotographicessays.Theiressaysoftenincorporatedextended captionswithinformationaboutwhatwasbeingshowninthephotographsandhow thecontentconnectedtoapartheidpoliciesorrepresentedtherepressiveactionsofthe apartheidgovernment.Co-founderPaulWeinbergcharacterizedtheviewofphotography byAfrapixinanorganizationalpositionstatement:Photographycan'tbedivorcedfrom 90.ErnestColeworkedfor Drum magazineandthe RandDailyMail inJohannesburgintheearly1960s andwastherstblackSouthAfricanfreelancephotographer.HeleftSouthAfricain1966topublish hismonograph, HouseofBondage ,intheUnitedStates.ThemonographpresentedathoroughdocumentationoflifeforblackSouthAfricansunderapartheidrule.ErnestColeneverreturnedtoSouth AfricaanddiedinNewYorkin1990attheageof49.Cole'sworkhasprofoundlyinuencedgenerationsofSouthAfricandocumentaryphotographersandafullreproductionof HouseofBondage ison permanentdisplayattheApartheidMuseuminJohannesburg.Cole'slegacyalsocontinuestobeobservedthroughtherecentlyestablishedErnestColeAward,whichprovidesmonetarysupporttoaSouth AfricanphotographertorealizeabodyofworkthatcreativelyrespondstoSouthAfricansocietysee: http://www.ernestcoleaward.uct.ac.za/ .ForabriefdiscussionofErnestColeandhislegacy,see:Newbury, DeantImages:PhotographyandapartheidSouthAfrica ;LauriFirstenberg,Representingthebody archivallyinSouthAfricanphotography, ArtJournal 61,no.1:58. 91.See:PeterMcKenzie,BringingtheStruggleintoFocus, Starider 5,no.2:18. 51

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thepolitical,socialissuesthatsurroundusdaily.Asphotographersweareinextricably caughtupinthoseprocesseswearenotobjectiveinstrumentsbutplayapartintheway wechoosetomakeourstatements. 92 DarrenNewburyobservesthatduringthistime therewasaself-consciousshiftawayfromvaluingtheindividualvisionandcreativityof thephotographer,toaskinghowphotographycouldbeusedasatoolofthestrugglefor liberationmovement. 93 Thephotographerssawthemselvesasamini-Magnum 94 and theresultingResistanceorStrugglephotographyproduceddynamicblackandwhite photographs,sometimescharacterizedasanaestheticofstsandfuneralsthatchronicled lifeunderapartheid. Afrapix co-founderPaulWeinbergreectsthattheapartheidperiod gaveusasimpleconstructthatwaseasytorespondto:humanityandinhumanity,for andagainst,blackandwhite,rightandwrong. 95 The Afrapix collectivepublishedtwo collectionsofdocumentaryphotographsin TheCordonedHeart ,and Beyond theBarricades thatdrewattentiontoSouthAfricanphotographyabroadand establishedareputationforitsdocumentarypractice. 96 Duringthoseyears,saysDavid 92.See:DavidLKrantz,PoliticsandPhotographyinApartheidSouthAfrica, HistoryofPhotography 32,no.4:290. 93.Newbury, DeantImages:PhotographyandapartheidSouthAfrica ,5. 94.Magnumisaninternationalphotographicco-operativefoundedin1947byfourphotographers RobertCapa,HenriCartier-Bresson,GeorgeRodgerandDavid"Chim"Seymourwhowantedtowork independentofmajormagazinesandtheirspeciceditorialobjectives,andretaincopyrightoftheirpublishedimages.TheagencywasoriginallybasedinNewYorkandParis,andnowhasocesinLondonand Tokyo.MembersareadmittedtoMagnumbyinvitation. 95.PaulWeinbergandMichaelGodby, Then&now:EightSouthAfricanphotographers Johannesburg: HighveldPress,2008,6. 96.Foradetailedanalysisofthesetwopublicationssee:Peer, Artandtheendofapartheid ,255-59; Peerobservesthatthispublicationdepartedfromthechargedaestheticpresentedin BeyondtheBarricades :Thepicturesfeaturedin TheCordonedHeart makeuseofobliqueorwideanglesofvisiontogive environmentalcontext,andstrategicuseofshadowandtonalcomplexitytobringouttheemotionaldepth oftheirsubjects.Seealso:AlexHarrisandIrisTillmanHill, BeyondtheBarricades:popularresistance inSouthAfrica NewYork,NY:Aperture,1989;OmarBadsha,ed., SouthAfrica:TheCordonedHeart: EssaysbytwentySouthAfricanphotographers CapeTown:GalleryPress,1986. 52

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Goldblatt,myprimeconcernwaswithvalues;whatwevaluedinSouthAfrica,howwe arrivedatthosevalues,andhowweexpressedthosevalues. 97 Thesocialdocumentaryworkproducedduringthelastdecadesofapartheidby groupssuchasAfrapixandtheBangBangClub 98 doesnotteasilyalongsideprominentexamplesofthegenrecreatedinEuropeortheUnitedStates. 99 DarrenNewbury writesthatUnlikeinEuropeortheUS,whereduringthe1970sand1980sdocumentary photographyhadbeen`problematisedalmosttothepointofparalysis,'inSouthAfrica therepersistedastrongsenseofitsvalueasameansofcommentingonissuesofsocialand politicalimportancewithinavisualpublicsphere. 100101 Newbury'sstatementhighlights 97.WeinbergandGodby, Then&now:EightSouthAfricanphotographers ,6. 98.TheBang-BangClubwasagroupoffourphotojournalistswhodocumentedconictsandother eventsinSouthAfricantownshipsduringtheyearsoftransitionbetweentheapartheidregimeandmajorityrulegovernments-1994.Theirimageswerewidelycirculatedinthedomesticandinternational mediaandrevealedthebrutalityoftheconictsbetweenopposingpoliticalfactionsinSouthAfrica.See: GregMarinovichandJoaoSilva, TheBang-bangclub London:Heinemann,2001. 99.Forexample,thepracticeofsocialdocumentaryphotographyintheUnitedStatesiscloselyassociatedwiththegroupofphotographerswhoworkedonbehalfoftheFarmSecurityAssociationinthe1930s. AccordingtoLizWells,theworkofartistssuchasDorotheaLange,RussellLee,andWalkerEvansdepartedfrompredecessorssuchasJacobRiisasanexemplarofsocialdocumentaryphotographybecauseit "castitssubjectwithina'socialproblem'framework,andwhicharguedforapoliticsofreform,andsocial education."See:Wells, Photography:acriticalintroduction ,92. 100.Newbury, DeantImages:PhotographyandapartheidSouthAfrica ,1. 101.Here,NewburymakesreferencetotheworkofmarxistcriticssuchasJohnTaggandAllanSekula, whoarguedin1988and1978,respectively,thatdocumentaryphotographsarenotneutral,andrather thanpresentaneutralviewdocumentaryphotographsarepropagandistic;theyreproducethepowerrelationsthatdeterminetheproductionoftheimageandguaranteeitsauthenticity.Inhisseminaltext, TheBurdenofRepresentation:EssaysonPhotographiesandHistories Taggarguesthatdocumentaryis arealityoftheintertextbeyondwhichthereisno-senseandwhatlies`behind'thepaperor`behind' theimageisnotrealitythereferentbutreference:asubtlewebofdiscoursethroughwhichrealismis enmeshedinacomplexfabricofnotions,representations,images,attitudes,gesturesandmodesofaction. JohnTagg, Theburdenofrepresentation:Essaysonphotographiesandhistories ,vol.80UofMinnesota Press,1988,100;AllanSekula,in"DismantlingModernism,ReinventingDocumentary,"assertsthat documentaryphotographyhasamassedmountainsofevidence.Andyet,inthispictorialpresentationof scienticandlegalisticfact,thegenrehassimultaneouslycontributedmuchtospectacle,toretinalexcitation,tovoyeurism,toterror,envyandnostalgia,andonlyalittletothecriticalunderstandingofthe socialworld.AllanSekula,Dismantlingmodernism,reinventingdocumentarynotesonthepoliticsof representation, TheMassachusettsReview 19,no.4:859. 53

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thewayinwhichSouthAfricansocialdocumentaryrepresentsanexpressionofthegenre distinctwithinaglobalcontext. Thoughnotallphotographersproducedsocialdocumentaryprojectsduringthistime, theworkofactivistartistsprofoundlyshapedthedevelopmentofSouthAfricanphotographyintotheearly1990s,andcontinuestoinuencecontemporaryartists,evenasfewer artistsworkwithsocialdocumentaryphotography. 102 Strugglephotographydemonstrated thepotentialofphotographytocreatepositivechangeandactivelyparticipateinshaping publicdebates.Theprevalenceofsocialdocumentaryimageryduringthispivotalerain SouthAfricanpoliticalhistoryforgedapowerfullinkbetweenphotographyandpolitics, aconnectionthatcontinuestomediatehowyoungphotographersviewthepurposeand purviewofthemedium.PatriciaHayesarguesthatthesocialdocumentarytraditionin SouthAfricacontinues,andhascreatedapowerfulfoundationforcontemporarypractices: ThedocumentaryarchiveinSouthAfricadoesnotsimplybecomethe`detritus oflapsedpassion.'People,eventhosewhoclaimtohavedepartedfromit, cannotquiteleavewhatiscalled`documentary'behind...Thephotography nowcouldnothavehappenedwithoutthedocumentaryimpetusofthe1980s, whichwasthebreedinggroundforanumberofcontemporaryphotographers. Theneedtomarkthesocialinsomewaypersists,theneedtogetintocloser proximitywiththoseonthereceivingendofhistory. 103 102.ManycontemporarySouthAfricanphotographersarecriticalofsocialdocumentaryphotography, includingnumerousartistswhousedtoprimarilyworkwiththegenre.Forexample,Afrapixco-founder PaulWeinbergmovinglyreectsonhowhisviewsofdocumentaryphotographyduringtheperiodofresistance:"Thoseofuswhoactivelydocumentedtheunfoldingeventsandthedeeperfabricofoursociety inthe80'softenreferredtoourselvesastheTakingSidesgeneration.Wewereunabashedlypartisan andsawthecameraasaweaponagainstthesystemasIwroteoncethen,somewhatembarrassinglyon reection.Whatcharacterizedtheperiodwasthatwehadaverystrongtraditionofworkingcollectively whetheritwasrunningworkshops,orexhibitingjointly,theethosofthetimewasthatthecommoncause againstapartheidwasmoreimportantthanourindividualeorts."See:WeinbergandGodby, Then& now:EightSouthAfricanphotographers ,6. 103.Hayes,Power,secrecy,proximity:AshorthistoryofSouthAfricanphotography. 54

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Anobservablesocialcommitmentamongphotographersisonethelastinginuences ofsocialdocumentarytradition. 104 KevinMulhearnacknowledgesaprofoundsense ofresponsibility,deepcommitmentanduncommonpersistenceamongSouthAfrican photographers,whoaredistinguishedbytheirbeliefintheecacyofarttogenerate socialchange. 105 Thelegacyoftheapartheid-erasocialdocumentarytraditioninSouthAfricais thesubjectofanumberofpublications. 106 Mostnotably,arecentexhibitionatthe InternationalCenterforPhotography,TheRiseandFallofApartheidhasnotably impactedthestateoftheresearchonSouthAfricanphotography.Thisexhibitionwas thelargesteverproducedonthesubjectofapartheid-eraphotography.Therangeof workspresentedintheshowandcatalogchallengedtheperceptionthatapartheid-era photographicproductionwasmonolithicorlimitedtothebodyofworkcreatedby collectivessuchasAfrapix. 107 SeanO'Tooleadvocatesformoreattentiontothework ofphotographers,suchasDavidGoldblattandJoRactlie,whoproducedsocially engagedworkinthe1980sandearly1990sthatdidnotadheretosocialdocumentary 104.TheuncommonethicisobservedbyscholarssuchasSusanSontag,whoina2004visittoJohannesburg,describedherreactiontothestrongmoralandethicaldimensionwithinSouthAfricanphotography, andtheattentiongiventothepoliticsofphotographicrepresentation.Further,Newburyadded:Unlikein EuropeortheUS,whereduringthe1970sand1980sdocumentaryphotographyhadbeen`problematised almosttothepointofparalysis,'inSouthAfricatherepersistedastrongsenseofitsvalueasameansof commentingonissuesofsocialandpoliticalimportancewithinavisualpublishsphere.See:SusanSontag,Photography,Politics,andEthics,UniversityoftheWitwatersrand,12March2004,cf.Newbury, DeantImages:PhotographyandapartheidSouthAfrica ,1. 105.KevinMulhearn,CriticalpositionsinrecentSouthAfricanphotographyDissertation,CityUniversityofNewYork,2010,2,accessedNovember30,2015. 106.See:Peer, Artandtheendofapartheid ;WeinbergandGodby, Then&now:EightSouthAfrican photographers ;KylieThomas,Woundingapertures:violence,aectandphotographyduringandafter apartheid, Kronos 38,no.1:204. 107.OkwuiEnwezor,RoryBester,andInternationalCenterofPhotography, Riseandfallofapartheid: photographyandthebureaucracyofeverydaylife NewYork:Prestel,2013. 55

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aestheticsorconventionsadvancedintheworkofAfrapixphotographers. 108 Series producedbythesephotographers,hesuggests,complicatethenarrativesofdegradation andvictimhoodprevalentamongblack-and-whitenewphotographsdepictingmasses ofpeopleassembling,protesting,resisting.Moreover,theworkofphotographerslike GoldblattandRactlie,whomovedbetweengenres,providesimportantexampleand inuenceforyoungerphotographerswhohavesimilarlydiversepractices. 109 Using theexampleofDavidGoldblatt's Particulars series,O'Tooledescribesaneither-nor practicenotquiteactivist,notentirelydisinterestedinSouthAfrica'svariedandoften deprivedsociallifethatpresentedamorenuancedreadingofdailylifeduringtime periodfromthatofAfrapixphotographers. 110 Heobservesthataneither-normodeof workinghasgainedincreasingprominenceintheyearsafterthecountry'srstnon-racial electionsin1994andcharacterizesmuchofcontemporarySouthAfricanphotographic production. 111 Assuch,O'Toole'sneither-norpracticeoersaninterpretiveframework notonlyforimagesbyDavidGoldblatt,butalsoforabreadthofcontemporarySouth Africanphotographerswhocombineaspectsofsocialdocumentaryandformaliststrategies intheirprojectstorespondtothecomplexitiesofpost-apartheidsociety. 112 108.See:BarentsandO'Toole, Apartheid&after . 109.Innumerousinterviewswithphotographersduringtheresearchperiods,artistsfrequentlycited DavidGoldblattandJoRactlieaskeyinuencesfortheircareers.Theinterviewedphotographersadmire thewaysGoldblattandRactlieworkedbetweensocialdocumentaryandartgenres,andtheirstronguse ofnarrative. 110.SeanO'Toole,Caughtbetween:SouthAfricanphotographyafter1994,inBarentsandO'Toole, Apartheid&after ,9. 111.SeanO'Toole,Caughtbetween:SouthAfricanphotographyafter1994,inibid. 112.InsupportofhisargumentO'Toolefurtherdiscussesanumberofcontemporaryphotographerswho workwithlandscape.Hecitestheirworkasexamplesofphotographsthatblurthelinebetweenpublic andprivatespace,thefragmentandthewhole,anonymityandindividuality,dispassionateobservation andsomethingapproachingdeepimplicationandpersonalbiographyO'Toole,CaughtBetween:South AfricanPhotographyafter1994,in Apartheid&After ,8.Examplesinclude:post-apartheidphotographs ofsitesimportantduringtheapartheideraGraemeWilliams'seriesPreviouslySignicantPlaces;documentarylandscapephotographyofthreedomesticsitesoperatedbytheSouthAfricanDefenseForce 56

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Apartfromengagementwiththelegaciesofthesocialdocumentarytradition, scholarshiponpost-apartheidphotographicproductioninSouthAfricaisdiverseand prolic.SouthAfricanphotographersarewidelyexhibitedandstudiedthroughoutthe world,andhavebeenthesubjectofnumerousmonographsandthematicexhibitions. 113 ResearchershavelookedattheroleofracialandethnicidentityasexploredbySouth Africanphotographers. 114 Otherscholarshiphasbeengenre-specic,suchasTamar Garb's2011portraituresurvey, FictionsandFictions . 115 AgrowingbodyofresearchaddressesreligiousandspiritualexpressioninSouth Africanphotography. 116 ApartfromtreatmentsofworkbySantuMofokeng,however,this researchdoesnotdirectlyaddresstheuseoflandscapephotographytocommunicateareligiousreadingofspacesinSouthAfrica.InvestigationsoftheworkofSantuMofokenghave yieldednewscholarshipontherelationshipbetweenreligionandlandscapephotography, thoughtheseargumentshavenotbeenappliedtotheworkofotherphotographersworking inasimilarmode.Additionalthematicresearchlooksattheroleofphotographyinthe duringtheconictinAngolaJoRactlie'sBorderlands;andaproleofJohannesburgasitappearsto thosewholiveandworkwithinitsurryandSabeloMlangeni'sJohannesburg. 113.See:OmarBadsha,MadsN rgaard,andJeevaRajgopaul,BonaniAfrica2010Pretoria,South Africa:SouthAfricanHistoryOnline,2010;DavidGoldblatt,SantuMofokeng,andGeorgeHallett, Rhizomesofmemory:tres rafrikanskefotografer HeniOnstadkunstsenter,2000;GuyTillim, OFuturo Certo Gottingen:Steidl,2015; JoRactlie:TheBorderlands NewYork:Artbook,D.A.P.,2015;Zanele Muholi, FacesandPhases Munich:Prestel,2010. 114.See:LiesevanderWatt,ReframingtheAfrikanerSubject:TheVisualGrammarofDavidGoldblatt andRoelofvanWyk, Safundi 15,nos.2-3:353;RaelJeroSalley,Remembrance:theEssop brothers,formativerealismandcontemporaryAfricanphotography, SocialDynamics 40,no.3: 495. 115.See:TamarGarbandMartinBarnes, Figures&Fictions:contemporarySouthAfricanphotography Gottingen,Germany:Steidl,2011. 116.See,forexample:Godby,ShadowCatchers:AspectsoftheSpiritualintheWorkofThreeSouth AfricanPhotographers;PatriciaHayes,SantuMofokeng,Photographs:'TheViolenceisintheKnowing', HistoryandTheory 48,no.4:34;AnnabelleWienand,SantuMofokeng:Alternative WaysofSeeing2013, Safundi 15,nos.2-3:307. 57

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publicsphere,includingworkrelatedtoprisonsandAIDS,andenvironmentalconcerns suchasclimatechange. 117 ScholarlyexaminationsoflandscapephotographyinSouthAfrica,apartfromits roleasanextensionofthecolonialimagination,arelimited. 118 Todate,onlyonesurvey ofthehistoryoflandscapephotographyinSouthAfricahasbeenwritten,anessay inthe Transitions catalogbyMichaelGodby. 119 Inthisbriefdiscussionoflandscape photography,Godbytracesthedevelopmentofthegenrethroughearlycameraclubs upthroughtheapartheid-era,andhighlightstrendsinrecentpractice.Hesuggeststhat contemporaryphotographersareusingmethodsthatrepresentaclearabandonment oftraditionalmeansofrepresentinglandandacontinuoussearchtondwaysthat expressessentiallynewrelationshipswithit. 120 Attentiontothelandscapepractices ofspecicphotographerssuchasDavidGoldblattoerimportantcontributionsand conceptualizationsoftheuseofthegenreinapost-apartheidcontext.Forexample,in anintroductoryessaytoGoldblatt's2008monograph, IntersectionsIntersected ,Ivor PowellexaminestheevolutionofGoldblatt'suseoflandscapesfromcharged,apartheid-era blackandwhiteimagestoexpansive,subtlecolorrepresentations.Comparinga1993 black-and-whiterepresentationofamonumenttoaVoortrekkerleadertoa2006color 117.See:PatriciaHayes,TheColourofHistory:PhotographyandthePublicSphereinSouthernAfrica, in ThePublicSphereFromOutsidetheWest ,ed.DivyaandSanilBloomsburyPublishing,2015,147 163;KevinMulhearn,MikhaelSubotzky:PicturingPrisonsandInterrogatingFreedom, Photography andCulture 8,no.1:7;SveaJosephy,Fracturedcompounds:photographingpost-apartheid compoundsandhostels, SocialDynamics 40,no.3:444;AnnabelleWienand,Strategiesof representation:SouthAfricanphotographyoftheHIVepidemic,2014,Milbourne,AfricanPhotographersandtheLookofUnSustainabilityintheAfricanLandscape. 118.Thoughtheexaminationoflandscapephotographyislimited,therehavebeenseveralimportant studiesandexhibitionsofSouthAfricanlandscapepainting.See,forexample:GodbyandWalker, The LieoftheLand:representationsoftheSouthAfricanlandscape . 119.MichaelGodby,AShortHistoryofLandscapePhotography,inMichaelGodby,AShortHistory ofLandscapePhotography",in Transition ,ed.MarketPhotographyWorkshopandRencontresinternationalesdelaPhotograpieParis: EditionXavierBarrell,2013,158-63. 120.MichaelGodby,AShortHistoryofLandscapePhotography,inibid.,162. 58

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imageofthesamesubjectFigs.1-1&1-2,Powellobservesthatintheearlierphotograph thelandscapelargelybecauseoftheexploitationofcontrastinglightvaluesframesthe monumentinanalmosttwo-dimensionalway.WhereasinGoldblatt's2006photograph, Powellobservesthelandscapestretchestoalongandindeterminatehorizon,breeding morequestionsthananswersinrecedingintodepth.Thespaceisoneofmeditationrather thanoneinwhichanystatementofassertionismade. 121 Inpublicationssuchasthese, scholarsidentifytheimportanceoflandscapephotographyincontemporarypracticesas wellasaspectsofhowthegenreoperatesinrelationtosocialdocumentaryphotography. Yet,suchwritingsarerare,limitedinscope,andfrequentlyaddresstheworkofasingle artist,asopposedtoawidespreadmovementamongcontemporaryphotographers. 1.6OverviewofChapters Thisdissertationisorganizedintovebodychapterswhichidentifyandexplore multipleusesoflandscapeimagesbycontemporarySouthAfricanphotographers.The rstfourchapterslookatworkproducedbyindividualphotographers,andaregrouped thematicallyaroundaparticularapplicationoflandscapephotography.Thenalchapter examinesthreeexhibitionsproducedin2013incommemorationofthecentenaryofthe 1913NativesLandActinSouthAfrica.Together,thevechaptersshowthediverse wayscontemporaryphotographersuselandscapeimages,exploreconnectionsbetween apartheid-erasocialdocumentaryphotographyandpost-apartheidlandscapephotography, anddemonstratetheneedformultidisciplinaryanalysesofthesebodiesofwork. Followingtheintroductorychapter,Chapter2looksatworkfromthreephotographers whoadoptlandscapephotographytoconveyspecicsocialandpoliticalcontent.Jean Brundritusesathree-dimensionallaserscannertomapwavesandsubverttheequation ofphotographicseeingwithcapturing,documenting,andowning;CedricNunnpairs 121.IvorPowell,ParallaxandParallel:TheUsesofTimeandSpaceinDavidGoldblatt'sPairings,in Intersectionsintersected Porto,Portugal:CivilizacaoEditoria,2008,15. 59

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Figure1-1.DavidGoldblatt, MonumenthonouringKarelLandmanwhofarmedinthis areauntil1837,whenhebecamealeaderintheGreatTrek.Hetookapartyof 180Whitesandtheirservantsonatrekof885kilometresintoNatalwherehe wasprominentinseveralbattleswiththeZulus.DeKol,EasternCape.10 April1993 ,1993,silvergelatinprintonberpaper,20x24cm. landscapeimageswithextendedcaptionstorelayoverlookedXhosahistoriesofresistance;andFranckiBurgeruseslayeredimagesofAnglo-Boerwarbattleeldstocreate historicalmetaphorsandexplorethelinksbetweenlandandbelonging.Eachofthethree photographersbegantheircareersunderapartheidandthoughnotallworkedasStruggle photographers,theirrespectivelandscapeprojectsdisplayaspectsofapartheid-erasocial documentarypractices. Thethirdchapterexaminesthreephotographicseriesthataddressthemining industryinSouthAfrica.Thediscoveryofmineralresourcesandsubsequentdevelopment oftheminingindustryinSouthAfricaprofoundlyshapedphysical,social,andpolitical landscapesfromthelatenineteenthcenturyonwards.PhotographersIlanGodfrey, ThabisoSekgala,andJerryGaeganeeachcreatedabodyofworkthatexaminesaspectsof 60

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Figure1-2.DavidGoldblatt, ThecommemorationofKarelLandmanandhistrek,inthis 3mglobe,wasaninitiativeoftheNationalPartyandthecouncilsoftheDutch ReformedChurchintwoneighbouringvillages,AlexandriaandPatterson. Legendhasitthatthecouncilscouldnotagreewhichvillageshould'host'the monument,soitwasplacedonthisremotekoppiebetweenthetwovillages.De Kol,EasternCape.20February2006 ,2006,Archivalpigmentinkdigitally printedoncottonragpaper,99x127cm. thesocialandphysicalimpactsofmininginSouthAfrica.Incontrasttolatenineteenth andearlytwentiethcenturylandscapephotographsusedbyEuropeanstonaturalize minesintheSouthAfricanenvironment,theseartistsrevealtheunnaturalimpactsofthis industryonresidentsandtheland.Throughlandscapephotography,Godfrey,Sekgala, andGaeganeexaminetheconuenceofsocial,environmental,andeconomicissuesat workinmininglandscapes,andindoingso,departfromother,earliermining-related socialdocumentaryprojects,whichshowedthedirectimpactsofindustryonspecic populations. Chapter4looksatagenerationofearly-careerphotographerscaughtbetweentwo radicallydierentartisticerasinSouthAfrica:theperiodofresistanceartandtheera 61

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of`bornfrees.'MoniquePelser,VincentBezuidenhout,andRenzskeScholtzwereyoung adultsin1994,andallthreebegantheirstudiesinphotographyaftertheadventof democraticrule.Unlikethebornfreestheyexperiencedapartheidasyoungadults,and theseexperiencesconditionthewaytheyapproachthesubjectoflandandotherissues intheirwork.Yet,incontrasttomanyoftheirmentors,whotookupthedocumentary imperativeduringthe1980sandcontinuetoproduceworkinrelationtosocialand politicalconcerns,thesethreeartistsexperimentwithabroaderrangeofsubjectmatter andgenres.Thischapterexplicatestheconcernsandconictsuniquetothisin-between generationofcontemporarySouthAfricanphotography,andhighlightsthewayinwhich theirlandscapepracticeblendsinuencesfrombothStruggle-eraphotographyand Europeanmovements,suchastheDusseldorfSchool. ThefthchapterexplorestheworkofSouthAfricanphotographerswhouselandscapeimagestostructureandmediateapersonalconnectiontoland.Thischapterdraws uponmultidisciplinaryframeworksfromtheeldsofreligionandnaturestudies,environmentalhistory,andenvironmentalethicstoanalyzethelandscapeworkofBrent MeistreandDanielNaude.Bothartistsdrawuponlandimagerytorelateaprivate,personalencounterinthelandscapetoabroadernationalcommunity.Themultidisciplinary frameworksexplicatethedynamicsofMeistreandNaude'suseoflandscapephotography,andadvocateforfurtherexaminationoflandscapeimagesthroughtheselenses.At atimewhenpublicconversationsaboutlandinSouthAfricaarepoliticized,sensitive, andcontentious,landscapephotographyoersonewayinwhichartistscanexploretheir connectiontolandandinterrogateitsroleasaspiritualfoundationforthenation. Chapter6departsfromthepreviousfourchaptersandexploresthepresentationof landscapephotographyinthreeexhibitionsproducedin2013,theyearofthecentenaryof theNativesLandAct.Thisanniversarymotivatedwidespreadpublicdiscussionofland andlandownershipinSouthAfrica,andmanypublicmuseums,privategalleries,and educationalinstitutionsproducedexhibitionsinresponsetothisevent.Thewaysinwhich 62

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thesevenuesengagedwithsubjectoflandrepresentationthroughphotographyoers importantinsightintothenatureoftheconversationsurroundinglandscapephotography inSouthAfrica. Thenalchaptersummarizeskeyargumentsandcontributionsofthisdissertation andpointstodirectionsforfutureresearch.Thisdissertationlooksatimagesproduced asrecentlyas2013butSouthAfricanphotographerscontinuetoproducenewbodies oflandscapephotographsthatfurthershapethedirectionofthegenre.Additional investigationintothesenewbodiesofwork,inparticularprojectssupportedthrough theErnestColeAward,willadvanceunderstandingofhowSouthAfricanlandscape photographyiscontinuallydevelopingtotlocalneeds,absorbthelegacyofapartheideraResistancephotography,andchallengestaticinterpretationsofthegenrerootedin colonialistmodes. 63

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CHAPTER2 ALTERNATIVEMETHODSINCONTEMPORARYSOUTHAFRICANLANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY 2.1Introduction AhighcontrastimagellsthepaperwithdarknessandlightinJeanBrundrit's untitledphotographFig.2-1.Intheimageathickpaneofblackloomsbehindathin veneerofwhitepoints.Absentofgraysormodulatedtones,novaluesindicatescaleor delineatespacewithinthecomposition.Onlytheframeedgeslimitandotherwisecontain theundenedcavity.Thenetofwhitepixelscollectsinloosebunchesatthetopofthe composition,andpullstheviewer'sgazeacrosstheimagepanetothispoint. TheuntitledimageformspartofthebodyofworkMakingtheWaves,adynamic seriesofmonochromaticpointclouds. 1 ThethirteenimagesincludedinJeanBrundrit's monographperformvariationsonavisuallyseductivetheme:palegrainsstretchand groupagainstanunmarkedblackbackdrop.Thesmalldotsmimicthetextureofsand; yettheuniformityoftheirshapeandtonecallsforthassociationswiththemechanical andelectronic.Inthevariouscompositionswhiteandblackshapescoalesceintolinesand createformsthatndanalogyinthenaturalworld;thelineslooksimilartorippleson water,crumpledpaper,andtopographicalmaps.Absentofclearnarrative,however,the seriesislinkedonlybytheircontent:discrete,binaryelements.Brundrit'sphotographs inMakingtheWavesdocumentwaves.Thecolorlessdotsreferenceportionsofactual riftsintheAtlanticOceansurface,capturedmid-breakotheSouthAfricancoastline nearGreenPointLighthouseinCapeTown.Theunpigmentedpixelsfastenintodense groupingsatthepointofhighestenergy:whereplanesofwatercurltogetherandsplit openagainsttherockyshore.BrundritcreatedherphotographsforMakingtheWaves 1.Thetermpointcloudreferencesasetofdatapointsinaspacedenedbyx,y,andzcoordinates. Pointcloudsfrequentlydescribethesurfaceofanobjectandcanbegeneratedby3-Dscanningtechnologies. 64

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Figure2-1.JeanBrundrit,untitledimagefrom MakingtheWaves ,2012,PigmentInkon mattepaper.46cmx100cm. withathree-dimensionallaserscanner,adevicecommonlyusedbylandsurveyorsto generatedetailedmapsfordevelopersandengineers. ThesubjectofBrundrit'simagescannot,however,bemappedordocumented.Waves shiftshape,intensity,anddirectioninresponsetotheshapeoftheshorelineandshifting weatherconditions;allwavesaredierentfromeachother.Brundritacknowledgesthe fruitlessnessofattemptingtodelineateandpreservetheformofwaves,butdrawsupon thefailureinherentinheractiontostagewhatshecallsapoeticactofdeance.For Brundrit,thewilltosurveyandmapaspaceevokesadesiretocontrolandtoown, andherattempttochartwavespointstothepresumptioninherentintheact:Iwas particularlyinterestedinthefutility...ofmappingmovingwater,athingthatcannotbe owned,thatwillnotbeordered,evenitifcanbemeasured...tosurveywavesisa...way 65

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oftalkingbacktoanyauthoritythatattemptstoordertheworld. 2 InMakingthe Wavesassertstheagencyofanenvironmenttoresistclearrepresentationanddelineation byahumanobserverandcameraorothersurveyingdevice. Asatheme,agencyfeaturesprominentlyintheBrundrit'soeuvreandinformsher identityasanartist.Herpreviousworkbroadlyexploreschallengesfacinglesbianwomen inSouthAfrica.Despitethecountry'sprogressiveandinclusiveconstitution,which enshrinesequalprotectionandrightsforgayandlesbiancitizens,inSouthAfricalesbians arefrequentlysubjectedtodiscrimination,illtreatment,andactsofhorricviolence. Brundritdescribesherselfasalesbianartist,apositionsheviewsasapoliticalaction, andonethatalignswithherpersonalhistoryofactivismthatbeganinthe1980s.In photographicseriessuchasPortraitofaLesbianCouple,ReclaimingCape Town,andTheSpaceInsideBrundritexploresinvisiblebarrierswith whichlesbianwomeninSouthAfricacontendthroughvisualandlandscapemetaphors; shecutsoutsilhouettesofcouplesfromphotographstoindicatetheirseparationfrom scenes,sheinscribesfemaleguresontoiconiclandscapes,andhighlightstheinterior, privatelivesmanywomenconstructtoavoiddiscrimination. InMakingtheWavesBrundritdrawsuponanewtechnologyandattributesofthe landscapegenretoexpandherinvestigationsintotheagencyofasubject.Throughher useofsurveyequipment,sheforegroundstheactionandroleoftherecordinginstrument increatingaportraitbasedonthedataitreads.Thewavesproducetheimagebymoving infrontofthecamera;thephotographercannotdirectthemorotherwisedictatetheir form.Moreover,thephotographsconveyarepresentationofaninstanceofawave,andare necessarilyincompleteportraitsofadynamicsubject. 2.JeanBrundrit,FollowingtheThreads:thoughtsandprocessesinmyrecentworkTheSpaceInside andMakingtheWaves,in OutofSite:RepresentingidentityintheworksofJeanBrundrit ,ed.Annemi ConradieCapeTown:SoSo,2013,53. 66

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ThischapterexaminestheworkofthreecontemporarySouthAfricanphotographers whoseadaptationsoflandscapephotographysupportinquiryintotopicssuchasagency, identity,andbelonging.Noneoftheartistsconsideredinthischapterself-identiesasa landscapephotographer,buteachhastakenupthegenreinrecentworktoaddressa specictopic.Inadditiontotheirnewinterestinlandscape,allthreephotographersuse uncommonmethodstodocumentandportraythenaturalenvironment.JeanBrundrit useshigh-resolutionsurveytechnologytochartwaves;CedricNunncreatesextended captionstoreframeviewsofthemodernEasternCapelandscapeinrelationtoXhosa history;andFranckiBurgerlayersnegativesinthedarkroomtoconstructanethereal environmentinwhichtoexamineemotiveconnectionstoland.Eachoftheseartistsdraws uponatechniquethatmaybeconsideredalternativeinrelationtocommonlandscape photographymethods,andindoingso,theychallenge,reinterpret,andexpandthe denitionofalandscapeimage.Moreover,viewedtogether,worksfromthesethreeartists revealabroadapplicationoflandscapephotographyinSouthAfricabeyondatraditional representationofanenvironmentassublimeorpicturesque. AllthreeartistsengagewiththeSouthAfricanlandscapeasasiteofmemorythrough theirrespectiveprocesses.PierreNoradescribessitesofmemoryorlieuxdememoire asmomentsofhistorytornawayfromthemovementofhistorythenreturned;nolonger quitelife,notyetdeath,likeshellsontheshorewhentheseaoflivingmemoryhas receded. 3 Memory,hewrites,remainsinpermanentevolution,opentothedialectic ofrememberingandforgetting,unconsciousofitssuccessivedeformations,vulnerable tomanipulationandappropriation,susceptibletobeinglongdormantandperiodically revived. 4 Ineachoftheirseries,Brundrit,Nunn,andBurgerportraytheSouthAfrican 3.PierreNora, RethinkingFrance:Leslieuxdememoire Chicago,Ill.;London:TheUniversityof ChicagoPress,2010,14. 4.Ibid.,8. 67

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landscapeasadynamicandevolvingentityonethatresistseasyclassicationanddoes notconformtocolonialorapartheid-erainterpretations.Throughphotography,allthree artistsexplorethelandscapediscursively,andhighlightitsrelevanceinapost-apartheid setting. 2.2JeanBrundrit,Technology,andtheRepresentationofLandscapein MakingtheWaves Brundrit'smethodofphotographingwavesaskstheviewertothinkabouttherole ofthecamerainshapingarepresentationoflandscape.ThesurveytechnologyBrundrit usescreatesanimageofmovingwaterasitwouldanysolidsurface:lasersprojectfrom theinstrument,reectosurfacestheyencounter,andreturntotheinstrument'ssensors togenerateathree-dimensionalpointcloudthatrelatesthecompositionofthesurface anditsdistancefromthelaserpulse. 5 Thewhitepointsonblackgroundintheuntitled photographbunchtogetherandoverlapwherewaterpeaksintoripplesandswells,butitis notimmediatelyclearthatBrundrit'simagerepresentsanoceansurface. TheformandpresentationofthephotographsinBrundrit's2012seriesdohowever, makeclearreferencetothelandscape.Allimagesin"MakingtheWaves"areuniformin sizeandorientation;eachofthethirteenimagesextendsonemeterinlengthandfortythreecentimetershighandallweredisplayedateye-levelFig.2-2.Viewedtogether inthegallery,thephotographsformalineanalogoustothehorizonsthatareabsent intheimages;thestatic,blackstripofdarkphotographssplitthegalleryandfurther connoteakindoflandscapeforthewaveimages.Themonochromaticimage,absentof scale,modulationsintone,orcontextualmarkers,minimizesthepresenceoftheartist andcompelstheviewertothinkrstabouthowthephotographwascreatedratherthan whatitrepresents.Intheuntitledimagethereisdissonancebetweentheexcessofdata 5.Brundrit,FollowingtheThreads:thoughtsandprocessesinmyrecentworkTheSpaceInsideand MakingtheWaves,53. 68

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Figure2-2.InstallationViewof MakingtheWaves atAVAGalleryinCapeTown.Image source: https: //www.ormsdirect.co.za/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Jean-Brundrit-12.jpg relayedinthelaserscansandtheminimalpresentationofimagecontext.Theinability oftheviewertoimmediatelydiscernorinterpretthecontentoftheimageinrelationto itsreferentpromotesreectionontherolesofandrelationshipbetweentheartist,the machine,andrepresentation. Adisconnectbetweenhowpeopleandviewingdevicesperceivesubjectshasinuenced howhumansunderstandvisualrepresentation.JonathanCrarydiscussesthissubjectin relationtotheevolutionofvisioninthenineteenthcenturyfollowinganuprootingof visionfromthestableandxedrelationsincarnatedinthecameraobscura. 6 Regarding thecameraobscura,Craryobservesthatfornearlytwohundredyearsthecamerastood asasovereignmetaphorfordescribingthestatusofanobserverandasamodel,inboth 6.JonathanCrary, Techniquesoftheobserver:Onvisionandmodernityinthenineteenthcentury Cambridge,Mass.:MITPress,1990,14. 69

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rationalistandempiricistthought,ofhowobservationleadstotruthfulinferencesabout theworld. 7 Duringthistime,heargues,theeyeandthecamerahadametaphoric relationship:theywerealliedbyaconceptualsimilarity,inwhichtheauthorityofthe eyeremainedunchallenged.Yet,duringthenineteenthcentury,Crarypointsoutthat therelationbetweeneyeandopticalapparatusbecomesoneofmetonymy:bothwere nowcontiguousinstrumentsonthesameplaneofoperation,withvaryingcapabilities andfeatures. 8 Assuch,theinteractionbetweentheviewerandtheopticaldevicehad becomeasimportantaswhatwasseen;thesubjectiveviewer,whoseopticalexperience isbasedasmuchonthebodyasthemachine,wascreated.Usingtheexampleoftwo dierentinstruments,thestereoscopeandphenakistiscope, 9 Crarydescribeshowsuch technologiesupsetthesubject/objectrelationshipmanifestedfortheviewerthroughthe cameraobscura: Acrucialfeatureoftheseopticaldevicesofthe1830sand1840sistheundisguisednatureoftheiroperationalstructureandtheformofsubjectionthey entail.Eventhoughtheyprovideaccessto"thereal,"theymakenoclaimthat therealisanythingotherthanamechanicalproduction.Theopticalexperiencestheymanufactureareclearlydisjunctfromtheimagesusedinthedevice. Theyreferasmuchtothefunctionalinteractionofbodyandmachineasthey dotoexternalobjects,nomatterhow"vivid"thequalityoftheillusion. 10 Here,Craryarguesthattheinteractionbetweenthephotographerorotherviewerand thedevicerepresentstheactionofthephotographmorethanthedocumentproduced. Byadoptingasurveyor'stooltocreatelandscapephotographsBrundritforegrounds theactionofscanningandcomputinganexternalenvironment,and,indoingso,calls 7.Crary, Techniquesoftheobserver:Onvisionandmodernityinthenineteenthcentury ,3. 8.Ibid.,28. 9.Aphenakistoscopeisaproto-animationdevicethatutilizesarotatingdiscofserialimagestocreate theillusionofmotion. 10.Crary, Techniquesoftheobserver:Onvisionandmodernityinthenineteenthcentury ,30. 70

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forthassociationsbetweenlookingatthelandandassessingitspotentialforusebya colonialpowerorotherexternalentity.Isurveyedwavesintheocean,shewrites,to surveyisanactofcontrolandorder.Landissurveyed,mappedandowned. 11 Byusing hernalwaveimagestodirectattentionbacktoherprocess,Brundritmakestheactof surveying,mapping,andmotivationshersubject.Thewavephotographsportraythe representationoflandasaninteractionbetweenabodyandmachine,asdescribedby Crary,andnotanobjectiverepresentationofspace,asclaimedbyearlysurveyorsand photographerswhodocumentedtheSouthAfricancoastline.Brundrit'smethodology anduseoflandscapeimageryallowshertoexaminethecomplexhistoriesofcolonialism, dispossession,andlandownershipinSouthAfrica,andherownimbricationinthelegacy ofthoseevents. 12 Moreover,thelocationBrundritchoseforherwavephotographshassignicanceto herprojectandinformsherinterestinusinglandscapeimagestointerrogatecolonial-era mappingofSouthAfrica.Tocreateherseries,Brundritpositionedherscannernearthe GreenPointlighthouseinCapeTown,along-establishedsitealongthecity'srapidly developingcoastline.Brundrithadpreviouslyfounda1966photographofashipwrecked intheshallowstretchofoceaninfrontofGreenpoint,withthelighthousevisibleinthe backgroundFig.2-3.Forceful,whitewavesdwarfandengulfthesplinteredshipinthe historicalimage,andthesceneinspiredBrundrit'sdecisiontodocumentwaves:This photographsparkedthoughtsofthewildnessandforceofthesea,theprecariousnessof humansintheenvironmentandemphasizedthefutilityofanyattempttoexertpoweror 11.Brundrit,FollowingtheThreads:thoughtsandprocessesinmyrecentworkTheSpaceInsideand MakingtheWaves,53. 12.InaninterviewBrundritalsoreectedontherelationshipbetweenherownBritishheritageandinterestinexploringmappingandsurveyingofthewater.JeanBrundritisawhiteSouthAfricanwhose familyisofBritishdescent.Historically,theBritishdominatedexplorationoftheseasandcoastsinand aroundSouthAfrica,andthisaccessinuencedthewaysearlysettlersgainedaccessandmaintainedinuencecontrollingports,forexampleintheterritory.JeanBrundrit,interviewwithauthor,CapeTown, September17,2013. 71

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Figure2-3.PhotographerUnknown, ViewofthewreckoftheS.A.SeafareronJuly1, 1966 .Imagesource: http://6000.co.za/old-pics-of-cape-town/ controloverit.Thislentpoignancytothepointlessnessofmappingthewaves. 13 Here, Brundritdescribesasenseofaweattheforceoftheocean,particularlyinrelationtothe humanenterprisesymbolizedbythewreckedship.ColonistsarrivedinSouthAfricarst byseaandBrudrit'sexplorationofthesplitvesselatGreenpoint,thepointofrstcontact betweenEuropeansandnativeCapepopulations,furtherframesherlandscapeseriesas anexaminationofcolonialismanditslegacyinSouthAfrica.Moreover,herinterestin thebrokenshipdevelopsfailureasaleitmotifintheseriesandoersfurthercritiqueof colonialism;theshipfailedtoreachitsdestination,justassurveytechnologyfailstofully documenttheoceansurface,andherphotographsfailtorepresentwavesinarecognizable manner.Thewavestheentitytobechartedandcontrolledultimatelyasserttheir agencyasanactivesubjectthatcannotbemadesubservient. 13.Brundrit,FollowingtheThreads:thoughtsandprocessesinmyrecentworkTheSpaceInsideand MakingtheWaves,53. 72

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Brundrit'stechniqueoersoneexampleofhowcontemporarySouthAfricanphotographersuselandscapeimagestoexaminethelegacyofcolonialisminSouthAfricaand expandthepurviewofwhatmaybeconsideredalandscapeimage.Herunconventional photographsengagetheviewerthroughadynamicplayofform,butonceinformedofher process,theviewerperceivesamoreanalytical,criticalengagementwithlandinthespace oftheimage.Inadeparturefromviewingmoretraditionalrepresentationsoflandscape, Brundrit'saudienceispromptedtoreectontheprocessthroughwhichtheimagewas created,whooperatedthecamera,andperceiveadisconnectbetweentheinertsubjectin thephotographandtheactivesubjectpassinginfrontofthecameralens.Further,though notaself-describedlandscapephotographer,Brundrit'sdecisiontoexperimentwith thegenresuggestsperhapsparadoxicallyitssuitabilitytoreexaminetherelationship betweensurveyingandseizinginamannerdistinctfrompreviouswrittencritiquesofnineteenthcenturylandscapeimagesofAfricanspaces.Moreover,Brundrit'smethodologies supportinquiryintotherelationshiparticulatedbyJonathanCrarybetweenthecamera andapresumptionofattainedknowledgethatunderliesmanyearly,imperialistusesof landscapephotographyinSouthAfrica.Heruseofthree-dimensionallaserscanstransformedintolandscapeimagessubvertthispremiseand,ultimately,revealasdiscursive latitudeSouthAfricanphotographerssuchasJeanBrundritperceiveinthegenre. 2.3ActiveandActivistCaptions:CedricNunnand OneHundredYearsof Resistance Inhis2013series OneHundredYearsofResistance and2015monograph Unsettled: The100YearWarofResistancebyXhosaAgainstBoerandBritish 14 CedricNunnseeks totransformtranquilblackandwhitelandscapeimagesintodocumentsthatconveya specichistoricalperspective,oneheassertshasbeenomittedfromocialnarratives. 14.CedricNunn, Unsettled:OneHundredYearsWarofresistancebyXhosaagainstBoerandBritish Brooklyn,N.Y.:Archipelago,2015. 73

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Inthephotoessayandbook,Nunn,aprominentphotographerandco-founderofthe Afrapixphotographycollective,combinesviewsoftheEasternCapeprovincewith extendedcaptionsthatoercommentaryonthesceneanditscontents,anddescribe eventsthattookplaceintheselocationsduringthe100yearwar-1879between Xhosapeople,Afrikanersettlers,andBritishcolonialforces."Thisessaylooksattheland, whichwasoccupied,desired,defended,lost,andwon,"Nunnwritesinaprefacetothe series,"Throughrevisitingthispainfulpastinthecontemporaryscenesoftoday,this workattemptstoplacethepresentinitsfactualcontextofdispossessionandconquest." 15 OneHundredYearsofResistance and Unsettled continueNunn'slongengagementwith socially-oriented,activistsubjects,evenaspeopleorcontemporaryeventsarenotthe focusofhisseries.Hisuseandadaptationoflandscapeimagesintheprojectfurther demonstratetheutilityofworksinthisgenreforphotographersevenprominentStruggleeraartistswhowanttoexamineissuessuchaslandownershipfrommultipleperspectives. Writingofthedevelopmentofhisseries,Nunnnotesthat"itbecameapparenttomethat Iwouldhavetoengagethelandscape...thatseemedtheobviouswaytogoforme,to engagethisspaceaslandthatwascontested,landthatwasthesiteoftrauma,butland thatwasalsobeautiful,enticing,alluring." 16 CedricNunnwasborninNongoma,aruralareainnortheasternKwaZuluNatalin 1957,andhecontinuestoresideintheprovincetoday.Self-describedas%Zuluand 50%DutchandBritishancestry,Nunnwasclassiedbytheapartheidgovernmentas aCapeColoured.Nunnsaysthathefeltagreatdiscomfortwiththewholenotionof beingcategorizedascolouredbecauseIcouldn'tseewhythisdistinctdistinctionshould exist...IrememberinprimaryschoolnotbeingabletounderstandwhyitwasthatIhad tolearnAfrikaans,alanguageI'dhardlyeverheardspokenandwhyitwasthatIcouldn't 15.Nunn, Unsettled:OneHundredYearsWarofresistancebyXhosaagainstBoerandBritish ,viii. 16.Ibid.,153-4. 74

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learnZuluforinstance,alanguagethatIspoke. 17 Hewasexpelledfromschoolatthe ageof15andworkedforthenexteightyearsinasugarfactory.Hedescribestheseyears asformativeandattributestheoriginofhisinterestinsocialissuesandactivismtothis periodinhislife:Iwassweptupintheupsurgeofworkerorganizationandpoliticsofthe midtolateseventies.TheresultantpoliticizationledmetoseekawayinwhichIcould contributetothetransformationofsociety,whichIsawasofcriticalimportance. 18 The anti-apartheidcausemediatedallaspectsofNunn'searlyengagementwithphotography andacommitmenttosocialactivismcontinuestoinuenceanddrivethesubjectshe exploresthroughhiswork. 19 NunndescribestheimpactofStrugglephotographyonhis photographiccareer: Icutmyphotographicteethinso-calledStrugglephotography.Struggle photographersisanameahandfulofusacquiredforourroleindocumenting theprocessofsocietaltransitioninSouthAfrica.It'sonewewearwithpride, despitethefactthatweareprobablyalotmorethanthat.Butwhatitdoes suggestisthatwewereandareactivistphotographers,andthere'snoescaping that. 20 DuringhistimewithAfrapixNunncreatedsomeofthemostrecognizedimagesassociated withthecollective.Inparticular,imagessuchas Funeraloftwocomradeyouthabducted andkilledintheNatalWar,Mpophomeni,KwaZulu-Natal,1987 Fig.2-4,characterize 17.CedricNunn,unpublishedinterviewwithPaulWeinberg,2012. 18.SeanJacobsandCedricNunn,SeanJacobsinconversationwithCedricNunn, SocialDynamics 37, no.2:278. 19.Nunnbeganhisstudyofphotographyintheearly1980safterheviewedaportfolioofimagesbythen Technikonstudentandlaterco-founderofAfrapix,PeterMcKenzie.McKenzie'swork,whichdocumented aspectsofdailylifeunderapartheidfornon-whiteSouthAfricansinpresent-dayKwaZuluNatal,exposed himtoanewkindofimagery,onethatalignedwithhisactivistinclinations.Nunnsays:Photography cameasabitofanepiphany...IwokeuponemorningandrealizedthatthiswassomethingthatIcould do,specicallytoengagewiththesocialrealitiesofthetime.See:WeinbergandGodby, Then&now: EightSouthAfricanphotographers ,73.WithMcKenzie'shelp,Nunnbegantostudyphotographyand workedcloselywithothermembersofthesociallycommittedphotographycollective,Afrapix. 20.CedricNunn, Struggle ,accessedNovember15,2015, http://www.cedricnunn.co.za/essays/struggle. html . 75

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theformally-rich,potentphotographicoutputNunncontributedtotheorganization.Here, setagainstarurallandscape,ayouthcarryingacrossleadsafuneralprocessionaway fromthecamera'sview.Behindhim,agroupofyoungblackmenholdingaconon theirshouldersfollowthepathsetbytheraisedcross;noneoftheirfacesarevisible.The horizontalstretchofconpullstheviewerintotheframebehindthele,anddrawsthem intothemarch.Nunn'scompositionintegratesviewersintotheprocession,andencourages themtoempathizewiththemourners.Inthisseriesandwithfewexceptions,Nunn continuestousethe35mmblackandwhiteanalogprocesseswithwhichherstbegan and,perhapsmorethanmostAfrapixphotographers,continuestodocumentsubjectshe rstexploredthroughhiscamera:ruralareasinKwaZuluNatalandtheissuesthataect thepeoplewholivethere. 21 TherstiterationoftheblackandwhiteseriesOneHundredYearsofResistance wasrealizedinconjunctionwithacollaborativeprojectbetweentheMarketPhotography WorkshopandtheFrenchorganizationRecontresd'Arles,entitledtheSocialLandscape Project. 22 OrganizersdescribetheSocialLandscapeProjectasanengagementwith 21.IntheyearssinceAfrapixdissolvedandtheendofApartheidin1994,Nunnhascompletedprojects relatedtolandresettlement,farmworkers,andlifeinKwaZuluNatal.Nunndescribeshispost-Apartheid artisticpathasfollows:Ifoundmyselfworkingonruralissuesand,ofcourse,inSouthAfricainparticular,theblackruralareaswerethedumpinggrounds,wereareasindeepneed....Butonealsofoundin theruralareasacloseness,asenseofidentitythatpeoplehadandaclosenesstopeople'sculturalvalues. AndIrelatedtothat,Ihadgrownuparoundthat...sothoseweretheareas,myareasthatarrestedme. CedricNunn,unpublishedinterviewwithPaulWeinberg,2012. 22.TheSocialLandscapeProjectwassupportedthroughtheFrench-SouthAfricaSeasonsof2013and 2013andspurredtwosub-projects,includingTransitions,inwhichCedricNunntookpart.Thenalexhibitionincludedphotographsfromalltwelveartistsanddebutedatthe2013Rencontresd'ArlesPhotographyFestivalinFrance.Allimageswerepublishedtogetherinthemonograph Transition ,whichincluded interviewswithallphotographersandanessayfromSouthAfricanarthistorian,MichaelGodby.Cedric Nunnnotes,however,thattheideafortheprojectprecededhisinvolvementwiththeSocialLandscape Project.NunncitesaconversationatanexhibitionopeninginBerlinwithMakhenkesiStole,South AfricanAmbassadortoGermanyasimpetusfortheseries."Inmychattohimafterwards,"Nunnwrites, "IrealizedhowlittleIknewoftheEasternCapegenerally,anditdawnedonmethattherehadbeen thisincredibleconictthathadshapedthisregion,andinfactSouthAfrica,fundamentally."See:Nunn, Unsettled:OneHundredYearsWarofresistancebyXhosaagainstBoerandBritish ,151. 76

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Figure2-4.CedricNunn, FuneraloftwocomradeyouthabductedandkilledintheNatal War,Mpophomeni,KwaZulu-Natal,1987 ,1987,Silvergelatinprint. theSouthAfricanLandandthepeoplewholiveonit. 23 NunnandveotherSouth AfricanphotographerseachpartneredwithaFrenchphotographer.Eachpairwastasked torepresentadierentregioninSouthAfrica. 24 TheSocialLandscapeprojectaimed totakepartinabroader,nation-widedialogsurroundingcentenaryofthe1913Natives LandAct,legislationthatiscloselyassociatedwiththedispossessionofAfricanlandand creationofreserveareasthatconnedAfricanstoaminimalpercentageofthenation's territory.Nunnreectsontheconnectionbetweenhiscontributiontotheprojectandthe 1913NativesLandAct:Itookthisseriestobeanopportunitytoreectonthisstate, 23.MarketPhotographyWorkshop, SocialLandscape:TransitionandShowUsYourLand ,November 2015, http://www.marketphotoworkshop.co.za/exhibitions/entry/social-landscape-transition-and-show-us-ourland . 24.Thepairsdidnothavetophotographthesamecontent,butdidneedtoworkinthesamelocation. Neitherphotographerhadpreviousconnectionswiththeirassignedcollaborator,norwerethepairsnecessarilyabletocommunicatewhenworkingtogetherduetolanguagebarriers. 77

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andtoplacethe1913LandActincontext,whichwasthatofanallegislationtonish whathadbeenalongtimeinthemaking. 25 Nunn'sworkfortheSocialLandscapeprojectdieredfromotherpresentationsof theFrench-SouthAfricanpairsinitsuseofextensivetextalongsidelandscapeimages,a practicethathecontinuesintothe Unsettled monograph.WiththeexceptionofSantu Mofokeng,theotherphotographerswhotookpartinSocialLandscapeusedminimal captions,iftheysuppliedthematall. 26 Nunn'sannotationsserveaprimaryrather thansupportingrolewithinhisseries:theyunifyhisdisparateEasternCapelandscapes, narratethehistoricaleventsspecictoeachphotograph,provideaccountsofthemilitary eventsthatoccurredinthesitespictured,and,attimes,oerforcefulcommentaryonthe relationshipofthepresent-dayscenetoitshistoricalantecedent.Forexample,toanimage ofarolling,rurallandscapebeyondanerodedbrickwall,Nunnattaches:Viewfromthe ruinsofabarracksoccupiedbytheBritish,oftheUmgwangqabattleeld.Mahala,sonof Ndlambe,ledhisforcesagainsttheBritishhereinoneofthemanybattlesthatcomprised thehundredyearwarofresistance.Peddie,EasternCapeFig.2-5. 27 2.3.1UseofExtendedCaptionsin OneHundredYearsofResistance Nunn'smethodologyhisuseofextendedcaptionsinconjunctionwithblackand whiteimagesoflandscapesisimportantfortwokeyreasons.First,byadaptingtext todriveaspecicreadingofthelandscape,Nunnidentiesawaytousephotographs oflandtocommunicateanactivist,instrumentalistmessagetohisviewer,andindoing 25.CedricNunnandJeanneFouchet-Nahas,OneHundredYearsofResistance,in Transition , Editions XavierBarral,ed.MarketPhotographyWorkshopandRencontresinternationalesdelaPhotograpie Paris,2013,82. 26.Mofokeng'simagesincludeddescriptivelabelssometimesandafewextendfor1-2sentences.Yet,his captions,unlikethosefromCedricNunn,contextualizethescenedepictedincurrenttimesandadvance nospecicagenda.Forexample,Mofokenglabelsanimageofananti-frackingmessageinaroominsidea church:NoFrackingWay.Adetailofthechurchhallwhereaworkshopforanti-frackingwasheldinNieu Bethesda. 27.NunnandFouchet-Nahas,OneHundredYearsofResistance,86. 78

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Figure2-5.CedricNunn,untitledimagefrom OneHundredYearsofResistance,2013 . Silvergelatinprint.Nunn'soriginalcaption: Viewfromtheruinsofabarracks occupiedbytheBritish,oftheUmgwangqabattleeld.Mahala,sonofNdlambe, ledhisforcesagainsttheBritishhereinoneofthemanybattlesthatcomprised thehundredyearwarofresistance.Peddie,EasternCape. so,repurposeslandscapeimagerytofulllarolepreviouslyaddressedthroughsocial documentaryphotographyinSouthAfrica.RolandBarthesobservesthatalthoughtext mostoftenampliesasetofconnotationsinaphotograph,thetextcanalsoproduce anentirelynewsigniedsuchthatitappearsdenotedthere. 28 Similarly,LizWells observesthatcaptionsdonotjustanchoranimage,butwritingconstitutesafurther signierwithinthecomplexinteractionofdiscourseswithwhichthespectatorengages. 29 NunnutilizesthiscapacitytoreformhowhisviewerslookatthescenestoincludeaXhosa historicalcontext.Second,Nunn'smethodspresentabroaderstrategyforcreatingsocial 28.RolandBarthes,ThePhotographicMessage,in SelectedWritings ,ed.SusanSontagLondon: Fontana,1989,206. 29.Wells, Photography:acriticalintroduction ,292. 79

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documentaryworkthroughlandscapewithoutneedingtodepictspecic,disadvantaged persons,aswasthewayofworkingunderapartheid.CriticssuchasMarthaRoslerhave longadvocatedforsuchatransformationinsocialdocumentarypractice,onethatwould capitalizeonthepotentialofthephotographicmediumanddocumentarystyletoadvocate forpositivechange,whilenotneedingtoimplicateindividualsandtheirpersonalstoriesto generateempathyfromtheviewer.NunnuseshiscaptionstoremindviewersthatXhosa peopleresistedconscationoftheirlandandfoughthardagainstitsseizurebycolonists, ahistorythatNunnbelieveshasrelevanceforcurrentEasternCaperesidentsandXhosa descendantsandallSouthAfricans. 30 Whetherwetryandbrushitunderthecarpetthe legacyremainswithustillthisday,heasserts: TheperiodI'veconcentratedon,from1779to1879,andtermedthe100year war,wasjustpartoftheprocessofthetheftoflandfromtheindigenous peoples.Thisevent...hassimplybeenexorcisedfromourmemory,andIwant itrmlyinourconsciousness.Ihopethatitwillmakeusclear-sightedenough tobeabletomoveforwardtohealandrebuildaverydamagedsociety. 31 NunnarguesthatexaminingthelandscapethroughtheperspectiveoftheXhosaresistancealsodiversiesdominanthistoricalnarrativesoftheprovinceanditsresidents: Whenwelookatthetracksofhistorythatarethere,thecanonifyoulike,weareoftenlookingathistoryfromaparticularperspectiveandthereisreallyabigneedto reinvestigateallthesehistoriesandtotellthemfrommoreandmoreperspectives. 32 TheresistancestagedovernineseparatewarsbytheXhosapeoplerepresentedan unprecedenteddeanceeortinSouthAfrica,oneunmatchedinnumbersuntilthe1976 studentprotestsinSoweto.TheCapeFrontierwarsastheyaresometimesknown betweenCapeColonistsandXhosapeopleintheareapresentlyknownastheEastern 30.TheEasternCapeprovinceispredominantlypopulatedbyXhosa-speakingpeople. 31.NunnandFouchet-Nahas,OneHundredYearsofResistance,82. 32.CedricNunn, GalleryTalk:Unsettled:OnehundredyearsWarofResistancebyXhosaAgainstBoer andBritish ,WitsArtMuseum,March10,2015. 80

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CapeprovincerepresentoneofthelongestresistanceeortsbyAfricanpeopleagainst Europeanintrusions.ThoughtheXhosawerevictoriousagainstAfrikanersettlersand Britishcolonialforcesatpointsduringthehundred-yearperiod,theconictendedwith annexationoftheXhosaterritoriesbytheCapeColonyandsubjugationofitspeople. 33 TheblackandwhitelandscapesinOneHundredYearsofResistancepiecetogether ageneralizedportraitofaruralenvironmentstrewnwithruins,socialscarsofcolonialist architectureandtownshipsettlements,andovergrazedelds.Theunidentiedvoice inNunn'scaptionsrelatesastoryofXhosaresistance:Itriedtocomeinwhichisin keepingwithmygeneralapproachinmywork[and]givevoicetothevoiceless,Nunn asserts;Itriedtogiveaperspectivethatwasanimaginedperspective,ifyoulike,of thevanquishedXhosaandIdedicatethiswholeprojecttotheancestorswhofellin defenseoftheirland. 34 Insomecaptions,thevoicecelebratesandinothersitlaments aperceiveddisconnectbetweenthehistoryofresistanceandcontemporaryattitudes towardsthelandscape.Forexample,oneimageoftheseriesdepictsanopenlotthat containsasmall,fenced-omonumentanditscaptionlamentsthestateofthescene. Fig.2-6.Surroundedbysmalltrees,perimetersecuritywalls,andwashed-outwhite houses, 35 thestonememorialappearsasaforgottenrelicofanearliersettlement,one thatprecededthegrowthoffacelessresidentialproperties.Nunn'scaptionreads:The memorialtotheCattleKillingandGreatFamineofthe100yearwar.Thismemorial, whichliesinthemassburialsiteandtowncemeteryisasadindictmentofourattitude tomemoryandremembering.KingWilliamstown,EasternCape.Nunn'scaption 33.ForadiscussionoftheninewarsthattookplacebetweentheXhosaandbothBoerandBritish forces,see:Thompson, AhistoryofSouthAfrica ,73-80;TheEditorsofEncyclop diaBritannica, Cape FrontierWars ,September2014, http://www.britannica.com/event/Cape-Frontier-Wars . 34.Nunn, GalleryTalk:Unsettled:OnehundredyearsWarofResistancebyXhosaAgainstBoerand British . 35.Theterm"washed-out"isusedbyphotographerstodescribehighlightareasofablackandwhite imagethatlackdetail.Manyphotographerswillalsodescribetheseareasas"hot." 81

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Figure2-6.CedricNunn,untitledimagefrom OneHundredYearsofResistance,2013 . Silvergelatinprint.Originalcaption:ThememorialtotheCattleKillingand GreatFamineofthe100yearwar.Thismemorial,whichliesinthemass burialsiteandtowncemeteryisasadindictmentofourattitudetomemory andremembering.KingWilliamstown,EasternCape. mournsalackofconnectionbetweentheeventsandcontemporarycommunitiesofXhosa descendants,aseparationpronouncedinhisphotograph.Themajorityoftheframe's contentshortgrasses,weeds,dirtpaths,andtiretracksdwarfthemodestmonument. Nunn'scompositionemphasizestheemptyspacearoundthemarker,agesturethatechoes theperspectivevoicedinthecaption. AnotherphotographtakenfromthetopoftheAmatolaMountainsdemonstrates theeasewithwhichNunnmoldstheEasternCapelandscapesinthevisionarticulatedin thecaptions.Incontrasttosocialdocumentaryimages,landscapesallowNunntobring togetheracontemporaryviewwithahistoricalvoiceandforgethetwoelementsintoan engagingnarrative,onethatengageswithSimonShama'sobservationaboutlandscape: onceacertainideaoflandscape,amyth,avision,establishesitselfinanactualplace, ithasapeculiarwayofmuddlingcategories,ofmakingmetaphorsmorerealthantheir 82

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referents;ofbecomingpartofthescenery. 36 Inthisphotographaslopingedgefroman unpicturedpeakextendsfromtheupper-leftsideoftheframedownacrosstheimage foreground,andseparatesthehillsidefromthehazyvalleybelowFig.2-7.Thecaption states:LookingouttowardsFortHarefromtheAmatolaMountains.Itisfromvantage pointssuchasthisthattheXhosageneralscommandedtheirresistancetotheBritish colonialandmilitaryaggression.AmatolaMountains,EasternCape.Here,Nunnadopts theromanticlandscapeconventionofasingle,reectiveobserverwhoreceivesanopen environmentbelowhisview,andredirectsittopositiontheviewerinimaginaryalignment withtheXhosagenerals. 37 TherstphotographinNunn'sseriesoersanotherexample ofhisadoptionoflandscapeconventionstocommunicateadynamichistoryofXhosa ResistanceFig.2-8.Here,thedirtroadsetwithinanopenviewofarurallandscape propelstheviewertowardsanunseendestinationwithinthesoftlylitmountains.The scenicphotographrecallsthescaleandformofthepicturesque,andportraysthearea wheretheconictbetweenColonistsandXhosabeganasatranquilspace.Astherst imageinthecollection,however,thescenealsointroducesNunn'sintentwiththeseries: toleadtheviewerdeepintotheEasternCapelandscape,beyondtheirpreconceptions orassociations,andintothepast.Liketheroadthatleadstoapointbeyondtheframe, throughouttheseriesNunn'sphotographs,inaneorttohighlightthetracesofXhosa resistance,consistentlydirecttheviewertosomethingmythicandunpictured. ThelengthycaptionsalsorevealwaysNunninterpretstheEasternCapelandscapeas acontainerofmemoryandhistoriesataremovefromtheuniformedviewer.Throughout 36.SimonSchama, Landscapeandmemory London:HarperPerennial,2004,61. 37.InhiswritingsontheseriesNunndescribeshiswishthatthroughthephotographs,viewerswillgain knowledgeofXhosawarriorsandtheirvalentresistanceagainstBritishandBoerghters.Henotesthat "inourpopularimaginationweseetheZuluastheepitomeoftheAfricanwarrior,whenitistheSan,the Khoi,andparticularlytheXhosathataremoredeservingofthetitle.Anynationthatcouldstaveothe admittedlysuperiorarmstechnologyoftheBritishforaperiodofonehundredyearsdeservesrecognition. see:Nunn, Unsettled:OneHundredYearsWarofresistancebyXhosaagainstBoerandBritish ,viii. 83

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Figure2-7.CedricNunn,untitledimagefrom OneHundredYearsofResistance,2013 . Silvergelatinprint.Originalcaption:LookingouttowardsFortHarefromthe AmatolaMountains.ItisfromvantagepointssuchasthisthattheXhosa generalscommandedtheirresistancetotheBritishcolonialandmilitary aggression.AmatolaMountains,EasternCape. theseries,forexample,Nunnusesthepairedtexttodescribethephysicaldistanceof hisscenefromsettlements,asiftodrawacomparisonbetweentherelegatedmonuments andbattleeldsandtheXhosahistoryofresistance,whichsitsoutsidetheattentionof contemporarySouthAfricans.Throughhiscaptions,Nunnalsointroducesatimelinefor thescenesthatsituatesthephotographsbeyondthemomentofexposure.Fig.2-9.For example,foraphotographofcattlegrazinginfrontofamonumentindisrepair,Nunn writes: NtabakaNdoda,inthevicinityofDimzabatownship.NtabakaNdodawas namedbytheKhoisanChiefNdoda,wholivedonthemountaininthemid1750s,andwaskilledinbattlebytheXhosaKingRharhabe.Itwasalso thesiteofthenalbattlesofthe100YearsWar.SEKMqhayi,theXhosa nationalpoet,composedafamouspoempraisingthemountain.Sincethe 84

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Figure2-8.CedricNunn,untitledimagefrom OneHundredYearsofResistance,2013 . Silvergelatinprint.Originalcaption:TheroadtoSomersetEastand BruintjieshoogteandtheBoschbergrange.The100YearsWarbetweenthe ColonyandXhosa-1878beganinthisregion.Theseriesofclashes historicallyknownastheFrontierWarsdatebackto1779whenXhosapeople, BoersandtheBritishclashedintermittentlyfornearlyacentury.Thesewere largelyduetocolonialexpansionwhicheventuallydispossessedtheSan, KhoikhoiandXhosapeoplesoftheirlandandlivestock,amongotherthings. falloftheCiskeihomeland,thesitehasfallenintodisuse,thoughperiodic attemptsaremadetorehabilitateit.Dimbaza,DebeNek. 38 Here,Nunnoersacontextforthescenethatincludeseventsfromtheeighteenth-century uptothepresent.Further,inthisandinothercaptions,thetextexplainsorgivesbroader contexttopotentiallyunsightlysubjectmatter,suchasovergrazedeldsordilapidated structures. ForNunn,theOneHundredYearsofResistanceseries,evenasitforegroundswhat wasultimatelyanunsuccessfulattempttomaintainsovereignty,servestoremindviewers 38.Nunn, Unsettled:OneHundredYearsWarofresistancebyXhosaagainstBoerandBritish ,120. 85

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Figure2-9.CedricNunn,untitledimagefrom OneHundredYearsofResistance,2013 . Silvergelatinprint.Originalcaption:NtabakaNdoda,inthevicinityof Dimzabatownship.NtabakaNdodawasnamedbytheKhoisanChiefNdoda, wholivedonthemountaininthemid-1750s,andwaskilledinbattlebythe XhosaKingRharhabe.Itwasalsothesiteofthenalbattlesofthe100Years War.SEKMqhayi,theXhosanationalpoet,composedafamouspoem praisingthemountain.SincethefalloftheCiskeihomeland,thesitehasfallen intodisuse,thoughperiodicattemptsaremadetorehabilitateit.Dimbaza, DebeNek. ofalegacyofoppositiontoforeignforcesassociatedwiththisrural,impoverishedregionof SouthAfrica.Thecaptionsredirectthereadingofthelandscapefromitsstereotypesas Nunndescribes,afailedstate,acorruptprovince,Fullofpotholes,dysfunctional hospitals,corruptleadership 39 towardsaninterpretationoftheareasrepresentedinhis photographsasthesiteofaninspirationalnarrativeofindigenousresistanceofoutside aggressors.NunnwantstorecastthedepictedEasternCapesettingsinthemindofhis viewertoconnotethespiritandfortitudeoftheXhosapeople. 39.Nunn, GalleryTalk:Unsettled:OnehundredyearsWarofResistancebyXhosaAgainstBoerand British . 86

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2.3.2ConnectionsbetweenOneHundredYearsofResistanceandSocial DocumentaryPractice Nunn'sassertionthattheseriesshouldfunctionasareminderndsresonancewith hisApartheid-erapracticeandactivistrootsformedasaworkerinthesugarfactory.The imagesconformtothebroaderspiritandvisuallanguageofNunn'ssocialdocumentary work.Hisseriesismadeupofphotographsoflandscapes,buildings,andmemorials,and afewimagesofpeople.Theblackandwhiteimagesrevealedacontemporaryviewof EasternCapesiteswhosehistoricalsignicanceisunknowntomanySouthAfricans.Just asthedailystrugglesofblackAfricanswereshowntoSouthAfricansoutsidetherural communitiesandtheworldduringapartheid,hislandscapeimagesareintendedtoreveal ahistoryNunnbelievesissuppressed.Further,Nunnaimstousehisphotographyto challengenewsystemicformsofoppressionaectingSouthAfricans.Inhisview,manyof thesamerepressivestructuresadvancedunderapartheidcontinuetotodayunderdierent names,supportedbythedemocraticallyelectedAfricanNationalConferencegovernment: SouthAfricaisgrippedbyaneedtoreinventitselfasa`world-classAfrican Country',andtodothisinthecontextoftheparadigmithasembraced, namelythecapitalismmodel...Inkeepingwiththismodel,evengovernment departmentsandmanyNGO'shaveadoptedtheconceptofpublicrelations andadvertisingwholeheartedly...Youngpeoplearemeanttoreconstruct themselvesasshiningstarsofthis`newparadigm',andthemajoritywhofailto dosoareseenasfailures,tonlytolabourintheworkplaceandbehappythat theyatleasthaveajob. 40 Nunn'sremarksarticulateacriticalpositionthatdirectlyinformshisphotographic practice:aconcernfortheworker,ruralcommunities,andotherslackingskillsetsor educationnecessarytoparticipateinanindustrialized,globaleconomy.Hisinterestin advocatingfortheseindividualstrumpsidealismtowardsthepromisesofmajorityrule, andrevealscontinuityinhissocialdocumentarypracticebeyondthegenreitselfonethat allowsfortheuseoflandscapeimageryifitraisesawarenessandadvancessocialjustice. 40.JacobsandNunn,SeanJacobsinconversationwithCedricNunn,280. 87

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TheeasewithwhichthelandscapeinNunn'sphotographscanbetransformedinthe mindsoftheviewerthroughcaptioningshowshow,likedocumentaryphotographs,landscapescanserveinstrumentalistaims,andtwithintheworkofactivistphotographers. Nunnadmitsthatworkingwithlandscapedivergesfrompreviousseries,butacknowledges thathisdecisiontoadoptthisgenrewasstrategic;inlandscapehefoundvisualmeansto engagethecomplex,timely,andlayeredhistoryoflanddispossessioninSouthAfrica: Ihavealwaysfeltchallengedbylandscape...Butthereisarealneedforus, thedispossessed,toengageinthelandscape,becauseitissocharged.Itisa desiredspaceandhasbeencolonized,controlled,owned,andinterpretedin morewaysthanone.Weneedtoregainouragencyoverit,putourownstamp onitifyouwill,reinventitwithourmeanings. 41 ForNunn,landscapephotographyisbothamethodandresourceforaddressinganenduringcause:thecoloniallegacythatcontinuestoimpactdemocraticSouthAfricaand obscureindigenoushistories,suchastheXhosaresistance.Thedepictionofspacespaired togetherwithextendedcaptionsinaspectsoftheformatofOneHundredYearsofResistanceresonatewithMarthaRosler'sseriesTheBoweryinTwoInadequateDescriptive Systems-5,whichcombinesimagesofstorefrontsinNewYork'sBoweryneighborhoodtogetherwithlistsofsynonymsfordrunk.Roslerphotographsemptyliquorbottles andassorteddetritusthatsuggestvagrancyandjuxtaposestheseimageswithlistsof wordssuchasdeadsoldiers,deadmarines.Herseriesgrewoutofconcernoverwhatshe describesasvictimphotographyintheBowery,whereinartstudentsandotherartists traveltotheBowerytophotographbumsfordisplayongalleryormuseumwalls.Rosler arguesthatsuchwork,acceptedassocialdocumentary,neitheroersinsightintothe subject,nordoesitworktoalleviatetheconditionsrepresented:Ifimpoverishmentisa subjecthere,itismorecentrallytheimpoverishmentofrepresentationalstrategies...than 41.NunnandFouchet-Nahas,OneHundredYearsofResistance,82. 88

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thatofamodeofsurviving.Thephotographsarepowerlesstodealwiththerealitythatis yettotallycomprehendedinadvancebyideology. 42 ByremovingthehumangureinherownworkabouttheBowery,Roslerchallenges theviewertoimaginethedrunkorbuminherserieswithoutneedingtomakea realpersonbearalabelandreadingtowhichtheyhavenoinput.Therearenostolen imagesinthisbook,shewrites,Whatcouldyoulearnfromthemthatyoudidn'talready know? 43 LikeRosler,inOneHundredYearsofResistanceNunnaimstoexplorea complexissuethroughmetaphorandanalogy,andrefrainfromwhatmaybeproblematic depictionsofSouthAfrica'spoorestprovince.Inhisseries,Nunnrefrainsfromportraying detailsofthosewholiveinthisregion,manyofwhomsuerfromlimitedeconomicand educationalopportunities, 44 ordocumenthisowninterpretationoftheimpactofXhosa defeatandcolonialruleoncontemporarypopulations. 45 Instead,Nunnuseslandscapes andhistoricaldescriptionstoforegroundanddirecttheviewertointerpretthespaces throughthehistoriesofthehundred-yearwar.ThereferencesNunnintroducesreframethe conversationoftheEasternCapeandXhosapeople,andbringimportantcontexttothe rootcausesofissuesfacingtheregionsuchastherelationshipbetweenlanddispossession, 42.MarthaRosler,In,around,andafterthoughtsondocumentaryphotography,in TheContestof meaning:CriticalHistoriesofPhotography ,ed.RichardBoltonCambridge,Mass.:MITPress,1989,322. 43.Ibid.,323. 44.UnemploymentratesintheEasternCapehoveraround28%ofthepopulation,oneofthehighest ratesintheSouthAfrica.AccordingtoocialsattheSouthAfricanDepartmentofEconomicDevelopmentandEnvironmentalAairs,theEasternCapeprovinceranksasthemostimpoverishedprovince inSouthAfrica,basedonestimatesmadeusingtheFuzzyIndexofPovertyFIP,ameasurethatuses twelvenon-monetaryindicatorsofwell-being:employment,municipalservicessuchasrefusecollection,accesstowater,accesstotoilet,andaccesstoelectricityforlighting,cooking,andheating,typeof dwelling,education,income,householdsize,andaccesstomeansofcommunicationsuchascellphones. See:EnvironmentalAairs&TourismOceEconomicDevelopment, TheEasternCapeSocio-Economic Review&Outlook ,technicalreportProvinceoftheEasternCape,2013, http://www.dedea.gov.za/ research/Research/Eastern%5C%20Cape%5C%20Socio-Economic%5C%20Review%5C%20and%5C% 20Outlook%5C%202013.pdf . 45.CedricNunnstatesthat...peoplearenotthemainfocus,sotheymakeonlyinfrequent,andsometimesperipheralappearances.NunnandFouchet-Nahas,OneHundredYearsofResistance,83. 89

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overcrowings,andovergrazingthatgobeyondwhathecoulddepictinadocumentary image.LikeRosler'sBoweryseries,Nunn'sformatultimatelyredirectsfocustotheviewer andimplicatestheminthereadingofthelandscape.Byaskingtheviewertoengagewith thelandscapethroughawrittenreferencetoanunseenhistory,Nunnrecaststheviewer's experiencefromthevisualconsumptionofotherpeopleandimpoverishedsettingstoan activeengagement. Nunn'spracticeinOneHundredYearsofResistanceoersinsightintoways contemporarySouthAfricanphotographersareadaptingapartheid-erapracticestoapostapartheidsetting.SeriessuchasOneHundredYearsofResistancesuggestthatthereis greatercontinuitybetween1980sphotographicoutputandcontemporarypracticesthan oftenperceivedandarguefortheimportanceoflandscapeasalinkbetweenthetwoeras inSouthAfricanphotography,particularlyforsocialdocumentaryartists.Inthisinstance, landscapeimagessupportedNunn'seorttoexaminethehistoryofamarginalizedhistory andpeopleinSouthAfricawithoutneedingtouseasingle,linearnarrativetoadvocate forgreaterawarenessandaction.InSouthAfricaimagesoflandcallforthassociations ofcolonialismanddispossession;nevertheless,asobservedinNunn'sseries,imagesof landaremultivalentandareresponsivetothecontextinwhichtheyarepresented,and, throughadaptationssuchasextensivecaptioning,artistscanusethemtoassertactivist agendas. 2.4FranckiBurger,Belonging,andtheConstructionofLandscape FranckiBurger's2008landscapeseriesBelongingbringstogetherfourgroupsof abstractedlandscapeimages,eachaimedatexploringbothpersonalandcollectiveconnectionstolandinSouthAfrica,and,inparticular,thoseofAfrikanersettlers.Iam 90

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interestedinhowvisualimagesshapedthegeographicalimaginationofplaceandbelonginginSouthAfricaduringcolonialismandapartheid,shewrites. 46 AccordingtoBurger, aninvestigationofthissubjectisimportantbecauseshebelievesthatphotographyasa meansofassertingplacecanpositivelycontributetothereimaginationandremakingof thelandtoattainapossiblecommonidentityinamulticulturallandscape. 47 BurgerusesarangeofphotographicmethodswithintheBelongingseries:inLand, Veld,andMagersfontein,shecombinesarchivalimageryfromtheSouthAfricanWar -1902withherownnegativesoftheKaroolandscapeindierentarrangements;in HidessheabstractsgemsbokskinstoappearasaerialphotographsofthearidKalahari andprintsthemincolor.Nevertheless,Burgercreatesthemajorityofherworksinthe darkroomusingber-basedpaper, 48 andsheoftencombinesphotographsintolarger compositions. Burgerbuildsherimagesinthedarkroombyexposingmultiplenegativesonsingle sheetsofpaperthatarethenjoinedtogetherwithotherimagestocreatelargerworks thatconveyacomplex,butcoherentnalphotographicimage. 49 Theadditiveprocess distinctfromamoretraditionaltakingofalandscapeimageandreproducingitasa singlephotographconstitutesanalternativemethodandsetsBurger'spracticeinthis andotherprojectsapartfromherpeerswhoworkwithdigitalimagesandthosewho uselandscapeimagery.HerhandisevidentinallpartsoftheBelongingseries,andher 46.FranckiBurger,OnBelonging:LandscapeandphotographyinSouthAfricaMastersofFineArts byDissertation,UniversityoftheWitwatersrand,2008,10. 47.Ibid. 48.Fiber-basedisatermusedtodescribeatypeofdarkroompapermadeupofapaperbaseanda barytacoating.ThewordBarytaderivesfromthemineralbarite,aformofwhichisusedtocreatethe barytacoatingacombinationofbariumandstrontiumsulfates.Fiber-basedpaperisahighqualityphotographicoutputmaterialthatisdistinctfromResin-coatedpapers,acheaperdarkroompapermadeup ofapaperbaseputbetweentwopolyethylenelayers. 49.Burger,OnBelonging:LandscapeandphotographyinSouthAfrica,13. 91

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Figure2-10.FranckiBurger, AbsenceIII ,fromBelongingseries,2006,hand-printed silvergelatinprints,20x20cm processesconveytheKaroolandscapeasasiteoftactileencounter.Thephotographs foregroundthetextureofthedry,desertveld,andurgetheviewertointerpretthe environmentbyfeelingitspatternofstoneandsand,asexempliedinimagessuchas AbsenceIII Fig.2-10. HercompositionsinBelongingandotherseriesshiftbetweenfamiliarandunfamiliar presentationsoflandanddepictalandscapethatisseeminglyknowable,yetvolatile.The resultofthisdarkroomprocess,shewrites,isaphotographicprintthatacknowledges someofthephotograph'sfunctionasatraceofthereal,butoncloserinspectionhowever,thisbecomeslessstable. 50 ThevisualinstabilityBurgerintroducesthroughher methodsallowshertobringtogethermultipleviewsoflandscapestheindividualandthe grouporcollectiveintoasingleimage.Theoscillationsofscale,viewpoint,andpresent day/archivalimageryeectivelytransformthelandscapephotographfromasingular depictionofanenvironmentinaparticulartimeintoasiteofconuencebetweendierent memoriesandperspectivesoftheland.Hertechniquedrawsuponthemalleabilityofthe 50.Burger,OnBelonging:LandscapeandphotographyinSouthAfrica,75. 92

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landscapeform,andthisuidityallowsBurgertoconstructanimagined,hybridenvironmentappropriateforreectionoverandadiscussionoflandandbelonging,questionsat theheartofherpractice. ThemethodsBurgerusesinBelongingstemfromaninterestinthesurfaceand depthofaphotographicprint.Aphotographicimageshewrites,maycontainlayersof meaning`underneath'itsimmediateperceivedphysicalsurface. 51 Herattentiontothe strataofphotographsconnectstolargerquestionsaboutlandscapeasaplacethatbuilds andhoststheidentityofpeopleandgroupsinSouthAfricanhistory.ForBurger,the layersinanimageformananalogyofmemory,andthewaysmultiplememoriesoverlapon tothesameplaces. 52 ArthistorianRoryBesterwritesaboutBurger'sprocessandthewayinwhichit bothengagestheviewerandconveysaphilosophicalreadingoflandscape.Hesuggests thathermethodofstackingnegativesattempt[s]tocreateavisualconcurrencewith themateriallayeringoftimeonthelandscapeitself,aswellasthepsychiclayering thatcomesfromseeingandrememberingalandscapeinthemind. 53 Hedescribes herworkarcheologicallyasdiggingwithinasheetofpaperandarguesthatshe unravelstheconventionsandexpectationsofstraightphotographytoindexandevidence space,andinsteadusestheexperimentalwidthofthemediumtoimaginehistorical andcontemporaryformsofbelongingthatareresidentwithnarrativeuncertainties. 54 Bester'sanalysishighlightsthewayBurger'sprocessesmirrorherperceptionoflandas 51.Burger,OnBelonging:LandscapeandphotographyinSouthAfrica,11. 52.Ibid.,10. 53.RoryBester,Diggingwithinasheetofpaper,in FranckiBurger:Belonging Johannesburg:EverardRead,2008,8. 54.Ibid. 93

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dynamicentitythatneedstobeexplored,touched,andimaginedtobefullyrealizedfora viewer. FranckiBurgerwasborninJohannesburg,SouthAfricain1966,butspenther formativeyearsinKimberley,theprovincialcapitaloftheruralNorthernCapeProvince. ThelandscapeofthisregionoftheUpperKaroodeeplyimpactedheridentityasan Afrikaans-speakingSouthAfrican,andspurredherartisticinterestinlandscapeandits representation.Shelovinglyrecallsvisitstothearidgrasslandswithhergrandfather,who tookheronwalksthroughtheveld. 55 Burgerattributesherperceptionofthelandas anarchiveofpastexperiencesandanchorofculturalidentitytotheseearlyencounters intheveldwithhergrandfather.Shewrites:Istartedtolookatthelandscapeasa `site',asurfacethatcouldbeinvestigatedforpossibletracesofthepastthataresensed, ratherthanseen. 56 EarlyoninBurger'slife,shebelievedthattheinterpretationand representationoflandshouldengagethewholebody. Burgerbeganherartisticcareermanyyearsafterleavinguniversity.Afteryearsin Kimberley,BurgerreturnedtoJohannesburg,wheresheliveduntilshematriculatedin 1984.ShemovedtoStellenboschshortlythereafterforuniversityandfollowinggraduation shetraveledtoItalyandbegantostudyphotographyfull-time.ShereturnedtoSouth Africainlate1989,andworkedasapressphotographerfor DieBeeld , 57 anAfrikaanslanguagedailynewspaperinJohannesburg,until1992.Thesethreeyearswererepresent atumultuoustimeinSouthAfrica'ssocialandpoliticalhistory;itwasaperiodthatsaw thereleaseofNelsonMandelafromprisonin1990andanescalationintownshipviolence intheyearsprecedingdemocraticelectionsin1994.YearsoftravelwithinSouthAfrica andabroadfurtheredBurger'sinterestinlandandlandscapeanditsroleinshapingand 55.Burger,OnBelonging:LandscapeandphotographyinSouthAfrica,72. 56.Ibid. 57.DieBeeldisAfrikaansfortheimage. 94

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sustainingindividualandcollectiveidentities.Placeisessentialinestablishingindividual, groupornationalidentities,shewrites,Becauseplacesaresociallyconstructed,created throughexperienceswithinalocation,thereareasmanyidentitiesofplaceasthereare people." 58 BurgercontextualizesherworkforBelonginginrelationtoheridentityasan Afrikaner,anethnicgroupwhoseoriginmyth,language,andsocialhistoryhavestrongties tothearidterrainofthecentralandnorthernregionsofSouthAfrica.Pei-yiGouobserves thatlandscapesoerakeymeansthroughwhichpeopleperceive,memorize,andrepresenthistoryi.e.theirhistoricity,andhowtheycongurethesenseofthemselves. 59 BurgerspeaksfrequentlyaboutherownattachmenttotheNorthernCapelandscape,and thewaysherconnectiontothedesertveldechotheexperienceofotherAfrikanerscommunicatedinsongs,poetry,andotherliteraturewrittenbyAfrikaans-speakingartists.Inher writingsBurgerreectsopenlyonthedicultysheexperiencesdescribinghertiestoan areaboundupinaturbulenthistoryofcolonialismandapartheid.Herownuncertainty towardsherrelationshipwithlandinSouthAfricamorepronouncedbyheridentityasan Afrikanermotivatedhertoexplorehumanpsychicconnectionstolandscape: Istartedtoquestionwhethermyownconnectednesstothelandscapein SouthAfricawas`authentic',whetheritwastrulymyownconnectednessor constructionmadeupofAfrikanerideologies.Thispromptedmetoinvestigate theroleofculturalmemory,historyandnarrativeintheformationofgroup identity,inanattempttoreassessmyownsenseofbelonging. 60 TheviolenthistoryoflandseizureandsubjugationofnativeAfricanpopulationsby Afrikanerstempersandqualiesanycontemporarydiscussionofbelonginginrelationto 58.Burger,OnBelonging:LandscapeandphotographyinSouthAfrica,21. 59.P.Guo,IslandBuilders:LandscapeandHistoricityamongtheLangalanga,SolomonIslands,in Landscape,memoryandhistory:anthropologicalperspectives ,ed.PamelaJ.StewartandAndrewStrathern London:Pluto,2003,193. 60.Burger,OnBelonging:LandscapeandphotographyinSouthAfrica,73. 95

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landbyAfrikaners,evenasthedesiretodosois,asBurgerargues,ahumanendeavor regardlessofethnicity.Inacknowledgement,BurgeroersameasuredandcarefulaccountingoflandandlandscapeasaconstructedmotifinAfrikanerhistory,andstrivesto addressthetopicofbelongingfromanethnically-neutralstandpoint.Sheciteswritingsby JenniferBeningeldandJ.M.CoetzeeonthedevelopmentoftheAfrikaanslanguageand itsroleinfosteringconnection,familiarityandintimacywiththeveldenvironment. 61 The ideaofanintimacywiththelandscape,aswellaspathwayssuchaslanguageusedto establishsuchconnectionsinformsBurger'sapproachtolandscapephotographyasaseries ofencounterswithboththemateriallandandconstructednotionsoflandscape. 2.4.1AdditiveProcessesandtheInterpretationoftheVeldLandscapesin Belonging Thethree-partimage LandI broadlycharacterizesthetreatmentoflandscapeinthe BelongingseriesFig.2-11.Here,Burgerabstractsahillsideviewintoafragmented, dimension-lessspace,madeupofdiscerniblematerials.Throughhercompositionshe portrayslandscapeasanideabasedinrealexperience,butdistinctfromarepresentation. Theworkcontainsthreeseparatephotographsofrockyveldstackedtogethervertically.Thetopimagecombinestwonegativesanoverexposedcollectionofwhitestones andadarkerexposureofgroundandtogetherformanabstractedkoppie 62 setagainst anopensky.Thesuggestionofalargehillwithinthecompositeworkimpliesawide-angle view,butinspectionoftherockysurfacesintheimagecallforthadierent,moreproximatereading.Thebottomframein LandI formallyechoesthetopphotographinreverse; adarknegativeofstonesandsoiloccupiesamajorityofthecomposition.Thetopand bottomphotographsupsetatraditionalinterpretationoftheverticalcompositionasa 61.See:Beningeld, TheFrightenedLand:Land,landscapeandpoliticsinSouthAfricainthetwentiethcentury ;J.M.Coetzee, Whitewriting:OnthecultureoflettersinSouthAfrica NewHaven:Yale UniversityPress,1988. 62.KoppieisanAfrikaanswordusedtorefertoahillorsmallmountain 96

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Figure2-11.FranckiBurger, LandI ,fromBelongingseries,2008,hand-printedSilver gelatinprints. sectionofatallhillorarockypath,andleavestheviewerunabletodeterminethescale, viewpoint,orsubjectof LandI .Themiddleimagedepictsasquaresectionofgroundwith adarkenedrecessinthecenteroftheframe.Patchesoflight-coloredstonessurround theholeandcontrastagainsttheopeningandthefaintlyvisiblerocksinsideit.Taken together,heshiftingscales,suggestionofhorizons,anddetaileddepictionsofacraggy, aridterrainconfuseandchallengetheviewerandultimatelyencouragehertointerpretthe 97

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photographthroughitsmostdiscernibleelements:itstextureandtheholeinthecentral image. In LandI andthroughouttheBelongingseries,Burgerintroducesavisualvocabularyforherlandscapes,onethateschewstraditionalconventionssuchashorizontal orientationandopenvantagepoints.Instead,shecreatesimagesofamorphous,constructedenvironments,anddrawsattentiontotheircomponentparts:sky,rocks,sand, andplantmaterial.Indoingso,sheencouragestheviewertointerpretthespacethrough theirsenseoftouch,andcreatesasenseofintimacybetweenviewerandland. 2.4.2ExplorationofAfrikanerHistoryintheLandscapeinBelonging InothersubseriesofBelonging,suchasVeld,andMagersfonteinBurgerfocuses ontheroleofsocialhistoryinshapingviewsofland.SussaneKuchlerarguesthat landscapesfunctionasmanifestationsofaculture'sknowledgeandconceptionofitspast andfuture. 63 DavidLowenthalfurtherassertsthatlandscapescansustainandenhance theculturalidentityofsocialgroups. 64 Burger'sphotograph, VeldVII Fig.2-12,combinesacontemporarylandscape imageofaNorthernCapeveldwithanarchivalphotographofaBritishconcentration campcreatedforAfrikanerprisonersduringtheSouthAfricanWar.In1900British forcesestablishedover100campsthatheldasmanyas300,000people,bothblack andwhite.Owingtoanumberoffactors,includingrampantillnessandaharsh1901 winter,over25,000people,mostlywomenandchildrendiedintheselocations.Elizabeth VanHeyningencontendsthatthedeathandsueringofAfrikanerwomenandchildren establishedamythologyofsueringthatfedintoanemergingAfrikanernationalism 63.SusanneKuchler,LandscapeasMemory:TheMappingofProcessandItsRepresentationinMelanesianSociety,in Landscape:politicsandperspectives ,ed.BarbaraBenderProvidence:Berg,1993,85. 64.DavidLowenthal, ThePastisaForeigncountry Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1985, 41-45. 98

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Figure2-12.FranckiBurger, VeldVII ,fromBelongingseries,2007,hand-printedber basedsilvergelatinprint,30x30cm. thatcontinuestoday. 65 F.A.vanJaarsveldarguesthattheafterthedefeatoftheSouth AfricanWarAfrikanerslookedtohistorytomaintaintheiridentityandstrengthen communalbonds,andthememoryoftheconcentrationcampstookpositionalongside theaccountsoftheVoortrekkersandtheGreatTrek. 66 Viewsofthecampfeaturein VeldVII ;whitetentsofthecampspeakupfromthedense,shadowedground.Sections ofthepresent-dayimage,however,dominatethecomposition;theformofthelargetree andstandsofbrightlylit,tallgrasspushforwardintheframe.Thearchivalphotograph isminimizedandscaledbelowBurger'sphotograph,andthefusionofimagerycreates 65.ElizabethVanHeyningen,CostlyMythologies:TheConcentrationCampsoftheSouthAfrican WarinAfrikanerHistoriography, JournalofSouthernAfricanStudies 34,no.3:495;See also:ElizabethVanHeyningen,TheConcentrationCampsoftheSouthAfricanAnglo-BoerWar,19001902, HistoryCompass 7,no.1:22. 66.See:FlorisAlbertusvanJaarsveld, TheAfrikaner'sinterpretationofSouthAfricanhistory Cape Town:Simondiumpublishers,1964. 99

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Figure2-13.FranckiBurger, MagersfonteinI ,fromBelongingseries,2007,hand-printed berbasedsilvergelatinprints,188x265cm. alandscapeformedthroughanamalgamofhistoricalreferences,allusiontomemories, andnaturalveldmaterial.Darkareasoftheprintcreateconuencebetweenthetwo photographs;thedenseshadowsintheforegroundconcealabruptorawkwardtonal divisions.Inotherpartsoftheprint,highlightedtuftsofgrasspushforwardintothe pictureplanealongsidethewhitelineoftentpeaks.Asaunittheimagelacksaclear hierarchyorindicationofwhichimageportraysacorrectorcomprehensiveviewofthe landscape.Thisdestabilizationofthephotographforegroundsareadingofthespacein Burger'simageasanamalgamofdierentviewsovertime. In MagersfonteinI Fig.2-13Burgerusesacompositeworktoconveyanabstracted viewofthelandscapefromtheperspectiveofanAfrikanersolider.InthispieceBurger combinesthirty-vehand-printedviewsfromatrenchwithinaformerSouthAfricanWar battlegroundthirtykilometerssouthwestofKimberley,NorthernCape.Sheincluded close-upphotographsofsoilandrock,aswellaswide-angleviewsofthebattleeld.The 100

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trenchinBurger'sworkwasdugbyBoersoldiersaheadoftheBattleofMagersfontein, foughtonthe11 th ofDecemeber1899. 67 TheBritishsuerednearly1000casualtiesin thisconictandthevictoryemboldenedtheBoerarmyduringtheearlystagesofthewar. Theindividualimagesin MagersfonteinI haveclearbordersandtogetherthework formallyresemblesthebrickandmortarconstructionofanexteriorwall,andcallsforth associationsofforticationandsecurity.Thecheckeredmosaicofphotographsshiftin scaleacrossthenearlyeightfootcomposition;thetoprowofimagesoverlapsections ofahorizonline,whilephotographsintherowsbelowshowclose-up,texturedviewsof theearthenfortication.Thecombinationsofimagesmodulatetogetherandformrich transitionsfromdarktolightsectionsofgroundevenwherethelightsourcesdonot align.Thetrenchsurfaceasdepictedin MagersfonteinI undulatesandpushesforward throughthebrighterpanelsandrecessesthroughshadedimagesofthegroundatthe imagemargins.Thescaleofthepiecedwarfstheviewerandgivestheworkaforeboding presence.Theshadedportionsofthecompositeworkloomwithintheconstructedscene and,absentofaclearhorizon,theworkpreventsatraditionalreadingofthespace.Taken together,thesizeof MagersfonteinI furtherassertsthatknowledgeofalandscapeis gainedthroughtouch,feeling,andimmersiveexperience. Thedetailedphotographsofthearidenvironmentforegroundanexperiential,tactile interpretationofthelandscapeastheBoersoldierswouldhaveexperiencedit,andallude toBurger'sbroaderinvestigationinBelongingoflandandlandscapeasacollectionof actualmomentsthatsimultaneouslyoccupyanddemarcateaspace. 68 Burgerintends 67.TheBoerarmyretreatedtothisareafollowinganunsuccessfulencounterwiththeBritish1 st divisionattheModderandRietrivers.AtMagersfonteintheBoersoldiersdugakilometerlongtrench infrontofahillandwaitedfortheBritishtoadvance.Theshallowrecessthreefeetwideandvefeet deepconcealedtheBoersfromtheBritish,whocamewithin400metersofthetrenchbeforeseeingthe Boersoldiers. 68.Burgerdescribesherprocessincreatingthecompositeworkasdepictingtheburnedlandscape around...thesiteatMagersfonteinasiftorecorditforensically,whichinvolvedexperimentingwith 101

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thatherpieceimmersetheviewerintheenvironment,aprocessthatbuildsastheymove throughthepanels:Inthenalphotograph...youexperiencetheearthasifyourface waspushedupclosetothesoil,atthesametimeasifbeingviewedfromabove. 69 In contrasttoCedricNunn'simages,Burgerdoesnotwishtoinvitereectiononthehistories embeddedinagivenlandscape;instead,shesurroundsherviewerwithintimateglimpses oftheexperience,tornfromaclearnarrativeorframework. TheeventsoftheSouthAfricanWarremainpresentandpalpableinthemindsof manycontemporaryAfrikaans-speakingpeople.Battleeldmuseums,locations,andother remnantsinthelandscapeinpresent-dayNorthernCapeandKwaZuluNatalprovinces preserve,commemorate,andeducateresidentsandvisitorsaboutthehardshipsendured byBoerforcesaswellastheirvictories.FrenchhistorianPierreNoradiscussesthe signicanceofhistoricbattlesandtheirsitesinformingacollective,nationalidentity inhiswritingson lieuxdememoire sitesofmemory.Sitesofmemory,accordingto Nora,blocktheworkofforgettingforacollectivegroup,andoeraframeworkfor interpretingthepastanditsmeaning. 70 A lieuxdememoire ,asNoraobservesisaplace whereculturalmemorycrystallisesandsecretesitself. 71 Thecompositework MagersfonteinI presentsthebattleeldasa lieuxdememoire or siteofmemory.DirectencounterwiththetrenchpromptedBurgertoreectonherown connectiontothehistoryinscribedwithinit: Standinginthetrenchproducedafeelingbothofprotectionandimmersion intothelandscape.Iwasawareofhowclosemyfacewastothecrustofthe close-upsanddierentanglesoftheterrain.Burger,OnBelonging:Landscapeandphotographyin SouthAfrica,74. 69.Ibid.,75. 70.PierreNora,Betweenmemoryandhistory:Leslieuxdememoire, Representations 26Spring 1989:7. 71.Ibid. 102

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Figure2-14.FranckiBurger,ProcessStudyimagefor MagersfonteinI . earth.Thesensedtracesofthepastresultedinthetrenchbecominga`place' withinthelandscape,interwovenwithstoriesIgrewupwithasurfacethat containsmyowninternaltopography. 72 Burgerdesiredfortheviewertofeelthelandscapeasitbothexistsnowandasitwould havetotheBoersoldiersFig.2-14;shewrites:thesiteandtrenchwerephotographed fromthevantagepointtheBoerswouldhaveseenwhenlookingoutfromit,aswellas close-upsofsoil,rocksandearth. 73 Shealsowishestoconveythesiteasasecureplace, andreferencethesafeharboritoeredthesoldiers.Thelandscapeoftheinteriorof SouthAfricacontainedfoldsandvalleysinwhichtheBoersconcealedthemselves,Burger 72.Burger,OnBelonging:LandscapeandphotographyinSouthAfrica,74. 73.Ibid.,75. 103

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writes,IfounditinterestingthattheBoersphysicallydugthemselvesintothelandscape, theearththusactingasasafeintimateplace." 74 2.4.3MetaphorandMaterialintheRepresentationofLandscapeinBelonging Inquiryintothesurface,depth,andspaceofalandscapephotographinformsthe LandandVeldsubsetsintheBelonging,andBurgerexpandsupontheseissuesin thesixHidephotographsincludedintheseries.TheHideimagesaretheonlycolor photographsincludedinBelonging,andBurger'sprocessingeneratingthemdiersfrom otherworksintheseries:sheworkeddigitally,andenlargedsectionsofgemsbokhidesthat werethenprintedaslargeinkjetimagesFig.2-15. 75 Thoughherprocessdiersinthis subseries,theHidephotographstakeupandexpandaconsistentthemeinBelonging: integrationofnaturalmaterialsintotherepresentationofland.Intheothersubseries Burgerphotographsthesoil,plantmaterial,androckstoformabstractedlayersinher images;heresheusespartsofanativespeciestoreferencethematerialityandcharacterof theveldenvironmentandcreateanewlandscapemetaphor. TheskinsappeargeologicinBurger'sframes:smallcracksinthesurfaceoftheskin andtonalshiftsofthebrownfurformavisualcomparisontolandscapesseenfromabove. Burgerphotographedthehidesagainstadarkbackground,sothatlargergapsandtears intheskinrevealrichpatchesofblack,areasthatrecallthedeephuesofmanmadewater bodiesinaridenvironments.Theinterplayoftonesandtextureinimagessuchas HideIV Fig.2-16alsomakereferencetocontoursinthelandscape.Forexample,smoothpatches oflightskininthelowerleftportionof HideIV slipintoareasofdenser,darkertones toformshapesthatarereminiscentoffoothillsandcutbankrivers.Abstractedwithin 74.Burger,OnBelonging:LandscapeandphotographyinSouthAfrica,78. 75.Gemsbok,ororyx,areantelopenativetodryregionsofsouthernAfrica,suchasthesemi-desertKaroointheNorthernCapeprovinceofSouthAfrica,andarefamiliaranimalstofarmersandotherswho travelacrosstheKaroo. 104

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Figure2-15.FranckiBurger, HideI ,fromBelongingseries,2008,digitalPigmentPrint, 52x42cm. Burger'sframe,theHidephotographsimplyascaleincongruentwiththesubjectmatter, avisualdisjuncturethatrevealstheeasewithwhichaviewerwillperceivetheformofa landscapeabsentofothercontextualindicators. Byrecastingthegemsbokhidesaslandscapes,Burgerpromptsherviewertointerpret theskinsaslocations,whichareshapedbyweather,time,andhumanimpacts.For Burger,skinandlandscapesimilarlyinscribeandbearwitnesstohistory: Bothlandscapeandskinaresurface;theyactasboundaries,containingthe internal,shieldingtheexternal.Tracesonthelandmanifestintheformof roads,rivers,farmsandearthworks;thesemarkhumanpresenceandeectively alterthelandscape.Inscribedwithpersonalandcollectivehistories,these spacesbecomeinvestedwiththespecicsofplace.Similarly,marksontheskin tracethebody'sexperienceovertime,measuringinjury,ageanddeath. 76 76.Burger,OnBelonging:LandscapeandphotographyinSouthAfrica,83-4. 105

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Figure2-16.FranckiBurger, HideIV ,fromBelongingseries,2008,digitalinkjetprint, 52x42cm. ThoughtheHideimagesarenotcomposites,theskinsnonethelessconveyBurger's interpretationoflandscapeasanamalgamofthematerialandimmaterial:sand,rocks, water,andculturalandhistorialmemories.Moreover,themetaphoriclinkingoflandscape andskinintheHideseriesfurthersuggeststhatlandscape,likeskin,formspartofa personandactsasakindofinterfacebetweenthemselvesandtheirsurroundings. InBelongingBurgerusesavarietyofmethodsthatreinterpretlandscapephotographsintoaseriesofcompositeviewsofagivenenvironmentthatcanaccommodate multipleperspectives.InherLandandVeldimagesBurgerlayersnegativestoreferencethebuildingofhistoriesinthelandscape.Shemanipulatesthedensityofherlayers toconsiderandrepresenthowonehumannarrativemayassumegreaterweightthan othersforanindividualwhoreadsthelandasaresultoftheirhistory,race,andidentity.In MagersfonteinI Burgerassertstheprimacyoftactileexperienceininterpreting alandscapeandproposessuchreadingsmayactaspointsofentryforcontemporary viewersseekingtoviewlandfromahistoricalperspective.Finally,intheHideworks, 106

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Burgerhighlightsthepoweroflandscapemetaphorstoconnotehistory,time,andscalein abstractedcompositions.W.J.TMitchellobservesLandscapeisamediumofexchange betweenthehumanandthenatural,theselfandtheother. 77 InBelonging,Burger experimentswiththerepresentationofsurfaceanddepthinalandscapephotographto explorethevariablewaysinwhichlandscapesmediatepsychicandactualengagements withland. Thischapterhaslookedatthreedierentadaptationsoflandscapephotographyto addressissuesnottypicallyexploredthroughworksinthisgenre:agencyofthelandas subject,legaciesofAfricanresistance,andtheinscriptionofculturalmemoryintothe naturalenvironment.Moreover,togetherthethreephotographersthemselvesrepresenta diversesetofvisionsthatconditionhowtheyviewlandinSouthAfrica:thatofawhite LesbianartistofBritishdescent,amixed-race,Zulu-speakingartist,andanAfrikaner. Eachartistlookedtolandscapephotographyasastartingpointfortheircriticalinquiries, anduseditsconventionstopresentlandasacontestedspace,onethatcontainsmultiple viewpointsandhistories.Takentogether,theworkoftheseartistsoerinsightastowhy somanycontemporarySouthAfricanphotographersdrawuponlandscapetoexplore thethecomplexintersectionofsocial,historicalandculturalissuesembeddedinall post-apartheidspacesandenvironments. 77.Mitchell, Landscapeandpower ,5. 107

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CHAPTER3 LANDASNATURALRESOURCE:REPRESENTATIONSOFMININGIN CONTEMPORARYSOUTHAFRICANLANDSCAPEPHOTOGRAPHY 3.1Introduction TwoasphaltstreetsjointogetherataquietT-intersectionina2011photograph bySouthAfricanphotographerIlanGodfreyFig.3-1.Theroadsfadedincolorfrom blacktoamixofgray,brown,andmagentatonesappearunremarkable,asdoesthe neighborhoodtheybisect.Baredeciduoustrees,lightposts,shrubs,anddullpatchesof grasssitbetweenthestreetsandthelinesofperimetersecurityfencesthatsurroundbrick houses.Nopeopleorcarsenteroractivatetheresidentialspace.Theeven,cloudlesssky bleachesthestreetsandsidewalksinharsh,winterlight.AllnarrativefocusinGodfrey's photographfallsonashallowpoolofwaterontheroadclosesttotheviewer.Thepuddle tracesthecontoursofthestreet,deepeningagainstthesidewalksandthinningatthe road'sapex.Nothingisvisiblyunusualaboutthewater:bladesofgrassandcollections ofdirtpierceitsslickveneer,tiretracksspreadoutfromitsedges,andanoutlineofa lamppostandtheclearblueskyreectinitssurface. Overall,thesceneappearsordinary,butthetitleconveysamoredisturbinginterpretationofthespaceandtransformstheimagefromabanaldepictionofaSouthAfrican suburbtoasceneofdisquietandunease.Theimage, Acidminewaterseepage,Jackaroo Park,EmalahleniWitbank,Mpumalanga ,depictsacommunitywhosewatersources havebeencontaminatedbyanearbycoalreningfacility.InJackarooParkpolluted waterleaksthroughtheporoussoilingardensandstreetsandmakesmunicipalwaterand individualboreholesunpotable. NearlysixtypercentofSouthAfrica'scoaldepositsarelocatedinandaround eMalahleniwhichmeansplaceofcoalinisiZuluanditssuburbs.InSouthAfrica coalprovidesclosetoseventy-sevenpercentofthecountry'senergyneeds,andisused extensivelyasasourceofdomestic,low-costelectricityproduction.IntensiveextractionactivitiesinareassuchasthisMpumalangacommunityprovideastablesourceof 108

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Figure3-1.IlanGodfrey, Acidminewaterseepage,JackarooPark,EmalahleniWitbank, Mpumalanga,2011 ,2011,archivalpigmentprint. aordablefuelacrossthecountry,butatacosttolocalresidents.Visualmetaphorsin Godfrey'slandscapephotographreferencethepressingenvironmentalissuesaectingthis resource-richcommunity.Theresiduesofindustrialactivitydisrupttheviewofthequiet neighborhoodsettingandblendvisuallywithit:thewatercalmlyseepsacrossthepicture planewithoutcleardirectionorsource;yet,thepoolformsabarrierbetweentheviewer andtheintersectionandrestrictsmovementwithintheframe.Nothingappearsdeador dyingintheimage,anditisunclearwhateectthepollutedmaterialhasontheverdant areasitbordersortheneighborhooditself.Godfreycommunicatesanegativereading ofthephotograph'scontentthroughhistitle,buthislighting,compositionandframing decisionsconstructalandscapeimagethatisopentomultipleinterpretations. Godfrey'sphotographoftheminedrainageformspartofalargerseriespresented inhisbook, TheLegacyoftheMine .Themonographcompilesavarietyoflandscape 109

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imagesandenvironmentalportraitstakenoverathree-yearperiodthatexplorelongtermenvironmentalandsocialimpactsofnaturalresourceextractioninSouthAfrica. Theminingofmineralssuchascoal,diamonds,shalegas,platinum,gold,asbestos,and basemetalsrepresentsthelargestindustrialsectorinSouthAfrica.Thenationhasthe continent'smostprotableeconomy,andanabundanceofcheaplaborhassupported itsgrowthanddominanceforoveracentury. 1 SouthAfrica'spoorestcitizens,manyof whomresideintownshipsorinformalsettlementsadjacenttominesorreneries,feelthe miningindustry'simpactsmostdirectly.Cairncross,etal.notes,mineworkerssuerfrom hazardousworkingandlivingconditionshighdustlevels,extremeheat,ergonomicrisks, safetyhazardsandcrowdedsingle-sexhostelsorsquattercampsthatresultinaplethora ofmining-relateddiseasesthatarelargelyunacknowledged. 2 ThedevelopmentoftheminingindustryattheendofthenineteenthcenturypowerfullyshapedtheformationofSouthAfricaanditsclassstructure.Discoveryofthegoldon theWitwatersrandtransformedtheterritoryfromanagriculturalsocietyatthemargins ofworldtradeintoanindustrialized,globaleconomy.After1886,thesparselypopulated TransvaalrepublicsawaninuxofmigrantsfromalloftheSouthAfricanterritoriesand abroadtoattainworkinthemines. 3 ThecityofJohannesburgwasfoundedin1886and 1.SouthAfricaisthewealthiestmineraljurisdictionintheworld,accordingtotheSouthAfricanDepartmentofMineralResources.Thecountryleadstheworldinproductionofplatinum,chromium,and Vermiculite,andistheworld'ssixthlargestproducerofgold.Inaddition,SouthAfricaholdslargereservesofcopper,uranium,diamonds,shalegas,coal,palladium,andmanganese 2.See:EugeneCairncrossetal., CasestudyonExtractiveIndustriespreparedfortheLancetCommissiononGlobalGovernance ,BackgroundpaperforTheLancetUniversityofOsloCommissionon GlobalGovernanceforHealth,accessedNovember16,2015, http://www.thejournalist.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/2014/09/Lancet-Study-Gold-Platinum-Mines-in-SA.pdf ;Inaddition,historianssuch asLeonardThompsonobservethattheorganizationofminelaborinthelatenineteenthcenturyforged policiesandpracticesuponwhichapartheid-eralegislationwasmodeledThompson, AhistoryofSouth Africa . 3.TheTransvaalRepublicwasoneoftwoBoerterritoriesdevelopedintosuccessfulindependentcountriesinthenineteenthcenturyanddenotedaregionnorthoftheVaalRiver.FollowingtheUnionof 110

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quicklybecamethemostpopuloussettlementintheregion. 4 Thesedevelopmentsfurther spreadEuropeancolonizationwithintheSouthAfricaninterior,andbytheendofthe nineteenthcenturyallAfricanchiefdomsweresubjecttowhitecontrol. 5 Newlyincorporatedintoacapitalist,white-dominatedeconomy,manyAfricanswhoweresuddenly requiredtopayrenttraveledtominesformonthsatatimeforwork.Themininglabor forcewassplitalongraciallines,whereinwhitesweregivensupervisorypositionsand earnedgoodwages,andblacksworkedasmanuallaborersforlittlepay,enduredharsh conditions,andwereforcedtoliveinall-malecompounds.Thedivisionswithinthemining industry,manyofwhichwereputinplacethroughlegislationandtheestablishmentof governmentregulatoryinstitutions,representaformativeperiodinthedivisivehistoryof racerelationsinSouthAfrica. 6 GodfreybuildsvisualnarrativesabouttheeectsofmininginSouthAfricathat departstructurallyfromthelinearapproachesmadeprominentbyhisStruggle-era, socialdocumentarypredecessors.Throughouthiswritingsandinterviewsrelatedtothe project,Godfreydescribesthearrangementoftheseriesalternatelyasamap,branches ofasinglestory,acollectionofmicrocosmsofvisualnarrationofuntoldstoriesall connectedthroughtheland,whichheidentiesastheverythreadthatconnectsall SouthAfricans. 7 Herelateshisobjectiveincreatingtheworkasawaytocongregatea SouthAfricain1910,theTransvaalwastransformedintoaprovinceinclusiveofalargeregionofnortheasternSouthAfricaandwasknownbythisnameuntil1994.Today,theTransvaalprovincehasbeen brokenupintomultipleprovinces:Gauteng,Mpumalanga,Limpopo,andNorthwestprovinces. 4.Today,Johannesburghasthedistinctionofbeingtheworld'slargestcitynotbuiltonariver,lake,or coastline,areectionofitsoriginsasaminingoutpost. 5.Forfurtherdiscussionoftheextensionofwhiteauthorityfrom1870-1898see:LeonardThompson andMonicaWilson, TheOxfordHistoryofSouthAfrica:SouthAfricato1870 Oxford:ClarendonPress, 1975,245-53;andCharlesHilliardFeinstein, AnEconomicHistoryofSouthAfrica:conquest,discrimination,anddevelopment Cambridge,UK:CambridgeUniversityPress,2005. 6.Thompson, AhistoryofSouthAfrica ,115-122. 7.IlanGodfrey, Legacyofthemine AucklandPark,SouthAfrica:Jacana,2013,157. 111

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disparatenetworkofpeopleandplacesandgivethemaspaceforthemtobeheardand forthemagnitudeofthedamagetobefelt. 8 Ineect,throughhisseries,Godfreycreates anew,sociallandscapeofmininganditsimpact,onethatmaybeexperiencedwithout theguidanceofaprimarynarratororstory. PhotographsofmininganditseectsinSouthAfricaoerimportantinsightinto thewayscontemporarySouthAfricanphotographershaveadoptedland-basedimagery toaddresssocialandenvironmentalissues.Visualexplorationsofthistopicareextensive withinthehistoryofphotographyinSouthAfrica.InthelatenineteenthcenturypostcardsproducedbycommercialstudiospopularizedviewsofSouthAfricanindustrialsites, andstereographsproducedbytheKeystoneViewCompanyofthediamondindustryin Kimberleysharedviewsofminingoperations,workers,andsitessuchasthebighole withalargeaudience. 9 Theseimageswerecelebratory;theypresentedthescaleofthe miningoperationsasaproudachievementofthecolonyandemphasizedthegaping, severalstorey-deepcraterattheDeBeersmineinKimberleyasamarvelousspectacle. Morerecently,prominentphotographerssuchasDavidGoldblattexploredaspectsofthe industryinhis1973monograph, OntheMines ,andchallengedthepositivenarrativeof mininginSouthAfricaasbenecialforsocietyandtheeconomy. 10 InadditiontoGodfrey,contemporaryphotographerssuchasPieterHugoSouthAfricanandJasonLarkin Britishexplorethetopicthroughdocumentaryseries. 11 Godfrey,Hugo,andLarkin 8.IlanGodfrey, Interviewwithauthor ,May22,2014. 9.Geary,ImpressionsoftheAfricanpast:interpretingethnographicphotographsfromCameroon. 10.Inthispublicationwhichhasrecentlybeenre-releasedthroughSteidlin2012DavidGoldblattprimarilyphotographedworkersanddocumentedaspectsoftheindustry'sbuiltenvironment,suchasits structures,workerhousing,andoperationalequipment.See:DavidGoldblattandNadineGordimer, On theMines CapeTown:C.Struik,1973;andSallyGaule,Miningphotographs:DavidGoldblatt'sOnthe Mines, SocialDynamics 40,no.1:122. 11.See:JasonLarkin, Talesfromthecityofgold Heidelberg:Kehrer,2013;andPieterHugoand JeanneFouchet-Nahas,MainReefRoad,in Transition ,ed.MarketPhotographyWorkshopandRencontresinternationalesdelaphotographieParis: EditionsXavierBarral,2013,44. 112

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donotworkinadocumentarystyle.Instead,theyuseacombinationoflandscapeand environmentalimagestopresentmultiplenarratives,encouragediverseinterpretations, andhighlightthecomplexitiesofmining,which,likemanyissuesaectingbroadswathes ofSouthAfricansocietyinthepost-apartheidera,resisteasyclassicationanddonott withinblack/white,good/evilparameters.Further,GodfreyandHugodonotusetheir imagestoexpressanopinion,butrathertoexplicatethenuances,layers,andcomplexities attendanttotheexplicationofaparticularissueorplace.Forexample,inaninterview aboutaprojectrelatedtotheMainReefRoadinJohannesburg, 12 Hugodescribedhis workasgestural,notdocumentaryoractivist.Heexplainedagesturalseriesasone thatisnonlinear,nondidactic,emotiveandopentointerpretation,andsaid,Iam notinterestedinaliteralnarrativeregardingthehistoryofgoldminingalongMainReef Road. 13 Hugoacknowledgesadesireforhisphotostopointatthings,bringthemtothe attentionoftheviewertoworkouthisownnarrative.IlanGodfreyexpressesasimilar intentionwithrespecttohiswork;incontrasttophotographerssuchasCedricNunn, Godfreyincludesextendedcaptionsonlyattheendofthebook,sothathisreaderswill interpretthisnarrativeofimagesfromstarttonishintheirownwayandthen,theend ofthebookoersaheavyreadingsothatyoucangetintoeachimageandunderstand whyItookthatimage. 14 ThischapterexaminestheworkofthreecontemporarySouthAfricanphotographers whocreatedprojectsrelatedtominesandmining.Eachoftheirrespectiveseriesuses 12.TheMainReefroadisahighwayinJohannesburgalongwhichgoldtheMainReefwasdiscoveredin 1886.Inthesameinterview,HugocomparesthethoroughfaretotheViaAppiainRome.See:Hugoand Fouchet-Nahas,MainReefRoad,45. 13.Ibid.,44. 14.Godfrey, Interviewwithauthor . 113

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landscapeimageryandenvironmentalportraiture 15 toexplorethereachoftheindustry withinSouthAfricaanditsimpactsonlocalcommunities.Togethertheirworkoers animportantexampleofhowcontemporaryphotographersadaptlandscapeimagesto contributetoabroaderpublicdiscussioninamannerreminiscentofapartheid-erasocial documentaryphotographs.IlanGodfrey's LegacyoftheMine seriescombinesimages ofopenandpopulatedlandscapestoanalogizethewaysinwhichallSouthAfricans areaectedbytheactivitiesoftheminingindustry.ThabisoSekgala'sproject,Second Transition,exploresthecommunitiesinandaroundminesnearBrits,Rustenburg,and Marikana,andconstructsvisualmetaphorsthatpersonifythepermeationofmining corporationsinthelivesoftownshipresidents.JerryObakengGaegane'swork,Marang aLetsatsi,looksattheinformalminingindustrythatoperatesindisusedminesinand aroundJohannesburg.Importantly,bothGaegane'sandSekgala'sseriesforegroundthe roleoflaborinthelandscape,andassertitspartindirectingadialogaboutSouthAfrican spaces.Takentogether,theworksofthesethreephotographersoerinsightintotheways inwhichlandimageryisbeingadaptedandusedtoengagewithissuesofcontemporary concern,advancemultipleperspectivesfromtraditionallymarginalizedpopulations,and implicatetheviewerinthereadingofthelandscape. 3.2PlaceintoSpace:IlanGodfreyandthe LegacyoftheMine IlanGodfreyb.1980begantakingpictureswhenhewasinsecondaryschoolafter hisfathergavehimanoldSLRcameraandintroducedhimtotheworkofMagnum photographers. 16 Inspired,GodfreylefthisnativeJohannesburgforLondonatthe 15.Thetermenvironmentalportraitureisusedheretodescribepicturesofindividualsinanon-studio setting,suchastheirhome,work,orotherlocationfamiliartothem.Inenvironmentalportraiture,the settingisusedtosupportcommunicationofthephotographer'sinterpretationofthehumansubject. 16.Magnumisaninternationalphotographicagencywhosemembersareinvitedafterathoroughreviewbycommittee.Agencymembersaresomeofthemostrecognizedandlaudedphotojournalistsand documentaryphotographersworkingthroughouttheworld.See:MagnumPhotos, AboutUs ,accessed December2,2015, http://www.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3%5C&VF=MAGO31_2_VForm . 114

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ageofnineteentopursueacareerinphotography.InEngland,Godfreyreceivedtwo degreesfromtheUniversityofWestminster:aBachelorofArtsinPhotographyanda MasterofArtsinPhotojournalism,andnurturedhislong-terminterestindocumentary photography:Itbecamemyprioritytodocumentdailylife,mytravelsacrosstheworld andultimatelynddirectioninmypersonalwork.Afterhisstudies,Godfreycontinuedto liveabroad,buttraveledfrequentlytoSouthAfrica,whichhesaysallowedmetocontinue learningaboutmyhomecountryandtheongoingchangesthatweretakingplace. 17 In2011GodfreyreturnedpermanentlytoSouthAfricaanddevotedfullattentionto personalwork,includingseverallong-termprojectsthatwere,uptonow,connedto notebooksandmentalthoughts;oneofthemwouldinevitablyevolveovertwoanda halfyearsintomyrstmonograph, LegacyoftheMine . 18 Theseriespresentsabroad proleoftheminingindustrywithineachofSouthAfrica'snineprovinces. 19 Icouldhave brokenitdownintosixbooksoneforeachmineralandstillnotdonejusticetothefull story,Godfreyreects,butaddsthatthroughhisbooktheviewertakesajourneyacross 17.LeicaInternetTeam, IlanGodfrey:LegacyoftheMine ,accessedDecember2,2015, http://blog.leicacamera.com/photographers/interviews/ilan-godfrey-legacy-of-the-mine/ . 18.Ibid. 19.AfterGodfreybeganhisprojectin2011,hereceivedcriticalfundingfor LegacyoftheMine and mentorshipthroughtheErnestColeAward,aprizegivenbiannuallytoenablepromisingphotographers tocompleteadocumentaryproject.TheErnestColeAwardgrantoersrecipientsthreethings:anunrestricteddepositofZAR150,000,analexhibitionoftheworkattheWitsArtMuseuminJohannesburg, andsupportforthepublicationofamonograph.Therstawardwasmadein2011toDaleYudelman, andIlanGodfreyreceivedthesecondawardin2012.Theaward,whichhonorsSouthAfricanphotographerErnestCole,wasestablishedbyPaulWeinbergandDavidGoldblattandaimstostimulatein-depth photographyinSouthAfrica,withanemphasisoncreativeresponsestoSouthAfricansociety,human rightsandjustice.See:ErnestColeAward, AbouttheErnestColeAward ,accessedAugust25,2015, http://www.ernestcoleaward.uct.ac.za/ ;Co-founderPaulWeinbergaddsthattheawardalsoseekstosupportcreativeworkthatmayspeakagainstatraditionalwayofseeingSouthAfrica,specicallythrough dichotomiessuchasapartheid/post-apartheid,rich/poor,oradvantaged/disadvantaged.See:PaulWeinberg, Interviewwithauthor ,June12,2015. 115

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thecountryandisintroducedtodierentplacesandpeople,whoallhadverydierent stories,butitwasallinterconnectedthroughmining. 20 Godfrey'stimeabroadgreatlyinuencedhisoutlookonSouthAfricaandtheway inwhichheapproachedhissubjectmatterin LegacyoftheMine .Whenhereturned fromLondon,Godfreyfeltheneededtoreconcilehisviewofthecountrywithwhatwas actuallythere,which,inpart,inspiredthemineseries: ThisprojectwaslikeareintroductiontoSouthAfrica.Iwant[ed]tolearn aboutSouthAfricaandunderstanditmorethanwhatIdidbeforewhenIwas livingintheUK.Ihadthisfeelingalmostofbeingaforeigner,cominghere onceayearforamonthortwo.Now,Iwantedtofamiliarizemyselfwiththe landscapeandthepeople,andunderstandhowthecountryhasmovedforward. Thisprojectwasessentiallyallpartofthatlearningexperienceanddeveloping otherwaysofseeing. 21 ThoughanativeSouthAfrican,Godfreybeganhisprojectasthoughseeingthenationfor thersttime.Hesetoutwithoutaclearagendaforwhathewantedtodocument,and approachedthelandscapesandpeoplehephotographedintentonlearningfromthemand theirexperiences.Godfreywascontenttolettheseriesdevelopfromhisencounters,and hisphotographscommunicatethisresponsivenessthroughcompositionsandscenesthat appearimmediate,andnotpre-visualized. MicheldeCerteau'swritingsonspaceprovideausefulcontextforinterpreting Godfrey'sexaminationofthemultifacetedlandscapeofminingimpacts.deCerteaumakes cleardistinctionbetweenplacesandspaces,theformeractingasa"aninstantaneous congurationofpositionsthatimpliesanindicationofstability,"incontrasttoaspace, whichisuidandcomposedofintersectionsofmobileelements. 22 Thewayinwhicha 20.IlanGodfrey, Interviewwithauthor ,July24,2015. 21.Ibid. 22.MicheldeCerteau, ThePracticeofEverydayLife Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,2011, 117. 116

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Figure3-2.IlanGodfrey, PalaboraCopperMine,Phalaborwa,Limpopo,2013 ,2013, archivalpigmentprint. placeisuseddeterminesthespacethatisgenerated.In LegacyoftheMine ,Godfreyaims torepresentthespaceoftheminesasitexiststhroughtheuid,intangiblereachofthe industryintoSouthAfricanlivesandlandscapes.Focusingontheimpactsoftheindustry onthehealthofworkers,localresidents,andthenaturalecosystemsallowsGodfreyto generateadynamicdepictionofanoverarchinglandscapeconstantlyinux,asopposed toastaticpresentationoftheindustry'scharacteristicbuiltforms."Themine,"Godfrey writes,"irrespectiveoftheparticularmineralsextracted,iscentralinunderstanding societalchangeacrossthecountry." 23 23.I.Godfrey, ArtistStatement:LegacyoftheMine ,artistwebsite, http://ilangodfrey.com/works/legacyof-the-mine-4/ . 117

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LegacyoftheMine beginswithaseriesofwide-angleviewsofindustrialandnatural landscapesthatdescribeminingareasinafamiliarvisuallanguages.Godfrey'sseries includesenvironmentalportraits,yettherstvisiblepersoninthebookonlyappearsafter thirteenlandscapeimages.Theseopeningphotographsweretakenindierentmining settings,andintroducethevarietyofenvironmentsinwhichminesaresituatedinSouth Africathroughvisualconventionsalignedwiththesublimeandpicturesque.Intherst photograph, PalaboraCopperMine,Phalaborwa,Limpopo,2013 Fig.3-2theviewer looksoutandoveranopenpitminedrapedinpatchyshadowsfromscatteredclouds above.Ontheoppositesideofthepit,therisingandfallingridgesofthesurrounding landscapedwarfaprocessingplantcomplex.Thecolorspaleblues,greens,andgrays mutethecoolsceneandenticetheviewertolingerattheindustrialsettingasthey wouldapicturesquelandscape,transformingtheviewintoabalanceofforms,lightand shadow,andperspective.Thescaleofthepit,whosebottomremainshiddeninthe photographhintsatthescaleofGodfrey'sview,anddrawsuponaspectsofthesublime. Afewpageslater,anotherphotograph, Acidminedrainage,EastRandProprietaryMine, Johannesburg,Gauteng,2011 Fig.3-3,callsforthdierentassociationsofthesublime. Here,theviewerlooksdownontoanundenedbodyofwater;nohorizonlinesorwater bodyedgesorientthescene.Threecircularformsthecrustedsurfacesofoldtiresspread acrossthetopthirdoftheimageandprovoketheviewer'simagination.Cool,dark,and murkycolorsllthetopoftheimageframewherethewaterisdeepest.Theunearthly poolbecomesshallowasitdescendsfromthetopofthepictureplane;warmertones emergeandthecolorshiftsfromdeepmaroontobrightyellowintheimageforeground. Thecausticblendofhuescapturestheviewer'simaginationandawe.Groupedtogether atthebeginningoftheseries,theselandscapesdrawtheviewerintotheworkthrough asensoryexperience,andmanipulationsofcolorandcompositionassociatedwithboth traditionallandscapephotographyandthevalorizationofwilderness. 118

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Figure3-3.IlanGodfrey,Acidminedrainage,EastRandProprietaryMine, Johannesburg,Gauteng,2011.archivalpigmentprint. Adaptationofsublimeandpicturesqueaestheticsforthedepictionofindustrial spaceshasampleprecedent,bothincolonial-erarepresentationsofAfricanspacesandby othercontemporaryAfricanartists.Forexample,photographerssuchasGeorgeOsodi NigeriaandNyabaLeonOuedraogoBurkinaFasoutilizedsuchaestheticconventions intheirrespectiverepresentationsoftheoil-industry'simpactsande-wastedumpsin Ghana.WithinaglobalcontextworksbycontemporaryCanadianphotographerEdward Burtynskyexemplifytheuseofthesublimeandpicturesquetoshowthetransformation ofnaturethroughindustry.Forovertwentyyears,Burtynskyhasphotographedthe residuesofmines,oilreneries,andtransportationexpansionsitesandusedstrongformal relationshipstocoaxviewersintolookingatsiteshiddenfrompublicview.Hedescribes hisphotographsasmetaphorstothedilemmaofourmodernexistence;theysearchfora dialoguebetweenattractionandrepulsion,seductionandfear.Wearedrawnbydesirea 119

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chanceatgoodliving,yetweareconsciouslyorunconsciouslyawarethattheworldis sueringforoursuccess. 24 Thedocumentationofindustriale-wastesites,oilelds,andminetailingsthrough thevisualconventionsofthesublimeandpicturesquebyartistssuchasOsodi,Ouedraogo,andBurtynskyexemplifywhatRodGiblettcalls,aphotographyofWastelands. Unlikeimagesofruins,wastelandphotographsdepictamodernhistoryofdeclinethat istooclosetoourownexistenceandtimetoview...withthewonderandawethatis normallyassociatedwithancientruins. 25 Wastelands,Giblettargues,areagreater challengetobeliefsofcontinualchronologicalprogress.Theyaresitesoflimbo:atime andplacebetweentheextremesofannihilationandregeneration,lingeringinlossand expectation. 26 Imagesthatcelebratethedramaticscale,dynamicform,andbrilliantcolorof industrialsitesrarelypromoteremedialactionorevenreectionoverthecauseorimpact ofthedestructionpictured.Photographyofwastelandstypicallypositionstheviewer asanoutsiderwhoseobligationistolook,andlacksconnectiontoorresponsibilityfor thescenetheywitness.Inwastelandphotography,Giblettargues,adverseimpactsof theindustrialsitearecontainedtothelocalarea,allowingtheviewertomorefreely pondertherelationshipbetweenbeautyanddecay. 27 Forexample,EdwardBurtynsky's imagesofnickelminesFig.3-4emphasizethecontrastoftheorangetailingriverthat 24.EdwardBurtynsky, ExploringtheResidualLandscape ,accessedOctober16,2015, http://www. edwardburtynsky.com/site_contents/About/introAbout.html . 25.RodGiblett,Wastelands,in PhotographyandLandscape ,ed.JuhaTolonenandRodGiblettBristol,UK:Intellect,2012,190. 26.Ibid.,191. 27.Ibid.,194. 120

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lacesthroughthedarklandscapeoverothernarratives; 28 hedoesnotconfrontthe viewerwiththesourceofthewasteorevidenceofitsimpactsintheenvironment.The viewerispromptedtointerprettheimageformally,andaweoverthebrilliantglowof theorangestreamsetagainstablacklandscape.Tothedegreetheviewerengageswith thephotographcritically,theyaremorelikelytodrawcomparisonswithotherformsof landscapeartorabstraction;bothofBurtynsky'snickeltailingphotographsrelatevisually tothestrongcontrastsofBarnettNewman'szippaintings. Yet,unlikeEdwardBurtynsky'sphotographsoftailings,Godfrey'sphotographsdo notconformfullytotheaestheticsofthesublimeorpicturesque,nordoesheminimizethe presenceofpeoplewithinhislandscapesordocumentaryseries.Inphotographssuchas TweelopieSpruit,KrugersdorpGameReserve,Gauteng,2012 Fig.3-5,arepresentation ofahighacutetoxicriversystem,Godfreyexposedthecamerainlightingconditionsthat attenthetexturesandformsofbrightsubjectmattersuchaswaterrapids,beigesoil, andpalegrasses.Theviewerfeelstheheatofthesunpositionedhighoverhead,which scorchestherocksandsoiladjacenttothewaterfall.WhileGodfrey'scompositioninvites theviewertogazeatthenaturalscene,hisuseofbrightdaylightandbleachedcolors situatetheimagedecidedlywithin this world,andnotactionalrealmfortheprivate contemplationofamagicalnature.Anotherphotograph, Riverleaminedump,Main ReefRoad,Johannesburg,Gauteng,2011 ,exempliesthewaysGodfrey'simagesadapt landscapeconventionsfromthesublimeandpicturesquetoenticetheviewerwithout absolvingthemoftheresponsibilitytoreectonwhattheyareseeingFig.3-6.Here, Godfreyportraysaminedumpfromabove;crevassesandssuresinthesubstrateextend fromthetopofthephotographdownwards,andleadtheviewer'seyetoacollectionof 28.Thetermtailingreferencestheresidualmaterialsfromtheprocessofseparatingthedesiredportionofamineralorefromundesiredportions.Tailingsaremadeupofgroundrockandmineprocessing euentsand,withoutpropertreatment,thesesubstancesarehazardoustohumanandenvironmental health. 121

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Figure3-4.EdwardBurtynsky,Top: NickelTailings#34,Sudbury,Ontario1996 ,1996 C-Print;Bottom: NickelTailings#31Sudbury,Ontario1996 ,1996,C-Print. guressittingatthebaseofthedump.Thepeopleindicatethevastscaleofthepit, whichsurroundsandtowersoverthem.Richblackandwhitetonesllthephotograph oneithersideandfurtherencouragetheviewertolookcloselyatthescene.Yet,aswith thepreviousphotograph,despiteGodfrey'suseoflandscapetropesassociatedwiththe sublimeorpicturesque,thephotographdoesnotinviteanimaginativeengagement,and theviewercannotsurpressreectionontheimagecontent.Godfrey'scompositionshows nopointofentryorexitintothepit;andalllinearelementsdirecttheviewertowards thedesolate,charredbottomratherthananexpansivelandscape.Ratherthenimagine 122

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Figure3-5.IlanGodfrey, TweelopieSpruit,KrugersdorpGameReserve,Gauteng,2012 , 2012,archivalpigmentprint. themselvesintheplaceofthepeopleinthescene,Godfrey'simagepromptshisaudience toaskwhytheindividualsareinthepitandhowtheygotthereintherstplace. Moreover,Godfreyalsouseshistitlesandextendedcaptionstointegrateasocial contextintohislandscapeimagery,andthussuggeststhatthephotographshavea purposebeyondaestheticcontemplation.Throughout LegacyoftheMine ,peoplewhoare sometimesnamed,andothertimesfunctionasformswithinthesceneshowthedepicted spacesaslivedenvironmentsinwhichminingcurrentlyaectsresidents.Forexample,in hisimage, PrayeronMelvilleKoppies,Johannesburg,Gauteng,2013 Fig.3-7,Godfrey showstwomenFelixNgwenyaandNkosanaNcuberestingonahilloverlookingthe city.Inhiscaption,Godfreytellsusthatthehillkoppieisaremnantoftheindigenous Witwatersrandlandscape,anenvironmentsacredformanylocalreligiousgroupsand theTswanapeople,whoseancestorslivedintheareapriortothediscoveryofgold 123

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Figure3-6.IlanGodfrey, Riverleaminedump,MainReefRoad,Johannesburg,Gauteng, 2011 ,2011,archivalpigmentprint. andfoundingofJohannesburg. 29 Godfreyincludesthisinformationinhiscaptionand organizeshiscompositionsuchthatthecityskylineloomsoverthepaironthehill.This juxtapositionmimicsthestrataofsocialandenvironmentalhistoryinthegold-richarea; since1886,miningsupersededotherusesofaridHighveldandminimizedallotheruses ofthelandscape.Inphotographssuchas PrayeronMelvilleKoppies Godfreyshows 29.Godfrey'scaptiontothisimagereads:FelixNgwenyaandNkosanaNcuberestintheearlyafternoonsunonMelvilleKoppiesoverlookingtheWitwatersrandBasin,wheretheworld'slargestknowngold reserveissituated.TheyarepartoftheTwelveApostlesChuchinZimbabwe.FelixmovedtoJohannesburgin1991andNkosanaarrivedin2010.Theyhavecometoprayandfastfromsunrisetosunset. MelvilleKoppieshasbecomeasacredsiteforworshipandprayerforseveralAfricanreligiousgroups.Felixsays,`Itisaplacewherewecangatherourthoughts,itispeacefulandhelpsusreleasestress.'Melville KoppiesisalsoasiteofhistoricalimportancewhereremainsofanIronAgecommunityhavebeenunearthed.TheKoppiesareareminderoftheindigenouslandscapeoftheWitwatersrandandtheancestors ofthepresentTswanapopulation,beforethediscoveryofgoldandtheresultingdevelopmentofJohannesburg.Godfrey, Legacyofthemine ,138. 124

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Figure3-7.IlanGodfrey, PrayeronMelvilleKoppies,Johannesburg,Gauteng,2013 ,2013, archivalpigmentprint. thatmininglandscapesareneithercontained,hermeticspheresofindustry,norarethey manifestationsofamoraldichotomyofgoodnatureandevilman. Elsewhereintheseries,Godfreyuseshisphotographsoflandscapestointroduce nuanceintohisdescriptionofmininginSouthAfrica,anindustrythatisnotmonolithic initsimpactsonSouthAfricansociety.Forexample,inthephotograph JeeryRamiruti, TudorShaft,MogaleCity,Krugersdorp,Johannesburg,Gauteng,2011 Fig.3-8,Godfrey centrallyframeshissubject,amiddle-agedblackman,amidstastretchofwaterthathas oodedaninformalsettlementvisibleonthehorizonline.JeeryRamiruti,surrounded bythestillwater,looksoutserenelyoverthescene,softlylitbyawarmeveninglight reectinginthewater.Theoutlineofthetownshipandthesurroundingwaterspush JereyRamiruitforwardwithintheframe,underscoringhisimportanceinGodfrey's narrative.ThecompositionrecallsaworkfromGermanRomanticpainterCasperDavid 125

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Friedrich,whosegureinWandererabovetheSeaofFog,sitsperchedaboveachaotic landscapethatchurnsbelowhim.InGodfrey'sphotograph,however,natureisstilland calm,buttheforegroundingofanamedperson,JeeryRamiruti,overlaysatensionor evendangertotheoodedwater.Theviewerbeginstowonderhowthispersonreached theledgesurroundedbywaterandwherehewillgofromthere.Inthisphotograph, Godfreycommunicatesthesublimecharacteroftheenvironmentthroughapresentationof itsimpactonacommunitythatisinundatedwithfoulwater.Withoutthehumansubject andoutlineofinformalsettlementonthehorizon,thephotographcouldstillenticethe viewertolingerinthescenethroughitsromanticlighting,butthecentrally-placedperson andtownshipaddaliteralandgurativescaletothescene,andinvitetheviewerto ponder,makeconnections,andotherwiseengagewiththephotographdierentlythanthey wouldineitheradocumentaryphotographofthesamesceneoranimageofadamaged, wastelandlandscapewithouthumanbeings. Thisinterplaybetweenhumansandtheminedenvironmentappearsasatheme throughoutthemonograph.InonesectionGodfreysequencesthreephotographsof laborerssetagainstdierentlandscapespouringorstirringupdierentmaterialsout ontothelandscape.Intherst, JohanCelliss,Ermelo,Mpumalanga,2011 Fig.3-9 awhitefarmerleadsagroupofsheepwithatrailofmaizelaidoutforthegroupwhile ablackfarmerstandsuprightinthebackoftruckandlooksoverthesceneofheavily grazedveld.AnundulationofHighveldhillsllsthehorizoninbackofthefarmerand addsscaleandemotiontothescene.Thenextimage, Informalgolddigger,disused WesternHoldingsMine,Welkom,FreeState,2012 ,Fig.3-10depictsamanintheimage foregroundpouringsandoutontoapilebytheedgeofariver.Thebagofsandobscures hisfaceanddrawstheviewer'sattentiontothecascadeofloosesandthatspillsdownonto thegroundandreleasesacloudofdustuponimpact.Thenalphotographinthesubsequence, OupaKoos,informaldiamonddigger,Floors,Kimberley,NorthernCape,2013 , Fig.3-11featuresastretchofopenveldunderabluesky.Amalegurepushesagainsta 126

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Figure3-8.IlanGodfrey, JeeryRamiruti,TudorShaft,MogaleCity,Krugersdorp, Johannesburg,Gauteng,2011 ,2011,archivalpigmentprint. pylonandstirsupplumesofnepowderaroundtheconcretecolumn.Placedtogetherin sequencethethreephotographsfocustheviewer'sattentionontheminutiaofthemined landscape:dust,sand,andgrainanimatetherespectivescenesandaddscaletoGodfrey's investigation.Here,theviewsofdisturbedearthengagetheviewer'ssenseoftouch,and givevisualweighttotheindividualscaleandphysicalexperiencetheinteractionbetween bodiesandmineralsthatundergirdsallaspectsofSouthAfrica'sminingandagricultural industriesthatdrivethenation'seconomy. Takentogether,Godfrey's LegacyoftheMine seriesoersanexampleofhowcontemporarySouthAfricanphotographersadaptvisuallanguagesandtropesoflandscape photographytoadvancedialogaboutsocio-environmentalissueswithoutlimitingthe agencyoftheirsubjectsorsettingsakeycriticismleveledatapartheid-erasocialdocumentaryphotographyinthreekeyways.First,Godfreyrelaysupsettingfactsabout 127

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Figure3-9.IlanGodfrey, JohanCelliss,Ermelo,Mpumalanga,2011 ,2011,archival pigmentprint. hishumanandenvironmentalsubjectsandthewaystheyhavebeenaectedbymining inhistitlesandcaptions,andnotthroughsensationalistimagesorbyusingthetropes ofwastelandphotography.Second,Godfreyusesvisualconventionsassociatedwiththe sublimeandthepicturesquetoportraythemininglandscapeinSouthAfricaasanactive subjectthattakesonmanyformsandhaspositiveandnegativeimpacts.Third,through theformatofhisseriestheblendingofmininglandscapeimageswithenvironmental portraitsGodfreymakesclearthattheworkhasasocialpurpose,andisdesignedto promotethinkingaboutthisissuebeyondthegallery.Inthisrespect,Godfreyuseslandscapephotographsinamannerdirectlyreectiveofhissocialdocumentarypredecessors. HisseriesmovesbeyondadichotomyoftheminingindustryinSouthAfricaasawholly positiveornegativeforceonthelandscape.Hisseriesbuildsavisualenvironmentaspace 128

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Figure3-10.IlanGodfrey, Informalgolddigger,disusedWesternHoldingsMine,Welkom, FreeState,2012 ,2012,archivalpigmentprint. outofaseriesofplacesinwhichnuances,multipleperspectives,anddialogcantake place. 3.3NetworksofPower:ThabisoSekgala,andtheSecondTransitionseries In2012SouthAfricanphotographerThabisoSekgala,togetherwithanotherve SouthAfricanartistsandsixFrenchartists,beganworkonacollaborativeinvestigation oflandinSouthAfrica.Thecollectiveendeavor,theSocialLandscapeProject,was sponsoredthroughtheagenciesassociatedwiththeFrance-SouthAfricaSeasonsinitiative, andresultedinapublicationandexhibitionsinbothcountries. 30 Sekgalaandtheother 30.Thetitleofthiscollaborativeendeavor,"SocialLandscapeProject,"recallsothermid-twentiethcenturyusesofthetermbyAmericanphotographersLeeFriedlanderandNathanLyons.In1963Friedlander used"SocialLandscape"todescribehissubjectmatterinasmallseriespublishedinthejournal"ContemporaryPhotographer."See:LeeFriedlander,Portfolios, ContemporaryPhotographer 4,no.4Fall1963: 15;In1966aphotographyexhibitioncuratedbyNathanLyons,"TowardsaSocialLandscape,"brought 129

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Figure3-11.IlanGodfrey, OupaKoos,informaldiamonddigger,Floors,Kimberley, NorthernCape,2013 ,2013,archivalpigmentprint. SouthAfricanphotographers 31 hostedaFrenchcollaborator,andeachpairexploreda dierentregionrepresentativeofthecomplexhistoryrelatedtolandandlandownership togetherworkfromsixdierentphotographers.Inthisexhibition,Lyons,aprominentAmericanphotographerandeducator,putforwardaviewofthesociallandscapeasanexpansionoftraditionalnotionsof anenvironmentorlandscapeinphotography.Inhisintroductorytext,Lyonswritesthat"Photography hasachievedanunprecedentedmirroringofthethingsofourculture...Thisbroadeningofthesourceof experiencecouldimplythatourconceptof'landscape'shouldberevaluatedfromtheclassicalreference pointofnaturalenvironmenttoincludeasareferenttheinteractionofa'nexusbetweenmanandman, andmanandnature.'"See:NathanLyons, TowardaSocialLandscape HorizonPress,1967,4.AccordingtoLyons',thesociallandscapephotographersintheexhibitiondisplayedastyleofphotographythat established"agreaterinterrelatednessofthings"throughtheuseofconventionsassociatedwithsnapshots:avernacularfocus,andcontextualandformalexperimentation.Thoughgeneratedindierenttimes andcontexts,Lyons'viewofalandscapeasaseriesofrelationshipsbetweenpeople,things,andplaces ndsresonanceinthedesignoftheSouthAfrican"SocialLandscape"project,whichsoughttohighlight dynamicencountersbetweenpeopleandthelandinSouthAfrica. 31.TheotherveSouthAfricanparticipantswere:PieterHugo,JoRactlie,ZaneleMuholi,Cedric Nunn,andSantuMofokeng. 130

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inSouthAfricain2012andinto2013. 32 Accordingtoco-organizersJohnFleetwood andFrancoisHebel,theprojectaimedtodevelopacorpusofindividualworkthat wouldspeaktoalandexperiencethatisuniquetoanumberofSouthAfricansites. 33 OrganizerstimedtheSocialLandscapeprojecttocoincidewiththeobservationofthe centenaryofthe1913NativesLandActinSouthAfrica,and,indoingso,promote reectiononthecontinuedlegacyofthelegislation. 34 ThabisoSekgalapartneredwithFrenchartistPhilippeChancelandphotographed inandaroundBrits,Ga-Rankuwa,MarikanaandRustenburgcitiesintheMagopa regioninSouthAfrica'sNorthWestProvinceonmultipleoccasionsbetweenJulyand September2012.Thetwophotographersproduceddramaticallydierentimagesofthe location,whichisoneofthelargestplatinumproducingareasintheworldaswellasa formerBlackspot. 35 SekgalaandChanceleachrespondedinsomewaytothelocal 32.ThesixareasoffocuswithinSouthAfricawerechosenincollaborationwithDavidGoldblattand MarketPhotographyWorkshopsta.MarketPhotographyWorkshopdirectorJohnFleetwoodsaysthat thegroupwantedtondspotsorplacesofcontestationinthehistoryofSouthAfrica.Furtherheshares thattheywereinterestedinthishistoryofstorytellinginSouthAfrica,andreectedonhowDavid Goldblatthasbecomethisuber-photographerwhohasphotographedeverythingandtravelledeverywhere throughSouthAfrica.Thus,hesays,insteadofgoingtoahistorianandtalkingaboutlandwethought goingtoaphotographerthatisthisarchiveholder...andwithhimweidentiedtheseareasofcontestation.See:JohnFleetwood, Interviewwithauthor ,October8,2013. 33.FranoisHebelandJohnFleetwood, Transition ,ed.MarketPhotographyWorkshopandRencontres internationalesdelaphotographieParis: EditionsXavierBarral,2013,4. 34.FleetwoodandHebelwriteaboutthisobjectiveinrelationtotheSocialLandscapeproject:Much ofthesubjectoftheSocialLandscapeweavesthroughthehistoricalandthecontemporary.Acentury afterthelegislationofthe1913NativesLandActalawthatdrasticallyrestrictedaccesstoandacquisitionoflandbyblackSouthAfricansthetwelvephotographersconsidertheinherentpoliticaldiculties ofthisland.Theabsence,historically,oflandscapenarrativesbyblackpractitionersmeanthatquestions aroundblacklandownershipweretypicallywitnessedbythirdpartiesratherthanauthoredbyblack SouthAfricansthemselves.Thisfactchallengesandgivesdepthtotheproject,especiallyinthecontextof aEuropean-Africancollaboration.ibid.,5. 35.Theapartheid-eratermBlackSpot,denotesanareaoflandsettledorownedbyblackSouth Africansthatwassurroundedbywhite-ownedareas.Underapartheid,blackSouthAfricanswereforcibly removedfromtheircommunitiesandmadetoliveindesignatedhomelandareasaccordingtotheirethnicity.BlackSpotsexistedincountertothepoliciesoftheapartheidgovernmentandwereacontinued targetoftheregime. 131

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miningindustrymainlydiamondsandplatinumanditsimpactsinthisrural,industrial region250kilometerswestofJohannesburg.Whiletheywereworkingintheprovince, laborersatLonminplatinummineinMarikanawentonstrikeinprotestoverlowwages andsub-standardlivingconditions.ViolenceeruptedonAugust11,2012,andpeakedon August16thafterpolicekilled34minersandwoundedanother78.Theeventmarked themostlethaluseofforcebySouthAfricanPoliceocialsagainstcivilianssincethe SharpevilleMassacresin1960andnewsoftheincidentswasreportedacrosstheglobe. 36 ThetragiceventsatMarikanadrewattentiontolingeringtensionsbetweenmining companiesandlocalpopulationsdependentontheindustryforemployment,andoereda somberreectionontheprogressmadesincetheendingofapartheid.Bothphotographers adaptedtheirinvestigationstoincludediscussionoftheseeventsandvisuallyexploredthe dynamicsofstatepowerandcitizendemocracyintheirrespectiveprojects. SekgalatitledhisseriesSecondTransition,inreferencetoaphrasecoinedby AfricanNationalCongressocialsina2012documentoutliningplansfornewactions tobeundertakenbythenationalgovernmenttoaddresscontinuedeconomicdisparities plaguingblackcitizensinpost-apartheidSouthAfrica. 37 Inwritingsabouttheseries, SekgalacommentsthattheMagoparegionhasbeeninastateoftransitionforthelast 100years.Thetransitionsstartedintheyear1890whenthechiefoftheTswanatribeof 36.TheMarikanaMassacreasithasbecomeknowngeneratedconsiderablecontroversywithinSouth Africaandabroad,particularlyafteritwasdisclosedthatmostvictimswereshotintheback.Acommissionwasappointedin2012toreviewpoliceactions,butPresidentZuma,undergreatpressurefrom thepublicandthemedia,onlyreleasedthenalreportinJune2015.See:MarikanaCommissionof Inquiry, Reportonmattersofpublic,nationalandinternationalconcernarisingoutofthetragicincidentsattheLonminMineinMarikana,intheNorthWestProvince ,technicalreportMarch2015, http: //www.thepresidency.gov.za/medialib/downloads/downloads/Full%5C%20Report%5C%20of%5C%20the%5C% 20Marikana%5C%20Commision%5C%20of%5C%20Inquiry.pdf . 37.Thersttransition,asknownwithintheAfricanNationalCongressparty,referencestheadventof democraticrulein1994,whichgrantedpoliticalfreedomtoallSouthAfricansregardlessofskincolor.See: AfricanNationalCongress, TheSecondTransition?Buildinganationaldemocraticsocietyandthebalance offorcesin2012 ,DiscussiondocumenttowardsNationalPolicyConference,accessedDecember10, 2015, http://www.anc.org.za/docs/discus/2012/transition.pdf . 132

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BaMagopa,boughtbacktheirland. 38 Now,Sekgalanotes,theminingcompanieshave overtakenmostofthelandinthearea,and,asaresult,residentshavefewemployment optionsapartfromthesecompanies,wheretheyendurepoorworkingconditionsand receivelowwages.Forme,miningandlandownershiparethecoreissueswhenitcomes totheSecondTransition,Sekgalawrites,thephotographsintheseriesactasasymbol oforawitnesstotheeconomicimbalancethatexistsincontemporarySouthAfrica,where peopleincreasinglyinhabitcontrastingeconomicrealities.Peopleliveinpoorconditions rightnexttothemultibillionplatinum-miningplants. 39 Subjectsrelatedtoland,ruralcommunities,andtheeconomicissuesaectingblack SouthAfricansfeatureprominentlyintheworkofThabisoSekgala.Bornin1981in Johnannesburg,theyoungphotographerdiedsuddenlyinOctober2014afterreturningto SouthAfricafromaresidencyabroad.Hisdeathbroughtasuddenanddeeplysaddening endtoarapidlydevelopingcareerinSouthAfricaandabroad.Hislosswasdeeplyfelt bypeerssuchasSabeloMlangeni,whostudiedwithSekgalaattheMarketPhotography Workshopin2008andfacedmanyofthesamechallengesasSekgaladidasayoung blackartist.In2010SekgalawasawardedaTierneyFellowship,aprestigiousaward thatprovidesnancialsupportandprofessionalmentoringtoapromisingearlycareer photographerinSouthAfrica.Sekgala'snalexhibition,Homeland,presentedrichcolor landscapesandportraitstakeninformerBantustansofKwaNdebeleandBophuthatswana, areasinthenorthwesternpartofthecountrywhereblackSouthAfricans,predominantly ofNdebeleandTswanaheritagewereresettledbytheapartheidgovernment. 40 Inthis 38.EmahoMagazine,ThabisoSekgala:SecondTransition,September13,2013,accessedDecember10, 2015, http://www.emahomagazine.com/2013/09/thabiso-sekgala-second-transition/ . 39.Ibid. 40.TheBophuthatswanahomelandwasestablishedin1961andbecamesemi-independentcollectionof smallparcelsoflandin1977.Theterritorywasnotrecognizedasanindependententitybyanynation otherthanSouthAfricaandtheothersemi-independenthomelandareainSouthAfrica,theTranskei. 133

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Figure3-12.ThabisoSekgala, Passagebetweentwoschools,Pankop,former Bophuthatswana ,2000,archivalpigmentprint. seriesSekgalamixedphotographsofordinarylandscapesthatcouldactasakind ofmemoryormonumenttothisideaofhomelandtogetherwithportraitsofyoung peoplebornafter1994,knowncolloquiallyasBornfrees,livinginthecommunities TheformerBantustan,Kwandebele,formedandwasgrantedself-rulein1981.ForadiscussionoftheformerBantustansandtheircontinuedimpactsinSouthAfrica,see:WilliamBeinart,Beyond`Homelands': SomeIdeasabouttheHistoryofAfricanRuralAreasinSouthAfrica, SouthAfricanHistoricalJournal 64,no.1:5;Thisarticlewaspublishedaspartofaspecialissueofthe SouthAfricanHistoricalJournal .1abouttheareaseditedbyShireenAllyandAriannaLissoni,whichcontainsanumber ofrelevantarticlestothetopic.See,forexample:ShireenAllyandAriannaLissoni,Let'sTalkAbout Bantustans, SouthAfricanHistoricalJournal 64,no.1:1. 134

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whodidnotknowtheareasunderapartheid.ThroughtheprojectSekgalapursuedan interestintheideaoflandandhomeandhowpeopleidentifythemselveswithinthe landscape. 41 CriticSeanO'Tooledescribesthebodyofworkastender,curiousand strangelyhopeful,andobservesthattheseriescatapultedSekgalaontotheglobal stage. 42 Thegentle,yetperceptivenaturewithwhichSekgalaapproachedhissubjectsin Homelanddistinguishedtheyoungphotographeratthebeginningofhisshortcareer.His analog-based,square-formatphotographs,suchas Passagebetweentwoschools,Pankop, formerBophuthatswana Fig.3-12,whichwereincludedinthetouringsurveyexhibition, RiseandFallofApartheid ,showalandscapemarkedbyremnantsoftheapartheid-era wirefences,channeledpaths,restrictedmovementyet,photographedastheywereinthe lateeveninglightwithashallowdepthofeld,asoftnesspermeatesthesceneandaddsa tenderovertone. ThroughoutHomeland,Sekgalapresentsviewsoftheresettlementareainrelation tothelifethatcontinuestopulsewithinitsconnes.In Untitled Fig.3-13,Sekgala depictsadegradeddirtroadthatslinksbetweendeterioratedfencesandhomes.Thescene sagswiththeweightofpiledrocks,defoliatedbrushandgrayveneerofformerlywhite housesthatllthebottomthirdoftheimage.Abovethehouses,however,lushjacaranda treesinfullbloomliftthecompositionandreectpurplehuesontothedecayedsetting below.Writingforthepopularblog, AfricaisaCountry ,NeelikaJayawardaneobserves thatSekgala'sphotographsexposetheinvisibletopographyoflandscapesthatnonetheless directandlimitthosewhoareforcedtocoursethroughthosespaces.Butsomewherein 41.ThabisoSekgalaandPhotoquai, InterviewwithThabisoSekgala-Photoquai2013 ,Youtube, https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=jF8n7XKNP90 . 42.SeanO'Toole,ThabisoSekgala:Suicidestillsanotherrisingstar, Mail&Guardian ,October24, 2014, http://mg.co.za/article/2014-10-24-00-thabiso-sekgala-suicide-stills-another-rising-star . 135

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Figure3-13.ThabisoSekgala,Untitled,from Homeland series.Archivalpigmentprint. hisphotographsisalsoourwillpushing,moving,atloggerheadswithhistory'shand. 43 ThroughouthisbriefcareerSekgalawasknownandadmiredforhisquiet,butprecise compositionsandimagescreatedwithcompassionandempathy, 44 qualitiesthat characterizeandinformtheworkhecompletedinMarikana. 43.NeelikaJayawardane, ThephotographsofThabisoSekgala ,October2014, http://africasacountry.com/ the-photographs-of-thabiso-sekgala/ . 44.O'Toole,ThabisoSekgala:Suicidestillsanotherrisingstar. 136

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Figure3-14.ThabisoSekgala,Untitled-1from SecondTransition series,2012.Archival pigmentprint. Sekgala'sSecondTransitionseriescloselyresemblestheblendofimageryandaestheticputforwardintheHomelandsseries.Thenalportfoliooftwenty-sixphotographs primarilyfeatureslandscapeimages,interspersedwithanumberofenvironmentalportraits.NearlyallofSekgala'slandscapephotographsdepictviewsframedinsomewayby infrastructure:houses,animals,andpeoplearepresentedinrelationtotheoverheadwires, fences,andindustrialstructuresthatdominatetheregion'stopography.Imagessuchas Untitled1 Fig.3-14displaythestrategywithwhichSekgalaportraysthelandscape markedbyitsuse.Here,theviewerlooksoutandoveranopenlandscapelledwithblack patchesofgravel,andpaleshrubs,splitintoregistersbystripsofrailroadandpowerlines. 137

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Figure3-15.ThabisoSekgala,Untitled-2from SecondTransition series,2012.Archival pigmentprint. Inbetweentworowsoftrackamanwalksacrossapatchofparchedgroundaheadofa smallherdofgoats.Piledminetailingsandpowerlinesllthehorizonanddwarfthe gurebelow.Thescaleofthemanagainsttheforestofmetalinfrastructureanalogizesthe wayinwhichtheplatinumindustrydirectsthemovementsofresidentsatmanyscalesand loomsabovethelivesofcitizensontheground. Thisvisualconversationbetweenindustryandpeoplein Untitled1 continuesand expandsthroughouttheseries.In Untitled2 Fig.3-15Sekgalaframesaseatedgroup ofmineworkersatameetinginrelationtothestructuresoverhead.Denselypackedand numerous,theamalgamationoflaborersneverthelessappearsweighted,restrictedand 138

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cordonedobytheoutlineoftowersandlineabovethem.Inaninterviewaboutthe projectwithhistorianPatriciaHayes,Sekgalareectsontherepetitionofcables,mine, andindustrystructures: It'snoteasytoseparateonethingfromanother.Soeverythingbecomespart ofthesameenvironment,thisandthisandthis,theybecomeonepicture.So whenyoulookatittheminingandthepeopleandthefarmingyouthink everythingdoesn'trelatethere,becauseyoudon'tknowwhatthestoryis,it's notspecic.Formethisselectionisaboutthepicturethattellsthemoststory. Onepicture. 45 Sekgala'sviewoftheseriestakesonparticularmeaninginhisapproachtotheneeds ofpeoplewholiveinthesesettings.Inphotographssuchas Untitled3 Fig.3-16 and Untitled4 Fig.3-17Sekgalatracesspacewiththeelectricwires,asthoughthe linesweretethersbindingthesubjectstotheharsh,aridterrain.Thisformalgesture repeatedthroughoutSecondTransitionrevealsthedelicacyandcircumspectionwith whichSekgalainterpretedtheminersinrelationtotheirenvironment.Heeschewsa sensationalizedrepresentationofanimpoverishedcommunitymadeprominentinmedia coverageoftheMarikanaMassacreinfavorofapresentationofthetensionsinpeople's livesthroughlandscapemetaphors.InhiswritingsSekgalaemphasizeshisintenttogo beyondarepresentationoftheliteralinhisphotographs: IfIcomewithsomeonefromadierentenvironment,theymightsay,thisisan amazinglandscape.Butit'sjustshacks.Theymightbesayingthatbecause they'reshocked.Buttheysayit'samazingbecausephotographicallyitmight makeabeautifulpicture.ButformeIwasalsothinkingabouttherealityof thepeopleinthoseareas.It'sapictureofaplacewherepeoplearelivingand theirconditions. 46 ForSekgala,theeventsofMarikanaformpartofalargerhistoryvisibleinthelandscape andhewantedhisphotographstoreferencethisbroadercontext.AsSeanO'Toolenotes 45.PatriciaHayesandThabisoSekgala,SecondTransition,in Transition ,ed.MarketPhotography WorkshopandRencontresinternationalesdelaphotographie.Paris: EditionsXavierBarral,2013,9. 46.Ibid. 139

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Figure3-16.ThabisoSekgala,Untitled-3from SecondTransition series,2012.Archival pigmentprint. ofthework:Hisphotosoftheimpoverishedlivingconditionsandlandscapesaround Marikanaboreouthisdrivingimpulse:toquietandstillrealityinsteadofcreatinga spectacleofit. 47 AspectsofSekgala'spresentationofthemininglandscapeinNorthWestprovince resonateswithphotographsincludedintheseminalexhibitionNewTopographics: PhotographsofaManAlteredLandscapecuratedbyWilliamJenkinsfortheEastman 47.O'Toole,ThabisoSekgala:Suicidestillsanotherrisingstar. 140

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Figure3-17.ThabisoSekgala,Untitled-4from SecondTransition series,2012.Archival pigmentprint. HouseGalleryinRochester,NewYork.The1975showbroughttogetherworkbyagroup ofphotographersconcernedwiththebuiltenvironmentintheAmericanWest,andthe transformationofalandscapeoncesocentraltotheAmericanpsychethroughexpansion ofsuburbsandotherinfrastructure. 48 JohnRohrbachwritesthatthe'NewTopographics' 48.TenphotographerstookpartintheexhibitionattheshownattheGeorgeEastmanHousein Rochester,NewYork.Theimagesin`NewTopographicsprimarilydepictedthesiteswithintheAmerican West,butwereprimarilyconcernedtoadvanceavisualvocabularyfocusedonform,andhumaninterventionsintothelandscape.Atthetime,JuhaTolonennotes:apractitionerinlandscapewasfacedwith acenturyoftraditioninthemedium,onthatseeminglyfollowedasettrajectory,whichhadculminated intheiconicsublime,andpicturesqueimageryofsomeofAmerica'snationalparks.See:JuhaTolonen, 141

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photographersrecognizedthatbroadeconomicshiftswerechangingthefaceoftheland, andtheywereinterestedindrawingvisualattentiontothebland,repetitiveappearanceof theresults. 49 Intheirrespectiveimagesthephotographerssoughttominimizeemotive contentandthepresenceoftheartistintheframe,andpresentthelandscapeina stylisticallyneutralmanner. 50 TheNewTopographicsdepartedfromthelabor-intensive, heavilycraftedlandscapedepictionscharacteristicofphotographerssuchasAnselAdams. PhotographerRobertAdamssaidofhiswork,`picturesshouldlookliketheywereeasily taken,andLewisBaltzassertedthathispicturesshouldlookliketheyhavenoauthor. 51 Thephotographerssoughtobjectivityintheirphotographs,adesiremadeclear,asJuha Tolonenobserves,intheexhibition'stitle:Topographydescribesapracticethatisbased inscienceratherthanart.Objectivityandneutralityareimplicatedmorethannotionsof subjectivityandtranscendencecommoninmodernistartandlandscapephotography. 52 InSecondTransitionSekgalausesman-madeformsinthelandscapetoexaminelife alongsideindustryandpointstotherelationshipbetweenoverlainmininginfrastructure NewTopographics:WithholdingJudgement,in PhotographyandLandscape ,ed.RodGiblettandJuha TolonenBristol,UK:Intellect,2012,156. 49.See:JohnRohrbach,Introduction,in ReframingtheNewtopographics ,ed.GregFoster-Riceand JohnRohrbachChicago:CenterforAmericanPlacesatColumbiaCollegeChicago,2010,xvii. 50.JohnRohrbachnotesthattheybrokesubstantiallyfromtheoutlookofAnselAdamsandEliot Porterthathaddominatedlandscapepracticeoverrecentdecades.WhereAdamsandPorterdenedlandscapeasseparatefromhumanity,totheseyoungerphotographersnatureandhumanitywereinterwoven ibid. 51.See:Tolonen,NewTopographics:WithholdingJudgement,159. 52.See:ibid.,157.Theexhibitiongreatlyimpactedthepracticeoflandscapephotographyinthe UnitedStatesandEurope,particularlythroughtheworkofBerndandHillaBecherandartistslater associatedwiththeDusseldorfSchool.Thestylisticapproachassociatedwith`NewTopographics'and theDusseldorfSchoolalsoinuencedtheworkofSouthAfricanphotographers,particularlythroughthe workofparticipantStephenShore,whohashadparticularinuenceontheworkofanumberofcontemporarySouthAfricanphotographersdiscussedinthisdissertation,includingBrentMeistre,DanielNaude, andDavidSouthwood.AllthreeartiststookpartinamasterclassputonbyShoreduringa2012visitto SouthAfrica.TherelevanceofShore'sworkisfurtherindicatedthroughthe2008IzikoMuseumofSouth AfricanArtshowofhiswork,StephenShore:ColoringAmericanPhotography,whichwastherstsolo exhibitionofworkfromanAmericanPhotographerinSouthAfricashownbythenationalgallery. 142

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andamateriallyimpoverishedcommunityandnaturalenvironment.Throughphotographs ofpeoplebelowlacesofwireandmountainsofminingdebris,helooksathowthemanalteredlandscapeaectsthemovementandpsycheofthosemostintimatelyconnectedto itsforms. Inher1985article,OfMotherNatureandMalboroMen:AnInquiryIntothe CulturalMeaningsofLandscapePhotography,photographerandcriticDeborahBright challengedtheformalistapproachofworkincludedinNewTopographics.Bright feltthattheartistsintheirrespectiveattemptstodismantleassociationswiththe sublimeandpicturesqueintherepresentationoftheman-alteredlandscapemissedan opportunityforthoughtfulanalysis.Sharplycriticaloftheunyieldingfocusonformin theexhibitionshewrites,thereisnoFormoutsideofinterpretation.Formalorders arehumanstructuresandperceptions,notgivenessences. 53 Narrowattentiontoshape andstructureinthelandscapehavelittleutility,sheargued:Photographsofthestrong graphiclinesofablastfurnaceorpitheadtellusnothingaboutthemassiveexporting ofindustriestoimpoverishedlabormarketsoverseasandthedevastatedcommunities leftbehindinSouthChicago,Homestead,Youngstown,Schenectady. 54 Ratherthan emphasizeform,shearguesthatlandscapephotographershaveastakeinrevealingan environmentthatJ.B.Jacksonhascalled`aeldofperpetualconictandcompromise betweenwhatisestablishedbyauthorityandwhatthevernacularinsistsonpreferring. Thisisalandscape,inotherwords,whoseorganizationintheinterestsofauthoritative institutionsismadeexplicit. 55 Insupportofherargument,Brightdiscussesaproject 53.Bright,OfMotherNatureandMarlboroMen:Aninquiryintotheculturalmeaningsoflandscape photography,134. 54.Ibid.,140. 55.Ibid.,130. 143

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LisaLewenzcompletedontheThreeMileIslandnuclearplant,whichdocumentsthe facilitythroughtheeyesofresidentswholiveadjacenttotheplant.Brightwrites: Lewenz'sframingofTMI'scoolingtowersbytheliteralframingofresidents' windowsmakesclearthelinksbetweenpublicandprivate;betweenthe decisionsofcorporate,stateandfederalauthoritiesandthemen,women,and childrenwhoendupascollateraldamageinthecaseofanaccident.Rather thanperpetuatingthefantasyoflandscapesasexternaltous,asthingsoutside ofourselves,Lewenzbringsthemhomeascontestedsocialterrains. 56 Yet,accordingtoBright,Lewenzremainsanoutlierwithinthebroadereldoflandscape photography,andpleadsforfurtherworkthatintegratesreferencetothesocialand historicalcontextofproduction. ThoughaspectsofThabisoSekgala'sSecondTransitionseriesdrawuponformalist strategiesalignedwithNewTopographicsartistssuchasRobertAdamsandFrank Gohlke,hisworkmoreclearlyexempliestheapproachDeborahBrightadvocatesfor inherarticle.LikeAdamsandGohlke,whointegratedmanufacturedformssuchas powerlinesframetheircompositionsandindicatethepresenceofindustry,Sekgalauses theman-made,minedenvironmenttoframeandunifyanexaminationoftheMarikana landscape.Lacesofhigh-tensionwire,forexample,loomacrosshissquareframesand fracturetheskyintoatetheredspaceabovetheworkers.Sekgala'sinspiredattentionto formintegratesadelicatepoetryintheseries,buthisformalreferencestoindustryand themanmadearenotneitherthefocusofhisseriesoranassertionofneutralitytowards hissubjectmatter.ThoughtherearenoimagesinSecondTransitionofstrikesorthe violenceagainsttheworkers,Sekgalaintendsforhisphotographstocommentonthe eventsthattookplace.Hewritesthatheattempted:tomakethelinkwithhistoryofthe peopleofBaMagopatribeandthecurrentsituationwhere60Minerslosttheirlifeafter beingshotbythepolice...theeventsofMarikanamirrortheSharpevillemassacreofthe 56.Bright,OfMotherNatureandMarlboroMen:Aninquiryintotheculturalmeaningsoflandscape photography,137. 144

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1960s.Thesephotographsconstituteevidencethathistoryalwaysrepeatsitself. 57 Inthis sense,SekgalauseslandscapephotographyinanactivistmodereminiscentofStruggle-era photography.Butratherthanexposethedirectactionsofthestateagainstthepeople througharepresentationoftheMarikanaprotestsSekgaladrawsuponlandscapeimagery toreferenceandexposeahistoryofstructuraloppressioninSouthAfricacarriedout throughacoreindustry. Moreover,inhisreectionsonthework,SekgalalikeBrightexpressesmisgivings aboutthetermlandscapeandthedistancebetweenwhatitconnoteswithinthepractice ofcontemporaryphotographyandwhathedocumentsthroughitsvisuallanguage. SekgalaemphasizesthesepointsinconversationwithhistorianPatriciaHayes: TS:Iwasthinkingaboutthiswordlandscape.ButIalsofeelabitsad.I comeintothisareaanddolandscapesbutpeoplelivinginthoseareasdon't reallyusethatterminology.PH:Whatterminologydotheyuse?TS:It'sa place!...I'mdoingaprojectaboutlandscape.It'salanguageIusemaybe inmypractice,butinrealitywhereIcomefromwedon'tusetheword landscape. 58 ForSekgala,callingtheareahedocumentsalandscaperepresentsakindofluxury,in thatitenablestheviewertoseparatethesocialrealitiesofthepeoplethatinhabitthat spacefromthespacerepresentedinthephotograph.InSecondTransitionSekgala remainsattentivetothisconict,andusestheenvironmenttocreatealandscapeseries thatwillcommunicatetheconstraintsimposedonresidentsbythepowerfulplatinum industry.Forexample,inphotographssuchas Untitled-5 Fig.3-18,Sekgalaadapts theformsoftheenvironmentshedepictstorevealaspectsofthesocialsetting.Subtly andsensitivelyhecontraststhegroupofwomenandsmalldogbroughttogetheraround asmallpatchofshadowcastfromtheblackumbrellaagainsttheopennessofthearid 57.EmahoMagazine,ThabisoSekgala:SecondTransition. 58.HayesandSekgala,SecondTransition,9. 145

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Figure3-18.ThabisoSekgala,Untitled-5from SecondTransition series,2012.Archival pigmentprint. environment,barrenexceptforthethintethersofelectricwirethatrunparalleltothe parchedhorizon.Readagainstremainingimages,thislandscapephotographconveys aspectsofthesocialandeconomicpositionofMarikanaresidents,who,becauseoflimited employmentopportunities,aretetheredtolifewithinaninhospitablelandscapeandonly minimallyequippedtonavigateit.Asametaphorfortheminingindustry,theumbrella oersshadeinexchangeforrestrictionofmovementandconstantoccupationofone's hands. ThewaysSekgala'sseriesspeakstoDeborahBright'sconcerns,onesarguablyunansweredbytheartworldnearlythirtyyearsafterwriting,highlighttheinnovativenature 146

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ofSouthAfricanlandscapephotographyinthepost-apartheidera.Brightadvocatedfor photographerstodrawfromthetraditionofsocialdocumentaryphotographytocreate landscapesthatstimulatenewthinkingabouthowtoseelandscapesashumanlyorganized. 59 Sekgala'sprojectaccomplishesthistaskwithoutneedingtodocumentanyone particularstoryorotherwiseprovideviewersavoyeuristicglimpseintothecommunity. Keenlyawareofthetropesofinformalcommunitiesandtheprevalenceofsuchrepresentationsfordomesticandinternationalaudiences,Sekgalastruggledthroughouthiscareer tocreateanauthenticportraitofthedynamismandtenacityofthesecommunities,a presentationoftenatoddswiththeexpectationsoftheglobalartmarket,inparticular thoseaimedatayoungblackphotographer.SeanO'ToolecitesaninterviewwithSekgala, inwhichSekgalaspokeabouttheindierencethatmethisphotographsinBerlin.`People wanttoseeacertainpictureofAfrica,'hesaid,addingthathepreferredtocreatesubtle work.`Ithinkthere'salotofbetterstutophotographthanthisnegativestubetter thanpovertyandviolence.' 60 3.4LandscapesofLabor:JerryObakengGaeganeandMarangaLetsatsi AnexaminationofphotographerswhoexplorethetopicofmininginSouthAfrica providesimportantexamplesoftheadaptionoflandscapeimagerytoadvancedialog relatedtosocialissues.EmergingphotographerJerryObakengGaegane'sprojectMarang aLetsatsiToseethesunriseinTswana, 61 illustratesthispractice:theseriespresents 59.Bright,OfMotherNatureandMarlboroMen:Aninquiryintotheculturalmeaningsoflandscape photography,137. 60.O'Toole,ThabisoSekgala:Suicidestillsanotherrisingstar. 61.TswanaisoneofSouthAfrica'selevenociallanguagesandisprimarilyspokenintheNortheast regionofthecountry.GaeganedescribeshisselectionoftheTswanatitle:Undergroundminersnormally leavetheirhomesatfourintheafternoonandworkthewholenightleavingtheshaftataroundfouror vethenextmorning.Theysaythattoseethelightofdayisveryimportanttothemasitgivesthem the`spiritoflife',toliveforanotherdayandtobeabletoseethesun,inTswanaMarangaLetsatsi i.e.Toseethesunrise.Thisisanimportantlifephilosophywhendeathisaconstantthreat.Jerry ObakengGaegane, MarangaLetsatsi Johannesburg:MarketPhotographyWorkshop,2013,5. 147

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amininglandscapethroughthelensoflabor.Theroleoflaborandindeedhuman presences,particularlythatofblackSouthAfricanshasremainedasubjecttraditionally absentfromlandscapephotographsandpaintingsinSouthAfrica,particularlyworks producedinthelatenineteenthandearlytwentiethcenturies.Gaegane'sserieslooksat theinformalminingindustryinandaroundJohannesburgandhewritesthathisproject attemptstoexploretracesormarksuponthelandscape,naturalorman-made,which makesuswonderaboutthepresencethatmadethem.Miningisonesuchtraceinour historyitisthebackboneofoursocietybutithasbeenbuiltuponthebackandbodies ofmany. 62 InMarangaLetsatsiGaeganerevealsalandscapethroughtheframeworkof itsinvisiblepresences:thepeoplewhoshapeditthroughtheirlabor. JerryObakengGaebaneb.1982isablackphotographerwhowasbornandraised inZoneseveninMeadowlands,Soweto,atownshipsettlementadjacenttoaminedump. Gaeganereectsthatphotographinginformalworkersondisusedminesrecalledaspects ofhisownexperiencegrowingupnexttooneofmanytailingpilesinJohannesburg:I rememberthedierentsoundsthatcametobeassociatedwiththeminedumps,like theexplosionofdynamiteorthesoundofmotorbikeswhenusedforracesaroundthe dump.Thereweredierentsoundsduringtheday,especiallyonweekends,andsometimes onecouldhearsoundsbyminersatnightfromunderground. 63 Gaeganecompletedhis projectin2013withsupportfromanEdwardRuizMentorshipfellowship 64 hereceived fromtheMarketPhotographyWorkshop,wherehebeganstudyingphotographyin2009. IlanGodfreyservedasGaegane'smentorfortheproject,andthisrelationshiphelped 62.Gaegane, MarangaLetsatsi ,5. 63.Ibid. 64.TheEdwardRuizMentorshipwasestablishedandsponsoredbyAngloGoldAshanti,aprominent miningcompanyinJohannesburg.TheawardisnamedinhonorofEdwardRuiz,anAmericanphotojournalistwholivedandworkedinSouthAfrica,andisgivenannuallytoagraduateoftheMarketPhotographyWorkshopAdvancedProgramme.Itprovidesayearofnancialandmentorshipsupport.Attheend oftheyear,recipientsexhibittheirnalworksatthePhotoWorkshopGalleryinNewtown,Johannesburg. 148

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Figure3-19.JerryObakengGaegane, Untitled from MarangaLetsatsi series,2013,archival pigmentprint.Originalcaption: Motorbikers'tracksaftertheirweekendrides ontheminedumps.DurbanDeepMine,Roodepoort,2013. exposebothphotographerstocurrentissuesrelatedtomininganditswidespreadimpacts inSouthAfrica.Inadditiontohisworkrelatedtoinformalmining,GaeganealsocompletedprojectsaboutworkerswhodistributecoalandcollectmetalandsteelinSoweto, aswellasindividualsandfamilieswholiveinhostelsinatownshipinPotchefstroom. Theseprojectscatalyzedhisinterestinusingphotographytoprolecommunitiescreated throughnetworksofinformaltrading. 65 IllegalminingactivitiesinSouthAfricahavegreatlyincreasedinrecentyearsin responsetohighunemploymentinSouthAfricaandsurroundingnations. 66 Gaegane 65.Gaegane'sprojectTsenaonHostelsreceivedanhonorablementionrunner-upstatusforthe2015 ErnestColeAward.Theproposedworkwouldextendhisresearchintoinformalminingcommunitiesin SouthAfrica. 66.InSouthAfricabetween25-30%ofthepopulationlacksemploymentandratesarehigherforsurroundingcountries.TheChamberofMinesestimatesthat70%ofillegalminersarealsoillegalimmigrants,primarilycitizensofLesotho,Mozambique,andZimbabwe.ChamberofMinesofSouthAfrica, 149

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writesthathisprojectreectsthehardshipofunemploymentinSouthAfricaaspeople turntoinformalminingtoekeoutalivingontheoldobsoleteminesofJohannesburg. Thoughrarelylucrativeforindividualminers,ocialsestimatethatbetween5-10%of SouthAfrica'sannualgoldproductionstemsfromillegalmining,extractionsthatresultin substantiallossofprotsfromminingcompanies'annualrevenuestotalingover72billion Rand 67 forgoldandcloseto63billionforplatinumgroupmetals. 68 Largenumbersof illegalminersledtoanincreaseincriminalandgangactivityinthemines,andspurred growthofcrimesyndicateswhocontrolmarketsforillegally-minedminerals. 69 Working conditionsintheminesarehazardous,andriskssuchascollapsingshafts,underground res,andexposuretogasessuchasmercuryvaporsthreatenthelivesofminerswhowork inthecloseto4400abandonedminesinandaroundJohannesburg. 70 Togainentrance toundergroundminingareasmanyillegalminerspenetratedisusedventilationshafts, andusedangerousexplosivestoremovebarrierstosealedmineentrancesoroerbribes toenteroperatingmines.Illegalminerstypicallyaccessspacesatnightandreturnabove grounddaily,butotherswillstayundergroundforweeksorevenmonthsatatime.The IllegalMininginSouthAfrica:FactSheet2015 ,2015, https://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/comsa/ illegal-mining.pdf . 67.AtthetimeofwritingtheSouthAfricanRandZARwasuctuatinginvalueagainstheUSDollar between13and15ZARforoneUSD. 68.ChamberofMinesofSouthAfrica, IllegalMininginSouthAfrica:FactSheet2015 . 69.See:GaryKynoch,Marasheaonthemines:Economic,socialandcriminalnetworksontheSouth Africangoldelds,1947-1999, JournalofSouthernAfricanStudies 26,no.1:79;Devon Maylie,SouthAfricaProbesIllegalMiningSyndicates:PoliceArrestIllegalMiners,TrackDownKingpins, WallStreetJournal ,February18,2014,accessedDecember1,2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/ SB10001424052702304675504579390650772793532 . 70.See:DevonMaylie,DangerousEconomyThirvesinSouthAfrica'sAbandonedGoldMines, Wall StreetJournal ,2014-08-24,Mayliedescribestheprocesswithwhichminersareexposedtomercuryvapors: Torenetherocksminerswillcrushandwashthemwithwaterandbleach,thenburntheminamixturewithliquidmercury.AstudydonebySouthAfrica'sCouncilforScienticandIndustrialResearch foundthatillegalminersexposedtomercuryvaporshadan80%chanceofmercuryenteringtheblood stream,whichcandamagethecentralnervoussystem.,accessedDecember1,2015, http://www.wsj.com/ articles/dangerous-economy-thrives-in-south-africas-abandoned-gold-mines-1408933804 . 150

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Figure3-20.JerryObakengGaegane, Booysens from MarangaLetsatsi series,2013, archivalpigmentprint. workisarduousandlifethreatening,andGaeganewritesthatheaimsforhisworkto documentthesestrugglesofhumanitywithinanentireindustrythatexistsaround tryingtondagranuleofgold. 71 MarangaLetsatsibeginswithapanoramicphotographofanerodingminedump outsidetheDurbanDeepMineinRoodeportFig.3-19.Theimageshowsayellowed hillsideetchedwithmotorcycletracksthattraversethesurfaceoftheloosetailings.The ridgesofthepilereectahigherchromaorintensityofcolorthanthetailingsbelow,and litbeneathanovercastsky,thedumpglowseerilyagainstthemutedgreenandbluetones intheimage.Nopeoplearepicturedinthecomposition,butthemakeshiftbikecourses indicatethatthespaceisusedforrecreationorasapathwaybetweenareas. 72 71.Gaegane, MarangaLetsatsi ,5. 72.ThephotographrecallstheopenlandscapeimagesassociatedwithNewTopographicsphotographers suchasJoeDeal,whoportrayedtheexpandingsuburbanlandscapefromabovetoshowcaseitspermeationintothenaturalenvironment,aswellastheworkofRobertAdams. 151

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Figure3-21.JerryObakengGaegane, InformalSurfaceMiners,Booysens from Maranga Letsatsi series,2013,archivalpigmentprint. Thephotographsthatfollowproleinformalminersnoneofwhomarenamedor repeatedinotherphotographsatworkinrivers,dumps,anddisusedshafts.Nearlyallof theimagesportrayworkersinrelationtotheirenvironment;Gaeganeframesthemagainst sitesthatbecom[e]ahomewheresomesurfaceminerslive,sleepandrelaxFig.3-20 andatworkalongsidetheriversandtailingsFig.3-21wheretheydrainsoilandwater andassesspotentialgoldresidues. 73 AsGaeganemovesclosertohissubjectswithhis camera,helowershisbodysothatindividualssitabovethehorizonlineandassumea greaterweightandagencywithintheframeFig.3-22.Also,Gaeganephotographed themajorityofhisimagesinlateafternoonlightoncleardays,sothathisphotographs arebright,hiscolorssaturatedsothatcrisporange,redandblueplasticpailscontrast againstyellowhuesinthedumpridgesandtherichtexturesofrockandsandare emphasized.Alloftheseformaldecisionscombinetocreateanexpressive,digniedcolor 73.Gaegane, MarangaLetsatsi ,47. 152

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Figure3-22.JerryObakengGaegane, Legomosha,InformalSurfaceMiner,Booysens from MarangaLetsatsi series,2013,archivalpigmentprint. portraitofanindustryinvisibletomostSouthAfricansandderidedbyindustryocials. InMarangaLetsatsi,Gaeganecontextualizesthelaboroftheminersthroughhis presentationofthelandscapeasrichenvironmentmadeupofwhatcriticPercyZvomuya describesasalwaysexpandingvistasinwhichtheguresofminers...disruptorreorder themonotonyoftheselandscapes 74 Imagessuchas Untitled Fig.3-23showhowGaeganeadaptslandscapeconventions toportrayalandscapethroughthelaborofthosewhoworkandshapeit.Inthisimage 74.Zvomuya,Percy,Thelureofpastriches, Mail&Guardian ,October25,2013,accessedDecember2, 2015, http://mg.co.za/article/2013-10-25-00-the-lure-of-past-riches . 153

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GaeganeframesacloselycroppedhandofaZama-Zama 75 mineragainstaneutral brown-coloredbackground.Eightroundgranulesofgoldsitwithintherecessofthe cuppedpalm,dwarfedagainstthepatterningofwrinklesandfoldsintheskin.Ashallow depth-of-eldleavesonlyasmallbandoftheimagemiddlegroundinfocus,agesturethat drawsfurtherattentiontothetinypebbles.Againsttheblurredbackgroundtheheel, ngers,andopenpalmanalogizetheformsofarurallandscape:thehandheelmimics rollinghillsstackedagainstanopenhorizon,theindentationsandcallousesofthepalm recallsrockysheersandcrevasses,andthesupplemoundsofskinechograssyraisesin aruralvalleysurface.Thescaleofthegoldgranulesinrelationtothecuppedpalm furtherechothedisproportionateamountoflaborneededtoextractminusculereturns. Gaeganecomposeshisphotographsuchthatthesinglehandactsasasynecdochefor many,unpicturedhandsthatcreatetheinformalminingenvironment. Gaegane'sseriestsintoabroadervisualdiscussionofillegalmininginAfrica,and theuseoflandscapephotographstoexaminethesocialnuancesofthistrade.Nigerian photographerGeorgeOsodiproledagroupofinformalgoldminersinGhanainhis series,DeMoney.SimilartoGaegane,Osodipicturestheworkersengagedinthe labor-intensivetaskofndingresidualgoldinformerminesandhighlightstheharsh conditionstheseindividualsendure.UnlikeGaegane,however,Osodi'simagesrarely showorengageahorizonline.Hisphotographsofpeopletendtobeclose-up,angled,and focusedondetails,suchastheformofashoe,face,orgesture,suchasapersonthrowing abucket.TheseformaldecisionsadddynamismtoOsodi'sseriesandgivevisualweight tothenarrativeofminingitselfFig.3-24&3-25.Osodi'sapproachdiersfromthatof Gaegane,whoseimagesportraytheSouthAfricaninformalindustryasamoreclandestine, quietaair. 75.Zama-ZamaderivesfromaZulutermmeaningtotry. 154

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Figure3-23.JerryObakengGaegane, Untitled from MarangaLetsatsi series,2013, archivalpigmentprint.Originalcaption: Caption:Manyinformalminers [who]originatefromcountrieslikeMozambique,ZimbabweandLesothocome toSouthAfricatondwork.ManyofthemcometoGauteng,thecityof gold. CriticRouadAshfourobservesthatforGaeganephotographyispartofalarger processofdocumentinglocalunauthorizedknowledgeandmakingitavailabletoalarger SouthAfricanpublicdiscourse. 76 Gaeganerevealshissubjectsassocialactorswho activelyshapethelandscapethathepicturesinMarangaLetsatsi.Throughhisblending oflandscapephotographyandphoto-documentary,Gaeganechallengeshisviewerto engagewiththelandscapeheportraysbyconfrontingthosewhoworkinit,andnot simplygazeoutuponit.AsPercyZvomuyaobserves,Gaegane'sexhibitionforcesusto 76.Ashfour,Fouad,TheSoundofPhotography,in MarangaLetsatsi Johannesburg:MarketPhotographyWorkshop,2013,23. 155

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Figure3-24.GeorgeOsodi, Untitled from DeMoney series,2009,fujicrystalarchival print. considerandrethinkthecityanditsoriginsandtheyoungmenandwomenwhodescend fromalloverSouthernAfricaonthecityforitsgoldorwhat'sleftofit. 77 ThischapterhasanalyzedtheworkofthreeSouthAfricanphotographerswholook atthesubjectofmininganditsmyriadimpactsinapost-apartheidsetting.Noneofthese artistspresentsaconventionalportraitofmineralmines,theirproleonthelandscape, orofthosewhoworkinthem.Instead,eachadaptslandscapeimagestoforegroundsome aspectoftheindustrythatremainsinvisibletoamajorityofSouthAfricans.IlanGodfrey piecestogetheramininglandscapethroughviewsofitsimpactsonworkers,communities, andtheenvironment,andThabisoSekgalavisuallyanalogizesthatwayinwhichthe miningindustryhasinscribedarestrictivesystemofpowerwithinthelandscape,and, morespecically,ontothoseresidentstiedtoit.Finally,JerryObkengGaeganeportrays thelandscapethroughtheinformalsystemsoflaborthatbuildaroundtheindustry.Each 77.Zvomuya,Percy,Thelureofpastriches. 156

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Figure3-25.GeorgeOsodi, Untitled from DeMoney series,2009,fujicrystalarchival print. artistengageshisviewerthroughdynamiccompositions,butencouragesthemtoderive theirownnarrativesandmeaningsbyviewingthespacesinwhichminesoperateand haveinuence.Together,theworkofthesethreephotographersexemplifythediversityof landscapeworksinSouthAfrica,furtherpointtowayslandscapeimageshaveabsorbed aspectsofthesocialdocumentarytradition,andmakecleartheutilityoflandscape photographyinadvancingnuancedperspectivesofthelandanditsmaterialuses. 157

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CHAPTER4 BETWEENSOCIALDOCUMENTARYANDAGLOBALAESTHETIC:THEUSEOF LANDSCAPEBYEARLY-CAREERSOUTHAFRICANPHOTOGRAPHERS 4.1Introduction Criticallandscapephotographydrawsuponthreeverities:geography,autobiography, andmetaphor,saysRobertAdams.Eachcomponentcannotindependentlysustainan image:geographyis,iftakenalone,sometimesboring,autobiographyisfrequentlytrivial, andmetaphorcanbedubious. 1 Butincombinationthesepillarsstrengtheneachother andreinforcewhatweallworktokeepintactanaectionforlife.Adamsemphasizes theimportanceoftheartist'spersonaljourney,andcaststhelandscapephotographasa productofapersonalsearcharepresentationofaseriesofquestionsfromtheartistthat seektoalignplace,self,andhistory.Thepresenceoftheartistinthework,heargues,is necessarilygeneratedfromtheirengagementwiththespace. ManyyoungSouthAfricanphotographerschooselandscapeoverportraitureorsocial documentarygenres,forexample,preciselybecauseitallowsthemtoblendautobiography,geography,andbroadsocialmetaphor.Inthehistoricalchronologyofmodern SouthAfrica,theseartistsarecaughtbetweenthegenerationwholivedasadultsduring apartheid,andtheborn-frees,ayounggenerationwhoneverknewlifeunderapartheid. Photographersofthisin-betweengenerationquestionhowtoproduceworkthatismeaningfulforthemselvesandaSouthAfricanaudience,whilesucceedingasaninternationally recognizedartist.Trainedbyapartheid-eraphotographerswhousedphotographytodraw attentiontosocialandpoliticalinjustice,youngartistswereencouragedtodocumentthe landscapeasaspaceinwhichinequitiesplayoutandaresustained.ButjustasSouth Africansocietybegantoengagetheworldagainaftersanctionsandboycottingofthe 1.RobertAdams, BeautyinPhotography:Essaysindefenseoftraditionalvalues NewYork:Aperture, 1989,14. 158

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apartheidregime,anewgenerationofSouthAfricanphotographersencounteredinternationaltrendsincontemporaryphotographyandparticipatedinexhibitions,residencies, andorganizationsacrossAfricaandbeyond.Amongthearrayofglobalpracticeswas adierentwaytodepictlandscape:asaseriesofmonumentalformsinacalculated visuallanguagereminiscentofabstractpaintingmetaphorical,aesthetically-rich,and emotionallyneutral. ThreeSouthAfricanartistsVincentBezuidenhout,RenzskeScholtz,andMonique PelsertAdams'model:theyuselandscapeimagestondalignmentorclaritybetween themselves,thesocialandpoliticalhistoryoftheircountry,anditsland.EachsimultaneouslyuseslandscapephotographstoorganizetheirrelationshiptoSouthAfricanspaces andcreateopen,accessibleworksforviewerstoanalyzethemselves.InSeparateAmenities,Bezuidenhoutexamineshowsegregatedrecreationalareasinscribedracismintothe landscapeandquestionshisconnectiontothebeachareashevisitedasayouth.Inher seriesTheFarm,Scholtzusestriptychstocombinearchivalimagery,contemporaryphotographs,andpersonalartifactsfromafamilypropertythatwasboughtbytheapartheid stateandusedasaprisonercamp.Pelserlocatesandphotographsviewspaintedby prominentAfrikaanspainter,J.H.Pierneef,intheearly1930sfortheJohannesburg StationPanels. Thischapterexaminesworkfromthesethreeartiststhatadvancesthethesisthat landscapesratherthanotherphotographicgenresoeryoungSouthAfricanphotographersaforuminwhichtoblendandpaytributetootherwisecompetinginuences.The landscapemediumgeneratesaspaceinwhichartistssuchasBezuidenhout,Scholtz,and PelsercanmediateandexploretheirrelationshipstoSouthAfricanspacesandengagethe historyofphotographyinSouthAfricaespeciallytheinuenceofthesocialdocumentary traditioninapost-apartheidart-makingcontextallwhiledevelopingtheiridentitiesas professionalartistswiththeglobalsensitivitynativetotheirgeneration. 159

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Eachofthesephotographersareconnectedtoalonghistoryofartistictrainingin SouthAfricabyvirtueoftheiracademicartdegreesandashaslongbeentypicalofthe SouthAfricanacademicartcommunitybeingwhite.Incontrasttotheirpredecessors, however,theseartistsaddressconcernsthatarecommonwithinagenerationofphotographersandthattranscendracialandeducationalbackgrounds.Specically,thesethree artistsuselandscapeimagerytoexplorewhatitmeanstocreatesocially-engagedphotographyforbothSouthAfricanaudiencesandaglobalartmarket.Morethantheirpersonal backgrounds,theirnavigationofcompetinggenerationalviewsofphotographyandtherole ofthephotographerbindsthemtogetherasarepresentativesample. 4.2VincentBezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities,andtheConstructed Landscape AstretchofpatchygrassextendsacrosstheframeinVincentBezuidenhout'sover six-footphotograph, MonwabisiResort#2 Fig.4-1.Thehillsideoccupiesnearlyhalfof theimageandllstheworkwithitsmutedmixofpalegreengrasstones,brownareasof deadvegetation,andbleachedpilesofsand.Thecolorsofthegroundandskypaleagainst thebrighthuesofpicnicfurnitureandheavyshadeofthepavedlotatthebaseofthe frame.Theenvironmentappearstired,desaturated,andlongabsentofpeople. Adynamicrepetitionofformsinthephotographcontrastswiththedrabpaletteand animatestheimage.Whiteparkinglaneslediagonallytogetherandmovetheviewer acrossandoutoftheframe.Thesoftundulationofthedunetradesagainsttherectilinear formsinthesmallfenceseparatingthepicnicareafromunseenbeach.Anopensectionof grassontheleftsideofthephotographcreatesacomplimentarynegativespaceagainst thecollectionofpicnictablesandstoolsgroupedtogetherontheright.Nowaterisvisible intheimage;ablueplastictrashcanformstheclosestanalogytothevividoceanbehind thepicnicarea. Thehighlystructuredcompositionandtightlycontrolledpaletteindicatethatthe photographshowsanartisticinterpretationofthebeachsidespace.Bezuidenhoutrestricts 160

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Figure4-1.VincentBezuidenhout, MonwabisiResort#2 ,2011,archivalpigmentinkon CottonPaper,31.5x79in.Originalcaption: ThispicnicareainMonwabisi wasbuiltin1986asarecreationalareaforthe'black'populationof Khayelitsha . ourviewofthecoastlinebypositioningthestripoflandasabarrierwithintheframe. Theformalorganizationoftheimageleavesnopointofentryfortheviewer;oureyes movefromonegroupoftablestothenext,butneverbeyondthefencedperimeterofthe picnicspace.Hecontraststhehighchromaplasticcansandtablesagainstwiltedturf. ThephotographrepresentsanactualenvironmentnearKhayelitsha,atownshipoutsideof CapeTown, 2 butBezuidenhoutbuildstheimageasareectionofthearea'sdesign:asa spacetocontainandmanageblackSouthAfricanswhowantedaccesstothebeachduring theapartheidera. Bezuidenhoutdescribesthefunctionofthespaceduringapartheidinacaption:This picnicareainMonwabisiwasbuiltin1986asarecreationalareaforthe`black'population ofKhayelitsha.Thecaptionprovidesinformationtointerprettheview,andtransforms thephotographfromadecontextualizedcollectionofrichanddampenedcolorsandshapes 2.ThetownshipofKhayelitshalies25kilometersoutsideofCapeTownbetweentheN2highwayand FalseBay.ThenametranslatestonewhomeintheisiXhosaandreferencesitsestablishmentin1983as aresettlementzoneforlegalresidentslivinginsquattercampsorotherexistingtownshipsclosertothe city. 161

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intosomethingmoresinister.Knowledgeoftheplacesetsaheavytone;theovercastsky andunkemptlawnwithbarepatchesconveysrestriction,sadness,andneglect. Alongwithmanynamedandunnamedpolicyantecedents,ApartheidwasoperationallyaspatialpolicythatsoughtexplicitcontroloverhowthepeopleofSouthAfrica livedon,movedabout,andusedthelandscape. 3 InhisphotographsVincentBezuidenhoutillustratesboththespatialpatternofapartheidonthelandscapeandthelevelof controlitexertedonpersonalandsociallives.Thelegaciesofapartheidcontinuetobe widelyfeltthroughspatialregulationsconcretizedincityplanningandotheractsofcivil engineering,suchas:thebuildingofsettlementsfarfromcityandtransportationcenters, lackofinfrastructureinnon-whitecommunities,andlimitedaccesstonaturalresources neededtocreatesustainablecommunities.StephenBerrisfordwritesthatTovarying degrees,eachtownorcityinSouthAfricareectsnotonlyanunequaldistributionof infrastructure,amenitiesandaccessibility,butthedistancesbetweentheplacesinwhich thepoorandthewell-oliveexacerbatethatinequality. 4 VincentBezuidenhoutbeganhisstudyofthemediuminBloemfontein,wherehewas bornintoanAfrikaans-speakinghouseholdin1978.HestudiedattheCentralUniversity ofTechnologyandearnedaBachelor'sdegreebeforemovingCapeTownforgraduate school.AfterearninghisMFAfromtheMichaelisSchoolofArtin2011,hetraveled extensivelywithfellowshipsupport,notablytheTierneyFellowshipin2010andtheSchool 3.Foradiscussionofapartheidasapoliticsofspace,see:JenniferRobinson, ThepowerofApartheid: state,powerandspaceinSouthAfricancities Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann,1996;JenniferRobinson,Theapartheidcityandbeyond,chap.Power,spaceandtehcity:historicalreectionsonapartheid andpost-apartheidurbanordersin UrbanizationandSocialChangeinSouthAfrica ,ed.DavidSmith London:Routledge,1992,293;RonaldJDavies,ThespatialformationoftheSouthAfricancity, GeoJournal 2:59. 4.StephenBerrisford,UnravellingapartheidspatialplanninglegislationinSouthAfrica, UrbanForum 22,no.3:249;BrianKingfurtherobserves:SouthAfricahasexperiencedcenturiesofsocial andspatialregulationthatmakeitaparticularlyttingexampleofthecomplexandreciprocallinksbetweenspaceandlivelihood.See:BrianKing,Spatialisinglivelihoods:resourceaccessandlivelihood spacesinSouthAfrica, TransactionsoftheInstituteofBritishGeographers 36,no.2:300. 162

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oftheVisualArtsPhotoGlobalprogramin2013. 5 ThemajorityofBezuidenhout's workpresentsSouthAfricanplacesandissues,thoughhehasspentalargeportionofhis professionalcareerabroadinNewYork.HisinternationalexperienceintheU.S.,England, andelsewhereintheAfricancontinentshapedhisuseofphotographytoaddresscomplex issuessuchassurveillanceandcensorship. 6 Inhis2011seriesSeparateAmenities, Bezuidenhoutbringstogethercontemporaryviewsofcoastalrecreationareaserected duringthe1970sand1980sforusebywhite,black,orcolouredpersons.Therichlycolored imagesprolestructuresinvariousstatesofdisrepairsetagainstthenaturalenvironments theareaswereintendedtosegregate.Thesitesappearconsistentthroughouttheseries; hephotographedeachlocationinsubduedlightingconditions,atadistancefromthe camerainamannerreminiscentofasurveyorandwithoutpeopleintheframe. BezuidenhoutdescribesthephotographsinSeparateAmenitiesasconstructions, referringbothtohistechniqueandhisconceptfortheseries.Imagescamefromjusttwo large-formatframespersite,takenaftermultiplesitevisits.Heascribesimportanceto hisslow,labor-intensivemethodsfortheseries,andemphasizeshisroleinshapingthe nalphotograph.Bezuidenhoutdescribeshowheadjustedthelarge-formatcameraand theimportanceofhisownmindsetincreatingtheimage. 7 Thedeliberationineachstep 5.TheTierneyFellowshipandPhotoGlobalresidencyarefellowshipsusedbymanySouthAfricanphotographerstosupportpost-graduateworkinphotography.Inanationwheresupportforvisualartsis minimallyavailable,opportunitiessuchastheseprovidekeyassistancetoearlycareerartists. 6.VincentBezuidenhoutcitesSouthAfricanphotographerSveaJosephyandAmericanphotographer StephenShoreaskeyinuencesforhisworkandnowdescribeshimselfasanartistwhodivideshistime betweenCapeTownandNewYork. 7.Reectingonhisprocess,Bezuidenhoutwrites:"...usingaslowerandmorereectivedevicesuchas theviewcamerahasaidedmeinstructuringmyimages.Aviewcameraisabulkyandunwieldypieceof equipmentthattakestimetosetupandtocreateaphotographwith.Itisthereforenecessaryformeto haveafarclearerideaofmycompositionandintentionbeforetakingthephotographthanwithahandheldcamera.Becauseofthenatureofthecameraandthewayoneisforcedtoworkwithit,composing theimagebecameamoredeliberateact.Composingonthecamera'sgroundglassscreenalsoledtoan increaseintherectilinearnatureofthecompositions.VincentBezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities:TopographicsofRecreationalSpacesinSouthAfricaMastersofFineArts,UniversityofCapeTown,2011, 34. 163

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underscoresthereasonBezuidenhoutdecidedtobeginworkontheseriesintherstplace: hewantedtolookatthespaces,studythem,andseewhathecouldlearn:Atthetime, Iwantedtolookin;andatthesametimeseeeverything.IrememberwhenIwasdoing th[e]projectIalwaysfeltIcouldneverseeenough.Ialwayswantedtoseemoreinasingle image. 8 ForBezuidenhout,closeobservationoftherecreationareasheldapromiseof revealingsomethingaboutthepeoplewhomadethem.Ifthelandscapereectsthewillof thoseinpower,howevertheysawitttoconstructit,hesays,andyouhaveusmoving throughthatspace...Iaminterestedinifweareevenawareofitandhowweinteract withit. 9 Inanallayerofconstruction,Bezuidenhoutaddedcaptionstoindicatefor whomeachspacewasdesigned;theintroducedmaterialturnseachphotographintoa compositework. Byrepresentingtheareasaslarge-scalecolorprints,Bezuidenhoutfelthecould broadlyisolateandexaminetheseplacesthatshiftinpurposeovertime.Henotesthat hebeganbyphotographingwhatI...referredtoas`middle'spaces.Thesecanbedened asspaceswhichseemtofunctionoutsideof`normal'societyandwhichseemtouctuate infunction.Irealisedthatintryingtounderstandthesesitesformyself,theyallexuded astrangenessandunfamiliarity. 10 Here,Bezuidenhoutdescribestheareasasmiddle spacesthatoperatedinresponsetoforcesoutsidesociety,andemphasizesthewaythese placescontinuetofeeldisconnectedfromcontemporarySouthAfricancoastalareas. ThestrangenessandunfamiliarityBezuidenhoutfeltinsidetherecreationalareas motivatedhimtolookcloselyatthespacesandexplorethemforcluesoftheircreation.I wasinterestedinifthesestructurescouldrevealanythingofthepeoplewhomadethem.I realizedthatIammoreinterestedinifthelandscapecanreect,kindofthementalityof 8.VincentBezuidenhout, Interviewwithauthor ,June10,2015. 9.Ibid. 10.Bezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities:TopographicsofRecreationalSpacesinSouthAfrica,33. 164

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thosethatconstructeditduringthattime,ifthere'sanytraceofthat,ifthelandscapecan reallyretainthathistory. 11 Healsoidentiesaninterestintheinuencerecreationareas exertedonthosewhoplannedandusedthemandhowtheyoperateinapost-apartheid setting.Heasks:Howdidrecreationalareasshapetheidentitiesofthosewhovisited them?Howdidrecreationalspacesreecttheattitudesofthosewhocreatedthem?How dotheserecreationalspacesfunctiontoday? 12 Theremnantrecreationalstructures etchedintothelandscapepresentaxedpointthroughwhichBezuidenhoutmayconsider hisquestionsabouttheimpactofthestructures,aswellashisownmemoriesofthem growingupunderapartheid. 4.2.1ThePoliticsofSpacein"SeparateAmenities" ThetitleoftheseriesSeparateAmenitiesreferencesapieceofpettybutexplicitly spatialapartheidlegislation, 13 the ReservationofSeparateAmenitiesActof1953 ,which spurredconstructionofseparatefacilitiesfordierentracialgroupsfrombusestostadiums,restrooms,cemeteries,postoces,andbenches. 14 Pettyapartheidlawsempowered cityauthoritiestoenforcesegregationonanintimatelevelthatcreatedapsychologicaldividebetweenracesanddeeplyaectednon-whiteSouthAfricansbygoverningallaspects oftheirdailylives.Suchlegislativeactsforgeddeeppsychologicalssuresontothecitizens theywerecreatedtoregulate,andestablishedasituationthatartistWilliamKentridge 11.Bezuidenhout, Interviewwithauthor . 12.Bezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities:TopographicsofRecreationalSpacesinSouthAfrica,27. 13.Thetermpettyapartheidreferencesracialsegregationenforcedinpublicplacesandentities,such as:hotels,transportation,andrestaurants.Pettyapartheidlawsthatregulatedeverydayinteractions contrastedagainstgrandapartheid,whichestablishedseparatehomelandareasandrequiredcitizensto registeronthebasisofrace. 14.OtherpettyapartheidlawsincludetheProhibitionofMixedMarriagesActof1949andtheImmoralityactof1950. 165

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describedasbeingatoncesofullofcontradictionanddisruption. 15 Thedivisionsformed throughpettyapartheidlawsweredenotedthroughsignageandotherspatialmarkers, frameworksnotablyexploredbySouthAfricanphotographerErnestColeinhisseminal work, HouseofBondage ,adocumentaryseriesthatvisuallyrepresentedtheimpactof theselawsonblackSouthAfricans. Imposingsegregationoftheracesthroughnaturalbarriershasalonghistoryin SouthAfricain1660theDutchsettlerJanvanRiebeeckorderedthemanipulation ofanotoriousbitteralmondhedgetobarricadethenascentCapecolonyfromtheindigenousKhoikhoiandtheircattle.Threecenturieslater,apartheidocialssoughtto partitionspacesonamuchlargerscale,oftenadaptinglandscapefeaturestoorganize andunderscoredivisionsoutlinedingrandapartheidlegislativeactssuchastheGroup AreasActof1950andthePopulationRegistrationActof1950.Topographicfeatures suchasmountains,hills,andriversseeminglyauthorizedthecarvingupoflandoutlined bytheapartheidstate. 16 Withrespecttocoastlines,allottingsectionstospecicracial groupsallowedapartheidocialstoformracialgroupsintoavirtualbarriersinandof themselves. 17 15.WilliamKentridge,FiveDrawings,in FromSouthAfrica:newwriting,photographs,andart ,ed. DavidBunnandJaneTaylorChicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1988,83. 16.Otherusesofnaturalfeaturestosupportadivisionofsettlementsbasedonraceoccurredincities suchasPortElizabeth,wheretheSwartkopestuaryandescarpmentwereusedtoformabuerbetween communities.InJohannesburgandothercities,ocialsalsousedtheCentralBusinessDistrictasatype ofindustrialbarriertoseparateoutnon-whiteresidentsfromwhiteresidents.See:RonaldJDavies, ThespatialformationoftheSouthAfricancity, GeoJournal 2:59;InCapeTownblackand colouredresidentswereforciblyremovedfromDistrict6,aneighborhoodwithinthearmsoftheCity BowltotheCapeFlats,aood-proneareaontheoutskirtsofthebowlbeyondthemountainousDevil's Peakandawayfromtheviewofwhiteresidents.See:FrancoFrescura, DeconstructingtheApartheidCity , accessedDecember10,2015, http://www.sahistory.org.za/franco/urban-issues-apartheid-city.htm . 17.See:KevinDurrheimandJohnDixon,Theroleofplaceandmetaphorinracialexclusion:South Africa'sbeachesassitesofshiftingracialization, EthnicandRacialStudies 24,no.3:433. 166

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BezuidenhoutdocumentsanumberofnaturalbarriersadoptedbyApartheidocials tosanctiontheallottingofcoastlinestospecicracialgroupsinhisseries.Thephotograph, Oudekraal Fig.4-2,depictsarecreationalareathatliesbetweenCampsBay andLlandudnooutsideCapeTown.Ocialsbuiltthesiteforwhiteresidents,though; asBezuidenhoutnotesinhiscaption,colouredSouthAfricansusedtheareaillegally. Theimageshowsalevel,grassyopeningnestledinbetweenfynbos 18 treesandscrub, andlarge,smoothboulders.Asmallaccesspointtothebayopensatonecorner,and seawatercurlsaroundthewallofrockthatprotectstherecreationalspace.Afewstone picnictablesarevisible,asaretwocoloredinatablecastles,attributesthatindicatethe spaceisin-useandtended.Seenfromabove,theareaappearscut-o,small,andisolated. Thedenselygrownvegetationandtallrockssheltertheareafromtheoceanandother developmentalongthecoastandoersadesirableimmersionintonature. Takenfromthepositionofasurveyorwholooksattopographicfeatureswithinthe contextofthebroaderlandscapeBezuidenhout'sphotographemphasizestheseclusionof theareaandaddsasenseofapartnesstothescenethroughhisdistancedinterpretation. Byoftenusinganelevatedviewpointanddistance,hewrites,itwasmyintention tosetuparelationshipbetweenviewerandimage,asiffromasurveyororplanner's viewpoint.Thiswasdoneinordertocommentonhowtheseareaswereinitiallyviewed, chosenandsetoutbyapartheidplanners. 19 Noroadsorparkingareaarevisiblein 18.TheSouthAfricanfynbosisthesmallestofsixbotanicalkingdomsrecognizedworldwide.Theterm fynbosmeansne-leavedplantsinDutch,andreferencesanecoregioninWesternCapeprovincewhere over8,500speciesofvascularplantsarefound,68%percentofwhichareendemictothearea.ThefynboscontainsricherconcentrationoforathananycomparablesizedlocationintheAfricancontinent, surpassingmanytropicalforestregioninspeciesrichness;itcovers0.08%oftheworld'slandsurface,but containsabout3%oftheworld'splants.See:WWFGlobal, Fynbos ,accessedDecember12,2015, http: //wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/ecoregions/fynbos.cfm ;LadislavMucinaandMichaelCRutherford, The vegetationofSouthAfrica,LesothoandSwaziland SouthAfricanNationalBiodiversityInstitute,2006. 19.Bezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities:TopographicsofRecreationalSpacesinSouthAfrica,40. 167

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Figure4-2.VincentBezuidenhout, Oudekraal ,2011,ArchivalPigmentInkonCotton Paper,31.5x39in.Originalcaption: Despitebeingpreviouslyreservedforthe exclusiveuseofthe`white'populationduringapartheid,Oudekraal,situated betweenCampsBayandLlandudno,wasoftenillegallyusedby`coloured' familiesatthistime . theframe,norarepeoplepresent. 20 Theovercastskyfurtherstillsthescene,andeven thebreakingwavesagainsttherocksappearcalmandcontained.Today,theOudekraal beachformspartofTableMountainNationalPark,apreservedareamanagedbythe SouthAfricanNationalParksassociation.Touristmagazinesandwebsitesmarketthe beachareaasahiddengemofCapeTown,asanareathatoersviews[that]arenot 20.Ofhisdecisiontoexcludepeopleinhisimages,Bezuidenhoutwritesthathe:FollowingRobert Adams'exampleIhavemostlyexcludedpeopleinmyimagesinordertofocusonthestructureofthe recreationallandscape,whichseemstometohavebeenbuiltwithverylittleconsiderationforthepeoplewhowereexpectedtouseit,andbyextensioncommentsonhowtheconstructionofplacehasalso beenusedtoconstructanidentityoftheother.Bezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities:Topographicsof RecreationalSpacesinSouthAfrica,11. 168

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interruptedand...sectionsarekeptseparateandprivatebythemilkwoodtrees.Thesmall sandybeachissurroundedbybouldersthatshelterthecove,creatingaswimmingarea withgentleswells. 21 Imagesofthebeachinpopularlifestylemagazinesandguidebooks showcaseasunny,quietcovewithplacidwaterssetagainstviewsofthetwelveApostle Mountainsthatextendsouthfromthecity.Incontrast,Bezuidenhout'sphotograph cropsoutthebeach,anddampensthegreenvegetationbyemphasizingthebluecast fromthecloudyweather.Withoutrecreationalsigniers,theareaappearssecluded, vulnerableandtenuousagainstthenaturalfeaturesintheframe.Nearlyallimages inSeparateAmenitieswerephotographedundercloud-lledskies,adecisionwhich Bezuidenhoutbelievesemphasizesthedislocationofthespaces:Mostofmyimageshave beentakeninovercastconditions,inwhatseemstolooklikeaforeignlight.TheSouth Africanlandscapeisoftenrepresentedinbrightsunlightanditisunusualtoseeovercast representationsofthelandscape. 22 InOudekraalBezuidenhoutdrawsattentiontocoastlineasamanagedenvironment, anduseslighting,composition,andviewpointtocreateacomparativeanalogybetween theformedapartheidideologyandthefabricatedareas.PhotographyhistorianLiz Wellsobservesthat:Thereisakeydistinctionbetween`land'and`landscape'.In principle,landisanaturalphenomenon,althoughmostlandhasbeensubjectedto extensivehumanintervention.`Landscape'isaculturalconstruct. 23 Inphotographing thespaces,Bezuidenhoutusesadistancedviewpointandprocess,alterationsthatforman interpretationthatsupportshisconcept:myintentionistoshowthatitissocietythat constructsthemeaningsattachedtothelandscape;thosewhocreatedseparateamenities 21.CapeTownMagazine,Alittlepieceofoceanparadise, CapeTownMagazine ,2012,accessedDecember10,2015, http://www.capetownmagazine.com/oudekraal . 22.Bezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities:TopographicsofRecreationalSpacesinSouthAfrica,40. 23.Wells, Photography:acriticalintroduction ,295. 169

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hadaspecicideologybywhichtheycreatedthislandscape.Thelandbyitselfdoesnot havemeaning,butonecanattachmeaningtoitthroughone'sinteractionand,inthis case,alterationofthelandscape. 24 Apartheidocialssoughttoemploynaturalfeatures tostructuretheirviewofnaturalorderandconrmtheiruseofraceasanabsolutelter. Bezuidenhoutrespondstotheseconstructionsthroughaphotographicgenrethatnaturally blendsgeographicdescriptionandmetaphor,butfailstoevidenceanythingaboutthe spacesotherthanhisowninterpretationofthem. 4.2.2"SeparateAmenities"inanArtHistoricalContext Anapproachtolandscapephotographythatacknowledgesandcelebratesawareness ofitsconstructiondiersgreatlyfromperceptionsofthegenreasameanstoobjectively describeanenvironment,ortoadvanceanimperialistagendabothofwhichaccount foralargeportionofapplicationsoflandscapephotographyinSouthAfricaduringpast centuries.Bezuidenhout'smethodsarecloselyassociatedwithmembersoftheDusseldorf schoolofPhotography,whichincludesGermanphotographersAndreasGursky,Thomas Ru,ThomasDemand,ThomasStruth,andCandidaHofer.Knownfortheirlarge-scale, colorexplorationsofstores,museums,libraries,andbuildingexteriors,artistssuchas GurskyandStruthemployimagemanipulationsasinterpretivestrategies.Acritical attributeofallDusseldorfSchoolartistsistheiremphasisonobjectivityandadesire tolettheformsandstructuresinthelandscapetakeongreaternarrativepowerover anymeaningimpartedintheimagecontent.Theirphotographsarecriticizedforbeing deadpan,detached,andboring;theyforegroundcolor,shape,anddesignovercritical content.Theirimagesdonotaimtomotivatetheviewertoactorotherwiseinterpreta particularmeaningintotheconstructedscenesorportraits.Indeed,theirphotographs coalescearoundaninterpretationofdocumentaryphotographyasctionsbasedonfacts, aviewpointthatvisuallystimulatesmorethanitinformsoreducates.DusseldorfSchool 24.Bezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities:TopographicsofRecreationalSpacesinSouthAfrica,33. 170

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methodologiesarebasedontheworkofBerndandHillaBecher,conceptualartistsknown fortheirphotographictypologiesoftheGermanindustriallandscapemadefromthe1960s throughthe1980s. 25 LikeBezuidenhout,theBechersphotographedonovercastdaysthat limitedshadowsandrevealedsurfacesinsofttexturesandneverincludedpeopleintheir photographs. BezuidenhoutacknowledgestheprofoundinuenceofDusseldorfSchoolartistson hisSeparateAmenitiesseries.Fromcertainofthesephotographers,AndreasGurskyin particular,hedrawsinsightintothewaysinwhichadocumentaryimagecanexploreits ownconstruction,aself-reexivityheextendsmetaphoricallytotheexplorationofarticialcoastalbarriers.WritingoftheDusseldorfSchoolphotographersandtheirimpacton hiswork,Bezuidenhoutobserves:Theseartists'worksarecharacterizedbyanaesthetic thatonrstreadingpurportstobeadocumentof`reality',butmanyoftheimagesare highlyconstructedviewsinwhichsceneryisaltered,imageryismanipulatedandsituationsarestagedinorderforthephotographerstopresenttheirowninterpretationof thesescenes. 26 Hecontinues:Gursky'simageryseemstoask,whatkindofnaturehave wecreatedforourselves? 27 WhilenotallphotographersassociatedwiththeDusseldorf SchoolinformBezuidenhout'swork,thevisuallinksbetweenhisphotographsandthework ofAndreasGurskyisclear.InGursky'sprocess,forexample,Bezuidenhoutndsexample andtheoreticalgroundingforalteringlandscapephotographsinordertohighlightthe waysviewsoftheenvironmentareconstructedandmediatedbyculturalcontext. 25.TheBechersdocumentedgrainsilos,gastanks,coolingtowers,watertowers,andotherstructures usingconsistentprocessesaimedatremovingtheirsubjectivity.Emphasisonobjectivityintheirwork drewfromminimalistandconceptualartmovementsinthe1960saswellasEuropeanphotographicpracticesofthepost-WWIyears,specicallyNewObjectivityinGermanyandprocessesemployedbyGerman photographersKarlBlossfeldt,AlbertRenger-Patzsch,andAugustSander.Forfurtherdiscussionofthe Bechersandtheirinuenceonsubsequentgenerationsofthephotographers,see:SusanneLangeand JeremyGaines, BerndandHillaBecher:lifeandwork Cambridge,MA:MITPress,2007. 26.Bezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities:TopographicsofRecreationalSpacesinSouthAfrica,22. 27.Ibid.,24. 171

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Figure4-3.VincentBezuidenhout, SoetwaterResort ,2011,ArchivalPigmentInkon CottonPaper,31.5x39in.Originalcaption: Occupyinganarrowstripofland betweentheseaandSlangkoplighthouse,Soetwaterresortwasreservedforthe exclusiveuseofthe`coloured'populationduringapartheid.Thisresortwas morerecentlyusedtoprovideshelterforpeopleduringthexenophobicattacks of2009. ManyofBezuidenhout'simagesresonatevisuallywiththoseofGursky,mostnotably hisinterpretationofSoetwaterResortFig.4-3.Here,Bezuidenhoutframesatractof oceanbetweenavibrantsectionofgreenturfandamutedskyandsplitshiscomposition intothirds.Thehorizonlinesareemptyofpeopleorships,anditisunclearwherethe recreationareabeginsandends.Inhiscaptionhenotesthatthespaceanarrowstripof landwasreservedforusebycolouredSouthAfricansduringapartheid,andmostrecently asshelterforpersonsatriskinthe2009xenophobicattacks. 28 Bezuidenhout'slarge-scale 28.The2008and2009xenophobicattackstargetedforeignersresidinginSouthAfricaaccusedoftaking jobsawayfromlocalstakeholders.SouthAfricanmobstargetedimmigrantsfromMozambique,Zimbabwe, 172

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seascapevisuallyrecallsGursky'smassive1999image, RheinII Fig.4-4,whichdepicts asectionoftheRhineRiversplitbetweenhorizontalsweepsofgrassandgrey,overcast sky. 29 Thefrontalityoftheimageisoverhwhelming;theend-to-endswathesofcolor disquiettheotherwisetranquilscenethroughanunstablescale.Gurskyacknowledged havingmadesubstantialimagemanipulationsindevelopingtheprint;heremovedpeople andafactory,andassertedthatactitiousconstructionwasrequiredtoprovidean accurateimageofthemodernriver. 30 [Gurskycouldhavemanipulatedtheimageto removepeopleandthefactoryinanumberofways,butmostlikelydidsothrough Photoshop.Inthissoftwareanumberoftoolssuchasthoseforselections,cloning,and blendingallowforarelativelyseamlesscopyingofpixelsforinsertionelsewhereinan image.]Thetwophotographscondenseviewsofwaterbodiesintoaformaldiscussionof componentparts;bothGurskyandBezuidenhoutdistillthevisualtropeoftheromantic seascapeintoanequationofshapeandcoloranalogoustoaminimalistpainting,andin doingsodecontextualizethescenesintoplace-lessrepresentations. Yet,thoughBezuidenhout'simagesretaincharacteristicsofGursky'spanoramicworks andheadoptsatheoreticalapproachassociatedwiththeDusseldorfSchool,hedeparts fromtheirexamplebyclearlyattendingtothecontentofhisimages.Iamnotthatkind ofphotographerwhocan...havethelistandtickitoastheygoalong;hesays,Iam andMalawi.InMay2008,over60foreignersweresenselesslykilledandseveralhundredwereinjured.In November2009closeto3000ZimbabweancitizenslivinginaninformalsettlementintheWesternCape weredisplacedbyviolenceandwereforcedtoseekshelterelsewhere.Foradiscussionoftheseeventsand thewaysinwhichtheyreectbroadertensionswithinpost-ApartheidSouthAfricasee:BelindaDodson, Locatingxenophobia:debate,discourse,andeverydayexperienceinCapeTown,SouthAfrica, Africa Today 56,no.3:2. 29.In2011 RheinII soldtoanonymousbuyerfor$4.3milliondollars,makingitthemostexpensive photographeversold. 30.FlorenceWaters,PhotographbyAndreasGurskybreaksauctionrecord, TheDailyTelegraph , November2011, 173

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Figure4-4.AndresGursky, RheinII ,1999,C-Print,190cmx360cm. nottheBechers. 31 Bezuidenhoutannotateseachphotographin SeparateAmenities with adescriptionofthespacesthatoftenbetraysanyattemptatadispassionateorobjective readingoftherecreationalareas.Withhisimage MonwabisiResort#1 hepairsthe caption:MonwabisiResort,whichtranslatesas`Theonewhomakesyouhappy'from Nguni,wasreservedfor`Bantu'recreationintheCapePeninsuladuringapartheid.The breakwaterwasbuilttopreventdrowninginthetreacherousFalseBaycurrents.Itwas unsuccessfulFig.4-5.IntheSeparateAmenitiesseriesBezuidenhoutnotonlypoints tothetensionsinherentbetweentheengineeredbarriersandanimpartiallandscape,but, ultimately,hehighlightsarealitythatconditionsallSouthAfricanartistswholookatthe land:thecontextofdispossessionandviolencecannotbeseparatedfromthelandscape, regardlessofwholooksorforwhatpurpose.Aneedtoacknowledgeandweavereference tothehistoryandlegaciesofapartheidandcolonialismintorepresentationsofspacesin SouthAfricashapesboththeprocessandproductoflandscapephotographyaspracticed byBezuidenhoutandothersofhisgeneration. 31.Bezuidenhout, Interviewwithauthor . 174

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Figure4-5.VincentBezuidenhout, MonwabisiResort#1 ,2011,ArchivalPigmentInkon CottonPaper,31.5x39inches.OriginalCaption:MonwabisiResort,which translatesas`Theonewhomakesyouhappy'fromNguni,wasreservedfor `Bantu'recreationintheCapePeninsuladuringapartheid.Thebreakwater wasbuilttopreventdrowninginthetreacherousFalseBaycurrents.Itwas unsuccessful. Inthissense,Bezuidenhout'slengthycaptionsrecalltherecentworkoffellowSouth Africanphotographer,CedricNunn,whoalsousedextendedannotationsinhislandscape series,OneHundredYearsofResistance.ForbothNunnandBezuidenhout,thereexists asensethattheirimagescannotbepresentedwithoutexplanation,ordirectlinktothe historicalcontextthatinformstheimage.Aperceptionthatthesocialandpolitical contentofanimageistooimportanttoleaveunstatedorotherwiseriskbeingmisread bytheviewercharacterizesmuchofthesocialdocumentaryworkproducedduringthe Struggleera.TheuseofcaptionsbyBezuidenhoutandNunnthusillustratesoneway 175

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SouthAfricanphotographersmitigatefeelingsofdiscomfortaboutpresentingpolitical issuesthroughother,perhapsmoreopen,photographicgenresthansocialdocumentary. Thedisjuncturebetweendispassionateviews,weightycontent,andadescriptionof socio-historicalcontextsurfacesinallimagesin SeparateAmenities .AsBezuidenhout observes: InphotographingtheseplacesIwanttoportrayasenseofbeingremoved fromthescene,asadispassionateoutsiderlookingin.Beingpartofanew generationofSouthAfricans,removedtoacertainextentfromthepolitical past,thismethodofrepresentationreectsmyownexperienceoftheseformer separateamenities.ThelandscapeIrepresentisaconstructinitself,fashioned bymeinthecamera.Icannotpretendthatthisisanobjectiveapproach,yet Ihavechosentomaintainan`objectivedistance',andIusealanguagethat purportstoobservethesesitesasneutrallyaspossible. 32 Here,Bezuidenhoutcastshisseriesasapersonal,subjectivereectiononthecoastal environments.Withhiscamera,heseekstoexplorehowhe,asayoungSouthAfrican, removedtoacertainextentfromthepoliticalpast,canlookatthesespacesinamanner thatbalanceshisownidentityasawhiteSouthAfricanandthelegaciesofoppressionthat colorandweightthelandandthosewholookatit.Tothispoint,Bezuidenhoutcomments further:ThewayinwhichIhavechosentorepresenttheserecreationallandscapes stemspartlyfrommyownprocessofndingandexperiencingthesesitesandpartlyas areectionontheideologiesofthosewhocreatedit...Itismyintentiontonotonly documentthelandscapeanditsconstruction,butalsotocometomyownunderstanding ofit. 33 BydocumentingrecreationalspacesBezuidenhout'sseriesrespondstoacurrent, systemicissueofsocialconcerninSouthAfricathroughlandscapeimages:thepersistent, negativeinuenceofengineeredspacestwentyyearssincetheendofapartheid.Ithinkso 32.Bezuidenhout,SeparateAmenities:TopographicsofRecreationalSpacesinSouthAfrica,11. 33.Ibid. 176

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calledpettyapartheid,theseparationofpeopleonthatlevelwasmoreeectivethanthe grandoverallscheme,henotes,Thosesmallareasofseparation,th[eyare]what'sledto thealienationthatwestillhavetoday.[Theyare]almostmoredevastatingthansomebig overallplan. 34 Throughdetailedlandscapeimagesofthesecontestedspaces,Bezuidenhout'sprojectechoesconcernsofapartheid-eradocumentaryphotographers,whodepicted aspectsofdailylifeforblackandcolouredcitizensunderapartheidunseenbymanywhite SouthAfricans.Theirworkdrewattentiontoindirectwayssegregationpoliciesenacted akindofviolenceuponcitizensbylimitingtheirmovementsandrestrictinglivelihoods. Visually,thecool,depopulatedphotographsin SeparateAmenities retaincharacteristics ofbothdocumentaryimagesandlandscapeart,butconformtoneithergenre.Bezuidenhoutconstructsadocumentarynarrativethroughunalteredimagesofbreakwatersand otherboundarieserectedbyapartheid-eragovernmentocials.Meanwhile,landscape conventionshischoiceoflightinganddecisiontophotographthespaceswithoutpeopleof anyraceadvanceacriticalposition,andcreatevisualtensionbetweenthehermeticview ofnaturalformationsonanimpartialshoreandanimposedsystemofracialsegregation. Thepotentialcontradictionsbetweenlandscapeanddocumentarygenresatworkin Bezuidenhout'sseries-viewpoint,content,mediaexemplifywaysyoung,SouthAfrican photographersseektobringtogetherdisparatetraditions.Bezuidenhoutcomments:Ido thinkthatalotoftheyoungerpeoplearekindoftrappedbetweendierentinuences. 35 Thepositionhedescribesderivesnotonlyfromatransitionbetweenartistictraditions, butabroadersocialshift.TothispointBezuidenhoutreects,Igrewupinakindof aweirdperiodbecauseitwasn'tlikefullonapartheid,andIwasn'tso-calledbornfree, bornafterapartheid,henotesIwasinthetransition,soIkindofgotbothsidesof 34.Bezuidenhout, Interviewwithauthor . 35.Ibid. 177

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it. 36 ArtistssuchasBezuidenhouttrytosortthroughandspeaktoamultitudeof factors,includingthelegacyofsocialdocumentaryphotography,inuenceofglobalart movements,andadesiretondthelimitsoftheirownartisticvoicesinaSouthAfrican artsenvironmenthighlyattunedtoquestionsofrace,privilege,andhowthesefactors inuencephotographicrepresentations.Interestedinpushingtheboundsoftheirmedium, photographerslikeBezuidenhoutaredeeplyconcernedtocreateworksthathavemeaning toabroadaudience.Ineverwantedtomakeworkaboutnothing,Bezuidenhoutnotes, andcontinues:iftheworkisaboutnothing,thenitisjustdecorandIamnotinterested inmakingdecor...Youcanmakesocially-consciouswork,butitcanstillbeevenmore thanthat. 37 4.3RenzskeScholtz,TheFarm,andtheDiscursivepowerofLandscape Photography RenzskeScholtz's 38 photographicseries,TheFarm,openswithanimageof adioramaintheVoortrekkerMonumentmuseuminPretoriaFig.4-6.Theterm VoortrekkerreferencesagroupofthousandsofDutchsettlersmostlyfarmingfamilies wholefttheBritishCapecolonybetween1835and1840fortheSouthAfricaninteriorin ordertoescapeBritishrule,andtheVoortrekkermonumentwascreatedtocommemorate thesesettlers. 39 ThedioramashowsaperiodscenethatdepictsayoungAfrikanercouple intheircampkitchen,setwithinanaridveldenvironmentandnestledbelowtheSouth 36.Bezuidenhout, Interviewwithauthor . 37.Ibid. 38.RenzskeScholtzistheprofessionalnamefortheartistwhosefullnameisRenzskeScholtz-Hofmeyer. 39.Theforty-meterhighgranitemonumentcanbeseenfrommilesawayandisclearlyvisiblefromthe highwayslinkingJohannesburgtoPretoria.Inside,themonumenthasagreathallwithfriezesthatdepictthehistoryoftheGreatTrekandalowerlevelwithinterpretiveexhibitions.Foradiscussionofthe monument'sdesignanditssymbolism,see:ElizabethDelmont,TheVoortrekkerMonument:monolithto myth, SouthAfricanHistoricalJournal 29,no.1:76;AnnieCoombes,Translatingthepast: Apartheidmonumentsinpost-apartheidSouthAfrica,ed.AvtarBrahandAnnieCoombesNewYork: Rout,2000,173. 178

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Figure4-6.RenzskeScholtz, DieVoortrekkers,Voortrekkerdiorama,Voortrekker Monument ,2010. AfricanEscarpmentthatseparatesthearidHighveldfromthesubtropicalLowveld.In Scholtz'sframe,thefemaleVoortrekkerbisectsthescene;shestandsaboveherseated companion,andabrightlightfromaboveoodsherwhitedress,apronandbonnet.Erect andstoic,thewomanechoestheformofthebranchesandcactusbehindher;theplant's ridgesrepeatinthefoldsofherdress.Atthemakeshifttable,amalegureleansforward andstaresdownathisworkinghands.Thedioramamakesvisualequivalencebetween theformsoftheVoortrekkersandthelandscapetheyinhabitarelationshipetchedand repeatedthroughoutthemonumentitself,onethatreferencesadeeplyfeltconnectionto theSouthAfricanenvironmentheldbymanyAfrikaners.Abondwiththeharsh,arid SouthAfricaninteriordatesbacktothehistoricalmigrationoftheVoortrekkers,whoed fromtheBritishintheCapeColonyinordertoself-govern. 40 ThedioramaphotographintroducesbothhistoricalcontextandtensionforThe Farmseries.Scholtzpairstheperiodimagewithacaptionthatcorrelatesthehistory 40.ForadiscussionoftheGreatTrekanditsimportanceintheformationofmodernSouthAfricasee: GrahamLeach, TheAfrikaners:Theirlastgreattrek London:MacmillanLondon,1989;Thompson, A historyofSouthAfrica . 179

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ofAfrikanersettlementtoherfamilyandtheirfarm,thesubjectoftheremainingphotographs:Duringthelate1880sGerhardusRobertStewartandhiswifeAlidaJohanna MariaStewart,secondgenerationsettlersfromtheGreatTrek,boughta250-hectarefarm 20kilometressouthwestofPretoria.Duringthenext100yearsthefarmbecameaworking farm,andsupportedachalkquarry. 41 Thecaptionplaysagainsttheanonymityofthe guresinthediorama,andoverlaysadiscretehistoryontothescene.Dramaticallylitand photographedwithashallowdepth-of-eld,thephotographalsoemphasizesthetheatricalityofthesceneitself;thehistoricalsettingactsasamnemonicdeviceformonument visitorsandmakestheVoortrekkerexperienceappearrealfortheviewer.Takentogether, theclashbetweenthemythologizedhistoryplayedoutinthedioramaandahistorical accountofScholtz'sfamilyanimatestheseriesopeningandintroducesaquestionforthe remainingimages:howcanphotographslikethedioramarepresentthepast? ThetitleofScholtz'sseriesdenoteslandoutsidePretoriawheregenerationsof Scholtz'sfamilylivedandworked. 42 Herfamilycalledthetranquilgroupingofatplains thefarmandVlakplaas,Afrikaansforshallowfarm.MillionsofSouthAfricans alsoknowofthefarm:theVlakplaasisnearlysynonymouswithatrocitiescommitted bycovertstatesecurityforcesonbehalfoftheapartheidgovernment.Thesedivergent identitiesahomesteadandplaceofviolencebothdescribeasinglelandscape.Yet, associativefeelingsconnotedthroughtwodierentviewsofthelandahomesteadand placeofviolencechallengeassumptionsthattwosidesofhumannaturemayspringforth fromorexistwithinthesamelocation. 41.RenzskeScholtz-Hofmeyer,TheFarmMastersofFineArts,UniversityOfCapeTown,2011. 42.Scholtz'sgreat-greatgrandfatherpurchasedthelandoutsidePretoriainthelate1880s,builtthe farm,andpasseditdowntohisonlyson,GeorgeRobertStewart,whothendeededthepropertyundividedtohisvesons.Followingafamilydispute,threeofthevebrotherssoldoverhalfofthelandtoa neighbor.Scholtz'sgrandfathercontinuedtoresidewithhiswifeandchildren,includingScholtz'smother andhersiblings,ontheremaining99hectaresofland.Tensionsfromtherstsaleoflandledthetwo remainingsonsScholtz'sgrandfatherandhisbrothertoselltheirremaininglandin1979tothegovernment.AccordingtoScholtzhergrandfatherdidnotknowhowthestatewouldusetheland. 180

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Scholtz'sextensiveseriesbringstogethercontemporarylandscapeimages,family photographs,andobjectsfromVlakplaas,anunusualmixturethatreectsbothher trainingandthechallengingnatureofthecontentsherepresents.Hermultivalentseries, artisticbiography,andpersonalconnectiontothesubjectmatternecessitateanontraditionalanalyticalapproach.Discussedthroughthelensesofatrocityphotographs andfeelingphotography,astheorizedbyElspethBrownandThyPhu, TheFarm series oersimportantinsightintotheexperienceandperspectiveofphotographersofRenzske Scholtz'sgeneration. RenzskeScholtzisSouthAfricanphotographerwhowasborninJohannesburg in1981toanAfrikaans-speakingfamily.Shebeganherstudyofphotographyatthe MichaelisSchoolofArtUCT,whereshereceivedbothundergraduateandmasters degrees.Inherundergraduatework,Scholtzcreatedabodyofimagesthatexplored Afrikaneridentity,athemeshereturnedtoinherMFAthesiswork,TheFarm.The VlakplaasfarmwasownedbyScholtz'sfamilyforclosetoonehundredyearsbefore hergrandfathersoldittotheapartheidgovernmentin1979.Thistransactionforever alteredthehomesteadandsurroundinglandscapeforherfamilyandtheSouthAfrican public:Whilethebuildingsandtheelds,thehillsandtheriver,thepeachblossoms andthewillowsremainalmostunchangedinappearancefromthedayswhenmymother livedthere,Scholtzwrites,theplacehasbecomeinvisibly,yetpalpablyandirrevocably transformed.Scholtzsaysthatovertonesofdeathconditionanymentionofthefarm: Thesmallgraveyard,eternalrestingplaceformyforefathersandmothers,isnowno longertheonlysitetotestifytothosewholivedanddiedontheland,andtheStewart family,theirtiestothelandstillstrong,canbarelyspeakoftheplacetheyonceloved. 43 43.Scholtz-Hofmeyer,TheFarm. 181

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ThenumberandextentofhorricactsthattookplaceatVlakplaasafter1979is unknown.ThefarmbecametheheadquartersfortheSouthAfricanPoliceCounterinsurgencyunitC1,aneliteparamilitaryhitsquad.C1unitocerscapturedpolitical opponentsoftheapartheidgovernment,broughtthemtoVlakplaasforquestioningwhere theyweretortured,andoftenkilled. 44 ThecovertVlakplaasunitoperatedsecretlyforten yearsbeforejournalistsfromtheanti-apartheidnewspaper, DieVryeWeekblad ,revealed informationinanarticlepublishedonNovember17,1989,aboutadeathsquadoperatingoutofVlakplaasdrawnfrominterviewswithformercommanderDirkCoetzee.After thispoint,ScholtznotesthatthenameVlakplaasforeverbecameinescapablylinkedto horror,tortureandthesueringofanuntoldnumberofvictims. 45 In1990StatePresident,F.W.deKlerk,appointedapubliccommissionledbyJustice LouisHarmstoinvestigateallegationsintotheC1unitandtheCivilCo-operationBureau CCB. 46 Followingasix-monthperiodofinquiry,thecommissionfoundtestimony fromCoetzeeandtwootherpolicementobeunreliable,andruledthatitcouldnot provespecialarmyunitseithertheC1orCCBforceshadsystematicallytorturedand murderedopponentsoftheapartheidgovernment. 47 JusticeLouisHarmsacknowledged thelikelihoodthatthepolicehadcommittedactsofviolence,butnotedhefoundno 44.ProminentguressuchasANClawyerGriggithsMxengeandfreedomghterSipiweMtimkuluwere amongmanyoppositionguresexecutedatthefarmduringthisten-yearperiod. 45.Scholtz-Hofmeyer,TheFarm. 46.TheCivilCo-operationBureauCCBoperatedasagovernment-sponsored,specialforcessecurity forceduringtheapartheideraundertheleadershipofGeneralMagnusMalanReportsfromtheTruth andReconciliationCommitteesuggestthatCCBwasresponsibleforcountlessdeaths,includingthoseof prominentanti-apartheidactivistsDavidWebster,andAntonLubowski.ForadiscussionoftheCCBsee: PeterSti, Warfarebyothermeans:SouthAfricainthe1980sand1990s Alberton:Galago,2002. 47.InherwritingsonTheFarmseries,ScholtzcitesresearchfrominvestigativejournalistJacques PauwthatsuggeststhatthemembersoftheC1unitundertooksubstantialeortstohideevidencerelatedtotheirVlakplaasoperations,includingremovalofweaponsanddisposalofdocumentssuchasfalse identitybooksandpassports.See:Scholtz-Hofmeyer,TheFarm;JacquesPauw, Danceswithdevils:a journalist'ssearchfortruth CapeTown:ZebraPress,2006. 182

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evidencetosupportthat"aparticularpolicemancommittedaparticularcrimeofviolence foraparticularpurpose." 48 Thecommissionwasintendedtocreatetransparencyin areasoftheapartheidgovernmentsecuritydivision,buttheHarms'rulingandrefusalto orderoperationstoceaseattheVlakplaasindicatedthatC1unitmembershadfullstate supportfortheiractions. WhiletheHarmscommissiondidnotexposeevidenceofamurdersquadoperating outoftheVlakplaas,amnestyapplicationstotheTruthandReconciliationCommission TRCfromoperativessuchasEugenedeKock 49 andtheTRCnalreportoered detailedaccountsofC1unitoperationsatVlakplaasfrom1979until1991. 50 Publically disclosedinformationabouttheC1unit,however,isnecessarilyincomplete.TheTRC hearingsandnalreportonlyrevealinformationfromthosewhoappliedforamnesty;a largepercentageoftheC1unitdidnotapplyandinformationtheymayhaveaboutacts committedattheVlakplaasisstillunknown. 51 Transformedthroughtheknowledgeof 48.See:ChristopherWren,InquiryinSouthAfricaInconclusive, TheNewYorkTimes ,November 1990,accessedDecember1,2015, http://www.nytimes.com/1990/11/14/world/inquiry-in-south-africainconclusive.html?pagewanted=print . 49.EugenedeKocktookoverthecommandoftheVlakplaasunitfromDirkCoetzeein1983andledthe counterterrorismuntil1993.DeKockappliedforamnestyafter1994anditwasgrantedforcrimescommittedforpoliticalreasons,butdeKockwasnotpardonedfor89otherchargesandwassentencedtotwo lifetermsplus212yearsinprisonforcrimesincludingmurder,kidnappingandfraud.DeKockwasone ofonlythreewhitementobejailedafter1994foratrocitiescommittedunderapartheid.After20years inprison,stateocialsannouncedthatEugenedeKockwouldbereleasedonparolein2015.See:Antije Krog,CananEvilManChange, TheNewYorkTimes ,March13,2015,accessedNovember28,2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/14/opinion/sunday/the-repentance-of-eugene-de-kock-apartheidassassin.html . 50.ThereportalsoprovidedinformationabouttheactionsofstatepoliceworkingfromtheVlakplaas whoprovidedweaponstomembersoftheInkathaFreedomPartywhowereengagedinviolentclashes againstmembersoftheAfricanNationalCongress.SeeTRCpages:TruthandReconcilliationCommittee, ProvisionofweaponstotheIFP ,technicalreportVolume2,Chapter7,Subsection8,accessed December1,2015, http://sabctrc.saha.org.za/reports/volume2/chapter7/subsection8.htm?t=%5C% 2BVlakplaas%5C&tab=report . 51.TheTRChearingswerewidelyreportedintheSouthAfricanmedia,andthenalreportwaspublishedinprintandmadeavailableforfreeontheinternet.Hearingswerealsointerpretedbynovelistssuch asAntjieKrog,whoreportedonthehearingsfortheSouthAfricanBroadcastingCompanyandpublished 183

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whattookplaceonitssoil,theVlakplaasbecameasymbolofatrocity,and,forboththe SouthAfricanpublicandScholtz'sfamily,Vlakplaascouldneveragainjustbetheshallow farm. 52 4.3.1TheFarmseriesasAtrocityPhotographs Imagesthatdocumentinstancesofviolenceanddeathfocusaviewer'sresponseto horricacts.Photographyhasbeenassociatedwithatrocitysinceitsearlyapplications inlatenineteenthcenturymilitaryconicts;theabilitytorepresentanisolatedmoment grantsthemediumpowertoselectandcreateiconicimages,andtocreatenarrative sequencesofnon-linear,chaotic,andtragicevents. 53 JayProsserarguesthatThe photographofatrocityurgesaresponsefromus...wehaveanimmediateandparticular, oftenvisceralwefeelitinourguts,connection.Thephotographdemandsfromusa response,perhapsevenaneorttopreventwhatweseeandwhatweknowhasalready happened. 54 Atrocityphotographscastintosharpcontrasttwosides:avictimandan aggressor,distinctionsthathelpdirecttheresponsefromtheviewer.ElizabethAbel writesoftherelationshipsrevealedinatrocityphotographs:Unlikeearthquakes,oods, famine,disease,destitution,andothersourcesofhumanmisery,atrocityischaracterized herreectionsonthetrialsinherwidely-circulatedbook,AntjieKrog, Countryofmyskull Johannesburg:RandomHouse,2004. 52.Scholtzreectsonthistransformation:...withtherevelationsoftheTRChearingsandtestimonies, myfamilyandIhavehadtocometotermswiththehorrorofwhatthefarmbecame.ThegloriedvisionofthefarmthatIhadgrownupwithhadbecomeindescribablysoiled.See:Scholtz-Hofmeyer,The Farm,8. 53.PhotographsofUSCivilWarbattleeldsandtheaftermathofcombatactivitiestakenbyMatthew BradyandhisassociatesAlexanderGardnerandTimothyO'Sullivanoeroneexampleoflate nineteenth-centuryimagesthatportraydeathinawarcontext.PhotographssuchasConfederatedead behindastonewallatFredericksburg,VAshowdeceasedsoldiersintrenches.Intheirtime,imagessuch asthesepresentedanewapplicationforphotography:documentationoftheharshrealitiesofarmedconict.See: https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brady-photos/images/confederate-dead-fredericksburg. gif 54.JayProsser,Introduction,in Picturingatrocity:photographyincrisis ,ed.JayProsseretal.London:Reaktion,2012,9-10. 184

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byintentionality,adeliberatebreachofthesocialcontract,aknowingviolationofashared humanity.Itsdeningcharacteristicisaradialsymmetryofagency:massivelypooledon oneside,brutallydrainedontheother. 55 NophotographerdocumentedwhatoccurredattheVlakplaasunderstatesupervision, andnoimagesexisttoprovideevidenceofpoliceactions.Reportersandperpetrators providedaccountsofatrocitiesinwrittenandspokentestimonies,butthepublicisleftto conjuretheirownimageoftheviolencethatoccurredatVlakplaas.Inthemindsofthe SouthAfricanpublictheVlakplaasisabrokenlandscape;theuninhabited,unpictured spacenowperformsasatabularasabackdropfortheundisclosedevilsofapartheid. AparticipatoryrelationshipbetweentheviewerandtheVlakplaasoccurswhenSouth Africansimagineforthemselveswhattookplaceunderstateorders,aformofengagement thatmakestheeventsfeelmorerealthaniftheywerereportedthroughdocumentary photographs. RenzskeScholtz'slandscapephotographsoeraframeworktointerpretahorrorto whichnojournalistwaswitness,andindoingso,hereortsechotheworkofphotographerssuchasIanBerryandSamNzima,whousedtheirimagestocreatenarratives ofviolentincidentsthatrevealedthebrutalityoftheapartheidregime.InMarch1960 SharpevillepoliceopenedreonacrowdofblackSouthAfricanprotestors,killingsixtyninepeople. Drum magazine 56 photographer,IanBerryrecordedtheunfoldingmassacre 55.ElizabethAbel,HistoryataStandstill:AgencyandGenderintheImageofCivilRights,in Picturingatrocity:photographyincrisis ,ed.JayProsseretal.London:Reaktion,2012,105. 56. Drum magazineisaSouthAfricanperiodicalthatbeganpublicationin1951,threeyearsafter thebeginningofapartheidandaftermanyofitsmostrestrictivelawswereenacted.Themagazineincludedcurrenteventsandentertainmentarticles,andisbestknownforitscoverageoftownshiplifeunder apartheid,investigativereporting,photographicessays,prolesofurbanblackcultureinthe1950sand 60s,andotherserializedcontent.ProminentphotographerssuchasErnestCole,AlfKhumalo,Peter Magubane,BobGosani,andJurgenSchadebergallworkedforthemagazine.Foradiscussionof Drum magazine,see:OkwuiEnwezor,ACriticalPresence:DrumMagazineinContext,in In/sight:African Photographers,1940tothePresent NewYork:HarryAbrams,1996,179;Newbury, DeantImages: PhotographyandapartheidSouthAfrica . 185

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Figure4-7.RenzskeScholtz, TheWillows ,2011,archivalpigmentprint,60x192cm. inSharpevilleandoeredalinearproleoftheconictasitturnedfrompeacefulto violent. 57 InJune1976SouthAfricanPoliceforcesinSowetoredteargasandliveammunitionintocrowdsofstudentprotesters.SouthAfricanphotojournalist,SamNzima documentedstudentprotestsinSoweto,andcreatedtheiconicimageofalimpandbloodiedyouth,HectorPieterson,carriedawaybyMbuyisaMakhuboafterbeingshotbySouth Africanpolice.NewspapersaroundtheworldpublishedBerry'simagesfromSharpeville andNzima'sphotographofPieterson,andtheimagescatalyzedgrowinganti-apartheid sentimentabroad. RenzskeScholtzistheonlyartistgivenpermissiontoenterandphotographthe Vlakplaas,whichshedidtwiceforherseries. 58 Shecreatedpanoramiclandscapeimages 57.ForadiscussionofIanBerry'simagesoftheSharpevillemassacreandtheirroleinestablishinga proleoftheeventinthemindsofthepublicsee:DarrenNewbury,Picturingan`OrdinaryAtrocity': TheSharpevilleMassacre,in Picturingatrocity:photographyincrisis ,ed.JayProsseretal.London: Reaktion,2012,209. 58.Sincetheendofapartheidin1994otherartistshaveengagedtheVlakplaasintheirwork.Jo Ractliephotographedthefarmfromtheroadinher1999series.DrivebyShooting.Shewrites:`I wasutterlyunpreparedforwhatIsaworrather,didn'tsee-thattheVlakplaasIwaslookingforwas nowheretobefound.'Ractlierecallsthat:Therewasnothingtosee;nothingofthehorrorVlakplaas hadactivatedintheSouthAfricanimagination.Whatstruckmewaslessthefactofthatplaceandits terribleworkings,thanitwastheabsolutebanalityofitsfacadeaplacesosteepedinviolence,butwithoutmaterialmanifestation.see:SeanO'Toole,JoRactlie, Frieze ,no.117,accessedDecember5,2015, http://www.frieze.com/issue/article/jo_ractlie/ ;Ractlie'simagestripsdisplayopenveld, telephonepolesandotherrurallandscapefeatures.Nothingbeforehercameramatchedwithwhatshefelt 186

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ofplacesandbuildingsthroughoutthefarm,includingknownmurderandtorturesites. Imagessuchas TheWillows Fig.4-7showaserenestretchesoffarmland,unmarked bytragedy.Here,asectionofpastureslopestowardstall,gracefulwillowtreesthatgrow alongsideanunseenriver.Shadesofgreenpulsethroughtheframeandinvitetheviewer tolookcarefullyatthedetailscapturedinthehigh-dynamicrangephotograph.Therich, teemingcolorscontrastwithinformationinSholtz'scaption:JapieMaponya,brother ofaformercommanderoftheAfricanNationalCongress'armedwing,Umkhontowe Sizwe,wasbrutallyinterrogatedbyEugenedeKockandhismenatthissiteinSeptember 1985. 59 Withthisknowledge,theimagereadsdierently:theovercastlightdampensthe frame,theabsenceofpeoplefeelsabnormal,andthecolorsappearunnaturallybright. AreRenzskeScholtz'sphotographsofthefarmatrocityphotographs?Whenviewed throughthislens,dotheyfunctiondierentlythantheimagesofBerry,Nzima,and otherStrugglephotographers?Scholtzthoughtaboutthequestion.Inthenalthesis documentsheincludesablackandwhiteseriesfromherrstvisittothefarmin2005that referencedocumentaryandnewsphotographyanditsdispositiontofocusonthegrim andsensationalaspectsofevents. 60 Photographssuchas TheTortureRoom Fig.4-8 representtheVlakplaasofthepublicimaginationandcorrespondswiththeTRCpress representationsofthefarmasasiteofhorrorsandnightmares.Asasupplementand perhapsincontrasttohercolorworksScholtzsaystheblackandwhitephotographs confronttheviewerdirectlyasiftosay:`thisiswhereithappened.'" 61 Butevenshown aboutthearea.InadditiontoRactlieScholtzdiscussesworkofartistMerrynSingerwhousedherown bloodasmaterialforherwatercolorlandscapesketchesofVlakplaas.JoRactlie, Vlakplaas:2June1999 drive-byshooting ,1999,accessedDecember5,2015, http://africa.si.edu/exhibits/earthmatters/quotes/ ractlie.html . 59.ScholtznotesthatJapieMaponyawasaninnocentvictimandwasabductedandtorturedtogain informationaboutthewhereaboutsOderileMaponya.See:Scholtz-Hofmeyer,TheFarm,16. 60.Ibid.,82. 61.Ibid. 187

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Figure4-8.RenzskeScholtz, TheTortureRoom ,2005,archivalpigmentprint. inblackandwhite,theVlakplaassiteappearssereneandinnocuousinthelow-contrast, landscapeprints. GeoreyBatchenarguesthatphotographsofsitesofpastviolenceprovideaparticipatoryexperiencedistinctfromotheratrocityphotographs.Hedescribestheworkof AnneFerran,whodepictspatchesofnondescriptgroundwithouthorizonlineorother contextualindicators.Nowvacant,theareasformerlyheldlatenineteenthcenturyfemale prisons.Batchenwritesthat:thesewomenandtheirchildrenhavebecomelargelyinvisibletohistory,except,perhaps,intheimaginationsofafewcontemporaryAustralians. Ferran'sphotographs,byrefusingtogivetheseconvictsuptouswhileneverthelessinsistingontheirpresence,inviteallofustoexercisethatimagination. 62 Ferran'simages promptparticipationfromtheviewer,andinvitethemintothecivicactionimploredupon theminatrocityphotographs. 62.GeoreyBatchen,LookingAskance,in Picturingatrocity:photographyincrisis ,ed.JayProsser etal.London:Reaktion,2012,229. 188

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TheimaginativeengagementspurredbetweenviewerandeventintheworkofScholtz andFerranisnotablebecauseitavoidspotentiallyproblematicissuesassociatedwith atrocityphotographsliketheworkofNzimaandBerry.PeggyPhelanremindsusthat whileatrocityphotographsmaymotivateadeeplyfeltresponsefromtheviewerwhen rstread,iconicimagesofhorroreventseventuallydiusereactions.Theexperienceof lookinghascreatedanarrativeofpastness,ifonlyatthelevelof:`Ihaveseenthisbefore andsurvivedseeingit,'Phelanwrites,Lookingatanatrocityphotographrepeatedly cantransformtheimagefromaperformativetoaconstativeexpression. 63 Accordingto Phelan,atrocityphotographslosepotencyovertimeandwhenviewedthroughahistorical context,theseimagesmayeventuallyfailtoengageorchallengetheviewer.Atrocity photographsalsonecessarilysortsubjectsintovictimandaggressorroles,acastingthat mayultimatelyworkagainstthepersonsseenasvictims.Inhisbook, Seeingthrough Race:AReinterpretationofCivilRightsPhotography ,MartinBergerarguesthaticonic CivilRightseraimagesemphasizedthebrutalityofwhiteaggressorsagainstthehelpless blackvictimstogarnersupportforthemovement.Paradoxically,however,hesuggests thattheseimagesultimatelyrearmedwhitepowerandprivilege;blackcitizensattacked bypolicedogsandwaterhosesappearedaspassivevictimsinneedofwhitehelp,and notasactiveagentsseekingreformandrepresentation. 64 Incontrast,photographsthat referencestate-sanctionedviolencewithoutshowinggraphicimagerymaycompelviewers toconsiderthesubjectofviolenceitself,withoutneedingtocollapseinjuredpartiesintoa roleofhelplessvictims. BothScholtzandFerranpresenttheirsubjectwithoutthedramaortensioncharacteristicofatrocityphotographs.WritingaboutFerran,GeoreyBatchendescribes 63.PeggyPhelan,AtrocityandAction:PerformativeForceoftheAbuGhraibPhotograph,in Picturingatrocity:photographyincrisis ,ed.JayProsseretal.London:Reaktion,2012,54. 64.Forfurtherdiscussionofthecivilrightseraphotographssee:MartinA.Berger, Seeingthroughrace: areinterpretationofcivilrightsphotography Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,2011. 189

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thismodeofworkingasablendofgenresthatcombinestherevelatorypromiseofdocumentaryphotographywiththeobsessiverepetitionsofconceptualart. 65 Scholtzcites theinuenceofBerndandHillaBecherandotherDusseldorfSchoolphotographersto herseries;shewantedtoshowtheVlakplaasunadorned,withdetailandclarityand fromadispassionateposition. 66 AswithVincentBezuidenhout,theBechers'methods appealedtoScholtzbecausetheyminimizethepresenceoftheartistintheframeand maintainapretenseofopenengagementwiththescenebyviewers.BothBezuidenhout andScholtzwantedtodistancethemselvesfromthedidacticismpresentintheworkof theirsocialdocumentarypredecessors,evenastheychosetoexploresubjectswithpolitical andsocialrelevance.ThephotographsinTheFarmshowfacadesoffarmsiteswithout creativeframingorothermethodsthatforegroundthehandofthephotographer.Scholtz combinedmultipleexposuresforeachimagetorepresentagreaterdynamicrangethan possibleinasingleframe.Withanoverowofdetail,Scholtzattemptedtorepresent Vlakplaasas`precisely',`truthfully'and`impersonally'aspossible. 67 ThoughScholtzaimedtodispassionatelyrepresenttheVlakplaas,herprojecthada twinobjective:toportraythefarmasanarchiveofherfamily'spositivememoriesand asdeeplyfeltwoundinthemetaphoricbodyofthebroaderSouthAfricancommunity. Tension,conict,andoccasionalsynergybetweenthesetwomotivessurfacethroughout theseries.Dierentsizes,formats,andarrangementsinhernalpresentationindicate thechallengesScholtzencounteredinmanagingsuchdivergentvariables.Collections ofvernacularfamilyphotographsofdierentsizes,subjectsandframessitinuneven groupingsofthewallandpage,followedbylandscapediptychs,panoramasandtriptychs. Inhernalcollectionofimages,captionsalternatelyrelaymemoriesofScholtz'smother, 65.Batchen,LookingAskance,227. 66.Scholtz-Hofmeyer,TheFarm,16. 67.Ibid. 190

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Figure4-9.RenzskeScholtz, VlakplaasgrassI&II ,2005,archivalpigmentprint. well-knownpoemsfromAfrikanerwriters,andtranscriptsfromEugenedeKock'sTRC hearingaboutC1-unitatVlakplaas.Thecaptions,togetherwiththerapidshiftinimage formatinScholtz'snalseries,createjarringtransitionsbetweensentiment,nostalgia,and horror.Inthesurplusofinformationpresentedinthemyriadgroupingsofphotographs asub-narrativeemerges:initsdisorderTheFarmseriesrevealsthejourneyofayoung SouthAfricancitizenweightedbyknowledgeofthepastwhostrugglestotranslateitinto ameaningfuldepictionofthepresent. TheformatofScholtz'sphotographsforegroundthetensionsthatarecentraltothis sub-narrativeofaconictedyoungartist.Thediptych VlakplaasgrassI&II Fig.4-9 showsanopenveldenvironmentsplitawkwardlydownthemiddle.Ontheleftborderof therightphotograph,Scholtzsplitsatalltreeintheimagemiddleground,amputatingits leftsidefromthepictureplane.Thissharpcutsignalsadeparturefromthetraditional landscapeconventionofasingle,all-seeingviewandmarksanunseenssureinthe landscapeitself.Outoffocusandphotographedinovercastlightingconditions,the landscapeappearsmuted,inured,andstill.Bothpartsofthediptychhavecaptions: therstrelaysareveriefromScholtz'smother;initsheimaginesplayingoutsideinthe eldsofgrassasayouth.ThesecondcaptionexcerptsOBoereplaas,Geboortegrond, apoembyfamedAfrikaanspoet,A.G.Visser.Together,thebisectedsceneconjuresa 191

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representationofVlakplaasenvironsasbroken,andirrevocablysplitfromthenostalgic yearningsofitsformerowners. 4.3.2RenzskeScholtz,TheFarm,andFeelingPhotography Caughtbetweenagenerationofactivistswhoimmersedthemselvesinviewsofa contestedlandscape,andanothergenerationwhodidnotexperiencelifeunderapartheid, photographerssuchasScholtzmustbalancewhattheyseeinthelandscapeinacontemporarycontextandwhattheyknowofitshistoryintotheirrepresentations.Likemany ofherpeers,Scholtzgravitatestowardsanoutwardlyobjectivestyleofphotographing theenvironmentassociatedwithsomeDusseldorfSchoolartiststoaccomplishthistask: distanced,objective,andemotionallyneutral.Shestrivestocreatephotographsthatcan accommodatemultiplereadingsapartfromherownfeelings.Yet,Scholtzusescaptions, inference,andformattocommunicatethesocialcomplexitiesandfeelingsthatanimate thespacestheyrepresent,agesturethatoftenseemstocontradictherdesiretoremain neutral.Attendingtofeelinginherphotographsallowstheviewertoconsidertheirwork asaqueeringofthemedium,which,followingBarthesasreadbyShawnMichelleSmith, opensthephotographicindexontootherworlds,collapsesdisparatetimes,andconjoins thematerialandthespiritual, 68 andrevealssomethingoftheconictedviewpointfrom whichtheyweretaken. Criticshavelongeschewedaprimaryexaminationoffeelinginphotography.Antipathytowardstheroleoffeelinginphotographyrstaroseinresponsetopictorialism andretainedapowerfullegacyinsubsequentphotographiccriticism. 69 BrownandPhu 68.ShawnMichelleSmith,PhotographybetweenDesireandGrief:RolandBarthesandF.Holland Day,in Feelingphotography ,ed.ElspethH.BrownandThyPhuDurham:DukeUniversityPress,2014, 31. 69.Feelinghasplayedanimportantroleinthehistoryofphotographyanditstransitioninthemindsof thepublicfromatranscriptiondeviceintoanacceptedartforminthelatenineteenthcentury.Advocates forphotography'sstatusasanartformsoughttolinkthemediumtofeeling,anditscapacitytoexpress emotion,notsimplyrecordinformation.In1880,writinginthe BritishJournalofPhotography ,W.Neilsonidentiedasetofaestheticprinciplesrequisitetomakingphotographsfunctionasworksofhighart, 192

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write:...thesuccessofpictorialism'sadvocatesinrenderingphotography`art'througha discourseoffeelingispreciselythelegacythatmaterialistphotocriticsofthe1980ssought toevadebydistancingphotographystudiesfromaesthetics. 70 Insteadoffeeling,the criticsofthe1980susedthecriticaltoolsofneo-Marxisthistoricalmaterialism,discourse analysis,andpsychoanalytictheorytoestablishastillinuentialaccountofthecameraas atechnologyofsurveillance,adiscursivesite,andanideologicalapparatuswheremeaningsareconstructedthroughthecirculationofphotography. 71 ElspethBrownandThy Phuassertthatcriticalattentiontofeelinginthelonghistoryofphotographywillyield newinsightsintoworknotaccommodatedbymodernism'snormativetendenciesandwill bringimportantattentiontophotography'smarginalizedsubjects:women,minorities,and queersexualities. 72 ConsideringfeelinginrelationtoScholtz'simagespresentstwoclearbenets.First, afocusonemotionallowsforcriticalexaminationofwhatmightotherwisebeviewedas incongruitiesinScholtz'sseries.Thevarietyofformats,photographicgenres,subjects, andcaptionsourcesbringtogetherdisparateconversationsrelatedtoVlakplaas,dialogs thatattimescomeintoconictwitheachotherorappeardisjointed.Analysisoftheseries whichelevateandexpandouremotionalbeing.c.f.ElspethH.BrownandThyPhu,Introduction, in Feelingphotography ,ed.ElspethH.BrownandThyPhuDurham:DukeUniversityPress,2014,10; BritishphotographerHenryPeachRobinsonsimilarlyadvocatedphotographersfocusoncommunicating feelinganddrawfromtechniquesassociatedwithpaintingsoftfocus,compositephotographstoelevate photographytoitsrightfulpositionamongthearts.ThesuccessofthiseortbyRobinsonandother pictorialistartistsandcriticscreatedwhatBrownandThureferenceasaformalandemotionalother againstwhichmodernisminphotographytermedbyAlfredSteiglitzandothersasstraightphotographyandreferencedfocusonform,pattern,repetition-grewfrominthepost-WWIera.BrownandPhu, Introduction,11. 70.BrownandPhu,Introduction,9. 71.Ibid.,4. 72.BrownandPhuarguethatfeelingoperatesasmodernism'sotherandremovingdiscussionofemotion fromcriticaldialogsonphotographyhasmarginalizedwomen,minorities,andqueersexualities.Reintroducinganalysisoffeelingandthematicconcerns,theyargue,amountstoaqueeringofphotographyand bringsimportantattentiontopreviouslycutosubjectswhohavebeenmarginalizedthroughmodernist criticism.See:ibid.,4-5. 193

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throughthelensoffeelingestablishesasharedfoundationwithwhichtoviewtheworks, apartfromtheircommonlocation.Second,attentiontofeelinginScholtz'sseriescreates anopportunitytoconsiderthepositionofScholtzherselfintheseries.Theessential questionsheposesthroughherprojectisonebasedinfeeling:howcansherepresenther familialconnectiontothelandscapeandhersenseofhorrorattheeventsthatoccurredin thesameplace?Moreover,alensoffeelingaccommodatesScholtz'sownviewsoftheseries anditsintention:tohonorsentimentsinscribedontheVlakplaaslandscape.Shewrites: Ihavecometoseemyprojectnotonlyasanactofrepresentationbutasaprocessof pathosandmourning.Mourningforthesueringthatoccurredonthelandandpathosfor mygrandfather'sdesperateattemptstoreturntoit,andfortheimpossibilityofachieving thisdesire. 73 RolandBarthesestablishesapowerfulroleforfeelinginphotographyinhisseminal text, CameraLucida. 74 Hebelievedthatacriticalcontemplationofphotographycould onlybeginafterattendingtothesubjectoffeelinginagivenimage. 75 Bartheswrites: Iwantedtoexplore[theessencesofphotography]notasaquestionatheme,butasa wound:Isee,Ifeel,hence,Inotice,Iobserve,Ithink. 76 ShawnMichelleSmithargues that CameraLucida encouragesonetoattendtofeelingwhenstudyingphotographs, andinthiswaytomorefullyaccountforthepowerofphotographicimages. 77 Byasking viewerstofeelphotographyandallowemotiontomediatebetweenthephotographic 73.Scholtz-Hofmeyer,TheFarm. 74.Feelingsofmourning,grief,anddesireforBarthes'slatemotherweighedheavilyonhimandinuencedthedevelopmentof CameraLucida :Insteadoffollowingthepathofaformalontologyofa Logic,Bartheswrites,Istopped,keepingitwithme,likeatreasure,mydesireofmygrief.Roland Barthes, Cameralucida:reectionsonphotography NewYork:Hill/Wang,1981,21. 75.Smith,PhotographybetweenDesireandGrief:RolandBarthesandF.HollandDay,30. 76.Barthes, Cameralucida:reectionsonphotography ,21. 77.Smith,PhotographybetweenDesireandGrief:RolandBarthesandF.HollandDay,30. 194

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Figure4-10.RenzskeScholtz, TheCemetery ,50x175cm,2011,archivalpigmentprint. signierandsignied,SmithpositsthatBarthesultimatelyputsforthaqueertheoryof photographyinwhichfeelingopenstheindexontootherworlds,collapsesdisparatetimes, andconjoinsthematerialandthespiritual. 78 ThroughoutherwritingsScholtzrepeatedlydescribesherprojectasanattempt topresentthepastbeforethepresent.ImagessuchasTheCemeteryFig.4-10 exemplifythatwaysheusestheformofherphotographstoupsetalinearnarrativeof thefarm,collapsetime,movetime,andgiveweighttopastevents.Moreover,thisand othertriptychimagesin TheFarm echothewayinwhichScholtzconfrontshistory, family,andherownidentityasdiscrete,yetintegralelementsinaninterpretationof place.Throughoutherseries,sheexperimentswithwaystocreatealayeredportraitof Vlakplaas,andthroughthetriptychs,Scholtzordersthemontoasingleimageplane. Here,aphotographofthefamilycemeteryviewedatadistancesitsbesideastudio photographofapairofporcelainbirdsandpartialviewofafuneralprocession.Thehills thatsurroundthecemeteryextendbeyondthephotograph,andalignwithsilhouetteof adarkenedridgeinthefuneralimage.Thelandscapeformallylinksthetwophotographs 78.Smith,PhotographybetweenDesireandGrief:RolandBarthesandF.HollandDay,31.Quoting ElizabethFreeman,Smitharguesthattheblendoftime,feeling,andreligiosityisaparticularlyqueer phenomenon.Freemanobservesthatreligionisinsistentlyengagedwiththerelationbetweenbodiesand time,andsuggeststhatitisripeforqueerexploration.SmithreadsFreeman'sassessmentofqueernessassomethingthatisoftenexperiencedasatemporaldisjunction,asasynchronyandexploresthis argumentthroughadiscussionoftheresurrectedbody,which,refusingdeath,returnsasanuncanny presence.. 195

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Figure4-11.RenzskeScholtz, TheButterRoomtortureroom ,2011,archivalpigment print,50x203cm. and,visually,pullstheblackandwhiteprocessionimageintothematerialpresent.The imageofthetwobirdssitsbetweentheotherphotographsandintegratesareferenceto touchinthetriptych.Theviewerreadsthesmooth,softlylitsurfaceofthegurines,and infersasenseoftendernessontothetwoadjacentimages. Barthesarguesin CameraLucida thatthephotographshowsrealityinapast state:atoncethepastandthereal, 79 andthereforethephotograph'ssubjectisalways simultaneouslypresentandabsent.Thepastresurrectedinaphotographismade presentagain.ShawnMichelleSmithobservesthathisthat-has-beenqualityofthe photographitsindexicalityfunctionedasanotherkindofpunctumforBarthes,who wrote:Iknownowthatthereexistsanother punctum another`stigmatum'thanthe `detail'.Thisnewpunctum,whichisnolongerofformbutofintensity,isTime.' 80 ShawnMichelleSmithobservesthatBarthesuseslanguagethatisstartlinglyreligious. Inreferencingthemeetingofpastandpresentinaphotographasastigmatum,Barthes conjuresableedingwoundintheviewerwhoexperiencesandinterpretstheresurrection ofthephotographedsubject. 81 79.Barthes, Cameralucida:reectionsonphotography ,82. 80.Ibid.,96. 81.Smith,PhotographybetweenDesireandGrief:RolandBarthesandF.HollandDay,38. 196

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Figure4-12.RenzskeScholtz, TheviewfromAalwynkoppe,Vlakplaas ,2011,archival pigmentprint,50x227cm. Ablendingoftime,feeling,andreligionasarelationbetweenbodiesandtime occursin TheFarm ,exempliedbytwoimages:TheButterRoomtortureroom Fig.4-11,andTheviewfromAalwynkoppe,VlakplaasFig.4-12.Intherstwork threephotographsjuxtaposedierenttimesatthefarm;theimagesplaceimaginedbodies againstseenbodies,nostalgiaadjacenttohorror,andtactilityalongsidetheinvisible. ThetriptychjoinsacolorphotographofthespacewhereScholtz'sgreatgrandmother madebutterandcuredbiltong,apictureofacrackedoralcaketrayandablackand whiteimageofAlidaStewartonherbirthday.Thecaketraydividesthecompositework, and,accordingtoScholtz,thesplitinitssurfaceactsasametaphorsignifyingasense offorebodingandperhapsalsoaparticularkindofviolence. 82 Thecaptionrevealsthat C1-unitocerstorturedANCactivistsinthebutterroomtoturnthemintoaskaris. 83 ThemeetingofpastinpresentinTheButterRoomresurrectsdivergentsubjectsAlida StewartandANCactivistsandforegroundstimeaswoundsfeltbytheviewer.Inthe secondtriptychScholtzbraidstogetherhistoriesfromVlakplaasandforegroundsher ownconnectiontotheirlegacies.Therstphotographshowsapanoramicviewtaken fromahilltopAalwynkoppebehindtheVlakplaasfarmhouse,wheretwopeopleare 82.Scholtz-Hofmeyer,TheFarm,16. 83.Theterm askari referencesalocalresidentwhoservedinthearmiesofEuropeanColonialpowersin theAfricancontinent,andwasusedbyapartheidocialstodenoteSouthAfricanswhoweredetainedfor politicalreasonsandturnedintospiesforthegovernment. 197

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buried:BrianNgqulunga,whowasmurderedbymembersoftheC1unitin1987;and Malabogsurnameunknown,achildhoodfriendofScholtz'sgrandfather'sandtheson ofoneofVlakplaas'farmworkers. 84 Themiddleimagedisplaysabowlwithapicture oftheVoortrekkermonument,avesselsheinheritedfromhergreatgrandfather. 85 Theobjectreferencesmyfamily'scomplicityandsupportofasystem,Scholtzwrites, broadlycontextualizedaroundtheideaoftheAfrikaner'simaginedstatusasGod'schosen people,theirpoliticalrise,fallandtheirpersistentandcoincidingsenseofentitlement andattachmenttotheland.Tomeitisalsorepresentativeofmygrandfather'sdream tobereunitedwiththeland. 86 Thenalphotographtakenfromherfamilyalbum showsaworkerPetrus,fatherofMalabogusinganoxwagontotransportchalktothe bottomofthehill,where,Scholtznotes,hisson,andBrianNgqulunga,wouldlaterbe buried.Chalkquarriedfromthefarm,accordingtoScholtz'sgrandfather,wasusedinthe constructionoftheUnionBuildingsinPretoria. 87 Placedalongsideeachother,theimages formanarrativebeyondtheirreferentsandalludetothewebofinterrelations,bodies, andimpactsofapartheidplayedoutonthespaceofthefarmnowrelayedaspunctumsin Scholtz'sseries. Theoscillationbetweenwhatisfeltandknowntobealtered,colorsallaspectsof Scholtz'sseriesatensionthatisexplicatedthroughthelensoffeeling.Photographssuch 84.Scholtzalsonotesthatthesitecurrentlyholdsalargecrossthatwasplantedbythefarm'scaretaker, LouisSmit,toprotectthelandfromevilspirits.Smithasalsoperformedritualsonthesitealongwith membersofhischurchtoexpungethelandatVlakplaasandprotectitfromfurtherevils.See:Renzske Scholtz-Hofmeyer, Interviewwithauthor ,September12,2013. 85.ThevesselcommemoratesthecentenaryoftheBattleofBloodRiverDecember1838,andthe layingofthefoundationstonesfortheVoortrekkermonumentin1938.Scholtzannotatestheimage:nestledbetweenburningcandlesandencircledbyachain,twodates,1838and1938.See:Scholtz-Hofmeyer, TheFarm,17. 86.Ibid. 87.ScholtzobservesthatthechalkthatPetruswasresponsibleforquarryingandtransportingwasused tobuildthefoundationsfromwhereapartheidlegislationwouldbepassed.Andthislegislationwouldin turnenabletheC1Unit'smurderouscampaign.ibid. 198

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Figure4-13.RenzskeScholtz, RiverandPicnicArea ,2011,archivalpigmentprint,60x 152cm. asRiverandpicnicareaFig.4-13positiontheviewerapartfromthescenethrough itscompositionandabsenceofnarrative,butenticethemthroughanoverowofdetail andvividforms.TheimageshowsanopeningadjacenttothebankoftheHennops riverwheremembersoftheC1UnitbrutallyassaultedJapieMaponya.Braidsofwillow branchesfallfromthetopoftheframeandformaloosecurtainbetweenthesceneand theviewer.Leaflittercoversthegroundandshowsnotraceofuseorpathwayforthe viewertofollow.Atwistedlimbcurledoverthe braai reinforcesthepresenceofabsence inthesceneandthephotograph.Scholtzcompiledmultipleimagestogethertocreatethe nalpanorama,atechniquethatallowedhertoachieveagreaterdynamicrangethan attainablethroughasingleexposure.Thesharplyrenderedgrasses,rocks,andtreespull thevieweracrosstheimagepane,butneverleadtoacentralpointoffocusornarrative. Scholtz'scompositionultimatelycreatesconfusionforthevieweraboutwhytheyare lookingandwhattheyshouldlearnfromtheimagefeelingsofuncertaintythatreinforce theconceptandpotencyof TheFarm series.Thedesiretomakevisiblewhatisfeltbut cannotbeseendrivesphotographicengagementswithsitesoftraumalikeVlakpaas. Eventsthattangiblyalterhumanlivesshould,itwouldseem,exactsomeimpactonthe environmentsthemselves.Byforegroundingherowninabilitytoaccountforthechangein thelandscapedespiteherconnectiontothelocation,sheimmersestheviewerinfeeling, somethingthepicturesandphotographycanconvey. 199

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4.4MoniquePelser,J.H.Pierneef,andRe-engagementwiththeSouth Africanlandscape ThewindingApiesRiverowsnorthwardthroughthecityofPretoriauntilit drainsintothePiernaasRiver.Ndebelepeoplenamedtheriverafteroneoftheirchiefs, TshwanewhosenametranslatestolittleapeinEnglishandApiesinAfrikaans. 88 In tandemwiththegrowthofPretoria,civilengineerscanalizedlargestretchesoftheriver in1910andrestricteditsmovementwithinthecity.Today,theApiesRiverbearslittle resemblancetothewaterbodyrstknowntotheNdebeleorAfrikaans-speakingsettlers. SouthAfricanphotographerMoniquePelserdepictsacrosssectionofthewaterwayin her2010image,ApiesRiver,TswaneFig.4-14.Pelserphotographedthesitethrougha square,mediumformatframe,andbuildshercompositionaroundacentrallyplacedbridge seenfrombelow.Ashallowsegmentofthewaterbodyllstheimageforegroundand extendsbackwardsintotheframe,untilitdisappearsfromsightunderthedarkshadow ofthenarrowoverpass.Weatheredrockspokethroughthesurfaceofthestreamand contrastagainstthestillwaterintheleftsideoftheimage.Leafy,deciduoustreescrowd thehorizonandlimitviewoftheclearbluesky.Lightfromthesunilluminatesverdant bunchesofgrassontheimagebanks,fast-owingebbsintheriver,andthelushcontours ofthetalltrees.Photographedinlateafternoon,thesoftsunlightwarmsthesceneand invitestheviewertolookandlingerontheripariansetting. Pelser'sphotographdoesnotrepresentpeople,thoughshealludestotheirpresence inhercomposition.Ablazeofredfabricdrapesoverarockintheriver;theoutlineofa whiteboxsitsawkwardlyamongthewornstonesintheshallowbank;andacircular,tube oflight-bluepipeshootsacrossthestream,bracketedtothesideofthebridge.Netsof 88.ChiefTshwanewasthesonofChiefMushi,whowasanNdebeleleaderwhosettledneartheApies RiveralmostahundredyearspriortothearrivaloftheVoortrekkersinthe1830s.Othersarguethatthe nameTshwanederivesfromtheTshwanawordforblackcow,andwasgiventotheApiesriverasareferencetoaritualrain-makingceremonythattookplaceontheriver.See:L.J.Louwrens,Theoriginand meaningoftheplacenameTshwane, SouthAfricanJournalofCulturalHistory 20,no.1:100. 200

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Figure4-14.MoniquePelser, ApiesRiver,Tshwane ,2010,archivalpigmentprint,40x40 cm. chainlinkwireencaselayersofrock,stackedtocreatestepsthatstructurallyreinforcethe riverembankmentandtheunseenroad.Thoughnotovertlyemphasizedwithintheframe, thesefeaturestemperthescenicdepictionoftheApiesRiver;thecoloredelementsdistract theeyefromrushingwaterandsunlitvegetationandremindtheviewerofthewaysin whichthemanagementandabuseoftheenvironmentchipawayatvisionsofAcadian nature. TherepresentationoftheApiesRiverinPelser'simagereinterpretsa1932painting bySouthAfricanartist,JacobHendrikJ.H.Pierneef,entitledApiesRiver,Pretoria Fig.4-15.TheprominentAfrikanerpainterdepictedasectionoftheriveraspartofa 201

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commissionfortheSouthAfricanRailwaysandHarborsadministration. 89 Taskedto createaseriesofpanelsfortheJohannesburgrailwaystation,Pierneefpaintedthirty-two viewsofprovincesintheSouthAfricanUnionandNamibiaandcreatedtheseriesnow knownasTheStationPanels.IntendedtolureandenticetheSouthAfricantouristinto thereachesofthecountrynowaccessiblebytrain,thepaintingsportrayedSouthAfrica asanopen,inspiringenvironmentripefordiscoveryandexperience.TheParkStationin Johannesburgservedasthepointofarrivalforthemajorityoftouristsandtravellersuntil the1950sandthePierneef'spanelsputforthanimportantinterpretationoftheSouth Africanenvironment.CriticSeanO'Tooleobservesthatthepanels,createdatatimeof rapidurbanizationandlaborstriferenderedtheworldasquiet,unhurried,andawkwardly still. 90 Pierneefproducedtwenty-eightpanelsoveraperiodofthreeyears.Thecommission dictatedonlythatPierneefwastopaintplacesofscenicbeautyofhistoricalinterest, reachedbytherailwayroutes. 91 Inresponse,hetraveledthroughoutSouthAfricain searchofsuchsites,andcoveredanimpressivescopeofterrain.Hepaintedviewsofthe coastinHermanus,mountainpeaksintheDrakensbergandtheMalotimountains;urban spacesinLimpopo;andindustrialareassuchastheRandGoldmine.Pierneefworked inpleinairandcompletedlargenumbersofwatercolorimagesthathecompiledtogether laterinthestudio.Theworksformedanextensivebutcontroversialcollectionowingin 89.TheSouthAfricanRailwaysandHarborsadministrationwasestablishedin1910undertheUnionof SouthAfricagovernment.Thenewagencybroughttogetherdierentexistingrailwayunitsintoacohesive system. 90.SeanO'Toole,Pierneef'sArt, TimesLive ,December10,2010,accessedDecember10,2015, http:// www.timeslive.co.za/lifestyle/2010/12/12/pierneef-s-art . 91.ThoughallofPierneef'snalseriesofpaintingshavethelandscapeofthesouthernAfricanregion astheirsubjectmatter,theworkstintotwomaincategories:historicalplacesandnaturalscenery,and picturedallfourSouthAfricanprovinces,aswellasLesothoandNamibia.Imagesoftheartist'snative Transvaalprovincewerethemostnumerous.See:N.J.Coetzee, Pierneef,land,andlandscape:theJohannesburgStationpanelsincontext Fourways,SouthAfrica:CBMPub.,1992. 202

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Figure4-15.J.H.Pierneef, ApiesRiver,Pretoria ,1932,OilonPanel. 203

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largeparttotheliberal,dramaticinterpretationsofthevarioussitesandovertomissions ofresidentsinthelandscapes.ForartistssuchasWilliamKentridge,theStationpanels representaviewoftheSouthAfricanlandscapeonlyafterthepusofgunsmokehad silencedthedebateoverwhocontrolledtheland. 92 J.H.PierneefexploredtheSouthAfricanlandscapeasasubjectthroughouthis proliccareer.Inthelatenineteenthandearlytwentieth,anewacademiclandscape traditionbegantotakeshapeinSouthAfrica,onethatreplacedanearlierpracticeaimed atrecordinganddocumentingthetopography,ora,andfaunaofvariousregions.Juliette Leeb-duToitobservesthatinterpretationsofthelandscapeamongwhiteSouthAfricans atthistimegrewoutofEuropeanenlightenmentidealsoftherightsofindividualsto ownland,realizetheirindependenceandseekabetterlife. 93 Praisedandcelebratedas anantidotetorapidurbanindustrialization,thelandscapepaintingemergedasawayto quelltheclamorofthe20thcentury.JeremyFosternotesthatofthistimegeographical spacetransformedintoasocially-constructed,ideologicallychargedplaceandthrough theworksofartistssuchasJ.H.Pierneef,thelandscapebecameanationalisticsymbol. 94 IntandemwithaneedtojustifythepositionofwhitesinSouthAfrica,thevalueoflandscapeasspacethatrootedandmadeanindividualbelongtoaplacetookonincreasing importance. 95 AccordingtoLeeb-duToit,Theconstructionofselfinrelationtoplace wasnolongershapedbyromantic,rationalistorscienticterms,butratherreectedan 92.O'Toole,Pierneef'sArt. 93.JulietteLeeb-duToit,LandandLandlessness:RevisitingtheSouthAfricanLandscape,in Visual century:SouthAfricanartincontext ,ed.JillianCarman,vol.1,174. 94.Foster, Washedwithsun ,17. 95.Leeb-duToit,LandandLandlessness:RevisitingtheSouthAfricanLandscape. 204

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individualencounterwithaspirituallyinfusedlandscapeassociatedwithnationalidentity. 96 SignicanteventsinthehistoryofSouthAfricasuchastheSouthAfricanWar andtheeconomicdepressionofthe1920sfurtherspurredtheassociationbetweenland, identity,andnationalismamongwhites,asdidtheformationoftheUnionofSouthAfrica in1910.Leeb-duToitnotestheimportanceofthispoliticaldevelopment:Asthenation acquiredpoliticalandculturalautonomyfromitsBritishcolonialmasters,linksbetween thenationanditslandscapewereforgedthatenduredinthecollectivememory. 97 Indeed,thefantastical,stylizedlandscapespaintedbyPierneefbecamesynonymous withAfrikanernationalismandpatriotismandsymbolizedtheirvisionofasun-bleached environmentthatwouldroottogethertheircommunityandculture.Theabsenceof peopleorman-madestructuresfurtheralignedPierneef'sworkwiththerhetoricof Afrikanernationalists,andplayedtomythicalrenderingsoftheSouthAfricaninterior asanemptylandfoundandconqueredduringtheGreatTrek.Thelackofpeoplein Pierneef'scompositionshascontinuedtoconditionthediscussionofhisworklongafter theartist'sdeathin1957;formany,theomissionofpeopleinthelandscapescenes speaksofwhitecolonialeortstoridthelandofblackSouthAfricansandmakethe landscapeatabularasaforAfrikaneroriginmyths.Forexample,famedartistWilliam KentridgewritesofPierneef'slandscapes:Thelandscapeisarrangedintoavisionof purenature,majesticprimalforcesofrockandsky.Akloofandescarpment,atreeis celebrated.Aparticularfactisisolatedandallideaofprocessorhistoryisabandoned. Thesepaintings,oflandscapeinastateofgrace,aredocumentsofdisremembering. 98 Yet,somearthistoriansbelievethatapost-colonialreadingofJ.H.Pierneef'swork,while fair,omitsacriticalelementofcontext:hisreligiousandphilosophicalbeliefs.Deeply 96.Leeb-duToit,LandandLandlessness:RevisitingtheSouthAfricanLandscape. 97.Ibid.,181. 98.WilliamKentridge, WilliamKentridge London:Phaidon,1999,109. 205

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inuencedbythesymbolistmovementandtheworkofEuropeanartistssuchasPiet Mondrian,Pierneefperceivedalatentspiritualityinnatureandhadgreatreverencefor thenaturalenvironment.LikeMondrian,J.H.Pierneeffoundinspirationinthetheosophy heencounteredinEuropeandarestorativeviewofnature. 99 Leeb-duToitarguesthat Pierneefsoughttoentwinehumanityandnatureandtranscribedtheseideasbyrendering theinnerlogicofnaturethroughgeometricmonumentality. 100 NicCoetzeeargues that,forexample,Pierneef'suseoftreesintheStationPanelseriesreferencehisview ofartasaspiritualactivity.Thetree,forPierneef,actedasametaphorforart:the treecanbeseenasanencapsulationofnature,symbolicallyspanningmanygenerations. Likeanartthatremainsrepresentationalbutostensiblysignifyingintangible,universal ideas,treesarerootedinthepastbutreachintothefuture:anchoredintheearththey extendtoheaven. 101 ArthistoriansElizabethDelmontandJessicaDubowdescribethe formofPierneef'spaintingsasarepresentationofhisreligiousbeliefs:ThedeepVperspectivesofPierneef'slandscapes,thesimplicationofform,thestarkmonumentality suggestingacomprehensibleorder,aretheverymeansandmetaphorofaCalvanist fundamentalism...thelandscapeisonewhich,inherentlymeaningfulisalreadyand alwayspreparedforsettlement. 102 NicCoetzeefurtherreadsintothereligiouscontextof Pierneef'sworkandsuggeststhatthelandscaperepresentedasacredrealmfortheartist, oneinwhichnaturalelementssuchastreesrepresentedthecosmosandthetransience ofearthlylife.HearguesthatPierneef'spracticerepresentedadesiretostructurethe 99.Leeb-duToit,LandandLandlessness:RevisitingtheSouthAfricanLandscape,185. 100.Ibid.,181. 101.Coetzee, Pierneef,land,andlandscape:theJohannesburgStationpanelsincontext ,21. 102.ElizabethDelmontandJessicaDubow,ThinkingthroughLandscape:ColonialSpacesandtheir Legacies,in Panoramasofpassage:changinglandscapesofSouthAfrica. Ed.ElizabethDelmontand JessicaDubowJohannesburg:UniversityoftheWitwatersrandArtGalleries,1995,15. 206

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landscape,torendernatureintoculture,physicalityintospirituality,thewildernessinto inwardness. 103 AnexpandedreadingofPierneef'slandscapesopensupaspectsofhispaintingsto newanalyses,andraisesotherquestionsabouthiswork,suchas:whyhavehislandscapes, inspiteoftheirproblematicassociationsandperiodstyle,continuedtoengageandinspire boththeviewingpublicandnewSouthAfricanartistslikeMoniquePelser?ThePierneef panelsarecurrentlyinstalledintheRupertMuseum,aprivateinstitutioninStellenbosch thatholdsadiversecollectionofcontemporarySouthAfricanartworks.Thepanels,owned bytheTransnetFoundation,arepermanentlyinstalledinaspecialgallerywithinthe museum.Theworksarefairlyuniforminsize;mostarefourandahalffeetinheightand roughlythesamewidth.Originallycreatedforrecessesabovetheterminal,thethirty-two panelseachtintoapredeterminedniche.Darkstoneoors,highceilings,andecho-lled acousticsintheRupertMuseumallowtheviewertoimaginewhatitwouldhavebeen liketoseethepanelsinParkStation,onecolorfulworkaftertheothercreatingwindows ontodestinationsahead.Walkingamongtheminthegallery,itisdicultnottobe movedinsomewaybytheirdramaticviews,simpliedforms,andbrightpalettes.The maturestylethatuniesthedisparatesubjectsalsoforegroundsPierneeffabricationsand embellishments,yetitisdicultnottofeelcompelledtondandexperiencetheseplaces thatyouknowdonotexist. PhotographerMoniquePelservisitedtheexhibitionin2006anddescribesherinitial encounterswithPierneef'sworkinrevealingterms.ForPelser,theworksconjured ...therealmofphantasmagoria.Afterspendinghoursinthegallery,immersedin theseisolatedpicturesofindustry,miningandseasidevillages, 104 shelefttheexhibition 103.Coetzee, Pierneef,land,andlandscape:theJohannesburgStationpanelsincontext ,15. 104.MoniquePelser,ArtistStatement,in OnsLand/OurLand:TheJohannesburgStationPanelsRevisited ,ed.MoniquePelserandCarlBeckerBloemfontein:OlweinhuisArtMuseum,2013,12. 207

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intentonndingtheoriginalsites,ironicallyfulllinginsomewaythepurposeforwhich the1929commissionwasintended.IamveryinterestedinhowtheJohannesburg StationPanelswerecommissioned...astraveladstopromoterailtravelandthenbecame seminalhistoricalpaintings,shewrites,reectingonherdecisiontoretracethePierneef commission.IamalsointerestedinhowthelandaectedPierneefasheobserveditand movedthroughthecountryexposedtomanypeopleandmanyotherincidentalplaces. 105 In2007,shebegan. MoniquePelserisaSouthAfricanwhowasborninJune1976inJohannesburg, shortlyaftertheoutbreakoftheSowetoriots.Herfatherworkedasapoliceocerand leftthesceneoftheriotstoattendhisdaughter'sbirth.Pelserstudiedphotographyat theMarketPhotographyWorkshopinJohannesburgbeforecompletingbothherBFAand MFAdegreeatRhodesUniversityinGrahamstown,EasternCape,farfromthebustling metropolisontheRand.Pelserspenteightyearsworkingasamediaphotographerbefore enteringuniversity,andtheseeightyearsoverlappedwithaseriesofdramaticchangesin SouthAfricaandwithinPhotography.WhenPelserstartedtoworkinphotojournalism, themediaenvironmentwasverystruggleorientated;theBang-BangClub, 106 thatwas whoyouwantedtobe.WhenPelserleftin1996,shesawhowherpeersstruggled:when theSouthAfricanartworldshiftedandwentintoamoreconceptual,moreaesthetic space.Intheworldofartphotography,thedigitalrevolutionwasjustbeginning,and duringhertimeatRhodes,Pelserfelttheimpactsofthisrapidlydevelopingtechnology. TheshiftsthattookplaceoverherearlycareerintheartworldandinSouthAfrica 105.Pelser,ArtistStatement,13. 106.ThenameBang-BangclubreferstoagroupoffourSouthAfricanjournalistswhophotographed eventsthattookplaceinJohannesburgtownshipsbetween1990and1994.Thistumultuousperiodsawa largenumberofviolentprotests,ghting,andotherdisruptionsinresponsetoconictsbetweenAfrican NationalCongressandInkathaFreedomPartysupporters.ForadiscussionoftheBang-bangcluband theirworkdocumentingthisperiodinthemovementtoendapartheid,see:MarinovichandSilva, The Bang-bangclub . 208

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morebroadlyleftPelserandothersofherpeersinatransitionalspace:Iamahand colorprocesser,Icomefromthestrugglebackground,withexperienceinphotojournalism...suddenlywehadtousetheseshittydigitalcameras...andworkconceptuallyabout understandingmetaphor.Itwasthewildestshift;itwaslikethecountryitwascrazy change. 107 AsagraduatestudentPelserstudiedunderBrentMeistreandexploredtheperformanceofidentityinherseriesroles,aprojectthatwouldinformherworkwith Pierneef'spaintings.FollowingaprojectbyGermanphotographer,AugustSander, Pelsersoughttophotographarepresentativesampleofhernationalcommunitythrough archetypes:thebuilder,themechanic,thepetrolattendant,thenurse,theairlinesteward, thesuburbansecurityguard. 108 Foreachsubjectshemadetwoportraits:oneofthe personintheirworkenvironment,andanotherofherselfwearingtheirclothes. 109 Though thePierneefprojectwasherrstforayintolandscapephotography,sheapproachedthe projectasshedidherroleportraits:shetriedtoassumePierneef'sviewofthelandscape, andreplacehisgazewithhers. 110 IfeltIwashavingaconversationwithhim,shenotes, insertingmyselfintohisworkinaperformativeway. 111 LikeScholtzandBezuidenhout,Pelserwasbroadlydrawntolandscapeasasubject andseesinthegenreapotentialtodevelopanddirectherviewsasanartist.Theword landscapeindicatestherepresentationoflandandisthereforeessentiallyaconstructed 107.MoniquePelser, Interviewwithauthor ,June17,2015. 108.MoniquePelser, Aboutthework ,Artistwebsite,2006,accessedDecember1,2015, http://www. moniquepelser.com/roles.htm#about . 109.Sincecompletinguniversity,Pelserhasexpandedherareasofinquiryandherpracticetoinclude curatorialprojectsaimedathighlightingtheworkofemergingAfricanphotographers.ShereceivedaTierneyFellowshipandascholarshiptothePhotoGlobalprograminNewYork,accoladesthatsupportedher growthasanartistanddistinguishesheramongatransitionalgenerationofpost-apartheidphotographers. 110.Pelser, Interviewwithauthor . 111.Ibid. 209

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view,shewrites;engaginginthelandscapethusbecomesanintellectualactivity.This excitesmeandsoIhavebeenmovingthroughourlandlookingandseekingouttheSouth Africanlandscape. 112 Likeherartisticpeers,Pelser'sprojecttransformedlandscapes intoforumsinwhichshecouldaskquestions,shiftmeanings,andsortthroughher inuencessuchthatshemightcomeoutontheothersidewithsomeinsightintoherself andhowtoseemoreclearlyasaSouthAfricanartistinapost-apartheidenvironment. ReplicatingPierneef'sjourneyandrepresentingthesites,shewrites,asfemaleobserver, fromthefuture...isonlythestartofalongjourneynegotiatingacomplexhistory. 113 Shecharacterizesherprojectasanexchangebetweenherandaforefatherandnotes, It'saboutaveryspecicconversationwithaforefather,saying,youknowIamhere now.We'reherenow.Thingshavechanged.Thingsaredierent.Wehaveadierent conversation. Sucharevisionisttaskrunscountertotheimperialistdesireassociatedwith Pierneef'scommissionandinsteadisreectiveofawishtobuilddierentnarratives, tocomplicatetheprocessthroughwhichtheideaoflandhasemerged,andtorecognize thatthelandscapeartistisnot,infact,asingleentityconversingandengagingasingular entitythatislandbutisratherengagingaplace,history,andthemselvesinrelation tothosecontextsinvisualconversation.Ithinkthephotographsarethetracesof[my] journey;that'swhyIcalledit'OnsLand,Ourland,'asopposedto'theJohannesburg StationPanelsRevisited.' 114 Aswithherpeers,BezuidenhoutandScholtz,Pelser'smotivationstoengagewith theSouthAfricanlandscapewerenotactivist,butnorweretheypurelyartisticorfor thesakeofartisticproductioninandofitself.Formetheprojectwasaboutchange,I 112.Pelser,ArtistStatement. 113.Ibid. 114.Pelser, Interviewwithauthor . 210

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didn'tgointolandscapetobepolitical,Pelsersays.Iwentintothelandscapetogoand lookatitandseehowthingshavechangedinthelandsincesomuchoftheconceptual understandingofSouthAfricashiftedfromthemid1980stothe2000s. 115 Exploring thelandscapethroughthelensofPierneef'spaintingscreatedaframeworkandaseriesof xedpointsthroughwhichtoreectonthetransformationofspacesinSouthAfricasince 1994andconsiderhowtherepresentationoflandscapehaschangedasaresult. Tobecertain,PelserisnotnavetotheimplicationsofPierneef'sexclusionsofpeople inhiscompositionsorhissupportforAfrikanerpoliticalcauses,norwassheunaware ofthedisputedgroundrepresentedintheiconicpainter'swork.Evenassherecognizes howandwhyPierneef'sworkservedpropagandisticrhetoric,Pelsersawanotherside tothelandscapeworks:asilencebornnotofmutenessorincommunicability,butof aweandreverence. 116 PelserviewedPierneefasapointofdeparturefromwhichto establishherownviewsbutnotagurethatsheneededtochallengeorotherwisecounter: ...peopledidn'tgetwhatIwasdoingatall.Theyask:whywouldIdothisifitisn't deeplypolitical?SomepeopletookPierneefsanddidpaintbynumbers,andthatwaslike, yousee,theyaresayingsomething,andminewasalotmoresubtle.Everyonewantedme tosetoutforblood.AndIdidn'tseethepoint.I'llgoforbloodforsomethings,butnot forthat. 117 Pelserusedapre-determinedframeworktoreexaminethePierneefworks,buther investigationgoesbeyondasimplebefore-afterorpre-postcomparisonoftheStation Panels.PelserfeltthatthetaskofengagingPierneefwasapersonalchallenge,andthe projectrepresentedawaytoexperiencetheSouthAfricanlandscapeinamannerthat wouldrevealtoheramoremultivalentanddiscursivepathtoengagethelandasitexists 115.Pelser, Interviewwithauthor . 116.DelmontandDubow,ThinkingthroughLandscape:ColonialSpacesandtheirLegacies,16. 117.Pelser, Interviewwithauthor . 211

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inherimaginationorintheworkofherartisticpredecessors,documentaryphotographers. RevisitingthePierneefsitesandengagingtheattendantderidedandacclaimedaspectsof hisworkmightleaveherontheothersidewithasenseofwhatsheseesherself.Gerhard Schoemanobserves,torevisitmeanstoreturnandtohauntthatwhichhauntsyou:a photographofapainting,apaintingofaphotograph,apaintingofapainting,apicturein anewspaper,animaginaryorrealletter...toparaphraseDerrida:wefollowtheghostthat followsus. 118 PelserwasnottheonlyartisttovisitthePierneefexhibitandleavedeterminedto addresstheseriesintheirownwork.SouthAfricanpainter,CarlBecker,viewedthe panelsinMarch2007andfelttheyoeredanallureandreprisefromhislifeandwork inJohannesburg:Istoodbeforethosebigpaintingswiththeirmonumentalformsand subduedhuesandrealizedherewasthestasisIcraved.Iwantedtobeinthem. 119 Hecontinues:Iknew,ofcourse,thatPierneef'sworkwascontestedterrain...Andyet Pierneefwasinmyblood.Twoofhiswoodcutshunginmyaunt'sfarmhouseoutside PretoriaweresomeofrstoriginallandscapesI'dseen.Theirgracefulandsimpliedforms seemedtooerawayofdepictingthelandthatwasbothrealandpossible.Likeitornot, Pierneefisentrenchedinthepsycheofmanyartistsofmygeneration.Hecastsashadow thatdemandswetakehimintoaccountonourwaytobecomingourselves. 120 WhenPelserandBeckerlearnedofeachother'sworkaftereachhadbeguntheir projects,theydecidedtocollaborateandexhibittogether.Fromdierentartisticgenerations,PelserandBeckerlearnedfromeachothers'process,andhoweachartistinterpreted 118.GerhardSchoeman,'Ihavebeenherebefore':MoniquePelser,CarlBeckerandPierneef'sghosts, in OnsLand/OurLand:TheJohannesburgStationPanelsRevisited ,ed.MoniquePelserandCarlBecker Bloemfontein:OlweinhuisArtMuseum,2013,123. 119.CarlBecker,Ahighwayrunsthroughit,in OnsLand/OurLand:TheJohannesburgStationPanels Revisited ,ed.MoniquePelserandCarlBeckerBloemfontein:OlweinhuisArtMuseum,2013,8. 120.Ibid. 212

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thelandscapeandPierneef'sproject. 121 Bothartistswereclearfromthebeginningthat theywerenotsurewhattheywouldndintheprocessoflocatingthetwenty-eightsites. Thetwoartistsrevealtheiruncertaintyintheprocessofdepictingthesites,constantly pulledbetweentheviewstheyknowandperhapswanttoseeandwhattheyencounter insitu.Thistensionismostclearlyexpressedintheirrespectivereectionsontheirtime atthesites,workingbetweenthePierneefviewsandphysicallandscapeinfrontofthem. Pelserwrites:TheutopianviewsIheldinmyhandonaphotocopiedpieceofpaperof whatIsawoverwhelmedmeandjustasIwasmovedbyita4x4wouldyby,pickup dustthatwouldcovermyface,andbringmebackintothe21stcentury.Shecontinues, andreectsIthinkIgrewasaperson,fromthatprojectbecauseIsetouttodosomething.IsetouttotakethoseimagesofPierneef'spaintings.Idrove95,000kmaroundthis countryandjustthatdrivinghadamassiveeectonme.[Theviews]don'tlooklikethey dointhepaintings;thePierneefversionofthesiteisatotalfabrication. 122 ThemodulationbetweentheimaginaryandtheconcreteatworkinPelser'sreectionsndsresonanceinthewritingsofJenniferBeningeld,whoobserves: ...animplicittensionandambiguitybetween[the]twoimagesof[landand landscape],anoscillationandcontaminationbetweenthecomfortand`renewal' ofpersonalandnationalidentitythatthelandcanoerthroughclosesensory experienceandthedistancefromthelandscapethatisapreconditionofits meaningasasiteinwhichcultureandpoliticsareembedded. 123 Benningeld'ssentimentspeakstotheexperiencePelserhadinherPierneefproject.I thinkIwasopentogoingandseeingplacesinSouthAfricathatIhadneverbeen,Pelser 121.Asapainter,Becker,seesinPierneef'sworkaresonancebetweenhisobjectiveandhistechnique: Hisworkcontainsmanyctions.Withinasingleimage,heoftencombineddierentperspectivesand dierenttimesofday,butoneacceptsthathewasattemptingtotellalargertruthaboutthenirvana thatlaybeforehiminthe1930s.See:CarlBecker, About ,Artistsblog,accessedDecember18,2015, https://carlbecker.wordpress.com/about/ . 122.Pelser, Interviewwithauthor . 123.Beningeld, TheFrightenedLand:Land,landscapeandpoliticsinSouthAfricainthetwentiethcentury ,2. 213

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reects,AndthenIwent,andeverythingchangedwhenIgotthere. 124 ForPelser,the moredeeplyshedelvedintoherjourneyintoPierneef'slandscapes,themoredistanced shefeltfromthepopularassociationswiththe"StationPanels."Inthehistoryofart [thePierneefs]becameveryproblematicandverypolitical,andinmyexperienceand throughmyresearchIdon'tthinkthat'sthecase.Ithinkthattheycouldstandinfor problematicpoliticalpaintingsforanerathatwasdeeplyproblematic. 125 Aftermonths replicatingPierneef'sjourneyandvisitingthelocationsinhispaintings,Pelserbeganto seethe"StationPanels"asartisticinterpretationsofspaces.Asaresultofherstudy, Pelserseemedtolocategreaterattentiontotherepresentationoflandthroughlightand formthanthroughaparticularpoliticallens. PelserwasdrawntoPierneef'sclosestudiesoflightinandonthelandscapeand pleinairsketchprocess.Inresponse,Pelserdevelopedamodeofpleinair'photographic renderingwhereinshephotographedsiteswithmultiplecameras,creatingexposuresevery veminutes.Thisprocessallowedhertoimitatethepleinairpaintersthroughaprocess ofphotographicallymappingthelightasitshiftsandchangesthequalityofascene. 126 Shedisplayedhercollectionofimagesonsetsofthreedigitalpictureframes.Theimages onthedigitalframesslowlyadvanceoveraperiodofsevenminutesthroughthe11hoursPelserphotographed.Irealizedhewasaplainairpaintercollectinginformation andputtingitaltogethersotheywereessentiallycompositeimagesandsoIusedmore cameras. 127 Thetime-lapseimageswerepartofhernalseries,whichalsoconsistedofsingle photographsofthesites.Thechangeswithinthetime-lapseimagesaresubtle:treessway, 124.Pelser, Interviewwithauthor . 125.Ibid. 126.Pelser,ArtistStatement. 127.Pelser, Interviewwithauthor . 214

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Figure4-16.MoniquePelser, PremierMine,Cullian ,2009,triptychexhibitedasshifting timelapsesondigitalphotoframes,16x25cm. tracpasses,skiesdarken,butforPelser,thesmallshiftsoflightextendintoabroader metaphoricalreadingofthetransformationoftheSouthAfricanlandscape.According toPelser,thetime-lapsephotographsmostcloselyachievehergoalsfortheseries;the photographsliterallyincorporatetime,process,andshowchangeintheSouthAfrican landscapesitesviewedbyherselfandPierneef.Indeed,theanimateddisplaycallson viewerstolookclosely,toobserveascenethatissimultaneouslystatic,yetalteredand enlivenedbythepassingofpeople,thesoftmodulationofthelight,andtheconstant ebbingoftime.Pelser'sphotosketchremindsusthatmomentscannotbepermanently preserved,thatthereisnostasisineventhemosticonicviewsoftheland,andthat carefulattentiontochangeandlifeonthelandscapeisrewardedwithalandscapethat speaksbacktotheviewerinsteadofonethatjustholdsourgaze.Isawthattimelapse wasthewasthemodeinwhichtocommunicatehowimpossibleitistocommunicate changethroughthatlandscape,shenotes,soitwasatechnicalmodewhichquite literallyspeaksoftime,andtimepassingandthingschanging.Themostextraordinary thingformewaswatchinghowthelightmovesandhoweverythingchangesaslightshifts acrossthelandscape. 128 ThetriptychPremierMine,CullianFig.4-16,herinterpretationofoneof Pierneef'siconicimagesofindustry,exempliestheconnectionbetweenhermethods 128.Pelser,ArtistStatement. 215

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andprocessofengagingthelandscapethroughthePierneefproject.Thethreeframes displayacross-sectionoftheopen-pit.Theleftframeshowsaclose-upviewofthevegetationgrowingonthelipofpitedge.Themiddleandrightframespullbackandreveal abroaderviewoftheexcavationsite.Pelserdoesnotshowthebaseofthemine,andinsteadfocuseshercompositionaroundtheemptyspacebelowthehorizonline.Asthethree digitalpictureframesscrollthroughstillimagestakenoverthedaytheviewerwatchesthe sunlightpassacrosstheskyandangleintothepit.Dustcatcheslightandsparklesagainst thevacuousopening;thesuntracestheoutlineofthemineandrevealsthecontoursofthe opening.Pelserhasnotedthatduringherprojectshebecameacutelyawareofhow,over agiventimeframe,thelightchangedasite.Ibeganconsideringhowthischangecouldbe extendedintoametaphoricalreadingofthetransformationofourland.... 129 Thetimelapsephotosketchimagesdepartfromtheinsitusingleimagesshe producedofthesamesites.ImagessuchasTableMountain,CapeTown,Fig.4-17, photographedinmediumformat,predictablyportrayamorecomprehensiveperspective thanthePierneefimagery.Theframesareuniformlypulledback,thelightingprimarily subduedandlow-contrast,landscapefeaturesaregivenequalprioritytothebuiltenvironment.Overall,thestillimagesarecold,andfeelanappropriatecountertotheembellished Pierneefs.Yet,asdiscussedearlier,PelseridentiedhertaskinengagingthePierneef panelsmorebroadlythanasaresponsetotheproblemsofhisseriesoreorttosubvert hisviewoftheland,ataskthatshedrawsclosertoinhertime-laspephotosketches.I feltthatthemediumformatshotswerealmostlikeresearchworkforme,shesays[they were]likeathenandanowandthetimelapsesshiftedtheprojectmoreintomoreofan explorationthanametaphorical,poeticexperienceoftheland. 130 129.Pelser,ArtistStatement. 130.Pelser, Interviewwithauthor . 216

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Figure4-17.MoniquePelser, TableMountain,CapeTown ,2010,archivalpigmentprint, 40x40cm. PelserproducedonevideoaspartofherPierneefprojectentitled Railroad ,Fig.418,whichwasaresponsetothesiteofPierneef'soriginalcommissionintheJohannesburgRailwayStation.Viewedintandemwiththephotographs[thevideo]furtherframes theseriesasajourneythroughthelandscapetemperedwithurgencyandconfusion.The three-minutevideofollowsatraintrackasitwindsforwardthroughawoodedlandscape. Pelsercreatedtheworkincollaborationwithamusician,whoperformsaspokenword poemurgentlyinAfrikaanssetagainstarhythmicinstrumentalbeat.Thevideopushes theviewerforwardintothescenethrougharhythmicpathoftracklaidoutinanondescriptlandscape.Viewerscannotseewherethetrackleads,nordotheyviewwhatis 217

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Figure4-18.MoniquePelser, Railroad :03,2013,digitalvideoprojection. pushingthemalongthetrack.Thecadenceofthewordsandmusicpulserapidlyagainst theleofrailwaytiesandmaketheviewerfeelasthoughherpaththroughthelandscape isrestrictedandthatsheisbeingmovedwithouthercontrol. Thischapterhaslookedattheworkofthreephotographersthatarerepresentative ofagenerationofacademically-trainedartistswhocameofageduringthetransition todemocracyinSouthAfrica.VincentBezuidenhout,RenzskeScholtz,andMonique Pelserwereeachtrainedbyandwithsocialdocumentaryartistswhoactivelyused theircraftinsupportofactivistcauses,suchastheanti-apartheidmovement.Allthree photographershavebeendeeplyinuencedbytheburgeoningreachoftheglobalart marketinthecontinent,aswellasthegrowthofandmovetowardsconceptualworkin SouthAfricabyprofessionalartists.Caughtbetweenpotentiallycompetinginuences andconceptionsoftheroleoftheartist,Bezuidenhout,Scholtz,andPelser,uselandscape imagestoexperimentwithhowtheysee,whytheylook,andwhattheywouldliketo 218

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saythroughtheirwork.ElizabethDelmontandJessicaDubowobservethattheSouth Africanlandscapewillalwaysbeapalimpsest:agroundofoverlappinghistoriesand identities,asiteofaccruedmeaningsandentwinedexperiencessomeofwhichrecedeand otherswhicharebroughtintosharperfocus.Eachofthelandscapeseriesdiscussedin thischapterestablishedaspaceinwhichthethreeartistscouldnotonlyexploreanddraw attentiontothelegaciesofapartheidandcolonialisminSouthAfrica,butalsowherethey twithinadiversiedphotographicenvironmentthatincludesbothsocialdocumentary andconceptual,aesthetically-drivenprojects. 219

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CHAPTER5 THESACREDLANDSCAPE:RELIGION,NATURE,ANDTHEREPRESENTATION OFLANDINCONTEMPORARYSOUTHAFRICANPHOTOGRAPHY 5.1Introduction Land-basedimageryhasbecomeincreasinglypronouncedintheworkofemerging andestablishedphotographersinSouthAfricasincetheendofApartheidin1994.Graduatesofpublicworkshopanduniversityartprograms,aswellasestablishedartistsuse landscapephotographytoexamineadiversityoftopics:visuallegaciesofapartheidinthe landscape,landuseinSouthAfrica,andaestheticsoftheurbanandruralenvironment. TheadventofdemocraticruleinSouthAfricabroughtdramaticsocialandpolitical transformationsandmotivatedcontemporarySouthAfricanphotographerstoexaminethe psychicroleofthenaturalenvironmentinformingnationalandpersonalidentity. Landscapephotographspresentapersonalviewofanenvironmentmediatedby social,political,andculturalcontexts.Sri-KartiniLeetarguesthatlandscapesaremade fromapolitical,socialandapersonalorganizationofspace,where`landscape'isnot onlyaphysicalsitebutapsychologicalspaceshapedbyindividualconsciousness. 1 Leetemphasizestheimportanceoftheindividualperspectiveinshapingthelandscape image,aviewechoedbyLizWells,whoarguesthatindividualperceptionsofthereal,the imaginary,thesymbolic,memoryandexperienceformacomplextapestryattheheartof ourresponsetoourenvironment,and,byextension,tolandscapeimagery. 2 TheendofapartheidpromptedmanySouthAfricansartiststoreconsidertheirrelationshiptoaplacethatwasswiftlytransformedintoanew,inclusivenation.Transition todemocraticrulenecessitatedbehavioralshiftsforallSouthAfricans,whosepatternsof 1.Sri-KartiniLeet,Landscape,in Readingphotography:Asourcebookofcriticaltexts,19212000 , ed.Sri-KartiniLeetFarnham:LundHumphries,2011,265. 2.LizWells, Landmatters:Landscapephotography,cultureandidentity London:I.B.Tauris,2011,2. 220

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movement,socialinteractions,andengagementwiththelandscapehadpreviouslybeen dictatedbyapartheid. Landscapesassumedparticularimportanceinthepost-apartheidSouthAfricaasa strategytoorganizeviewsofachangingland.JenniferBeningeldwrites,Landscapein SouthAfricaemergesasawayofseeing,understanding,claiming,narrating,representing andremakinglandthatisstillevolving.Shecontinues,Itformspartofthecontemporarystrugglewiththetransformationandreconceptualizationofaplaceandaseriesof imageswhicharesimultaneouslyproductsofpastpracticesandhistoriesandthematerialwhichisbeingnegotiatedintheimaginationandmakingofanalteredlandscape. 3 Landscapescreatedaforumforartiststoremakepasthistoriesintoafoundationforthe present. TwoprominentSouthAfricanartistsphotographerDavidGoldblattandmixedmediaartistWilliamKentridgedevelopedsystematicapproachestoreorientthemselves inthepost-apartheidlandscape.EachartistsoughttoalterthewayhesawSouth Africabydesigningarule-basedprojectthatcouldsupersedehabitualmodesoflooking attheland.DavidGoldblattidentiedspecicintersectionsonamapofSouthAfrica andresolvedtoonlyphotographwithinthosepreselectedareas, 4 whileWilliamKentridge journeyedoutfromJohannesburgandstoppedtodrawatarbitraryincrementsofhis odometer.Theirrespectiveprojectsgrewfromapersonal,reectiveprocess.Bothartists 3.Beningeld, TheFrightenedLand:Land,landscapeandpoliticsinSouthAfricainthetwentiethcentury ,11. 4.TheIntersectionsprojectwasDavidGoldblatt'srstpersonalprojectincolor.Hesetouttophotographatarbitrarylocationspre-determinedbyaformula:allimageswouldbemadewithin500meters ofeachofthe122pointsofintersectionofonedegreeoflatitudeandlongitude.Goldblatt,however,did notusethisapproachafteraninitialphase.Hedecidedtopursuetheideaofintersectionsinalessliteral manner.Overaperiodofnineyears,hetraveledthecountryandfocusedonmoreabstractintersections: meetingsofideas,histories,andvaluesinSouthAfrica.Theprojectresultedinthepublicationofhis monograph:DavidGoldblatt, DavidGoldblatt:SouthAfricanintersections Munich:Prestel,2005;For discussionoftheproject,See:EmmaBedfordandSophiePerryer, 10years100artists:ArtinademocraticSouthAfrica CapeTown,SouthAfrica:Bell-Roberts,2004. 221

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recognizedthatthepost-apartheidlandscapecouldnotaccommodateoldwaysofseeing andtheyneededtorespond. Inadditiontoformal,systematicprojects,photographerssuchasSantuMofokeng gravitatedtowardslandscapeimagerytoassertacriticalposition. 5 Mofokengwasdrawn tolandscapesasawaytopsychicallyrecoupthelandinthenewdispensation.Hewrites thatidentityisimplicatedinthelandscape,seeingthatwheneverItraveltheworldmy identityisdesignatedSouthAfrican...Theseareissuesthatpartlyexplainmylandscape project:reclaimingthelandformyself.Andsince1994,intheoryatleast,Iamfree totraveleverywherewithintherepublic. 6 ForMofokeng,landscapesoerawayto consideroneselfinrelationtoabroadersystem,andhisimagesallowhimtolookatthe interfaceoftheinnerandouterinterior/exteriorworlds,wheretheobjective/subjective environmentinform/determinetheexperienceofbeingatagiventimeandspace. 7 Toreexamineoneselfinrelationtotheenvironmentthroughlandscapephotographsis complex;itinvokesstrategicuseofatypicalmetaphorsandanalysisforwhichtraditional approachestothelandscapephotographsareinsucient.Theprocessthroughwhich artistslikeGoldblatt,Kentridge,andMofokengengagelandscapesaredeeplypersonal andinvolveaquestioningandrelatingoftheselftoalarger,abstractentitylandthat departsfromaformalstudyofaplacethroughcomposition,color,andlight. 5.Intheyearssincetheendofapartheid,SantuMofokenghascompletedanumberoflandscape projects,includingChasingShadows,aseriesthatinvestigatesspirituallysignicantlandscapesinSouth Africa;andLet'sTalk,acollectionofimagesmadeinresponsetoissuesrelatedtoclimatechange.For adiscussionofSantuMofokeng,andhisworkrelatedtolandscapesee:Hayes,SantuMofokeng,Photographs:'TheViolenceisintheKnowing';PatriciaHayes,PoisonedLandscapes,in ChasingShadows -SantuMofokeng30YearsofPhotographicEssays Munich:Prestel,2011,203;Wienand,Santu Mofokeng:AlternativeWaysofSeeing2013;andMilbourne,AfricanPhotographersandthe LookofUnSustainabilityintheAfricanLandscape. 6.SantuMofokeng, Santu'sLandscapes ,July18,2008,accessedDecember2,2015, http:// cargocollective.com/santumofokeng/lter/work/landscapes . 7.Ibid. 222

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Inlieuofconventionalanalyticalapproaches,Idrawfromtheeldsofbiology, religion,andnaturestudies,whichoermeanstoanalyzeandcontextualizethepersonal dimensionsofthelandscapeimage.TheseconceptsincludeE.O.Wilson'sBiophilia hypothesis,whichpositsthathumanshaveabiologically-encodedtendencytoconnect withanddrawexamplefromthenaturalworld.Thishypothesisoersinsightintowhy individualsusenaturalelementsandsystemsasmaterialforcomparativeanalogies. 8 TheWildernessidea,considershowandwhyindividualsattachvaluetorepresentations ofnatureapartfromhumans. 9 DarkGreenReligionprovidesimportantcontexttothe reasonsandmethodswithwhichlandscapephotographersselectandinterprettheir subjects. 10 Furthermore,AldoLeopold'sconceptionofaLandAesthetichelpsinterpret theworkofartistswhomovebeyondtraditional,pictorialconventionsoflandscapes. Thestudyofreligionandnatureexaminesrelationshipsbetweenpeopleandenvironments,suchashowhumansusenaturetoformulateideasofthesacredordeneethical living.Morespecically,frameworksfromtheeldofreligionandnaturestudiesallow researcherstoteaseaparttheprocessthroughwhichphotographersconceiveandposition themselvesinrelationtothelandaspartofalargereorttotransformthewayalandscapeisseenandviewed:whetherasanentitydividedandbelongingtofew,orasthe basisofaninterdependentcommunity. Inthischapterthetermsreligion,sacred,andspiritualityinformmyanalysesof photographswhodepictthenaturalworldintheirimages.Iconsiderwayslandscape photographyalignswithareligiouspracticethroughafocusonritualandbehaviorsthat 8.Wilson, Biophilia . 9.See:MaxOelschlaeger, TheIdeaofWilderness:fromPrehistorytotheageofEcology NewHaven: YaleUniversityPress,1991;WilliamCronon,Thetroublewithwilderness:Or,gettingbacktothewrong nature, EnvironmentalHistory 1,no.1:7;andJ.BairdCallicottandMichaelP.Nelson, The GreatNewWildernessDebate Athens:UniversityofGeorgiaPress,1998. 10.Taylor, DarkGreenReligion:NatureSpiritualityandtheplanetaryfuture . 223

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connectthephotographertowhatCliordGeertzdescribesasa"generalorderofexistence"innature. 11 Inthisway,Iassociatelandscapephotographerswiththoseadhering toatypeofreligiousnaturalism,atermusedtodescribethosewhondorientationand meaningwithinthenaturalworld. 12 Moreover,Iidentifythepresentationofanimals andlandscapesinthephotographsunderdiscussionasdelineationofthesacredforthe artists.EmileDurkheimdescribesthesacredasauidentitythatissetapartfromthe profanethroughasocialact. 13 Throughitsroleoppositetheprofane,thesacredinspires asenseofthenuminous:afeelingofawe,asenseofsomethingoutsideofandgreaterthan theindividual.FormanySouthAfricanphotographerslandscapeimagesprovideaway toaccessandexperienceenvironmentsasnuminous.Further,PaulFaulstichdescribesa sacredspaceasa"chargedmeetinggroundbetweenpersonandtheother,"adescription thathasrelevancetoaconceptionofthelandscapephotographasanencounterbetween individualandenvironment. 14 Denitionsofspirituality,BrianZinnabauerandKenneth Pargamentnote,dieramongscholarsbetween"asubjectiveexperienceofthesacred"to the"realmofhumanpotentialdealingwithultimatepurposes." 15 Similarly,MacDonald etal.addresssuchvariationsandsuggestthat"themostecientandstraightforwardway 11.CliordGeertz, TheInterpretationofCultures:Selectedessays ,vol.5019Basicbooks,1973,98. 12.ForadiscussionofReligiousNaturalism,see:UrsulaGoodenough,EncyclopediaofReligionand Nature,chap.ReligiousNaturalism,ed.BronCon,2008,1371;Inthisentry,Goodenoughnotesthat "ReligiousNaturalismisbestthoughtofasagenerictermformindfulreligiousapproachestoourunderstandingofthenaturalworld.Assuchitdoesnotrepresentadetailedsystemofreligiousbeliefs.See: Goodenough,EncyclopediaofReligionandNature,1372. 13.EmileDurkheim, Theelementaryformsofthereligiouslife Routledge,1976. 14.PaulFaulstich,EncyclopediaofReligionandNatureVol.II,chap.SacredSpace/Place,ed.Bron TaylorContinuum,2008,1463. 15.BrianJZinnbaueretal.,Religionandspirituality:Unfuzzyingthefuzzy, Journalforthescientic studyofreligion ,1997,550. 224

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ofconstruingspiritualityistodeneitasthataspectofhumanfunctioning,experience, andexistencewhichconcernsthetranscendent." 16 Thischapterusestheseconceptsandmethodologiestoexaminetheworkoftwo photographers,DanielNaudeandBrentMeistre,whouselandscapephotographyto explorepersonalconnectionstolandinapost-apartheidcontext.AdiscussionofDaniel Naude'sAfricanisseriesanditsexpansionintohis2014SightingsoftheSacredthrough thelensesofBiophiliaandDarkGreenReligionilluminatesthewaysinwhichNaude usesanimalportraitsasexamplesofandmetaphorsforcommunity,heritageandnational identityinSouthAfrica.ExaminationofBrentMeistre'sSojournprojectinrelation totheWildernessideaandAldoLeopold'sLandAestheticrevealthecomplexities atworkinhisminimalisticlandscapeseries.Takentogether,thisanalysiswillshow thatframeworksfromtheseoutsidedisciplineshavegreatrelevancefordiscussionsof contemporarySouthAfricanlandscapeimages.Itwillhighlighttheutilityofthese particulartheoreticallensestodrawattentiontothemechanismsthroughwhichmany photographersuseimagestopositandprobequestionsofidentityandbelongingwith respecttoenvironmentalandsocialcommunitiesinSouthAfrica. 5.2ConnectingtotheLand:AnimalandEnvironmentalMetaphorsinthe workofDanielNaude DanielNaudeisanAfrikaans-speakingphotographerwhowasbornin1984in Stellenbosch,wherehecontinuestoliveandwork.HeearnedhisBAinVisualArts fromtheUniversityofStellenboschin2007,andhisworkhasbeenwidelyexhibitedin SouthAfricaandabroad,notablyaspartoftheLagosPhotoFestivalandtheBamako EncountersPhotographyFestivalinAfricaandinEuropeatthePhotographer'sGalleryin 16.DouglasAMacDonaldetal.,Spiritualityasascienticconstruct:Testingitsuniversalityacross culturesandlanguages, PloSone 10,no.3:4. 225

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London. 17 NaudehasbeenmentoredandgreatlyinuencedbytheworkoffellowSouth Africans,PieterHugoandDavidGoldblatt.WorkfromDutchphotographer,Rineke Dijkstra,andAmericanphotographers,StephenShoreandRichardAvedonalsogure prominentlyasinuencesforprojectssuchasAfricanisand AnimalFarm . DanielNaude'sAfricanisseriesbeganafterachanceencounterwithanafricanisdog onaroadtripthroughtheKarooinlate2006.Naudestoppedhiscartolookatthedog whohadrunpasthisvehicleandthetwolockedeyes:Itwasacaseofctionmeeting realityandfreedomdenyingcaptivity,hewrites,Thatrstpowerfulmomentofeye contactleftmespeechlessandfullofemotion.Myeyesfollowedtheanimalasittrotted otowardsthehorizon,leavingmebehindastheoutsider. 18 TheAfricanisdogisalandracespecies:avarietyofplantoranimalinitiallydescendedfromdomesticstockthathasbecometheproductofadaptationtoalocal environment. 19 OriginallydomesticatedandbredinancientEgypt,Africanisdogshave sincedevelopedthroughnaturalselectioninnaturalizedpopulations,asopposedtotheselectivebreedingbyhumansthathasdeterminednearlyalldomesticateddogbreeds. 20 Not 17.HisworkhasbeenwidelyexhibitedinSouthAfricaandabroad,notablyaspartoftheLagosPhoto FestivalandtheBamakoEncountersPhotographyFestivalinAfricaandinEuropeatthePhotographer's GalleryinLondon,England;theTennisPalaceArtMuseuminHelsinki,Finland;theBiennaledeLyonin Lyon,France;andattheModenaatForoBoarioinModena,Italy.Naude'sworkhasalsobeenfeaturedas partoftheInFocus:AnimaliaexhibitionintheU.S.attheJ.PaulGettyMuseuminLosAngeles,C.A. HeisrepresentedbyMichaelStevensonGalleryinCapeTown. 18.DanielNaude,Progressionfromarstencounter,in Animalfarm Munich:Prestel,2012,7. 19.Withinthebiologicalsciences,feral,species,andlandraceallhavespecicmeanings.Whileferal individualshavesimplyescapedfromcaptivityandthusarenotgeneticallydierentfromthoseremaining incaptivity,thelandraceissodistancedfromdomesticationthatnaturalselectionhasregainedcontrol. Yetthegeneticlegacyofdomesticationremains,distinguishingthelandracefromthewildpopulationfrom whichdomesticationoriginallyoccurred.ForadiscussionoftheAfricanislandracespeciessee:Sandra SwartandLancevanSittert, Canisafricanis:adoghistoryofSouthAfrica Leiden:Brill,2008;and JohanGallant, ThestoryoftheAfricandog Pietermaritzburg:UniversityofKwaZuluNatalPress,2002. 20.TheAfricanisdogisthoughttohavearrivedinsouthernAfricawithArabtraders,EarlyIronAge Bantu-speakers,andKhoipastoralists.See:RogerM.BlenchandKevinMacDonald, Theoriginsand developmentofAfricanlivestock:archaeology,genetics,linguisticsandethnography London:Routledge, 2011. 226

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Figure5-1.DanielNaude, Africanis21.Richmond,NorthernCape,17April2011 ,2011, 124x124cm,C-Print. unlikelandinSouthAfricaandthosewhodwellonitthegeneticdistinctionbetween trulynaturalpopulationsandthoseprunedbyarticialselectionleavesthelandracein acuriouspositiondenedbybothculturalandnaturalforces.Thepotentialforanalogy betweenSouthAfricanpeopleandtheAfricanisencouragedNaudeinthedevelopmentof hisseries:Thenaturallycrossbred Africanis ,itsancestorsdepictedinthehieroglyphics 227

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oftheEgyptians,seemedtoreectourcultureandidentityinthecomplexSouthAfrican landscapeinapeculiarway. 21 NaudereturnedtotheKarooandsoughtotherAfricanisdogstophotograph.In contrasttothedomesticateddogshegrewuparoundhisfatherhadninedogsatone pointtheAfricaniscapturedhisimagination;hefeltdriventousephotographytoportray thesedogsintheenvironmentsthatbothdenedthemandmadethemwildFig.5-1. ThedogIsawhadnomaster.Therewasnoplanning,nobreeding,nohandonit,Naude reects,yetitknewitspath. 22 TolocatetheferaldogsNaudeembarkedonaseries ofsolosojournsintoremoteareasofthecountry,workingwithoutassistants,extensive lightingequipment,orknowledgeofthelocationofthedogs;hewasnotevensurehe wouldndthem.Andoncelocated,theapproachproveddicultinsomeinstances, Naudespentuptofourhourstryingtogetcloseenoughtophotographthedog:Itry togetcloserwitheaseandnosuddenmovements.Iallowthedogtoacceptmeintohis space.ThenIliedownonthegroundatthesameeyelevelasthedog,asstandingup straighttendstocreateapositionofpower. 23 Naudemademultipletripsintoremote areasforhisproject,whichhedevelopedintoasequenceoflarge-scale,documentary-style portraitsofAfricanisdogsindierentregionsofSouthAfricaFig.5-2. ThelandscapeinthephotographswasnotasecondaryconsiderationforNaude, asitconveysbothcontemporaryandhistoricalcontextforeachdoganditslineage.He speaksfrequentlyoftheimportanceofthelandscapeinshapinghisinterpretationof thedog:BeforeIapproachthedogIobservethelandscapeandmakeadecisionabout 21.Naude,Progressionfromarstencounter,7. 22.Stephen,Janine,AnArtist'slife:DanielNaudeHunterwithaHasselblad, BusinessDay ,March 2009,14. 23.Colberg,Jorg,DanielNaude:Africanis, Foam:internationalphotographymagazine 20,no.Fall :262. 228

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Figure5-2.DanielNaude, Africanis3.Strydenburg,1April2008 ,2008,124x124cm, C-print. whatsceneryIwantinsidetheframetoconveytheenvironment. 24 Thelandscapeserves bothtoindicatethefocaldog'shabitataswellasthenatureoftheenvironmentthat shapedthelandracevariety.Thedogsconnecttoandreecttheidentityofanarea.In theTranskeitheyaremedium-sizedbecauseyouhavebushesandtallgrassandthedog needstomovethroughit...Itrytoshowtheconnectionbetweenwheretheyare,what 24.Colberg,Jorg,DanielNaude:Africanis,262. 229

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Figure5-3.DanielNaude, Africanis8.BarklyEasy,EasternCape,5July2008 ,2008,124 x124cm,C-print. theyareandhowtheyareformed. 25 Imagessuchas Africanis8.BarklyEasy,Eastern Cape,5July2008 Fig.5-3frametheshapeofthedogasanechoofitssurroundings: theslightarchofthedog'sbackmimicsthelitpeakintheveld,andcreatesascaleof brownhuesthatdescendsfromlighttodark;thepatterningofthedog'sfurseemingly reectstheshiftsbetweenshadowedandfrostedgrass.Theshallowdepthofeldcreates clarityaroundthedog'sframe,andthesharpoutlineformedalongthedog'sstomach 25.Stephen,Janine,AnArtist'slife:DanielNaudeHunterwithaHasselblad,14. 230

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andbackrepeatsthesoftundulationofEasternCapehillssetagainstdarksky.In StormapproachingAberdeen.EasternCape,3March2010 Fig.5-4,Naudeemphasizes connectionbetweenhumansandanimalswithinanecosystemthroughafocusonweather, whichisabindingforceamongthoseplants,animals,andpeoplethatliveonandfrom theland.Thephotographshowsastandofcactiinadry,atexpanseofland,witha thicklayerofdarkbluecloudsthattemperthebrightgreenofthedesertforbs.The weather,asanabioticfactor, 26 createscommunityforthosewholiveonandfromthe land.Otherimagesoflandscapesthatshowverdanthills,rainbows,farmland,anddesert plainsareinterspersedbetweenportraitsofanimalstogivecontexttothenotionof interconnectednessNaudeseekstoadvancethroughtheAfricanisdogportraits. Naudeclearlyacknowledgestheprojectionofhisownvaluesanddesiresontothe subjectmatterintheepitaphfor AnimalFarm ,aquotationfromSouthAfricanauthor J.MCoetzee:Ifitisindeedimpossibleorattheveryleastdiculttoinhabitthe consciousnessofananimal,theninwritingaboutanimalsthereisatemptationto projectuponthemfeelingsandthoughtsthatmaybelongonlytoourownhumanmind andheart.Naudeuseshisphotographstorecaptureamomentwhenhewasdisarmed andspokentobyalandanditsnon-humaninhabitant.Heassertsthisexperience contributestoabroaderproject:thereimaginationoftheSouthAfricannationthrough theautopicpresentationoflandandtheAfricanis,bothofwhichexistedandourished longbeforecolonialismandapartheidexertedinuence. 5.2.1TheAfricanisSeriesasReligiousExperience InseveralwaysNaude'sprojectiscongruentwithreligiousexperience.Assuch, examinationoftheseriesthroughthislensoersinsightintothewayshedescribesthe workandthecontexttowhichheapplieshisimages.Onthesimilaritiesbetweenreligious 26.Thetermabioticfactordenotesinanimate,chemicalandphysicalpartsoftheenvironmentthat inuencesoraectsanecosystem.Examplesofabioticfactorsinclude:light,water,temperature,atmosphere,humidity,andsoil. 231

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Figure5-4.DanielNaude, StormapproachingAberdeen.EasternCape,3March2010 , 2010,124x124cm,archivalinkjetprint. practicesandthecreationofartworks,DavidChidesterargues,Withregardtostructure, weoftenndinworksofartthematicpatternsofinitiation,quest,symbolicdeathand resurrection,ascent,etc.,ormoreformalpatternsofsymbolization,myth,ritual,and liturgy,whichareanalogoustopatternsinthehistoryofreligion. 27 Moreover,Chidester remindsusthatacrucialanalyticalprobleminthestudyofreligionsishowanyrstpersonsingularistransformedintotherst-personplural,aquestioninexorablytiedup 27.DavidChidester,AestheticStrategiesinWesternReligiousThought, JournaloftheAmerican AcademyofReligion 51,no.1:56. 232

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withthetaskofnation-building,andwhichNaudeandothercontemporarylandscape photographersisengagedinassessing.Chidesteralsoassertsthatreligiousresources areaimedatcreatinganintersectionbetweenpersonalsubjectivitiesandthesocial collectivity,whichresonatesaptlywiththeconcernsofNaude'sprojectandhisuseofthe AfricanisasacomparisontoSouthAfricaanditsinhabitants. 28 Further,inboththeconceptionandexecutionofhisphotographsofAfricanisdogs inSouthAfrica,Naudeexhibitscharacteristicsofreligiouspractice:initiation/revelation throughtherstencounter,questtolocateandrecreatetheencounter,andtheelevation/linkingofthedogtothesacred.Theportraitswereintendedtobothmemorialize andrecreatetheexcitement,tension,and,mostimportantly,theconnectionNaudefelt inhisencounterwiththerstdogforhisviewer:Eachportraitoeredmeasimilarly ecstaticencounter,andmygoalwastoachievethatintensepresenceandexperienceofthe rstdogthroughouttheseries. 29 Therstexperiencefueledhimduringtheworkingprocessandestablishedaritualthroughwhichhecouldaccessaspectsoftheinitialevent. 30 Further,creatingeachpicturereturnedamomentofstillnessforNaudeaperiodinwhich 28.Chidesteralsoaddressestherelationshipbetweenthestudyofartandreligion,andarguesthatwith regardtoourultimatepredispositionstowardtheworldofexperience,theshapeandcontoursofour realitiesandourdeepestsenseofpersonalidentity,wemayndthatthereligiousandtheaestheticare mutuallyimplied.Moreover,heassertsthatwhereasartandreligionhaverootsinsenseperception,they alsooeravenueswithwhichindividualsmayorientthemselvestotheirenvironment.Incertainsituations,Chidesterwrites,itmayappearthatreligionandartaredoingsomethingverysimilarwhenit comestogivingshapetotheworldwelivein.See:Chidester,AestheticStrategiesinWesternReligious Thought,55. 29.Naude,Progressionfromarstencounter,7. 30.ThetitleofDanielNaude'sartiststatement,ProgressionfromaFirstEncounter,furtherattests tothesignicanceofthisexperienceforNaudeanditscentralroleinshapingsubsequentwork.Other aspectsoftheprojectsuggestanaliationwithritual.InhisreturntripstotheKaroo,Naudeonlyshot ninerollsoflmeachwith12exposures,afractionoftheamountusedbymostphotographerswhen workingonaproject.Citingalackoffunds,Naudesaysthathisscarcelmresourceforcedhimtothink carefullyabouteachexposureandkeepelaboratejournalsinpreparationforeachpicture.See:Carlos Amato,HornsofPlenty, SundayTimes ,May25,2014,16. 233

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thedogandthelandscapeareone 31 thatreconnectedhimbacktotheexperiencehe felthefoundin2006. Naude'sdescriptionofthedogsresemblesaconceptualizationofthesacred,further associatinghisactionswithreligiouspractice.WilliamPadenoersanapplicableinterpretationofthesacredthatdrawsuponDurkheim'stheoriesontheoriginofreligion. Durkheimarguedthatreligionhasitsoriginsinthebondsthatareformedwiththe sacredsymbolsofone'sowngroup. 32 Heusedtheconceptoftotemismtofurtherexplain therelationshipbetweengroupsandsacredobjects.Atotem,Padennotes,isananimal orplantancestorwithwhomagroup...believesitselftobespirituallykin.Itbecomesthe markoragofthegroup'sownexistenceandtradition. 33 Agivenspecies,Durkheim observed,wasnotsacredbecauseofitsintrinsicqualities...butbecauseofitssymbolic functioninsignifyingtheidentityofthetribe. 34 ForNaude,theAfricanisdog,becauseofitshistoryaslandracespeciesshapedby itsenvironment,oersasuitableanalogybetweentheidealofauniedSouthAfrican nationanditsactualdiversecomponents.TheAfricanis,Naudenotes,wereinSouth AfricalongbeforeWesterners;theyareinasensepre-colonialorevenun-colonial untouchedbythiskindofhistoricity.Theirbreedisnotsynonymouswithanyculturally 31.Colberg,Jorg,DanielNaude:Africanis,262. 32.WilliamE.Paden, Interpretingthesacred:Waysofviewingreligion Boston,MA:BeaconPress, 1992,30. 33.Ibid. 34.Paden, Interpretingthesacred:Waysofviewingreligion ,31;WilliamPadendescribeshow Durkheimusedhisunderstandingofthesacredtochallengedominantconceptionsofreligion:Sacredness, whichDurkheimtookasauniversalfeatureofallreligiousphenomena,isinthisinterpretationavalue placedonobjectsbygroups...ToDurkheim,rationalisttheorieswhichmaintainthatreligionoriginates inaprescienticattempttoexplaintheworldofnaturecouldnotaccountfortheabsolutecentralityof theseinstitutions,i.e.,thestrongcharacterofsacred-profanedistinctionswithinsociety.Asavalueplaced onobjectsbythecommunity,sacrednesscouldbefullyexplainedonlyinsociologicalterms.Paden, Interpretingthesacred:Waysofviewingreligion ,32. 234

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Figure5-5.DanielNaude, OutsideUnderberg.KwaZulu-Natal,29October2009 ,2009,124 x124cm,C-print. identiablegroup. 35 SandraSwartarguesthattheAfricanisareadoguncannily linkedtoitsterrain,partofitsaboriginalandoriginallandscape. 36 InhisseriesNaude seeksmetaphoricallytoelevatethedog,centralizeitwithintheframe,andtransform 35.Colberg,Jorg,DanielNaude:Africanis,262. 36.SandraSwart,Dogsanddogma:Adiscussionofthesocio-politicalconstructionofSouthernAfrican dog'breeds'asawindowonsocialhistory, SouthAfricanHistoricalJournal 48,no.1:196;Swart alsoobservesthattheAfricanisdogdierfromotherdogspeciesinSouthAfricathatareassociatedwith particularculturesorgroups,suchasAlsatiansassociatedwithpoliceforcesandCorgisassociatedwith theBritish.Swart,Dogsanddogma:Adiscussionofthesocio-politicalconstructionofSouthernAfrican dog'breeds'asawindowonsocialhistory. 235

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itintoatotemicsymbol.ThesacrednessNaudeperceivesintheanimalsisoneheseeks totranslatetohisgroup,thecommunityofthenation-state.Throughhisportraits, Naudeseekssomethingdeeplypersonal,andthroughhisfocusonportrayingtheanimals connectiontothelandscape,hereformshistaskintosomethingcommunalandunifying. NaudeaimstocreateasacredsymboloutoftheAfricanis,andhisseriesutilizesvisual toolsandstrategiestohelphisgrouprecognizetheparallelheseesbetweenthedog's characteristicsandtheSouthAfricanpeople. Naude'sserieselevatestheAfricanisdogasarepresentationofanabstractSouth AfricansacredandinlaterprojectsNaudecontinuedthispractice.Afterdevelopingthe workfortheAfricanisproject,Naudebeganphotographingotherindigenousanimal speciesandmorelandscapesinSouthAfrica,andbroughttogetherthetwoseriesinhis rstmonograph, AnimalFarm .Thebookopenswithaviewofcarcassonthesideof theroadpresumablyadeadAfricanisdog,ahillsidelledwithindigenouscattleand goats,andapartialviewofafarm.NaudephotographsNgunicattle,Xhosacattleonthe beach,Quagga, 37 openlandscapes,taxidermyanimals,farmers,andPerisansheep.He nishesthebroadsurveyofanimalsandlandscapeswithanimageofaseatedAfricanis dog,photographedatdusk,lookingointothedistance.AnimalFarmplacesgreater emphasisontheenvironmentsandtheirroleingeneratingadiverse,yetdistinctlySouth Africansetofconditions,people,ora,andfauna.TherstandnalimagesFig.5-5& 5-6highlightthisintent.Ineachphotograph,theanimalissecondarytothelandscapein visualweight:thegrassesswallowupthecarcassandthetwilighthuesfadethetonesin thedog'sfur. 37.Naudeuses"quagga"tocaptiononeofhisimagesofazebrain AnimalFarm ,butitislikelythathe photographedaBurchell'sZebra,whicharegeneticallyandvisuallysimilartothequagga,whicharebelievedtobeextinctsincethelatenineteenthcentury.Aquaggaisanendemicsub-speciesofzebra,whose namereferencestheanimal'ssonorous"kwa-ha-ha"call. 236

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Figure5-6.DanielNaude, SneeubergPass.Sneeuberg,Murraysburgdistrict,2February 2009 ,2009,124x124cm,C-print. FollowingcompletionoftheAfricanisandAnimalFarmprojects,Naudetraveled outsideSouthAfricatophotographotheranimalssacredtolocalcultures.Hetraveled tothreecountriesandcombinedphotographsfromeachlocationtogetherinhisseries, SightingsoftheSacred.InsouthwesternUgandahestudiedAnkolecattle,anindigenousbreedwithlargehornsthatreachuptoeightfeetfrompointtopointFig.5-7. Bahimapastoralists,whousetheanimalsformilk,meat,andassymbolsofwealth,revere 237

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Figure5-7.DanielNaude, Ankole1.LakeMburodistrict,Nyabushozi,WesternRegion, Uganda,2012 ,2012,124x124cm,C-Print Ankole. 38 Traditionally,Bahimalimitedcross-breedingwithexoticcattletomaintainadvantageousAnkoletraits,suchas:hornshapeandlength,resistancetoendemicdiseases, heattolerance,andlowerfeedrequirements.Yet,asBahimapopulationsbecomesedentary 38.MichaelWurzingeretal.,LifestyleandherdingpracticesofBahimapastoralistsinUganda, African JournalofAgriculturalResearch 3,no.8:542. 238

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andhavelimitedaccesstopasture,morefarmerschoosetocross-breedwithHolsteinvarietiestoselectforproductivetraits. 39 Yet,Wurzinger,et.alreportthatthebreedretains greatculturalimportancetotheBahimapeople,anddespiteshort-termeconomicgains ofcross-breeding,manyfarmersaredeeplycommittedtopreservingthebreed'sheritage andmaintainapastorallivelihood. 40 Naude'simagesoftheAnkoleemphasizethescale ofhornsinrelationtothecattle'sbody;hephotographsfromacrouchedposition,such thatthehornsarefurtherelongatedintheframe.InallimagestheAnkolelookdirectly atNaudeandreturnastatelygaze.ThebiggestthingformeNaudesays,isthisvery still,reciprocalencounter,inwhichI'minahyper-focusedstate,andsoistheanimal.The gigantichornsmaketheeectmoresurreal. 41 Aswithhisearlierworks,Naudewantshis photographstorevealaconnectionbetweenhimselfandtheanimal,and,morebroadly, thepotentialforanindigenousanimalspeciestoreectaspectsofthehumancultures thatsharethesameland.Afterwards,NaudevisitedMadagascar,wherehephotographed Zebucattle,abreedwhichformspartoftheBarapeople'scosmologyandancestorveneration.ZebucattlearesacredcapitaltotheBara,whousethemtoregulaterelations betweenlivingandancestralpopulations. 42 Finally,NaudetraveledtoIndiatodocument cattleattheMattuPongalfestivalinTamilNadu.Here,cattlearedecoratedinhonorof Nandi,abullgod,whichhassymbolictiestothegodShiva.Theimagesshowdierent cowsadornedwithballoons,owers,andsomeoftheirhornsarepainted,and,forNaude, 39.RRoschinskyetal.,PastureuseandmanagementstrategiesintheAnkolepastoralsystemin Uganda, GrassandForageScience 67,no.2:199. 40.MWurzingeretal.,IndigenousselectioncriteriainAnkolecattleanddierentproductionsystems inUganda,in 55thAnnualMeetingoftheEuropeanAssociationforAnimalProductionEAAP,Uppsala,Sweden ,5. 41.Amato,HornsofPlenty,16. 42.JacobvonHelandandCarlFolke,Asocialcontractwiththeancestorscultureandecosystem servicesinsouthernMadagascar, GlobalEnvironmentalChange 24:251. 239

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theyshowthespiritualrootsofthehumanbondwithcattle. 43 Inallthreesub-series Naudebracketsthecattleimageswithlandscapesandiscarefultoframeallofhisanimal subjectswithvegetationnativetotherespectiveareas.Insum,SightingsoftheSacred continuestheinquiryhebeganwithAfricanisandAnimalFarm;heexploreswaysthat indigenousanimalscansymbolizeacommunalidentitythatisshapedbytheland. 5.2.2TraditionalandExperimentalAnalysesofNaude'swork:Biophiliaand DarkGreenReligion PreviousanalysesofNaude'sseries,includingthoseputforthbytheartisthimself, makeaneorttosituatethedogportraitswithinaWesternarthistoricalcontext. 44 Specically,writershavemadecomparativereferencetothepaintingsofGeorgeStubbs andSamuelDaniell,bothenlightenment-eraartistsengagedwithabroadernineteenthcenturyconcerntoclassifyandcloselyobservethenaturalworld.WorksbyStubbs, suchashis1787painting BayHunterbyaLake Fig.5-8,situatesinglehorsesina picturesqueenvironment,andestablishaconnectionbetweentheserenityofthehorse's environmentandthedigniedgrandeurofitsmuscularform.Thecomparisonisnot withoutjustication,yetthecollective,possessiveimpulseofStubbs'paintingsseemsat oddswiththefascinationandreverencewithwhichNaudecolorshisimages.Moreover, Naude'sphotographsdierfromStubbs'compositionsthroughhisuseofphotographic manipulations,suchasdepth-of-eldadjustments,toemphasizetheweightoftheAfricanis dogsinrelationtothelandscape;Stubbs'horsein BayHunterbyaLake ,forexample, framesthehorsewithinandatscaletothelandscape,whereasNaudeforegroundsthe gravitasoftheAfricanisdoganditsrelationtothesurroundinglandscapeFig.5-9. BiologistE.O.Wilson'sBiophiliahypothesis,whichsuggestsaninstinctivebond betweenhumanbeingsandotherorganisms,elucidatesamorecomprehensiveanalysisof 43.Amato,HornsofPlenty,17. 44.MartinBarnes,MeetingPoints,in AnimalFarm Munich:Prestel,2012,11. 240

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Figure5-8.GeorgeStubbs, BayHunterbyaLake ,1787,oiloncanvas. theAfricanisseries.Articulatedinhis1984bookofthesamename,Wilsondescribes biophiliaastheinnatetendencytofocusonlifeandlife-likeprocessesandtheurgeto aliatewithotherformsoflife. 45 Wilsonseesthehumanpreferenceforthingsinnature asaproductofbiologicalevolution,whereinhumanancestorsbenetedfromdeveloping positiveassociationswithdisplaysoflifeandlife-likeprocesses. 46 Allhumans,associal biologistStephenKellertobserves,possesssomedegreeofyearningtoconnectandunite withnature,whichmanifestsitselfintwoways:rst,throughdiscerningcommonalities 45.Wilson, Biophilia ,1. 46.Wilson'shypothesisattributesthedesiretoaliatewithlifeandlife-likeprocessesasaneedrooted inhumangenetics.Forexample,humansdrawntoastandofbloomingowerswereoftenlaterrewarded withasourceoffoodfromthefruitsofthoseplants.See:ibid. 241

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Figure5-9.DanielNaude, Africanis17.Danielskuil,NorthernCape,25February2010 , 2010,124x124cm,C-Print. thatemergethroughempiricalandsystematicobservation;second,throughamore intuitive,apriori,andsubjectivejudgmentoftheunityofcreation. 47 47.StephenRKellert,ConnectingwithCreation:TheconvergenceofNature,Religion,Scienceand Culture, JournalfortheStudyofReligion,NatureandCulture 1:26;E.OWilson,inhiswritings,drawsfromexamples,suchasCharlesDarwin'slittle-known44-yearlonginvestigationofearthworms toarguethispoint.Hepositsthathumanslooktootherformsoflifetoderiveorestablishasynecdoche foranorganizeduniverse,onefromwhichtheycanmodelbehaviororutilizeasanobjectivecounterto avolatilehumanenvironment,ortousetoestablishameaningfulmaterialconnectiontotheirphysical surroundings.Wilson, Biophilia . 242

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AvarietyofdisciplinesusetheBiophiliahypothesisasabasisforhumanrelationships withnatureandotherspecies,suchasabiologically-basedpreferenceforsavannah environments. 48 Mostrelevanttothearthistorian,KellertnotestheBiophiliahypothesis, proclaimsahumandependenceonnaturethatextendsfarbeyondthesimplestissuesof materialandphysicalsustenancetoencompassaswellthehumancravingforaesthetic, intellectual,cognitive,andevenspiritualmeaningandsatisfaction. 49 Elsewhere,KellertalsoarguesthatBiophiliaencompassesboththequestforempiricalunderstandingandthepursuitofspiritualmeaning. 50 Inbothinstances,Kellert connectsthedesiretoorder,classify,andobservethenaturalworldwithaneedtoderive spiritualmeaningfromit.KellertrecognizestheseobjectivesasunitedwithinWilson's Biophiliahypothesis,whichaccountsforboththeallureofthenaturalworldforhumans, aswellastheneedtointerpretitatanobjectivedistance. ThetwinningoftheserespectivedesiresresonateswithhowNaudeandothercontemporarySouthAfricanphotographersuselandimagerytoengagespaceintheircountry. Thelegaciesofapartheidandtheshifttoademocraticsocietydemandthatinteractions withthelandscapebeatoncecriticalandobjective:thelandneedstobestudied,historiesaccountedfor,andpastviolencerecognized.Yetmanyindividualartistsalsolookto 48.StephenR.KellertandEdwardO.Wilson, TheBiophiliahypothesis Washington,D.C.:Island Press,1993. 49.KellertandWilson, TheBiophiliahypothesis ,20;Inadditiontothesciences,theconceptofBiophiliahasbeeninuentialindesignelds.See:JudithH.Heerwagen,StephenR.Kellert,andMartinL. Mador, Biophilicdesign:Thetheory,science,andpracticeofbringingbuildingstolife Hoboken,NJ:Wiley,2008;JudithHeerwagenandBettyHase,Buildingbiophilia:Connectingpeopletonatureinbuilding design, EnvironmentalDesignandConstruction 3:30;Timothy.Beatley, Biophiliccities:Integratingnatureintourbandesignandplanning Washington,DC:IslandPress,2010;BarbaraJHuelat, Thewisdomofbiophilia-Natureinhealingenvironments, JournalofGreenBuilding 3,no.3:23 35. 50.Kellert,ConnectingwithCreation:TheconvergenceofNature,Religion,ScienceandCulture,2728;Kellertcontinues,andargues:Scienceandreligionarerootedinthesehereditaryneedsofourspecies and,assuch,underscoretheself-interestthatconnectsempiricalobservationandspiritualitywithphysical andmaterialwell-being....Kellert,ConnectingwithCreation:TheconvergenceofNature,Religion, ScienceandCulture,28. 243

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thelandscapetondacommonframework,asourceofspiritualenergy,amodelforcommunities,andpointofconnectionbetweenthemselvesandotherSouthAfricans.Kellert arguesthatstudyandexplorationofthenaturalworldallowsindividualstodiscover theremarkableingenuityoflife,andthepossibilityofitspurposefulengagement...that suggeststhecapacityofindividualformstopursueanidealwhilemakingtheirway throughtheworld. 51 NaudeusesimagestoconnectwiththeAfricanisdogsandtheir environmentsandthentoextrapolatemeaningandanalogyfromthemthatwillinform broaderideasabouttheSouthAfricancommunity.Heusesthecameraanditsattendant selecting,preserving,andorderingtocreatelandscapeimagesthatprojectandpursuean ideal. SelectionsfromNaude'swritingsfurthersupportabiophilicreadingoftheAfricanis series.Naudelucidlydescribesthedogsheencounters,andisoftenatpainstocounter thenegativeassociationsandnamesgiventothedogsduringtheapartheiderathe Africaniswereoftenreferredtoaskardogs 52 bywhiteswiththevirtuesheperceives. Naudelaments,weperceivethemasferalanimalsratherthanthoroughbreds.Naudealso notesthatwhileworkingontheimagesforthisseries,aquotationbyFranzKafkawas continuallyattheforefrontofhisthinking:Allknowledge,thetotalityofallquestions andallanswers,iscontainedinthedog. 53 Bothoftheseselectionsresonatewiththe tendencytoalignwith,drawexamplefrom,andinterpolatelifeandlife-likeprocesses describedbyWilsoninhisBiophiliahypothesis. 51.Kellert,ConnectingwithCreation:TheconvergenceofNature,Religion,ScienceandCulture,27. 52.ThewordkarisaderogatorytermusedinSouthAfricatodenoteablackperson.Theoensive termwaspredominantlyusedbywhiteSouthAfricans,andoriginallyderivesfromtheArabictermfor non-believerkar. 53.FranzKafka, Thecompletestories ,ed.NahumNorbertGlatzerNewYork,NY:Schocken,2011, 290. 244

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Biophiliaoersaframeworktocontextualizetheidealisminherentinattemptsto makemeaningfulconnectionsbetweenthediversityofanimalspeciesandhumansocial relations.Biophiliaarguesthatthedesiretodiscovertheextremecomplexityoflife anddrawmeaningfromitsexamplederivefromthesamehumangenetics;asKellert notes:Ourcelebrationofdiversitymustacknowledgetheequivalentneedforunityor thecommonalitythatbindsus,likeallcreatures,toourgeneticheritage.Diversityand unity,ratherthanopposingforcesarecomplementaryreectionsofthereligiousand scienticquestformeaningfullyconnectingwithcreation. 54 WithrespecttoNaude's series,Biophilliaoersawaytoexaminetheproject'sformalgroupingofthedierent animalsandlandscapes,andcontextualizetheleapNaudemakesinarguingthatthey mimichumanpopulations.Ourcountrywasanapartheidstate;nowit'sth[e]Rainbow nation:anunexplainablemix,Naudeargues,andyoucan'tsaywhatkindofdogthe Africanisis,butit'sanAfricandog. Otherframeworksdrawnfromtheeldsofreligionandnaturestudiesfacilitate analysisofNaude'suseofenvironmentalimagerytostudyanddrawmeaningfulexample fromnature.AmericanreligiousstudiesscholarBronTaylorusesDarkGreenReligionto describeabeliefsysteminwhichnatureisunderstoodtobesacred,possessingintrinsic valueapartfromitsusefulnesstohumans,andisthereforeduereverentcare. 55 Dark GreenReligionwasoriginallyconceivedoftoaccountforagrowingsectorofpeople describingthemselvesasspiritualbutnotreligious,yetwhointheirworkorresearch, exhibitedbehaviorscharacteristicofareligiouspractice.Taylorobservesthatsince Darwinpublished TheOriginofSpecies whichpresentedanalternativetounderstanding theworldthanthroughAbrahamicreligionsaspiritualityinformedbyevolutionanda non-anthropocentric,ecocentricperspectivedeveloped. 54.Kellert,ConnectingwithCreation:TheconvergenceofNature,Religion,ScienceandCulture,29. 55.Taylor, DarkGreenReligion:NatureSpiritualityandtheplanetaryfuture ,10. 245

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DarkGreenReligionisdeeplyecologicalandecocentric;Taylorexplainsitbasesits valuesonafeltkinshipwiththerestoflife.DarkGreenReligionisaccompaniedby feelingsofhumilityandacorrespondingcritiqueofhumanmoralsuperiority,onethatis reinforcedbymetaphysicsofinterconnectionandtheideaofinterdependence...foundin thesciences. 56 DarkGreenReligionisneitheratraditionalAbrahamicreligion,norone thatembodiesaspecic,denoteddogmaticpractice;rather,itdescribescommonbeliefs observableinasubsetofhumaninteractionswiththenaturalenvironment,suchasthose performedbyresearchers,activists,andasIarguelandscapeartists. NaturalisticanimismisasubcategoryofDarkGreenReligionthatdescribesbeliefs thatadheretoanagnostic,scienticperspectivewithoutanimmaterial,supernaturalistic dimension.Animism,broadlystated,referencestheperceptionthatnon-humanlife formshaveasoul,spirit,consciousnessand/orlifeforce. 57 Thosewhoreectaspects ofnaturalisticanimismexpresskinshipwithandethicalconcernfornon-humanlife andbiocentricethicsgroundedinevolutionarytheoryandevolution'stheoryofcommon ancestors. 58 Naude'spracticeexhibitsaspectsofthenaturalisticanimismTaylordescribes.He saysthathisencounterswithanimalsinthelandscapereectthemutualsurprise,wonder andfascinationthatbothmanandanimalseemtoexperienceinconfrontingeachother. Hewritesthatthoughhedoesnotknowwhatanimalsthink...Irecognizemyownbeing intheirs.NothingIhavereadaboutanimalscansucientlyaccountfortheintensity Iexperiencedintheseencounters. 59 Here,Naudecaststheanimalsheencountersas intelligenceshecancommunicatewith,andindoingsoindicatesanimisticperception. 56.Taylor, DarkGreenReligion:NatureSpiritualityandtheplanetaryfuture ,13. 57.Ibid.,15. 58.Ibid.,23. 59.Naude,Progressionfromarstencounter,9. 246

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WhileNaude'swritingsdonotsuggestadesiretoworshiporvenerateanimals,theydo makeclearthatNaudefeelskinshiptowardstheindigenousanimals,andperceivesthemas anentityfromwhichhecanlearn,asentimentreectedinthereverentialmannerinwhich hecomposedthephotographsintheAfricanisseries. Inthisinstance,DarkGreenReligionprovidesananalyticallensthroughwhichwe caninterpretDanielNaude'sencounterinconjunctionwiththeimageitself,andindoing so,understandthedogportraitstobemorethanlarge-scaleanimalrepresentations,but productsofapersonal,spiritualengagementwiththeSouthAfricanlandscapethatisthen usedtoimagineaninterdependentcommunity,inclusiveofhumans,land,andanimals. Takentogether,theseapplicationsargueforanexpandedunderstandingofthelandscape photograph,asanotonlyaprojectionofvalues,butasacomplexpsychologicalspacein whichtheartist'sprocessandmotivationscreateanmeetingbetweentheartistandthe environmentdepicted. 5.3BrentMeistre,Sojourn,andEnvironmentalHistoryandPhilosophy ExaminationofBrentMeistre'sprojectinrelationtotheWildernessideaandas anexpressionofAldoLeopold'sLandAestheticcreatesananalyticalcontextthatcan highlightthewaysphotographsinSojournbothchallengethepurviewoflandscapephotographyandadvocateforitsuse.AswithDanielNaude'sAfricanisseries,application ofconceptsfromotherdisciplinesilluminatestheuselandscapephotographytoexplorea personalconnectiontoland. 247

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SouthAfricanphotographerBrentMeistrebeganworkonwhatwouldbecomethe Sojournseriesin2005. 60 Overaperiodofsixyears,hetraveledalonethroughoutsouthernAfricainaconvertedEskom 61 truckintentonexploringopen,emptylandscapes. 62 Heloggedover80,000kilometersofroadsanddirtpathsinNamibia,Botswana,Lesotho, Swaziland,Zimbabwe,andSouthAfricaandimmersedhimselfinsettingsfarfromthe urbanareasthatconcentratemostofsouthernAfrica'spopulation. 63 Duringhisjournies Meistrereectedonthethingsinthelandscapethatframeandotherwiseorienthisview ofthespaceshevisited:Intheirrudimentaryabstractforms,theparallellinesinthe centreoftheroad,theroadsidefence,thetelephoneline...thesecomposeandcomprise thelandscape.Telephonelines,fences,staggeredandsoliddoublelinesontheroaddirect metoasingle-perspectivevanishingpoint.Itisthiselusivepointofdeparture,atwhichI neverarrive. 64 Thenalseriesdrewfromacollectionofover150rollsofmediumformatlmand 400hand-printedcolorimagesandfeaturesroads,skies,andotherman-mademarkson theland.Theseriescoheresaroundarepeatedcomposition:apavedordirtpathshaped 60.BrentMeistrewasborninSouthAfricaandcurrentlylivesandworksinGrahamstown,Eastern Cape.HeissectionalheadofPhotographyatRhodesUniversity,wherehereceivedhisBachelorsand MastersdegreesinFineArt.Meistredescribeshimselfasaphotographerandlmmakerandhasreceived accoladesforhisworkinbothelds.Notably,MeistrewasanalistfortheDaimlerChryslerAwardfor ContemporaryPhotography,andrecentlyorganizedtheAnalogueEye:VideoArtAfricaproject,which bringsamobile,pop-upcinematonon-traditionalviewingspacesandsharesvideoworkfromover47 Africanartists. 61.EskomisaSouthAfricanutilitycompanythatgeneratescirca95%oftheelectricityusedinSouth Africaandcloseto45%ofthatusedintheAfricancontinent.See:Eskom, Eskom:companyinformation , accessedDecember1,2015, http://www.eskom.co.za/OurCompany/CompanyInformation/Pages/Company_ Information.aspx . 62.Meistre'stravelswerenotcontinuous.AllofhissolojourneysbeganfromhishomeinGrahamstown andhehaddierentitinerariesforeachtrip. 63.InSouthAfrica,MeistrefollowedruralroadsintheFreeState,NorthernCape,EasternCape,and remoteportionsoftheWesternCape. 64.BrentMeistre, ArtistStatement ,2012. 248

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intoawedgethatextendstowardsavanishingpointdeepintoMeistre'sframe.Insome photographstheskiesarecloudlessandinothersfairweathercumulousandstratus cloudsstretchagainstambientbluehorizons.Imagessuchas WetRoad,Alwynsfontein, N.Cape,SouthAfrica Fig.5-10characterizethesequenceofphotographs.A triangularsectionofNamaqualandabutstheroadoneachside,andtogetherthethree shapesroadandtwosegmentsofopenKarooforma180-degreeline.Inimagessuchas these,Meistreportraysthelandscapeasaseriesofdiscretepartsthatcanbereformedto makeupnewjuncturesofatmosphereandland.In WetRoad,Alwynsfontein,N.Cape, SouthAfrica Skyandlandsplitthephotographinhalf,arefutationoftheruleof thirdsdictumthatinformsthecompositionofmostlandscapeimages. 65 Theequalspace giventoskyandlandforcestheviewertofocusonthevanishingpointwhereroadmeets horizon,andkeepsthemfromfullyorpassivelyexploringthescene. Meistrephotographedallofhisimagesfromanelevatedposition,atopafourmeterladderinstalledontopofhistruck,sothathecouldshifthisperspectivefrom atraditional,ground-levelviewthatforeshortenslandonthesameelevationasthe photographer.TheaddedheightinuencedthewayMeistresawthelandscapeand plannedforhisimages: Todrivethroughthelandscape,imaginingwhatitmaylooklikefroman elevatedposition,istodriveinaconstantstateofdisplacementandascension. Drivingandturningyourhead,watchingthelandapproaching,foreground, middlegroundandbackgroundcomingintocompositionasyoureyesalign 65.Regardinghiscompositionalstrategies,Meistreobservesthathiselevatedviewpointchallengestraditionalmethods:It'sverybasicpracticeforthenovicephotographertophotographtheroadleading towardsthehorizon,aone-pointperspectivethatcreatesasimpliedandgraphicpictorialstructure. Iplaywithconventionalpictorialelementsbyusinganextensionladderplacedontopofthevehicle. JeanneWright, ArtCriticJeanneWrightonBrentMeistre'sSojournexhibition ,May22,2014,accessed December10,2015, http://www.theathenaeum.co.za/News/entryid/51/art-critic-jeanne-wright-on-brentmeistres-sojourn-exhibition . 249

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Figure5-10.BrentMeistre, WetRoad,Alwynsfontein,N.Cape,SouthAfrica ,2007, C-Print. paralleltotheroadside,fenceandtelephonepoles.Thisisdrivingina suspendedstate,seeing,projectingandinvertingtheimage. 66 Meistre'satypicalmethodsledhimtoperceivethelandscapeandthelandscapeimage dierently,asaseriesofformalcomponentsthattransforminrelationtoviewpointand notasaxedmodeofinterpretingnaturalsettings. Tobecertain,thoughhisphotographsareexperimental,formally,Meistre'simages drawuponconventionsandviewpointsassociatedwiththesublime,asarticulatedby philosopherEdmundBurke.Thoughthephotographsin"Sojourn"donotportrayavision ofnatureaspowerfulanddestructive,hisimagesdopresentaviewofenvironmentsas limitless.InhistreatiseBurkewritesthata"sourceofthesublimeisinnity...Innity 66.Wright, ArtCriticJeanneWrightonBrentMeistre'sSojournexhibition . 250

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hasatendencytollthemindwiththatsortofdelightfulhorror,whichisthemost genuineeect,andtruesttestofthesublime." 67 TheunbrokenhorizonsinMeistre's photographsextendo-framewithnoindicationoftheirendorbeginning;theyconveya scalebeyondthecapabilityofthecameratocaptureandindoingsotheymakereference totheinnite.Burkewritesfurtherthatthesublimeinnaturecausesastonishmentina viewer:"...astonishmentisthatstateofthesoulinwhichallitsmotionsaresuspended, withsomedegreeofhorror.Inthiscasethemindissoentirelylledwithitsobject,that itcannotentertainanyother,norbyconsequencereasononthatobjectwhichemploysit. Hencearisesthegreatpowerofthesublime." 68 ThevastenvironmentsMeistreportrays in"Sojourn"striketheviewerrstasotherworldlyspaces;shereectsonthelight,color, andshapesinthesceneandnotonwhereorwhatthephotographsdepictorhowthe imagewascreated. Meistre'sexperimentswithcamerapositionandcompositionreecthisdesireto bothcomplicatehisownideasaboutlandscapephotographyandnotionsoflandscapeand landinSouthernAfrica.Theseobjectivescreateparalleldialogsconsistentthroughout theseries.First,Meistre'sphotographsinterrogatethelandscapephotographasan organizationofforms,notarepresentationofreality.Therigidstructuringofimages inSojourndislocatesratherthanimmersestheviewerfromthescenesanduniesthe photographsthroughform,notcontent.Atensionbetweenformandcontentisclearly observableinimagessuchas PipeTrench,CapeCross,WestCoast,Namibia Fig.5-11. Here,Meistreindicateshumanpresencethroughhistitleandtiretracksetchedinto thedirt.Yetthedynamicanglingofthewheelmarksandthetriangularshapeofthe moundpulltheviewertowardsthehorizonline,andencourageareadingofthescene 67.EdmundBurke, Aphilosophicalenquiryintothesublimeandbeautiful London:PenguinUK,1998, 148. 68.Ibid.,130. 251

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atagreaterscalethanimpliedthroughthetiretracks.Second,theimpersonal,distant viewsbelieapresentationoflandinSouthernAfricaasafamiliarorinvitingplacethat canbereformedtotoradvanceanideologicalagenda.Meistrepurposelyphotographed inremote,isolatedspaceswithoutcontextualindicatorsanddidnotmanipulatelighting orframingtoconveyanemotionormood.Hesoughtoutminimalenvironmentsata farreachfromtheurbancentersofJohannesburgandCapeTowntondaspacein whichhecouldconsiderthesubjectoflandscapeasadiscretetopicandlimitinuences groundedinthehistoryofphotographyinSouthAfrica. 69 Hereectsthathewantedto getbackto[his]earlyapproachesofcreatingsimpleimages,imagesthatcouldfunction onapurelyaestheticlevelandleavetheundertonesofthepoliticalandsocialconcernsas theymay. 70 5.3.1BrentMeistre,SojournandtheWildernessidea InSojournMeistrecriticallyengagesthesubjectoflandscaperepresentationatthe sametimeasheseekstoimmersehimselfinandexplorehisownconnectiontotheremote environments.Thisdual-purposeinvestigationrecallsdiscussionsofwildernessandthe wildernessideafromthedisciplinesofenvironmentalhistoryandphilosophy,dialogsthat oerinsightintothecomplexitiesofMeistre'sseries. EnvironmentalphilosopherMaxOelschlaegerdescribeswildernessasanevolving ideathathasitsoriginsinthePaleolithicera.Hearguesthat,astudyofwilderness accordinglyassumesthenaturalhistoryofhumankind.ForOelschlaeger,theearlyuse byPaleolithichuntersandforagersofanelaboratehuntermythologytoorganizeand accountforawonderatthemiracleofexistenceinformedearlyideasaboutwilderness, 69.BrentMeistre, Interviewwithauthor ,September27,2013. 70.Meistre, ArtistStatement . 252

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Figure5-11.BrentMeistre, PipeTrench,CapeCross,WestCoast,Nambia ,2007,C-Print. todayunderstoodasamelangeofcompetingphilosophies,rangingfromresourceconservationtoso-calleddeepecology. 71 AccordingtoOelschlaeger,thehuntermythologya proto-versionofthewildernessideaoeredameanstointerpret,perceive,andappreciate thewonderofnature.Thewildernessidea,heargues,hasitsrootsinthisearlyorderingof theunexplainable,yetdeeplyfelt,connectiontotheenvironmentthatallhumanshaveat somelevel. 72 71.Oelschlaeger, TheIdeaofWilderness:fromPrehistorytotheageofEcology ,3-4. 72.Ibid.,MaxOelschlaegeracknowledgesthatnaturewasalsoseenasaresource and anobstaclefor pre-historichumans.Inhistexthepresentshisdiscussionofwildernesswithinabroadhistoricalcontext, andtracesevolutionofthewildernessideafromPaleolithictopostmodernperiods.Thispurviewallows Oelschlaegertoexaminetheconceptofwildernessinavarietyofcontexts. 253

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Inuencedbythedevelopmentofideasaroundthesublimeandthepicturesque wildernessgrewtosignifyadiscreteentityuntouchedbycivilizationinthenineteenth centurythatcouldrestore,renew,andinspireindividuals. 73 NaturalistssuchasJohn Muiradvancedaviewofwildernessasrefugefromanincreasinglyindustrializedsociety, whereonecouldundergoacriticalspiritualjourneyinaccessibleinatraditionalreligious communityorchurch.OelschlaegerdescribesMuirasapantheist,whoseencounterswith natureledtothedevelopmentofakindofwildernesstheology. Immediateexperiencerevealedtohimthatmechanisticmaterialismthatis,nature viewedfromaCartesianNewtonianperspectivewasanenormoussimplicationofand abstractionfromrealityofthenaturalworld.Theanimatevitalityofnaturepervadedthe cosmos.Andsinceallofcreationwasaliveratherthaninert,itfollowedthatahuman beingmightfeelkinshipwiththenaturalworld. 74 OelschlaegerarguesthatMuir'swildernesstheologyoeredawaytocombinefaith andreason;throughitMuircouldunderstandhisreligiousexperiencesinnatureas complimenttohisevolutionaryperspective.Thispantheistblending,forOelschlaeger, resonateswithaPaleolithicviewoftheenvironmentandallowedearlymantoseethe worldsteadily,andwhole,andwasthuscomplementarywithbothhispsychicneeds andhisintellectualcommitments. 75 Muir'sviewofnatureretainedgreatinuenceon thinkingaboutwildernessanditsroleasaresourcetohumans.ThomasDunlapobserves thegenerationsthatfollowedxedonlandscapeswithoutvisibleevidenceofindustrial 73.ForadiscussionofRomanticismandthedevelopmentoftheWildernessidea,see:YrjoHaila, 'Wilderness'andtheMultiplelayersofEnvironmentalThought, EnvironmentandHistory ,1997,129 147;RoderickNash, WildernessandtheAmericanmind NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,2014; ThomasKirchoandVeraVicenzotti,AhistoricalandsystematicsurveyofEuropeanperceptionsof wilderness, EnvironmentalValues 23,no.4:443;andGeorgeHStankey,Beyondthecampre'slight:Historicalrootsofthewildernessconcept, NaturalResourcesJournal 29:9. 74.Oelschlaeger, TheIdeaofWilderness:fromPrehistorytotheageofEcology ,134. 75.Ibid.,192. 254

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societyastheplaceforspiritualjourney. 76 Hecontinues,andarguesthat,unlesswe denethesacredassomethingbeyondthisworld,wildernessfunctionsasasacrednation formillions,thesiteofexperienceoranchorofhope. 77 Meistre'sjourney,histravelsaloneandawayfromsettledspaces,areactionsthat recallthesamedesiretoorder,marvel,andinteractwithnaturethatconditionedthe PaleolithicmindandthewildernesstheologyofMuir.Meistreremovedhimselffromhis nativeEasternCape,traveledaloneonaseriesofbroadlydenedquestsandsoughtout depopulatedlandscapesfarfromterritoryfamiliartohim. TheprojectdesignallowedMeistretothinkaboutthecomponentsofalandscape imageandtheirrespectiverolesininterpretingaplace.Hesoughttoimmersehimselfin remote,openlandscapessothathecouldcreatesimpleimagesthatcouldfunctionona purelyaestheticlevelandleavetheundertonesofthepoliticalandsocialconcernsasthey may. 78 Hewantedtoexplorethepartsofalandscapeimageandthewaystheseelements inuencedtheorganizationandpresentationofspaceinthecamera.Thehorizonline,for example,formsanimportantmotifthroughoutSojourn;Meistreisinterestedinhow thehorizonlinefunctionsasabreakandconnectionpointbetweenpsychic,pictorial,and actualspaces.Tofocusonthehorizonline,Meistresays,istofocusonthelastpoint thatonecansee.It'sthelastopticallyvisualsensewehaveofwhatwe'restandingon. ThehorizonlineshiftsasMeistremoves.Itisnotaxedentity,butratheragradientthat denesthepurviewofwhatMeistrecanperceiveatonetime.SofromwhereIstandnow lookingdownonthisearthtothehorizonhereorthehorizonlinethere,Meistrereects, IamconnectedbetweenthisplanethatIamstandingonandthatplanepictoriallyand 76.ThomasR.Dunlap, Faithinnature:Environmentalismasreligiousquest Seattle:Universityof WashingtonPress,2004,68. 77.Ibid.,69. 78.Meistre, ArtistStatement . 255

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physically. 79 InSojournhorizonlinesareclear,unbroken,andassumeagreatervisual weightthantheydoinlandscapeimagesofmorediverseterrain.Meistrepresentsthemas borderstohisviewandareferencetothelimitsofthelandscapephotographtoorderand presentaview. Meistreacknowledgesthatlandscapeslikewildernessareconstructsandhisimages ofenvironmentsdonotpresentanaccurateorobjectiverepresentationofland.Heargues thatalllandscapesareideas,mythswhoseprimaryfunctionistoconnectindividualsto placesandthehistoriesofthoseplaces.ThearidterrainhepresentsinSojournisa fantasyspace.Animaginedplace.Yet,thelocationsthemselveshavemeaninghecan onlyalludetoinhisimages:Itisaplaceoforigins,theruralhomeoftheurbanised intheoldCiskeiandTranskei,theKarroo,Lesotho,NamaqualandandtheKalahari. Itisaplaceofforefathersandmothers,andbeginnings,aplacewearedrawntoand fromthroughacompulsion. 80 LandscapephotographsallowMeistretoimaginethese connectionsevenashepresentsonlyasinglemomentintime.Heisdeeplycriticalof thehistoryoflandscapephotographyinSouthAfricaandthewaysthatimageshave promotedviewsofnatureasamythicalplace:Thisiswhereourconstructednotionof natureandthewildernesslie,whereourEdenicpastoralpastliesawaitingus. 81 HissentimentresonateswithenvironmentalhistorianWilliamCronon'sdiscussionof theWildernessidea.Inhis1995essayTheTroublewithWilderness;or,Gettingbackto theWrongNature,Crononadvocatedarethinkingofwildernessasaspaceapartfrom humaninuence.Aswegazeintothemirroritholdsupforus,Crononwrites,wetoo easilyimaginethatwhatwebeholdisNaturewheninfactweseethereectionofour 79.BrentMeistre, BrentMeistre:Sojourn,AttheBrinkinNoMan'sLand ,June2013, https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=n3Zpm5qF-JE . 80.Meistre, ArtistStatement . 81.Meistre, BrentMeistre:Sojourn,AttheBrinkinNoMan'sLand . 256

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ownunexaminedlongingsanddesires. 82 Cronon'spapersparkedawaveofcriticismfrom detractorswhofeltheunfairlydismissedwildernessasanimaginary.Responderstook acommonstance:theyarguedthatwildernessisrealnotaconstructandonehasno farthertolookthanunpopulatednaturalareastoexperienceit. 83 Collectively,these writerstookgreatumbrageatthesuggestionthatsomethingsodeeplyfeltthroughdirect experiencecouldbeconstruedasahumanimaginary.NaturalistAldoLeopoldoereda dierentcritiquetothatofCronon:hecontextualizedwildernessasaformoflanduse. Ina1925essayLeopoldarguedthatwildernessisaresource,notonlyinthephysical senseoftherawmaterialsitcontains,butalsointhesenseofadistinctiveenvironment whichmay,ifrightlyused,yieldcertainsocialvalues. 84 Hefeltthateconomicsystems wereillsuitedtoaccountfortherangeofexperiencesproducedthroughinteractionwith wildernessareas.Managedasaformofland-use,wildernesscouldbeaexiblething, accommodatingitselftootherformsandblendingwiththeminthathighlylocalized give-and-takeschemeofland-planningwhichemploysthecriterionof`highestuse.' 85 82.Cronon,Thetroublewithwilderness:Or,gettingbacktothewrongnature,7;Crononfurther argueswildernessisaconceptratherthanarealityandemphasisonanidealized,`undisturbed'wilderness mayleadtoaperceptionofwildernessasbeyondsocietyandnot,accordingtoThomasDunlap,acontinuingpresenceinourlivesandpartofourdailysurroundings.Dunlaparguesfurther,Thetroublewith wilderness,then,wasthattheconceptencouragedustoneglectourlivesaswelivethemandasweought tolivetheminfavorofanidealizedrealm`outthere'thatwevisitedanddreamedabout.Dunlap, Faith innature:Environmentalismasreligiousquest ,87. 83.Here,referencetotheWildernessDebateparticipantsdenotesscholarswhorespondedtoWilliam Cronon'sarticleinthesameissueof EnvironmentalHistory .See:SamuelPHays,Comment:ThetroublewithBillCronon'swilderness, EnvironmentalHistory ,1996,29;MichaelPCohen,Comment: Resistancetowilderness, Environmentalhistory 1,no.1:33;andThomasRDunlap,Comment:ButWhatDidYouGoOutintotheWildernesstoSee?, EnvironmentalHistory ,1996,43;The WildernessDebatehasreceivedconsiderablescholarlyattentionsincethisseminalissueofEnvironmentalHistory.See,forexample:CallicottandNelson, TheGreatNewWildernessDebate ;andMichaelP. NelsonandJ.BairdCallicott, TheWildernessDebateageson:ContinuingtheGreatNewWilderness Debate Athens,Ga.:UniversityofGeorgiaPress,2008. 84.AldoLeopold,Wildernessasaformoflanduse, TheJournalofLand&PublicUtilityEconomics 1,no.4:76. 85.Ibid.,77. 257

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RecallingthetensionofthewildernessdebatepromptedbyCronon'sarticleandAldo Leopold'sdiscussionofwildernessasaformoflanduse,imagesinMeistre'sSojourn seriesoscillatebetweenacriticalexaminationoflandscapephotographyandrecognition ofthereal,materialexperiencethatthegenrecommemorates.Hepointstothevalue oflandscapephotographyasaconnectionbetweenanindividualandthenaturalenvironment,andtooerperspectiveandorderduringperiodsofchange.No[w]morethan everthen,Meistrewrites,asbordersandboundariesandownershipshifts,landitselfis unstable...Throughandunderthescrutinyofthecameralens,landandskytiltupand downskirtingaroundtheviewnderattemptingtosettleitself,tondhome. 86 Ultimately,Meistre'sseriesmakesclearwhatmanyofCronon'sfollowersargued:onecanbe simultaneouslyawareoftheconstructthatundergirdsanidealikewildernessorlandscape, butthisknowledgedoesnotprecludeadesiretoexperienceitoruseittofulllapersonal need. 5.3.2TheSojournSeries,AldoLeopold,andtheLandAesthetic BrentMeistre'sinterestinhowlandscapeimagesdislocateviewersfromtheenvironmentresonateswithwritingsbyAmericannaturalistandethicist,AldoLeopold,in A SandCountyAlmanac. 87 Inthisseminalwork,Leopoldcritiquesaviewofnaturethat isinformedbywesternarttraditionssuchasthescenicandthepicturesque.Helaments: ourabilitytoperceivequalityinnaturebegins,asinart,withthepretty. 88 Instead, Leopoldcallsforalandaesthetic,whichrecognizesless-visibleaspectsofnaturesuchas evolutionaryheritageandecologicalprocesses,andbuildsuponinputfromallsenses,not 86.Meistre, ArtistStatement . 87.AldoLeopold, ASandCountyAlmanac:andSketcheshereandthere NewYork:OxfordUniversity Press,1968. 88.Ibid.,96. 258

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justvision. 89 Suchanapproachcouldpositivelyportrayneglectedenvironmentssuchas wetlandsordeserts,andemphasizeinterrelationsofhumansandnature,ratherthanas discreteentities.Moreover,unlikeaWesternaesthetic,alandaestheticcouldbeadaptive andrespondtochangesinhumanandenvironmentalchanges.Inhiscritiqueoflandscape photography,Meistre,too,advocatesafuller,integratedpresentationoflandinSojourn throughexplorationoftwoelements:timeandinterconnectedness. ThecontentandcompositionofMeistre'slandscapeimagesmakeclearreference totheroleoftimeinshapingtheenvironmentandalignwithoneaspectofLeopold's landaesthetic:acknowledgementoflandasadynamicentityshapedbyhumanandnonhumanforces.In Grave,Brakbos,Keelafsnyleegte,N.Cape,SouthAfrica,2007 Fig.5-12 Meistreshowsanaridexpansesplitbyadirttrackroadbeneathacloudlesssky.Anold woodfencetracestheroadononesideandsmallbunchesofvegetationformaborder ontheotherside;asquaresectionoffencesurroundsasinglegravemarkerontheright sideoftheimagemiddleground.Looseredsand,gravelandtiremarksarevisibleinthe foreground.InconceivingofalandaestheticLeopolddesiredavisualexpressionthat couldcommunicateprocessesthatformnaturalenvironments,informedbycerebraland perceptualinputs.InMeistre'simagetheabsenceofnarrativeoremotivecontentturns theviewer'sattentiontotheminutiaeofthephotograph:theslantoftheveldwhereit meetstheroad,thesubtlehuechangesinthevegetation,andthemarksofrecentandpast inhabitants.WithoutdirectionfromMeistretheviewerperceivestheemptylandscape 89.J.BairdCallicottwriteslucidlyaboutLeopold'slandethicandarguesthatitisderivedfromevolutionarybiologyandecologicalbiologyand"involvesasubtleinterplaybetweenconceptualschemataand sensuousexperience:experienceinformsthought.See:J.BairdCallicott, CompaniontoASandCounty Almanac:Interpretative&criticalessays Madison:UniversityofWisconsinPress,1987,163;Callicott furtherarguesthatthelandaestheticcomplimentsthelandethicandconcludes,"theyrepresentacoherentenvironmentalaxiology."Callicott, CompaniontoASandCountyAlmanac:Interpretative&critical essays ,169;Indeed,asMaxOelschlaegerwritesofthelandethicandaestheticasconceivedbyLeopold, philosophicallyconsidered,oneisnotpossiblewithouttheother,forawildernessaestheticopensthe possibilityofrecognitionthatweassentientsubjectsareboundwithallofcreation,includingthestarry skyaboveandthemorallawwithin.Oelschlaeger, TheIdeaofWilderness:fromPrehistorytotheageof Ecology ,237. 259

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Figure5-12.BrentMeistre, Grave,Brakbos,Keelafsnyleegte,N.Cape,S.A.2013 ,2013,88 x111.8cmC-Print. temporally;theyimaginethewind,people,andanimalsthatpassedthroughthisspace, impactedthesoil,andsawitasitisnow.Meistre'suseshiscompositionofaatexpanse tochallengehisviewertolookcloselyatlandandnotrelyonpictorialconventionsrooted inthepicturesquetodeveloptheirinterpretations. Interconnectednessbetweenhumansandtheenvironmentformsanotherthemein Meistre'sseriesandwasakeyconcernforLeopoldin ASandCountyAlmanac .Leopold sawthelinksamonghumans,otheranimals,plants,andthesoilitselfbindingusintoa community,awholeinwhicheachspecieshasafunction,place,andpurpose. 90 Meistre consistentlyreferstoamaterialconnectionbetweenpeopleandlandscapeinhiswritings ontheSojournseries:Whatthenismoreprimordiallyalandscapeconcernthanthe 90.Dunlap, Faithinnature:Environmentalismasreligiousquest ,62. 260

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actoflayingthedeceasedintotheearth?Toplaceabodyinahorizontalposition...It istobereturnedintothepositionoflandandstrata,backintothelayoftheland. 91 Meistre'sexperimentswithviewpointandperspectiveimmersetheviewerintothetactile qualitieslandscapeatthesametimeastheyarepropelledtowardsthehorizonlineformal strategiesthatemphasizetheconnectionofanindividualtoabroadersystem.In Blocked Road,HoringBay,WestCoast,Namibia,2008 Fig.5-13Meistreshowsportionsoftwo roadsthatmergeandextendtowardsthehorizon.Rowsoftiremarkslayeragainstthe ripplesofsandshapedbywindandwater.Together,thebandsofdirtandtracklace throughtheframe,butarebeyondthescopeofthecameratocaptureandmap.Alineof smallstonesformsaninformalbarricadeacrosstheroadandindicateshumanpresence. Neitherlandnorman-madeelementsareemphasizedwithintheframe,andallpiecesof theimagealludetoanundescribedwholethatiscultivated,demarcated,andstratied withthepatinaofhistory. 92 MeistrefurtherconveysaLeopoldianviewofthelandscapeasanactiveentity throughhischoiceofmediaandanthropomorphicanalogies.Meistreusedportraitlm tointerpretthelandscapesinSojourn. 93 Iamtreatingthelandscapeasaportrait, asafacetoberead,asaskin,heasserts.Thephotographsinthiscollectionareabout thatskin,aatexpanseofabodythatrecedesintothehinterlandandmoreimportantly intothe interior. 94 Portraitlmdampenstonesandcontrastinphotographs,andgives weighttosubtlegradationsinagivenimage.Meistreinterpretshissubjectsequipped toattunetothesamedetailsasifhewerephotographingaface.Inavideopieceabout 91.Meistre, ArtistStatement . 92.Ibid. 93.Portraitlmisausedinanalogphotographytorecordexposures.Specializedportraitlmssuchas KodakPorta160/400rendersubjectswithlesssaturatedcolorsandcontrastthanregularmarkedlms. Low-contrast,desaturatedcolorsareattributessuitedtorepresentingskintones. 94.Meistre, ArtistStatement . 261

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theproject,Meistreextendstheanalogiestoskin. 95 Thelmpresentsfootagefromhis respectivedrivessettopianomusicfromMaxenceCyrin.Themusicisasimple,almost minimalpiece;aconstantstreamofeighthnotesplayedwiththelefthandcompliments owing,steady-camimagerytakenasMeistredrovethroughthelandscape.Linesoftext fadeinandoutofthisfootageandmakefurtherconnectionsbetweenthebodyandthe landscape:Thepastishere/theroadunfoldslikeadrawnline/skinstretchestothe end/totheendoflooking/thehorizonlinedissectstheretina/Iamhistory/Iamvanishing points/Iamshiftingstrata/Icomeheretodie/Icomeheretodie. 96 InSojournMeistreadvocatesforashiftintheviewingoflandscape,informedby hisimmersiveexperienceofdrivingaloneinaremoteareaofsouthernAfrica.Meistre's perspectiveexempliestheconceptofthelandaestheticarticulatedbyLeopold,who emphasizedthatanaestheticwassomethingexperiencedrst-hand,throughdirect engagement.Meistre'sphotographsdepartfromdepictionsoflandscapesteepedinthe sublimeandpicturesqueandinsteademphasizethedetail,thematerial,andecological systemthatmakeupthespacesweviewthroughphotographs.MaxOelschlagerobserves that[Leopold's]wildernessorlandaestheticcrossedthemodernistdividebetweensubject andobject,andachievedaThoreauvianunityofknowingsubjecttheindividualand knownobjectnature. 97 Meistre'slandscapephotographspresentman-madeimpacts alongsideandintegratedinbroadexpansesofseeminglyuntouchednature.Henaturalizes thetracesofhumansinthelandscapethroughhisuseoftone,composition,andlighting andinviteshisviewerstoinsertthemselvesintothesceneshedepicts.WhatIam 95.BrentMeistre'scomparisonbetweenlandandhumanskinrecallargumentsmadeinArnoldRubin's 1988text MarksofCivilization:Artistictransformationsofthehumanbody .InthisworkRubinlooks attattooandscaricationpracticesinAfricancontexts,andcomparesthemtoindeliblemarksmadeon theearth'ssurfacebyhumans.See:ArnoldRubin, Marksofcivilization:Artistictransformationsofthe humanbody LosAngeles:UniversityofCaliforniaMuseumofCulturalHistory,1988. 96.Meistre, BrentMeistre:Sojourn,AttheBrinkinNoMan'sLand . 97.Oelschlaeger, TheIdeaofWilderness:fromPrehistorytotheageofEcology ,207. 262

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Figure5-13.BrentMeistre, BlockedRoad,HoringBay,WestCoast,Namibia,2008 ,2008, 88x111.8cm,C-Print. hopingthattheSojournprojectwilldo,Meistrewrites,istotransportpeopleawaytoa dierentworld,adierentparadigm,adierentwaytothinkingabouttheworldaround them. 98 ThischapterexaminedtheworkoftwoSouthAfricanphotographerswhouse landscapeimagestoexplorepersonalconnectionstothenaturalenvironmentinapostapartheidsetting.Lensesfromthedisciplinesofbiology,environmentalhistoryand philosophy,andreligionandnaturestudiessupportedanalysesofhowlandscapeimages mediateandshapequestionsofidentityandbelongingwithrespecttoenvironmentaland socialcommunitiesinSouthAfrica.WithrespecttoDanielNaude'sAfricanisseries, theseconceptsaddedimportantcontexttohisselectionofsubjectmatter,andallowed 98.Meistre, BrentMeistre:Sojourn,AttheBrinkinNoMan'sLand . 263

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foradiscussionofhisprojectasmorethanadogtypology.ForBrentMeistre'sSojourn work,themultidisciplinaryapproachesaddressedbothaspectsofhisseries:thestructured formalanalysesofthelandscapeimage,andthepersonaljourneyintoremoteterritory tondhissubjects.Here,theseconceptshavebeenappliedtotheworkoftwolandscape photographers,buttheyhaverelevancefordiscussionoflandscapesproducedthrough othermedia.Landscapeimagesoerawaytoexplorethepsychicconnectionstolanda topicofgrowingimportanceinSouthAfricaandanalysesofworkinthisgenremust attendtothecomplexitiesofthisapplication. 264

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CHAPTER6 LANDSCAPEPHOTOGRAPHYANDTHEOBSERVANCEOFTHE1913NATIVES LANDACTCENTENARY 6.1Introduction In2013SouthAfricaobservedthecentenaryofapivotalpieceoflegislation:the 1913NativesLandAct.Passedbyanall-male,all-whiteParliamentthreeyearsafterthe establishmentoftheUnionofSouthAfrica,theNativesLandActcodiedsegregationist policieswithinSouthAfricanlaw.AlthoughtheNativesLandActdidnot,asiswidely perceived,seizelandfromnon-whiteSouthAfricans,thelegislationrecognizedand codiedalonghistoryofdispossessionatthehandsofcolonistsbetweentheseventeenth andnineteenthcenturies. The1913NativesLandActdidhaveimmediateandlastingeectsonnon-white populations.Intheshortterm,thelegislation:underminedblacktenantsonwhite-owned land,formalizedtheestablishmentofareasforanyperson,maleorfemale,whoisa memberofanaboriginalraceortribeofAfrica, 1 andrestrictedthesaleandpurchase oflandoutsidereserves.TheActdeeded7.8%ofSouthAfrica'sterritoryforblack populations,withthepromiseofmoreinthefollowingyears. 2 Theremaininglandwas setasideforwhites,whomadeuplessthan20%ofthepopulation.Inthelongterm,the legislationoeredastatementofintentaboutsegregationontheland,andenabledthe 1.UnionofSouthAfrica, 1913NativesLandActorginialdocument ,June2013,accessedNovember14, 2015, http://www.politicsweb.co.za/documents/1913-natives-land-act-the-original-text . 2.The1913NativesLandActisoftenincorrectlysaidtohavesetaside13%ofSouthAfricanterritoryfornon-whitepopulations.Infact,the1913legislationsetaside7.8%andestablishedacommission thatwouldrecommendtoParliamentwhatareasshouldbescheduledforadditiontothereserves.This processofselectionandrecommendationlettothepassingofthe1936NativesTrustandLandAct,which increasedreserveareasto13%oftotalterritoryandstrippedCapeAfricanmenofthefranchise.Thompson, AhistoryofSouthAfrica ,163-4. 265

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Figure6-1.ImageofTerminalexhibition,TakenNovember23,2013.Photographsby author. underminingofblacktenants,marginalizationofthereserveareas,anddevelopmentofthe migrantlaborsystem. 3 SouthAfricancitizens,scholars,laborandcivicorganizationsmarkedthe2013 centenarywitheditorials,conferences,bookpublications,andspeeches.Thecentenary occurredalmosttwodecadesaftertheendofApartheid,andmanyusedtheoccasion toreectontheprogressandpromiseofdemocraticruletorectifyinequalitiesforged throughcolonialandunion-eralegislationsuchasthe1913NativesLandAct.Others tookopportunitytodemandaccountabilityforineectiveandstalledprogramsofland 3.WilliamBeinartandPeterDelius,TheHistoricalContextandLegacyoftheNativesLandActof 1913, JournalofSouthernAfricanStudies 40,no.4:667-8. 266

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Figure6-2.ImageofTerminalexhibition,TakenNovember23,2013.Photographsby author. restitutionandreform. 4 Suchbroadrecognitionofthehundred-yearoldlawdrew attentiontothecontinuedlegacyofthehistorylanddispossessioninthetwenty-rst century. Eventhoughthe1913NativesLandActitselfdidnotdirectlytakeawaylandfrom Africans,formanytheActrepresentsthecriticalmomentinwhichthecountrydivided 4.See:SiphoMPityana,1913landact:ChangeiswrittenintotheConstitution,Mail&Guardian, 14June2013, Mail&Guardian ,June2013,accessedNovember13,2015, http://mg.co.za/article/201306-13-1913-land-act-change-is-written-into-the-constitution ;EdwardCavanagh,Centuryafter 1913LandAct,evictionsarecommonplace, BDLive ,July2013,accessedNovember13,2015, http: //www.bdlive.co.za/opinion/2013/07/02/century-after-1913-land-act-evictions-are-commonpla ;E.C.S., LandreforminSouthAfrica:Seedsofchange, TheEconomist ,June2013,accessedNovember13,2015, http://www.economist.com/blogs/baobab/2013/06/land-reform-south-africa ;CamilaOsorioAvendano, 100yearsoflanddispossessioninSouthAfrica ,September9,2013,accessedNovember13,2015, http://africasacountry.com/2013/09/100-years-of-land-dispossession-in-south-africa/ ;andHelenZille, Opinion:RedressingApartheid's`originalsin', CapeTimes ,January25,2013,accessedNovember13, 2015, http://beta.iol.co.za/capetimes/opinion-redressing-apartheids-original-sin-1458684 . 267

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Figure6-3.ImageofTerminalexhibition,TakenNovember23,2013.Photographsby author. intotwounequalzones:afertile,productiveareaforwhitesandamarginalperipheryfor blacks. 5 Further,thepsychicimpactsofsegregationlawshavenotbeenresolvedinthe post-apartheideraandcontinuetopermeateeortstolegislativelyrebuildthenation,and conditionnearlyalldiscussionsoflandinSouthAfrica. Severalartexhibitionsrecognizedthecentenary,andamajorityoftheseshowspresentedimagesandphotographicseriesthatcriticallyexaminedthetopicofland.Together withBongiweDhlomo-MautloaandPamWarne,prominentphotographersDavidGoldblattandPaulWeinbergcuratedUmhlabaLand:1913-2013,aphotographicsurvey 5.CherrylWalker,CriticalReectionsonSouthAfrica's1913NativesLandActanditsLegacies: Introduction, JournalofSouthernAfricanStudies 40,no.4:655. 268

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ofthetopicoflandanddispossession,fortheIzikoSouthAfricanNationalGallery. 6 In January2013,StevensongallerypresentedagroupexhibitionofSouthAfricanlandscapes, entitledTheLoomoftheLand,co-curatedbycomicillustratorAntonKannemeyer.This showbroughttogetherworkbytwenty-twoartistsandwasconceivedtochallengeviewer expectationsoflandscapes.In2013,theMarketPhotographyWorkshopbegancirculating ShowUsOurLand,anexhibitionofimagesofworkbyonehundredandfortyphotographers,selectedfromasocialnetworkphotographycompetition.Inadditiontothese exhibitions,outdoorinstallationsalsocommemoratedthe1913NativesLandAct.The GordonInstituteofPerformingArtsGIPCAattheUniversityofCapeTownsponsored, Terminal,anexhibitionofcontemporarylandscapephotographsonstreetpolesinCape TownFigs.6-1,6-2,&6-3. 7 Forthisendeavor,curatorsSveaJosephy,JeanBrundrit, andAdriennevanEeden-Whartonselectedimagesfromfteenphotographersfordisplay onA1-size 8 placardsthroughoutthecity. 9 Inaddition,thecollaborative,interdisciplinary 6.Theexhibitionopenedinconjunctionwithafour-dayconferenceattheUniversityofCapeTown dedicatedtoexploringthelegaciesofthepivotallegislationentitledLandDivided:LandandSouth AfricanSocietyin2013inComparativePerspective.Foradetaileddescriptionoftheprogram,speakers, andpaperspresentedattheLandDividedconference,see:InstituteforPoverty,LandandAgrarian StudiesPLAAS, LandDivided:LandandSouthAfricansocietyin2013 ,accessedNovember13,2015, http://www.landdivided2013.org.za/ . 7.ThetitleoftheexhibitionreferencesthecityofCapeTown,whichthecuratorsframedasaboundaries,extremitiesorends;aterminatingpointorplace;whatUmbertoEcoreferstoinTheNameofthe Roseas`nisAfricae'or`theendofAfrica';ajunctiononatransportationline;asitewherethingsare unloadedoruploaded;veins;somethingfatalthatwhichcausesorendsindeath;theendofaseriesor timeperiod;oreveninbotanicaltermsasanewgrowthatendofastem,branchorstalk.See:Gordon InstituteforPerformingandCreativeArts, Terminal:Anexhibitiononstreetpoles ,accessedNovember13, 2015, http://www.gipca.uct.ac.za/project/terminal/ ;Like"Umhlaba,"the"Terminal"exhibitionopened inconjunctionwithaconferenceexaminingthecentenaryoftheLandactthroughtheaterperformances, moderateddiscussion,andinstallations.TheconferencetookplacebetweenNovember21stand24th 2013invenuesacrossCapeTown.Foralistofevents,audiorecordingsofpresentations,andvideodocumentationsofperformances,see:GordonInstituteforPerformingandCreativeArts, LandConference , http://www.gipca.uct.ac.za/project/land/ . 8.A1-sizeprintsmeasure59.4x84.1cmor23.39x33.11inches. 9.Thecuratorschosetheposterformatandimagesthatcouldbeeasilyinterpretedonstreetpoles toencouragebroadengagementwiththegeneralpublic,amajorityofwhomdonotvisitartgalleries,but 269

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artcollective,theBurningMuseum,createdaseriesofwheat-pastedartworksonbuildings inSaltRiverandWoodstockthatincorporatedtextfromthe1913NativesLandAct Figs.6-46-6 10 TheinstallationswereaimedatpromotingdialogaboutthedisplacementofpeopleinCapeTownbroughtbysegregationistlegislation.Individualartistssuch asCedricNunnalsoproducedbodiesofworkfocusedonthecentenaryduringthisyear. 11 Thischapterlooksatthreeexhibitionsproducedin2013thatexaminethetopicof landandlandscapeinordertosurveytheexchanges,reectionsandactionsaroundland anditsrepresentationincontemporarySouthAfricanartsduringthisyear.Discussion ofUmhlaba,TheLoomoftheLand,andShowUsOurLand,oersauniquelens throughwhichtoassesstheconversationsurroundinglandandlandscapeinSouthAfrica atthecentenaryoftheNativesLandAct.Eachoftheexhibitionsunderconsiderationwas presentedatadierenttypeofvenue:apublic,government-fundedinstitutiontheIziko NationalGalleryinCapeTown,acommercialgalleryStevensonGalleryinJohannesburg,andaneducationalandpublicspaceMarketPhotographyWorkshop/BusFactory. ThedierencesineachsettingsupportfurtheranalysisintothewayscontemporaryphotographersandcuratorsaddressthesubjectoflandinSouthAfrica.Moreover,aclose lookatworksproducedfortherespectiveshowsprovidesinsightintohowphotographers who,thecuratorsargue,mayhaveinterestintheissuespresentedthroughthephotographs.TheTerminalshowwasalsoconceivedasadivergencefromotherexhibitionspresentedin2013thatpresenta historicaloverviewofthe1913NativesLandActorothermajornarratives.Participatingartistsincluded early-careerandestablishedartists:BerniSearle,NobukhoNqaba,MandlaMnyakama,AshleyWalters, DavidSouthwood,RobertWatermeyer,DominiqueEdwards,SveaJosephy,LindekaQampi,PaulWeinberg,SiphoMpongo,BrentMeistre,AngusMacKinnon,KyleMorland,andHaroonGunn-Salie.See: GordonInstituteforPerformingandCreativeArts, Terminal:Anexhibitiononstreetpoles . 10.TheBurningMuseumcollectiveiscomprisedofveartists:JustinDavy,JarrettErasmus,Tazneem Wentzel,GrantJuriusandScottWilliams.TomaketheNativesLandActpieces,theartistscombined portraitstakenbetween1950-1970attheformerVanKalkerPhotographicStudioinWoodstock.See: Rawoot,Ilham, TheartiststakingongentricationinSouthAfrica ,October8,2014,accessedNovember14,2015, http://www.dazeddigital.com/artsandculture/article/22036/1/the-artists-taking-ongentrication-in-south-africa . 11.See:Nunn, Unsettled:OneHundredYearsWarofresistancebyXhosaagainstBoerandBritish . 270

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Figure6-4.BurningMuseum, TheBoys3 .Woodstock,CapeTown.2013.Locatedat: ShanonStreet,SaltRiver,CapeTown. balance,blend,andcombineapoliticaldiscussionoflandwithapersonalinterestinthe landscapegenreitself. 6.2HistoricalContextofthe1913NativesLandAct The1913NativesLandActbroadlyaectedlifeandcommerceinSouthAfricaby instillingdiscriminatorypracticesinSouthAfricanlawthatdirectlyaectedblacktenant farmers.Yet,asCherrylWalkerobserves,manySouthAfricansoverestimatetheextent towhichthisparticularlegislationfurtheredracistandsegregationistpoliciesandequate the1913NativesLandActasthekeymomentofdispossessionfornon-whitecitizens.As anexampleWalkercitesmaterialsfromtheDepartmentofRuralDevelopmentandLand Reformthatchallengeallwell-meaningSouthAfricanstocometogethertoreversethe 271

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Figure6-5.BurningMuseum, TheBoys2 .Woodstock,CapeTown.2013.Locatedat: ShanonStreet,SaltRiver,CapeTown. shamefullegacyofthisact,which,morethananyother,dividedthenation.... 12 The popularhistoryofthe1913NativesLandAct,Walkerargues,obscuresitsrealhistorical impactsandallowsthestatetouseasimpliedhistory,bothasjusticationforland reform,and,implicitly,asmitigationforitsconsistentfailuretomeetnotonlyhighpublic 12.Walker,CriticalReectionsonSouthAfrica's1913NativesLandActanditsLegacies:Introduction,655. 272

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Figure6-6.BurningMuseum, LandAct2 .Woodstock,CapeTown.2013.Locatedat: BriarRoad,SaltRiver,CapeTown. expectationsoftheprogramme,butitsownmoremodesttargets. 13 Furtherevidence 13.Walker,CriticalReectionsonSouthAfrica's1913NativesLandActanditsLegacies:Introduction,655;AdiscussionoflandreforminSouthAfricaisbeyondthescopeofthisdissertation,butitis importanttonotethatthisissueformedacriticalpartofthepost-1994ANC-ledNationalUnityGovernmentagenda.Moreover,theissueoflandreformwasaddressedinthe1996SouthAfricanNational Constitution:section25intheBillofRightsstipulatesthatApersonorcommunitywhosetenureof 273

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liesineditorialsfromnationaltabloidsandstatementsfromlabororganizationspublished in2013,whichdrawattentiontothedisjuncturebetweentheeasewithwhichlegislation wascreatedandthedisproportionateeectithadonblacklivesinSouthAfrica. 14 The editorialboardof TheTimes newspaperinJohannesburgwrote: Allittookwasthestrokeofapen.Thedayafterthe1913LandActwas passed,thousandsofblackfamiliesweremadelandlessinthecountryof theirbirth.Morethanacenturylater,SouthAfricaisstilldealingwithits eects...Thosewhoarguethatthepastshouldbeburiedshouldlookatthe presentsituationtorealisethedamagethattheLandActdidtothiscountry's landlessmajority.Itisimportanttoreectonoursadhistorysoasnotto repeatthemistakesofthepast. 15 TheinuentialSouthAfricanlabororganization,COSATU, 16 usedsimilarlanguageina pressstatementonthecentenary:Atthestrokeofapen,themajorityofthepopulation landislegallyinsecureasaresultofpastraciallydiscriminatorylawsorpracticesisentitled,totheextent providedbyanActofParliament,eithertotenurewhichislegallysecureortocomparableredress.Forfurtherdiscussionoftheissueoflandreformwithinthecontextofthe1913NativesLandAct,see:FredT. Hendricks,LungisileNtsebeza,andKirkHelliker, Thepromiseofland:UndoingacenturyofdispossessioninSouthAfrica AucklandPark,SouthAfrica:JacanaMedia,2013;BrentMcCusker,WilliamG. Moseley,andMaanoRamutsindela, LandreforminSouthAfrica:Anuneventransformation Lanham: Rowman&Littleeld,2015;BenCousinsandCherrylWalker, Landdivided,landrestored:Landreform inSouthAfricaforthe21stcentury Johannesburg:JacanaMedia,2015. 14.ThesepublicationsusethewidelyknownwordsofnovelistSolPlaatjetointroducetheirarguments. Plaatje's1916novel, NativelifeinSouthAfrica ,openswiththeinfamouspassage:AwakingonFriday morning,June20,1913,theSouthAfricannativefoundhimself,notactuallyaslave,butapariahinthe landofhisbirth.See:SolT.Plaatje, NativelifeinSouthAfrica Randburg,SouthAfrica:RavanPress, 1996,21. 15.TheTimesEditorial,Thelandquestionmustbehandledwithextremesensitivity, TheTimes , February28,2014,accessedNovember14,2015, http://www.timeslive.co.za/thetimes/2014/02/28/the-landquestion-must-be-handled-with-extreme-sensitivity . 16.JeremyBaskin, Strikingback:ahistoryofCosatu Johannesburg:RavanPress,1991,Theacronym COSATUisusedtodesignatetheCongressofSouthAfricanTradeUnions,atradefederationorganizationfoundedin1985attheheightoftheanti-apartheidmovement.AtthetimeofitsfoundingCOSATU broughttogethermanyunionsformedafterawidespreadseriesofstrikesintheearly1970s,andtoday itrepresentstheinterestsoftwenty-onealiatesandoveramillionworkers.Theorganizationwields considerablepoliticalinuenceinSouthAfricaindustryandgovernment.Foradiscussionofthehistory ofCOSATU,see:S.Buhlungu, Aparadoxofvictory:COSATUandthedemocratictransformationin SouthAfrica Scottsville,SouthAfrica:UniversityofKwaZulu-NatalPress,2010;COSATU, Historyof COSATU-CongressofSouthAfricanTradeUnions ,accessedNovember14,2015, http://www.cosatu.org. za/show.php?ID=925 . 274

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werecruellyrobbedoftheirland,thesourceoftheirfoodandthesiteoftheirfamilies` homesforgenerations.Thousandswereevictedandmanydied. 17 Theseexcerpts demonstratehowthe1913NativesLandActconcentratesfuryatthehistoryofinjustice andinequalityinSouthAfricathatstemfromdispossession,andoerawaytoground orcontextualizetheseviewsinpublicdialogs.WilliamBeinartandPeterDeliusshare Walker'sconcernsaboutmisconceptionsoftheNativesLandAct,andpublicpromotion ofthehistoricalcontextandconsequencesoftheAct.Further,theyarguethatgaps inknowledgeaboutthelegislationaresignicantnotonlyforhistorianswhowantto understandtheActinitsgreatercomplexity,butalsobecauseofthewaytheyframe contemporarydebatesabouthowtobestovercomeitslegacy. 18 AwarenessofdisconnectsbetweenthehistoryoftheNativesLandActandits perceptioninthepublicsphereiscriticaltounderstandingthebreadthofmaterials producedbyvisualartistsinresponsetothecentenary.Examiningthecenturysince thepassingofthe1913NativesLandActprovidesaframeworktoexaminethelong historyofdispossessioninSouthAfricathatmediatespublicdiscussionofland,including itsvisualrepresentation.Butwhileallthreeexhibitionsconsideredhereengagewith the1913NativesLandActasapointofdeparturefortheirconversationsaboutland inpost-apartheidSouthAfrica,manyartistslikepoliticiansandtheSouthAfrican publicattributegreaterpowertotheActthanoriginallyconceived.Despitefrequent assertion,theoriginallegislationdidnotdirectlytakeawaylandfromblackSouth Africans.LanddispossessionfromAfricanshadlargelyoccurredpriortothepassingof the1913NativesLandActthroughaprotractedprocessofviolentconquests,frontier 17.PatrickCraven, COSATUstatementoncentenaryofNativesLandActof1913 ,June2013,accessed November14,2015, http://www.cosatu.org.za/show.php?ID=7443 . 18.BeinartandDelius,TheHistoricalContextandLegacyoftheNativesLandActof1913,667. 275

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wars,andannexations. 19 IntheBritishCapeandNatalColonies,landhadalready beenreservedforcolonizedAfricanpopulationsduringthenineteenthcentury,andsmall areaswerereservedforAfricansintheBoerrepublicsoftheTransvaalandtheOrange FreeState. 20 BeinartandDeliusassertthatthe1913NativesLandActwasprimarily aninterimmeasuredesignedtomaintainthe`statusquo'oflandoccupationand ownership, 21 andthatitrecognizedratherthancauseddispossession. 22 Theauthors positthattheActwasdesignedtochangethetermsonwhichAfricanscouldoccupy white-ownedlandandtoextendtheareasreservedforAfricans. 23 ProvisionsintheNativesLandActthatdiddirectlyandtangiblyimpactAfrican populationsincluded:aplannedcommissiontorecommendnewlandforadditiontothe reserves, 24 andaprohibitionofthepurchase,renting,orleasinglandbyAfricans. 25 Priorto1913,largenumbersofAfricanslivedoutsidereserveareasonancestralland thatwasnowownedbywhitefarmersorcompanies.Inreturnforaccesstotheselands, theyeitherpaidrentincash,share-crops,orwiththeirlabor. 26 TheNativesLandAct alsointroducednewcontrolsovertenancyonwhite-ownedfarms.Afterthepassingof 19.ColinBundy,CastingaLongShadow:TheNativesLandActof1913anditsLegacy,in Umhlaba1913-2013:commemoratingthe1913LandAct Belville,SouthAfrica:InstituteforPoverty,Land/ AgrarianStudiesPLAAS,2015,15. 20.BeinartandDelius,TheHistoricalContextandLegacyoftheNativesLandActof1913,669. BeinartandDeliusfurtherobservethatlandalienationfromKhoiandBantupopulationsoccurredbetweenthesixteenthandnineteenthcenturiesaftersettlersmovedfromtheCapeintotheSouthAfrican interior.Theauthorsnotethatmuchofthereservedlandwassetasidethroughtheestablishmentof ZululandandtheTranskei. 21.Ibid.,668. 22.Ibid.,669. 23.Ibid.,668. 24.Ibid. 25.Thompson, AhistoryofSouthAfrica ,163. 26.Bundy,CastingaLongShadow:TheNativesLandActof1913anditsLegacy,17. 276

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thelegislation,sharecroppingwasoutlawedandAfricanslivingonwhite-ownedfarms wererequiredtogive90daysofserviceayeartoland-owners.BeinartandDeliusnote thatthesethreeprovisionshadimmediateimpactintheyearsfollowingthepassingof theActthoughtheseramicationsweremoreacutelyfeltinsomeprovincesoverothers, inparticular,theOrangeFreeState.NovelistSolPlaatjefamouslydescribedtheAct asinstigatingagreatdispersalofAfricansevictedfromwhite-ownedfarms,whichhe principallyencounteredamongsharecroppersnearKimberlyintheOrangeFreeState. 27 But,BeinartandDeliusnotethatthe1913LandActwasnotwidelyenforced,andmuch oftheOrangeFreeStatesawsharecroppingcontinueintothe1940s,atwhichpointthe extirpationoftenantswastechnologicalratherthanpolitical,andfarmworkbecame mechanized. 28 DatashowthatthenumberofAfricanslivingonwhite-ownedlandactually grewinthefortyyearsfollowingthepassingoftheAct,andsuggestthatthetrueattack onthetenancyoccurredinthe1950sand1960s,whenstate-supportforcommercial farmingincreased.Uptothatpoint,ColinBundyargues,onlysmallminoritiesofwhite farmersweremodernizingtheiroperationsandwereinapositiontoreplacetenancywith wagelabor. 29 Thetractor,hesuggests,provedtobethekeyweaponintheclassstruggle inthecountryside.Between1961and1980thenumberoftractorsinuseincreasedfrom 122,000to300,000,andpopulationsinreserveareasincreasedduringthattimefrom39% 27.See:Plaatje, NativelifeinSouthAfrica ,21.Plaatjiewritesfurther,AsquatterinSouthAfricais anativewhoownssomelivestockand,havingnolandofhisown,hiresafarmorgrazingandploughing rightsfromalandowner,toraisegrainforhisownuseandfeedhisstock.Hence,thesesquattersarehit veryhardbyanActwhichpassedbothHousesofParliamentduringthesessionof1913...Butthegreat revolutionarychangethuswroughtbyasinglestrokeofthepen,intheconditionoftheNative,wasnot realizedbyhimuntilabouttheendofJune.Asarulemanyfarmtenanciesexpireattheendofthehalfyear,sothatinJune,1913,notknowingthatitwasimpracticabletomakefreshcontracts,someNatives unwittinglywenttosearchfornewplacesofabode....Plaatje, NativelifeinSouthAfrica ,212. 28.BeinartandDelius,TheHistoricalContextandLegacyoftheNativesLandActof1913,674. 29.Bundy,CastingaLongShadow:TheNativesLandActof1913anditsLegacy,21. 277

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to53%. 30 Thus,Bundypositsthatthelong-termeectoftheNativesLandActwas, ultimately,todecisivelyloadthescales...infavorofcapitalistagriculture.Morehighly capitalizedfarmers...founditeasier,underthetermsoftheAct,tocontrolalloftheir land. 31 Undeniable,however,isthefactthatthe1913NativesLandActaectedsocial relationsinSouthAfricainawaythathintedatthefutureofengagementsbetween Africanandwhitepopulations.BeinartandDeliusarguethattheActhadakeyrolein providingalong-termbasisforzonesofossiedtraditionalleadershipandcustomary lawaswellasvariousformsofeconomicandsocialdisadvantage. 32 Bundyarguesthat akeylegacyoftheActisthatitmadeacriticalandlastinglegaldistinctionbetween landscheduledasnativereservesandthatownedbywhitefarmersandcompanies. 33 Takentogether,scholarssuchasWalker,Bundy,BeinartandDeliusrecognizethatpublic conversationaboutlanddispossessionrepresentsanappropriateresponsetothecentenary oftheAct,buturgethatitisimportantnottomisconstruethisparticularpieceof legislationinspeechesorothervenues.ThehistoryoflandseizureinSouthAfricathrough violentandlegislativemeansextendswellbeyondthehundred-yearperiodmarkedbythe NativesLandActcentenaryandpublicdialogshouldrecognizeabroadercontext. 6.3Umhlaba:1913-2013Commemoratingthe1913LandAct,IzikoSouth AfricanNationalGallery,CapeTown Believedtobethelargestphotographicexhibitionassembledonthelandissuein SouthAfrica,Umhlaba:1913-2013commemoratedthecentenaryofthe1913Natives 30.Bundy,CastingaLongShadow:TheNativesLandActof1913anditsLegacy,21. 31.Ibid.,22. 32.BeinartandDelius,TheHistoricalContextandLegacyoftheNativesLandActof1913,688. 33.Bundy,CastingaLongShadow:TheNativesLandActof1913anditsLegacy,22. 278

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LandActattheIzikoSouthAfricanNationalGalleryinCapeTown. 34 Thetheshow broughttogether220historicalandcontemporaryimagesfromthirtyphotographersand eighteendierentarchives. 35 Afour-personcuratorialteamcomprisedofPaulWeinberg,DavidGoldblatt,PamWarne,andBongiweDhlomo-MautloaopenedUmhlabain connectionwiththeLandDividedmeetingattheUniversityofCapeTown. 36 UmhlabalatertraveledtotheWitsArtsMuseuminJohannesburg. 37 AsMichaelGodby observed,theshowbothdrewfrom,andcontributedto,thegeneralinterestintheissue oflandatthistimewhichhasalsoseenanumberofministerialspeeches,majoracademic conferences,andotherexhibitionsdebatinglandpolicyinSouthAfrica. 38 TheUmhlabaexhibitionaddressedtherepresentationoflandandtheissueofdispossessionfromavastphotographicarchiveinSouthAfricaandfromtheperspectiveof establishedcuratorsandartists.TwoorganizersareprominentdocumentaryphotographersinSouthAfrica:DavidGoldblattandPaulWeinbergwerebothactiveinproducing imagesusedintheanti-apartheidmovement,andWeinbergwasafoundingmemberof 34.Thetitle,Umhlaba,isthewordfor"land"inNgunilanguages. 35.Forbrevity,thissectionwillrefertotheUmhlaba:1913-2013exhibitionasUmhlaba. 36.TheLandDividedconferencewasheldMarch24-27,2013,attheUniversityofCapeTown.The interdisciplinarymeetingwasorganizedbythreedierentacademicinstitutionsinSouthAfricaprimarily theInstituteforPoverty,Land,andAgrarianStudiesPLAASattheUniversityoftheWesternCape broughttogetheradiverserangeofscholarswhopresentedworkrelatedtosocial,human,andenvironmentalsciencesresearchonlandissuesinSouthAfrica.Sessionslookedatthehistoryofdispossessionin SouthAfrica,landreform,agrarianpolicyinSouthernAfrica,ecologicalchallengesforSouthAfricanlandscapes,andidentity,belongingwithrespecttoland.Arthistoriansandartistspresentedattheconference inasessiondevotedtolandandphotography,including:MichaelGodby,LizevanRobbroeck,andPatricia Hayes.InstituteforPoverty,LandandAgrarianStudiesPLAAS, LandDivided:LandandSouthAfrican societyin2013 . 37.TheUmhlaba:1913-2013exhibitionwasshownattheIzikoSouthAfricanNationalGalleryfrom March26,2013-July28,2013andattheWitsArtMuseumfromAugust28,2013-November9,2013. 38.MichaelGodby,BlackSpots, Safundi 15,nos.2-3:394. 279

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Figure6-7.DijonDesign, Top :InstallationViewand Bottom DesignViewfor UmhlabaexhibitionattheIzikoSouthAfricanNationalGallery,2013.The longroomwith"Umhlaba"containedtherstsection.Theadjoining,square galleryheldthephotographicessays,andthenalroomdisplayedthe contemporarycollection.Accessedat: http://www.dijondesign.net/view.asp? ItemID=94&tname=tblComponent1&oname=Projects&pg=front Afrapix, 39 thephotographycollectiveandagencydedicatedtodocumentingandpromotingawarenessoflifeunderapartheid.Allfourcuratorshadunparalleledaccesstoanarray ofarchivalresourceswithinSouthAfricaanddrewuponyearsofrespectivecuratorial 39.Inadditiontohiswideportfolioofsocially-committedphotographyprojects,PaulWeinbergalso togetherwithMarleneWinbergpublishedanimageseriesthatlooksattheissueoflanddispossessionand restitution.SeeMarleneWinbergandPaulWeinberg, BacktotheLand PorcupinePress,1996. 280

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experienceinproducingtheexhibition.Thoughtheyacknowledgeintheircuratorial statementthatNosinglephotographicexhibitioncouldillustratethefulldiversityofour complexrelationswithlandanditshistories,theseindividualswerepoisedtocontribute tothepublicdiscussionoflandasitrelatestothehistoryofphotographyinSouthAfrica inauniquemanner. Intheirinterpretationoftheimpactsofthepivotallegislation,thecuratorsof Umhlabaprioritizedageneralnarrativeofdispossessionthatdrewuponmanyofthe publicmisconceptionsofthe1913NativesLandAct.Amajorityofphotographswere documentaryimagesdepictinginjusticesenduredbyblackSouthAfricansintheaftermath ofthe1913NativesLandAct,suchasevictions,migration,andpoverty.Together,these imagesforegroundedafocused,linearaccountofthelandissueinSouthAfricaduring ahundred-yearperiodthatincludedaourishingofphotographicexplorationofthe topicsince1994.Inthiscontext,theframeworkofthecentenaryultimatelychanneled interrogationoftheseizure,division,andsegregationoflandintoachronicleofpolitical actionsandplayersperhapsatoddswiththenuancesoftheissuesandtheirexploration bySouthAfricanphotographers,inparticularwithworkproducedsince1994. Discussionoftheformat,organization,andreceptionofUmhlabaoerinsightinto theimbalancebetweenthecurators'useofthefocusedlensofthecentenaryandthe diversityofproductionrelatedtolandinSouthAfricanphotography.TheUmhlaba exhibitionhadthreeparts:anopeninghistoricaldivision,amiddlesectionofphotographic essaysthatexploredresistancetodispossession,andanal,contemporarycollection ofimageslabeledwithapanelreadingTodayfromphotographerslookingata broadersubsetoflandissues,suchasmining,landreform,theMarikanamassacre, andenvironmentalissuesFig.6-7.Eachofthesesectionswasfurtherbrokendowninto groupsofimagesorsubseriesthataddressedaspecicissueortheme.InCapeTown, thethreesectionswerepresentedseparatelyindierentrooms,whereasattheWits ArtMuseuminJohannesburg,thephasesblendedtogetherbetweentwooors.Visitors 281

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Figure6-8.PhotographerUnknown,SouthAfricanmigrantworkersboundforthe Goldelds,'PlaceandDateunknown.FromMuseumAfrica,Johannesburg. andcritics,includingprominentarthistorianMichaelGodby,andrespectedcriticSean O'ToolereviewedtheUmhlabaandreacheddierentconclusionsregardingitsecacyat presentingacogentdialogonthetopicoflandinrelationtothecentenary. Theopeningsectionoftheexhibitionhadtwoparts:photographsthatprovided ahistoricalcontexttotheimplementationoftheactandthirty-twoportraitsofSouth 282

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Africansfromself-taughtphotographer,HughExton,whooperatedastudioinPietersburg 40 between1892and1945.Thehistoricalimagesfeaturedphotographstakenbetween 1913untilthebeginningofResistanceeraandwasdesignedtoprovideanoverviewof theimpactsoflegislationrelatedtolanduse,access,andownership,suchastheNatives LandAct.Thearchivalimageryshowedarangeofsubjects,including:migrantworkers enroutetodiamondandgoldeldsFig.6-8,magistratescolletinghuttax,farmlaborers,andAfrikanerhomesteadsburntintheSecondAngloBoerWarFig.6-10.Exton's portraitsweredrawnfromanarchiveofover23,000glassplatenegatives,andtheselected imagespresentedformalportraitsofwell-dressed,blackandwhitesittersFig.6-9.The curatorsarrangedExton'sphotographsinhorizontallinebelowthearchivalimagesandin doingso,theypresenttheportraitsasacountertothebroadaccountingofeventsinthe documentaryphotographsFig.6-7. 41 Theportraitshavenoclearconnectiontothetopicofland,butsituatedoppositethe documentaryimages,oeranassertionofthedignityoftheindividualcitizenatthetime the1913NativesLandActwasimplemented. 42 MichaelGodbyinterpretsthisgestureas aneorttobalancethenegativelychargedphotographsintheexhibitionwithpositive 40.ThecityofPietersburgwasrenamedPolokwanein2002.ThenamePolokwanetranslatesto PlaceofSafetyinSotho.ItisthecapitalofLimpopoprovinceinthenortheastregionofSouthAfrica. 41.Thecatalogprefacearguesthattheimagesscommemoratethesignicantmilestonesinlife,andofferamorepersonalcommunicationofthesignicanceoflandinthelivesofmanydierentSouthAfricans. See:AninkaClaassens,BenCousins,andCherrylWalker,Preface,in Umhlaba1913-2013:Commemoratingthe1913LandAct Belville,SouthAfrica:InstituteforPoverty,LandandAgrarianStudies PLAAS,2015,9. 42.AconnectionbetweenportraitphotographyandanassertionofagencyinAfricanphotographyhas beenthoroughlyaddressedintheliteratureinAfricanphotography,inparticular,withrespecttoWest Africanphotographers.See:Bajorek,DislocatingFreedom:ThePhotographicPortraitureofSeydou Keta;Bigham,IssuesofauthorshipintheportraitphotographsofSeydouKeita;Buckley,Selfand accessoryinGambianstudiophotography;ForadiscussionofportraitureandtheagencyofAfricansubjectsineasternandsouthernAfrica,see:Behrend,'Iamlikeamoviestarinmystreet;'Photographic Self-creationinPostcolonialKenya;MichaelGodby,TheDramaofColor:ZwelethuMthethwa'sPortraits, Nka:JournalofContemporaryAfricanArt 10,no.1:46;andDubin,Impersonations andRevelations:MysteriesofaSouthAfricanPhotographyStudio. 283

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Figure6-9.HughExton, IsaacandFriend ,1927. images.Exton'sphotographsdisplayposedsitterswhofacethecameraandareengagedin theirpresentation.Formally,theycontrastthedocumentaryimagesdisplayedalongside, whicheachchronicleadierentnarrativeaboutland,andprimarilypresentsubjects unnamedandasrepresentativeofahistoricalmoment.Godby,however,challengesthe curators'choiceofportraitphotographsforthissection;thecommercialportraitscreated byExton,heargues,showsubjectswellintegratedintothecolonialeconomyandwho wouldhaveconsideredthemselvesurban,ratherthanruralpeople 43 andwereunlikely tohavebeenaectedbythestatutesoftheAct.HealsonotesthatExtonwasaprolic 43.Godby,BlackSpots,396. 284

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Figure6-10.PhotographerUnknown.F.W.Coetzersitswithhishandsonthe stoep ofhis farmhouse,whichwasburntdownbyBritishsoldiersduringtheSecond Anglo-BoerWar,Garsfontein,outsideReddersburg,1902.FromAngloBoer WarMuseum,Bloemfontein.Thisimageformedpartoftheopeningsection of"Umhlaba." photographeroflandscapeandlamentsthatthisaspectsofhisarchiveremainedabsent fromtheexhibition. 44 Themiddlesectionof"Umhlaba"presentedeightdocumentaryessays,eachfroma dierentphotographeractiveduringtheStruggle-Era,includingcuratorsPaulWeinberg andDavidGoldblatt.Together,theessaysdocumentedresistancetoevictions,prole individualfarmers,andrelaythebroaderstruggleofblackSouthAfricanstomaintain controlandownershipofland.AseriesfromDavidGoldblattportrayedsharecropper,Kas Maine,whohadbeensenttoaresettlementcampintheBophuthatswana. 45 Fig.6-11 44.Godby,BlackSpots,396. 45.BophuthatswanawasoneoftheBantustansestablishedbytheapartheidgovernment.TheKas Maineserieswascommissionedin1980byCharlesvanOnselen,thethendirectoroftheInstitutefor 285

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Figure6-11.DavidGoldblatt,Kasianyane'OuKas'Maintakeshiscattleouttograzein theearlymorning,Ledige,Bophuthatswana,n.d.Thisimageformedpartof thesecondsectionof"Umhlaba." ChrisLedochowskidocumentedthelifeofhisparents'formerdomesticworker,Petrus MuvhulawaMulaudzi,byrepeatedlytravelingtoMulaudzi'shomevillageoverthirtyyears andphotographinghislifeinthissetting.AnessayfromSantuMofokengthatlooksat Bloemhof,aruralsettlementonthebanksoftheVaalRiverbetween1988and1994 diersfromtheothercollections:itportraysanarrativeabouttenantlaborerswithouta clear,linearprogressionFig.6-12andFig.6-13.GodbywritesthatMofokeng'sessay, tellsnostoryandinstead,eectivelyrecordstherealityoftheSouthAfricanlandscape asitisexperiencedbyfarmworkersandtenantfarmersscratchingforalivingonthe marginsofanentrenchedwhiteeconomy. 46 TheessaysfromGoldblattandLedochowski AdvancedSocialResearchattheUniversityoftheWitswatersrand.vanOnselenwroteaboutKasMaine inhiscelebratedhistoriography,CharlesVanOnselen, TheSeedisMine:thelifeofKasMaine,aSouth Africansharecropper,1894-1985 NewYork:Hill&Wang,1996. 46.Godby,BlackSpots,399. 286

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Figure6-12.SantuMofokeng, AfoorFamilyBedroom,Vaalrand ,1988.GelatinsilverPrint exemplifythetypeofimagesinthissection:activistphotographsmeanttodrawattention totheimpactsofdispossessiononaectedindividualsandcommunities. Manycriticstookissuewithwhattheyperceivedtobeanarrowmessagecommunicatedthroughthecollectionofessayscreatedduringasmallwindowofthehundred-year periodcoveredbytheshow.MichaelGodbysuggeststhattheessaysreproduceevents inavisuallyhomogenousmannerandaretooreminiscentofprominentdocumentary publicationssuchas TheCordonedHeart .ThereisnosenseofthebroadSouthAfrican landscapehere,hewrites,nosenseofanevolvinghistory,justcloselyobservedmoments ofresistance,ofstruggle,andofaccommodationtothebizarrerealitiesoflateapartheid SouthAfrica. 47 SeanO'TooleechoesaspectsofGodby'sinterpretationsandsuggests thatthemiddlesectionoftheexhibitionactsasabelatedswansongforAfrapix,whose 47.Godby,BlackSpots,398. 287

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Figure6-13.SantuMofokeng, PensionersenRoute,Bloemhof ,1988.Gelatinsilverprint. thirtiethanniversaryin2012wentunremarkedinthepress. 48 Godbyalsoquestionsthe lackofimageryfromformerNativeReserveareasorprolesofthetypesofmigrancythat theLandActsinictedonhundredsofthousandsofSouthAfricanseachyear. 49 AccordingtoO'Toole,ThehistoryofphotographyinSouthAfricais,increasingly,markedby thearticulationofsafeacademicpositionsinwhichthecountry'sdocumentarytradition islionizedratherthandiligentlyinterrogated,itslimitsandfailingsprobed.`Umhlaba' repeatsthisstrategy. 50 Asatransitionbetweenasectiondedicatedtotheearlyperiod surroundingtheactandapost-1994division,theessayssectionportraystheActasakey measureoflanddispossession,whoseeectscouldbeexploredattherst-personlevel. ThoughtheremarksfromO'TooleandGodbyoeramorenegativeviewofthemiddle sectionofUmhlaba,itisfairtosaythatthisportionoftheexhibitiondisproportionately concentratesonphotographicproductionrelatedtolandmadeduringanarrowperiod fromarelatedgroupofartists. 48.SeanO'Toole,Umhlaba1913-2013:Primevalsnapshotsofourlostandstolenworlds, Mail& Guardian ,May24,2013,accessedNovember13,2015, http://mg.co.za/article/2013-05-24-00-umhlaba1913-2013-primeval-snapshots-of-our-lost-and-stolen-worlds . 49.Godby,BlackSpots,399. 50.O'Toole,Umhlaba1913-2013:Primevalsnapshotsofourlostandstolenworlds. 288

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Thenal,contemporarysectionofUmhlababroughttogetheraselectionofimages fromalargenumberofSouthAfricanphotographerswhosefocirangefromlandreform totherecentprotesteventsatMarikana.ImagesfromThabisoSekgala'sHomeland portrayviewsoftheformerKwaNedbeleBantustanFig.6-14.AselectionfromGraeme Williams'seriesPaintingoverthePresent,whichexplorestheenvironmentsoccupied bysomeofthemostimpoverishedcitizensinSouthAfrica,showsableachednorthern capelandscapebisectedbyafenceandmarkedwithablueautoonstiltsFig.6-15. 51 Butthevarietyofphotographsincludedinthissectionfracturetheconversationon landintoawebofdivergentpathsseeminglyatoddswiththeprevioussection,and createwhatSeanO'Tooleobservesasaratherjumbledselectionofsingularimages thatdescribetheperiodfrom1994onwards. 52 Godbyfurtherlamentsthattheimages inthissectionfailtoengagewiththecomplexissuesofrestitution,compensation, training,capitalization...thatwereinvestigatedsothoroughlyintheLandConference thattheexhibitionwasmadetocompliment. 53 Ultimately,thenalsectionsamples thewidespreadinterestinlandandlandissuesamongcontemporarySouthAfrican photographersfromdiversebackgrounds,butlacksaclearanalysisorassessmentofwhat thesenewinvestigationsaddtotheconversationsurroundinglandanditsdispossession. Ininterviewsabouttheexhibition,thecuratorsofUmhlabaexpressedadesirefor theshowtoconveyasenseofthereal,materialimpactsthelegislationhadonthelives 51.Otherphotographsinthissectioninclude,workfromCarolineSuzmanportraywhitefarmerswho havebeenmovedotheirlandorthreatenedwithviolence.PhotographsfromGregMarinovichshowa forensicviewofthelocationoftheMarikanaMassacre:hisimagespresentchalkoutlines,bulletholesin rocks,andpolicetapeinanotherwiseemptylandscape.AphotographfromObieOberholzershowsahill ofcrossesvisiblefromtheN1highwayoutsidePolokwane,Limpopothatcommemoratethemurderof whitefarmerssince1994.ImagesfromIlanGodfreyandDavidGoldblattintroduceadiscussionofmining anditshumanandenvironmentalimpactsintothesection.FourphotographsfromThabisoSekgaladepict peopleandbuildingsintheformerhomelandareaofKwaNedeble. 52.O'Toole,Umhlaba1913-2013:Primevalsnapshotsofourlostandstolenworlds. 53.Godby,BlackSpots,400. 289

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Figure6-14.ThabisoSekgala, JaneNkuna,atLondingintheformerKwandebele Bantustan ,2010.Archivalinkjetprint. ofSouthAfricansinthehundredyearssinceitspassing.Mywishisthatpeopletake awaytherealityofwhathappenedforthepastonehundredyears,saidCuratorBongiwe Dhlomo-Mautloa, 54 whosesentimentswereechoedbyco-curatorPaulWeinberg,who observed:whatisoftenmisunderstoodwhenpeoplesaytheylosttheirland[isthat]they didn'tjustlosetheirland;theylosttheirlives,theylosttheirculture,theylostpractices. Forthosereasonsonereallyneedstobesensitiveandunderstandthefullmeaningof 54.WitsVuvuzela, Umhlaba1913-2013 ,accessedNovember13,2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Etmkpm8lvzA . 290

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Figure6-15.GraemeWilliams,NearKakamas,NorthernCape,fromtheseries Painting overthePresent ,2010. land. 55 Theircommentsreecttheimportanceoftheissuebeyonditsexaminationina publicexhibition,andbroadlyindicatethedeeplyfeltemotionbroughtforwardduringthe centenaryoftheNativesLandAct.Thecuratorswerekeenlyawareofthesesentiments andtheirselectionofimages"Umhlaba"atteststotheirsensitivitytothepublicfeelings associatedwiththeact,aswellastheirunderstandingoftheperceptionoftheactonthe partoftheSouthAfricangeneralpublic. Overall,criticalresponsetotheexhibitionvariedintonefromdismissivetocelebratory.Asnoted,MichaelGodbyandSeanO'Toolewerebothhighlycriticalofthewaysthe exhibitionfellshortofitspotential,asignaloftheneedmanycritics,viewers,andartists feelforaclose,rigorousexaminationofthelandissueinSouthAfrica.Godbylaments 55.SABCNews, TheE-zikoGallerycommemoratingthe1913LandActthroughaphotographicexhibition ,July2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqYgDl-RHFM. . 291

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thatthedisparateworksintheshowfailtoconstructahistoricalplatformfromwhich topresentthecurrentsituationandcurrentdebatesaboutlandanditspossibleredistributiontobringthelegacyofthe1913LandActtoaclose; 56 SeanO'Toolechallenges thecurators'didacticismandassertsthattheshowwastoocomfortableinitsacceptance ofsocialrealismastheonlymodeforgettingatthetruth. 57 Otherreviewersresponded tothebreadthofimagesintheexhibitionpositively,andcameawayfromtheexhibition feelingasthoughtheygainedimportantcontexttothelandissuethroughphotography. WritingfortheWitsUniversitystudentpaper,PheladiSethusareected:"Afterawalk aboutthewholegallery,therealityofourhistorywasmorethanapparent."Inthearticle Sethusaalsoquotedastudentvisitor,fourth-yearphotographystudentMelissaBennett, whoremarkedthatshe"lovedhowthephotostoldastoryofovercomingboundaries." Bennett,Sethusawrites"wasalsoparticularlyintriguedbythewaythephotoshadbeen arrangedaccordingtoahistoricaltimeline." 58 Others,suchaslocalartsreviewerand bloggerTebogoSerobatse,spokeenthusiasticallyabouttheexhibition."Itisnotoften thatonehastheopportunitytowitnessexhibitionsthatareinspiredbyarecordofour history,"hewrites." Umhlaba isformeanarrativeaboutpossession:thepossessed,the dispossessed,theultimatestoryaboutthehavesandthehavenots.Itisformealsoa gravewarningaboutwhatmayoccurifwedonottakeheed." 59 IntheshowSerobatse foundameaningfulpresentationofacontentiousissuethathasgreatrelevanceforcontemporarysettings.Inadditiontothesereviewersnumerouswriters,suchasLucilleDavie,a 56.Godby,BlackSpots,402. 57.O'Toole,Umhlaba1913-2013:Primevalsnapshotsofourlostandstolenworlds. 58.PheladiSethusa,WITHGALLERY:The1913LandActrealisedthroughphotos, WitsVuvusela:A PublicationofWitsJournalism ,August2013, http://witsvuvuzela.com/2013/08/29/with-gallery-the-1913/ . 59.TebogoSerobatse, ReviewofUmhlaba1913-2013|Commemoratingthe1913LandAct ,LikeWater, 30October2013, http://www.like-water.co.za/article/review-umhlaba-1913-2013-commemorating-1913-landact#.VuWZDCmXtpn . 292

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reporterforthe"MediaClubSouthAfrica,"publisheddescriptiveaccountsoftheexhibitionthathighlighteditsbreadthofimageryonthesubjectofland. 60 Takentogether,the mixedreceptionindicatesboththeimportanceoftheshowtothepublicanditstimely presentation. 61 Thoughissuesoflanddispossessionextendbeyondthescopeofasingleexhibition, thepotentialyieldfromacloselookatthehistoryandinjusticesoflandseizureinSouth Africathroughphotographyenticedapublicthatdesiresaframeworkinwhichtodistill thiscomplexissueinapost-apartheidcontext.Theexcitementsurrounding"Umhlaba" wasaptlysummarizedbyPaulWeinberghimself,whoreectedthatthe"anniversary oftheLandActoersanimportantopportunitytotellthisstoryinwaysithasnever beentoldbefore." 62 Despiteshortcomingsintheeyesofmanycritics,"Umhlaba"did somethingdierentandimportant:itdrewattentiontoalineageofphotographerswho examinedthetopicoflandinSouthAfrica. 60.LucilleDavie,ed., 1913LandAct:imagesofloss ,22October2013, http://www.mediaclubsouthafrica. com/land-and-people/97-history-and-heritage/3519-a-stark-portrait-of-loss . 61.InAugustof2013IhadtheopportunitytovisittheexhibitionattheWitsArtMuseumduringaresearchtriptotheJohannesburg.Myimpressionsoftheshowwereinnosmallpartcoloredbymyposition asresearcherofSouthAfricanphotography:Iwasbothdelightedtoseetwooorsdevotedtotheissueof landdispossession-atopicofsustainedconcernforartistsoverthepastfewdecades-anddisappointed attheselectionspresented.LikeMichaelGodby,Ifeltthattheshowwasdisproportionatelyweightedtowardsprominentphotographersactiveinthe1980sand1990sattheexpenseofyounger,contemporary practitioners.Likeotherreviewers,IfeltlikeIhadbeenwaitingforanexhibitionofthiskindforalong timeandmyexpectationswerepredicatedonadesireforsomethingthatislikelybeyondthescopeofa singleshow.Ispokewithnumerousphotographersandeducatorsabouttheexhibitionintheweeksfollowingmyvisit.Manyechoedmysentimentsandothersdidnot.Ilearnedthatsomeinstitutionsbrought classestoseetheshowandusedthesevisitstopromotediscussiononthetopicoflandanditsrepresentationbySouthAfricanphotographers.Theseconversationsoeredanimportantcountertotheresponse fromcriticsandservedasareminderthatexhibitionssuchastheseareresourcesforpromotingdiscussion andreection,dialogsthatmightnothavecometoforewithouttheaidofapublicpresentation. 62.UniveristyofCapeTownCenterforLawandSociety, Alanddivided:photoexhibitiontellsmany stories ,March2013, http://www.cls.uct.ac.za/news/?id=8421&t=dn . 293

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Figure6-16.StevensonGallery,InstallationView-LoomoftheLandexhibition,2013. Source: http://www.stevenson.info/exhibitions/land/installation1.html 6.4TheLoomoftheLand,StevensonGallery,Johannesburg AnalysisoftheLoomoftheLandexhibitionpresentedatStevensonGallery,aprivatecommercialvenue,inJohannesburginearly2013showstheconstraintsmanySouth Africanartistsencounterwhentheyexhibitlandscapes.Thesensitivitysurroundingthe subjectoflandinSouthAfricaimpactshowartistslookatandrepresentthenaturalenvironment.Forexample,manyartistsfeelcompelledtoforegroundapoliticalinterpretation oflandorotherwisecontextualizetheirinterestinandworkwithlandscapesthrough politicaloractivistlenses,evenifthisisnottheirprimaryconcern.Discussionofthe LoomoftheLandexhibition,whichtransformedfromasmallgroupshowthatexplored formandmark-makinginlandscapeimagesintoalargeexhibitionwithaloosely-stated politicalposition,oersoneexampleofhowartists,galleries,andcriticsengagewiththe issueoflandrepresentationandthewidespreadexpectationthattheseengagementsbe rootedinapoliticaldialog. 294

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Figure6-17.MackMagagane,Untitled4fromtheInThisCityseries,2011-2012. ArchivalpigmentprintonInnovaFibraprintmattpaper.40x60cm.Source: http://www.stevenson.info/exhibitions/land/magagane-untitled4.html ThegroupexhibitionLoomoftheLandcomprisedofpiecesbytwenty-twoartists representedbyStevensonGallerywhoaddressthetopicoflandintheirworkFig.616. 63 Theshowincorporatedpiecesinmultiplemediaandputforwardabroadinterpretationoflandscape,inclusiveofurbanscenesFig.6-17-MackMagagne,abstract sculptureFig.6-18-PaulEdmonds,andenvironmentalportraitureFig.6-19-Pieter Hugo.Sevenphotographerscontributedtotheexhibitionandtheirworkwasshown alongsidepaintingsandsculptures.InadditiontotheworksfromHugoandMagagane, establishedartistsDavidGoldblattandJoRactlieeachpresentedviewsofopenveldand ruralenvironments,andaphotographfromZaneleMuholishowedworkerspreparingsites inagraveyard. 63.TheLoomoftheLandexhibitionopenedatStevensonGalleryinJohannesburgonJanuary24, 2013andclosedMarch8thofthatyear.Acompletelistofparticipatingartistsandartworkscanbefound at:StevensonGallery, LoomoftheLand , http://www.stevenson.info/exhibitions/land/index.html . 295

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Figure6-18.PaulEdmunds,Moon,1997.Stone,PVC-insulatedcopperwire.9x13x 12.5cm.Source: http://www.stevenson.info/exhibitions/land/edmunds-moon.html Atextpanelintroducedtheexhibitionconcept,butthevarietyoftheimagesin theshowchallengedtheframeworkarticulatedinthisopeningpanel,andwasapointof contentionamongcritics.ThetextindicatedcuratorAntonKannemeyer'sintentionthat theshowexplorethesubjectoflandscapethroughanalternativelens:representations oflandthatdisruptexpectations. 64 ThepanelfurtherexplainedthatKannemeyer's selectionofworksfortheexhibitiontrytochallengeperceptionsofthelandscaperather thanissuesidentiedwiththelandorcleverconceptualplayslikemasturbatingona Pierneefpainting,orexhibitingalandscapecanvaswiththefrontfacingthewall. 65 CriticSeanO'Tooledescribedtheshowasapeculiarandnotentirelysatisfyinggroup exhibition,aclaimthatwasechoedbyKannemeyerhimself,whooriginallyoutlineda 64.StevensonGallery, LoomoftheLand . 65.Ibid. 296

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Figure6-19.PieterHugo,MabonengPrecinct,Johannesburg,2011.Inkjetprint.Three images,each82x101cm.Source: http://www.stevenson.info/exhibitions/land/hugo-maboneng_precinct.html smallershowofmostlypaintingsthatexploredtheaestheticsoflandscapeimagesrather thantheirpoliticalimplications. 66 KannemeyerisbasedinCapeTown,andtheshow wasorganizedthroughtheStevensonGalleryinJohannesburg,apracticalsituation thatlimitedKannemeyer'sinvolvementinthecurationandpresentationofthematerial. Reectingontheshowanditsdevelopment,Kannemeyerdescribesfeelingdistantfromthe nalselectionofartistsandnumberofpiecesandwasuneasyaboutthebannerheadlineof hisnameascurator. 67 AntonKannemeyerdevelopedtheideafortheexhibitionoutofhisowncuriosity aboutartistswhocreatelandscapeimagesbutwhoprimarilyworkinothergenresand subjectmatter.Theformalexerciseofengagingwiththenaturalenvironmentintrigued Kannemeyer,acomicartist,whoseowndetailedpen-and-inkrenderingsofBoulder's BeachinSimon'sTowndepartradicallyfromhispolemicillustrationsandpoliticized 66.O'Toole,Sean,Documentsofctionalisation, Mail&Guardian ,February8,2013,accessedNovember13,2015, http://mg.co.za/article/2013-02-08-00-documents-of-ctionalisation . 67.Kannemeyerdescribedthesituationingreaterdetailinapersonalconversation:myinitialthing withthegallerywasIsaidletsco-curateit,buttheyfeltitwouldwillbeniceifitwasyournamecurating it.Onthenightthedayoftheexhibitiontheypulledoutthisthing...LoomoftheLandandunderneathitreadcuratedbyAntonKannemeyer,andIsaidjusttakethato,Idon'tfeelit's...butthiswas kindoflikehowtheymarketedit.AntonKannemeyer, InterviewwithAuthor ,September10,2013. 297

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comicdesignsFig.6-20andFig.6-21. 68 I'vebeeninterestedinlandscapesincemy universitydays,KannemeyertoldO'Tooleinaninterview,Isupposewhatdrawsme tothelandscapeistheabstractqualities. 69 Hebelievesthatalllandscapesengagewith abstractionatsomelevel,andisinterestedinthewaysdierentartistsmanipulateform whentheydepictenvironments.Kannemeyerdistinguishestherenderingofalandscape fromothertypesofspaces:somethingelsehappenswhenyoudoalandscapeastowhen youdoaroomordrawachairordrawabookshelf...landscapesaresoincrediblyorganic. Youkindofgetlostintheabstractqualitiesofthelandscape. 70 Despitehisprimary,formalinterestinlandscapes,Kannemeyeracknowledgesthat worksinthisgenrecannotbeexaminedthroughformaloneandhemakesaneortinthe curatorialstatementandsubsequentinterviewstoemphasizehisunderstandingthatall landscapesarepolitical.Theexhibitiontextstates:InSouthAfrica,thelandscapehas unavoidablepoliticalconnotationsbecausethecountry'sstrifeisentwinedwiththeownershipofthelandasituationthatcontinuestothisday.Further,theopeningstatement identiesahierarchyofconcernswithrespecttolandscapes:Theseissueshavedominated depictionsofthelandscapeinrecentyears,withformalconcernsunderstandablyofsecondaryconcern. 71 InaninterviewwithSeanO'Toole,Kannemeyerassertsthatpolitical aspectsoflandareunavoidable,andwillalwayssurface:FromaformalperspectiveImay 68.AntonKannemeyerisanillustratorwholivesandworksinCapeTown,SouthAfrica.Heearned anMFAattheUniversityofStellenboschin1997,andhassincebeenattheforefrontofintroducinga comicandsatiricalaesthetictoSouthAfricanart.StevensonGallery, AntonKannemeyer-Bio ,accessed November30,2015, http://www.stevenson.info/artists/kannemeyer.html ;TogetherwithConradBotes, KannemeyerfoundedtheBittercomixseriesin1992.ForadiscussionoftheworkofAntonKannemeyer, see:JohnTyson,AntonKannemeyer'stacticsoftranslationascriticallens, Synthesis 4:121; RitaBarnard,Bitterkomix:Notesfromthepost-apartheidunderground, TheSouthAtlanticQuarterly 103,no.4:719;andSueWilliamson, SouthAfricanartnow NewYork,NY:CollinsDesign, 2009. 69.O'Toole,Sean,Documentsofctionalisation. 70.Kannemeyer, InterviewwithAuthor . 71.StevensonGallery, LoomoftheLand . 298

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Figure6-20.AntonKannemeyer,BouldersBeach,Simon'sTown,2013.Penandinkon paper.21x30cm.Source: http://www.stevenson.info/exhibitions/land/kannemeyer-boulders_beach1.html ; beinterestedintheabstractqualitiesofthelandscape,hesays,butanyonewalkinginto thegallerywillinterprettheworksdierently. 72 Kannemeyerissincereinhisacknowledgementofthefraughtconditionsandsuspect motivationsinwhichlandscapeshavebeenproducedinSouthAfrica,buthiscomments revealanuneasewithhowtoappropriatelydiscusshisinterestinthegenre,asentiment sharedbymanycontemporaryartistswhoworkwiththegenre.Hefeelschallengedby landscapesandtheywaystheycommunicatespace,butheishesitanttoarticulatethis interest.AdescriptionofhisselectionofaworkfromDavidGolblattillustratesthepoints heoscillatesbetween.Goldblatt'sdiptychshowanopen,aridsectionofveldinaNorthern CapesheepfarmFig.6-22.Theimagepresentsalandscapeemptyexceptforgrassand soil;anunbrokenhorizonunderneathanovercastskyextendsacrossthetwoframesand emphasizesthescaleofthescene.ThephotographsfascinatedKannemeyer:Iremember whenIrstsawitIwasjustblownawaybyit,hesaid,andstruggledtoexplainwhat 72.O'Toole,Sean,Documentsofctionalisation. 299

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Figure6-21.AntonKannemeyerFisforFatCat,fromthe AlphabetofDemocracy series, 2010.Blackinkandacryliconpaper.18.5x21.5cm.Source: http://www.stevenson.info/exhibitions/kannemeyer/f-fatcat.html abouttheimagecapturedhisattention,thereisnothingreallythere.Therearejust thefewstones,justsoilandafewgrass...abitofdrygrass,butnothingreally. 73 Kannemeyerdescribesadeeplyfeltreactiontothesceneatoddswithhisawarenessofits contextandtheimportanceofthesecontradictionsinforminganinterpretationofspaces inSouthAfrica: Itwasjustkindofagutfeel,itwasn'tohyeah,butwhoselandisthis,who doesthisbelongto?ThethingisI'mnotsayingthataspectofitisunimportant;itisobviouslycrucial...anylandscapeinSouthAfricaispolitical.You cannotwalkawayfromit.Whenyouhavealandscape,it'spolitical.Butthe thingis,asanartistIfeel...I'malsosomeonewhodealsalotwithpoliticsand politicalthings.SometimesIgetboggeddownbyworkandnotthinking...I meanyouarealwaysthinkingwhenyouareresolvingworkintermsofhowwill itberead,butsometimesthemark,theapplication,thewholeformalaspectof 73.Kannemeyer, InterviewwithAuthor . 300

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Figure6-22.DavidGoldblatt, SheepfarmatOubip,betweenAggenysandLoop10, Bushmanland,NorthernCape.5June2004 .Archivalpigmentinkoncotton ragpaper.Twoimageseachsized84x105.5cm.Source: http: //www.stevenson.info/exhibitions/land/goldblatt-sheep_farm_oubip2004.html itiswhattakesupalotoftimeandthat'swherethelandscapereallygrabbed me. 74 Kannemeyer'scommentsshiftbetweenanhonestreectionabouttheconnectionhe feelstolandscapeandhisinsistenceofhisknowledgethatthelandscapecanneverjust beacollectionofinnocentforms.Hisgrapplewithappropriatewordingechoesthe perspectivesandsentimentsofmanySouthAfricancontemporaryartistswhowishtobe socially-responsiblemakers,butwhomaystruggletoalignawarenesswiththeirindividual investigationsandthebroaderpracticalitiesofmakingartworksforsale. Criticsweredisappointedbythelackofovertpoliticalcontentormessageinthe exhibition,whichsubsequentlyreceivedmixedreviews.WritingintheJohannesburg City Press criticPercyMabanduderidedKannemeyer'sapproach:Wemustaskwhetherthe curatorcanexcusehimselffromthepoliticisedhistoricalmomentdemandedbytheland anditsdepictions.Hecriticizedtheinclusionofempty,openlandscapesavailablefor settlement,denitionandexploitation,andthatminimizedhumanhistoryandpresence. 74.Kannemeyer, InterviewwithAuthor . 301

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Mabandufoundthattheshowpresentedthelandscapewithoutordeniedtheinherent storiesitmightyearntotell,andassertedthatthelanddemandstobeaddressedwith allitsloadedpolitics,evenifonlyinacuratedshowofartworksbyKannemeyerandhis mates. 75 SeanO'Toole,echoedtheviewsofmanywhenhevoiceddisappointmentthat alandscapeshowfromAntonKannemeyerlackededgy,challengingpoliticalmaterial, andcommunicatedthispositionthroughanobliqueparableatthebeginningofhis reviewaboutearlytwentiethcenturypainter,RobertGweloGoodman.Goodman, O'Toolewrites,Althoughdisposedtomakingoccasionalpoliteloungepicturesofhis own...didnotignorewhatwasblatantandevidentinJo'burg,andinstead,Goodman paintedimagesofminedumpsinthecity. 76 ForO'Toole,thoughinclusionofworksfrom MackMagaganeandPieterHugorevealagrittier,moreauthenticpresentationofthe SouthAfricanlandscape,theshowfocusedtoomuchonaestheticallypleasingnature scenes.JamesSeyreviewedtheshowfor ArtSouthAfrica andoeredamorefavorable interpretation:depictionsofemptySouthAfricanlandscapesdominateKannemeyer's show,hewrites,andsoitisconstantlyintensionwiththenegativeconnotationsof suchrepresentations.But,throughout,thisisdoneinaproductive,oftenhumorousand gentlyironicvein.HumourandgentleironyarequalitiesSouthAfricanart,especially painting,hashadfartoolittleofinrecenttimes. 77 Thoughtheexhibitionproducedat acommercialgalleryreceivedmixedreviews,theprocessthroughwhichittransformed andwasreceivedrevealundercurrentsandtensionswithinthevisualartscommunityin SouthAfricaabouttheappropriatewaytorepresentanddiscusslandassubjectmatter. 75.PercyMabandu,Landscapesofpoliticaldenial, CityPress ,January2013,accessedNovember13, 2015, http://www.news24.com/Archives/City-Press/Landscapes-of-political-denial-20150430 . 76.O'Toole,Sean,Documentsofctionalisation. 77.JamesSey,LoomoftheLand, ArtSouthAfrica 11,no.3March2013:73. 302

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6.5LandscapePhotographyinShowUsOurLand,MarketPhotography Workshop,Johannesburg Aspartofits2012-13SocialLandscapeProjecttheMarketPhotographyWorkshop inJohannesburgproducedacrowd-sourced,travelingexhibitionentitledShowUsOur Land,anendeavorthatcontrastsmarkedlywiththetwoothershowsunderconsideration inthischapter.Thisexhibitionintegratedideasaboutlandandlandscapefromthepublic, traveledoutsideatraditionalgalleryvenue,andprioritizedacollectivediscussionofland overtheviewsofindividualartists.ShowUsOurLandbroughttogether135images selectedfromover1000photographssubmittedthroughapubliccallforimagesthatinvestigatetheSouthAfricanland,landscape,andideasaroundbelonging. 78 TheMarket PhotographyWorkshopusedFacebookandothersocialmediaplatformstodistribute theirrequestforentries,andencouragedsubmissionsfromamateur,early-career,aswell asestablishedphotographersinSouthAfrica.Thenalpresentationtouredvariouscities inSouthAfricaandcirculatedfurtherthroughasmallmonographpublication.According toco-organizer,JohnFleetwood,theprojectwasconceivedasawaytoreestablishideas aroundlandbyusinganopen,accessibledigitalforumwherepeoplecouldsharenew ideasandperceptionsoflandbasedontheirownexperience. 79 Curatorshopedthatthe projectcouldgenerateanalternativearchiveofSouthAfricanlandimagerythatcould countertheonecreatedbycolonialists,anaimelicitedinthemonographintroduction fromBandileGumbi:TheseimagesarethebeginningofanarchiveonSouthAfrican's [sic]conceptionoflandandlandscape.Theyhopetocreatejuxtapositionwithhowland hasbeendocumentedandinterpretedinthehistoryoflandscapephotography,howit hasbeen`used'todocumentAfricaasaphysicalenvironmentwithitsnaturalresources, 78.SocialLandscapePhotographyProject, PhotoCompetition ,Tumblr,accessedNovember13,2015, http://sociallandscapeproject.tumblr.com/PhotoCompetition . 79.Fleetwood, Interviewwithauthor . 303

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Figure6-23.InstallationviewsoftheSocialLandscapeProject.Source: http://www.marketphotoworkshop.co.za/cache/ce_cache/made/ 92b8c926d1d0ddf5/036_480_320_s.jpg. andAfricaasasocialconstruct. 80 Inthisrespect,theMarketPhotographyWorkshop projectinvitescomparisontotheinuential1955FamilyofManexhibitionproducedby EdwardSteichen,whichaimedtopromotethecommonexperiencesofman,regardlessof theirrace,ethnicity,genderorage.Abriefdiscussionofthisexhibitionandthecritical receptionofitexplicateaspectsoftheShowUsOurLandprojectandexhibition. TheSocialLandscapeProjectrepresentedtherstconcentratedlookatlandscape photographyattheMarketPhotographyWorkshopandwithinitsrenownedcurriculum. DavidGoldblattfoundedtheeducationalinstitutionin1989asawaytoextendphotographyandvisualliteracyinstructiontodisadvantagedlearnersinSouthAfrica.ThePhoto Workshopoersmultipleprogramsinphotography,butcourseshavehistoricallyfocused ondocumentaryphotographyandphotojournalism.AccordingtoJohnFleetwood,headof 80.BandileGumbi,Introduction,in ShowUsOurLand Johannesburg:MarketPhotographyWorkshop,2013,1. 304

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Figure6-24.InstallationviewoftheTransitionsshowinsidetheBusFactoryanarts spaceacrossfromtheMarketPhotographyWorkshop.Source: http://www.marketphotoworkshop.co.za/cache/ce_cache/made/ 92b8c926d1d0ddf5/IMG_1883_resized_480_320_s.jpg thePhotoWorkshop,theideaoflandscapeisatonceontheperipheryandthecenterof themissionoftheorganization: ThePhotoWorkshopisinterestedinquestionsinsocietythatarepossibly contentiousthatrelatetohumanrightsanddemocracy...alotofourtraining hasgottodowithgettingourphotographerstospeakaboutwheretheycome from.Howtheyunderstandtheworldandthishasgottodowithlandand oftenonedoesn'tseethelandscapeinthephotographsasstronglybecause thereissuchastrongdocumentarytraditioninSouthAfricaandthelandscape traditionisverystrongbutpossiblyunderrepresentedorunder-discussed...So wesawthisasanopportunitytoopenadiscussionthatwehavelackedinas anorganization. 81 InconnectionwiththeSocialLandscapeproject,theMarketPhotographyWorkshop invitedguestspeakerstoaddressthetopicoflandscapewithstudentsintheadvanced courses,anddesignedadditionalprogramingtosupportasustaineddiscussionaboutthe 81.Fleetwood, Interviewwithauthor . 305

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Figure6-25.InstallationviewofNolanDavis'sdrawinginresponsetothe1913Natives LandAct.Source: http://www.marketphotoworkshop.co.za/ social-landscape-project/entry/transition-and-land-resource-centre subjectthroughoutWorkshopactivities. 82 Thus,althoughadeparturefortheprogram, Fleetwoodfeltthatthefocusonlandscapeattheinstitutionopenedupalotofthe thinkingforourstudentsthatpreviouslyweremuchmoreinterestedindocumentarywork; theyaremuchmoreclearnowinthinkingaboutlandscapeasalanguageinitself. 83 TheSocialLandscapeProjectattheMarketPhotographyWorkshophadtwomain parts:Transitions,thepreviouslydiscussedcollaborativeinvestigationoftheSouth AfricanlandscapebetweensixFrenchphotographersandsixFrenchPhotographers; 84 82.Forexample,studentsconsideredthesubjectoflandscapeandhowitrelatestoidentitythrough theworkofMarketPhotographyWorkshopalumniphotographerssuchasThabisoSekgalaandZanele Muholi. 83.Fleetwood, Interviewwithauthor . 84.AsnotedtheTransitionsprojecthasbeendiscussedelsewhereinthisdissertation,butitisworth notingherethatthisprojectwasalsoconceivedasawaytobuildnewanddrawuponextantarchives. ThesixsiteschosenforexplorationbytheFrench-SouthAfricanteamswerechoseninconsultationwith 306

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andShowUsOurLand,thesocialmediabasedinitiative.Bothseriesopenedtogether inNovember2012attheMarketPhotographyWorkshopinJohannesburg,alongsidea large-scaledrawinginstallationfromNolanDennisthatwasmadeinresponsetothe 1913NativesLandActandamultimediaLandResourceCentreFigs.6-23,6-24,&625. 85 Eachsubprojectexaminedthetopicoflandandlandscapedierently:Transitions lookedatspeciclocationsandlandissuesattendanttothoseplacesthroughtheworkof professionalphotographers,whileShowUsOurLandputnorestrictionsonlocationor land-basedsubjectandconsistedentirelyofpublicsubmissions.TheTransitionsproject wasexhibitedinFranceandSouthAfrica,andShowUsOurLandwasdisplayedin public,outdoorspacesinseveraldierentlocationsinSouthAfricaduringFebruaryand Marchof2013,includingcitiesinFreeState,Gauteng,NorthWest,NorthernCape,and EasternCapeprovincesFigs.6-26,6-27,&6-28.Thenamesofphotographersandimage titleswerenotpresentedalongsidethepicturesintheoutdoorexhibition,norwerethey includedinproximitytothephotographsinthepublication.TheShowUsOurLand booklistednamesofartistsinthebackpagesandgroupedimagesthematicallyinthe exhibitiontextandcuratorialessays.Incontrastto"Transitions,""ShowUsOurLand" aimedatabroad,publicaudienceandprioritizedaccessibilityinallaspectsofitsdesign andattendantprograming. Theconcept,design,andpresentationofShowUsOurLandputforwardadistinctivestrategyofaddressinglandinthecontextofthecentenaryofthe1913NativesLand DavidGoldblatt,whohasextensivelyphotographedtheSouthAfricanlandscape.JohnFleetwooddescribedtheprocessofsiteselectionas:hehasgotthisarchiveofunderstandingparticularspacesbecause hehasbeenthereandhe'sphotographedintheseplacesandwethoughtthatwouldbeaverygoodspace totalkaboutlandscapephotography,soinsteadofgoingtoahistorianandtalkingaboutlandwethought goingtoaphotographerthatisthisarchiveholder.See:Fleetwood, Interviewwithauthor . 85.TheLandResourceCentreincludedaninteractivewebplatformthatgaveviewersaccesstodocuments,writings,andphotographsrelatedtothehistoryoflandandlandscapeinSouthAfrica,aswellas acollectionofbooksfromtheMarketPhotographyWorkshoplibrary.TheLandResourceCentredidnot travelwitheithertheTransitionsorShowUsOurLandexhibitions.Theinteractivewebsitecanbe viewedat: http://www.marketphotoworkshop.co.za/social-landscape-project/supplies. 307

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Figure6-26.Imageofexhibitionin-transitbetweenvenues.Source: http://www.marketphotoworkshop.co.za/social-landscape-project/entry/ show-us-our-land-travelling-exhibitions. Act.First,thoughtheprojectconceptwasframedasaninvestigationofideasaround landinthehundredthyearsincethepassingoftheAct,thecallforsubmissionsdidnot mentionthecentenaryorotherwiseindicatethatthelegislationwouldbeusedtoorganize images.Second,bysituatingtheprojectwithinmultipleplatforms,includingadigital venue,solicitingsubmissionsthroughsocialmedia,andwaivingentrancefees,organizers ofShowUsOurLandcompiledacollectionoflandscapesmadebyamorediverserange ofSouthAfricansthantraditionallyengagewithartinstitutions,includingthosewhomay notownacamera. 86 Indoingso,ShowUsOurLandchallengedtheconnotationsof 86.TheorganizersofShowUsOurLandwantedtoaccesstheviewsofindividualswhomaynotown acamera,butwhoownaphonewithcameracapabilities.In2012researchersatWorldWideWork,an organizationthatlooksasinternetandmobiletechnologyusetrendsinSouthAfrica,reportedthatnearly 80%ofSouthAfricansownacellphoneandatleast5.33millionuseFacebook,see:ArthurGoldstuck, Internetmatters:ThequietengineoftheSouthAfricaneconomy, WorldWideWorx ,2012,accessedDecember1,2015, http://led.co.za/sites/default/les/cabinet/orgname-raw/document/2012/za_internet_ matters_nal.pdf ;Further,thisgroupreportsthatnearly7.9millionSouthAfricansaccessinterneton theircellphones,andofthese,2.48millionaccessitonlyontheirphones.See:ArthurGoldstuck, Mobile 308

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Figure6-27.InstallationviewofShowUsOurLandOutdoorExhibitioninKlerksdorp, March2013.Source: http://www.marketphotoworkshop.co.za/ social-landscape-project/entry/show-us-our-land-travelling-exhibitions. landscapeasagenrecreatedfortheconsumptionofafewpowerfulandprivilegedindividuals.Wethoughttheideaofsocialmediaopenedthatupandcreatedspaceforpeopleto givenewideas,Fleetwoodsays. 87 Moreover,thelow-resolution,pixelatedimageryoered awayinwhichtofurtherpushtheconceptdesignofShowUsOurLand.Fleetwood commentsfurtherthatThereissomethingaroundphotographyandtechniquethatdeterminesthat[images]havetobesharpandofgoodkindoftechnicalvalue.Wewerevery interestedinthatbecausethatissurelynothowtheworldseesimagesanymore...manyof theimagesareseenpixelated,inlowresolutiononsmallcellphonescreens. 88 pushesInternettothemasses ,technicalreportWorldWideWorx,May2012,accessedNovember14, 2015, http://www.worldwideworx.com/mobile-pushes-internet-to-the-masses/ . 87.Fleetwood, Interviewwithauthor . 88.Ibid. 309

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ThesubmissionstotheShowUsOurLandcompetitionrevealadierentvision oflandinSouthAfricathanwascommunicatedthrougheitherUmhlabaorLoomof theLand.OrganizersreceivedimagesfromallnineprovincesinSouthAfricaandthe photographsdisplayedarangeofsubjectmatterrelatedtoland.Entriesshowedopen, rurallandscapes,townships,agriculturallands,highways,andphotographsofpeople movingthroughthelandscape.EntriesfromMariettaKestingFig.6-29,DavidHarrison Fig.6-30,ThulaniZikhaliFig.6-31andThembekileNhlapoFig.6-32characterize thediversityofsubjectmatterrelatedtoland,landscapeandideasaroundbelongingof thesubmittedmaterials.JohnFleetwoodsaysthatalotofentrieshadtodowithstory telling,hadtodowith`letmetellyouourstory,thisismyland,thisismytown,this iswhereIcomefrom,thisiswhatwedo.'Often,herelates,thesestorieswereloaded withpoliticalintentionsbutperhapsdidn'tcomeacrossasstronglyasthephotographers initiallythought.So,italsoshowedhowmundanephotographsoflandscapesholdpolitical ideas. 89 ThedesignoftheShowUsOurLandexhibitionandproject,aswellasthelayout oftheaccompanyingcatalog,recallaspectsoftheseminal FamilyofMan bookandexhibitioncuratedbyEdwardSteichen, 90 acomparisonthatelicitskeyattributesofShow UsOurLand.EdwardSteichen,anAmericanphotographerborninLuxembourg,wasa keygureinestablishingphotographyasaneartintheUnitedStatesintheearlyhalfof thetwentiethcentury.Throughhisroleasco-founderofthe291GallerywithAlfredSteiglitzandhiscommercialwork,SteichenleftanindeliblemarkinthehistoryofAmerican photographythroughhisworkatMOMAafterWorldWarIIuntil1962.TheFamilyof 89.Fleetwood, Interviewwithauthor . 90.In1955EdwardSteichenwasthedirectorofphotographyattheMuseumofModernArtMOMA inNewYork.ForadiscussionofEdwardSteichenandhisimpactfulcareerinthehistoryofphotography intheUnitedStatesandEurope,see:PenelopeNiven, Steichen:Abiography NewYork:ClarksonPotter, 1997. 310

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Figure6-28.InstallationviewofShowUsOurLandOutdoorExhibitionin Grahamstown,EasternCape,July2,2013.Source: https://www.facebook.com/sociallandscape/photos/a.294634340651944.70235. 246921605423218/410217932426917/?type=3&theater Mananexhibitionofcreativephotographydedicatedtothedignityofman 91 opened atMuseumofModernArtinNewYorkin1955andtouredinternationallyforthenext eightyears.Theshowvisitedthirty-sevencountries,includingSouthAfrica,andreached 91.EdwardSteichenandCarlSandburg, TheFamilyofMan:thephotographicexhibition NewYork: Simon&Schuster,1955. 311

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sixcontinents. 92 Theexhibitionwasseenbyovertenmillionpeopleandiswidelyconsideredtobethemostsuccessfulexhibitionofalltime. 93 SteichenconceivedofFamily ofManasawaytoadvocateforpeaceamonghumankindaftertwodevastatingWorld Wars,bothofwhichhetookpartinandviewedrsthand.HewantedFamilyofMan topresentapositiveviewofmankindandhighlightattributesandexperiencesthatlink peopleofdierentethnicities,cultures,andagestogether.AccordingtoEricSandeen, Steichenchosetogeneralizethehumanconditionthroughhisselectionandpresentation ofphotographsinFamilyofMan,andheobservesthatthecollectionwasbuiltonthe rhetoricofunity.SandeenassertsthatSteichenbelievedintherevelatorypowerofphotographyandthoughtthatbymovingpeoplewithapositivemessage,byremindingthem ofthewebofhumanassociationsviewerswouldbuoytheindividualabovethehazardsof lifeinthenuclearworld. 94 Thenalshowconsistedof503photographsfrom273photographers,selectedfromoversixmillionimagessurveyedinarchivesandsubmissionsfrom amateurandprofessionalphotographers. 95 Theimagesdisplayedcontentfromsixty-eight 92.TheFamilyofManexhibitionwasonviewinSouthAfricafromAugust30th-September13,1958. ProminentSouthAfricandocumentaryphotographerssuchasBobGosaniandPeterMagubaneviewed theexhibitionandwereimpactedbyitsmessage.Magubaneisquotedassaying"Thesearegreatpictures.Ifthesephotographerswhotookthesepicturescandothis,whyshouldn'tI?"Ibeganworking very,veryhardtotryandreachthestandardofthosepicturesthatIsaw.See:KenLight, Witnessin ourtime:Workinglivesofdocumentaryphotographers Washington,D.C.:SmithsonianInstitutionPress, 2000,56;Bensusan, Silverimages:HistoryofphotographyinAfrica ,HistorianofearlySouthAfrican photography,A.D.BensusanobservesthattheFamilyofManexhibitionwasimportantbecauseitinuencedpublicopiniontowardsphotographicdocumentationratherthanolderpictorialism.. 93.ForadiscussionoftheFamilyofManexhibitionanditsimpactinthehistoryofphotography, see:EricJ.Sandeen,TheinternationalreceptionofTheFamilyofMan, HistoryofPhotography 29, no.4:34455;EricJ.Sandeen, Picturinganexhibition:TheFamilyofManand1950sAmerica Albuquerque:UniversityofNewMexicoPress,1995;KatherineHoman,TheFamilyofMan:Anintroduction, HistoryofPhotography 29,no.4:317;BlakeStimson, ThePivotoftheWorld: PhotographyanditsNation Cambridge,M.A.:MITPress,2006;JohnSzarkowski,TheFamilyofMan, in TheMuseumofModernArtatmid-centuryathomeandabroad NewYork:MuseumofModernArt, 1994,12. 94.Sandeen, Picturinganexhibition:TheFamilyofManand1950sAmerica ,2. 95.Ibid.,41. 312

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Figure6-29.MariettaKesting,Untitled,EntryforShowUsOurLand,exhibition,n.d. Source: Source:http://www.marketphotoworkshop.co.za/ social-landscape-project/entry/show-us-our-land-gallery/64 countries,weredisplayedwithoutbylinesandwereorganizedunderbroadcategoriessuch asbirth,death,andfamily.Steichenwasinterestedinthemessageinthephotographsand notthestyle,identity,orartistryofthephotographer:insteadofmakingprettypictures ortechnicallyperfectpictures,hesaid,wearegoingouttogetlife. 96 TheShowUsOurLandexhibitionbearslogisticalandconceptualresemblance totheSteichen'sFamilyofMan,thoughthetwoshowswerecreatedindramatically dierentsocialandhistoricalcontexts,andthelattershowprimarilyfeaturedwork fromprofessionalphotographers,notamateurs.TheorganizersofShowUsOurLand possessedasimilarfaithasSteicheninthepowerofphotographytopositivelyinuence viewstowardsadicultandcomplicatedsubject:land.Theybelievedthatthecreation ofavernaculararchiveoflandimagerycouldhighlightcommonalitiesandpointsofunity 96.JamesNelson,ed.,Wisdom:ConversationswiththeElderWiseMenofOurDay,NewYork,1958, 10,c.f.Sandeen, Picturinganexhibition:TheFamilyofManand1950sAmerica ,2. 313

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amongSouthAfricanviewers,ratherthandierences.Theydesignedtheirexhibition toforegroundthecontentofimagesbroughttogethertoexamineideasaboutland, landscapeandbelongingovertheidentityofthemaker.SimilartoFamilyofManthe ShowUsOurLandcatalogorganizedimagescategorically,inadynamiclayoutdesigned toemphasizethediversityofviewsoflandinSouthAfricaandtoinspireasharedvision ofabeautifulnationtowhichallSouthAfricanshavephysicandmaterialties.Moreover, theShowUsOurLandtravelingexhibitionliketheFamilyofManwasdesignedto reachamaximumnumberofviewersandembracedalternativedisplaystrategies,sothat itcouldpromoteabroad,positivecommunicationofSouthAfricanviewsofland. TheFamilyofManwaswidelycriticizedbyreviewersandscholars,andmany ofthecriticismsdirectedatSteichen'sexhibitionhaveapplicationtoananalysisof ShowUsOurLand.CriticsfeltthatFamilyofMan,despitegoodintentions,was politicallyopportunisticinthecontextofthedevelopingColdWar,irresponsibletothe submittingartists,andpresentedanuninformedlevelingofdiverseculturesinfavorof anavemessageofuniversalism. 97 Eventhoughtheshowsourcedimagesfromartists worldwide,thenalexhibitionpresentedandexportedaWesternviewofpeopleandthe humancondition,apositionthatwasnotidentiedorotherwiseaccountedforbySteichen orotherorganizers.Further,thethematicpresentationofphotographswithoutartist identicationencouragedtheviewertoperceiveasingular,collectiveviewofhumanity, attheexpenseofthediverseviewpointsembeddedintheimages.BlakeStimsonargues that,askedtoidentifystronglywithonepictureandthenabandonthatidentication 97.Forexample,AllanSekulacriticizedtheexhibitionforbeinganaestheticizedjobofglobalaccounting,acarefulColdWareorttobringabouttheideologicalalignmentoftheneo-colonialperipherieswith theimperialcenter.See:AllanSekula,Thetracinphotographs, ArtJournal 41,no.1:15; ChristopherPhillipswascriticalofSteichen'spresentationoftheimagesinFamilyofManandother exhibitionsSteichenproducedatMOMA,inparticularhowhestrippedimagesoftheircontexts:Toprise photographsfromtheiroriginalcontexts,todiscardoraltertheircaptions,torecroptheirbordersinthe enforcementofaunitarymeaning,toreprintthemfordramaticimpact,toredistributetheminnewnarrativechainsconsistentwithapredeterminedthesisthusonemightroughlysummarizeSteichen'soperating procedure.See:ChristopherPhillips,Thejudgmentseatofphotography, October 22:27. 314

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forthenextandthenext,theviewer,seducedbythelogicofanewidealoffamiliarity anduniversalhumanity,wasnotgivenaroutethroughwhichtoprocessordistillthis informationwithinthephotographsbeyondthecollectiveframeworkprovided.Finally, theimagesinFamilyofManwereorganizedintothemesselectedbySteichen,andall photographswerecropped,enlarged,andreprintedphotographstohisspecications, withoutpermissionfromtheartiststhemselves.Theshow'semphasis,observesBlake Stimson,wastoturntheviewer'sattentionawayfromtheissuesofindividualcraftand artistryandinsteadproduceacorporatevision. 98 Thedesignandpresentationofthe MarketPhotographyWorkshopshowraisessimilarconcerns.ShowUsOurLandwas createdtosurveyarangeofviewstowardslandandlandscapeinSouthAfrica,butinthe nalexhibitionthecollectivethemeofOurLandsupersededapresentationofindividual viewsoflandinSouthAfrica.Inthetravelingshowandmonographorganizersdidnot identifytheartistalongsidetheimageordistinguishphotographsbasedoncontent, culturalbackgroundoftheartistorotherwiseinterpretthediverserepresentationsof landsubmitted.Imageswerereprinted,cropped,andplacedundersubheadings,such ashomemade,Normalities&ambiguities,articialborders&falseidentities,and promisedlandinthemonograph.Takentogether,thepresentationsoughttoestablisha narrativeofcommonviewpointsandvaluestowardslandandlandscape. Ultimately,theShowUsOurLandexhibitionadoptedstrategiessimilartothose usedbySteichentoinspireviewerstothinkdierentlyaboutlandandtoseethemselves inrelationtothetopic.Reectingonthereceptionofthetravelingexhibition,John Fleetwoodnotes:itwasquiteamazinghowpeoplerespondedtobeinginandbeing representedinphotographs,andhowtheyimmediatelyfeelthat`thisisoursbecause wearebeingrepresented.'BasedonhisexperienceproducingShowUsOurLand FleetwoodfeelsthatphotographshavethepotentialtounifySouthAfricansarounda 98.Stimson, ThePivotoftheWorld:PhotographyanditsNation ,79. 315

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Figure6-30.DavidHarrison,Untitled,EntryforShowUsOurLand,exhibition,n.d. divisiveissue:Ithinkifyouusethatasathinkingkindofparadigmforwhatlandscape photographycandoforcitizenship,forgivingpeopleasenseofbelonging,Ithinkthatthe potentialofthisprojectisstilltobeachieved...Ithinkthatland,asmuchasitisclaimed anditdoesindicatepowerposition,itisaspacewherepeoplecanidentifywiththebeauty ofland,withtheimportanceofland,whereweallbecomeverysimilar. 99 Steichenwrote thatFamilyofMandemonstratesthattheartofphotographyisadynamicprocess ofgivingformtoideasandofexplainingmantoman.Itwasconceivedasamirrorof theuniversalelementsandemotionsintheeverydaynessoflife.... 100 Bothstatements highlighttheidealismwithwhichtherespectiveexhibitionswereconceivedanddeveloped butalsopointtowaysthatparticipatoryexhibitionssuchasthesecanbeusedtopromote 99.Fleetwood, Interviewwithauthor . 100.SteichenandSandburg, TheFamilyofMan:thephotographicexhibition ,4. 316

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Figure6-31.ThulaniZikhali,Untitled,EntryforShowUsOurLand,exhibition,n.d. Source: http://www.marketphotoworkshop.co.za/social-landscape-project/entry/ show-us-our-land-gallery/64 reectiononsharedvaluesandviewsincontextsinwhichdierencesarethefocus,suchas inSouthAfricawithrespecttothetopicofland. Thischapterhaslookedatthreedierentexhibitionsproducedin2013,twoofwhich weremadeindirectresponsetothecentenaryofthe1913NativesLandAct.Eachshow examinedthetopicoflandthroughadierentframeworkandtheirrespectiveapproaches revealcontoursofthebroaderconversationinSouthAfricaaroundlandscapeatthehundredthanniversaryoftheAct.CloseexaminationoftheUmhlaba:1913-2013exhibition revealedbothgapsbetweenthestatedobjectiveoftheshow,itsorganization,andthe contentitpresentedaswellasapositivereceptiontoitscontent.Criticalresponsetothe exhibitionshowedacleardesireforamorerigorous,multi-facetedexaminationoftheland issuethroughabroaderselectionofphotographsandmoredirecteddiscussionofcontemporaryworkandpointtotheneedformoreshowsrelatedtothistopic.TheStevenson Gallery'sLoomoftheLandexhibitionsoughttoexplicatetheroleoflandscapeinthe practiceofcontemporaryartistsanddrewparticularattentiontotheformandaesthetic 317

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Figure6-32.ThembekileNhlapo,Untitled,EntryforShowUsOurLand,exhibition, n.d.Source: http://www.marketphotoworkshop.co.za/social-landscape-project/ entry/show-us-our-land-gallery/64 ofspace-makingthroughrepresentationsofland.Thecriticalfeedbackshowedtheunease discussionoflandscapesandlandoutsideofapoliticalframeworkgeneratesformany SouthAfricans,andprovidesinsightintothechallengesartistssuchasKannemeyerface ingainingpublicacceptancefortheirlandscapework.Thesocial-media-basedShowUs OurLandexhibitionpresentedacrowd-sourcedinterpretationoflandandlandscapethat counterednegativeviewsofthesubjectpresentedinnewspapersandothermediaoutlets withacollectionofpublicviewscelebratingashared,SouthAfricanlandscape.Though asmallsamplingoftheconversationsurroundingthevisualrepresentationlandin2013, thesethreeexhibitionsoerimportantinsightintotheissues,views,andfactorsthat mediateandconditionthepresentationoflandinSouthAfricaonehundredyearsafter thepassingoftheNativesLandActandtwentyyearsofdemocraticrule. 318

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CHAPTER7 CONCLUSION Thisstudyhasexaminedarangeoflandscapephotographypracticesanimating contemporarySouthAfricanphotography.Throughcloseexaminationofworkbyeleven photographersproducedafter1994andanalysisofthreeexhibitions,thisdiscussionhas shownthatSouthAfricanlandscapephotographyismultivalent,dynamic,andresponsive tolocalizedsocialandpoliticalcontexts.Moreover,thisdissertationhasidentieda distinctiveformofSouthAfricanlandscapephotography,generatedfromlocalconcerns overlandanditsrepresentation,needforanewvisuallanguageofactivism,andadesire toexaminethepoliticsofSouthAfricanspaceswithoutassertingaspecicmessage. Priortothisstudy,onlyoneshorthistoryoflandscapephotographyexisted,along withassortedscholarshipontheuseofthegenrebyindividualpractitioners.Inaneort tohighlightdiverselandscapephotographyprojects,thisstudywentbeyondareview ofworkbyinternationallyknownartistsandforegroundedimagesfromearly-careerand underrepresentedSouthAfricanphotographers,artistswhoarecloselyembeddedinlocal andvernacularconversationsrelatedtolandscape.TheuseoflandscapeinSouthAfrican photographyisanevolvingeld,andthisdocumenthasrstandforemostsoughtto recognizetheevolvingparametersofthisdiscursiveenvironment. Thisprojectendeavoredtoputforwardthreekeyargumentsregardingtheuseof landscapephotographybycontemporarySouthAfricanphotographers.First,thisstudy exploredalinkbetweenapartheid-erasocialdocumentarypracticesandapost-apartheid adoptionoflandscapephotography.Duringthe1980sand1990slargenumbersofSouth Africanphotographerscommittedtousingtheirworktodocumentthebrutalityofthe apartheidgovernment,actionsthatplayedanimportantpartinmobilizinglocaland internationalresponseagainsttheinjusticesofminorityrule.Strugglephotographywas characterizedbylegible,chargedimagesthatusedenergeticcompositions,dramatic perspectives,andhigh-contrasttonality.Strugglephotography,accordingtoMichael 319

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Godby,"tendedtobe'declamatory,dictatingspecicreadingsoftheimage'thatcould beusedasevidenceinsomeoneelse'sargument." 1 Thoughunabashedlyinstrumentalist, StrugglephotographyleftanindelibleimprintonthehistoryofmediuminSouthAfrica, andprofoundlyshapedthepublicviewoftheroleofphotographyinpublicdiscourse andresponsibilityofthephotographer.DavidKrantzobservesthatthoughtheissues addressedbyStrugglephotographyhavelessrelevanceincontemporarySouthAfrica,the socialdocumentarygenrecontinues"tohaveacompellingroleinthoseemergingsettings wheretherearestilloppressorsandoppressed." 2 AccordingtoDavidGolblatt,theght forequalityhasshiftedinaneraofdemocraticrule:"theolddistinctionsbetween'the badguysandthegoodguys'hasbeenreplacedbya'confusionofforces.'" 3 Toaddress newforcesacomplexinterplayofsocialandeconomicfactorsperpetuatinginequity inpost-apartheidSouthAfrica,numerousphotographers,suchastheelevenconsidered inthisdissertation,nowlooktolandscapephotographyasapreferredgenre.Through landscapes,theseSouthAfricanphotographersexplorerelationshipsbetweenpeopleand environments,intersectionsbetweenthehistoryofapartheidandthedemocraticpresent, and,critically,theirownimbricationinthemilieu.Withthe"theadventofdemocracy," MichaelGodbyobserves"photographersclearlyseekmoreemphaticwaystoidentifywith theirsubjects,andfrequentlyrecognizetheirownissuesintheprocess." 4 Whereassocial documentaryphotographyoeredStruggleeraartistsaframeworktoexploreanddescribe oppressionthroughavisible,cause-and-eectlanguage,landscapephotographyprovides anew,adaptivecongurationofcompositions,form,andtoneresponsivetothelayersof meaningthatanimateagivenenvironment.ForphotographerssuchasIlanGodfrey,for 1.Godby,0SouthAfricanDocumentaryPhotographers,38. 2.Krantz,PoliticsandPhotographyinApartheidSouthAfrica,300. 3.Godby,0SouthAfricanDocumentaryPhotographers,8. 4.Ibid. 320

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example,landscapephotographssupportapresentationofconictingissueswithinthe samespace:byrepresentingenvironmentshecansimultaneouslyinfermininginSouth Africaasasourceofemployment,anengineoftheeconomy,andanenvironmentalhazard. Second,thisstudyhasexpandedthediscussionoflandscapeintheliteratureonSouth Africanphotographybyre-directinganalyticalfocusfromcolonial-eraapplicationsofthe genretowardsthevariedusesofthelandscapebycontemporaryphotographers.Denis Cosgroveobservesthewidespreadconsistencywithwhich"picturesquelandscapebecame deployedintheconstructionandcommunicationofnationalisminlate19thand20th centuryEuropeandcolonialsettlerstates." 5 Hisassessmentndsbroadexampleinthe historyofSouthAfricanphotographyandelsewhereinthecontinent,butCosgrovealso assertsthatscholarsare"notobligedtoreducelandscapesocompletelytoahegemonic toolintheculturalpoliticsofland," 6 andsuggeststhatlandscapeextendsbeyondthis particularhistoricalpurviewtoincludeacapacityto"combineincommensurateoreven dialecticallyopposedelements:processandform,natureandculture,landandlife." 7 BarbaraBendersimilarlyadvocatesamoreuidreadingoflandscapes,aviewthatguided theanalysisoflandscapesinthisdissertation:"landscapeisneverinert,peopleengage withit,re-workit,appropriateandcontestit.Itispartofthewayinwhichidentities arecreatedanddisputed,whetherasindividual,group,ornation-state.Operating thereforeatthejunctureofhistoryandpolitics,socialrelationsandculturalperceptions, landscapehastobe'aconceptofhightension.'" 8 Ratherthanassertapsychicclaimto SouthAfricanterritory,thephotographersreviewedinthisdissertationadoptlandscape conventionstoquestionthemselvesandtheircommunityatagrandscale;theirimagesto 5.Cosgrove,Modernity,communityandthelandscapeidea,56. 6.Ibid.,51. 7.Ibid.,52. 8.Bender, Landscape:Politicsandperspectives ,3. 321

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motivatetheiraudiencetoreect,atone,andengagewiththesubjectoflandandtakeup thementalworkoftransformingthecountryintoacohesive,interdependententity. Third,inseekingtobroadentheviewoflandscape,thisdissertationembraced conceptualapproachesandtheorizationsfromdisciplinesoutsidearthistory,suchas religionandnaturestudies.Frameworksfromtheseeldssupportedabroaderdiscussion oftheconstructionofmeaningthroughlandscapephotographyandallowedforan examinationoflandscapephotographyasanintersectionofpersonalsubjectivityand socialcollectivity.ViewedthroughthelensofDarkGreenReligion,forexample,the useoflandscapephotographybySouthAfricanartistsmovesbeyonddocumentation ofenvironmentstoencompassspiritualpractice.DarkGreenReligion,abeliefsystem thatholdsthatnatureissacred,imbuedwithintrinsicvalue,andisworthyofreverent care,informsananalysisoftheworkofphotographerssuchasDanielNaudeandBrent Meistre,whocalluponlandscapeimagerytomediatetheirencounterswithanimalsand environmentsthattheyviewassacred.Thephotographscommemoratearitualinwhich theystudy,inmeticulousdetail,naturalsettings,andformulateconnectionsbetweenthe systemstheyobserveandSouthAfricansociety.Otherwisestated,theirimagesserveasa materialrepresentationofaworldviewtheyperceivewithinnature,onethattheyfeelhas relevanceandapplicationtoabroaderdiscussionofnationbuildinginapost-apartheid environment. Insightsfromtheeldsofreligionandnaturestudies,biology,environmentalhistory andenvironmentalethicshavegreatrelevanceforthestudyoflandscapephotography. 9 UsingtheoriesandframeworksfromthesedisciplinesyieldsnumerousanalyticalbenetsforthestudyofSouthAfricanlandscapephotography,butofparticularnoteisthe 9.Thisdissertationhasdirectlyengagedafewsourcesfromthiseldandidentiedadditionaltheoriesintextstopursueinfurtherstudies.Inparticular,workfromDonaldWorster,AldoLeopold,David Tackas,TimIngold,ArneNaess,J.BairdCallicott,CharlesBrownandTedToadvinerelatedtoecology, biodiversity,landaesthetic,environmentalperception,deepecology,eco-phenomenolgywarrantfurther attention. 322

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Figure7-1.Screenshotfrom"TwentyJourney"Kickstartercampaign.Imagedisplaysa blackSouthAfricanyouthholdinganapartheid-eranationalag.Accessedat: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/482181956/twenty-journey widespreadinterestfromthephotographersthemselves.Innearlyalloftheinterviews withphotographersconductedforthisstudy,artistswereclearlyintriguedbymyconsiderationoftheirpracticethroughthesedisciplinarylenses.Manyofthephotographers attributedtheirinterestintheoreticalmodelssuchasDarkGreenReligiontoastrong desiretoconsiderthemeaningoftheirworkoutsideofapoliticalcontext.Overall,the artistscollectivelyfeltthattherewasmoretotheirpracticethanrevealedthroughcurrent scholarshiporcriticaldialogandwereexcitedaboutthepossibleinsightfromdiscussionof theirworkwithrespecttotheseoutsideelds. ThetopicoflandcontinuestobeofgreatinteresttoSouthAfricanphotographers, andsince2013anumberofartistshavecompletedprojectsthatuselandscapetoexplore theintersectionofland,identity,andbelonging.Theseprojectspointtothecontinuing relevanceofthetopicsforphotographersinSouthAfricaandsuggestnewareasofresearch 323

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forscholars.Ofparticularinteresttothisdiscussionistherecentcollaborativeproject, "TwentyJourney." 10 Overaperiodofsevenmonthsin2014threephotographerstraveled togetherinacaravanover24,000kilometersacrossallofSouthAfrica'snineprovinces inorderto"feelthepulseofSouthAfrica"duringayearofthreepivotalevents:Nelson Mandela'sdeath,the2014NationalElections,andthetwenty-yearanniversaryofthe rstdemocraticelections.ThephotographersofTwentyJourneycamefromdiverse backgrounds,andchosetofocusondierenttopicsduringthetrip:SiphoMpong, a20-yearoldXhosamanlookedat"bornfrees"likehimselfwhogrewupafterthe endofapartheid;SeanMetelerkamp,a29-yearoldEnglishman,wantedtohighlight theidiosyncrasiesthatgiveshapetotheSouthAfricancommunityinthelandscape; andWikusdeWet,a23-yearoldAfrikaner,investigatedthecultural,historicaland commercialvalueoflandforSouthAfricans. 11 Theprojectisnotableforthewayin whichtheartistsforegroundtheirraceandculturalbackgroundasacontexttotheir images.Thisgesturehighlightstheimportanceyoungartistsplaceonidentifyinghowthey "see"thelandscapeandthefactorsthatinuencetheirgaze. TheunlikelytriobegantheirprojectonaKickstartercampaign,keptagroupblog withimageslinkedtothelocationatwhichtheyweretakenonamapofSouthAfrica, andrecentlyculminatedinanexhibitioninCapeTownFigs7-17-4.Throughtheir project,the"TwentyJourney"projectartistschallengedthemselvestojointlyconsider thequestion:"HasMandela'svisionofequalityinarainbownationbeenachieved?" Theplethoraofpredominantlylandscapeimagesandenvironmentalportraitsthatthey producedoversevenmonthsseemtoprovideanobliqueanswer:theyshowSouthAfrica 10.Theartistscollectedandpublishedtheirimagesonacollaborativewebsite.See: www.twentyjourney. com. 11.Ontheircollaborativewebsiteeachphotographerpresentsashortbiographyandartiststatement. Thestatementsaddimportantcontexttotheprojectandtherespectivereasonsthethreephotographers designedandapproachedtheirthematicfocuses.See:"About,"Accessedat: http://twentyjourney.com/ about/. 324

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Figure7-2.WikusdeWet, RDPhousesinKwezinaledi ,2015.RDPhousesaredwellings providedbytheSouthAfricannationalgovernmentthroughtheRural DevelopmentProgram.Accessedat: http://twentyjourney.com/2015/08/20/lady-grey-7/ asalandscapeofmultitudes,asaseriesofscenesofpeopleandenvironmentsmoving atasynchronouspace.Thecollaborativeendeavorexempliesthewayinwhichyoung photographers,suchasthe"TwentyJourney"artists,whowanttoassesstheprogress ofSouthAfrica'sdemocracygravitatetowardslandscapeimageryanddesignprojects thatremovethemfromtheirfamiliarspacesandimmersethemselvesinnewphysical andculturalenvironments.AcrossthenewiterationsoflandscapephotographyinSouth Africa,therepervadesasensethatthegenreoersawaytoreintroducethenationto itselfthroughadiscussionofspacesandthepeoplewhomovethroughthem. Apartfromtheincreasingnumberofnewlandscapeprojects,recentinstitutional developmentsoerfurtherinsightintothelegacyofthesocialdocumentarytradition 325

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Figure7-3.SiphoMpongo,"ImaginationTree,"2August2015.Accessedat: http://twentyjourney.com/2015/08/02/port-st-johns-2/ forcontemporaryphotographersasitrelatestolandscape.In2011anewphotography awardwasestablishedthroughtheUniversityofCapeTownlibrariesinhonorofErnest Cole,anaccomplisheddocumentarian,whoseseries, HouseofBondage ,oeredoneof therstcomprehensiveaccountsofblacklifeunderapartheid.Theawardprovidesthe winningphotographerwithstipendtofurtherdevelopanin-progressbodyofwork,and givesadditionalsupportforanalexhibitionandmonographpublication.TheErnest ColeAwardisgiventophotographerswhoseworkfocusesonSouthAfricansociety,but doesnotstipulatethattheirworkadheretoanyspecicgenre.Fourphotographershave receivedtheawardtodateDaleYudelman,IlanGodfrey,GraemeWilliams,andMasixole Feniandtwoofthefourreceivedsupportforlandscape-basedprojects.Examinationof boththebodyofapplicantsandtheawardwinnerswillyieldarareviewoftheconcerns 326

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Figure7-4.SeanMetelerkamp,"Untitled,"3July2015.Accessedat: http://twentyjourney.com/2015/07/03/beaufort-west-9/ ofsociallycommittedphotographersinSouthAfricaandtheirprojectsdistinctfromthe workshowincommercialgalleriesandpublicmuseums. Inclosing,thisdissertationbeganasaninvestigationofanobservabletrendwithin contemporarySouthAfricanphotographyandexpandedintoanin-depthstudyofagenre adaptedtottheneedsofagenerationofsocially-engagedartists.Bylookingclosely attheworkofasmallgroupofphotographers,thisstudyhassoughttohighlightthe nuance,sensitivity,andintentionwithwhichtheseindividualsuselandscapephotography tocommunicatetheirviewsofanevolvingdemocracy.Formanyoftheartistsunder consideration,landscapeimagesareuniquelypositionedtorevealthecomplexblendof 327

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sentimentcoursingthroughSouthAfricanspaces,aptlydescribedbyGuyTillimasa combinationofwonder,introspection,anddisquiet. 12 12.GuyTillim, Departure Johannesburg:MichaelStevensonContemporary,2003,3. 328

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BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH MeghanL.E.KirkwoodwasbornandraisedinNewHampshire.Sheearneda BachelorofArtsfromGrinnellCollegeinGrinnell,Iowain2004,andaBachelorof FineArtsinPhotographyfromtheRhodeIslandSchoolofDesignin2006.Following completionofthesedegrees,sheworkedasanAmeriCorpsVolunteerforHabitatfor HumanitybeforemovingtoNewOrleanstobeginworktowardsaMasterofFineArts degreeinStudioArtatTulaneUniversity,whichsheearnedin2009.ThroughherMFA thesis,shedevelopedastronginterestinthehistoryoflandscapeandpursuedfurther studyinthisareaaswellasAfricanartsattheUniversityofKansas,wheresheearned aMasterofArtsintheHistoryofArtin2011.ShebeganherstudiesattheUniversity ofFloridain2011,andreceivedherPh.D,inarthistoryinspring2016.Inadditionto herresearchinlandscapeandSouthAfricanphotography,shehaswrittenaboutthe useofNorthKoreandesigned-monumentsinNamibia.SheiscurrentlyanAssistant ProfessorofVisualArtsatNorthDakotaStateUniversityinFargo,ND,wheresheteaches photographyandfoundationsdesign. 352