Citation
History to Heritage

Material Information

Title:
History to Heritage A Heritage Assessment of Tarpum Bay Eleuthera, The Bahamas
Creator:
Delancy, Kelly M
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (185 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Anthropology
Committee Chair:
KEEGAN,WILLIAM FRANCIS
Committee Co-Chair:
DAVIDSON,JAMES M
Committee Members:
COBB,CHARLES R
NEILSON,CYNTHIA J
Graduation Date:
12/18/2015

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic communities ( jstor )
Annual reports ( jstor )
Archaeology ( jstor )
Bays ( jstor )
Boats ( jstor )
Cultural preservation ( jstor )
Descendants ( jstor )
Retirement communities ( jstor )
Slavery ( jstor )
Tomatoes ( jstor )
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
bahamas -- heritage -- history
City of Key West ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Anthropology thesis, M.A.

Notes

Abstract:
This thesis is an examination of the heritage concept and identity at the settlement of Tarpum Bay on the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas. As objects, qualities or traditions inherited and passed down from one generation to another, heritage is rooted and often inextricably linked to history. To date, historical documentation on the communities of Eleuthera has been minimal. History books have largely ignored the contributions of these communities to the overall history and development of Eleuthera and The Bahamas at large. As a result, many settlements are known by outsiders as little more than maritime communities. This research seeks to document, along with the community, the history of the Tarpum Bay settlement and identify its tangible and intangible heritage. This overarching research question is addressed through ethnography that engages the community in such a joint heritage documentation exercise. This ethnography is largely discourse based, explores issues of access and develops the concept of heritage by identifying shared or disparate values and traits within the settlement. I examine the meaning of heritage from a community perspective, where it originates and how it is conceptualized. In conducting this study, I accommodate community interests in the identification of history, heritage and the handling of research products. My discussions take place with community members, being those who reside in the settlement as well as descendants who may be residing outside of the settlement. My data is obtained from historical documents, oral history interviews, through phone and Skype interviews as well as email correspondence as necessary. It is my hope that this collaborative community-based project generates historical information on the community of Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera for future reference, addition and development, while addressing the questions of Eleutherian history and heritage. Future development may take the form of a local history book, development of a community museum, demarcation of historic spaces for preservation and by extension, tourist attractions, which may lead to economic opportunities. Future uses of this research may be for the furtherance of more informed cultural resource management on the island of Eleuthera. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2015.
Local:
Adviser: KEEGAN,WILLIAM FRANCIS.
Local:
Co-adviser: DAVIDSON,JAMES M.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2016-06-30
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kelly M Delancy.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Embargo Date:
6/30/2016
Classification:
LD1780 2015 ( lcc )

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HISTORY TO HERITAGE: A HERITAGE ASSESSMENT OF TARPUM BAY ELEUTHERA, THE BAHAMAS By KELLY DELANCY A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DE GREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2015

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2015 Kelly Delancy

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To the people of Tarpum Ba y and the generations to follow

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This heritage project was co produced by the members a nd descendants of the community of Tarpum Bay on the island of Eleuthera and made possible only by their partnership. Francis Carey in particular provided much assistance by not only responding to my research questions, but also by providing the majority of the contacts for other members of the Tarpum Bay community. Among the members of the community who offered their time and valuable insight during the initial stages of this project were James Carey, Priscilla Clarke, Mae Brown and the Honorable Oswald In graham. Descendants and ext ended members of Tarpum Bay who contributed greatly to this project include Dorothy Moncur, Amanda Moncur, William ‘Al’ McCartney, Ivis Carey, Cislyn Simmons, Vashti Simmons, Deitra Delancy, William Delancy, Megan McCartney, Carm en Turner and the Honorable Philip Bethel. This project would not have been possible without their kindness and genuinely cooperative attitudes. At Tarpum Bay , I could not have completed this project without Iris and Herbert Carey, their children and empl oyees at Bert’s for t he Best grocery store, Eugene, Julian and Vera Carey, Valdrine, Ruby and Mary Knowles, Qurina and Esther Mingo, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Davis, David Victor Cartwright, Hilda Allen, Henry Allen , Brenda McCartney Carey, Henry McCartney , J ohn McCartney and many other unnamed informants. My sister Lesa Delancy was a huge help in transcribing these interviews as I produced them. Robert and Janice Hall, and Andrew and Ashley H all were sources of support at Tarpum Bay. I thank them for sharing their experiences of moving to the settlement and for their humor that made my work not feel like work . I am also extremely grateful for my friend, Gabrielle Misiewicz , who also doubled as proofreader. I thank my graduate committee of William Keegan, Charlie Cobb, James Davidson and Dixie Neilson, who were all supportive of my ambition to complete thi s work within an

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5 accelerated timeframe. As a committee chair, William Keegan has gone above and beyond in support of my graduate career and I thank him for his patience and for allowing me the freedom to develop my curiosities. David Steadman was also a gr eat help and a constant advocate of my graduate career. I thank him immensely for believing in me. I am also extremely grateful to the staff at the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program at the University of Florida for accommodating my interests and providin g me access to their collections on Bahamian immigrants to Miami. Ryan Morini has been a great mentor and encouragement to me since my arrival at the University of Florida in 2014. I thank p ro fessors Whitney Battle Baptiste and Elizabeth Chilton of the Univ ersity of Massachusetts Amherst, and Dianne Smith of Sonoma University who were sources of encouragement while in Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera. They also assisted me by shar ing past experiences and work, including oral history collections. Finally, I thank Au drey Carey and Shaun Ingraham of the One Eleuthera Foundation, Island Journeys and the Eleuthera Arts and Cultural Centre (EACC) for accommodating my research interests and providing me with an avenue through which to reach the extended community.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................9 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................10 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................12 2 A WRITTEN RECORD OF TARPUM BAY, ELEUTHERA ..............................................19 Settlement ...............................................................................................................................19 Society ....................................................................................................................................36 Industry ...................................................................................................................................39 3 PROJECT APPROACH .........................................................................................................51 Project Design .........................................................................................................................55 Methods ..................................................................................................................................58 The Project Area .....................................................................................................................62 Literature Review ...................................................................................................................68 4 JOINT RESEARCH DESIGN AND COMMUNITY COLLABORATION .........................70 5 A COMMUNITY HISTORY OF TARPUM BAY ................................................................74 Settlement ...............................................................................................................................74 Travel and Communications ...................................................................................................82 Society ....................................................................................................................................84 Dialect and Sayings ................................................................................................................97 Industry ...................................................................................................................................99 6 TARPUM BAY COMMUNITY HERITAGE VALUES ....................................................112 7 A TARPUM BAY COMMUNITY FAMILY TREE ...........................................................118 Allen/Knowles Family ..........................................................................................................118 Carey/McCartney Family .....................................................................................................119 Evans/Knowles Family .....................................................................................................120 Ingraham Family ...................................................................................................................120 Notta ge Family .....................................................................................................................121 Culmer Family ......................................................................................................................121

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7 Mingo Family .......................................................................................................................121 8 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS ...............................................................122 APPENDIX A ALLEN/KNOWLES FAMILY TREE .................................................................................128 B CAREY FAMILY TREE .....................................................................................................160 C MCCARTNEY FAMILY TREE ..........................................................................................162 D EVANS/KNOWLES FAMILY TREE .................................................................................167 E INGRAHAM FAMILY TREE .............................................................................................168 F NOTTAGE FAMILY TREE ................................................................................................169 G CULMER FAMILY TREE ..................................................................................................170 H MINGO FAMILY TREE .....................................................................................................171 I TARPUM BAY RESEARCH QUESTIONS .......................................................................172 J ORAL HISTORIES CONSULTED .....................................................................................175 LIST OF REFEREN CES .............................................................................................................177 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................185

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 21 Early Inhabitants of El euthera. ..........................................................................................27 22 Chronology of events influencing the development of Eleuthera, Bahamas. ....................33 23 Population of South Eleuthera 1940 – 1969. .....................................................................35

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 31 Interconnected and overlapping practices within a "collaborative continuum" ................52 32 Living heritage approach ...................................................................................................54 33 Map of The Bahamas, showing the relationship of Eleuthera to the remainder of The Bahamas. ............................................................................................................................65 34 1799 Map of The Bahamas showing Eleuthera as Alabaster Island ..................................66 35 Contemporary map of Eleuthera showing north, central and south divisions with sett lements ..........................................................................................................................67

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts HISTORY TO HERITAGE: A HERITAGE ASS ESSMENT OF TARPUM BAY ELEUTHERA, THE BAHAMAS By Kelly Delancy December 2015 Chair: William Keegan Major: Anthropology This thesis is an examination of the heritage concept and identity at the settlement of Tarpum Bay on the island of Eleuthera, The Bah amas. As objects, qualities or traditions inherited and passed down from one generation to another, heritage is rooted and often inextricably linked to history. To date, historical documentation on the communities of Eleuthera has been minimal. History books have largely ignored the contributions of the se communities to the overall history and development of Eleuthera and The Bahamas at large. As a result, many settlements are known by outsiders as little more than maritime communities. This research seeks to document, along with the community , the history of the Tarpum Bay settlement and identify its tangible and intangible heritage. This overarching research question is addressed through ethnography that engages the community in such a joint heritage docum entation exercise. This ethnography is largely discourse based, explores issues of access and develops the concept of heritage by identifying shared or disparate values a nd traits within the settlement. I examine the meaning of heritage from a community p erspective, where it originates and how it is conceptualized. In conducting this study, I accommodate community interests in the identification of history, heritage and the handling of research products. My discussions take

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11 place with community members, be ing those who reside in the settlement as well as descendants who may be res iding outside of the settlement . My data is obtained from historical documents, oral history interviews, through phone and Skype interviews as well as email correspondence as neces sary. It is my hope that this collaborative community based project generates historical information on the community of Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera for future reference, addition and development, while addressing the questions of Eleutherian history and herit age. Future development may take the form of a local history book, development of a community museum , demarcation of historic spaces for preservation and by extension, tourist attractions, which may lead to economic opportunities. Future uses of this resea rch may be for the furtherance of more informed cultural resource management on the island of Eleuthera.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Much past and present heritage work across the globe has promulgated epistemologies of dominant societies leading to top down l egacies. This is evidenced in the organizational structure of national and international cultural bodies. Those at the top, such as organizational and governmental “professionals” and academics, in positions of power, “higher knowledge” and authority impos e their value systems on those at the bottom – the local communities – intentionally or unintentionally affirming hegemony (Meskell 2012) . These persons in authority often do so with little to no consultation or despite consultation with the communities. T his approach to heritage conservation is often material based and/or values based, and exemplified by the Venice Charter (1964) .1 Within this framework, nonwestern communities are conceptualized and given value through western epistemologies, which often create discontinuity between heritage and people. The aim has been to preserve the materiality belonging to the past from the human activities of the present, which are c onsidered harmful (Poulios 2014: 18). Local groups have suffered exclusion from their heritage and the heritage discourse through lack of, or poor consultative practices and an inability to access the lexicon surrounding modern heritage practice. This is evidenced at heritage sites such as Great Zimbabwe where the National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe (NMMZ) gave the appearance of community collaboration, while in reality propagating hegemony (Fontein 2006). The status of World Heritage further separated the local community from the site by extending the authority and legitimacy of the state in management and appealing to global audiences. Fontein (2006) argues that a linear and progressive view of the past is embodied in the development of the modern 1 The Venice Charter: International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (Second International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, Venice, 1964) defined sites and objects of significance by aesthetic and historic value and based on original material (article 9, icomos.org/charters/venice_e.pdf).

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13 disciplines of archaeology and history . He argues that these disciplines then enact di s embedding mechanisms through a form of symbolic violence as they appropriate knowledge of the past through claims of objectivity and professionalism, and dismiss or marginalize different ways of conceptualizing the past. It is this exclusionary practice that led Australian author and heritage worker, Laurajane Smith, to coin the phrase “Authorized Heritage Discourse” (AHD) to describe its discussion. The discussion is one that employs a language of western superiority and takes place among those who are “authorized” or so empowered to discuss it – the “professionals” and “experts” (Smith 2006) . Lack of collaboration may not only be indicative of an inability to do so, but also indicative of a lack of desire to collaborate by one or more of the relevant parties. The interest or disinterest of a community is crucial to the success of cultural heritage management projects as the neglect of local knowledge systems, input, context, and the lack of local representation in heritage discourse can lead to a subsequent skew in heritage presentation and future work. This kind of manipulation and devaluation of Bahamian history and heritage by authorities, such as the British government and subsequent Bahamas government, is evident in the history books that have been used to “educate” Bahamians for generations, in the lack of historical data at the community level and in the misrepresentations of heritage. For many years a blind acceptance and lack of investigation into the attributes of the Clifton Heritage National Park led to the presentation of stone steps as “slave cut” stone steps by park authorities. They were marked as the steps upon which our Bahamian ancestors were brought into slavery following the Middle Passage. Romantic descriptions of this area include “ a gateway between Clifton and the rest of the worldacross them passed the first slaves from Africa, and the last cotton exported to Europe” (park signage) and “the path our ancestors took into slavery” (Save

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14 Clifton 2014). In reality, t he Williamson Movin g Picture Company cut the walkway for the filming of “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea” , which debuted in 1916 (Taves 1996; Smith 2014). Until very recently, histories of The Bahamas have been written by non Bahamians and absorbed by subsequent generations. The Honorable Oswald Ingraham, Acting Governor General of The Bahamas and resident of Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera lamented this stating: That is the big problem. Unfortunately , our history was not documented The Bahamas, we just had Majority R ule come about in 1967 and prior to that we were run by the Britishand the British, they had a way, in my opinion, of not wanting us to know very much about ourselves. So, you know, we studied history of the British and Europe, but never really [The Bahamas]I mean, we coul d remember all the dates of Ponce de Leon and all that nonsense, and Guy Fox, but very little if anything was recorded a bout our history . (Ingraham 2014: 2) Similarly, business owner and resident of Tarpum Bay, Eleuth era, Henry Allen, commented : That’s o ne thing that the prime minister always saysthat we fail to write. it is important to be able to write You would never know my grandfather came from Long Island unless you were able to interview me today, me tell you, and write it down. I probably would never write it down. (Allen 2015) Still today, history books circulated throughout Bahamian primary and secondary schools privilege a history and heritage as told by single, often expatriate authors with similarly singular perspectives on which histories are important and should be told. A lack of initiative on the part of Bahamians can be an indication of a low valuation of history and heritage though, understandably so, past Bahamians have prioritized economics and the need for livelihood before cultura l and historical products. In privileging written histories over oral histories, many of these histories of The Bahamas exclude the experiences of actual inhabitants of the settlements on the islands. Typical chapter divisions in a Bahamian history book include the pre Columbian Lucayans, Christopher Columbus, Spanish colony, English adventurers 164070, proprietors 1670 84, pirates 1695-

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15 1717, Royal Government (Woodes Rogers) and EighteenthCentury government, the Loyalists, Nineteenth Century Government and Present society. Non slave African arrival and settlement at The Bahamas (From Bermuda and Black Seminoles from the United States), slavery, emancipation and subsequent African legacies are often much generalized, if at all mentioned. The Bahamas website (Bahamas.com), a primary source for foreigners interested in traveling to The Bahamas or learning of Bahamian history and heritage, includes a history page sectioned into the following subsections: Lucayan/Christopher Columbus, First Settlement, Age of Pi racy, Nassau Struggles (piracy and royal government), The Loyalists, Civil War and Prohibition and Tourism and Independence. Today, 90% of the Bahamian population is of African d escent, yet this history is altogether missing.2 The hist ories also tend to focus heavily on Nassau and the island of New Providence at the expense of the outer islands. Though the Bahamian Islands may share a common history, it does not mean that the people of the islands share a common experience of that history. The h istories of many Out Island settlements and their inhabitants are not present ed . A disconnect between Bahamian history, heritage and identity was reiterated in my experience participating in a 2012 field school in The Bahamas. A Bahamian high school graduate asked: “where did black people come from?” She wanted to know how black people arrived in The Bahamas. It was astonishing because History is a mandatory subject up to the 9th grade and beyond the school curriculum , societal events and holidays such as Fox Hill Day , Emancipation Day and Junkanoo (a Bahamian cultural parade) all have African and slave roots. This exposed a disconnection in histories relating to community settlement as well as disconnection between history and heritage as cultural practices. 2 CIA World Factbook.

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16 When ap proaching community history and heritage study in The Bahamas I have found it useful to keep this context in mind. The majority of Bahamians are of African descent, AfroBahamian history is scantly documented or discussed, the concept of heritage is not de fined, and history and heritage for some may be disconnected from present day cultural events. Probing into heritage in The Bahamas poses many challenges as I am attempting to bring somewhat subconscious, forgotten or unknown ideals to consciousness. This research explores this idea of heritage and history at Tarpum Bay , Eleuthera. Tarpum Bay is a community located on the southwestern coast of the island of Eleuthera , approximately 67 miles east of the capital island of New Providence . This thesis engaged t he community in a joint project of identifying and documenting heritage and underlying heritage values. Organization and summary of c hapters : In C hapter 2, I present an account of the development of Tarpum Bay as can be found in literature. I divide the history into subsections of Settlement, Society and Industry because these were the broad categories covered in archival records and literature. Within these sections the information in organized in chronological order. C hapter 2 exists for comparison and c ontrast to the oral record. The information presented is by no means a comprehensive history of Eleuthera. The history was selected on the basis of its influence and relevance to Tarpum Bay. For this reason and ease of reading, details of other settlements were excluded. Due to an expressed interest by residents and descendants in founding individuals and the people that formed the modern community, I include and expound on names associated with Tarpum Bay and att empt to link them to community development . There are also obvious gaps in the history w h ere the written record is silent. I n C hapter 3, I outline my project approach, research design, methods and detail the research area. I expand on the network sampling method known as the snowball technique used

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17 to contact participants for this study . I also review literary sources used in constructing the presently recorded history of the community. The C hapter 4 is a description of the collaborative component of this project. This chapter begins the incorporat ion of multiple perspectives and community voices . It explores the value and feasibility of historical and heritage projects at Tarpum Bay. It is found that the community values its history, historical products and is welcoming of investigation. The l evel of community involvement, goals and objectives are discussed. The product of this collaboration follows in Chapter 5, which is a community history from the oral record. This chapter is divided into subsections of Settlement, Travel and Communications, Soc iety, Dialect and Sayings and Industry. I divided the chapter in this way to facilitate easy comparison with the information from the written record. Additional subsections of Travel and Communications, and Dialect and Sayings were unexpected categories of information that presented themselves in conversation with community members at Tarpum Bay. The product of C hapter 5 is C hapter 6, which is an extraction of community heritage values. Chapter 6 reveals that heritage at Tarpum Bay is associated with peopl e, both past and present, rather than materiality. It emphasizes social cohesion and family. Chapter 7 builds on the value and importance of people and family to Tarpum Bay. I was extremely grateful for the opportunity to collect family histories and cons truct a community family tree. C hapter 7 is a discussion of many early families at Tarpum Bay , their descendants, contributions to community and how they are remembered. This chapter is accompanied by explications of the family trees located in the appendi ces. In my conclusion, I position this study within the present body of work on social memory and heritage. I relate the annual homecoming festival to the notion of heritage being bound in a

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18 community of people, not necessarily a delineated community spac e or materials . I close with potential future directions for the sustainable development of Tarpum Bay heritage.

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19 CHAPTER 2 A WRITTEN RECORD OF TARPUM BAY, ELEUTHERA Settlement Prior to European c ontact in 1492, Lucayan Taino people occupied all of the major Bahamian islands (Schaffer et al. 2010). The name “Lucayan” comes from the Spanish word “Lucayos”, which is a translation of the Arawak words Lukku Cairi, meaning island people ( Keegan 1992; Berman et al. 2013). Keegan’s work, The People Who Discovered Columbus (1992) and Bahamian Archaeology (1997) laid the groundwork for studies of Bahamian prehistory through the archaeological record and ethnohistory. In his diary, Christopher Columbus detailed his encounter with this native group in The Bahamas. On Saturday, October 13th, 1492, he wrote: At daybreak great multitudes of men came to the shore, all young and of fine shapes, very handsome; their hair not curled but straight and coarse like horse hair, and all with foreheads and heads much broader than any people I had hitherto seen; their eyes were large and very beautiful; they were not black, but the color of the inhabitants of the Canaries, which is a very natural circumstance, they being in the same latitude with the island of Ferro in the Canaries. They were straight limbed without exception, and not with prominent bellies but handsomely shaped. They came to the ship in canoes, made of a single trunk of a tree, wrought in a wonderful manner considering the country; some of them large enough to conta in forty or forty five men, others of different sizes down to those fitted to hold but a single person. (Columbus 1492) The Spanish, who enslaved them, subsequently decimated the Lucayan population of The Bahamas. At Eleuthera, remains of this prehistori c people have been found along leeward shores and at Preacher’s Cave in north Eleuthera. In 1973, fifteen prehistoric open village sites were identified by the presence of ceramic wares (Sullivan 1974). In 2007, two male and one female skeleton was excavat ed, which date to AD 800 1300 (Schaffer et al. 2010). The period between the arrival of Columbus in 1492 and the a rrival of European colonists in 1648 represents a gap in Bahamian history yet to be filled. Craton and Saunders (1992) write that the Lucayans of The

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20 Bahamas were totally eradicated due to slavery, disease and seeking refuge at neighboring islands of Hispaniola, Cuba and Puerto Rico. On Ponce de Leon’s voyage through The Bahamas in 1513, he encountered a single Amerindian woman on Bimini or Grand Bahama, whom he named “La V ieja” (Craton and Saunders 1992: 56). To date, there are no examples of intermarriage or offspring between the prior Lucayan Taino population and the European colonizers. I n terms of Eleutherian and Bahamian heritage, prehistoric studies have found little application, as present day Bahamians are all descendant from elsewhere. The modern Bahamas is a nation formed of colonial settlers with no indigenous tradition to draw from (Bethel 2000). Geographically and historically, the country is considered a former British West Indian Colony . The colonial history of Eleuthera and The Bahamas , as we recognize it, began in 1648 with the arrival of English and Bermudian Puritans. Religious conflicts between Royalists and Independents led to the formation of The Company of Eleutherian Adventurers. Fleeing religious persecution, they emigrated from Bermuda to The Bahamas, intent on settling the Bahama Islands for Great Britain. The Articles and Orders of the Eleutherian Adventurers were publ ished on July 9, 1647. This idealistic document detailed the qualifications for admission into the company and planned governance. It is considered to be the first constitution of The Bahamas. Considering this, the island of Eleuthera is today peripheral t o most Bahamian historiography, but it is central to its first colonization and governance of the country. The first members of the company were those men qualified by reason of their “godliness, justice, and sobriety” and those who could bring into the public stock the sum of one hundred pounds. William Sayle, who advocated religious freedom and free trade, led this group to Eleuthera . It is written that the fifty ton ship, the William , left Bermuda with seventy adventurers (Bethell 1937: 83) . Among those settled at Eleuthera were the family names of Sands and Knowles. Each first adventurer was first

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21 to have 300 acres of land for himself and his heirs to begin with and subsequently 2000 acres (Articles and Orders 1647). It was agreed that the proceeds of all wrecks, mines of gold, silver, copper, brass or lead, ambergris, salt and rich woods, either tincture or medicament found upon or near the island should be sold for the best price by agents appointed for that purpose and divided equally among the owner or finder of the land, as the case may be, the first adventurers, and the public treasury (Articles and Orders 1647). Subsequently in 1649 , an uprising of the Royalist party in Bermuda took place and many of the Independents, (“ enemies of the King ’ s Compan y and Country” ) sought refuge at Eleuthera. This group inc luded Reverend Nathanial White, Reverend Stephen Painter, lay leader Robert Ridley and sixty others. Social misfits were also intermittently sent to the island. They included unwed mothers, insubordinate blacks and Quakers (Day 2010:74). In 1656, the ship Blessing arrived at Eleuthera carrying free blacks who were banished from Bermuda after a slave uprising. Among them was William Force, a free black man who was identified as one of the leaders in t he uprising (Day 2010: 75). Though it is not clear what became of the group, this information suggests that Eleuthera was the site of the first free black settlement in the country .1 In the late 1650s , political conditions improved in Bermuda and those ba nished were recalled, their sentence of b anishment having been declared “unjust and void” ( Bethell 1937: 84; Annual Report 1946). William Sayle returned to Bermuda in 1657 (Day 2010). The Spaniards drove man y others from the island in 1684, as they would periodically retaliate against pirates raiding their ships and Bahamians plundering their wrecks (Saunders 1985; Craton and Saunders 1Life in Eleuthera was difficult to sustain. Hearing of the hardship being endured on the island, s upplies were sent from Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts, who was also on the Board of Overseers for Harvard College. Brazilletto wood was returned in an expression of gratitude from the inhabitants in Eleuthera. The wood contributed to the construction o f the young Harvard University. In 1957 The Bahamas was presented a plaque of brazilletto wood commemorating the exchange of gifts.

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22 1992:79; Annual Report). M any destitute families from Eleuthera subsequently e migrated to Boston, Massachusetts, and Jamaica and settled by North Yarmouth near Portland, Maine (Annual Report). Pirates of all nationalities favored the Bahama Islands for their many deserted islands, their countless reefs and their narrow, intricate channels that could not be ac cessed easily by large vessels. While treacherous, the islands also possessed natural harbors that allowed small crafts to hideaway relatively safely. Despite these pirate attacks, by 1707, of the estimated six hundred inhabitants in The Bahamas there were about three hundred slaves living at Eleuthera, Cat Island, Little and Great Exuma and New Providence scattered among little huts “ready upon any assault to secure themselves in the woods” (an account of Captain Chadwell to Robert Holden in Saunders 1985: 1) . At this time , there was no stable crop and very little agriculture. The inhabitants grew provisional items and engaged mainly in seafaring activities including fishing, wrecking and turtling. They also engaged in woodcutting (mahogany, maderia, box wood and other vari eties) (Saunders 2010: 70). Another attempt at governance came in 1670 when Charles II of England granted The Bahamas to six Lord Proprietors. The inhabitants of the islands instituted an elective assembly with Captain John Wentworth as Governor. At thi s time New Providence and Eleuthera are the major islands of The Bahamas. It is written: Within 30 days after the instructions were received all the freeholders, inhabitants of New Providence and Eleuthera and the rest of the Islands, were summoned and re quired to elect 20 representatives of the people, together with the Governor and 5 Representatives of the Lords Proprietors and 5 other Councillors. (Bethell 1937, 64) The Lords Proprietors confirmed Wentworth in 1671. An elective Parliament and Lower Hou se was established dur ing the same year (Bethell 1937: 63). The first census of The Bahamas

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23 was taken in 1671 (Bethell 1937: 75) .2 At this time, the population of the island of Eleuthera was shown to be 184 individuals. This was made up of 77 males, 77 fem ales and 30 slaves (Annual Report 1969). The proprietors, however, neglected the colony in favor of other interests (Saunders 1985). The proprietar y period lasted from 1670 to 1717 after which, the British Crown resumed responsibility of the islands. The crown resumed control due to complaints by the inhabitants of negligence. The colony began experiencing stability with the installment of the first Royal Governor, Captain Woode s Rogers, in February 1718. At this time, there were 50 families on Eleuthera ( Saunders 1985). Rogers restored law and order under the motto Expulsis Piratis, Restitutia Commercia (Pirates Expelled, Commerce Restored). The result was an increase in immigration to The Bahamas by 1721. Inhabitants engaged in cutting dyewoods, which wer e traded with salt, turtle, turtle shell and seasonal fruits to the American colonies (Bethell 1937: 71). Bahamians supplied Virginia especially, with salt and dyewoods. The House of Assembly at Nassau opened for its first session on September 29th, 1729, at which time four individuals were elected to represent the island of Eleuthera. They were John Bethell, John Carey, Joseph Ingraham and Paul N ewbold (Hart 2004; Bethell 1937: 72). During the colonial period, the Resident Justice , Magistrate or Commission er was the chief administrator on an Out Island. Eleuthera , being a large island, was divided into administrative districts. Though there was only one resident justice per island, at Eleuthera thi s person was aided by assistants in select settlements. District commissioners later replaced resident justices. The settlement of Tarpum Bay was located in the District of Rock Sound, Eleuthera , which stretched from a line mid way between Savannah Sound and Tarpum Bay in the north and comprised all settlements so uth of that line. This included the settlements of Tarpum Bay, Rock 2 An enumeration of the inhabitants at New Providence can be found in the Registrar of Records Office Book C, pages 166175.

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24 Sound, Green Castle, Deep Creek, Wemyss Bight, Waterford, Bannerman Town, John Millar’s and Millar’s. The Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay district was divided into three electoral divisions 5, 6 and 7. Division 5 was of Tarpum Bay, division 6 Rock Sound and division 7 consisted of all settlements south of Rock Sound. In order to vote, an individual had to be a male property owner over the age of 21, excluding women and the majority of black men. Previous to the American War of Independence, 119 heads of white families were settled in Eleuthera with 350 slaves. One third of the inhabitants were listed as “coloured” in 1776 and the population is described as living in nearly a dozen settlements str ung along t he leeward coast (Saunders 1992: 174). At that time it is estimated that about 725 acres of land were under cultivation. Peter Henry Bruce, military engineer employed to improve fortifications in the 1740s wrote that the inhabitants of New Provi dence, Harbour Island and Eleuthera consisted of Englishmen, Scots, Irishmen, Bermudians, free Negroes and mulattoes (Saunders 1984: 3). It is arguable that the Bahamian economy at this time was based on commerce and seafaring; therefore slaves were more h ighly skilled and experienced more freedom than those in the plantation Americas. Peters (1961) writes that plantation owners would have their slaves to cut wood when there was nothing else for them to do (Peters 1961: 140). Many s l a ves were also able to purc hase their freedom (Bethel 2000: 9). After the American War of Independence, thousands of American Loyalists from Georgia and the Carolinas began relocating to The Bahamas seeking to reestablish their plantation lifestyles through the cultivation of co tton (17831785). The Peace of P aris and signing of the Treaty of Versailles (1783) spurred the migration of loyalists from Florida to The Bahamas. The typical loyalist was a male merchant, employee of a merchant, or a slave owning planter at the time of the American Revolution. He was either “first or second generation from Scotland or

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25 England, Presbyterian or Anglican, well educated and ‘bred to accounting’” (Peters 1962: 226). Others joined from New York, many of whom were British soldiers and free Negro es (Peters 1961: 132). These loyalists were provided grants of land in The Bahamas from the Crown. Many old inhabitants of The Bahamas also received free grants of land during this time. The amount of the grant depended on family size and number of slaves. Every head of family received 40 acres, every white or black man, woman and child in a family received 20 acres, at an annual quit rent of 2/ per hundred acres (Saunders 1985). According to Attorney General of the Colony, William Wylly, in 1784 the main settlements were at New Providence, Eleuthera and Harbour Island (Wylly 1789: 5). According to the earliest plan of Eleuthera, properties on the western coast of Tarpum Bay were allotted to W. Culmer, Jeremiah Culmer, Nottage, Campbell, Daniel Evans, R. K nowles, W. Mingo, R. Sands and E. Griffin. The inland “Swamp Tract” of 200 acres is allotted to R. Culmer. A 1791 grant confirms much of this land allotment. Charles Campbell and his heirs are granted 129 acres bordered by vacant land, Tarpin Bluff and the sea. Also granted land were Nathaniel Bullard, John Culmer, Sarah Culmer, Jeremiah Culmer, Charles Culmer, Mary Culmer, Joseph Knowles, William Knowles, William Carey, Charles Leary, William Culmer, William Charlow, Samuel Knowles, Mary Knowles, Elizabeth Knowles Senior, Elizabeth Knowles Junior, William Gibson, Jacob Justice, Sarah Grag, Richard Mingo, Thomas Knowles, Dorothy Knowles and Michael Culmer. The race and ethnicity of these inhabitants are unclear. In an unpublished file, Gail Saunders writes that the original settlers of Tarpum Bay came over land from Bullards and that those from Bullards came from Sava nnah Sound. She writes that the Culmers (of unspecified origin) and the Careys from Ireland were the founding families of the settlement. James W. Culmer is known to have resided at Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera and

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26 descendent of one of the oldest families at Eleuthera. The Culmers were among the families transplanted from England via Bermuda by Capt ain William Sayle (Bethell 1937: 192)3. T he Bethells we re also among the Eleutherian Adventurers settled at the island in 1648, the original two brothers being John and Nathanial (Bethell 1937) . Descendants of these Bethells are known to have settled at Governor’s Harbour, Eleuthera to New Providence, Harbour Island, Abaco, Caicos Island and Florida. The year 1807 marked the beginning of yet another wave of immigrants to The Bahamas. The British Government’s Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade outlawed the transoc eanic trade in African slaves. Illegally op erating slave vessels were condemned and their cargoes freed at the nearest British colony (West 2003: 17) . Crews from these vessels were tried in the Vice Admiralty Court and the Africans rescued from ships became known as L iberated Africans. Vessels of a ll nationalities were intercepted and the Africans on board freed at Nassau. These freed Africans became the responsibility of the Crown of Customs (Chief Customs Officer) who disposed of the new immigrants as paid laborers and indentured servants throughout the Bahama Islands. They often lived and worked alongside slaves (Adderley 2006: 16). The last known group of liberated Africans to The Bahamas were rescued from the slave schooner Peter Mowell, freed at Nassau and dispersed throughout the colony. The B ahamas received approximately 6000 liberated Africans betwe en 1807 and 1860 (Adderley 2006: 8). T here were three tribes of Africans represented at Tarpum Bay. They were the Yoruba, the Hussa and the Fullah (McCartney 2000). Runaway slaves from the United S tates also established new homes in The Bahamas up to their emancipation in 1863. The most well known is the Black Seminole group who settled at Red Bays , Andros (Howard 2002) . Table 1 is a list of persons comprising the first 3 J.W. Culmer is also a relative of David Culmer, a Loyalist, who obtained a grant of 57 acres of land from the Earl of Dunmore in 1788.

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27 enumeration of the inhabitants of Eleuthera. The settlement names opposite surnames indicate that those surnames were still found in the particular settlement up to 1946. Table 21. Early Inhabitants of Eleuthera ( Bethell 1937: 85; Annual Report 1946; Register of Records Book C, page s 175177). Settlement Surname Household Bethell John; Sarah, his wife; John, son (man) Elizabeth, Sarah, daughters (woman) Noah, Winer, Preneza, Jonathan (boys) Joannah, daughter (girl). Bethell Nathaniel; Ann his wife; Nathaniel, son (boy) Mary, Bet hia, Sarah, daughters (girls) Been Andrew; Elizabeth his wife Bradwell Jacob; Mary his wife Bannerman Town Tarpum Bay Bullard Solomon; Ann his wife; Nathaniel, Charles, sons (men) Ann, Eliza, Ester, daughters (women) Rock Sound Tarpum Bay Carey William; Mary his wife Sarah, daughter; William, son (boy) Carey John; Richard (man) Mark, Abraham, sons. Carey, Mark (single man) Carey Mark (single man) Rock Sound Charlow Joseph; Martha his wife Charlow Joseph; Martha his wife; Thomas, son (boy ) Tarpum Bay Culmer Daniel; Mary his wife; Thomas, son Culmer Thomas; Judith his wife Dickenson John; Mary his wife

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28 Table 2 1. Cont inued Settlement Surname Household Dorsett Mary (single woman) Tarpum Bay Evans William; Ameria his wife John, so n and 8 slaves Evans Elizabeth; John, Joseph, sons; 2 slaves Tarpum Bay Ingraham Joseph, Mary his wife; Duke (boy) Sarah, Mary, Ann, Bethia; Catherine, daughters Ingraham Benjamin; Rebeccas his wife; Benjamin, son (man) Ingraham William; Miriam, wi fe Tarpum Bay Rock Sound Knowles Robert; Marths his wife; Eliza, Ann, Mary (girls) Thomas, Daniel, sons (boys) Knowles Elizabeth, widow; John, Samuel (boys) Knowles John; Ann his wife; Hannah, Judith, Sarah (daughters) Rock Sound Kemp Benjamin; Jane, Mary (women) Martha, girl (daughter) Kemp Anthony; John, Anthony, sons (men); Benjamin (boy) Lowe Gideon; Martha his wife; Eliza, Martha, daughters (girls) Lowe Matthew; Sarah his wife; Thomas (man) Mary, Frances, daughters (girl) Lowe John; Eliza beth his wife

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29 Table 2 1. Cont inued Settlement Surname Household Rock Sound Newbold Sarah (single woman) Newbold Samuel; Mary his wife; Eliza his daughter Oliver Charles; Thomas, Charles, John, Benjamin (sons) Mary, daughter (girl) Penshaw John; S arah, his wife; Mary, Sarah, Sauannah, daughters (children) Pinder Richard Ronland Charles; Elizabeth, his wife; Charles, Jr.; Mary Coverley, daughter in law; 11 slaves Spencer Moses; Mary, his wife; Thomas, son; Mary, daughter Tarpum Bay Rock Sound Sands Samuel; Sarah, his wife; William, Samuel, boys Sands Samuel; Sarah, his wife; John, Charles (boys) Sands Peter Jr.; Mary, his wife; John (boy); Mary (girl) Sawyer Richard; Ann, his wife; William (man); John (boy); Mary and Sarah (girls) Rock Sound Watkins William; Hodon; Mary, William’s mother; Mary Susannah; 4 slaves Watkins Benjamin; Mary, his wife; Hannah, his sister (woman) 5 slaves Weatherly William; Mary, his wife; Martha, Mary (girls).

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30 In many cases, the settlements of South Eleut hera were named after British administrators or large landowners in a colonial legacy. Tarpum Bay was previously called Glenelg after Lord Glenelg, a former Secretary of State for the Colonies. Craton and Saunders (1992) refer to it as a distant settlement where a black or colored majority was dominated by a white minority. They write that it was typical for a small number of whites to be attracted by commercial opportunities and construct a miniature replica of Nassau’s socioeconomic system based on race, differential wealth and economic power ( Craton and Saunders 1992: 132). In old documents Rock Sound appears as “Wreck Sound” as its inhabitants were formally employed in wrecking. Weymss Bight was named in honor of Lord Wemyss, one of the early Scots Propr ietors. John Millars and Millars Town were named after Robert and John Millar. It is written that Robert and John Millar were English slave masters who lived in the District between Bannerman Town and Wemyss Bight. In Robert Millar’s will (1835), the estat e was left to his slaves. Bannerman Town was named in honor of Governor Sir Alexander Bannerman. In 1833, William Johnson, Robert Millar (of the Millar plantation) and William Knowles were elected to the House of Assembly as representatives for Eleuthera. There is little more information on the political and administrative history of Tarpum Bay and Eleuthera between 1833 and the 1930s. Streets at Tarpum Bay were improved for the first time and many others were built in 1908. It is noted that many of the str eets were through swampy ground and that residents traveling across rocky pathways to access distant fields located at Broken Bays and beyond. Assistant Resident Justice, Joseph Culmer, writes that there is “great need for a road to be opened along the sea shore leading from the settlement to ‘Broken Bays’ a distance of about 3 miles because the people find it difficult to get to and from their fields, where the wind is in a westerly direction, owing to the rugged pathway over the rock” ( Annual Report 1908).

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31 During this time, however ( the late 19th and early 20th centuries), travel within the archipelago was improving. Travel was mainly by sailboats, but a fortnightly steamship service had been established. The steam ship traveled between Nassau and a few Out Islands, including Abaco, Eleuthera, Cat Island, Long Island and Inagua. The Mail Boat was also used to travel between islands. This was a government service chartered to carry the post, though it also transported goods, people and correspondence. By 1919, the fortnightly mail boat serviced the Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay District. Commenting on the state of the mail boat, the commissioner writes: The present mode o f traveling to Nassau on these m ail boats, is far from comfortable, small vessels being use d with absolutely no private rooms, and even without a toilet, and no more convenience than an ordinary sponger. Better vessels, with suitable accommodations must be supplied for the Mail Service if the industries of the Out Islands are to be opened up; as no s trangers or any one else will take passage on such boats unless compelle d to, by necessity . (Report 1919: 4) In her book Bahamian Society After Emancipation , Gail Saunders writes that Out Island settlements were so self contained and isolated that the y had more interaction with Nassau for trade than with neighboring settlements (Saunders 1990: 59). Transportation between settlements was by foot, horseback, sailboat or schooner. Overland the trails were difficult to negotiate and travel around the islan d by boat was often equally difficult due to the shallow reefs and rocky coastline. It is not clear who had more likely access to which form of transportation, but the community history (chapter 3) shed some light on this subject. Cable and telephone commu nication were not introduced until after World War I. Though gaps exist in the administrative history of Eleuthera, it is known that representatives for Eleuthera in the House of Assembly in 1935 were R.W. Sawyer, G.W.K. Roberts and O.H. Curry. By the 1940s, a white mercantile elite of Nassau was dominating the House of Assembly and they were often indifferent to the majority class of black Bahamians and

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32 the needs and desires of the Out Island communities. They owned all of the businesses along the main street in dow ntown Nassau called Bay Street and came to be known as the “Bay Street Boys”. This oligarchy maintained control of the country and forwarded their interests through economic monopoly. There were some exceptions to the oligarchy. For example, Geo rge Baker was elected as a representative for El euthera in 1949 and brought much prosperity to the laboring class at South Eleuthera with the establishment of a canning factory in Rock Sound, through which they would sell their produce. Also elected were G eorge William Kelly Roberts and Asa Hubert Pritchard. The Progressive Liberal Party (PLP) was formed in 1953 to challenge the white oligarchy. The PLP sought to represent all Bahamians and gain equality for the black Bahamian majority. In response, the Bay Street Boys formed the United Bahamian Party (UBP) in 1958. Georg e Baker, being white, became a member of the United Bahamian Party. George Baker was reelected in 1956 with A. H. Pritchard and Charles Trevor Kelly; and again with the defeat of the PLP in the 1962 election with his brother Useph Baker and Charles Trevor Kelly. The UBP was unseated in 1967 when the PLP won the general election and Lynden O. Pindling became the fi rs t black Premier of the colony. Though George Baker was again elected as repres entative for Eleuthera, he shared this position with PLP representatives George Thompson and Preston Albury. After the 1962 defeat, t he PLP had rallied and won Bahamians in 1967 with rhetoric of nationalism. The party sought to create a sense of Bahamian n ational identity separate from that of the British and establish the country as an independent nation. As Bahamian a nthropologist Nicolette Bethel expresses, Bahamian independence became “more the outcome of racially based competition than the result of some univers al, nationalist uprising” (Bethel 2000: 16). National symbols emerged with rhetoric similar to that of the Black Power

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33 movement in the United States, “the darker one’s skin, the purer one’s status as a ‘true’ Bahamian” (Bethel 2000: 17). Through t he work of the Progressive Liberal Party an African heritage was emphasized at the expense of others as Bahamian national identity. A petition from the island of Abaco, home of a large population of white Bahamians, to secede from the proposed Commonwealth of The Bahamas, evidences the racial division created. Upon independence on July 10, 1973, Pindling became the first Prime Minister of The Bahamas. It is written that in the District of Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay, the first independence was celebrated by attending a church service. The rest of the day was spent quietly and there were dances at the various settlements and hotels during the night ( Annual Report 1974). Table 22. Chronology of events influencing the development of Eleuthera, Bahamas. A Chron ology 1629 The Island s of The Bahamas granted to Sir Robert Heath, King Charles I’s Attorney General. Formal annexation of The Bahamas by the British. 1647 The Company of Eleutherian Adventurers incorporated to settle at Eleuthera. 1648 The Eleutherian Adventurers arrived at Eleuthera and founded the first republic in the New World at Eleuthera. 1649 Act passed by Cromwell’s Parliament authorizing settlement of the islands . 1670 Islands given to the Lord Proprietors of the Carolinas for rule . 1704 Ba hamas occupied by the Spaniards (1704 1717) . 1718 Royal Government enacted . 1729 The first session of the House of Assembly began . 1695 Creation of the City of Nassau approved . 1746 The first Bahamian Parliament established at Governor’s Harbour, Eleut hera. 1781 Spaniards re captured the Bahama Islands. 1783 The Bahama Islands restored to Great Britain by the Treaty of Versailles. The immigration of American loyalists began. 1789 The first U.S. Consulate General established at Governor’s Harbour or C upid’s Cay, Eleuthera in July.

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34 Table 2 2. Cont inued A Chronology 1822 Registration Act passed requiring all slaves to be registered . 1838 Slavery was fully abolished. 1860 American Civil War begins. Blockade runners begin using Nassau as a base. Out Isl anders are also involved. 1865 End of Blockade Running era . 1897 Haynes Library built at Governor’s Harbour . 1920 Prohibition begins and rum runners out of The Bahamas begin operation . 1933 End of prohibition and rum running . 1936 Austin Levy establis hed a dairy and poultry farm at Hatchet Bay . 1939 Beginning of World War II and the end of sail powered cargo ships . 1940 A destroyers for bases agreement between the US and UK led to establishment of bases at Eleuthera, Grand Bahama, San Salvador and Ma yaguana. They were to play a major role in the early days of the Space Age when missile tracking stations were set up at Baha ma bases (Bahamas Handbook 2003: 413). 1943 The Contract finalized in March. Bahamian men begin to e migrated to the United States as agricultural laborers. 1954 George Baker opened canning factory at Rock Sound . 1959 Juan Trippe built Cotton Bay Club . 1962 Universal adult suffrage granted; Bahamian women voted for the first time. 1967 Majority Rule – The Progressive Liberal Party won the general election on January 10 th . 1970 Juan Trippe acquired thousand s of acres at Powell Point for the Cape Eleuthera Resort . 1973 The Cape Eleuthera Resort opened. The Bahamas became an independent nation on July 10 th . 1975 The Hatchet Bay far m taken over by The Bahamas government . ~1978 Cape Eleuthera closed . 1984 The Bahamas government closed the Hatchet Bay farm . Winding Bay closed .

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35 Table 23. Population of South Eleuthera 1940 – 1969. Population of the District of Rock Sound and Tar pum Bay 1940 1941 1944 1953 1959 1960 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1968 1969 Tarpum Bay 720 630 611 630 750 740 840 649 649 649 751 850 1000 Rock Sound 740 735 740 1100 1110 1110 1011 1011 1011 1103 1200 1500 Green Castle 400 304 400 425 410 410 385 385 385 448 550 600 Wemyss Bight 600 294 600 600 540 540 395 395 395 416 500 520 Deep Creek 300 325 300 500 500 500 313 313 313 348 400 400 Waterford 120 166 120 50 70 70 90 90 90 100 120 120 John Millar’s 30 30 30 30 30 30 33 30 30 Millar ’s 150 115 150 71 80 80 Bannerman Town 130 182 130 207 112 45 50 50 Bannerman Town & Millers 200 200 112 112 Total 3070 2732 3070 3662 3600 3700 2985 2985 2985 3315 3780 4300

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36 Society It is written that a spir it of “Ya nkeeism” prevailed among the Loyalists of the northern Bahama Islands. Loyalists used the term ‘Conch’ to refer to the older inhabitants of The Bahamas and their descendants. Thelma Peters writes that those settled in Abaco, north Eleuthera, Harbo ur Island and Spanish Wells tended to oppose racial mixture. M any of these settlements remain ed predominantly white, ma ritime communities (Peters 1960: 6263). People of the black settlement of The Bluff in North Eleuthera would visit Spanish Wells during the day to sell produce and work. However, they were not permitted to stay overnight. Governor’s Harbour also exhibited residential racial segregation. Persons of color lived on Cupid’s Cay, while the white people lived on the mainland (Saunders 1990). Cupid’s Cay was separated from the mainland by a narrow ridge of sand. Little is written of racial segregation at Tarpum Bay, thereby making this an interesting aspect of culture to explore ; whether the sentiment pervasive in the north was shared in the south. The only mention of inequality is found in a letter from a stipendiary magistrate to the Colonial Office in 1835 (early in the emancipation process). It was written that resident owners at Tarpum Bay were monopolizing the arable land and were unintereste d in promoting the industry of manumitted s laves (Craton and Saunders 1998: 14) In 1916, t here were two public libraries in the district. One was at Rock Sound and the other was at Tarpum Bay. There were four postal stations – Tarpum Bay, Rock Sound, Wemys s Bight and Bannerman Town. There were many burial societies, lodges and friendly societies at Tarpum Bay and wit hin the district at large. Original burial and friendly societies emerged in post emancipation years within black communities to assist in the transition to free society and played a significant role in burying the dead and aiding the si ck and aged (Saunders 2010: 36; Johnson 1995; Annual Report 1946). As they grew, the societies sponsored civic, religious and social activities aimed at strengthe ning the free black communities. Friendly societies would

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37 later become associated with lodges. Some of these lodges in The Bahamas included the black F reemasonry , the Elks and the Odd Fellows. Friendly societies in New Providence have been discussed in pas t scholarship (Johnson 1995; Adderley 2006; Saunders 2010) , though the details of their presence on the Bahamian Out Islands have not been equally explored. In South Eleuthera there were two Grand United Order of Odd Fellows (GUOOF) lodges. One was at Rock Sound and the other at Tarpum Bay. The other friendly societies and lodges are not listed (for more information on societies at Tarpum Bay see chapter 3). T here were four schools in the Rock S ound and Tarpum Bay District ( Annual Report 1916). They were three Board Schools and one Grant in Aid .4 Primary education was compulsory for children aged 5 to 14. School attendance during the latter months of the year typically declined throughout the district, as older boys especially were needed to assist in the to mato industry , which was a main industry and export at the time ( Annual Report 1919). It is noted that in 1919 large number s of men emigrated from the district to Florida in search of employment. The commissioner laments the agricultural loss of that year , the high prices of foreign foodstuffs and the lack of encouragement for men to remain at home. Saunders (1990) adds that during the early years of the depression (1929 – 1932) Bahamian Out Islanders suffered severe hardship as traditional industries of f arming and fishing were failing in part due to a successi on of hurricanes (Saunders 1990: 52). As a result , many Out I sland families relocated to New Providence during this period. Early houses in Tarpum Bay were A framed two storey wooden and stucco struc tures. Kitchens and washrooms were separate buildings near the main house. Wooden homes gave way to structures of local stone and lime, and later to cement, or tabby walls and local lime with 4 A grant in aid school was one that was subsidized by the government.

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38 cement and tiled floors (Annual Report 1946, 1962, 1966). Those in Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay typically consisted of five or more rooms while in most other settlements houses consisted most often of two rooms – a bedroom and sitting room. New er homes had shingled roofs, tiled floors and indoor kitchens. The change in building materials and practices is attributed to damage by termites, the training of local carpenters and masons to produce better quality work and the prosperity of the individual ( Annual Report 1954, 1966). Young men were learning these trades through app renticeship carpenters, masons, mechanics, plumbers and electricians. Between 1941 and 1959 the area of Tarpum Bay had expanded from square miles (1.9 km ) to one square mile (2.6 km ) . In 1957, Tarpum Bay was still acquiring drinking water from wells drawn by windmills, stored in a reservoir and distributed by standing pipes. A government project was underway to allow the settlement to connect to the mains and enjoy running water like the neighboring Rock Sound ( Annual Report 1957). During World War I I, The Bahamas was used by Germans as a hunting ground and by the allies as an international transit hub. Between March and August of 1942, German and Italian submarines frequented the Bahamian archipelago seeking to destroy cargo ships carrying war materi al including oil from Texas and Venezuela to Great Britain. U boats waited for ships to emerge from the various channels leading to and from the Windward Passage (Handbook 2012: 116). These attacks and sinkings were not reported at the time due to wartime censorship (Bahamas Handbook 2012: 114). Approximately 20,000 vessels were used to supply England through The Bahamas and 75 U boats attacked at least 110 of them. They sank or badly damaged 12 of them directly in Bahamian waters, leaving 362 survivors to struggle ashore on various islands. Bahamians from all walks of life aided survivors.

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39 Industry Prior to the arrival of the Loyalists, industries of the inhabitants of The Bahamas included fishing, wrecking, turtling and woodcutting. The little agriculture that took place included guinea corn, peas, beans, potatoes, yams, planta ins and bananas (Saunders 1985: 20). Farming often took place on commonages or on generation land. Commonages were lands held by the inhabitants of a settlement in common. I n the year 1782, volunteers from Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay joined Colonel Andrew Deveaux’s forces in recapturing New Providence from the Spaniards. In recognition of their services, the volunteers were granted large acreages around their settlements from the British Crown ( Annual Report 1946) .5 T hese grants of land became known as Rock Sound an d Tarpum Bay Commonages ( Annual Report 1946 ). Generation land was land passed down through family, though titles often did not exist for such land. The Loyalists sought to est ablish a plantation economy built on the production of cotton. Two types of cotton were planted. They were Anguilla cotton and Georgia Cotton. Anguilla cotton was not able to withstand the rainy season or cold winds. Georgia Cotton was found to be better s uited to the climate. The cotton economy, however, was not sustained. By 1805, the crop was determined to be a failure due to the attack of the chenille worm and red bugs, the exhausted state of the soil, inexperience of the planters, poor management and t he climate (Saunders 2010, 71). As a result, The Bahamas never became a true plantation economy. The status of the plantations and prevailing economy between the failure of the cotton industry and the emancipation of slaves is uncertain. According to Saunders (1985): Many of the plantation loyalists bought business or residential properties in Nassau, which became a ‘kind of physical and psychological bridge between the yankee culture to the north and the plantation economy culture to the south’ and the 5 The Tarpum Bay Commoners Rules made under the authority of the Commonage Act (Chapter 123) were published in the official Gazette of 1926 as Notice No. 144.

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40 ar ena in which they fought. Many lived in Nassau as businessmen, lawyers and government officials, at least part of the year, with their plantations being run by overseers . (Saunders 1985: 16) In the late 19th and early 20th centuries absentee proprietors operated their estates through an exploitative labor tenancy and a share system. In the share system, common after the end of slavery, landowners supplied land to tenants in exchange for a share of the crop, which was typically a half or third (Saunders 1990: 61). As the pineapple industry began prospering in the 1840s6, tenants started relying on landowners for credit and provisions such as pineapple slips, manure and fertilizer. These advances in cash and kind were then deducted from the pineapple sales by the landowner and often left the laborer at a loss. The island of Eleuthera led in the growth of pineapples, though they were also grown in Abaco, New Providence, Cat Island and Long Island. Close proximity to the American coast allowed Abaco and Eleuthera to lead The Bahamas in the export of pineapples. In popular literature, Gregory Town, Eleuthera is recognized as a chief producer of pineapples and the entire island has been branded as such7. Saunders (2003) adds the settlements of Governor’s Harbour and Rock Sound in the growing and export pineapples. Englishman L.D. Powles was appointed Stipendiary and Circuit Justice in The Bahamas in 1888. In his reports published in Land of The Pink Pearl (1996) he writes that Hatchet Bay and other northern settlemen ts are noted as chiefly pinegrowing settlements (Powles 1996: 110). He also writes that agriculture is the primary pursuit at Rock Sound, the chief products being pineapples and tomatoes, and the presence of a pineapple preserving factory at the settlemen t (Powles 1996: 117). 6 The first shipment was made to England in 1844. 7 An annual Pineapple festival is held in Gregory Town. The Island of Eleuthera is represented by a pineapple on The Bahamas’ official website (www.bahamas.com/islands/eleuthera).

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41 Though little known, Tarpum Bay too was a busy port of entry and shipping center. In an unpublished file, Saunders writes that Tarpum Bay was a bustling port for shipping pineapples in the late 1800s. In an annual report of the distr ict it is written: Rock Sound or New Portsmouth has been one of the principal Ports of Entry in the Out Islands for nearly a century. Tarpum Bay likewise was at one time a busy shipping center. Both settlements derived their trade from the citrus and pinea pple industries, and sailing ships carried cargoes to England, Spain, France, and the U.S.A . (Report 1966) The 1885 crop is noted as the largest on record at a value of $47,320 (Saunders 2010: 82). The first pineapple canning factory was established at Governor’s Harbour in 1857. In 1876, Member of Parliament J.S. Johnson opened The J.S. Johnson Canning Company in Nassau, which opened branch plants in Eleuthera. The Thompson Bothers of Gregory Town also operated a pineapple canning factory (Sun White brand 19461968) and i n 1954, George Baker, a member of the House of Assembly for Eleuthera, established Bahamas Best Products canning factory in Rock Sound. The decline of the Bahamian pineapple industry i s attributed to exhausted soil, inadequate packing meth ods and competition from foreign markets that employed cheap er labor. Assistant Resident Justice at Tarpum Bay wrote that 1908 saw a very small crop of pineapples and “it is due to the degenerated stock, the industry will not revive until there is a general circulation of imported stock” (1908). Those producing pineapples were those who could afford to purchase new plants. By the late 1880s and 1890s, sponging became a thriving industry. Nassau merchants owned many of the sponging boats and hired O ut I slan d men on the truck system. Often times, these merchants were white and also owned a grocery store ( Saunders 2003; Saunders 2010: 78). The merchants supplied food and provisions in kind (flour, sugar, tobacco and clothing ) to the men and their families at a high profit. Upon returning from sponging voyages, which lasted 5 to 8 weeks, merchants made deductions that often left the fis hermen at a loss (Saunders 1990: 62).

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42 In 1901, there were 5,967 men and boys employed from 265 schooners, 322 sloops and 2,808 open boats (Saunders 2010: 78). The sponging industry gradually declined until it ended in 1938 when a fungus spread through the sponge beds. Governor Shea Ambrose proposed the development of the sisal industry using British capital to eliminate the credit and truck system that was perpetuating poverty. In 1889, legislation was passed to encourage its cultivation. By 1890, the industry was established. Sisal was grown at Eleuthera, Andros, Long Island, Exuma, Rum Cay, Cat Island, Inagua and Abaco. Laborers w ere paid weekly in cash until 1912 when world prices fell and sisal plantations on the Out Islands could no longer sustain themselves (Saunders 1990: 63). During the American Civil War, blockade running became a source of prosperity for Bahamians. Many Bah amians became involved in the trade of cotton and ammunition and Nassau became an important and neutral port for the exchange. Though it is extensively written how Nassau was impacted by blockade running, it is unclear how the Out Island communities may ha ve been. Similarly, the passing of the Volstead Act in 1919 and the onset of the prohibition and rum running era brought many significant changes to Nassau . T he Out Islands were neglected. The 1916 Commissioner’s Annual Report on the District of Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay reports farming to be the staple industry of the district. Chief exports were sisal, pineapples and tomatoes. There were no factories. All sisal was cleaned by hand. Sisal was the principle cultivation of the inhabitants east of Rock Sound. The fiber was being used to make ropes for horses and boats, and being sold for good prices. Reports cite that “this year instead of the people therefore eating their own produce, grown by themselves, there [sic] are able to buy the imported articles for a change” ( Annual Report 1916). Three years later, the commissioner wrote:

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43 Only by compulsion will some be induced to clean the fibre properly. Talking is of no use, and the way to the brain of many is only through the pocket. If this inspection of Sisa l had been carried out years ago, the Bahamas Sisal would not have been such a low priced article in the New York market today. In any part of the District and wherever raised, Sisal even at low prices serves to keep the wolf from the door. It is the poor man’s friend, and every inducement and effort should be made to encourage the industry . ( Annual Report 1919) In 1916, there were two regular packinghouses for crating tomatoes in the district; one was located at Tarpum Bay and the other at Rock Sound. The commissioner reports that a large number of growers are crating their tomatoes at Tarpum Bay and that those doing so report better results. In 1919 over 50 horses were imported from Long Island to Tarpum Bay to assist in the tomato industry ( Annual Report 1919). The year 1919 was a depressing one for the agricultural district. A hurricane on September 8th severely damaged the fields. This was followed by a drought, which finished destroying what the hurricane did not ( Annual Report 1919). The potato weevil decimated the sweet potato crop, which was once plentiful in the district. Large quantities of cassava were planted and lost in the hurricane. In expectation of high tomato yield, the Opolinski Tomato Company had been built at Tarpum Bay and was the large st in the district. The Sawyer Godfrey Tomato Company in Rock Sound followed this. There were also several small local packing places. Unfortunately, the drought retarded planting and the growth of the tomatoes. The commissioner also laments the lack of ad equate transportation for the tomatoes. The Miami route does not suit, as there is too much handling, and freights are so high that by the time the fruit reach the New York market, they are often in such bad condition that they are a loss to the shippers. What is required is direct transportation to New York, and until this is secured, the growers and shippers will not derive the benefit from the tomatoes, which is their due . ( Annual Report 1919) Regardless of transportation woes, tomatoes grew into the chief export of the district as early as 1911 ( Annual Report 1911) . Mr. W.R. Watkins who was manager of the tomato packinghouse and a large c ultivator himself introduced a motor truck to Rock Sound, which was

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44 used to transport tomatoes within the locality to the packinghouse at Rock Sound ( Annual Report 1922) . By 1922, beans and peas were a staple product for home consumption and export to Miami. Cassava was shipped to Nassau markets; pineapples were being grown on a small scale. Each family raised sheep, goats and pigs, but no one was doing this on a large scale. Young women produced drawn (thread) that they traded and it is reported that practically no sponging is done during this year . Tarpum Bay consistently led the district in the export of tomatoes sinc e 1924, though a number of these tomatoes were grown at Red Bay in Wemyss’ Bight ( Annual Report 1924). In June of 1937 the Board of Agriculture visited to assist the people of the district by encouraging the formation of Tomato Growers’ Associations in the various settlements by supplying fertilizer and seed at reasonable prices and appointing inspectors to supervise the grading and packing of the fruit. Five Tomato Growers’ Associations were formed in the district including one at Tarpum Bay ( Annual Report 1940). Crate material was being imported to the district from Nassau along with fertilizer, foodstuffs, building materials and clothing. Contributing to agricultural development at Eleuthera was American Austin Levy . He was originally att racted to the cli mate of The Bahamas and established a residence at Cable Beach, New Providence . He later acquired approximately two thousand acres from the Hatchet Bay Company’s holdings in North Eleuthera for the establishment of a dairy and poultry farm in 1936 (Bethell 1939: 182). Levy was the largest employer in the area and established much of the infrastructure at Hatchet Bay/Alice Town. His Hatchet Bay Plantation consisted of 26 residential houses, an office block, a stores block, 28 chicken houses, a poultry proces sing plant, creamery, feed mill, power plant with five generators, dock, marina, many other storage buildings, farm machinery and transportation equipment (Thompson 1982: 172). Levy imported cattle from his

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45 Sherman Stock Farm in Massachusetts and supplied chicken , eggs , milk and ice cream to settlements on Eleuthera and to Nassau. At South Eleuthera, Livestock Terminal and Forwarding Company, a subsidiary of Union Stockyard of Chicago, maintained a modern cattle ranch at Rock Sound. Many local men were empl oyed at the ranch and cattle were shipped from Rock Sound as far as Canada ( Annual Report 1966: 11). By 1945, the inhabitants of the Rock Sound district were widely engaged in tomato farming and laborers from the neighboring islands of Exuma and Cat Islan d were immigrating for employment . Men, women and children were engaged in tilling the soil. Females were employed for planting and weeding the tomato fields while others found employment in the packing sheds. Rock Sound cultivated tomatoes on a large r scale than in previous years and net profits amounted to approximately 129,180 pounds, 13 shillings and 5 pence. Barges were typically used in the export of tomatoes. Other vessels engaged in carrying tomatoes to Nassau received 6 pence per crate, which was l ess than when the barge was used ( Annual Report 1946). In 1946, more tomatoes were being produced at Tarpum Bay than at any other settlement on Eleuthera ( Annual Report 1946). This is attributed to i mproved methods of agriculture, though i t is not explain ed what these methods were. George Baker opened a canning factory at Rock Sound in 1954 under the Bahamas Best Products brand. He also started a pineapple plantation in 1966 ( Annual Report 1966). In 1959, as farming was fading as an industry throughout most settlements, Tarpum Bay was still growing the most produce in the district. Tarpum Bay fruits and vegetable s were being sold in the hotels as far as Governor’s Harbour (Annual Report 1959). Fishing is hardly mentioned as an industry. Fishing was done on a small scale for subsistence purposes and local

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46 markets. The fishermen moved up and down the coast in boats equipped with small wells that held a half to a barrel of fish. Fishing was done with cotton line, wire pots or traps. While it is known that farming was taking place in the district, the years 1943 – 1966, were also known for the Contract. The Contract, also called The Project, was a negotiated agreement between the government of The Bahamas and the government of the United States for the recruitme nt of Bahamian laborers to fill shortages created by World War II. The agreement was finalized in March 1943 after which many Out Island men (18 years and older) began e migrating from The Bahamas to the United States. Bahamians were employed on farms and plantations in Florida, throughout the Eastern United States as far as New York, and as far west as Indiana (Saunders 2010: 17). Money was deducted from workers’ wages as a family allowance to the worker’s family in The Bahamas or deposited for the worker in the colony’s Post Office Savings Bank. It was noted that family allowances received through the Labour Office from workers in the U.S. were a valuable assistance to the dependents left behind in the district (Annual Report 1944). In 1945 a sum of over 4500 was paid out from the Labour Office (Annual Report 1945). At this time, women, with the assistance of children, were forced to maintain the farms on the islands. Many men were not able to readjust to life on the islands after the C ontract. These men s ent for their families and remained in the United States or relocated to Nassau (Saunders 2010: 20). The establishment of The Bahamas as a year round, worldclass tourist destination is attributed to Development Board Act passed in 1914. This established T he Bahamas Development Board with objectives to promote tourism, negotiate with carriers and coordinate tourism d evelopment efforts (Cleare 2007: 68). Lawyer, businessman and politician, Stafford L. Sands, led the board as Chairman. The Hotel Encouragement Act passed in 1949 led to increased

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47 investment in construction and real estate. This act allowed for customs duty refunds on materials used in the construction or refurbishment of a hotel. It also granted the owner a 10year exemption from real property tax and a 20 year exemption from direct taxation on hotel earnings (Cleare 2007: 114). In order to qualify, hotels on New Providence had to have at least twenty rooms. Hotels on the Out Islands needed at least ten. History b ooks, such as Historic Bahamas (2010) by Gail Saunders and A History of Tourism in The Bahamas (2007) by Angela Cleare , emphasize tourism developments at New Providence. Though little documented, O ut Island communities were undergoing major changes also. During the 1930s and 1940s much land in the Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay District was sold to and developed by foreign interests. In South Eleuthera, Arthur Vining Davis was developing land at an unprecedented rate. Davis served as president and later chairman of the Al uminum Company of Ame rica (ALCOA ). He was introduced to the island by Bahamian real estate developer, Sir Harold Christie in 1939. During the 1940s, he established South Eleuthera Properties Limited, acquired approximately 35,000 acres on Eleuthera and set the island’s tourist industry in motion (Cleare 2007: 120 ). South Eleuthera Properties would come to operate the Rock Sound Club, the Cotton Bay Club, the Winding Bay Club, the Eleuthera Beach Inn and Three Bay Farms. Davis also operated the Davis Harbour Marina near Wemyss B ight, sports fishing boats for hire, a hardware store, supermarket and a machine shop where the company’s vehicles, boats, and equipment was serviced. Davis’ Three Bay Farms engaged in large scale farming at Rock Sound. He erected a tomato packing house th at was perhaps one of the most modern in the Bahamas. The farm had biweekly sailing to Nassau by the M.V. Three Bays . In later years the farm operated the M.V

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48 Rock Sound and the M.V. Comet between Nassau and Rock Sound. The M.V . Rock Sound made frequent tr ips to Miami and returned directly with an assorted cargo (Annual Report 1944). Three Bay Farm s contributed to the development of the community in many ways. A modern schoolroom was erected at Rock Sound in exchange for old buildings and sites owned by th e Board of Education ( Annual Report 1940). Improvements were made to the road between Tarpum Bay and Bannerman Town; buildings were constructed for housing machinery, storing stocks of lumber and cement, and for housing workers. Other buildings were renova ted. The farm introduced electricity to Rock Sound in 1944 as well as running water. The power plant was supplying electricity and the Eleuther a Water Supply was supplying wa ter to the Rock Sound community and later all of Eleuthera, under government super vision. With the exception of a few American employees the entire staff were Bahamians. Several thousand pounds were paid in wages during the year. Laborers from the different settlements, including Tarpum Bay, and neighboring islands of Exuma and Cat Isla nd also found employment at the development. In Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay the Government docks were repaired. Juan Trippe, founder of Pan American Airways, also took interest in South Eleuthera. In 1959 he built the Cotton Bay Club with an 18hole golf course designed by Robert Trent Jones . He also bought the Rock Sound Club from Davis and expanded the Rock Sound airport. Pan American Airways began a jet service between Rock Sound and the U.S. in 1964 with two Boeing 707 aircrafts . By 1966, Pan American Ai rlines had two daily flights between New York and Rock Sound via Nassau ( Annual Report 1966). At the same time, Bahamas Airways was operating daily flights between Nassau and Rock Sound. Over 200 private planes visited the island in 1962, the majority from the United States. Many yachts frequented Rock Sound, the Davis Harbour Marina, Cotton Bay and Powel Point. The Powel Point area gained a reputation

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49 for sports fishing. Five fishing cruisers were owned and operated by South Eleuthera Properties for charte r to tourists. A highly successful summer fishing tournament was held at the Cotton Bay Club by Nassau anglers ( Annual Report 1966). In 1970 Trippe began the development of the Cape Eleuthera Resort in partnership with GAC Properties from Florida. The resort, featuring a marina, clubhouse, villas, golf course, airstrip and home sites opened in 1973 (Smith 2013). Eleuthera was transformed into the #1 destina tion in the region (Cleare 2007: 120). On behalf of the Cotton Bay Foundation, Mr. and Mrs. Juan Trippe awarded scholarships to outstanding students in the district. The scholarships were tenable for five years of study at St. Augustine’s College, a private high school in Nassau. When Juan Trippe died in 1981, Cape Eleuthera was taken over by Abdul Bougary of Saudi Arabia. It was closed two years later. The Cotton Bay estate was sold to Nassau businessman Frankie Wilson, who sold it to Columbian billionaire Luis Carlos Sarmiento (Smith 2013). The Bahamas Government acquired Levy’s Hatchet Bay Farm in 1975. The farm was closed in 1984. By 1980, all major resort developments had closed. It is uncertain from the literature the reason for the closures on Eleuthera. In his article A Story of South Eleuthera (2008), Larry Smith writes “the Pindling Government was putting the screws on the owners”, but it is unclear if this was in relation to the Cape Eleuthera development or all developments. In relation to a foreign development at Freeport, Grand Bahama, Cleare (2007) writes of the PLP’s sentiment that “exclusion of Bahamians from the social and economic mainstream of a foreign enclave was intolerable as was the surrender of governmental control over immigration and other adminis trative functions” (Cleare 2007: 204). In the following paragraph she writes that French Leave closed in 1970 and the Rock Sound Club in 1973. It is suggested that the closures were related to governmental changes. On March 18, 1975, the Bahamas government purchased the

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50 assets of the Harrisville Company and its subsidiaries, Eleuthera Limite d and Bay Street Properties Limited. As previously mentioned, the information presented in this chapter is not a comprehensive history of Eleuthera. This chapter is a context for the development of the Tarpum Bay community as can be gleaned from documenta ry sources. The history was selected on the basis of its influence and relevance to Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera. Therefore, details of other settlements were excluded. Also excluded are details of commerce such as quantity of imports and exports for each year. I nstead , I state chief products and changes in production over time . This history shows that a written record of Tarpum Bay is not consistent or complete. Significant gaps in the record include activities concerning the islands between 1492 and European col onization in 1648, the activities of Africans introduced by the Eleutherian Adventurers (1648) and later Loyalists , the movement and settlement of those slaves who purchase d their freedom , administration and economies of settlements between 1833 and the 1930s , social / racial dynamic in south Eleuthera , the status of plantations between the decline of cotton (1805) and emancipation (1838) , and the effects of blockade and rum running on Eleuthera n communities . Some of these gaps may be filled through further a rchival research, while others may only be accessible, answerable and/or enlivened through social memory as presented in the following chapters.

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51 CHAPTER 3 PROJECT APPROACH I have attempted to conduct this research and present this ethnography in a community conscious way. This means that I listened for any community needs and desires throughout the process and s ought to accommodate them as much as possible. In doing so, this heritage study at Eleuthera, Bahamas utilizes a critical approach that is being increasingly advocated by anthropologists (Harrison 1991, 2008; Denzin, Lincoln and Smith 2008; McGuire 2008) . As McGuire describes in Archaeology as Political Action, uncritical archaeological and heritage inquiry poses the dangers of triviality, complic ity and unexamined prejudice, which history has shown (McGuire 2008: 19). Whereas early anthropolog y and heritage frameworks have often focused on materiality at the expense of community context and interpretation, the definition and direction of heritage is left to the people to whom it belongs. In doing so, this thesis is rooted in the voices and perspectives of the people of Tarpum Bay. Within the community history and heritage chapters, community voices displace what literary theorist, Catherine Belsey , refers t o as a “hierarchy of discourses ” (Jordan 2008: 45). This hierarchy refers to the tendency of a single author to layer “facts” over alternate perspectives and establish the authority of the writer and the subordi nation of others (Jordan 2008: 45). The decentering of the ethnographer and the questioning of scientific voice within a historically situated understanding that uses these alternate perspectives to enlarge our comprehension of the world are considered steps toward decolonizing anthropology (D’Amico Samuels 2008: 82). This new anthropology is called to be ethical and participatory, committed to dialogue, community, accountability, self determination, cultural autonomy, and meeting perceived needs (Denzin, Lincoln and Smith 2008: 2). This dis course based approach seeks to uncover heritage values and begin the process of presenting Tarpum Bay heritage toward the

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52 goal of both academic and community appreciation. In doing so, I contribute to the emerging body of literature that theorizes heritage as a discursive and transformative process concerning present cultural identity in reference to the past (Smith 2006). This approach may also be considered in the realm of archaeology community based par ticipatory research (CBPR). This concept is explicated by Sonya Atalay (2012) in consideration of issues of relevance, the question of audience and concerns over benefits. CBPR provides a method for a community and heritage professional to work together toward a research design that benefits them both as e qual partners (Atalay 2012: 5). Both benefit from the skills and knowledge of the other, which can then be applied to other areas of research areas such as the protection and management of heritage sites and museums. Figure 1 1 shows the varied approaches to community partnerships. Atalay (2012) demonstrates that collaboration is a continuum with often interconnected and overlapping practices. As can be seen, the most inclusive of community partnerships is CBPR. Figure 31. Inter connected and overlapping practices within a "collaborative continuum" (Atalay 2012: 48).

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53 In the realm of heritage conservation this approach is a living heritage approach. The key concept of living heritage is one of continuity. As Poulios (2014) describe s, it is specifically the continuity of the purpose for which the heritage was originally intended, the community’s connection with heritage, the care of heritage by the community as expressed by the community, and the continuous process of embracing chang ing circumstances. In this instance, the community to which the heritage belongs is referred to as the core community. Figure 2 shows the inseparable link between the core community and the heritage, and the differentiation from the professional and wider community. He writes that: There is a specific community group that created living heritage and sustains the original function of heritage, retains its original connection with it over time and still considers heritage an integral part of its contemporary life in terms of its identity, pride, self esteem, structure, and well being, has a strong sense of ownership/custodianship for heritage and sees the caring for heritage as its own inheren t obligation. (Poulios 2014: 21) In applying a living heritage approach, the core community, which in this case is the Tarpum Bay community, has the ability to set the objectives, make decisions and retain control over the preservation process on the basis of their connection with heritage and in accordance with its need s and concerns. The position of the professional is to provide a framework of support and assistance to the core community (Poulios 2014). Poulios (2014) offers the example of Phrae, Thailand. The community mobilized and first revived knowledge and pride i n local heritage through awareness activities. These included interviewing homeowners on the significance of their houses, and organizing educative programs for children. Second, the community organized activities concerning conservation and management bas ed on the information gleaned through interviews and in accordance with local knowledge systems.

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54 Fi gure 32. Living heritage approach ( Poulios 2014: 24) My involvement in this project is also uncommon for a heritage professional . I am involved in this project not only as a researcher, but also as a descendant of the Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera community. My great grandmother, Addie Allen and her husband Alfred McCartney were born in Tarpum Bay and resided in the community for most of t heir lives. Their daughter, my grandmother, Ruth McCartney, was born in Tarpum Bay and later moved with the family to the capital city of Nassau on the island of New Providence in the early 1930s. Ruth Delancy’s (nee McCartney) eldest son, William Delancy (my father) was born at New Providence and remains a resident of New Providence today. For me, Eleuthera is both familiar and distant. It is familiar in that I have traveled to and through Tarpum Bay many times for brief family reunions and school trips. Yet it is distant because I still have little understanding of the physical community space, the historical or contemporary society. Despite being descendant of the community and visiting for family reunions, the time spent in the community has been only a few hours at a time and I have

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55 acquired very little knowled ge of the Tarpum Bay community history and heritage. Attempts to obtain information on the small settlement from the written record have proven fruitless as little is documented of the area. A des ire for a deeper familial knowledge and the apparent paucity of information related to this community has led me to this wider history and heritage investigation. This project is one that I have initiated in an attempt to address the lack of history and heritage documentation by beginning a dialogue with the members and descendants of the Tarpum Bay community. Due to the lack of written or published information on the settlement, I have relied heavily on these oral history interviews for everything from pa st life ways to present industry. This project sought the overlap between sociohistorical processes (facts/that which has happened) and the narrative (knowledge of that process/that which is said to have happened), which Trouillot (1995) terms historicity 1 and historicity 2, respectively. Furthermore, this documentation may assist and be built on by future researchers and community members , who may be interested in conducting further historical or cultural research at Eleuthera. As authors Green, Green an d Neves expressed in their 2003 article on public archaeology, an ethnographic understanding of local life ways is vital, particularly with regard to the articulation of landscape, historiography and myth, sociality, approaches to power and the production and appropriation of local identities (Green et al. 2003: 373). For someone interested in any kind of development or research project in the area, knowledge of local values are useful in forming guiding principles. Project Design As history and heritage a re often inextricably linked, the objectives of this project are to collect a history of the Tarpum Bay settlement and identify heritage values. I focused on historical development, with the aim of understanding 1. How the people of Tarpum Bay would feel about working together on a joint heritage identification project, 2. How the residents and descendants collectively remember the events that have formed the modern community and 3.

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56 How the residents and descendants define their heritage. The questions that I posed to interviewees were sectioned respectively – Joint Research Design, Historical Development and Tarpum Bay Heritage. My questions were openended, meaning that they were general to the subject matter. I avoided giving people terms to choose from s o as not be limited in thought. I gave more specific questions only when requested. My role in this project is to compile information produced and shared by the community and to note patterns, similar and disparate traits, toward a better understanding of the settlement. The data gathered for this research was obtained in two phases. The first took place during the fall 2014 semester. In fulfillment of a requirement for a Community Archaeology and Heritage Course, I completed an ethnography to discover how to engage the Tarpum Bay community and accommodat e their interests in a collaborative heritage project. I did this through phone and Skype interviews as well as through email correspondence with community members. Conducting parts of this research at long distance presented many challenges. First, I found that a forty five minute phone conversation is in no way sufficient for the discussion of history or heritage values. Heritage and social values are locally conceived and tend to be acted out in daily act ivities and understood through participation and critical observation. Investigation into these values ideally requires the employment of Geertz’s concept of “deep hanging out” (1977) and listening to what people speak about most. In researching heritage values over the phone, I was not able to engage in lengthy conversation due to time and cost constraints. In reviewing the interviews afterward, I was often left with follow up questions, which I could not always pursue due to the calling cost. Having recog nized this , I often directly approached the concept of heritage and posed questions that contained the word “heritage”.

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57 Second, when posing direct questions on heritage the word and concept became troublesome for many. As a result I encountered the chall enge of having to explain the questions that I was proposing without seeming to ‘lead’ the interviewee to think a certain way or to use certain heritage concepts. I tried to be cautious in over explaining and inadvertently imposing my views or ideas of her itage on the interviewee. Instead, I would reframe the questions as “what do you value about Tarpum Bay?” or “what makes Tarpum Bay unique?” I understand that history and heritage are intertwined, therefore I leaned heavily on historical questions and also for this reason I would ask the historical set of questions before the questions on heritage. Third, email correspondence presented similar challenges and was even more limiting as I could not respond to any questions or concerns about the questions as t he interviewee responded. This resulted in many of the answers to questions being left blank. A forth challenge to the project design was making contact with a few people in the Tarpum Bay community in particular who were instrumental in the initiation of existing heritage projects and scheduling. Many of the residents of Tarpum Bay own one or more businesses. Consequently, in managing their respective business places and scheduling they seldom had forty five minutes to set aside for conversation. With man y of the residents that I contacted, I was only able to speak with them briefly as they were being interrupted and needed to get back to business. The second phase of this project took shape from the first. From the ethnography completed in 2014 it was understood that heritage is directly linked to ancestry. I contacted Audrey Carey of the One Eleuthera Foundation and the Tarpum Bay Art s and Cultural Centre, expressing my desire to continue a heritage project in Tarpum Bay. The One Eleuthera Foundation is a nonprofit development organization committed to the strengthening of all

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58 communities on Eleuthera through sustainable projects and partnership. Carey responded to my request with a proposal. That proposal was to assist in the construction of a community family tree for Tarpum Bay. She wrote back saying “we would like for you to assist us with creating a Family Tree for Tarpum Bay. Information on our heritage is limited and we need to secure whatever information we can from the few elders that are left in our community”. This correspondence would inform my research design, population sample and presentation of results. The investigation into the community’s ancestry and its documentation took place from June 22, 2015 to August 14th, 2015. This involved re search at the Bahamas National Archives, travel to Tarpum Bay, conducting more indepth interviews with community members and constructing the community family tree based on the information provided in both phases one and two. It is a history and context f or the development of the Tarpum Bay community as can be gleaned from literary and archival sources. As will be demonstrated, significant gaps in the record exist and may only be accessible, answerable and/or enlivened through social memory as presented in subsequent chapters. Chapters four through seven were informed by the interviews with community members and interactions at Tarpum Bay. In a meeting with Audrey Carey and One Eleuthera Foundation Director, Shaun Ingraham on July 1st, it was expressed that the p roduct of this research be used not only in education but also to aid the Commonage Land Committee. This committee is responsible for the distribution of commonage land to descendants of the Tarpum Bay community. Currently the committee relies on th e knowledge of elders in determining which applicants are true descendants of the community and therefore eligible to receive land at a discounted rate. Methods In this research, I use a network sampling method known as the snowball technique. As Russell Bernard (2011) describes, this method is used to study populations that are scattered over

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59 a large area. It involves the use of key informants to locate a few people in a population. Those few people are then asked to list others in the population and rec ommend someone from the list that may be willing to be interviewed. Key informants are defined by Bernard as people who know a lot about their culture and are, for reasons of their own, willing to share their knowledge with you. These people are happy to provide information in any way that they can. They choose you as much as you choose them (Bernard 2011) . I used the snowball technique to make contact with residents of the community of Tarpum Bay. I began by collecting contacts from family members, most r esiding in New Providence. My father, William Delancy, provided the name and contact of Francis Carey, who is a nonrelative. I then corresponded with Mr. Carey by email. I contacted the majority of the residents of Tarpum Bay and subsequent communities by phone and with their permission, proceeded to conduct semi structured interviews. All interviews were approved by and conducted in adherence to the University of Florida Internal Review Board Protocol of informed consent. All participants gave permission to be recorded and permission for the use of the information provided in this research project. During the fall of 2014, I conducted sixteen interviews: Four interviews of persons residing in Tarpum Bay, one of a descendant residing in a settlement outside of Tarpum Bay, but on the Island of Eleuthera, seven descendants residing in New Providence and one residing in Key West, Florida and one in Virginia. These interviews will be kept private unless the interviewee grants permission to share their interview . During the summer of 2015, I conducted seventeen additional interviews from residents at Tarpum Bay and draw on informal conversations with many others.

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60 These interviews represent the multiple voices that should be represented in discussions on community heritage . Throughout this research I use quoted sections of the oral transcripts to account for the voices of the community in response to historical and heritage questions and concerns. I refer to participants by their real names, as no confidential or private information was discussed and I do not perceive any risks to the participants by doing so. The participants gave permission to be cited for this history and heritage study. Having assumed a community based approach, the following residents of Tarpum Bay were contacted for their perspectives during fall 2014: Elders Priscilla Clarke, Mae Brown; cultural and community leader, Audrey Carey; former Speaker of the House of Assembly, Acting Governor General of The Bahamas and businessman, the Honorable Osw ald Ingraham, and President of the Assemblies of Brethren in The Bahamas, Elder Francis Carey. Francis Carey was my first point of contact and he subsequently provided the majority of contacts that followed. I also contacted former government minister, t he Honorable Philip Bethel. Though he is not a resident of Tarpum Bay, his wife is connected to Tarpum Bay and he is knowledgeable about the various communities on Eleuthera. He and his wife reside in the community of Governor’s Harbour, Eleuthera today. J ames Carey was a resident of Tarpum Bay now living in Governor’s Harbour, Eleuthera. The residents and extended members contacted were also unknown to me prior to this project. I had expected my interviewees to be at least a little guarded seeing that I was contacting them with no prior introduction. For this reason I opened by explaining who I was, my connection to Tarpum Bay and why I was contacting them. Following this introduction, I found that each person was very willing to speak with me and assist wi th the information gathering.

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61 Descendants are also an important component of this research because Tarpum Bay heritage also belongs to them. Descendants are the very reason heritage is preserved. Present and future groups give meaning to heritage and therefore their perspectives should be equally valued. I knew the descendants contacted prior to this project, as they are extended family. I started with this sample because they were the most readily accessible. Of descendants residing in New Providence, I contacted former nurse Dorothy Moncur and her daughter teacher, Amanda Moncur; Ivis Carey, owner of Carey’s Department Store in Nassau; William ‘Al’ McCartney, owner of Commonwealth Fabrics in Nassau; Cislyn Simmons, retired hematologist and her daughter, Vashti Simmons; and banker Deitra Delancy. Of descendants residing in the United States, I contacted Carmen Turner in Key West and Megan McCartney in Virginia. Many of the interviewees expressed interest in receiving a copy of the product of this research out of curiosity about the history and heritage of the Tarpum Bay. In conducting this research, I was presented with the opportunity to create a community family tree. In constructing the Tarpum Bay community family tree, I used RootsMagic 7 genealogy so ftware. I chose this software because of its ability to run on both Windows operating software and on various versions of Macs. Many of the newer genealogy softwares, such as Legacy 8.0, are only capable of running on newer Macs, or like FamilyTree Maker, require a longterm paid subscription. As I plan to leave this work in the hands of the community, it is important that the program be highly transferable, customizable, inexpensive, easy to learn and easy to use. I also favored this program because it is capable of producing various reports with family specific information, as well as books. Before leaving Tarpum Bay, I turned over the information gathered to the One Eleuthera Foundation/Commonage and taught employees how to use the program.

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62 The Project Ar ea The islands of The Bahamas are a chain of exposed Pleistocene era coral reefs in the Atlantic Ocean southeast of Florida and northeast of Cuba. Today, less than 10% of the Bahamian platform is above water (Morgan 1989). It consists of shallow banks with deep channels separating portions of the platform. The limestone islands extend 980 km from ca. 27N and 79W in the northwest to ca. 21 N and 71 W in the southeast (Steadman 2014). The vegetation/terrestrial habitats of the Bahama Islands are categorized into two types: Pineland and Coppice. Pineland is as open woodland of Pinus carineaea var. bahamenis (Bahamas Pine) (Franklin and Steadman 2013). It characterizes much of the northern islands, including Abaco, Andros, Grand Bahama and New Providence. These islands are referred to as pine islands (Sullivan 1974). Coppice is a diverse mix of broadleaf forest with tropical hardwoods. Coppice can be found within pinelands, but is more characteristic of the southern Bahamas, inclusive of Eleuthera. All of the islands have thin soils overlying potholed limestone surfaces. Mann (1986) writes that after European occupation nearly all soil was lost through erosion, which followed the cutting of Mahogany forests and attempts to cultivate the soil for crops (Mann 1986: 183). Presently, t here are four common soil types. They are white sand, brown clay loam , black loam and red clay loam . White sand is calcareous. It is formed by the collection of shell and coral fragments, and is typical of coastal areas. Locals also refer it to as “white land”. Brown clay loam is commonly found in pinelands. Black loam, also known as leafmould soil, is naturally formed compost and is the least common of the four soil types. It is also referred to as “provision land” for its fertility. R ed clay loam is also refe rred to as “pineapple soil” and is characteristic of the island of Eleuthera. Mann (1986) writes that this red loam soil is the thickest ( deepest ) of soils and seems

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63 to be the only remnant of pre Columbian soils. Originally, it was thought that this soil was derived from the weathering of limestone (Sealey 2006: 113). This theory has been found to be inadequate because it could not account for the thickness of the soil . The red clay loam is similar to the bauxite of Jamaica and is composed of high concentrations of insoluble iron (which gives it the red color) and aluminum oxides. Contrary to popular belief, there is little that distinguishes red soils from others in terms of economic productivity. Sealey writes that though this soil has been widely used in pineapple cultivation, this does not reflect an intrinsic value, but rather the poor quality of natural soil development. Red soils are sterile, but due to their depth and pH neutral nature (not calcareous like sandy soils which ar e invariably alkaline ) they have found favor among cultivators. Pineapples require an acidic soil which The Bahamas does not produce . T he red soil is combined with an acidic fertilizer to encourage the growth of pineapples found to thrive in the Bahamian c limate. In his analysis of pre Columbian pottery composition on San Salvador in The Bahamas, Mann identifies the origin of Bahamian red clay loam soil as the Sahara, North Africa . He finds the soil is the result of atmospheric dust transported from Africa across the North Atlantic Ocean to North America and deposited in The Bahamas approximately 125,000 years ago ( Mann 1986; Sealey 2006: 114). Mann (1986) writes, Volumetrically, the annual amount of eolian dust from Africa is normally about 150 million tons (Mt) immediately west of Africa, diminishing to about 40 Mt in the Western North Atlantic Ocean. This quantity of atmospheric dust is the greatest today for any ocean and is greater than the estimated rate of sedimentation of 2 10 mm per 1000 years in ab yssal portions of the North Atlantic Ocean. (Ku et., 1968); presumably most, if not all, deep sea clays may have originated from eolian transport of te rrestrial dust. (Mann 1986: 192) The island of Eleuthera is located in the northeastern Bahamas. As many of the islands of The Bahamas, it has had three different names over the course of history. One name was given by the native Lucayans, another by the Spanish and yet another by the English. The Lucayan name for the island of Eleuthera was Cigatoo, Sigarto o or Segatoo. The island was later known

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64 as Ilathia and Islathera in early maps and documents. This is believed to be a corruption of the Spanish Isla de Tierra. On other maps the island was also called Alabaster Island. The English Puritans later gave the name Eleuthera or Eleutheria in the seventeenth c entury. This is derivative of t he Greek word Eleutheros, meaning free or freedom (see chapter 2 for more on the history of this name) . Eleuthera is the fourth most populated island with an approximate population of 11,000 residents. The island is approximately 110 miles ( 177 km ) long and averages 1 to 3 miles ( 2 to 5 km ) wide. The northern end of the island increases to 13 to 18 miles ( 22 to 30 km ) wide. The Eastern coast is dotted with ranges of low hills with long stretches of sandy beaches. Most of the settlements are compact yet scattered along the w estern coast. This settlement pattern may be dictated by the presence of a barrier reef along the western coast of the island. The northern end of the island is anvil shaped and encompasses Gun Point, Ridley Head, Bridge Point, Hawks Point and Current Point. From North to South the settlements include the Bluff, Lower and Upper Bogue, Current, Gregory Town, Hatchet Bay/Alice Town, James Cistern, Governor’s Har bour, North and South Palmetto Point, Savannah Sound, Tarpum Bay, Rock Sound, Greencastle, Deep Creek, Delancy Town, Waterford, Wemyss Bight, John Millar’s, Millar’s, Bannerman Town. The capital of the island is Governor’s Harbour. The island was once divi ded into two electoral and administrative districts: the district of Governor’s Harbour and the district of Rock Sound, then later divided into North, C entral and S outh. Today , the island is divided into North and South Eleuthera. Tarpum Bay is located in South Eleuthera on the west coast of the island. The settlement is approximately 1.9m2 ( 3km2).

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65 Figure 33. Map of The Bahamas , showing the relationship of Eleuthera to the remainder of The Bahamas.

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66 Figure 34. 1799 Map of The Bahamas showing Eleuthera as Alabaster Island (Stark’s History and Guide to the Bahama Islands 1891)

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67 Figure 35. Contemporary map of Eleuthera showing north, central and south divisions with settle ments (eleuthera.com).

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68 Literature Review There exists very little historic documentation and academic literature on the early development of Bahamian out island communities. Historically, due to the physical separation from what would become the seat of g overnment in New Providence, the out islands were in many ways neglected. In their relative isolation they developed their own unique characteristics that may still be observed today. Some of these unique characteristics include distinct accents and styles of cooking. Kenneth McCartney, a native of Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera, has pioneered the documentation of early Tarpum Bay lifeway s with the release of his book Glenelg: Native Tales from Eleuthera in 2004. H is book is a recollection of scenes and events of hi s childhood. It serves to bring to life the personalities as well as the way of life of the community. He writes, “This little book of short stories is meant to highlight and rekindle my thoughts, and to share with those too young to know the way we were” (McCartney 2004: 5). McCartney uses a narrative writing style to engage the reader in eight stories. His intended audience seems to be the people of Tarpum Bay and he assumes prior knowledge or familiarity with local and often aged terminology. Some of thi s terminology includes “wompers”, the Jucks neighborhood and the Sanhedrin Council, terms that descendants and even some residents are not familiar with. In his account of early setters of The Bahamas, Talbot Bethell writes of a lack of documents due to destructive practices of pirates and Spaniards. He does, however, write of occupation by the Spanish, settlers arriving in The Bahamas from England, Bermuda and South Carolina during the 17th century and American loyalists during the 18th century (Bethell 1937: 5). Also used to ground my study of Tarpum Bay are works by Bahamian historians, Gail Saunders (1985; 1990; 2010) and Angela Cleare (2007). Though not specific to Tarpum Bay, these authors provide a narrative of events that took place during the cour se of Bahamian history, which undoubtedly impacted the out islands and their communities over time. These events, such

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69 as the blockade running era, prohibition, the contract (19431966), the introduction of electricity, transportation, industrial and touri sm development, add a context to the community at different time periods. They also demonstrate a gap in the literature on the Out Island communities as much information is general and to be inferred. Angela Cleare’s History of Tourism in The Bahamas: A Gl obal Perspective (2007) is very useful in understanding the impetus for tourism developments within the country. While it incorporates political and economic histories, it includes only one paragraph on the actual developments and effects of tourism at El e uthera (page 120). The entire Out I sland section consists of three paragraphs. For further information on the development of the settlement, I have consulted unpublished records that include archived commissioner’s reports, registers of records and Votes of the House of Assembly located at the Bahamas National Archives at New Providence. The Local Government Annual Reports provide a more specific l ook at the Bahamian Out Islands. T hey can still be very general when it comes to the community level. The reports were a summation of the district’s (a large portion of an island) activity, not necessarily specific community activity. At the Bahamas National Archives, Local Government Annual Reports for the island of Eleuthera begin at 1908 and continue up to 1974.

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70 CHAPTER 4 JOINT RESEARCH DESIGN AND COMMUNITY COLLABORATION As previously stated, this research consists of three parts. It focuses on historical development, with the aim of understanding 1. How the people of Tarpum Bay feel about collaborating on a joint heritage identification project, 2. How the residents and descendants collectively remember the events that have formed the modern community and 3. How the residents and descendants define their heritage. In responding to the first objective, I contacted people who may know the Tarpum Bay community members well by virtue of residing there or civic leadership. Elder and President of the Bahamas Assemblies of Brethren, Francis Carey , was this contact. He offered contact information for many residents at Tarpum Bay, who then suggested others to participate. I obtained feedback from a total of 18 individuals. They consisted of 5 residents, 9 descendants residing in New Providence, 1 descendant residing in Governor’s Harbour, 2 descendants residing in the United States and Philip Bethel, former Minister of Parliament . The purpose of having joint research design is to offset the power disparity that has been pervasive in heritage practice around the globe. The idea behind joint design is to give community voices and local knowledge more or equal validity to that of the researcher and power in circumscribing heritage for themselves and determining its uses. All of the persons contacted were welcoming of the idea of a historical and heritage study of Tarpum B ay. All individuals expressed that documenting community history is important for the present and future. Philip Bethel stated that “it is most important because unless you know where you’ve come from, remember how you arrived at where you’re at today you ’d be able to chart a future. It is most important for the present, even the unborn, to be able to sea rch their history”

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71 (Bethel 2014: 1). They also indicated that they would be willing to assist however possible, though opinions differed in terms of who s hould retain authority and lead a project. The elders were not keen on assuming such responsibility, but instead were willing to participate on the level of providing information, contacts and vetting the products of the research. Elder Priscilla Clarke w as born at Tarpum Bay in 1929 and remains a resident of the community. When asked about documenting her history, she stated “you could write it up, read it over and I could say if it’s correct or any correctio ns should be made” (Clarke 2014: 1). Elder James Carey is 86 years old. He was born and lived at Tarpum Bay during his youth, but now resides in the settlement of Governor’s Harbour, Eleuthera. Mr. Carey was also reluctant to assume a role as co leader in an historical project as he doubted that he was knowledgeable enough to contribute. When asked whether he thought a historical study would be a good thing, he responded, “Yeah. I suppose you know and you might find some people who, you know, lived there their entire life. They know a lot more about Tar pum Bay than I” (Carey 2014: 2). Similarly descendants and extended members of the community suggested that the current residents be contacted and be more involved than they. Philip Bethel suggested a few prominent residents of Tarpum Bay saying, “they wil l be in a better position to ans wer this question” (Bethel 2014: 3). In his email correspondence, Mr. Francis Carey left blank the question on joint project design and what questions should be asked. He wrote later that he sees nothing wrong with outside researchers conducting work at Tarpum Bay as long as this work is in conformity with “ best business practices. ” In regard to key stakeholders, he supports the concept that “the government must regulate and for any investment interest [the] government must be [the] point

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72 of initial contact” and that “the government should dictate laws that relate to preservation of all artifacts (Carey 2014). Similarly, the Hon. Oswald Ingraham suggested contact be made with the Island Government Administrator, Margret Symonette or the Member of Parliament, which is the Hon. Damien Gomez. From the Member of Parliament the proposal would be sent through to the administrator of the area then passed down to local government, which is responsible f or local affairs (Ingraham 2014 : 6). Ingraham was certain that these government representatives would be supportive of a historical and heritage research study. Audrey Carey, coordinator at the Eleuthera Art s and Cultural Cent re located at Tarpum Bay , suggested that persons interested i n engaging in community projects should voice this interest by contacting the local non profit, Island Journeys or the parent company, The One Eleuthera Foundation. These organizations are designed with the purpose of channeling volunteers into areas withi n the Eleuthera community with needs or initiatives that suit the interests of the participant. Normally they provide the project, but in the case that the volunteer has a project in mind, she explained that there would be “a contemplation process to make sure it could work here”. In the case of an oral history project, they would “channel it through the organization to go direct to the Eleuthera Culture Cent re ”, assistance would be provided to “set it up and make sure it happens then they would also monitor t he progress” (Carey 2014: 5). Assistance in documentation from outside volunteer groups is appreciated as it has been facilitated in the past. Copies of the transcripts are held at the community center. William McCartney added that some outsiders may h ave more experience with research and documentation and could possibly train residents to carry on t he work (McCartney 2014: 7).

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73 Though any assistance in documentation is appreciated, my being a descendent of the Tarpum Bay added to the willingness of many to work with me on this project. Many lamented that many descendants have gone on to lead very successful lives elsewhere without an understanding of the richness of their home community heritage and without contributing to its enrichment. Subsequently, outsiders flock to Eleuthera, conduct studies and extract materials that the community is unaware of for personal gain. The community does not se e the result of these studies or benefit in any way from the information gathered in their own backyards. Henry Allen reflected on his experience renting scooters. He said that , young people would come out of the United States in particular to rent these scooters. I’ll ask them. I’d say where ar e you going with these scooters? [They would say] “ Going to Bannerman T own ” or “ going down North Eleuthera”. You know what they’re going down to Bannerman Town for? They would start scrapping in the ground trying to find old potteryfrom the slaves or the Indians. Where are they carrying that history? They have to come here t o write our history and carry it to the states . (Allen 2015) Based on this feedback from community members, the Tarpum Bay community is welcoming and willing to assist as much as possible in historical and heritage study and preservation . As the community lacks expertise in these areas, the challenge is how to initiate and sustain these activities. In the cases of outsiders completing these studies, t he community desires to have knowledge of the studies being conducted of and in the area. Though many may not feel capable to initiate or direct such products, they would like to be kept aware and given the opportunity to review or vet products. They expressed the desire to benefit by the contribution of research products to the community and where possible, th e training of loc al people to carry on the work, which aligns with my goal of continuity in heritage preservation.

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74 CHAPTER 5 A COMMUNITY HISTORY OF TARPUM BAY “I’m glad you’re here to take record because people think it was like this before. It wasn’t ba d.” Samuel Johnson, 2015. Tarpum Bay elder “It would be good for them [the young people] to know. That’s where they came from. They came from there and they reach this far to where they are now. They need to know you just didn’t jump from there to where you are. A lot of stuff went on between there .” Hilda Allen, 2015. Tarpum Bay elder “There is a real danger of amnesia – heritage amnesia – if you can’t imagine the past being different – you can’t imagine the future being different .” Elizabet h Chilton et al., 2011. Report of Visit to Eleuthera The second objective and set of questions pertained to the historical development of the community and how residents and descendants remember any events or experiences that have contributed to the formation of the modern Tarpum Bay community . The questions used as prompts can be found in the appendices. Settlement The word “Tarpum” is derivative of the word “Tarpon”, the fish once caught in the bay (Audrey Carey 2014: 8; Iris Carey 2015; Mingo 2015). Prior to the name Tarpum Bay, t he settlement was called Glenelg. This original name was homage to Lord Charles Grant Glenelg, former British Colonial Secretary (Carey 2014: 6). Even prior to Glenelg, the elderly say that the settlement was called Bullards and was located about two miles north of the current settlement (Allen 2015; Mingo 2015). It is unknown when, why or by whom the settlement and names were

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75 changed. Hilda Allen speculates, “Maybe because water wasn’t so good there, maybe then they moved and came in here” (Allen 2015). Or al accounts agree that historically the community was a mix of ethnicities, “but the black were way in the majority 85% against 15% . I guess they call themselves white, but we call them Conchy Joes. But they we re fair skinned” (Ingraham 2014: 3). James C arey states that “they weren’t black, but they weren’t whitesome were a little darker than Conchy Joes” ( Carey 2014: 1). Conchy Joes were those with light skin and straight hair, whom could often pass for white (Davis 2015; Knowles 2015). All of the resid ents I spoke with recall that the common surnames growing up were, Carey, Culmer, Allen, McCartney, Nottage, Ingraham, Sands and Knowles. Though these families connect at various points through marriage, today the largest family at the settlement is the Ca reys, followed by the McCartneys. When asked about their family histories and w here the inhabitants of Tarpum B ay came from, many are uncertain. William McCartney was born at Tarpum Bay and is one of few descendants with descriptive recollections from hi s personal experience stories that were passed on to him from his elders: My great grandparents, I understand that they originated in Ireland and three of the brothers McCartney brothers from Ireland, left Ireland on a ship sailing for The Bahamas. T hey landed at the Bahamas One in Tarpum Bay, one at Long Island. The other one I don’t have any information on. (McCartney 2014) It is said that these brothers met Africans settled at Eleuthera and intermarried. Samuel Johnson was born in 1924 and is currently the oldest male in the settlement. He remembers being told that his ancestors came from South Africa. He recalls: The Johnsons, I learned, that in 1817 way back then in slavery, there were three brothers, they were Johnsons. They came from South A frica and one of them stopped in Acklins and one stopped in Andros. And the other one stopped here. And this where my daddy’s daddy, he was one of them, the brothers. He came to Eleuthera. (Johnson 2015)

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76 Henry Allen’s grandfather, William Dristol Major of Long Island and his wife Ada, a Tarpum Bay woman, settled in Tarpum Bay after maintaining a home in Long Island for many years : She said ‘William there is no need for us to stay here. There is no money here’. You only could see money once in a while. He was a tabby mason, rock stonemason. She said ‘lets go home could make a better living there’. He was from South Long Island. Was a descendant of Roses, Long Island. During that day and age Eleuthera was considered one of the advanced family islands becaus e Eleuthera had investments. It had tomatoes, pineapples and it was close to Nassau. You could sail a boat to Nassau in a couple hours . (Allen 2015) Similarly, Brenda McCartney’s mother was born in Exuma, but moved to Tarpum Bay with her grandmother in sea rch of employment. Qurina Mingo’s mother, Martha Fox, came to Tarpum Bay from Deadman’s Cay, Long Island and his father’s ancestors, the Mingos, are descendant of Spain. Families of Meadows, Moss and Nottage arrived at Tarpum Bay fr om Crooked Island (Carey 2015). Henry Allen adds that the Allens were late arrivals to Tarpum Bay. They arrived from the United States by way of Bermuda: Allens, as I understand it, came out of Bermuda. They came out of the states. They went to South Carolina. Then from South Ca rolina they went to Bermuda. Then from Bermuda, our family of Allens sailed to The Bahamas according to the history I got. That was history told to me by my ancestors. Definitely the first settlers wasn’t Careys because even in that paper I have there were titles like Charlow, Culmers, Knowles, all them before Careys. And Allens was n’t even mentioned. (Allen 2015) Hilda Allen speculates the Allen origin as being Ireland or Scotland “b ecause the Allens, most of them on my husband’s side, they had this bright red hair ” (Allen 2015). According to Samuel Johnson, Tarpum Bay was a very small village that extended from the Bay on the west coast as far as Barnett ’ s Hill in the southeast. It extended from an open area known as the park at the southwestern tip of t he bay, north east to a pond where people would go swimming. He said, “When it rained if we wanted to go to the farm, we couldn’t pass through that area. When it rained we had to use a boat mostly” (Johnson 2015) .

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77 The pond that was once the edge of the com munity has since been filled in and Eugene Carey’s hardware store now exists in its place on the corner of Thomas Street and Lord Street . The current dock is in the place of the old lighthouse and t he clinic is located where the old post office was. The ol d library was on the left of the Travelers Rest on the coast . The Anglican and Methodist churches are among the oldest structures in Tarpum Bay. The St. Columba’s Anglican/Episcopal Church was built in 1849. Both the Anglican and Methodist churches had wooden floors that were replaced with concrete (Davis 2015). Samuel Davis remembers that he and other black people would enter the Methodist church through a back door, while white people entered through a main side door. The old Prep School, situated on a rocky slope in the oldest section of the settlement, is also over 200 years old. It is where many of the elders received their first nine years of formal education and saw their first movie. It is where many people registered to vote for the first time or cast their first vote. In recent years, the school building has been restored and is now used as the Eleuthera Art s and Cultural Cent re . The original stonewalls and foundation were reinforced and portions of the old walls are exposed in some areas as a dis play of the structure’s age. A house called “Driftwood Cottage” was built in 1875 mostly from wood washed ashore (driftwood) and is one of the oldest homes remaining in the old section of Tarpum Bay . This house was also one of the first homes to have elec tricity (Mingo 2015: 2). According to Hilda Allen, the earliest houses were made of wood and had an A framed roof where two sides met at an apex . Later houses have an A shaped roof, but with four sides ; at each end of the house, three sides met at an apex . Very few were made of lime and stone. She remembers only the mission house and Methodist Church being made of stone. T he stone for the Methodist church was carried by locals from the Winding Bay area under the direction of an English architect (Mingo

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78 2015). Most houses were built on stilts , had dormer windows and faced the sea to take advantage of the sea breeze: Houses at that time were built on stiltsand the stilts were for two things – flooding and keeping the house cool. Low areas of Tarpum Bay, if i t floods the water goes through. And then if there’s no water the breeze goes under the house . (Allen 2015) Old houses were built with front porches that were set at the edge of the street in order to facilitate interaction with those walking along the r oads. The dormer windows served the purpose of cooling the upper level of the home by allowing hot air to rise and escape, and cooler sea breeze to enter. Many residents commented on the settlement pattern of Tarpum Bay as setting it apart from the other settlements on Eleuthera (Henry Allen 2015; Hilda Allen 2015; Samuel Johnson 2015). Tarpum Bay is one of the best layout communities on Eleuthera because Tarpum Bay was laid out in blockswithin a certain footage you can come down the road, go to bay stre et go so far then go back the front street. That made it nice. Wasn’t tar on them roads that time . I t was nice. It was laid out like an advanced community. I won ’ t say a city, but a much advanced community. (Allen 2015) Henry Allen commented on the block l ayout. T he crossing streets are not in alignment. It is said that the streets were purposefully staggered to slow traffic. Hilda Allen commented on the drainage system as a unique feature of the settlement. James W. Culmer designed the drainage system and the residents dug the trenches. These trenches snake through the community and channel water out into the bay. Residents remember playing in these drains as children. Culmer was a well respected resident and member of the legislative council and considered by the residents to be the governor of the settlement. Henry Allen referenced the wooden house of J.W. Culmer as a historical house “because he was a historical man”. The house has since been destroyed by fire .

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79 By the 1950s, a typical house had one main bedroom downstairs and an upstairs known as an upper loft where the children slept (McCartney 2015). H enry Allen believes Tarpum Bay was more beautiful in the past because people lived closer together. He referred to it as a melting pot. It was where ever ybody lived. Up to about 1967 most of the people that lived in the community didn’t live out the community. Most of the people up to 67 lived in the community. There wasn’t no building beyond the hill. I was the first Tarpum Bay persona fellow lived out here, but he was from Crooked IslandI was the first Bayman to live on the outskirts of Tarpum Bay . (Allen 2015) In recent years, various parts of the settlement have been given nicknames by the residents. The vicinity of George Street is known as The Jucks . This originated from a man who lived in Kemp Road in Nassau. He married a woman from Tarpum Bay. He would ride down George Street on his bike and every time he did, it was crowded with children and very noisy. He said that the area reminded him of a place called the Jucks in Kemp Road on the island of New Providence . Brenda McCartney said she was a young person still in school when that nickname was ascribed. Steven Carey and Qurina Mingo remember many humorous stories of people from the rowdy Jucks. One in particular was of a resident thief: He used to steal so much, every night the boat come in he’ll go out and steal something off the boat. So this night they brought a dead man, and they had him in the bag and everything and they just left him on board until the next morning and he went out that night and stole the black bag and carried it home and dumped it down in his kitchen. That night him and his wife were sitting around with the lantern and opened the bag, when they opened the bag there was a dead man so she run down the road hollering and they found out he stole the dead man. So he tried to carry it back but when he got back they was done, people was out there waiting to get the stuff off the boat and then the captain went out he found out the dea d man was gone, and then this man showed up wit h [it]he gave it to the owners . (Carey 2015) The road along the bay, which is called Bay Street, is also called Big Street or Front Street because it is the main road and the bay is considered to be at the fr ont of the settlement. The area of Conch Shell Alley, which is on a ridge, is called Back Hill as it was once the back of

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80 the settlement. The vicinity of Culmer Street and Queen’s Highway is known as The Bottom. This is due to the large amounts of rainwate r that collects there (Carey 2015). The northern portion of the settlement near Savannah Sound is called Moss Town after the Moss family from Crooked Island settled there. There is an area at the bay known by the older residents as the Sanhedrin. It was na med after a group of elderly people that gathered there for debate and conversation. This area is today known as Traveler’s Rest. A wooden plank divided the settlement into east and west. The plank board, as it is called, covered a drain and was located on Lord Street, near its intersection with the northwestern end of Culmer Street: The plank boardthat’s what used to divide eastward from westward; after 6 o ’ clock in the evening you couldn’t go across the plank board. If you live in eastward, you couldn’t cross the plank board, if you live in westward you can’t cross the plank board ‘Cause that was my territory, you ain’t supposed to be in the east ‘cross the plank board after dark. See in them days they didn’t have no lights here and they had what they used to call the plank board, that’s that road right there by, you know where Ethel Knowles shop is Now when the sun come up, you can go anywhere, but when the sun goes down that means to say time to get in your nest. (Steven Carey 2015) The plank board, w ith its associated meaning , was the cause of what is remembered to be the first and only murder at Tarpum Bay (Davis 2015)1. Lewi s Allen shot Bill Carey when Carey was caught loitering outside a church on the wrong side of the plank board (Davis 2015; Alle n 2015) . Allen was sent to prison at Nassau where he wrote a letter of apology to the community in which he discouraged bad company and violence (Clarke 2015) . He was then sent to the gallows at Nassau, where he was hung for the crime2. Territorial violenc e surrounding the plank board declined thereafter. 1 Contrary to community memory, there is a recorded execution of James Alexander Morrison, which took place on November 14, 1885, for the murder of Thomas Ingraham at Tar pum Bay on July 31, 1885 (Logquist 2010: 26). The reason for the murder is not stated. 2 Residents could not recall the date of the murder, but the execution of Lewis Allen is recorded as February 25, 1935. He was hung for the shooting death of James Wilbe rforce Carey during the summer of 1934. The report states “newspaper coverage of the case emphasized the divisions and unrest on Eleuthera, characterizing Tarpum Bay as

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81 The Tarpum Bay cemetery is located on beachfront pr operty to the north of the bay. Though it is currently the only cemetery in the settlement, this may not have been the first. It is said that a cemetery existed to the east of the Anglican Church (Carey 2015) and at the site of the Lil Prep School (Knowles 2015). Elder Valdine “ Vallie Mae” Knowles recalls as a child hearing from elders of skulls and bones being found during the construction of the Lil Prep School. According to Samuel Davis and Eugene Carey, the current graveyard was once divided for white and black burials. The white section was the northeast portion. Today the cemetery is not segregated. Visiting descendant, Errol Carey explained the positi on of the cemetery and the reason for its apparent disarray: Many years ago, who would think you would have a cemetery on the beach? You know in America they would not allow such a land to be used as a cemetery, it’s so valuable and whatnot, they would de finitely not have a cemetery on a beach but Tarpum Bay does Years ago they had a hurricane called Betsy and Betsy was such a terrible storm that it washed up many of the graves that was buried back in the early years, there were coffins that was pure marb le, Italian marble, that you’d never seen the likes of ever since and when the hurricane was over there was caskets all over here on the beach where the hurricane had washed all of this up and there were caskets all on the beach here and after it was all o ver we walked up the beach and that was how we got to see all these beautiful expensive coffins that was made out of pure Italian marble, which would cost a fortune now. (Carey 2015) Errol Carey used the cemetery as an illustration of the importance of an historical record. Without a record of the history of the cemetery, many people may not understand why there are caskets above the ground. Also, knowledge of past Tarpum Bay residents adds context in material analysis. An example is the grave of James W. Culmer . Knowledge of Culmer and his prominence within the community allows for an understanding of why his casket is extensively engraved, accompanied by a plaque and made of Italian marble. the ‘only settlement in The Bahamas where such a medieval feud exists.’” According to r eports, Allen’s intended victim was a constable searching for guns in the western territory and Carey was an innocent bystander (Lofquist 2010, 27).

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82 Travel and Communications Prior to the 1930s, the primary mode of transportation between settlements and islands was by sailboat. O ver land , the primary mode of transportation was either by foot or by horse. The eldest residents of the settlement remember that every family had a boat and at least one horse. Farmers rod e their horses back and forth to the farms and from settlement to settlement when necessary. Straw bags were made and slung over the horses in order to tr ansport materials and harvest. Vera Carey was born in 1918 and is currently the oldest resident of Tar pum Bay. She reflected saying: I used to get on a horse and ride from Barnett’s Hill to the field then later on the trucks come. Had to go to Rock Sound in a boat. Used to go to town [ Nassau ] in sailboat. Didn’t have no motorboat east wind would carry you straight to Nassau and a west wind would bring you backnearly every house that farmed had horse . (Carey 2015) Samuel J ohnson, the oldest man in the settlement, has similar memories of riding horses to his farm. Johnson recalls riding as far as a place called Broken Bay in the southeast and Savannah Sound in the north. He emphasized that during the years that farming was the mainstay, there was a stronger sense of community and sharing. He expressed that “i f you had stuff and you had a horse, when your c rop come, I’d bring home for you and help you out, and you help me. We used to help each other” (Johnson 2015). Johnson was not the only person to share this sentiment. All of the elders that I spoke with expressed a longing for the days when community members regularly extended a helping hand to one another. Brenda McCartney theorized that this community value may have faded due to the increased presence of grocery stores providing equal access to goods for all and the acquisition of refrigerators and free zers, which allow for the preservation of foods and meats in particular. People of Tarpum Bay traveled back and forth to Nassau by sailboat and later by mail boat . Samuel Johnson remembers the mail boats Priscilla and Alice May and said “people would

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83 go on that. Who didn’t go on the mail boat, they went on sailboat” (Johnson 2015). Due to the shallowness of the bay at Tarpum Bay, the mail boat and other large boats would anchor at the bar and bring the freight to shore in smaller boats (Allen 2015). Accordi ng to Henry Allen, Tarpum Bay enjoyed a close relationship with the Palmetto Point settlement to the north in particular because of its location. If you got in a boat and hoist sail [you] would sail straight to Palmetto Point from the BayNow in Savannah Sound, you’d have to tack and go in and then walk over. Palmetto Point had a village that was close to the sea. Savannah Sound village was inside. So because of that being able to sail straight across, the young people came to Tarpum Bay Sunday mornings. Because they could get on a boat and sail straight across on Sunday mornings and spend the whole day in Tarpum Bay and probably go back the next morning. When I was growing up many young people from Tarpum Bay used to go to Palmetto Point to dance because of how the layout was with the boats and I was told that the young people of Palmetto Point used to come to Tarpum Bay to enjoy a Sunday time go to Sunday school, met friends and because of that way Tarpum Bay and Palmetto Point became a bond and it alwa ys grew like that. And then the time came when people used to ride horse there Philip Bethel said these words he doesn’t understand what the situation was between Tarpum Bay and Palmetto Point where a young man would marry a Tarpum Bay woman. What it app ears to be is for business. Palmetto Point fellows come marry up our women and do well in business. We go and marry them and do well in business here. And that’s how it’s been, look l ike from that time. (Allen 2015) Brenda McCartney is of a subsequent gen eration (born in 1951). She grew up hearing people say that they would walk from Tarpum Bay to Hatchet Bay in the north. She knows, though, that previously e very family had a horse. Steven Carey, of the same generation (born 1954), added that: Every house in Tarpum Bay had a horse, every house. What didn’t have one had two, what didn’t have two had three and four, what didn’t have three and four had five, six, seven horsesmy granddad had seven If you had a female horse and it mated, it had colts, somebod y from down the road will already be asking you when you have horses again I want to buy one from you. So when the calf get big enough to give away, you’ll probably tell him come go with me cutting for two days or three days, you know you gotta cut the bus h, and then I’ll give you the horse. That’s how they used to do it. So like that that’s how everybody was able to own a horse or if I said I’m going to get out of the farming business now and I’ve got three horses, I’ll say well I’m going to sell my horses , give me a pound for the

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84 horse, and then somebody else bought the horse and he got tired with it and after that the people they stop take care of ‘em and they used to tie ‘em out in the land and the fellas used to go, we used to go steal ‘em in the evenin g after school and go race ‘em and ride them all about on the sea and out on the north side, they died out like that. ( Carey 2 015) During the early 1950s, t ransportation by horse gave way to transportation by truck. When trucks were first introduced to T arpum Bay there were many accidents due to the unpaved, uneven and crooked roads and corners. Samuel Johnson recalls that between Palmetto Point and Savannah Sound, the road was painfully bad. Residents called the area Bust My G ourd hill . At this point he had to get out of the truck and push it up even though the engine was running. Growing up in the 1950s and 60s , Brenda McCartney remembers only one or two people had horses and tourists were arriving to Tarpum Bay by boat and by seaplane. Samuel Carey remembers when there was only one radio in Tarpum Bay. That radio was near Bert’s for the Best store in an 8x8 foot room. Everyone would gather to hear the news. A wind generator and charger powered the radio. There was also only one phone. This was located in another s tore and free of charge. Carey also remembers having to use telegraph codes (Carey 2012). Society Past lifeways and present values are illuminated in the oral histories of the older residents. Hilda Allen and Qurina Mingo remember their childhood chores of collecting wood to cook with and grinding corn at the mill for breakfast before school at 9 am. A typical breakfast was hominy and fried egg or boiled fish. If grits were not available, breakfast would be boiled potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpki n or cassava. Those who could afford better had johnnycake with tea or bush tea. Lunch was bread and sugar or bread and a banana, if bread was available. If these were not available, potatoes were buried in hot ashes so that when children returned from

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85 sch ool they would have roasted potatoes. This was sometimes enjoyed with switcha water3, which was cold water, lime, sour4 and sugar ( Allen 2015). A good supper was corned beef and rice, or salt beef with steamed food. “Dough and salt beef. You didn’t have a better meal than that” ( Allen 2015). Less fortunate families would have parboiled peas, a ripe sapodilla, tamarinds or hog plums (Mingo 2015). It was typical for a household to have either a hog plum or guinep tree in their yard and to grow staples foods s uch as pigeon peas, corn and beans. After harvesting the corn and peas in a crocus bag, they were put in a fanner made of straw, which with the breeze blew the shells, known as trash, away. The corn and peas were then stored in 55gallon drums and preserve d until it was time to plant again. Almost every household had chickens, pigs or goat, which supplied the meat for their diets. Homes had an outside kitchen and an outhouse (outside bathroom). Meals were cooked on three rocks over a fire hearth and bread w as baked in a rock oven. Before refrigeration, items were kept cool by lowering them into a well. It is said that every family had a well. For a cold drink of water, “ they would fill their water jugs; they would tie the rope or string and lower it down in the well. When you [were] ready to drink you [would] draw tha t up and ready to drink” ( Allen 2015). To preserve meat, the meat was corned. This meant that it was heavily salted and put out in the sun to dry. Before electricity, kerosene lamps were used in houses. A child’s chore each day was to trim the wick evenly, fill the lamp with oil and clean the lampshades ( McCartney 2015). 3 This is known plainly as “switcha” elsewhere in the country. 4 Citrus aurantium, also known as sour, bit ter, bigarade or Seville orange.

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86 Qurina Mingo remembers his childhood clothing being made of flour bags. His mother would have a shimmy (flour bag dress) made f or him by Erma Knowles. All of the young children wore clothing made from these flour bags. Often times the numbers and letters of the manufacturer was still printed on them. It was not until Mingo was teased by a group of men at the dock that he transitio ned to a cloth shirt and pants. On his feet, Mingo, as did other community members, wore wompers. Wompers were shoes made of rubber from old car tires. Some people would plait straw and place them in the soles of the shoes to keep the heat from burning the ir feet on hot days . Mingo also has distinct memories of a lady named Rosaile who was always smoking a pipe. Rosaile made grass beds and sold them in the community for 3 and 6 pence. Mingo remembers these beds being agonizing to sleep on. Pricilla Clarke recalls that during her youth, all children were required to attend the Prep S chool . It is now referred to as the “Lil Prep School” or the “Old Prep School”. Children entered the school “at the age of five or six and when you got fourteen, if you weren’t old enough or smart enough to be a monitor you had to come out school”. A monitor was a schoolteacher. Those who could not become teachers joined their parents and after they got a little older they traveled to Nassau for work. As a monitor, Hilda Allen e arned six shillings per month. This was one of the few occupations where women were able to earn money (Larson 2012). The school year began in January and students advanced every six months if they were able to pass their exams (Carey 2012). The grading sy stem began with class 1, 2, 3 and then into grade 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 (Allen 2012). The main subjects taught included arithmetic, English language, geography and nature. Students were taught reading and spelling from the Royal Reader. Many of the older re sidents remember headmaster Stevenson who wrote many songs, including a song about Tarpum Bay

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87 and “The Waters of Nassau”. Under headmaster Timothy Gibson (composer of the Bahamian National Anthem), Mr. George Hilton taught a special music class. When the m usically inclined students left the Prep School, they often joined the Tarpum Bay Community Band (Larson 2012). Most headmasters of the Prep School were British, though Timothy Gibson was Bahamian. The Ministry of Education had a residence at Tarpum Bay where they would house the headmasters. During the 1930s, a typical day at the Prep School would begin at 9 am by assembling on the playground by class level. The playground was located on the seaside of the Prep School, below the stairs. As the students entered, student monitors inspected students for clean fingernails, combed hair and clean feet. There were no uniforms as most students only had three sets of clothes: “there was Sunday clothes, and when those got shabby they became school clothes, and when they got bad, they was field clothes” (Larson 2012). The school day began with a prayer, a scripture reading and a hymn. After any announcements, the monitors took the register and students were dismissed to the long table where their class/grade level met . There were no partitions and classes were often taken outside when the schoolroom became too loud. There were no notebooks, only a blackboard and chalk. Children had a square of slate and chalk to take notes. As note taking was limited, much of the learning was done by singing rhymes and jingles. Multiplication table in particular were learned through song. The children had a half hour lunch break at 12 pm; during w hich time they would run home. Before dashing home at 3 pm, all children were required to r ecite a prayer: “Blessed be the table. Lord be here and everywhere. A dor ned our mercies [sic] and grant that we may feast and fellowship with thee, Am en” (Carey 2012). O n Fridays school would end early at 1 pm.

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88 Henry Allen attended the Prep School as they transitioned to books. He preferred the books because he was able to keep a better record of his lessons rather than having to erase and remember what he had written (Allen 2012). Eugene Carey and Timothy Bertum Carey Jr. (also known as Timbert) reflected on the discipline, order and respect that was enforced inside and outside of the classroom. Timbert remembered his classroom experience saying: If you talked, chew gum, hit someone or did not do homework, girls got hi t with a switch in both hands. Boys bent over for theirs. Boys had to go and get their own switch. We tried to get skinny sticks. The tamarind tree switch didn’t break so we tried to avoid that but sometimes they said we had t o get a tamarind switch. I got it about once or twice a weekEnid would beat us and then hug us. Ethel, the head mistress would put her thumb in our back until it hurt. If you made noise in church on Sunday, Ethel would punish you on Monday at school . (Carey 2012) All children that attended the Prep School did not receive leaving certificates as the exam was administered intermittently. Few were able to continue on to high school, but all children received nine years of education at the Prep School. Samuel Davis recalled boy scouts being a requirement and assembling at the bottom of the steps where all of the boys would meet and drill. They would wear khaki uniforms and march with sticks acting as their guns (Davis 2012). Davis also remembered the assembling on the playground and having to sing British royal songs. The songs included “Royal Britannia” and “We’ll Never let the Old Flag Fall”. Those that attended the Prep School also remember celebrating the Queen’s birthday on Empire Day, May 24th. On this day, they would sing “Royal Britannia” and participate in activities like plaiting the maypole. At school, Hilda Allen remembers playing hide and seek, hop scotch, ring play games and skipping rope. Ring play games were once very popular among school children throughout The Bahamas. The children would form a circle and sing while one person in the center danced for a short period then chose another person to be in the middle. A few ring play games that

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89 Hilda played included “ Emma Who’s Your Lover ” , “ Jump in line and rock your body on time ” and “ My Love is Like a Little Bird .” Both Hilda Allen and Vera Carey recounted the latter : My love is like a little bird It flies from tree to tree And when it sees another one It forgets the love it had for me. Go and bring me back the one I love And take away the one I hate Go bring my tr ue love back to me And happy, happy shall I be. Other favorites included “ Mother May I Go to School ” , “ Brown Girl in the Ring ” and “ Bluebird ” (Knowles 2015; Johnson 2012). Mary Knowles attended the Lil Prep School up to grade three. She explained , “Tarpu m Bay Primary School was built, so I went there. That was 1956. Then the Lil Prep School was then for the younger children until 1968” (Knowles 2012). When the Tarpum Bay Primary School was built, only the upper grades (4 and above) transferred there. Grades 1 to 3 remained at the Lil Prep School. The Prep School was also used for community functions such as concerts, public meetings and plays (Carey 2012). By the 1950s more and more students were continuing their education in Nassau and some going on to college. Errol Carey and many of his siblings were sent to Queen’s College High School in Nassau by their parents Iris and Herbert Carey who remained in Tarpum Bay . According to Errol, at the time, anyone that could afford to send his or her children to a pr ivate school, did. This was because the quality of education was believed to be better. Errol explained that at Tarpum Bay students were limited by local teachers who often did not have teaching certifications. He says that “you got the bare minimum education that the government

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90 requiredand they didn’t have all the subjects” (Carey 2015). He remembered moving to Nassau in 1967: I moved to Nassau and went to a school called Queens’ College at that time what was supposedly the number one school in the country, and I went there for 5 years and graduated in 1973When I graduated I didn’t come back home to stay, I stayed in Nassau. I stayed in Nassau technically since I was 12 but when I graduated at 17 I never came back to Tarpum Bay, till later. I lived in N assau, from Nassau I moved to Virginia The reason we went to school in Nassau was ‘cause the high schools there were private and offered a better education . (Errol Carey 2015) One time of year that everyone looked forward to was the Christmas season. Th ey enjoyed this season for the new clothes and for the festivities that included Junkanoo. On Christmas Eve, the Tarpum Bay brass band would travel from house to house and sere nade the families. “Mom and dad would give them a little donation for coming aro und” (McCartney 2015). Christmas was also the only time that Tarpum Bay had apples. The Minister of Parliament for Eleuthera at the time, Trevor Kelly, traveled to every school and gave out stockings with candies and an apple. Brenda McCartney remembers s aving her apple until Christmas morning. The Christmas tree was a cedar tree decorated with balloons and bells. Junkanoo took place at twilight on Christmas morning. This parade involves costumes, music and dance. It is still carried on though in a very different style than was in the past. Then , Junkanoo costumes covered the individual completely. “You couldn’t see nothing about them, nothingno face, no finger. Everything was covered. Everything had paper, dressed down in paper cut up and had a whole coat and that was pasted from head to toe, a hat on your face” (Johnson 2015). The paper used to pack tomatoes was used to make the costume. “The paper used to come in bails with a couple thousand sheets, like a bible. So the fellows would steal the paper fr om the packinghouse and cut it up in strips and the n paste it on these clothesdidn’t matter how thin you was, you looked stout afterwards because the paper was so thick all down.

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91 Everything, pants, shoes, hat” (Cartwright 2015). The packing paper came in two colors: “white and pink/purplish pinksome, though, made their suits from newspaper. And one year some made their suits from the shucks from the cornpaper must have been scarce that year” (Allen 2015). Brenda McCartney’s generation who grew up i n the 1950s did not experience j unkanoo where costumes were made of packing paper. “I don’t remember when the factory was open in Tarpum Bay, but they say [they used] the paper to wrap tomatoes in. I know about the newspaper” (McCartney 2015). People mixed flour with oil to make a paste for the costumes. The oil was to ensure that the rats would not eat the clothes (Johnson 2015). People would cut gumelemi wood to make boats and planes at home , which were incorporated into hats . Herman Johnson said the dancers wo uld paint their faces to mask their identities and Eugene Carey mentioned that chalk was also used in making masks ( Johnson 2012; Carey 2012) . The objective was to dress so that no one knew who you were (Allen 2012). They also changed their voices when the y spoke (Johnson 2015). Samuel Johnson recalls a time when he dressed in his junkanoo costume with the sole purpose of frightening people for fun. Children would run, hide or hold tightly onto their parents. There were two groups the east and west. Also known as “ t he black gang and white gang from across the plank board” (Johnson 2015). The parade took place in front of the Methodist church at Bird Lane . This area was called the center. Spectators would sing “junkanoo want a penny, junkanoo dance for it” and then throw coins in the street. There were no cowbells as are presently customary . Instead, junkanooers put rocks in cans and shook them. Other instruments included drums, saws, old tubs and tins. It was a goatskin drum, but sticks were used to beat the drum (Cartwright 2015).5 5 Today, goatskin drums are beaten by hand.

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92 We had one big drum and one small drum and as you pick up the money then you would carry it to the big drumbeater. And then on junkanoo morning you would get together and put all those pennies and coppers and pence and shillings and put them all out then you share them Then there used to be some people who couldn’t come out. Then we would go and dance to their door. And from there sometimes we’d go Rock Sound. (Johnson 2015) David Cartwright agrees and remembers: You had to wait until the sun came up so you could see what you were doingm arch up and down until about 9 o’clock and then stop. Not like in Nassau. It was two, three hours then stop. Then if they felt like they didn’t make enough money, they will hire a truck the junkanooers with the drums and go to another settlement and have a nice parade to each settlementand they did the same thing, followed the same pattern and made a good little change by doing that. Until, I guess, it got too hot and then it would stop. 12 o’cl ock it would be finished. They didn’t go far. The next settlementnext settlement Tarpum Bay ever been up there. The other settlements were dilatory. They wasn’t really prosperous like Tarpum Bay or ambitious as Tarpum Bay. We’ve always been ambitious people. (Cartwright 2015) Cartwright believes that the other settlements did not have a junkanoo parade on the same scale as Tarpum Bay because they were not able to obtain the paper to create the costumes. At Rock Sound, for example, there were not as many packinghouses. That settlement instead had a canning factory that g round the tomatoes. Both Samuel Johnson and Victor Cartwright commented that the cos tumes and conduct of junkanoo has changed. They now use elaborate designs, colored paper and draw figures on the costumes and build upon them making them very large . Often junkanoo preparations began on the 20th or 21st of December, not months before, like they do now. Moreover, preparations took place at home, not in a local junkanoo shack. The parade began at or just after sunrise because there was no electricity to see. Over time, over settlements began participating in the junkanoo parade at Tarpum Bay. John McCartney recalls the parade being held once in Rock Sound during the 1960s . The location began rotating due to complaints by other settlements of Tarpum Bay’s winning streak, which they attributed to an inability for many groups to transport large costumes

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93 over such a long distance . The parade was moved to the more central location of Governor’s Harbo ur in the early 1970s . It began rotating between participating townships approximately six years ago (McCartney 2015). Today , the parade begins at 8 pm on Christmas day and can last until 2 am. C ommunities from all over the island compete for a cash prize . Weddings also broug ht the community together. Sheil a McCartney remembers her wedding day on July 8, 1957. She was 18 years old and her husband to be, Garfield McCartney, was 21 years old. These were the customary ages for marriage at the time. She had a large wedding. It was comprised of three bridesmaids and six flower girls. During that time, marriages took place on a Monday evening. “The shops would close half day. People working would have half day off to be home in time to dress for the wedding. Ever ybody attended the weddings in those days. Children would be dressed up in their Sunday best. Then change d to Saturday evenings” ( McCartney 2015). There was a musical band that played free of charge at community events. Garfield McCartney was a trumpeter in the band. Young boys would have music practice on a certain evening to get ready for the weekend. “In those days we always had something going on during the weekend. If the lodge wasn’t turning out, the church had a big turnout ” (McCartney 2015). McCartney recalls everyone having to be involved in the church or a lodge. Burial societies preceded lodges and existed to assist the poor in burying their dead (Davis 2015). Sheila remembers the lodges being the Junior Lodge and Senior Lodge for those under 18 years of age; and the Ruth Sisters and the Art Fellows for women and men over 18. Other lodges included the Eastern Star and the Masons. My mother was in the Ruth Sisters. My adopted father was head in the Art Fellows. Then they had a teenage lodge for boys and girls. You had to join it. Called the junior lodge. The older ones [lodge for adults] was the Senior Lodge. We met once a week. When the Ruth Sisters and the Art Fellows turn out, the Junior Lodge

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94 would turn out also. When they march, we would be m arching in front of them and then the senior would be in the back Lodges visited the sick, and any programs going on in the community, you had to be a part of it. When we have Easter programs, the junior lodges, boys and girls would take part in it. We di dn’t have time to idle in those days plus we went in the farm too. Had to help parents bring the produce home. We was the little horses . (McCartney 2015) A less official social society was known as the Sanhedrin Council also known as the Soft Hand Society. The group consisted of a handful of elderly residents. They would gather at the dock by the bay at sunrise, ring a bell and commence reading and discussion of the bible, politics and gossip. The bell that was hung at the dock was a broken bell from the Me thodist church that has since been thrown into the sea (Mingo 2015). The Sanhedrin would sit at the bay until about 9 o’clock, at which time they would tend to their fields (Carey 2015). Admission into the group was one shilling. The purpose of this fee wa s to aid the elderly members with their living costs. It is said that the establishment of the Old Age Pension in The Bahamas is due to this group. During an electoral campaign, George Baker, Useph Baker and Trevor Kelly approached the council seeking to w in their votes. After the council explained their reasoning for the one shilling fee, George Baker vowed that with their votes, he would establish a pension program whereby the elderly would receive a monthly stipend to assist with living costs (Mingo 2015). Today, Old Age Non Contributory Pension (OANCP) is a payment of $160 per month made to Bahamian residents of 65 years of age or older who are determined to be needy (the National Insurance Board). Homecomings also brought the community together. The homecoming was a three day celebration held in August. It was a time when descendants of Tarpum Bay would return from abroad. During these three days “there were dances in the night inside the Old Prep School and they would hang a lantern. During homecoming they would move the desks around to the wall and stack them if necessary. They played native instruments such as drums and horns” (Davis

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95 2012). Homecomings continue today. The duration is decided by the Tarpum Bay Homecoming Committee and can range from fi ve days to one week. The event takes the form of a festival and the main events take place on the homecoming grounds, a community recreational area at the Bayfront . Stalls are erected around the perimeter where f ood, drinks and souvenirs are sold. Activities during this time include church services, concerts, junkanoo, dances and plaiting of th e maypole. In Tarpum Bay, it was customary for young men to acquire land from their fathers or father figures. “You didn’t buy. You gave your sons the property” (Car twright 2015). David Cartwright recalls receiving his property at the age of 17 from his grandfather. After a father gave his son property, the son would then work to build a house on it. The young men in the community would assist one another with their r espective skills. Similarly, Henry Allen remarked, “at 17 I put my father’s pick ax and shovel on my shoulder and I went down to the property and started clearing it up” (Allen 2015). On establishing a home at such a young age, Allen explained: Them days w asn’t much to attract youyou lived in a house with your sisters and brothers, you began to grow up to be a young man. The amenities of life we didn’t have then. We had the outside toilet. Bathe inside or bathe outside or bathe in the toilet, whatever it is outside. So you look forward to the day when you can get out of that and because you looking forward to the day you get out of that your mind was focused on trying to build a house. Sometimes a house wasn’t large. A 2 bedroom house with an A roof upstair shad rooms upstairs had rooms downstairs. But your parents, especially with boys they worked along with you with that because at a certain age a mother don’t want her sons around her daughters no how and so therefore there’s a way Baymans went in particu lar Baymans. When you got 17 years old, first thing your parents try to do for you was buy a piece of land. Or your relatives gave you a piece of land or if your parents had large lots/yards they allow you to build, especially the eldest son in particular, on a piece of it, so long as you could build your own house. So if you have me building my house at 17 then Frank, your mother would say ‘you might as well get ready to get started too’. Then you have a next fellow starting at 17 then you have about 10 14 fellows starting at 17. That’s all because you’re looking forward to getting out from among your siblings especially if you had sisters. You don’t want to be around your

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96 sisters as a young man. Especially if some of the fellows drink and [under] cert ain conditions you don’t want to be around your parents. It caused you to get married young. 20 years old/21 you married. You trying to get out that environment. You want your own environment. That’s what caused us at that day and age to want to get starte d young. To get out of that one bedroom, upstairs situation with beds together. So how to get out of that? We have to start our own house. Then parents in the community they were focused on that. I want my son to have a piece of property. He’s working. I w ant to save a little $10 so he could build a housesave a little $20 so he can build a house. Yards wasn’t expensive like how they is now. You could buy a piece of property or a relative give you a piece. Sometimes it only a little 40x40. The fact remains that I got a piece of property in Tarpum Bay, when I laid out the house, the builder tell me say ‘man you have the house bigger than the property’. But I was 17. I didn’t know better . (Allen 2015) Young people often gathered at the park, especially on Sunday evenings. After Sunday school, young boys and girls would go for walks around the community. It was an opportunity to see your boyfriend or girlfriend. Sixty years ago, Tarpum Bay was lush with cedar trees. The beach near the Anglican Church was so wid e that young people would play softball and different games there (Allen 2015; Mingo 2015). “When you knock a ball in the sea you was out and very seldom you knock a ball in the sea [because there was] so much beach. But we don’t have no beach now” (Mingo 2015). People sold ice cream cones and hot peanuts on Sunday (Allen 2015). People kept their properties very well because people lived there. Today many properties are unkempt because families have moved to Nassau and the houses are vacant. That’s what ha ppens. We turn our backs on the old original communities and they go down. The old structures are either taken away or burned out. That’s why the community is vacant in some places where you know houses was They [my children] had an opportunity of going to high school, Preston Albury and Windermere. And most of the children at that age were talking about going into a profession and so they go caught up into that situation of going into a profession so they wanted to have a profession. Take for instance Jack ie . S he had in her mind of becoming a nurse so she went to N assau to go to the C ollege of T he Bahamas They all had that mind that they wanted to do better . She did not continue with that idea. She went into being a stewardess flying about the place . (Allen 2015)

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97 Today, Tarpum Bay has a small population of individuals between the ages of 18 and 30 due to the economy, educational and career pursuits. All of the elders lamented the state of the properties in the oldest section of Tarpum Bay, which have been ab andoned. Audrey Carey refers to this land as great wealth that descendants seem unaware of or simply do not appreciate. She and Vera Carey expressed a desire to see more employment opportunities in South Eleuthera that may allow for young people to remain at the settlement and for descendants to reestablish their families and contribute to the progression of the community. Dialect and Sayings When speaking with descendants residing outside of Tarpum Bay and individuals who have recently relocated to the settlement from elsewhere, many spoke about a unique Tarpum Bay dialect. Cislyn Simmons commented that people from Tarpum Bay tend to have a diffe rent manner of speech. She noted that “they drop their ‘H’s. So it would not be ‘Hatchet Bay’, it may be ‘Atchet Bay’. So their ‘H’ is very silent” (Simmons, 2014). From my experience in Tarpum Bay, I noticed that in many cases the letter “a” is pronounced as “e”. For example when referring to Uncle Alex, his name was pronounced as “Elle” or “Elic” and the word “family” is pronounced “femily”. A primary school teacher, originally from Nassau remarked on the distinctiveness of the Tarpum Bay accent. She began teaching at Tarpum Bay Primary School approximately two years ago and says that she still sometimes has difficulty understanding some of the residents. She commented that even the youngest children speak with this accent. In the singing of the national anthem the children pronounce “Bahamaland” as “Bahamalend” and “b anners” is pronounced “benners.” A Tarpum Bay s lang was confirmed by many residents. Qurina Mingo says, “every settlement, their speech is different” (Mingo 2015). Samuel Davis remembers being able to

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98 differentiate between a black person speaking and a Conchy Joe person and between people of different settlements. If three or four people in there [a room] and each one from different settlements you could say [from] the voice come out that room, you could say well that’s from Green C astle, that’s from Wemyss Bight but to me, three settlements you could distinct more than any is Governors Harbour, Palmetto Point and Tarpum Bay and still is. Some of the settlements got off of that slang or dropped some of it . (Davis 2015) In greetings, Conchy Joes and people from Palmetto Point used the terms “bro” and “bra” (Mingo 2015; Davis 2015). People from Tarpum Bay would instead say, “Hey man” or “What ya say.” We still say ‘hey man’, ‘what ya say man’. Then Tarpum Bay, ‘how you doing ho?’ And then most of the time because I didn’t know what’s your name and the n if I don’t understand what you said I’d say ‘what you say ho?’ (Davis 2015) Today, due to its American meaning as whore, the word “ho” is rarely heard. It is used only between very familiar people at Tarpum Bay. “Hey ho” is used to mean “Hey, how are you ?” or “what’s up?” Older residents can also be heard using the word “country” in reference to the settlement. In referring to plural subjects, those from Tarpum Bay often add an ‘s’ to the singular form of the word. For example “mans” for “men”, “bes” for “be”. It is also common to he ar the word “growed” for “grew.” “Every pick’em gat a fire” is a saying that means everything an individual took every opportunity possible to help themselves and provide a living for their family (Johnson 2015). “I fished, I c rabbed and I cut bait and I carried the basket”: I did ever ything to put food on the table for the children (Johnson 2015). “You have to get a cage to put the bird in when you catch the bird” : You must have a house before taking a wife (Cartwright 2015).

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99 “If you sow the wind you reap a whirlwind”: If you work toward nothing in life, you will have excessive amounts of nothing in the end ( Carey 2015). “If you spit in the wind it will blow back in your face”: If you wrong someone, it will return to you (Carey 2015). “Don’t hang your basket higher than you can reach”: Do not put yourself in a position that you know you cannot handle or make commitments that you cannot keep (Carey 2015; Allen 2015). Industry Residents and descendants alike concur that historical ly the main industry was farming and the main farm produce for export in Tarpum Bay were tomatoes followed by pineapples. The farmland was located on the outskirts of the community. The areas were called the Swamp, Great Hills, Greenstone Point, Little Blu ff, Saw Bluff, Red Dot Hole, High Rock, the Creek and Broken Bays. Boats came to Tarpum Bay from England for pineapples and from the United States for tomatoes. Qurina Mingo remembers the boats that anchored directly behind the rocks at the bay because the water was too shallow to enter the bay. “Black spots [in the water] with black stones are ballast. When the y left they would throw those out because they would carry loads of pineapples and tomatoes back. The say if you had a good breeze it would take thr ee weeks to sail to England” (Mingo 2015). William McCartney recalls that his grandfather on his mother’s side, William Wilkerson Allen, was a tomato farmer. His grandfather on his father’s side was a captain of one of the fast sailboats on Eleuthera. His grandfather’s boat was named the Imperial and used to export tomatoes from Tarpum Bay to Florida (McCartney 2014, 2). There were four shops in Tarpum Bay during the 1920s and 1930s . They were owned by Kyle Nottage, William Albert “ Boy ” Carey (also known as “Cracker”), Dennis Nottage and

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100 Richard Culmer. At this time, stores did not have names. When goods came in from Nassau, whoever had transportation would distribute the goods to the different stores (Cartwright 2015). Willie Butcher Allen had a packingh ouse at Tarpum Bay as did ‘ Boy ’ Carey, John Hilton, Henry McCartney with Edwin Allen, and John Louie . Newton Carey ran a government associated tomato packinghouse. The government supplied this with fertilizer and seed. The others were independent packinghouses where the farmers bought their own fertilizer and seed. Tomatoes were packed according to size. Six sixes and five sixes , six sevens , seven sevens . Seven sevens was the smallest size. They wrapped them up in paper each of them. They graded them. A bi g one was five sixes . A very small one was like a seven eights . They had to build these crates to put them in then wrap these tomatoes, put them in there, then put the cover on them then take them out on the dock then a barge would come in. They used to ex port them then. To Nassau and shipped to Canada. If it was a good season they would start the first of November to the last of February . (Carey 2015) It is said that Willie Butcher then went to Wemyss Bight and had a packinghouse there. Samuel Johnson’s three brothers and father worked for Willie Butcher. Willie Butcher eventually emigrated from Tarpum Bay to Nassau. After Uncle Willie, and Kyle Nottage and Big John, those old fellows, Johnny Louie, Boy Carey all those old fellows died out, we tried to do the best we could, but nobody really was into farming instead of own packinghouse Because the government started their own packinghouse in Greencastle and then the lazy farmer like me, we took up carrying our stuff to Greencastle because wasn’t any other packinghouses here to do it. We spoke about it but nobody ever went into it. In those days you could’ve grown anything and there was always a packingh ouse there open. (Johnson 2015) The mass movement of people from Tarpum Bay in the 1930s was economically driven. Dorothy Moncur recalls that when her father moved from Tarpum Bay to New Providence “it was because of a depression and people were not able to make a living”. She has been told that her father , William Arnold McCartney, owned a shop, “but after a while people didn’t have any

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101 money to buy anything so he had to c lose the shop out” (Moncur 2014: 6). She and her family subsequently moved to New Providence in 1933. Henry Allen also recalls the migration to Nassau: Young people in my age bracket were goi ng to Nassau like crazyI wasn’t like them. They could’ve gone home got a suitcase and a box, put clothes in, say mom ‘I’m gone’ or ‘I want to go’. I couldn’t do that. I wasn’t trained like that. My father was a Christian. I had to tow the line. So for me to leave my father and my mother, I had to discuss that. I couldn’t do whatever I want. When I told my father about it. My father said to me ‘life could be hard there too’. And my father told me ‘go to trade. Learn your trade. Learn it well’. I remember th e words he said to me ‘go to trade. Learn your trade well’. He said one of these days you’ll be able to be upstairs sleeping and making money. And he was right on it. A lot of my friends that went, ain’t no moreThey thought life was better and exciting. I thought so too until I discussed it with my father. My father was saying to me you go to Nassau where you ga live? Uncle this and uncle that. Or aunt this aunt that. Then he broke it down to me. You start eating too much, they ga raise trouble. Let the light be on too long, they ga raise trouble. If you use too much water, they ga raise trouble. That’s the city. I come from a place where everything is open. I say then I’ll live with my friends. Then he say live with your friends? Who ga do the cooking? I’l l eat from restaurant. How much restaurant cost? Who wash the clothes? Some people do that and be successful, but I didn’t have to do that. See, Eleuthera was moving. It was building itself up . (Allen 2015) In addition to New Providence, people of Tarpum Bay relocated to Key West and Miami.6 Steven Carey said after having traveled back and forth to Florida with produce: A lot of ‘em decided well I’m going to stay in Key West. So a lot of ‘em came here and took their houses apart, you know the house right here by the shop, the wooden houses, they weren’t put together with nails, they were put together with wood and pins, so they just come and they take it down and put it on the boat and took ‘em to Key West. See now, my great grandma, she had seven brothers and she was the oldest one what stayed there, because Susan Allen she was the oldest one out of all to stay here, but all of ‘em went to Key West, but that’s how they ended up in Key West, that’s how they chose Key West because they was running on the boat s, and they decided to stop off and stay there, that’s how they get there. They bought property there or squatted on property there, say well this piece here is mine because nobody was living there in ‘dem days. Most people there used to live there 6 During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries many from the northern islands of Abaco and Eleuthera moved to Key West “where their traits of sobriety and sturdiness, their know ledge of the sea, of wrecking, and of shipbuilding, made them substantial citizens” (Peters 1962:228).

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102 was Bah amians because a lot of ‘em went from here and most was Tarpum Bay. And that’s how we get that big old crew in Key West . (Carey 2015) Samuel Johnson also recalls the downturn in the economy. He says, “Things all over the island were bad. Things were not good hereall we knew then was farming. We lived off the farm. With the little money we had, we had to travel then to loo k for a livelihood.” In 1945, Johnson chose to participate in the Contract to provide a livelihood for his family in Tarpum Bay. He worke d from Miami, Florida up to Minneapolis, Minnesota. We traveled on the contract, but we didn’t have to pay nothing out [of] our pockets. It was a contract between the American government and our Bahamian governmentas we worked with them; they would take out so much to send back home to keep in store for our family. Then when we return, you’d get so much of our funds back. I met a lot of people Jamaicans, Haitians, Barbadians, Bahamians from one part of The Bahamas throughoutThere was about 30,000 of us in one camp. (Johnson 2015) Samuel Davis remembers the Contract as the first in a series of events that brought prosperity to The Bahamas. Bahamian workers in the United States began sending more modern items to their families in The Bahamas. At Tarpum Ba y during this time Davis saw wompers transition out and into tennis shoes and then various types of shoes. He saw thatch roofs transition to “sheets” and shingled roofs become concrete roofs. After returni ng from the contract in 1958, Samuel Johnson worke d as a farmer, a fisherman, a land surveyor, a taxi driver and a preacher: “Like the old people say, ‘I fished, I crabbed and I cut bait and I carried the basket .’” That means you did everything. You did everything to get food on the table for the children ” (Johnson 2015). He learned surveying from Timothy Bert um Carey and worked with him for 13 years. Carey was the only licensed surveyor and architect in South Eleuthera at the time: M ost of them [from Nassau] would send people to come work called formers a nd Bert had to train them. I would say ‘I can’t understand what Bert is doing’. But you couldn’t find no one better than Bert when it come down to surveying and

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103 measuring. His office was right here in Tarpum Bay Had to make up and draw plansHe was that g ood and he was patient . (Johnson 2015) Timothy Carey was educated at the Government High School in Nassau, which was then a highly selective school. His daughter, Mary Knowles, recalls her father drawing the plans for most of the houses in Tarpum Bay. In addition to surveying and architecture, Timothy Carey was a chauffeur for Arthur Vining Davis. Knowles remembers interacting with Davis as a child and her family receiving gifts from him during the Christmas season (Knowles 2015). Those that remained at Tarpum Bay continued to farm and supplemented farming with available opportunities such as fishing, sponging, building, teaching and small businesses. Herbert Carey opened his grocery business in the late 40s. Artist, Gordon MacMillanHughes suggested the name “Bert’s for the Best” and painted the sign for him. Today, Carey’s children operate the store. According to Herbert, the tomato industry began to decline in the early 1950s because Mexico was able to produce tomatoes at a cheaper rate than The Bahamas. People continued growing tomatoes, however , on a smaller scale. Qurina Mingo is another that remained in Tarpum Bay and did what he could to make a living. He farmed, fished, sponged, built boats, and worked in construction as a helper. He remembers: W e used to get a lot of sponge but we didn’t make much money. They didn’t pay much. We sold them to Nassau to the Greeks. They didn’t pay much. The most money we got for them sponge was one gentleman from America named Mr. FeltonWhen he bought those we got 200 pounds. He bought those sponge in 1965 and money changed in 1966 We used to get the wolf sponge, the reef sponge, grass sponge. But the grass sponge wasn’t good, they were hollow. Didn’t get anything for grass. But the wolf sponge the y brought the most money . (Mingo 2015) Mingo explained that reef sponge was found in shallow water. He was able to wade in the water and pick them up. Wolf sponge was found in 12 to 22 feet of water. He used a pole to hook these.

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104 Mingo also built bateau boats. These boa ts had a flat bottom and therefore a shallow draft. He learned the craft from watching his uncle, Sam Mingo. He remembers that during that time the boat builders of Tarpum Bay included Ralph Carey, Sam Mingo, Frank Carey, Sam Morley, Alexander Carey (also known as Uncle Alex and was the leader in boat building) and Willie Bradley. David Victor Cartwright is a boat builder of Qurina ’s generation , the grandson of Alexander Carey and the only remaining person in the settlement with the knowledge of how to buil d a freight boat . About his grandfather, Victor Cartwright recalled, “He would go in the land and cut the ribswith different angles. He’ll say ‘now boys, Victor and Eric, when school come out y’all get the wheel barrow and come a certain place and you cou ld see the ribs for the boat there. Put them in the wheelbarrow and bring them home’ and that’s how we learned” (Cartwright 2015). Henry Allen grew up in the transition from farming to tourism and trades. He recalls the intensive farming that was taking p lace and the spirit of the people engaged: Tarpum Bay was a hardworking community at that time very ambitious very hardworking. When I came to work here as a young mechanic there was about 30 farm trucks in Tarpum Bay. Independent people, they didn’t work for people. They farmed and fished because they sell their tomatoes green to Nassauthen the tomatoes that became ripe they would carry th em to the factory . (Allen 2015) In the 1950s and 1960s, investors began developing the island of Eleuthera, tourism be came a major industry for The Bahamas and Tarpum Bay felt its effects . An investor came into Nassau, which built Union Dockand he was invited to come to Eleuthera and have a look at Eleuthera and see if he wanted to invest in Eleuthera. His name was Arth ur Vining Davis. So when Arthur Vining Davis came I understand that he carried on farming just like Levy carried on farming. So he done farming but on a larger scale. It was exported into Florida. At that time World War II was going on. When Arthur Vining Davis came along with his investment things began to change from farming to week work, receiving a pay roll. With farming you didn’t receive a pay roll until the cropPeople around Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay in particular were able to then start getting sal aries and that caused life to be better Then he moved from farming he went into tourism and the houses that he used to house the people who worked for him he turned those houses

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105 into apartments where tourists rented and then the name came Rock Sound Club as he transitioned from farming, the persons he had working for him had to melt into the community. He bought out a lot of the people in Rock Sound houses and property and the people he had working for him were mostly white people and strangers as well, lived in Rock Sound. (Allen 2015) George Baker benefited South Eleuthera in more ways than one. As a representative for Eleuthera in the House of Assembly, he forwarded the interests of the people. He improved roads at Tarpum Bay, built a seawall after th e devastating effects of hurricanes and personally assisted poor constituents when possible. David Victor Cartwright commented: He was a real good representative. We just went to him and tell him ‘my mother’s died, Mr. Baker’. That’s what we’ll say, ‘we don’t have any money, we would like for you to bury her please’ and he will do it. (Cartwright 2015) George Baker’s business interests also benefited the district economically. His canning factory at Rock Sound provided a market not only for the people of South Eleuthera, but he was also hiring boats to buy, can and sell peas produced by the people at Acklins island (Johnson 2015). He [George Baker] came here to work under Arthur Vining Davis’ portfolio. After he served here a lit tle while, George Baker wen t into farming. Then he opened his factory, then he went for himself, then he went to join politics, went into parliament, but through that he had hi s factory open. He worked from B annerman town to Gregory town. Had a pine field, tomato field in B annerman town, in Rock Sound, hired people all from all Eleuthera. Everybody was hired. Who wasn’t in the farm, worked in the packinghouse. Who wasn’t in the packinghouse, they worked in the factory. Who didn’t work in the factory worked on the field, labor. People who grew pineapples, can ‘ em up. You grow tomatoes, you can ‘ em up. You grow pigeon peas, you can ‘ em up. Whatever you produce, carry them to the factory, you can can ‘ em up Before he [Arthur Vining Davis] came we knew nothing about fridge and electric a nd things like that. But after Arthur Vining Davis came [to] South Eleuthera [the] first thing he did [was] he bought land. Rock Sound Club was the first club on the island. It belonged to him. Most of the work was done b y handclean the yard, the hole you dig, the foundation, ‘most everything then was done by hand. Where the house is now, that used to be the office, machine shop down in tha t area. And then from there to Cotton B ay, then to Winding Bay. Where Winding Bay Club is, that was Arthur Vining Davi s’ house. So he built Eleuthera. (Johnson 2015)

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106 The South Eleuthera Properties Company (SEP) owned and operated by Davis extended electricity through to Governor’s Harbour. “Everybody went to work for SEP, the different generation coming out of school went to work for South Eleuthera [Properties]” (Carey 2015). The Eleuthera Power and Light Company was established Davis. Samuel Johnson recalls surveying for the electrical poles from Bannerman To wn to Gregory Town. “Governor ’ s H arbo ur was then able to extend straight down to the glass window bridge then of course Harbo ur Island. Now the power plant in Rock Sound sends power straight through to Harbour Island” (Allen 2015). Developments by Davis, the establishment of French Leave7 and Austin Levy’s farm at Ha tchet Bay connected the island of Eleuthera. “Eleuthera only ran, during that time, from Gregory town. So until Eleuthera got connected, Eleuthera was only known from Bannerman town to Gregory town. But by Arthur Vining Davis, Levy and French Leave, they w orked together. They connected Eleuthera” (Johnson 2015). In addition to electricity, Mr. Davis also remodeled the Masons lodge hall at Tarpum Bay and pr ovided much needed employment . Henry Allen recalls that Tarpum Bay people worked in Mr. Davis’ home as caretakers and repairmen. He built an expansive house on the property, gardeners, construction workers, caretakers, and all thatand 75% of them people were Tarpum Bay people. F rom his place it grew into the Winding Bay C lub. After Davis passed on, they turned his house into a club. And then he built rooms. Some of the money from these investments it trickled down to Tarpum Bay between us [my brother and I] growing up and my third brother being born because of the Rock Sound Club in Mr. Davis’ era. My f ather was able to build a house They were able to buy better shoes better clothes better storeswere able to put more stuff in the stores because they were able to sell it. It made a difference. Then through him we were able to get electricity As I under sta nd it, Eleuthera was the first Family I sland in the Bahamas to have electricity . (Allen 2015) 7 French Leave was a 75 room resort in Governor’s Harbour, Eleuthera. It was built in 1957 and operated by Craig Kelly from Philadelphia. French Leave cl osed in 1970. The resort later became Club Med (Cleare 2007: 120122).

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107 Henry Allen was trained to be a mechanic by Hermit Cates, Mansfield Molly, Adrian “Tony” Symonette and Frank Kemp. At age 24 he began work with Davis’ South E leuthera Properties Company. He was responsible for maintaining the electric and gas golf carts and other equipment on the golf course. He recalls MSNBC televising a golf tournament at the Cotton Bay Club where Arnold Palmer and Julius Boros were competing . “That was the first time in the history of Eleuthera you have television cameras shooting” (Allen 2015). He added that the South Eleuthera Properties later became Three Bay Contractors. It was this company that especially contributed to the prosperity of Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay. He remembers certain times walking into the Tea House or the club and getting all he could eat or drink free of charge. I wondered ‘how come I get so many sandwich today and I ain’t gat to pay for it. How come I could drink so much tonic’he said to me they have groups come here, fortune magazine and other groups. He say the first man walk through the door – everything on the house. That means don’t care how muchthey pay for that. When they walk through the door of the Cotton Bay Club. Everything w as charged to them. (Allen 2015) After Dav is, Juan Trippe took over Cotton Bay and it was under Trippe that the airport was extended and Pan American airlines began servicing Rock Sound. It was just a little short airport. I helped to work on it when it was extended. When the first jet came here I think it was 16 shillings. You took that ticket and spend a day or two in Miami and cam e to Nassau and spend a day or two and come back to R ock S ound on that same ticket on that jetWhen Tr i ppe came here it was like glory . (Johnson 2015) Similarly, Steven Carey remembers Juan Trippe’s influence in the district as a positive one. He recalls: “t hat’s the first time that Pan American used to fly here, 747 used to fly here twice a day, you went to Miami for $27, I used to work for that company ” (Carey 2015). Foreign investment had ushered in a new way of life for the Tarpum Bay community and Eleuthera at large. During this period, many gave up farming in favor of serving a new clientele. Before marriage , Sheila McCartney worked at Cotton Bay. After marriage she left, not due to the

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10 8 employer, but because husbands did not like for their wives to have to work. Sheila left Cotton Bay and assisted her husband with a farming business . Her husband who w as a carpenter at the resort, he also farmed and fished. Together they were employers of Haitians and Bahamians and would harvest two and three truckloads of tomatoes during the winter season for export to Nassau. The McCartneys gradually gave up farming a fter they built the Highway Bar in 1960. It began as a place for her husband to relax with his friends after returning from fishing trips. The bar grew into Sheila’s Royal Castle – a restaurant, bar and nightspot. Tourists came after the hotels would cl ose around 10 pm for some place to hangout. That’s how we started having bands Started having native bands from Eleuthera come and play and bands from Nassaua live band on Friday and Saturday nights. People came from north and south. We would advertise i t on the radio ‘Sheila’s Royal Castle’s is having Smokey or Leon Taylor and the Roosters’. I did a lot of cooking, baking and serving Used to sell 56 cases of chicken in a night. At that time we had hatchet farm plantation open. We could’ve gotten chicken at a reasonable price. The guests just loved grouper, crawfish and used to have a lot of conch fritters and stuff I tried to sell all Bahamian food. (McCartney 2015) T he events that led to the closure of these major developments on Eleuthera are rarel y discussed and often expressed with a degree of reluctance. R esponses often began with “I know , but I hate to say it” and “Gee, I’m telling you this, I shouldn’t tell you that”. Others rejoiced at the opportunity to finally share what they believe to be the truth of what caused the demise of the best thing to ever happen to Eleuthera. One resident remembers: After the PLP came around it made a big mess. The PLP says that they can take the factory ‘we have the keys in our pocket for the factory’He [Georg e Baker] got a little upset about it so he just closed it down and that made a big mess because we wasn’t able to grow any tomatoes no morenot like that. Just a few and just sell them around. So that’s why that closed. The PLP got biggity . (Anonymous 2015) Samuel Johnson recalls an atmosphere of animosity. He r emembers this period and expressed a relationship between the change in government from the United Bahamian Party

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109 (UBP) to the Progressive Liberal Party (PLP) and the downturn in the economy of South Eleuthera: After government changed, I don’t know what they done, but it seemed like something happened that all the jobs they just got against the Bay Street people When Pan Am used to fly from here, I saw some of my own people on the airport saying ‘ le t Trippe and let this one go, let George Baker go’ . And they all got contrary and everything on the island closed down because [of] the hatred. We had a place near the Rock Sound Club with livestock, by the factory. In between Rock Sound and T arpum Bay you had two hotels. You had livestock and a packinghouse between R ock S ound and T arpum Bay Airport singing ‘ let them go ’ . That hatredthey took the same thing and brought it to Eleuthera what they took on Bay Street against the Bay Street B oys. They brought that same teaching or that same hatred on the island of Eleuthera. ‘Race the Bay Street B oys out. We don’t need ‘ em ’ . That’s what happened, but ain’ t nobody want to speak the truth. (Johnson 2015) As for the resorts, it is said that the staff began stealin g a lot of the items, possibly in a form of rebellion. Brenda McCartney commented that the “biggest blow was when C ape Eleuthera closed down. Eleuthera has really gone backward from where it was to now. Even though people wer e poorer then” (McCartney 2015) . Similar to the 1930’s, as previously stated, the current migration of young people from Tarpum Bay to Nassau and elsewhere is driven by economic opportunities. Henry Allen owns a gas station, small store and mechanic business at Tarpum Bay. He shared the belief of not tying his children down to his business. “I don’t believe that a child should be tied down to something that they don’t want to do. Or if they have something they want to try first, try it” (Allen 2015). He did not want them to have regrets or resentment toward him . He continued to express that Tarpum Bay and the island of Eleuthera h as been able to sustain itself up to this point due to foresight and provisioning for the future: Out of all of the people. Eleuthera people were one set of people in the Bahamas that invested their money into businesses and because they invested their money into businesses they were able to weather the storm. I made couple dollars, I invested my money into repairs and parts. The other man, he made his money, he invested into hardware. This other gentlemen over here he invested into hardwar e

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110 and other thingsIn Wemy ss Bight, same thingby people investing, they are able to make something sometimes and they didn’t have to depend wholly and solely on their job. If y ou want to buy nails, I don’t have to wait for nails to come out of Nassau. I could go to anywhere on Eleuthera and buy nails. I don’t have to wait for cement to come out of Nassauthat kept Eleuthera. A lot of family islands didn’t operate like that. They had no vision for that. They didn’t see that future . My father said, stay here and work and you’ll be able to sleep and make money. They were right. The other fellow he saw the future in taxi driving. He went and bought his taxis. He went from gr owing t omatoes to driving taxis [to] self drive cars. His children still drive the taxis and self drive cars. So what happens is the sacrifices that our forefathers made we can still feel the effects of that great sacrifice and we’re so thankful we were able to m ake those sacrifices . (Allen 2015) Steven Carey shared this sentiment and added that: After South Eleuthera phased out then, the island was more or less developed then and just saying Dwight right there he worked for South Eleuthera Properties until he w as able to build his first grocery store. Mr. Wallace down the road, he worked for South Eleuthera Properties until he could of built his first store, after he built his store then he quit working for South Eleuthera Properties. A lot of people learned tra de by South Eleuthera, so when they was able to go on their own or do a little something then they left South Eleuthera because South Eleuthera was paying but it wasn’t paying no big money so if some of them home owners start to build a house , the carpenter get a job there and leave South Eleuthera and go to work for the home owners. And that’s how the island got going with carpenters and masons a nd stuff like that. (Carey 2015) Expressions of independence and entrepreneurship are seen throughout the histor y of Tarpum Bay. Fluctuations in economic opportunity and hardship have created an enduring spirit and a unique mentality of prudence and vision that is shared among the people of the community. Visible in the history that holds true to the present is a de sire and ability to plan and provision for the future. From a young age, male children were taught to strive for independence by building a home in preparation and provision for a future wife and family. Historically, the community is centered on the Chri stian church. The Methodist and Anglican churches are the oldest. According to Samuel Davis, all births in the settlement were recorded by the Methodist Church regardless of denomination. Understanding the preeminence of the church, Christian beliefs in early lifeways become apparent. These include respect for

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111 elders, the belief that men are to be the head of women, husbands should be providers for their wives, the belief that women should submit to their husbands and the standard of large families because birth control was seen as contrary to biblical principles .

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112 CHAPTER 6 TARPUM BAY COMMUNITY HERITAGE VALUES The third and final objective in this research is to ascertain how residents and descendants of Tarpum Bay define their heritage and themselves. I nitially the common response to the question of heritage was “heritage ...exactly what do you mean?” (e .g. Clarke, McCartney and Vashti Simmons). Instead I would ask about anything that may be unique to Tarpum Bay or valuable. Interviewees found it difficul t to articulate heritage or relate heritage to anything tangible. In reference to old or historic buildings, Priscilla Clarke recalled a beautiful board house that has been present in the community for as long as she can remember. However, she stated that “lots of them could be demolished to make something else. A lot of them could be built up and something nice made out of them” (Clarke 2014). To the contrary, Ruby Knowles and Samuel Davis lamented the loss of certain buildings and evidence of key people w ho made the community what it is today. For Knowles, this was the loss of a building on the waterfront used to house principals to the Old Prep School. Brenda McCartney and Mary Knowles consider the manner of bottling tomatoes to be unique in Tarpum Bay. McCartney expressed that: People in Tarpum Bay do it different from other settlements. We bottle up with the grinder or the blender. People in deep creek put the tomatoes in an onion bag then in boiling water then let cool, mash, then but in the bottle. We use the meat grinder or blender. Other settlements don’t do it at all. Ma Cilla does it on a big scale. Hers is from down that way. People [are] sent to her to buy them. I mainly do it for my family in Na ssau or my use. (McCartney 2015) The validity of th ese statements linking Tarpum Bay heritage to tomato production is emphasized in my brief encounter with a gentleman from Savannah Sound at the Bahamas Archives. Coincidentally, on this particular day, there were about four of us Eleuthera descendants pres ent. In introducing ourselves, he immediately identified us as either pineapples or tomatoes. From one to the other, he ascribed an identity, saying “you is a pineapple tooyou

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113 ain’t from where the pineapples fromyou from where the tomatoes is. You is a t omato” (anonymous, 2015). Pineapples were those from settlements north of Tarpum Bay. Having listened to these different people express their feelings on the subject of identity and heritage , common threads that emerge are Christianity, civic engagement an d accomplishment , expressed through an incomparable work ethic . These are three pillars that characterize the people of the community throughout history and associated with the place as the home of these people. This results in a feeling of pride that many cannot trace to any “thing” in particular because the value is within the people themselves. Henry Allen referred to J.W. Culmer’s home as a historical home, valuable to the community and worthy of being kept by virtue of the man himself being “an histori cal man” (Allen 2015). Culmer’s significance can be attributed to his contribution to the community as a developer (for example, the drainage system), as an employer and as representative in the House of Assembly. Representative of their respect for him, r esidents referred to Culmer as the governor of the settlement. He embodies civic engagement and accomplishment. This reiterates the sentiment that it is the members of the community that give its places value, not the materials themselves being of value. O f Tarpum Bay, t he Honorable Philip Bethel stated: Its citizens have contributed greatly to the development of the country from where we’ve come from many hundreds of years and we have some noted people who have come from there whether they be ministers of the gospel, whether they be farmers, teachers or politicians. Our Prime Minister there, the H onorable Perry Gladstone Christie, his grandfather and his mother were residents of Tarpum Bay in Eleuthera. Unique? Yep. Number one is their Christian heritage, their cultural heritage and they are very clannish people, which it is evident in the makeup of their community because they are self sufficient in that they have an entrepreneurial spirit about them from one generation to the next. It is passed on and it ’s a very outstanding community because it has grown, it continues to grow and there is much potential. The young people, the middle age and older people, they work together and they have a community sense and they work as a team regardless of their race, their color or their religion or their political persuasionthey make their own sunshine without help. They don’t wait for

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114 people to come from other places to get them charged or to get them motivated. It’s a spirit of accomplishment, which runs through the ancestral heritage of these people . ( Bethel 2014) Further to Bethel’s mention of the community as being “clannish”, Megan McCartney recognizes this also as unique and a positive attribute. I mean there’s definitely a lot of pride there. I think I connec t my heritage with my familythe family that I know. There’s always a lot of pride when I’m talking to other people. There’s always a lot of love. This side of our family seems to be close. That’s something that they did right. AndOur family is huge. Tha t’s one of the other things that you know talking to some of my friends, they don’t keep in contact or they don’t know their third or fourth cousins. I do. So you know that’s one of the things that I like. (McCartney 2014) William McCartney adds that Tarpu m Bay heritage is: Mostly good character traits. If you inve stigate the families that have immigrated to Nassau. You’ll find that most of the prominent families, the prominent people of professions, head of business opportunities are people from Tarpum Bay area the McCartney clan has spreadwell emigrated from Tarpum Bay, but they have spread all through Nassau and the United States as top businessmen, top professionals, lawyers, doctors. We have Tim McCartney who hashe’s now in Palm Beach, head of one o f the universities. Then we have the doctors who are head of the m edical profession in Nassau. Dr. Barry McCartney, Dr. Nottage, Dr. Knowles, Drmany of the doctors, professional school teachers, professional businessmen and most of the families that emigr ated are respectable, well rounded, energetic, industrious families and their children, their offspring seem to emulate that type of living. They are industrious, law abiding and helpful to others, benefit and upbuild others. (McCartney 2014) Heritage was most often expressed as a feeling of pride. Responses to the question of what is Tarpum Bay heritage included “it’s about who I am” (Carey 2014), “I’m proud of itIt’s a feeling I get whenever I hear the name or even if I meet someone from there” (Moncur 2014 ). Similarly, William McCartney’s finds his value of heritage in the way the community has developed “most of the citizens, the residents of Tarpum Bay and each person is a really, very businesslike, very hard working, verywell , in other words, most of the Tarpum Bay people do own their own business. They like to be in charge of their own destiny financially” (McCartney 2014). Among residents, descendants and extended members there was constant mention of the

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115 current Prime Minister of The Bahamas, the Right Honorable Perry G. Christie and Deputy Governor General of The Bahamas, the Right Honorable Oswald Ingraham – descendant and resident of Tarpum Bay respectively. All interviewees agreed that Tarpum Bay heritage should be preserved. When asked how, the responses were by making a contribution (to community and country), practicing the heritage of Tarpum Bay in the attitude of independence and excellence, and also documentation. A community need, as stated earlier by Oswald Ingraham is the documentation of community history. Descendant William McCartney added that the documented history of Tarpum Bay is important because “if some of the younger people read the history and monitor the activity of the original people, that would help them to develop an appreciation for their settlement, appreciation for their family name, appreciation for their educational endeavors. I believe it would be very i mportant” (McCartney 2014: 6). Ownership of heritage, according to the community, belongs not only to residents a nd descendants, but also to all who are willing to uphold and contribute to the hardworking and positive legacy of the Tarpum Bay people. A museum does not exist in the traditional sense of materials/artifacts being displayed all year round. An attempt at a museum was made in recent years by the Eleuthera Art s and Cultural Cent re in efforts to fulfill a shared vision developed Friends of Lighthouse Point and later the One Eleuthera Foundation. The attempt at a local museum failed due to lack of attendance . Audrey Carey , director of the center, said, “The stuff sits there and collects dust” ( Carey 2014: 4). Instead, the facility i s promoted as a cultural center. She describes it as a mini museum where the building itself is on exhibit and additional components would be exhibited on the out s ide. She alludes to programming or activities as being an engaging and essential component of the museum/cultural experience at the center.

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116 If we have an exhibit it’s located out. You have activities that take place here in the center. So its not just you coming in and walking in. The building itself, we have the outdoor surfaces, the patios steps were done by a local artist by recycled glass bottles, conch shells so its not the usual, traditional museum where you walk in and we showcase a few different exhibits . (Carey 2014) To the question of museum activities and preservation of Tarpum Bay legacies, Samuel Davis responded: Show me something outstanding what Oswald Ingraham done for South El euthera. Show me what Jimmy Mo ultrie done. Show me what the other guy from Green Castle done It hurt me to know that moving up and down there’s nothing you see about George Baker and you see these roads and things. This same road what you looking at. George Baker pushed that through. You couldn’t pass by the waterfront because the water was beating up, the road was completely washed out. They built two walls around the graveyard and it was washed away And finally they come up, I believe George Baker was still there, they built a wall from what you call the Sanhedrin straight up to the grave yard during George Baker time and nothing you could see They had a packinghouse in Rock Sound that was George Baker. They knocked that down and all. I mean nothing you could say for the young gener ation Like myself, I know what he done in South Eleuthera but there’s nothing. Even Arthur Vining DavisI mean nothing outstanding no more. Me, of course, I could say he built the Rock Sound Club, I could say he brought light in Tarpum Bay, he brought wat er in Tarpum Bay and that’s about it . (Davis 2015) By assuming a bottom upap proach to this research, I obtained local histories and values that could not have been obtained at an archive within colonial office records, but only through active engagement w ith the local community. Having used history as a proxy to underst anding heritage at Tarpum Bay, I find that r esidents and descendants remember Tarpum Bay as more than a maritime community as it is passively identified in literature. Instead, Tarpum Bay is remembered as a community of hardworking farmers, entrepreneurs and tradesmen. Also contrary to the islandwide brand of pineapple producers, Tarpum Bay’s chief produce was the tomato and much of South Eleuthera is identified as such by inhabitants. Older residents still engage in its production today . T he community’s heritage is largely intangible. Passed from one generation to the next has been a beli ef in God, a hard working ethic that contributes to an entrepreneurial zeal and

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117 community leadership, an d farsightedness . The pride of Tarpum Bay is in the work of its residents and the achievements of its descendants. These people are notable business owners, wide ranging professionals, upstanding citizens and civic minded individuals dispersed across The B ahamas and the United States. A few of these individuals include Oswald Ingraham, former Deputy to the Governor General of The Bahamas; The Honorable Perry Christie, Prime Minister of The Bahamas; and Rev. George Whitfield Allen, founder and minister of Tr inity Wesleyan Methodist Church in Key West. Family and extended community values constitute heritage values at this settlement and keep it united. In discussing tangible heritage specifically, the subjects that are brought to the fore are those structures and materials relating to the arts, music and junkanoo in particular; the tomato industry and packing, bottling and canning; religious life and education.

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118 CHAPTER 7 A TARPUM BAY COMMUNITY FAMILY TREE I was very excited when One Eleuthera Foundation repre sentatives, Audrey Carey and Shaun Ingraham, voiced the desire for a Tarpum Bay community family tree. The idea of a community family tree was put forth as a means of preserving Tarpum Bay heritage, which the representatives and the larger community have b een found to equate to genealogy. In addition to confirming the community value of family, it afforded me the opportunity to contribute a product to and associated with this research and for the community. I have constructed the community family tree using RootsM agic software. Within this program, the following families are represented: Allen, Carey, McCartney, Knowles, Nottage, Ingraham, Mingo, Johnson and Culmer. Due to the limits of this thesis, the community family tree presented is by no means exhausti ve. This presentation of family histories is limited by my ability to contact and access families and records. Presented are historically predominant family names at Tarpum Bay based on the oral histories collected. This family tree is a product to be cont inued and utilized by the Tarpum Bay community and the Commonage Committee in identifying community descendants eligible for commonage property. Due to the great length of many Tarpum Bay family trees, a summation of the family histories based on social me mory is presented in this chapter. The family trees are expounded in the appendices and demonstrate that many of these families are interwoven through marriage. The number to the left of each name indicates the generation of the individual from the first r ecorded with the surname in Tarpum Bay. Allen /Knowles Family The Allen/Knowles family, originally from Tarpum Bay is among the most well documented and cohesive families. It is also largely interwoven with the Carey family, which remains one of the largest families at Tarpum Bay. Estimates place the number of living

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119 descendants at more than 800 individual s scattered throughout the globe, the majority however, residing in The Ba hamas and South Florida (Turner 2005). At present, the family has been traced to William Wilkerson Allen I and Addie Eliza Knowles at Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera. First, second and third generation Allens consisted of large scale farmers and packinghouse operators. Those that e migrated to Miami and Key West became business owners, entrepreneurs and ministers of the gospel. Carmen Turner, great great granddaughter of William Wilkerson Allen I (great grand daughter of Rev. George W. Allen), became the first African American woman to be elected to the Key West City Commission. Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, Perry Christie , is the great grandson of William Wilkerson Allen I. Carey /McCartney Family Another family of Careys or branch of the Carey family tree is traced to William “Lil Pap” Carey and intersects with the McCart ney family. The McCartney family is not present in original settlement documents, however the family traces its ancestry to Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera and many remain in the settlement. The family has traced its origins to the town of Bilarney in County Cork, I reland. Family historian, Timothy McCartney, has written that three Irish brothers sailed through The Bahamas (for unknown reasons) and anchored off the coast of Eleuthera due to difficulties with the ship. They entered Tarpum Bay around the year 1802. Aft er repairing the ship, two brothers left the island. Jack Freeman McCartney remained at Tarpum Bay where he met and married an African woman believed to be of the Fullah tribe. This African woman is only known as “Aunt Lighty”. She is described as very tal l and very dark, with high cheekbones, “sharp features”, a sharp nos e and long hair (McCartney 2000: 5). The marriage between Jack McCartney and Aunt Lighty took place nearly thirty years prior to the abolition of slavery; therefore it is possible that Aun t Lighty was a liberated African.

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120 The family is remembered and identified as entrepreneurs and professionals. The majority have e migrated and est ablished themselves in Nassau. William Alfred McCartney, great grandson of Jack Freeman, owns and operates Com monwealth Fabrics at Nassau. Ivis McCartney Carey with her husband Archie owns Carey’s Department Store. Keith McCartney owns Battery and Tire Specialists. William ‘Wilmac’ McCartney owns and operates Wilmac’s throughout Nassau, while his brother Clinton a lso owns and operate s his own McCartney’s Pharmacy in Nassau. Branville McCartney is a l awyer and owner of Halsbury Law Chambers in Nassau, former Member of Parliament, and founder and leader of the Democratic National Alliance. Among the family are many more lawyers, doctors, entrepreneurs and profes sionals. Evans/Knowles Family Valdine Vallie Mae Knowles is 96 years old and among the oldest living residents in Tarpum Bay. Her father, Irvine Evans, was born in Tarpum Bay and her mother was from Andros Is land. Valdine was born in Andros, e migrated to Miami, Florida with her grandmother and subsequently immigrated to Tarpum Bay at the age of 11. Knowles and her family were farmers in the settlement. Ingraham Family The Ingrahams are remembered as farmers a nd businessmen. James Oswald Ingraham is a resident of Tarpum Bay. He has served as a member of the House of Assembly and Deputy to the Governor General. He also owns and operates businesses at Rock Sound and Tarpum Bay. In keeping with Tarpum Bay heritage values of civic mindedness, William “Al” McCartney states that Ingraham has been involved with people of the community all his life (McCartney 2014). Ingraham is not able to trace his family beyond his parents Samuel and Marion.

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121 Nottage Family The Nott ages are said to have immigrated to Tarpum Bay from Crooked Island (Audrey Carey 2015). At Tarpum Bay they were once large farmers. According to residents, this family was predominantly white or ‘Conchy Joe’. The Nottage family was an influence on Tarpum B ay in the areas of business and religion. Dennis Nottage had a grocery store in the settlement on Bay Street. Hilda Allen added that Whitfield and Bertrum Nottage e migrated to Philadelphia and subsequently introduced the Brethren Church to Tarpum Bay (Alle n 2015). During my time at Tarpum Bay I found that the Nottage family is no longer well represented at the settlement due to the migration. William ‘Al’ McCartney recalls: There were three prominent Nottage brothers who immigrated to the United States and they were all missionaries, preachers. I think one settled in Detroit. One settled in 2 other places in the U.S They took the Gospel from Tarpum Bay to the United St ates and they in churches today. (McCartney 2014) Culmer Family The Culmer family was a lso a historically predominant family at Tarpum Bay that seems to have dispersed in recent years. The Culmer family is said to be originally of Savannah Sound. They are remembered at Tarpum Bay as large farmers and entrepreneurs. Richard Culmer owned and operated one of the first grocery stores at Tarpum Bay. Mingo Family According to Samuel Johnson, there were two families of Mingos at Tarpum Bay: black and white. The black Mingos have been traced to Savannah Mingo, from which Johnson descends. All but tw o of his children have immigrated to Florida, Abaco and New Providence for economic reasons. The white Mingos have been traced to Sarah Mingo. Her son, Charles Mingo, is remembered as one of the largest farmers at Tarpum Bay and an employer of many (Carey 2015).

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122 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS Archaeological sites and heritage landscapes have historically been sites and subjects of contestation by various stakeholder groups (Fontein 2006) and B ahamian sites have not been exempt (Clifton Heritage National Park). Both Colwell Chanthaphonh and Ferguson (2006) a nd Kearney (2010) reflect on issues inherent in past anthropological and archaeological approaches. These include the uncritical use of ethnographic analogy leading to assumptions about the pa st, neglect of human agency and potential for change, the creation and promulgation of exclusive and often false dichotomies (objective/subjective, real/imagined, actual/invented and material/symbolic), the divorce of people from product, the exclusion of narrative, social memory and multiple voices, the de contextualization of artifacts by researchers and museums, and the cooption of heritage landscapes by those in positions of power. Kearney (2010) presents an example in the case of the Yanyuwa where land scape de signification has occurred in the southwest Gulf of Carpentaria by the state in attempts to achieve a cultural vision of Australian nationalism. By controlling and changing the traditional landscape, the state attempts to control and change the id entities of the Yanyuwa and create non indigenous past realities. This manipulation of history and subsequent heritage is evidenced around the world as the legacy of colonialism. This subject resonates with me personally as historical and cultural misrepre sentation in The Bahamas has led me to the study of community histories and heritages in counter to dominant narratives. This the sis has sought to apply lessons learned from past heritage work toward the preservation of a community’s heritage, which can t hen contribute to a more accurate picture of insular and national identity. These lessons include embracing new ontologies, which require long term contextual study, the privileging of local epistemologies, inclusion of constituent

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123 voices and the creation of an atmosphere of awareness within the community for the establishment of mechanisms for the community to represent itself. The fact that many community members at Tarpum Bay are concerned about heritage loss reflects a t hreat to that heritage and herita ge preservation as a means for enabling ontological security in an uncertain present and in consideration of the future . It is evident that the community would like to preserve heritage, but they have been uncertain about how to do so. This project helps t he community to collect a history and understand their thoughts on heritage. Similar to Labrador (2013) and many other contemporaries, I believe that ontological security can be the basis of establishing ethical models and relations that value the synchronicity of multiple senses of belonging and that are sustained into the future. In an interesting contrast to uses of social memory , the social memory at Tarpum Bay is not associated with space or the built environment as in r ecent archaeology ( ColwellChan thaphonh and Ferguson 2006; Kearney 2010 ) , but rather familial bonds and a connection to a community of people . Tarpum Bay’s Homecoming attracts hundreds of people every year including, residents, descendants, residents from other settlements and those wit h any connection to Tarpum Bay . The festival takes place during the Emancipation Day holiday weekend, which is the first Monday in August. Homecomings demonstrate a social cohesion that extends beyond the physical space of Tarpum Bay and a strong connection to community among those residing outside of that space. In his book Archaeology that Matters: Action in the Modern World (2008) , Jeremy Sabloff expresses that in today’s modern world, heritage is important to strengthening cultural identity, pride in one’s past and an ethic of stewardship. This ethnography reveals how true this statement is. I realize that empowerment of cultural id entity and pride in one’s past a s

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124 experienced by older residents and descendants can be effectively reiterated and preserv ed through the documentation of this community ’s heritage. This study has also demonstrated that the Tarpum Bay community is welcoming and willing to assist as much as possible in historical and heritage study and preservation. The community expressed th e desire to benefit by the contribution of research products to the community and the training of local people to carry on the work. In alignment with the mutual goal of continuity, the Eleuthera Art s and Cultural Centr e holds the beginnings of a community family tree and the mechanisms to build on it. Having established community interest in a community historical and heritage identification, this study is the beginning of a documentation and preservation process. This project has so far revitalized knowl edge of the events and individuals that have contributed to the modern Tarpum Bay community. In conducting the interviews for this project, interviewees refer to this collection as a book and are often curious to know what others have said and information that I may have found relating to the different subjects. It is my hope that this information on heritage values be used to inform responsible cultural resource management at Tarpum Bay , such as potential archaeology in response to community questions or m useum development. Understanding the community’s construction of heritage and meaning is necessary in understanding cultural materiality. As Gonzalez Ruibel and Politis (2011) express, humans cannot be ontologically detached from other human or nonhuman beings, but are “constituted as persons through the manifold relations they keep and build with nonhuman actors to which they are intrinsically tied” (G onzalez Ruibel and Politis 2011: 4). They argue for an ontological approach to technology and contextual study, which to an extent this thesis can offer.

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125 Based on the information gathered through this history and heritage project , future directions may include the creation of a local history book, the revitalization of the Tarpum Bay Historical and Heritage Society, the creation of an interactive community webpage and the creation of heritage spaces. The creation of a local history book would involve the further compilation of family and community history, stories, recipes and skills toward the creation of an informative and possibly entertaining book for all to learn from and enjoy. This would also bring together information in a systematic way that can contribute to planning decisions that incorporate the values of the community. I am very thankful to the re sidents and descendants of Tarpum Bay for allowing me to work with and for them on this foundational research. I encourage others to build on the information provided, incl uding the family/community tree toward the maintenance of community legacy. The rev italization and formal establishment of the Tarpum Bay Hist orical and Heritage Society can develop the shared community identity , cohesiveness at the settlement and set a precedent for the other settlements at Eleuthera. The Tarpum Bay Historical and Heritage Society was formed in 2010 specifically to restore the Lil Prep School that had been abandoned. The group consisted of citizens concerned that community identity was being lost. No framework or charter was established to govern the society and after th e restoration of the school, the group became inactive. A framework for a more formal and sustainable historical and heritage society should be established to consistently advocate for the preservation of history and the tangible and intangible heritage of the community. Initiatives by this society may work to generate information that informs future museum activities and that contributes to a local section at the Tarpum Bay library, where currently a local history collection does not exist.

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126 The creation o f an interactive website by the Tarpum Bay Historical and Heritage society and/or the Eleuthera Art s and Cultural Centr e (EACC) with an interactive section would allow for residents, descendants residing outside of Tarpum Bay , and others interested in the community to find, share and discuss the history, heritage and new information being generated on the community. This is an important component to engage multiple audiences and facilitate exchange, inclusivity, accessibility and continuity. As McDavid (2002) expresses, the use of the internet to discuss histories is a new and necessary approach to conversing about data, gaining multiple perspectives and dealing openly and nonhierarchically with the communities affected by research. The Eleuthera Art s and C ultural Cent r e can use this platform to stimulate and invite discourse on objects, artifacts and exhibits. A community based photovoice project is a potential project for the Historical and Heritage Society or EACC that can continue the survey of heritage landscape resources and values in a blending of cultural anthropology and archaeology (Labrador 2013) . Finally, t he creation of heritage spaces and/or a separate museum space that exhibits not only the history of Tarpum Bay, but its history within the wider history of South Eleuthera can serve to illuminate and preserve the legacy of the communities and the people who form them . Based on the information gathered and presented in the preceding chapters, this museum should not be established in the traditional sense, but designed to be interactive, dynamic and if possible, accompanied by programs that take the museum beyond the four walls of museum building. This may include an audio guided/cellphone guided walking tours of the historic Tarpum Bay settlement as the settlement is uniquely designed and the stories of the residents as told by the residents make for a colorful narrative. This may also develop into a tourist attraction for the

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127 settlement, as this would be the only museum on the mainland of Eleuther a1. Potential education al programs for all ages may be developed around understanding the past: tracing histories, conducting oral histories and constructing family genealogies . Prior to the creation of a museum space and programing , a museum collections m anagement policy (CMP) should be written to guide the collection of tangible heritage materials in alignment with community values and to prevent haphazard soliciting and collecting. I look forward to future collaboration with the Eleuthera Art s and Cultur al Cent r e and the communities of Eleuthera. 1 A Methodist Mission House at Rock Sound was restored as a museum and community center, but the museum section has since been removed.

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128 APPENDIX A ALLEN/KNOWLES FAMILY TREE 1 William Wilkerson Allen I (1850) +Addie Eliza Knowles (1850-) . . . . 2Mary Elizabeth Allen Carey (30 Sep 1873Apr 1962) Immigrated to Key West at age 19. . . . . +George A Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Daisy Carey Edwards ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Florette Edwards Butler (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Shirley Butler Saunders (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cassandra Saunders ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Antonio Saunders ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Deidra Saunders Britt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Cheyenne Britt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cheri Saunders Fox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sheneice Fox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Barbara Butler Dickerson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chanel Robinson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Rodger Robinson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lisa Brooks ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Asheley Brooks ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kenneth Brooks Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Harold Edwards (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Lenora Edwards Tyler (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Shoulton Tyler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shannon Butler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Joyce Edwards Mingo (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Donald Mingo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Giselle Mingo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cozelle Mingo ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 George Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Dolores Carey Robertson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Doretha Simmons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kentrell Saunders ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Theodore Simmons Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Terrilyn Simmons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Priscilla Sullivan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shamika Leland ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Aaniya Barnes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Steven Leland ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Georgette Robertson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lenarldo Robertson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Lariyah Robertson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 James Robertson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Hugh Robertson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Hugh Robertson III ( )

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129 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brandon Robertson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Renton Robertson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Angel Hugh Robertson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Isab ella Robertson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 George Kenneth Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Franklin Carey Sr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Joy Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cedric Moore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Damajh Moore ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Zamiyah Alexis Moore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Quanzell Moore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Carmanita Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Zaria Parks ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Antwon Harris (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Franklin Carey Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Devontshae Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Quamaine Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Miya Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Zentavious Alexander Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fanchon CareySmalls ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Francella Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Miriam Carey Andrews ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Edwin Lloyd Nottage (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Mitchell Andrews (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alicia Andrews ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mitc hell Andrews Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Julian Andrews ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Jeanette Carey Valdez ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Annie Carey Allen Ramsey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Braxton Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 James Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Joan Allen Legget (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Frank Leggett Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Frank Leggett III ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Brooklyn Ma rie Leggett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Kali Nicole Leggett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Nikia Legget ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Adrienne L. Leggett Clarke (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Emanuel Clarke ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Daniel Clark ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Judy Leggett Nichols ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-Kori Lynne Leggett Sa unders (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Adrianna Jewel Leggett Miles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Joanna Nichols ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Donzel Leggett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Donzel Leggett Jr. ( )

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130 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sierra Leggett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Joanelle Leggett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Gianna Leggett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 James Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Calvin Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Karen Allen Valdez ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Anton Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Anthony Stevenson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Harold Singleton ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carlton Shon Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sonya Yvette Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Michele Renee Dione Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Carlton Shon Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Christian Alexander Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sheila All en Bridgeforth () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Camilla Wise ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Aaron Woolery ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 A'Maya Erin Taylor Woolery ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Andrea Woolery ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Doland Wise II ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Dane Wise ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Darrian Wise ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Debra Hayes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Andre Hayes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Devon Hayes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Imani Zaiare Hay es ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chevene Owens ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Simone Owens ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Parker Anthony Owens (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Shelbi Owens ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sidney Owens ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kirkwood Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kevin Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sharee A llen Feagan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Erin Cosby ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Evin Cosby ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cedric Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Caedrikc Allen Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Steffie Devone Gray (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Cynthia LaChelle Mack ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Cyntavia LaVone Gray ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jeffrey Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Stephanie Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jane LaKay Allen Thrasher (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ricky Anderson Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Phil ip Randle ( )

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131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 James Pass ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Blake Thrasher Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Donna Allen Moore (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Anthony Allen Reeves (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alexandria Moore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Henry Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Henry Tony Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Demetrius Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Q'Unique Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kah'lil Mitchell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sha'Niyah Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 George Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Michael Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Markus Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Marcus Isaiah Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Joi Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kimora McCleary ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Joy Allen Torrence (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Manuel Miranda ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Gary Hills ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ambrea Hil ls ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Amaree Hills ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Angelique Hills ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Janet Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sean Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Daneaz Moses ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charles Allen Sr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Charles Jr. Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alonzo Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kimbe rly Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 X'Zavier Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Latanya Picton ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Deontray Picton ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Latonya Picton ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Maliyah Powell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Miclain Powell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Enriquea Allen Washington ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 T'Nia Alece Washington ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kai Allen Washington ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alonza Allen Meyers ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kendyl Selah Meyers ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Marsha Allen Edwards (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Omega Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Antonio Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Emerald Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jade Allen ( )

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132 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Claishawn Morgan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Lee Morgan (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Precious Bryant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Diamond Bryant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Crystal Bryant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alpha Tyler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Alpha Tyler J r. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Daisha Tyler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kenneth Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Latoya Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Tacorey Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Talia Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Demetrius Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kennard Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Isaiah Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Melissa Allen Wallace (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tamika Hines ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Amaria Hines ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Natori Hines ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brandon Wallace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Brandon Wallace Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Raliyah Wallace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Keena Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kaleena Rodrigues ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ezekiel Phipps ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kunia Rodrigues ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Shae Smith Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sha'dae Smith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Raymeo Rothmund () . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Gloria Allen Fisher (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Issac Fisher Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lance Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Talisha Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Shanea Alexander ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Lance Fisher Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-Deja Fisher (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ashleigh Taylor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tondra Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kayla Adkins ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Keyshun Massey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Patrice Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Theresa Fisher Woodward (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Fredrick Woodward ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cathy Fisher McIver (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 David Winston ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jeremiah Winston ( )

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133 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tuwania Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Tellicia Riley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Isaac McIver ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Dora McIver ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gwendolyn Fisher Smith ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tyrell Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Tonianica Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Tyrell Fisher Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Dashia Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jenese Smith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Andrea Fisher Moore (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Teneshia Adana ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Arnecia Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Tamari Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Peter Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cedric Moore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Robin Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Michael Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kiara Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Gloria Fisher ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Eugene Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Florelle Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jerome Avery Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jerome Avery III ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Dominique Avery ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jacqua Avery ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jaclian Avery ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gail AveryJackson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jerry Jackson ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Angelina Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Eugene Houston (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Rho nda Houston ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Thomas Houston ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Derrick Houston ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Michelle Matthews (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mercilyn Matthews ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Malik Matthews ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Marlowel Matthews ( ) . . . . 2 William Wilkerson "Willie Butcher, W.W." Allen II (25 Oct 18755 Nov 1968) Owner of Glenelg Brand Tomatoes at Tarpum Bay, immigrated to Nassau. . . . . +Bay Anna ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 William Wilkerson "Bill" Allen III ( ) . . . . . . . . + (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Calvin Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Deitra Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Calvin Allen Jr. (-)

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134 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Calvin Allen III ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Joel James Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cornelius Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Robert "Bobby" Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Barbara Allen Woote n (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sharon Wooten ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sammy Wooten ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Udonis Haslem ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ronald Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tyrella Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ronald Allen Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brad Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shamika Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Princess Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Stephanie Allen Engram () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Samiyah Engram ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jamal Engram (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Frank Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Annie Ward ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Godfrey Ward ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cheryl Ward ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Charmine Ward ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Franklyn Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Philip Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Fredrick Wilkerson Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fredrick Christopher Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ashley Ebony Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Fredrick Christopher Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Addie Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . +William Arnold McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ruth McCartney Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Lloyd Delancy (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 William Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Phillipa Woods ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kelly Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Adrian Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lesa Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cislyn Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Vaughn Simmons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Vashti Simmons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Philip Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Dana Delancy Chacon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Michael Chacon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Bryan Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Bristol Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Peter Delancy ( )

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135 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Craig Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Deitra Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 William Alfred "Al" McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 William "B illy" McCartney II (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 William McCartney II (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jamal McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Barrett McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Mario McCartney () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sarai McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Michelle McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Melissa McCartney ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Maisha Anderson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kamron McCartney ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lennox McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Georgette McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Penelope Turnquest ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brandon McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Adrien McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Marlies McCartney ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kei th McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Darren McCartney ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Karl McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Drew McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keisha McCar tney () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tamara "Tammy" McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ian "IJ" Cargill Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tia Cargill ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Ivis McCartney Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Archie Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dale Carey McHardy (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tarah McHardy McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tamarah "Terri" McHardy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Perry McHardy (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Shawn Carey Turnquest ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Carey Turnquest (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Robert Turnquest (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Erin Turnquest (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kim Carey Gibson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kaurin Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kendall Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Daylen Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Dorothy McCartney Moncur ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alexandra Moncur ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Anita Moncur (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dwight Augustus Moncur (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ange la McCartney Wallace McCartney ( )

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136 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Charlene Wallace Ferguson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cymphony Ferguson ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kayla Wallace Hilton (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 GeAnne Hilton ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Randi Hilton ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carvill Wallace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Anna Wallace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Nathan Wallace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Arnold McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Garvin McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Megan McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shiloh McCartney () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tonya McCartney Tynes ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chelsea Tynes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Christopher Tynes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Mark McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Rav en McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . +William Alfred McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Fred Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . +Bessie Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Edward Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fern Allen Hart (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lisa Hart Newman () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Michael Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Makayla Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 George Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 William Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 George Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Elizabeth Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Johnny Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ted Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Christian Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Pascall Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Anya Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Doriene Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jewel Major (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gem Major Dickens (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Autumn Dickens (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 August Dickens ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jasmine Major Rogers (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brazil Rogers ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Beijing Rogers (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Baja Rogers (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jade Major Bryan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Paul Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-David Allen (-)

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137 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Maria Allen Carroll (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Laura Carroll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Luke Carroll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lance Carroll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 David Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 John David Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Dawn Allen Taylor (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 John H. Taylor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Isabella Taylor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Golda Taylor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Emmanuel Taylor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jevon Taylor ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Eris Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Julian Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 J uliette Allen Conliffe (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Gabrielle Conliffe ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Gianna Conliffe ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Janeen Allen Wong (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Adam Wong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Josette Allen Christie (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alyssa Allen Sobiech (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Stefan Sobiech ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kaitlyn Sobiech ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Clark Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tonia Allen McDonald (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Latera McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Vincent McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Yvanna McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Daniel McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Clark E.W. Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Charles Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kendrick Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cassia Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jasmine Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Crawford Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Aretha Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Roger Hood ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Indya Hood ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ayesha Hood ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Corey Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jasmine Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Wayne Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Darlene Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Peter Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Christopher Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Nicola Allen ( )

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138 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Stacy Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Samantha Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Larry Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Veronica Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Bobby Ann Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tara Alexandria Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Aashawni Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Patrick Charles Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Tyler Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Trevor Eris Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Alice Allen Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . +Thadeus Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Pearl Bethel Cooper (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Ann Cooper Bain (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Pauline Cooper Rodgers () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Michael Cooper ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Teresa Cooper Clarke (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gregory Cooper ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Bertram Coope r ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Albert Cooper ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 William Bethel (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mark Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tonya Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tammy Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Amari Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gregory Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Barbara Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Brill Bethel (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Paul Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ashley Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Gareth Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Bryant Bethel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Anita Bethel Wallace (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Neil Wallace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Wycliffe Wallace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Phyllis Bethel (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jan Culmer Russell (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jasmine Russell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Justin Russell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Patrice Michelle Culmer (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Karen Culmer King (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kyla King ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kofi King ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alicia Culmer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kevin Culmer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kevin James William Culmer (-)

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139 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Grenda Bethel Colebrook (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Brendon Colebrook ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Karen Colebrook ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kimberly Colebrook ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Bradley Colebrook ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Andrea Colebrook ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Bertha Allen Ferguson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Ashward Ferguson (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Naomi Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . +Gladstone Christie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Perry Christ ie (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Steffan Christie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Adam Christie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alexandria Christie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Gary Christie (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gari Christie Rahming (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Liam Philip Rahming (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gavin Christie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Gaylene Christie Fowler (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cameron Fowler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Chad Fowler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Cheryl Christie Cash (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Christie Cash Cargill (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Earl Cash Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Earin Cash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Kevin Christie (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kianna Christie ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Ruth Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . +William "Bill" Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Baldwin Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gregory Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sonja Carey Gibson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Nicolle Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Faye Carey Smith (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sarah Smith Pajaro (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Guiliah Rose Pajaro ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alys Sarah Pajaro (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Simon Smith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Simone Smith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Andrew Smith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Charlotte Smith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Allen Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Bill Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Marco Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Michael Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Keith Carey ( )

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140 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keishel Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Allyssa Taylor Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keva Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keira Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Blair Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Phillip Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Phillippa Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Vaughn Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Krista Carey Marrevee (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Christina Marrevee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Narvee Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Linda Carey Jarrett (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Marco Jarrett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jedidiah Jarrett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Justus Jarrett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jahmai Jarrett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mar io Jarrett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lamont Jarrett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Crystal Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Raquel Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Wayne Munnings Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Terrance "Terry" Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Martine Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gareth Carey ( ) . . . . +Bertha ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Jane Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . +Esau Roker ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Jennifer Roker (-) . . . . . . . . +Bernard Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Mark Miller (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Mary "Mae" Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . +Elsworth Darling ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Alana Darling (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Kendra Darling (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Elsworth Darling Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Margret Darling (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Dion Darling (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ilsa Darling (-) . . . . +Unknown ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Margret Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . +Finddly (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 "Junior" Finddly (-) . . . . 2 James Alfred Allen (20 Dec 187725 Jul 1950) . . . . +Lilla Barnett ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 William Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Willie Mae Allen -Brown (-)

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141 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Barry Brown (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kimberly Brown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brandon Brown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Courtney Brown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Hernando Brown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Casey Brown (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Carla Brown (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jeremiah Brown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Donna Brown-Payne (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jerome Hodges ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Wyatt Payne ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Christopher Payne ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Candi Payne ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Precious Br own Turner (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Dwight Davis ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Dominique Davis ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charles Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Willie Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Willie Allen III (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Olive Allen Sands ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Grace Sands Seals Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cheryl Seals Mobley Gonzalez (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jamesia Mobley Sinkler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Javaan Mobley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 JaSean Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 James Mobley III ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cambridge Mobley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ivan Mobley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 C. Ryan Mobley (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Mikinzi Mobley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Eileen Gonza lezCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 E'lisha Cloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Raymond Gonzalez Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Victoria Gonzalez ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Pamela Seals Nunnally ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jonathon Nunnally ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Donna Seals Nunnally ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Joseph Maye ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Norbert Seals ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Norbert Seals Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Martin Seals ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Clement Seals ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Wilfred Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Antonio Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alano Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Norman Sands (-)

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142 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Maria Sands ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 James Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Leola Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Ernest Dawkins (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cedric Dawkins ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Corey Dawkins ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 C'Angelo Dawkins ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Quamie Dawkins ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Craig Dawkins ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 David Dawkins ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cameo Dawkins ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Pauline Dawkins Glover (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Wanda Glover ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alexandra Glover ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Anthony Glover (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Amanda Glover ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Angela Glover ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alyssa Glover ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Aria Glover ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mark Glover ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Mia Glover ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Rose Dawkins (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Michael Chester ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Michael Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kevin Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Karen Chester ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Harry Dawkins (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Amy Dawkins ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Annie Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Herbert Williams (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Dorothy Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leon Brown (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Zachary Brown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kyles Murphy (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dominique Murphy (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Joseph Williams (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Valon Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Derrick Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Alice Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Nichelle Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Janae Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Livingston Stocker ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Curline Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-David Butler (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Joseph Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 John Allen ( 1995)

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143 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Tamaya Allen (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Alfred Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . +Patri cia (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Milicent Allen Blocker (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Keena Blocker -McKibbins (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Zaria McKibbens ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kenya Blocker ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Audrey Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Brandi Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Malik Walker ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Makayla Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Damien Vallejo (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Calvin J. Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Althea Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jovonna Mozeak ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Misty Allen -Barnes (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Leila Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Truman Diggs Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Truman Diggs III (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Brenda Diggs Roberts (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Roma Roberts Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Devon Roberts ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Di ann Diggs Keys (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Eric Keys ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Arthur Keys (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Newton Diggs (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Brian Diggs ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Albert Diggs ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Henry Diggs (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Daryl Diggs ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Aaron Diggs ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kenon Diggs ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Desmond Diggs ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Ella Mae Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Alphonso Bailey III (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Judy Bailey Whitt (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Robin Whitt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alexander Branch ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Arron Branch (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Danetta Hillhouse ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tina Whitt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tonya Whitt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alphonso Whitt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Anthony Whitt (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Antonette Whitt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kenneth Whitt ( )

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144 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jasmine Whitt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Julian Bailey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Monica Bailey Moore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Uriel Bailey Young ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Brian Bailey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lynn B ailey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Gregory Brown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dionne Bailey Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Malik Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Christopher Bailey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alexandra Bailey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Elizabeth Bailey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kevin Bailey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Miriam Bailey Greene (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Michael Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jerome Kane ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sylvester Greene Jr (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Bonnie Bailey Harrison (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Diancia Bailey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Latisha Harrison ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Talia Harrison ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Ruth Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Meka Matthews (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Terrell Matthews Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gena Burroughs (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kylah Burroughs (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Khalil Burroughs (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Shelly Brooks (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Gina Brooks (-) . . . . 2 George Wh itfield Allen (14 Oct 188031 Oct 1969) Immigrated to Key West, established Trinity Wesleyan Methodist Church . . . . +Susan Elizabeth Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 George B. Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charles Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Mar jorie Allen -Wright (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Nelsena Burt Spano ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Davd Burt Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Austin Burt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Zachary Burt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Marjorie Wright Jackson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keisha JacksonRodriguez ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Mosae Rochester ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Alexander Rodriguez ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Isaiah Rodriguez ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cynthia Wright ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Florence Allen -Greenway (-)

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145 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Frankl in Greenway Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Georgia Allen Oliver (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leon Oliver Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kermit Oliver ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Noel Oliver ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jewel Oliver ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Noel Oliver Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Rachel Oliver Daniels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ronald Daniels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 R aymon Daniels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Charles Oliver ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Zashawada Oliver ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Zalisha Oliver ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 William Wilkerson Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 William W. Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Harold Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Emma Allen Shockley (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Claudette Freeman ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oliver Shockley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jamire Shockley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Danielle Shockley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Hansel Freeman ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cardell Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carolyn Diane McIntyre ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lisa Lang ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Elijah Lang (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Amanda Kirkman ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mona Holmes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brenda Ware ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Tocarra Ware ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Benny Ware Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Benny Ware III ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kelsey Ware ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Indigo Ware ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Hilliard Lang ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keisha Leger ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Symeria Leger ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Emory Leger ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Natasha Lang ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 James Lang ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jason Lang ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jalynn Lang ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Heather Lang ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Denise Butler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Dennis Butler Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Dennis Butler III ( )

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146 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 D'Anthony Butler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ashley Butler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Brianna Butler ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Deshawnta Butler Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Tariq Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ivanna Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Clarence Small Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Martha Small ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Desantis Small McDuffy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 DeAsia McDuffy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Keith X. McDuffy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Vonchae Small ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Clarissa Hall ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Yarneccia Calhoun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Machera Calhoun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Franklin Richardson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Ruth Allen -Brown (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Milton Brow n ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Clarence Brown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Audry Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Charlotte Reid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Eric Reid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jason Reid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Michael Reid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jeremy Reid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Courtney Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Alex Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ariel Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sheila Teate ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Daniette Rice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Antonio Butterfield ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Markeeya Pawlaczyk ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Gabriel Pawlaczyk ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Quayshau n Butterfield ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sylvia Cleare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Denise Rice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Orlando Rice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Anthony Ric e () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Malicia Rice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cassie Rice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alvarez Rice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Miriam Cleare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Veronica Cleare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Brenadette Southhole ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jeanette Brown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ronell Brown ( )

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147 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Herman Southhole ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Herman Southhole Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tasha Southhole ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Robert Pelote Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Harold Pelote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Darlene Peoples ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brian Peoples ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kevin Peoples ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ophelia M umford ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Clarence Moore Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Imani Moore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jarvis Moore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jarvi s Moore Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shante Moore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 LaShae Short ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 James Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Emaritt Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Michael Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Miriam Allen Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alvin Henderson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tiffany Henderson Jones ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kevin Henderson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Theresa Lusain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tangela Lusain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Joseph Lusain Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Keynu Lusain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ernest Henderson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Darnell Henderson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Dakota Henderson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Devon Henderson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ernest Henderson Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Miriam Henderson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lamar Henderson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Zola Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lawrence Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Lorenzo Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alonda Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kendall Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kendal Knowles Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Paul Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cobina CareyWilson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keith Valdez ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Keith Valdez Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Donjae Valdez ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cindy Valdez ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Brian Valdez ( )

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148 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chevis Brown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Deshonte Ward ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Tequila Ward ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Rachel Blocker ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tyrone Cruz ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jeremy Richardson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Reginald Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fredrick Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Frakia Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Frahia Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tavares Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Nelson Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Desanta Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shawnte Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Nelson Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Miriam Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Calvin Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Melvin Car ey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Althea Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Mariah Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Melvin Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Adrina Allen -Winters (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Joseph Baltimore ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Phyllis Allen Storr (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lydia Clark ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Corey Sawyer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Mercedes Sawyer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Jamarcus Laster ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Jamari Laster ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Corey Sawyer Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Robert Thompson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Alexzander Thompson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Robert Thompson III (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Anthony Thompson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Alexis Thompson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Arianna Thompson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Eunice Haymer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Rolanda Sawyer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 James Haymer (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Braxton Haymer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shania Haymer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Clinton Storr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Andrea Milian Childress ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Janaya Childress ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jayden Childress ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Clinton Storr Jr. ( )

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149 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chelsea Storr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Debra Greene ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Antin Storr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Torrey Storr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Joseph Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Gloria Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Leonard Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gloria Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Eureka Allen Stevens (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carmen Turner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Mary Turner (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Joseph Harry Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Robert Paul Allen ( 1995) . . . . . . . . +Madeline () . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Celina Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Carl Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tuynua Allen Merchant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keikei Merchant (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Ari Merchant (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carl Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Carl Allen IV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Helena Juliana Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Helen Elizabeth Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Theodore Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Connie CareyCooper ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ain Trevor Cooper () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Destiny Cooper ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Trey Cooper ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Troy Cooper ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Theodora Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leonard Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Rodney Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Rodney Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Christine CareyBeneby ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Joshua Beneby ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Peggy Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kenneth Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Larry Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 L arry Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Darshaun Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Monaya Ahlise Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Maceya Anise Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Paul V. Carey Sr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Glendina Carey -Cartwright (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Derrick Cartwright ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Deitra Cartwright (-)

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150 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Paul V Carey Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Amy Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Paul V. Carey III (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chavis Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Keith Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Nicole Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Garey Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Gary A.M. Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 LaNice Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shannon Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jazsmin Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 LaTaushia J. Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Amonnie Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kevin Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kevin Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Michael Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brianna P. Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Kenneth Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Oneida CareyWesley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kevin Wesley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kenderick Wesley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tashauna Wesley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Dante Wesley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Rachelle Wesley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kenneth Carey Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brandon Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Joshua Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Philip Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Serita Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Karen Carey Askew ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Thomas Askew Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tiffany Askew ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Adrianne Carey Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 LaTeeche Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Nikii Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Nathan Williams IV ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lloyd Williams ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Michelle CareyAki ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Evan Aki ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alex Aki ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Leilani Aki ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Samuel W. Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Violet Mildred Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Doretha Pratt-Ferguson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 A lthea Randolph Upshaw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jami Mack ( )

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151 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Rakeisha Upshaw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Derrek Upshaw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 George Randolph Jr . (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shamia Randolph (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 George Randolph III (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Susan Dixon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Allison Dixon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 John Dixon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Portia Randolph (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Derek Randolph (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Derek Randolph Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Michael Randolph ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Christopher Allen Randolph ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sharon Randolph (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Rinita Randolph (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Alonia Garrett ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Renae Randolph (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 LaRae Ferguson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Demonte Armstrong (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shania Arm strong (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Leroy Charles Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Philip Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Thelma Allen -Whyms (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Robert Allen -Whyms III ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Elizabeth Whyms ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Michael Whyms ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Colinthia Whyms ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ryan Whyms (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brian Whyms (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sheryl Whims Hill ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Morgan Hill ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kelvin Whyms ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kelvin Whyms Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Andrea Wh yms ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Philip Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Phyllis Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Carl Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carl Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Carl Allen III ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brittany Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dehavalyn Allen Alce ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Devonna Alce ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gary Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Gary Allen Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brianne Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cary Allen ( )

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152 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Philbrick Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Philip Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Antonio Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Geoffrey Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Emerson Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Sandra Allen Hartfield (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 James Hartfield ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sonya Hartfield Perez ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tanya Hartfield ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Belinda Cantu ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 James Hartfield Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Janice HartfieldJones ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Andre Hartfield ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Emerson Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Debbie Allen Bradley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Marcus Bradley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gina Allen Rivas ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 DaMonica Rivas ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 DeAnna Rivas ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dornecia Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Lu cretia Allen Monroe (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Christopher Valdez ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lisa Valdez Rahming ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keia Rahming (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Katlin Rahming ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Craig Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Craig Allen Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Wymon Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Karen Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Courtney Allen ( ) . . . . 2 Ge rtrude "Trudy" Allen (188715 Oct 1921) Immigrated to Key West . . . . . . . . 3 Leo Allen ( ) . . . . 2 Alexander Allen (24 Dec 18843 Aug 1969) Immigrated to Overtown, Miami . . . . +Gennieve Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Ivis Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Cleomie Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Clarice Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . +Rev. Arthur J. Hughes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4JaNyce Sippio Strapp (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tomea SippioSmith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Autumn G . Smith (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chase Smith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cuoree Sippio ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jaroda Strapp ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Patricia Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Shearon Ebron (-)

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153 . . . . . . . . 3 Delores Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Gennieve Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Alexander Allen Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Libby Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Alexander Allen III (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Christopher A. Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Lauryn Janae Allen ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Greg Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Carla Yvette Allen (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sheldon Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Monica Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Daniel Smith (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 John Smith (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Allen Smith (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Dannica Smith Fitts (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Shawntel Fitts Mercer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Latoya Fitts ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Adeesha Smith (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carl Willis Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Kevin J. Smith (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Caress Smith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 J erry Allen Smith ( ) . . . . 2 Samuel Joseph Allen (188320 Jun 1935) Immigrated to Miami. . . . . +Nellie Clarke ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Angelita Mildred Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Joseph Carlysle Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Vera Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Elizabeth Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Brooksie Herring (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Kirk Herring (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Kirk Herring Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kiana Herring ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Bernard Herring ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lucile Herring ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Samuel Herring ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Crystal Herring ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Eric Herring (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lisa Herring (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Betty Allen (-) . . . . 2 Charles Wesley "Yank" Allen (9 Oct 1886 14 Nov 1979) Immigrated to Miami. . . . . +Mary ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Charles Allen J r. ( ) . . . . 2 Susan Allen (18711937) Remained at Tarpum Bay . . . . +Sam Otis Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 William Albert "Boy" Carey ( ) Tomato farmer, packinghouse operator, local government agent, Justice of the Peace, entrepreneur.

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154 . . . . . . . . + Madeline Elizabeth Thompson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Hilda Deloris Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Timothy Bertum Carey Sr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Victoria Elizabeth Carey ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Timothy Bertum Carey Jr . (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kenneth William Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Mary Carey Knowles (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Faye Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Linda Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Renee Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Norman Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dewey Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Yvonne Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gail Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Paule tte Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kendal Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Enid Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Christopher Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Baldwin Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sandie Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ricarri Rolle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Deberia Samantha Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kenroy Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Whitney Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 John Edwin Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jackie Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ella Carey Farrington (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Zoe Farrington (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Betty Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Otis Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 William Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Candia Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Charles Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jason Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Johannas Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gary Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Indira Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Gary Carey II ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Garren Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lawrence Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Shane Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jerome Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Mario Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sandra Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keisha Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Elvin Carey ( )

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155 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alva rdo Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Elvin Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Eric Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Terrance Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Terrance Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Leo Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 John Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Charles Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Charles Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Michael Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Deante Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Deangria Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leo Carey Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Derek Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Adrian Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Derek Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Daniel Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Deron Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Susan Carey Ferguson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jamaal Nabbie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Appolonia Nabbie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kastico Hakeen Nabbie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Markera Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Mark Gibson Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Judy Carey Swaby (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Melissa Swaby ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Juranda Swaby ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Natasha Swaby ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ayinde Roach Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Giovannia Swaby ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Giovanni Swaby ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Paul Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Katherine Carey Carroll (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Candisha Carroll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Caneasha Carroll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Barbara Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kevaughn Ferguson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shannon Francis ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sharon Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Vandera Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ricardo Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Dejanique Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lateasha Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Erin Haven ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Rashad ( ) . . . . . . . . +Olive E. Carey (-)

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156 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Carolyn Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 James Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jaime Carey Humes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Aaron Humes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jason Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 James Carey II ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jaquia Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 James Audley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jolanda Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Audrey Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kent Culmer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kendra Culmer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Peter Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Aisha Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Pascale Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Michelle Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Andrew Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Andrea Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tara Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Janice Carey Miller (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Akeem Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ervin Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Susan "Lil Sue" Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 John Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Claudette Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Destiny Miller ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Albert Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Autumn Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Summer Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Luke Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lester Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carolyn Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Meghan Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jeanette Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Kenneth Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ivan Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ivan Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tiffany Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Samantha Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tanesha Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Michael Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cyril Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Eugene Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ronald Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ronald Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ronique Carey ( )

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157 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mark Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Marcus Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Leisha Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Charlene Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brittney Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brandon Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Helena Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kevin Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jadan Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ian Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Brian Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Wesley Carey (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Newton Conell Carey (25 Nov 1900 18 Nov 1979) Farmer, Methodist layminister, Society Steward Leader at Tarpum Bay. . . . . . . . . +Irene Jessica Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Alexander Dewitt Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Marlyn Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Franklyn Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alisa Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alvivia Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alieah Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gary Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kristal Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kendra Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kadijah Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Brian Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kristen Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Craig Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Craig Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sara Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Julian Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jadan Care y ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Julian Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Juan Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Juan Carey Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jonnathan Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Quinton Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Iris Jessica Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Herbert Eugene Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Philip Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Audrey Meadows Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Phylisha Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Stephen Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Errol Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brendan Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ne wton Carey ( )

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158 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Walter Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Wynsome Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Duran Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Robert Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Doris Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alvin Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fred Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Zachary Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shanti Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Kathleen Carey Grout (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Terry Grout ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cameron Grout ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kevin Grout ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Made leine Grout ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Eric Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Alice Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cassinda Nottage ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Clement Nottage Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cavin Nottage ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Clemorone Nottage ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leslie Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lesley Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jaza Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lockey Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Leneisha Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lashell Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sharmine Deleveaux ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ricardo Deleveaux ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Janice Carey McDonald () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shawntaley McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sawney McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Darius McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carmetta Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Terrance Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Eric Carey Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Eric Carey III ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kevin Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kelsey Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Felonie Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Romanda Carey Fairbeard (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ruth Fairbeard ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Janet Fairbeard ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Samuel Garratt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Daniel Garratt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Samuel Roosevelt Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dezaree Carey Sands (-)

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159 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jermaine Sands Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Samantha Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alexis Carey ( ) 1 Anthony Allen ( ) . . . . 2 Edvin Baxter Allen ( ) . . . . +Emma Gene Sands Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Wallace Roosevelt Allen I ( ) . . . . . . . . +Hilda Viola Allen (13 Nov ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Wallace Roosevelt Allen II ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Wallace Roosevelt Allen III ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Winston Ramon Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Warren Rashad Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Wade Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Edvin Baxter Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Henry Theodore Allen Sr. ( ) . . . . . . . . +Adelaide Major Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Henry Theodore "Kinky" Allen (23 Oct 1940) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Helen Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Delphine Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jackie Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 George Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Helena Allen Edwards ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jason Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 William Edwin Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Anthony Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ruth Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Niaomi Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Judy Anne Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Karen Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Keith "Old Dad" Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Darlene Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 George Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Thomas Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Mary Anne Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Ethel Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Madorea Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Ophelia Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Tony Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Emma Geneva Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Cybeline Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Oliva Allen ( )

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160 APPENDIX B CAREY FAMILY TREE 1 William "Lil Pap" Carey ( ) +Priscilla Clarke Carey ( ) . . . . 2 Lucilla Carey McCartney ( ) . . . . +Henry McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Peter McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . +Remilda Rolle McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Brenda McCartney Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Henry McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Kenneth McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Fredrick McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Kirk McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Hercules Rolle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Femo Neymour ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Joseph Meadows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Beulah McCartney Dean ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Rowena McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Priscilla McCartney King ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Constance McCartney Ferguson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ronald McCartney (11 Jun 1945) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Maxine McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ronald McCartney Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Harold McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Christine Hanna McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Millicene McCartney ( ) . . . . 2 Jim Carey ( ) . . . . +Cilla Anne Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Archie Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . +Ivis McCartney Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Dale Carey McHardy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tarah McHardy McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Trinity McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Justice Tatum McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tamarah "Teri" McHardy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Perry McHardy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Shawn Carey Tu rnquest ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carey Turnquest ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Robert Turnquest ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Erin Turnquest ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Kim Carey Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 K aurin Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kendall Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Daylen Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Grenish Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Jim Carey ( )

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161 . . . . 2 Charles "Lil Bulla" Carey ( ) . . . . +Evelyn Mae McCart ney Carey ( ) . . . . 2 Mona Carey ( ) . . . . +George Thompson ( )

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162 APPENDIX C MCCARTNEY FAMILY TREE 1 Jack Freeman McCartney (-) +Aunt Lighty "Aunt Lighty" (-) . . . . 2 Isaiah "Unca Poga" McCartney ( ) . . . . 2 Peter McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 He nry McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . +Lucilla Carey McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Peter McCartney McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Remilda Rolle McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Brenda McCartney Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Henry McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kenneth McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fredrick McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Kirk McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Hercules Rolle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Femo Neymour (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Joseph Meadows ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Beulah McCartney Dean ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Rowena McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Priscilla McCartney King (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Constance McCartney Ferguson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ronald McCartney (11 Jun 1945) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Maxine McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ronald McCartney Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Harold McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Christine Hanna McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Millicene McCartney ( ) . . . . 2 Diana McCartney ( ) . . . . +Hope ( ) . . . . 2 William Ashwer "McGee" McCartney ( ) . . . . +May Dorn Smith McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Evelyn Mae McCartney Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . +Charles Arthur Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Margurie Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Priscilla Carey Clarke (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Abraham Clarke (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Arneita Clarke Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +John Norris "Giant" Carey ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Latera McPhee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Kencil McPhee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Arneita McPhee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 A'teelah McPhee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Latoya Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lashelle Carey ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lanette Carey ( )

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163 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Charles Abraham Clarke ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 William Clarke ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Caleb Clarke ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Thelma Clarke ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Maud Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Deborah ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dorene ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Irene Carey (-) . . . . . . . . 3 William Samuel McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 William McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sandra McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Winston McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Warren McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Alfred Arnold McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . +Addie Allen ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ruth McCartney Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Lloyd Delancy (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 William Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Phill ipa Woods ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kelly Delancy (27 Jun 1990) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Adrian Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lesa Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cislyn Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Vaughn Simmons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Vashti Simmons ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Philip Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Dana Delancy Chacon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Michael Chacon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Bryan Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Bristol Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Peter Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Craig Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Deitra Delancy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 William Alfred "Al" McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 William "Billy" McCartney II (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 William Alfred McCartney III (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 William McCartney IIII (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Leah McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Jamal McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jace McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Barrett McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Mario McCartney () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sarai McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Michelle McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Melissa McCartney ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Maisha Anderson ( )

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164 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kamron McCartney ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lennox McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Georgette McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Penelope Turnquest ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brandon McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Adrien McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Marlies McCartney ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Keith McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Darren McCartney ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Grace McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Jack McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Karl McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Drew McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Keisha McCartney () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tamara "Tammy" McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ian "IJ" Cargill Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tia Cargill ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Ivis McCartney Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . +Archie Carey (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dale Carey McHardy (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tarah McHardy McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Trinity McDon ald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Justice Tatum McDonald ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tamarah "Teri" McHardy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Perry McHardy (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Shawn Ca rey Turnquest ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Carey Turnquest (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Robert Turnquest (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -Erin Turnquest (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kim Carey Gibson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kaurin Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kendall Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Daylen Gibson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Dorothy McCartney Moncur ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alexandra Moncur ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Anita Moncur (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dwight Augustus Moncur (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Angela McCartney Wallace (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Charlene Wallace Ferguson (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Cymphony Ferguson ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kayla Wallace Hilton (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ge'Anne Hilton ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kayann Randi Hilton ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Carvill Wallace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Anna Wallace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Nathan Wallace ( )

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165 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charles Arnold McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Garvin McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Megan McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Shiloh McCartney () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tonya McCartney Tynes ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chelsea Tynes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Christopher Tynes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Mark McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Raven McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Reginald McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Carl McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Ashwer "boo" McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Willis McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Muriel Dawn McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Timothy Osborne McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Timothy McCartney Jr. (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Shawn McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Cora Mae McCartney Major ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kim Major ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Timothy Major ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kevin Major (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kimberly Major ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Richard McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Denise Usher ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Joan McCartney Adderley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Donald Adderley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Vaughn Adderley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Greer Adderley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Renee Adderley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 William "Wilmac" McCartney ( -) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Evette McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Branville McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-Kirk McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Syd McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Mavis M cCartney Turner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Gina ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ann McCartney Cancino ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Jermaine Cancino ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Angelique Cancino ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Shantal Cancino ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Clinton McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Clinton "CJ" McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Lillian McCartney Clarke ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Charles McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Irvin "Sonny" McCa rtney (30 Apr 1910 ) . . . . . . . . +Olga Thompson ( )

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166 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 George McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Donna McCartney Adderley (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chantal Adderley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brandon Adderley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Brian McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Brontae McCartney () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Pamela McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Danie l McCartney () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Damien McCartney () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 George McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charles McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Conra McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Louis ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lorn McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Corin McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Maud McCartney (-) . . . . . . . . 3 Beatrice McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Willie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Sonny ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 May ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Marie ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Ruth McCartney ( ) . . . . . . . . +Kenneth Morris ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-Robert Morris (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Dawn Morris Johnson Sweeting ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Robin Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Davina Johnson ( )

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167 APPENDIX D EVANS/KNOWLES FAMILY TREE 1 Irvine Evans ( ) +Lilian Brown ( ) . . . . 2 Valdine Vallie Mae Knowl es (8 Jun 1919) . . . . . . . . 3 Irvine Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Flagna Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 David Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Davette Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Devitta Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Devard Know les ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 David Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Brandon Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Dana Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Rachael Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Rosalie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Raymond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Julia ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Randy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Rebecca ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Janice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Darren ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Lauren ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Margret Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Carlena ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ricardo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Owen ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Ruby Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Cedric Jr. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Terrance ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 As hley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Sheena ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Schreece ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Randy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 George ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Vernice Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Keno ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Dino ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Moses ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Daniel Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Hezachiah Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Philip Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Philippa Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Tenille Knowles ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Philish Knowles ( )

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168 APPENDIX E INGRAHAM FAMILY TREE 1 Samuel C. Ingraham ( ) +Marion Ingraham ( ) . . . . 2 James Oswald Ingraham ( ) . . . . +Emily Marie Culmer ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Terry Oswald Ingraham (22 Sep 1959 ) . . . . . . . . 3 Wandy Ingraham ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Jackie Ingraham ( ) . . . . 2 Gladis Ingraham Edwards ( ) . . . . +George Edwards ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 George Edwards ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Jewel Edwards ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Jason Edwards ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Morien Edwards ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Iris Edwards ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Samuel ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Loraine Edwards ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Kathy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Fern ( ) . . . . 2 Richard Ingraham ( ) . . . . 2 Annie Ingraham Mingo ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Calvin Mingo ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Pamela Mingo ( ) . . . . 2 Thelma Ingraham Rolle ( ) . . . . 2 Edith Ingraham ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Michelle ( ) . . . . 2 Addie Ingraham ( )

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169 APPENDIX F NOTTAGE FAMILY TREE 1 Dennis Nottage ( ) +Ethel Nottage ( ) . . . . 2 Arty Nottage ( ) . . . . 2 Jack Nottage ( ) . . . . 2 Davis Nottage ( ) . . . . 2 Lois Nottage ( ) 1 Chadie "Ms. Chadie" Nottage ( ) . . . . 2 Lottie Evans Nottage ( ) . . . . +Hezechiah Nottage ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 John Nottage ( ) . . . . . . . . +Marie Knowles Nottage ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Alfred Nottage ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Will Nottage ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Martin Nottage ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Gladis Nottage ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Alice Nottage ( )

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170 APPENDIX G CULMER FAMILY TREE 1 Francis Culmer ( ) . . . . 2 Johnny Culmer ( ) . . . . +Maggie Darville Davis Culmer ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Samuel Davis III ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Loften Culmer ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Wilfred Culmer ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Richa rd Culmer ( ) . . . . 2 Timothy Culmer ( ) . . . . 2 Francis Culmer ( ) . . . . 2 Sarai Culmer Hunt ( )

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171 APPENDIX H MINGO FAMILY TREE 1 Savannah Mingo ( ) . . . . 2 Mary Elizabeth Mingo Johnson ( ) . . . . +George Talbot Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Samu el Malichi Johnson (16 Jun 1924 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Wellington Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Samuel Cedric Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 James Cornelius Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Christopher Wilson Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Sandra Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ellen Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Phyllis Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Floyd Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Lewis Johnson ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Alvin Johnson ( ) 1 Sarah Mingo ( ) . . . . 2 Charles Mingo (1902) . . . . +Martha Mingo ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Qurina Mingo ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Faye Mingo ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Blanch Mingo ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Adalaide Mingo Thompson ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Charles "C hinka" Mingo ( ) . . . . . . . . 3 Ellen Mingo Carey ( )

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172 APPENDIX I TARPUM BAY RESEARCH QUESTIONS Joint Research Design 1. How do you feel about the value of a historical study of Tarpum Bay? 2. How do you feel about the value of a heritage study at Tarpum Bay ? 3. In your opinion, what use is history and heritage to a community? 4. Do you think it is important to document community history and heritage? Do you feel it is necessary? 5. Who should be considered and contacted about such projects and why? 6. For an outsider w anting to engage the Tarpum Bay community in a joint project, how do you feel this should be done? 7. Is there a protocol that one should follow or a chain of command? If so, what should it be? 8. Would you have any reservations about outsiders conducting resea rch at Tarpum Bay? If so, why? If not, why not? 9. What role do you feel the community play in such investigations? 10. How involved should the community, the researcher and The Bahamas government be in the study? Why? Historical Development 1. Where does the name Tarpum Bay come from? 2. Who were the original settlers of Tarpum Bay and where were they from? 3. What is the historical development of Tarpum Bay as far as you know? 4. What was the earliest church? 5. What was the first business?

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173 6. Historically, what were the main i ndustries? 7. Why have people migrated to and emigrated from Tarpum Bay? 8. What groups of people make up the community today? 9. What are the main industries today? 10. How long have you or your family lived there? 11. From what period do your historic sites originate? Tarpum Bay Heritage 1. What are some important people, places and things from Tarpum Bay? 2. What is Tarpum Bay heritage to you? 3. What is the tangible heritage, if any? 4. What is the intangible heritage, if any? 5. What gives these things meaning to you? 6. What is the value of history and heritage to you? 7. Do you feel Tarpum Bay heritage should be preserved? Why or why not? 8. Should this heritage be promoted? If so, how? 9. To whom does the heritage belong? 10. If you were charged with a museum at Tarpum Bay, what would you plac e in it? 11. How would you like to see your community and your heritage portrayed or displayed, if at all? 12. What is the view that you would want others to have of Tarpum Bay? 13. From what period does your heritage originate? 14. What would you say is the present state of heritage and tradition in Tarpum Bay?

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174 15. Has there been any attempts at heritage conservation and management at Tarpum Bay? By whom? How successful are/were they?

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175 APPENDIX J ORAL HISTORIES CONSULTED Amanda Moncur, interview by Kelly Delancy, October 2014. Audrey Carey, i nterviewed by Kelly Delancy, November 2014. Brenda McCartney, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Col lection, University of Florida, July 2015. Carmen Turner, interview by Kelly Delancy, November, 2014. Cislyn S immons, interview by Kelly Delancy, November, 2014. David Victor Carey, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Col lection, University of Florida, July 2015. Deitra Delancy, interview by Kelly Delancy, November 2014. Dorothy Moncur, interview by Kelly Delancy, October 2014. Errol Carey, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015. Eugene Carey, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015. Henry Allen, interview by Lynn Larson, 2012. Henry Allen, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015. Henry McCartney, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel P roctor Oral History Program Col lection, University of Florida, July 2015. Herbert Carey, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015. Hilda Allen, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor O ral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015. Iris Carey, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015. James Carey, i nterview by Kelly Delancy, October 2014. Mary Knowles, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015.

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176 Megan McCartney, interview by Kelly Delancy, November 2014. Oswald Ingraham, interview by Kelly Delancy, November 2014. Philip Bethel, interviewe d by Kelly Delancy, November 2014. Priscilla Clarke, interview by Kelly Delancy, October 2014. Qurina Mingo, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015. Samuel Davis, interview by Lynn Larson, 2012. Samuel Davis, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015. Samuel Johnson, interview by Lynn Larson, 2012. Samuel Johnson, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Pr ogram Col lection, University of Florida, July 2015. Shaun Ingraham in discussion with the author, July 2015. Sheila Mae McCartney, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Col lection, University of Florida, July 2015. Steven Carey, i nterview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015. Timothy Bertrum Carey, interview by Lynn Larson, 2012. Valdine Vallie Mae Knowles, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Col lection, University of Florida, July 2015. Vashti Simmons, interview by Kelly Delancy, November 2014. Vera Carey, interview by Kelly Delancy, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program Collection, University of Florida, July 2015. William McCartney, interview by Kelly Delancy, November 2014.

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177 LIST OF REFERENCES Adderley, Charles Holland Kirkwood. 1974. Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. Adderley, Rosanne . 2006 . New Negroes from Africa . Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Atalay, Sonya . 2012. Community Based Archaeology: Research with, by, and for Indigenous and Local Communities . Be rkeley: University of California Press. The Official Site of The Bahamas . 2015. “ Eleuthera and Harbour Island.” Accessed August 19. http://www.bahamas.com/island s/eleuthera. Bahamas Clifton Heritage Park. 2010. “Bahamas Clifton Heritage Stone Steps.” Accessed August 30, 2015. http://www.bahamascliftonheritagepark.org/Attractions/StoneSteps.php Berman, Mary Jane, Perry L. Gnivecki and Michael P. Pateman . 2013. “ The Bahama Archipelago. ” In The Oxford Handbook of Caribbean Archaeology , edited by William F. Keegan, Corinne L. Hofman and Reniel Rodriguez Ramos, 264 – 280. New York: Oxford University Press. Bethel, Nicolette . 2003. “ On Being Bahamian. ” N icolette Bethel’ s Blog, May 26. http://nicobethel.net/2003/05/onbeing bahamian/ Bethel, Nicolette . 2000. “ Navigations: The Fluidity of National Identity in the Postcolonial Bahamas. ” PhD diss. , University of Cambridge. Bethell, A. Talbot . 1937. The Early Settlers of The Bahamas and Colonists of North America. Norfolk : Rounce and Wortley. Bernard, H. Russell . 2011. Research Methods in A nthropology : Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches . Lanham: AltaM ira Press. Bernardini, W. 2008. “ Identity as History: Hopi Clans and th e Curation of Oral Traditions.” Journal of Anthropological Research 64:483509. Bolland, O. Nigel . 2004. The Birth of Caribbean Civilization: A Century of Ideas about Culture and Identity, Nation and Society . Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers. Chilton, Eliza beth, Neil Silberman and Angela Labrador. 2011. Report of Visit to Eleuthera . Amherst: UMass Amherst Center for Heritage & Society. Chirikure, S., and Pwiti, G. 2008. “ Community Involvement in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Management: An Assessment fro m Case Studies in Southern Africa and Elsewhere. ” Current Anthropology 49(3):467485. Cleare, Angela. 2007. A History of Tourism in The Bahamas: A Global Perspective . Philadelphia: Xlibris.

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178 ColwellChanthaphonyh, C., and J. J. Ferguson. 2006. “ Memory Pieces and Footprints: Multivocality and the Meanings of Ancient Times and Ancestral Places among the Zuni and Hopi.” American Anthropologist 108(1):148162. ColwellChanthaphonh, C., and Ferguson, T. J . 2008. Collaboration in Archaeological Practice: Engaging Descendant Communities . Lantham : AltaMira Press . Cooke, E. 2010. “ The politics of community heritage: motivations, authority and control.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 16 (1 –2):16 29. Craton, Michael and Gail Saunders . 1992. Islanders in the Stream: A History of The Bahamian People . Vol. 1. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Craton, Michael and Gail Saunders . 1998. Islanders in the Stream: A History of The Bahamian People From the Ending of Slav ery to the TwentyFirst Century . Vol 2. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Culmer, Joseph S. 1908. Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. Culmer, Joseph. 1926. Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. Curry, Robert . 1930. “ Articles and Orders of the Eleutherian Adventurers. ” Bahamian Lore . Paris. D’Amico Samuels, Deborah. 2008. “Undoing Fieldwork: Personal, Theoretical and Methodological Implications.” In Decolonizing Anthropology: Moving Further toward an Anthropology for Liberation, edited by Faye V. Harrison, 6887.Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association. David, N. and C. Kramer . 2001. Ethnoarchaeology in Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Davidson, J., and Brandon, J. 2012. “ Descendant Community Partnering, the Politics of Time, and the Logistics of Reality: Tales from North American, African Diaspora, Arch aeology. ” In The Oxford Handbook of Public Archaeology , edited by R. Skeates, C. McDavid, and J. Carmen, Chapter 31. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Day, Jane . 2010. “ Preacher’s Cave: Developing a National Heritage Tourism Site in Eleuthera, Bahamas. ” PhD diss., Florida Atlantic University . Denzin, Norman K., Yvonna S. Lincoln and Linda Tuhiwai Smith. 2008. Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies . Los Angeles: SAGE Publications. Disko, S. 2012. “ World Heritage sites and indigenous communities: t he importance of adopting a human rights based approach. ” In Community Development through World Heritage , edited by M. T. Albert, M. Richon, M. J. Vials and A. Witcomb, 1626. Paris: World Heritage Papers no. 31, UNESCO.

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179 Doran, Edwin B. 1955. Land forms of the Southeast Bahamas . Austin: University of Texas Press. Dowdall, K. M., and Parrish, O. 2001. “A Meaningful Disturbance of the E arth. ” Journal of Social Archaeology 3(1): 99133. Eriksen, E. 2001. “ Between universalism and relativism: A critique of th e UNESCO concepts of culture. ” In Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives , edited by Jane Cowan, MarieBndicte Dembour and Richard Wilson, pp. 127–48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fontein, Joost . 2006. The Silence of Great Zimbabwe: Contested landscapes and the power of heritage . London: UCL Press. Francis Carey, e mail message to author, September 2014. Franklin, Janet and David W. Steadman. 2013. “ Winter Bird Communities in Pine Woodlan d vs. Broadleaf Forest on Abaco, The Bahamas. ” In Caribbean Naturalist 3:118. Funari, P., and Beserra, M. 2012. “ Public Archaeology in Latin America.” In Oxford Handbook of Public Archaeology , edited by Skeates, R., McDavid, C., and Carman, J., Chapter 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geertz, Clifford . 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures . New York: Basic Books. Gilbert, J. 2010. In Cultural Diversity, Heritage and Human Rights: Intersections in Theory and Practice, edited by M. Langfi eld, W. Logan, M. N, Craith, 3144. New York : Taylor & Francis Grou p. Gonzalez Ruibel, A. Hernando, and G. Politis . 2011. “ Ontology of the self and material culture: Arrow making among the Awa hunter gatherers (Brazil). ” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30:116. Gonzlez Tennant, Edward. 2013. “ New Heritage and Dark Tourism: A Mixed Methods Approach to Social Justice in Rosewood, Florida. ” Heritage and Society 6(1): 62–88. Green, L. F., Green, D., and Neves, E. 2003. “ Indigenous knowledge and archaeological science. ” Journal of Social Archaeology 3(3):366398. Grenvi lle, Jane. 2007.” Conservation as Psychology: Ontological Security and the Built Environment ”. International Journal of Heritage Studies 13(6): 447461. Hart, Dwight C. 2004. “ The Bahamian Parliament, 1729 2004: Commemorating the 275th anniversary. ” Nass au: Jones Publications. Heckenberger, M. 2008. “ Entering the Agora: Archaeology, Conservation, and Indigenous Peoples in the Amazon.” In Collaboration in Archaeological Practice: Engaging Descendant Communities , edited by ColwellChanthaphonh, C., and Ferg uson, T. J., 24372. Lantham : AltaMira Press.

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180 Heckenberger, M. J. “ Mapping Indigenous Histories: Collaboration, Cultural Heritage and Conservation in the Amazon.” Collaborative Anthropologies 2:932. Hodder, Ian. 2010. “ Cultural Heritage Rights: From Owner ship and Descent to Justice and Well being. ” Anthropological Quarterly 83(4):861882. Howard, Rosalyn. 2002. Black Seminoles in The Bahamas . Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Johnson, Howard. 1996. The Bahamas from Slavery to Servitude, 17831933. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press. Johnson, Whittington Bernard. 2000. Race relations in The Bahamas, 17841834: the nonviolent transformation from a slave to a free society . Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press. Jordan, Glenn H. 2008. “On Ethnography in an Intertextual Situation: Reading Narratives or Deconstructing Discourse”. In Decolonizing Anthropology: Moving Further toward an Anthropology for Liberation, edited by Faye V. Harrison, 4267.Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Ass ociation. Kearney, A. 2010. “ An Ethnoarchaeology of Engagement: Yanyuwa Places the Lived Cultural Domain in Northern Australia.” Ethnoarchaeology: Journal of Archeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies 2(1):99119. Keegan, William. 1992. The People Who Discovered Columbus: The Prehistory of The Bahamas. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Keegan, William. 1997. Bahamian Archaeology: Life in The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos before Columbus. Nassau: Media Publishing. Labrador, Angela M. 2013. “ Shared heritage: An anthropological theory and methodology for assessing, enhancing, and communicating a future oriented social ethic of heritage protection.” PhD diss., University of Massachusetts . Larson, Lynn. 2012. Interview Compilation. Lassiter, L. E. 2008. “ Moving Past Public Anthropology and Doing Collaborative Research. ” NAPA Bulletin 29:7086. Lofquist, William S. 2010. “Identifying the Condemned: Reconstructing and Analyzing the History of Executions in The Bahamas.” International Journal of Bahamian Studies 16. Little, B. J., and P. A. Shackel. 2014. Archaeology, Heritage, and Civic Engagement . Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Logan, W. S. 2007. “ Closing Pandora's Box: Human Rights Conundrums in Cultural Heritage Protection.” In Cultural Heri tage and Human Rights , edited by H. Silverman and D. F. Ruggles, 3352. New York: Springer.

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181 Logan, W. S. 2009. “ Playing the Devil’s Advocate: Protecting Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Infringement of Human Rights. ” Historic Environment 22(3):1418. L oomba, Ania . 2005. Colonialism/Postcolonialism . New York, NY: Routledge. Mann, C.J. 1986. “Composition and Origin of Material in Pre Columbian Pottery, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Geoarchaeology 1(2): 183194. Marshall, Y. 2002. “ What is Community Archa eology? ” World Archaeology 34(2):211219. Marshall, Y. 2009. “ Community Archaeology.” In Oxford Handbook of Archaeology , edited by C. Gosden, B. Cunliffe, and R. A. Joyce. Oxford: Oxford University Press. McCartney, Kenneth . 2004. Glenelg Native Tales From Eleuthera . Nassau: Media. McCartney, Timothy . 2000. “ McCartney The Distinguished Family. ” In McCartney Family Reunion. Nassau: Wongs. McDavid, Carol. 1997. “Descendants, Decisions, and Power: The Public Interpretation of the Archaeology of the Levi Jordan Plantation.” Historical Archaeology 31(3):114131. McDavid, C. 2002. “ Archaeologies that Hurt: Descendants that Matter: A Pragmatic Approach to Collaboration in the Public Interpretation of AfricanAmerican Archaeology. ” World Archaeology 34(2):30314. Mc David, C. 2007. “ Beyond Strategy and Good Intentions: Archaeology, Race, and White Privilege. ” In Archaeology as a Tool of Civic Engagement , 6788, edited by B. Little and P. A. Shackel. Walnut Creek, AltaMira Press. McDonald, O.J. 1919. Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. McGuire, Randall H. 2008. Archaeology as Political Action . Berkley and California: University of California Press. McKinney, E.H. 1912. Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. Meskell, L. 2011. “ The Rush to Inscribe: Reflections on the 35th Session of the World Heritage Committee, UNESCO Paris, 2011.” Journal of Field Archaeology 37( 2) : 145–51. Meskell, L. 2012. “ Human Rights and Heritage Ethics.” Anthropological Quarterly 83(4):83959. Meskell, L. 2013. “ UNESCO and the Fate of the World Heritage Indigenous Peoples Counci l of Experts (WHIPCOE). ” International Journal of Cultural Property 20(2):155–174. Mitchell, M., Guilfoyle, D. R., Reynolds, R. D., and Morgan. C. 2013. “ Towards Sustainable Community Heritage Management and the Role of Archaeology: A Case Study from Western Australia. ” Heritage and Society 6(1):24 45.

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182 Morgan, G.S. 1929. “ Fossil Chiroptera and Rodentia from the Bahamas, and the Historical Biogeography of the Bahamian Mammal Fauna. ” In Biogeography of the West Indies: Past, Present and Future , edited by C .A. Woods, 685740. Gainesville: Sandhill Crane Press . Mullins, P. R. “ African American Heritage and in a Multicultural Community. ” In Places in Mind: Public Archaeology as Applied Archaeology , edited by P. A Shackel , and Chambers 3556. New York: Routledge. Nassaney, M. 2012. “ Enhancing Public Archaeology through Community Service Learning.” In Oxford Handbook of Public Archaeology , edited by R. Skeates , C. McDavid , and J. Carman, Chapter 21. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Peters, Thelma. 1960. “ The Americ an Loyalists and the Plantation Period in the Bahama Islands .” Ph D diss. , Gainesville: University of Florida Press. Peters, Thelma. 1961. “The Loyalist Migration from East Florida to the Bahama Islands.” The Florida Historical Quarterly . 40(2): 123141. Pe ters, Thelma. 1962. “The American Loyalists in the Bahama Islands:: Who They Were.” The Florida Quarterly . 40(3):226240. Pierce, Paul. 2013. “ 5 Lies of Louis Bacon.” YouTube. Mar. 28, 2013. 5:25. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RSyBzkxAuHo. Poulios, Ioannis. 2011. “Is Every Heritage Site a ‘Living’ One? Linking Conservation to Communities’ Association with Sites.” The Historic Environment. 4(2):144 156. Poulios, Ioannis . 2014. “ Discussing strategy in heritage conservation: Living Heritage approach as an ex ample of strategic innovation.” Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development 4(1):1624. Powles, L.D. 1996. The Land of The Pink Pearl: Reflections of Life in the Bahamas . Nassau: Media Publishing. Robinson, F.A. 1916. Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. Rodges B. William and Charles Walla ce. 1969. “ Development and Changes in Population Distribution in the Out Island Bahamas. ” Anthropologica 11( 2) . Sabloff, Jeremy . 2008. Archaeology that Matters: Action in the Modern World. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. Save the Bays Coalition to Pro tect Clifton Bay. 2014. Accessed August 19. Savethebays.bs . Saunders, Gail . 1985. Slavery in The Bahamas 1648 – 1838. Nassau : The Nassau Guardian. Saunders, Gail . 1990. Bahamian Society After Emancipation. Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers.

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183 Saunders, Gail . 2010. Historic Bahamas . Nassau : The Nassau Guardian. Schaffer et al. 2010. “ Lucayan Taino burials from Preacher’s Cave, Eleuthera, Bahamas. ” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 22(1):4569. Schlager, Wolfgang and Robert Ginsburg . 1981. “ Bahama Carbon ate Platforms – The Deep and The Past. ” Marine Geology 44: 124. Schmidt, P. R. 2010. “ Trauma and Social Memory in northwestern Tanzania: Organic, Spontaneous community collaboration.” Journal of Social Archaeology 10(2):255279. Schmidt, P. R. 2014. “ Har dcore Ethnography: Interrogating the Intersection of Disease, Poverty, Human Rights, and Heritage.” Heritage and Society . Schmidt, P. R. 2014. “ Rediscovering Community Archaeology in Africa and Reframing its Practice. ” Journal of Community Archaeology and Heritage 1(1): 3857. Sealey, Neil E. 2006. Bahamian Landscapes: An Introduction to the Geology and Physical Geography of The Bahamas . Oxford: Macmillan Publishers. Shackel, P. A., and Chambers, E. J, eds. 2004. Places in Mind: Public Archaeology as Applie d Archaeology . New York: Routledge. Silberman, Neil. 2013. “ Discourses of Development: Narratives of Cultural Heritage as an Economic Resource.” In Heritage and Tourism: Place, Encounter, Engagement . Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Silliman, S., ed. 2008. “ Collaborating at the Trowel's Edge: Teaching and Learning in Indigenous Archaeology .” Amerind Studies in A rchaeology . Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Smith, Diane. 2012. “ Memories from the heart and for our future .” Sonoma State University and Santa Rosa Junior College. Smith, L. 2006. Uses of Heritage . London and New York: Routledge. Smith, Larry. 2013. “ Lighthouse Point and the History of South Eleuthera. ” Bahama Pundit . Accessed August 19, 2015. http://www.bahamapundit.com/2013/04/lighthouse point and the history of southeleuthera.html . Smith, Larry. 2014. “Tough Call: The Enduring Saga Of Nygard”. Tribune . July 14. Accessed August 30, 2014. http://www.tribune242.com/news/2014/jul/14/toughcall enduring saganygard/ Stark, James Henry. 189. Stark’s History and Guide to the Bahama Islands . London: Forgotten Books.

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184 Steadman, David . 2014. “ Changing Plant and Animal Communities of The Bahamas. Florida Museum of Natural History .” Florida Museum of Natural History . Accessed August 19. https://ww w.flmnh.ufl.edu/museum voices/bahamas plants animals/ Sullivan, Shaun D. 1974. “ Archaeological Reconnaissance of Eleuthera, Bahamas. ” Master’s Thesis, Florida Atlantic University. Taves, Brain. 1996. “A Pioneer Under the Sea.” Library of Congress , Septemb er 16. http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9615/sea.html Thompson, Anthony . 1982. An Economic History of The Bahamas . Nassau: Commonwealth Publications. Trouillot, Michel Rolph. 1995. Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Beacon Press. Turner, C armen . 2007. “ Allen Family Tree .” Accessed August 19. Allenfamilyreunion.org. Waterton, E., and Smith, L. 2012. Heritage, Communities and Archaeology . London, New York, Sydney, New Delhi: Bloomsbury Academic Publishing . West, Alan . 2003. African Caribbeans: A Reference Guide. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group. Wylly, William. 1789. A Short Account of the Bahama Islands . London. Zimmerman, L. 2005. “ First, be humble: working with Indigenous peoples and other descendant communities. ” In Indigenous Ar chaeologies: Decolonizing Theory and Practice , edited by C. Smith and H.M Wobst, 301314. Abingdon: Routledge. 1924 Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. 1930 Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. 1944 Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. 1945 Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. 1946 Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. 1953 Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. 1957 Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. 1962 Report. In Local Annual Report for the District of Rock Sound. 2012. Bahamas Handbook . Nassau, New Providence: Etienne Dupuch Jr Publications .

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185 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kelly Delancy was born in Nassau, Bahamas. As a child she nurtured a love for track and f ield in the footsteps of her older brother and fostered a creative inclination with her younger sister. Characteristic of a middle child, however, she has taken her life in independent and uncommon directions. Kelly enrolled at the College of The Bahamas in 2007 where she would be the only major in history for the incoming academic year. After a semester abroad in Cuernavaca, Mexico, her interest in history had turned to anthropology and archaeology. She graduated in 2011 with a BA i n a nthropology from the State University of New York with the expectation to pursue a career in international development or health care. Those plans changed during two years of work experience in cultural resource management , after which she chose to cont inue on to graduate studies in a nthropology. At the University of Florida, she completed a research paper on community he ritage at Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera. This would serve as a starting point and preliminary study for what would become her thesis project. T he project began with the intent to complete community histories for the island of Eleuthera, however that quickly proved to be over ambitious. Tarpum Bay became the focus of a study that began in the f all of 2014 and is one that she considers to be a life long engagemen t. Kelly received her MA in anthropology at the University of Florida in 2015. She hopes that the information and interviews generated during her studies will be of value to future generations of Bahamians and others interested in the history of South Eleuthera and The Bahamas.