Citation
Biological Studies on the Gut Symbiont Burkholderia Associated with Blissus Insularis (Hemiptera

Material Information

Title:
Biological Studies on the Gut Symbiont Burkholderia Associated with Blissus Insularis (Hemiptera Blissidae)
Creator:
Xu, Yao
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (321 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Entomology and Nematology
Committee Chair:
BOUCIAS,DRION G
Committee Co-Chair:
BUSS,EILEEN AMBER
Committee Members:
FISHEL,FREDERICK M
KENWORTHY,KEVIN E
MCKENZIE,CINDY LYNN
Graduation Date:
12/18/2015

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Antibiotics ( jstor )
Bacteria ( jstor )
Bacteriophages ( jstor )
Burkholderia ( jstor )
Crypts ( jstor )
Female animals ( jstor )
Insects ( jstor )
Midgut ( jstor )
rRNA genes ( jstor )
Symbionts ( jstor )
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
bifenthrin -- chinch-bug -- culturing-symbiont -- midgut-crypt -- podovirus -- symbiosis
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Entomology and Nematology thesis, Ph.D.

Notes

Abstract:
The Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber, is a serious insect pest on St. Augustinegrass and is notorious for its rapid development of resistance against insecticides. This insect harbors populations of exocellular bacteria Burkholderia in the midgut crypts. This dissertation examined the potential role(s) that the crypt-associated Burkholderia played in the resistance of B. insularis against the insecticide, bifenthrin. The genomic and physiological properties of crypt-associated Burkholderia isolated from the bifenthrin-resistant (R) B. insularis were not significantly different from thoese isolated from the bifenthrin-susceptible (S) hosts. However, higher levels of Burkholderia were found in the R crypts than in the S; these findings were supported by elevated susceptibility of antibiotic-treated B. insularis to bifenthrin exposure. A clonal association was revealed in which a single Burkholderia ribotype colonized the midgut crypts of individual B. insularis. However, phylogenetically diverse Burkholderia communities were maintained in the B. insularis colonies. Early nymphal B. insularis acquired the gut-symbiotic Burkholderia from the environment (plants and soils). Oral administration of antibiotics reduced the levels of Burkholderia and resulted in retarded development and reduced body size of B. insularis, suggesting that Burkholderia plays a role in host fitness. Application of the soil-derived bacteriophages lysed the B. insularis gut symbiont cultures in vitro. However, oral administration of these bacteriophages did not impact symbionts inhabiting the posterior midgut (M4B and M4) regions. The conjuction of M3 and M4B regions was closed, preventing the entry of ingested material (i.e., dye and bacteriophage) into the posterior midgut. These observations further supported the clonal association of gut symbionts in B. insularis and suggested that these symbionts modulate the ontogeny of the insect digestive tract. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2015.
Local:
Adviser: BOUCIAS,DRION G.
Local:
Co-adviser: BUSS,EILEEN AMBER.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2016-12-31
Statement of Responsibility:
by Yao Xu.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Embargo Date:
12/31/2016
Classification:
LD1780 2015 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

1 BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE GUT SYMBIONT BURKHOLDERIA ASSOCIATED WITH BLISSUS INSULARIS (HEMIPTERA: BLISSIDAE) By YAO XU A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2015

PAGE 2

2 © 2015 Yao Xu

PAGE 3

3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am fortunate to have been mentored by Dr. Drion Boucias during my doctoral program. His constructive criticism , guidance, and generosity of time and resources allow ed me to achieve both breadth and depth in research. Without his inspirat ional ideas and timely feedback , this dissertation would never have be en accomplished on time. I owe my deepest gratitude to my co advisor , Dr. Eileen Buss, for her encouragement, support, and advice on my academic and personal development . I thank her for admitting me, guiding me to enter the world of S outhern chinch bugs, and trust in g me . I also would like to thank my other commi ttee members, Drs. Frederick Fishel ( Department of Agronomy, UF) , Kevin Kenworthy ( Department of Agronomy, UF) , and Cindy McKenzie ( United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service ) . I appreciate their ti me, comments, and encouragement on my research and this dissertation. Many scientists and colleagues have been helpful to me during my doctoral program . First, I thank Dr. Mi chael Scharf ( Department of Entomology, Purdue University) for his valuable comment s on the detoxification enzym e work, and especially for hosting me in his laboratory in March 2014 . Second, I thank Dr. Paul Linser (Whitney Laboratory for Marine Biosci ence, U F ) for his guidance on the confocal microscopy and allowing me to use the microscopes in his lab oratory in Ap ril 2015 . Third, I thank Drs. Maurice Marshall, Yavuz Yagiz (Food and Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, U F ) and Wlodzimierz Borejsza Wysocki (IR 4 Southern Region Laboratory ) for their training on the use of gas chromatography and high performance liqui d chromatography. Thanks to Chelsea Verhoeven, Jenna McDaniel, Dr. Navneet Kaur, Dr. Shweta Sharma, Qinwen Xia, Mengyi Gu, Dr. Chao Chen, Tabitha Henson, and Sarah Rachel for their technical assistance . I am grateful to Drs . Ron Cherry and Bryan Unruh (UF ), Daniel Dye (Florida Pest

PAGE 4

4 Control and Chemical Company, FL), Roi Levin (Environmental Pest and Lawn Services, FL), and John McDaniel (SummerGlen Golf Club Community, FL) for providing some of the S outhern chinch bugs and sampling sites used in this re search. Special thanks are given to Dr. Aurelien Tarta r (Nova Southeastern University ) for providing helpful insight on phylogenetic analyses. I thank Dr. S avita Shanker and her crew at the ICBR Sequencing Core (U F) for their technique supports on sequenci ng. Karen Kelly and Rudy Alvarado at the Electron Microscopy Lab oratory (U F ) took all the t ransmission e lectron m icroscopy images in this research . I thank Lyle Buss for taking some of the great images and training me on photography. I also thank Judy Bouc ias for devoting her time and expertise to edit this dissertation. My thanks are given to all faculty members, staff , and graduate students in the Department of Entomology and Nematology for their support and friendship. I am grateful to the Insectic ide R esistance Action Committee, Valent USA , Arysta LifeScience, Syngenta, and FMC Corp. for providing the funding and/or the insecticides needed to conduct this research. To my loving parents, Shengjie Xu and Min Zhu: thank you for your selfl ess love and emotional support. To my husband and my soul mate , Dr. Xuxuan Ma : thank you for believing in me and standing by my side when times go hard . I would never have made it here without all of y ou.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS P age ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 3 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 9 LIST OF FIGURE S ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 11 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 15 CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 17 The Southern Chinch Bug, Blissus insularis ................................ ................................ .......... 17 Life Cycle and General Biology ................................ ................................ ...................... 17 Da mage and Chemical Control ................................ ................................ ....................... 20 Mechanisms of Xenobiotic Detoxification and Resistance ................................ .................... 21 Metabolic Detoxification Mechanism ................................ ................................ ............. 21 Target site Insensitivity Mechanism ................................ ................................ ............... 24 Physiological, Behavioral, and Symbiont mediated Mechanisms ................................ .. 25 Bacterial Symbionts ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 26 Bacterial Endosymbionts in Hemiptera ................................ ................................ ........... 27 Endocellular symbionts ................................ ................................ ............................ 27 Exocellula r symbionts ................................ ................................ .............................. 29 Biological Functions of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Insects ................................ .......... 31 Nutrient provision ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 31 Protection against environmental stresses ................................ ................................ 34 Members of the Genus Burkholderia ................................ ................................ ..................... 35 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 35 Catabolism of Orga nic Compounds ................................ ................................ ................ 37 Symbiotic Burkholderia ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 38 Research Hypotheses and Objectives ................................ ................................ ..................... 42 2 SELECTION OF BIFENTHRIN RESISTANCE AND EXAMINATION OF METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN BLISSUS INSULARIS .... 50 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 50 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 51 Insects and Plants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 51 Bifenthrin Screening and Assays ................................ ................................ ..................... 51 Clothianidin Assays ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 52 Selection for Insecticide Resistance ................................ ................................ ................ 53 Enzyme Assays of B. insularis ................................ ................................ ........................ 54 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 57 Susceptibilities of Field collected Populations to Bifenthrin and Clothianidin .............. 57

PAGE 6

6 Insecticide Resistance Development ................................ ................................ ............... 58 Enzyme Activities ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 60 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 62 3 BACTERIAL SYMBIONTS ASSOCIATED WITH BLISSUS INSULARIS ........................ 76 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 76 Materials and Me thods ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 77 Insect Dissection and Genomic DNA Extraction ................................ ............................ 77 Mitochondrial DNA Sequences of Host B. insularis ................................ ...................... 77 PCR Amplification and Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes ................................ .............. 78 PCR Amplification and Sequencing of Burkholderia 16S rRNA Gene .......................... 79 Sequence Assembly and Phylogenetic Analyses ................................ ............................ 79 Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) ................................ ................................ ...... 81 Quantitative Real time PCR (qPCR) ................................ ................................ ............... 82 Nucleotide Sequence Accession Numbers ................................ ................................ ...... 84 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 84 Sequencing of COI Gene for B. insularis ................................ ................................ ........ 84 Bacterial Ribotypes in Midgut Crypts ................................ ................................ ............. 84 Bacterial Ribotypes in Reproductive Tracts ................................ ................................ .... 85 In situ detection of Burkholderia ................................ ................................ ..................... 87 Quantitative Assessment of Burkholderia ................................ ................................ ....... 88 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 88 4 THE CULTURE DEPENDENT CHARACTERIZATION OF GUT SYMBIONT BURKHOLDERIA ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 118 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 118 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 119 Insect Dissection and Culturing of Crypt associated Bacteria ................................ ...... 119 Bacterial Biofilm Formation ................................ ................................ .......................... 120 PCR Amplification and Sequencing ................................ ................................ .............. 121 Sequ ence Assembly and Phylogenetic Analyses ................................ .......................... 122 BOX PCR Fingerprinting ................................ ................................ .............................. 122 Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) ................................ ................................ ..... 123 Growth Rates of Selected Burkholderia Isolates ................................ ........................... 124 Susceptibility of Culturable Burkholderia Isolates to Antibiotics ................................ 125 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 126 Culturing of Crypt associated Bacteria ................................ ................................ ......... 126 Sequencing of 16S rRNA and MLST genes ................................ ................................ .. 128 BOX PCR Fingerprinting ................................ ................................ .............................. 129 PFGE ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 130 Growth Rates of Select ed Burkholderia Isolates ................................ ........................... 131 Susceptibility of Culturable Burkholderia Isolates to Antibiotics ................................ 1 31 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 132 5 IMPACTS OF ANT IBIOTIC TREATMENT ON BLISSUS INSULARIS ........................... 158

PAGE 7

7 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 158 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 159 Oral Administration of Antibiotics ................................ ................................ ................ 159 Impacts of Antibiotic Treatment on Host B. insularis ................................ .................. 160 Impacts of Antibiotic Treatment on Gut symbiotic Burkholderia ................................ 162 Histology ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 163 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 164 Impacts of Antibiotic Treatment on Host B. insularis ................................ .................. 164 Impacts of Antibiotic Treatment on Crypt associated Burkholderia ............................ 165 Histological Examination of Midgut Crypts ................................ ................................ . 166 Susceptibility of Antibiotic treated B. insularis to Bifenthrin ................................ ...... 167 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 168 6 TRANSMISSION OF GUT SYMBIONT BURKHOLDERIA AND ORAL DELIVERY OF BACTERIOPHAGE TO BLISSUS INSULARIS ................................ ............................ 184 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 184 Material s and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 186 Examination of Gut Symbiont Transmission Mechanism ................................ ............. 186 Isolation and Purification of the Symbiotic Burkholderia Phage ................................ .. 191 Characterization of Symbiotic Burkhold eria Phage ................................ ...................... 193 Oral Delivery of Bacteriophage to B. insularis ................................ ............................. 195 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 197 Examination of Burkh olderia in Eggs and Neonates ................................ .................... 197 Detection of Burkholderia in Offspring without Their Burkholderia infected Parents ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 198 Infection of B. insularis Neonates with Cultured Symbionts ................................ ........ 199 Isolation of Symbiotic Burkholderia Phages from Soil ................................ ................ 201 Characte rization of Symbiotic Burkholderia Phage ................................ ...................... 202 Oral Delivery of Bacteriophage to B. insularis ................................ ............................. 203 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 205 7 CONCLUSION S ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 225 APPENDIX A LISTS OF PRIMERS USED IN THIS STUDY ................................ ................................ ... 237 B COI , 16S RRNA, AND BURKHOLDERIA MLST GENE SEQUENCES .......................... 240 C LEVELS OF GUT SYMBIONT BURKHOLDERIA IN PCP COLONY ............................ 286 D DETECTION OF BURKHOLDERIA IN ST. AUGUSTINE GRASS ................................ .. 287 E OPTIMIZATIONS OF ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT ................................ ........................ 290 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 293

PAGE 8

8 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 321

PAGE 9

9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 1 Reported metabolic detoxification mechanisms conferring insecticide resistance in hemipterans. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 44 1 2 Symbiotic bacterial taxa in hemipteran hosts. ................................ ................................ ... 46 2 1 Collection sites and reported insecticide applications for Blissus insularis field populations. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 68 2 2 Susceptibility of Blissus insularis to bifenthrin using a stem dip contact bioassay. ......... 69 2 3 Susceptibility of Blissus insularis to clothianidin using a systemic bioassay. .................. 69 2 4 The mortality of Blissus insularis adults at 24 hour post exposure to bifenthrin u sing a diagnostic contact bioassay. ................................ ................................ ............................ 70 2 5 Mean (±SE) body weight and specific activities of esterase ( p NPA) , GST (CDNB), and P450 ( p NA ) enzymes of Blissus insularis adults . ................................ ....................... 71 3 1 The hypervariable regions in the crypt associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequences of the R and S Blissus insularis females. ................................ .......................... 98 3 2 The single nucleotide polymorphisms detected in the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene partial sequences of midgut crypt and repr oductive tract associated bacteria isolated from R and S Blissus insularis females. ................................ ................................ ............ 99 3 3 Putative phylogenetic affiliation of t he 16S rRNA gene clones obtained from the reproductive tracts of four R and four S Blissus insularis females. ................................ . 101 3 4 DNA concentration and the estimated copy number of Burkholderia 16S rRNA and dnaA genes in the midgut crypts and reproductive tracts of R and S Blissus in sularis females. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 103 4 1 Summary of cultured bacteria from Blissus insularis crypts inoculated into insect culture media and subs equent PCR detection of Burkholderia . ................................ ...... 142 4 2 The single nucleotide polymorphisms detected in the universal 16S rRNA gene partial sequences of crypt associated and cultured counterpart bacteria isolated from R and S Blissus insularis . ................................ ................................ ................................ . 144 4 3 Estimated sizes of Blissus insularis associated endosymbiotic Burkholderia genomic DNA detected by PFGE. ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 146 4 4 Growth rates of cultured Burkholderia isolates generated from Blissus insularis crypts. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 147

PAGE 10

10 4 5 I nhibition zone of antibiotics at different concentrations against two cultured Burkholderia isolates. ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 148 4 6 Inhibition zone of antibiotics against cultured Burkholderia isolates generated from Blissus insularis crypts. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 149 5 1 The estimated crypt associated Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies from Blissus insularis fifth instars fed antibiotic treated and control food for 10 days. ...................... 177 6 1 The hatching rate, the survivorship at first instar stage, and the adult eclosion rate of Blissus insularis that reared on the cut St. Augustinegras s stems. ................................ .. 213 6 2 The single nucleotide polymorphisms detected in the universal 16S rRNA gene partial sequences of crypt associate d bacteria from parental and respective progeny Blissus insularis . ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 214 6 3 The survival rate and symbiont transmission rate of Blissus insularis that were subjected to the rearing experiment on the live plant with three cultured Burkholderia isolates ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 215 6 4 Spot on the lawn assay of soil filtrates that were enriched with different cultured symbiont Burkhol deria isolates, tested with their host bacterial lawns and heterogeneous Burkholderia lawns. ................................ ................................ ................. 216 6 5 Mean (± SE) values of survivorship, adult eclosion rate, and lytic phage activity of midgut homogenates from Blissus insularis that were exposed to different diet treatments for 10 day. ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 217 A 1 List of primers used to PCR amplify the 18S rRNA and COI genes of Blissus insularis . ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 237 A 2 List of primers used to PCR amplify crypt associated bacteria in Blissus insularis . ...... 238 A 3 List of primers used in the quantitative PCR amplification of crypt associated Burkholderia in Blissus insularis . ................................ ................................ .................... 239 C 1 DNA concentration and the estimated copy number of Burkholderia 16S rRNA genes in the midgut crypts of Blissus insularis females from the PCP population at the fo urteenth generation. ................................ ................................ ................................ 286 E 1 The estimated copy number of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene in the midgut crypts of Blissus insularis that fed antibiotic treated (rotating 1.6 mM oxytetracycline and 1.4 mM of kanamycin) and antibiotic free (control) diet for five and ten days. ................... 292

PAGE 11

11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Life stages of Blissus insularis . ................................ ................................ ......................... 49 2 1 Systemic bioassay setup for evaluating Blissus insularis susceptibility to clothianidin. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 72 2 2 The map illustrating the locations of nine field collected Blissus insularis populations used in the current study ................................ ................................ ................. 73 2 3 Native PAGE assays of single Blissus insularis adult homogenates stained for esterase activity using the substrate or naphthyl acetate and Fast Blue RR solution ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 74 2 4 Native PAGE assays of single Blissus insularis adult homogenates from bifenthrin selected, clothianidin selected , and unselected control colonies ................................ ....... 74 2 5 Native PAGE gels of clothianidin selected, bifenthrin selected, and untreated control Blissus insularis adults. Gels were pre in cubated with acetone or carbaryl and stained for esterase activity using naphthyl acetate substrate ................................ ........ 75 2 6 Native PAGE gels of clothianidin selected, bifenthrin selected, and untreated control Blissus insularis adults. Gels were pre incubated with acetone or bi fenthrin and stained for esterase activity using naphthyl acetate substrate ................................ ........ 75 3 1 Micrographs of dissected digestive and repro ductive tracts of a female Blissus insularis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 104 3 2 The PCR amplifications of the mitochondrial COI gene using primer sets Hobbes/Tonya and LepF2_t1/LepR1 and the 18S rRNA gene using primers 18S_2F/18S_4R detected in the genomic DNA of Blissus insularis different tissues.. .. 104 3 3 The 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products obtained from two culturable Burkholderia DNA and 11 crypt associated genomic DNA of Blissus insularis using primer sets BSdnaAF/BSdnaAR and BurkdnaA17 F/BurkdnaA117R ............................. 105 3 4 The representative clean chromatogram of crypt associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequence from a female B lissus insularis . The mixed chromatogram of reproductive tract associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequence ................................ .. 106 3 5 The schematic overview of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the crypt associated Burkholderia in Blissus insularis ................................ ................................ ..................... 107 3 6 Phylogenetic relationship of crypt associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from Blissus insularis females ................................ ................................ .......... 108

PAGE 12

12 3 7 The initial PCR amplifications of the universal 16S rRNA gene and the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene detected in the genomic DNA of reproductive tracts from different Blissus insularis females ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 109 3 8 Phylogenetic relationship of Burkholderia obtained from Blissus insularis female midgut crypts a nd reproductive tracts on the basis of 705 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 110 3 9 Phase contrast and epifluorescence micrographs confirm the specificity of FISH probe against the culturable Burkholderia Bi16MC_R_vitro isolate from crypt s of Blissus insularis , but not against E. coli or the non probe control ................................ .. 111 3 10 Visualization of Burkholderia in the digestive tract of Blissus insularis ........................ 112 3 11 Single plane laser scanning confocal micrographs of crypt associated Burkholderia visualized using FISH and both host and Burkholderia nuclear DNA counterstained by DAPI ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 113 3 12 Dissected female re productive tracts of Blissus insularis with pedicel areas in yellow color within ovarioles ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 114 3 13 The mean (± SE) log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA and dnaA gene copy numbers estimated by qPCR in the midgut crypts and the reproductive tracts of eleven R and eight S Blissus insularis females ................................ ................................ ...................... 115 3 14 The primary amplification of Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene using Wolbachia specific primers only detected target amplicons in the reproductive tract genomic DNA from one female Blissus insularis ................................ ................................ ............................. 116 3 15 The detected amplicons of five Wolbachia multilocus sequence typing genes ( gatB , ftsZ , coxA , fbpA , hcpA ) using PCR amplification in genomic DNA extracted from the reproductive tracts of one female Blissus insularis ................................ ......................... 117 4 1 A schematic demonstrat es crypt associated Burkholderia cultivation technique developed in the current study ................................ ................................ ......................... 150 4 2 The growth curves of a relatively slow and a fast growing Burkholderia isolates when their initial culture inocula were at different concentrations ................................ .. 150 4 3 Morphological features of the Blissus insularis midgut crypts inoculated in insect culture medium on days 0, 1, 2, and 4 post dissection ................................ .................... 151 4 4 Microscopy of two typical phenotypic characteristics of culturable Burkholderia isolated from Blissus insularis midgut crypts ................................ ................................ .. 151 4 5 Phylogenetic relationship of crypt associated bacteria and the cultured counterpart obtained from Blissus insularis on the basis of universal 16S rRNA gene sequences .... 152

PAGE 13

13 4 6 Comparison of phylogenetic trees of eight representati ve culturable bacteria isolates obtained from Blissus insularis crypts and four crypt associated bacteria in vivo on the basis of the concatenate d MLST gene and universal 16S rRNA gene sequences ..... 153 4 7 The representative BOX PCR gel of crypt associated bacteria in vivo and according cultured Burkholderia isolates ................................ ................................ ......................... 154 4 8 UPGMA dendrogram of BOX PCR gel patterns representing 26 crypt associated bacteria in vivo and 20 according cultured Burkholderia isolates ................................ ... 155 4 9 The representative PFGE patterns of 17 cultured Burkholderia isolates generated from Blissus insularis midgut crypts using different standard markers under different electrophoresis conditions ................................ ................................ ................................ 156 4 10 The PFGE patterns of represen tative cultured Burkholderia isolates obtained by using gel electrophoresis buffer without and with 50 µM thiourea ................................ 157 5 1 Oral d elivery of antibiotics to Blissus insularis fifth instars ................................ ............ 179 5 2 Impact of the antibiotic treated and the control diet on Blissus insularis survivorship, adult eclosion, body length, and mortality rate at 24 1 of bifenthrin ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 180 5 3 The estimated mean (± SE) log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect in the midgut crypts of Blissus insularis fifth instars, from the antibiotic treated and control groups ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 181 5 4 Micrographs of midgut crypts dissected from the antibiotic treated and control Blissus insularis fifth instars ................................ ................................ ............................ 182 5 5 Transmission electron microscopy of midgut crypts dissected from the antibiotic treated and control Blissus insularis fifth instars ................................ ............................. 183 6 1 Rearing of Blissus insularis neonates on live St. Augustinegrass with cultured symbiont Burkholderia ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 218 6 2 Diagnostic Burkholderia specific PCR analyses of Blissus insularis eggs and neonates ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 219 6 3 The Burkholderia coated and uncoated egg chorions that were left over by the newly hatched Blissus insularis neonates, which were used in the rearing of neonates on live plants with cultured symbionts experiment ................................ .............................. 220 6 4 The representative BOX PCR gel of crypt associated bacteria in vivo from 34 Blissus insularis that were reared on live plants with or without cultured Burkholderia inoculation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 221 6 5 Isolation of symbiotic Burkholderia phag es from soils using the enrichment method. .. 222

PAGE 14

14 6 6 Detection of lytic phage activity in the serially diluted soil filtrates, whic h were enriched separately with cultured symbiont Burkholderia isolates Bi12MC_S, Bi20MC_S, Bi24MC_R, and Bi16MC_R ................................ ................................ ....... 222 6 7 Transmission electron micrographs of the negative stained symbiotic Burkholderia phage Bi16MC_R, photographed in four different fields ................................ ................ 223 6 8 Genomic DNA of symbiotic Burkholderia phage Bi16MC_R digested with restriction endonucleases ................................ ................................ ................................ . 223 6 9 Detection of lytic phage activity in Blissus insularis midgut photogates after 10 day exposure to the diet containing Burkholderia specific phage, phage plus the target Burkholderia cells, Burkholderia cells only, or neither phage nor Burkholderia cells ... 224 7 1 The midgut crypts dissected from a first instar of Blissus insularis . ............................... 236 C 1 The mean (± SE) log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers estimated by qPCR in the midgut crypts of ten PCP, eleven R, and eight S Blissus insularis females ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 286 D 1 The initial PCR amplifications of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene detected target amplicons in the genomic DNA from St. Augustinegrass stems of three cultivars ......... 289

PAGE 15

15 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE GUT SYMBIONT BURKHOLDERIA ASSOCIATED W ITH BLISSUS INSULARIS (HEMIPTERA: BLISSIDAE) By Yao Xu December 2015 Chair: Drion G. Boucias Co chair: Eileen A. Buss Major: Entomology The Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber, is a serious insect pest on St. Augustinegrass and is notorious for its rapid development of resistance against insecticides. This insect harbor s population s of exocellular bacteria Burkholderia in the midgut crypts . This dissertation examined the potential role ( s ) that the crypt associated Burkholderia play ed in the resistance of B. insularis against the insecticide, bifenthrin. T he genomic and physiological properties of crypt associated Burkholderia isolated from the bifenthrin resistant (R) B. insularis were not significantly different from thoese isolated from the bifenthrin susceptible (S) hosts . H owever, higher levels of Burkholderia were found in the R crypts than in the S; these findings were supported by elevated susceptibility of antibiotic treated B. insularis to bifenthrin exposure . A clonal association was revealed in which a single Burkholderia ribotype colonized the midgut crypts of individual B. insularis . However , phylogenetically diverse Burkholderia communit ies were maintained in the B. insularis colonies . Early nymphal B. insu laris acquired the gut symbiotic Burkholderia from the environment (plants and soils) . Or al administration of antibiotics reduced the levels of Burkholderia and resulted in retarded development and reduced body size of B. insularis , suggesting that Burkholderia plays a role in host fitness.

PAGE 16

16 Application of the soil derived bacteriophages lysed the B. insularis gut symbiont cultures in vitro . However, oral administration of these bacteriophages did not impact symbionts inhabiting the posterior midgut ( M4B and M4) regions . The conjuction of M3 and M4B regions was closed, preventing the entry of ingested material ( i.e. , dye and bacteriophage) into the posterior midgut . T hese observation s further supported the clonal association of gut symbionts in B. insu laris and suggested that these symbionts modul ate the ontogeny of the insect digestive tract .

PAGE 17

17 CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW The Southern Chinch Bug, Blissus insularis Life Cycle and General Biology The Southern chinch bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae: Blissus insularis Barber) is a native insect in the United States and can damage St. Augustinegrass [ Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] in the southeastern and south central states (Kerr 1966, Potter 1998) . Annua lly, B. insularis has six or more generations in South Florida and has three to four generations in North Florida and along the Gulf Coast (Kerr 1966, Reinert and Kerr 1973) . A dults and nymphs can be active year round in Florida with the largest population densities occurring in summer (Reinert and Kerr 1973) . Overlapping generations commonly occur in B. insularis due to the asynchronous oviposition periods and variable development times that depend on abiotic and biotic factors, such as temperature, humidity, geographic localization, and host plant quality (Kerr 1966, Reinert and Kerr 1973) . In the field, the development time for one generation varies from four to eight weeks in the sout heastern states (Reinert and Kerr 1973) . Blissus insularis undergoes hemimetabolous development (Kerr 1966, Leonard 1968) . Egg development, depending on ambient temperature, varies from eight to 24 days (Eden and Self 1960 , Kerr 1966) . Deposited eggs are opaque white in color initially, but as embryogenesis progresses, eggs turn red (Eden and Self 1960). Before hatching, red compound eyes and abdominal sclerites become visible through the chorion (Figure 1 1). During nym phal development, the body (head to abdomen) increases from 0.8 to 3 mm in length (Leonard 1968) . First to third instars are reddish orange in color with white bands on the first and second abdominal segments. The f ourth instar is dark brown, and the fifth instar is black. Both fourth and fifth instars retain white bands and develop external wing pads that partially cover the white

PAGE 18

18 bands (Eden and Self 1960, Leonard 1968) (Figure 1 1). The nymphal stage develops in 25 to 69 days with five instars (Eden and Self 1960, Kerr 1966) . In the laboratory study by Kerr (1966), B. insularis were provisioned with freshly clipped sections of St. Augustinegrass every three days. Eggs laid by mated females had 82% hatch rate, but high m ortality occurred in the first instar, resulting in only 8 to 14% of neonates reaching the adult stage (Kerr 1966) . Adult B. insularis are black without the white band on the abdomen (Eden and Self 1960) (Figure 1 1). Typically, females are slightly larger (3.7 to 3.9 mm in body length) and more robust than males (3 mm in body length) (Leonard 1968, Vázquez et al. 2010) . Adult longevity varies considerably from one week to three months ; f emales normally live one mont h longer than males (Kerr 1966) . Females mate repeatedly with either the same or different males (Kerr 1966) with copulation taking approximately two hours (Leonard 1966). One week post eclosion, each female begins laying an average of 4.5 eggs per day, with a total of 300 eggs over a 70 day adult life span (Kerr 1966) . Eggs can be found in the soil near the grass root or more frequently are laid singly on the leaf sheath (Eden and Self 1960, Reinert and Kerr 1973) . Under laboratory conditions, eggs can be harvested from an artificial oviposition substrate made of rolls of cotton diaper towels (Vázquez et al. 2010) . Wing dimorphism, where macropterous (long winged) and brachypterous (short winged) forms are displayed in both sexe s of B. insularis adults (Figure 1 1), is reportedly associated with their population densities (Leonard 1966, Cherry 2001) . Blissus insularis populations contain typically more brachypterous adults in the light to moderately infested St. Augustinegrass lawns (Reinert and Kerr 1973) , whereas macropterous ad ults are more abundant when B. insularis reach high densities during the summer fall periods (Cherry 2001) . Even though macr opterous adults are capable of flight, B . insularis disperses primarily by walking . This differ s from a

PAGE 19

19 related species , Blissus leucopterus leucopterus (Say) , that disperses to and from overwintering sites via flight (Kerr 1966, Leonard 1966) . Wing polymorphism, as an adaptive feature in many insects, includes the distinction between presence (alate) and absence (apterous) of wings as demonstrated in aphids, and variation in wing lengths (macropterous and brachypterous) as shown in beetles, cr ickets, leafhoppers, planthoppers, and other heteropterans (lygaeids and pyrrhocorids) (for reviews, see Harrison 1980) . Wing morphs are governed by environmental cues ( e.g. , population density, food av ailability and quality, seasonal dispersal, temperature, photoperiod) and genetic factors (Vepsäläinen 1974, Harrison 1980, Ze ra et al. 1983) . In a more recent study (Xu et al. 2015) of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, wing dimorphism (macropterous and brachypterous) that occurred in r esponse to host plant quality and population density was regulated by the expression of two insulin receptor genes ( NlInR1 and NlInR2 ) in a nutrient sensing pathway (the insulin/insulin like growth factor signaling pathway). RNA interference (RNAi) mediate d knockdown of NlInR1 by microinjection resulted in brachypterous N. lugens , whereas knockdown of NlInR2 led to macroptery (Xu et al. 2015) . Even though few studies ha ve examined the molecular mechanism underlying wing polymorphism in insects, the findings on N. lugens suggests that wing polymorphism exhibited by other hemipterans may be , at least in part , controlled by environmental influences ( e.g. , food quality and population de nsity). Anecdotal reports suggest that B. insularis usually attack St. Augustinegrass in high density aggregations (Kerr 1966, Reinert and Kerr 1973) . A more recent study (Addesso et al. 2012) reveals that this aggregation behavior is stimulated by an olfactory cue ( i.e. , host plant volatile), rather than a visual cue (light versus dark) or the thigmotactic cue (leaf blade versus leaf shaped filter paper). Moreover, adults are more attractive to each other but not to nymphs,

PAGE 20

20 whereas nymphs are attractive to each other, suggesting conspecific cues are involved in the observed a ggregation formation (Addesso et al. 2012). The olfactory cue suggested as the aggregation pheromone in B. insularis ( Addesso et al. 2012) , has also been documented as an offensive odor (Eden and Self 1960). Damage and Chemical Control Aggregates of B. insularis nymphs and adults feed typi cally on grass phloem, resulting in diminished grass growth, yellowing or browning of blades, and eventual death of grass patches (Eden and Self 1960, Kerr 1966, Rangasamy et al. 2009) . L ittle is known about the underlying mechanism of the damage caused by B. insularis . However, B. leucopterus leucopterus damages sorghum by withdrawing phloem along with block ing plant conducting tissues, resulting from insect salivary sheaths produced during feeding (Painter 1928). Blissus insularis also produces salivary sheaths when its stylet penetrates through plant cells to r each phloem (Rangasamy et al. 2009) and therefore its damage mechanism may be homologous to B. leucopterus leucopterus (Reinert et al. 2011) . St. Augustinegrass cultivars t hat display moderate to high levels of antixenosis (reduced damage to plants) and/or antibiosis (high mortality and low oviposition rates) against B. insularis ( i.e. , Floratam, Floralawn, FX 10, and Captiva/NUF 76) (Reinert and Dudeck 1974, Rangasamy et al. 2006, Youngs et al. 2014) have been used for managing th is insect since the early 1970s ( Rosenberger and Beach 1992 ) . However, certain B. insularis populations have overcome the host plant resistance (Busey and Center 1987, Busey and Coy 1988 , Reinert et al. 2011) . As in the past, current suppression of B. insularis populations in St. Augustinegrass relies heavily on the chemical control (Busey and Coy 1988, Potter 1998, Cherry and Nagata 2005) . Since the early 1950s, pesticides in maj or chemical classes ( e.g. , organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids) have been tested and used on Florida lawns for B. insularis

PAGE 21

21 control (Kerr 1956 ; Reinert 1972 ; Reinert and Portier 1983 ; Cherry and Nagata 2005, 2007 ; Vázquez et al. 2011) . T he predominant insecticide used currently against B. insularis in Florida is the pyrethroid, bifenthrin (Buss and Hodges 2006). Hence, bifenthrin was used in following studies related to insecticide resistance and metabolic detox ification enzyme in B. insularis (see details in Chapter 2). It should be noted that many insecticides that previously suppressed B. insularis have failed recently to provide consistent control (Cherry and Nagata 2005, 2007; Vázquez et al. 2011) . The mechanism(s) underlying the field resistance against either insect resista nt grass cultivars or insecticide applications is unknown (Vázquez et al. 2011) . The following section mainly focuses on the known mechanisms conferring xeno biotic detoxification and resistance identified in other insects. Mechanisms of Xeno biotic Detoxification and Resistance Metabo lic Detoxification Mechanism natural ( e.g. , plant allelochemicals) and/or synthetic ( e.g. , insecticides) xeno biotic s (Li et al. 2007, Yu 2008) . These mechanisms , involv ing the degrad ation and sequestration of xeno biotic s, are mediated typically by endogenous enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monoxygenases (P450s), esterases, and glutathione S transferases (GSTs) (Georghiou 1972, B rattsten et al. 1986, Li et al. 2007) . Insect P450s are membrane bound hemoproteins localized mainly in the mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum (Scott 1999) of the fat body and midgut tissues (Feyereisen 1999 ) . The importance of P450s, esterases, and GSTs in insect resistance against xeno biotics has been demonstrated in a wide range of insect taxa, including Blattodea, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera , and Thysanoptera (for reviews, see Feyereisen 1999, Scott 1999,

PAGE 22

22 Enayati et al 2005, Khambay and Jewess 2005, Li et al. 2007, Fang 2012) . Table 1 1 listed the different metabolic detoxification mechanisms conferring the moderate to high l evels of resistance against insecticides in several serious pest hemipteran species, including whiteflies, aphids, planthoppers, and mirid bugs . Apparently, the enzymes responsible for detoxifying xeno biotic s vary from one case to another, depending on the chemistry of xenobiotics . For instance, pyrethroid insecticides affect excitability of the insect central and peripheral nervous system by disrupting the function of voltage gated sodium channels (Soderlund and Bloomquist 1989, Soderlund et al. 2002, Shaf er et al. 2005, Davies et al. 2007). In a normal insect neuron, the axonal membrane restores the resting potential after the generation of action potential relied on the functional voltage gated ion channels. Conversely, in a poisoned insect, pyrethroids w ith high affinity to sodium channels bind to a distinct receptor site on the sodium channel domains, resulting in a conformational change of the channel, a delayed and prolonged channel opening, and a devoid falling phase of the action potential (Soderlund et al. 2002, Shafer et al. 2005, Davies et al. 2007). Eventually, a state of abnormal hyper excitability occurs in poisoned insects, due to the repetitive discharges and membrane depolarization caused by prolonged channel openin g. Studies on pyrethroid resistant insects reveal that all three classes of metabolic detoxification enzymes (P450s, esterases, and GSTs) are able to confer 10 to 50 fold resistance levels to pyrethroids (Byrne et al. 2000, Vontas et al. 2001, Zhu and Snodgrass 2003) . Typically, the elevated enzyme activities are detected in the enzymatic assays using the model substrates and/or the overexpression of enzyme genes using molecular analyses. In some cases, the ov erexpression of P450 genes in the CYP6 family appears to be found throughout the pyrethroid resistant pest insects (Scott 1999, Zhu and Snodgrass 2003, Xu et al. 2013, Zhu et al. 2013).

PAGE 23

23 In addition, plant allelochemicals ( i.e. , phenolic glycosides, phenoba rbital, indole 3 carbinol) can be inducers of esterase activities in herbivorous insects, such as the butterfly Papilio glaucus L. (Lindroth 1989), the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lindroth and Weisbrod 1991) , and the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Yu and Hsu 1985) . GSTs also assist phytophagous insects in detoxifying toxic allelochemicals and adapting to the plant defensive chemistry. For example, the midgut of polyphagous S. frugiperda metabolizes plant derived unsaturated carbonyl c ompounds via the GST dependent conjugation (Wadleigh and Simon 1987) . Higher levels of GST activities allow poly phagous insects to feed on all elochemical containing plants (Wadleigh and Simon 1988) . In some cases, the metabolic detoxification mechanism involves multiple groups of endogenous enzymes rather than one group. For instance, examination of the annual bluegrass weevil Listronotus maculicollis Dietz suggested that P450s, GSTs, and carboxyl esterases were attributed to its bifenthrin detoxification in a highly resistant population (206 fold resistance ratio), whereas only P450s were involved in the lowest resistant population (8.2 fold) (Ramoutar et al. 2009) . Additionally, transcriptome analyses demonstrated that four P450 genes and one esterase gene were significantly up regulated in a deltamethrin resistant strain of the bedbug Cimex lectularius L, implying the involvement of multiple metabolic enzymes in the pyrethroid resistance (Zhu et al. 2013). Furthermore, metabolic enzyme activities responsible for tolerance/resistance against pesticides may be inducible by exposure to host plant alleloche micals (Gordon 1961, Li et al. 2007) . This induction effect has been reported in polyphagous insects, such as B. tabaci (Xie et al. 2011) , the noctuid Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Li et al. 2000 b , Zeng et al. 2007) , and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Yang et al. 2001, Dermauw et al. 2013) . Particularly, the

PAGE 24

24 midgut P450 gene expression of H. zea was inducible by rearing on xanthotoxin containing diet (Li et al. 2000 a , Zeng et al. 2007) . This pre exposure of plant allelochemicals increased P450 mediated metabolisms of both xanthotoxin and the pyrethroid insecticide ( cypermethrin) (Li et al. 2000 b ) , supporting the link between insecticid e resistance and plant allelochemical resistance addressed by the metabolic detoxification mechanism (Després et al. 2007, Li et al. 2007) . Target site Insensitivity Mechanism T arget site insensitivity/resistance is another important mechanism confer ring an insect with resistance against xeno biotic s, particularly insecticides (Georghiou 1994, Nauen and Denholm 2005) . Diverse insect taxa display voltage gated so dium channel mutations conferring target site resistance against pyrethroids (for reviews, see Rinkevich et al. 2013, Dong et al. 2014) , and/or the nico tinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mutations conferring neonicotinoid resistance (Liu et al. 2005, Bass et al. 2011, Koo et al. 2014) . Particularly, the reduced sensitivity of the nervous system to pyrethroids is also known as knockdown resistance ( kdr ), which was first observed in the DDT resistant houseflies (Busvine 1951). The knockdown resistance has been described in diverse insect orders , including Blattodea, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Phthiraptera, Siphonaptera, and Thysanoptera (Soderlund and Knipple 2003, Davies et al. 2007, Rinkevich et al. 2013) . For instance, in the aphid M. persicae , a single point mutation (L1014F, leucine to phenylal anine) at t he sodium channel domain confer s resistance to a pyrethroid, deltamethrin (Martinez Torres et al. 1999). The presence of an additional mutation (M918T, methionine to threonine) combined with L1014F enhances the resistance of M. persicae to multi ple pyrethroid insecticides ( i.e. , bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda cyhalothrin, permethrin, and tau fluvalinate) (Eleftherianos et al. 2008) . For the neonicotinoid resista nt M. persicae , a mutation at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit results in 225 and 1679 fold of

PAGE 25

25 resistance to thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, respectively (Bass et al. 2011). Furthermore, evidence ha s shown that a single or multiple (two to thre e) mutations in the target site confer elevated levels of insecticide resistance in other hemipterans, including the planthopper N. lugens (Liu et al. 2005) , the aphid Aphis gossypii Glover (Carletto et al. 2010, Marshall et al. 2012, Koo et al. 2014) , two whitefly species B. tabaci (Morin et al. 2002, Alon et al. 200 8 ) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Karatolos et al. 2012) , and two bed bug species C. lectularius (Zhu et al. 2 010) and C. hemipterus (F.) (Dang et al. 2014) . Physiological, B ehavioral, and Symbiont mediated Mechanisms Reduced/delayed cuticular penetration is one important physiological mechanism involved in insect resistance against contact insecticides ( i.e. , carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids) (Georghiou 1972) . This physiological mechanism has been reported in two mosquito species Anopheles funestus Giles (Wood et al. 2010) and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Apperson and Georghiou 1975) , the housefly Mus ca domestica L. (DeVri es and Georghiou 1981) , and two moth species Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Delorme et al. 1988) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Ahmad et al. 2006) . For hemipterans, reduced cuticular penetration has been implicated in the neonicotinoid resistance of M. persicae despite the metabolic detoxification and target site insensitivity mechanisms bein g primary factors (Puinean et al. 2010 b , Bass et al. 2014) . Addit ionally, even though no direct experimental evidence has been shown that the carbamate (pirimicarb) resistance of M. persicae is conferred by decreased cuticle penetration, transcriptome analyses suggest that the upregulated cuticular protein encoding gene s play roles in this carbamate resistance (Silva et al. 2012) . The inheritable behavioral mechanism that favors the capability of insects to avoid or survive a pesticide application has been documented in diverse insect species (for reviews, see Georghiou 1972, Lockwood et al. 1984) . For instance, adult mosquitoes Anophe les atroparvus

PAGE 26

26 van Thiel display a stimulus dependent behavior (irritability) that enables them to escape and survive a DDT treated area; this behavior is heritable to the tenth generation (Gerold and Laarman 1967) . Moreover, the neonicotinoid resistant M. persicae display s increased ability to avoid the insecticide treated host plants compared to the neonicotinoid susceptible ones (Fray et al. 2014) , also suggesting the behavioral mechanism involves in the insecticide resistance. In addition to the aforementioned mechanisms of xenobiotic resistanc e, it has been proposed that selected endosymbionts may mediate or synergize resistance to selected pesticides (see details in following section Bacterial Symbionts). For example, Kikuchi et al. (2012) proposed that the bean bug , Riptortus pedestris (F . ) , may acquire an organophosphorus pesticide (fenitrothion) degrading Burkholderia symbiont from the soil. Riptortus pedestris h arboring fenitrothion degrading Burkholderia was resistant to both percutaneous and oral administrations of fenitrothion (Kikuchi et al. 2012). As mentioned previously in this chapter, B. insularis is notorious for its rapid development of insecticide resistance. Like R. pedestris , B. insularis nymphs and adults harbor Burkholderia in their specialized midgut crypts ( Boucias et al. 201 2) . The previously reported endosymbiont mediated insecticide resista nce in R. pedestris stimulated a close examination of Burkholderia and its potential role in the insecticide resistance of B. insularis . Bacterial Symbionts This dissertation is primar ily concerned with the microbial symbiont whose habitat is another highly cooperative living organism (Buchner 1965). Therefore, unless indicated i.e. , mutualis tic, parasitic, and commensal) (Kikuchi 2009) between host eukaryotes and microorganisms that live inside the host.

PAGE 27

27 Microbial symbionts ( i.e. , archaea, bacteria, fungi, protists, and yeasts) are ubiquitous and are associated with diverse terrestrial, fresh water and marine invertebrates in six known phyla: Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, M ollusca, Nematoda, and Porifera (Chaston and Goodrich Blair 2010, Engel and Moran 2013) . Since the late nineteenth century, s ymbioses between invertebrates and bacteria ha ve been increasingly recognized, explored, and elucidated (for reviews, see Buchner 1965, Baumann 2005, Chaston and Goodrich Blair 2010, Engel and Moran 2013 ). Among numerous described invertebrate bacterial symbioses, several classic model systems used to understand the fundamentals of symbioses include the squid Vibrio (Nyholm and McFall Ngai 2004, McFall Ngai 2014) , the nematode Steinernema Xenorhabdus (Martens et al. 2003, Goodrich Blair 2007) , the eart hworm Eisenia Verminephrobacter (Schramm et al. 2003, Pinel et al. 2008) , the aphid Buchnera ( Buchner 1965, Douglas 1998) , the Drosophila Wolbachia (Serbus et al. 2008, Werren et al. 2008) , and the bean bug Riptortus Burkholderia symbioses (Kikuchi et al. 2007, 2012) . The high degree of symbiotic specificity, wide variation in function, and host diversity encompass a spectrum of invertebrate bacterial associations. Due to a vast array of publications on insect symbioses, the following subsections focus on the bacterial endosymbionts associated with insects in the order Hemiptera, particularly in the suborder Heteropt era (commonly referred as true bugs ), to which B. insularis belongs. Comparative analyses demonstrated that the phytophagous and hematophagous hemipteran hosts harbor a variety of bacterial symbionts, as listed in Table 1 2. Bacterial Endosymbionts in He miptera Endocellular symbionts The advent of molecular techniques ( i.e. , PCR based, sequencing, in situ hybridization, genomic analyses) in the last two decades accelerated the studies on bacterial symbionts,

PAGE 28

28 especially the ones that have not been able to be cultured (Kikuchi 2009) . These symbionts can vary considerably between associations, depending on the bacterial phylum (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chlamydidae, Bacteroidetes), the location of symbiotic bacteria within the host (endocellular or exocellular), the relationship with the host (obligate or facultat ive), and the functional roles of symbionts in the host (Kikuchi 2009) . Fo r example, obligate endocellular symbionts typically possess several biological properties: 1) reside within specialized host cells called bacteriocytes; 2) are unculturable in axenic media; 3) are transmitted transovarially; 4) possess reduced genome size (<1 Mb); 5) contain AT biased nucleotide compositions in genes; and 6) have strict co evolutionary mutualism with the host (Baumann 2005, Kikuchi 2009) (see Table 1 2). In H emiptera alone, at least eight insect groups are currently known to harbor specific o bligate endocellular symbionts : aphids Buchnera , birth catkin bugs Kleidocerys , bulrush bugs Rohrkolberia , mealybugs Tremblaya , psyllids Carsonella , seed bugs Nysius Schneideria , sharpshooters Baumannia , and whiteflies Portiera (Baumann 2005, Küchler et al. 2010, Kuechler et al. 2011, Matsuura et al. 2012) . Many of these symbionts have been detected but their biological functions remain unclear because of the difficulties in culturing and manipulating these microorganisms (Kuechler et al. 2012) . Endocellular symbionts typically colonize in specialized host cells named bacteriocytes that comprise the symbiotic organs named bacteriomes (Buchner 1965, Baumann 2005) . Currently, the known endocellular symbionts associated with heteropterans are primarily localized in either the isolated abdominal bacteriomes or specialized organs intergraded in host digestive system s (Kuechler et al. 2012, Matsuura et al. 2012) . For instance, th e paired bacteriomes harboring Gammaproteobacteria are found in the abdomen of several monophagous lygaeoid bugs ( Ischnodemus sp., Arocatus sp., and three species in Orsillinae). These

PAGE 29

29 bacteriomes vary among host species, but have some properties in common : 1) are unculturable in vitro transmission; and 3) produces vacuoles and reddish pigments within bacteriomes except the ones in Ischnodemus sp. (Kuechler et al. 2012, Matsuura et al. 2012) . In some other lygaeoid bugs (Ischnorhynchi nae and Artheneinae), bacteriomes are closely associated with the digestive system, forming specialized symbiotic organs. For example, a single raspberry shaped red bacteriome is localized in the posterior portion of the second midgut section of Kleidocery s sp. (Ischnorhynchinae) and contains endocellular Gammaproteobacteria that are also detected in the infection zone and oocytes within the female ovaries (Küchler et al. 2010) . In addition, in the first midgut section of Chilacis sp. (Artheneinae), enlarged epithelial cells form a reddish narrow Gammaproteobacteria that are also transmitted transovarially (Kuechler et al. 2011) . Moreover, the gonad associated reddish bacteriomes in Nysius spp. (Orsillinae) possess Gammaproteobacteria endosymbionts that have a reduced genome (0.6 Mb) with AT biased in the 16S rRNA, groEL and gyrB genes, compared with those of free living Gammaproteobacteria species (Matsuura et al. 2012) . Although the inability to culture these endocellular symbionts limits the understanding of the biolo gical functions of the symbionts in their heteropteran hosts, the evolution of bacteriomes and symbionts with their host speciation implies an ancient and concordant host symbiont association (Matsuura et al. 2012) . Exocellular symbionts In contrast to the endocellular symbionts, other plant sap feeders, particularly in the suborder He teroptera, harbor exocellular microbes in their digestive tracts (Buchner 1965, Engel and Moran 2013) . The exocellular symbionts have biological properties different from endocellular symbionts: 1) they colonize in the lumen of m idgut crypts; 2) can be cultured in vitro ; 3) have postnatal transmission involving egg smearing, coprophagy, or symbiont -

PAGE 30

30 containing capsules; 4) vary in genome size from reduced (<1 Mb) to large (~8 Mb); 5) no AT biased nucleotide composition; and 6) caus e retarded host insect growth and high mortality when symbionts are eliminated (Kikuchi et al. 2005, 2009, 2011a ; Kaiwa et al. 2010 ; Shibata et al. 2013) (see Table 1 2). Due to the ability to culture some exocellular symbionts, the association between symbiotic partners has been elucidated in some cases, such as the Riptortus Burkholderia symbiosis (Kikuchi et al. 2005, 2007 ; Kim and Lee 2015) . Most exocellular symbionts in heteropterans are found in digestive system s that lack bacteriocytes or bacteriomes (Kikuchi 2009) . These symbionts have been reported in various true bug groups belongin g mainly to four superfamilies: Lygaeoidea, Coreoidea, Pentatomoidea, and Pyrrhocoroidea (Kikuchi et al. 2011a) . These symbionts colonize in either the thir d midgut section (M3) (Kaltenpoth et al. 2009) or specialized crypts in the posterior fourth midgut sectio n (M4) (Ki kuchi et al. 2011a, Kuechler et al. 2012) . An extensive survey of 124 true bug species representing 20 families and five superfamilies revealed that four types of midgut crypts (two rowed, four rowed, flat, and tubular) occur commonly in the midguts of these insects (Kikuchi et al. 2011 a ). Besides possessing the distinct crypts, these insects harbor different bacterial phyla ( i.e. , Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria ) revealing the diversity and specificity of exocellular symbionts in these hetero pteran members (Kikuchi et al. 2009, Hosokawa et al. 2012 b ) . One example includes the bean bugs ( Riptortus spp.), which possess two rowed white midgut crypts harboring exocellular Betaproteobacteria Burkholderia that are orally acquired from the environment (Kikuchi et al. 2005, 2007) . On other hand, the scutellerid stink bug Cantao ocellatus (Thunberg) possesses four rowed midgut crypts harboring Gammaproteobacteria that are vertically transmitted via egg surface contamination (Kaiwa et al. 2010) . Similarly, several stink bug species in the family Acanthosomatidae also harbor

PAGE 31

31 Gammaproteobacteria , yet in the flat midgut crypts, and transmit symbionts vertically vi a egg surface contamination as sisted by the lubricating organ (Kikuchi et al. 2009) . The last midgut crypt type is the tubular crypt, which is found in the species within the families Berytidae, Blissidae, and Rhyparochromidae (Kikuchi et al. 2011a) . Most tubular midgut crypts in these insect members harbor Burkholderia symbion ts that are detected in the eggs of host insects (Boucias et al. 2012, Itoh et al. 2014) , suggesting a potential mechanism for vertical transmission of Burkholderia symbionts. Altho ugh the diversity and specificity of insect bacterial symbioses have been elucidated, the roles that these microbes play in their respective hosts are largely unknown. In the following subsection, the known biological functions are summarized for some of t he well characterized model systems. Biological Functions of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Insects diets (Baines 1956, Douglas 1998, Engel and Moran 2013, Salem et al. 2014) , confer fitness advantages ( e . g ., body size, coloration, development, and grow th) (Kikuchi et al. 2007, Boucias et al. 2012, Hosokawa et al. 2013) , elicit symbiont mediated plant specialization (Hosokawa et al. 2007) , modulate plant virus transmission (van den Heuvel et al. 1994, Su et al. 2013, Pinheiro et al. 2015) , and/or induce protection against pathogenic gut bacteria (Dillon et al. 2005) , protozoan parasites (K och and Schmid Hempel 2011) , fungi (Kaltenpoth et al. 2005, Scott et al. 2008) , and synthetic insecticides (Kikuchi et al. 2012) . Nutrient provision Many described insect species in the order Hemiptera are plant sap feeders or are hematophagous (Buchner 19 65). Their diet is relatively deficient in nutrients, often missing essential amino acids, water soluble vitamins (B vitamins), and lipids (Douglas 1 998, 2009) .

PAGE 32

32 Endosymbionts may enhance nutrient utilization as portrayed by the aphid Buchnera symbiosis (Douglas 1998, Akman Gündüz and Douglas 2009) . Endocellular Buchnera are constrained within bacteriocytes in the hemocoel of aphids, have strict transovarial transmission, and possess phylogenetic congruence with hosts (Buchner 1965, Douglas 1998, Moran and Baumann 2000) . Aphids complete their life cycle by consuming plant phloem, which is rich in sucrose but low in essential amino acids ( Douglas 1998) is overcome by the metabolic pathways possessed by Buchnera (Douglas 2006) . The genome of Buchnera spp. (~0.6 Mb, 500 600 pro tein coding genes) contains approximately 10% of genes coding for enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of essential amino acids ( i.e. , isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine), which are typically low in plant phloem sap (Shigenobu et al. 2000, Tamas et al. 2002, van Ham et al. 2003, Douglas 2006) . Nutritional studies demonstrated that Buchnera provides essential amino acids to support aphid growth, whereas elimina ting Buchnera using an antibiotic retards growth ( Akman Gündüz and Douglas 2009) . Vitamins are crucial components in the nutritional profile for animals. Many blood feeding insects ( i.e. , kissing bugs, bed bugs, lice, tsetse flies) harbor endosymbiotic bacteria that synthesize B vitamins, which are la cking in blood meals (Baines 1956, Buchner 1965, Beard et al. 2002, Hosokawa et al. 2010, Michalkova et al. 2014) . For example, the gonad associated Wolbachia is known as an essential bacterium for the bed bug C. lectula rius . Elimination of Wolbachia infection slowed nymphal development , adult eclosion rate, and fecundity . These retarded effects of aposymbiotic (symbiont free) C. lectularius were restored to normal by adding vitamin B supplementation in the diet, strongly implying that Wolbachia functions as a nutritional mutualist for C. lectularius (Hosokawa et al. 2010) . Also, the obligate symbiont

PAGE 33

33 Wigglesworthia is well known for provisioning B vitamins for tsetse flies (Michalkova et al. 2014) . These bacteria are both endocellular and exocellular symbionts in tsetse fly females. Endocellular Wigglesworthia (Huebner and Davey 1974) , whereas the exocellular forms are free living in milk gland lumen (Pais et al. 2008) . Viviparous females rely on milk glands rich in proteins and lipids to nourish their developing embryo s and larvae intra utero (Cmelik et al. 1969) thereby transmitting ex ocellular Wigglesworthia to offspring during immature development (Pais et al. 2008) . Wigglesworthia deprived flies have higher mortality, reduced female fertility, weakened blood meal digestion ability, and high er parasitic trypanosome infections (Pais et al. 2008) . Examination of metabolism related genes in tsetse fly and Wigglesworthia reveals that the Wigglesworthia produced vitamin B 6 is an essential cofactor for ho st proline biosynthetic pathway, which contributes to fly reproduction (Michalkova et al. 2014) . In addition, B vitamin deficiencies also characteri ze seed based diets of gra nivorous insects . For example, the African cotton stainer, Dysdercus fasciatus , is a cottonseed feeder and is in part provided B vitamins by the exocellular gut actinobacterial symbiont Coriobacterium glomerans (Kaltenpoth et al. 2009, Salem et al. 2014) . Transcriptome analyses revealed that aposymbiotic D. fasciatus reared on a B vitamin deficient d iet had significantly upregulated vitamin transport and processing genes compared to the symbiont containing bugs (Salem et al. 2014) . Many genes associated with B vitamin biosynthesis were present in the genome o f symbiotic C. glomerans (Stackebrandt et al. 2013) , suggesting nutritional supplementation by this gut symbiont for its host (Salem et al. 2014) . The nutritional contributions of many endosymbiotic bacteria in their hosts remain unknown. However, these bacteria are commonly believed to be mutualists and are ass ociated

PAGE 34

34 with nutrient provision because they promote the overall fitness ( i.e. , growth, bo dy size, longevity, fecundity) and have impacts on other phenotypic characters ( i.e. , body coloration) of their hosts (Kikuchi et al. 2007, Engel and Moran 2013, Hosokawa et al. 2013) . Many studies, using antibiotic therapies (ingestion or injection) and/or egg surface sterilization to suppress or eliminate various endosymbiotic bacteria ( i.e. , Burkholderia , Nardonella , Erwinia , Enterobacteraceae , Actinobacteria ), result in increased mortality rates, slower growth, reduced bod y size, and/or abnormal pale body coloration (Fukatsu and Hosokawa 2002, Kikuchi et al. 2007, Kuriwada et al. 2010, Boucias et al. 2012, Salem et al. 2013, Bistolas et al. 2014) . Protection against environmental stresses In gene ral, insects are challenged often by abiotic and biotic stresses, including drought, extreme temperature, pathogens, parasites/parasitoids, and xeno biotic s ( i.e. , pesticides and allochemicals). Symbiotic bacteria can protect host insects against some of th ese stresses (E leftherianos et al. 2013, Douglas 2014) . For instance, the female solitary digger wasp Philanthus triangulum (F.) harbors actinobacterial symbionts Streptomyces in her highly specified antennal glands, which secrete large amounts of white substance mixe d with Streptomyces prior to oviposition (Kaltenpoth et al. 2005, 2006) . Uptake of Streptomyces by wasp larvae ensures the larval survival rate and protects the wasp cocoon from fungal infestatio n in the brood cell (Kaltenpoth et al. 2005) . Similarly, another beneficial association between actinomycetes and the S outhern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, revealed that D. frontalis Entomocorticium mutualism by suppressing other antagonistic fungi (Scott et al. 2008) . Even though many protectiv e functions of symbiotic bacteria are not yet we ll known, experimental evidence shows that these endosymbionts strongly respond to environmental stress at the molecular level. For example, the gene expression and levels of the facultative secondary

PAGE 35

35 symbion t Rickettsia localized throughout the whitefly B. tabaci hemocoel are elevated in response to the parasitization by the parasitoid wasp Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet) (Mahadav et al. 2008) . Also, the proliferation of Ricketts ia in viruliferous B. tabaci is related to the host vectored plant virus (Su et al. 2014) . Moreover, the level of the endocellular symbiont Wolbachia in the mosquitoes Culex pipiens L. possessing insecticide resistant gene alleles is 2 to 3 fold greater than that in the insecticide susceptible ones, suggesting an interaction between the endosymbiont density and the g enotype of the host insect (Berticat et al. 2002) . Similarly, gut symbiotic Burkholderia has been implicated in the host resistance against insecticides. Riptortus pedestris orally acquired a fenitrothion degrading Burkholderia from the soil that colonized the midgut crypts and conferred increased levels of resistance against fenitrothion (Kikuchi et al. 2012) . A comprehensive understanding of the biological function of symbiotic bacteria in the host insect is expanding as technologies improve ( i.e. , microarray, quantitativ e RT PCR, transcriptomics) and genomic and proteomic resources become more available (Mahadav et al. 2008, Futahashi et al. 2013, Salem et al. 2014) . Nevertheless, the molecular basis of many insect bacterial symbioses currently remains unknown (Douglas 2014) . Understanding the symbiosis function requires molecular and biochemical analyses of symbiont bacteria and a thorough knowledge of the bacteria as the partner in the ecological association with its respective host (Pontes and Dale 2006, Kim and Lee 2015) . Members of the Genus Burkholderia Background T he genus of Burkholderia established in 1993 was separated from the genus of Pseudomonas (Yabuuchi et al. 1992) . Some of the Pseudomonas species transferred to the new genus of Burkholderia , includ ed the vertebrate pathogenic B. cepacia , B. mallei , B. pseudomallei

PAGE 36

36 and plant pathogenic B. gladioli (Yabuuchi et al. 1992, Coenye et al. 2001) . Currently, 90 species occur in this genus, according to the List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) database ( http://www.bacterio.net/burkholderia.html ). Burkholderia are described as Gram negative short rods (0.5 1 × 1.5 ile in liquid suspension due to a polar flagella (Palleroni 2005) . They typically grow wel l at 30 °C under aerobic condition. Many Burkholderia species are known for metabolizing and using organic compounds, including the xenobiotics , as sources of carbon and energy for growth (Palleroni 2005) . Furthermore, when the nutrient is depleted and/or an environment al stress exists, Burkholderia cells produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) gran ules that are accumulated endocellularly as carbon reserve materials to survive and reproduce (Palleroni 2005) . According to the currently available genome database online ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/lproks.cgi ), most Burkholderia species have relatively large genomes (6 11 Mb) with two to three circular chromosomes, whereas some species such as B. rhizoxinica (3.8 Mb) have one chromosome (Lackner et al. 2011) . In addition, many species contain one or more plasmids varying in size, from kilobasepair (kb) to megabasepair (Mb). One i mportant genetic characteristic of Burkholderia is that the genome content can vary even within the same species. This variation contributes to the diversity of the genus Burkholderia in phenotype, pathogenicity, biochemical versatility, and ecological habitat (Palleroni 2005) . Although most Burkholderia are free living bacteria in the natural environment, many are closely associated with eukaryotes ( i.e. , animals, plants, and fungi) (Compant et al. 2008, Suárez Moreno et al. 2012) . Based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Burkholderia can be divided into pathogenic and plant beneficial environmen tal (PBE) clusters (Suárez Moreno et al. 2012) . The first cluster comprises the plant pathogens ( e.g. , B. gladioli , B.

PAGE 37

37 glathei , B. glumae pseudomallei e.g. , B. mallei , B. pseudomallei ), a nd pathogenic B. cepacia complex (Bcc ) species ( e.g. , B. cepacia , B. multivorans , B. vietnamiensis ) that result in glanders of animals and melioidosis in humans. The second cluster contains non pathogenic species that promote plant growth ( e.g. , B. carbensis , B. mimosarum , B. sacchari , B. tuberum ), that inhabit plant associated insects as gut symbionts, and that are environmental species capable of biodegrading organic compounds (Kikuchi e t al. 2005, 2011a ; Palleroni 2005 ; Compant et al. 2008 ; Suárez Moreno et al. 2012) . Catabolism of Organic Compounds The catabolic versatility of Burkholderia spp. mainly contributes to their degradation of organic compounds, including the synthetic pes ticides containing aromatic and halogenated compounds (Palleroni 2005) . In many cases, the multicomponent enzyme system in Burkholderia isolates catabolizes the hazardous compounds into usable substrates for carbon source and energy (Seo et al. 2009) . These catabolic enzymes are encoded on chromosomes (Zhang et al. 2006) and/or plasmids (Hayatsu et al. 2000, Lim et al. 2012) . The previous studies on Burkholderia sp. NF100 (Hayatsu et al. 2000) , Burkholderia sp. FDS 1 (Zhang et al. 2006) , Burkholderia sp. isolate Y (Malghani et al. 2009) , and B. zhejiangensis sp. nov. OP 1 T (Lu et al. 2012) isolated from the sludge treat ed wastewater or from pesticide treate d soil reveal the capability of degrading organophosphorus (OP) pesticide ( i.e. , fenitrothion, methyl parathion, and profenofos). Generally, OP compounds can be hydrolyzed by OP degrading bacteria into less toxic products, which are used by bacteria as a source of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (Singh 2009) . The proposed pathways of OP degradation by different Burkholderia species are controlled by two groups of genes that encode bacterial phosphotriesterases, including organophosphorus hydrolase ( opd ) genes (Hayatsu e t al.

PAGE 38

38 2000) and methyl parathion hydrolase ( mpd ) genes (Zhang et a l. 2006, Ekkhunnatham et al. 2012) . To date, Burkholderia species are not known to degrade pyrethroid insecticide s. However, several bacteria in other proteobacterial genera ( i.e ., Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Sphingobium ) can metabolize certain pyrethroids ( i.e. , fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, flumethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and cyhalothrin) as their source of carbon and energy (Grant et al. 2002, Grant and Betts 2004, Guo et al. 2010) . Furthermore, many Burkholderia species are known for producing exocellular secondary metabolites, including diverse enzym es (proteases, lipases, phospholipases C, chitinases, collagenase, and polygalacturonase), siderophores, toxins, antibiotics, and exopolysaccharides (Vial et al. 2007) . These secondary metabolites possibly confer the insecticidal activities of a newly characterized Burkholderia speci es, B. rinojensis sp. nov., that was isolated from soils ( Cordova Kreylos et al. 2013) . Specifically, both whole cell broth and cell free supernatant in the percutaneous and oral bioassays caused high mortality, discoloration, disrupted molti ng and cuticle formation of beet armyworm larvae ( S. exigua ). This B. rinojensis isolate also has similar toxic ity against the two spotted spider mite, T. urticae , and possibly possesses a non neurotoxic mode of action (Cordova Kreylos et al. 2013) . Symbiotic Burkholderia Besides the free livin g strains, some Burkholderia are symbionts associated with diverse eukaryotes (plants, fungi, and insects) and typically are beneficial and nonpathogenic (Compant et al. 2008, Suárez Moreno et al. 2012) . As plant symbionts, certain Burkholderia spp. ( Candidatus Burkholderia calva , Candidatus Burkholderia nigropunctata , Candidatus Burkholderia kirkii) isolated from leguminous leaf nodules/galls of Psychotria spp. are unculturable and lack flagella (van Oevelen et al. 2002, 2004) . In th e absence of leaf nodulation

PAGE 39

39 caused by endophytic Burkholderia , Psychotria plants d o not develop and eventually die , suggesting that Burkholderia symbionts are obligate for host plant growth and development (van Oevelen et al. 2003) . Additional plant associated endosymbiotic Burkholderia isolates are associated with roots of Fabaceae , especially the plants in the genus of Mimosa . Multiple Burkholderia species ( i.e. , B. caribensis , B. phymatum , B. mimos arum , and B. nodosa ) have been isolated from the nodules of various Mimosa spp. worldwide (Compant et al. 2008, Bontemps et al. 2010) . The legume nodulation by Burkholderia wa s confirmed to be associated with the nod and nif genes located on large bacterial plasmids (Chen et al. 2003) or chromosomes (Martínez Aguil ar et al. 2008) to ensure symbiosis and nitrogen fixation as shown in other rhizobia (Chen et al. 2003, 2005 ; Elliott et al. 2007) . Like other members in the genus Burkholderia , most known plant endosymbiotic Burkholderia species and strains possess large genome sizes (6.5 to 9.7 Mb) and contain multiple chromosomes (Martínez Aguilar et al. 2008) . Burkholderia also o ccur within hyphae and spores of plant associated fungi, including the mycorrhizal Gigaspora spp. (Bianciotto et al. 1996, 2000 ; Levy et al. 2003) and Glomus spp. (Bianciotto et al. 1996, Andrade et al. 1997) , and the phytopathogenic Rhizopus spp. (Par tida Martinez and Hertweck 2005 ) . Studies suggest that these fungal associated endosymbiotic Burkholderia cluster with pathogenic Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) strains, play a role in the biosynthesis of phytotoxin (Par tida Martinez and Hertweck 2005 ) , and are possibly involved in spore germination and mycorrhiza l formation (Levy et al. 2003) . As insect symbionts, Burkholderia were initially reported in the plant associated heteropterans, R. clavatus an d Leptocoris chinensis Dallas (Kikuchi et al. 2005). Since then, insect Burkholderia associations have been extensively documented in other genera of Lygaeoidea and Coreoidea superfamilies (Kikuchi et al. 2011a, Boucias et al. 2012, Garcia et al.

PAGE 40

40 2014, Itoh et al. 2014) . As mentioned previously, these Burkholderia associated true bugs typically possess specialized midgut regions (M4) arranged in rows or as tubular invaginations (crypts) that harbor dense exocellular Burkholderia populations (Kikuchi et al. 2011a) . Unlike other exocellular gut symbionts that were maternally transmitted involving in specialized symbiont containing capsules (Fukatsu and Hosokawa 2002; Hosokawa et al . 2006, 2007), maternal mucous secretion (Hosokawa et al. 2012 a ), and/or egg smearing (Prado et al. 2006, Hosokawa et al. 2013, Bistolas et al. 2014), Burkholderia are orally acquired from the environment by Riptortus clavatus Thunberg nymphs (Kikuchi et al. 2007) . Furthermore, Burkholderia colonization wa s not required for R. clavatus to survive and reproduce (Kikuchi et al. 2007) . However, Burkholderia contributed to host fitness ( i.e. , body size and weight) as observed with other ve rtically transmitted symbionts (Fukatsu and Hosokawa 2002, Hosokawa et al. 2006, Salem et al. 2013, Bistolas et al. 2014) . These findi ngs suggest that R. clavatus Burkholderia symbiosis has evolved unique traits to facilitate partner specificity and to maintain the beneficial features of environment derived bacteria as endosymbionts. In the last ten years, studies on the R. pedestris B urkholderia symbiosis enhanced the understanding of horizontally transmitted bacteria that establish symbiotic associations with insect hosts (for review, see Kim and Lee 2015) . Using the R. pedestris Burkholderia association symbiont populat symbiotic factors of Burkholderia into initiation, accommodation, and persistence factors. Specifically, the oral delivery of approximately 80 cells of a Burkholderia symbio nt strain wa s sufficient for a specific midgut crypt colonization of Burkholderia in R. pedestris (Kikuchi and Yumoto 2013) . Like the squid Euprymna scolopes that physically contacts free living symbiont

PAGE 41

41 Vibrio f isheri in seawater via the light organ pores (Nyholm et al. 2000, Nyholm and McFall Ngai 2004) , the entry site of environment derived Burkholderia in R. pedestris is the mouthparts (Kikuchi et al. 2007) . This oral acquisiti on spontaneously exposed the host to a combination of non symbiotic environmental bacteria and bacterial symbionts (Nyholm and McFall Ngai 2004) . Therefore, inter partner recognition and selection between symbionts and hosts are important in the horizontally transmitted symbiosis, and require delicate m olecular cross talk to accomplish selective colonization (Bright and Bulgheresi 2010) . The genetically modified symbiotic Burkholderia ( uppP mutant), deficient with the bacterial cell wall biosynthesis related uppP gene, reached the symbiotic organ but failed to survive and colonize the target tissue (Kim et al. 2013 b ) . Thus, the Burkholderia pe ptidoglycan cell wall integrity serve d as the initiation and accommodation fact ors, and were essential for initiating the R. pedestris Burkholderia association (Kim et al. 2013 b , Kim and Lee 2015) . Besides cell wall synthesis, other symbiotic factors associated with purine biosynthesis and biofilm formation are also believed to confer this efficient establishment of horizontally transmitted symbiosis between R. pedestris and Burkholderia (Kim et al. 2014 a , b ; Kim and Lee 2015) . The first study on bacterial symbionts associated with B. insularis showed that Burkholderia are exocellular gut symbionts colonizing in the tubular midgut crypts (Boucias et al. 2012) . The bacterial were detectable in all life stages, sexe s, and wing polymorphisms of B. insularis , and seemed to have beneficial impacts on host development and survival (Boucias et al. 2012). Other studies have demonstrated that colonization of Burkholderia in midgut crypts benefits phytophagous host insects increasing s urvival (Garcia et al. 2014) and body size (Kikuchi et al. 2007) , and in certain cases may p rovide a means to detoxify xenobiotic s (Kikuchi et al. 2012) . Moreover, even though the source of symbiotic Burkholderia is from the

PAGE 42

42 environment in the Riptorus system (Kikuchi et al. 2007), Burkholderia may be detected on eggs of both B. insularis and the oriental chinch bug Cavelerius saccharivorus (Okajima), suggesting that the vertical transmission may be involved in both chinch bug species (Boucias et al. 2012, Itoh et al. 2014) . Previous attempts to culture the Burkholderia symbionts in B. insularis system failed (Boucias et al. 2012) , unlike the Burkholderia symbionts in R. pedestris or C. saccharivorus system that were cultured in conventional axenic media (Kikuchi et al. 2012). The inabili ty to culture Burkholderia inhabiting B. insularis has hindered detail examinations of the function of Burkholderia in this association. To elucidate the B. insularis Burkholderia association and to determine if Burkholderia plays a role in the insecticide resistance of B. insularis , a novel culturing method was developed, and a combined culture independent and dependent study was conducted to address this insect symbiont interaction. Research Hypotheses and Objectives The general hypothesis is that the g ut symbiotic Burkholderia plays a role in the fitness of B. insularis , including its susceptibility to insecticides . Previous research on the B. insularis Burkholderia association focused primarily on ribotyping of Burkholderia in vivo , and provided limite d information related to the biological function of Burkholderia . To have better understanding of this association, both culture independent and dependent methods were conducted to examine the Burkholderia associated with the bifenthrin resistant (R) and susceptible (S) B. insularis hosts. The following hypotheses and objectives were addressed in the following chapters: 1) establish laboratory colonies of B. insularis , which exhibited different levels of susceptibility to bifenthrin (R and S), and examined their detoxification enzyme activities; 2) investigate bacterial composition and density in B. insularis crypts and reproductive tracts to compare between R and S B. insularis colonies; 3) examine the genomic and physi ological features of in vitro produced Burkholderia cultures by the novel culturing

PAGE 43

43 strategies obtained from the R and S B. insularis colonies; 4) assess the impact of orally administrated antibiotics on the crypt associated Burkholderia and on the host B. insularis fitness, including the susceptibility to bifenthrin, at post treatment ; 5) examine the gut symbiont transmission mechanism in B. insularis , and use an isolated Burkholderia phage as a potential antibacterial therapy to eliminate gut symbionts an d to determine the impact of bacteriophage on the host B. insularis .

PAGE 44

44 Table 1 1. Reported metabolic detoxification mechanisms conferring insecticide resistance in hemipterans. Insect species = common name(s) Host plants Insecticide classes a Metabolic detoxification mechanisms Ref. # Aleyrodidae Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) = tobacco or cotton whitefly Cotton Cabbage Ornamentals Tomato Vegetables Organophosphates (1B) Esterase Overexpression of a carboxylesterase gene coe1 1, 2 Pyrethroids (3A) Esterase Increased ester hydrolysis 3 Neonicotinoids (4A) P450 Increased oxidative degradation; Overexpression of a single P450 gene CYP6CM1 6, 12 Juvenile hormone analogues (7C) P450 GST Increased total enzyme activity; Suppression of resistance by synergist 7 Aphididae Myzus persicae (Sulzer) = peach potato aphid Cabbage Ornamentals Vegetables Carbamates (1A) Organophosphates (1B) Esterase Increased ester hydrolysis and sequestration; Amplification of an esterase gene E4 4, 5, 8 Neonicotinoids (4A) P450 Suppression of resistance by synergist; Overexpression of a single P450 gene CYP6CY3 9, 1 1 Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) = lettuce aphid Lettuce Cyclodienes (2A) GST Suppression of resistance by synergist; Increased total enzyme activity 14 Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) = greenbug Small grains Sorghum Turfgrass Organophosphates (1B) Esterase Increased esterase activity 13, 15

PAGE 45

45 Table 1 1. Continued. Insect species = common name(s) Host plants Insecticide classes a Metabolic detoxification mechanisms Ref. # Delphacidae Nilaparvata lugens Stål = brown planthopper Rice Carbamates (1A) Organophosphates (1B) Esterase Overexpression of a carboxylesterase gene NI EST1 16 Pyrethroids (3A) GST Increased peroxidase activity prevents pyrethroid induced oxidative damage; Overexpression of a GST gene amplification nlgst1 1 17, 18 Neonicotinoids (4A) P450 Increased oxidative activity 1 0 , 19 Miridae Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) = tarnished plant bug Cotton Pyrethroids (3A) P450 Overexpression of P450 gene CYP6X1 20 References : 1. Alon et al. 2008 2. Byrne and Devonshire 1993 3. Byrne et al. 2000 4. Devonshire and Moores 1982 5. Field et al. 1988 6. Karunker et al. 2008b 7. Ma et al. 2010 8. Moores et al. 1 994 9. Philippou et al. 2010 10. Puinean et al. 2010a 11. Puinean et al. 2010b 12. Rauch and Nauen 2003 13. Rider et al. 1998 14. Rufingier et al. 1999 15. Shufran et al. 1996 16. Vontas et al. 2000 17. Vontas et al. 2001 18. Vontas et al. 2002 19. Wen et al. 2009b 20. Zhu and Snodgrass 2003 a Insecticide classes (mode of action classification by target site ), according to the Mode of Action Classification Brochure third edition by Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. 1, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors; 2, GABA gated chloride channel antagonists; 3, Sodium channel modulators; 4, Nicotinic acetylcho line receptor (nAChR) agonists; 7, Juvenile hormone mimics.

PAGE 46

46 Table 1 2. Symbiotic bacterial taxa in hemipteran hosts. Symbionts Class a Genome (Mb) # chrom b # plmd Host insects c Relationship Transmission mechanism Function d Ref. # Endocellular Buchnera aphidicola 0.42 0.65 1 chrom 1 2 plmd Aphids Obligate Transovarial Nutrient (essential amino acids) 1, 3, 22, 35, 38, 40 Serratia symbiotica 1.76 3.58 1 chrom Aphids Facultative Transovarial Protection (heat stress) 6, 10, 23, 25, 27 Regiella insecticola 2.07 1 chrom 1 plmd Aphids Facultative Transovarial Protection (parasitoid wasp, fungal pathogen) 8, 20, 33 Hamiltonella defensa 2.12 1 chrom 1 plmd Aphids Facultative Transovarial Protection (parasitoid wasp) 7, 20 Carsonella rudii 0.16 1 chrom Psyllids Obligate Transovarial Nutrient 28, 29 Candidatus Profftella armatura 0.46 1 chrom 1 plasm Psyllids N/A e Transovarial Defensive? 29 Tremblaya princeps 0.14 1 chrom Mealybugs Obligate Transovarial Nutrient 24 Baumannia cicadellinicola 0.69 1 chrom Sharpshooters Obligate Transovarial Nutrient (vitamins, cofactor synthesis) 26, 37, 40 Sulcia muelleri Bact 0.25 1 chrom Sharpshooters Obligate Transovarial Nutrient (essential amino acids) 26, 39

PAGE 47

47 Table 1 2. Continued. Symbionts Class a Genome (Mb) # chrom b # plmd Host insects c Relationship Transmission mechanism Function d Ref. # Portiera aleyrodidarum 0.35 0.36 1 chrom Whiteflies Obligate Transovarial Nutrient (essential amino acids) 3, 16, 32 Hamiltonella 1.80 1 chrom Whiteflies Facultative Transovarial Nutrient 32 Fritschea Chla N/A N/A Whiteflies Facultative Transovarial N/A 9 Arsenophonus triatominarum N/A N/A Assassin bugs* Facultative Transovarial N/A 11 Wolbachia 1.30 N/A Bedbugs* Facultative Transovarial Nutrient (B vitamins) 12 Exocellular Rosenkranzia clausaccus 0.90 0.96 N/A Acanthosomatid stinkbugs Obligate Egg surface Nutrient? 17 Candidatus Benitsuchiphilus tojoi 0.85 N/A Parastrachiid stinkbugs Obligate Egg surface Nutrient? 13, 14 Ishikawaella capsulata 0.75 1 chrom 1 plmd Plataspid stinkbugs Obligate Capsule Nutrient? 30 Burkholderia 6.96 8.69 3 chrom 2 3 plmd Bean bugs Facultative Environment Protection (pesticide) 19, 34, 36 Burkholderia N/A N/A Oriental chinch bug N/A Egg surface Environment N/A 15 Burkholderia N/A N/A Southern chinch bug N/A N/A N/A 5 Rhodococcus rhodnii Actin 4.39 N/A Assassin bugs* Facultative Coprophagy Nutrient (B vitamins) 2, 4, 21

PAGE 48

48 Table 1 2. Continued. References : 1. Akman Gündüz an d Douglas 2009 2. Baines 1956 3. Baumann 2005 4. Beard et al. 2002 5. Boucias et al. 2012 6. Burke et al. 2010 7. Degnan et al. 2009 8. Degnan et al. 2010 9. Everett et al. 2005 10. Foray et al. 2014 11. Hypsa 1997 12. Hosokawa et al. 2010 13. Hosokawa et al. 2012 a 14. Hosokawa et al. 201 2 b 15. Itoh et al. 2014 16. Jiang et al. 2012 17. Kikuchi et al. 2009 18. Kikuchi et al. 2011 a 19. Kikuchi et al. 2012 20. Oliver et al. 2003 21. Pachebat et al. 2013 22. Pérez Brocal et al. 2006 23. Lamelas et al. 2011 24. López Madrigal et al. 2011 25. Manzano Marín and Latorre 2014 26. McCutcheon and Moran 2007 27. Montllor et al. 2002 28. Nakabachi et al. 2006 29. Nakabachi et al. 2013 30. Nikoh et al. 2011 31. Pachebat et al. 2013 32. Rao et al. 2015 33. Scarborough et al. 2005 34. Shibata et al. 2013 35. Shigenobu et al. 2000 36. Takeshita et al. 2014 37. Takiya et al. 2006 38. Tamas et al. 2002 39. Woyke et al. 2010 40. Wu et al. 2006 41. van Ham et al. 2003 a Symbiotic bacterial classes. , Gammaproteobacteria ; , Betaproteobacteria ; Bact , Bacteroidetes ; Chla , Chlamydiae ; Actin, Actinobacteria . b Numbers of chromosomes (chrom) and plasmids (plmd). c Host insects harboring bacterial symbionts. * indicates hematophagous insects, otherwise, most are phytophagous insects. d Functional roles of symbionts play i n their host insects. Question mark indicates the speculated, not confirmed functions. e N/A, not available.

PAGE 49

Figure 1 1. Life stages of Blissus insularis . A) egg, B F) first to fifth instars, G) macropterus, and H) brachypterus adults (ph oto credit: Lyle Buss) .

PAGE 50

50 CHAPTER 2 SELECTION OF BIFENTHRIN RESISTANCE AND EXAMINATION OF METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN BLISSUS INSULARIS Introduction Historically, insecticides used against B. insularis in St. Augustinegrass include organochloride (DDT), organophosphates, and carbamates; whereas, pyrethroids and neonicotinoids are used currently (see reviews in Chapter 1). Application failures with the commonly used pyrethroid, bifenthrin, have been repo rted in multiple field populations in Florida over the last ten years (Cherry and Nagata 2005, Vázquez 2009) . These difficult to control populations, requiring repeated insecticide applications, had higher bifenthrin LC 50 values than the bifenthrin susceptible populations (Cherry and Nagata 2005, 2007 ; Vázquez et al. 2011) . In addition to bifenthrin, the neonicotinoids ( i.e. , clothianidin and imidacloprid) have been used to suppres s B. insularis populations (Buss and Ru ppert 2010) . Similar to the application history of bifenthrin, Cherry and Nagata (2007) reported that multiple B. insularis populations in South Florida were resistant to imidaclopr id. Preliminary tests have shown that the metabolic enzyme activities in all three detoxification enzyme families (P450, esterase, and GST) were detectable using the spectrophotometric approach in one B. insularis field population randomly collected in Ga inesville, FL , with undetermined susceptibility to insecticides (M. Scharf, unpublished da ta) . This initial study illustrates that the metabolic detoxification enzyme activities are measurable in B. insularis using the colorimetric assay and points out the involvement of these enzymes as a potential insecticide resistance mechanism. T o furth er address resistant mechanisms, various B. insularis populations were screened for insecticide resistance using a combination of modified contact and systemic bioassays for the pyrethroid bifenthrin and the neonicotinoid clothianidin, respectively . Laboratory colonies

PAGE 51

51 denoted bifenthrin resistant (R) and susceptible (S) were established and maintained under laboratory conditions. Biochemical assays were conducted to measure relative metabolic enzyme activities (P450, esterase, and GST) in the inse cticide screened colonies. Materials and Methods Insects and Plants Field populations of B. insularis were collected using a modified vacuum/blower (STIHL ® SH 86 C, Andreas STIHL Ag & Co. KG, Germany) from multiple St. Augustinegrass lawns in Florida (Tab le 2 1). Blissus insularis from each site were further aspirated from debris and reared as separate laboratory colonies. Adults from each colony were held in a 7.6 L glass container (Heritage Hill Collection, Anchor Hocking, Lancaster, OH) at 27 ± 1 °C wit h a 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod and were provisioned with cut St. Augustinegrass and surface sterilized fresh yellow corn cobs (Vázquez et al. St. Augustinegrass plugs propagated in plastic pots (15.2 c m diameter, 8 cm deep) filled with a mixture of Farfard #4 potting soil (Conrad Farfard Inc., Agawam, Massachusetts) and autoclaved fine sand at 1:1 ratio. Grasses were watered daily, fertilized every three weeks with a 21 0 0 water soluble nitrogen source (Lesco Professional Turf Fertilizer, Lesco Inc., Cleveland, OH), and trimmed to a height of ~ 10 cm. The corn cobs were purchased as needed from local supermarkets. Bifenthrin Screening and Assays A two step stem dip assay was used to evaluate the differe nt B. insularis populations for their susceptibilities to bifenthrin. For the initial dose fixing assays, formulated bifenthrin (Talstar P ® , FMC Co rp ., Philadelphia, PA) was diluted serially in acetone (Certified ACS, Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA) to 1 (indicated as active ingredient bifenthrin concentration). St. Augustinegrass stems (approximately 1.5 cm

PAGE 52

52 long) were harvested from the greenhouse, submerged for 30 seconds in the bifenthrin dilutions, and p laced on the wax paper (Cut Rite ® , Reynolds Consumer Products Company, Richmond, VA) to air dry for two hours. Control stems were dipped in acetone. For each concentration, five to ten unsexed B. insularis adults were placed individually with one treated o r control stem into a cell of a BioServe bioassay tray (BAW 128, BioServe, Frenchtown, NJ) and sealed with a perforated tray lid (BACV16, BioServe, Frenchtown, NJ). Trays of each concentration were held in plastic crispers with moistened paper towels to pr event insect desiccation at 27 ± 1 °C with a 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod. Mortality data for each test population from initial assay tier were used to tailor bifenthrin concentrations to produce 5 to 95 % mortality. The second tier of assays was conducted wi th five fold dilutions of bifenthrin using the previously described stem dip assay. These assays were conducted between 1300 1600 hours and were replicated three times 1 ). Each cell was examined 24 , 48, and 72 hours post exposure . Insects were scored as paralyzed ( e.g. , on their backs) or dead ( e.g. , immovable after poking with forceps) at 24 hours. Paralyzed, but not dead, individuals were held up to 72 hours. If paralyzed individuals recovered wit hin 72 hours, they were scored as (Abbott 1925) , and were subjected to Probit analysis (PROC PRO BIT, SAS 9.3, SAS Institute 2011). Resistan ce ratios were calculated based on the LC 50 values to compare the dose response differences between B. insularis populations. Clothianidin Assays The susceptibility of B. insularis adults to clothianidin was exami ned using a systemic bioassay similar to a study by Stamm et al. (2011) . Granular clothianidin (Arena ® 50WDG, Valent Corp ., Walnut Creek, CA) was dissolved and diluted with distilled water producing 1 (indicated as active ingredient clothianidin

PAGE 53

53 concentration). St. Augustinegrass plugs with three to four blades (5 6 cm in length) and roots ( 9 10 cm in length ) were harvested and washed free of soil. Roots were placed in a 10 mL plastic floral tube filled with 9 mL of either a clothianidin dilution or distilled water (control). Tubes were sealed with Parafilm M laboratory film (Pechiney Plastic Packaging, Chicago, IL) to preve nt insects from contacting the clothianidin (Figure 2 1). Roots were allowed to uptake the systemic insecticide for 24 hours at 27 ± 1 °C with a 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod. To ensure active feeding during the systemic bioassay, tested B. insularis adults were starved for 24 hours in a plastic petri dish (100 × 15 mm, Fisher Scientific) with a moistened filter paper (90 mm in diam eter, Fisher Scientific). For each clothianidin concentration, five unsexed, mixed aged B. insularis adults were enclosed with the grass blades using a perforated cage sealed with a twist tie (Figure 2 1). These assays were replicated three to five times f or each concentration. Mortality data of B. insularis after 24 hours was assessed and processed as previously described. Selection for Insecticide Resistance After initial ly screening nine field collected p opulations against bifenthrin, population GL had the smallest slope value (Table 2 2) and was selected to establish a bifenthrin resistant colony. An aerosol spray of 10 mL bifenthrin solution in water ( 1 ) was applied to the surface of St. Augustinegrass plants (approximately 0.36 m 2 ) , u sing a s pecial Paasche airbrush device (Passche Airbrush Company, Harwood Heights, IL) with nozzles. This airbrush application method was suggested by Vázquez (2009) for measuring both contact and systemic toxicity of insecticide with small vairance. Considering t he large number of screened insect materials, this method was applied to screen for both bifenthrin and clothiandin insecticides. Treated grasses were air dried for 24 hours and exposed to B. insularis for three days. Initially, 20 unsexed, mixed aged B. i nsularis adults were tested on the cut St. Augustinegrass stems sprayed with 1 bifenthrin solutions for insecticide screening efficacy. Results indicated

PAGE 54

54 55% mortality at the 1 screening concentration. Therefore, this screening approach was applied to the entire GL population for insecticide resistance. This resistant colony containing approximately 100 to 200 mixed aged insects subsequently was exposed every two to three generations to the bifenthrin treated grass. Population PH considered the most bif enthrin susceptible (S) colony was maintained without insecticide exposure and served as an internal control to population GL. T o ensure the consistenc y of genetic background in the insecticide selected and untreated control colonies, a field collected population BM (Table 2 1) was divided into three sub colonies for insecticide selections: bifenthrin exposed (BM BS), clothianidin exposed (BM CS), and untreated control (BM UC). The BM BS colony was exposed to the bifenthrin treated grass (5 mL 1 ), whereas the BM CS colony was exposed to the clothianidin 1 ) as described previously. The BM UC colony was not exposed to insecticides. A diagnostic contact bioassay with one dose of bifenthrin was used to assess the relative susceptibility of colonies sequentially exposed to insecticides. Dilutions (0.5 mL) of bifenthrin (1 1 ) or acetone (solvent control) were added into clean 4 dram glass vials (21 mm diameter, 70 mm height; 16 mL; 36.4 cm 2 inner surface areas ; Fisher Scientific). Vials were rotated for one hour to air dry on a commercial hot dog roller (RollerDog Big 24SS, FunTime Popcorn Company, La Verne, CA). Vials containing moistened cotton balls (Swisspers ® premium products, Gastonia, NC) were inoculated with fiv e unsexed adult B. insularis . Vials were held at room temperature (RT) in darkness and were examined after 24 ho urs to determine mortality . Enzyme Assays of B. insularis The assays for total protein content were customized to process individual B. insula ris . Adults were chosen randomly from three insecticide screened colonies (BM BS, BM CS, and BM UC), and weighed. Individual insects were homogenized on ice in 100 µL of pre chilled

PAGE 55

55 homogenization buffer [0.1 M sodium phosphate, pH 7.5, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1 mM phenylthiourea (PTU)] using sterile pestles and microcentrifuge tubes. Homogenates were centrifuged at 16,000 × g for 15 min at 4 °C. Then, the extracted enzyme supernatant (85 µL) from one B. insul aris adult was used immediately to determin e the total protein content and metabolic enzyme activities (P450, esterase, GST). Two to three females were assessed with equal numbers of males for each colony at each replicate. The enzymatic assays for total P 450, esterase, and GST were replicated three times using freshly prepared substrates for each colony. Total protein content was determined using the Pierce BCA (bicinchoninic acid) protein assay kit (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL) following the manufact serum albumin (BSA) standard (0 to 2 mg mL 1 ) and enzyme supernatants were diluted in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.5). Ten microliters of each BSA standard or diluted enzyme sample were added in triplicate to individu al wells of a 96 well microtiter plate (Costar, Corning, NY) and were mixed with 200 µL of the working reagent. The plate was shaken on a rocker for one minute and incubated at 37 °C for 30 minutes. The absorbance at 562 nm was measured by a microplate rea der (BioTek Instruments Inc., Winooski, VT). A standard curve (four parameter quadratic) was plotted automatically by the microplate reader associated software KC4 v 3.4, and used to estimate total protein content (mg mL 1 ) in the B. insularis homogenates. P450 activity was determined using the model substrate 1.5 mM p nitroanisole ( p NA) in the PB (pH 7.5). For the 96 well microtiter plate assay, 10 µL of extracted enzyme supernatant (non diluted) and 200 µL of freshly prepared p NA substrate were mixed with 10 µL of 1.5 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) or assay buffer (control) to a final volume of 220 µL. The kinetic enzyme assay was monitored at the absorbance of 405 nm for 30

PAGE 56

56 minutes with 30 second intervals at RT using the micropl ate reader. Similarly, GST activity was determined using 1 mM 1 chloro 2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) in PB (pH 7.5). Each reaction contained 10 µL of extracted enzyme supernatant and 225 µL of CDNB substrate with or without 5 mM glutathione (GSH). The enzymati c assay was monitored at the absorbance of 334 nm for 5 minutes with 30 second intervals. Moreover, e sterase activities were measured using the substrate p nitrophenyl acetate ( p NPA). For each reaction, 10 µL of extracted enzyme supernatant or PB (control) was mixed with 225 µL of p NPA (1 mM) substrate. The assay was monitored at 30 second intervals for five minutes at 405 nm. The activities of P450, GST, and esterase enzymes were expressed as specific activity (nmol per min per mg protein). The extinction coefficients used in the P450, GST, and esterase enzymatic assays were 6.53, 9.50, and 0.66 mM cm 1 of path length, respectively. Due to the non normal distribution of the enzyme assay data, the difference in enzyme specific activities between sexe s and am ong multiple populations (more than two) of B. insularis were analyzed using the Exact Wilcoxon Two sample Test and the Exact Savage Multi sample Test (PROC NPAR1WAY, SAS 9.3), respectively. In addition to spectrophotometric analysis, esterase native (non denaturing) PAGE was proteins (estimated based on the total protein assay) were mixed with equal volume of 2× native sample buffer (62.5 mM Tris HCl, pH 6.8, 40% glycerol, 0.01% bromophenol blue) and was loaded onto Criterion TGX 4 20% precast gel (Bio Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA). Electrophoresis was conducted using Tris/glycine running buffer (25 mM Tris, 192 mM glycine, pH 8.3) for 75 minutes at 120 V. Este rase activities were detected by incubating gels in 0.1 M PB (pH 6.5) containing 1 mM of or naphthyl acetate ( or NA) and were placed on a

PAGE 57

57 rocker with gentle agitation for 30 minutes at RT. Gels were stained with 0.5 mg mL 1 of filtered Fast Blue RR solution (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) for 5 minutes, fixed in 5% (v/v) acetic acid for one hour to visualize esterase bands, and imaged using a ChemiDoc XRS System (Bio Rad). Two female and two male enzyme preparations were sub jected to the PAGE assay for each colony. Three replicates were conducted using freshly prepared substrates. For inhibition assay, two aliquots of the same enzyme preparations were loaded onto one gel. After electrophoresis, gel sections were pre incubated with buffers containing either 1 mM carbaryl (99% purity, Chem Service, West Chester, PA) or 0.25 mM bifenthrin (technical grade, FMC54800) in acetone for five minutes. A second section was pre incubated with the NA assay buffer containing acetone only as the control. After five minutes of pre incubation , NA was added, and gels were stained as previously described . Results Susceptibilities of Field collected Populations to Bifenthrin and Clothianidin The stem dip bioassay determined a wide range in susc eptibility to bifenthrin among nine populations of B. insularis adults (Table 2 2 ). At the extreme was population PCP (Gainesville, Alachua Co.) which was 1,494 fold more resistant to bifenthrin than popu lation PH (Jay, Santa Rosa Co.) which had no known h istory of insecticide applications in recent years (Table 2 1). The heterogeneity of the B. insularis susceptibility to bifenthrin was observed among seven local populations (GL, GH, MH3951, BM, BM1316, GL13, and PCP) collected from lawns within a 7 km rad ius in Gainesville, FL (Figure 2 2). The calculated LC 50 values against bifenthrin among 1 (Table 2 2). Significantly, there was a four fold difference among the calcul ated slope values (0.6 to 2.2), indicat ing that a wide genetic diversity existed within and among local B. insularis populations.

PAGE 58

58 Blissus insularis adults from six populations (GH, MH3951, BM1316, GL13, SG, and PCP) assayed against bifenthrin were also assayed to assess the potential of cross r esistance to clothianidin. Dose response data demonstrated that these six populations were much more susceptible to clothianidin than to bifenthrin. For example, the LC 90 values against clothianidin 1 (population GH) 1 (population BM1316) as opposed to bifenthrin LC 90 1 (population GH) to 1 (population PCP). Likewise, comparisons among the LC 50 values against clothianidin for six populations showed a 2.4 fold dif ference (Table 2 3) whereas the same populations treated with bifenthrin displayed an 84.4 fold difference (Table 2 2). In addition to being more sensitive, the slopes of clothianidin response curves (1.2 to 2.6) were steeper than the slopes of the bifenth rin response curves, indicating that the B. insularis responses to clothianidin were more consistent than those to bifenthrin. Comparisons of the dose response data of six populations did not demonstrate a clear evidence of cross resistance between bifenth rin and clothianidin. In some cases, assays suggested a relationship; for example the most bifenthrin resistant population PCP had a relatively high LC 50 1 ), whereas the relatively bifenthrin susceptible population GH was also susce ptible to clothianidin m L 1 ). However, the dose responses of populations SG and MH3951 to these two insecticides were unrelated (Tables 2 2 and 2 3). Insecticide Resistance Development Dose response assays with bifenthrin against t produced a slope of 0.55, LC 50 and LC 90 1 , respectively. Resampling the site of the original population GL, after two subsequent bifenthrin applications resulted in the population GL13 (Table 2 1) that displayed approximately 15 fold higher resistance against bifenthrin than the original GL population. Specifically, the population GL13

PAGE 59

59 assayed against bifenthrin had LC 50 1 with a slope of 0.82 (Table 2 2). These findings sug gested that this population harbored resistance genes that could be selected by bifenthrin applications. Blissus insularis adults from the population GL were initially 7.2 fold more resistant to (Table 2 2). Exposure of adults from 1 of bifenthrin in the single dose contact bioassay resulted in 46.7 and 100 % mortality, respectively (Table 2 4 ). Subsequently, population GL was sures to bifenthrin, whereas the population PH was bifenthrin treated St. Augustinegrass over twelve generations, there was no mortality in the R colony when ass 1 of bifenthrin. In addition, the most bifenthrin resistant population PCP that was initially 1494 and 209 fold more resistant against bifenthrin than those from the populations GL and PH, respectively, was maintained as an additional bifenthrin resistant colony with three exposures to bifenthrin 1 ) that caused approximately 20% mortality of B. insularis adults over fourteen generations. Considering the high resistance in population PCP, the contact bioassay monitoring resistance was tested at a higher single 1 1 ) used for other colonies. When the adult B. insularis from the PCP colony at second, sixth, and fourteenth generations were assayed, ther 1 of bifenthrin (Table 2 4). also for twelve generations resulted in 80% mortality rates (Table 2 4 ). Supporting these results were those observed with population BM, which was initially 35.5 fold more resistant against bifenthrin than population PH (Table 2 2), The BM colony, subdivided into three sub colonies,

PAGE 60

60 BM BS, BM CS, and BM UC, were maintained for nine generations with two exp osures of St. Augustinegrass treated with bifenthrin (BM BS), clothianidin (BM CS), or solvent control (BM 1 of bifenthrin (contact assay) caused 77 and 0% mortality in parental and ninth generation of the BM BS colony, respectivel y. Similar single dose contact bioassays with bifenthrin demonstrated that the ninth generation of BM CS and BM UC colonies had 54.5 and 63.6% mortality, respectively. These results suggested that continuous selections of bifenthrin (BM BS) resulted in inc reased resistance against bifenthrin, and twice selections of clothianidin (BM CS) did not induce cross resistance against bifenthrin. Enzyme Activities To ensure the consistence of genetic background in the insecticide selected and in the untreated cont rol colonies, the three sub colonies of population BM: bifenthrin exposed (BM BS), clothianidin exposed (BM CS), and untreated control (BM UC) were used in the enzyme assays. A total of 14 (seven females and seven males) B. insularis adults from each colon y were determined for their specific activities of P450, GST, and esterase. Overall, females had higher enzymatic activities than males within each colony (Table 2 5). Specifically, specific activities of P450 ( P = 0.0143), GST ( P = 0.0020), and esterase ( P = 0.0003) were 4.7 , 2.0 , and 2.6 fold higher, respectively, in females relative to males from the BM BS colony. For the BM CS colony, significantly higher GST ( P = 0.0131) and esterase ( P = 0.0003) activities were detected in females relative to males, whereas no difference in P450 activity ( P = 0.3333) was found between two sexes. Similarly, the BM UC females displayed significantly higher GST ( P = 0.0189) and esterase ( P = 0.0087) activities than males, but had no difference in P450 specific activity ( P = 0.0571) (Table 2 5). For all three enzyme families, females exhibited higher variance between individuals than males within each colony.

PAGE 61

61 In comparison with females from the other two BM sub colonies that were not exposed to bifenthrin, females from th e bifenthrin selected colony (BM BS) had 1.7 to 3.0 fold higher P450 specific activities (Table 2 5). However, the difference was not statistically significant among three sub colonies ( 2 = 4.6662, df = 2, P = 0.0970). Likewise, GST ( 2 = 0.2078, df = 2, P = 0.9013) and esterase ( 2 = 0.8310, df = 2, P = 0.6600) activities of the BM BS females were not significantly different from those of the BM CS and BM UC females. In addition, P450, GST, and esterase activities of the BM BS males were similar to th e respective activities of the BM CS and BM UC males (P450: 2 = 0.4359, df = 2, P = 0.8042, GST: 2 = 1.1577, df = 2, P = 0.5605, esterase: 2 = 3.6440, df = 2, P = 0.1620). Preliminary studies using the extracted enzyme preparations from six B. insul aris females and six males indicated that, esterase electromorphs interacted preferentially with the substrate NA and yielded black bands. However, none of these electromorphs interacted with the substrate NA (Figure 2 3). Therefore, NA was used as t he substrate for following native PAGE and inhibition assays. Overall, five separated esterase electromorph groups were detected in B. insularis adults (Figure 2 4). The electromorph mobility was identical within each sex for the BM BS, BM CS, and BM UC co lonies. The staining intensity of esterase electromorph groups from males showed consistence between individuals, whereas the esterase electromorph of females exhibited varying intensities. Regardless the selection of insecticide, females displayed higher staining intensity of group II electromorphs than males (Figure 2 4). Compared to the difference among colonies, the staining intensity of esterase electromorph group V was the highest in the BM BS adults (Figure 2 4). Relative to the uninhibited control, the staining intensity of esterase electromorph groups I and II from all three colonies (BM BS, BM CS, and BM UC) decrease d after pre incubation

PAGE 62

62 with carbaryl (Figure 2 5); indicating that carbaryl interacted with multiple soluble esterase electromorph groups in vitro . However, pre incubation with bifenthrin did not reduce esterase activity (Figure 2 6), suggesting that none of the five detectable electromorph groups interacted with bifenthrin in vitro . Discussion Population GL13 collected from a St. Augustinegrass lawn that was treated with bifenthrin twice within eight months, had 14.9 fold increased resistance to bifenthrin with reduced heteroge neity, relative to the original population GL (Table 2 2). This is supported by the positive correlation (R 2 = 0.91) between the insecticide application frequency and the increased resistance to bifenthrin, as reported in other field populations of B. insu laris (Vázquez et al. 2011) . For instance, B. insularis collected from the populations that were treated eight to 11 times annually with inse cticidal products (regardless of active ingredient used), showed 2.4 to 5.9 fold higher bifenthrin LC 50 values than those populations that were treated three to four times (Vázquez et al. 2011) . Similarly, the fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), which was exposed annually ten times to an organophosphate (malathion), displayed 6 fold higher resistance to malathion; compared to the popula tions exposed once only (Magaña et al. 2 007) . Besides the field populations, two laboratory maintained colonies of B. insularis adults (GL and BM BS) also displayed elevated resistance against bifenthrin after two to five exposures to bifenthrin treated St. Augustinegrass, whereas the colonie s (PH and BM UC) without insecticide pressure succumbed to bifenthrin (Table 2 4 ). These findings agreed with other studies, which indicated that the resistance levels increase following continuous insecticide selections for multiple generations in cockroa ches (Cochran 1987, Scharf et a l. 1998) , in whiteflies (Sivasupramaniam and Watson 2000) , and in tarnished plant bugs (Snodgrass 1996a) .

PAGE 63

63 Blissus insularis adults from nine populations collected i n Alachua, Marion, and Santa Rosa Counties in Florida had a wide range of bifenthrin LC 50 values and slope values using a stem dip bioassay . The high variation in bifenthrin LC 50 values and slope values also occurred in other B. insularis field populations , as reported in 2005 (LC 50 values = 2.3 1 , slopes = 0.5 1.8), in 2007 (1 1 , 0.4 2.7), and in 2011 (0.9 1 , 0.9 4.3) (Cherry and Nagata 2005, 2007 ; Vázquez et al. 2011) . Possibly, the detected variation in the current study resulted from the genetic heterogeneity of B. insularis within and/or between populations. It should be noted that all B. insularis adults subjected to the susceptibility bioassay were unsexed and at unknown ages in the current and previous studies (Cherry and Nagata 2005, 2007, Vázquez et al. 2 011) . Typically, sex and age related differences in susceptibility to insecticides exist in other insects, with varying results. For example, female cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), ha d higher LD 50 values than males for pyrethroids (1.8 fold), or ganophosphates (1.4 fold), and carbamates (2.3 fold) (Abd Elghafar et al. 1990) . Conversely, stink bug males, Halymorpha halys (Stål), were 2.6 fold mo re resistant to a neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam) than females (Nielsen et al. 2008) . Moreover, laboratory reared adult plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvo is), at older ages (16 17 days) were significantly more susceptible to pyrethroids than younger adults (< 10 days old ) (Snodgrass 1996b) . Further studies for the susceptibili ty of B. insularis adults to insecticides need to be conducted, using females and male s at similar age, to eliminate sex and age related differences in responses to insecticides. U sing a systemic bioassay, different field collected populations of B. insularis in this study had similar susceptibilities to clothianidin. This contrasts with the high variance (37.2 fold) in LC 50 values against another neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, that were obtained from B. insularis

PAGE 64

64 adults collected in South Florida using a stolon dip (contact) bioassay (Cherry and Nagata 2007) . Typically, the systemic bioassay is used for assessing the efficacy of neonicotinoid insecticides against phloem feeders, such as whiteflies (Elbert and Nauen 2000) and another ch inch bug species, B. occiduus (Stamm et al. 2011) . In the current study using the systemic bioassay for determining the clothianidin LC 50 values of six populations coll ected from two counties (Alachua and Marion), all populations had lower clothianidin LC 50 values (0.07 1 ), compared to the LC 50 values (4 1 ) of B. insularis adults that were exposed to the clothianidin treated grass for 24 hours in an ai rbrush bioassay (Vázquez 2009) . It is noted that the systemic bioassay used in the present study only considered the toxicity of clothianidin upon ingestion by insects. Also, studies have shown that the contact toxicity of clothianid in is negligible. For example, compared to the contact toxicity of bifenthrin, B. occiduus had 92 to 122 fold higher LC 50 values from exposure to clothianidin by contact; suggesting that clothianidin is relatively less effective than bifenthrin when clot hianidin is applied topically (Stamm et al. 2011) . The present study demonstrated that homogenates from one B. insularis adult could be used in multiple enzyme assays. This was also possible in tests with western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, adults (Zhou et al. 200 2) and mosquito adults and larvae (Grant et al. 1989) . In all field collected populations and insecticide selected colonies, females gen erally displayed higher activity than males for tested P450, GST, and esterase enzymes. These specific activities were initially corrected f or total protein concentration . Unexpected ly , the bifenthrin selected B. insularis adults (BM BS) did no significant ly differ in enzyme activity level s (P450, este rase, GST), compared to the clothianidin selected (BM CS) and untreated control (BM UC) adults. Likewise, the adult cockroach males that were selected continuously for three generations with cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos had increased resistance to the

PAGE 65

65 cor responding insecticide , but displayed no significant changes in total esterase or GST activity (Scharf et al. 1998) . These results suggested that the total enzyme activities determined by specific reactions ( i.e. , O demethoxylation of p NA by P450, CDNB conjugation by GST, and p NPA hydrolysis by esterase) were not involved in the observed bifenthrin resistance of B. i nsularis . Therefore, the native PAGE assay was conducted to examine differences in esterase electromorphs. Typically, both and NA substrates can detect hydrolytic esterase activity in various insects, including D. virgifera virgifera (Miota et al. 1998, Wright et al. 2000) , the aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Carletto et al. 2010) , the parasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) ( Baker et al. 1998) , and two ant species, Solenopsis invicta Buren and S. richteri Forel (Chen et al. 2014) . However, only moiety interacted with esterase electromorph groups from B. insularis adults, suggesting that these electromorphs preferentially hydrolyzed the naphthyl ester. Similarly, the preference of naphthyl ester hydrolysis also was reported in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), biotype A that exhibited the A esterase electromorph profile (Brown et al. 1995) . Using NA as the substrate, native PAGE gel profi le revealed that both bifenthrin selected females and males contained an over expressed esterase electromorph group V, compared to the clothianidin selected and the untreated counterparts (Figure 2 4). Therefore, the over expressed esterase electromorph gr oup V is possibly related to the bifenthrin resistance of B. insularis . This increased intensity of esterase electromorphs has been reported in other insects that are resistant to organophosphates (Shufran et al. 1996, Wright et al. 2000, Zhou et al. 2002, López Soler et al. 2008) , carbamates (Scharf et al. 1998) , and pyrethroids (Byrne et al. 2000, López Soler et al. 2008) . Moreove r, the elevated group II esterase electromorphs are strongly correlated (R 2 = 0.9 to 0.92) to the resistance of D. virgifera virgifera adults to an

PAGE 66

66 organophosphate, methyl parathion (Zhou et al. 2002) . Similar correlations between the esterase bands and the resistance to both pyrethriod and carbamate insecticides were also found in thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergand e) ( López Soler et al. 2008) , suggesting the reliability of native PAGE for detecting the esterase mediate resistance to insecticides. PAGE anslysis of the adult homogenate sample s from two sub colonies exposed to insecticides (BM BS and BM CS) and one non exposed sub colony (BM UC) had similar inhibition patterns with carbaryl (Figure 2 5), but had no inhibition with bifenthrin (Figure 2 6). Similarly, i nhibition of esterase electromorphs with carbaryl also occur ed in both carbaryl resistant and suscep tible strains of D. virgifera virgifera (Scharf et al. 1999) . In the previous study, B. insularis adult s from a bifenthrin susceptible laboratory colony spontaneously showed 14 to 16 fold higher levels of resistance to carbaryl, compared to their susceptibility to bifenthrin (Vázquez 2009) . Based on our carbaryl inhibition assay, the carbaryl resistance of B. insularis is likely associated with the esterase enzyme. Taken together, the results from total metabolic enzyme activities and native PAGE assays suggested that the P450, esterase, and GST had negligible impacts on the B. insula ris resistance against bifenthrin. Further study is needed to examine the possibility that an alternative mechanism ( i.e. , target site insensitivity) is responsible for the observed development of insecticide resistance in B. insularis . In the aphid M. per sicae , the presence of a point mutation at the sodium channel domain confers elevated levels of resistance (35 fold) against the pyrethroid deltamethrin , whereas the esterase mechanism showed only a 4 fold increase in the resistance against deltamethrin (M artinez Torres et al. 1999). In conclusion, continuous exposures of the field collected B. insularis population to bifenthrin treated St. Augustinegrass increased the level of resistance against bifenthrin. Even

PAGE 67

67 though no evidence indicated that the metabolic detoxification enzymes conferred the observed bifenthrin resistance, results from the esterase native PAGE assay with carbaryl inhibition revealed a potential esterase mediated mechanism for historically reported resistance against carbamates . Further studies are needed to elucidate this speculation. Subsequently, the populations PH and GL maintained as bifenthrin susceptible (S) and resistant (R) colonies under the laboratory conditions over multiple generations were subjected to examination of their gut symbionts (see Chapters 3 and 4).

PAGE 68

68 Table 2 1. Collection sites and reported insecticide applications for Blissus insularis field populations. Population City County GPS coordinates a Collecting dates Insecticide applications PH Jay Santa Rosa July 2012 None GL b Gainesville Alachua August 2012 Bifenthrin d GH Gainesville Alachua June 2013 Unknown MH3951 Gainesville Alachua August 2013 None BM c Gainesville Alachua September 2013 None BM1316 c Gainesville Alachua June July 2013 Bifenthrin GL13 b Gainesville Alachua May 2013 Bifenthrin e SG Ocala Marion June 2013 Unknown PCP Gainesville Alachua June 2013 Unknown a The map illustrating the distance between each location is presented in Figure 2 2. b Denotes populations collected from the same site but in different years. c Denotes populations in the same neighborhood. d Bifenthrin failure was reported in July 2012. e Bifenthrin applications were made in August 2012 (after the first collecting event) and April 2013.

PAGE 69

69 Table 2 2. Susceptibility of Blissus insularis to bifenthrin using a stem dip contact bioassay. Population N Slope (SE) LC 50 (FL) a LC 90 (FL) a RR b 2 (df) c P d PH 70 1.12 (0.26) 0.20 (0.06 0.61) 2.82 (0.86 34.03) 1.0 5.91 (5) 0.32 GL e 210 0.55 (0.07) 1.43 (0.55 3.43) 296.43 (90.84 1,637) 7.2 3.03 (5) 0.69 GH 150 1.50 (0.22) 3.54 (2.23 5.46) 25.37 (14.50 61.44) 17.7 3.03 (3) 0.39 MH3951 190 2.18 (0.27) 4.21 (3.32 5.39) 16.29 (11.50 27.48) 21.1 5.86 (5) 0.32 BM f 180 1.32 (0.16) 7.09 (4.48 11.33) 66.37 (36.37 158.03) 35.5 6.94 (4) 0.14 BM1316 f 150 1.33 (0.19) 13.78 (7.94 24.21) 127.32 (63.37 379.70) 68.9 3.20 (3) 0.36 GL13 e 180 0.82 (0.10) 21.26 (10.59 43.62) 776.30 (299.21 3,114) 106.3 7.42 (4) 0.12 SG 180 1.23 (0.17) 65.54 (37.11 117.17) 727.08 (350.43 2,242) 327.7 2.06 (4) 0.72 PCP 150 1.17 (0.17) 298.75 (166.56 559.41) 3,719.00 (1,675 13,160) 1493.8 6.03 (3) 0.11 a LC 50 and LC 90 1 (95% fiducial limits). b Resistant ratio using the population PH with the lowest LC 50 value as the baseline. c Pearson 2 , goodness of fit test (degree of freedom). d P value of the goodness of fit test. e Denotes populations collected from the same site but in different years. f Denotes populations in the same neighborhood. Table 2 3. Susceptibility of Blissus insularis to clothianidin using a systemic bioassay. Population N Slope (SE) LC 50 (FL) a LC 90 (FL) a RR b 2 (df) c P d GH 125 2.06 (0.35) 0.07 (0.05 0.11) 0.31 (0.19 0.71) 1 3.37 (3) 0.34 SG 125 1.98 (0.32) 0.09 (0.06 0.13) 0.38 (0.23 0.89) 1.3 0.40 (3) 0.94 BM1316 75 1.15 (0.23) 0.09 (0.04 0.19) 1.22 (0.50 7.04) 1.3 2.63 (3) 0.45 GL13 75 1.35 (0.26) 0.11 (0.05 0.21) 0.97 (0.44 4.38) 1.6 1.11 (3) 0.77 PCP 125 1.58 (0.24) 0.12 (0.07 0.19) 0.76 (0.43 1.94) 1.7 0.78 (3) 0.85 MH3951 125 2.62 (0.44) 0.17 (0.11 0.29) 1.21 (0.64 3.55) 2.4 5.77 (3) 0.12 a LC 50 and LC 90 1 (95% fiducial limits). b Resistant ratio using the population GH with the lowest LC 50 value as the baseline. c Pearson 2 , goodness of fit test (degree of freedom). d P value of the goodness of fit test.

PAGE 70

70 Table 2 4. The mortality of Blissus in sularis adults at 24 h our post exposure to bifenthrin (1 or 1 ) using a diagnostic contact bioassay. Population Generation N % mortality GL Parental 30 46.7 Fourth 30 23.3 Ninth 11 0 Twelfth 10 0 PH Parental 10 100 Ninth 11 72.7 Twelfth 10 80 PCP Second 13 0 a Sixth 10 0 a Fourteenth 10 0 a BM Parental 40 77 BM UC b Ninth 11 63.6 BM CS b Ninth 11 54.5 BM BS b Ninth 11 0 a Due to the high resistance against bifenthrin in the starting population PCP, a higher bifenthrin concentration at 30 1 was used for the single dose contact bioassay. b BM UC, BM CS and BM BS were generated from the parental colony BM (see details in Methods and Materials).

PAGE 71

71 Table 2 5. Mean (±SE) body weight and specific activities of esterase ( p NPA) , GST (CDNB), and P450 ( p NA ) enzymes of Blissus insularis adults . Population Gender N Weight (mg) p NPA (nmol min 1 mg protein 1 ) Ratio a CDNB (nmol min 1 mg protein 1 ) Ratio p NA (pmol min 1 mg protein 1 ) Ratio BM BS Female 7 1.8 (0.1) 23.2 (2.0) 2.6* 60.1 (6.5) 2.0* 16.8 (2.1) 4.7* Male 7 1.4 (0.1) 8.8 (0.6) 30.8 (5.0) 3.5 (0.8) BM CS Female 7 2.1 (0.1) 23.5 (1.2) 2.4* 70.3 (12.9) 2.0* 5.7 (0.6) 1.3 Male 7 1.5 (0) 10.0 (0.8) 36.0 (4.7) 4.3 (1.2) BM UC Female 7 1.9 (0.1) 22.7 (3.0) 1.8* 65.9 (6.9) 1.7* 9.6 (2.5 ) 2.6 Male 7 1.5 (0.1) 12.7 (1.6) 39.5 (5.4) 3.7 (0.7) a Ratios of females to males enzyme specific activity within each population. * Significantly different by Exact Wilcoxon Two sample tests ( P < 0.05).

PAGE 72

72 Figure 2 1. Systemic bi oassay setup for evaluating Blissus insularis susceptibility to clothianidin. Arrows indicate that B. insularis adults were feeding on the St. Augustinegrass.

PAGE 73

73 Figure 2 2. The map illustrating the locations of nine field collected Blissus insularis populations used in the current study. A) North Florida with county boarders. B) Enlarged street map showing the different collecting sites in Gainesville, Alachua County, FL. Populations GL and GL13 were from the same location but sampled in different years. See details in Table 2 1.

PAGE 74

74 Figure 2 3. Native PAGE assays of single Blissus insularis adult homogenates stained for esterase activity using the substrate or naphthyl acetate and Fast Blue RR solution. Lanes 1 6 indicate homogenates from six different adults (1 = BM CS male, 2 = BM CS fema le, 3 = BM BS male, 4 = BM BS female, 5 = BM UC male, 6 = BM UC female). Figure 2 4. Native PAGE assays of single Blissus insularis adult homogenates from bifenthrin selected (BM BS), clothianidin selected (BM CS) , and unselected control (BM UC) colonies. Legend I V indicates the separated five esterase electromorph groups visualized by the staining with naphthyl acetate substrate and Fast Blue RR solution.

PAGE 75

75 Figure 2 5. Native PAGE gels of clothianidin selected (BM CS) (lanes 1, 2, 7, 8), bi fenthrin selected (BM BS) (lanes 3, 4, 9, 10), and untreated control (BM UC) (5, 6, 11, 12) Blissus insularis adults. Gels were pre incubated with acetone (uninhibited control) or 1 mM of carbaryl (carbaryl inhibited) and stained for esterase activity usin g naphthyl acetate substrate and Fast Blue RR solution. Arrows indicate the esterase electromorph groups (I and II) that are capable of interaction with carbaryl, exhibiting reduced staining intensity in the half gels pre incubated with carbaryl. Figure 2 6. Native PAGE gels of clothianidin selected (BM CS) (lanes 1 and 2), bifenthrin selected (BM BS) (lanes 3 and 4), and untreated control (BM UC) (lanes 5 and 6) Blissus insularis adults. Gels were pre incubated with acetone (uninhibited control) or 0.25 mM of bifenthrin (bifenthrin inhibited) and stained for esterase activity using naphthyl acetate substrate and Fast Blue RR solution.

PAGE 76

76 CHAPTER 3 BACTERIAL SYMBIONTS ASSOCIATED WITH BLISSUS INSULARIS Introduction In general , the t ype and level of bacterial endo symbionts can modulate host response to environmental stress, including pathogens (plant viruses; Su et al. 2014) , parasites (Mahadav et al. 2008) , and xenobiotics (Berticat et al. 2002) . B lissus insularis habors high densities of exocellular bacteria in its tubular midgu t crypts (Boucias et al. 2012) . However, the function of these gut bacteria in B. insularis is unknown. According to the previous study, crypts diss ected from B. insularis collected from populations throughout Florida were pooled, and the crypt genomic DNA extracted from each population was subjected to cloning and sequencing of universal 16S rRNA genes. A mix of 16S rRNA gene clones homologous to the genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas was detected within and among certain populations (Boucias et al. 2012) . It was unknown whether the bacterial complex was resulted from the co inhabitation populations displayed between individuals. Therefore in this chapter, B. insularis were examined individually to determine the crypt associated bacterial composition. Moreover, Burkholderia were detected in the surface sterilized B. insularis eggs by diagnostic PCR amplifications using Burkholderia specific 16S rRNA gene primer s, suggesting that these bacteria are transmitted vertically ( Boucias et al. 2012) . However, the low level of Burkholderia (approximately 2 × 10 4 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies) detected in eggs is possibly due to the contaminant signal amplified by PCR. Further examinations are required to confirm or dispute t his assumption. In Chapter 2, no evidence showed that the bifenthrin resistance of B. insularis was conferred by the insect metabolic detoxification enyzmes. It has been revealed that selected strains of gut symbiotic Burkholderia can degrade insecticides, and in one instance confer an

PAGE 77

77 increased level of resistance to an organophosphorus insecticide (Kikuchi et al. 2012) . Hence, an alte rnative hypothesis that gut symbionts play a role in the insecticide resistance of B. insularis was examined in this chapter, using the qualitative and quantitative assessments. Materials and Methods Insect Dissection and Genomic DNA Extraction Populations GL and PH maintained as bifenthrin resistant (R) and susceptible (S) colonies, respectively, were used in the following studies. Changes of susceptibilities to bifenthrin after five exposures to bifenthrin were included in Chapter 2 (see Resul ts: Insecticide Selections and Resistance Development). Sixteen adult B. insularis females (Bi01 08_R and Bi01 08_ S) reared for two to three generations and additional eight females (Bi09 13_R and Bi09 11_S) reared for eight to nine generations. Adult fema les were selected randomly from each colony and surface sterilized by immersion for three minutes each in 70% EtOH, 5% bleach, and then 70% EtOH. The midgut fourth section, midgut crypts (M4), and the reproductive tracts (with/without eggs) were dissected individually (Figure 3 1). To minimize potential microbial cross contamination, reproductive tracts were removed before the crypts were dissected. Tissues were rinsed at least three times in autoclaved distilled water and fer of the DNA extraction kit (MasterPure Yeast DNA Purification Kit, Epicentre, Madison, WI). Genomic DNA from each tissue sample was extracted 8.0, 1 mM EDTA), and stored at 20 °C. Mitochondrial DNA Sequences of Host B. insularis To examine that the genetic background of R and S B. insularis examined in this chapter and in Chapter 4, four R (Bi05MC_R, Bi08MC_R, Bi09MC_R, Bi24MC_R) and four S (Bi05MC_S, Bi08MC_S , Bi09MC_S, Bi28MC_S) crypt preparations were subjected to PCR

PAGE 78

78 amplification and Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial DNA. Initially, the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I ( COI ) gene and the 18S rRNA gene were amplified with the primers Lep2F_t1 and LepR1 (Gwiazdo wski et al. 2015) and primers 18S_2F and 18S4R (Li et al. 2005) , respectively (see primer information in Appendix A, Table A 1). Unfortunately , both primer sets produced amplicons with the negative DNA control of Burkholderia (Figure 3 2). Therefore, the COI gene primers Tonya and Hobbes (Rand et al. 2000) , that only amplified in insect DNA , were selected for amplification of the R and S DNA preparations (Figure 3 2). The PCR thermal program was included in Appendix A (Table A 1). Purificati on and sequencing of according PCR amplicons were the same as others, except the sequencing was in only forward direction to obtain the ~500 bp sequence of the COI gene. PCR Amplification and Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes To examine the bacterial compositio n in the extracted genomic DNA, crypt and reproductive tract DNA preparations were subjected initially to PCR amplifications using universal 16S rRNA gene primers (see primer information and thermal cycling profile in Appendix A, Table A 2). Amplicons were electrophoresed in 1% agarose gels and visualized with ethidium bromide staining. Positive PCR amplicons (~1.5 kb) were purified subsequently using the PCR purification kit (Agencourt ® AMPure XP, Beckman Coulter, Beverly, MA) according to the manufacturer sequencing (ICBR Sequencing Core, University of Florida) in both forward and reverse directions to obtain the ~1.5 kb sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. The sequences of 16S rRNA genes revealed a complex mixture of bacteria in the reproductive tracts obtained from individual females. To better resolve bacterial diversity in the female reproductive tracts, a pool of R (Bi02RT_R, Bi07RT_R, Bi10RT_R, Bi11RT_R) and a pool of S (Bi01RT_S, Bi08RT_S, Bi 10RT_S, Bi11RT_S) purified universal 16S amplicons were

PAGE 79

79 cloned separately into the pCR8/GW/TOPO ® vector (Invitrogen, Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY), and amplified in One Shot ® Mach1 T1 Chemically Competent E. coli cells (Invitrogen) according to the vector specific M13 forward and reverse primers was conducted to select positive clones. For each cloning event, 48 positive R and 48 positive S clones were subjected to rolling circle amplificati on and Sanger sequencing (ICBR Sequencing Core, UF) using the plasmid primer GW1 (Invitrogen). PCR Amplification and Sequencing of Burkholderia 16S rRNA Gene A series of PCR amplifications were conducted to detect the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene in the geno mic DNA extracted from crypts and reproductive tracts (see primer information and thermal cycling profile in Table A 2). The extracted female reproductive tracts either produced faint or no bands in the initial PCR amplification with the Burkholderia 16S p rimers. In these cases, an additional PCR amplification using Burkholderia specific 16S rRNA gene primers was conducted using purified universal 1.5 kb 16S rRNA amplicons (see the previous section) as templates. Purification and sequencing of positive PCR amplicons (~750 bp) of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene were performed as described previously. Sequence Assembly and Phylogenetic Analyses Trace chromatograms were examined to determine the complexity of bacteria that were associated with various DNA preparati ons. A total of 22 crypt associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequences that produced clean chromatograms were trimmed to ~1.4 kb and uploaded to the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP release 11) website to be aligned and be compared with the database sequence s, using the Sequence Match online analysis tool (Cole et al. 2009) . The Burkholderia 16S sequences obtained from B. insularis field populations (Boucias et al. 2012)

PAGE 80

80 were included as referen ce sequences in subsequent phylogenetic analyses. A total of 22 crypt associated universal 16S sample sequences and 50 reference sequences were aligned by MUSCLE 3.7 (Edgar 2004) and trimmed to obtain the equal length of nucleotides (1,394 bp). In addition, a total of 23 Burkholderia 16S rRNA sequences that were generated from the female reproductive tract genomic DNA preparations were aligned with their counterpart crypt associated universal 16S rRNA sequences using MUSCLE, and were trimmed to obtain equal length sequences (705 bp). A total of 46 aligned Burkholderia 16S sample sequences and 21 reference sequences were pooled for phylogenetic analyses. Pandoraea norimbergensis (GenBank # AF139171) served as the outgroup. Aligned nucleotides were uploaded to the Phylogeny.fr website ( http://www.phylogeny.fr/ ) (Dereeper et al. 2008) customized phylogeny pipeline to conduct the phylogenetic analysis. Nucleotides were aligned using the MUSCLE with Gblocks alignment curation. The maximum likelihood method was used to predict the phylogenetic tree. A bootstrap test with 100 replicates was performed to generate the likelihood bootstrap values. The final version of the phylogenetic tree was edited using the TreeGraph 2 software (Stöver and Müller 2010) . The unidirectional sequencing of 96 clones containing universal 16S rRNA gene amplicons from reproduc tive tracts of B. insularis females produced 94 (47 R and 47 S) clean trace chromatograms. These reads were submitted to the RDP database as described previously. For each B. insularis colony (R or S), the clones classified as Burkholderia were compared wi th the pooled corresponding Burkholderia 16S rRNA sequences that were generated from the female reproductive tract genomic DNA preparations. The sequence similarity between 16S

PAGE 81

81 clones and Burkholderia 16S reads in reproductive tracts was determined by mult iple sequence alignments of partial 16S sequences (400 to 500 bp) using MUSCLE. Fluorescence in situ Hybridization ( FISH) To validate the existence of Burkholderia in the midgut crypts and reproductive tracts that were detected by PCR amplification and sequencing, FISH analyses were conducted to visualize specifically the fluorescence signals of Burkholderia DNA. Dissected midgut crypts and reproductive tracts were placed separately on a pre cleaned Gold Seal ® Fluorescent Antibody RITE ON microslide (Gold Seal Products, Portsmouth, NH), fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at 4 ºC overnight, washed three times in sterile 1 × HEPES buffer, incubated with 0.25 M HCl at RT for 30 minutes, and washed in 1 × HEPES again. Fixed specimens were dehydrated with sequential incubation in 50, 80, and 100% EtOH. Dehydrated specimens, pre equilibrated with the hybridization buffer (0.1 M Tris HCl, pH 8.0, 0.9 M NaCl, 0.1% SDS) at 50 ºC for end labeled oligonucleotide probe Alsym16S (CY3 ACACTCAAAGCCTGCCAGT) (Kikuchi et al. 2005) at 50 ºC in darkness for 1 hour. After hybridization, specimens were incubated immediately in the pre warmed wash buff er (0.1 M Tris HCl, pH 8.0, 0.2 M NaCl, 0.1% SDS) at 50 ºC for 15 minutes (Moriya et al. 2007). After being washed three times, specimens were chilled in 1 × HEPES at 4 ºC for 2 minutes, incubated with 1 µg mL 1 diamidino 2 ph enylindole (DAPI) at RT in darkness for 10 minutes, washed three times in 1 × HEPES, and then mounted in the anti fading agent, 1,4 diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane in glycerol (DABCO). Initially, prepared specimens were examined using an epifluorescence microsco pe (Leitz Laborlux S, Germany) with Texas Red DAPI filter s and photographed. A dditional specimens were examined using a laser scanning confocal microscope (Leica TCS SP5, Germany) with TRITC DAPI filter set (Whitney Laboratory of Marine Bioscience, UF). Hy bridization specificity was confirmed using

PAGE 82

82 the non probe control and the Alsym16S probe against the Escherichia coli D31 strain. As a positive control, an in vitro cultured Burkholderia isolate (Bi16MC_R_vitro, see Chapter 4) was hybridized with the Alsym16S probe. Quantitative Real time PCR (qPCR) The copy numbers of Burkholderia 16S rRNA and dnaA genes in genomic DNA extracted from the crypts and reproductive tracts of R and S B. insularis female individuals were estimated by qPCR. For the 16S rRNA genes, the primers Burk16Sq967F and Burk16SR targeted a 150 bp amplicon. For the dnaA genes, the newly designed primers BurkdnaA17F and BurkdnaA117R were designed to target a 100 bp amplicon (see primer information in Table A 3). Preliminary studies were c onducted with the published primers BSdnaAF/BSdnaAR, which were designed for Burkholderia dnaA gene (Kikuchi et al. 2011b) , but amplified both target dnaA amplicons (~150 bp) and nonspecific PCR products in the present study. These preliminary findings suggested that this primer set was useful for only certain Burkholderia isolates. To redesign a primer set that specifically works for B. insularis associated Burkholderia , one culturable Burkholderia isolate (Bi16MC_R_vitro) generated from the cr ypts of one female B. insularis (see Materials and Methods section in Chapter 4) was subjected to PCR amplification with BSdnaAF/BSdnaAR primers. The resulting dnaA amplicon was isolated subsequently for purification using the Agarose Gel DNA Extraction Ki t (Roche Applied Science, Mannheim, Germany). The recovered DNA fragment was re amplified using the BSdnaAF/BSdnaAR primers and sequenced to obtain a 138 bp dnaA gene sequence. A new primer set BurkdnaA17F/117R was selected using Primer3Plus ( http://www.bioinformatics.nl/cgi bin/primer3plus ) based on the 138 bp dnaA gene sequence, and was examined for its specificity on B. insularis associated Burkholderia by PCR amplification ( Figure 3 3) .

PAGE 83

83 T he in vitro Burkholderia isolate (Bi16MC_R_vitro, see Chapter 4) served as the external standard in the qPCR analysis. Approximately 6 × 10 8 colony forming unit s (CFU) of the external standard, estimated by plating the culture on a nutrient agar plate, wer e subjected to DNA extraction using the MasterPure Yeast DNA Purification kit as described previously. Preliminary tests indicated that the threshold cycle (Ct) values for external standard cells did not significantly vary between RNase treated and untrea ted groups ( t = 0.05, df = 10, P = 0.9608). Hence, the genomic DNA extracted from the intact crypts of eleven R and eight S B. insularis females and from their respective reproductive tracts was subjected to the qPCR without RNase treatment. Extracted DNA of external standard cells was diluted serially to contain 10 10 7 copy number equivalents per reaction to generate standard curves using the 16S rRNA and dnaA genes primer sets. DNA samples from the standard and test samples were subjected to qPCR reaction s using the 2× SensiMix SYBR ® & Fluorescein Kit (Bioline, Taunton, MA). Samples were run on an iCycler MyiQ Single Color Real Time PCR Detection System (Bio Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) for both genes using the qPCR thermal program listed in Appendix A (Table A 3). The Ct values of genomic DNA samples were estimated from the standard curves and converted into the copy numbers of Burkholderia 16S rRNA and dnaA genes per insect. Copy numbers of each gene were log 10 transformed before statistical analyses to check the normal distribution of the results using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test (PROC UNIVARIATE, SAS 9.3, SAS Institute 2011). If the data were normally distributed, then t he log 10 transformed copy numbers were c ompared between R and S colonies using two sample t test by the TTEST procedure.

PAGE 84

84 Nucleotide Sequence Accession Numbers All DNA sequences obtained from this chapter were deposited in the GenBank nucleotide sequence databases with the accession numbers KP6 83095 to KP683116, KP702236 to KP702240, and KP713811 to KP713850. Results Sequencing of COI Gene for B. insularis All eight (four R and four S) examined B. insularis crypt associated COI gene amplicons produced clean chromatograms free of mixed reads with in the target sequence. The 519 bp sequences of seven B. insularis individuals were 100% identical to each other, whereas the sequence of an S female (Bi08MC_S) had 99% homology with five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the sequences of o ther seven individuals (Appendix B 1). Bacterial Ribotypes in Midgut Crypts Twenty two of the 24 crypt associated universal 16S rRNA amplicons produced clean chromatograms, free of mixed reads, within the target sequence (Figure 3 4A). All 22 clean reads (12 R and 10 S) were identified as belonging to the genus Burkholderia. The nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences (~1.4 kb) contained 11 conservative fragments that flanked eight hypervariable regions (Figure 3 5). Within the conserved regions, the 16S s equences had no single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) in all tested 22 reads. Most SNPs (92%) were located in the well defined hypervariable V1 V8 regions (Figure 3 5). The level of crypt associated universal 16S sequence polymorphism was similar in the D NA extracted from R and S insect s. Specifically, 16S sequences generated from individuals within the R and S colonies had 90 and 84 SNPs, respectively. Among the eight hypervariable regions, V1, V3, and V6 had high percentages of SNPs (26 36%) in respectiv e regions for both colonies (Table 3 1).

PAGE 85

85 The phylogenetic analyses placed the crypt associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequences within four major clades (A to D) (Figure 3 6). The 16S sequences obtained from R and S crypts did not form distinct clades but were distributed throughout the phylogen etic tree. Specifically, eight sequences (five R and three S) were clustered in clade A (bootstrap value = 85) with symbiotic Burkholderia detected in various heteropterans and with the environmental and insect gut symbiotic Burkholderia isolates capable o f degrading pesticides. Three sequences (two R and one S) were grouped in clade B and were related to plant associated beneficial and environmental B. caribensis , B. tuberum , B. sabiae , and B. sacchari (bootstrap value = 84). Two sequences (one R and one S ) were closely related to a soil bacterium in clade C (bootstrap value = 98), while eight sequences (three R and five S) were grouped in clade D with pathogenic B. gladioli , B. glumae and species in the Burkholderia cepacia complex (bootstrap value = 68) ( Figure 3 6). Bacterial Ribotypes in Reproductive Tracts The universal 16S rRNA gene amplicons were produced from the genomic DNA of reproductive tracts from 24 B. insularis females (Figure 3 7A), but the 16S sequences derived from these amplicons resulted in mixed chromatograms (Figure 3 4 B). Initial PCR reactions using Burkholderia specific primers conducted on the genomic DNA amplified faint bands corresponding to the target Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene amplicons (~750 bp; Figure 3 7B). Subsequent PCR ampl ifications with Burkholderia specific primers, conducted on the amplicons produced using the universal 16S rRNA primers , detected positive Burkholderia 16S rRNA amplicons in all 24 female reproductive tracts (Figure 3 7C). Sanger sequencing of the reamplif ied Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene sequences from 23 female reproductive tracts produced clean chromatograms free of double peaks (Figure 3 4 C).

PAGE 86

86 The phylogenetic analyses placed reproductive tract associated Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene sequences within the fiv e major clades (A E), with the majority (14 out of 23) of sequences affiliated with insect associated gut symbiotic Burkholderia in clade A (bootstrap value = 73) (Figure 3 8). Similar to the crypt associated Burkholderia ribotypes, the Burkholderia 16S r RNA gene sequences of R and S female reproductive tracts did not form distinct groups but were distributed in different clades (Figure 3 8). Of thirteen R and nine S female B. insularis examined, five R (Bi01_R, Bi04_R, Bi05_R, Bi11_R, and Bi12_R) and two S (Bi10_S and Bi11_S) harbored Burkholderia in crypts having ribotypes identical to those in their respective reproductive tracts (Figure 3 8, Table 3 2). For the other fifteen individuals, eight (four R and four S) females had similar 16S sequences with of nucleotide difference, whereas seven (four R and three S) females harbored Burkholderia ribotypes with > 3% of nucleotide difference between aligned crypt and reproductive tract Burkholderia 16S partial sequences (~700 bp; Table 3 2). The SNPs iden tified in these pairwise alignments were localized in the hypervariable V3 V7 regions ( Table 3 2 ) for sequences generated from both R and S females . Analyses of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (~900 bp) of 94 recombinant clones containing the pooled 16S amplicons of R and S female reproductive tracts revealed the presence of 59 gamma proteobacterial Escherichia coli K12, which is not a bacterial strain associated with insects, suggesting contamination of the DNA preparations. For the R pool reads (n = 47) that did not match E. coli , amplicons had identities to beta proteobacterial Burkholderia ( n = 12 ), other Gamma proteobacteria ( n = 6 ), and Alpha proteobacteria ( n = 1 ) (Table 3 3). Among 12 clone sequences identified as Burkholderia , three were identical to the Burkholderia 16S sequences of Bi02RT_R and Bi10RT_R (see Figure 3 8). The other nine clone sequences

PAGE 87

87 displayed a best match (97 99% similarity) to the Bi02RT_R, Bi07RT_R, and Bi10RT_R sequences. No clone sequences matched to the fourth pooled sampl e (Bi11RT_R) sequence. Similarly, the 47 clones derived from the pooled 16S amplicons of the S female reproductive tracts included 31 reads matching the E. coli K12. The remaining 16 S reads matched to Burkholderia ( n = 11 ), other Gamma proteobacteria ( n = 4 ) and Bacteroidetes ( n = 1 ) (Table 3 3). Four Burkholderia clones had identical sequences to the Bi01RT_S and Bi10RT_S, whereas the other seven clones had 99% sequence similarity to the sequences of Bi10RT_S and Bi11RT_S. No clone sequences matched to the Bi 08RT_S. In situ detection of Burkholderia The hybridization specificity was confirmed by the epifluorescence microscopy that only the Burkholderia (cultured Bi16MC_R_vitro) isolate with FISH probe produced fluorescent signals, whereas the non probe control and E. coli cells with probe failed (Figure 3 9). FISH analyses using both epifluorescence and confocal microscopies revealed that Burkholderia bacteria predominated in the midgut crypts rather than other regions of the digestive tract ( i.e. , anterior mid gut, hindgut) (Figure 3 10). Dense populations of Burkholderia were confined to the lumen of crypts (Figure 3 11). Both female and male reproductive tracts were subjected to FISH, but no detectable Burkholderia signal occurred in either one . Initially, a red signal, forming a epifluorescence microscope with Texas Red filter; additional specimens without FISH confirmed that this was a false positive s ignal (Figure 3 12B), which was possibly caused by the melanin being deposited in the pedicel area detected by the Texas Red filter with broader spectra (Figure 3 12A). Re examination using the confocal microscope with the TRITC filter with more specific s pectra confirmed the false positive signal (Figure 3 12C and D).

PAGE 88

88 Quantitative Assessment of Burkholderia In midgut crypts, the 11 R females harbored approximately 8.5 ± 2.0 × 10 7 (mean ± SE) and 7.7 ± 2.0 × 10 7 of Burkholderia 16S rRNA and dnaA gene co pies per insect, respectively, whereas the eight S females harbored 5.4 ± 3.4 × 10 7 and 2.0 × 10 7 ± 9.0 × 10 6 of 16S rRNA and dnaA gene copies per insect , respectively (Table 3 4). The log 10 transformed results for both 16S rRNA (in crypts: D = 0.1133, P > 0.15; in reproductive tracts: D = 0.1143, P > 0.15) and dnaA (in crypts: D = 0.1564, P > 0.15; in reproductive tracts: D = 0.1587, P > 0.15) genes were normally distributed. The mean log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA ( t = 2.37, df = 17, P = 0.0296; Figure 3 13A ) and dnaA ( t = 3.63, df = 17, P = 0.0021; Figure 3 13B) gene copy numbers of R crypts were significantly greater than those of S crypts. In the reproductive tracts, R females harbored 9.9 ± 7.3 × 10 5 and 8.4 ± 4.8 × 10 5 of Burkholderia 16S rRNA and dnaA g ene copies per insect, respectively, whereas S females harbored 5.1 ± 1.4 × 10 4 and 5.1 ± 1.9 × 10 4 of 16S rRNA and dnaA gene copies per insect , respectively (Table 3 4). Unlike the crypt associated Burkholderia , the Burkholderia densities in the R reprodu ctive tracts were not significantly different from those in the S reproductive tracts ( Figure 3 13 ). Based on the 16S rRNA and dnaA gene copies, the estimated mean numbers of Burkholderia in midgut crypts were significantly greater ( P < 0.0001; approximate ly 1000 fold) than the corresponding numbers in reproductive tracts for both R and S females ( Figure 3 13 ). Discussion Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, various crypt associated Burkholderia ribotypes were detected in both the bifenthrin resistant (R) and susceptible (S) B. insularis laboratory colonies maintained over eight to nine generations. These findings confirmed the consistent presence of a mix of Burkholderia ribotypes reported in B. insularis field populations (Boucias et al. 201 2) . Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the crypt associated Burkholderia from B.

PAGE 89

89 insularis did not form coherent groups, but were distributed in multiple clades, similar to the crypt associated symbiotic Burkholderia of the oriental chinch bug, Cav elerius saccharivorus (Okajima) (Hemiptera: Blissidae) (Itoh et al. 2014) . Other coreoid and lygaeoid species reportedly acq uire gut symbionts from the environment (Kikuchi et al. 2007, 2011b; Garcia et al. 2014) . The 16S rRNA gene sequences from the present study revealed a clonal association; midgut crypts from most B. insularis individua ls typically harbored one dominant Burkholderia ribotype, resulting in the observed complex Burkholderia community existing within each colony. This clonal association also occurred in certain lygaeoid and coreoid heteropterans that harbor nearly identical symbiotic Burkholderia (Kikuchi et al . 2011a, Itoh et al. 2014) . In contrast, some coreoid species harbor a community of coexisting bacteria; in these cases, the crypts of individual insects were co infected by two or more Burkholderia operational taxonomic units (OTUs; at 97% sequence sim ilarity) (Garcia et al. 2014) . In addition, the non clonal association is also found in various pentatomid species that individually harbor a community of Actinobacteria in their midgut crypts (Zucchi et al. 2012) . In certain heteropteran species, the midgut crypts are closed completely (Kikuchi et al. 2009) . F luorescent microscop y detected Burkholderia signals in the B. insularis common duct at the M4 region (Figure 3 10A), suggesting that the lumen of crypts is connected via common duct to the main tract, providing opportunities for bacterial acquisition from the environment, as reported in alydid bugs (Kikuchi et al. 2007, 2011a; Garcia et al. 2014) . While B. insularis feed upon the grass phloem at the base of stems, they migrate through the organic thatch and upper soil layer (Kerr 1966) and have access to complex soil microbial communities. It should be noted that the rhizospheres of cultivated plants contain an estimated 33,000 prokaryotic OTUs

PAGE 90

90 belonging to >10 phyla (Mendes et al. 2011, Peiffer et al. 2013, Philippot et al. 2013) . Despite this continuous exposure to a complex m icrobial community, most B. insularis harbored clonal Burkholderia in their respective midgut crypts, suggesting that specific acquisition and colonization mechanisms may determine the Blissus Burkholderia association. These results were supported by the l ater findings (see Chapters 5 and 6) that the midgut crypts possibly are isolated from other midgut regions by a constricted region, and are specialized as the symbiont organ after the gut symbionts initially enter and colonize within the crypts. The rela ted heteropteran, C. saccharivorus , was reported to harbor diverse microbiota in the anterior midgut and have a community dominated by Burkholderia in the midgut crypts, suggesting selective colonization of gut symbionts (Itoh et al. 2014) . In a second heteropteran, oral delivery of ~80 cells of a Burkholderia symbiont strain resulted in crypt colonization of second instar R. pedestris (Kikuchi and Yumoto 2013) . Various symbiotic factors associated with cell wall synthesis, purine biosynthe sis, and biofilm formation have been proposed to contribute to the establishment of Burkholderia in the crypts of R. pedestris (Kim et al. 2013 b ; Kim et al. 2014 a, b ; Kim and Lee 2015) . In other invertebrate bacterial associations, small numbers of symbiotic bacteria out compete non specific environmental bacteria and clonally colonize specialized organs of their respective hosts (Martens et al. 2003, Nyholm and McFall Ngai 2004, Ruby 2008, Mandel 2010 ) . For example, the Acidovorax like bacteria were recruited selectively from a mixed soil microbial community during embryogenesis and accumulated within the nephridia of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Schramm et al. 2003; Davidson and Stahl 2006, 2008) . Similar ly, a small number of the gram negative enterobacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila colonized the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae and subsequently dominated the intestine of infective hosts (Martens et al. 2003) . In addition, the

PAGE 91

91 int estinal lumen of juvenile Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was colonized by a clone of Photorhabdus luminescens (Ciche et al. 2008) . One of the best studie d examples of selective bacterial acquisition is Vibrio fischeri colonizing the light organ of the squid Euprymna scolopes (Ruby and Asato 1993, McCann et al. 2003, Nyholm and McFall Ngai 2004) . In this case, specific acquisition occurred within a few hours after juvenile squids were exposed to the seawater containing a low concentration (~200 CFU mL 1 ) of its symbiotic bacteria V. fischeri . These clonal associations have occurred in both horizontally and vertically transmitted microbes, suggesting that specific mechanisms account for the initiation of symbiosis between micro bes and hosts (Chaston and Goodrich Blair 2010) . Unlike the clonal association between Burkholderia and crypts, the fem ale reproductive tracts of B. insularis individuals produced mixed 16S rRNA chromatogram reads, suggesting the coexistence of multiple bacterial ribotypes. Using the Burkholderia specific 16S primers, re amplifications of the extracted universal 16S rRNA a mplicons detected Burkholderia in all examined female B. insularis reproductive tracts. These results suggested that low titers of Burkholderia are associated with the reproductive tracts. This was further supported by the qPCR data and the sequences of re combinant clones containing the pooled 16S amplicons derived initially from the R and S female reproductive tracts. Limited analyses showed that both the R and S female reproductive tracts contained a complex of bacterial ribotypes with Burkholderia accoun ting for 23 25% of the reads (Table 3 3). In some cases, the sequences of clones identified as Burkholderia matched to six of the eight Burkholderia 16S sequences generated from the reproductive tract samples. The unequal representation of the target seque nces and the failure to detect either Bi11RT_R or Bi08RT_S in the clones from the R and S 16S amplicon pools may be due to the differences in titer, cloning bias, or simply the limited sequencing of the clones. The

PAGE 92

92 detection of novel sequences that were no t 100% identical to the sequences identified in the eight 16S amplicon pools suggested that the female reproductive tracts harbored multiple Burkholderia ribotypes. For example, two clones in R colony had only 97% sequence similarity to the pooled sample B i10RT_R. Examination of these two clone sequences revealed the presence of SNPs in the reverse primer (Burk16SR) region of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene; this may have precluded amplification with the Burk16SR primer. The inability of FISH to detect a Burkholderia signal in the reproductive tracts may be due to the low titers resulting in insufficient numbers of the target rRNA molecules in host tissues (Amann et al. 199 5) . Additionally, the oligonucleotide probe Alsym16S designed by Kikuchi et al. (2005) was generated from alydid bug associated gut symbiont Burkholderia isolates that formed a cluster called Burkholderia symbiont clade (Kikuchi et al. 2012) , equivalent to the clade A in the present study (Figure 3 6). Unlike these alydid bugs, B. insularis harbored diverse groups of Burk holderia . By aligning the sequence of probe Alsym16S with sequences of Burkholderia 16S rRNA genes derived from B. insularis reproductive tracts, 39% of reproductive tract 16S reads had four to five SNPs in the probe binding site and were affiliated with o ther clades rather than clade A , suggesting that the undetectable Burkholderia signal could be due to non complementarity of probe and certain symbiotic Burkholderia ribotypes. To avoid this problem, newly designed FISH probe is needed to target all Burkho lderia ribotypes detected in crypts and reproductive tracts of B. insularis in future study. It is recognized that the faint bands from PCR based methods may represent potential false positives from contamination. However, if the bacteria in the repr oductive tracts were contaminants, one would expect the reproductive tract associated Burkholderia ribotypes be identical to the ribotypes detected in corresponding crypt preparations. Heterogeneity of crypt

PAGE 93

93 and reproductive tract associated Burkholderia ribotypes existed within selected individual hosts. Pairwise sequence alignments showed that 68% of 16S sequences had one to 38 SNPs between the partial 16S sequences generated from the crypt and the reproductive tract genomic DNA. These findings demonstra ted that the heterogeneity of Burkholderia not only existed in individuals within a population, but possibly in different internal organs within an individual host. Furthermore, the detection of Burkholderia in the eggs (Boucias et al. 2012) and the female reproductive tracts of B. insularis (the pre sent study) implies that this insect may employ both environmental and vertical transmission events to ensure the acquisition of Burkholderia , as reported in C. saccharivorus (Itoh et al. 2014) . Significantly, using the Burkholderia clade specific PCR, infections by single Burkholderia ribotype were detected in 52 and 29% of the C. saccharivorus eggs and hatchings, respectively, prior to environmental exposure (Itoh et al. 2014) . The prevalent Burkholderia ribotypes in C. saccharivorus eggs and hatchings belonged to the stinkbug associated beneficial and environmental (SBE) clade, which was also the major clade for the crypt associated Burkholder ia in older nymphs and adults (Boucias et al. 2012, Itoh et al. 2014) . Similarly, most Burkholderia sequences from the B. insularis female reproductive tracts in the present study were placed together with many crypt associated Burkholderia seq uences within the clade A (equivalent to the SBE clade) . The initial mixed 16S chromatograms and subsequent cloning and sequence analyses revealed that non Burkholderia bacteria inhabited the female reproductive tracts. The non Burkholderia sequences gene rated from clones of both R and S female reproductive tracts were placed within proteobacteria (69/94), proteobacteria (1/94), and Bacterioidetes (1/94). Considering the limitations of the 16S rRNA gene sequences to identify bacterial taxa (Clarridge III 2004) , additional approaches are needed to delineate these species (Stackebrandt et al. 2002) .

PAGE 94

94 Additional analyses of female reproductive tract genomic DNA detected variable titers of a Wolbachia like bacterium in both R and S individuals (see Figures 3 14 and 3 15); the function of Wolbachia in B. insularis has yet to be examined. Nevertheless, o ur study revealed that the female reproductive tracts of both R and S B. insularis individuals harbored similar bacterial communities containing a predominance of proteobacterial Escherichia (60 66%), moderate level of proteobacterial Burkholderia (23 25%), and other bacterial taxa ( proteobacteria , Bacteroidetes, and Wolbachia like bacteria) as minor components. In the introduction, it was proposed that Burkholderia in B. insularis may play a role in the insecticide resistance as reported in the Burk holderia Riptortus symbiosis (Kik uchi et al. 2012) . To test this, the ribotype and quantity of Burkholderia were compared between two laboratory colonies varying in their susceptibility to bifenthrin. Burkholderia were detected in crypts and reproductive tracts of both R and S B. insul aris females by PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Burkholderia obtained from R and S females did not partition into distinct clades in the phylogenetic tree. Most (50%) Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene sequences o btained from crypts and reproductive tracts were clustered in the clade A that contained the Burkholderia ribotypes from the field collected B. insularis populations (Boucias et al. 2012) , other lygaeoid and coreoid species ( i.e. , C. saccharivorus , R. pedestris , and Leptocorisa chinensis Dallas) (Kikuchi et al. 2011a, Itoh et al. 2014) , and environmental Burkholderia strains (Paul et al. 2008, Lim et al. 2012, Lu et al. 2012) . The pesticide degrading Burkholderia strains also were clustered within this clade based on the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. It should be noted that genes capable of degrading pesticides have been localized on both plasmid s (Hayatsu et al. 2000, Lim et al. 2012) and chromosomes (Zhang et al. 2006) . Linkage of insecticide degradation to plasmid encoded genes may explain

PAGE 95

95 the lack of clustering the Burkholderia ribotypes from R and S colonies. For example, the Burkholderia symbiont strains MDT2 ( fenitrothion degrada ble) and MDT52 (non degradable ) isolated from C. saccharivorus have different fenitrothion degrading capabilities, yet are closely related ribotypes (Kikuchi et al. 2012) . Further investigation is needed to determine if the Burkholderia associated with B. insularis plays a role in deto xification of xeno biotic s. To estimate Burkholderia levels in B. insularis , we used qPCR to generate quantitative data on both 16S rRNA and dnaA genes. Depending on the bacterial isolate, the 16S rRNA gene may be a multiple copy gene (Dick and Field 2004) with numbers ranging from 1.7 to 4.9 per bacterial genome in the proteobacteria . Therefore, we also used the target dnaA gene, which functions as the initiator of chromosomal replication and has been reported to represent a single copy gene in Burkholderia (Nagata et al. 2005) . The estimated level of crypt associated Burkholderia in the present study was approximately 3 to 5 fold less than those reported previously for blissids (Boucias et al. 2012, Itoh et al. 2014) . T his variance between these studies may be caused by using different target gene primers and standard curve methods. For instance, the dilution series of plasmid DNA containing the target PCR product were used previously (Boucias et al. 2012, Itoh et al. 2014) , whereas the DNA extracted from in vitro Burkholderia was served as the standard in the present study . Although the qualitative assessment of crypt and reproductive tract associated Burkholderia was not able to discriminate between the R and S B. insularis based on the symbiont ribotype, the quantitative assessment using qPCR of two Burkholderia genes (16S rRNA and dnaA ) revealed that statistically more crypt associated Burkholderia inhabited R females than S females. To confirm this indication, the qPCR analysis was repeated using ten female B. insularis from an additional bifenthrin resistant l aboratory colony (PCP) at the fourteenth generation (see details in Appendix C ). The

PAGE 96

96 mean (±SE) Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect for ten PCP crypts was 1.7 × 10 8 ± 4.3 × 10 7 (Table C 1 ; see page 286 ). In comparison with the R and S crypts, the mean log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of R and PCP crypts were significantly greater than those of S crypts ( F = 8.49, df = 2, P = 0.0015; Figure C 1 ; see page 286 ) . In a different system, levels of the intracellular symbiont Wolbachia in the insecticide resistant mosquitoes, Culex pipiens L., were greater than those in the insecticide susceptible ones (Berticat et al. 2002) . The high Wolbachia density in resistant mosquitoes could be a physiological cost associated with the insecticide resistant alleles (Berticat et al. 2002, Duron et al. 2006) . More important , in the Wolbachia mosquito study (Berticat et al. 2002) , both resistant and susceptible mosquitoes had the same nuclear and mitochondrial genetic background and the same Wolbachia strain, except for the presence or absence of resistant alleles. In Chapter 3, the sequences of COI gene derived from the R and S B. insularis were almost identical to each other, indicating their same mitochondrial genetic background. However, t he present study could not exclude the likelihood that the R and S insects had different genetic backgrounds on th e nuclear genome associated with the resistant alleles . Moreover, the density of facultative bacterial symbionts Rickettsia in whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is enriched by various rus (Su et al. 2014) and the attack of parasitic wasps (Mahadav et al. 2008) . Along with these studies, qPCR ana lyses in the present study revealed a potential involvement of gut symbiotic Burkholderia response to insecticide exposures. In summary, the data in this chapter, in agreement with the prior study (Boucias et al. 2012) , demonstrated the universal presence of a diverse community of sy mbiotic Burkholderia in widely distributed field populations and in laboratory colonies of B. insularis maintained over a

PAGE 97

97 multigenerational time frame. These findings revealed that the bacterial symbionts established a clonal association in which a single Burkholderia ribotype colonized the midgut crypts of an individual host. In addition to the crypts, low copy numbers of Burkholderia were also detected in the female reproductive tracts, suggesting the potential for vertical transmission to the next generation. The R and S phenotypes of B. insularis could not be discriminated by the ribotype of their gut symbionts; however, significantl y more Burkholderia crypts than in the S. The potential mechanisms underlying the association between Burkholderia density and insecticide resistant status need to be elucidated in future studies.

PAGE 98

98 Table 3 1. The hypervar iable regions in the crypt associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequences of the R and S Blissus insularis females. Hypervariable region a Length (bp) R colony ( n = 12) S colony ( n = 10) SNPs b (bp) Percentage of SNPs in respective length SNPs (bp) Percentage of SNPs in respective length V1 31 9 29 10 32 V2 106 17 16 15 14 V3 65 17 26 17 26 V4 108 10 9 9 8 V5 59 6 10 7 12 V6 59 21 36 20 34 V7 56 6 11 2 4 V8 52 4 8 4 8 a The 16S rRNA gene sequence hypervariable region range is related to the reference E. coli 16S rRNA gene sequence (Wang and Qian 2009) . The 16S sequences are incomplete in the V9 region. b The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected among aligned 16S reads within each colony.

PAGE 99

99 Table 3 2. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene partial sequences (~700 bp) of midgut crypt and reproductive tract associated bacteria isolated from R and S Blissus insularis females. Colony Identity SNPs a (bp) Percentage of SNPs b Hypervariable regions c R Bi01MC_R 0 0 N/A d Bi01RT_R Bi02MC_R 1 0.1 V7 Bi02RT_R Bi03MC_R 6 0.8 V6 Bi03RT_R Bi04MC_R 0 0 N/A Bi04RT_R Bi05MC_R 0 0 N/A Bi05RT_R Bi06MC_R 7 1.0 V3 4, V6 Bi06RT_R Bi07MC_R 26 3.5 V3 4, V6 7 Bi07RT_R Bi08MC_R 29 4.0 V3 4, V6 Bi08RT_R Bi09MC_R 26 3.5 V3 4, V6 Bi09RT_R Bi10MC_R 9 1.2 V3 4, V6 Bi10RT_R Bi11MC_R 0 0 N/A Bi11RT_R Bi12MC_R 0 0 N/A Bi12RT_R Bi13MC_R 38 5.2 V3 6 Bi13RT_R S Bi01MC_S 1 0.1 V7 Bi01RT_S Bi03MC_S 23 3.1 V3 4, V6 Bi03RT_S Bi04MC_S 32 4.4 V3 4, V6 Bi04RT_S

PAGE 100

100 Table 3 2. Continued. Colony Identity SNPs a (bp) Percentage of SNPs b Hypervariable regions c S Bi05MC_S 20 2.7 V3 4, V6 Bi05RT_S Bi06MC_S 6 0.8 V3, V6 Bi06RT_S Bi07MC_S 3 0.4 V3, V6 Bi07RT_S Bi08MC_S 29 3.9 V3 4, V6 Bi08RT_S Bi10MC_S 0 0 N/A Bi10RT_S Bi11MC_S 0 0 N/A Bi11RT_S a The SNPs detected using pairwise alignments of the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene sequences of midgut crypt (MC) and reproductive tract (RT) associated bacteria isolated from each individual B. insularis. b Percentage of the SNPs in the respective ~700 bp Burkho lderia 16S rRNA gene sequences. c The hypervariable regions where the SNPs are detected in the 16S rRNA gene sequence (for the definition of hypervariable regions, see details in Figure 3 5 ). d N/A = not available.

PAGE 101

101 Table 3 3. Putative phylogenetic affiliation of the 16S rRNA gene clones obtained from the reproductive tracts of four R and four S Blissus insularis females. Colony Closely related taxa identified using the RDP database (accession no. in GenBank) No. of clones Sequence similarity (%) with closely related taxa a Sequence similarity (%) with pooled samples b R proteobacteria Burkholderia sp. SEMIA6385 (FJ025136) 7 99 100 99 100 with Bi02RT_R Burkholderia sp. Ellin155 (AF408997) 2 99 97 100 with Bi10RT_R Burkholderia cepacia LS2.4 (AF311971) 1 100 Burkholderia sp. IBP VHS29 (JQ518342) 1 99 Burkholderia symbiont MDT44 (AB665360) 1 99 99 with Bi07RT_R proteobacteria Escherichia coli K12 (U00006, CP000948) 28 99 100 Morganella morganii (AJ301681) 1 99 Xanthomonadaceae (EF608545) 3 100 Unclassified 2 92 99 proteobacteria Sphingomonas oligophenolica (AB018439) 1 98 S proteobacteria Burkholderia gladioli 223gr 1 (DQ355168) 7 99 100 99 100 with Bi10RT_S Burkholderia sp. IBP VHS59 (JQ518347) 2 99 99 with Bi11RT_S Burkholderia sp. Y212 (AB212227) 1 100 Burkholderia carbensis INPA89A (GU144372) 1 100 100 with Bi01RT_S proteobacteria Escherichia coli K12 (U00006, CP000948) 31 99 100 Morganella morganii (AB089244) 1 99 Xanthomonadaceae (EF608545) 1 99 Serratia sp. (AY700617) 1 99 Pseudomonadaceae (EF608541) 1 99 Bacteroidetes Myroides odoratus (M58777) 1 99

PAGE 102

102 Table 3 3. Continued. a The sequence similarity was determined by comparing the ~900 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences of clones against the closely related sequences published in the RDP database. b The sequence similarity was determined by the pairwise alignments of 400 to 500 bp 1 6S rRNA gene sequences between the clones and pooled Burkholderia 16S generated from the female reproductive tract.

PAGE 103

103 Table 3 4. DNA concentration and the estimated copy number of Burkholderia 16S rRNA and dnaA genes in the midgut crypts and reproductive tracts of R and S Blissus insularis females. Colony Identity Midgut crypts Reproductive tracts DNA concentration 1 ) 16S rRNA gene copies per insect dnaA gene copies per insect No. of eggs DNA concentration 1 ) 16S rRNA gene copies per insect dnaA gene copies per insect R Bi01_R 4.5 5.2 × 10 7 5.5 × 10 7 5 124.8 1.5 × 10 5 1.1 × 10 5 Bi02_R 17.9 2.7 × 10 7 1.6 × 10 8 5 104.0 2.8 × 10 5 9.8 × 10 5 Bi03_R 28.2 4.7 × 10 7 3.2 × 10 7 6 76.7 1.0 × 10 6 1.4 × 10 6 Bi04_R 10.0 3.9 × 10 7 4.1 × 10 7 4 87.8 8.6 × 10 6 5.7 × 10 6 Bi05_R 22.8 4.2 × 10 7 1.4 × 10 7 4 83.5 7.7 × 10 5 9.4 × 10 5 Bi06_R 9.4 1.5 × 10 7 1.6 × 10 7 0 21.9 1.5 × 10 4 1.4 × 10 4 Bi09_R 20.4 9.2 × 10 7 5.7 × 10 7 2 92.6 2.0 × 10 3 3.5 × 10 3 Bi10_R 34.2 2.6 × 10 8 1.5 × 10 8 4 200.1 2.8 × 10 4 8.2 × 10 3 Bi11_R 22.6 1.2 × 10 8 4.9 × 10 7 1 197.0 3.9 × 10 3 6.5 × 10 3 Bi12_R 43.0 1.3 × 10 8 2.3 × 10 8 5 201.1 3.2 × 10 4 9.5 × 10 4 Bi13_R 20.6 1.1 × 10 8 5.5 × 10 7 0 101.1 2.7 × 10 3 1.0 × 10 4 Mean (SE) a 8.5 × 10 7 (2.0 × 10 7 ) 7.7 × 10 7 (2.0 × 10 7 ) Mean (SE) 9.9 × 10 5 (7.3 × 10 5 ) 8.4 × 10 5 (4.8 × 10 5 ) S Bi01_S 8.8 4.3 × 10 6 6.6 × 10 6 0 44.1 4.5 × 10 4 4.9 × 10 4 Bi02_S 18.0 1.5 × 10 7 9.1 × 10 6 0 58.2 6.0 × 10 4 3.7 × 10 4 Bi03_S 10.1 1.7 × 10 7 2.8 × 10 6 1 78.1 2.3 × 10 4 3.1 × 10 3 Bi04_S 12.0 1.1 × 10 7 3.6 × 10 6 0 27.5 1.0 × 10 5 1.9 × 10 5 Bi05_S 18.2 4.4 × 10 6 4.1 × 10 6 1 38.6 1.2 × 10 5 4.5 × 10 4 Bi09_S 19.1 6.3 × 10 7 4.3 × 10 7 0 61.8 8.4 × 10 3 3.7 × 10 4 Bi10_S 9.7 1.7 × 10 7 9.0 × 10 6 0 81.6 1.9 × 10 4 2.3 × 10 4 Bi11_S 39.5 3.0 × 10 8 7.9 × 10 7 5 322.4 2.7 × 10 4 2.4 × 10 4 Mean (SE) 5.4 × 10 7 (3.4 × 10 7 ) 2.0 × 10 7 (9.0 × 10 6 ) Mean (SE) 5.1 × 10 4 (1.4 × 10 4 ) 5.1 × 10 4 (1.9 × 10 4 ) a Mean and standard error were calculated within each colony. See statistical analyses in Figure 3 1 3 .

PAGE 104

104 Figure 3 1. Micrographs of dissected digestive and reproductive tracts of a female Blissus insularis . A) Four midgut sections (M1 M4) with an enlarged image of crypts and the hindgut. B) Dissected reproductive tracts with ovaries, oviducts, and oocytes. The arrow indicates a fully developed egg in the oviduct. Abbreviations: M1, midgut first section; M2, midgut second section; M3, midgut third section; M4, midgut fourth section with crypts; M4B, M4 bulb; H, hindgut; MT, Malpighian tubules; OV, ovaries containing oocytes. The labeling in panel A corresponds to that used for C. saccharivorus (Itoh et al. 20 14). Figure 3 2. The PCR amplifications of the mitochondrial COI gene using primer sets Hobbes/Tonya and LepF2_t1/LepR1 and the 18S rRNA gene using primers 18S_2F/18S_4R detected in the genomic DNA of Blissus insularis different tissues. Lanes 1 = mi dgut crypts, 2 = reproductive tracts, 3 = whole insect (neonate), 4 = a cultured Burkholderia isolate (Bi16MC_R_vitro), 5 = non template negative control.

PAGE 105

105 Figure 3 3. The 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products obtained from two culturable Bu rkholderia DNA (lanes 1 2) and 11 crypt associated genomic DNA of Blissus insularis (lanes 3 13) using primer sets BSdnaAF/BSdnaAR (A) designed in the previous study (Kikuchi et al. 2011b) and BurkdnaA17F/BurkdnaA117R (B) newly designed in the present study. A). The p rimer set BSdnaAF/BSdnaAR amplified unspecific PCR products in culturable Burkholderia DNA (lane 1) and crypt associated genomic DNA (lanes 3, 4, and 6). The arrow indicates the target dnaA amplicon (~150 bp), which was subsequently isolated for purificati on (see details in Materials and Methods). B). The newly designed primer set BurkdnaA17F/BurkdnaA117R amplified target amplicons (~100 bp) in all tested samples. C). The 138 bp dnaA gene sequence obtained from the culturable Burkholderia Bi16MC_R_vitro iso late. The nucleotides in yellow color indicate the BSdnaAF/BSdnaAR primers (Kikuchi et al. 2011b) . The underlined bold nucleotides indicate the BurkdnaA17F/BurkdnaA117R new primers in the present study. Lanes in panels A and B: 1 = external standard Bi16MC_R_vitro; 2 = exter nal standard BicloneS25; 3 = Bi01MC_R; 4 = Bi02MC_R; 5 = Bi03MC_R; 6 = Bi04MC_R; 7 = Bi05MC_R; 8 = Bi06MC_R; 9 = Bi01MC_S; 10 = Bi02MC_S; 11 = Bi03MC_S; 12 = Bi04MC_S; 13 = Bi05MC_S; 14 = non template control; the most left and right standard markers are H yperLadder II ( Bioline, Taunton, MA ).

PAGE 106

106 Figure 3 4. The representative clean (A) chromatogram of crypt associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequence from a female Blissus insularis . The mixed (B) chromatogram of reproductive tract associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequence and the clean (C) chromatogram of corresponding reamplified Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene sequence.

PAGE 107

107 Figure 3 5. The schematic overview of the 16S rRNA gene se quence of the crypt associated Burkholderia in Blissus insularis . The underlined nucleotides indicate the genus specific Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene sequence. The conserved region (Wang and Qian 2009) is shown in gray and hypervariable (V1 V8) (Chakravorty et al. 2007) regions are shown in different colors. Numbers below the nucleotides indicate the positions of 16S rRNA gene sequences, labelled according to the relative positions in E. coli 16S rRNA gene (Wang and Qian 2009).

PAGE 108

108 Figure 3 6. Phylogenetic relationship of crypt associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequences (1,394 bp) obtained from Blissus insularis females (denoted Bi01MC to Bi13MC). The sequences denominated R and S are obtained from the bifenthrin resistant and su sceptible B. insularis colonies, respectively. Sequences detected in the present study are shown in bold. Numbers at the tree nodes represent the maximum likelihood bootstrap values obtained after 100 repetitions; only values over 50 are shown. In brackets are shown nucleotide s equence accession numbers in the GenBank. Clear circles and gray circles denote the Burkholderia detected in the B. insularis field populations (Boucias at el. 2012) and in C. saccharivorus (Itoh et al. 2014), respectively; squares denote the Burkholderia detected in other heteropteran hosts; stars denote the pesticide degrading strains.

PAGE 109

109 Figure 3 7. The initial PCR amplifications of the universal 16S rRNA gene (~1.5 kb) (A) and the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene (~750 bp) (B) detected in the genomic DNA of reproductive tracts from different Blissus insularis females . Lanes in panels A and B: 1 5 = Bi09RT_R to Bi13RT_R; 6 8 = Bi09RT_S to Bi11RT_S; 9 = non template control. The arrows in panel B indicate the faint bands of target Burkholderia 16S rRNA amp licons. The subsequent reamplifications of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene in the purified universal 16S rRNA amplicons detected in all examined reproductive tract samples (C). Lanes in panel C: 1 5 = Bi09RT_R to Bi13RT_R; 6 8 = Bi09RT_S to Bi11RT_S; 9 = Bi 10MC_R served as a positive control; 10 = non template control. Standard markers are HyperLadder II ( Bioline, Taunton, MA ).

PAGE 110

110 Figure 3 8. Phylogenetic relationship of Burkholderia obtained from Blissus insularis female midgut crypts (denominated Bi01M C to Bi13MC) and reproductive tracts ( denominated Bi01RT to Bi13RT) on the basis of 705 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences. The sequences denominated R and S are obtained from the bifenthrin resistant and susceptible B. insularis colonies, respectively. Sequences detected in the current study are shown in bold. Numbers at the tree nodes represent the maximum likelihood bootstrap values obtained after 100 repetitions; only values over 50 are shown. In brackets are shown nucleotide sequence accession numbers in the GenBank. Clear and gray c ircles denote the Burkholderia isolates detected in the B. insularis field populations (Boucias et al. 2012) and in C. saccharivorus (Itoh et al. 2014), respectively; squares denote the Burkholderia isolates detected in other heteropteran hosts; stars deno te the pesticide degrading strains.

PAGE 111

111 Figure 3 9. Phase contrast and epifluorescence (FISH of the same areas) micrographs confirm the specificity of FISH probe (Alsym16S) against the culturable Burkholderia Bi16MC_R_vitro isolate from crypts of Blissus insularis , but not against E. coli or the non probe control. Scale bars = 10 µm.

PAGE 112

112 Figure 3 10. Visualization of Burkholderia in the digestive tract of Blissus insularis . A) Epifluorescence micrograph of FISH targeting 16S rRNA of Burkholderia (red) in M 4. B) Phase contrast micrograph of the same areas. C and D) Focus stacked laser scanning confocal micrographs of FISH localization of Burkholderia (red) in M4. Cyan signals indicate host nuclei stained with DAPI. Abbreviations: M3, midgut third section; M4 , midgut fourth section with crypts; M4B, M4 bulb; H, hindgut.

PAGE 113

113 Figure 3 11. Single plane laser scanning confocal micrographs of crypt associated Burkholderia (red) visualized using FISH and both host and Burkholderia nuclear DNA (cyan) counterstained by DAPI. The series is in order from top (A) to bottom (E) plane. Scale bars indicate 25 µm.

PAGE 114

114 Figure 3 12. A) Dissected female reproductive tracts of Blissus insularis with pedicel areas in yellow color (arrows) withi n ovarioles. B) Epifluorescence micrograph of reproductive tracts without FISH, indicating the false signal by arrows, possibly caused by the melanin being deposited in the pedicel area. C D) Laser scanning confocal micrographs of reproductive tracts stain ed with FISH and DAPI.

PAGE 115

115 Figure 3 13. The mean (± SE) log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA (A) and dnaA (B) gene copy numbers estimated by qPCR in the midgut crypts and the reproductive tracts of eleven R and eight S Blissus insularis females. *, indicates a statistically significant difference between R and S samples for 16S rRNA ( t = 2.37, P = 0.0296) and dnaA ( t = 3.63, P = 0.0021) genes. NS, indicates no statistically significant difference between R and S samples for 16S rRNA ( t = 0.63, P = 0.5412) and d naA ( t = 1.14, P = 0.2720) genes. See tabulated data in Table 3 4.

PAGE 116

116 Figure 3 14. The primary amplification of Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene using Wolbachia specific primers (W CATACCTATTCGAAGGGATAG AGCTTCGAGTGAAACCAATTC (Werren and Windsor 2000) only detected target amplicons (~ 440 bp, indicated by the arrows) in the reproductive tract genomic DNA from one female Bliss us insularis (Bi02RT_S; lanes 5 and 12) (A). Lanes in panels A: 1 = Bi01RT_R; 2 = Bi02RT_R; 3 = Bi03RT_R; 4 = Bi01RT_S; 5 = Bi02RT_S; 6 = Bi03RT_S; 7 = Bi04RT_R; 8 = Bi05RT_R; 9 = Bi06RT_R; 10 = Bi04RT_S; 11 = Bi05RT_S; 12 = Bi02RT_S; 13 = Bi03RT_R. The re amplification of Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene in the purified universal 16S rRNA amplicons detected target amplicons (indicated by the arrows) in all examined reproductive tract samples (B). Lanes in panels B: 1 8 = Bi01RT_S to Bi08RT_S; 9 16 = Bi01RT_R to Bi08RT_R; 17 = non template control. Standard markers are HyperLadder II ( Bioline, Taunton, MA ). The reamplified target Wolbachia 16S amplicons were purified and subjected to Sanger sequencing. The sequences were deposited in the GenBank database (accessi on numbers: KP713835 to KP713850).

PAGE 117

117 Figure 3 15. The detected amplicons of five Wolbachia multilocus sequence typing (MLST) genes ( gatB , ftsZ , coxA , fbpA , hcpA ) (Baldo et al. 2006) using PCR amplificatio n in genomic DNA extracted from the reproductive tracts of one female Blissus insularis (Bi02RT_S). All five MLST gene sequences were affiliated to a Wolbachia strain within a nematode Brugia malayi (Foster et al. 2005) . However, the large number of SNPs between the MLST gene sequences from the nematode associated Wolbachia and the sequences from the present study suggested that the Blissus associated Wolbachia may be a novel Wolbachia infection in insects . Nematodes were in no way associated with B. insularis . The allele size and SNP numbers of each MLST gene are listed using following format: gene name (no. of SNPs /allele size in bp = percent of SNPs in respective gene sequences); gatB (21/369 = 5.7%), ftsZ (21/435 = 4.8%), coxA (17/402 = 4.2%), fbpA (18/429 = 4.2%), hcpA (19/444 = 4.3%). All sequences were deposited in the GenBank database (accession numbers: KP702236 to KP702240).

PAGE 118

118 CHAPTER 4 THE CULTURE DEPENDENT CHARACTERIZATION OF GUT SYMBIONT BURK HOLDERIA Introduction Previous attempts to culture the exocellular gut symbiotic bacteria related to Burkholderia failed in Blissus insularis (Boucias et al. 2012). This failure was unexpected, since other exocellular gut symbionts, including Burkholderia associated with various heteropterans have been propagated successfully in axenic media et al. 2005; Kikuchi et al. 2007, 2011). In Chapter 3, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Burkholderia obtained from the bifenthrin resistant (R ) and susceptible (S) B. insularis crypts did not partition into distinct clades in the phylogenetic tree, indicating that the qualitative assessment of in vivo gut symbionts cannot discriminate between the R and S B. insularis . Therefore, novel culturing strategies were tested in this chapter to produce in vitro cultures to examine the genomic and physiological features of Burkholderia ribotypes obtained from the R and S B. insularis . The capability of culturing the B. insularis associated Burkholderia allowed further investigations on characterizing the different ribotypes and conducting functional studies, including examining the potential roles of gut symbionts in host susceptibility to insecticides. Initially, this strategy involved inoculating intac t midgut crypts in an osmotically balanced medium. Resulting viable bacteria were transferred to bacteriological media and were subjected to detailed characterization that provided phenotypic and molecular data on Burkholderia derived from R and S B. insul aris . To develop an antibiotic treatment for eliminating crypt associated Burkholderia in vivo (see Chapter 5 ) , a series of antibiotics with different mechanisms of action were tested initially against in vitro produced Burkholderia cultures to select the antibiotics that suppressed the bacterial growth. These antibiotics included cell wall synthesis inhibitors (ampicillin and penicillin), 30S ribosome inhibitors (kanamycin and oxytetracycline), a 50S ribosome inhibitor

PAGE 119

119 (chloramphenicol), as well as a folic acid synthesis inhibitor (trimethoprim) (Hitchings 1973, Chopra and Roberts 2001, Kohanski e t al. 2010) . The antibiotic(s) that inhibited the in vitro produced Burkholderia cultures generated from both R and S B. insularis in this chapter would be orally delivered to B. insularis in the following Chapter 5. Materials and Methods Insect Dissect ion and Cultur ing of Crypt associated Bacteria A conventional culturing of crypt associated bacteria by plating and a novel culturing technique were examined. Initially, B. insularis adults were surface sterilized by immersion for three minutes each in 70% EtOH, 5% bleach, and then 70% EtOH. Intact crypts were dissected and rinsed at least three times in autoclaved distilled water (ADW), in sterilized phosphate glutamine (Orbigen, San Diego, CA), to reduce potential contamination. Rinsed crypts were placed into 50 T he crypt homogenates were streak plated on nutrient agar plates and incubated at 28 °C for 14 days . The agar plate was checked daily for bacterial growth. To culture the crypt associated bacteria under osmotically balanced conditions, crypts dissected in the ICM were processed according to the scheme in Figure 4 1. Intact crypts were dissected individually from surface sterilized adults and fifth instar B. insularis sample s from both R and S colonies. Eight B. insularis adults (Bi14 17_R and Bi12 15_ S) and four fifth instars (Bi16 19_S) reared for two to three generations, six adults (Bi18 20_R and Bi20 22_S) reared for four to five generations, and twelve additional adults (Bi21 26_R and Bi23 28_S) reared for eight to nine generations after being established as colonies, were subjected separately to dissection. Half of the crypts dissected from each insect were rinsed at least three times in

PAGE 120

120 Chapter 3 (see Materials and Methods: Insect Dissection and Genomic DNA Extraction). The remaini ng half of the dissected crypts were rinsed at least three times in ICM, placed into a sterile 24 and incubated at 28 °C for 24 hours up to 14 days in a plastic crisper wi th moistened paper towels. The inoculated crypts were examined daily under a dissecting scope to monitor crypt morphology and, under Hoffman modulation contrast optics, to assess bacterial growth. Once bacterial growth in the ICM was detected , preparations were inoculated onto nutrient agar plates and incubated at 28 °C for 48 hours. Two identical bacterial colonies were selected from each diagnostic PCR amplificatio ns using the Burkholderia specific 16S rRNA gene primers (degBurk16SF and Burk16SR) as described in Chapter 3 (see Materials and Methods: PCR Amplification and Sequencing of Burkholderia Species). Colonies producing positive PCR amplicons using Burkholderi a specific 16S rRNA gene primers were speculated to be culturable Burkholderia isolates. Accordingly, these isolates were inoculated in nutrient broth medium and placed into an incubator shaker at 200 rpm at 28 °C for 24 to 48 hours. Bacterial DNA was extr acted from the cultures using the MasterPure Yeast DNA Purification Kit, suspended in 25 20 °C for subsequent sequence analyses. The glycerol stocks of Burkholderia cultures were prepared in 60% sterile glycerol and stored at 80 °C. Bacterial Biofilm Formation After adaption of inoculated crypts in ICM for two to eight days, the bacterial biofilm was established on the ICM surface. To confirm the biofilm was produced by the crypt associated bacteria rather than by contaminants, the culturable bacterial isolates that produced positive Burkholderia amplicons in the PCR amplifications (see details in the following section) were re inoculated in fresh ICM and incubated at 28 °C for 48 hours. The resulting biofilms were

PAGE 121

121 washed at least three times using an injection s yringe with the ADW, lifted by a sterilized microscope slide cover glass, examined with a differential interference microscopy at a 1,600 × magnification using a Leica DMRB microscope (Leica Microsystems Inc., Buffalo Grove, IL), and imaged with a SPOT Ins ight QE camera system (SPOT Imaging Solutions, Sterling Heights, MI). PCR Amplification and Sequencing To confirm the presence of Burkholderia in extracted DNA from the dissected crypt (DC) preparations and the cultured bacterial cell (CBC), tandem PCR am plifications using universal (10F and 1507R) and Burkholderia specific (degBurk16SF and Burk16SR) 16S rRNA gene primers were performed (see details in Chapter 3). Positive PCR amplicons using Burkholderia specific 16S rRNA gene primers were diagnosed as Bu rkholderia isolates; subsequently, their corresponding PCR products of the universal 16S rRNA gene were purified and sequenced as shown in Chapter 3 (see Materials and Methods: PCR Amplification and Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes). In addition to sequencing the 16S rRNA gene, PCR amplification and sequencing of three Burkholderia cepacia complex Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) genes [ATP synthase beta chain ( atpD ), GTP binding protein ( lepA ), and Recombinase A ( recA )] (Spilker et a l. 2009) were conducted to further genotype the Burkholderia associated with R and S B. insularis (see primer information and thermal cycling profile in Table A 2). DNA preparations of CBC derived from four R (Bi16MC_R_vitro, Bi17MC_R_vitro, Bi18MC_R_vi tro, and Bi20MC_R_vitro) and four S (Bi12MC_S_vitro, Bi19MC_S_vitro, Bi20MC_S_vitro, and Bi21MC_S_vitro) B. insularis were used. DNA preparations of DC from two R (Bi01MC_R and Bi02MC_R) and two S (Bi07MC_S and Bi08MC_S) females used in Chapter 3 were also included. The PCR

PAGE 122

122 Taq DNA polymerase master mix (Apex , er reaction. Purification and sequencing of according PCR amplicons were performed as described in Chapter 3. Sequence Assembly and Phylogenetic Analyses The universal 16S rRNA gene sequences (~1.4 kb) obtained from 26 DC and 20 CBC were subjected to asse mbly and analyses as done in Chapter 3 (see Materials and Methods: Sequence Assembly and Phylogenetic Analyses). Within the same B. insularis crypts, the 16S reads of DC were pairwise aligned with those of counterpart CBC using MUSCLE to determine if their ribotypes were identical. For the MLST genes, the sequences were trimmed manually to the same length (443 bp atpD , 397 bp lepA , 393 bp recA ) as other Burkholderia cepacia complex MLST sequences available in the database (http://pubmlst.org/bcc/) (Baldwin et al. 2005) . The concatenated sequen ces (1,233 bp) generated from 16 CBC were subjected to the phylogenetic analyses as done for the 16S rRNA gene. The phylogenetic trees of concatenated MLST gene sequences and the corresponding 16S rRNA gene sequences were edited by TreeGraph2 and construct ed side by side for comparison. Burkholderia cepacia (strain ATCC 49709) was selected as outgroup. The sequences of mitochondrial COI gene obtained from crypt genomic DNA of eight B. insularis individuals were trimmed to 519 bp and aligned with each other to examine the homology. BOX PCR Fingerprinting In addition to the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, BOX PCR fingerprinting was employed using 26 DC and 20 CBC to examine the similarity of the in vivo and the respective cultured Burkholderia . The DNA preparations were subjected to PCR amplifications using a BOX A1R primer ( CTACGGCAAGGCGACGCTGACG (Koeuth et al. 1995) . Ten nanograms of Taq DNA

PAGE 123

123 polymerase master mix in a final vol started at 95 °C for two minutes, followed by 35 cycles of 94 °C for three seconds, 92 °C for 30 seconds, 50 °C for one minute, and 65 °C for eight minutes, and then extended at 65 °C for eight minutes. PC R products were electrophoresed in 1.5% Synergel/Agarose gel (Diversified Biotech, Boston, MA) dissolved in 0.5× Tris borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer for 10 hours at 40V, and stained with ethidium bromide. Gel images were digitized using a ChemiDoc XRS System an d analyzed using the Quantity One software (Bio Rad, Hercules, CA). Lane based background subtraction was applied to remove background intensity from lanes, and similarity analyses of lane based samples were performed by the unweighted pair group method us ing arithmetic averages (UPGAMA). The final version of UPGAMA dendrogram was edited using the TreeGraph2 software. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Twenty cultured Burkholderia isolates (10 R and 10 S) were subjected to the PFGE for genomic typing using the CHEF DR II Pulsed Field Electrophoresis system (Bio Rad Burkholderia isolate was cultured in nutrient broth medium to reach an optical density (OD 600 ) of 1 1.5 (measured using the SmartSpec Plus spectrophotometer, Bio Rad, Hercules, CA) that corresponded to a mid log exponential phase. Then, cultures were mixed with 180 µg mL 1 of chloramphenicol (Bioline) and incubated for an additional hour to terminate ch romosomal replication. An estimated 5 × 10 8 Burkholderia cells were harvested and suspended in the Cell Suspension Buffer (10 mM Tris, 20 mM NaCl, 50 mM EDTA, pH 7.2). The cell suspension was mixed (1:1) with 1.6% Pulsed Field Certified Agarose (Bio Rad) a t 50 °C and loaded into the plug molds. Solidified sample plugs were incubated in the lysozyme buffer (10 mM Tris, 50 mM NaCl, 0.2% sodium deoxycholate, 0.5% sodium lauryl sarcosine, 1 mg mL 1 lysozyme, pH 7.2)

PAGE 124

124 at 37 °C for one hour, incubated in the Prote inase K Reaction Buffer (100 mM EDTA, 0.2% sodium deoxycholate, 1% sodium lauryl sarcosine, 1 m g mL 1 Proteinase K, pH 8.0) at 50 °C overnight, and then rinsed four times with the 1× wash buffer (20 mM Tris, 50 mM EDTA, pH 8.0). Sample plugs were initially run with the standard marker Hansenula wingei (1.05 3.13 Mb, strain YB 4662 VIA, Bio Rad) in a 0.8% Pulsed Field Certified Agarose gel in 1× Tris acetate/EDTA (TAE) buffer recirculated at 14 °C. The samples that had DNA fragments larger than H. wingei (> 3.13 Mb) were run subsequently with an additional standard marker Schizosaccharomyces pombe (3.5 to 5.7 Mb, strain 972h , Bio Rad). The run time for this second PFGE run was 50 hours at 3 V/cm with a 250 900 seconds switch time ramp for H. wingei , whereas that for S. pombe was 70 hours at 2 V/cm with a 1200 1800 seconds switch time ramp. Preliminary studies showed that DNA degradation occurred in certain Burkholderia isolates, resulting in a smear pattern. As done according to previous studies of other degr adation susceptible bacterial strains (Römling and Tömmler 2000, Faw ley and Wilcox 2002) , 50 µM of thiourea (Sigma Aldrich) was added in 1× TAE gel electrophoresis buffer for these degradation susceptible Burkholderia isolates. The gel was stained with 1× SYBR Gold Nucleic Acid Gel Stain (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), inspected visually under UV light, and imaged. DNA fragment sizes were estimated based on standard molecular weight using Quantity One software. Sample plug prepar ation and gel electrophoresis were repeated at least twice for each isolate. The estimated genome size by PFGE patterns was calculated and compared between R and S isolates using the two sample t test (PROC TTEST, SAS 9.3). Growth Rates of Selected Burkhol deria Isolates The growth rates of twenty cultured Burkholderia isolates isolated from ten R and ten S B. insularis were measured using a 96 well microtiter plate reader (BioTek Instruments, Inc.) assay similar to the protocol made by Hall e t al. (2014) . Initially, Burkholderia cells were

PAGE 125

125 harvested at mid log exponential phase, diluted serially in the nutrient broth medium, and plated on nutrient agar plates for determining the colony forming unit (CFU) counts of the starting culture inocu lum concentration. Preliminary studies showed that the initial culture inoculum at concentation 10 5 CFU mL 1 was appropriate concentration for both relatively slow and fast growing Burkholderia isolates (Figure 4 2). Initial densities higher than 10 6 CFU mL 1 resulted in immediate bacterial cell growth with a limited number of readings before cells entered the stationary phase, whereas inocula at lower concentrations (10 to 10 4 CFU mL 1 ) had a prolonged lag phase (> 15 hours) that was not convenient for ti me course experiments (Figure 4 2). Therefore, initial inoculum at 5 × 10 5 CFU mL 1 concentration was used for all 20 isolates. The well microtiter plate (Costar) an d placed in an incubator shaker at 150 rpm at 28 °C for 36 hours. The absorbance at 600 nm was measured hourly using the microtiter plate reader. Nutrient broth served as un inoculated controls. Series dilutions of Bi20MC_S_vitro culture were used for gene rating a standard curve to estimate the number of bacteria based on the absorbance. The growth rate, expressed as generation time (hour per generation), was calculated during the exponential phase. The growth kinetics of each isolate was examined at least twice using freshly prepared inocula. The growth rate of R and S Burkholderia isolates was compared using the two sample t test (PROC TTEST, SAS 9.3). Susceptibility of Culturable Burkholderia Isolates to Antibiotics Twenty cultured Burkholderia isolates (10 from R and 10 from S B. insularis ) were subjected to disc diffusion susceptibility assays to six antibiotics with different mechanisms of action, including kanamycin (Bioline), oxytetracycline hydrochloride (Sigma), trimethoprim (Teknova, Hol lister, CA) ampicillin (Sigma), penicillin G (Sigma), and chloramphenicol (Bioline). Burkholderia cultures grown in nutrient broth media were harvested at the mid log

PAGE 126

126 exponential phase prior to each assay. One milliliter of Burkholderia culture (~5 × 10 8 c ells mL 1 estimated by spectrophotometer) was overlaid onto a nutrient agar plate (95 × 15 mm diameter, Fisher Scientific) and incubated at RT for 15 minutes. Excess inoculum was removed, and plates were allowed to dry in a laminar flow hood. Sterile blank paper discs (6 mm diameter; BBL ; solution was air dried and placed onto the nutrient agar plate covered by Burkholderia cells. The solvent for chloramphenicol and t rimethoprim was EtOH. Therefore, ADW and EtOH were both tested as negative controls for each plate. In preliminary experiments, a series of antibiotic dilutions (4, 0.4, 0.04, 0.004 mM) were tested against on one R (Bi20MC_R_vitro) and one S (Bi12MC_S_vitr o) Burkholderia isolates to determine the suitable concentration for each antibiotic. Eventually, 1 mM of antibiotic solution was used against all examined Burkholderia isolates. Assays were replicated three times for each Burkholderia isolate. After 24 48 hours of incubation at 28 °C, the inhibition zone (mm in diameter) of each antibiotic was measured to determine the relative susceptibility of cultured Burkholderia isolates to antibiotics. To determine if the antibiotic susceptibility of Burkholderia iso lates from R B. insularis differed from that of S, their inhibition zones were compared using the two sample t test (PROC TTEST, SAS 9.3). Results Culturing of Crypt associated Bacteria Attempts to directly culture bacteria on bacteriological media from 1 5 B. insularis midgut crypts homogenized in ADW, PBS, or ICM failed. No colony was detected on the nutrient agar plate after 14 days. Of 30 examined B. insularis half dissected crypt (DC) (13 R and 17 S) preparations that were inoculated in ICM, 25 (12 R a nd 13 S) became increasingly swollen (Figure 4 3) with short, rod shaped bacteria detected in ICM within seven days, whereas the

PAGE 127

127 other five preparations did not produce any detectable bacteria after 14 days. Based on the ribotype of the DC counterpart, the se five preparations (Bi26MC_R_vivo, Bi13MC_S_vivo, Bi17MC_S_vivo, Bi24MC_S_vivo, and Bi25MC_S_vivo) were grouped in different clades (A and C) in the phylogenetic analysis of 16S reads (Figure 4 5). Among these 25 preparations, 22 (11 R and 11 S) produced lawns of identical colony phenotypes on the nutrient agar plate after being streak plated and incubated for 48 hours. The other three samples were either unculturable on nutrient agar (Bi15_R and Bi13_S) or contaminated during the culturing process (Bi23_ S). All bacterial colonies from 22 culturable preparations were identified as Burkholderia by diagnostic PCR amplification using Burkholderia specific 16S rRNA gene primers (Table 4 1). Overall, this technique, involving the pre adaption of crypts in ICM p rior to transfer to nutrient agar, recovered culturable bacteria from 84.6 and 64.7% of examined R and S B. insularis individuals, respectively. Among the 22 in vitro preparations shown to be Burkholderia by PCR, 12 isolates (seven from R and five from S B . insularis ) produced a chapped and ridged metallic biofilm (MB) on the surface of ICM (Figure 4 4A and B). Microscopy at 1,600 × magnification revealed that numerous short, rod underneath the biofilm (Figure 4 4C). Six cultures (three from R and three from S B. insularis ) produced salt crystals (SC) without detec table biofilms (Figure 4 4D and E), whereas four preparations (one R and three S) produced neither MB nor SC (Table 4 1). Moreover, the preparations that produced SC in ICM also formed halos around the bacterial colonies after being plated on the nutrient agar plate (Figure 4 4F ; Table 4 1). Cultured Burkholderia colonies isolated on plates and re inoculated into fresh ICM produced MB and SC with the same phenotypic characteristics as the original inoculated crypt preparations. These findings indicated

PAGE 128

128 that , at least, two distinct phenotypes (MB and SC) of crypt associated Burkholderia were present after being cultured in ICM, regardless of being isolated from R and S B. insularis . Sequencing of 16S rRNA and MLST genes Twenty six of 30 examined dissected cr ypt associated (DC) universal 16S rRNA amplicons (~1.4 kb) produced clean chromatograms free of mixed reads within the target sequence. All 26 clean reads (11 R and 15 S) were identified as belonging to the genus Burkholderia (Appendix B 2) . All 20 (10 R an d 10 S) universal 16S rRNA amplicons (~1.4 kb ) generated from the cultured bacteria (CBC) produced clean chromatograms and also were identified as Burkholderia isolates (Appendix B 3). The pairwise alignments of 16S rRNA gene sequences of DC and CBC prepara tions from 18 B. insularis individuals (nine R and nine S) revealed that the ribotype of the DC preparation was 100% homologous to its CBC counterpart in 15 (eight R and seven S) individuals (Table 4 2, Figure 4 5). For the other three individuals, one S f emale (Bi14MC_S) had similar 16S sequences with 1% of nucleotide difference, whereas two (Bi19MC_R and Bi26MC_S) had ribotypes with > 4% of nucleotide difference between DC and CBC preparations (Table 4 2). The SNPs identified in these pairwise alignments were localized in the hypervariable V1 V8 regions (see definition of hypervariable regions in Chapter 3, Figure 3 5 ). Phylogenetic analyses placed the DC and CBC universal 16S rRNA gene sequences within three major clades (A to C) (Figure 4 5). The 16S se quences obtained from R and S individuals did not form distinct clades but were distributed throughout the phylogenetic tree. Nine DC (four R and five S) and six CBC (four R and two S) sequences were clustered in clade A (bootstrap value = 90) with the Bur kholderia isolates detected in various heteropterans and with the environmental and insect gut symbiotic Burkholderia isolates capable of degrading pesticides. Five DC (two R and three S) and four CBC (two R and two S) sequences were

PAGE 129

129 grouped in clade B and were related to various plant associated Burkholderia caribensis , B. tuberum , B. sabiae , and B. sacchari , as well the insect gut symbiotic Burkholderia isolates (bootstrap value = 89). Twelve DC (five R and seven S) and 10 CBC (four R and six S) sequences were grouped in clade C with pathogenic B. gladioli , B. glumae , and species in the Burkholderia cepacia complex (bootstrap value = 100) (Figure 4 5). MLST ( atpD , recA , lepA ) gene amplicons from all examined eight CBC isolates (four R and four S) and four crypt preparations (two R and two S) produced clean chromatograms free of mixed reads and were identified as belonging to the genus Burkholderia (Appendix B 4). The concatena ted 1,233 bp MLST gene sequences obtained from R and S individuals did not form distinct clades but were distributed throughout the phylogenetic tree (Figure 4 6). Generally, the phylogenetic relationship of MLST gene sequence data derived from both CBC an d crypt DNA agreed with the associations derived using the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Two main clades were detected in both phylogenetic trees. Isolates grouping in clades A1 (bootstrap value = 99) and A2 (bootstrap value =100) in the MLST gene tree were als o clustered together within clades B1 and B2 with both bootstrap values of 100 in the 16S rRNA gene tree, respectively (Figure 4 6). BOX PCR Fingerprinting BOX PCR gels illustrated similar patterns between most DC and their CBC counterparts (Figure 4 7), indicating that the bacterial colonies isolated using the new cultivation technique were identical to the bacteria inhabiting crypts. The UPGMA dendrogram of BOX PCR patterns showed that 15 B. insularis individuals (eight R and seven S) had 64 98% similari ty between DC and their CBC counterparts (Figure 4 8), supporting the 100% homology found in their respective 16S rRNA gene sequences (Table 4 2). BOX PCR had higher discriminatory power than did 16S sequence analysis. In several cases, BOX PCR was able to differentiate identical ribotypes. For example, the ~1.4 kb 16S rRNA gene sequences of two DC preparations

PAGE 130

130 (Bi22MC_R_vivo and Bi23MC_R_vivo) were 100% homologous to each other, whereas the similarity of their BOX PCR patterns was less than 50% (Figures 4 5 and 4 8). Among the 26 DC and 20 CBC preparations, 63% had homologous profiles between the ribotyping and BOX PCR fingerprinting. Moreover, the dendrogram of BOX PCR patterns was better able to discriminate the Burkholderia isolates than ribotyping. For instance, 15 preparations were grouped into clade A in the ribotyping; however, only nine of them were clustered together in the dendrogram of BOX PCR patterns with 33% similarity (Figure 4 8). Among the nine preparations grouped in clade B in the ribotypi ng, only four were clustered together in the BOX PCR with 64% similarity. A total of 22 preparations assigned to clade C, but only 16 respective BOX PCR patterns were grouped together with 41 53 % similarity. Nevertheless, the general dendrogram of BOX PCR pattern, like the ribotyping, demonstrated that the fingerprints of Burkholderia isolated from R and S individuals did not form distinct clusters. PFGE Sixteen symbiotic Burkholderia isolates (eight R and eight S) that were typed by PFGC yielded various patterns containing two to six bands, demonstrating the presence of multiple replicons in the B. insularis associated Burkholderia (Figure 4 9). Four isolates (two R and two S) had DNA degradation during the PFGE process, resulting in a smear pattern on gels. The pattern obtained with these four isolates (Figure 4 10). Three (one R and two S) of these four unresolved (degradation susceptible) isolates were grouped in clade B with plant associated beneficial and environmental Burkholderia in the ribotyping, whereas the other one was in clade C (Table 4 3). For the 16 typable isolates, the total gen ome size was estimated to range from 6.6 ± 0.1 to 8.7 ± 0.1 Mb (Table 4 3). Four (one R and three S) of them contained only two replicons that were both la r ger than 3.7 Mb and had larger genomes (8.1 to 8.3 Mb) related to other

PAGE 131

131 isolates, except for 8.7 Mb detected in Bi24MC_R_vitr o. Smaller sized molecules (0.4 to 1.0 Mb) were detected in the PFGE profiles of 11 (six R and five S) isolates, suggesting the presence of large molecular weight plasmids. The six ribotypes clustered in clade A contained one or tw o these small sized replicons, or large molecular weight plasmids (Table 4 3). Comparing the PFGE profiles of Burkholderia isolates between eight R and eight S, the estimated genome size (mean ± SE) of Burk holderia isolates from R (7.7 ± 0.2 Mb) did not si gnificantly dif fer ( t = 0.73, df = 14, P = 0.4801) from that of the isolates from S (7.4 ± 0.2 Mb). The small sized replicons or large molecular weight plasmids were found in both R and S Burkholderia isolate preparations. Growth Rate s of Selected Burkhol deria Isolates The calculated doubling time of twenty Burkholderia isolates varied between 3.4 and 11.1 hours per generation (Table 4 4). Four isolates assigned in clade B required approximately 1.3 fold longer doubling time for each generation (7.6 ± 1.2 hours; mean ± SE), related to other six isolates in clade A (5.8 ± 0.8 hours) and 10 isolates in clade C (5.6 ± 0.3 hours). Comparing the growth rate of Burkholderia isolates between 10 R and 10 S, R isolates (6.0 ± 0.8 hours) were not significantly different ( t = 0.14, df = 18, P = 0.8906) from S isolates (6.1 ± 0.4 hour s). Susceptibility of Culturable Burkholderia Isolates to Antibiotics In the preliminary studies, both cultured Burkholderia isolates (Bi12MC_S_vitro and Bi20MC_R_vitro) were inhibited by kanamycin, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim at 0.4 mM or higher co ncentrations (Table 4 5). The resistance against penicillin was detected in Bi12MC_S_vitro, at all examined antibiotic concentrations (0.004 to 40 mM). Conversely, Bi20MC_R_vitro displayed susceptibility to penicillin at the relatively low concentration (0 .4 mM). Both isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, but at relatively high concentrations (4 and 40 mM). The diameter of inhibition zone was strongly correlated (R 2 = 0.9 to 1.0) to the respective antibiotic concentration value for both Burkholderia isolates (Table 4 5).

PAGE 132

132 All twenty Burkholderia isolates were susceptible to 1 mM of kanamycin, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim. These three antibiotics produced inhibition zones (mean ± SE) of 14 ± 0.5 to 31± 3.1 mm, 10.7 ± 0.7 to 26.3 ± 1.4 mm, and 10 .3 ± 0.7 to 34.3 ± 1.9 mm, respectively (Table 4 6). Sixteen isolates (eight R and eight S) also were inhibited by 1 mM of chloramphenicol (9 ± 0.5 to 21.7 ± 1.7 mm in diameter). Ampicillin and penicillin (1 mM) inhibited only five isolates (three R and tw o S) (Table 4 6). Comparing the susceptibilities of cultured Burkholderia isolates to kanamycin ( t = 0.09, df = 18, P = 0.9263), oxytetracycline ( t = 1.47, df = 18, P = 0.1593), thrimethoprim ( t = 0.52, df = 12, P = 0.6122), and chloramphenicol ( t = 1.47, df = 13, P = 0.0968), no significant difference was found between R and S Burkholderia isolates . Specifically, the inhibition zones of kanamycin, oxytetracycline, thrimethoprim, and chloramphenicol were 21, 19, 24, and 17 mm in R isolates , respectively; wh ereas the corresponding zones were 21, 16, 26, and 15 mm in S isolates , respectively. Discussion In agreement with the findings in Chapter 3 and with the previous study on B. insularis field populations (Boucias et al. 2012) , the 16S rRNA gene sequences generated from additional laboratory reared B. insularis revealed the consistent presence of diverse Burkholderia ribotypes, forming multiple clades (see Figures 3 6 and 4 5). In the current study, 87% of examined B. insularis individuals from the bifenthrin resistant (R) and susceptible (S) laborato ry colonies that were maintained over 12 generations harbored one dominant Burkholderia ribotype in their respective midgut crypts, regardless of their life stages and sexes. The R and S individuals were not discriminated by the ribotype of gut symbiotic B urkholderia , confirming the results presented in Chapter 3. Different from the Burkholderia inhabiting B. insularis and C. saccharivorus (Itoh et al. 2014) , however, Burkholderia isolates from R. pedestris (Kikuchi et al. 2011a, 2012) contained

PAGE 133

133 ribotypes belonging to one major clade (SBE). The less diverse ribotype complex in R. pedestris may be associated with its different nature of symbiotic organ, feeding pre ference, and habitat. Specifically, the seed sucking R. pedestris possesses two rowed midgut crypts (M4 section) and is a polyphagous insect pest of legumes (Kikuchi et al. 2011b) . Both B. insularis and C. saccharivorus have tubular crypts (Boucias et al. 2012, Itoh et al. 2014) and are primarily phloem sucking insects that feed on the monocots St. Augustinegrass (Kerr 1966) and sugarcane Saccharum officinarum L. (Murai 1975) , respectively. A high taxonomic diversity of Burk holderia complex in the sugarcane field soil samples was revealed recently using the Illumina sequencing of the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene (Tago et al. 2014) . In agreement with the 16 S reads of crypt associated Burkholderia from the host C. saccharivorus (Itoh et al. 2014) , the phylogenetic analyses of Burkholderia present in the sugarcane field soil samples also formed three distinct clusters defined as the Burkholderia cepacia complex (B cc ), the plant associat ed beneficial and environmental (PBE), and the SBE groups (Tago et al. 2014) . Moreover, the abundance of soil derived Burkholderia sequences in the SBE (58%) and the PBE (42%) groups also supported the predominant Burkholderia ribotypes (68%) belonging to the SBE group in the C. saccharivorus crypts (Itoh et al. 2014, Tago et al. 2014) . These findings strongly suggest that the gut symbionts of C. saccharivorus are acquired from the environment ( i.e. , soils and host plants). Similar to C. saccharivorus (Murai 1975) , B. insul aris also hides underneath plant blade sheaths and at the basal shoot while it feeds and oviposits (Reinert and Kerr 1973) . Even though information on Burkholderia complex in the St. Augustinegrass field soils is not available, examinations using the diagnostic PCR amplifications on St. Augustinegrass tissues revealed the presence of Burkholderia (see details in Appendix D). Its presence suggests the possibility of horizontal transmission of Burkholderia from host plant to

PAGE 134

134 the phloem feeding B. insularis . Further studies examining horizontal transmission were presented in Chapter 6. The establishment of in vitro cultures of symbiotic bacteria expedites our ability t o decipher the symbiont host association. The prior studies reveal that gut symbiotic Burkholderia isolated from diverse stinkbug species are culturable readily in vitro (Kikuchi et al. 2007, 2011). However, previous attempts to isolate Burkholderia from B . insularis midgut crypts using both crypt homogenates and intact crypts in various axenic media failed (Boucias et al. 2012) . Similarly, the crypt associated Burkholderia from the Oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus , using the conventional plating cultivation method has been successful in only 10% of the culture attempts (Y. Kikuchi, personal communication). These findings indicate that the ability to culture insect associated Burkholderia seems to vary according the bacteria and/or insects. It should be noted that both B. insularis and C. saccharivorus are blissids that possess tubular midgut crypts (Boucias et al. 2012, Itoh et al. 2014) , and harbor crypt inhabiting Burkholderia that are closely clustered in multiple clades based on the ribotyping (see Figure 4 5). Therefore, the difficulty of culturing Burkholderia from both blissid species may be related to the in vivo environment within the crypts as a specialized symbiotic organ and to the physiological adaptions of these symbiotic bacteria to this s pecialized habitat. In the current study, 73% of the attempted gut symbiotic Burkholderia were cultured successfully by the novel culturing strategy. Importantly, using the culture medium (ICM) that maintained the viability of the crypts as witnessed by p eristaltic movement of the crypts for at least 72 hours of post dissection, the crypt inhabiting bacteria adapted and switched from a symbiotic to a free living phenotype. Subsequent bacterial propagation led to detectable swelling and, eventually, lysis o f the crypts (see Figure 4 3). Both ribotyping and BOX PCR

PAGE 135

135 fingerprinting results confirmed that 84% of examined culturable bacteria were identical to the predominant bacteria inhabiting crypts of each individual, and were identified as Burkholderia . Among the eight crypt preparations that had no bacterial growth using the new culturing method, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of six dissected crypt (DC) preparations were grouped in clades A and C with other culturable Burkholderia isolates generated by the same method, suggesting that these unculturable isolates were not distinct ribotypes, but instead reflected technical problems. During the process of inoculating dissected crypts in the insect culture medium (ICM), biofilm formation was detected in both R and S preparations. Its presence was confirmed by the re inoculation of respective culturable Burkholderia isolates. Typically, bacterial biofilm formation involves quorum sensing regulated cell to cell communication, which relies on chemical signals produced by bacteria including acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals (Irie and Parsek 2008) . Studies on pathogenic Burkholderia pseudoma llei and B. cepacia complex (Bcc) species reveal that the biofilm formation of Burkholderia cultures normally accompanies with the production of AHL molecules (Conway et al. 2002, Ramli et al. 2012) , and is associated with many environmental factors, such as nut rient content of the medium, osmolarity, oxygen, pH, and temperature et al. 2000, Ramli et al. 20 12) . T he in vitro biofilm formation of crypt associated Burkholderia in the current study required the nutrient rich ICM that contains a range of amino acids, vitamins, and carbon source s . Similarly, B. pseudomallei isolates cultured in a nutrient rich medium (Luria Bertani, LB) formed more biofilm compared to those cultured in a defined salts medium (modified Vogel and Bonner medium, MVBM) (Ramli et al. 2012) . F or pathogenic Burkholderia species, biofilm formation benefits in the bacterial persistence in infecting the mammalian cells (Coenye 2010). In microbe host symbiosis, the biofilm formation also contributes to the establishment and persistence of symbiotic bacteria in

PAGE 136

136 (Yip et al. 2006, Kim et al. 20 14 b ) . For instance, in the heteropteran R. pedestris , which harbors symbiotic Burkholderia in midgut crypts, biofilms are detected in the crypt lumen, as an extracellular matrix with polysaccharides (Kim et al. 2014 b ) . Th e symbiosis deficient Burkholderia mutants achieved by transposon mutagenesis screening contained defects in the purine synthesis genes purL and purM , which involve in biofilm formation (Kim et al. 2014 a ) . The purine auxotrophic mutants colonized the host cry pts but, when compared to the wild type cells, failed to reach a normal infection level and produced significantly less biofilm in vitro . As a result, the mutant infected R. pedestris had a less developed symbiotic organ (crypts) and smaller body size than the wild type infected ones (Kim et al. 2014 a ) . When a second purine synthesis gene purT was mutated, the resulting biofilm defective Burkholderia resulted in delayed development and reduced body weight of the host R. pedestris ( Kim et al. 2014 b ) . Similarly, in the nematode Heterorhabditis Photorhabdus symbiosis, biofilm formation is required for the persistence of Photorhabdus bacteria in the intestine of maternal nematodes and for the subsequent invasion of maternal rectal gl and cells, leading to infection of developing nematode offspring (Ciche et al. 2008) . Using a mutated Photorhabdus strain constructed by the in frame de letion of a key purine metabolic gene purL , in vitro biofilm formation and the level of bacterial persistence within nematodes were impaired (An and Grewal 2011) . Complementation of the mutant with purL carry ing plasmids restored the biofilm formation and the bacterial persistence to the wild type level, confirming the importance of purine metabolic genes in the symbiotic association (An and Grewal 2011) . According to these findings, one may predict that a disruption in purine associated genes interferes with the in vitro biofilm formation and colonization of Burkholderia in vivo within the B. insularis crypts.

PAGE 137

137 In addition, biofilm formation is known for providing pathogenic bacteria with protection from antibiotics and from host immune responses (Davies 2003) . In an in vitro experiment at stationary phase, B . cepacia cells grown in the biofilm batch culture are 15 fold more resistant to two classes of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime) compared to those grown in the planktonic culture (Desai et al. 1998). In the cases associated with cystic fibrosis infections, biofilms produced by Bcc bacteria contribute to the persistence of respiratory infections in patients (Cunha et al. 2004) . In the current study, the susceptibility of cultured Burkholderia to antibiotics was tested using disc diffusion assays. It would be worthy to examine the antibiotic susceptibility of Burkholderia cultures in the biofilm batch and in the planktonic culture in future studies. Antibiotic resistance has been detected in environmental and clinical Burkholderia strains, particularly in pathogenic Bcc isolates (Nzula et al. 2002, Wuthiekanun et al. 2011) that are associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) and with chronic granulomatous disease (Mahenthiralingam et al. 2008) . In the previous study, using disc diffusion susceptibility assays (Angus et al. 2014) , both pathogenic ( B. gladioli , B. thailandensis , B. vietnamiensis ) and plant associated symbiotic Burkholderia isolates ( B. tuberum , B. silvatlantica , and B. unamae ) showed high to complete (no 1 of ampicillin. Ampicillin and lactam antibiotics that inactivate the enzyme transpeptidases (referred as penicillin binding proteins) required for the peptide bond formation in bacterial cell wall synthesis (Kohanski et al. 2010). Typically, resistance of pathogenic Burkholderia lactam lactam substrate, and/or modification of the antibiotic receptor (penicillin binding proteins) (Chantratita et al. 2011, Schweizer 2012) . On th e other hand, chloramphenicol blocks the protein synthesis of both gram -

PAGE 138

138 positive and gram negative bacteria as a ribosome inhibitor on the 50S subunit (Weisblum and Davies 1968) . Extrusion of the drug from bacterial cells by the efflux system is the primary mechanism conferring chloramphenicol resistance in pathogenic Burkholderia (Biot et al. 2011) . Even though the known resistance mechanisms of Burkholderia to antibiotics primarily rely on studies of the pathogenic isolates due to their clinical importance, similar mechanisms are expected for the antibiotic resistant isolates of the gut symbiotic Burkholderia because of their origins from the environment, as demonstrated in the Riptortus Burkholderia symbiosis (Kikuchi et al. 2007). Furthermore, higher levels of resistance to mul tiple antibiotics ( e.g. 1 1 kanamycin) are also shown in the pathogenic isolates compared to the plant associated symbiotic ones (Angus et a l. 2014) . Results from the current study support that ampicillin resistance is common to various Burkholderia isolates associated with B. insularis . Specifically, of the twenty culturable Burkholderia isolates, 15 isolates displayed complete resistance 1 ) of ampicillin, which was 3.7 fold higher than the dose tested for the plant symbiotic Burkholderia (Angus et al. 2014) . Similar results a lso were found in the resistance to penicillin, except for one isolate (Bi26MC_S_vitro) showing a small inhibition zone. Preliminary data confirmed that penicillin resistant Burkholderia isolate exhibited complete resistance, even against 40 mM of penicill in (Table 4 5). In addition, among the 15 ampicillin resistant isolates, four isolates also had full resistance to 1 1 ) chloramphenicol, suggesting a pattern of multi drug resistance. Independent of the source (R or S), all of the tested cryp t associated Burkholderia from B. insularis were susceptible to kanamycin, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim. The general susceptibility and

PAGE 139

1 39 displayed resistance to penicillin and ampicillin demonstrate that the phenotype of the insect host was not associa ted with the antibiotic response of their respective symbiotic Burkholderia . The genus Burkholderia currently comprises more than 90 described species that can be free living in various environmental niches and/or inhabit the specific hosts ( i . e ., pl ants, fungi, and animals) (see reviews in Chapter 1). One of the notable features of Burkholderia species is that the presence of multiple chromosomes with wide variation in genome size, contributing to the extended adaptability of these bacteria to differ ent environments (Lessie et al. 1996, Kim et al. 2005, Compant et al. 2008) . T he detected large genomes (6.5 to 8.8 Mb) with multiple replicons in the B. insularis associated Burkholderia agreed with the genome size s reported for other Burkholderia species (6 to 11 Mb) (see reviews in Chapter 1) . T here were four B. insularis associated Burkholderia isolates sensitive t o DNA degradation in PFGE assay s (Table 4 3). DNA degradation has been reported in other bacterial tax a including gram positive Clostridium (Fawley and Wilcox 2002) and gram negative Pseudomonas (Römling and Tömmler 2000) . I nclu sion of Clostridium and Pseudomonas (Römling and Tömmler 2000, Fawley and Wilcox 2002) . However, this treatment did not reduce DNA degradation observed in those four Burkholderia isolates. The reasons for DNA degradation in these cultured gut symbiotic Burkholderia are unknown; however, one possibility might be related to their bacterial cell walls, indicated by their susceptibilities to both ampicillin and penicillin. Overall, the estimated genome size and the number of replicons of gut symbiotic Burkholderia were unable to discriminate the R and S B. insular is response to bifenthrin.

PAGE 140

140 In comparis on with the doubling times (1.2 to 2.9 hours) of multiple Bcc species routinely grown in LB broth at 37 °C with shaking (200 rpm) , all tested gut symbiotic Burkholderia isolates in the current study had considerably higher doubling times (Table 4 4). This may be simply due to the difference in nutrient content in medium, temperature, and/or other components of the culturing techniqu e. Nevertheless, no difference was found between R and S isolates, further suggesting the irrelevance between the physiological feature of symbionts Burkholderia isolates, a potential relationship between the ribotype, the phenotype, and the susceptibility to antibiotics was revealed. For example, all six isolates that clustered in clade A and eight isolates assigned to clade C were resistant to ampicillin and penicillin, whereas 80% of the isolate s in clade B were susceptible to both antibiotics (Table 4 6). The phenotype of in vitro preparations in ICM including metallic biofilm (MB) and salt crystal (SC) precipitation was likely related to the ribotype of gut symbiotic Burkholderia , indicating th at all isolates assigned in clades A and B formed MB, whereas most isolates in clade C produced SC (Table 4 1). Moreover, all four isolates produced SC were resistant against chloramphenicol (Table 4 6). These findings indicated that the susceptibility of gut symbiotic Burkholderia isolates to antibiotics was not associated with the phenotype of host insects, but involved in the genomic and physiological features of bacterial symbionts. In summary, the new culturing method applied on gut symbiotic Burkholderia isolated from B. insularis rejected the conclusion by Boucias et al. (2012) that B. insularis associated Burkholderia is unculturable. Most cultured Burkholderia isolates were identical to the predominant Burkholderia in vivo based on the ribotyping and BOX PCR fingerprinting. The results of studies examining the cultures, such as biofilm formation in vitro , genotyping ( i.e. ,

PAGE 141

141 sequencing of 16S rRNA and MLST genes, BOX PCR), PFGE patterns (genome size), grow th rates, and the susceptibility to antibiotics demonstrated no significant difference in the crypt associated Burkholderia isolated from R and S B. insularis .

PAGE 142

142 Table 4 1. Summary of cultured bacteria from Blissus insularis crypts inoculated into insect cu lture media and subsequent PCR detection of Burkholderia . Clade a Identity Gender Days for detectable bacteria b Types of BP (days) c Culturability d Halo formation e Diagnostic PCR detection f DC CBC Universal 16S Burk16S Universal 16S Burk16S A Bi16_R Female 2 MB (3) + + + + + Bi18_R Female 4 MB (5) + + + + + Bi22_R Male 4 MB (5) + + + + + Bi23_R Female 4 MB (6) + + + + + Bi12_S Female 2 MB (3) + + + + + Bi14_S Female 2 MB (3) + + + + + B Bi20_R Female 4 MB (4) + + + + + Bi21_R Male 4 MB (5) + + + + + Bi16_S Female g 3 MB (4) + + + + + Bi19_S Female g 2 MB (3) + + + + + C Bi17_R Female 6 MB (7) + + + + + Bi20_S Female 2 MB (3) + + + + + Bi14_R Female 2 SC (3) + + + + + + Bi24_R Female 3 SC (4) + + + + + + Bi25_R Male 2 SC (4) + + + + + + Bi15_S Female 2 SC (3) + + + + + + Bi21_S Female 1 SC (4) + + + + + + Bi22_S Female 2 SC (4) + + + + + + Bi19_R Female 3 N/A + + + + + + Bi26_S Male 3 N/A + + + + + + Bi27_S Male 2 N/A + + + + + Bi28_S Female 3 N/A + + + + + N/A Bi15_R Female 4 MB (5) N/A + + N/A N/A Bi13_S Female 7 MB (8) N/A + + N/A N/A Bi26_R Male N/A N/A + + N/A N/A

PAGE 143

143 Table 4 1. Continued. Clade a Identity Gender Days for detectable bacteria b Types of BP (days) c Culturability d Halo formation e Diagnostic PCR detection f DC CBC Universal 16S Burk16S Universal 16S Burk16S N/A Bi17_S N/A g N/A N/A + + N/A N/A Bi18_S Female g N/A N/A + + N/A N/A Bi24_S Male N/A N/A + + N/A N/A Bi25_S Male N/A N/A + + N/A N/A Bi23_S Male 2 N/A + + + + a Clades were defined by the universal 16S rRNA gene sequences, see details in Figure 4 5. N/A, not available due to the mixed reads excluded from the phylogenetic analyses. b Days before any bacteria detected in the insect culture medium (ICM) with inoculated B. insularis crypts under the optical microscopy with Hoffman modulation contrast. , negative (no bacterium was detected). c The phenotypic characteristics of biofilm an d precipitation produced (see Figure 4 4). SC, salt crystal precipitation; MB, oily and metallic sheen biofilm; N/A, not available due to no biofilm or precipitation produced. Days before the biofilm and precipitation produced in ICM. , negative (neither produced). d Culturability on nutrient agar plates of detected bacteria in ICM after MB biofilm or SC precipitation was produced. +, cultu rable within two days; , unculturable up to 14 days. e Halo zone formed around the culturable bacterial colonies on nutrient agar plates (see Figure 4 4). +, halo zone formed; , no halo zone formed; N/A, not available due to unculturability. f Detection of Burkholderia in the half dissected crypt (DC) and the culturable bacterial cell (CBC) preparations isolated from n utrient agar plates after being inoculated in ICM. Tandem PCR amplifications were performed using universal 16S rRNA genes (universal 16S) and genus specific Burkholderia 16S rRNA (Burk 16S) genes. +, positive target amplicon detected; , unspecific amplic ons detected due to contamination; N/A, not available due to unculturability. g Denotes the fifth instars of B. insulars examined. N/A, not available.

PAGE 144

144 Table 4 2. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) d etected in the universal 16S rRNA gene partial sequences (~1.4 kb) of crypt associated (denoted vivo) and cultured counterpart (denoted vitro) bacteria isolated from R and S Blissus insularis . Colony Identity SNPs a (bp) Percentage of SNPs b Hypervariable regions c R Bi17MC_R_vivo 0 0 N/A d Bi17MC_R_vitro Bi18MC_R_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi18MC_R_vitro Bi19MC_R_vivo 63 4.47 V1 4, V6 8 Bi19MC_R_vitro Bi20MC_R_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi20MC_R_vitro Bi21MC_R_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi21MC_R_vitro Bi22MC_R_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi22MC_R_vitro Bi23MC_R_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi23MC_R_vitro Bi24MC_R_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi24MC_R_vitro Bi25MC_R_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi25MC_R_vitro S Bi12MC_S_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi12MC_S_vitro Bi14MC_S_vivo 14 1.0 V2 4 Bi14MC_S_vitro Bi16MC_S_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi16MC_S_vitro Bi19MC_S_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi19MC_S_vitro Bi20MC_S_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi20MC_S_vitro Bi21MC_S_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi21MC_S_vitro Bi26MC_S_vivo 67 4.78 V1 8 Bi26MC_S_vitro

PAGE 145

145 Table 4 2. Continued. Colony Identity SNPs a (bp) Percentage of SNPs b Hypervariable regions c S Bi27MC_S_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi27MC_S_vitro Bi28MC_S_vivo 0 0 N/A Bi28MC_S_vitro a The SNPs detected using pairwise alignments of the universal 16S rRNA gene sequences of crypt associated (denoted vivo) and cultured counterpart (denoted vitro) bacteria isolated from each individual B. insularis. b Percentage of the SNPs in the respective ~1. 4 kb universal 16S rRNA gene sequences. c The hypervariable regions where the SNPs are detected in the 16S rRNA gene sequence (for the definition of hypervariable regions, see details in Figure 3 5 in Chapter 3). d N/A, not available.

PAGE 146

146 Table 4 3. Estimated sizes of Blissus insularis associated endosymbiotic Burkholderia genomic DNA detected by PFGE. Clade a Identity N b Mean (SE) size (Mb) of detected replicons c Replicon 1 Replicon 2 Replicon 3 Replicon 4 Replicon 5 Replicon 6 Total A Bi16MC_R_vitro 2 3.4 (0) 1.8 (0) 1.6 (0) 0.5 (0) 7.3 (0) Bi18MC_R_vitro 2 3.0 (0.1) 1.3 (0.1) 1.2 (0) 1.1 (0) 0.5 (0) 0.5 (0) 7.5 (0.1) Bi22MC_R_vitro 2 3.1 (0) 1.5 (0) 1.2 (0) 1.0 (0) 0.5 (0) 0.5 (0) 7.7 (0) Bi23MC_R_vitro 2 3.0 (0) 1.4 (0) 1.0 (0) 0.8 (0) 0.5 (0) 6.8 (0) Bi12MC_S_vitro 2 3.0 (0.1) 1.4 (0.1) 1.0 (0) 0.7 (0) 0.6 (0) 6.7 (0.2) Bi14MC_S_vitro 2 3.1 (0 ) 1.4 (0) 1.0 (0) 0.8 (0) 0.6 (0) 6.8 (0) B Bi20MC_R_vitro 3 3.5 (0) 2.0 (0) 1.3 (0) 1.2 (0) 8.0 (0) Bi21MC_R_vitro 5 N/A N/A Bi16MC_S_vitro 2 N/A N/A Bi19MC_S_vitro 3 N/A N/A C Bi17MC_R_vitro 2 3.4 (0) 2.8 (0) 1.0 (0) 7.2 (0) Bi19MC_R_vitro 3 N/A N/A Bi24MC_R_vitro 2 4.4 (0) 3.6 (0.1) 0.7 (0) 8.7 (0.1) Bi25MC_R_vitro 2 4.5 (0) 3.8 (0) 8.3 (0) Bi20MC_S_vitro 2 3.7 (0.1) 2.3 (0) 0.7 (0) 6.6 (0.1) Bi21MC_S_vitro 2 4.4 (0.1) 3.8 (0) 8.2 (0.1) Bi22MC_S_vitro 2 4 .4 (0) 3.7 (0) 8.1 (0) Bi26MC_S_vitro 2 4.4 (0) 3.7 (0) 8.1 (0) Bi27MC_S_vitro 3 3.6 (0) 2.6 (0) 0.9 (0) 0.4 (0) 0.4 (0) 7.9 (0) Bi28MC_S_vitro 2 3.6 (0) 2.6 (0.1) 1.0 (0) 7.2 (0.1) a Clades were defined by the universal 16S rRNA gene sequences, see details in Figure 4 5. b Number of replications conducted using freshly prepared sample plugs on separate PFGE gels. c Replicons were separated on 0.8% Pulsed Field Certified Agarose gel without restriction digestion. N/A, not available due to DNA degradation (a smear pattern) du ring PFGE (see Figure 4 10).

PAGE 147

147 Table 4 4. Growth rates of cultured Burkholderia isolates generated from Blissus insularis crypts. Clade a Identity N b Mean (SE) growth rate (hour per generation) A Bi16MC_R_vitro 2 4.7 (0) Bi18MC_R_vitro 2 8.1 (0.1) Bi22MC_R_vitro 2 3.4 (0.6) Bi23MC_R_vitro 2 8.7 (1.4) Bi12MC_S_vitro 2 4.5 (0.3) Bi14MC_S_vitro 2 5.6 (0.9) B Bi20MC_R_vitro 2 11.1 (0.8) Bi21MC_R_vitro 2 5.4 (0.2) Bi16MC_S_vitro 2 8.7 (0.6) Bi19MC_S_vitro 2 5.2 (0.5) C Bi17MC_R_vitro 2 5.4 (0.3) Bi19MC_R_vitro 2 4.6 (0.4) Bi24MC_R_vitro 2 4.6 (0.2) Bi25MC_R_vitro 2 4.3 (0.5) Bi20MC_S_vitro 3 7.5 (0.6) Bi21MC_S_vitro 2 4.8 (0.1) Bi22MC_S_vitro 2 6.3 (0.1) Bi26MC_S_vitro 2 6.4 (0.6) Bi27MC_S_vitro 2 5.8 (0.4) Bi28MC_S_vitro 2 6.7 (0.5) a Clades were defined by the universal 16S rRNA gene sequences, see details in Figure 4 5. b Number of replications conducted using freshly prepared initial culture inocula.

PAGE 148

148 Table 4 5. I nhibition zone of antibi otics at different concentrations against two cultured Burkholderia isolates. a Diameter of inhibition zone including disc diameter of 6 mm. N/A, not available. b Slope of the regression lines generated from the diameter of inhibition zone against the different concentrations. c R squared value of the regression lines. Identity Concentrations (mM) Diameter of inhibition zone (mm) a Kanamycin Oxytetracycline Trimethoprim Penicillin Chloramphenicol Bi12MC_S_vitro 40 32 30 38 0 30 20 29 27 34 0 N/A 4 24 24 26 0 23 2 22 21 25 0 N/A 0.4 18 17 16 0 0 0.04 11 8 0 0 0 0.004 0 0 0 0 0 Slope b 6.82 7.07 10.67 N/A N/A R 2 c 1.00 0.99 0.99 N/A N/A Bi20MC_R_vitro 40 28 30 40 30 32 20 24 27 38 28 N/A 4 20 26 32 27 25 2 19 22 N/A 24 N/A 0.4 16 18 24 15 0 0.04 11 8 17 0 0 0.004 8 0 10 0 0 Slope b 4.77 7.03 7.58 6.86 N/A R 2 c 0.97 0.96 1.00 0.86 N/A

PAGE 149

149 Table 4 6. Inhibition zone of antibiotics against cultured Burkholderia isolates generated fro m Blissus insularis crypts. Clade a Identity BP b Mean (SE) diameter of inhibition zone (mm) c Kanamycin Oxytetracycline Trimethoprim Ampicillin Penicillin Chloramphenicol A Bi16MC_R_vitro MB 24 (1) 18 (2) 25 (3) 0 0 18 (1) Bi18MC_R_vitro MB 23 (1) 18 (2) 25 (3) 0 0 14 (1) Bi22MC_R_vitro MB 21 (1) 22 (1) 26 (2) 0 0 20 (1) Bi23MC_R_vitro MB 31 (3) 26 (1) 24 (4) 0 0 22 (2) Bi12MC_S_vitro MB 24 (1 ) 18 (2) 21 (2) 0 0 17 (1) Bi14MC_S_vitro MB 23 (1) 18 (2) 18 (3) 0 0 16 (1) B Bi20MC_R_vitro MB 21 (2) 22 (0) 32 (2) 26 (1) 26 (1) 17 (0) Bi21MC_R_vitro MB 20 (2) 22 (0) 23 (5) 27 (1) 28 (2) 15 (2) Bi19MC_S_vitro MB 27 (2) 22 (0) 34 (2) 26 (2) 24 (1) 15 (0) Bi16MC_S_vitro MB 22 (1) 25 (1) 28 (0) 19 (2) 18 (2) 16 (1) C Bi17MC_R_vitro MB 17 (1) 12 (1) 24 (1) 0 0 14 (2) Bi19MC_R_vitro N/A 14 (1) 23 (1) 21 (4) 34 (1) 34 (2) 9 (1) Bi24MC_R_vitro SC 22 (2) 14 (1) 22 (1) 0 0 0 Bi25MC_R_vitro SC 21 (1) 13 (1) 21 (2) 0 0 0 Bi20MC_S_vitro MB 21 (0) 15 (1) 23 (1) 0 0 14 (2) Bi21MC_S_vitro SC 24 (1) 11 (1) 31 (3) 0 0 0 Bi22MC_S_vitro SC 16 (0) 11 (1) 30 (4) 0 0 0 Bi26MC_S_vitro N/A 19 (0) 16 (1) 34 (1) 0 10 (1) 13 (1) Bi27MC_S_vitro N/A 15 (1) 12 (2) 10 (1) 0 0 11 (1) Bi28MC_S_vitro N/A 22 (3) 13 (3) 27 (2) 0 0 14 (1) a Clades were defined by the universal 16S rRNA gene sequences, see details in Figure 4 5. b The phenotypic characteristics of biofilm and precipitation produced (see Figure 4 4). SC, salt crystal precipitation; MB, oily and metallic sheen biofilm; N/A, not available due to no biofilm or precipitation produced. c Diameter of inhibition zone inclu ding disc diameter of 6 mm. Antibiotics tested at 1 mM concentrations.

PAGE 150

150 Figure 4 1. A schematic demonstrates crypt associated Burkholderia cultivation technique developed in the current study. DC, half dissected crypt; CBC, cultured bacte rial cell. See descriptive details in the Materials and Methods: Insect Dissection and Cultivation of Crypt Associated Bacteria. Figure 4 2. The growth curves of a relatively slow (A) and a fast growing (B) Burkholderia isolates when their initial cul ture inocula were at different concentrations (10 10 7 CFU mL 1 ).

PAGE 151

151 Figure 4 3. Morphological features of the Blissus insularis midgut crypts inoculated in insect culture medium on days 0, 1, 2, and 4 post dissection. Scale bar = 0.6 mm. Figure 4 4. Microscopy of two (A C and D F) typical phenotypic characteristics of culturable Burkholderia isolated from Blissus insularis midgut crypts. A) The oily and metallic sheen biofilm (MB) established on the surface of insect culture medium (ICM) with the inoculated midgut crypts. B) A close look of the MB formation. C) The short rod shaped bacteria underneath the MB examined with a light microscope at a 1,600 × magnification. D) The salt crystal (SC) precipitation produced by the inoculated crypts in ICM. E) A close look of the precipitated SC. F) The Burkholderia isolates that precipitated SC in ICM formed halo around the bacterial colonies after being plated on the nutrient agar plate.

PAGE 152

152 Figure 4 5. Phylogenetic relationship of crypt associated bacteria (denoted vivo) and the cultured counterpart (denoted vitro) obtained from Blissus insularis (denoted Bi14MC to Bi28MC) on the basis of universal 16S rRNA gene sequences (~1.4 kb). The sequences denominated R and S are obtained from the bifenthrin resistant and susceptible B. insularis colonies, respectively. Sequences detected in the present study are shown in bold. Numbers at the tree nodes represent the maximum likelihood bootstrap values obtained after 100 repetitions; only values over 50 are shown. In brackets are shown nucleotide sequence accession numbers in the GenBank. Clear circles and gray circles denote the Burkholderia detected in the B. insularis field populations (Boucias et al. 2012) and in C. saccharivorus (Itoh et al. 2014) , respectively; squares denote the Burkholderia detected in other heteropteran hosts; stars denote the pesticide degrading strains.

PAGE 153

153 Figure 4 6. Comparison of phylogenetic trees of eight representative culturable bacteria isolates (denoted vitro, in bold) obtained from Blissus insularis crypts and four crypt associated bacteria in vivo (Bi01MC_R, Bi02MC_R, Bi07MC_S, Bi08MC_S) on the basis of the concatenated 1,233 bp MLST gene sequences (left, atpD + recA + lepA ) and the 1,326 bp universal 16S rRNA gene sequences (right, 16S rRNA). Numbers at the tree nodes represent the maximum likelihood bootstrap values obtained after 100 repetitions; only values over 50 are shown. Corresponding clades are indicated by connect ing dashed lines. The 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence accession number of outgroup Burkholderia cepacia ATCC49709 is AY741349.

PAGE 154

154 Figure 4 7. The representative BOX PCR gel of crypt associated bacteria in vivo (denoted vivo) and according cultured Bu rkholderia isolates (denoted vitro). Lanes 1 = Bi16MC_S_vivo, 2 = Bi16MC_S_vitro, 3 = Bi19MC_S_vivo, 4 = Bi19MC_S_vitro, 5 = Bi21MC_R_vivo, 6 = Bi21MC_R_vitro, 7 = Bi20MC_R_vivo, 8 = Bi20MC_R_vitro, 9 = Bi12MC_S_vivo, 10 = Bi12MC_S_vitro, 11 = Bi14MC_S_viv o, 12 = Bi14MC_S_vitro, 13 = Bi18MC_R_vivo, 14 = Bi18MC_R_vitro, 15 = Bi22MC_R_vivo, 16 = Bi22MC_R_vitro, 17 = Bi23MC_R_vivo, 18 = Bi23MC_R_vitro, 19 = Bi21MC_S_vivo, 20 = Bi21MC_S_vitro, 21 = Bi24MC_R_vivo, 22 = Bi24MC_R_vitro, 23 = Bi25MC_R_vivo, 24 = Bi 25MC_R_vitro, 25 = Bi17MC_R_vivo, 26 = Bi17MC_R_vitro, 27 = Bi20MC_S_vivo, 28 = Bi20MC_S_vitro, 29 = Bi27MC_S_vivo, 30 = Bi27MC_S_vitro, 31 = Bi28MC_S_vivo, 32 = Bi28MC_S_vitro, 33 = Bi19MC_R_vivo, 34 = Bi19MC_R_vitro, 35 = Bi26MC_S_vivo, 36 = Bi26MC_S_vit ro. NTC = non template negative control. The standard makers are 100 bp PCR molecular rulers (Bio Rad).

PAGE 155

155 Figure 4 8. UPGMA dendrogram of BOX PCR gel patterns representing 26 crypt associated bacteria in vivo (denoted vivo) and 20 according cultured Burkholderia isolates (denoted vitro). A 60% similarity cutoff level, as indicated by the vertical dashed line, was used for delineating the clusters of in vivo and in vitro counterparts. Solid circles with similarity numbers at branch nodes denote the dif ferently placed clades A to C based on 16S rRNA gene sequences (~1.4 kb) (see details in Figure 4 5). One sample Bi03MC_S_vivo used in Chapter 3 was included as a positive control here.

PAGE 156

156 Figure 4 9. The representative PFGE patterns of 17 cultured Burk holderia isolates generated from Blissus insularis midgut crypts using different standard markers (lanes 5 and 15) under different electrophoresis conditions (A and B) (see details in Materials and Methods). Lanes 1 = Bi12MC_S_vitro, 2 = Bi14MC_S_vitro, 3 = Bi16MC_R_vitro, 4 = Bi17MC_R_vitro, 6 = Bi20MC_S_vitro, 7 = Bi21MC_S_vitro, 8 = Bi22MC_S_vitro, 9 = Bi18MC_R_vitro, 10 = Bi20MC_R_vitro, 11 = Bi16MC_R_vitro, 12 = Bi24MC_R_vitro, 13 = Bi25MC_R_vitro, 14 = Bi21MC_S_vitro, 16 = Bi22MC_S_vitro, 17 = Bi26MC_ S_vitro, 18 = Bi20MC_S_vitro, 19 = Bi28MC_S_vitro. Standard marker present in lanes 5 and 15 are H. wingei and S. pombe , respectively. Stars indicate the separated replicons.

PAGE 157

157 Figure 4 10. The PFGE patterns of representative cultured Burkholderia isola tes obtained by using gel electrophoresis buffer without (A) and with 50 µM thiourea (B). Standard markers are H. wingei . Four isolates (Bi19MC_R_vitro, Bi21MC_R_vitro, Bi19MC_S_vitro, and Bi16MC_S_vitro) had DNA degradation (smear patterns) during the PF GE process, whereas three normal isolates (Bi20MC_R_vitro, Bi24MC_R_vitro, and Bi18MC_R_vitro) were used as positive controls.

PAGE 158

158 CHAPTER 5 IMPACTS OF ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT ON BLISSUS INSULARIS Introduction The biological function of endocellular bacteria l symbionts in diverse phytophagous hemipterans has been investigated, including aphids (Douglas 1998, 2009, Akman Gündüz and Douglas 2009) , psyllids (Nakabachi et al. 2006, 2013) , sharpshooters (Wu et al. 2006, Bennett et al. 2014) , and whiteflies (Maha dav et al. 2008, Su et al. 2013) . These insects typically live on nutrient deficient diets and acquire their endocellular symbionts transovarially to assist in provisioning nutrients ( i.e. , essential amino acids and vitamins) (Douglas 1998, Baumann 2005) . In addition to the analyses of symbiont genomes (Nakabachi et al. 2006) , their putative roles in their host insects have been studied, typically by using antibiotic treatments and by examining the fitness of endosymbiont deprived (axenic) hosts (Wilkinson 1998, Pais et al. 2008) . On the other hand, the exocellular gut symbionts of many heteropterans are transmitted postnatally, via egg surface contamination (Kikuchi et al. 2009, Kaiwa et al. 2010, Bistolas et al. 2014) , symbiont filling particles/capsules (Fukatsu and Hosokawa 2002, Hosokawa et al. 2007) , maternal mucous secretion (Hosokawa et al. 2012 a ) , and/or the environment (Kikuchi et al. 2007, Itoh et al. 2014) . Typically, elimination or suppression of these gut symbionts by egg surface sterilization and/or antibiotic therapies increases insect mortality, delays development, reduces fecundity, and/or induces an abnormally pale body coloration (Prado et al. 2006, Hosokawa et al. 2007, Kikuchi et al. 2007, Boucias et al. 2012, Bistolas et al. 2014, Taylor et al. 2014) . In addition to providing nutrients, symbionts also protect host insects from environmental stresses, including drought, extreme temperature, pathogens, parasites/parasitoids, and xeno biotic s (see details in Chapter 1). The estimation of crypt associated Burkholderia 16S

PAGE 159

159 rRNA and dnaA gene copies in Chapter 3 revealed that the bifenthrin resistant B. insularis females harbored more Burkholderia , than the bifenthrin susceptible ones did, suggesting an association between the level of gut symbiotic Burkholderia and the susceptibility of B. insularis to bifenthrin. To test this speculation, the antibiotic treatment was applied to B. insularis as an alternative method. In a previous stu dy, B. insularis first instars were fed for 11 days on St. Augustinegrass stolons immersed in either 0.1% or 1% dosages of antibiotic (chlortetracycline hydrochloride) (Boucias et al. 2012). These treatments caused a 3 to 7 fold reduction, respectively, i n Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies in the midgut crypts, compared to insects that fed the antibiotic free stolons. However, B. insularis survivorship was low both in the control (52 64%) and in the antibiotic treated (32 44%) groups (Boucias et al. 2012) . To improve survival, a method of oral delivery of antibiotics was developed using a liquid diet. The impacts of these treatments on the crypt associated Burkholderia and on various insect fitness parameters were assessed post treatment. Materials and Me thods Oral Administrat ion of Antibiotics Considering the large number of B. insularis required for conducting the oral delivery experiment, a mixture of B. insularis nymphs and adults were randomly collected from three St. Augustinegrass lawns in Florida ( one from Gainesville, Alachua Co.; two from Longwood, Seminole Co.). No insecticide application records were available on these locations. To avoid the variance between different ages, B. insularis at the same age (< 24 hour old fifth instars) were subject ed to the antibiotic treatment. Initially, fourth instars were separated from other instars, pooled together from each collecting site, placed in a plastic container, and provisioned with freshly clipped St. Augustinegrass plugs every 2 3 days until they m olted into fifth instars. For oral administration of antibiotics, corn juice was used as the food source. Commercially

PAGE 160

160 purchased fresh yellow corn kernels were collected and ground manually with a mortar and pestle. Corn homogenates were centrifuged at 12, 000 × g for 10 minutes to remove cell debris. The supernatant corn juice was supplemented with 0.02% of Evans Blue dye (Sigma) to visualize diet uptake and passage in the digestive tract of B. insularis . According to the previous antibiotic screenings of t he cultured Burkholderia isolated from B. insularis crypts, kanamycin and oxytetracycline, both water soluble antibiotics, were selected due to their strong inhibition against all examined Burkholderia isolates (see details in Chapter 4). Initially, antibi otic concentrations and exposure times were optimized to reduce crypt associated Burkholderia with minimal lethality on the host B. insularis (see details in Appendix E). A total of 250 food supplemented with antibiotics was loaded onto the st erile, three layered, circular glass microfiber filter paper discs (1.6 cm diameter, Whatman Inc., Clifton, NJ) (Figure 5 1A). As a control, fifth instars were provisioned with antibiotic free diets applied to discs. Five to 10 fifth instars (< 24 hour old ) were held in a sterile petri dish (35 × 10 mm, Falcon ® , Corning Inc., Corning, NY), and were exposed for 10 days to the liquid food supplemented with daily rotating 0.8 mg mL 1 (equivalent to 1.6 mM) of oxytetracycline and 0.8 mg mL 1 (equivalent to 1.4 mM) of kanamycin. Each treatment was replicated seven times. Replicates were conducted on different dates. A total of 63 and 66 B. insularis fifth instars were used in the antibiotic treated and control group, respectively. Impacts of Antibiotic Treatment on Host B. insularis During the 10 day exposure to either the antibiotic treated or control food, any B. insularis survivals were counted. At the end of the 10 day exposure, the rate of adult eclosion was determined. Before statistical analyses, the Kolmo gorov Smirnov test (PROC UNIVARIATE, SAS 9.3, SAS Institute 2011) was conducted to check the normal distributions of survivorship and adult eclosion of seven replicates. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test indicated

PAGE 161

161 that neither the survivorship data (N = 14, D = 0.2563, P = 0.014) nor the adult eclosion rate data (N = 14, D = 0.3347, P < 0.010) was normally distributed. Therefore, s urvivorship and the adult eclosion rate were subjected separately to the Wilcoxon Two sample Tests (PRO C NPAR1WAY, SAS 9.3) for comparing the difference between the antibiotic treated and control group. After the 10 day exposure, all fifth instars in the antibiotic treated group remained as fifth instars, whereas adult eclosion occurred in some of the cont rol group. To avoid age related differences, only fifth instars were used to examine the impacts of antibiotic treatment on B. insularis for both groups. Due to the morphologically indistinguishable B. insularis females and males at the nymphal stage, the sex of fifth instars was unknown until the dissection; it was determined by the presence of ovaries or testes. Fifty antibiotic treated and 36 control unsexed fifth instars were photographed using a digital microscope camera system (Motic ® , Hong Kong, Chin a), and their body lengths were analyzed using Motic Images Plus 2.0 software. The normal distribution of body length data was confirmed with the Kolmogorov Smirnov test (N = 86, D = 0.0902, P = 0.0839). B ody length was compared between the antibiotic trea ted and control fifth instars using the two sample t test (PROC TTEST, SAS 9.3). 1 ) were tested twice against the B. insularis fifth instars that were not exposed to antibiotics. A total of 1 of bifenthrin for 24 hours, which was used in Chapter 2 for assessing the susceptibility of adult B. insularis ; whereas an additional 10 unsexed fifth instars 1 . Therefore, the 1 that caused 20% mortality was used in the final diagnostic contact bioassays. In the final experiment, for each replicate of antibiotic treatment, mortality rates (%) caused by the

PAGE 162

162 b ifenthrin exposure were calculated separately in the antibiotic treated and control group, using the number of paralyzed B. insularis divided by the total number of fifth instars that were subjected to the susceptibility test. The mortality rates of seven replicates were normally distributed (N = 14, D = 0.1537, P > 0.1500) according to the Kolmogorov Smirnov test and were compared between the antibiotic treated and control fifth instars using the two sample t test (PROC TTEST, SAS 9.3). Impacts of Antibio tic Treatment on Gut symbiotic Burkholderia After the bifenthrin susceptibility tests, paralyzed and healthy B. insularis fifth instars were surface sterilized individually by immersion for three minutes each in 70% EtOH, 5% bleach, and then 70% EtOH. The digestive tract of each individual was dissected and examined to locate the Evans Blue dye, which served as an indicator of diet passage. In addition, based on the presence of the internal gonadal tissue, the tested fifth instars were sexed. Intact midgut crypts were removed individually, rinsed three times in autoclaved distilled water, placed into Materials and Methods: Insect Dissection and Genomic DNA Extracti on). The copy numbers of Burkholderia 16S rRNA genes in the crypt genomic DNA of the antibiotic treated and control B. insularis fifth instars were estimated by qPCR, as described in Chapter 3 (see Materials and Methods: Quantitative Real time PCR). The cu ltured Burkholderia isolate (Bi16MC_R_vitro) served as the external standard in the qPCR analysis. Copy numbers were log 10 transformed before statistical analysis and confirmed the normal distribution with the Kolmogorov Smirnov test (N = 62, D = 0.0896, P > 0.1500). The log 10 transformed copy numbers were compared separately between sexes, antibiotic treatments, as well as responses to bifenthrin exposure (paralyzed and healthy), using the two sample t test (SAS 9.3).

PAGE 163

163 Histology After 10 days of exposure t o the antibiotic treated or control food, additional dissected intact midgut crypts from living B. insularis fifth instars were subjected to a series of microscopies to visualize the difference of crypts and crypt inhabiting bacteria between two groups. Fi rst, intact crypts were placed on a pre cleaned Gold Seal ® Fluoresc ent Antibody RITE obtained from a LIVE/DEAD ® BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit (Molecular Probes, Eu gene, times in HEPES, mounted in the anti fading agent, 1,4 diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane in glycerol (DABCO), and examined using an epifluorescence microscope (Leitz Laborlux S). For the diamidino 2 phenylindole (DAPI) staining, crypts were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at 4 ºC overnight, washed three times in 1 × HEPES buffer, incubated with 1 µg mL 1 of DAPI at RT in darkness for 10 minutes, washed, mounted in DABCO, and then examined using the epifluorescence microscope. The procedure for t ransmission e lectron m icroscopy (TEM) was as follows: dissected crypts were fixed in 2.5 % glutaraldehyde in 1× HEPES at 4 ºC overnight and washed three times in H EPES. Fixed specimens were post fixed in 1% aqueous osmium tetroxide for 2 hours at RT and washed three times in water . Fixed and osmicated specimens were processed with the aid of a Pelco BioWave Pro laboratory microwave (Ted Pella Inc., Redding, CA) and dehydrated in a graded ethanol series (25, 50, 75, 95, and 100%) followed by 100% anhydrous EtOH. Dehydrated specimens were infiltrated in LR White medium epoxy resin and Z6040 embedding primer (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Hatfield, PA) in 50 and 100%, a nd then were cured at 60 °C for 48 hours. Ultra thin sections were collected on carbon coated Formvar copper slot grids and 100 mesh, carbon coated Formvar copper grids, and were stained with 2% uranyl

PAGE 164

164 ined with a FEI Tecnai G2 Sprit Twin transmission electron microscope (FEI Corp., Hillsboro, OR). Digital images were acquired with an AMT ER41 1k × 1k camera with TIA software (FEI Corp.) and a Gatan UltraScan 2k × 2k camera with the Digital Micrograph so ftware (Gatan Inc., Pleasanton, CA). Results Impacts of Antibiotic Treatment on Host B. insularis During the 10 day exposure to food supplemented with a rotation of antibiotics, feeding activities of B. insularis were observed daily. Blissus insularis prob ed their stylets on the food containing filter paper discs (Figure 5 1B) and remained immobile for up to 10 minutes during individual feeding events (personal observation). Dissection revealed the presence of Evans Blue dye in the anterior midgut regions ( M1 M3), but dye was never detected in the posterior regions (M4B M4), at which gut symbionts localized (Figure 5 1C). This observation was found in all examined B. insularis , regardless of sex and antibiotic treatment, indicating that the rotating antibiot ics were ingested by B. insularis . At the end of 10 day antibiotic treatment, 82 ± 7 and 86 ± 3 % (mean ± SE) of the examined antibiotic treated and control B. insularis individuals, respectively, survived. No difference in the survivorship was found betwe en these two groups (normal approximation; z = 0.2570, P = 0.7972) (Figure 5 2A). Among the 53 B. insularis survivals that were exposed to antibiotics for 10 days, none eclosed to adults. Conversely, 18 of the 58 survivors in the control group eclosed to adults on the ninth and tenth days. Among these 18 emerged adults, the male to female sex ratio, as expected, was 2:1, showing that males developed faste r than females did . Overall, the mean (± SE) adult eclosion rate of the control B. insularis was 35 ± 8 %, significantly higher than that (0%) of the antibiotic treated ones (normal approximation; z = 2.9008, P = 0.0037) (Figure 5 2B). In addition, the mean (± SE) body length of antibiotic treated

PAGE 165

165 fifth instars ( n = 50, 2.7 ± 0.03 mm) was significantly smal ler than that of control fifth instars ( n = 36, 3.1 ± 0.05 mm; Satterthwaite method for unequal variances; t = 6.18, df = 57.61, P < 0.001) (Figure 5 2C). The reduced body length exhibited in antibiotic treated B. insularis suggests that antibiotic treatme nt retarded B. insularis growth. Alternatively, the smaller body size was likely due to the imbalanced sex ratio in the antibiotic treated fifth instars. Specifically, the male to female ratio of the 42 antibiotic treated fifth instars was 2:1, whereas for the 41 control fifth instars, the sex ratio was 1:1. Impacts of Antibiotic Treatment on Crypt associated Burkholderia A total of 62 crypt genomic DNA preparations from B. insularis fifth instars fed antibiotic treated or antibiotic free food were subject ed to the qPCR analyses. Regardless of sex, 38 antibiotic treated and 24 control fifth instars harbored 1.9 × 10 7 ± 2.2 × 10 6 (mean ± SE) and 1.8 × 10 8 ± 2.3 × 10 7 of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect, respectively (Table 5 1). The mean log 10 Bu rkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy number of antibiotic treated fifth instars was significantly less than that of control ones ( t = 11.34, df = 60, P < 0.0001). Among the 62 dissected fifth instars for the qPCR analyses, the internal gonadal tissue of nine indi viduals were destroyed accidentally during dissection. Therefore, only 53 fifth instars were sex ed . In the antibiotic treated group, the estimated Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect of 10 female and 23 male fifth instars were 1.6 × 10 7 ± 3.1 × 1 0 6 (mean ± SE) and 1.9× 10 7 ± 3.1 × 10 6 , respectively. The mean log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of two sexes were not significantly different ( t = 0.16, df = 31, P = 0.8732). In the control group, the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per in sect of 13 examined female and 7 male fifth instars were 2.1 × 10 8 ± 3.7 × 10 7 (mean ± SE) and 1.6× 10 8 ± 2.8 × 10 7 , respectively. No significant difference in the mean log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers was found between the control females and males ( t = 0.47, df = 18, P = 0.6434) (Figure 5 3A). However,

PAGE 166

166 comparing the levels of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect between antibiotic treated and control fifth instars, both females and males had significant reduction of Burkholderia le vels due to the antibiotic treatment. Specifically, the 10 antibiotic treated females harbored 13 fold lower levels of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies than the 13 control females did ( t = 8.17, df = 21, P < 0.0001). In addition, the 23 antibiotic treate d males had 9 fold lower levels of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies than the seven control males did ( t = 6.07, df = 28, P < 0.0001) (Figure 5 3A). Histological Examination of Midgut Crypts Dissection of the digestive tracts revealed morphological differ ences between the midgut crypts of antibiotic treated and control B. insularis fifth instars: the control crypts were milky white and thick, whereas the antibiotic treated ones were semi transparent and slender. Micrographs of DAPI stained, fixed crypts su pported this observed difference in crypts. Specifically, the bacterial fluorescent signals in the control fifth instar crypts were stronger than those in the antibiotic treated group (Figure 5 4). Similarly, the vital staining of the antibiotic treated cr ypts using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Kit, which distinguished the dead bacteria from live ones based on their cell membrane integrity, revealed that many crypt inhabiting bacteria crypts fluoresced as red and rod shaped spots, indicating that they were dead. In some cases, low numbers of live bacteria fluoresced as green and few red signals were detected also in antibiotic treated crypts, suggesting reduced counts of total bacteria by antibiotic treatment. Conversely, a high number of green signals (live bacte ria) were detected in the control crypts. Furthermore, the results of TEM confirmed the reduction of crypt associated bacteria by the antibiotic treatment, suggested by prior fluorescent staining. The crypt lumens of control B. insularis were filled with numerous rod shaped bacteria with well defined cell walls, measuring thin sections,

PAGE 167

167 actively dividing bacterial cells were observed within the control crypts (Figure 5 5 C ) . Convers ely, the 10 day exposure to antibiotic treated food eliminated the bacteria inhabiting the crypt lumen. Only a few rod shaped, intact bacteria with well developed cell walls were found in multiple sections of the antibiotic treated crypts (Figure 5 5A). Me asurement of these bacteria treated crypts was typically filled with material resulting from bacterial lysis; no such material was found in the control crypts (Figure 5 5D). In the ant ibiotic treated crypts, distorted bacteria with electron dense cellular structures typically were observed, implying that these bacteria were unhealthy and/or dead (Figure 5 5B). Susceptibility of Antibiotic treated B. insularis to Bifenthrin For seven re plicates of antibiotic treatment, a total of 53 antibiotic treated and 38 control 1 of bifenthrin. After 24 hours of exposure, the mortality rate of antibiotic treated B. insularis fifth instars was 29 ± 8 % (mean ± SE), approximately three fold higher, but not significant different ( t = 1.96, df = 12, P = 0.0737) from that of controls (11 ± 4 %) (Figure 5 2D). Whether the paralyzed individuals recovered beyond 24 hours was undetermined, because the fifth instars were subsequently subjected to the dissection. Overall, 38 and 24 crypt genomic DNA preparations from antibiotic treated and control fifth instars, respectively, were subjected to the qPCR analyses to determine the levels of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies p er insect and to compare the difference between paralyzed and healthy individuals (Table 5 1). Overall, no difference in the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers was found between the females and males for each treatment (Figure 5 3A). Consequently, the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of both sexes were pooled together within each treatment. In the control group, the mean log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers between four paralyzed and 20 healthy individuals were not significantly

PAGE 168

168 differe nt ( t = 1.88, df = 22, P = 0.0738) (Figure 5 3B). Specifically, paralyzed fifth instars harbored 1.2 × 10 8 ± 5.9 × 10 7 , and healthy ones had 1.9 × 10 8 ± 2.5 × 10 7 copies per insect in control group. After 10 day exposure to the antibiotic treated food, the 13 paralyzed fifth instars harbored 1.2 × 10 7 ± 2.7 × 10 6 16S gene copies per insect, which were significantly less ( t = 2.54, df = 36, P = 0.0155) than the 25 healthy insects (2.2 × 10 7 ± 2.8 × 10 6 copies per insect). Furthermore, for the paralyzed fifth instars, the mean log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of the antibiotic treated B. insularis was approximately 10 fold less than that of the control ones ( t = 4.66, df = 15, P = 0.003). Si milarly, for the healthy fifth instars, the mean log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of the antibiotic treated fifth instars was 9 fold less than that of the control ones ( t = 10.52, df = 43, P < 0.001) (Figure 5 3B). Discussion Blissus insulari s fed dye supplemented corn juice for 10 days resulted in the appearance of blue colored dye in the digestive tract, indicating ingestion of the food substrate. The dye was detected in the anterior midgut regions (M1 M3), but was not in the posterior midgu t (M4B and M4) or in the hindgut (Figure 5 1C). The midgut of B. insularis , morphologically similar to that of other phytophagous heteropterans, consists of four distinctive sections: M1, M2, M3, and M4 (Kikuchi et al. 2011a, Itoh et al. 2014) . As a primary symbiont organ, the M4 lumen harbors exocellular Burkholderia in many heteropterans, including species in the family Alydidae ( Alydus calcaratus L., L. chinensis , R. pedestris ), Blissidae ( B. insularis , C. saccharivorus ), Coreidae [ Acanthocoris sordidus (Thunberg), Cletus punctiger (Dallas)], and Rhyparochromidae [ Togo hemipterus Scott, P aromius exiguus (Distant)] (Kikuchi et al. 2005, 2011; Boucias et al. 2012; Garcia et al. 2014; Itoh et al. 2014; Ohbayashi et al. 2015) . In addition to the M4, a neighboring bulbous region (M4B) that is directly attached to the M4 also contains Burkholderia (Kim et al. 2013 a ) and is considered as the symbiont organ in R. pedestris (Kikuchi and Fukatsu

PAGE 169

169 201 4 ) and C. saccharivorus (Itoh et al. 2014) . However, the discr epant results from the qPCR assay and the gut symbiont viability assay (CFU counts) in R. pedestris reveal that the most viable Burkholderia colonize in M4, rather than in M4B (Kim et al. 2013 a ) . Specifically, 10 6 Burkholderia dnaA gene copies were detected in each R. pedestris M4B, 200 fold less than those in M4 (10 8 copies). However, viability assay reveal that M4B contains less than 10 viable Burkholderia , whereas its M4 harbors a high density of viable Burkholderia (10 7 CFU per insect) (Kim et al. 2013 a ) . The M4B lysate exhibits antimicrobial activity against the symbiotic Burkholderia cells freshly isolated from the crypts, whereas the lysate has no or poor impacts on the cultured Burkholderia an d the non symbiotic bacteria ( E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus ), suggesting that the M4B plays a role in the regulation of the gut symbiont population in M4 by lysing the overgrown symbionts that flow back to the neighboring M4B (Kim et al. 2013 a ) . In R. pedestris , the non symbiotic M1 to M3 regions play roles in food storage, digestion, and absorption (Ohbayashi et al. 2015) . Even though green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled symbiotic Burkholderia and non symbiotic E. coli cells can be orally delivered and found in these three regions (M1 M3), only Burkholderia cells appeared in the symbiont organs (M4B and M4), suggesting that the specificity of acquisition of symbiotic bacteria from the environment is governed by midgut factors that precede the symbiont organs i n the Riptortus Burkholderia symbiosis (Ohbayashi et al. 2015) . Typically, a very tiny, thin, constricted region connects the non symbiotic M3 and the symbiotic M4B regions, and it plays a role in selective symbiont sorting by blocking food materials and other non Burkholderia microbes (Ohbayashi et al. 2015) . The inner canal of this constricted region is only a few micrometers in width and is coated with highly developed microvilli and a mucous matrix. When R. pedestris nymphs were fed with fluid supplemented with various food dyes, the dyes never entered the M4B and M4

PAGE 170

170 region s, but was detected in the anterior midgut regions (M1 M3), the hindgut, and the feces (Ohbayashi et al. 2015) . Therefore, the constricted region functionally divides the midgut of R. pedestris into two portions that have different biological functions: the anterior midgut regions M1 M3 for food digestion and absorption and the posterior symbiont organs M4B and M4. The constricted region, as a symbiont sorting organ, is also found in other stinkbug species ( i.e. , A. sordidus , C. punctiger , T. hemipterus and P. exiguus ) that harbor Burkholder ia in the midgut crypts (M4) (Ohbayashi et al. 2015) . In B. insularis , the constricted region appeared as a very narrow, connective tissue between the M3 and the M4B regions (Figure 5 1C). One may speculate that, the Evans Blue dye entered the B. insularis anterior midgut M1 to M3 regions bu t was blocked by the constricted region, as demonstrated in R. pedestris . The selective acquisition of bacteria in R. depestris is reminiscent of the winnowing process of the squid E. scolopes that functions in the acquisition of symbiotic Vibrio from comp lex microbiota in seawater (Nyholm and McFall Ngai 2004) . On the other hand, the antibiotics targeted exocellular Burkholderia symbionts in the M4 region of B. insularis , possibly through absorption and dissemination throughout the insect body. TEM revealed that the antibiotic treated midgut crypts were symbiont depleted and contained abnormally shaped and lysed symbiont cells, im plying an effect of the combination of oxytetracycline and kanamycin. Morphological observation on the crypt tissue and fluorescent microscopy of crypts also supported the TEM results (Figures 5 4 and 5 5 ). Quantitative estimation of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect was approximately 10 7 in the antibiotic treated crypts, only 10 fold less than the copies in the control. Similarly, in the previous study by Boucias et al. (2012), the 11 day exposure of B. insularis first instars to the chlortetra cycline hydrochloride treated (1%) St. Augustinegrass stolons induced an

PAGE 171

171 approximately 7.2 fold reduction of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies in the midgut crypts, compared to the insects that were fed on the antibiotic free stolons. The qPCR results both from the present and from the previous study showed a decreased copy number of symbion t rRNA, which did not match to the massive removal observed in the micrographs (Figures 5 3 and 5 5 ). This situation is reminiscent of the discrepancy between CFU c ounts and qPCR results in R. pedestris (Kim et al. 2013 a ), indicating that most Burkholderia gene copies in the antibiotic treated crypts detected by qPCR were amplified from the dead symbiont DNA contents . Typically, bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies estimat ed by qPCR are good indictors for bacterial mass but not for bacterial viability (Aellen et al. 2006) . For example, the conventional PCR amplification, qPCR of 16S rRNA genes, and vital staining failed to differentiate between the antibiotic induced killing of Streptococcus gordonii and the kill resistant phenotype of S. gordonii mutant, whereas quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT qPCR) of 16S rRNA succeeded, indicating that bacterial RNA is more sensitive than DNA to monitor antibiotic induced killing (Aellen et al. 2006) . These findings suggested that using RT qPCR to quantify 16S rRNA in antibiotic treated B. insularis crypts might yield less symb iont counts than the 16S rRNA gene copies demonstrated herein. Previously, it was demonstrated that an 11 day exposure to tetracycline (1%) impacted both the growth rate and survival of B. insularis (Boucias et al. 2012) . In the current study, tandem exposure to a combination of antibiotics also su ppressed body length and inhibited adult eclosion. Antibiotic treated fifth instars had significantly smaller body size (2.7 mm) than the controls (3.1 mm); the later measurement agreed with the length (3.1 mm) of laboratory reared, unsexed fifth instars i n a previous study (Leonard 1968) . In B. insularis , the adult females are larger (3.7 3.9 mm in bo dy length) (Vázquez et al. 2010) than adult males (3.04 mm) (Leonard

PAGE 172

172 1968) ; however, nothing is known about the body size of the male versus female fifth instars. R elated work had reported that fifth instar Cardiaspina psyllid females have slightly longer body lengths (0.1 0.2 mm longer) than males (Steinbauer et al. 2014) . The smaller body size of f ifth instar B. insularis , observed with an antibiotic treatment, may be due simply to the observed male biased sex ratio. It has been reported that antibiotic treatment negatively impacts the fitness of various host insects by suppressing their bacterial symbionts. For example, the oral delivery of 0.003% rifampicin to first generation weevil larvae, Euscepes postfasciatus (F airmaire), eliminates the transovarially transmitted endocellular Nardonella infection in adult weevils and induces lower body weight and slower development relative to ones fed an antibiotic free diet (Kuriwada et al. 2010) . The second generation derived from t he antibiotic treated parents is Nardonella negative and also exhibits the suppressed adult body weight and retarded growth, whereas the offspring of the control weevils are infected with Nardonella and display normal development (Kuriwada et al. 2010) . Similar symptoms are reported in the bedbug, C. lectularius , which harbors many endocellular Wolbachia in ovary associated bacteriomes and transmits bacteria from germalia to the oocytes through the nutritive cord during oogenesis (Hosokawa et al. 2010) . The aposymbiotic bedbug nymphs caused by continuous rearing on 0.001% of rifampicin supplem ented meals are able to survive, but they have a significantly lower adult eclosion rate and prolonged nymphal period. The addition of B vitamins in the rifampicin containing meals restores aposymbio tic nymphs to the normal adult eclosion rate and nymphal period, indicating that Wolbachia plays an essential role in nutritional provision (H osokawa et al. 2010) . In general, prenatally transmitted endocellular symbionts ( e.g. , Buchnera , Nardonella , Wigglesworthia , Wolbachia ) are typically removed by antibiotic treatments (Wilkinson 1998,

PAGE 173

173 Pais et al. 2008, Kuriwada et al. 2010) . Alternatively, the exocellular gut symbionts of insects that are either transmitted via egg surface contamination (Hosokawa et al. 2013, Bistolas et al. 2014) or acquired from the environment (Kikuchi et al. 2007) can be removed easily by egg surface sterilization prior to hatching and by rearing on a symbiont free diet, respectively. Experimentally produced symbiont deprived stinkbugs will exhibit slower gro wth, smaller body size (Kikuchi et al. 2007, Bistolas et al. 2014 ) , and/or pale body coloration of adults (Hosokawa et al. 2007, 2013) . Although 10 day exposure of newly emerged B. insularis fifth instar to antibiotic supplemented diet re sulted in no adult eclosion, prior bioassays conducted with mid fifth instars produced pale colored adults. Specifically, three of five examined B. insularis fifth instars at unknown ages received the same antibiotic treatment for 10 days, and they respect ively molted into adults on the third, fifth, and eighth days. The antibiotic treated female that molted on the third day had normal cuticle melanization, and was as dark as the control adults. Insects that molted at five and eight days post treatment exhi bited light brown body color and weak cuticle sclerotization (personal observation). The light body color and soft cuticle observed post eclosion in newly emerged control adults is typically transient (< 24 hours), whereas these symptoms remained in the an tibiotic treated adults during the 10 day treatment. The pale body coloration and soft cuticles of antibiotic treated B. insularis are likely reduced cuticular melanization and sclerotization, which are regulated by various phenoloxidases ( i.e. , tyrosinas es, laccases, and peroxidases) (Hopkins and Kramer 1992) . In the current study, B. insularis were exposed to antibiotics that may ha ve direct and/or indirect impacts on the insect fitness. For example, the tetracycline class of antibiotics, in addition to having potent antibacterial activities, has other secondary toxic effects to eukaryotes. Moullan et al. (2015) pointed out that euka ryotic mitochondrial protein machinery, a remnant of the evolutionary

PAGE 174

174 interface with prokaryotes, is a target of these antibiotics. These bacterial ribosome targeting antibiotics, including tetracyclines, inhibit bacterial protein translation (Wilson 2014) as well the eukaryotic mitochondrial protein synthesis (Riesbeck et al. 1990) . The result of the suppression of the mitochondrial machinery has multiple impacts on host fitness. For example, in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fly Drosophila melanogaster , tetracycline supplemented food induced a reduction of oxygen co nsumption, retarded development, and reduced fertility (Moullan et al. 2015) . In terms of the observed reduction in cuticular sclerotization, it should be noted that tetracycline has potent antioxidant properties et al. 2012) . As an alternative to the direct toxicity of these antibiotics, it may be speculated that alteration in the insect microbiome, including Burkholderia , may impact the host defenses that would include the host phenoloxidase ca scade. Many insects, including Aedes mosquito, Drosophila , and Glossina tsetse fly, rely on their obligate endosymbionts to maintain their innate defense systems to protect them from a range of pathogens (Hedges et al. 2008, K ambris et al. 2009, Weiss et al. 2012) . Further investigations will be needed to determine: 1) if the antibiotic treatment results in a reduction of phenoloxidase activity in B. insularis and/or 2) if the symbiont deprived insects more susceptible to pa thogenic agents. 1 ) was selected for the 11 day 1 ) that was used for adults in Chapter 2 completely killed these fifth instars, suggest ing that the nymphal B. insularis were more susceptible to bifenthrin than were the adults. In a related Blissus species, B. occiduus , the unsexed nymphs (third and fourth instars) are 18 mL 1 ) than are the 1 ), based on the LC 50 values (Stamm et al. 20 11) . Moreover, the response of these 360 examined nymphs to bifenthrin is more consistent (slope =

PAGE 175

175 127), compared to that of the adults (slope = 1.06) (Stamm et al. 2011) . In the present study, the antibiotic treated B. insularis fifth instars were approximately three fold more susceptible to the bifenthrin exposure than were the control ones. The increased bifenthrin susceptibility in the antibiotic treated group was possibly associated with the smaller body size and/or the male g ender bias, in comparison with the control group. In Chapter 3, the B. insularis females from the bifenthrin resistant colony harbored significantly more crypt associated Burkholderia than those from the bifenthrin susceptible colony. Herein, the levels o f Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies also revealed that the paralyzed individuals that were susceptible to bifenthrin exposure harbored less Burkholderia than the healthy ones in the antibiotic treated group, but not in the control group (Figure 5 3 B). Thes e results suggest that the antibiotic treatment indirectly accelerated the susceptibility of B. insularis to bifenthrin. Certainly, one cannot rule out the possibility that the antibiotics known to have sub lethal toxic activities (Moullan et al. 2015) , rather than the Burkholderia removal impacted susceptibility. To avoid the non specific antibiotic impacts on host fitness, generating and maintaining the symbiont free B. insularis is critical. Different from the Riptortus bug that environmentally acquires gut symbiont Burkholderia in every generation and its symbiont uninfected insects can be maintained for multiple generations (Kikuchi et al. 2007) , B. insularis neonates are unable to survive or to complete deve lopment on the symbiont free corn diet (Vázquez et al. 2010) ; these insects need to feed live St. Augustinegrass that is suspected of harboring Burkholderia (see Appendix D). Due to these experimental limitations in B. insularis , the hypothesized symbiont mediated resistance to insecticide was not testable herein, as it was with the Riptortus Burkholderia symbiosis (Kikuchi et al. 2012) . At best, the presence of gut -

PAGE 176

176 symbiotic Burkholderia facilitated the overall fitness of host B. insularis , resulting in an increased tolerance against bifenthrin. Taken toget her, continuous ingestion of antibiotics by B. insularis suppressed the levels of viable midgut crypt associated Burkholderia , delayed adult eclosion , and reduced body size of B. insularis . After 10 day exposure to antibiotics, B. insularis fifth instars exhibited increased susceptibility to bifenthrin, and the individuals paralyzed by 24 hour exposure to bifenthrin harbored less Burkholderia in crypts than did the healthy ones. These results support the higher level of crypt associated Burkh olderia in the bifenthrin resistant B. insularis females than in the bifenthrin susceptible ones, as shown in Chapter 3. In agreement with the previous study (Boucias et al. 2012) , the gut symbiotic Burkholderia appears to increase the overall fitness of B. insularis . However, it must be pointed out that antibiotic therapy implemented in these studies can have unresolved impacts on host fitness. The f indings presented in this chapter highlight the close relationship between gut symbiont Burkholderia and B. insularis , which causes destructive damage to St. Augustinegrass by aggressive feeding (Reinert and Kerr 1973). Further exploration of their relatio nship may provide alternative control strategies by targeting the symbionts, rather than by using insecticides, to manage B. insularis damage.

PAGE 177

177 Table 5 1. The estimated crypt associated Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies from Blissus insularis fifth instars fed antibiotic treated and control food for 10 days. Treatment Status a Gender b DNA concentration 1 ) 16S rRNA gene copies per insect Antibiotic treated ( n = 25) Healthy Female 17.3 2.9 × 10 7 Healthy Female 12.1 1.7 × 10 7 Healthy Female 11.2 1.8 × 10 7 Healthy Female 16.2 2.7 × 10 7 Healthy Female 14.6 1.2 × 10 7 Healthy Male 9.3 1.2 × 10 7 Healthy Male 16.2 1.0 × 10 7 Healthy Male 10.1 1.3 × 10 7 Healthy Male 12.8 1.5 × 10 7 Healthy Male 19.7 1.9 × 10 7 Healthy Male 13.1 3.8 × 10 7 Healthy Male 14.7 4.5 × 10 7 Healthy Male 11.1 5.6 × 10 7 Healthy Male 11.8 2.0 × 10 7 Healthy Male 10.2 3.0 × 10 7 Healthy Male 12.2 5.6 × 10 7 Healthy Male 9.3 1.6 × 10 7 Healthy Male 9.3 6.0 × 10 6 Healthy Male 13.4 5.0 × 10 7 Healthy Male 15.6 1.6 × 10 7 Healthy Male 10.4 1.7 × 10 7 Healthy Male 15.0 2.0 × 10 7 Healthy Unknown 8.1 3.8 × 10 7 Healthy Unknown 13.2 1.6 × 10 7 Healthy Unknown 10.5 1.9 × 10 7 Mean (SE) c 2.1 × 10 7 (2.7 × 10 6 ) Antibiotic treated ( n = 13) Paralyzed Female 10.9 6.2 × 10 6 Paralyzed Female 11.7 3.3 × 10 7 Paralyzed Female 11.1 2.5 × 10 6 Paralyzed Female 10.5 7.9 × 10 6 Paralyzed Female 11.5 9.7 × 10 6 Paralyzed Male 8.6 8.1 × 10 6 Paralyzed Male 11.8 2.1 × 10 7 Paralyzed Male 8.5 1.3 × 10 7 Paralyzed Male 12.1 2.7 × 10 6 Paralyzed Male 7.8 2.6 × 10 6 Paralyzed Male 10.5 1.9 × 10 7 Paralyzed Unknown 8.9 2.5 × 10 7 Paralyzed Unknown 9.3 4.5 × 10 6 Mean (SE) c 1.2 × 10 7 (2.6 × 10 6 )

PAGE 178

178 Table 5 1. Continued. Treatment Status a Gender b DNA concentration 1 ) 16S rRNA gene copies per insect Control ( n = 20) Healthy Female 16.0 7.9 × 10 7 Healthy Female 12.7 9.1 × 10 7 Healthy Female 16.1 1.0 × 10 8 Healthy Female 30.8 1.8 × 10 8 Healthy Female 21.6 2.0 × 10 8 Healthy Female 28.9 4.1 × 10 8 Healthy Female 22.1 1.8 × 10 8 Healthy Female 32.5 3.8 × 10 8 Healthy Female 23.8 4.7 × 10 8 Healthy Female 13.7 1.1 × 10 8 Healthy Female 30.1 1.5 × 10 8 Healthy Male 15.2 1.4 × 10 8 Healthy Male 15.5 1.8 × 10 8 Healthy Male 19.7 2.8 × 10 8 Healthy Male 18.1 2.0 × 10 8 Healthy Male 13.6 2.2 × 10 8 Healthy Unknown 12.1 1.1 × 10 8 Healthy Unknown 20.6 1.8 × 10 8 Healthy Unknown 8.9 5.1 × 10 7 Healthy Unknown 11.9 1.1 × 10 8 Mean (SE) c 1.9 × 10 8 (2.5 × 10 7 ) Control ( n =4) Paralyzed Female 9.1 4.8 × 10 7 Paralyzed Female 15.5 2.9 × 10 8 Paralyzed Male 10.1 5.5 × 10 7 Paralyzed Male 10.7 7.6 × 10 7 Mean (SE) c 1.2 × 10 8 (5.1 × 10 7 ) a 1 of bifenthrin for 24 hours. b Gender was assessed during dissection, based on the presence of the internal gonadal tissue. Unknown means the sample whose internal gonadal tissue was destroyed accidentally during dissection. c Mean and standard error were calculated within each status column. See statistical analyses in Figure 5 3 .

PAGE 179

179 Figure 5 1. Oral delivery of antibiotics to Blissus insularis fifth instars. A) Blissus insularis fifth instars were placed into a feeding arena with antibiotic supp lemented artificial diet. B) Fifth instars were feeding on the artificial diet. Yellow arrows indicated the mouthparts of feeding B. insularis . C) Micrograph of dissected digestive tracts from B. insularis fifth instar after ten day exposure to the antibi otic treatments. Evans Blue dye was supplemented in the corn juice for indicating the food ingestion. M1, midgut first section; M2, midgut second section; M3, midgut third section; M4, midgut fourth section with crypts; M4B, M4 bulb. Arrow indicated the th in, thread like constricted region.

PAGE 180

180 Figure 5 2. Impact of the antibiotic treated and the control diet (corn juice) on Blissus insularis survivorship (A), adult eclosion (B), body length (C), and mortality rate at 24 hour e mL 1 of bifenthrin (D) . The number in each bar indicates the total number of B. insularis fifth instars that were subjected to each treatment. NS, no significant difference ( = 0.05); **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001.

PAGE 181

181 Figure 5 3. The estimated mean (± SE) log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect in the midgut crypts of Blissus insularis fifth instars , from the antibiotic treated and control groups . A) the mean (± SE) log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies in the male and the female fifth instars. B) the mean (± SE) log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies in the paralyzed and the healthy fifth inst mL 1 of bifenthrin. The number in each bar indicates the total number of B. insularis fifth instars within each treatment . NS, no significant difference ( = 0.05); *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001. See tabulated data in Table 5 1.

PAGE 182

182 Figure 5 4. Micrographs of midgut crypts dissected from the antibiotic treated (A B) and control (C D) Blissus insularis fifth instars. A) Dissected semi transparent crypts of antibiotic treated B. insularis . B) DAPI stained crypts of antibiotic treated B. insularis , with a less intense bacterial signal within the crypt lumen (labeled by stars). C) Dissected milky white cryp ts of control B. insularis . D) DAPI stained crypts of control B. insularis , containing intense bacterial signals within the crypt lumen and the ones that were released from the lumen (labeled by stars ). Scale bar = .

PAGE 183

183 Figure 5 5. Transmission el ectron microscopy of midgut crypts dissected from the antibiotic treated (A B) and control (C D) Blissus insularis fifth instars. A) The crypts of antibiotic treated B. insularis . Only a few rod shaped bacteria (B) were present in the crypt lumen. B) The e nlarged micrograph of bacteria exhibiting abnormal shape . C) . The crypts of control B. insularis . Numerous bacteria (B) were present in the crypt lumen and were dividing by binary fission (indicated by arrows). D). The enlarged micrograph of bacteria exhibi ting normal shape. Abbreviations: B, symbiotic bacterium; Bm, host crypt basement membrane; N, host crypt nucleus; M, host crypt mitochondrion.

PAGE 184

184 CHAPTER 6 TRANSMISSION OF GUT SYMBIONT BURKHOLDERIA AND ORAL DELIVERY OF BACTERIOPHAGE TO BLISSUS INSULARIS Introduction In heteropterans, bacterial gut symbionts typically are acquired by aposymbiotic neonates from symbiont contaminated egg chorion (Kaiwa et al. 2010, Kikuchi et al. 2009, Itoh et al. 2014) , specialized egg capsules (Fukatsu and Hosokawa 200 2, Hosokawa et al. 2006) , and symbiont containing excrement (Baines 1956, Beard et al. 2002, Hosokawa et al. 2012) . These transmission mechanisms rely primarily on the symbiont infected mothers, whose gut symbio nts are transmitted postnatally to their offspring. In many cases, these vertically transmitted gut symbionts belong to Gammaproteobacteria (Hosokawa et al. 2006, 2012; Prado et al. 2006; Bistolas et al. 2014) , which is a sister group to the obligate bacteriocyte associated symbionts, such as Buchnera in aphids, Carsonella in psyllids, Baumannia in sharpshooters, and Wigglesworthia in tsetse flies (Aksoy 1995, Baumann 2005) . In addition, complete horizontal transmission via the ambient environment is found in Riptortus , whose aposymbiotic neonates orally acquire free living Burkholderia from plants and soils in every generation in the absence of a vertical transmission mechanism (Kikuchi et al. 2007) . The coexistence of horizontal and vertical transmissions can occur, as reported in a blissid species, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Itoh et al. 2014) . The Burkholderia specific PCR analyses revealed that: Burkholderia infection was detected both on the unsterilized eggs and in neonates hatched from unsterilize d eggs; egg surface sterilization eliminated the Burkholderia infection in neonates (Itoh et al. 2014) . Even though Burkhold eria is detected by qPCR amplification at a low titer in B. insularis eggs (Boucias et al. 2012) and in adult reproductive tracts (see results in Chapter 3) , no experiment had been conducted to elucidate the gut symbiont transmission route in B. insularis . Hence, in this chapter, the proposed vertical transmission via

PAGE 185

185 egg surface contamination (Boucias et al. 2012) was examined using B. insularis eggs and newly hatched neonates, with or without egg surface sterilization. Additional rearing experiments were conducted to explore potential horizontal transmission, by employing the cultured Burkholderia as an inoculum on the egg chorion and/or on the host plants. To investigate the potential implication of crypt associated Burkholderia on the susceptibility of B. insularis to bifenthrin, antibiotics were employed to eliminate Burkholderia via oral delivery in Chapter 5. Even though retarded development and higher susceptibility of antibiotic treated B. insularis were revealed, the possibility that the antibiotics had toxic effects, rather than the Burkholderia removal impacted susceptibility could not be ruled out. Therefore, an alternative method for depri ving gut symbionts was developed herein. According to the previous study (Boucias et al. 2012) and the findi ngs in Chapter 3 (see Figure 3 6 ), many B. insularis associated gut symbionts are closely related to the free living Burkholderia species that inhabit in soils. In a soil community consisting of rhizosphere, bulk soil, and abundant bacteria, approximately 1 × 10 7 g 1 of bacteriophages exist (Ashelford et al . 2003) . Bacteriophages that lyse soil borne Burkholderia pseudomallei and other virulent B. cepacia complex (Bcc) species also have been isolated from soil (Summer et al. 2006, Yo rdpratum et al. 2011) . Furthermore, the potential of bacteriophage therapy in mammalian infectious diseases was tested initially in 1917 (Summers 2001). These phages are characterized by their high specificity to target bacteria, rapid replication rate, and innocuous impact on eukaryotes . For example, the soil derived Burkholderia phage, as a potential antibacterial therapy for the Bcc lung infection in mammals, has shown in vivo efficacy in reducing Burkholderia density and lung inflammation (Carmody et al. 2010) . Considering the potential acquisition of B. insularis gut sym bionts from the environment ( e.g. , St. Augustinegrass lawns), experiments on soil derived bacteriophages that

PAGE 186

186 target gut symbiont Burkholderia were initiated. Using the isolated Burkholderia phage as a potential antibacterial therapy, symbiont infected B. insularis were subjected to an oral delivery experiment to determine the impact(s) of bacteriophage on the host insect. Materials and Methods Examination of Gut Symbiont Transmission Mechanism Egg inspection. Newly laid eggs were subjected to diagnostic PC R analysis for Burkholderia detection. Female and male B. insularis adults were selected randomly from the field collected population. A single mating pair was held in a clean plastic Solo ® cup (59.1 mL, Solo Cup Company, Lake Forest, IL) with ventilation and was provisioned daily with commercially obtained, surface sterilized corn kernels. A sterile egg roll was placed in each cup to allow the female to oviposit eggs. Control eggs were not sterilized, whereas other eggs were surface sterilized one of two s terilization procedures. For the simplified sterilization: eggs wer e immersed for three minutes each in 70% EtOH, 5% bleach, and then 70% EtOH. A second sterilization protocol was as follows: eggs were immersed in 0.1% Tween 80 (Fisher Scientific) for 30 s econds with vigorous agitation by vortex, transferred to 10% acidified bleach (pH 5.5) with a small drop of dish detergent (Ultra Joy ® , Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, OH) for one minute with gentle agitation, immersed in 70% EtOH for 30 seconds, and then washed three times with autoclaved distilled water (ADW). A total of 13 surface sterilized (six from simplified and seven from complicated sterilization) and five unsterilized eggs were subjected to genomic DNA extraction and diagnostic PCR amplification u sing the Burkholderia specific 16S rRNA gene primers, as described in Chapter 3 (see PCR Amplification and Sequencing of Burkholderia 16S rRNA Gene section). Neonate inspection. In addition to examining eggs, the presence of Burkholderia associated with neonates was assessed. Neonates from both surface sterilized and unsterilized

PAGE 187

187 eggs were subjected to diagnostic PCR amplification. Additional neonates were reared individually without their Burkholderia infected parents and subjected to PCR detection of crypt associated Burkholderia . Five brood replicates, generated from five pairs of field collected B. insularis adults of unknown ages, were allowed to mate and oviposit as described previously. Eggs were collected daily and surface steriliz ed using the simplified procedure, as described in the previous subsection. Control eggs were not surface sterilized. Subsequently, eggs were placed individually into cells of a clean BioServe bioassay tray sealed with a perforated tray lid. Trays were hel d in plastic containers with moistened paper towels at 27 ± 1 °C with a 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod. Eggs were examined daily until neonates hatched. For each brood, hatching rates were calculated based on the number of hatched neonates divided by the number of total examined eggs. Three to seven neonates from the unsterilized or from the surface sterilized group, respectively, were subjected to genomic DNA extraction and diagnostic PCR amplification using Burkholderia specific 16S rRNA gene primers (for deta iled methods, see Chapter 3, PCR Amplification and Sequencing of Burkholderia 16S rRNA Gene). A second rearing experiment was conducted using additional neonates that hatched, also from unsterilized and surface sterilized eggs. A cut stem section (1.5 cm i n length) of greenhouse food source. Survivorship (%) at each nymphal stage was determined for each brood until the neonates reached adulthood. The rate of adult eclosion (%) was determined by the number of FREQ; SAS 9.3) was conducted to compare the difference in the hatching rate, survivorship, and rate of adult eclosion between unst erilized and surface sterilized egg treatments. To investigate

PAGE 188

188 the possibility of gut symbiont transovarial transmission from parents to progeny, the paired B. insularis parents and their surviving progeny at adult stage were surface sterilized using the s implified procedure. Their midgut crypts were removed for genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and Sanger sequencing using universal 16S rRNA gene primers (for detailed methods, see Chapter 3, PCR Amplification and Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes). Sequ ence assembly was the same as described in Chapter 3. The 16S reads from parents were aligned with respective offspring using MUSCLE to determine whether or not their ribotypes were identical. Oral administration of cultured Burkholderia to neonates. To e xamine the possibility that the gut symbiont is acquired from the environment, as demonstrated in the Riptortus Burkholderia symbiosis (Kikuchi et al. 2007) , an oral administration of cultured symbi otic Burkholderia (see Chapter 4) to the newly hatched neonates (less than 24 hours old) was attempted. Two pairs of female and male B. insularis adults were used to provide offspring. In this experiment, virgin females were used to ensure that the cohort was only from one mated male. Three to five neonates from the same cohort, with or without egg surface sterilization treatment, were reared in a similar arena as previously used in the antibiotic treatment. The ted with 0.02% Evan Blue dye and mixed with a cocktail of cultured symbiont Burkholderia isolates (Bi12MC_S_vitro, Bi20MC_R_vitro, Bi25MC_R_vitro) whose ribotypes belonged to A C (see Figure 4 5). Each symbiont isolate was cultured in a 3 mL nutrient broth medium at 200 rpm at 28 °C overnight. One hundred microliters of each culture was harvested at its mid log exponential phase (approximately 5 × 10 8 cells mL 1 ), pooled together, and centrifuged at 10,000 × g for 10 minutes to collect the bacterial cells. C ells, suspended in supernatant corn juice containing 0.02% Evan Blue dye to a final concentration of 6 × 10 8 cells mL 1 , were loaded onto sterile glass microfiber filter discs. For the

PAGE 189

189 control, neonates were provisioned with the same food but without the c ultured symbionts. Corn juice, with or without cultured symbiont, was replaced daily. Insects were examined daily to determine their survivorship (%). Rearing of neonates on live plants with cultured symbionts. Adult B. insularis were collected in St. Augu stinegrass lawns from multiple locations in Florida, pooled together, and provisioned with fresh corn cobs as a food source at 27 ± 1 °C with a 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod. Sterile egg rolls were placed in the rearing arena to allow females to oviposit eggs. Eggs with reddish pigment (2 5 days prior to hatching) were transferred to a sterile petri dish (35 × 10 mm, Falcon ® , Corning Inc., Corning, NY) that was lined with a layer of clean parafilm (Figure 6 1A) . Three Burkholderia isolates, Bi16MC_R_vitro, Bi22 MC_R_vitro, and Bi12MC_S_vitro were cultured in nutrient broth medium, harvested at mid log exponential phase by centrifugation at 10,000 × g for 10 minutes, suspended in ADW, and adjusted to 1× 10 9 cells mL 1 . Two microliters of each Burkholderia suspension were spotted onto 30 40 eggs to ensure that all eggs were coated with target bacteria. Conversely, uncoated eggs were treated with ADW in the absence of Burkholderia . After being treated, eggs were air dried and held in a plastic container with moistened paper towels to prevent desiccation at 27 ± 1 °C with a 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod. Prior to hatching, a sample of coated and uncoated eggs were examined under a phase contrast microscope to confirm the presence and absence of bacteria, respective ly, on the egg chorion surface. In order to examine the environmental acquisition of symbionts, a rearing experiment with four treatments was conducted in the greenhouse: 1) neonates that hatched from Burkholderia coated eggs, were reared on Burkholderia i noculated plant (chorion + /plant + ); 2) Burkholderia coated eggs, were reared on untreated plant (chorion + /plant ); 3) neonates that

PAGE 190

190 hatched from uncoated eggs, were reared on Burkholderia inoculated plant (chorion /plant + ); and 4) neonates that hatched from uncoated eggs, were reared on untreated plant (chorion /plant ). Overnight cultures of each Burkholderia isolate (Bi12MC_S_vitro, Bi20MC_R_vitro, Bi25MC_R_vitro) in the nutrient broth medium were harvested at mid log exponential phase by centrifugation at 10,000 × g for 10 minutes and suspended in 50 mL of ADW (2 × 10 8 cells mL 1 ). Augutinegrass plants (13 cm in diameter, 10 cm in height), which was planted and maintai ned as described in Chapter 2 (see Insect and Plant Sources section). Sprayed grasses were air dried overnight in greenhouse before being exposed to neonates. Cages that covered the grass were made from plastic clear cups (15 cm in height, 1 L) with ventil ation windows on top and side (Figure 6 1B). For each treatment, 20 90 newly hatched neonates (less than 24 hours old) were transferred from the clean petri dishes into the cage through a small entrance. For irrigation, water was added into the petri dishe s that held the grass pots. The rearing experiment was replicated, three times using the isolate Bi16MC_R_vitro, replicated twice with the isolate Bi12MC_S_vitro, and conducted once using the isolate Bi22MC_R_vitro. After thirty days, the contents (plant, soil) of each cage were examined to determine the number of surviving B. insularis (survival rates %) and their respective life stages. To determine whether B. insularis acquired Burkholderia from the Burkholderia coated egg surface or from the Burkholder ia inoculated plants, one to ten surviving B. insularis were selected randomly from each treatment, subjected to the surface sterilization, and their midgut crypts dissected and processed for genomic DNA extraction. Genomic DNA preparations were subjected to BOX PCR fingerprinting as shown in Chapter 4 (see BOX PCR Fingerprinting section). Bacterial DNA of the cultured Burkholderia isolates (Bi16MC_R_vitro, Bi22MC_R_vitro, and

PAGE 191

191 Bi12MC_S_vitro) was used as the positive control. One isolate (Bi24MC_R_vitro) wh ose ribotype was clustered with the plant associated Burkholderia gladioli was used as an additional reference. In the BOX PCR fingerprinting study, conducted in Chapter 4, the crypt associated Burkholderia in vivo and the cultured counterparts typically h ad >70% similarity. Therefore, a cut off (75%) was chosen for the current study to determine if the BOX PCR patterns from the insect crypts were the same as those from the positive controls. This threshold meant that any lane ilarity with its respective positive control was considered as a positive transmission. Symbiont transmission rates (%) for each treatment was calculated using the number of examined B. insularis that exhibited positive transmission divided by the number o f total B. insularis that were subjected to the BOX PCR analysis. The survival rate and symbiont transmission rate data from three Burkholderia isolates were pooled and checked for normal distribution by Kolmogorov Smirnov test. For the normally distribute d survival rate data (N = 24, D = 0.0967, P > 0.1500), a one way ANOVA test (PROC ANOVA) was used for treatment comparison. For the non normally distributed symbiont transmission rate data (N = 24, D = 0.2578, P < 0.0100) , the Kruska l Wallis test (PROC NPAR1WAY) was used. A post hoc test of Dwass, Steel, Critchlow Fligner (DSCF) was applied for pairwise two sided multiple comparison analysis (SAS 9.4). Isolation and Purification of the Symbiotic Burkholderia Phage Isolation of the ba cteriophage from soil. Forty one soil samples were collected in St. Augustinegrass lawns from 10 locations in Florida and used for bacteriophage isolation with an enrichment method (Twest and Kropinski 2009). Eleven cultured Burkholderia isolates generated from the crypts of five bifenthrin resistant (R) and six bifenthrin susceptible (S) B. insularis females were used to enrich phage titers. Four isolates were grouped into clade A, two were from clade B, and other five were from clade C. Aliquots of soil s amples from each

PAGE 192

192 location were pooled. Four to five grams of the pooled samples were inoculated into 15 mL of each mid log phase Burkholderia culture (approximately 5 × 10 8 cells mL 1 ) as the host bacteria, and incu bated at 200 rpm, 28 ºC for 14 16 hours. Subsequently, 1 mL of the enriched culture was centrifuged at 10,000 × g , 4 ºC for 15 minutes. The supernatant was filtered through 0.45 µm sterile syringe filters (Corning Inc., Corning, NY) to remove non viral cont aminants, then was screened for lytic phage activity using a spot on the lawn technique (Chopin et al. 1976) . The nutrient agar, which was poured into a square petri dish with a grid (100 × 100 × 15 mm, Fisher Scientific) and solidified, was inoculated by flooding the target host bacterial culture with 2 mL of each mid log phage and then incubated at RT for 10 minutes. The excess culture was removed, and the inoculated plate was dried open for 20 25 minutes in a laminar flow hood. Five microliters of soil filtrate from each enriched sample were spotted onto the lawn in duplicates and incubated at 28 ºC overnight. In order to examine the specificity of isolated bacteriophage, each soil filtrate was screened against its own host bacterium and heterologous Burkholderia isolates. A total of 12 cultured Burkholderia isolates, which were generated from six R and six S female B. insularis crypts and grouped into A C clades, were used as bacterial lawns. Nutrient broth also was spotted as a control for each plate. Lytic phage activity was indicated by a clear zone or by plaque fo rmation. Purification of bacteriophage. Soil filtrates that formed clear zone on Burkholderia lawn were identified as containing potential Burkholderia phage. The positive phages were amplified and purified using the top agar overlay method (Sambrook and R ussell 2001). Generally, the top agar containing nutrient broth medium and 0.7% of Bacto Agar (Fisher Scientific) was autoclaved and equilibrated to 60 °C. A mixture of 200 log phase host bacterial culture and 100 g 2 mM of CaCl 2 , was incubated at RT

PAGE 193

193 for 30 minutes to allow the attachment of phages to bacteria. The mixture was added into 3 mL of the molten top agar (60 °C), vortexed, and immediately poured onto the cured nutrient agar plate (10 cm in diameter). A co ntrol plate was prepared using ADW to replace soil filtrate. Plates were solidified at RT for 20 minutes and incubated at 28 ºC overnight. Isolated plaques were picked using a sterile Pasteur pipette, placed in 1 mL of sterile 1 × TBS buffer (50 mM Tris H Cl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl), and vortexed to suspend the progeny phage. Two to three plaques were isolated from each plate and subjected to the purification step using top agar overlay. For each phage, purification was repeated at least twice to ensure the ho mogeneity of the phage stock, which was prepared by the plate lysis and elution method (Sambrook and Russell 2001). To obtain highly concentrated phage stock, four top agar plates were prepared for each phage preparation. At the time of harvesting phages f rom the top agar plate, each plate was flooded with 4 mL of 1 × TBS buffer and placed on a rocker with gentle agitation at RT for 3 hours. The TBS buffer was combined from four plates and centrifuged at 10,000 × g , 4 ºC for 15 minutes to remove bacteria and cell debris. The phage containing supernatant was mixed with 20% of PEG 8000 (polyethylene glycol 8000) containing 2.5 M NaCl, at 6:1 ratio (v/v), and incubated at 4 ºC overnight. Phage particles were precipitated by centrifugation at 12,000 × g , 4 ºC for 15 minutes, suspended in 1 mL of 1 × TBS buffer, and stored at 4 ºC for short term storage. For long term storage, phage suspension was mixed into 50% of glycerol and stored at 80 °C. The titer of purified phage stock was determined by the top agar overla y method and calculated as plaque forming units per mL (PFU mL 1 ). Characterization of Symbiotic Burkholderia Phage Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soil derived, purified phage that lysed the symbiotic Burkholderia isolate Bi16MC_R_vitro was named as Burkholderia phage Bi16MC_R. Extracted phages (2 × 10 10 PFU mL 1 ) were floated onto the carbon coated Formvar

PAGE 194

194 on a 400 mesh copper grid (Electron Microscopy Sciences) for five minutes. Excess solution was drawn off with filter paper. The grid was floated on 1% aqueous uranyl acetate for 30 seconds, excessive stain was removed with filter paper, air dried, and examined with a Hitachi H 7000 TEM (Hitachi High Technologies America, Inc. Schaumburg, IL). Digital images were a cquired with a Veleta 2k x 2k camera with iTEM software (Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions Corp, Lakewood, CO). Bacteriophage size was determined from the average of four independent measurements. Nucleic acid extraction and restriction enzyme digestion. To r emove contaminating host cell DNA, the extracted Burkholderia phage suspension Bi16MC_R (2 × 10 10 PFU mL 1 ) 1 , Benzonase ® nuclease, Sigma Aldrich) and 2 and incubated at 37 °C for one hour . Nuclease treated phage DNA was extracted using the MasterPure Yeast DNA Purification Kit (Epicentre), according to the BamHI , EcoRV , HindIII , PstI , PvuII , or Xba I restriction endonucleases (Promega, Madison, WI), the digests were electrophoresed in 1% agarose gel with 1× TAE buffer at 90 V for 1 hour and visualized by ethidium bromide staining. In addition, twenty microliters of undigested and digested phage DNA preparations were mixed with loading dye and loaded into a 1% Pulsed Field Certified Agarose gel in 0.5× Tris borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer. The gel, maintained at 1 4 °C, was electrophoresed for four hours at 6 V/cm with 0.1 second switch time. Standards included in the runs were Lambda DNA/EcoRI plus HindIII and 100 bp molecular ruler (BioRad). The PFGE patterns were visualized after staining with 1× SYBR Gold Nuclei c Acid

PAGE 195

195 Gel Stain. Fragment sizes were estimated based on the standard molecular weight using the Quantity One software (Bio Rad). Oral Delivery of Bacteriophage to B. insularis To infect B. insularis with the cultured symbiont Burkholderia for the oral de livery of bacteriophage study, a rearing experiment was conducted that was similar to the previous rearing of neonates on live plants with cultured symbionts. Eggs were produced by a mixture of field collected B. insularis adults and harvested from the egg rolls. These eggs, not coated with Burkholderia , were placed in a sterile petri dish until neonates hatched. Cages that covered the sized plastic pots (15.2 cm in diameter, 8 cm in height) were made from clear acryli c cylinders (15 cm in diameter, 45 cm in height) with four gauze covered ventilation windows (Figure 6 1C). The Burkholderia isolate (Bi16MC_R_vitro), cultured in nutrient broth medium at 200 rpm at 28 ºC overnight was harvested at mid log phase by centrif ugation at 10,000 × g for 10 minutes, suspended in 200 mL of distilled water, and sprayed onto one St. Augustinegrass plant (approximately 1 × 10 9 cells per plant). Plants were air dried overnight in greenhouse before being exposed to neonates. Newly hatche d neonates (less than 24 hours old) were transferred from clean petri dishes into cages. Water was added to the crisper that held the grass pots for irrigation. After three weeks of rearing, cages were sorted to collect B. insularis nymphs. Fourth instars were selected and provisioned with surface sterilized corn kernels in a plastic container, at 27 ± 1 °C with a 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod until they molted into fifth instars. Newly molted fifth instars (less than 24 hours old) were subjected to an oral del ivery of Burkholderia phage Bi16MC_R. Four treatments were used: diet supplemented with phage particles, diet with phage particles and Burkholderia culture (Bi16MC_R), diet with Burkholderia culture, and the control (no phage or Burkholderia added to diet) . Each diet treatment consisted of fresh corn juice,

PAGE 196

196 0.02% Evan Blue dye, and 2 mM CaCl 2 stock suspension (approximately 2 × 10 9 PFU mL 1 ) in 1 × TBS were added to corn juice for loading onto glass microfiber filter paper. For the diet with Burkholderia overnight cultured Burkholderia Bi16MC_R_vitro in nutrient broth medium (approximately 5 × 10 8 cells mL 1 ) was added to corn juice. Five to seven fifth instars were exposed to each t reatment for 10 days. Diets and bacterial cultures were changed daily. Each treatment was replicated five times. At the end of 10 days of exposure, surviving B. insularis individuals were counted to determine survivorship (%) within each treatment. The rat e of adult eclosion (%) was determined using the number of emerged adults divided by the number of total survivors. The normal distribution of data was checked before statistical analyses, using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. The test indicated that neither the survivorship (N = 20, D = 0.5065, P < 0.0100) nor the rate of adult eclosion (N = 20, D = 0.1700, P = 0.1320) data was distributed normally. Therefore, the Kruska l Wallis test (PROC NPAR1WAY) was used to compare the difference in mean values between the four diet treatments. Detection of bacteriophage in midgut. To determine if the bacteriophage was ingested by B. insularis , three to five survivors were surface ste rilized and subjected to midgut dissection. For each survivor, the posterior midgut section (M4B and M4 crypts) were removed first and M3) also were collected . Dissected tissues were homogenized using a sonic dismembrator (Model 300; Fisher Scientific) at 30% for 10 seconds. To avoid cross contamination, posterior section samples were homogenized first, and the dismembrator tip was washed using 70% of EtOH betw een samples. To identify the crypt associated Burkholderia midgut homogenates were subjected to genomic DNA extraction and BOX PCR fingerprinting.

PAGE 197

197 The remaining 50 2 were examined for lytic phage acti vity against Burkholderia Bi16MC_R_vitro culture, using the spot on the lawn technique, as described previously. Five microliters of each homogenate preparation was spotted in duplicate onto the Burkholderia lawn. For the positive control, purified Burkhol deria phage Bi16MC_R (approximately 2 × 10 7 PFU mL 1 ) supplemented with 2 mM CaCl 2 was used. The TBS buffer with 2 mM CaCl 2 also was spotted as a negative control for each plate. After overnight incubation at 28 ºC, lytic phage activity was indicated by a clear zone or plaque formation on the bacterial lawn. Midgut homogenate preparations that produced either a clear zone (7 9 mm in diameter) or more than 50 plaques were scored as the positive lytic phage containing preparation. For each replicate, the perc entage of positive plaque formation was calculated using the number of positive preparations divided by the number of total examined preparations in each treatment. The Kruska l Wallis test (PROC NPAR1WAY) was used for comparing the difference in mean value s between four diet treatments, due to the non normally distributed percentage of positive plaque formation data (N = 20, D = 0.3250, P < 0.0100). A post hoc test of DSCF was applied for pairwise two sided multiple comparison analysis. Results Examination of Burkholderia in Eggs and Neonates Diagnostic PCR amplifications of the Burkholderia specific 16S rRNA gene revealed that Burkholderia were undetectable in all 18 examined eggs, regardless of the surface sterilization procedure (Figure 6 2A). Similarly, twenty five neonates of B. insularis that hatched from surface sterilized eggs and 24 neonates from unsterilized eggs also were free of Burkholderia , indicated by diagnostic PCR amplifications (Figure 6 2B). However, the midgut crypts of their respective B . insularis parents were infected with high titers of Burkholderia . Weak but detectable Burkholderia signals were also found in the reproductive tracts of parents.

PAGE 198

198 Detection of Burkholderia in Offspring without Their Burkholderia infected Parents A total of 194 eggs were collected from five pairs of B. insularis adults, until the females died. Females from four pairs that lived for two to four weeks laid, on average, 2.5 ± 0.4 (mean ± SE) eggs per day, with a total of 47 ± 4 eggs per female during the experiment. Nevertheless, a female from the fifth pair lived for 2.5 weeks and only laid eight eggs before death. Overall, the hatching rate of neonates from surface sterilized eggs ( n = 94, 76%) was not significantly different from that of neonates fr om unsterilized eggs ( n = 97, 79%) (Table 6 1). When newly hatched neonates (36 from sterilized eggs, 41 from unsterilized eggs) were reared individually and provisioned with cut St. Augustinegrass stems, only six neonates from sterilized eggs and six neon ates from unsterilized eggs molted into second instars. In the fifth pair, only one neonate was subjected to the rearing study, and it molted into second instar. The survivorship of first instars fed cut stems was very low (0 to 27%), and no difference was observed between sterilization and non sterilization treatments (Table 6 1). Among the initial 77 neonates that were subjected to the rearing experiment, only four reached the adult stage within 28 47 days. One (female) was generated from the unsterilized egg, whereas three others (one female and two males) were from the surface sterilized eggs. No difference in the rate of adult eclosion was observed between sterilization and non sterilization treatments within each pair (Table 6 1). To investigate the p ossibility of gut symbiont transmission from parents to progeny, one newly emerged adult that was generated from the unsterilized egg (progeny P3), two adults that were from the surface sterilized eggs (P1 and P4), and their respective parents were subject ed to midgut crypt dissection and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Eight out of nine examined B. insularis crypt associated bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons produced clean chromatograms, free of mixed reads, within the target sequence (see sequences in Appendix B 5). One exception was the parental male from the first pair, which contained a complex mixture of bacteria in its crypts.

PAGE 199

199 Based on analysis of the nearly complete 16S sequences (1,166 bp) of crypt associated bacteria, all three B. insularis offspring as a dults (P1, P3, P4) produced 100% identical sequences to each other that best matched to the plant associated Burkholderia gladioli strain (accession number: JX566503). P1 and P3 had sequences identical to their respective parental females. The parental mal e in the third pair had 4% SNPs compared to its progeny (P3), indicating that they harbored different Burkholderia ribotypes. The sequences of progeny P4 and its parental male were identical, whereas the P4 sequence had a 98% match to its mother (Table 6 2 ). Infection of B. insularis Neonates with Cultured Symbionts Oral administration of cultured Burkholderia to neonates. In the two pairs consisting of males at unknown ages and virgin females, both females lived 37 days after being paired and laid 63 to 7 8 eggs. An average of 1.7 2.1 eggs was produced per day by each female that mated only with one male, similar to the egg production (2.5 eggs per day per female) by those at unknown mating status. Regardless of egg surface sterilization, 96 100% of neonate s hatched within 11 14 days. A total of 23 neonates from two pairs of B. insularis adults were subjected to the oral administration of cultured symbiont Burkholderia cocktail using the corn juice (symbiont inoculated). Among them, seven and 16 hatched from the surface sterilized and the unsterilized eggs, respectively. An additional 17 neonates, including 11 from surface sterilized and six from unsterilized eggs, were exposed to the corn juice without cultured symbiont (contro l s). However, regardless of the egg surface sterilization treatment, 78 and 53 % of neonates in the symbiont inoculated and control groups, respectively, died within three to four days of rearing. Dead neonates were found on the diet containing filter paper, suggesting accidental death by drowning. Therefore, this oral administration experiment using corn juice was abandoned after five days. Alternatively, a new rearing method was applied to infect B. insularis neonates with cultured symbionts under greenhouse conditions.

PAGE 200

200 Rearing of neon ates on live plants with cultured symbionts. After two to five days of cultured Burkholderia inoculation on egg chorion, the presence of bacteria on the chorion surface was confirmed by phase contrast microscopy in the Burkholderia coated eggs, whereas no bacteria were detected on uncoated egg surfaces (Figure 6 3). These observations suggest that the newly hatched B. insularis from the Burkholderia coated eggs acquired these bacteria from the egg surface. Overall, a total of 1,385 B. insularis neonates wer e subjected to the infection experiment on live plants, using three cultured Burkholderia isolates. After one month of rearing in cages, regardless of the Burkholderia inoculum source, approximately 50% of the neonates developed into older nymphs (fourth a nd fifth instars) or adults. For the 702 neonates that were reared on the Burkholderia inoculated plants, 42% from the egg chorion coated and 43% from the uncoated neonates survived at the termination of the experiment. Even though neonates were reared on the untreated plants, survival rates of both chorion coated (65%) and the uncoated eggs (51%) were similar to those from the Burkholderia inoculated plants (Table 6 3). No difference in survival rates was found among four treatments ( F = 1.0300, df = 3, P = 0.4021). Among the 699 survived B. insularis of mixed ages and sexe s, a total of 224 B. insularis were subjected to dissection, genomic DNA extraction, and BOX PCR fingerprinting. Regardless of the ribotype of inoculated Burkholderia isolate, 81% of B. insularis that were double infected with cultured Burkholderia (chorion + /plant + ) had the same BOX PCR patterns as the inoculated Burkholderia isolate, suggesting that these insects successfully acquired cultured Burkholderia from the environment (via co ntaminated egg surface and/or plant). When cultured Burkholderia were applied only to live plants, B. insularis that were generated from uncoated eggs (chorion /plant + ) also exhibited 73% of symbiont transmission rates. For those B. insularis reared on the untreated plants, only 15% of the egg chorion coated insects (chorion + /plant )

PAGE 201

201 acquired cultured Burkholderia , whereas none of the uncoated insects plant (chorion /plant ) had the same BOX PCR patterns as the inoculated Burkholderia isolate (Figure 6 4). Significantly higher symbiont transmission rates were observed in the B. insularis that were reared on Burkholderia inoculated plants, relative to the offspring from coated eggs reared on untreated plants ( 2 = 19.1870, df = 3, P = 0.0003) (Table 6 3). The se results strongly indicate that the cultured Burkholderia , regardless of its ribotype, was acquired by B. insularis neonates from the coated egg surface and/or the environment ( i.e. , plants and soils). In addition, B. insularis from the untreated plant c ages harbored diverse Burkholderia , whose ribotypes were distinct from those of the inoculated Burkholderia isolates. Two crypt samples , having BOX PCR profiles that represented 45 % of the profiles generated from insect samples fed the untreated plant s, we re subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Based on the partial sequences (~1400 bp) (Appendix B6 ), one ribotype was closely related (99% similarity) to a Burkholderia isolate from the midgut crypts of C. saccharivorus (AB916379) , and the other one had 99% similarity in sequences to the plant associated B. gladioli (JX566503). These results suggest that B. insularis acquired free living Burkholderia from the ambient environment (plants and soils), further supporting the previous h ypothesis that B. insularis gut symbionts are acquired from the cut St. Augustinegrass stems. Isolation of Symbiotic Burkholderia Phages from Soil Preliminary studies demonstrated that the enrichment method was efficient to amplify and isolate the Burkho lderia phages from soils. Without the enrichment, the titer of isolated phages was low, forming a few plaques. By adding the Burkholderia culture into the soil sample, the lytic phage activity of enriched soil filtrate was approximately eight times higher than that of unenriched sample (Figure 6 5). In the final experiment, eleven soil filtrates, enriched separately with cultured symbiont Burkholderia isolates, were tested against 12 cultured Burkholderia

PAGE 202

202 lawns for bacteriophage screening. Overall, six cult ured lawns (two R and four S) were susceptible to one or more enriched soil filtrates, forming clear zones or plaques (Figure 6 6). More importantly, these enriched soil filtrates typically exhibited specific phage activities against their respective bacte ria. Four soil filtrates, enriched with bacteria belonging to clade A (Bi12MC_S, Bi14MC_S, Bi16MC_R, Bi22MC_R), produced strong lytic phage activities against their homologous Burkholderia lawns, forming a clear zone (7 9 mm in diameter) (Table 6 4). Two f iltrates enriched with isolates Bi12MC_S and Bi14MC_S, exhibited heterogeneous phage activities against each other, suggesting that these two Burkholderia isolates were similar. This finding was supported by the previous analyses (BOX PCR, PFGE, antibiotic susceptibility) in Chapter 4. On the other hand, for the soil filtrates that were enriched with host bacteria belonging to clade B or C, only one sample (Bi16MC_S) had detectable phage activity against its homologous Burkholderia lawn. On the Burkholderia lawns whose ribotypes belonged to clade C, no plaques were produced when exposed to the enriched soil filtrates. Characterization of Symbiotic Burkholderia Phage Transmission electron microscopy revealed that Burkholderia phage Bi16MC_R had an isometric head diameter of 73 ± 0.9 nm (mean ± SE) and a short tail measuring10 ± 0.4 nm in length and 15 ± 0.3 nm in width (Figure 6 7). On the top agar plate against the host bacterial culture (Bi16MC_R_vitro), this phage typically produced clear plaques (1 2 mm i n diameter). The phage DNA, tested with six different restriction endonucleases, was digested with the EcoRV , indicating that the phage contained double stranded viral DNA. Based on the PFGE analysis of EcoRV digest, the estimated genome size of this phage was 45.8 kb (Figure 6 8). The morphological characterizations and double stranded DNA indicated that this phage belongs to family Podoviridae, according to the guidelines of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV; http://www.ictvonline.org/index.asp ) that were released in 2014.

PAGE 203

203 Oral Delivery of Bacteriophage to B. insularis A cohort of neonates was reared on the Burkholderia inoculated (Bi16MC_R_vitro) St. Augustinegrass for three weeks . Before the phage activity assay, 18 B. insularis were selected randomly and examined to estimate symbiont transmission rates. Approximately 40% of the se tested B. insularis exhibited the Bi16MC_R_vitro BOX PCR pattern. These results suggest that a portio n (60%) of the tested B. insularis fifth instars likely harbored Burkholderia other than the inocul ated isolate (Bi16MC_R_vitro). These newly molted fifth instars ( n = 110) were collected and subjected to the oral delivery of Burkholderia bacteriophage (Bi 16MC_R) experiment. In each treatment, 26 29 fifth instars were used. After 10 days of exposure to corn juice supplemented with phage, 27 out of 28 examined B. insularis survived. Among the 27 survivors, there were eight adults, four females and four males . High survivorship (100%) also occurred in the 29 examined B. insularis that fed on the diet supplemented with phage infected Burkholderia . Five (two females and three males) out of 29 survivors were adults. I n the absence of phage (the Burkholderia only treatment and the untreated control), 96% of examined insects survived, and 40% of the survivors were adults (female to male ratio: 1:1). No difference was found in the survivorship ( 2 = 1.1385, df = 3, P = 0.7678) or in the rate of adult eclosion ( 2 = 2 .3887, df = 3, P = 0.4957) among four treatments (Table 6 5). Regardless of the treatment, dissection of 97 surviving B. insularis adults and fifth instars revealed that all insects had blue dye in the anterior midgut regions (M1 M3), indicating continuous ingestion of their food. Similar to the findings in Chapter 4, no blue dye appeared in the posterior midgut regions (M4B M4) or in the hindgut. To confirm that the Burkholderia phage was ingested by B. insularis , the lytic phage activity assay was conduc ted using 97 B. insularis survivors after 10 days of exposure to the diet treatments. The anterior and posterior midgut regions of each insect were homogenized

PAGE 204

204 separately and the presence of phage analyzed using lytic phage activity assay. Plaques (7 9 mm in diameter) were detected in all positive controls (2 × 10 7 PFU mL 1 phage suspension), whereas no plaques were produced in all negative controls (TBS buffer) (Figure 6 9). In the phage only treatment, 20 out of 25 anterior (M1 M3) homogenate samples exhi bited positive phage activities; however, no plaques were detected in their respective posterior (M4B M4) homogenates. In the phage plus Burkholderia treatment, 23 out of 25 examined anterior homogenate preparations had positive phage activities; no plaque s were produced from assays with the posterior homogenates. In the Burkholderia only treatment and in the control group, neither the anterior nor the posterior midgut homogenate produced plaques (Table 6 5). A significant difference was found in the positi ve plaque formation of anterior midgut homogenates ( 2 = 17.1472, df = 3, P = 0.0007) among four treatments (Table 6 5). In addition, a total of ten posterior midgut homogenate preparations from each treatment were randomly selected and subjected to genomi c DNA extraction and BOX PCR fingerprinting. According to the BOX PCR patterns, 20 to 50% of preparations were infected with Bi16MC_R_vitro (Table 6 5), suggesting that the ingested Burkholderia bacteriophages failed to target the crypt inhabiting Burkhold eria in vivo . Overall, these results strongly suggest that: 1) soil derived Burkholderia phage particles were ingested by B. insularis and passed through the anterior midgut regions (M1 M3); however, 2) the ingested phages were unable to enter the poste rior regions (M4B M4), at which the symbiont organ locates; 3) the ingested phage and/or Burkholderia had no impact on the B. insularis survivorship and adult eclosion; therefore, although speculative, 4) the region between M3 and M4B was blocked, preventi ng the ingress of non symbiont microbes.

PAGE 205

205 Discussion Blissus insularis , like most sap feeding heteropterans (Glasgow 1914, Kikuchi et al. 2011a, Itoh et al. 2014) , has an elongated m idgut with four distinct anatomical regions (M1 M4; Figure 3 1); its midgut fourth region (M4) is the organ where dense bacterial symbionts colonize ( Boucias et al. 2012) . The bacterial taxa and the morphological feature of symbiont organs vary between heteropteran species (for reviews, see Chapter 1). However, the primary transmission/acquisition routes of their gut symbionts are postnatal and include the following mechan isms: 1) the probing of symbiont contaminated egg chorion as shown in the families Acanthosomatidae and Pentatomidae (Prado et al. 2006, Kikuchi et al. 2009, Bansal et al. 2014, Bistolas et al. 2014) ; 2) deposition of the symbiont contain ing capsules on the underside of egg masses by females in the Plataspidae (Fukatsu and Hosokawa 2002, Hosokawa et al. 2006) ; 3) excretion of the symbiont containing feces by infected adults in the Parastrachiidae and Reduviidae ( Baines 1956, Beard et al. 2002, Hosokawa et al. 2012) ; 4) and/or acquisition from the environment where the free living symbionts acquired by members of the Alydidae (Kikuchi et al. 2007) . Most g ut symbionts that are transmitted via the first three routes belong to Gammaproteobacteria (Hosokawa et al. 2006, 2012; Prado et al. 2006; Bistolas et al. 2014) and Actinobacteria (Beard et al. 2002) , whereas the environmentally acquired gut symbiont in alydids belongs to the genus Burkholderia in the Betaproteobacteria (Kikuchi et al. 2005, 2007) . In B. insularis , Burkholderia is the predominate clade inhabiting the tubular midgut cryp ts and appears to play an important role in maintaining host fitness (Boucias et al. 2012) . Although speculative, they may not be transmitted vertically as previously proposed. In stinkbugs (acanthosomatids and pentatomids), the newly hatched neonates typically aggregate on eggs and probe the symbion t containing chorion for one to six hours to acquire symbionts that were deposited by females during oviposition (Prado et al. 2006, Kikuchi et al. 2009, Bistolas et

PAGE 206

206 al. 2014) . Diagnostic PCR has confirmed that intact eggs contained symbionts after oviposition, that nymphs allowed to probe chorion acquire the symbiont, and that the nymphs that are removed from chorion immediately after hatching are symbiont free (Bistolas et al. 2014) . The egg chorion probing behavior, demonstrated in stinkbugs has not been observed in B. insularis (personal observation). Importantly, diagnostic PCR failed to detect Burkholderia in unsterilized eggs and in neonates of B. insularis (Figure 6 2). Seco nd, the symbiont containing capsules that are deposited by the female plataspid stinkbug are attached to the egg masses, arranging in two parallel lines. Upon hatching, neonates constantly probe the capsule to acquire symbionts (Fukatsu and Hosokawa 2002) . However, no such attached capsule is observed in B. insularis (Boucias et al. 2012) . Unlike egg masses laid in strings or in clusters by plataspids and pentatomids (Fukatsu and Hosokawa 2002, Bistolas et al. 2014) , B. insularis eggs are deposited singly and randomly between grass blades (Reinert and Kerr 1973) . This oviposition strategy als o suggests that B. insularis females are unable to transmit gut symbiont through the symbiont containing mucous secretion, which is a specialized maternal transmission route in the subsocial parastrachiids (Hosokawa et al. 2012 a ) . Specifically, in these insects, the mother guards the egg masses in a cluster after oviposition, and she excretes the obligate symbiont containing mucus from the anus onto eggs several minutes before they hatch. Neonates immediately acquire the mucous secretion as well as the symbionts after hatching (Hosokawa et al. 2012 a ) . Nevertheless, it h as been found that fecal bacteria from B. insularis adults are readily culturable on nutrient agar plates, and the bacterial colonies isolated from them are identified as Burkholderia by diagnostic PCR amplification (personal observation). These observatio ns suggest the possibility that B. insularis neonates may acquire Burkholderia through the symbiont containing feces deposited by the infected adults, as demonstrated in the blood feeding reduviids (Beard et al.

PAGE 207

207 2002) . Typically, B. insularis forms dense and multigenerational aggregations while they feed on St. Augustinegrass (Addesso et al. 2012) . This behavior possibly contributes to the dispersal of feces, which may maintain the complex of Burkholderia detected in the B. insularis populations (see Chapter 3; Boucias et al. 2012). In the current study, neonates fed on cut grass stems without their parents contained the identical Burkholderia ribotype. These findings, garnered from a small sample (n = 3), do not agree with the diverse Burkholderia complex found in a field collected or a laboratory maintained population (see Chapter 3; Boucias et al. 2012), suggesting that contact with conspecifics plays an imp ortant role in maintaining ribotype diversity. Significantly, the high mortality (approximately 98%) that occurred during the first instar stage when neonates were reared individually on the cut grass suggests that critical component(s) ensuring B. insular is survivorship was/were missing. This could be the cut grass parts with poor food quality, the lack of symbiont Burkholderia , and/or the disrupted sociality that neonates typically aggregated in natural environment. O ther laboratory studies have demonstra t ed that B. insularis neonates reared solely on corn (Vázquez et al. 2010) or on freshly clipped sections of St. Augustinegrass (Kerr 1966) displayed high levels of mortality at early instars. These findings suggest that B. insularis , at least during the early instars, requires live grass as a food source. This is differ ent from the seed feeding Riptortus , which is able to survive and grow by feeding on sterilized soybean seeds in the absence of symbiont Burkholderia (Kikuchi et al. 2007) . In the rearing experimen t using cut St. Augustinegrass stems, all three adults (P1, P3, and P4) that developed from the neonates fed on cut grass stems harbored Burkholderia homologous to a plant associated B. gladioli strain. To further examine this, St. Augustinegrass stems wer e surface sterilized by the simplified procedure and homogenized in liquid nitrogen. Genomic

PAGE 208

208 plant DNA amplified using diagnostic PCR confirmed the presence of Burkholderia that was grouped with the B. gladioli strain (see methods and results in Appendix D). These findings indicate that host plant surfaces and/or interiors may serve as a source of gut symbiont Burkholderia for B. insularis that feed by piercing through the innermost leaf sheath (Rangasamy et al. 2009) . This indication also is supported by the latter rearing experiment using live St. Augustinegrass plants, showing that survival rates of B. insularis in the non infected group (uncoated egg chorion plus untreated plant) were similar to those in the single (coated egg chorion or inoculated plant) and double infected groups (coated egg chorion and inoculated plant). Rearing offspring from egg coated with a single cultured Burkholderia provided further evi dence of the horizontal transmission of the gut symbiont. However, the low rate of transmission (15%) from eggs containing a large bacterial load suggests that, at best, the egg surface is a poor source for symbiont acquisition. In a related blissid specie s, C. saccharivorus , the gut symbiont Burkholderia is acquired primarily from the environment, although the vertical transmission via egg surface contamination coexists in 30% of examined nymphs (Itoh et al. 2014) . Older documentation by Glasgow (1914) also indicated that the newly hatched Blissus leucopterus harbored unidentified bacteria in the gastric caeca (midgut crypts). However, no further examination was carried back into the alimentary tract of its developing embryo to elucidate the bacterial transmission route. In the curre nt study, several lines of evidence point to the horizontal transmission of gut symbiont Burkholderia in B. insularis . The presence of vertical transmission, although unlikely, needs further validation. It should be noted that, although similar rearing tec hnique was applied, the infection rate (20 50%) with the cultured Burkholderia (Bi16MC_R_vitro) in the oral delivery of bacteriophage study was lower than that

PAGE 209

209 (78 87%) in the previous symbiont transmission study. The less efficient infection could be due to the insufficient bacterial inoculum (1 × 10 9 cells per plant) within the large sized cage setup. For future studies using this cage setup, higher levels of inoculated Burkholderia are recommended to achieve higher symbiont infection rates of B. insulari s . The bacteriophage that infect the symbiotic Burkholderia Bi16MC_R_vitro was identified as a podovirus, morphologically similar to other soil derived lytic phages that target virulent B. pseudomallei (Gatedee et al. 2011) and B. cepacia complex (Bcc) species (Gill et al. 2011, Lynch et al. 2012) . Typically, podoviruses have short tails, contain a double stranded DNA (16 to 80 kb genome), and infect members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli (Ackermann 2003, Hyman an d Abedon 2012) . Compared to the Bcc podovirus with a 62 to 64 kb genome (Gill et al. 2011, Lynch et al. 2012) , the genome size of the symbiotic Burkholderia phage Bi16MC_R is smaller and more in line with the 45 kb genome of the B. pseudomallei AMP1 (Gatedee et al. 2011) . To my knowledge, the detection of the phage Bi16MC_R is the first report of a bacteriophage infecting a cultured insect gut symbiont. I t should be noted that a podov irus has been detected within bacterial endosymbionts of unicellular ciliated protozoa in the genus Paramecium (Ackermann 2003) . Unlike the antibiotics that had broad spectrum acti vity against the cultured symbiont Burkholderia isolates (see details in Chapter 4), Burkholderia bacteriophage is highly specific (Table 6 4). Significantly, when administrated orally over time to B. insularis nymphs, no deleterious effects were observed in insects. Bacteriophage therapy that has been employed in treating mammalian infectious diseases ( Carmody et al. 2010 ) has been explored recently in insects. Seed and Dennis (2009) used the moth larvae, Galleria mellonella (L), as a model insect to eval uate the in vivo efficacy of lytic

PAGE 210

210 phages against the human pathogen Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A single injection of phages (2.5 × 10 3 PFU) rescued 50% of larvae from a lethal dose (2.5 × 10 3 CFU); nearly 100% of un injected larvae died. Similar efficacy at rescuing Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected Drosophila melanogaster was achieved by the injection of environmentally derived P. aeruginosa phages (10 4 PFU fly 1 ) (Lindberg et al. 2014) . In addition to these experimentally manipulated infections with human pathogens (Bcc species and P. aeruginosa ), bacteriophage therapy successfully suppressed the naturally occurring infections of Paenibacillus larvae in honeybee larvae (Ghorbani Nezami et al. 2015) . The lytic bacteriophages (10 7 PFU), isolated from the soi l nearby the honeybee hive, were administrated orally to the bacterial spore infected honeybee larvae (1 , 000 spores) for eight days. When phages were administrated one day prior to infection with P. larvae spores, the phage therapy elevated larvae survival rates to 70 85%, whereas the spore infected control survival was only 45% at the end of the experiment (Ghorbani Nezami et al. 201 5) . Even though the previously mentioned studies indicate that bacteriophages successfully treat bacterial pathogens in different insect species, little is known about the efficacy of bacteriophage against insect gut symbionts. Unexpectedly, the orally ingested Burkholderia phages, which were isolated from the B. insularis inhabiting soil samples, failed to be detected in the posterior midgut regions. Phages were detected readily in the anterior midgut regions (non symbiont organs; M1 M3), but never in the posterior regions (symbiont organs; M4B M4); regardless of the successful infection with the target Burkholderia isolate (Bi16MC_R_vitro). These findings suggest that the phage failed to enter the symbiont organ. Histological analysis of the midgut in stinkbug species provided detailed information on the structure and function of a specialized symbiont sorting organ (Ohbayashi et al. 2015) . I n some cases, stinkbugs in the families Coreidae and Plataspidae

PAGE 211

211 possess a constricted, thread like connection between M3 and M4B that results in a functional disconnect between the anterior (M1 M3) and the posterior (M4B M4) midgut regions (Ohbayashi et al. 2015) . This thin connection also is localized between the M3 and M4B midgut regions in B. insularis (see Figure 5 1C). As proposed by Ohbaya shi et al. (2015), acquisition of gut symbionts and subsequent establishment in the posterior symbiont organ (crypts) may stimulate the constricted region in young coreids and plataspids to be closed and degenerated, reinforcing the colonization of specifi c symbionts therein. The functional aspects of this insect tissue is reminiscent of the regressed epithelial cells in the bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes (Koropatnick et al. 2 007) . The symbiosis between E. scolopes and its luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri involves a complex process triggered by bacterial signals; from the aggregation of environmental Vibrio , to the complete colonization and full regression of surface epith elium on the symbiont organ (the light organ of squid) (Nyholm et al. 2000, Nyholm and McFall Ngai 2004) . Perhaps the closed and degenerated constricted region in many heteropterans is analogous to the regressed surface epithelium of the squid light organ, and is induced by the peptidoglycan signals from their gram negative bacterial symbionts, as shown in V. fischeri (Koropatnick et al. 2007) . The midgut crypts of B. insularis , as a specialized and safe niche for gut symbionts, may also be involved in excluding other potential antibacterial intruders, such as the environmental bacteriophages. In summary, a series of experiments strongly suggest that the primary gut symbiont transmission route in B. insularis is oral acquisition from the environment (plants and soils). The vertical transmission as proposed in Chapter 3 and prior study (Boucias e t al. 2012), however, is less likely a major route for acquiring gut symbiotic Burkholderia in B. insularis . Bacteriophages were isolated from soils and infected the cultured symbiont Burkholderia in vitro . However, oral

PAGE 212

212 administration of these phages to s ymbiont infected B. insularis failed to target the symbionts in vivo , perhaps due to the functionally disconnected midgut regions, highlighting the conspicuous morphological specialization of B. insularis midgut and the intricate Blissus Burkholderia symbi osis.

PAGE 213

213 Table 6 1. The hatching rate, the survivorship at first instar stage, and the adult eclosion rate of Blissus insularis that reared on the cut St. Augustinegrass stems. Pair no. Egg (days) a % Hatching rate (no. hatching/egg) b % Survivorship at first instar stage (no. second instar/neonate) d % Adult eclosion rate (no. emerged adult/neonate) Unsterilized Sterilized P c Unsterilized Sterilized P Unsterilized Sterilized P 1 50 (13) 100 (25/25) 100 (25/25) N/A 7 (1/14) 14 (2/14) 1.000 0 (0/14) 7 (1/14) 1.000 2 52 (33) 69 (18/26) 65 (15/23) 1.000 0 (0/10) 0 (0/7) N/A 0 (0/10) 0 (0/7) N/A 3 50 (22) 68 (17/25) 48 (12/25) 0.2516 27 (3/11) 20 (1/5) 1.000 9 (1/11) 0 (0/5) 1.000 4 34 (16) 76 (13/17) 94 (16/17) 0.3353 20 (1/5) 30 (3/10) 1.000 0 (0/5) 20 (2/10) 0.5238 5 8 (18) 100 (4/4) 75 (3/4) 1.000 100 (1/1) N/A (0/0) N/A 0 (0/1) N/A (0/0) N/A a The total number of eggs that were collected from a single pair of B. insularis until the female died. Days mean the longevity of each female. b The number of newly hatched neonates divided by the total number of examined eggs. c Statistical significance of the difference between unsterilized eggs and surface available, due to the 100 % hatching rates. d The survivorship at first instar stage was calculated using the number of emerged second instars divided by the number of hat ched neonates that were subjected to the rearing experiment.

PAGE 214

214 Table 6 2. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in the universal 16S rRNA gene partial sequences of crypt associated bacteria from parental and respective progeny Blissus insularis . Progeny a Gender Treatment b % SNPs (SNPs/total length in bp) c G 0 female d G 0 male e P1 Female Sterilized 0 (0/1375) N/A f P3 Female Unsterilized 0 (0/1363) 4.0 (55/1363) P4 Male Sterilized 2.2 (26/1176) 0 (0/1176) a The identity of progeny at adult stage. The number indicated the pair from which the progeny was generated. b The progeny was generated from the surface sterilized or the unsterilized eggs. c Percentage of the SNPs in the respective ~ 1.2 to 1.4 kb univer sal 16S rRNA gene sequences. The SNPs were detected using pairwise alignments of the universal 16S rRNA gene sequences of crypt associated bacteria from the parental and the respective progeny B. insularis. d Parental female. e Parental male. f Not availab le, due to the mixed reads of the parental male from the first pa ir.

PAGE 215

215 Table 6 3. The survival rate and symbiont transmission rate of Blissus insularis that were subjected to the rearing experiment on the live plant with three cultured Burkholderia isolates (Bi12MC_S, Bi16MC_R, and Bi25MC_R). Treatment a % Survival (no. survivor/total) b % Symbiont transmission (no. positive/total) c Bi12MC_S Bi16MC_R Bi25MC_R Total d Bi12MC_S Bi16MC_R Bi25MC_R Total chorion + /plant + 43 (63/145) 55 (66/119) 23 (23/99) 42 (152/363) 75 (15/20) 78 (18/23) 100 (9/9) 81 (42/52) a chorion /plant + 42 (63/149) 34 (38/112) 59 (46/78) 43 (147/339) 60 (12/20) 87 (20/23) 70 (7/10) 74 (39/53) a chorion + /plant 69 (102/147) 65 (78/120) 59 (51/86) 65 (231/353) 30 (6/20) 7 (2/30) 10 (1/10) 15 (9/60) b chorion /plant 46 (75/163) 76 (79/104) 24 (15/63) 51 (169/330) 0 (0/20) 0 (0/29) 0 (0/10) 0 (0/59) c F (df) e 1.0300 (3) 2 (df) f 19.1870 (3) P 0.4021 P 0.0003 a chorion + /plant + , neonates that hatched from Burkholderia coated eggs were reared on Burkholderia inoculated plant; chorion /plant + , neonates that hatched from uncoated eggs were reared on Burkholderia inoculated plant; chorion + /plant , Burkholderia coated eggs were reare d on untreated plant; chorion /plant , neonates that hatched from uncoated eggs were reared on untreated plant. b After one month rearing, the number of surviving B. insularis divided by the total number of neonates that were subjected to each treatment. c The number of examined B. insularis that exhibited positive transmission divided by the total number of B. insularis that were subjected to BOX PCR analyses. d Data from three cultured Burkholderia isolates were pooled for each treatment. e F value and d egree of freedom, analyzed by one way ANOVA test. f Values of Chi square and degree of freedom, analyzed by Kruska l Wallis test. Different letters in the column indicate statistically significant difference between each treatment (Dwass, Steel, Critchlow Fligner Method; P < 0.05).

PAGE 216

216 Table 6 4. Spot on the lawn assay of soil filtrates that were enriched with different cultured symbiont Burkholderia isolates, tested with their host bacterial lawns and heterogeneous Burkholderia lawns. Clade a Lawn identity Soil filtrates enriched with d ifferent cultured Burkholderia isolates Clade A Clade B Clade C Bi12 MC_S Bi14 MC_S Bi16 MC_R Bi22 MC_R Bi20 MC_R Bi16 MC_S Bi17 MC_R Bi24 MC_R Bi20 MC_S Bi21 MC_S Bi26 MC_S A Bi12MC_S ++ * ++ Bi14MC_S ++ ++ * Bi16MC_R N/A ++ * ++ + Bi22MC_R ++ * B Bi20MC_R N/A Bi16MC_S N/A + ++ ++ * ++ + C Bi17MC_R Bi19MC_R N/A Bi24MC_R N/A Bi20MC_S N/A Bi21MC_S N/A ++ Bi26MC_S N/A a Clades were defined by the universal 16S rRNA gene sequences, see details in Figure 4 5. ++, clear zone (7 9 mm in diameter); +, 10 15 small plaques; , no plaque; N/A. not available. * , the Burkholderia phage that was enriched in the host bacterial culture homogeneously targeted on its host bacterial lawn.

PAGE 217

217 Table 6 5. Mean (± SE) va lues of survivorship, adult eclosion rate, and lytic phage activity of midgut homogenates from Blissus insularis that were exposed to different diet treatments for 10 day. Treatment N a % Survivorship % Adult eclosion rate N b % Plaque M1 M3 c % Plaque M4 B M4 d % Infection rate (no. positive/total) e Phage 28 96.7 (3.0) 28.6 (9.3) 25 80.0 (8.0) a 0 (0) 40 (4/10) Phage+ Burkholderia 29 100.0 (0) 17.7 (7.1) 25 92.0 (7.2) a 0 (0) 50 (4/10) Burkholderia 27 96.0 (3.6) 39.4 (5.3) 24 0 (0) b 0 (0) 20 (2/10) Control 26 95.0 (4.5) 34.3 (13.3) 23 0 (0) b 0 (0) 20 (2/10) 2 (df) f 1.1385 (3) 2.3887 (3) 17.1472 (3) N/A g 2.2559 (3) P 0.7678 0.4957 0.0007 N/A 0.5210 a The total number of B. insularis fifth instars that were used in each treatment. b After 10 day exposure to each treatment, the total number of surviving B. insularis that were subjected to the lytic phage activity assay. c The percentage of positive plaque formation in the B. insularis anterior midgut homogenates, from first to third ( M1 M3) regions, which produced plaques in the lytic phage activity assay. d The percentage of positive plaque formation in the B. insularis posterior midgut homogenates, from fourth bulb to fourth crypt (M4B M4) regions. e The percentage of M4B M4 homogenate preparations infected with Bi16MC_R_vitro, detected by BOX PCR fingerprinting. f Values of Chi square and degree of freedom, analyzed by Kruska l Wallis test. Different letters in the column (% plaque M1 M3) indicate statistically significant difference between each treatment (Dwass, Steel, Critchlow Fligner Method; P < 0.05). g Not available.

PAGE 218

218 Figure 6 1. Rearing of Blissus insula ris neonates on live St. Augustinegrass with cultured symbiont Burkholderia . A) Unhatched eggs and one newly hatched neonate, which was used in the Burkholderia infection study. B) Plastic cage built for rearing B. insularis on live St. Augustinegrass to e xamine the symbiont transmission route. C) A large sized cage setup, which was used in the oral delivery of bacteriophage to B. insularis experiment, for infecting B. insularis neonates with one cultured Burkholderia isolate.

PAGE 219

219 Figure 6 2. Diagnostic B urkholderia specific PCR analyses of Blissus insularis eggs and neonates. A) The initial PCR amplifications of the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene (~750 bp) did not detect Burkholderia in the genomic DNA of eggs, which were from two pairs of B. insularis adults , regardless of the surface sterilization treatment. Lanes 1 5 = five eggs that were not surface sterilized; 6 11= six eggs that were sterilized using a simplified method (see detail in Materials and Methods section); 12 18 = seven eggs that were sterilize d using a complicated method; 19 = crypt genomic DNA of a female parent; 20 = reproductive tract genomic DNA of a female parent; 21 = non template control. B) The initial PCR amplifications of the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene did not detect Burkholderia in t he genomic DNA of neonates (less than 24 hour old), which were from five pairs of B. insularis adults, regardless of the egg surface sterilization treatment. Lanes 1 10 = ten neonates that were hatched from not surface sterilized eggs; 11 = crypt genomic D NA of a female parent; 12 = reproductive tract genomic DNA of a female parent; 13 23= eleven neonates that were hatched from sterilized eggs; 24 = non template control. Standard markers are HyperLadder I ( Bioline, Taunton, MA ).

PAGE 220

220 Figure 6 3. The Burkho lderia coated and uncoated egg chorions that were left over by the newly hatched Blissus insularis neonates, which were used in the rearing of neonates on live plants with cultured symbionts experiment. In the Burkholderia coated treatment, the presence of rod shaped bacteria on the surface of egg chorion was observed after 5 day of application of Burkholderia suspension (1× 10 9 cells mL 1 ). No bacterium was found in the control group.

PAGE 221

221 Figure 6 4. The representative BOX PCR gel of crypt associated bacteria in vivo from 34 Blissus insularis (lanes 1 34) that were reared on live plants with or without cultured Burkholderia inoculation. Abbreviations: P = the positive control (the inoculat ed Burkholderia isolate, Bi16MC_R_vitro); a = the treatment chorion + /plant + (see text for details); b = the treatment chorion /plant + ; c = the treatment chorion + /plant ; d = treatment chorion /plant . R = the reference cultured Burkholderia isolate ( Bi24MC _R_vitro). NTC = non template control. Standard markers are HyperLadder I. Star indicates the lane

PAGE 222

222 Figure 6 5. Isolation of symbiotic Burkholderia phages from soils using the enrich ment method. The Burkholderia enriched soil filtrate cleared its own host bacterial culture (Bi16MC_R_vitro) (left panel), whereas the unenriched soil filtrate produced approximately 100 plaques (middle panel). Control plate included host bacterial culture in the absence of soil filtrate (right panel). Figure 6 6. Detection of lytic phage activity in the serially diluted soil filtrates, which were enriched separately with cultured symbiont Burkholderia isolates Bi12MC_S, Bi20MC_S, Bi24MC_R, and Bi16MC_R. The cultured Burkholderia lawn for bacteriophage screening was Bi16MC_R_vitro. Five microliters of each soil filtrate were spotted. Arrows indicated the clear zone and plaque formation.

PAGE 223

223 Figure 6 7. Transmission electron micrographs of the negative stained symbiotic Burkholderia phage Bi16MC_R, photographed in four different fields. Scale bars indicate 50 nm. Figure 6 8. Genomic DNA of symbiotic Burkholderia phage Bi16MC_R digested with restri ction endonucleases. A) 1% agarose gel electrophoresis of undigested phage DNA and its digested patterns by PstI , XbaI , PvuII , or EcoRV . Standard marker is Lambda DNA/EcoRI plus HindIII. B) The genome size of symbiotic Burkholderia phage Bi16MC_R estimate d by PFGE after being digested by the restriction enzyme EcoRV . Lanes 1 = 100 bp molecular ruler; 2 = Lambda DNA/EcoRI plus HindIII.

PAGE 224

224 Figure 6 9. Detection of lytic phage activity in Blissus insularis midgut photogates after 10 day exposure to the diet containing Burkholderia specific phage (A), phage plus the target Burkholderia cells (B), Burkholderia cells only (C), or neither phage nor Burkholderia cells (D). Rows 1 5 indicated five B. insularis individuals for each treatment. Five microliters of ho mogenate were spotted in duplicate. Arrows indicated the clear zone formation. Stars indicated the formation of small plaques. Abbreviations: M1 M3, homogenates of anterior midgut regions (first to third regions); M4B M4, homogenates of posterior midgut re gions (fourth midgut bulb and fourth midgut crypts); PC, positive control ( Burkholderia phage Bi16MC_R); NC, negative control (TBS buffer).

PAGE 225

225 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION S The pioneering study by Boucias et al. (2012) revealed that the Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae), harbors dense populations of exocellular bacteria associated with Burkholderia in the tubular midgut crypts, and proposed multiple roles that these gut microbes play in the biology of B. insularis . In one instance , the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae), displays increased levels of resistance to both percutaneous and oral administration of an organophosphorus pesticide (fenitrothion) that are attributed to the acquisitio n of fenitrothion degrading Burkholderia from the soil as its gut symbionts (Kikuchi et al. 2012). According to these prior studies, one of the original goals of this dissertation was to examine the possibility that the crypt associated Burkholderia are involve d in the resistance of B. insularis against the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin. In general , my studies, directed at understanding the insect bacterial association in Blissus , were designed to provide a framework to develop novel strategies for manag ing this insect pest . Ove rall, six empirical findings that contribute to our current understanding of Blissus Burkholderia association were as follows : 1) a clonal association of bacteria was found in each B. insularis individual in midgut crypts, forming a phylogenetically divers e Burkholderia community within each B. insularis colony ; 2) the lack of genomic and physiological differences between the crypt associated Burkholderia detected in B. insularis from the bifenthrin resistant (R) and susceptible (S) colonies ; 3) higher lev els of Burkholderia were detected in the crypts of the R colonies ; 4) antibiotic treatment reduced Burkholderia levels and retarded growth and higher susceptibility to bifenthrin exposure in treated B. insularis ; 5) oral acquisition of free living Burkholderia from the environment was demonstrated, supporting the horizontal transmission of this symbiont in B. insularis ; 6) soil derived bacteriophages lysed cultured

PAGE 226

226 Burkholderia in vitro , but failed to target the crypt inhabiting Burkholderia in vivo via oral administration of phages to B. insularis . First, the clonal nature of the B. insularis Burkholderia association was demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of both the crypt associated bacteria generated from individual B. insularis (Chapter 3 ) and their cultured counterpart bacteria isolated after the inoculation of crypts in axenic medium (Chapter 4). Sequence analysis revealed that a single Burkholderia ribotype colonized the midgut crypts of an individual B. insularis . Similarly, a simple b acterial community has been revealed in the crypts of another chinch bug species, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Hemiptera: Blissidae) (Itoh et al. 2014). T he failure of orally administrated and Burkholderia bacteriophages to enter the cr ypts (C hapters 5 and 6) suggest that the midgut crypts of B. insularis are specialized symbiont organ s customized for the acquisition and maintenance of Burkholderia . One could speculate that the initial acquisition of Burkholderia by neontaes triggers modificati on in the midgut fourth region bulb (M4B; Figure 5 1C) to exclude food material and non symbiotic microbes. These speculations support the bacterial clonal association in B. insularis , and they might explain the similar configuration of gut symbiotic Burkholderia in C. saccharivorus . As shown in the widely distributed field populations of B. insularis (Boucias et al. 2012), a phylogenetically diverse crypt associated Burkholderia community also existed within each B. insularis laboratory colony maintai ned over a multigenerational time frame, resulting from the bacterial clonal association in individual B. insularis (Chapters 3 and 4). Specifically, phylogenetic analyses placed the crypt associated universal 16S rRNA gene sequences into three to four maj or Burkholderia clades (Figures 3 6 and 4 5 ). It is likely that diverse groups of Burkholderia are associated with the insect family Blissidae, as demonstrated in C. saccharivorus whose gut symbiont sequences were also placed

PAGE 227

227 into three Burkholderia clades closely related to the ones from B. insularis (Figures 3 6 and 4 5 ; Itoh et al. 2014). Second, the results of studies in Chapters 3 and 4 by examining the in vivo crypt associated bacteria and their in vitro produced cultures indicate that there was no di fference in the genomic and physiological features between these symbiotic Burkholderia isolated from the R and S B. insularis colonie s. Several lines of evidence point to the prevalence of crypt associated Burkholderia in B. insularis , regardless of the l evels of insect resistance against bifenthrin. For example, the 16S rRNA and MLST gene sequences of Burkholderia obtained from R and S females did not partition into distinct clades in the phylogenetic tree (Figures 3 6, 4 5, and 4 6 ). The PFGE profiles an d antibiotic susceptibilities of cultured Burkholderia isolated from the R crypts were similar to those from S crypts . Importantly, the novel culturing st rategies that were developed expedited our ability to decipher the B. insularis Burkholderia associati on (Chapter 4) . Previous attempts to culture these Burkholderia failed (Boucias et al. 2012), resulting in limited investigations into the proposed biological functions of gut symbionts in B. insularis . As with B. insularis , the Burkholderia from C. saccharivorus also are rarely cultured using the convention al plating cultivation method, suggesting that the blissid Burkholderia symbiosis may be different from that of other alydid stinkbug associated gut symbiont Burkholderia , which can be cultured rea dily in vitro (Kikuchi et al. 2007, 2011a ; Garcia et al. 2014) . The newly developed culturing method involving the initial adaption of the symbiont tissue in insect cell culture medium may provide an alternative strate gy for establishing in vitro cultures of other fastidious insect associated bacterial symbionts. Third, significantly higher levels of Burkholderia 16S rRNA and dnaA gene copies were (Chapter 3). The additional experiments using a third bifenthrin -

PAGE 228

228 resistant laboratory colony (PCP; Chapter 2) supported t he finding of higher levels of Burkholderia in crypts of bifenthrin resistant females (Appendix C ). D ifferent Burkholderia levels in mi dgut crypts were not due to the gene tic background of host insects; identical sequences of COI gene were detected in both the R and S mitochondrial DNA (Chapter 3). The results in Chapter 5 demonstrated that B. insularis administrated orally with antibioti cs for 10 days exhibited ten fold less Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies and three fold higher susceptibility to bifenthrin exposure than those fed antibiotic free diet. These findings suggest that the antibiotic treatment elevated the susceptibility of B. insularis to bifenthrin either by reducing their gut symbionts load or by direct reducing host detoxification pathways (see following paragraph) . It should be noted that prior studies also demonstrated that levels of the bacterial symbiont Wolbachia in in secticide resistant mosquitoes were greater than those in the insecticide susceptible ones (Berticat et al. 2002 ) , and they speculated that the high Wolbachia density in resistant mosquitoes is a physiological cost associated with the insecticide resistant alleles (Berticat et al. 2002, Duron et al. 2006) . Fourth, oral ingestion of antibiotics, which displayed broad spectrum activity against the cultured symbiont Burkholderia isolates (Chapter 4), successfully suppressed the in vivo gut symbionts in B. insularis (Chapter 5) and negatively impacted insec t host fitness , as reflected by retarded development, smaller body size, and higher susceptibility to bifenthrin. T he possibility that the antibiotics had non lethal toxic effects on host fitness can not be ruled out. In other stinkbug bacterial symbioses, the aposymbiotic offspring that were generated from the surface sterilized eggs were able to survive, develop, and be used for examining the biological functions of gut symbionts on their host insects (Prado et al. 2006, Hosokawa et al. 2007, Kikuchi et al. 2007, Bistolas et al. 2014, Taylor et al. 2014) . However, this symbiont deletion method is not

PAGE 229

229 currently possible with B. insularis ; no axenic rearing protocol exists . N ewly hatched neonates were unable to survive on symbiont free food, regardless of the egg surface sterilization, suggesting that a critical component required for B. insularis neonate surviv al and grow th was missing . Fifth, evidence for the horizontal transmission of gut symbiotic Burkholderia in B. insularis was presented in Chapter 6. By employing the cultured Burkholderia as an inoculum on the egg chorion and/or on the host plants, fifth instar B. i nsularis reared from bacteria exposed neonates tended to harbor the same Burkholderia in their crypts as the inoculum. However, in some cases, in addition to the inoculated isolate, other Burkholderia also were acquired by B. insularis . I speculate that th e source of these Burkholderia is from St. Augustinegrass (Appendix D). Perhaps host plant surfaces and/or interiors serve as a source of gut symbiont Burkholderia for B. insularis that feeds by piercing through the innermost leaf sheath (Rangasamy et al. 2009) . The environmental acquisition of gut symbionts has been reported in other two Burkholderia associated insects, C. saccharivorus (Itoh et al. 2014) and R. pedestris (Kikuchi et al. 2007). Typically, horizontally transmitted symbiosis involves inter partner recognition and select ion between symbionts and hosts and requires delicate molecular cross talk to accomplish selective colonization (Bright and Bulgheresi 2010) . F urther investigation s of the symbiotic factors that affect the symbiont Burkholderia association with the host B. insularis will be req uired to delineate its acquisition, accommodation, and persistence ( see Kim and Lee 2015). Last, soil derived bacteriophage s w ere, for the first time , found to lyse insect gut symbiont cultures in vitro , as presented in Chapter 6. Considering that the sub lethal toxic activities of antibiotics ( Moullan et al. 2015) may negative ly impact host fitness, attempts to deprive gut symbionts using the purified Burkholderia bacteriophages were conducted in

PAGE 230

230 Chapter 6. The isolated b acteriophages were highly speci fic to target bacteria in vitro and had no deleterious effect after being consumed by host B. insularis . However, the se failed to target the crypt associated Burkholderia in vivo , likely due to the blockage of food flow and non symbiotic microbes by a spec ific constricted region prior to the midgut crypts (see Figure 5 1C) , as demonstrated in other gut symbiont associated stinkbugs (Ohbayashi et al. 2015) . I speculate that the observed constricted region may be degenerated and closed in B. insularis . This speculation needs to be confirmed by visual inspections such as light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and f luorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) . Nevertheless, these results further supported the observed clonal association of gut symbionts in the mi dgut crypts of B. insularis in Chapters 3 and 4, and they highlight the potential symbiosis induced programming of the midgut ontology . One of the main obstacles in this research was to establish and to maintain robust laboratory colonies of B. insularis aimed at generating the highly resistant lines to bifenthrin. In the current study, following the rearing protocols of Vázquez et al. (2010), B. insularis were reared on cut St. Augustinegrass plants under laboratory conditions. However, by using these pro tocols, extremely low survivorship was observed at the youn g nymphal stages, resulting in static laboratory colonies. Similar to these findings, early work by Kerr ( 1966) reported that B. insularis reared on freshly clipped sections of St. Augustinegrass also exhibited high levels of early instar mortality; in combination with my observations, it can be surmised that cut grass is not a suitable food source for B. insularis . Additional experiments des cribed in Chapter 6 suggest that B. insularis , as a phloem feeder, requires live host plants to survive and develop. Being reared on live host plants under greenhouse conditions provided B. insularis neonates with the nutrients and bacterial symbionts that were lacking in dead plant tissues and/or other food

PAGE 231

231 source s ( i.e. , corn). It is realized that the B. insularis used in the earlier studies in this dissertation (Chapters 2 to 4) may have been under chronic nutritional stress ; these colonies were reared o n cut St. Augustinegrass for multiple generations. For future studies, rearing B. insularis on live St. Augustinegrass in greenhouse is highly recommended. The cage setup used in Chapter 6 was sufficient to produce high densities of healthy B. insularis wi thin one month, and it would be an easily manipulated and labor saving rearing arena for other grass phloem insects. In addition to the midgut crypts, low titers of Burkholderia were detected by the PCR amplification in the dissected B. insularis reproduc tive tracts (Chapter 3). However , FISH analysis failed to detect a Burkholderia signal in the reproductive tracts of B. insularis females. Even though several factors that might lead to this problem were discussed, the later studies in Chapter 6 failed to provide evidence for vertically transmitted Burkholderia in B. insularis . First, Burkholderia was undetectable either in the unsterilized eggs or in the neonates hatched from the unsterilized eggs by diagnostic PCR amplification, suggesting that Burkholderia may not be transmitted on or in eggs in B. insularis , as previously proposed . Second, the neonates of stinkbugs that acquire d egg surface contaminated symbionts t ypically display consistent egg probing behavior (Kikuchi et al. 2009, Bistolas et al. 2014) . T his behavior w as not observed in B. insularis . Third, the rearing of neonates on live plants strongly suggested that B. insularis acquired gut symbionts from the environment ( i.e. , plants and soils). Furthermore, the surviv ing B. insularis offspring that were individually reared on untreated cut grass harbored identical Burkholderia ribotypes, closely related to a phytopathogenic Burkholderia gla dioli strain, as opposed to the Burkholderia harbored in their mothers (Chapter 6). These findings suggest vertical transmission plays, at best, a minor role in the acquisition of gut symbiotic Burkholderia by B. insularis. Likely, the PCR detection of Bur kholderia in reproductive tracts, as stated in

PAGE 232

232 Chapter 3, was successful only with re amplification of PCR products , suggesting the presence of extremely low titer or contaminants . This idea needs to be validated with a different approach, such as the hype rsensitive VNTR ( V ariable N umber T andem R epeat) fingerprinting strategy used to detect low titer infections of Wolbachia in tsetse flies (Schneider et al. 2013) . D etection of Burkholderia in St. Augustinegrass that is related to phytopathogenic stra in s (Appendix D ) may be related to B. insularis induced plant damage, as proposed by Boucias et al. (2012). Early studies suggest that Blissus species damage host plants by the withdrawal of phloem accompanied by the block age of plant conduct ive tissues, t he result of insect salivary sheaths produced during feeding (Painter 1928, Rangasamy et al. 2009, Reinert et al. 2011). To my knowledge, no phloem resident pathogenic bacteria have been reported in St. Augustinegrass. Many members of the genus Burkholderia are known for their pathogenicity in plant disease, including B. gladioli , B. glathei , and B. glumae (Compant et al. 2008, Suárez Moreno et al. 2012) . These phytopathogenic bacteria typical ly have a broad host plant range and induce leaf browning and wilting (Compant et al. 2008) . One possibility for the B. insularis feeding induced grass damage (Eden and Self 1960, Kerr 1966, Busey and Center 1987) is that B. insularis serves as an alternative host for phytopathogenic Burkholderia and disperses the infect ious (or endophytic) b acteria while the insect feeds (for review, see Nadarasah and Stavrinides 2011) . For example , the infected sharpshooters and spittlebugs transmit a xylem resident phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Hopkins 1989) . Once ingested by insect vectors, X. fastidiosa rapidly colonizes the foregut and multiples (Purcell and Finlay 1979) . At the next feeding bout, X. fastidiosa is transferred from vector food c anal to plant xylem vessels and colonizes the xylem network by traversing pit membranes into adjacent vessels ( Hopkins 1989, Newman et al. 2003) . Aggregated B. insularis nymphs an d

PAGE 233

233 adults typically feed on grass phloem sap and may elicit plant damage by releasing gut symbiotic Burkholderia into the wounded area through fecal materials or regurgitation. Further evidence is required to exploit the potential role of B. insularis associated Burkholderia as a phytopathogenic bacterium in St. Augustinegrass damage. Acquisition of Burkholderia from the environment was demonstrated in B. insularis (Chapter 6) ; however, the time frame for gut symbiont infection needs to be elucidated to better understand the initiation of Blissus Burkholderia symbiosis. In the Riptortus Burkholderia symbiosis, oral acquisition of environmentally derived Burkholderia typically occurs in the second instar, rather than in the first instar (Kikuchi et al. 2011b) . This speci fic window for establishing the symbiosis is believed to be caused by the tiny and rudimentary midgut crypts that constrain the symbiont infection in the first instar of R. pedestris (Kikuchi et al. 2011b) . Dissection of the B. insularis at the first instar also indicated ti ny and immature midgut c rypt , under the examination of phage contrast microscopy (Figure 7 1). These observations suggested that the rudimentary crypts also initiate a delayed Burkholderia infection in B. insularis , as demonstrated in R. pedestris . Certain ly, this prediction should be experimentally tested in the future. Although speculative, the observed degenerated and blocked region prior to the midgut crypts in older B. insularis (fifth instars and adults; Chapter 6) may not be well formed in younger ny mphs (first and second instars), providing a potential opportunity for bacteriophages to enter the crypts. Future studies need to be conducted to test the potential bacteriophage therapy against younger nymphs. As proposed, crypt associated Burkholderia , through modulation of host fitness may be related to the resistance of B. insularis against bifenthrin (Chapter 2). At present, only diagnostic concentrations of bifenthrin were employed to monitor the increased levels of resistance to

PAGE 234

234 bifenthrin in the R colon y. Limited insect materials, due to maintaining colonies using published protocols, precluded a more comprehensive bioassay to estimate the magnitude of resistance dev elopment, commonly represented by a resistant ratio and /or dose mortality regression analysis (ffrench Constant and Roush 1990, Scharf et al. 1998) . According to the preliminary tests showing that metabolic detoxification enzymes were detectable in a B. insularis field popula tion (Vázquez et al. 2011; M. Scharf, unpublished data) , the underlying mechanism of insecticide resistance in B. insularis was examined using three laboratory colonies (BM BS, BM CS, and BM US). There wa s no detectable difference in detoxification enzyme levels among these populations (Chapter 2). It was likely due to the relatively low resistance ratio between these B. insularis colonies. Again, the main obstacle to monitor the insecticide resistance dev elopment and to select a highly bifenthrin resistant colony was the original rearing method used in this dissertation. I suspect that rearing B. insularis neonates on live plants and selecting adults using increased bifenthrin doses will generate colonies with high levels of resistance to bifenthrin that then can be examined to elucidate the underlying mechanisms regulating insecticide resistan ce in B. insularis . While investigation of the association between the St. Augustinegrass insect pest B. insularis and its gut symbiont Burkholderia is still in its infancy, this dissertation provides new information that may point to novel strategies for the biological control of B. insularis . Evidence point s to the importance of gut symbiotic Burkholderia in the host B. insularis survival and fitness. Also, B. insularis seemly has evolved specific strategies f or associating with environmentally derived Burkholderia . By genetically engineering the acquired Burkholderia to disassociate the inter partner recognition and selection between symbionts and hosts, the

PAGE 235

235 horizontally transmitted symbiosis theoretically could be modulated, thus r educing host fitness and possib ly leading to host death .

PAGE 236

236 Figure 7 1. The midgut crypts dissected from a first instar of Blissus insu laris . A) The dissection microscopic image of the digestive tract. Abbreviations M1, midgut first section; M2, midgut second section; M3, midgut third section; M4, midgut fourth section with crypts; H, hindgut. B) The phase contrast microscopic image of th e midgut crypts.

PAGE 237

237 APPENDIX A LIST S OF PRIMERS USED IN THIS STUDY Table A 1. List of primers used to PCR amplify the 18S rRNA and COI genes of Blissus insularis . Gene Forward (F) Amplicon size (bp) Thermal cycling profile References 18S rRNA 18S_2F: GGGAGGTAGTGACAAAAAATAACG 18S4R: GTTAGAACTAGGGCGGTATCTG 600 Initiating: 94 °C, 5 min 35 cycles: 94 °C, 40 sec 51 °C, 40 sec 72 °C, 1 min Final extension: 72 °C, 5 min Li et al. 2005 COI LepF2_t1: TGTAAAACGACGGCCAGTAATCATAARGATATYGG LepR1: TAAACTTCTGGATGTCCAAAAAATCA 658 Gwiazdowski et al. 2015 COI TonyaF: GAAGTTTATATTTTAATTTTACCGGG HobbesR: AAATGTTGNGGRAAAAATGTTA 565 Rand et al. 2000

PAGE 238

238 Table A 2. List of primers used to PCR amplify crypt associated bacteria in Blissus insularis . Gene Forward (F) and reverse (R) primer Amplicon size (bp) Thermal cycling profile References Universal 16S rRNA 10F: AGTTTGATCATGGCTCAGATTG 1507R: TACCTTGTTACGACTTCACCCCAG 1500 Initiating: 94 °C, 4 min 30 cycles: 94 °C, 30 sec 55 °C, 30 sec 68 °C, 1 min Final extension: 68 °C, 7 min Sandström et al. 2001 Burkholderia specific 16S rRNA degBurk16SF: TTTTGGACAATGGGSGMAA Burk16SR: GCTCTTGCGTAGCAACTAAG 750 Initiating: 94 °C, 4 min 30 cycles: 94 °C, 30 sec 60 °C, 30 sec 68 °C, 1 min Final extension: 68 °C, 7 min degBurk16SF: n ewly designed in this study ; Burk16SR: Kikuchi et al. 2005 Burkholderia atpD atpD_F: ATGAGTACTRCTGCTTTGGTAGAAGG atpD_R: CGTGAAACGGTAGATGTTGTCG 756 Initiating: 96 °C, 1 min 30 cycles: 96 °C, 1 min 58 °C, 1 min 72 °C, 2 min Final extension: 72 °C, 5 min Spilker et al. 2009 Burkholderia lepA lepA_F: CTSATCATCGAYTCSTGGTTCG lepA_R: CGRTATTCCTTGAACTCGTARTCC 975 Burkholderia recA recA_F: AGGACGATTCATGGAAGAWAGC recA_R: GACGCACYGAYGMRTAGAACTT 704

PAGE 239

239 Table A 3. List of primers used in the quantitative PCR amplification of crypt associated Burkholderia in Blissus insularis . Gene Forward (F) and reverse (R) primer Amplicon size (bp) Thermal cycling profile References Burkholderia 16S rRNA qPCR Burk16Sq967F: CCTTACCTACCCTTGACATG Burk16SR: GCTCTTGCGTAGCAACTAAG 150 Initiating: 95 °C, 10 min 40 cycles: 95 °C, 30 sec 60 °C, 30 sec 72 °C, 30 sec Melting curve: 55 °C to 95 °C, increasing by 0.5 °C s 1 Boucias et al. 2012 , Kikuchi et al. 2005 Burkholderia dnaA BurkdnaA17F: GTCGTCGATGCCGGAGATTT BurkdnaA117R: AGGAAGAGTTCTTCTACGCGTTC 100 Newly desgined in this study

PAGE 240

240 APPENDIX B COI , 16S RRNA, AND BURKHOLDERIA MLST GENE SEQUENCES B 1. COI gene nucleotide sequences of midgut crypt (MC) samples from four bifenthrin resistant (R) and four susceptible (S) Blissus insularis adults. > Bi05MC_R_COI TTTCCATATTGTAACACAAGAAGAGGTAAAATAGAAGCATTTGGATCATTAGGTATA ATTTACGCAATATTATCAATTGGACTTTTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATAT TTACAGTAGGTATAGATGTTGATACACGAGCTTATTTTACATCAGCCACAATAATTA TTGCAGTACCAACAGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGATGATTAGCTACTATAAATGGAATAA AAATAAATTATTCT CCAAGTATATTATGAGCATTAGGTTTTATTTTTTTATTTACAAT TGGAGGTCTTACAGGAGTAATTTTAGCTAATTCATCAATTGATATTGTATTACATGAT ACCTACTATGTTGTAGCACACTTCCATTATGTCCTTTCCATAGGAGCAGTATTTGCTA TTATAGGAAGATTTATTCAGTGATACCCACTTTTTACAGGGTTATCTATTAAAAGTA AATGATTAAAAATCCAATTTTTTATTATATTTTTAGGAG TAAATTTAACATTTTTCCC C >Bi08MC_R_COI TTTCCATATTGTAACACAAGAAGAGGTAAAATAGAAGCATTTGGATCATTAGGTATA ATTTACGCAATATTATCAATTGGACTTTTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATAT TTACAGTAGGTATAGATGTTGATACACGAGCTTATTTTACATCAGCCACAATAATTA TTGCAGTACCAACAGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGATGATTAGCTACTATAAA TGGAATAA AAATAAATTATTCTCCAAGTATATTATGAGCATTAGGTTTTATTTTTTTATTTACAAT TGGAGGTCTTACAGGAGTAATTTTAGCTAATTCATCAATTGATATTGTATTACATGAT ACCTACTATGTTGTAGCACACTTCCATTATGTCCTTTCCATAGGAGCAGTATTTGCTA TTATAGGAAGATTTATTCAGTGATACCCACTTTTTACAGGGTTATCTATTAAAAGTA AATGATTAAAAATCCAA TTTTTTATTATATTTTTAGGAGTAAATTTAACATTTTTCCC C >Bi09MC_R_COI TTTCCATATTGTAACACAAGAAGAGGTAAAATAGAAGCATTTGGATCATTAGGTATA ATTTACGCAATATTATCAATTGGACTTTTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATAT TTACAGTAGGTATAGATGTTGATACACGAGCTTATTTTACATCAGCCACAATAATTA TTGCAGTACCAACAGGAATTAAAATTT TTAGATGATTAGCTACTATAAATGGAATAA AAATAAATTATTCTCCAAGTATATTATGAGCATTAGGTTTTATTTTTTTATTTACAAT TGGAGGTCTTACAGGAGTAATTTTAGCTAATTCATCAATTGATATTGTATTACATGAT ACCTACTATGTTGTAGCACACTTCCATTATGTCCTTTCCATAGGAGCAGTATTTGCTA TTATAGGAAGATTTATTCAGTGATACCCACTTTTTACAGGGTTATCTATTAA AAGTA AATGATTAAAAATCCAATTTTTTATTATATTTTTAGGAGTAAATTTAACATTTTTCCC C >Bi24MC_R_COI TTTCCATATTGTAACACAAGAAGAGGTAAAATAGAAGCATTTGGATCATTAGGTATA ATTTACGCAATATTATCAATTGGACTTTTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATAT TTACAGTAGGTATAGATGTTGATACACGAGCTTATTTTACATCAGCCACAATAATTA TTGCA GTACCAACAGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGATGATTAGCTACTATAAATGGAATAA AAATAAATTATTCTCCAAGTATATTATGAGCATTAGGTTTTATTTTTTTATTTACAAT TGGAGGTCTTACAGGAGTAATTTTAGCTAATTCATCAATTGATATTGTATTACATGAT ACCTACTATGTTGTAGCACACTTCCATTATGTCCTTTCCATAGGAGCAGTATTTGCTA

PAGE 241

241 TTATAGGAAGATTTATTCAGTGATACCCAC TTTTTACAGGGTTATCTATTAAAAGTA AATGATTAAAAATCCAATTTTTTATTATATTTTTAGGAGTAAATTTAACATTTTTCCC C >Bi05MC_S_COI TTTCCATATTGTAACACAAGAAGAGGTAAAATAGAAGCATTTGGATCATTAGGTATA ATTTACGCAATATTATCAATTGGACTTTTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATAT TTACAGTAGGTATAGATGTTGATACACGAGCTTATTTTAC ATCAGCCACAATAATTA TTGCAGTACCAACAGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGATGATTAGCTACTATAAATGGAATAA AAATAAATTATTCTCCAAGTATATTATGAGCATTAGGTTTTATTTTTTTATTTACAAT TGGAGGTCTTACAGGAGTAATTTTAGCTAATTCATCAATTGATATTGTATTACATGAT ACCTACTATGTTGTAGCACACTTCCATTATGTCCTTTCCATAGGAGCAGTATTTGCTA TTATAGGA AGATTTATTCAGTGATACCCACTTTTTACAGGGTTATCTATTAAAAGTA AATGATTAAAAATCCAATTTTTTATTATATTTTTAGGAGTAAATTTAACATTTTTCCC C >Bi08MC_S_COI TTTCCATATTGTGACACAAGAAGAGGTAAAATAGAAGCATTTGGATCATTAGGTATA ATTTACGCAATGTTATCAATTGGACTTTTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATAT TTACAGTAGGTATAGATG TTGATACACGAGCTTATTTTACATCAGCCACAATAATTA TTGCAGTACCAACAGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGATGATTAGCTACTATAAATGGAGTAA AAATAAATTATTCTCCAAGTATATTATGAGCATTAGGTTTTATTTTTTTATTTACAAT TGGAGGTCTTACAGGAGTAATTTTAGCTAATTCATCAATTGATATTGTATTACATGAT ACCTACTATGTTGTAGCACACTTCCATTATGTCCTTTCCATAGG AGCAGTATTTGCTA TTATAGGAAGATTTATTCAGTGATACCCACTTCTTACAGGGTTATCTATTAAAAGTA AATGATTAAAAATCCAATTTTTTATTATATTCTTAGGAGTAAATTTAACATTTTTCCC C >Bi09MC_S_COI TTTCCATATTGTAACACAAGAAGAGGTAAAATAGAAGCATTTGGATCATTAGGTATA ATTTACGCAATATTATCAATTGGACTTTTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCAT ATAT TTACAGTAGGTATAGATGTTGATACACGAGCTTATTTTACATCAGCCACAATAATTA TTGCAGTACCAACAGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGATGATTAGCTACTATAAATGGAATAA AAATAAATTATTCTCCAAGTATATTATGAGCATTAGGTTTTATTTTTTTATTTACAAT TGGAGGTCTTACAGGAGTAATTTTAGCTAATTCATCAATTGATATTGTATTACATGAT ACCTACTATGTTGTAGCACACT TCCATTATGTCCTTTCCATAGGAGCAGTATTTGCTA TTATAGGAAGATTTATTCAGTGATACCCACTTTTTACAGGGTTATCTATTAAAAGTA AATGATTAAAAATCCAATTTTTTATTATATTTTTAGGAGTAAATTTAACATTTTTCCC C >Bi28MC_S_COI TTTCCATATTGTAACACAAGAAGAGGTAAAATAGAAGCATTTGGATCATTAGGTATA ATTTACGCAATATTATCAATTGGACTTTTAGG ATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATAT TTACAGTAGGTATAGATGTTGATACACGAGCTTATTTTACATCAGCCACAATAATTA TTGCAGTACCAACAGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGATGATTAGCTACTATAAATGGAATAA AAATAAATTATTCTCCAAGTATATTATGAGCATTAGGTTTTATTTTTTTATTTACAAT TGGAGGTCTTACAGGAGTAATTTTAGCTAATTCATCAATTGATATTGTATTACATGAT ACCTACTATGTTGTAGCACACTTCCATTATGTCCTTTCCATAGGAGCAGTATTTGCTA TTATAGGAAGATTTATTCAGTGATACCCACTTTTTACAGGGTTATCTATTAAAAGTA

PAGE 242

242 AATGATTAAAAATCCAATTTTTTATTATATTTTTAGGAGTAAATTTAACATTTTTCCC C

PAGE 243

243 B 2. Universal 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences of midgut crypt samples from 13 R and 17 S Blissus insularis individuals. >Bi14MC_R_vivo_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAG CTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCAC CGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCA TGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GA TCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAG CTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGT >Bi17MC_R_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACC TGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGG AGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTTGGTTCTAATATAGCCGGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCAAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGCTAAGACCGATG TGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAG CTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT

PAGE 244

244 AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGCTGA GAGGCGGGAGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCT TGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATA CGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACC >Bi18MC_R_vivo_16SrRNA CTTACACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAA CGGGTGAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCC GGATTAATACCGCATACGACCTGAGGGAGA AAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGC TATAGGGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGC GACGATCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGC CCAGACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGA TCCAGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGG AAAGA AAACTTCGTCCCTAATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCA CCGGCTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGG AATTACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCC GGGCTTAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGA GGTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGA TGTGGAGGAATACCGATGG CGAAGGCAGCCTCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAA ACAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGG ATTCATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGT CGCAAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGT GGATTAATTCG ATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCT GCTGAAAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTC GTCAGCTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCC TTAGTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGG TGGGGATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGC TTCACACGTCATACAA TGGTCGGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGAT CGTAGTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATC GCGGATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCAC ACCATGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTA CCACG >Bi19MC_ R_vivo_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGACCTGAGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTATA GGGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCAC ACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAAACTTCGGCCCTAATATGGCTGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT

PAGE 245

245 ACTGGGCG TAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTA GAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAA GGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAG GATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAA CTAGTTGTTGGGGATTC ATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCA AGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGAT TAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTG AAAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCA GCTCGTGTCGTGA GATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAG TTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGG GATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGT CGGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATC GCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTACCAC GG >Bi20MC_R_vivo_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCAGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCG AAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGCTCTGTGGAGGAAAGCGGGGGATCGCAAGACCTCGCGCTAT TGGGGTGGCCGATGGCGGATTAGCTGGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCTCACCAAGGCGAC GATCCGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCA GACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCC AGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAA GGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAA GAAATCCTTCGAGATAATACCTTGAGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCG GCTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAAT TACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTGATGTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGG CTCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGCATTGCTCGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGG TG GAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAACACCGATGGCGAA GGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAG GATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTGGTTGTCGGGCCTTC ATTGGCTTGGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGC AAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGG ACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGA TTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGTACGGAATTCCGCT GAGAGGTGGAAGTGCCCGAAAGGGAGCCGTAACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTC AGCTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCCCA GTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCCGGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGG GGA TGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGG TCGGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGT AGTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCG GATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACC ATGGGAGTGGGTTTTGCCAGAAGGGCTAGTCT AACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGC >Bi21MC_R_vivo_16SrRNA

PAGE 246

246 CATGCAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGTG AGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGGAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATTA ATACCGCATACGCTCTGTGGAGGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTCAAGG GGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAG GCCTACCAAGGCGACGAT CTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGAC TCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAGC AATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACCTCGTGGCTAATATCCGTGAGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAG CAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTCGTTAAGACAGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTTGTGACTGGCGGGCTTGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGA ATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGG CAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGA GCAAACAGGA TTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTGGTTGTCGGGTCTTCAT TGACTTGGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGTATGGAACCCTGCTGA GAGGTGGGGGTGCCCGAAAG GGAGCCATAACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCCTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCCAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGG GATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGT CGGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGA TCGT AGTCCGGATCGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCG GATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACC ATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCA CGGTAGG >Bi22MC_R_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAA CGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGACCTGAGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTATAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAAT TTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTCGTCCCTAATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TA ACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGAGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCTCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTG ACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTGA AAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT

PAGE 247

247 TGCTAC GCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGT ACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTACCAC G >Bi23MC_R_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGACCTGAGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGAC CTCGCGCTATAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTCGTCCCTAATATG GATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGAGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGG CGAAG GCAGCCTCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTT ACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTGA AAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGG TC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTACCAC G >Bi24MC_R_vivo_16SrRNA CATG CAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACT GGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAA AGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG

PAGE 248

248 AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAG TTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATG TTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTA GTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG >Bi25MC_R_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCG AAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAA GGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGG TAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGG ACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG A TGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTC TAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG >Bi26MC_R_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA

PAGE 249

249 GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGG GGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTTGGTCCTAATATGGCCGGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTAC GTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCAAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGCTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGC GTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGCTGA GAGGCGGGAGTGC TCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGA AAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGT >Bi12MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGG CGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGACCTAAGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTATAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGG GAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTCGTCCCTAATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGG CT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGAGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCTCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAA GTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTGA AAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TG CTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA

PAGE 250

250 GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTC TTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTACC >Bi13MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGACCTAAGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCG GACCTCGCGCTATA GGGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAAACCATTGCCCTAAT ATGGTGGTGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TTAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGGGGTA GAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGA TGGCGAA GGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAG GATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTC ATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCA AGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGAT TAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAAC CTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAAGTCTGCTG AGAGGCGGACGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCA GCTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAG TTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGG GATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAA TGGT CGGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCTGCGAAGGAGGGCGCTTACC >Bi14MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA CA TGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGATCTACGGAAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTGTAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACT GGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTCGAGGCTAATATCCTTGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAA AGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT CAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTA GTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT

PAGE 251

251 AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTGA AAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGAT GTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCT AGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTACC >Bi15MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCG GAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGAAGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTC GGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGCTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATT CCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCA CAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGAGGA GACTCGGGAGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTC AAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGC AAGGAGGACGGTCACC >Bi16MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA AGTCGGACGGCAGCGCGGGGGCAACCCTGGCGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGTGAGTAA TACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGGAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATTAATACC GCATACGCTCTGTGGAGGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTCAAGGGGCGG CCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGAC GATCTGTA GCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGACTCCTA CGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAGCAATGC CGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGAAAACC GCTTCTCTAATACAGGGGCGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGCTAACT ACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATAC GTAGGGTGCAAGCGTTAATCGGAATTACTGGG CGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTCGCTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCTTAACC

PAGE 252

252 TGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCGGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGAATTCC ACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGGCAGCC CCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGATTAGA TACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTCGGGTCTTCATTGACTT GGTAACGAAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAAGATTAA AACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATTAATTCG ATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGTACGGAACCTTGCTGAGAGGTG AGGGTGCCCGAAAGGGAGCCGTAACACAG GTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAGCTCGTG TCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCCTAGTTGCTAC GCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGGATGAC GTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTCGGAAC AGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTAGTCCGG ATCG CAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGGATCAGC ATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCATGGGAG TGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCACGGTAGG >Bi17MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACAT CGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGACCTGAGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTATAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGC AACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTCGTCCCTAATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT CAACCTGGGAACTGCATT GGTGACTGGCAAGCTTTGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTAC GGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAAGTCCGCTGA GAGGTGGATGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGACGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGG GAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCAC ACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGTAAGGAGGGCGCTTACCAC G >Bi19MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGTG AGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGGAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATTA ATACCGCATACGCTCTGTGGAGGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTCAAGG

PAGE 253

253 GGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGAT CTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGAC TCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAGC AATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACCTCGTGGCTAATATCCGTGAGGGATGAC GGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTCGTTAAGACAGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTTGTGACTGGCGGGCTTGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGA ATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGG CAGCCCCC TGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGA TTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTGGTTGTCGGGTCTTCAT TGACTTGGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACA TGTATGGAACCCTGCTGA GAGGTGGGGGTGCCCGAAAGGGAGCCATAACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCCTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCCAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGG GATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGT CGGAACAGAGGGT CGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGT AGTCCGGATCGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCG GATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACC ATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCA CGGTAGG >Bi20MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCG AACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTG AGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTTGGCTCTAATACAGTCGGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGC GCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACAGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTTGTGACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGG GGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGAAGA GATTCGGGAGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTT AAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA

PAGE 254

254 GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCG CGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAG >Bi21MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGG A TTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCG GGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTC CACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCAC AAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCCGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCA AGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCA AGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG >Bi23MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAG GCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAG CAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGA GCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA

PAGE 255

255 TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAG AGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGA TCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG >Bi24MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGA ACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCCACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAA TTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TC AACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTG ACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCCGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTAC GCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGT ACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG >Bi25MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGACCTGAGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTT CGGACCTCGCGCTATAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG

PAGE 256

256 CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTCGTCCCTA ATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGAGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACC GATGGCGAAG GCAGCCTCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAA ACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTGA AAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATAC AATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTACCAC G >Bi26MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGGAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGCTCTGTGGAGGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTCAAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCAC ACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACCTCGTGGCTAATATCCGTGAGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCG TAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTCGTTAAGACAGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTTGTGACTGGCGGGCTTGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGA ATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGG CAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGA TTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAAC TGGTTGTCGGGTCTTCAT TGACTTGGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGTATGGAACCCTGCTGA GAGGTGGGGGTGCCCGAAAGGGAGCCATAACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAG ATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCCTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCCAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGG GATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGT CGGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGT AGTCCGGATCGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCG CTAGTAATCGCG GATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACC ATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTC

PAGE 257

257 >Bi27MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGG AT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCG GGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTTGATCCTAATATGGTCGGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCAAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGCTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTC CACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCAC AAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGCTGA GAGGCGGGAGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCA AGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCA AGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG >Bi28MC_S_vivo_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGG CCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTTGGTCCTAATATGGCCGGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGC AGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCAAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGCTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAG CAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGCTGA GAGGCGGGAGTGCTCGAAAGA GAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG

PAGE 258

258 CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGAT CGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG

PAGE 259

259 B 3. Universal 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences of culturable bacteria isola tes generated from 20 Blissus insularis crypts using the new cultivation technique. >Bi16MC_R_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGACCTAAGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGAT CTTCGGACCTCGCGCTATAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTCGTCC CTAATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAAT ACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGA AAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTGA AAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCA TACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTAC >Bi17MC_R_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCC ACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTTGGTTCTAATATAGCCGGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCAAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGG CGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGCTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCA ACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGCTGA

PAGE 260

260 GAGGCGGGAGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTG AGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAAT CGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACC >Bi18MC_R__vitro_16SrRNA CTTACACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAA CGGGTGAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCC GGATTAATACCGCATACGACCT G AGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGC TATAGGGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGC GACGATCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCA GCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGC CCAGACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGA TCCAGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGG AAAGAAAACTTCGTCCCTAATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCA CCGGCTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGG AATTACT GGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCC GGGCTTAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGA GGTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGG CGAAGGCAGCCTCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAA ACAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGAT GTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGG ATTCATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGT CGCAAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGT GGATTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCT GCTGAAAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTC GTCAGCTCGTGT CGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCC TTAGTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGG TGGGGATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAA TGGTCGGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGAT CGTAGTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTG GAATCGCTAGTAATC GCGGATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCAC ACCATGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTA CCACG >Bi19MC_R_vitro_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCC CGGCGAAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTG AAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC

PAGE 261

261 TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAG GGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGA CGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCCGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGT GGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGC TAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GG >Bi20MC_R_vitro_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCAGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGCTCTGTGGAGGAAAGCGGGGGATCGCAAGACCTCGCGCTAT TGGGGTGGCCGATGGCGGATTAGCTGGTTG GTGGGGTAAAGGCTCACCAAGGCGAC GATCCGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCA GACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCC AGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAA GAAATCCTTCGAGATAATACCTTGAGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCG GCTAA CTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAAT TACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTGATGTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGG CTCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGCATTGCTCGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTG GAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAACACCGATGGCGAA GGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGA AAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAG GATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTGGTTGTCGGGCCTTC ATTGGCTTGGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGC AAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGA TTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGTACGGAATTCCGCT GAGAGGTGGAA GTGCCCGAAAGGGAGCCGTAACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTC AGCTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCCCA GTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCCGGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGG GGATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGG TCGGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCC CAGAAAACCGATCGT AGTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCG GATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACC ATGGGAGTGGGTTTTGCCAGAAGGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGC >Bi21MC_R_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGT GGCGAACGGGTG AGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGGAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATTA

PAGE 262

262 ATACCGCATACGCTCTGTGGAGGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTCAAGG GGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGAT CTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGAC TCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTG GGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAGC AATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACCTCGTGGCTAATATCCGTGAGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTCGTTAAGACAGATGTGAAATCCCCG GGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTTGTGACTGGCGGGCTTGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGA ATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGG CAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGA TTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTGGTTGTCGGGTCTTCAT TGACTTGGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGA AGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGTATGGAACCCTGCTGA GAGGTGGGGGTGCCCGAAAGGGAGCCATAACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCCTAGT T GCTACGCAAGAGCACTCCAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGG GATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGT CGGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGT AGTCCGGATCGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCG GATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGT CTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACC ATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCA CGGTAGG >Bi22MC_R_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGACCTGAGGGAGAAAGCGGGG GATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTATAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTCG TCCCTAATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGAGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGG AATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCTCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACG CGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTGA AAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACG TCATACAATGGTC

PAGE 263

263 GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTACCAC G >Bi23MC_R_vitro_ 16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGACCTGAGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTATAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGAC CAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTCGTCCCTAATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGAGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCTCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACG ATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTGA AAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGT GTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGC TGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTACCAC G >Bi24MC_R_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGC CCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGT GAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGA GGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG

PAGE 264

264 ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTG ACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGG TGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGG CTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG >Bi25MC_R_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAG TTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG C TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCA CGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCTG AGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAA TCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG >Bi12MC_S_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGG TGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGACCTAAGGGAGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTATAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA

PAGE 265

265 CTCCTACGGGAGG CAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTCGTCCCTAATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGA AATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGAGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCTCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCT AACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTGA AAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTG TCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACG TTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTACC >Bi14MC_S_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGACCTAAGGGAGAAAGCGGG GGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTATAG GGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGA TCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACTTC GTCCCTAATATGGATGGAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTTTGAGTGTGGCAGAGGGAGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAG GAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCTCCTGGGCCAACACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAAC GCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCCTGCTGA AAGGTGGGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACAC GTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAGTAGGTAGCCTAACCGCAAGGAGGGCGCTTACC

PAGE 266

266 >Bi16MC_S_vitro_16 SrRNA AGTCGGACGGCAGCGCGGGGGCAACCCTGGCGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGTGAGTAA TACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGGAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATTAATACC GCATACGCTCTGTGGAGGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTCAAGGGGCGG CCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGATCTGTA GCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACA CTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGACTCCTA CGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAGCAATGC CGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGAAAACC GCTTCTCTAATACAGGGGCGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGCTAACT ACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCAAGCGTTAATCGGAATTACTGGG CGT AAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTCGCTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCTTAACC TGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCGGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGAATTCC ACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGGCAGCC CCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGATTAGA TACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACT AGTTGTCGGGTCTTCATTGACTT GGTAACGAAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAAGATTAA AACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATTAATTCG ATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGTACGGAACCTTGCTGAGAGGTG AGGGTGCCCGAAAGGGAGCCGTAACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAGCTCGTG TCGTGAGA TGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCCTAGTTGCTAC GCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGGATGAC GTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTCGGAAC AGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTAGTCCGG ATCGCAGTCTGCAACTCGACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGC TAGTAATCGCGGATCAGC ATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCATGGGAG TGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCACGGTAGG >Bi19MC_S_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGTG AGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCTGGAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGA AAGCCGGATTA ATACCGCATACGCTCTGTGGAGGAAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTCAAGG GGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGAT CTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGAC TCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAGC AATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAG GCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGA AAACCTCGTGGCTAATATCCGTGAGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTCGTTAAGACAGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT TAACCTGGGAACTGCATTTGTGACTGGCGGGCTTGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGT AGA ATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGG CAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGA TTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTGGTTGTCGGGTCTTCAT TGACTTGGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGA CCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGTATGGAACCCTGCTGA GAGGTGGGGGTGCCCGAAAGGGAGCCATAACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCCTAGT

PAGE 267

267 TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCCAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGG GAT GACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGT CGGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAAGCCGCGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGT AGTCCGGATCGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCG GATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACC ATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCT AACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCA CGGTAGG >Bi20MC_S_vitro_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTG GGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTTGGCTCTAATACAGTCGGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTA CGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTCTGTTAAGACAGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTTGTGACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAG CGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGAAGA GATTCGGGAGTG CTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAG AAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAG >Bi21MC_S_vitro_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGC GAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGC AGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATC CCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG

PAGE 268

268 AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGC GTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATC C GAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTT AGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCC GGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG >Bi22MC_S_vitro_16SrRNA TTACACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGA ACGGGTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGC CGGATTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCG CTATAGGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGG CGACGATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACC AGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGG CCCAGACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTG ATCCAGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCG GAAAGAAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGC ACCGGCTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCG GAATTAC TGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCC CGGGCTCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGG GGTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGG CGAAGGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAA ACAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGAT GTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGG ATTCATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGT CGCAAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGT GGATTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTT GGAGAGATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTC GTCAGCTCGTGT CGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCC TTAGTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGG TGGGGATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAA TGGTCGGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGAT CGTAGTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTG GAATCGCTAGTAATC GCGGATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCAC ACCATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCA CCACGGTAGG >Bi26MC_S_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGAT AGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA

PAGE 269

269 GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTG TGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGC AGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAA TTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGA AGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAG TGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTC >Bi27MC_S_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGG GTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTTGATCCTAATATGGTCGGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACG TGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCAAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGCTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCG TGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGCTGA GAGGCGGGAGTGCT CGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAA AACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG

PAGE 270

270 ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG >Bi28 MC_S_vitro_16SrRNA CATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGA GTGGCGAACGGG TGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGAT TAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAG TGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTTGGTCCTAATATGGCCGGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCAAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGCTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCC CGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGT GAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGCTGA GAGGCGGGAGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAG T TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGG GTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCAC GGTAGG

PAGE 271

271 B 4. Burkholderia cepacia complex MLST gene ( atpD , recA , lepA ) nucleotide sequences of eight culturable bacteria isolates (vitro) and four crypt associated bacteria in vivo samples. >Bi12MC_S_vitro_atpD TGGTTCGCACCATCTGTCTGGGTGCATCCGACGGCCTGCGCCGCGGCACGATGGTCA AGAACACGGGCAAGCCCATCAGCGTGCCGGTCGGCAAGCCGACGCTCGGCCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTCGGCCGTCCGATCGACGAAGCGGGTCCGATCGAATCGGAAACGAC GCGTTCGATCCACCAGAACGCACCTTCGTTCGACGAGCTGTCGCCGTC GACGGAACT GCTCGAAACCGGCATCAAGGTTATCGACCTGATCTGCCCGTTCGCGAAGGGCGGCA AGGTCGGTCTGTTCGGCGGTGCAGGCGTGGGCAAGACCGTGAACATGATGGAACTC ATCAACAACATCGCGAAGGAGCACGGCGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTTGGCGA GCGTACCCGTGAAGGGAACGACTTCTATCACGAAATGAAGGACTCGAAC >Bi19MC_S_vitro_atpD TGGTCCGC ACGATCTGTCTGGGTGCATCCGATGGTCTGCGCCGCGGCACGATGGTGA AGAATACGGGTCACCCGATCAGCGTGCCGGTCGGTAAGGCAACGCTGGGTCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTTGGCCGTCCGATCGACGAAGCCGGTCCGATCAGCTCGGAAACGGT TCGCGGCATTCACCAGAAGGCTCCGGCGTTCGACGAACTGTCGCCGTCGACGGAAC TGCTGGAAACCGGCATCAAGGTTATCGATCTGATCTGCC CGTTCGCCAAGGGCGGCA AGGTCGGTCTGTTCGGTGGCGCCGGCGTCGGCAAGACCGTGAACATGATGGAACTG ATCAACAACATCGCGAAGGAACACGGTGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCCGGTGTGGGCGA GCGTACCCGCGAAGGGAACGACTTCTATCATGAAATGAAGGACTCGAAC >Bi20MC_S_vitro_atpD TGGTCCGTACCATCTGTCTGGGTGCATCCGACGGCCTGCGCCGCGGTCTGACCGT GA AGAACACGGGCAATCCGATTTCGGTGCCGGTCGGCAAGCCGACCCTCGGCCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTCGGCCGTCCGATCGACGAAGCGGGCCCGATCGAAAGCGAAACGAA GCGTTCGATCCACCAGAAGGCGCCGGCGTTCGACGAACTGTCGCCGTCGACCGAAC TGCTCGAAACGGGCATCAAGGTCATCGACCTGATCTGCCCGTTCGCAAAGGGCGGC AAGGTCGGTCTGTTCGGCGGTGCAGGCGTG GGCAAGACCGTCAACATGATGGAGCT CATCAACAACATCGCGAAGGAGCACGGCGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTGGGCG AGCGTACCCGTGAAGGGAACGACTTCTACCACGAAATGAAGGACTCGAAC >Bi21MC_S_vitro_atpD TCGTCCGCACCATCTGTCTGGGTGCTTCCGACGGCCTGCGCCGCGGCGTGGCGGTGA AGAACACCGGCAAGCCGATCTCGGTGCCGGTCGGCAAGCCGACCC TCGGCCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTGGGTCGTCCGATCGACGAGGCCGGCCCGATCGAGAGCGAGCATCA GCGCTCGATCCACCAGAAGGCACCGGCGTTCGACGAACTGTCGCCGTCGACCGAAC TGCTCGAAACCGGCATCAAGGTGATCGACCTGGTCTGCCCGTTCGCCAAGGGCGGC AAGGTCGGCCTGTTCGGCGGCGCCGGCGTGGGCAAGACCGTCAACATGATGGAGCT CATCAACAACATCGCGAAGGA ACACGGCGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTGGGCG AGCGTACCCGTGAAGGGAACGACTTCTATCACGAGATGAAGGACTCCAAC >Bi16MC_R_vitro_atpD TGGTGCGCACCATCTGTCTGGGTGCGTCCGACGGTCTGCGCCGCGGCACGGTGGTCA AGAACACCGGCAAGCCCATCAGCGTGCCGGTCGGCAAGCCGACGCTCGGCCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTCGGCCGTCCGATCGACGAAGCGGGT CCGATCACCTCGGAAACCAC GCGCTCGATCCACCAGAAGGCGCCTTCGTTCGAAGACCTGTCGCCGTCGACGGAACT GCTCGAAACCGGCATCAAGGTTATCGACCTGATCTGCCCGTTCGCGAAGGGCGGCA AGGTCGGTCTGTTCGGCGGCGCTGGCGTCGGCAAGACCGTGAACATGATGGAACTC

PAGE 272

272 ATCAACAACATCGCGAAGGAGCACGGCGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTGGGTGA GCGTACCCGTG AAGGGAACGACTTCTATCACGAAATGAAGGACTCGAAC >Bi17MC_R_vitro_atpD TGGTCCGTACCATCTGTCTGGGTGCATCCGACGGCCTGCGCCGCGGCCTGACCGTGA AGAACACGAGCAAGCCGATCTCGGTGCCGGTCGGCAAGCCGACCCTCGGTCGTATC ATGGACGTGCTCGGCCGTCCGATCGACGAAGCCGGCCCGATCGAAAGCGAACATAC GCGTTCGATCCACCAGAAGGCTCCGGC GTTCGACGAACTGTCGCCGTCGACCGAACT GCTCGAAACGGGTATCAAGGTTATCGACCTGATCTGCCCGTTCGCGAAGGGCGGCA AGGTTGGCCTGTTCGGCGGTGCTGGCGTGGGCAAGACCGTCAACATGATGGAGCTC ATCAACAACATCGCGAAGGAGCACGGCGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTGGGCGA GCGTACCCGTGAAGGGAACGACTTCTACCACGAAATGAAGGACTCGAAC >Bi18MC_ R_vitro_atpD TGGTTCGCACCATCTGTCTGGGTGCATCCGACGGCCTGCGCCGCGGCACGATGGTCA AGAACACGGGCAAGCCCATCAGCGTGCCGGTCGGCAAGCCGACGCTCGGCCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTCGGCCGTCCGATCGACGAAGCGGGTCCGATCGAATCGGAAACGAC GCGTTCGATCCACCAGAACGCACCTTCGTTCGACGAGCTGTCGCCGTCGACGGAACT GCTCGAAACCGGCATCAAGGTTATCGACCT GATCTGCCCGTTCGCGAAGGGCGGCA AGGTCGGTCTGTTCGGCGGTGCAGGCGTGGGCAAGACCGTGAACATGATGGAACTC ATCAACAACATCGCGAAGGAGCACGGCGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTTGGCGA GCGTACCCGTGAAGGGAACGACTTCTATCACGAAATGAAGGACTCGAAC >Bi20MC_R_vitro_atpD TCGTGCGCACCATCTGTCTCGGTGCGTCGGACGGCCTGCGCCGCGGC ACCGTGGTGA AGAACACGGGCGAGCCCATCAGCGTGCCGGTCGGCAAGCCTACGCTGGGCCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTGGGCCGCCCGATCGACGAAGCGGGCCCGATCGTCAGCGAGAACAA GCGCGCGATCCACCAGAAGGCTCCGGCGTTCGACGAGCTCTCGCCGTCGGCCGAAC TGCTCGAAACCGGCATCAAGGTGATCGACCTGATCTGCCCGTTCGCAAAGGGCGGC AAGGTCGGTCTGTTCGGCGGTG CTGGCGTGGGCAAGACCGTCAACATGATGGAGCT CATCAACAACATCGCGAAGGAACACGGCGGCTTCTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTGGGCG AGCGTACCCGTGAGGGCAACGACTTCTACCACGAAATGAAGGACTCGAAC >Bi01MC_R_atpD TGGTGCGCACCATCTGTCTGGGTGCGTCCGACGGTCTGCGCCGCGGCACGGTGGTCA AGAACACCGGCAAGCCCATCAGCGTGCCGGTCGGCAAGCCGAC GCTCGGCCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTCGGCCGTCCGATCGACGAAGCGGGTCCGATCACCTCGGAAACCAC GCGCTCGATCCACCAGAAGGCGCCTTCGTTCGAAGACCTGTCGCCGTCGACGGAACT GCTCGAAACCGGCATCAAGGTTATCGACCTGATCTGCCCGTTCGCGAAGGGCGGCA AGGTCGGTCTGTTCGGCGGCGCTGGCGTCGGCAAGACCGTGAACATGATGGAACTC ATCAACAACATCGCGAAG GAGCACGGCGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTGGGTGA GCGTACCCGTGAAGGGAACGACTTCTATCACGAAATGAAGGACTCGAAC >Bi02MC_R_atpD TTGTCCGTACCATCTGTCTGGGTTCGTCGGATGGTCTGCGCCGCGGCGTGATCGTCA AGAACACGGCGAAGCCGATCAGCGTGCCTGTCGGCAAGCCGACGCTCGGCCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTGGGTCGTCCGATCGACGAAGCTGGCCCGA TCACGAGCGAAACGAC GCGTTCGATCCACCAGAAGGCTCCGGCGTTCGACGAACTGTCGCCGTCGACGGAAC TGCTCGAAACGGGTATCAAGGTTATCGACCTGATCTGCCCGTTCGCAAAGGGCGGCA AGGTGGGTCTGTTCGGCGGTGCTGGCGTGGGCAAGACCGTCAACATGATGGAGCTC

PAGE 273

273 ATCAACAACATCGCGAAGGAGCACGGCGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTGGGCGA GCGTACCCGTGAAGG GAACGACTTCTATCACGAAATGAAGGACTCGAAC >Bi07MC_S_atpD TGGTCCGCACCATCTGTCTGGGTGCGTCCGACGGTCTGCGCCGCGGCACGATGGTCA AGAACACGGGTAACCCGATCAGCGTGCCGGTCGGCAAGCCGACGCTCGGCCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTCGGCCGCCCGATCGACGAAGCCGGCCCGATCACGTCGGAAGTCAC GCGCTCGATCCACCAGAAGGCTCCGGCGTTCGACGAA CTGTCGCCGTCGACGGAAC TGCTCGAAACCGGCATCAAGGTTATCGACCTGATCTGCCCGTTCGCGAAGGGCGGC AAGGTCGGCCTGTTCGGCGGCGCTGGCGTGGGCAAGACCGTGAACATGATGGAACT CATCAACAACATCGCGAAGGAGCACGGCGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTTGGCG AGCGTACCCGTGAAGGGAACGACTTCTATCACGAAATGAAGGACTCGAAC >Bi08MC_S_atpD TCG TCCGCACCATCTGTCTGGGTGCTTCCGACGGCCTGCGCCGCGGCGTGGCGGTGA AGAACACCGGCAAGCCGATCTCGGTGCCGGTCGGCAAGCCGACCCTCGGCCGCATC ATGGACGTGCTGGGTCGTCCGATCGACGAGGCCGGCCCGATCGAGAGCGAGCATCA GCGCTCGATCCACCAGAAGGCACCGGCGTTCGACGAACTGTCGCCGTCGACCGAAC TGCTCGAAACCGGCATCAAGGTGATCGACCTGGT CTGCCCGTTCGCCAAGGGCGGC AAGGTCGGCCTGTTCGGCGGCGCCGGCGTGGGCAAGACCGTCAACATGATGGAGCT CATCAACAACATCGCAAAGGAACACGGCGGTTACTCCGTGTTCGCGGGCGTGGGCG AGCGTACCCGTGAAGGGAACGACTTCTATCACGAGATGAAGGACTCCAAC >Bi12MC_S_vitro_recA GCCCTGGCCGCCGCGCTCTCGCAGATCGAAAAGCAATTCGGCAAAGGGTC GATCAT GCGGCTCGGCGCAGGTGAGGCGGTCGAAGACATTCAAGTGGTTTCCACCGGTTCGCT CGGGCTGGACATCGCGCTCGGCGTCGGCGGCTTGCCGCGCGGTCGTGTCGTGGAAA TCTACGGTCCGGAGTCGTCGGGTAAAACCACGCTCACGCTGCAGGTGATCGCGGAG ATGCAGAAGCTCGGCGGCACAGCGGCGTTCATCGACGCGGAACACGCGCTCGACGT GCAGTACGCCGGCAAGCTCGGCGTG AACGTGCCCGAACTGCTGATCTCGCAGCCGG ACACGGGCGAGCAGGCGCTCGAAATCGCGGACGCGCTGGTGCGCTCCGGCTCCATC >Bi19MC_S_vitro_recA GCGCTTGCCGCCGCACTCGCGCAGATCGAAAAGCAGTTCGGCAAAGGGTCGGTCAT GCGCCTTGGCCAGGGCGAGGCGGTCGAAGACATTCAAACCGTGTCCACGGGCTCGC TCGGTCTGGACATCGCGCTCGGCGTCGGTGGTCTG CCGCGTGGCCGGGTGGTTGAAA TCTACGGTCCGGAATCGTCGGGCAAGACCACGCTGACGCTTCAGGTCGTCGCGGAA ATGCAGAAGCTCGGCGGCACCGCGGCCTTCATCGACGCGGAACACGCGCTCGACAT CCAGTACGCGCAAAAGCTCGGCGTGAACGTGTCCGACCTGCTGGTTTCGCAGCCGG ACACCGGCGAACAGGCGCTCGAAATCGCGGACGCGCTGGTGCGTTCGGGTTCGATC >Bi20MC_S _vitro_recA GCGCTGGCTGCCGCACTCGCGCAGATCGAGAAGCAGTTCGGCAAAGGGTCGATCAT GCGCATGGGCGACGGCGAGGCGGCCGAGGACATCCAGGTCGTGTCCACGGGCTCGC TCGGGCTCGACATCGCACTGGGCGTCGGCGGCCTGCCGCGCGGCCGCGTGGTCGAG ATCTACGGGCCGGAATCGTCCGGCAAGACCACGCTCACGCTGCAGGTCATTGCCGA GCTGCAGAAGCTGGGCGGCA CCGCGGCGTTCATCGACGCCGAGCACGCGCTCGACG TCCAGTACGCGGCGAAGCTCGGCGTCAACGTGCCGGATCTGCTGATCTCGCAGCCG GACACCGGCGAGCAGGCGCTCGAAATCACCGACGCGCTGGTGCGCTCGGGCTCGAT C >Bi21MC_S_vitro_recA

PAGE 274

274 GCGCTGGCGGCAGCGCTGGCCCAGATCGAGAAGCAGTTCGGCAAGGGCTCGATCAT GAAGCTCGGCGATGCCGAGGCCAAGGAAG ATATCCAGGTGGTCTCCACCGGCTCGC TCGGCCTCGATATCGCGCTCGGCGTCGGCGGCCTGCCGCGCGGCCGTGTCGTCGAAA TCTACGGTCCGGAATCGTCGGGCAAGACCACCCTCACGCTGCAGGTGATCGCCGAG ATGCAGAAGCTCGGCGGCACGGCGGCCTTCATCGACGCGGAACACGCGCTCGACGT CCAATATGCATCCAAGCTCGGCGTGAACGTGCCGGAACTGCTGATCTCGCAGCCGG ACAC GGGCGAGCAGGCGCTCGAAATCACCGACGCGCTGGTGCGCTCGGGCTCGATC >Bi16MC_R_vitro_recA GCCCTGGCCGCCGCGCTCTCGCAGATCGAAAAGCAATTCGGCAAAGGGTCGATCAT GCGGCTCGGCGCGGGTGAGGCGGTCGAAGACATTCAAGTGGTGTCCACCGGTTCGC TCGGCCTGGATATCGCGCTCGGCGTCGGCGGCTTGCCGCGCGGCCGTGTGGTGGAA ATCTACGGTCCCGA GTCGTCGGGCAAGACCACGCTCACGCTGCAAGTGGTCGCGGA GATGCAGAAGCTCGGCGGCACCGCGGCCTTCATCGACGCGGAACACGCGCTCGACG TGCAGTACGCGGGCAAGCTCGGCGTGAACGTGCCGGAACTGCTGATCTCGCAGCCG GACACGGGCGAGCAGGCGCTCGAAATCGTGGACGCGCTGGTGCGCTCCGGCTCCAT C >Bi17MC_R_vitro_recA GCGCTGGCGGCCGCACTCGCGCA GATCGAGAAGCAGTTCGGCAAAGGGTCGATCAT GCGGATGGGCGACGGCGAAGCGACCGAAGACATCCAGGTCGTCTCCACGGGCTCGC TGGGTCTCGATATCGCGCTCGGCGTCGGCGGCCTGCCGCGCGGCCGGGTGGTCGAG ATCTACGGTCCGGAATCGTCGGGTAAAACCACGCTCACGCTGCAGGTCATCGCCGA ACTGCAGAAGCTGGGCGGCACGGCTGCCTTCATCGACGCCGAGCACGCGCTCGAC G TCCAATACGCATCGAAGCTCGGCGTGAACGTGCCGGAGCTGCTGATCTCGCAGCCG GACACGGGCGAGCAGGCGCTCGAAATCACCGACGCGCTGGTGCGCTCGGGCTCGAT C >Bi18MC_R_vitro_recA GCCCTGGCCGCCGCGCTCTCGCAGATCGAAAAGCAATTCGGCAAAGGGTCGATCAT GCGGCTCGGCGCAGGTGAGGCGGTCGAAGACATTCAAGTGGTTTCCACCGGTTCGCT CGGGCTG GACATCGCGCTCGGCGTCGGCGGCTTGCCGCGCGGTCGTGTCGTGGAAA TCTACGGTCCGGAGTCGTCGGGTAAAACCACGCTCACGCTGCAGGTGATCGCGGAG ATGCAGAAGCTCGGCGGCACAGCGGCGTTCATCGACGCGGAACACGCGCTCGACGT GCAGTACGCCGGCAAGCTCGGCGTGAACGTGCCCGAACTGCTGATCTCGCAGCCGG ACACGGGCGAGCAGGCGCTCGAAATCGCGGACGCGCTGG TGCGCTCCGGCTCCATC >Bi20MC_R_vitro_recA GCGCTGGCCGCCGCGCTCGCGCAGATCGAAAAGCAGTTCGGCAAAGGGTCGATCAT GCGACTCGGCGATGGCGACGCGGTCGAAGACATCCAGGTGGTCTCCACCGGTTCGC TCGGTCTCGACATCGCGCTCGGCGTGGGCGGCCTGCCGCGCGGCCGGGTGGTCGAG ATCTACGGTCCGGAGTCGTCGGGCAAGACCACGCTCACGCTGCAGGTGA TCGCCGA ATTGCAGAAGCTCGGCGGCACCGCGGCGTTCATCGACGCGGAACACGCGCTCGACG TGCAGTACGCCTCGAAGCTCGGCGTGAACGTGCCCGAACTGCTCATCTCGCAGCCGG ACACGGGCGAGCAGGCGCTCGAAATCACCGACGCGCTGGTGCGCTCGGGCTCGATC >Bi01MC_R_recA GCCCTGGCCGCCGCGCTCTCGCAGATCGAAAAGCAATTCGGCAAAGGGTCGATCAT GCGGCTCG GCGCGGGTGAGGCGGTCGAAGACATTCAAGTGGTGTCCACCGGTTCGC TCGGCCTGGATATCGCGCTCGGCGTCGGCGGCTTGCCGCGCGGCCGTGTGGTGGAA ATCTACGGTCCCGAGTCGTCGGGCAAGACCACGCTCACGCTGCAAGTGGTCGCGGA

PAGE 275

275 GATGCAGAAGCTCGGCGGCACCGCGGCCTTCATCGACGCGGAACACGCGCTCGACG TGCAGTACGCGGGCAAGCTCGGCGTGAACGTGCCGGAACT GCTGATCTCGCAGCCG GACACGGGCGAGCAGGCGCTCGAAATCGTGGACGCGCTGGTGCGCTCCGGCTCCAT C >Bi02MC_R_recA GCACTCGCTGCCGCGCTTGCGCAGATCGAAAAGCAGTTCGGCAAAGGGTCGGTCAT GCGGCTCGGCCAGGGTGAGGCAGTTGAAGACATTCAGGTGGTCTCCACGGGATCGC TGGGCCTCGACATCGCGCTGGGCGTTGGCGGTCTGCCGCGTGGCCGTGTGGTGGAAA TCTACGGACCGGAATCGTCGGGTAAGACCACGCTGACGCTTCAGGTCGTCGCCGAA ATGCAGAAGCTCGGCGGCACGGCAGCGTTCA TCGACGCGGAACACGCGCTCGACAT TCAATACGCGCAAAAGCTCGGCGTGAACGTCAGCGAACTGCTGGTTTCGCAGCCGG ACACGGGCGAACAGGCGCTCGAAATCGCGGACGCACTCGTGCGTTCGGGTTCGATC >Bi07MC_S_recA GCCCTGGCCGCCGCGCTGTCGCAGATCGAAAAGCAATTCGGCAAAGGGTCGATCAT GCGGCTCGGCGCAGGTGAGGCGGTCGAAGACATTCAGGTGGTCTCCA CCGGTTCGC TCGGTCTGGATATCGCGCTCGGCGTCGGCGGTTTGCCGCGCGGCCGTGTCGTGGAAA TCTACGGTCCGGAGTCGTCGGGTAAAACCACGCTCACGCTGCAAGTGATCGCGGAG ATGCAGAAGCTCGGCGGCACCGCGGCGTTCATCGACGCCGAACACGCGCTCGACGT GCAGTACGCAGCCAAGCTCGGCGTGAACATTCCGGAACTGCTGATCTCGCAGCCGG ACACGGGCGAGCAGGCGCTGGA AATCACGGACGCGCTGGTGCGCTCCGGCTCCATC >Bi08MC_S_recA GCGCTGGCGGCAGCGCTGGCCCAGATCGAGAAGCAGTTCGGCAAGGGCTCGATCAT GAAGCTCGGTGATGCCGAGGCCAAGGAAGATATCCAGGTGGTCTCCACCGGCTCGC TCGGCCTCGATATCGCGCTCGGCGTCGGCGGCCTGCCGCGCGGCCGTGTCGTCGAAA TCTACGGTCCGGAATCGTCGGGCAAGACCACCCTCAC GCTGCAGGTGATCGCCGAG ATGCAGAAGCTCGGCGGCACGGCGGCCTTCATCGACGCGGAACACGCGCTCGACGT CCAATATGCATCCAAGCTCGGCGTGAACGTGCCGGAACTGCTGATCTCGCAGCCGG ACACGGGCGAGCAGGCGCTCGAAATCACCGACGCGCTGGTGCGCTCGGGCTCGATC >Bi12MC_S_vitro_lepA GTGGGCGATACCGTCACGGTCGCGAGCCGTCCGGCCACCGAGCCGCT GCCGGGCTT CAAGGAAGTGAAGCCGCAGGTGTTCGCGGGGCTCTATCCGGTCGAGGCGAATCAGT ACGACGCGCTGCGCGAATCGCTCGAAAAGCTGAAGCTCAACGACGCGTCGCTGCAG TTCGAGCCGGAAGTGTCGCAGGCGCTCGGCTTCGGTTTCCGTTGCGGCTTCCTCGGC CTTCTGCACATGGAAATCGTGCAGGAGCGTCTCGAGCGCGAATTCGACATGGACCTC ATCACCACCGCGCCGACGGTG ATCTACGAGGTCGAGCAGCGCGACGGCACGACCAT CATGGTCGAGAATCCGGCGAAAATGCCGGAGCCGCAGAAGATCGAGGAAGTGCGC GAGC >Bi19MC_S_vitro_lepA GTGGGCGACACCGTCACGCTGGTGAACAGCCCGGCCACCGAGCCGCTGCCCGGCTT CAAGGAAGTGAAGCCGCAGGTGTTCGCGGGTCTGTATCCGGTCGAGGCCAATCAGT ACGACGCTCTGCGCGAGTCGCTCGACAA GCTCAAGCTGAACGACGCATCGCTGCAG TACGAGCCGGAAGTGTCGCAGGCGCTCGGCTTCGGTTTCCGCTGCGGCTTCCTCGGT CTGCTGCACATGGAAATCGTGCAGGAACGTCTCGAGCGCGAGTTCGACATGGACCT GATCACCACCGCGCCGACGGTGGTGTACGAAGTCCTGCAACGCGACGGCACGACCA TCATGGTCGAAAATCCGGCGAAGATGCCGGACCCGTCGAAGATCGAAGAAGTGCGC GAG C

PAGE 276

276 >Bi20MC_S_vitro_lepA GTCGGCGATACGGTCACGCACGCGACGAAGGCTGCGGCCGAGCCGCTGCCGGGCTT CAAGGAAGTGAAGCCGCAGGTGTTCGCGGGCCTCTATCCGGTCGAGGCGAACCAGT ACGACGCGCTGCGCGAATCGCTCGAGAAGCTGAAGCTCAACGACGCATCGCTGCAG TACGAGCCGGAAGTATCGCAGGCGCTCGGCTTCGGTTTCCGCTGCGGCTTCCTCGGG CTGCTGCA CATGGAAATCGTGCAGGAGCGACTCGAGCGCGAATTCGACATGGACCT CATCACGACCGCACCGACGGTCGTCTACGAGGTCGTGCAGAGCGACGGCTCGACGA TCATGGTCGAGAACCCGGCGAAGATGCCGGAGCCCGCGCGCATCGCCGAGATCCGC GAGC >Bi21MC_S_vitro_lepA GTGGGCGACACCGTCACGCACGCGGCCAAGGCCGCGCCCGAGCCGCTGCCGGGCTT CAAGGAAGTGAAGC CGCAGGTGTTCGCCGGCCTCTATCCGGTCGAGGCGAACCAGT ACGACGCGCTGCGCGAATCGCTCGAGAAGCTCAAGCTCAACGACGCCGCGCTGCAA TACGAGCCGGAAGTCTCGCAGGCGCTTGGCTTCGGCTTCCGCTGCGGCTTCCTGGGC CTGCTGCACATGGAGATCGTGCAGGAGCGTCTCGAGCGCGAGTTCGACATGGACCT GATCACCACGGCACCCACCGTGGTCTACCAGGTGGTGCAGAGCAA CGGCGAAACCC TCGTGGTCGAGAACCCGGCCAAGATGCCGGATCCGGGCCGCATCGAGGAAGTCCGC GAGC >Bi16MC_R_vitro_lepA GTGGGCGACACCGTCACCATCGCGAACCGTGCCGCCACCAAGCCGCTGCCGGGCTT CAAAGAAGTGAAGCCGCAGGTGTTCGCGGGTCTGTATCCGGTGGAAGCGAACCAGT ACGACGCGTTGCGCGAATCGCTCGAAAAGCTGAGGCTCAACGACGCCTCGC TGCAA TACGAGCCGGAAGTCTCGCAGGCGCTCGGCTTCGGTTTCCGCTGCGGCTTCCTCGGC CTTTTGCACATGGAAATCGTGCAGGAGCGTCTCGAGCGCGAATTCGACATGGACCTC ATCACCACCGCGCCGACGGTGATCTACGAAGTCGAGCAACGCGATGGCACGACCAT CTCGGTCGAGAATCCGGCGAAGATGCCGGAGCCGCAGAAGATCGAGGAAGTGCGC GAGC >Bi17MC_R_vitro_lepA GTCGGCGATACCGTCACGCACGCGACCAAGGCCGCCACCGAGCCGCTGCCGGGCTT CAAGGAAGTGAAGCCGCAGGTGTTCGCGGGGCTGTACCCGGTCGAGGCGAACCAGT ACGACGCGCTGCGCGAATCGCTCGAGAAGCTGAAGCTCAACGATGCATCGCTGCAG TACGAGCCGGAAGTGTCGCAGGCACTCGGTTTCGGTTTCCGCTGCGGCTTCCTCGGG TTGCTGCACATGGAAATCGTGCAGGAACGGC TCGAGCGCGAGTTCGACATGGACCT CATCACGACCGCACCGACGGTCGTCTACGAGGTCGTGCAGAGCGACGGCTCGACGA TCATGGTCGAGAACCCGGCGAAGATGCCGGAACCCGGCCGCATCGCCGAAGTGCGC GAGC >Bi18MC_R_vitro_lepA GTGGGCGATACCGTCACGGTCGCGAGCCGTCCGGCCACCGAGCCGCTGCCCGGCTT CAAGGAAGTGAAGCCGCAGGTGTTCGCGGGGCTTTAT CCGGTCGAGGCGAATCAGT ACGACGCGCTGCGCGAATCGCTCGAAAAGCTGAAGCTCAACGACGCGTCGCTGCAG TTCGAGCCGGAAGTGTCGCAGGCGCTCGGCTTCGGTTTCCGTTGCGGCTTCCTCGGC CTTCTGCACATGGAAATCGTGCAGGAGCGTCTCGAGCGCGAATTCGACATGGACCTC ATCACCACCGCGCCGACGGTGATCTACGAGGTCGAGCAGCGCGACGGCACGACCAT CATGGTCGAGA ATCCGGCGAAAATGCCGGAGCCGCAGAAGATCGAGGAAGTGCGC GAGC >Bi20MC_R_vitro_lepA

PAGE 277

277 GTGGGCGACACCGTCACGCACGTCGCGAAGCCCGCAACCGAGCCGCTGCCCGGCTT CAAGGAAGTGAAGCCGCAGGTGTTCGCGGGCCTTTATCCGGTCGAGGCGAACCAGT ACGACGCGCTGCGCGAGTCGCTCGAAAAGCTCAAGCTCAACGACGCATCGCTGCAG TACGAGCCCGAAGTCTCG CAGGCGCTCGGCTTCGGTTTCCGCTGCGGCTTCCTCGGC CTCTTGCACATGGAAATCGTGCAGGAGCGTCTCGAGCGCGAGTTCGACATGGACCTC ATCACCACGGCGCCTACCGTGGTGTACGAAGTCGTGCAGCAGGACGGCAGCACGAT CAAGGTCGAGAACCCGGCGAAGATGCCCGAGCCCTCGAAGATCGCCGAGGTCCGCG AGC >Bi01MC_R_lepA GTGGGCGACACCGTCACCATCGCGAACCG TGCCGCCACCAAGCCGCTGCCGGGCTT CAAAGAAGTGAAGCCGCAGGTGTTCGCGGGTCTGTATCCGGTGGAAGCGAACCAGT ACGACGCGTTGCGCGAATCGCTCGAAAAGCTGAGGCTCAACGACGCCTCGCTGCAA TACGAGCCGGAAGTCTCGCAGGCGCTCGGCTTCGGTTTCCGCTGCGGCTTCCTCGGC CTTTTGCACATGGAAATCGTGCAGGAGCGTCTCGAGCGCGAATTCGACATGGACCTC ATC ACCACCGCGCCGACGGTGATCTACGAAGTCGAGCAACGCGATGGCACGACCAT CTCGGTCGAGAATCCGGCGAAGATGCCGGAGCCGCAGAAGATCGAGGAAGTGCGC GAGC >Bi02MC_R_lepA GTCGGCGATACCGTCACGACTATCAAGAACGCCGCGCCGGAACCGCTGCCGGGCTT CAAGGAAGTGAAGCCGCAGGTGTTCGCGGGTCTCTATCCTGTCGAAGCGAACCAGT ACGACGCACTGCGCGA ATCGCTGGAAAAACTCAAGCTCAACGACGCCTCACTGATG TACGAACCAGAAGTGTCTCAGGCACTCGGTTTTGGCTTTCGCTGCGGCTTCCTGGGT CTGTTGCATATGGAGATCGTCCAGGAACGTCTCGAACGCGAGTTCGACATGGACCTG ATCACCACCGCGCCGACCGTTGTCTACGAAGTCGTTCAACGCGACGGCACGACCATC ATGGTCGAGAATCCGGCGAAGATGCCGGACCCGTCGAAGATCGAA GAAGTGCGCGA GC >Bi07MC_S_lepA GTCGGCGACACGGTCACCGTCGCGAATCGTTCCGCCGAAACGCCGCTGCCGGGATT CAAGGAAGTGAAGCCGCAGGTGTTCGCGGGTCTGTATCCGGTCGAAGCGAATCAAT ACGACGCGCTGCGTGAATCGCTCGAAAAGTTGAAGCTGAACGATGCCTCGCTGCAA TTCGAGCCGGAAGTGTCGCAGGCGCTCGGTTTCGGTTTCCGTTGCGGCTTCCTCGGA CT CTTGCACATGGAAATCGTGCAGGAACGTCTCGAGCGCGAGTTCGACATGGACCTC ATCACGACCGCGCCGACCGTGATCTACGAAGTCGTCCAGCGCGACGGAACCACGAT CATGGTCGAGAATCCGGCGAAGATGCCGGAGCCGCAGAAGATCGAGGAAGTGCGC GAGC >Bi08MC_S_lepA GTGGGCGACACCGTCACGCACGCGGCCAAGGCCGCGCCCGAGCCGCTGCCGGGCTT CAAGGAAGTGAAGC CGCAGGTGTTCGCCGGCCTCTATCCGGTCGAGGCGAACCAGT ACGACGCGCTGCGCGAATCGCTCGAGAAGCTCAAGCTCAACGACGCCGCGCTGCAA TACGAGCCGGAAGTCTCGCAGGCGCTTGGCTTCGGCTTCCGCTGCGGCTTCCTGGGC CTGCTGCACATGGAGATCGTGCAGGAGCGTCTCGAGCGCGAGTTCGACATGGACCT GATCACCACGGCACCCACCGTGGTCTACCAGGTGGTGCAGAGCAA CGGCGAAACCC TCGTGGTCGAGAACCCGGCCAAAATGCCGGATCCGGGCCGCATCGAGGAAGTCCGC GAGC

PAGE 278

278 B 5. Universal 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences of crypt associated bacteria generated from five parental and three corresponding progeny Blissus insularis . >G 0 femaleP1MC_16SrRNA ATGCCTTACACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGT GGCGAACGGGTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCG AAAGCCGGATTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCC TCGCGCTATAGGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACC AAGGCGACGATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGA CGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGAC ACGGCCCAGACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAG CCTGATCCAGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTG TCCGGAAAGAAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAAT AAGCACCGGCTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTA ATCGGA ATTACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAA TCCCCGGGCTCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGA GGGGGGTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCG ATGGCGAAGGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGA GCAAACAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAA ACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTT GGGGATTCATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTA CGGTCGCAAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATG ATGTGGATTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAA CCTTGGAGAGATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGC TGTCGTCAGCT CGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTT GTCCTTAGTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGG AAGGTGGGGATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCAT ACAATGGTCGGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAA CCGATCGTAGTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGA AGCTGGAATCGCTAG TAATCGCGGATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCC GTCACACCATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGAC GGTCACCACG >P1MC_16SrRNA CCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGG GGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGAT GAAAGCGGG GGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATAGGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGG GTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACGATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACA CTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGA CAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCAGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTT GTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAA GAAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACG GTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGCTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAG GGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAA GACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCTCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCT AGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAG ATG TGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCAC GAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGAT GTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGA CCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGC ACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATTAATTC GATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCT

PAGE 279

279 TGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGAGATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACAC AGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAGCTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAA CGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGT GACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGGATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGG G CTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTCGGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGC TAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTAGTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAG CTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGGATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTT GTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAAC CGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACCACGGTAGGG > G 0 femaleP3MC_16SrRNA CCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGG GGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGG GGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATAGGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGG GTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACGATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACA CTGGGACTGA GACACGGCCCAGACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGA CAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCAGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTT GTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGAAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACG GTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGCTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAG GGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCG CAGGCGGTTTGTTAA GACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCTCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCT AGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATG TGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCAC GAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGAT GTCAACTAGTTGTTGGG GATTCATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGA CCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGC ACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCT TGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGAGATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACAC AGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAGCTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTA AGTCCCGCAA CGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGT GACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGGATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGG GCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTCGGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGC TAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTAGTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAG CTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGC GGATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTT GTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAAC CGCAAGGAGGACG > G 0 maleP3MC_16SrRNA GGGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGTGAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCC TGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATTAATACCGCATACGACCTGAGGGA GAAAGCGGGGGATCTT CGGACCTCGCGCTATAGGGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCT AGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGATCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACG ACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGG GAATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGG CCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGAAAACTTCGTCCCTA ATATGGATG GAGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGCTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGG TAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGC GGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCTCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGAC

PAGE 280

280 TGGCAAGCTTTGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATG CGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACC GATGGCGAAGGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGAC GCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGC CCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGC GTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGAC GGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAA ACC TTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAAGTCCGCTGAGAGGTGGATGTGCTCGAAAGAG AACCGACGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAGCTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTT AAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGG AGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGGATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCC TTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATAC AATGGTCGGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAAGCCG CGAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTAGTCCGGATCGCAGTCTGCAACTC GACTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGGATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATAC GTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCATGGGAGTGGGTTTCACCAGAAG TAGGTAGCCTAACCGTAAGGAGGGCGCT >P3MC_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAAC GGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGA CACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCA GGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGA TTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAG TCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGG >G 0 femaleP4MC_16SrRNA TGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGT CCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGG ATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTC GGGCCTCGCGCTATAGGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAG CTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGA

PAGE 281

281 CGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTG GGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCAGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAA GGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGAAATCCTTGGTTCTAA TATAGC CGGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGCTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGC GGTAATACGTAGGGTGCAAGCGTTAATCGGAATTACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAG GCGGTTTGCTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCTCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTG ACTGGCAGGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAAT GCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGA TGGCGAAGGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGA CGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACG CCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACG CGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGA CGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAAC CTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAATCCTGCTGAGAGGCGGGAGTGCTCGAAAGA GAACCGGCGCACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAGCTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGT TAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAAG GAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGGATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCC CTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAA TGGTCGGAACAGAGGGTTGCCAACCC GCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTAGTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACT CGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGGATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATA CGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAA GTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGG > G 0 maleP4MC_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACG GCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGAC ACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAG AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAG GCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGAT TCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCCGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGT CCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG

PAGE 282

282 A TCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACG >P4MC_16SrRNA ACATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGG GTGAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGA TTAATACCGCATACGATCTACGGAT GAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATA GGGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACG ATCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAG ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCA GCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAA G AAATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGG CTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATT ACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGC TCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAG AATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAG ATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAG GCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGG ATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCA TTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAA GATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATT AATTC GATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGA GATCCGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAG CTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGT TGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGTAGGG CTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCA

PAGE 283

283 B6. Universal 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences of midgut crypt samples from two Blissus insularis individuals that were reared on plants untreated with Burkholderia . >BiMCuntreated1_16SrRNA GGGGCAACCCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGTGAGTAATACATCGGAACGTGTCCT GGAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATTAATACCGCATACGCTCTGTGGAGG AAAGCGGGGGATCTTCGGACCTCGCGCTCAAGGGGCGGCCGATGGCAGATTAGCTA GTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCTACCAAGGCGACGATCTGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGA CCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGG AATTTTGGACAATGGGGGCAACCCTGATCCAGCAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGC CTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCGGAAAGAAAACCTCGTGGCTAATATCCGTGA GGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGCTAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGT AATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCG GTTCGTT AAGACAGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCTTAACCTGGGAACTGCATTTGTGACT GGCGGGCTTGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCG TAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGC TCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCC TAAACGATGTCAACTGGTTGTCGGGTCTTCATTGACTT GGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGT GAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGG GGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTT ACCTACCCTTGACATGTATGGAACCCTGCTGAGAGGTGGGGGTGCCCGAAAGGGAG CCATAACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAGCTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAA GTCCCGCAACGA GCGCAACCCTTGTCCCTAGTTGCTACGCAAGAGCACTCCAGGGA GACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGGATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCT TATGGGTAGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTCGGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAAGCCGC GAGGTGGAGCCAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTAGTCCGGATCGCACTCTGCAACTCG AGTGCGTGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGGATCAGCATGCC GCGGTGAATACG TTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCATGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGT GGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGGTCACC >BiMCuntreated2_16SrRNA ATGCAAGTCGAACGGCAGCACGGGTGCTTGCACCTGGTGGCGAGTGGCGAACGGGT GAGTAATACATCGGAACATGTCCTGTAGTGGGGGATAGCCCGGCGAAAGCCGGATT AATACCGCATACGATCTAC GGATGAAAGCGGGGGACCTTCGGGCCTCGCGCTATAG GGTTGGCCGATGGCTGATTAGCTAGTTGGTGGGGTAAAGGCCCACCAAGGCGACGA TCAGTAGCTGGTCTGAGAGGACGACCAGCCACACTGGGACTGAGACACGGCCCAGA CTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGTGGGGAATTTTGGACAATGGGCGAAAGCCTGATCCAG CAATGCCGCGTGTGTGAAGAAGGCCTTCGGGTTGTAAAGCACTTTTGTCCG GAAAGA AATCCTGAGGGCTAATATCCTTCGGGGATGACGGTACCGGAAGAATAAGCACCGGC TAACTACGTGCCAGCAGCCGCGGTAATACGTAGGGTGCGAGCGTTAATCGGAATTA CTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCCGGGCT CAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGGGTAGA ATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGT AGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGCGAAGG CAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAACAGGA TTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGATTCAT TTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTCGCAAG ATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTGGATTA ATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTGGAGAG

PAGE 284

284 ATCCGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCGTCAGC TCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCTTAGTT GCTACGCAAGAGCACTCTAGGGAGACTGCCGGTGACAAACCGGAGGAAGGTGGGG ATGACGTCAAGTCCTCATGGCCCTTATGGGT AGGGCTTCACACGTCATACAATGGTC GGAACAGAGGGTCGCCAACCCGCGAGGGGGAGCTAATCCCAGAAAACCGATCGTA GTCCGGATTGCACTCTGCAACTCGAGTGCATGAAGCTGGAATCGCTAGTAATCGCGG ATCAGCATGCCGCGGTGAATACGTTCCCGGGTCTTGTACACACCGCCCGTCACACCA TGGGAGTGGGTTTTACCAGAAGTGGCTAGTCTAACCGCAAGGAGGACGG

PAGE 285

285 B7 . Burkholderia 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences of genomic DNA generated from two unsterilized rearing used St. Augustinegrass samples. >Floratamgrass01 _burk16SrRNA AATTACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCC GGGCTCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTA GAGTATGGCAGAGGGGG GTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGC GAAGGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAA CAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAACGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGA TTCATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTC GCAAGATTAAAAC TCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTG GATTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTG GAGAGATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCG TCAGCTCGTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGC AACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCT TAGTTGCTAC > Floratamgrass02_burk16SrRNA AA TTACTGGGCGTAAAGCGTGCGCAGGCGGTTTGTTAAGACCGATGTGAAATCCCC GGGCTCAACCTGGGAACTGCATTGGTGACTGGCAAGCTAGAGTATGGCAGAGGGGG GTAGAATTCCACGTGTAGCAGTGAAATGCGTAGAGATGTGGAGGAATACCGATGGC GAAGGCAGCCCCCTGGGCCAATACTGACGCTCATGCACGAAAGCGTGGGGAGCAAA CAGGATTAGATACCCTGGTAGTCCACGCCCTAAA CGATGTCAACTAGTTGTTGGGGA TTCATTTCCTTAGTAACGTAGCTAACGCGTGAAGTTGACCGCCTGGGGAGTACGGTC GCAAGATTAAAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGGGGACCCGCACAAGCGGTGGATGATGTG GATTAATTCGATGCAACGCGAAAAACCTTACCTACCCTTGACATGGTCGGAACCTTG GAGAGATCTGAGGGTGCTCGAAAGAGAACCGATACACAGGTGCTGCATGGCTGTCG TCAGCTC GTGTCGTGAGATGTTGGGTTAAGTCCCGCAACGAGCGCAACCCTTGTCCT TAGTTGCTAC

PAGE 286

286 APPENDIX C LEVELS OF GUT SYMBIONT BURKHOLDERIA IN PCP COLONY Table C 1. DNA concentration and the estimated copy number of Burkholderia 16S rRNA genes in the midgut crypts of Blissus insularis females from the PCP population at the fourteenth generation. Identity DNA concentration (ng 1 ) 16S rRNA gene copies per insect No. of eggs BiPCP01 19.7 8.2 × 10 7 0 BiPCP02 24.9 1.9 × 10 8 2 BiPCP03 28.5 6.6 × 10 7 0 BiPCP04 32.7 3.0 × 10 8 2 BiPCP05 18.4 9.0 × 10 7 0 BiPCP06 42.7 5.2 × 10 8 7 BiPCP07 25.2 1.9 × 10 8 0 BiPCP08 14.1 4.7 × 10 7 0 BiPCP09 29.2 1.7 × 10 8 0 BiPCP10 27.5 7.0 × 10 7 0 Mean (SE) 1.7 × 10 8 (4.3 × 10 7 ) Figure C 1. The mean (± SE) log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers estimated by qPCR in the midgut crypts of ten PCP, eleven R, and eight S Blissus insularis females. Different letters above bars indicate statistically significant differences between three samples ( P < 0.05; nge tests, SAS 9.3). See tabulated data for PCP in Table C 1, for R and S in Table 3 4.

PAGE 287

287 APPENDIX D DETECTION OF BURKHOLDERIA IN ST. AUGUSTINEGRASS To investigate the possibility that B. insularis acquires free living Burkholderia from the ambient envir onment, including its host plant; St. Augustinegrasses stems were subjected to the detection of Burkholderia using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of the Burkholderia or rearing B. insularis through this study were harvested originally from the SummerGlen Golf Club Community in Ocala, FL. After being transplanted in individual pots, these grasses were propagated by dividing the original batch into more sections. Grass m aintenance was the same as described in Chapter 2. Five hundred milligrams of fresh grass stems, free of soil debris, were harvested from each pot and homogenized using liquid nitrogen. Grass homogenates were subjected to genomic DNA using the MasterPure Yeast DNA Purification Kit (Epicentre), Ad ), which were donated by Dr. K. Kenworthy from the greenho use maintained plants, were used to confirm the general relevance of Burkholderia in St. Augustinegrass. To elucidate that the presence of Burkholderia is interior and/or exterior on the grass, additional stem preparations of each cultivar were surface ste rilized by immers ion for three minutes each in 70% EtOH, 5% bleach, and then 70% EtOH. For each cultivar, three to four stem preparations were examined with or without the sterilization. To detect Burkholderia on the St. Augustinegrass samples, diagnostic PCR amplification was conducted using Burkholderia specific 16S rRNA gene primers (for detailed methods, see Chapter 3: PCR Amplification and Sequencing of Burkholderia 16S rRNA Gene). Two positive PCR amplicons (~750 bp) were purified subsequently using t he PCR purification kit

PAGE 288

288 (Agencourt ® subjected to the Sanger sequencing (ICBR Sequencing Core, University of Florida) in forward direction to obtain the partial sequence of the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene. For each cultivar, four s terilized and four unsterilized stem prepartions were subjected to the diagnostic PCR analysis. Faint PCR amplicons at the target size (~7 50 bp) were detected in 88% of Palm etto, 100% of Floratam and 100% of Captiva, regardless of surface sterilization (Figure D 1). For the rearing used St. Augustinegrass, all four preparations (two sterilized and two unsterilized) were positive for the Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In the unsterilized samples, the PCR amplicons were more intense than those from the surface sterilized samples, suggesting that most Burkholderia were present on the plant surface. Two 574 bp sequences of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene from the unsterilized rearing used St. Augustinegra ss samples revealed that they were identical to each other and identified as Burkholderia , closely related to the B. gladioli strain (accession number: JX566503). Both sequences were included in the Appendix B7 . These findings suggested that host plant sur faces and/or interiors may serve as a source of gut symbiont Burkholderia for B. insularis .

PAGE 289

289 Figure D 1. The initial PCR amplifications of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene detected target amplicons (~750 bp; indicated by arrows) in the genomic DNA from St. Augustinegrass stems of three cultivars. Lanes: 1 4 = 9 = rearing non template control. Standard marker is HyperLadder I ( Bioline, Taunton, MA ).

PAGE 290

290 APPENDIX E OPTIMIZATIONS OF ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT To reduce crypt associated Burkholderia with minimal lethality on the host B. insularis using the antibiotic treatment ( see Chapter 5), the antibiotic concentrations and exposure times were optimized initially. Accordi ng to the antibiotic inhibition assays on in vitro produced Burkholderia cultures (see Chapter 4), both 1 mM of kanamycin and oxytetracycline efficiently inhibited the bacterial growth. Therefore, two concentrations (0.8 and 2 mg mL 1 , equivalent to 1.6 an d 4 mM, respectively) and two exposure times (five and ten days) were selected to examine the efficacy of antibiotics on eliminating crypt inhabiting Burkholderia in fifth instars. Ten fifth instars that were exposed for 10 days to corn juice containing 2 mg mL 1 (equivalent to 4 mM) of a single antibiotic, oxytetracycline, had 80% survivorship. On the tenth day, however, the eight surviving fifth instars were all paralyzed. Conversely, ten fifth instars in the control group all survived and were healthy. D uring the dissection of the digestive tracts, the blue colored dye appeared in the anterior midgut regions, from the M1 to the M3, of the B. insularis individuals that were fed with antibiotic free diet, whereas the blue dye was not found in the digestive tracts of the antibiotic treated ones. Based on the qPCR analysis of the crypt genomic DNA, seven antibiotic treated fifth instars harbored 1.9 × 10 7 ± 8.0 × 10 6 (mean ± SE) of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect, whereas five control fifth instar s had 4.4 × 10 7 ± 1.1 × 10 7 . The mean log 10 Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copy numbers from two groups were not significantly different ( t = 1.49, df = 10, P = 0.1682). These findings suggest that B. insularis failed to feed on the food supplemented with 2 mg mL 1 of oxytetracycline, resulting in the failure of the antibiotic therapy to reduce the numbers of crypt associated Burkholderia . Therefore, a reduced concentration (0.8 mg mL 1 ) of oxytetracycline was subsequently used. In

PAGE 291

291 addition, another antibiotic (kanamycin) that has a different mechanism of action was used on a rotating basis in the artificial diet. During the 5 and 10 day exposure to food supplemented with a rotation of antibiotics, feeding activities of B. insularis were observed daily. Dissec tion revealed that the blue dye appeared in the anterior midgut regions (M1 M3), but was not detected in the posterior regions (M4B M4) (Figure 5 1C). This observation was found in all examined B. insularis , regardless of sex and of antibiotic treatment, i ndicating that the rotating antibiotics were delivered to B. insularis . After 5 day exposure to the rotating antibiotics, eight fifth instars survived. No significant reduction of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect was found in the antibiotic tre ated group, either in the male or in the female fifth instars, compared to the corresponding control fifth instars (Table E 1). Although females harbored 3.4 and 1.7 fold more Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect than males did in the antibiotic t reated and control groups, respectively, the differences were not significant. When the exposure time extended to ten days, no mortality occurred either in the antibiotic treated or control group. A six fold reduction of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies w as found in the antibiotic treated males relative to the control males; however, this difference was not significant ( t = 1.49, df = 6, P = 0.1857). For the antibiotic treated females, the level of Burkholderia was 20 fold lower ( t = 3.15, df = 4, P = 0.0344), compared to the control females. Similar to the findings in the 5 day exposure test, no difference in the levels of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies was found between females and males for both groups. According to the results of these experim ents, the corn juice supplemented with daily rotating 1.6 mM of oxytetracycline and 1.4 mM of kanamycin for 10 days was selected to evaluate the impacts of antibiotic treatment on B. insularis , in the final oral administration experiment.

PAGE 292

292 Table E 1. The estimated copy number of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene in the midgut crypts of Blissus insularis that fed antibiotic treated (rotating 1.6 mM oxytetracycline and 1.4 mM of kanamycin) and antibiotic free (control) diet for five and ten days. Exposure time a Treatment Mean (± SE) Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene copies per insect t (df) b P value Five Male ( n = 4) c Female ( n = 4) Antibiotic treated 3.8 × 10 7 (1.5 × 10 7 ) 1.3 × 10 8 (3.9 × 10 7 ) 2.08 (6) 0.0823 Control 6.4 × 10 7 (1.1 × 10 7 ) 1.1 × 10 8 (3.2 × 10 7 ) 1.16 (6) 0.2920 t (df) 1.56 (6) 0.07 (6) P value 0.1674 0.9476 Ten Male ( n = 4) Female ( n = 3) Antibiotic treated 1.6 × 10 7 (8.2 × 10 6 ) 1.5 × 10 7 (6.8 × 10 6 ) 0.38 (5) 0.7220 Control 9.2 × 10 7 (2.8 × 10 7 ) 3.2 × 10 8 (6.1 × 10 7 ) 1.95 d 0.0518 t (df) 1.49 (6) 3.15 (4) P value 0.1857 0.0344 a Days of exposure to the antibiotic treated and free diets. b Two sample t test comparisons between the males and the females within each treatment, as well as between the antibiotic treated and the control individuals within each sex , indicating by the t value (degree of freedom). c Number of B. insularis adults fed on each diet . d The data set was not normally distributed according to the Kolmogorov Smirnov test (N = 7, D = 0.3337, P = 0.0191). Alternatively, a Wilcoxon two sample test (normal approximation) indicating by the z value was applied to compare the differ ences between control males and control females in the 10 day exposure experiment.

PAGE 293

293 LIST OF REFERENCES Abbott, W. S. 1925 . A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol. 18: 265 267. Abd Elghafar, S. F., A. G. Appel, and T. P. Mack . 1990 . Toxicity of several insecticide formulations against adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 2290 2294. Ackermann, H. W. 2003 . Bacteriophage observations and evolu tion. Res. Microbiol. 154: 245 251. Addesso, K. M., H. J. Mcauslane, and R. Cherry . 2012 . Aggregation b ehavior of the Southern c hinch b ug (Hemiptera: Blissidae). Environ. Entomol. 41: 887 895. Aellen, S., Y. A. Que, B. Guignard, M. Haenni, and P. Moreillon . 2006 . Detection of live and antibiotic killed bacteria by quantitative real time PCR of specific fragments of rRNA. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50: 1913 1920. Ahmad, M., I. Denholm, and R. H. Bromilow . 2006 . Delayed cuticular penetration and enhanced m etabolism of deltamethrin in pyrethroid resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera from China and Pakistan. Pest Manag. Sci. 62: 805 810. Akman Gündüz, E., and A. E. Douglas . 2009 . Symbiotic bacteria enable insect to use a nutritionally inadequate diet. Pro c. Biol. Sci. 276: 987 991. Aksoy, S. 1995. Wigglesworthia gen. nov. and Wigglesworthia glossinidia sp. nov., taxa consisting of the mycetocyte associated, primary endosymbionts of tsetse flies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45: 848 851. Alon, M., F. Alon, R. Nauen, and S. Morin. 2008. Organophosphates' resistance in the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is associated with a point mutation in an ace1 type acetylcholinesterase and overexpression of carboxylesterase. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 38: 940 949. Amann, R. I., W. Ludwig, and K. Schleifer . 1995 . Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol. Rev. 59: 143 169. An, R., and P. S. Grewal . 2011 . purL gene expression affects biofilm formation and symbiotic persistence of Photorhabdus temperata in the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora . Microbiology. 157: 2595 2603. Andrade, G., K. L. Mihara, R. G. Linderman, and G. J. Bethlenfalvay . 1997 . Bacteria f rom rhizosphere and hyphosphere soils of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil. 192: 71 79.

PAGE 294

294 Angus, A. A., C. M. Agapakis, S. Fong, S. Yerrapragada, P. Estrada de los Santos, P. Yang, N. Song, S. Kano, J. Caballero Mellado, S. M. de Faria, F. D . Dakora, G. Weinstock, and A. M. Hirsch . 2014 . Plant associated symbiotic Burkholderia species lack hallmark strategies required in mammalian pathogenesis. PLoS One. 9: e83779. Apperson, C. S., and G. P. Georghiou . 1975 . Mechanisms of resistance to organo phosphorus insecticides in Culex tarsalis . J. Econ. Entomol. 68: 153 157. Ashelford, K. E., M. J. Day, and J. C. Fry . 2003 . Elevated abundance of bacteriophage infecting bacteria in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 285 289. Baines, S. 1956 . The role of the symbiotic bacteria in the nutrition of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera). J. Exp. Biol. 33: 533 541. Baker, J. E., J. A. Fabrick, and K. Y. Zhu . 1998 . Characterization of esterases in malathion resistant and susceptible strains of the pteromalid parasitoid Anisopteromalus calandrae . Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 28: 1039 1050. Baldo, L., J. C. Dunning Hotopp, K. A. Jolley, S. R. Bordenstein, S. A. Biber, R. R. Choudhury, C. Hayashi, M. C. J. Maiden, H. Tettelin, and J. H. Werren . 2006 . Multilocus sequence typing system for the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 7098 7110. Baldwin, A., E. Mahenthiralingam, K. M. Thickette, D. Honeybourne, M. C. J. Maiden, J. R. Govan, D. P. Speert, J. J. LiPuma, P. Vandamme, and C. G. Dowson . 2005 . Multilocus sequence typing scheme that provides both species and strain differentiation for the Burkholderia cepacia complex. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 4665 4673. Bansal, R., A. P. Michel, and Z. L. Sabree . 2014 . The crypt dwelling pr imary bacterial symbiont of the polyphagous pentatomid pest Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Environ. Entomol. 43: 617 625. Bass, C., A. M. Puinean, M. Andrews, P. Cutler, M. Daniels, J. Elias, V. L. Paul, A. J. Crossthwaite, I. Denholm, L. M. Field, S. P. Foster, R. Lind, M. S. Williamson, and R. Slater . 2011 . resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae . BMC Neurosci. 12: 51. Bass, C., A. M. Pui nean, C. T. Zimmer, I. Denholm, L. M. Field, S. P. Foster, O. Gutbrod, R. Nauen, R. Slater, and M. S. Williamson . 2014 . The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae . Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 51: 41 51. Baumann, P. 200 5 . Biology bacteriocyte associated endosymbionts of plant sap sucking insects. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59: 155 189.

PAGE 295

295 Beard, C. B., C. Cordon Rosales, and R. V Durvasula . 2002 . Bacterial symbionts of the Triatominae and their potential use in control of Chagas disease transmission. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47: 123 141. Bennett, G. M., J. P. McCutcheon, B. R. MacDonald, D. Romanovicz, and N. A. Moran . 2014 . Differential genome evolution between companion symbionts in an insect bacterial symbiosis. MBio. 5: e01697 14. Berticat, C., F. Rousset, M. Raymond, A. Berthomieu, and M. Weill . 2002 . High Wolbachia density in insecticide resistant mosquitoes. Proc. Biol. Sci. 269: 1413 1416. Bianciotto, V., C. Bandi, D. Minerdi, M. Sironi, H. V. Tichy, and P. Bonfante . 1996 . An o bligately endosymbiotic mycorrhizal fungus itself harbors obligately intracellular bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 3005 3010. Bianciotto, V., E. Lumini, L. Lanfranco, D. Minerdi, P. Bonfante, and S. Perotto . 2000 . Detection and identification of ba cterial endosymbionts in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi belonging to the family Gigasporaceae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 4503 4509. Biot, F. V., E. Valade, E. Garnotel, J. Chevalier, C. Villard, F. M . Thibault, D. R. Vidal, and J. M. Pagès . 2011 . Involvement of the efflux pumps in chloramphenicol selected strains of Burkholderia thailandensis : proteomic and mechanistic evidence. PLoS One. 6: e16892. Bistolas, K. S. I., R. I. Sakamoto, J. A. M. Fernandes, and S. K. Goffredi . 2014 . Symbiont polyphyl y, co evolution, and necessity in pentatomid stinkbugs from Costa Rica. Front. Microbiol. 5: 349. Bontemps, C., G. N. Elliott, M. F. Simon, F. B. Dos Reis Júnior, E. Gross, R. C. Lawton, N. E. Neto, M. de Fátima Loureiro, S. M. De Faria, J. I. Sprent, E. K . James, and J. P. W. Young . 2010 . Burkholderia species are ancient symbionts of legumes. Mol. Ecol. 19: 44 52. Boucias, D. G., A. Garcia Maruniak, R. Cherry, H. Lu, J. E. Maruniak, and V. U. Lietze . 2012 . Detection and characterization of bacterial symbio nts in the heteropteran, Blissus insularis . FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 82: 629 641. Brattsten, L. B., C. W. Holyoke, J. R. Leeper, and K. F. Raffa. 1986. Insecticide resistance: challenge to pest management and basic research. Science 231: 1255 1260. Bright, M., and S. Bulgheresi . 2010 . A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8: 218 230. Brown, J. K., S. A. Coats, I. D. Bedford, P. G. Markham, J. Bird, and D. R. Frohlich . 1995 . Characterization and distribution of esterase electromorphs in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Biochem. Genet. 33: 205 214.

PAGE 296

296 Buchner, P. 1965. Endosymbiosis of animals with plant microorganisms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. Busey, P., and B. J. Center . 1987 . Southern chinch bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) overcomes resistance in St . Augustinegrass. J. Econ. Entomol. 80: 608 611. Busey, P., and B. L. Coy . 1988 . Vulnerability of St. Augustinegrass to the S outhern chinch bug. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 101: 132 135. Buss, E. A., and A. C. Hodges. 2006. Pest management attitudes and practices of Florida superintendents and lawn care professionals. Fla. Turf Digest. Sept./Oct.: 22 27. Buss, E., and P. Ruppert . 2010 . Efficacy of clothianidin against the S o uthern chinch bug, 2009. Arthropod Manag. Tests. 35: 2010. Busvine, J. R. 1951. Mechanism of resistance to insecticide in houseflies. Nature. 168: 193 195. Byrne, F. J., and A. L. Devonshire . 1993 . Insensitive acetylcholinesterase and esterase polymorphism in susceptible and resistant populations of the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn). Pest Manag. Sci. 45: 34 42. Byrne, F. J., K. J. Gorman, M. Cahill, I. Denholm, and A. L. Devonshire . 2000 . The role of B type esterases in conferring insecticide resistance in the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn). Pest Manag. Sci. 56: 867 874. Carletto, J., T. Martin, F. Vanlerberghe Masutti, and T. Brévault . 2010 . Insecticide resistance traits differ am ong and within host races in Aphis gossypii . Pest Manag. Sci. 66: 301 307. Carmody, L. A., J. J. Gill, E. J. Summer, U. S. Sajjan, C. F. Gonzalez, R. F. Young, and J. J. LiPuma . 2010 . Efficacy of b acteriophage t herapy in a m odel of Burkholderia cenocepacia p ulmonary i nfection. J. Infect. Dis. 201: 264 271. Chantratita, N., D. A. Rholl, B. Sim, V. Wuthiekanun, D. Limmathurotsakul, P. Amornchai, A. Thanwisai, H. H. Chua, W. F. Ooi, M. T. G. Holden, N. P. Day, P. Tan, H. P. Schweizer, and S. J. Peacock . 2011 . Antimicrobial resistance to ceftazidime involving loss of penicillin binding protein 3 in Burkholderia pseudomallei . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108: 17165 17170. Chaston, J., and H. Goodrich Blair . 2010 . Common trends in mutualism revealed by model a ssociations between invertebrates and bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 34: 41 58. Chen, J., T. Rashid, and G. Feng . 2014 . Esterase in imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): activity, kinetics and variation. Sci. Rep . 4: 7112.

PAGE 297

297 Chen, W., S. M. de Faria, R. Straliotto, R. M. Pitard, J. L. Simões A raùjo, J. Chou, Y. Chou, E. Barrios, A. R. Prescott, G. N. Elliott, J. I. Sprent, J. P. W. Young, and E. K. James . 2005 . Proof that Burkholderia strains form e ffective symbiose s with legumes : a study of novel M imosa nodulating strains from South America. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 7461 7 4 71. Chen, W., L. Moulin, C. Bontemps, P. Vandamme, G. Béna, and C. Boivin Masson . 2003 . Legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation by proteobacter ia is widespread in nature. J. Bacteriol. 185: 7266 7272. Cherry, R. H. 2001 . Seasonal wing polymorphism in S outhern chinch bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Fla. Entomol. 84: 737 739. Cherry, R. H., and R. Nagata . 2005 . Development of resistance in S outhern ch inch bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) to the insecticide bifenthrin. Fla. Entomol. 88: 219 221. Cherry, R., and R. Nagata . 2007 . Resistance to two classes of insecticides in S outhern chinch bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Fla . Entomol. 90: 431 434. Chopin, M. C., A. Chopin, and C. Roux . 1976 . Definition of bacteriophage groups according to their lytic action on mesophilic lactic streptococci. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32: 741 746. Chopra, I., and M. Roberts . 2001 . Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65: 232 260. Ciche, T. A., K. Kim, B. Kaufmann Daszczuk, K. C. Q. Nguyen, and D. H. Hall . 2008 . Cell invasion a nd matricide during Photorhabdus luminescens transmission by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 2275 2287. Clarridge III, J. E. 2004 . Impact of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for identification of bacteria on clinical m icrobiology and infectious diseases. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17: 840 862. Cmelik, S. H. W., E. Bursell, and E. Slack . 1969 . Composition of the gut contents of third instar tsetse larvae ( Glossina morsitans Westwood). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 29: 447 453. Coch ran, D. G. 1987 . Selection for pyrethroid resistance in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 80: 1117 1121. Coenye, T. 2010. Social interactions in the Burkholderia cepacia complex: biofilms and quorum sensing. Future Microbi ol. 5: 1087 1099. Coenye, T., P. Vandamme, J. R. W. Govan, and J. J. Lipuma . 2001 . Taxonomy and identification of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 3427 3436.

PAGE 298

298 Cole, J. R., Q. Wang, E. Cardenas, J. Fish, B. Chai, R. J. Farris, A. S. Kulam Syed Mohideen, D. M. McGarrell, T. Marsh, G. M. Garrity, and J. M. Tiedje . 2009 . The ribosomal database project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 37: D141 D145. Compant, S., J. Nowak, T. Coenye, C. Clément, and E. Ait Barka . 2008 . Diversity and occurrence of Burkholderia spp. in the natural environment. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 32: 607 626. Conway, B. A. D., V. Venu, and D. P. Speert . 2002 . Biofilm formation and acyl homoserine lactone production in the Burkholderia cepacia complex. J. Bacteriol. 184: 5678 5685. Cordova Kreylos, A. L., L. E. Fernandez, M. Koivunen, A. Yang, L. Flor Weiler, and P. G. Marrone . 2013 . Isolation and characterization of Burkholderia rinojensis sp. nov., a non Burkholderia cepacia complex so il bacterium with insecticidal and miticidal activities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79: 7669 7678. Cunha, M. V., S. A. Sousa, J. H. Leitão, L. M. Moreira, P. A. Videira, and I. Sá Correia . 2004 . Studies on the involvement of the exopolysaccharide produced b y cystic fibrosis associated isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia complex in biofilm formation and in persistence of respiratory infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 3052 3058. Dang, K., C. S. Toi, D. G. Lilly, C. Y. Lee, R. Naylor, A. Tawatsin, U. Thavara, W. Bu, and S. L. Doggett . 2014 . Identification of putative kdr mutations in the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Pest Manag. Sci. 71: 1015 1020. Davidson, S. K., and D. A. Stahl . 2006 . Transmission of nephridial bacteria of the e arthworm Eisenia fetida . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 769 775. Davidson, S. K., and D. A. Stahl . 2008 . Selective recruitment of bacteria during embryogenesis of an earthworm. ISME J. 2: 510 518. Davies, D. 2003 . Understanding biofilm resistance to antibacterial agents. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2: 114 122. Davies, T. G. E., L. M. Field, P. N. R. Usherwood, M. S. Williamson. 200 7 . DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 59: 151 162. Delor me, R., D. Fournier, J. Chaufaux, A. Cuany, J. M. Bride, D. Auge, and J. B. Berge . 1988 . Esterase metabolism and reduced penetration are causes of resistance to deltamethrin in S podoptera exigua HUB (Noctuidea: lepidoptera). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 32: 2 40 246. Dereeper, A., V. Guignon, G. Blanc, S. Audic, S. Buffet, F. Chevenet, J. F. Dufayard, S. Guindon, V. Lefort, M. Lescot, J. M. Claverie, and O. Gascuel . 2008 . Phylogeny.fr: robust phylogenetic analysis for the non specialist. Nucleic Acids Res. 36: W465 W469.

PAGE 299

299 Dermauw, W., N. Wybouw, S. Rombauts, B. Menten, J. Vontas, M. Grbic, R. M. Clark, R. Feyereisen, and T. Van Leeuwen . 2013 . A link between host plant adaptation and pesticide resistance in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae . Proc. Na tl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110: E113 E122. Després, L., J. P. David, and C. Gallet . 2007 . The evolutionary ecology of insect resistance to plant chemicals. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22: 298 307. DeVries, D. H., and G. P. Georghiou . 1981 . Decreased nerve sensitivity and decreased cuticular penetration as mechanisms of resistance to pyrethroids in a (1R) trans permethrin selected strain of the house fly. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 15: 234 241. Dick, L. K., and K. G. Field . 2004 . Rapid estima tion of numbers of fecal Bacteroidetes by use of a quantitative PCR assay for 16S rRNA genes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 5695 5697. Dillon, R. J., C. T. Vennard, A. Buckling, and A. K. Charnley . 2005 . Diversity of locust gut bacteria protects against pa thogen invasion. Ecol. Lett. 8: 1291 1298. Dong, K., Y. Du, F. Rinkevich, Y. Nomura, P. Xu, L. Wang, K. Silver, and B. S. Zhorov . 2014 . Molecular biology of insect sodium channels and pyrethroid resistance. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 50: 1 17. Douglas, A. E. 1998 . Nutritional interactions in insect microbial symbioses: aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera . Annu. Rev. Entomol. 43: 17 37. Douglas, A. E. 2006 . Phloem sap feeding by animals: problems and solutions. J. Exp. Bot. 57: 747 754. Douglas, A. E. 2009 . The microbial dimension in insect nutritional ecology. Funct. Ecol. 23: 38 47. Douglas, A. E. 2014 . The molecular basis of bacterial insect symbiosis. J. Mol. Biol. 426: 3830 3837. Duron, O., P. Labbé, C. Berticat, F. Rousset, S. Guillot, M. Raymo nd, and M. Weill . 2006 . High Wolbachia density correlates with cost of infection for insecticide resistant Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Evolution. 60: 303 314. Eden, W. G., and R. L. Self. 1960. Controlling chinch bugs on St. Augustinegrass lawns. Auburn Uni. Agric. Exp. Stn. Prog. Rprt. No. 79. Edgar, R. C. 2004 . MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Res. 32: 1792 1797.

PAGE 300

300 Ekkhunnatham, A., B. Jongsareejit, W. Yamkunthong, and J. Wichitwechkarn . 2012 . Purification and characterization of methyl parathion hydrolase from Burkholderia cepacia capable of degrading organophosphate insecticides. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 28: 1739 1746. Elbert, A., and R. Nauen . 2000 . Resistance of Bemisia tabaci (Homop tera: Aleyrodidae) to insecticides in southern Spain with special reference to neonicotinoids. Pest Manag. Sci. 64: 60 64. Eleftherianos, I., J. Atri, J. Accetta, and J. C. Castillo . 2013 . Endosymbiotic bacteria in insects: guardians of the immune system? Front. Physiol. 4: 46. Eleftherianos, I., S. P. Foster, M. S. Williamson, and I. Denholm . 2008 . Characterization of the M918T sodium channel gene mutation associated with strong resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persica e (Sulzer). Bull. Entomol. Res. 98: 183 1 91. Elliott, G. N., W. M. Chen, J. H. Chou, H. C. Wang, S. Y. Sheu, L. Perin, V. M. Reis, L. Moulin, M. F. Simon, C. Bontemps, J. M. Sutherland, R. Bessi, S. M. de Faria, M. J. Trinick, A. R. Prescott, J. I. Sprent, and E. K. James . 2007 . Burkholderia phymatum is a highly effective nitrogen fixing symbiont of Mimosa spp. and fixes nitrogen ex planta . New Phytol. 173: 168 180. Enayati, A. A., H. Ranson, and J. Hemingway. 2005. Insect glutathione transferases and insec ticide resistance. Insect Mol. Biol. 14: 3 8. Engel, P., and N. A. Moran . 2013 . The gut microbiota of insects diversity in structure and function. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 37: 699 735. Fang, S. M. 2012. Insect glutathione S transferase: a review of comparative genomic studies and response to xenobiotics. Bull. Insectology. 65: 265 271. Fawley, W. N., and M. H. Wilcox . 2002 . Pulsed field gel electrophoresis can yield DNA fingerprints of degradation susceptible Clostridium difficile strains. J. Clin. M icrobiol. 40: 3546 3547. Feyereisen, R. 1999 . Insect P450 enzymes. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 44: 507 533.

PAGE 301

301 Foster, J., M. Ganatra, I. Kamal, J. Ware, K. Makarova, N. Ivanova, A. Bhattacharyya, V. Kapatral, S. Kumar, J. Posfai, T. Vincze, J. Ingram, L. Moran, A. Lapidus, M. Omelchenko, N. Kyrpides, E. Ghedin, S. Wang, E. Goltsman, V. Joukov, O. Ostrovskaya, K. Tsukerman, M. Mazur, D. Comb, E. Koonin, and B. Slatko . 2005 . The Wolbachia genome of Brugia malayi : endosymbiont evolution within a human pathogenic nemat ode. PLoS Biol. 3: e121. ffrench Constant, R. H., and R. T. Roush. 1990. Resistance detection and documentation: the relative roles of pesticidal and biochemical assays, pp. 4 38. In R. T. Roush and B. E. Tabashnik (eds.), Pesticide resistance in arthropods. Chapman & Hall. New York. Fray, L. M., S. R. Leather, G. Powell, R. Slater, E. McIndoe, and R. J. Lind . 2014 . Behavioural avoidance and enhanced dispersal in neonicotinoid resistant Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Pest Manag. Sci. 70: 88 96. Fukatsu, T., and T. Hosokawa . 2002 . Capsule transmitted gut symbiotic bacterium of the Japanese common plataspid stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 389 396. Futahashi, R., K. Tanaka, M. Tanahashi, N. Nikoh, Y. Kikuchi, B. L. Lee, and T . Fukatsu . 2013 . Gene expression in gut symbiotic organ of stinkbug affected by extracellular bacterial symbiont. PLoS One. 8: e64557. Garcia, J. R., A. M. Laughton, Z. Malik, B. J. Parker, C. Trincot, S. S. L. Chiang, E. Chung, and N. M. Gerardo . 2014 . Pa rtner associations across sympatric broad headed bug species and their environmentally acquired bacterial symbionts. Mol. Ecol. 23: 1333 1347. Gatedee, J., K. Kritsiriwuthinan, E. E. Galyov, J. Shan, E. Dubinina, N. Intarak, M. R. J. Clokie, and S. Korbsri sate . 2011 . Isolation and characterization of a novel podovirus which infects Burkholderia pseudomallei . Virol. J. 8: 366. Georghiou, G. P. 1972 . The evolution of resistance to pesticides. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 3: 133 168. Georghiou, G. P. 1994 . Principles of insecticide resistance management. Phytoprotection. 75: 51 59. Gerold, J. L., and J. J. Laarman . 1967 . Behavioural responses to contact with DDT in Anopheles atroparvus . Nature. 204: 518 520. Ghorbani Nezami, S., L. LeBlanc, D. G. Yost, and P. S. Amy . 2015 . Phage therapy is effective in protecting honeybee larvae from American foulbrood disease. J. insect Sci. 15: 84.

PAGE 302

302 Gill, J. J., E. J. Summer, W. K. Russell, S. M. Cologna, T. M. Carlile, A. C. Fuller, K. Kitsopoulos, L. M. Mebane, B. N. Pa rkinson, D. Sullivan, L. A. Carmody, C. F. Gonzalez, J. J. LiPuma, and R. Young . 2011 . Genomes and characterization of phages Bcep22 and BcepIL02, founders of a novel phage type in Burkholderia cenocepacia . J. Bacteriol. 193: 5300 5313. Glasgow, H. 1914 . T he gastric caeca and the caecal bacteria of the Heteroptera. Biol. Bull. 26: 101 156. Goodrich Blair, H. 2007 . Xenorhabdus nematophila Steinernema carpocapsae symbiosis. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 10: 225 230. Gordon, H. 1961 . Nut ritional factors in insect resistance to chemicals. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 6: 27 54. Grant, D. F., D. M. Bender, and B. D. Hammock . 1989 . Quantitative kinetic assays for GST and esterase in individual mosquitoes using an EIS reader. Insect Biochem. 19: 741 751. Grant, R. J., and W. B. Betts . 2004 . Mineral and carbon usage of two synthetic pyrethroid degrading bacterial isolates. J. Appl. Microbiol. 97: 656 662. Grant, R. J., T. J. Daniell, and W. B. Betts . 2002 . Isolation and identification of synthetic pyrethroid degrading bacteria. J. Appl. Microbiol. 92: 534 540. Guo, P., B. Z. Wang, B. J. Hang, L. Li, S. P. Li, and J. He . 2010 . Sphingobium faniae sp. nov., a pyrethroid degrading bacterium isolated from activated sludge treating wastewater from pyrethr oid manufacture. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60: 408 412. Gwiazdowski, R. A., R. G. Foottit, H. E. L. Maw, and P. D. N. Hebert . 2015 . The Hemiptera (Insecta) of Canada: constructing a reference library of DNA barcodes. PLoS One. 10: e0125635. Hall, B. G ., H. Acar, A. Nandipati, and M. Barlow . 2014 . Growth rates made easy. Mol. Biol. Evol. 31: 232 238. v an Ham, R. C. H. J., J. Kamerbeek, C. Palacios, C. Rausell, F. Abascal, U. Bastolla, J. M. Fernarnderz, L. Jimenez, M. Postigo, F. J. Silva, J. Tamanes, E . Viguera, A. Latorre, A. Valencia, F. Moran, and A. Moya . 2003 . Reductive genome evolution in Buchnera aphidicola . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100: 581 586. Harrison, R. 1980 . Dispersal polymorphisms in insects. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 95 118. Haya tsu, M., M. Hirano, and S. Tokuda . 2000 . Involvement of two plasmids in fenitrothion degradation by Burkholderia sp. strain NF100. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 1737 1740.

PAGE 303

303 . 2008 . Wolbachia and virus protection in insects. Science . 322: 702. v an den Heuvel, J. F. J. M., M. Verbeek, and F. van der Wilk . 1994 . Endosymbiotic bacteria associated with circulative transmission of potato leafroll virus by Myzus persicae . J. Gen. Virol. 75: 2559 2565. Hitchings, G. H. 1973 . Mechanism of action of trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole I. J. Infect. Dis. 128: S433 S436. Hopkins, D. L. 1989 . Xylella fastidiosa : xylem limited bacterial pathogen of plants. Annu. Rev. phytopathol. 27: 271 290. Hopkins, T., and K. Kra mer . 1992 . Insect cuticle sclerotization. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 37: 273 302. Hosokawa, T., M. Hironaka, K. Inadomi, H. Mukai, N. Nikoh, and T. Fukatsu . 2013 . Diverse strategies for vertical symbiont transmission among subsocial stinkbugs. PLoS One. 8: e65081 . Hosokawa, T., M. Hironaka, H. Mukai, K. Inadomi, N. Suzuki, and T. Fukatsu . 2012 a . Mothers never miss the moment: a fine tuned mechanism for vertical symbiont transmission in a subsocial insect. Anim. Behav. 83: 293 300. Hosokawa, T., Y. Kikuchi, N. Niko h, and T. Fukatsu . 2012 b . Polyphyly of gut symbionts in stinkbugs of the family Cydnidae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78: 4758 47 61. Hosokawa, T., Y. Kikuchi, N. Nikoh, M. Shimada, and T. Fukatsu . 2006 . Strict host symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution in insect gut bacteria. PLoS Biol. 4: e337. Hosokawa, T., Y. Kikuchi, M. Shimada, and T. Fukatsu . 2007 . Obligate symbiont involved in pest status of host insect. Proc. Biol. Sci. 274: 1979 1984. Hosokawa, T., R. Koga, Y. Kikuchi, X. Y. Meng, and T. Fukatsu . 2010 . Wolbachia as a bacteriocyte associated nutritional mutualist. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107: 769 774. Huebner, E., and K. G. Davey . 1974 . Bacteroids in the ovaries of a tsetse fly. Nature. 249: 260 261. Hyman, P., and S. T. Abedon . 2012 . Smaller fleas: viruses of microorganisms. Scientifica. 2012: 734023. Irie, Y., and M. R. Parsek . 2008 . Quorum sensing and microbial biofilms. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 322: 67 84.

PAGE 304

304 Itoh, H., M. Aita, A. Nagayama, X. Y. Meng, Y. Kamagata, R. Nava rro, T. Hori, S. Ohgiya, and Y. Kikuchi . 2014 . Evidence of environmental and vertical transmission of Burkholderia symbionts in the oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80: 5974 5983. Kaiwa, N., T. Hosokawa, Y. Kikuchi, N. Nikoh, X. Y. Meng, N. Kimura, M. Ito, and T. Fukatsu . 2010 . Primary gut symbiont and secondary, Sodalis allied symbiont of the scutellerid stinkbug Cantao ocellatus . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 3486 3494. Kaltenpoth, M., W. Go , G. Herzner, and E. Strohm . 2005 . Symbiotic bacteria protect wasp larvae from fungal infestation. Curr. Biol. 15: 475 479. Kaltenpoth, M., W. Goettler, C. Dale, J. W. Stubblefield, G. Herzner, K. Roeser Mueller, and E. Strohm . 2006 . ' Ca ndidatus Streptomyc es philanthi' , an endosymbiotic streptomycete in the antennae of Philanthus digger wasps. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56: 1403 1411. Kaltenpoth, M., S. A. Winter, and A. Kleinhammer . 2009 . Localization and transmission route of Coriobacterium glomerans , the endosymbiont of pyrrhocorid bugs. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 69: 373 383. Kambris, Z., P. E. Cook, H. K. Phuc, and S. P. Sinkins . 2009 . Immune activation by life shortening Wolbachia and reduced filarial competence in mosquitoes. Science. 326: 134 136. Karatolos, N., K. Gorman, M. S. Williamson, and I. Denholm . 2012 . Mutations in the sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance in the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum . Pest Manag. Sci. 68: 834 838. Kerr, S. H. 1956 . Chinch bug contro l on lawns in Florida. J. Econ. Entomol. 49: 83 85. Kerr, S. H. 1966 . Biology of the lawn chinch bug, Blissus insularis . Fl a. Entomol. 49: 9 18. Khambay, B. P. S., and P. J. Jewess. 2005. Pyrethroids, pp. 1 29. In L. I. Gilbert, K. Iatrou, and S. S. Gill ( eds.) , Comprehensive molecular insect science. Elsevier Ltd., Oxford, UK. Kikuchi, Y. 2009 . Endosymbiotic bacteria in insects: their diversity and culturability. Microbes Environ. 24: 195 204. Kikuchi, Y., and T. Fukatsu . 201 4 . Live imaging of symbiosis: spatiotemporal infection dynamics of a GFP labelled Burkholderia symbiont in the bean bug Riptortus pedestris . Mol. Ecol. 23: 1445 1456 . Kikuchi, Y., M. Hayatsu, T. Hosokawa, A. Nagayama, K. Tago, and T. Fukatsu . 2012 . Symbiont mediated insecticide resistance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109: 8618 8622.

PAGE 305

305 Kikuchi, Y., T. Hosokawa, and T. Fukatsu . 2007 . Insect microbe mutualism without vertical transmission: a stinkbug acquires a beneficial gut symbiont from the environment every generation. Appl. E nviron. Microbiol. 73: 4308 4316. Kikuchi, Y., T. Hosokawa, and T. Fukatsu . 2011a . An ancient but promiscuous host symbiont association between Burkholderia gut symbionts and their heteropteran hosts. ISME J. 5: 446 460. Kikuchi, Y., T. Hosokawa, and T. Fu katsu . 2011b . Specific developmental window for establishment of an insect microbe gut symbiosis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 4075 4081. Kikuchi, Y., T. Hosokawa, N. Nikoh, X. Y. Meng, Y. Kamagata, and T. Fukatsu . 2009 . Host symbiont co speciation and re ductive genome evolution in gut symbiotic bacteria of acanthosomatid stinkbugs. BMC Biol. 7: 2. Kikuchi, Y., X. Y. Meng, and T. Fukatsu . 2005 . Gut symbiotic bacteria of the genus Burkholderia in the broad headed bugs Riptortus clavatus and Leptocorisa chin ensis (Heteroptera: Alydidae). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 4035 4043. Kikuchi, Y., and I. Yumoto . 2013 . Efficient colonization of the bean bug Riptortus pedestris by an environmentally transmitted Burkholderia symbiont. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79: 2088 2091. Kim, H. S., M. A. Schell, Y. Yu, R. L. Ulrich, S. H. Sarria, W. C. Nierman, and D. DeShazer . 2005 . Bacterial genome adaptation to niches: divergence of the potential virulence genes in three Burkholderia species of different survival strategies. BMC Genomics. 6: 174. Kim, J. K., H. A. Jang, Y. J. Won, Y. Kikuchi, S. H. Han, C. H. Kim, N. Nikoh, T. Fukatsu, and B. L. Lee . 2014 a . Purine biosynthesis deficient Burkholderia mutants are incapable of symbiotic accommodation in the stinkbug. ISME J. 8: 552 563. Kim, J. K., N. H. Kim, H. A. Jang, Y. Kikuchi, C. H. Kim, T. Fukatsu, and B. L. Lee . 2013 a . Specific midgut region controlling the symbiont population in an insect microbe gut symbiotic association. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79: 7229 72 33. Kim, J. K., J. Y. Kwon, S. K. Kim, S. H. Han, Y. J. Won, J. H. Lee, C. H. Kim, T. Fukatsu, and B. L. Lee . 2014 b . Purine biosynthesis, biofilm formation, and persistence of an insect microbe gut symbiosis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80: 4374 4382. Kim, J. K., and B. L. Lee . 2015 . Symbiotic factors in Burkholderia essential for establishing an asscociation with the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris . Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 88: 4 17.

PAGE 306

306 Kim, J. K., H. J. Lee, Y. Kikuchi, W. Kitagawa, N. Nikoh, T. Fukatsu, and B. L. Lee . 2 013 b . Bacterial cell wall synthesis gene uppP is required for Burkholderia colonization of the stinkbug gut. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79: 4879 4886. Enein . 2012 . Evaluation of the antioxida nt activity of tetracycline antibiotics in vitro . Luminescence. 27: 249 255. Koch, H., and P. Schmid Hempel . 2011 . Socially transmitted gut microbiota protect bumble bees against an intestinal parasite. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108: 19288 19292. Koe uth, T., J. Versalovic, and J. R. Lupski . 1995 . Differential subsequence conservation of interspersed repetitive Streptococcus pneumoniae BOX elements in diverse bacteria. Genome Res. 5: 408 418. Kohanski, M. A., D. J. Dwyer, and J. J. Collins . 2010 . How a ntibiotics kill bacteria : from targets to networks. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8: 423 435. Koo, H. N., J. J. An, S. E. Park, J. I. Kim, and G. H. Kim . 2014 . Regional susceptibilities to 12 insecticides of melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and a point mutation associated with imidacloprid resistance. Crop Prot. 55: 91 97. Koropatnick, T. A., J. R. Kimbell, and M. J. McFall Ngai . 2007 . Responses of host hemocytes during the initiation of the squid Vibrio symbiosis. Bio l. Bull. 212: 29 39. Küchler, S. M., K. Dettner, and S. Kehl . 2010 . Molecular characterization and localization of the obligate endosymbiotic bacterium in the birch catkin bug Kleidocerys resedae (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae, Ischnorhynchinae). FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 73: 408 418. Kuechler, S. M., K. Dettner, and S. Kehl . 2011 . Characterization of an obligate intracellular bacterium in the midgut epithelium of the bulrush bug Chilacis typhae (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, Artheneinae). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 2869 2876. Kuechler, S. M., P. Renz, K. Dettner, and S. Kehl . 2012 . Diversity of symbiotic organs and bacterial endosymbionts of lygaeoid bugs of the families Blissidae and Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78: 2648 2659 . Kuriwada, T., T. Hosokawa, N. Kumano, K. Shiromoto, D. Haraguchi, and T. Fukatsu . 2010 . Biological role of Nardonella endosymbiont in its weevil host. PLoS One. 5: 1 7. Lackner, G., N. Moebius, L. Partida Martinez, and C. Hertweck . 2011 . Complete genome sequence of Burkholderia rhizoxinica , an endosymbiont of Rhizopus microsporus . J. Bacteriol. 193: 783 784. Leonard, D. E. 1966 . Biosystematics of the ' Leucopterus c omplex ' of the genus Blissus (Heteroptera: Lygaeiae). Conn. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 677: 1 47.

PAGE 307

307 Leonard, D. E. 1968 . A revision of the genus Blissus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) in Eastern North America. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 61: 239 250. Lessie, T. G., W. Hendrickson, B. D. Manning, and R. Devereux . 1996 . Genomic complexity and plasticity of Burk holderia cepacia . FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 144: 117 128. Levy, A., B. Chang, L. Abbott, J. Kuo, G. Harnett, and T. J. J. Inglis . 2003 . Invasion of spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora decipiens by Burkholderia spp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 6 9: 6250 6256. Li, H. M., R. Q. Deng, J. W. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, F. L. Jia, and X. Z. Wang . 2005 . A preliminary phylogeny of the Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) based on nuclear 18S rDNA and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 37: 313 326. Li, X., M. R. Berenbaum ., and M. A. Schuler. 2000 a . Molecular cloning and expression of CYP6B8 : a xanothotoxin inducible cytochrome P450 cDNA from Helicoverpa zea . Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 30: 75 84. Li, X., M. A. Schuler, and M. R. Berenbaum . 2007 . Molecular mechanisms of metabolic resistance to synthetic and natural xenobiotics. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 52: 231 2 53. Li, X., A. R. Zangerl, M. A. Schuler, and M. R. Berenbaum . 2000 b . Cross resistance to cypermethrin after xanothotoxin ingestion in Helico verpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 18 25. Lim, J. S., B. S. Choi, A. Y. Choi, K. D. Kim, D. I. Kim, I. Y. Choi, and J. O. Ka . 2012 . Complete genome sequence of the fenitrothion degrading Burkholderia sp. strain YI23. J. Bacteriol. 19 4: 896. Lindb erg, H. M., K. A. McKean, and I. N. Wang . 2014 . Phage fitness may help predict phage therapy efficacy. Bacteriophage. 4: e964081. Lindroth, R. 1989. Differential esterase activity in Papilio glaucus subspecies: absence of cross resistance between allelochemicals and insecticides. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 35: 185 191. Lindroth, R., and A. Weisbrod . 1991 . Genetic variation in response of the gypsy moth to aspen phenolic glycosides. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 19: 97 103. Liu, Z., M. S. Williamson, S. J. Lansdell, I. Denholm, Z. Han, and N. S. Millar . 2005 . A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutation conferring ta rget site resistance to imidacloprid in Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102: 8420 8425. Lockwood, J. A., T. C. Sparks, and R. N. Story . 1984 . Evolution of insect resistance to insecticides: a reevaluation of the role s of physiology and behavior. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 30: 41 51.

PAGE 308

3 08 López Madrigal, S., A. Latorre, M. Porcar, A. Moya, and R. Gil . 2011 . Complete genome sequence of ' Candidatus Tremblaya princeps ' strain PCVAL, an intriguing translational machine below the l iving cell status. J. Bacteriol. 193: 5587 5588. López Soler, N., A. Cervera, G. D. Moores, R. Martinez Pardo, and M. D. Garcera . 2008 . Esterase isoenzymes and insecticide resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis populations from the southeast region of Spain. Pest Manag. Sci. 64: 1258 1266. Lu, P., L. Q. Zheng, J. J. Sun, H. M. Liu, S. P. Li, Q. Hong, and W. J. Li . 2012 . Burkholderia zhejiangensis sp. nov., a methyl parathion degrading bacterium isolated from a wastewater treatment system. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 62: 1337 1341. Lynch, K. H., P. Stothard, and J. J. Dennis . 2012 . Characterization of DC1, a broad host range Bcep22 like podovirus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78: 889 891. Magaña, C., P. Hernández Crespo, F. Ortego, and P. Castañera . 2007 . Resistance to malathion in field populations of Ceratitis capitata . J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 1836 1843. Mahadav, A., D. Gerling, Y. Gottlieb, H. Czosnek, and M. Ghanim . 2008 . Parasitization by the wasp Eretmocerus mundus induces transcription of genes relat ed to immune response and symbiotic bacteria proliferation in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci . BMC Genomics. 9: 342. Mahenthiralingam, E., A. Baldwin, and C. G. Dowson . 2008 . Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria: opportunistic pathogens with important natural biology. J. Appl. Microbiol. 104: 1539 1551. Malghani, S., N. Chatterjee, H. X. Yu, and Z. Luo . 2009 . Isolation and identification of profenofos degrading bacteria. Brazilian J. Micriobiology. 40: 893 900. Mandel, M. J. 2010 . Models and approaches to diss ect host symbiont specificity. Trends Microbiol. 18: 504 511. Marshall, K. L., C. Moran, Y. Chen, and G. A . Herron . 2012 . Detection of kdr pyrethroid resistance in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae), using a PCR RFLP assay. J. Pestic. Sci. 37: 169 172. Martens, E. C., K. Heungens, and H. Goodrich Blair . 2003 . Early colonization events in the mutualistic association between Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes and Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 185: 3147 3154.

PAGE 309

309 Martínez Aguilar, L., R. Díaz, J. J. Peña Cabriales, P. Estrada de Los Santos, M. F. Dunn, and J. Caballero Mellado . 2008 . Multichromosomal genome structure and confirmation of diazotrophy in novel plant associated Burkholderia species. Appl. Environ. Micr obiol. 74: 4574 4579. Matsuura, Y., Y. Kikuchi, T. Hosokawa, R. Koga, X. Y. Meng, Y. Kamagata, N. Nikoh, and T. Fukatsu . 2012 . Evolution of symbiotic organs and endosymbionts in lygaeid stinkbugs. ISME J. 6: 397 409. McCann, J., E. V Stabb, D. S. Millikan, and E. G. Ruby . 2003 . Population dynamics of Vibrio fischeri during infection of Euprymna scolopes . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 5928 5934. McFall Ngai, M. 2014 . Divining the essence of symbiosis: insights from the squid V ibrio model. PLoS Biol. 12: e100 1783. Mendes, R., M. Kruijt, I. De Bruijn, E. Dekkers, M. Van der Voort, J. H. M. Schneider, Y. M. Piceno, T. Z. DeSantis, G. L. Andersen, P. A. H. M. Bakker, and J. M. Raaijmakers . 2011 . Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease suppressive bacte ria. Science. 332: 1097 1100. Michalkova, V., J. B. Benoit, B. L. Weiss, G. M. Attardo, and S. Aksoy . 2014 . Vitamin B6 generated by obligate symbionts is critical for maintaining proline homeostasis and fecundity in tsetse flies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80: 5844 5853. Miota, F., M. Scharf, M. Ono, P. Marçon, L. J. Meinke, R. J. Wright, L. D. Chandler, and B. D. Siegfried . 1998 . Mechanisms of methyl and ethyl parathion resistance in the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Pestic. Biochem. Ph ysiol. 61: 39 52. Moores, G. D., G. J. Devine, and A. L. Devonshire . 1994 . Insecticide insensitive acetylcholinesterase can enhance esterase based resistance in Myzus persicae and Myzus nicotianae . Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 49: 114 120. Moran, N., and P. Baumann . 2000 . Bacterial endosymbionts in animals. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3: 270 275. Morin, S., M. S. Williamson, S. J. Goodson, J. K. Brown, B. E. Tabashnik, and T. J. Donnehy. 2002. Mutations in the Bemisia tabaci para sodium channel gene associated wi th resistance to a pyrethroid plus organophosphate mixture. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32: 1781 1791. Moullan, N., L. Mouchiroud, X. Wang, D. Ryu, E. G. Williams, A. Mottis, V. Jovaisaite, M. V . Frochaux, P. M. Quiros, B. Deplancke, R. H. Houtkooper, and J. Auwerx . 2015 . Tetracyclines disturb mitochondrial function across eukaryotic models: a call for caution in biomedical research. Cell Rep. 10: 1681 1691.

PAGE 310

310 Murai, M. 1975 . Population studies of Cavelerius saccharivorus Okajima (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae): a f ew findings on population interchange. Res. Popul. Ecol. 17: 51 63. Nadarasah, G., and J. Stavrinides . 2011 . Insects as alternative hosts for phytopathogenic bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 35: 555 575. Nagata, Y., M. Matsuda, H. Komatsu, Y. Imura, H. Sawada, Y. Ohtsubo, and M. Tsuda . 2005 . Organization and localization of the dnaA and dnaK gene regions on the multichromosomal genome of Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 17616. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 99: 603 610. Nakabachi, A., R. Ueoka, K. Oshima, R. Teta, A. M angoni, M. Gurgui, N. J. Oldham, G. van Echten Deckert, K. Okamura, K. Yamamoto, H. Inoue, M. Ohkuma, Y. Hongoh, S. Miyagishima, M. Hattori, J. Piel, and T. Fukatsu . 2013 . Defensive b acteriome s ymbiont with a d rastically r educed g enome. Curr. Biol. 23: 1478 1484. Nakabachi, A., A. Yamashita, H. Toh, H. Ishikawa, H. E. Dunbar, N. A. Moran, and M. Hattori . 2006 . The 160 kilobase genome of the bacterial endosymbiont Carsonella . Science. 314: 267. Nauen, R., and I. Denholm . 2005 . Resistance of insect pests t o neonicotinoid insecticides: current status and future prospects. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 58: 200 215. Newman, K. L., R. P. P. Almeida, A. H. Purcell, and S. E. Lindow . 2003 . Use of a green fluorescent strain for analysis of Xylella fastidiosa colo nization of Vitis vinifera . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 7319 7327. Nielsen, A., P. Shearer, and G. Hamilton . 2008 . Toxicity of insecticides to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using glass vial bioassays. J. Econ. Entomol. 101: 1439 1442. Nyhol m, S. V, and M. J. McFall Ngai . 2004 . The winnowing: establishing the squid Vibrio symbiosis. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2: 632 642. Nyholm, S. V., E. V. Stabb, E. G. Ruby, and M. J. McFall Ngai . 2000 . Establishment of an animal bacterial association: recruiting symbiotic vibrios from the environment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97: 10231 10235. Nzula, S., P. Vandamme, and J. R. W. Govan . 2002 . Influence of taxonomic status on the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. J. A ntimicrob. Chemother. 50: 265 269. . 2000 . Biofilm formation as microbial development. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54: 49 79.

PAGE 311

311 v an Oevelen, S., R. de Wachter, E. Robbrecht, and E. Prinsen . 2003 . Induction of a crippled phenotype in Psychotria (Rubiaceae) upon loss of the bacterial endophyte. Bulg. J. Plant Physiol. 24: 242 247. v an Oevelen, S., R. de Wachter, P. Vandamme, E. Robbrecht, and E. Prinsen . 2002 . Identification of the bacterial endosym bionts in leaf galls of Psychotria (Rubiaceae, angiosperms) and proposal of ' Candidatus Burkholderia kirkii ' sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 2023 2027. v an Oevelen, S., R. de Wachter, P. Vandamme, E. Robbrecht, and E. Prinsen . 2004 . ' Candidatus Burkholderia calva ' and ' Candidatus Burkholderia nigropunctata ' as leaf gall endosymbionts of African Psychotria . Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 2237 2239. Ohbayashi, T., K. Takeshita, W. Kitagawa, N. Nikoh, R. Koga, X. Y. Meng, K. Tago, T. Hori, M. H ayatsu, K. Asano, Y. Kamagata, B. L. Lee, T. Fukatsu, and Y. Kikuchi . 2015 . E5179 E5188 . Oliver, K. M., J. A. Russell, N. A. Moran, and M. S. Hunter . 2003 . Facultative bacterial symbion ts in aphids confer resistance to parasitic wasps. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100: 1803 180 7. Pachebat, J. A., G. Van Keulen, M. M. A. Whitten, S. Gridwood, R. D. Sol, P. J. Dyson, and P. D. Facey . 2013 . Draft genome sequence of Rhodococcus rhodnii st rain LMG5362, a symbiont of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae), the principle vector of. Genome Announc. 1: e00329 13. Painter, R. H. 1928. Notes on the injury to plant cells in chinch bug feeding. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 21: 232 241. Pais, R., C. Lohs, Y. Wu, J. Wang, and S. Aksoy . 2008 . The obligate mutualist Wigglesworthia glossinidia influences reproduction, digestion, and immunity processes of its host, the tsetse fly. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 5965 5974. Palleroni, N. J. 2005 . Genus I. Burkholderia Yabuuchi, Kosako, Oyaizu, Yano, Hotta, Hashimoto, Ezaki and Arakawa 1993, 398VP (Effective publication: Yabuuchi, Kosako, Oyaizu, Yano, Hotta, Hashimoto, Ezaki and Arakawa 1992, 1268) emend. Gillis, Van, Bardin, Goor, Hebbar, Willems , pp. 575 600. In Brenner, D.J., Krieg, N.R., Garrity, G.M., Partida Martinez, L. P., and C. Hertweck . 2005 . Pathogenic fungus harbours endosymbiotic bacteria for toxin production. Nature. 437: 884 888. Paul, D., N. Rastogi, U. Krauss, M. Schlomann, G. Pandey, J. Pandey, A. Ghosh, and R. K. Jain . 2008 . Diversity of ' benzenetriol dioxygenase ' involved in p nitrophenol degradation in soil bacteria. Indian J. Microbiol. 48: 279 286.

PAGE 312

312 Pe iffer, J. A., A. Spor, O. Koren, Z. Jin, S. G. Tringe, J. L. Dangl, E. S. Buckler, and R. E. Ley . 2013 . Diversity and heritability of the maize rhizosphere microbiome under field conditions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110: 6548 6553. Pelz Stelinski, K . S., R. H. Brlansky, T. A . Ebert, and M. E. Rogers . 2010 . Transmission parameters for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus by Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 103: 1531 1541. Philippot, L., J. M. Raaijmakers, P. Lemanceau, and W. H. van der Putten . 2013 . Going back to the roots: the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 11: 789 799. Pinel, N., S. K. Davidson, and D. A. Stahl . 2008 . Verminephrobacter eiseniae gen. nov., sp. nov., a nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Savigny). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58: 2147 2157. Pinheiro, P. V, A. Kliot, M. Ghanim, and M. Cilia . 2015 . Is there a role for symbiotic bacteria in plant virus transmission by insects? Curr. Opin. Insect Sci. 8: 69 78. Pon tes, M. H., and C. Dale . 2006 . Culture and manipulation of insect facultative symbionts. Trends Microbiol. 14: 406 412. Prado, S. S., D. Rubinoff, and R. P. P. Almeida . 2006 . Vertical transmission of a pentatomid caeca associated symbiont. Ann. Entomol. So c. Am. 99: 577 585. Puinean, A. M., I. Denholm, N. S. Millar, R. Nauen, M. S. Williamson. 2010a. Characterisation of imidacloprid resistance mechanisms in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 97: 129 132. Puinean, A. M., S. P. Foster, L. Oliphant, I. Denholm, L. M. Field, N. S. Millar, M. S. Williamson, and C. Bass . 2010 b . Amplification of a cytochrome P450 gene is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae . PLoS Genet. 6: e1000999. Purcell, A. H., and A. Finlay . 1979 . disease bacterium by sharpshooter leafhoppers. Phytopathology. 69: 393 395. Ramli, N. S. K., C. Eng Guan, S. Nathan, and J. Vadivel u . 2012 . The effect of environmental conditions on biofilm formation of Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates. PLoS One. 7: e44104. Ramoutar, D., R. S. Cowles, and S. R. Alm . 2009 . Pyrethroid resistance mediated by enzyme detoxification in Listronotu s maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Connecticut. J. Econ. Entomol. 102: 1203 1208.

PAGE 313

313 Rand, D., A. Heath, T. Suderman, and N. Pierce . 2000 . Phylogeny and life history evolution of the genus Chrysoritis within the Aphnaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae ), inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 17: 85 96. Rangasamy, M., H. J. McAuslane, R. H. Cherry, and R. T. Nagata . 2006 . Categories of resistance in St. Augustinegrass lines to S outhern c hinch bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae ). J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 1446 1451. Rangasamy, M., B. Rathinasabapathi, H. J. McAuslane, R. H. Cherry, and R. T. Nagata . 2009 . Role of leaf sheath lignification and anatomy in resistance against S outhern chinch bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae) in St. Augustinegras s. J. Econ. Entomol. 102: 432 439. Reinert, J. A. 1972 . Control of the S outhern chinch bug, Blissus insularis , in South Florida. Fla . Entomol. 55: 231 235. Reinert, J. A., A. Chandra, and M. C. Engelke . 2011 . Susceptibility of genera and cultivars of turfgrass to S outhern chinch bug Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae). Fl a . Entomol. 94: 158 163. Reinert, J. A., and A. E. Dudeck . 1974 . Southern chinch bug resistance in St. Augustinegrass. J. Econ. Entomol. 67: 275 277. Reinert, J. A., and S. H. Kerr . 1973 . Bionomics and control of lawn chinch bugs. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 19: 91 92. Reinert, J., and K. Portier . 1983 . Distribution and characterization of organophosphate resistant S outhern chinch bugs (Hetero ptera: Lygaeidae) in Florida. J. Econ. Entomol. 1190: 1187 1190. Rider, S. D., G. E. Wilde, and S. Kambhampati . 1998 . Genetics of esterase mediated insecticide resistance in the aphid Schizaphis graminum . Heredity. 81: 14 19. Riesbeck, K., A. Bredberg, and A. Forsgren . 1990 . Ciprofloxacin does not inhibit mitochondrial functions but other antibiotics do. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 167 169. Rinkevich, F. D., Y. Du, and K. Dong . 2013 . Diversity and convergence of sodium channel mutations involved in re sistance to pyrethroids. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 106: 93 100. Römling, U., and B. Tömmler . 2000 . Achieving 100 % typeability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 464 465. Rosenberger, A. M., and P. Busey . 1992 . St. Augustinegrasses. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 105: 227 230.

PAGE 314

314 Ruby, E. G. 2008 . Symbiotic conversations are revealed under genetic interrogation. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6: 752 762. Ruby, E. G., and L. M. Asato . 1993 . Growth and flagellation of Vibrio fischeri during initiation of the sepiolid squid light organ symbiosis. Arch. Microbiol. 159: 160 167. Rufingier, C., N. Pasteur, J. Lagnel, C. Martin, and M. Navajas . 1999 . Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mos ley) (Homoptera: Aphididae) from France. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 29: 385 391. Salem, H., E. Bauer, A. S. Strauss, H. Vogel, M. Marz, and M. Kaltenpoth . 2014 . Vitamin supplementation by gut symbionts ensures metabolic homeostasis in an insect host. Proc. Biol. Sci. 281: 20141838. Salem, H., E. Kreutzer, S. Sudakaran, and M. Kaltenpoth . 2013 . Actinobacteria as essential symbionts in firebugs and cotton stainers (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae). Environ. Microbiol. 15: 1956 1968. SAS Institute Inc. 2011. Base SAS 9.3 procedures guide: statistical procedures. SAS Institute, Cary, NC. Scharf, M. E., L. J. Meinke, R. J. Wright, L. D. Chandler, and B. D. Siegfried . 1999 . Metabolism of carbaryl by insecticide resistant and susceptible western corn rootworm population s (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae ). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 63: 85 96. Scharf, M. E., J. J. Neal, and G. W. Bennett . 1998 . Changes of insecticide resistance levels and detoxication enzymes following insecticide selection in the German cockroach, Blattella ge rmanica (L.). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 59: 67 79. Schneider, D. I., K. I. Garschall, A. G. Parker, A. M. M. Abd Alla, and W. J. Miller . 2013 . Global Wolbachia prevalence, titer fluctuations and their potential of causing cytoplasmic incompatibilities in t setse flies and hybrids of Glossina morsitans subgroup species. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 112: S104 S115. Schramm, A., S. K. Davidson, J. A. Dodsworth, H. L. Drake, D. A. Stahl, and N. Dubilier . 2003 . Acidovorax like symbionts in the nephridia of earthworms. E nviron. Microbiol. 5: 804 809. Schweizer, H. 2012 . Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei : implications for treatment of melioidosis. Future Microbiol. 7: 1389 1399. Scott, J. 1999 . Cytochromes P450 and insecticide resistance. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 29: 757 777. Scott, J. J., D. C. Oh, M. C. Yuceer, K. D. Klepzig, J. Clardy, and C. R. Currie . 2008 . Bacterial protection of beetle fungus mutualism. Science. 322: 5898 .

PAGE 315

315 Seo, J. S., Y. S. Keum, and Q. X. Li . 2009 . Bacterial degra dation of aromatic compounds. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 6: 278 309. Serbus, L. R., C. Casper Lindley, F. Landmann, and W. Sullivan . 2008 . The genetics and cell biology of Wolbachia host interactions. Annu. Rev. Genet. 42: 683 707. Shafer, T. J., D. A. Meyer, and K. M. Crofton. 2005. Developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides: critical review and future research needs. Environ. Health Perspect. 113: 123 136. Shibata, T. F., T. Maeda, N. Nikoh, K. Yamaguchi, K. Oshima, M. Hattori, T. Ni shiyama, M. Hasebe, T. Fukatsu, Y. Kikuchi, and S. Shigenobu . 2013 . Complete genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. strain RPE64, bacterial symbiont of the bean bug Riptortus pedestris . Genome Announc. 1: e00441 13. Shigenobu, S., H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki, and H. Ishikawa . 2000 . Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp . APS. Nature. 407: 81 86. Shufran, R. A., G. E. Wilde, and P. E. Sloderbeck . 1996 . Description of three isozynte polyntorphisms associated with ins ecticide resistance in green bug (Homoptera: Aphididae) populations. J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 46 50. Silva, A. X., G. Jander, H. Samaniego, J. S. Ramsey, and C. C. Figueroa . 2012 . Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) I: a transcriptomic survey. PLoS One. 7: e36366. Singh, B. K. 2009 . Organophosphorus degrading bacteria: ecology and industrial applications. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 7: 156 164. Sivasupramaniam, S., and T. Watson . 2000 . Selection for fe npropathrin and fenpropathrinacephate resistance in the silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 949 954. Snodgrass, G. 1996a . Insecticide resistance in field populations of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in cotto n in the Mississippi Delta. J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 783 790. Snodgrass, G. L. 1996b . Glass vial bioassay to estimate insecticide resistance in adult tarnished plant bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 1053 1059. Soderlund, D. M., and J. R. Blo omquist. 1989. Neurotoxic actions of pyrethroid insecticides. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 34: 77 96. Soderlund, D. M., and J. M. Clark, L. P. Sheets, L. S. Mullin, V. L. Piccirillo, D. Sargent, J. T. Stevens, and M. L. Weiner. 2002. Mechanisms of pyrethroid neurot oxicity: implications for cumulative risk assessment. Toxicology. 171: 3 5 9.

PAGE 316

316 Soderlund, D. M., and D. C. Knipple. 2003. The molecular biology of knockdown resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33: 563 577. Spilker, T., A. Bald win, A. Bumford, C. G. Dowson, E. Mahenthiralingam, and J. J. LiPuma . 2009 . Expanded multilocus sequence typing for B urkholderia species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 2607 26 10. Stackebrandt, E., W. Frederiksen, G. M. Garrity, P. A. D. Grimont, P. Kämpfer, M. C. J. Maiden, X. Nesme, R. Rosselló Mora, J. Swings, H. G. Trüper, L. Vauterin, A. C. Ward, and W. B. Whitman . 2002 . Report of the ad hoc committee for the re evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 1043 104 7. Stackebrandt, E., A. Zeytun, A. Lapidus, M. Nolan, S. Lucas, N. Hammon, S. Deshpande, J. F. Cheng, R. Tapia, L. A. Goodwin, S. Pitluck, K. Liolios, I. Pagani, N. Ivanova, K. Mavromatis, N. Mikhailova, M. Huntemann, A. Pati, A. Chen, K. Palaniappan, Y. J . Chang, M. Land, L. Hauser, M. Rohde, R. Pukall, M. Göker, J. C. Detter, T. Woyke, J. Bristow, J. a Eisen, V. Markowitz, P. Hugenholtz, N. C. Kyrpides, and H. P. Klenk . 2013 . Complete genome sequence of Coriobacterium glomerans type strain (PW2T) from the midgut of Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (red soldier bug). Stand. Genomic Sci. 8: 15 25. Stamm, M. D., F. P. Baxendale, T. M. Heng Moss, B. D. Siegfried, E. E. Blankenship, and R. E. Gaussoin . 2011 . Dose r esponse r elationships of c lothianidin, i midacloprid, and t hiamethoxam to Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 104: 205 210. Steinbauer, M. J., A. E. Burns, A. Hall, M. Riegler, and G. S. Taylor . 2014 . Nutritional enhancement of leaves by a psyllid through senescence like processes: insect m anipulation or plant defence? Oecologia. 176: 1061 1074. Stöver, B. C., and K. F. Müller . 2010 . TreeGraph 2: combining and visualizing evidence from different phylogenetic analyses. BMC Bioinformatics. 11: 7. Su, Q., H. Pan, B. Liu, D. Chu, W. Xie, Q. Wu, S. Wang, B. Xu, and Y. Zhang . 2013 . Insect symbiont facilitates vector acquisition, retention, and transmission of plant virus. Sci. Rep. 3: 1367. Su, Q., W. Xie, S. Wang, Q. Wu, M. Ghanim, and Y. Zhang . 2014 . Location of symbionts in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci affects their densities during host development and environmental stress. PLoS One. 9: e91802. Suárez Moreno, Z. R., J. Caballero Mellado, B. G. Coutinho, L. Mendonça Previato, E. K. James, and V. Venturi . 2012 . Common features of environmental and potentially beneficial plant associated Burkholderia . Microb. Ecol. 63: 249 266.

PAGE 317

317 Summer, E. J., C. F. Gonzalez, M. Bomer, T. Carlile, A. Embry, A. M. Kucherka, L. Mebane, W. C. Morrison, L. Mark, M. D. King, J. J. Li puma, A. K. Vidaver, J. Lee, and R. Young . 2006 . Divergence and m osaicism among v irulent s oil p hages of the Burkholderia cepacia complex . J. Bacteriol. 188: 255 268. Summers, W. C. 2001. Bacteriophage therapy. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 437 451. Tago, K., H . Itoh, Y. Kikuchi, T. Hori, Y. Sato, A. Nagayama, T. Okubo, R. Navarro, T. Aoyagi, K. Hayashi, and M. Hayatsu . 2014 . A fine scale phylogenetic analysis of free living Burkholderia species in sugarcane field soil. Microbes Environ. 29: 434 437. Takeshita, K., T. F. Shibata, N. Nikoh, T. Nishiyama, M. Hasebe, T. Fukatsu, S. Shigenobu, and Y. Kikuchi . 2014 . Whole genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. strain RPE67, a bacterial gut symbiont of the bean bug Riptortus pedestris . Genome Announc. 2: e00556 14. Tamas, I., L. Klasson, B. Canbäck, A. K. Näslun d, A. S. Eriksson, J. J. Wernegreen, J. P. Sandström, N. A. Moran, and S. G. E. Andersson . 2002 . 50 million years of genomic stasis in endosymbiotic bacteria. Science. 296: 2376 2379. Taylor, C. M., P. L. Coffey, B. D. DeLay, and G. P. Dively . 2014 . The importance of gut symbionts in the development of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). PLoS One. 9: e90312. Vázquez, C., R. N. Royalty, and E. A. Buss . 2011 . Susceptibility of Blissus insularis (H eteroptera: Hemiptera: Blissidae) populations in Florida to bifenthrin and permethrin. Fla. Entomol. 94: 571 581. Vázquez, J. C. 2009 . Initial steps for developing a resistance management program for the Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber. Ph. D . dissertation, University of Florida, Florida. Vázquez, J. C., M. A. Hoy, R. N. Royalty, and E. A. Buss . 2010 . A synchronous rearing method for Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 103: 726 734. Vepsäläinen, K. 1974 . Determination o f wing leng th and diapause in Heteroptera . Heredity. 77: 163 176. . 2013 . The variability of the 16S rRNA gene in bacterial genomes and its consequences for bacterial community analyses. PLoS One. 8: e57923. Vial, L., M. Grole au, V. Dekimpe, and E. Déziel . 2007 . Burkholderia diversity and versatility: an i nventory of the extracellular products. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 17: 1407 1429.

PAGE 318

318 Vontas, J. G., G. J. Small, and J. Hemingway . 2000 . Comparison of esterase gene amplification, gene expression and esterase activity in insecticide susceptible and resistant strains of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens ( Stål). Insect Mol. Biol. 9: 655 660. Vontas, J. G., G. J. Small, and J. Hemingw ay . 2001 . Glutathione S transferases as antioxidant defence agents confer pyrethroid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens . Biochem. J. 357: 65 72. Vontas, J. G., G. J. Small, D. C. Nikou, H. Ranson, and J. Hemingway . 2002 . Purification, molecular cloning and h eterolog ous expression of a glutathione S transferase involved in insecticide resistance from the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens . Biochem. J. 337: 329 337. Wadleigh, R., and J. Simon . 1987 . Glutathione transferase activity of fall armyworm larv ae unsaturated carbonyl allelochemicals and its induction by allelochemicals. Insect Biochem. 17: 759 764. Wadleigh, R., and J. Simon . 1988 . Detoxification of isothiocyanate allelochemicals by glutathione transferase in three lepidopterous spec ies. J. Chem. Ecol. 14: 1279 1288. Wang, Y., and P. Y. Qian . 2009 . Conservative fragments in bacterial 16S rRNA genes and primer design for 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons in metagenomic studies. PLoS One. 4: e7401. Weisblum, B., and J. Davies . 1968 . Antibiotic inhibitors of the bacterial ribosome. Bacteriol. Rev. 32: 493 528. Weiss, B. L., M. Maltz, and S. Aksoy . 2012 . Obligate symbionts activate immune system development in the tsetse fly. J. Immunol. 188: 3395 3403. Werren, J. H., L. Baldo, and M. E. Clark . 2008 . Wolbachia : master manipulators of invertebrate biology. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6: 741 751. Werren, J. H., and D. M. Windsor . 2000 . Wolbachia infection frequencies in insects: evidence of a global equilibrium? Proc. Biol. Sci. 267: 1277 1285. Wilkinson, T. L. 1998 . The elimination of intracellular microorganisms from insects: an analysis of antibiotic treatment in the pea aphid ( Acyrthosiphon pisum ). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. 119: 871 881. Wilson, D. N. 2014 . Ribosome targeting antibiotic s and mechanisms of bacterial resistance. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 12: 35 48. Wood, O. R., S. Hanrahan, M. Coetzee, L. L. Koekemoer, and B. D. Brooke . 2010 . Cuticle thickening associated with pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus . Parasit. Vectors. 3: 67.

PAGE 319

319 Wright, R. J., M. E. Scharf, L. J. Meinke, X. Zhou, B. D. Siegfried, and L. D. Chandler . 2000 . Larval susceptibility of an insecticide resistant western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population to soil insecticides: laboratory bioassays, assays of detoxification enzymes, and field performance. J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 7 13. Wu, D., S. C. D augherty, S. E. Van Aken, G. H. Pai, K. L. Watkins, H. Khouri, L. J. Tallon, J. M. Zaborsky, H. E. Dunbar, P. L. Tran, N. A . Moran, and J. A . Eisen . 2006 . Metabolic c omplementarity and g enomics of the d ual b acterial s ymbiosis of s harpshooters. PLoS Biol. 4: e188. Wuthiekanun, V., P. Amornchai, N. Saiprom, N. Chantratita, W. Chierakul, G. C. K. W. Koh, W. Chaowagul, N. P. J. Day, D. Limmathurotsakul, and S. J. Peacock . 2011 . Survey of antimicrobial resistance in clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates o ver two decades in Northeast Thailand. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55: 5388 5391. Xie, W., S. Wang, Q. Wu, Y. Feng, H. Pan, X. Jiao, L. Zhou, X. Yang, W. Fu, H. Teng, B. Xu, and Y. Zhang . 2011 . Induction effects of host plants on insecticide susceptibili ty and detoxification enzymes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Pest Manag. Sci. 67: 87 93. Xu, H. J., J. Xue, B. Lu, X. C. Zhang, J. C. Zhuo, S. F. He, X. F. Ma, Y. Q. Jiang, H. W. Fan, J. Y. Xu, Y. X. Ye, P. L. Pan, Q. Li, Y. Y. Bao, H. F. Nijh out, and C. X. Zhang . 2015 . Two insulin receptors determine alternative wing morphs in planthoppers. Nature. 519: 464 467. Yabuuchi, E., Y. Kosako, H. Oyaizu, I. Yano, H. Hotta, Y. Hashimoto, T. Ezaki, and M. Arakawa . 1992 . Propos al of Burkholderi a gen. no v. and transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to the new genus, with the type species Burkholderia cepacia (Palleroni and Holmes 1981) comb. nov. Microbiol. Immunol. 36: 1251 1275. Yang, X., D. C. Margolies, K. Y. Zhu, and L. L. Buschman . 2001 . Host plant induced changes in detoxification enzymes and susceptibility to pesticides in the twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 381 387. Yip, E. S., K. Geszvain, C. R. DeLoney Marino, and K. L. Visick . 2 006 . The symbiosis regulator rscS controls the syp gene locus, biofilm formation and symbiotic aggregation by Vibrio fischeri . Mol. Microbiol. 62: 1586 1600. Yordpratum, U., U. Tattawasart, S. Wongratanacheewin, and R. W. Sermswan . 2011 . Novel lytic bacteriophages from soil that lyse Burkholderia pseudomallei . FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 8: 81 8 8 . Youngs, K. M., S. R. Milla lewis, R. L. Brandenburg, and Y. J. Cardoza . 2014 . St. Augustinegrass germplasm resistant to Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 107: 1688 1694.

PAGE 320

320 Yu, S. J. 2008. The toxicology and biochemistry of insecticides. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Yu, S. J., and E. L. Hsu . 1985 . Induction of hydrolases by allelochemicals and host plants in fall armyworm (Lepidop tera: Noctuidae) larvae. Environ. Entomol. 14: 512 515. Zeng, R. Sen, Z. Wen, G. Niu, M. A. Schuler, and M. R. Berenbaum . 2007 . Allelochemical induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and amelioration of xenobiotic toxicity in Helicoverpa zea . J. Chem. Ecol. 33: 449 461. Zera, A., D. Innes, and M. Saks . 1983 . Genetic and environmental determinants of wing polymorphism in the waterstrider Limnoporus canaliculatus . Evolution. 31: 513 522. Zhang, Z., Q. Hong, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and S. Li . 2006 . Isolation of f enitrothion degrading strain Burkholderia sp. FDS 1 and cloning of mpd gene. Biodegradation. 17: 275 283. Zhou, X., M. E. Scharf, S. Parimi, L. J. Meinke, R. J. Wright, L. D. Chandler, and B. D. Siegfried . 2002 . Diagnostic assays based on esterase mediated resistance mechanisms in western corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 95: 1261 1266. Zhu, F., H. Gujar, J. R. Gordon, K. F. Haynes, M. F. Potter, and S. R. Palli. 2013. Bed bus evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides. Sci. Rep. 3: 1456. Zhu, F., J. Wigginton, A. Romero, A. Moore, K. Ferguson, R. Palli, M. F. Potter, K. F. Haynes, and S. R. Palli . 2010 . Widespread distribution of knockdown resistance mutations in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), populations in the United States. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 73: 245 257. Zhu, Y. C., and G. L. Snodgrass . 2003 . Cytochrome P450 CYP6X1 cDNAs and mRNA expression levels in three strains of the tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris (Heteropte ra: Miridae) having different susceptibilities to pyrethroid insecticide. Insect Mol. Biol. 12: 39 49. Zucchi, T. D., S. S. Prado, and F. L. Cônsoli . 2012 . The gastric caeca of pentatomids as a house for actinomycetes. BMC Microbiol. 12: 101.

PAGE 321

321 BIO GRAPHICAL SKETCH Yao Xu was born in 1987 in Chongqing, China. S he entered Northeast Agricultural University (NEAU) in China in 2005 . Yao attended an America Sino Turfgrass Education Program that was a cooperative effort among Michigan State University (MSU ) and four universities in China, including NEAU. Through this four year program, s he learned about landscap e and turfgrass management, and then intern ed at the Shoal Creek Country Club in Birmingham, AL , for six months in 2008. Yao received her Bachelor of Agriculture degree in Landscape Gardening from NEAU and her Bachelor of Science degree with honors in Crop and Soil Sciences from MSU in 2009. She became great ly interest ed in Entomology when she took the Destructi ve Turfgrass Insects course at MSU, and decided to continue her study on insects. Yao worked with Drs. David Held and Xingping Hu at Auburn Unive rsity (AU) from 2010 to 2012, conducting research on the feeding ecology of Scapteriscus mole crickets . She received her Master of Scien ce degree in Entomology from AU in the summer of 2012 . Yao began her doctoral program at the University of Florida (UF ) that fall . She work ed on the composition of gut symbionts of the S outhern chinch bug, Blissus insularis , and their potential influence o n the insecticide resistance development , under the guidance of Drs. Drion Boucias and Eileen Buss. She also served as a teaching assistant in the Principles of Entomology lab for three semesters . After receiving her Doctor of Philosophy degree in Entomology from UF in December 2015, Yao intends to return to China to start her new career, using the experiences and knowledge that were gained over the last six years in the United States. Yao is a member of the following honor or professional societies: Gamma Sigma Delta, Entomological Society of America, American Society of Microbiology, Florida Entomological Society, Florida Turfgrass Association, and Overseas Chi nese Entomologists Associ ation.