Citation
Architectonic Metaphorical Structure from Linguistic Metaphors to Architectural Imagery and Creativity

Material Information

Title:
Architectonic Metaphorical Structure from Linguistic Metaphors to Architectural Imagery and Creativity
Creator:
Noriega, Claudio J
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (59 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.A.S.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
KOHEN,MARTHA
Committee Co-Chair:
MAZE,JOHN MARSHALL
Graduation Date:
8/8/2015

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Abstract ideas ( jstor )
Architectural design ( jstor )
Architectural education ( jstor )
Buildings ( jstor )
Exile ( jstor )
Geometric shapes ( jstor )
Metaphors ( jstor )
Museums ( jstor )
Stairs ( jstor )
Symbolism ( jstor )
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
architecture -- architecture-metaphors -- metaphors
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.

Notes

Abstract:
My research covered literature on architectural imagination, imagery, metaphors, conceptual thinking and architectural creativity. Through this research, I reached an aspect of architectural education that has not been emphasized as a source for creative thinking. This aspect would develop the creativity of the student and allow students to have a methodology for the formal aspects of design based on sound conceptual ideas appropriate for the project. Students of design are normally asked either to imitate or originate formal ideas peripherally related to concepts for the project, but are not given a methodology on how to come up with the concepts nor how to translate the concepts into forms. This model would allow the student, through brainstorming, to come up with imagery developed from linguistic metaphors that would then be transformed into architectonic metaphors. These architectonic metaphors would develop into a vocabulary of shapes and forms using basic architectonic elements and principles, but without losing the intended expression and meaning. Theories of metaphor are therefore basic for the translation of conceptual ideas into architectonic forms. My research concludes with the case studies from my Architectural Design 4 students at Broward College, where I have been teaching since 1991, and the metaphorical process students have followed in developing the linguistic metaphors that allow them to create architectonic metaphorical interpretations to give imagery to their design and a unique and appropriate concept for their projects. The process they followed and the creative results illustrates how conceptual ideas may be generated from linguistic interpretations of form to facilitate the development of creativity and unique solutions to architectural design problems. Another aspect of my research in the process of transformation from ideas to forms through metaphors, is related to the latest electronic drafting technology and how this technology is used as a medium for, not only the representation, but for the exploration of these ideas through metaphorical language. The electronic technology of BIM (Building Information Modeling) has aspects of virtual design and how the present state of this technology facilitates the exploration of conceptual ideas and brainstorming in both two- and three-dimensional design. Explorations using BIM not only as a tool, but also as a medium allows the design architect to get into aspects of design that otherwise would not be done at the same early stage. Researching literature on Frank Lloyd Wright in general, and his Florida Southern Campus design in particular, allowed me to present how an architect with the conceptual depth of Wright applied this methodology based on metaphors. I researched the Anne Pfeiffer Chapel at the Florida Southern College campus in Lakeland, Florida, and how he made his ideas and philosophy a concrete reality through architectonic interpretations. I also researched the metaphorical interpretations of Eero Saarinen and his John Deere Headquarters building, Cesar Pelli and the Performance Arts Center in Miami, and two buildings by Daniel Libeskind, the Holocaust Museum in Berlin, and his Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2015.
Local:
Adviser: KOHEN,MARTHA.
Local:
Co-adviser: MAZE,JOHN MARSHALL.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Claudio J Noriega.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Copyright Noriega, Claudio J. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Classification:
LD1780 2015 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

ARCHITECTONIC METAPHORICAL STRUCTURE FROM LINGUISTIC METAPHORS TO ARCHITECTURAL IMAGERY AND CREATIVITY By CLAUDIO J. NORIEGA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TH E DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2015

PAGE 2

© 2015 Claudio J. Noriega

PAGE 3

To the students, architecture faculty and the administration of the Program of Architecture at Broward College, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida , and t o Cesar Pelli , my mentor at Yale University's Master Program.

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDG E MENTS I thank Professor Martha Kohen for helping me get through to the end of the process and constant ly giving me encouragement , without her help I c ould not have achieved this . To Professor Nina Hofer for initially getting me exposed to the program. To Becky Hudson for always helping me get through the administrative requ irements. I thank Professor Hui Zou for having given me invaluable feedback on my thesis and dissertation. To Professor John Maze for his continuous support and understanding. To Professor Mark McGlothlin for his feedback to make my contribution more complete.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9 CHAPTER 1 ARCHITECTU RAL IMAGINATION ................................ ................................ ................... 11 Conceptual Design And Metaphorical Representation ................................ ........................... 11 Metaphorical Representation and the Development of Ideas ................................ ................. 12 Symbolism and Geometry ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 13 Graphi c Representation and Three Dimensional Architectonic Models ................................ 13 Architectonic Language And Metaphorical Structure ................................ ............................ 14 2 F.LL.WRIGHT METAPHORICAL APPROACH ................................ ................................ . 16 Metaphorical Structure and Frank Lloyd Wright ................................ ................................ ... 16 Florida ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 17 The Anne P ................................ 17 3 METAPHORICAL APPROACH OF OTHER ARCHITECTS ................................ ............. 20 Eero Saarinen ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 Cesar Pe lli ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 21 Daniel Libeskind ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 21 Contemporary Jewish Museum, San Francisco ................................ ............................... 22 Daniel Libeskind's Holocaust Museum, Berlin, Germany ................................ .............. 29 4 A PEDAGOGY: VIRTUAL EVOCATION OF POETIC IMAGERY ................................ .. 42 The Virtual Electronic Realm and the Representation of Ideas and Concepts ....................... 42 Metaphorical Structure and Virtual Reality ................................ ................................ ............ 43 5 CASE STUDIES OF STUDENT WORK ON ARCHITECTONIC METAPHORICAL STRUCTURE ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 44 The Process of Metaphorical Interpretations ................................ ................................ .......... 44 The Extraction of Architectonic Systems ................................ ................................ ............... 46 Vectors ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 46 Hierarchy ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 47 Frameworks ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 48

PAGE 6

6 The Spatial Develo pment of Architectonic Interpretations ................................ .................... 49 The Application of Imagery to Spatial Interpretations ................................ ........................... 50 Cherokee Cultural Research Center: Imagery of Cherokee Tombs ................................ 50 Symbolism Relating to Imagery ................................ ................................ ...................... 53 The Final Construct ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 55 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 57 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 59

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 The "Yud" Form outside with the original facade of the building. ................................ ... 22 3 2 L'Chaim writing. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 22 3 3 L'Chaim building metaphor from above. ................................ ................................ ........... 23 3 4 The "Yud" Gallery inside. ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 25 3 5 The "Yud" Form outside. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 26 3 6 The "Pardes" wall at the lobby. ................................ ................................ .......................... 27 3 7 Drawing of the "Pardes" wall at the lobby. ................................ ................................ ........ 28 3 8 "Lines" on the facade. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 29 3 9 Top view of the building partii as a zigzagging line. ................................ ......................... 30 3 10 Entrance to the galleries. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 30 3 11 Entrance stairs to the galleries. ................................ ................................ .......................... 31 3 12 The three corridors. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 32 3 13 The Axis of Continuity ending at the stairs. ................................ ................................ ...... 33 3 14 The stairs at the end of the Axis of Continuity. ................................ ................................ . 34 3 15 The Axis of the Holocaust. ................................ ................................ ................................ 34 3 16 The Axis and Garden of Exile. ................................ ................................ .......................... 35 3 17 The Garden of Exile. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 36 3 18 The Garden of Exile planters. ................................ ................................ ............................ 36 3 19 The "lines" on the facade. ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 37 3 20 The Six Spaces, the Voids. ................................ ................................ ................................ 39 3 21 One of the Voids of Absence. ................................ ................................ ............................ 40 3 22 The Voids, the Zigzag, the Garden of Exile, the original building. ................................ ... 41 5 1 The mesh. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 44

PAGE 8

8 5 2 The linear interpretation. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 45 5 3 Analogical projections of vectors onto mesh. ................................ ................................ .... 46 5 4 Analogical projections of hierarchy onto mesh. ................................ ................................ 47 5 5 Development of spatial units from mesh. ................................ ................................ .......... 48 5 6 Development of spatial units from mesh. ................................ ................................ .......... 48 5 7 Cherokee traditional shapes and forms. ................................ ................................ ............. 51 5 8 Organic imagery of the region. ................................ ................................ .......................... 51 5 9 Image of root. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 52 5 10 Shapes and forms derived from organic metaphorical interpretations. ............................. 52 5 11 Linear analysis of the main vector/ridge. ................................ ................................ ........... 53 5 12 Linear analysis of the main and secondary vectors/ridges and planes. .............................. 53 5 13 Heptagonal shape of Cherokee symbol and shape application. ................................ ......... 54 5 14 Architectonic metaphorical interpretations of Cherokee symbol. ................................ ..... 54 5 15 Final Construct for Un Wed Mothers Home in Cuzco, Peru. ................................ ............ 55

PAGE 9

9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies ARCHITECTONIC METAPHORICAL STRUCTURE FROM LINGUISTIC METAPHORS TO ARCHITECTURAL IMAGERY AND CREATIVITY By Claudio J. Noriega August 2015 Chair: Martha Kohen Cochair: John Maze Major: Architecture My research covered literature on architectural imagination, imagery, metaphors, conceptual thinking and architectural creativity. Through this research, I reached an aspect of architectural education that has not been emphasized as a source for creative thinking. This aspect would develop the creativity of the student and allow students to have a methodology for the formal aspects of design based on sound c onceptual ideas appropriate for the project. Students of design are normally asked either to imitate or originate formal ideas peripherally related to concepts for the project, but are not given a methodology on how to come up with the concepts nor how to translate the concepts into forms. This model would allow the student, through brainstorming, to come up with imagery developed from linguistic metaphors that would then be transformed into architectonic metaphors. These architectonic metaphors would de velop into a vocabulary of shapes and forms using basic architectonic elements and principles, but without losing the intended expression and meaning. Theories of metaphor are therefore basic for the translation of conceptual ideas into architectonic form s. My research concludes with the case studies from my Architectural Design 4 students at Broward College, where I have been teaching since 1991, and the metaphorical process students

PAGE 10

10 have followed in developing the linguistic metaphors that allow them to create architectonic metaphorical interpretations to give imagery to their design and a unique and appropriate concept for their projects. The process they followed and the creative results illustrates how conceptual ideas may be generated from linguistic interpretations of form to facilitate the development of creativity and unique solutions to architectural design problems. Another aspect of my research in the process of transformation from ideas to forms through metaphors, is related to the latest electr onic drafting technology and how this technology is used as a medium for, not only the representation, but for the exploration of these ideas through metaphorical language. The electronic technology of BIM (Building Information Modeling) has aspects of vi rtual design and how the present state of this technology facilitates the exploration of conceptual ideas and brainstorming in both two and three dimensional design. Explorations using BIM not only as a tool, but also as a medium allows the design archit ect to get into aspects of design that otherwise would not be done at the same early stage. Researching literature on Frank Lloyd Wright in general, and his Florida Southern Cam pus design in particular, allowed me to present how an architect with the conceptual depth of Wright applied this methodology based on metaphors. I researched the Anne Pfeiffer Chapel at the Florida Southern College campus in Lakeland, Florida, and how he made his ideas and philosophy a concrete reality through architectonic interpretations . I also researched the metaphorical interpretations of Eero Saarinen and his John Deere Headquarters building, Cesar Pelli and the Performan ce Arts Center in Miami, and two buildings by Daniel Libesk ind, the Holocaust Museum in Berlin, and his Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco.

PAGE 11

11 CHAPTER 1 ARCHITECTURAL IMAGINATION Conceptual thinking is an inspirational generator of organization, form and image. The tra nsformation of abstract mental imagery into concrete interpretations through the use of imagination is the most important aspect in the process of conceptual thinking. A rchit ectural conceptual design is achieved by transforming and developing this concep tual thinking into imagery obtained through different mediating steps from abstractness into concreteness. I have focused on the process of developing concepts into concrete interpretations through metaphorical language. The process starts with brainstor ming for ideas related to the project, then goes through a process of interpretation through the use of metaphors and culminates with a metaphorical structure or construct that makes architectonic interpretations of these ideas forming a total concept as t he vocabulary of forms and expression for the design of a building. Conceptual Design And Metaphorical Representation Conceptual design is about thinking in the realm of ideas or concepts and not merely thinking in a of design . Concept is defined as conceived in the mind: thought, notion. An abstract or generic idea generalized from particular [ adapted from Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary ( 1977 ) ] . The process of creation in architectural conceptual design goes from ideas expressed in words and images through an interpretation of these into the visual language of architecture , an architectonic language . An idea in a rchitecture can have many inspirational starting points. It can start from individual or collective inspiration, from past experience, from imitation or from direct representation. The level of concept ual design from where creativity partly derives is a process of brainstorming in which the designer visualizes several ideas or concepts and starts developing an image for the building to express which is appropriate for the type of use of the building and

PAGE 12

12 for the locality of the project. These abstract ideas would be related to general aspects of the architectural program and gene ral aspects of the locality and the site. Culture is a most important factor of the locality of a building. Metaphorical Repr esentation and the Development o f Ideas According to Susanne K. Langer in Problems of Art [ adapted from Langer , Susanne. 1957. Pr oblems of Art (Page 23 ). Charles Scribner's Sons. New York .] : A metaphor is not language, it is an idea expressed by language, an idea that in its turn functions as a symbol to express something. It is not discursive and therefore does not really make a statement of the idea it conveys; but it formulates a new conception for our direct i maginative grasp. The imagery developed conceptually is based on a process that starts with metaphorical interpretations based on language. Language establishes a direct link between thought and communication of thought through the use of pre determined expressions. The use of metaphors , analogies, similes or parallel interpretations is one of the mediating steps towards the transformation of abstract thoughts into more c oncrete expressions . A metaphor is The definition of metaphor is which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea is used in place of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between them (as in drowning in money): figurative language; [ adapted from Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary ( 1977 ) ] . This process of transformation through metaphorical interpretations allows for a more abundant source of creativity. Metaphors are dependent on the experience and culture of the individual performing (the designer) or experiencing the interpretation (the percipient). The appropriate combination of metaphorical interpretations takes the concept or idea beyond its initial formulation. The process of development of the ideas or concepts through metaphors taps into matrices of interpretation that increases th e complexity, depth and emotional intensity of the

PAGE 13

13 images being developed. It also taps into the essence of the individual human being, into the likes and dislikes, and turns it into a personal expression. It becomes a more holistic, organic approach. S ymbolism and Geometry The primary representation of metaphors is through symbols. Symbolism allows for the visualization of the abstract into the visible realm. Symbols are formed through interpretation and can be expressed verbally or graphically. The metaphorical imagery is developed through symbols and graphic or pictorial representation as the mediating step. Since [ adapted from Vesely, Dalibor. 2004. Architecture in the Age of Divided Representation (p.74). The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts .] then the normal sequence of development for the graphic interpretation is through geometry. Graphic interpretations communicate thru geometrical representa tions in two dimensions. Geometry then is imbued in meaning representing the conceptual thinking intended. For example, a triangle Graphic Representation and Three Dimensional Architectonic Models Geometrical interpretations are explored based on their conveyance of meaning to the architectural single dimensiona graphic representation would be done using shapes, or combination of shapes that would denote the intended meaning, e.g. a line with a half circle on top with radial lines coming off from it would be a primitive graphic representation of a sunset. This graphic interpretation could be used metaphorically to represent relaxation, as in travel, or romance, or in general an instance that we consider beautiful and enjoyable. This graphic representation is developed in three dimensions through the application of basic architectonic elements that give a physical

PAGE 14

14 interpretation, i.e. three dimensional, although abstract of the conceptual ideas or imagery. These interpretations are done by reading cues of emot ions and reactions from the metaphorical imagery that correspond to specific architectonic principles that would communicate the imagery intended. The three dimensional interpretation of relaxation would not be a sunset, as in the two dimensional interpre tation but a composition that would evoke in three dimension relaxation or enjoyment by combining architectonic elements that would evoke this image just like the dimensional sunset representation did. The mediating step at this level is a rchitectonic models expressing thru forms that visually communicate the intended conceptual content and imagery. An architectonically abstract interpretation would have a main shape surrounded by smaller shapes "subservient" to the larger one be it a cen tralized organization or a datum shape or form integrating the smaller shapes. This can be interpreted as unity, as integration, as parts being in repose due to the larger shape or form, which these architectonic interpretations can be projected. Architec tonic Language And Metaphorical Structure Architectonic language is a visual language that communicates through the application of architectonic and compositional principles, and basic architectural elements. The architectonic principles that are applied to this visual language are brought forth from cues of the metaphorical It can be represented by a metaphor that communicates continuous repose or continuous equilibrium. As mentioned before, a triangle resting on one of its sides would be a geometrical representation of stability. In three dimensions, the use of a pyramid would be a representation of stability through the use of a basic architectural element or solid. An image developed for the

PAGE 15

15 metaphorical structure preceding the building design would include a pyramidal form or a similar stable form. This pyramidal form could be solid, voidal, in outline or even implied.

PAGE 16

16 CHAPTER 2 F.LL.WRIGHT METAPHORIC AL APPROACH Frank Lloyd Wright transformed concepts into architectonic metaphors and into abstract images, and from these abstract images he turned them into building designs. Wright based his architecture on his conceptual ideas of the American campus a nd the American college student and transformed them metaphorically into shaped spaces and forms. Metaphorical Structure a nd Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright and other well known architects used a bstract interpretations and metaphors in developing the ir conceptual ideas into building designs . Wright was focused on the individual user of his buildings and the percipients of his designs. The main way in which Wright applied his philosophy of an American architecture that would express the freedom of th e individual in the land of freedom of the U.S.A. was through a body metaphor that used human scale in every aspect of his designs. He applied the body metaphor in the use of materials, sizes of openings, proportions between spaces, ornament, use of light , textures, proportions between his architecture and details. He achieved the symbolization of individual freedom by making the percipient of the building feel their body projected into the architecture therefore making a comfortable connection with their surroundings. This connection with their surroundings would m ake the percipient subconsciously feel the structure as an extension of their body, therefore architecture a universal appeal. This universal appeal is obtained because of the subconscious application of the experiences we carry, either physical or cultural that allow us to project our bodies into the architecture and feel comfortable.

PAGE 17

17 Frank Lloyd Wright wanted to create a truly American college campus in which the students would be a representation of the ideals of freedom of the U.S.A. To express these ideas physically he interpreted the campus as a series of anchors along a continuou sly moving landscape without interruption. At Florida Southern College he saw Florida as having an [ adapted from Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks. 1986. Frank Lloyd Wright Letters to Clients (Page 185) The Press at California State University, Fresno] and expressed this idea through the continuity of the inside spaces and the outside spaces as defined b y the esplanade. The Anne Pfeiffer Chapel a movement of space and landscape. These centers of learning would be creating the fut ure in the present and the college would be [ adapted from Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks. 1986. Frank Llo yd Wright Letters to Clients (Page 185) The Press at California State University, Fresno] . The Anne Pfeiffer Chapel would be the quintessence of the modernity of construction and an expression of the driving metaphor. The "driving metaphor" is based on the preponderant horizontal continuity of the territory of the United States. The continuous movement of space and the mobility the automobile has given the people the ability to move from one place to another in very small periods of time. Wright used as the "driving metaphor" the seemingly endless movement throughout the prairies. This "driving metaphor" is applied in the Anne Pfeiffer Chapel as the continuity and apparent movement of space inside. This spatial movement metaphor addresses the freedom o f mobility

PAGE 18

18 that we enjoy in the U.S.A. and connects to the endless movement towards the heavens and spirituality appropriate to a chapel. The metaphorical structure of Wright was based mainly on human scale but other aspects of his designs give us other cues to the metaphors he applied. The Chapel as a religious building within a congregation of college buildings is spatially completely centralized as compared to the other buildings at the college. The horizontal movement of space of this chapel is cente red on a vertical direction of space under the tower. The center of the building where the vertical direction of space is located is at the conjunction between the congregation and the celebrant. They both share this vertical shaft of space that elevates them both in a fusion; one does not absorb the other, they blend. It is not focused on the altar or the celebrant alone, but celebrates the union between spirituality and the humanness of the individual in the congregation. The expansive movement of the space seems to absorb outside undefined space into the building through the bottom level and especially through the second floor into the central void that rises through the tower culminating with a skylight. This tower, due to its central location and p roportions, reminds us of medieval church crossings towers and has the same apparent purpose: to bring us up towards the heavens in an uplifting gesture. The space within the chapel would not only have horizontal and vertical velocity but it metaphor of individual."

PAGE 19

19 The modern structural system used by Wright in the Anne Pfeiffer Chapel is also a right is not tied by the conventional systems and continuity of beams of the times. He takes concrete and exploits its plasticity. His beams are cantilevered off from the four main posts supporting the whole structure therefore independent from the expec ted continuity of beams and columns. The concrete beams do not follow a straight line in the x, y nor in the z axis. To not be bound by conventions of continuity like with other materials he blends beams into handrails, parapets and floors to achieve a s eemingly impossible structural continuity. The easiness of re enforcing steel to be molded into almost any shape allows for his main idea of freedom in the U.S.A. in a modern college campus to come through in the imagery of his architecture.

PAGE 20

20 CHAPTER 3 METAPHORICAL APPROACH OF OTHER ARCHITECTS Eero Saarinen Since Wright, other contemporary architects have continued this tradition of symbolically and metaphorically influencing their architecture. Eero Saarinen in his John Deere and Company Hea dquarters building, the manufacturers of heavy farm equipment applied metaphorical transformation to his designs when the owners did not react positively to his concrete building proposal. Eero Saarinen demonstrated that percipients and owners had a more positive response to building design when metaphorical interpretations were applied to the design of the John Deere and Company Headquarters building reflecting the essence of what the company was about. When Saarinen took the imagery of aged weathering s teel onto his building design to relate metaphorically to the steel farm equipment the company manufactures, the reaction of the owners became very receptive. Eero Saarinen stated that he had satisfied the function of the building, had provided a very pr actical and modern building but he also wanted to reflect the [ adapted from Deere & Company. 1975. Deere & Company Administrative Center B ooklet (Page 2). Moline, Illinois ] : We had three major intentions in planning and d esigning this building: f irst, to provide functional, efficient space, which would take care of future expansion in flexible ways. Second, to create the kind of pleasant and appropriate environment for employees, which is part of the Twentieth Century thi nking. And third, to express in the architecture the special character of Deere and Company. We tried to get into the building s the charact er of John Deere products, the C ompany and the custom ers it serves, and the friendly informal attitude of its perso nnel . We wanted the buildings to be functional, simple, handsome, enduring, without chromium doodads or showiness. We tried to use steel to express strength. No brashly modern or pretentious buildings would have been right .

PAGE 21

21 Cesar Pelli The metaphorical approach of Cesar Pelli in the design of the Performance Arts Center in Miami is a very strong demonstration of the application of architectonic metaphorical interpretations on a large scale building for a community that can identify with his concepts at a basic level beyond functionality and monumentality. Cesar Pelli on his design for the Performance Arts Center: Ballet/Opera and Symphonic Theaters in Miami used the metaphor of the city of Miami being a link between Latin America and the United States. He used metaphorically the main axes of direction of both theaters to visually link north and south. The symbolic forms of the superstructure of the theaters were done with a stepped pyramidal form reminiscent of the pre Columbian structu res found in Latin America. He also connected metaphorically the plaza, bridging the main road to connect them visually and symbolically representing the old world with the Piazza de la Rotunda in Rome, and by keeping a connection to the more recent past, the Sears Tower that was part of the original building on the site, thus historically, metaphorically and symbolically layering the design with architectural imagery. Daniel Libeskind Daniel Libeskind in both of his masterpieces, the Holocaust Museum in B erlin, Germany and in the Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco shows a thorough understanding of the application of conceptual design ideas based on linguistic metaphors projected onto architectonic metaphorical interpretations. His buildings embod y perfectly the application of this approach that enriches the design concept and gives the building a depth of meaning beyond the understanding of function, structure and space. It transforms spaces into dynamic projections of emotions onto the user, and it enhances the spatial experience beyond three dimensions.

PAGE 22

22 Contemporary Jewish Museum, San Francisco Figure 3 1 . The "Yud" Form outside with the original facade of the building . ( photo ) Figure 3 2 . L'Chaim writing .

PAGE 23

23 Figure 3 3 . L'Chaim building metaphor from above . ( photo ) In his Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco he applied several linguistic metaphors and turned them into the main design themes of the building design. He used the Hebrew word "L'Chaim," meaning life, to celebrate the life and the culture of Judaism in the USA. He states [ adapted from Wolf, Connie. 2008. Celebrating the Contemporary Jewish Museum (Page 5). Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., New York.] :

PAGE 24

24 I t was remarkable to work in San Francisco in a Jewish museum that is the celebration of Jewish life, and of San Francisco, and of America. That's why I based it on that very tradition and very ancient core of the J ewish spirit, L'Chaim, to life. Libeskin d takes the word "L'Chaim" and decomposes it into its letters "chet" and "yud". He takes the linguistic metaphor of "To Life" and interprets it as giving the old abandoned power substation where the museum was developed as being a building that first was "giving life" to San Francisco by providing energy for the whole city that is then metaphorically transformed into a Museum that is to be the celebration of life for the Jewish culture. He keeps the main exterior walls of the abandoned power substation an d designs the new structure literally "emerging" from the old, therefore denoting metaphorically "new life" is emerging from the old and "celebrating new life." He transforms it into a metaphorical structure by taking the linguistic metaphor and transform ing it into an architectonic metaphor. The "chet" becomes the longest volume of the whole composition of the building associating the contrast of the sizes of the letters chet and yud. The "yud" becomes a rotated cube resting on one of its tips coming to a peak at the top, 65 feet into the air, and being the "highest" part of the word "Chai." On the inside of the "Yud," Libeskind houses on the ground level, the Museum Store that metaphorically functions as the "sharing of the culture and life." On the s econd level, the "Yud" Gallery of Steve and Maribelle Leavitt becomes hierarchically the most important and largest space of the whole Museum, "the life center" of the Museum. Inside this gallery Libeskind placed 36 skylights. The "Chai" is associated Ka balistically to the number 18, the number 36 being twice 18, therefore double "chai."

PAGE 25

25 Fig ure 3 4 . The "Yud" Gallery inside . ( photo)

PAGE 26

26 Figure 3 5 . The "Yud" Form outside . ( photo)

PAGE 27

27 On the entrance lobby, Libeskind projects more metaphorical interpretations into the design. He creates a "Pardes" wall that goes the full height and almost the full length of the lobby. This angled "Pardes" wall symbolically represents the "Pardes" garden in Kabalistic Figure 3 6 . The "Pardes" wall at the lobby . ( photo)

PAGE 28

28 Jewish tradition of mystical wisdom. The wall outlines from right to left, the letters "Pei, Reish, Dalet and Samekh" spelling the word "Pardes" in Hebrew. The words "Pshat, Remez, Drash, Figure 3 7 . Drawing of t he "Pardes" wall at the lobby . ( photo of Museum exhibit diagram ) and Sod" have the following linguistic meanings in the Kabbalistic interpretation of the scriptures. Libeskind interprets these meanings metaphorically into the architecture of the main entrance space, the lobby, prefacing what is in the museum spatially and displayed inside, turning the lobby into a "Pardes garden." "Pshat" means "plain" or literal meaning; "Remez" means "hints" or allegorical meaning; "Drash," which comes from the Hebrew word "darash" meaning to inquire or to seek, therefore it is the allusive or moral meaning; and the final word "Sod" meaning secret or mystical meaning. Therefore the word "Pardes" means "garden (or orchard) beyond," implying a "garden of meanings" or "multiple interpretations." This embodies symbolically the purpose of the museum. The Museum metaphorically is "embracing multiple interpretations and layers of meaning." The Museum has as a goal to encourage open mindedness, to acknowledge diverse backgrounds and to create an opportunity for exploring multiple perspectives.

PAGE 29

29 Daniel Libeskind 's Holocaust Museum, Berlin, Germany Libeskind applies a whole set of architectonic metaphorical interpretations in his Holocaust Museum in Berlin. The major des ign decisions were made based on linguistic metaphors that were masterfully turned into architectonic metaphorical interpretations and the final building design. Figure 3 8 . " Lines " on the facade . (Haly Baleotis drawing) On the exterior of the building, Libeskind expresses the fact the building is based on a horrifying aspect of recent history that cannot be forgotten but should not be glorified either. Therefore, the building in essence is "hidden," placed to the side of the original baroque German Jewish museum and hidden by the trees existing on the site. It is a completely different expression for this building that looks "incomprehensible" to the visitor. It has no entrance, no exit. It looks like a completely clos ed off building with no connection to the rest of the world.

PAGE 30

30 Figure 3 9 . Top view of the build ing partii as a zigzagging line . (Haly Baleotis drawing) The building partii is based on the metaphor of a straight line that has been broken at certain po ints and is no longer straight but a jagged tortured zigzag line. It is a metaphor denoting how the lives of German Jews were affected by all the violence, all the rapture and torture during those times. The only straight line are the skylights at the "T owers of Absence" that form a segmented line that used to be a continuous line, metaphorically denoting the previous lives of the German Jews. Figure 3 10. Entrance to the galleries. (Haly Baleotis drawing )

PAGE 31

31 Figure 3 11 . E ntrance stairs to the galler ies . (Haly Baleotis drawing ) The entrance is from inside the old baroque building. The entrance is a dramatic exposed plain concrete void with sharp angles, and rather obscure for an entrance: a metaphorical interpretation of a museum that is not to glo rify an event or events but to express the feelings inherent to the Holocaust. Furthermore, the entrance leads to a basement with a zigzag stair that leads to the bottom. The space above these stairs is an empty gloomy tower that traverses vertically the whole height of the old baroque building, up to the mansard roof, and punctures through each of the floors, metaphorically denoting how the lives and the history of the German Jews and Germany, al though parallel to each other, were interwoven and hid a "mo nstrous violence."

PAGE 32

32 Figure 3 12 . The three corridors . [ adapted from Neumann, Stan & Copans, Richard. 2011. Film Le Musee Juif de Berlin Entre les Lignes , Architecture 12 of 23 Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum Berlin , Arte France Les Films D'ici RMN] At the basement level, three corridors open up crisscrossing each other. These corridors are the main axes of the building and they are architectonic metaphorical interpretations of the three major experiences of Judaism in Germany: 1) Continuity, 2) Exil e and 3) Death (or Absence). All three corridors were designed to metaphorically express the lives of German Jews around the Holocaust. The first one, "The Axis of Continuity" is the longest one, representing 2,000 years of continuous life in Germany. It is quite modest with a very plain dark floor, a very plain dark ceiling and ending at a set of very plain stairs with light at the top: a metaphor for a journey from darkness to light. These stairs rise directly from the basement level, almost 40 feet below, up to the floors of the museum.

PAGE 33

33 Figure 3 13 . The Axis of Continuity ending at the stairs . [ adapted from Neumann, Stan & Copans, Richard. 2011. Film Le Musee Juif de Berlin Entre les Lignes, Architecture 12 of 23 Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum Berlin, Arte France Les Films D'ici RMN] The width of the space of the stairs is as tight as the corridor at the basement and it only expands upwards. This space of the stairs seem to laterally contract even more when concrete beams above, that usually are horizontal, are at an angle creating the feeling that the walls are "closing in on you" as you are climbing to the light above: an architectonic metaphor of the difficulty to get from the darkness and return to the freedom of the light of day.

PAGE 34

34 Figur e 3 14 . The stairs at the end of the Axis of Co ntinuity . [ adapted from Neumann, Stan & Copans, Richard. 2011. Film Le Musee Juif de Berlin Entre les Lignes, Architecture 12 of 23 Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum Berlin, Arte France Les Films D'ici RMN] Th e second axis, "The Axis of the Holocaust" is a corridor with sloped walls and black raked concrete floors and black ceilings. This gloomy corridor strategically displaying memorabilia of the families before the Holocaust, leads to a black set of doors at the end, completing the metaphor of the "path to death." Behind the black doors there is a concrete tower completely dark, plunging the person into obscurity. Figure 3 15 . The Axis of the Holocaust . (Haly Baleotis drawing)

PAGE 35

35 The floor is black, the ceiling all the way up four stories is black and the only daylight comes through a slit at the top making this hall utterly empty and hollow. This hall is an architectonic metaphor of the linguistic metaphor of " death at the end of the path, " nothingness , hopelessness, despair. Furthermore, Libeskind reinforces the architectonic metaphor interpretation by disconnecting the volume of the "Holocaust" and making it freestanding with an exposed concrete finish. It becomes architecturally a singularity, an a berration in the continuity of history, comple tely disconnected from the rest. Figure 3 16 . The Axis and Garde n of Exile . (Haly Baleotis drawing) The third, and last one "The Axis of Exile" ends in the "Garden of Exile." The Garden of Exile is a group of 49 square pillars distributed equally on a square platform with vegetation on top of each pillar and tilted to 10 degrees in two directions, making the pillars off the vertical. This tilting of the pillars destabilizes and unbalances the visitor as they traverse this garden. It is a metaphor for how disconcerting exile can be with the loss of a reference point. On top of all

PAGE 36

36 the columns there is vegetation: an allusion to the exile in Babylon with its hanging gardens but also a metaphorical inte rpretation of "uprooting." Figure 3 17 . The Garden of Exile . (Haly Baleotis drawing ) Figure 3 18 . The Garden of Exile planters . (Haly Baleotis drawing )

PAGE 37

37 The garden is also a dead end. There is no way out. The garden is cut off from the rest o f the world by a dry moat. The architectonic metaphor is of the illusion of escape. The only escape is through the air, indicating exile is also a kind of imprisonment. The only way out is to return to the basement corridors, to the underground axes. Figure 3 19 . The " lines " on the facade . [ adapted from Neumann, Stan & Copans, Richard. 2011. Film Le Musee Juif de Berlin Entre les Lignes, Architecture 12 of 23 Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum Berlin, Arte France Les Films D'ici RMN] The outside of the building has what appears as "gashes, cuts, slashes, scars" on the facade. Another linguistic metaphor turned into an architectonic metaphor by turning them into windows that are completely haphazard and break with any modern or traditi onal system of fenestration. Through further examination, the apparently haphazard pattern has an architectonic metaphorical origin. The lines are connecting the addresses of emblematic figures and places of German Judaism on the map of the city of Berli n and have been projected onto the facade of the building. It is a connection to the Jewish past before the war. The Holocaust eliminated any

PAGE 38

38 distinctions between socio economic levels and all addresses were equally linked, rich, poor, intellectuals, man ual workers, businessmen, religious people, etc. haphazardly and tragically connected by it. The exterior material Libeskind chose was not raw exposed concrete. It is metal wall covering, with vertical lines. The parallel lines of the metal resemble th e parallel lines of the musical pentagram. The musical pentagram relates to the first linguistic metaphor that inspired Libeskind: "Between the Lines" he called it, a reference to the book Einbahnstrate (One Way Street) by Walter Benjamin. The other stro ng inspiration was Arnold Schoenberg 's opera Moses and Aaron. It is an unfinished opera of three acts, the third act with no music, an empty musical pentagram, "Between the Lines." Libeskind wanted the Holocaust Museum to be a "prolongation of this unfin ished musical work." The connection to Schoenberg to the Holocaust is also very revelatory with Schoenberg statement to his friend Kandinsky in 1923 [ adapted from Neumann, Stan & Copans, Richard. 2011. Film Le Musee Juif de Berlin Entre les Lignes, Archit ecture 12 of 23 Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum Berlin, Arte France Les Films D'ici RMN] : I have at last learned the lesson that has been forced upon me this year, and I shall never forget it. It is that I am not a German, not a European, indeed perhaps sca rcely even a human being (at least, the Europeans prefer the worst of their ra ce to me), but that I am a Jew .

PAGE 39

39 Figure 3 20 . The Six Spaces, the Voids . [ adapted from Neumann, Stan & Copans, Richard. 2011. Film Le Musee Juif de Berlin Entre les Lignes, Architecture 12 of 23 Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum Berlin, Arte France Les Films D'ici RMN] The final architectonic metaphor of Libeskind in the Holocaust Museum is the representation of "Absence" or death through a series of six vertical spaces travers ing the building from the ground to the skylights on the roof.

PAGE 40

40 Figure 3 21 . One of t he Voids of Absence . (Haly Baleotis drawing) "The Voids" Libeskind calls them. The spaces that are empty, no one can go in them; they are voided spaces in an other wise functional building. The metaphor of absence is transferred architectonically to an empty, cold, inhuman space, lit only from above with nothing in it, complete loss. On the roof of the building the broken "ghostly" segmented line of the skylights i s all that remains of everything that was lost, everything that was destroyed. This architectonic metaphor culminates with "The Void of Memory," the hall that houses thousands of

PAGE 41

41 iron masks on the floor with expressions of desperation that echo through th e empty tower when walked on. The echoing reinforces the sense of loss, the feeling of emptiness, the void. Figure 3 22 . The Voids, the Zigzag, the Garden of Exile, the original building. [ adapted from Neumann, Stan & Copans, Richard. 2011. Film Le Musee Juif de Berlin Entre les Lignes, Architecture 12 of 23 Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum Berlin, Arte France Les Films D'ici RMN]

PAGE 42

42 CHAPTER 4 A PEDAGOGY: VIRTUAL EVOCATION OF POETIC IMAGERY The Virtual Electronic Realm and the Representation of Ideas a nd Concepts Building Information Modeling or BIM is a simulator of a three dimensional building in dimensional drafting is no longer the only tool available to the designer. Technology has developed software into an extension thinking process, and not only a representation that has to be assembled in our imagination but that presents possibilities that were not a dimensional electronic drafting provided a tool that was more accurate and reliable than hand lengthy proces s. BIM has all these capabilities plus it is a realm in which the designer can actually see something that has been created in his/her imagination and can be explored directly in three d to develop the ideas and concepts that are appropriate to the project and develop them into imagery. Virtual reality can be used as a medium for exploration and not only as an expedient way of representing materials and forms. Since the Renaissance, w hen perspective was invented, we have seen how the designer can create an unreal environment and make it appear real. Since the time of Brunelleschi and Bramante, it was a revolutionary way of looking at the world through the looking glass of perspective. Nowadays, we have the means to re create the world in an even more realistic and accurate way. A technological advantage that allows us to create, test, explore and make decisions based on a representation that manipulates forms and space seemingly dire ctly. The designer and the percipient can both share in this experience. The designer is able to evaluate

PAGE 43

43 being created. And the percipient does not have to use its imagination but is given the ability to Metaphorical Structure a nd Virtual Reality The process of transformation from ideas to reality goes through a mediating process to become more and more real and architectonic. Virtual reality allows the designer to not only vary and transform shapes into forms, but also the materiality of the forms. It allows the designer to rotate, duplicate, transform, combine, collide, and interact directly in three dimensions. The materials can become transparent or dense, and go with the metaphorical meaning assigned. The step by step transformation can be shown graphically and sequentially, without interruption and can become part of the final product, not only part of the process. This immediacy of the results of the design, without changing the medium, i.e. going from paper to designer t o consider many alternatives in the same time that used to take to develop and consider only one alternative. It allows a flexibility that physical models do not. Alternative solutions can be explored and compared side by side without the limitations of physical models. These y axis and in the z axis also. A metaphorical structure can develop and be transformed into a building like expression in a more expedient way than through physical models.

PAGE 44

44 CHAP TER 5 CASE STUDIES OF STUDENT WORK ON ARCHITECTONIC METAPHORICAL STRUCTURE The Process o f Metaphorical Interpretations Figure 5 1 . The mesh . (Author's photo) The application of metaphorical structure in architecture design studio 4 has taken plac e i n a series of projects that entailed the initial use of a model developed from a light translucent black fabric mesh (tulle, fine net of acetate, nylon, rayon or silk) , that is transformed by folds, into a volumetric form or series of continuous forms that are architectonic and volumetric in nature. T hese interpretations are done by also analyzing the site and the purpose and function of the building.

PAGE 45

45 Figure 5 2 . The linear interpretation . (Author's photo) S everal architectonic metaphorical and anal ogical interpretations may be projected onto these forms created with the folded fabric mesh. The first architectonic analogical interpretation the design student does, is to analyze and relate the forms , shapes and arrangements that are produced by happenstance in the folding of the mesh, to architectonic principles found by projecting metaphorically into the forms of the mesh. In this process, s everal architectonic principles are identified and analyzed. Among th ese architectonic principles the following are identified : density, transparency, layering, hierarchy of space and volume, dominant axis, dominant and secondary ridges, dominant direction, alignments, forms, shapes, symmetry, asymmetry, balance, datum, rep etition, rhythm, edges, and parallelism. All of these

PAGE 46

46 interpretations of architectonic principles can be developed with other metaphorical interpretations into the final conceptual narrative of the design ideas based on an architectonic metaphorical struc ture . The Extraction of Architectonic Systems Figure 5 3 . Analogical projections of vectors onto mesh . (Nad ezda Tagashova electronic drawing) Vectors A series of dominant, secondary and tertiary vectors can be identified analogically into the mesh and interpreted as ridges. This projection of architectonic vectors with direction and length are interpreted into the development of a spatial system with a framework extracted from the i rregularities of the mesh that analogically become elements of an architectonic spatial system transforming a simple folded tulle material into a series of architectonic instances. The main vector/ridge would lead to an interpretation of an ordering axis for the composition of metaphorically transformed into an organizing datum for the secondary spaces.

PAGE 47

47 Hierarchy In applying the architectonic principle of hier archy to the analogy of space of the mesh, architectonically can be interpreted as an ordering principle ordering the series of spaces found analogically. This principle of hierarchy can be applied then to the development of the construct in the resolutio n of the function of these spaces that can be classified programmatically as having a hierarchy that can be matched analogically to the mesh interpretation and fully developed into an architectonic construct. Figure 5 4 . Analogical projections of hierar chy onto mesh . (Nadezda Tagashova electronic drawing)

PAGE 48

48 Frameworks Figure 5 5 . Development of spatial units from mesh . (Gary Joseph's project) Figure 5 6 . Development of spatial units from mesh . (Gary Joseph's project)

PAGE 49

49 The analogical projections of space into the folds of the mesh can be re interpreted into a set of lineal frameworks that delineate the spaces. Outlining space with linear elements is a way to apply a metaphorical architectonic interpretation to the mesh, turning forms into spaces that can be transformed into inhabitable thru developing and transforming them. The initial development of the linear vectors consists in creating spatial tension by outlining spatial forms. These forms can establish two system e larger more dominant forms, t he other is set of spaces created by outlining the smaller forms contained within the larger folds of the mesh. Establishing both systems will allo w a vocabulary of spatial forms to be integral to the whole. The relationship of the set of spaces to each other can be ordered by the other architectonic principles projected before. After the linear exploration, an exploration combining linear and plan ar elements gives the spaces more definition. The folded planes define space in a more clear way than the linear elements. The folded planes introduce the aspect of enclosure to the architectonic composition. Spatial tension is clearer. The student sta rts realizing that spatial tension is created with basic architectural elements of line and plane that lead to defining volume or space. Space is the essence of the architectonic construct from which the inhabitability and correct adjacencies may be devel oped. The Spatial Development o f Architectonic Interpretations The mesh model is then transformed into a series of spaces through the analogical re interpretation of the "skin" or exterior surface of the mesh with linear and planar elements resembling or a pproximating the original volumes. These volumes are then interpreted through a fusion of the site principles from th e analysis of the site and its conditions. Other architectonic principles are applied integrating the folded mesh spaces and the site inc luding approach, thrust

PAGE 50

50 or main directionality of the site, and parallelism of the context, slope, view, natural factors and cultural context. A further transformation of the spaces derived from the metaphorical interpretation s of the mesh is to develop the correct layout of spaces with activities corresponding to the space envelope and to the correct adjacencies analyzed through an adjacencies matrix. Aspects of the site, including slope are other variable s that define the layout of spaces based on the activities of the program. The final transformation is based on the narrative of the architectonic metaphorical interpretations derived from the linguistic metaphors that correspond to the cultural aspects, purpose of the building, the locality, the site, and the resultant imagery developed for the project . These metaphorical interpretations allow the student to develop the construct appropriately to give a layer of meaning to the p roject that will take it into the conceptual level beyond the resolution of space structure function site . The Application of Imagery t o Spatial Interpretations Cherokee Cul tural Research Center: Imagery o f Cherokee Tombs The following are studies of forms and shapes of actual Cherokee tombs in the ground and over the ground level. The sketches show the analysis of transformation of shapes and forms through tilting them, compressing or enlarging linear and planar elements.

PAGE 51

51 Figure 5 7 . Cherokee tradition al shapes and forms . (Elizabeth Alers Cornejo project ) The following diagrams are analyzing shapes and forms found in nature: flowers, tree branches, roots, and more. Figure 5 8 . Organic imagery of the region . (Elizabeth Alers Cornejo project ) The f ollowing are metaphorical projections of architectonic principles found in the root of a plant and applied to the metaphorical structure: The root of the plant is thicker and more important hierarchically than any of the other parts of the plant. The sub division of the main root starts as one large element that becomes many smaller elements. The main root becomes a "datum" to the other smaller roots and to the branches of the tree, unifying them all. The main vector/ridge of the construct creates a unif ying datum connecting the lines and planes of all spaces.

PAGE 52

52 Figure 5 9 . Image of root . (Elizabeth Alers Cornejo project ) Figure 5 10 . Shapes and forms derived from organic metaphorical interpretations . (Elizabeth Alers Cornejo project )

PAGE 53

53 Figure 5 11 . Linear analysis of the main vector/ridge . (Elizabeth Alers Cornejo project ) Figure 5 12 . Linear analysis of the main and secondary vectors/ridges and planes . (Elizabeth Alers Cornejo project ) Symbolism Relating t o Imagery The number seven was of great importance to the Cherokee. The number seven is the number of clans of the Cherokee nation, and also symbolizes the following seven wonders to

PAGE 54

54 them: the bird, the deer, the wolf, the wild potato, dyes for paint, the color blu e and long hair. They are represented in the shape of a regular heptagon, with the Sacred Fire in the middle being most important. The Sacred Fired at the center of the heptagon is a datum connecting all the other objects of their worship. In the constr uct design the public space is an open space located in the center, unifying the rest of the spaces. This center datum space organizes the main circulation throughout the construct and its different levels. Figure 5 13 . Heptagonal shape of Cherokee s ymbol and shape application . (Elizabeth Alers Cornejo project) Figure 5 14 . Architectonic metaphorical interpretations of Cherokee symbol . (Elizabeth Alers Cornejo project )

PAGE 55

55 The Final Construct The final metaphorical projection into the developing construct i s derived from an amalgam of cultural context, the history of the site and locality, the history of the institution or owners of the project, the purpose of the project, the objective for the user and the imagery that the project is to portray, both inside the main spaces and from the outside. The same principles projected analog ically into the mesh are then re evaluated and re interpreted to connect throug h metaphors, similes, symbolism, etc. to the cultural aspects of the project. The fusion of these three different metaphorical interpretations of mesh model, site and user/function produces the architectonic metaphorical structure for the project. Figure 5 15 . Final Construct for Un Wed Mothers Home in Cuzco, Peru . (Elizabeth Alers Cornej o project)

PAGE 56

56 The metaphorical process students have followed in developing the linguistic metaphors that allow them to create architectonic metaphorical interpretations to give imagery to their design and a unique and appropriate concept for their projects has resulted in more unique designs rather than the traditional "boxes" stacking on top of each other from before applying the metaphorical structure . The process they followed and the creative results illustrates how conceptual ideas may be generated fro m linguistic interpretations of form to facilitate the development of creativity and unique solutions to architectural design problems , making very unique and expressive projects that reflec t the advantages of applying this metaphorical process .

PAGE 57

57 LIST OF REFERENCES Arieti, Silvano. Creativity, The Magic Synthesis Canadian Northwest, Basic Books, Inc. Harper Colophon Books 1976 Arnheim, Rudolf . The Dynamics of Architectural Form Berkeley, Los Angeles, London : University of California Press 1977 Baker, Geoffrey H. Design Strategies in Architecture, An Approach to the Analysis of Form London: Van Nostrand Reinhold (International) Co. Ltd. 1989 Baker, Geoffrey H. Le Corbusier, An Analysis of Form Third Edition N ew York, Albany, Bonn, Boston, Detroit, London, Madrid, Melbourne, Mexico City, Paris, San Francisco, Singapore, Tokyo, Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold (International) Co. Ltd. 1996 Brawne, Michael . Architectural Thought: The Design Process and the Expectan t Eye Amsterdam, Boston, Heidelberg, London, New York, Oxford, Paris, San Diego, San Francisco, Singapore, Sidney and Tokyo: Architectural Press 2003 Deere & Company. Deere & Company Administrative Center booklet Moline, Illinois 1975 Kaufmann, Edgar and B en Raeburn . Frank Lloyd Wright Writings and Buildings First Printing New York, London and Scarborough, Ontario: New American Library 1974 Langer, Susanne K. Problems of Art Ten Philosophical Lectures New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1957 McCarter, Robert . Frank Lloyd Wright London, UK: Reaktion Books Ltd 2006 Neumann, Stan & Copans, Richard Film Le Musee Juif de Berlin Entre les Lignes , Architecture 12 of 23 Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum Berlin , Arte France Les Films D'ici RMN, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUTkt0z_NTU . December 2011 Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks . Frank Lloyd Wright Collected Writings Volume 1 1894 1930 New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. 1992 ----------------------. Frank Lloyd Wright Collected Writings Volume 2 1930 1932 New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. 1992 -----------------------. Frank Lloyd Wright Collected Writings Volume 4 1939 1949 New York: Rizzoli International Public ations, Inc. 1994 -----------------------. Frank Lloyd Wright Collected Writings Volume 5 1949 1959 New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. 1995

PAGE 58

58 -----------------------. Frank Lloyd Wright Letters to Apprentices 2 nd Printing Fresno, California: The Press at California State University, Fresno 1982 -----------------------. Frank Lloyd Wright Letters to Architects 2 nd Printing Fresno, California: The Press at California State University, Fresno 1984 -----------------------. Frank Lloyd Wright Let ters to Clients Fresno, California: The Press at California State University, Fresno 1986 -----------------------. Frank Lloyd Wright, The Masterworks New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. 1993 -----------------------. Global Architecture, A n Encyclopedia of Modern Architecture, Florida 1938 GA 40 , Tokyo, Japan: A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo co., Ltd. 1976 Ricoeur, Paul . The Rule of Metaphor Multi disciplinary studies of the creat ion of meaning in language Toronto, Buffalo and London: University of Toronto Press 1981 Rikwert, Joseph . Architectural History Second Edition Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The MIT Press 1981 Smith, Norris Kelly . Frank Lloyd Wright A study in Architectural Content 10 th Printing Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. 1966 Siry , Joseph M. Frank Lloyd Wright's Annie M. Pfeiffer Chapel for Florida Southern College, Modernist Theology and Regional Architecture Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians December 2004 Tafel, Edgar . Years with Frank Lloyd Wright, Apprentice to Genius New York: Dover Publications, I nc. 1979 Vesely, Dalibor. Architecture in the Age of Divided Representation The question of Creativity in the Shadow of Production Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The MIT Press 2004 Wolf, Connie. Celebrating the Contemporary Jewish Museum Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., New York 2008 Wright, Frank Lloyd . A Testament New York: Bramhall House 1957

PAGE 59

59 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Claudio J. Noriega was born in Lima, Peru where he attended High School at an American parochial school of the Maryknoll congregation missionaries. He attended college in California and graduate d from University of California at Berkeley with a Bachelor of Arts in Architecture. He continued his studies at Yale University in Connecticut whe re he received his Master in Architecture. He did most of his architectural internship in Connecticut and continued it in Florida. He became a registered architect in Florida and has been teaching and practicing architecture ever since . He started teach ing as a teaching assistant for a life drawing class while a graduate student at Yale University and after graduating taught architecture at Norwalk and Hartford State Technical Colleges in Connecticut. After moving to Florida he taught architecture at th e University of Miami and Florida International University before getting a full time teaching position in the architecture program at Broward College in Ft. Lauderdale. He also taught at Florida Atlantic University when their program in architecture star ted ; while continuing his teaching at Broward College . He has a Master in Science in Architecture Studies with a concentration in Architecture Pedagogy from the University of Florida, School of Architecture in Gainesville, Florida. Mr. Noriega has also developed and conducted continuing education courses for architects and interior designers , through the State of Florida, by traveling to different countries to study the historical and contemporary architecture of the country visited. He has created the following courses to date: The Architecture of Cuzco and Machu Picchu , Greek Classical Architecture and the Aegean Islands , The Architecture of Argentina and Buenos Aires, The Mayan World and Ancient Architecture of Mexico, The Architecture of the Pharaohs , The Architecture of Antigua Guatemala and Tikal, and The Architecture of Ancient Coastal Peru .