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Reaching and Retaining U.S. Hispanic audience on television

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Title:
Reaching and Retaining U.S. Hispanic audience on television
Creator:
Tamariz, Gabriela P
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
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University of Florida
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english
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1 online resource (144 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.M.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Mass Communication
Journalism and Communications
Committee Chair:
COFFEY,AMY JO
Committee Co-Chair:
OSTROFF,DAVID HOWARD
Committee Members:
LESLIE,MICHAEL
Graduation Date:
8/8/2015

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Acculturation ( jstor )
Audiences ( jstor )
Demography ( jstor )
Hispanics ( jstor )
Marketing ( jstor )
Multiculturalism ( jstor )
News content ( jstor )
Target audiences ( jstor )
Television networks ( jstor )
Television programs ( jstor )
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
bicultural -- hispanic -- latino -- marketing -- multicultural -- television
City of Hollywood ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.

Notes

Abstract:
This research examines television networks that target the U.S. Hispanic demographic, their content development and marketing strategies, programming schedules and the challenges they face targeting English-dominant Latinos. This research draws upon secondary data analysis, television programming schedules and in-depth interviews with network programmers, marketers and researchers. The goal is to examine the content criteria that television networks require when developing and acquiring programming for their target audience. Throughout this study, it has become clear that television networks are still trying to define what the right content is to reach and retain the U.S. Latino television viewer. This research highlights the importance of authentic cultural connections that combine Hispanic and American cultural influences. This will allow for more dialogue in the academic and professional spectrum concerning the representation of Latinos and multicultural identities in the media behind and in front of the camera. ( en )
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2015.
Local:
Adviser: COFFEY,AMY JO.
Local:
Co-adviser: OSTROFF,DAVID HOWARD.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2016-02-29
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gabriela P Tamariz.

Record Information

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UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Embargo Date:
2/29/2016
Classification:
LD1780 2015 ( lcc )

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REACHING AND RETAINING THE U.S. HISPANIC AUDIENCE ON TELEVISION By GABRIELA TAMARIZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MAS TER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2015

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© 2015 Gabriela Tamariz

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To my p arents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my parents Dr. Miguel Tamariz and Dr. Maria Argentina Escorcia Tamariz and my brother Miguel O. Tamariz for always believing in me and supporting me throughout my academic career. I thank my professor and mentor Dr. Amy Jo Coffey for her guidance, encouragement and patience during my graduate school experience. In addition, I would like to thank my committee members Dr. David Ostroff and Dr. Michael Leslie for their guidance and insights while conducting my research.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 14 Importance of Research ................................ ................................ .......................... 14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 16 Conceptual Foundations ................................ ................................ ......................... 16 Acculturation ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 16 Social Identity Theory ................................ ................................ ....................... 19 U. S. Hispanic Identity ................................ ................................ ...................... 20 Uses and Gratifications Theory ................................ ................................ ........ 22 Background Information ................................ ................................ .......................... 25 U.S. Hispanic Audience ................................ ................................ .................... 25 Hispanic Representations in the Media ................................ ............................ 26 Hispanic Consumer M arketing ................................ ................................ ......... 30 U. S. Hispanic Media Consumption ................................ ................................ .. 32 U. S. Hispanic Television Audiences ................................ ................................ 34 Hispanic Millennials ................................ ................................ .......................... 36 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 37 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 39 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 39 Data Collection Procedures ................................ ................................ .................... 40 In depth Interviews ................................ ................................ ........................... 40 Participant Selection ................................ ................................ ......................... 40 ................................ ................................ ............................... 42 Network GHDA ................................ ................................ ................................ . 42 Network TUBM ................................ ................................ ................................ . 42 Network CFXY ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 43 Secondary Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ........................ 43 Qualitative Content Analysis ................................ ................................ ................... 43 Development and Administration of Method ................................ ..................... 44

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6 Coding Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ 44 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 47 Secondary Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ........................ 47 Geography ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 48 Language ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 48 Qualitative Content Analysis ................................ ................................ ................... 48 El Rey Network ................................ ................................ ................................ . 48 Program schedule ................................ ................................ ...................... 48 Genres ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 49 Original programming vs. acquired programming ................................ ...... 50 NuvoTV ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 50 Program schedule ................................ ................................ ...................... 50 Genres ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 51 Original programming vs. acquired programming ................................ ...... 52 Fusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 53 Program schedule ................................ ................................ ...................... 53 Genres ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 53 Original programming vs. acquired programming ................................ ...... 54 Network Programm ing Strategies ................................ ................................ ..... 55 Major Categorical Themes ................................ ................................ ...................... 56 Target Audience ................................ ................................ ............................... 56 Desired audience ................................ ................................ ....................... 56 Hispanic audiences ................................ ................................ .................... 57 The millennial viewer ................................ ................................ ................. 58 Content Development ................................ ................................ ....................... 59 Content criteria ................................ ................................ ........................... 59 Original programming ................................ ................................ ................ 60 Acquired programming ................................ ................................ ............... 60 New strategies ................................ ................................ ........................... 61 Marketing Strategies ................................ ................................ ........................ 63 Traditional approaches v. non traditional approaches ............................... 63 Digital presence ................................ ................................ ......................... 64 Brand marketing ................................ ................................ ......................... 65 Feedback ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 66 Research by the Networks ................................ ................................ ............... 67 Resources ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 67 Discoveries ................................ ................................ ................................ 68 Barriers ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 69 Network challenges ................................ ................................ .................... 69 Industry challenges ................................ ................................ .................... 71 Research Questions Addressed: A Summary ................................ ......................... 73

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7 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 77 Summary of Results ................................ ................................ ................................ 77 Network Commonalities ................................ ................................ .......................... 78 Network Differences ................................ ................................ ................................ 79 Diversifying the Industry ................................ ................................ .......................... 80 Challenges ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 82 Innovation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 83 Implications for Theory and Literature ................................ ................................ .... 84 In Genre Content ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 88 Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 89 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 89 6 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 91 APPENDIX A SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ ............ 94 B NETWORK PROGRAMMING SCHEDULES ................................ .......................... 96 C RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS ................................ ................................ ............... 127 D MAJOR CATE GORICAL THEMES ................................ ................................ ....... 129 E QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ................................ 136 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 138 BI OGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 144

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Hispanic identification vs. American identification ................................ .............. 38 A 1 Ten places with the highest populations and percentages of Hispani cs or Latinos: 2010 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 94 A 2 Languages spoken at home 2009 2013 American Community Survey 5 Year Estimates ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 95 B 1 El Rey Network programming schedule Jan 19 th 25 th , 2015 ............................... 97 B 2 NuvoTV programming schedule Jan 19 th 25 th , 2015 ................................ ........ 105 B 3 Fusion programming schedule Jan. 19 th 25 th , 2015 ................................ .......... 116 C 1 ................................ ................................ ......................... 128 D 1 Major categorical themes ................................ ................................ ................. 130

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Hispanic or Latino origin population by type: 2000 and 2010 ............................. 76

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10 Abstract of Thesis Present ed to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication REACHING AND RETAINING THE U.S. HISPANIC AUDIENCE ON TELEVISION By Gabriela Tamariz Au gust 2015 Chair: Amy Jo Coffey Major: Mass Communication This research examines television networks that target the U.S. Hispanic demographic, their content development and marketing strategies, programming schedules and the challenges they face targetin g English dominant Latinos. This research draws upon secondary data analysis, television programming schedules and in depth interviews with network programmers, marketers and researchers. The goal is to examine the content criteria that television networks require when developing and acquiring programming for their target audience. Throughout this study, it has become clear that television networks are still trying to define what the right content is to reach and retain the U.S. Latino television viewer. Th is research highlights the importance of authentic cultural connections that combine Hispanic and American cultural influences. This will allow for more dialogue in the academic and professional spectrum concerning the representation of Latinos and multicu ltural identities in the media behind and in front of the camera.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The United States is home to the largest population of Spanish speakers outside of Mexico, according to the Pew Center of Hispanic Trends Project. Approximately 16 % of the U.S. population is Latino and this demographic continues to grow at a rapid rate. The U.S. Hispanic population growth has surpassed estimates and has established itself as a valuable consumer target for big companies and marketers. U.S. born Latin os are tech savvy, bilingual and educated. They a re younger, and they watch more TV content in English but are often encouraged to speak Spanish in the household. Most importantly, the U. S. Hispanic market has a buying power of $1.2 trillion (Cartagena, 2 012; Nielsen, 2012; Peinado, 2013). While the U.S. Latino population is often referred to as a single group, this audience is, in fact, quite a heterogeneous market made up of several sub groups from different countries of origin in Latin America. The lar gest sub group of Hispanics in the United States is of Mexican origin, followed by Puerto Ricans and Cubans (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). A large portion of this demographic are of South American, Central American or Caribbean origin including El Salvador, N icaragua, Panama, Honduras, Dominican Republic, Columbia, Argentina and many more. Each national sub group possesses similarities and differences regarding cultural traditions, history, politics, dialects, etc. But as will be outlined in this thesis, each Hispanic American has their very own unique experience that can be difficult to measure. However, measurement and understanding are increasingly crucial in order to understand this growing and powerful consumer demographic for advertisers, media outlets, and even political candidates.

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12 According to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau, there has been a 43% increase in the Hispanic population in 10 years. According to the Economist , every year 900,000 anic population 2015, p. 16). The median age of the Hispanic American is significantly younger than white Americans and black Americans; the median age of American born Hispanics is 18 (Economist, 2015). This demographic is growing at a rapid rate and marketers are eager to learn more about this diverse market with increasing buying power. The BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries are widely regarded by marketers and adverti sers as significant economic growth opportunities, but the U.S. Latino market has demonstrated a higher per capita income. According to Chiqui business in the U.S. Hispanic Mar alone country it would be the 16th largest economy in the world. Now, advertisers are spending up to $4.3 billion (up 14 % from 2009) to reach Hispanic target audiences (Chozik, 2013). The 2012 U.S. Presiden tial Election was a landmark win for Latinos because it garnered him enough votes to defeat conducted its research and targeted areas with dominant Hispanic populations such as Miami, Florida. According to Joe DelGrosso, executive vice president and managing

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13 director for Political and Advocacy G spending gathered him more than half of the voice advantage on Univision properties. According to data from the ImpreMedia/Latino Decisions 2012 Latino Election Eve Poll, Obama needed 103,175 votes to win swing state Ohio and he earned 103,481 Latino votes. These statistics indicate that the Latino vote can truly help presidential candidates win key swing states (Cartagena, 2012). Not only does this demonstrate irit of this community, willing (Cartagena, 2012, p. 39). Establishing a better understanding of how to reach the growing Hispanic market will inevitably open doors for marketers emerging areas. There is a sense of urgency to reach this lucrative minority group that has strong ties to its culture, language and family. However, some marketers, advertisers and content producers are resis ting and claim targeting the bilingual audience is unnecessary because Spanish and English language programming already reach bilingual people. The representation of minorities in the media and entertainment is a hot topic in the industry as marketers and advertisers stretch to find the best approaches to reach and retain Latino and multicultural audiences. Traditional networks such as ABC, CW and others are developing more programming with multicultural c haracters and storylines but many times it does not resonate with Latino and multicultural audiences organically because of the lack of minorities involved in programming and development.

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14 New networks are on the rise to reach and retain Latino and multicultural audiences and are employing various content development strategies and marketing strategies to capture their desired audiences. The key to reaching and establishing strong ties with the Hispanic consumer is in finding effective ways to communicate with Hispanics. Marketers have to be careful with t heir communication efforts to make sure to use culturally relevant messaging that will resonate with all Latino sub groups. Objectives The purpose of this study will be to determine the relevant criteria or components for content programming and developmen t at television networks that target the U.S. Hispanic audience, for academic and professional value. The objectives of the study include understanding how content development strategies and practices targeting U.S. Latinos have changed; how networks are t argeting English language speaking Hispanics and Hispanic millennials; how these approaches are different from or similar to traditional approaches; and identifying what challenges networks face in targeting the U.S. Hispanic audience. Importance of Resea rch A study that investigates approaches for reaching and retaining the U.S. Hispanic television audience needs to be conducted because there is a growing bilingual and bicultural audience in the United States due to the demographic growth of this minorit y group. The U.S. Hispanic population is growing at a rapid rate and advertisers want to reach this young, tech savvy and educated consumer market as they are developing

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15 their buying habits and consumption habits. It is important for television networks ta rgeting U.S. Latinos to develop and broadcast resonating content that appeals to this demographic in order to offer strong audience numbers to advertisers and marketers via various platforms. This study will examine various English language television netw orks that target U.S. Hispanics, the content these networks are developing and producing for its target audience, the marketing strategies used to reach this audience and the challenges these networks face unlocking this lucrative consumer market.

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16 CHAPTE R 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The following literature review examines a collection of significant scholarly research in the areas of Latino themed television programming, Hispanic marketing and advertising, as well as related theoretical approaches that together inform the multi level to describe a native or inhabitant of Latin America and a person of Latin American descent living in the United States. Conceptual Foundations Ac culturation The Spanish language is one of the ways Latinos have been able to retain their culture while living in the United States (Cartagena, 2012). This has been one of the reasons why Latinos have not assimilated into the American mainstream as quickl y and easily as other minority groups (Cartagena, 2012). Emerging media and technology have made it easier for Latinos to maintain connections and relationships with their country of origin and the growth of Spanish language media has helped Latinos preser ve their culture in the family home. The Spanish language is the most important staple in the Latino culture. Most ults believe it is important for future 2011 National Survey of Latinos by the Pew Hispanic Center (Pew Hispanic Center, 2012, p. 4). The Spanish language is likely not goi

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17 necessarily mean that the language is the key to unlocking the lucrative U.S. Hispanic market. measured because it involves too many variables: your p lace of birth, age at emigration, the Hispanic identity is deeply rooted in native culture and the adoption of American aspects of culture and values represents a duality that can be re packaged and sold to Hispanic consumers. This duality is a powerful element that can be used by marketers and advertisers that are trying to establish a relationship with an evolving demographic. According to Korzenny and Korzenny, there ex ists an emotional value in the dual identity possessed As the U.S. Hispanic becomes more established and more assimi lated to their American identity, certain cultural elements will lose their practical utility but will still hold a strong emotional value for the audience. Thus, if the Hispanic consumer prefers English over Spanish or even considers himself or herself mo re American than Latino, there still exists a strong bond and connection to their Hispanic identity (Korzenny & Korzenny, 2012). It is strongly suggested that marketers do not forget about this valuable emotional connection. If Latinos consume English lan guage content with a Hispanic cultural twist, they might be more likely to return to that specific content based on that emotional connection.

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18 Theoretically, acculturation can be an effective and advantageous method to fragment Hispanic consumers. Accultu occurs as a result of extensive contact between , 2014, one culture does not dominate t individuals based on their assimilation to the host culture, why not consider that individuals may acquire host culture features while maintaining aspects of their native , 2014, p . 109). Alvarez, Dickson and Hunter (2014) propose that acculturation is a bicultural proposition. The bicultural proposition suggests that stronger identification with ry (1980) posits in his research. Cultural identification predictably evolves during the acculturation process. As Latinos become familiar with American culture, they construct their own awareness of American cultural elements. Recently immigrated individu als will still have stronger ties to their country of origin and they may preserve these connections, but they will inevitably become more aware of American culture. on the sustaining their own cultural identity while interacting with the host culture, they will integrate their desires and identify with both cultures (Berry, 1980). First gener ation U. S. Hispanics with limited interaction with American culture have lower adopted culture identification (Berry, 1980). Their approach might include

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19 either preserving or reducing their Hispanic identity. Second and third genera tions of U. S. Hispanic s likely identify with American culture more than their parents. Their approach might encourage or reduce identification with Hispanic culture (Alvarez et al . , 2014). Hispanics that have resided in the U. S longer are also more likely to associate with Am erican culture identification, especially if they are later generations. represents changes in cultural identity and personal identity that has the potential to Social Identity Theory Social Identity theory offers a useful insight into the acculturation process that Hispanic immigrants experience when arriving and residing in the United States. Hispanic immigrants are forced to re adjust their social and ethnic identity based on the new demographic characteristics that exist in American culture, whether it is country of origin, generation of immigration, social class or language characteristics (Quintana & Scull, 20 09). Latinos also experience significant stigmatization, discrimination and oppression, which can affect their sense of social class in the United States. psychological perspective, the essential crit eria for group membership, as they apply to large scale social categories, are that the individuals concerned define themselves and are defined self from the social c ategories in which they fit that are already in place in society. The theory suggests that individuals categorize themselves in relation to other social process helps the i ndividual develop their identity and influences them to identify other

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20 Every individual becomes a group member wi th a unique combination of social categories resulting in unique self concepts. As the U.S. Latino becomes older or resides in the U.S. longer, a variety of complex maturational resources and a history of interethnic and intra ethnic interactions will inev itably influence his or her self identity (Quintana & Scull, 2009). There is a myriad of content that can be developed to attract all levels of acculturation. There exist many opportunities in network television to attract this heterogeneous market whether they are recently immigrated or second and third generation Latinos. If Hispanics see accurate representations of their bicultural lifestyle, social identity theory suggests they might be more attracted to specific network programming that reflect this b icultural lifestyle. U. S. Hispanic Identity acculturation and enculturation, as well as the psychological principles associated with social identity and other social psychological th The U. S. Latino culture is largely made up of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Hispanic Caribbean and Central American origins. The Latino social movements of the 1960s fought to make a distinction between the Spanish European cult ure and the Latino American background in the United States (Dávila, 2012, p. 1).

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21 The pe rception of Latinos in the United States has changed drastically since the centuries of coloni zation, racism and immigration. There exist several sub cultures and identities among various Hispanic groups. The Hispanic identity is not a homogeneous concept, but rather an identity with strong ties to its country of origin as opposed to ethnic or raci al composition (Cartagena, 2012). Even though Latinos share similar features such as language and cultural values, there exist important differences across the subgroups. Each subgroup and social category can experience a different degree of bias from mai nstream society and can develop a unique self concept that cannot be measured across the Hispanic minority group. provide an understanding of differences among such groups. Young adult Latinos do not share the same experiences as first generation Latinos; they do not identify with the struggle of immigration, with language barriers, isolation, discrimination and they lack an 14, p. 359). Older generations of U.S. Hispanics are not the same as Hispanics who stayed in their country of origin. This audience has evolved and has been influenced by mainstream American culture giving them a new common experience of being a minority i n a new cultural setting. This is why marketing and advertising created and curated for Latin America is not effective with U.S. Hispanics (Korzenny & Korzenny,

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22 2012). The only common denominator that makes the Hispanic market highly targeted is the Spanis h language. By developing a comprehensive understanding of the needs and desires of a heterogeneous audience such as Latinos in the U.S., content producers would be able to develop original programming and media for these underserved audiences and take adv antage of a powerful consumer target. Uses and Gratifications Theory Uses and Gratifications theory is one of the most useful theories for exploring perspective of the aud ience (Brugal, 2013). In the 1940s, sociology researchers developed the approach in order to understand why audiences engage in different forms of media (Ruggiero, 2000). The theory assumes: A proactive audience seeks the media to satisfy its needs Individ uals select the media content they want to consume According to Brugal (2013), television consumption differs from other influencing media because it is a conscious individual choice. Individuals are free to choose which media they consume, when and where, and for what purposes. Often times, bilingual audiences are making an active decision about which language they w ant to use to consume media. U.S. Hispanics that speak both English a nd Spanish are choosing whether they want to consume from English language media or Spanish language media all the time and it i s necessary to research how they make this decision in order to develop the right content for these complex audiences.

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23 According to the Uses and Gratifications theory, Hispanic audiences in the United States are making an active decision when choosing the type of media they want to consume based on certain needs (Brugal, 2013). For instance, recently immigrated Hispanics might choo se to consume English language media to become more acculturated or assimilated to American culture or to improve their English language skills. On the other hand, established U. S. Hispanics might choose to consume Spanish language media to retain their c ulture, language and ethnic identity. If Hispanic millennials are making a conscious decision about which language they prefer to consume content, then marketers, advertisers and content producers can tailor their content to connect with these audiences b ased on their needs. If Hispanics are trying to retain their language by watching Spanish language programming, there exist many opportunities to reach that audience with a variety of content. If Hispanics are trying to become more acculturated and consum e English language programming, the content can be sculpted to appeal to their stage of acculturation with bicultural or bilingual content. and how those influence their lifest yle and decision making. Then speak to them, p. 6). immigrants move up the acculturation ladder the various needs of Latinos, at every level of acculturation, to better target audiences and increase the overall reach to a growing minority. Reaching and retaining these

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24 audiences will prove to be beneficial to marketers and advertisers developing culturally specific campaigns. It i s necessary to make a cultural connection that is not based on language to reach and retain the Hispanic consumer. Acculturation levels can be used to justify marketing to Hispanic s in one language or another, but it does not explain why and how Hispanics behave and act. The way Hispanics interact with American culture is an additive process. Language is not the only way to connect with the Hispanic market, as industry experts and scholars have noted. show them you Language investment drivers for m arketers who seek to engage Spanish suggesting that cultural market segmentation is an effective practice when targeting the Hispanic audience. Xavier Mantilla, SVP of Multicultural Media, Identity at Mediabrands spoke at the acculturation models as outdated strategies when targeting the U.S. Latino today. According to Mantilla, the key to understanding U.S. Hispanics is no longer bas ed on

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25 versus being Mobile Consumer panel. If networks approach developing new content and targeting Latinos from a bicultural mindset, they will be able to attract Hispanic viewers and non Hispanic viewers with authentic bicultural connections instead of segmenting audiences based on language or ethnic identifications. Background Information U.S. Hispanic Audience The U.S. Hispanic population is experiencing a rapid growth rate unlike any minority group in the country. According to Nielsen (2012), there are more than 52 million Latinos with a buying power of $1.5 trillion by 2015. This demographic will play a significant role in all aspects of American life including popular culture, consumerism, politics an d the American identity. Marketers and advertisers are devoting more resources to better service this consumer group, but the industry lags behind in terms of understanding how heterogeneous the market is and how to best target the Latino consumer. The gr owth of the His panic population is no longer attributed to immigration, but rather the rise of second and third generation births in the United States. More than half of the millennial population is Hispanic, meaning that the average Hispanic American is y growing ethnic segment expected to grow 167 % from 2010 to 2050, compared to 42 %

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26 Due to the rapid growth of the U.S. Hispanic population, marketers and content producers are eager to tap into this lucrative market and are allocating more resources to capture this demographic. Between 1986 and 2005, the majority of foreign language programming in the United States wa s Spanish lan guage programming (Coffey, 2008). reach the Latino American and media content is featuring more Hispan ic related topics of interest. Advertisers experienced a rapid revenue growth when compared to the , but more can be done to engage the U.S. Hispanic consumer. According to Cartagena (2013), only five percent of top Hispanic market between 2006 and 2010. Research indicates that Hispanics are more open to engaging with advertising than Anglo Americans (Cart agena, 2013). The U.S. Hispanic market is a major business opportunity for the media and entertainment industry. Hispanic Representations in the Media Most studies on Hispanic representations in the media have focused on the lack of representation of the l argest minority group in the United States on and off screen . Latinos are often absent on the production side and are reduced to stereotypical representations on screen (Cartagena, 2012; Dávila, 2013; Munoz, 2009). Several Hispanic stereotypes stem from d ecades of misinterpretation and misunderstanding of Latinos. There are archetypical characters visible on Spanish language television as well as English language television. In Spanish language television programming, it is not unusual to see archetypal ch aracters such as the

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27 virginal, motherly caretaker figure, the sexualized and passionate female figure, the darker skin employee or the macho patriarchal (Munoz, 2012). Traditionally, Hispanics have been portrayed on English language television in a negativ criminals such as drug dealers, thieves or even hired help such housemaids, cooks and nannies. Moreover, some programming continues to showcase Latinos as undocumented immigrants with a thick Spanish accent. Hispanic males continue to be portrayed as gardeners or drug dealers and Hispanic females are usually maids or the Although there have been improvements in recent years with Hispanics takin g on more important and lead roles and portraying more realistic characters on television shows and movies, authentic representations still lag behind compared to blacks and Anglo Americans (Levin, 2003). The rise of culturally specific marketing has helpe d correct former stereotypical representations with contemporary Hispanic generated advertising, but it has also stimulated other prejudices and stereotypes regarding the them pleasing to corporate clients such as in the garb of the traditional and extremely family oriented and stubbornly brand intrinsic c

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28 127). A range of variation of representations of Hispanics exists that advertisers and marketers need to t ake advantage of in order to make culturally specific connections in a culturally specific marketing niche. difficult for Latinos to audition for roles unless the call specifical been changing rapidly in commercials and television, wi th more calls than ever for The U.S. Hispanic audience must be recognized as a heterogeneous ethnicity that shares similar cultural mindsets that represent both Hispanic culture and American values. Cartagena addresses t he residual and dominant codes that reflect the way many people perceive Hispanic culture in the United States. The residual codes are the old stereotypes of Latinos that are beginning to fade and are even being used as comedic props these days. For examp le, the character of Chuy Bravo on E! an over the character in l insults Latinas because it suggests that their strongest

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29 fertility, and that often sends the sitcom veering from witty domestic satire to witless 1). % of Latina actresses appeared partially or fully naked on screen, compared to 32 % of white females, 24 % of black females. Approximately 17 % of News Latino, 2014, p. 1). for Communication and Journalism, Latinos play only 4.9 % of film roles in Hollywood. The study confirmed that Hispanics are the most underrepresented group on screen, yet the Hispanic audience flocks to the movie theatres and on average go to the movies more than any ethnic group (Fox News Latino, 2014). Many networks are incorporating Latino themed programming or at least Latino characters into their shows. Stacey Lynn, an ABC executive, states the network is not barrio their faces reflected in primetime. The next wave of shows will not be all about Hispanics, but Hispanics will be featured in primetime programming (Levin, 2003). Despite the popularity of ABC viewership from the Hispanic audience. In the 2012 TV season, 798,000 of the total capture the problem facing English language television executives and advertisers in which they desperately want to appeal to the more than 50 million Latinos in the United those viewers are not interested in American English language television. However,

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30 these same viewers continue to consume Spanish language networks in high numbers. Telenovela viewership rates among Latinos continue to exceed by a large margin t he Hispanic view ership numbers for English language content (Vega & Carter, 2012). i s important for marketers and advertisers to recognize that the U.S. Hispanic market is not trying to push American traditions and values to the sidelines, but rather play on the (2012, p. 15). If television networks targeting Hispanics make cultural connections based on complex and authentic representations and step away from old, outdated stereotypes, then it seems that Hispanics would be able to develop stronger cultural connec tions with the new and refined content. Hispanic Consumer Marketing Every bicultural consumer is different and there exist different acculturation agents that influence the transmission of cultural identity. According to Alvarez, Dickson and Hunter (2014), the primary acculturation agents are family members and friends to American friends and family members results in stronger American culture identification, while great er exposure to Hispanic agents promotes retention of the Hispanic identity. In turn, the agent type affects consumers' language preferences, and . , 2014, p. 114). Mendoza (1989) describes four strategies that individuals us e to marginalize themselves from both cultures:

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31 1. Cultural resistance resisting host culture 2. Cultural shift 3. Cultural incorporation 4. Cultural transmutation alt ernating native and host cultural norms to create a unique subcultural identity Alvarez, Dickson and Hunter (2014) used a structural equation model to develop and assess the proposed scales of acculturation. A latent class clustering procedure tested propo sitions of a sample of 403 U. S. Hispanic consumers and found four clusters motivated by language preference and two dimensions of cultural identification. The combined sample represented the descriptive statistics of the U.S. national Hispanic population but with a higher income and older population because the sample quotas were limited to participants between 18 and 60. A questionnaire was acculturation agents and demo . , 2014, p. 114). The study supported all hypotheses and found: Generation status and U. S. residency length are positively correlated with American identification Longer contact with American culture positively relates to preference for English language Hispanic consumer segments with a higher preference for English more likely prefer marketing communications in English Exposure to a higher percentage of American primary (family, friends) and secondary (co workers, school peers) agents should result in a higher preference for English language and American identification.

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32 1) within the U.S. Hispanic market, marketers, advertisers and content prod ucers can research these specific consumers based on their cultural identification and develop a better understanding of the growing heterogeneous market that can be reached in Hispanics (Alvarez et al . , 2014, p. 115). This kind of refinement can help advertisers, marketers and content producers tailor their content to better reach and retain valuable market segments, based on an understanding of the acculturation levels in the U. S. Hispanic market. U. S. Hispanic Media Consumption U. S. Hispanics are over indexing in media consumption. In March 2014, it was reported that % of sales and were more likely than any demonstrated a growing representation at the box office and have been recognized as nt to target the Hispanic According to a PWC report, Hispanics stream and download video on their mobile te easier to find Spanish language programming using a smartphone. The report suggested further deve

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33 Cable and satellite providers now offer specific Latino programming packages to their bilingual consumers including Spanish language radio channels, imported Spanish language television networks and even Brazil ian media content. Univision ranked as the first place broadcast network for the second year in a row for the 2013 July sweeps, while Telemundo snagged second place with a prime time audience of around 2 million households. These networks are easily acces sed by the general public and they broadcast popular programming for large audiences such as international soccer games and telenovelas. Statistics indicate that 23% of the Hispanic population consumes Spanish only TV, but more than 60 % watch programming i n both languages (Agurcia, 2013). Hispanic audiences also over index on radio content compared to non Hispanics. In major cities such as New York, Los Angeles, Miami, Houston and Dallas, Spanish language radio shows often lead in their day parts. Integrat ed media deals are a big opportunity for marketers t argeting U. S. Hispanics. Latinos are very active on their mobile devices and over index on video content and social media, in comparison to the general market, across all acculturation levels (Rafferty, 2014). Not only are they hyper engaged and consuming content, but they are also sharing content, which makes them a highly influential market ( Ariens, 2015 ). Additionally, Latinos have proven to be early adopters of new products across several categories. Approximately half of both Hispanic millennials (42%) and non

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34 U. S. Hispanic Television Audiences 2012). For years, Spanish language television programming has been limited to a few television networks including Univision and Telemundo . Today, the market has expanded and the traditional b roadcast networks are playing a bigger hand at reaching and retaining the growing demographic. In 2012, Comcast announced a decision to launch new independent minority owned networks to be distributed on its cable systems. This initiative emerged out of a deal made between the FCC and Comcast when it merged with NBC Universal to The cable company reviewed more than 100 proposals and selected four new networks including El Rey Network, a packed general entertainment network Currently airing in nearly 40 million homes, El Rey Network debuted in January 2014. The English language television cable network, launched by Univision C 49 and inclusive of second and third generation English Hispanic a udience will fall in love with by developing storytelling with a universal appeal (Wilson, 2014). In an interview with The Hollywood Reporter (2014), he said h e i % of th e people who work at El Rey

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35 films and sy A joint venture between Disney ABC Television Group and Univision Communications, Fusion is an English language cable network aimed at U.S. Hispanic millennials. Current program ming consists of daily news shows Fusion and weekly shows covering broad topics such as medicine and sports, and documentary films. Launched in 2006, MTV Tr3s is a Spanish language cable n etwork owned by Viacom that targets bilingual Latinos and non Latino Americans aged 12 to 34 (Navarro, programming includes music videos, news documentaries, reality series and even English subtitled Spanish programming from Latin American countries. MundoFox is a Spanish language broadcast network co owned by Fox and S. Latinos (Marszalek, 2012). Cu rrent programming includes local news shows, language telenovelas ), classic telenovelas, as Launched in 1993 and rebranded in 2001 , mun2 is owned by NBCU niversal. In February 2015, the network announced its relaunch as NBC Universo (Kondolojy, 2014). The network targets young, Latino audiences. Current programming includes reality series, music programming, sports coverage and Spanish subtitled NBC cable n etwork shows. The network does not air programming exclusively in Spanish or in English.

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36 SíTV launched in 2004 as the first cable network targeting U. S. Latinos with English language programming; the network reinvented itself as NuvoTV in 2011 with a new brand image. In 2012, the network formed a partnership with actress Jennifer Lopez to develop original programming as chief creative executive (Fixmer, 2012). Current programming includes entertainment based series, lifestyle series, reality shows and rer uns of Showtime Hispanic Millennials Hispanics are the youngest ethnic audience in the United States and are very fourths of Hispanic millennials own a smartphone, compared with just 34% of the older generation. More than 86% of Hispanic millennials use Facebook, compared with 47% of Hispanic non millennials and According to AdAge (2014), Hispanic millennials ofte n watch movies and television with their family members. This is because many Hispanics live in multi family households and often consume media content as a family. At the same time, Hispanic millennials are often looking for more relatable content via mob ile devices (Rafferty, 2014). language television advertisements were not as effective for Hispanic millennials and its effectiveness diminishes after the third generation. Bicultural or bilingual advertisin g are recommended to reach Hispanic millennials of fourth or older generation (Chapa & Becerra, 2014, p. 363). The main difference between these generations lies in the self identity of Hispanic millennials.

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37 If Hispanic millennials perceive themselves as b icultural and can identify themselves by their Hispanic heritage and their American lifestyle, then television network content that reflects a bicultural identity might attract this audience with authentic representations. For these reasons, and in order t o meet the objectives of the study, the following research questions were posed for investigation. Research Questions RQ1: How have content development strategies and practices targeting U.S. Latinos changed? RQ1a: How are English language networks trying to target Hispanic millennials? RQ1b: In what ways are new networks targeting English language Hispanics? RQ2: How are these approaches different from or similar to traditional approaches in reaching the U.S. Hispanic audience? RQ3: What are the challeng es to content programming and development targeting the U. S. Hispanic audience?

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38 Table 2 1. Hispanic identification vs. American i dentification High Low High 1. Bicultural 2. Assimilators Low 3. Retainers 3. Non identifiers Hispanic Identifi cation vs. American Identification

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39 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The investigator employed a mixed methods approach that includes in depth interviews, content analysis and secondary data analysis. This multi level methodological approach will provide a comprehe nsive industry focused analysis that examines the ways Latino themed programming is created and curated for the U. S. Hispanic market. A qualitative research method suited this study because the topic is a new area of research that needs to be further expl ored. A quantitative research method also suited this study in order to gain an overall comprehension of the U.S. Hispanic market. A mixed methods approach is based on pragmatic knowledge claims and a diverse collection of data to provide the best understa nding of a research question (Creswell, 2003). Research Design In qualitative research, the data collection techniques include interviews, observation and document analysis (Creswell, 1998). This study included face to face and phone interviews. The invest 1998). These documents included web site pages, promotional content and press releases. The interview offered a way to under natural settings, as recommended by Seidman (1998). This study employed a concentrated interview strategy that allowed for open ended questions with a conversational style. Participants were requested to sign a con sent form that indicated

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40 they understand the purpose of the research, the voluntary nature of their participation, their right to terminate participation at any time during the study, and assurance of confidentiality related to their participation. Data Co llection P rocedures In depth Interviews An interview method allowed for closer observation and was guided by a list of approved interview questions. In depth interviews gave the investigator the opportunity to closely examine the topic by asking questions to understand the growing television opportunity. By asking open ended questions, the investigator gained a better understanding of the various viewpoints of programmers, marketers and researchers targeting the U.S. Hispanic market. In depth interviewing w as chosen for this particular research study for the following reasons: It provides the opportunity to generate rich data The use of language by participants will be essential in gaining insight into their own perceptions and values. Data can be analyzed i n different ways. Participant Selection The networks studied were selected based on descriptions found in press releases and media as targeting the U. S. Hispanic audience. The networks, whose erred to as: Network GHDA Network TUBM Network CFXY

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41 At each network, in depth interviews were conducted with network employees serving as marketers, programmers and researchers to study how the networks are representing themselves from a branding standp programming schedule will include an overview of similarities and differences in content development and programming. The investigator contacted these participants via e mail, LinkedIn and/or phone contact. Interviews with each participant yielded information about how each network approaches content development and marketing to appeal to the growing U.S. Hispanic audience. In order to gain multiple perspectives in this area of content production and culturally specific marketing, this study interviewed the following: Network programming directors . The purpose in interviewing members of the programming department is to understand how they develop and produce new content to satisfy the U.S. Hispanic market demand, as wel l as how they decide what kind of content to acquire from other content sources. This research aims to determine what the criteria are for new networks when developing original content targeting U.S. Hispanic audiences. The investigator is also interested in learning about the challenges and opportunities for innovation they have faced. Network Marketers . The purpose in interviewing marketers is to understand the strategies and tactics they use to reach the Spanish speaker, English speaker, bilingual speake r and bicultural millennial. The investigator also asked them how they perceive the growing U. S. Hispanic market, how effective current strategies are and how they identify challenges in reaching the Hispanic audience.

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42 Network Researchers. The purpose in interviewing researchers is to understand what resources are available to the networks regarding their target audience and the major findings the networks have uncovered about the broad demographic. Two interview protocols were developed for this study. Th e first was for the the networks. The interview protocol for programmers and researchers focused on the content development strategies and practices used to target the U.S. Hispanic audience, the response to new content from their targeted audience and the challenges in developing and producing content for its target audience. The interview protocol for hemselves from a branding standpoint, how marketing strategies have changed and how the network is using various marketing approaches its diverse target audience. Interviewees for this research can be more specifically identified by the following designations. Network GHDA VP of Audience Strategy Integrated Marketing Manager Associate Director of Programming & Acquisitions Sales Coordinator Network TUBM Executive in Programming & Development Director of Programming & Development Dire ctor of Development, Branded Content Senior Marketing Manager Director of Integrated Marketing Digital research Analyst Director of Communications & Special Events

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43 Network CFXY Original Content Coordinator Marketing Operations Manager Director of Affiliat e Marketing Director of Research Secondary Data Analysis A variety of secondary data analyses was conducted in order to gain a demographics. The 2010 U. S. Census will contribute re cent demographics and composition of the country including: Total population Total Hispanic population Total Hispanic millennial population Percentage of foreign born Latinos Percentage of U.S. born Latinos Percentage of Spanish speaking persons Median ho usehold income of Hispanics Education background of Hispanics Qualitative Content Analysis schedules to gain a comprehensive understanding and familiarity with the type of cont ent that each network was broadcasting to their respective target audiences. Data collected from each network reflected a combination of original programming and acquired programming. Original programming refers to content that the network developed and p roduced from start to finish to be a part of its programming schedule and to represent the le.

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44 Development and Administration of Method The investigator contacted interviewees via LinkedIn and e mail. The investigator requested in depth interviews in person or on the phone using an interview question guide prepared and approved for this study b IRB. The investigator asked open ended questions in order to avoid leading the participants to answer in a particular manner and allow him or her to answer without presented or implied choices. The investigator gav e participants time to voice their own views, values and experiences. She also probed with follow up questions when appropriate to stimulate the participant to produce more information without injecting herself into the interaction. The investigator avoide d a reflection of herself and her personal views in the data collected and allowed the participant to lead the conversation. The investigator kept the conversation focused on the topic of study, while still leaving room for the participant to define the co ntent of the discussion (Bernard, 1995). Coding Analysis Before the data was analyzed, the investigator transcribed all interviews, observations, documents and field notes. For data analysis procedures, the investigator searched out and assigned themes dur ing the analysis process. Themes are outcomes of coding, categorization and analytic reflection. The data was coded by themes and sub categories. salient, essence capturing and/or attribute for a portion of language based or visual

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45 After transcribing the in dep th interviews, the investigator read the transcripts to become familiar with the data collected. Next, the investigator read the transcripts and collected documents a second time and coded major themes that arose. Initial coding, In Vivo Coding (codes crea phrases derived from the open ended process (Saldana, 2009, p. 77). Patterns arose in the data collection that can be characterized by similarities, differences, frequencies, sequences, correspondences and causations. After the investigator coded the data collected from in depth interviews, she was able to categorize the codes under major headings. By refining the conten ts of each category from the data, the investigator was able to compare them with each other. Then, the investigator read the transcripts for a third time and labeled sub categories that arose. This second cycle of coding was employed to further manage, f ilter, highlight and focus on salient features of the qualitative data. Categorical buckets were identified and subsequently individual codes were matched and bucketed to the appropriate theme. Categorical themes were influenced by the raw data collected a s well as the research questions of this study. The investigator maintained a master list of emergent codes which provided an analytic opportunity to organize and reorganize the codes into major categories and subcategories. This management technique also provided a comparative list with multiple participants such as this case (Saldana, 2009, p. 21). because the results were unpredictable for each specific network. The coding decision

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46 was based on the methodological needs of this study which allowed the investigator to make new discoveries, insights and connections about the participants, their processes and the phenomena under investigation.

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47 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Secondary Data Analysis The total population of Hispanic or Latino origin in the United States is 54 million (Profile America Facts for Features: Hispanic Heritage Month 2014: Sept. 15 Oct. 15). More than half (52.2 % ) of the U.S. foreign born population was born in Latin America (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009 2013 5 Year American Community Survey). Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Ri can, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or . , 2011). As of April 1, 2010, 17 % of the United States population is of Hispanic or Latino origin, as opposed to 13 % in 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010; Pro file America Facts for Features: Hispanic Heritage Month 2014: Sept. 15 (Albert et al . , p. 2). A ccording to the data (see Figure 4 1), population growth between 2000 and 2010 varied among each Hispanic group. While the population of Mexican origin Hispanics accounts for the largest Hispanic group with 63 % of the Hispanic population, the Puerto Rican and Cuban (i.e. Caribbean) origin populations grew substantially as well as other Hispanic origin groups. Of the Central American Hispanics (not including Mexicans), those of Salvadoran origin were the largest group; of the South American Hispanic populati on, those of Colombian origin were the largest group (Albert et al . , 2011).

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48 Geography As shown in Table A 1 , more than half of the U.S. Hispanic population resides in California, Texas and Florida. Of the 37.6 million Hispanics in the United States, 14 mil lion (28 % ) lived in California, 9.5 million (19 % ) lived in Texas and 4.2 million (8 % ) lived in Florida (U.S. Census 2010). The largest Hispanic populations are demonstrated in Table A 1 and is significant data for marketers and content producers that are t rying to geographically target the U.S. Hispanic audience. Language As shown in Table A 2 , 12 % of the American population speaks Spanish or Spanish Creole and more than half of the American population that speaks a language other than English speaks Spanis h or Spanish Creole. More than three fourths of the American population between the ages of 5 and 17 years who speak Spanish or Spanish language households and the increa se of bilingual younger generations in the United States. The increase of Spanish language speakers in the United States can be attributed to immigration, the population growth of second and third generation Latinos and also English language speakers lear ning the Spanish language. Qualitative Content Analysis El Rey Network Program s chedule The investigator examined programming schedule between January 19 th and 25 th of 2015 ( Table A 3 ) to become familiar with the various types of content that

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49 the network is broadcasting to its target audience. The investigator looked for clues Genres Based on the data collected, programming demonstrated a wide rangin g list of genre specific television series and feature films including but not limited to: Sports Crime/Drama Sci Fi/Drama/Action Blaxploitation/Sexploitation Horror/Thriller Kung Fu/Action Docu/Reality Talk Show Foreign It is clear from program schedule that the network is targeting an audience with an eclectic taste in entertainment. The network prides itself as being the audience. The majority of the content is vio lent, dark and rebellious. This is due to a network that champions the renegade/rebel that appeals to a male demographic. The programming schedule is a mix of action films that Rodriguez is well known for, syndicated favorites such as The X Files, Dark Angel and Miami Vice, as well as grindhouse films which are nostalgic 70s and 80s over the top horror, action, or sci fi films that were very crude and low budget but resonated and developed a cult follo wing. Many of the heroes in the films broadcasted by El Rey are anti establishment and go against the grain of tradition. The characters represent archetypes that beat to

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50 their own drums and their own set of rules, yet they are still driven by their own m oral code. In terms of total hours of programming, the most popular genre on El Rey during the week of Jan. 19 th was a tie between crime/drama and horror. Twenty percent of the programming schedule was devoted to crime/drama series and feature films and a nother 20% was exclusive to horror films in English and in foreign languages. The sci 15 % of the program schedule. In addition, kung Fu content weighs in at 12.95% an d sports programming at 11.51%. It is evident that some of these titles can also be considered part of both genres. The least broadcasted genres are Blaxploitation/sexploitation (3.6%), foreign content (4.32%), docu/reality programming (4.32%) and talk sho ws (7.91%). Original programming vs. a c quired p rogramming In terms of total programming hours, less than 20% of the programming schedule is original content, 43% of the schedule is syndicated content and 37% are feature films. The majority of co ntent is acquired from larger and more traditional television networks such as ABC , FOX, and even from sister network Fusion . During the week of January 19 th , the only original content that was broadcasted was Chair, Lucha Underground and a behi nd the scenes special for its original program From Dusk Till Dawn: The Series . NuvoTV Program s chedule The investigator examined the programming schedule of NuvoTV between January 19 th and the 25 th of 2015 (Table A 4 s

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51 programming strategies to reach its target audience. The various types of content the cable network broadcasts suggests that the network focuses on documentary and reality entertainment rather than scripted, fictional content, in addition to feature film s. Genres NuvoTV El Rey and Fusion . following genres: Reality/Docu Reality/Competition Talk Show Game Show Drama/Action Crime /Drama Comedy/Sketch Fashion Sports/Fitness Travel/Reality Music/Variety Reality/Food NuvoTV documentary and reality programming much like English language network E!. The network is broadcast ing content about all things entertainment such as food, travel, fashion and comedy. The programming schedule is a mix of feature films with Hispanic or multicultural cast members, talk shows, reality programming and popular content from other cable netwo Cash Cab and many more. series that follows a soccer team in North Carolina on their journey to defeat the odds and win their state championship. The cultural twist to the program is that most of the soccer tea m players come from families of undocumented

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52 immigrants. The teen soccer players are the underdogs not just because of their personal hardships, but also because the soccer team does not receive the attention it deserves for its victories at its high schoo l compared to the football team. In terms of total programming hours, the most popular genres on NuvoTV are reality/documentary (19%), game shows (17%), crime/action (15%) and comedy programming (13%). In addition, reality/competition programming accounts for almost 8 % and sports/fitness accounts for 10% of the schedule. It is evident that some of these titles can also be considered part of both genres. The least broadcasted genre of content is a tie between fashion and travel at less than 2% , and food (5%) , of the programming schedule. Original programming vs. acquired p rogramming In terms of total programming hours, more than half (53%) of programming schedule is original content, whereas 37% is made up of syndicated programming from other sources and almost 8 % are feature films. The majority of programming is originally developed and produced for the network. NuvoTV has a diverse programming schedule and tends to lean toward content with a reality/documentary focus. The network truly cat ers to the Hispanic American audiences. Most original programming is hosted by or starring Hispanic celebrities such as Mario Lopez, Gabriel Iglesias and many more. Acquired content is typically from genre specific networks such as TLC , The Discovery Cha nnel and even Showtime and FX . Typically, acquired content features a Latino cast member but that is not always the case.

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53 For example, according to Nielsen (2012), Hispanic TV viewers over index on talk shows, game shows and informational content. Discove takes place in New York City, which has the largest Hispanic population in the country, as shown in Table A 1 . takes place in Miami, which has a large Hispanic population. Many actors and characters on th e hit TV series are Hispanic and it is not uncommon to hear the characters speak in Spanish or use Spanish phrases. creative officer) , Fusion Program s chedule The investigator examined programming schedule between January 19 th to the 25 th of 2015 ( Table A 5 ) to become famili network is attempting to reach its audience with diverse, informational content. Genres Fusion format with a vari ety of content including investigative journalism, comedy talk shows and acquired documentaries from various sources. Reality/Documentary News Sports Comedy/News

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54 programming schedule is strictly documentary and news based programming with a His panic and multicultural element. The cable network focuses on documentary style programming such as Drug Wars, Strange Medicine and Half Like Me. Unlike El Rey and NuvoTV, Fusion does not broadcast acquired content and the majority of its schedule is orig inal programming developed and produced for the to Hispanic and multicultural audiences because the subject matter is often relevant to the Latino community. Many programs cover international news, issues and underreported stories in Latin American countries. There is an inherent multicultural In terms of total programming hours, reality/docu mentary programming dominates (60%) Fusion total programming hours. The least broadcasted genre is a tie between sports an d comedy at less than 3% each of the programming schedule. Original programming vs. acquired p rogramming The majority of content is originally developed and produced by the network. The only acquired programming found on linear programming and on digital platforms are documentaries from sources such as ESPN and Spanish language content distributors. It is clear that the network is still trying to define what the right content is for its target audience in its second year since its launch.

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55 Conten t does lean heavily on issues and stories affecting the Hispanic community, but ethnicity does not drive its programming; rather it enriches the content by providing informational, entertaining stories that should be appealing to all audiences regardless o f race or ethnicity. Network Programming Strategies Block p rogramming. The biggest programming trend shared by El Rey, NuvoTV and Fusion is block programming. Block programming is a programming strategy that television networks employ by scheduling shows of similar genre back to back. Cable channels use this strategy often by running mini marathons of the same Programmers hope that audiences will stick around for each program if the y are of the Ferguson, 2009, p. 131). runs of the same show in order to control audience flow and retain loyal viewers. Genre driven programming. In order to attract and retain an audience, the content has to have a sustainable genre that can survive low audience shares and still be appealing for time shifted television viewers. El Rey practices s trong genre driven programming strategies, which have been successful for the start up network. The Fu movies, grindhouse films and obscure foreign films is attracting a loyal following. Traditionally, these genres of content would not survive on networks such as ABC or NBC, but El Rey has secured itself as the destination for these very specific genres.

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56 Fusion also practices strong genre driven programming with its line up of documentaries and investigative news reporting. T he cable network also develops and growing marijuana industry. Major Categorical Themes The following themes were uncovered in the coding process of the collected raw data. Each theme has sub categories which highlight specific insights of each network and how they approach their target audiences, content development strategies, marketing strategies, research and the challenges they encounter when reaching and retaining thei r target audience. Target Audience Desire d a udience All three networks target a similar audience described as the 18 49 demographic with a focus on a multicultural audience. A common goal among the three networks is reaching and representing an audience t composition. Each network specifically targets second and third generation English dominant Latinos but does not limit itself to the demographic in order to gain a broader audience made up of people of all ethnic backgrounds. While Network GHDA is targeting a similar audience as Networks TUBM and CFXY, it reports that i ts audience skews older on the demographic spectrum and relies heavily on a male audience.

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57 Hispanic a udiences Less than five years ago, Network TUBM launched and aimed to target Hispanic millennials with tailored content to interest the young, modern Latin o. Since its launch, the network has shifted focus and is now targeting a diverse and young audience with content that should interest not only Hispanic millennials but also a broader, mainstream audience. There are many reasons why Network TUBM has shift ed gears so quickly. The depth interviews research has found that Hispanics do not want to be hyper tar geted in an exclusive manner, but rather they want to be inclusive. Many interviewees have even begun to Networks GHDA and CFXY prefer to describe their target audience as definition. companies have so much to learn about the evolving demographic. It also adds merit to the trend of past networks that initially targeted Hispanic Americans and eventually shifted and leaned more heavily on either side of the demographic. According to Network GHDA VP of insights, the network looked at Univision and Telemundo s strong audience numbers and noticed the disconnect the Spanish language networks had with younger audiences. showcase Latino creative and talent outside of Latino audiences and ma ke it more

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58 GHDA. Programming and development executive at Network TUBM also commented on the co viewing experience that is strongly correlated with Univision and Telemundo a udiences. dualism, meaning at once very American but also very nationality they come from and Univision watch novelas and soccer with their parents at home and that becomes a home watching activity but on their own and in English they consume content pretty similarly All three networks find that Hispanics do not want to be hyper targeted with specific content or marketing strategies because it marginalizes the diverse group. Hispanic viewers want to be inclusive, rather than exclusive, because they are a big part of the American fabric. It is important for content creators to be creative in their approach to reach this growing demographic. The millennial v ie wer All networks are in agreement that audiences are constantly becoming more fragmented due to millennial TV viewing habits changing and the plethora of digital offerings from traditional and non traditional competitors.

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59 Due to this major change in TV vie wing habits, all three networks have recognized the importance of providing digital offerings to a demographic that can be found online. Content Development Content c riteria All three networks described similar attributes and characteristics about the con tent they are developing, producing and broadcasting for their target audience. Common attributes included authenticity, cutting edge material, multiculturalism, English language and shareability. Network GHDA has a major focus on cinematic quality conten t with high production value and pop culture affluence. The network broadcasts non traditional, genre specific programming that exudes a rebellious, resonating message. The majority of its content includes acquired cult classic films, foreign films or icon ic television series. Genre specific programming has proven to be successful for the young network because it provided a non While the network employs traditional approaches to content development such as buil ding on existing franchises and searching for the best available content and talent, it also recognizes that content development is based on business strategy such as acquiring content that may not fit its agenda but can be repurposed, according to the ass ociate director of content development and acquisitions. language network, we will occasionally air a title in its original language, be it Portuguese or Mandarin or general Spanish, but that has more to do ined the associate director.

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60 For example, the network acquired rights to a cult classic sci fi film that is in high demand, but only the Spanish language version was available. This was a rare occurrence, but the network decided to purchase the rights and broadcast the film and Network GHDA Original p rogramming Network GHDA develops its original content based on existing franchises. There is a value in building shows around established names, which is dem onstrated by the original series line up. The network is successfully attracting its desired audience with resonating original programming. Networks TUBM and CFXY develop t heir original content around talent with unique points of view. By casting talent with unique perspectives, each network is creating an outlet for underreported stories and issues that are not reflected on traditional broadcast networks. Network GHDA is t he only network that develops fictional original programming for its target audience. Network CFXY relies on docu series and reality based programming rather than scripted original series. Acquired p rogramming While the network employs traditional approac hes to content development such as building on existing franchises, searching for the best available content and talent, it also recognizes that content development is based on business strategy such as acquiring content that may not fit its agenda but can be repurposed. When Network GHDA is searching available catalogs for potential acquisitions, it puts the content through a brand filter to test each piece to determine whether it fits with

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61 y in the creative behind the content. Through an algorithm, the network can identify a list of content that would be a strong fit for the network. This list is taken to network executives who sometimes add their own content suggestions. New s trategies Cont ent development strategies have evolved in the wake of digital television, time shifted viewing and the overall decrease in TV viewership. In order to gain a term loyalty, networks must be authentic with their repres entations of minorities on screen and behind the camera. All three networks are dedicated to developing content with millennial multicultural talent and creative. Network TUBM still uses traditional approaches to content development. and producers bring specific pitches that their clients have put together to us. We sit down with producers, we hear them out, they send us executive at Network TUBM. But dev format around them. There is a clear commitment to the pursuit of diversity at each network. Their initi ative to hire Latino and multicultural talent, creative and staff is a forward thinking move that traditional broadcast networks do not reflect in their practices. There is a

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62 commitment to breaking stereotypes and shedding labels attached to minority group s in America that have put them in boxes for decades on television. the floor and that is where all the ideas for the storyline, the content, the characters GHDA. The VP reiterated this industry failure many times throughout the interview. Network GHDA is tryin g to set an industry standard and its efforts have been applauded by their desired audience of Hispanic and multicultural backgrounds. have in many ways failed to resonate particu larly with Latino audiences. Seventeen percent of the country is Latino, some of these shows that have high ratings may have a Latino audience of less than 30 % , authentic roles, you have no connection to th Network GHDA. Network TUBM represents the bicultural mindset by allowing it to exist g and development executive. executive at Network TUBM.

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63 Marketing Strategies Tra ditional approaches v. non traditional a pproaches All three networks employ traditional strategies to reach their target audience and convince them to tune in for their programming. There are media buys, digital buys, and cross channel promotions. Network CFXY targets its audience demographically and geographically because of the limited distribution it has in a saturated marketplace. While the network has been a part of the television landscape the longest of the three networks in the study, it has experi enced brand identity issues from the start. The network continues to struggle to explain its brand identity to advertisers who are stuck in the past, regarding their outdated perspective on targeting Latinos with Spanish language content. Network CFXY also lags behind other networks because of its lack of consumer marketing. According a marketer at Network CFXY, advertisers are increasing their budgets to reach multicultural audiences more than ever before. This is a major change in the industry. This chan ge speaks to the inclusivity that all three networks referred to as necessary in reaching and retaining a Latino and multicultural audience. Network CFXY used to broadcast Spanish language ads even though they are an English language network because advert isers thought that was the way to capture the Hispanic demographic. The network is currently undergoing rebranding efforts and a merger with an entertainment cable network and will no longer use Spanish language ads. This tactic was deemed misleading and i nefficient in reaching and retaining the bilingual U.S. Latino. Advertisers and marketers are finally coming around to understanding that language is not the key to unlocking this growing demographic, according to the director of affiliate marketing at Net work CFXY.

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64 The biggest change in marketing approaches is the need to follow audiences to the places where they spend most of their time. In order to reach millennials, these networks have had to establish their presence online with a wider ranging array of being a content provider across all platforms available at any time of the day. Digital p resence All three networks have a strong digital presence and offer content t o their audiences on their websites and via social media. Network GHDA targets millennials through digital content, social media and YouTube. The network is very careful targeting this broad demographic. According to a cially for millennials, you have to be authentic and I think more so with Latino millennials, you have to speak with them in a way that they All three networks prioritize social media influencers in t heir marketing and content strategies. Network GHDA works with a number of blog leaders and has recently started working with YouTube personalities who are tapped as trendsetters and . This is not a surprising move considering the social currency that these influencers possess on these platforms. Network TUBM has even gone so far as to hire content creators to develop and curate content specifically for its social media channels. It h as proven to be successful for the network , as it has gone on to win awards for its content offerings, according to director of development in branded content. This is particularly important to advertisers who are trying to tap into the Hispanic audience, as

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65 well as the millennial audience who is hyper connected and has growing spending power. Facebook platforms, one of which has over 200,000 followers and is built around more of the TV network and we have another we just started a couple of months ago and a digital research analyst at Network TUBM. Network TUBM is targeting a younger website audience so most of their promotional strategy is focused on social media. The network has also expressed interest in building an e mail/newsletter presence to drive traffic to their website. Brand m arketing All three networks have described themselves as celebrating the diversity of America. Network GH DA identifies itself similarly to the way it identifies its target audience: and relies on non traditional approaches such as social media to gain traction in the industry. The network seems committed to its mission to diversify traditional television and its audiences by its initiative to showcase Latino and multicultural talent behind and in front of the camera. The network aims to be the benchmark in its pursuit for diver sity. successful show, have it resonate with audiences that were not just Latino, but were white, African hopes to show a network model that would encourage other traditional networks to do this so eventually the audiences would be more reflective of the population.

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66 meant to specifical ly only engage Latino viewers, it was meant to be enjoyed by all but we wanted to promote the presence both in front of and behind the camera primarily of Network TUBM identifies itself as a news organization, which can make content development challenging, but the network has been able to balance this with its extensive digital offerings on its website and social media channels. According to marketers, the network has not practiced any bra nd marketing strategies because it is still experimenting with its approaches to content and marketing. Marketers and riginal programs, according to a Network TUBM digital research analyst. Network CFXY identifies itself as a non traditional, multicultural millennial network but its lack of consumer marketing is holding the network back compared to Networks TUBM and GHDA. The director of affiliate marketing at Network CFXY credits these shortcomings to an industry that is afraid of stepping out of the box and being bold with its content and marketing strategies. Feedback All three networks have received positive feedback f rom their target audience. This is also clear in the social media dialogue found on their collective Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Network TUBM has received positive publicity and has been critically revered for its strong grasp on the millenn ial audience, its hard hitting investigative pieces and dedication to authentically representing the America of today.

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67 Network GHDA has received positive feedback via social media from its Hispanic audience who are glad to see Latinos represented on televi sion in non stereotypical ways. channel as it does just as an independent brand identity, not only with a strong and growing following but an energized group that seems to get and approve and be hungry Network CFXY has received positive feedback as well for its improved representations of Latinos on television. The network is successfully reaching its target audience with its original content, which has also received positive press and attention from various outlets, according to network marketers. According to a network VP at GHDA , the network has received strong feedback from its Latino audiences is inclusive of their culture, that is creative and created and driven by Latino storytellers Research by the Networks Resources All three ne tworks had to conduct their own independent qualitative research in order to understand their target audiences better. The lack of this kind of research in the industry influenced the networks to either hire proprietary researchers or even conduct their ow n focus groups and in home surveys. All three networks also cited Nielsen research as an important resource to better understand their audience.

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68 said Network GHDA VP of insi Network TUBM is not Nielsen rated so they have conducted proprietary research by hiring a firm to conduct broad polling and qualitative research that is not focus group based. The network compares Nielsen data on Hispanic viewing habits in English learnings to programming on MunDos or MTVTre3 . or mai Network TUBM. Networks GHDA and CFXY have access to Nielsen ratings to measure and analyze how their content is resonating with audiences. Network TUBM is not Nielsen improving its digital visibility and following its audience online with tailored content for millennials on its digital properties to increase visibility. Discoveries process. The net work conducted independent research after discovering that the only content that available catalogs were offering that were English language and appealed to Latino audiences was FOX The VP also pointed out that in terms of measurement, there are no ways to filter

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69 English language Latinos in Nielsen Hispanic research because Latinos are predominately categorized as H ispanic households based on Spanish language, and not necessarily if they are English language. represented particularly with younger audiences, but there was no real way to quantify VP of insights at Network GHDA. This type of content development is outdated and ineffective in its approach because of the stereotypes it invokes from past representations of Hispanics on television. Barriers Network challenges Each network fa ces similar challenges targeting its desired audience. The most common network related challenges include audience fragmentation, communicating the brand identity to advertisers, limited distribution and financial limitations. Network TUBM is still buildin g its brand identity and figuring out what the right kind of content is for its target audience. Nielsen. So Network TUBM.

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70 et up more as a news programs that test well do not have the same kind of broad reach because they require programming and development executive at Network TUBM. Audiences are not flocking to the cable channel for content unrelated to news. The network tries to battle this challenge by finding comedy content with hooks that have viral capacity digitally to ext end the visibility. All three networks struggle to communicate their brand identity to advertisers due to outdated marketing strategies used to reach the U.S. Latino viewer. Network CFXY used to broadcast Spanish language ads even though it is an English language network because advertisers thought that was the way to capture the Hispanic demographic. A programming and development executive at Network TUBM touched on this topic as well. programming and development executive at Network TUBM. The executive described a common situation that arises in programming and development at Network TUBM . For example, content producers will pitch ideas such as a family who happens to be Hispanic and owns the best tamale shop in all of San Antonio. The concept is immediately marginalizing and the network is forced to turn it down.

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71 etting back from agencies and some production companies is, for lack of a better term, it looked like an SNL sketch of what people think know the Kardashians? Well h of a stereotypical process . TUBM. It is clear that the industry in general has not caught up with where the U.S. Hispanic demographic is and w hat they want to consume on television and digital platforms. mming and development executive. These network challenges are reflective of overall industry challenges in media and entertainment. Industry challenges Challenges inherent in the industry include millennial TV habits, time shifted viewing, fighting old tr aditions, shedding stereotypes and labels, the need for better solutions for fair representations of minorities and most importantly diversifying the executive pool. The lack of research is the biggest barrier for these networks to reach and retain their the research and I think that needs to be a more, a stronger focus with Nielsen because I think that they cannot just categorize Hispanic household based on Spanish language

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72 domi nance. I think the culture is shifting and you have to be more inclusive of this new In addition, the industry needs to catch up in representing minorities behind the that for its target audience, but in a different manner than Network GHDA. By focusing on their digital properties, Network TUBM is attempting to establish a benchmark as a conten t provider across all platforms that goes wherever its audience is. A Programming and D evelopment executive at Network TUBM discussed past networks that tried to tiptoe the line of English language and Spanish language content. sh dominant Hispanic networks that have attempted moved further away from the Hispanic angle the executive explained. Director of research at Network CFXY described thes e networks as well and quickly after it launched on broadcast television. Programming and development executive at Network TUBM described Latino production conferences he atte nded where he encountered [conspiratorial] perspectives on the industry but disagrees with the intentions of the industry.

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73 people are subliminally attracted to people who himself fighting these subconscious preferences. For example, if the network was trying to find a female host for a program and a male candidate is proposed, this proposition becomes an immediate threat to the opportunity of casting female talent. that kind of discrimination frankly on a visceral level to understand why you need to stay Research Questions Addressed: A Summary and answered here in summary form. RQ 1: How have content development strategies and practices targeting U.S. Latinos changed? Television networks are slowly but surely moving away from outdated practices used to target U.S. Latinos that were based on acculturation levels. Marketers and conte nt producers are avoiding stereotypical Hispanic representations that are often used in Spanish language and English language media and entertainment. Network programmers are now developing content with authentic voices from Latino and

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74 multicultural backgr ounds. Television networks are developing content around talent with unique perspectives and that also reflects the diverse American population. RQ1a: How are English language networks trying to target Hispanic millennials? English language networks are ta rgeting Hispanic millennials by following them to where they consume the majority of their content: online. Networks and marketers are focusing on establishing a strong social media presence and engaging with their consumers via community forums and contes ts. These networks are spending more time developing content for their digital platforms to differentiate themselves from traditional competitors. RQ1b: In what ways are new networks targeting English language Hispanics? New networks are targeting English dominant Hispanics the same they are targeting the general market but just in a more nuanced, culturally relevant manner. Many times the subjects of programming lean toward issues and news that relate to the Hispanic community but the information should b e appealing to a variety of audiences. RQ2: How are these approaches different from or similar to traditional approaches in reaching the U.S. Hispanic audience? These new approaches differ from traditional approaches in reaching the U.S. Hispanic audience because they do not use the Spanish language or overt, stereotypical Hispanic cultural references to attract the Latino American TV viewer. These approaches now more accurately reflect the heterogeneous, bicultural nature of the Hispanic millennial popula tion. RQ3: What are the challenges to content programming and development targeting the U. S. Hispanic audience?

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75 The challenges to content programming and development targeting the U.S. Hispanic audience are limited distribution, audience fragmentation d ue to time shifted viewing, financial limitations and brand awareness. It is challenging for these new networks to communicate their brand identity to advertisers who want to be able to marginalize the broad demographic. The U.S. Hispanic identity is a com plex concept that is more sophisticated and nuanced than marketers realize.

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76 Figure 4 1. Hispanic or Latino origin population by t ype: 2000 and 2010 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2010 File Summary 1

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77 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Summary of Results Each cat egory that arose from the coded data collected from the in depth interviews overlapped with similar information or was organically interrelated. Research plays a major role in content development strategies, audience analysis and marketing strategies. Cont desired audience and their TV viewing habits. Marketing strategies have changed because desired audiences (U.S. Latinos and multicultural millennials) are increasingly turning to online con tent for information and entertainment. Overcoming major barriers in reaching and retaining the U.S. Hispanic audience is dependent on research and content development challenges. These overlaps and connections demonstrated a cohesiveness that supported th is study and its objectives. There is no formula for level approach that intersects, overlaps and relies on various criteria to reach and retain the U.S. Hispanic audience. Researchers, marketers and content producers need to work together to determine the best approaches to reaching and retaining this audience. Extensive research on English dominant Latinos will shine a brighter light on the needs and desires of this elusive demographic which will lead to strong, authentic and resonating content. By diversifying the executive, creative and talent pools, resonating content will arise organically. This study began with the objective to research television networks that cater to a specific target audi ence: Latino Americans. In the last year and a half, major changes

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78 have occurred at the networks included in this study. The biggest change in content development and marketing strategies is the shift in audience focus. Content producers and marketers are no longer trying to hyper target the Hispanic audience because of the risk of marginalizing the demographic that has endured decades of stereotyping and prejudice as a minority group in America. This focus has shifted to a broader multicultural audience b ecause of the complex identities that the younger American population possesses. Content development strategies that target U.S. Latinos are slowly changing in the television industry. There has been an increase in the representation of Hispanics on televi sion. These representations are moving away from stereotypes, but the real change needs to speed up in a different location: the executive pool. Network Commonalities While many rich insights were gained from the study as a whole, it is worth noting both Latino. Networks GHDA, TUBM and CFXY shared commonalities regarding content development and marketing strategies used to engage the U.S. Hispanic television viewer. The ne tworks all recognized the growth and opportunity in the U.S. Hispanic market but since launching they have also recognized that hyper targeting this demographic is not the way to retain the Latino American audience member. Through trial and error, the netw orks have realized that a variety of content appeals to this heterogeneous demographic. Instead of targeting the Hispanic American directly, the networks have taken a more nuanced approach to developing content by incorporating and fusing Hispanic and Amer ican cultures to tell authentic, relatable stories.

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79 All three networks recognize and champion the importance of diversity amongst its talent and creative staff, in front of and behind the camera. The networks strive to reflect the multicultural audiences i n the United States by developing, producing and acquiring content with Latino and multicultural cast members and storytelling. A significant commonality among all three networks is the importance they place on existing franchises and celebrity names. All three networks develop and broadcast programming that was built around people, TV series or movies that already had a large following in Hispanic or American culture. These networks seek Hispanic celebrity talent to serve as TV personalities/hosts for the ir own talk shows or specials. In addition, these television networks stated that they market to Hispanic Americans the same way they market to the general market but it is necessary for the content to reflect an authentic bicultural experience in order to connect with diverse audiences. All three networks are English language and all marketing and advertising efforts are conducted in English. The networks also focus heavily on social media marketing to engage its audience and draw them into time appointmen t programming. By offering more content online, the networks hope it will engage them enough to tune in to the channel in real time. Network Differences While the three networks shared some common ground in their approaches, there are also differences. Ne tworks TUBM and CFXY are still trying to define what the right content is for the Hispanic American television viewer. Both networks develop programming around talent with unique perspectives and unheard stories. The goal is to give a voice to the voiceles s, to represent a new and diverse mainstream audience that

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80 has never been seen or heard of before on traditional outlets. These networks are trying to develop content that is authentic, relatable and intriguing to all audiences. On the other hand, Network GHDA is committed to the brand identity that inspired the creation of the network. The network is building on existing franchises and developing in genre content that they know their audience already loves obscure movies, cult classics and rebellious them ed programming. Network GHDA holds an advantage over Networks TUBM and CFXY because it is setting the pace of the type of content they plan to develop. Network TUBM and CFXY do not have strong brand identities which can be confusing to its audience and to advertisers. Network TUBM has an impressive digital capacity compared to Networks GHDA and CFXY. Network TUBM is committed to offering quality content across all platforms including but not limited to traditional television, online video, interactive soci al media applications and even streaming television. The network is following its target audience and offering content seamlessly accessible via mobile devices. This may explain why and how the network has garnered such a stronghold on the millennial audie nce, according to several interviewees from the network. Network CFXY is currently undergoing a merger with a cable entertainment network and its content offerings are scattered among various genres. It is too soon to tell how this will resonate with its target audience. According to its director of research, Diversifying the Industry The most significant change in content development, as exhibited by the networks in this study, is the commitment to the pursuit of diversity in the industry. This

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81 is the first step in a long process in finding new solutions to the lack of Latinos and other minority groups represented on television. Television networks need to develop English languag e content that combines the fusion of both cultures that will resonate with the Latino American and the only way amming and Development at Network FUBM described is by hiring Latino talent, creative, staff and even executives to create the most relatable, authentic representations that leave a lasting, emotional impression on viewers to make them come back for more. In May 2015, El Rey Network chairman and founder Robert Rodriguez 1). This news is groundbreak ing because of the support it has gained from various Latino advocacy groups and the celebrity name that Latinos and non Latinos recognize. Traditional networks are following suit in this race to capitalize on the Latino market by testing new content deve lopment strategies. At the 2015 Upfronts, NBCUniversal Hispanic Group ( Telemundo and NBCUniverso ) announced it was putting Latino culture first (Ariens, 2015). The SVP of client solutions explained that oup can have an incredible impact on American culture as they continue to grow in population size. The group also discussed co interesting to see the change in approach from a traditional a creative and financial angle. Younger networks such as El Rey and Fusion do not

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82 have the financial means to co program content with networks with a larger reach, but their influential parent companies do. Challenges The bigge st challenges to content programming and development for the U.S. Hispanic audience include the limited distribution, limited budgets, lack of research, the need for more diversity in the executive pool and changing TV viewing habits. These new, young net works are trying to set a benchmark for what content on distribution. These forward thinking networks need to be available to more audiences in various geographical location s, not just the cities with large Latino populations. As Cartagena pointed out in Latino Boom II, Latinos are moving around the United States and are building their American dream in areas you would not expect Latinos to be moving to such as Ohio and North Carolina. There is opportunity in small towns and suburban outskirts of major cities and the demand for content will inevitably increase. There is a big difference between developing shows that target minority audiences and developing shows with minority showrunners. When programs make an unauthentic manner. i s something else and it i s a GHDA.

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83 CW -that could hav e happened to anybody -but her race and culture adds a richness to the storyline. FOX the world of hip relate to a dysfunctional family the race enriches the storyline, but it is not the premise of the show. Innovation Due to time ontent, English language networks are trying to reach the Hispanic millennial by representing them in their content with multicultural talent with unique perspectives. English language networks are targeting Hispanic millennials by offering authentic, ente rtaining and informational content on a variety of platforms and channels regardless of language. Television networks need to be creative in reaching and retaining Latino and multicultural audiences. Streaming services are the next move for these networks. Remember, Hispanic Americans are young, tech savvy and hyper connected and half of the millennial population. Content producers and marketers are starting to gain traction among the millennial audience via digital offerings, but tel evision networks need them to actually tune in and watch their programming the old fashioned way. This is a difficult task that could be remedied with innovative ways in consuming content. The increase in popularity of streaming devices and services has mo tivated the entertainment industry to seek innovative ways to reach audiences. The prices of streaming devices are decreasing and more networks are offering streaming services

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84 on their websites, but if you do not have a subscription to cable then it can be challenging to access that content in a meaningful way, rather than illegal downloading. Implications for Theory and Literature Throughout this study, the findings gave insight to theoretical and conceptual foundations such as acculturation, social ident ity theory, uses and gratifications and consumer marketing. The results cannot be generalized easily as this is an initial exploration of content development and marketing strategies used by network television to target the U.S. Latino audience. The result s of this study can be related to the research on social identity theory in Chapter 2. Overall, programmers, researchers and marketers at each network described the U.S. Hispanic audience similarly to the major findings from the literature. The U.S. Hispa nic identity is a heterogeneous concept that marketers and content producers are trying to better understand in order to develop the right content for this complex television audience. As discussed in Chapter 2, Tajfel and Turner (1987) propose that every individual develops their own unique self concepts. As the Hispanic demographic continues to identity will inevitably evolve as they perspective on the U.S. Hispanic group member. The increase of second and third generation English dominant Latinos in the United States will strengthen American cultural connections as the group moves further away from its Latino background and becomes an inclusive part of the American fabric. This study shows that television networks are not targeting the U.S. Hispanic audience based on acculturation levels described in Chapter 2, rather these networks

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85 are targeting the demographic with the same strate gies used with the general market but with a cultural twist. Research findings suggest that content development and marketing strategies based on acculturation levels are outdated practices. These practices are marginalizing and pigeonhole various in group s of the Hispanic demographic. A programming and development executive at Network TUBM referred to segmented not only because of their ethnicity and nationality but most importantly because of the way they choose to identify themselves. U.S. Hispanic millennials are at a stage of acculturation that is complex to pinpoint. Second and third generation, English dominant Latinos in the United States cannot be pigeonholed into a category. Hispanic millennials might identify primarily as Americans, especially if they do not speak the Spanish language. They may not even identify themselves as Hispanic because of their American upbringing. The bicultural Latino identity is a comp lex idea that marketers and advertisers are desperate to understand. Due to the complexity of identity, the bicultural Latino can belong to many and various in groups based on their age, ethnic composition, language preference, stage of acculturation and s elf categorization. The Latino American cannot be categorized as easily as marketers think because of all the influential factors that concept. Marketers and advertisers want to be able to fit the Latino American demographic into psychographic buckets as they do with the general market, but this is a more challenging issue that is much more nuanced and sophisticated.

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86 choose to live, the way you choose said director of research at Network CFXY. The complex Latino identity is a challenging concept for marketers and advertisers due to the fact that every Latino American has a different experience as a Latino, as an American, as a minority, as a millennial and as a bicultural individual. Acculturation is a multi faceted concept that is not easily measured and does not occur similarly for everyone. First, second and third iewing preferences are difficult to measure based on acculturation levels because these levels are not strong predictors for resonating content. For marketers, programmers and advertisers, this means that they a re going to have to think outside the box in reaching and retaining the U.S. Hispanic audience. There is no textbook answer to engaging this audience, rather it is a more sophisticated/nuanced approach based on various personal, emotional and cultural influences. Reaching and retaining the U.S. Hisp anic audience member will be an experimental process and will require further research in order to determine how this complex audience makes their consumer decisions. The U.S. Census Bureau will have to address the diversification of the American populati on in its next 10 year census and will have to account for the biracial and multiracial demographics that are inevitably growing in number. There is still so much demographics. How will the U.S. Census Bureau address this issue?

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87 The U.S. Hispanic demographic is growing at a consistent rate and research shows that they over index on the same genres of content that the general market enjoys as well. What is the difference between U.S. Latinos and the general market? The main difference is that U.S. Latinos are simply not represented fairly on television or in the media even though they make up a large and growing part of the American population and American culture. What is clear Latinos do not want to be hyper targeted based on their social and ethnic identity, rather they want to be inclusive and a part of the mainstream audience. The only way for the U.S. Hispa nic audience to feel inclusive is by approaching them and marketing to them in a holistic and inclusive manner like these networks are doing. It i s a slow process but it i s a step in the right direction considering the rest of the industry is lagging behin d. Marketers and content producers have to answer to advertisers who are trying to capture this lucrative consumer opportunity there are economic reasons and pressures to unlock this demographic. According to Brugal (2013), uses and gratifications theory suggests that bilingual/bicultural audiences are making an active decision about which language they not making that decision based on specific needs but rather content av ailability. Television networks are not developing or acquiring programming for U.S. Latinos so are developing and acquiring content so that U.S. Hispanic audiences ha ve authentic and appealing choices in programming that is culturally relevant and resonating.

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88 Brugal (2013) also suggests that television preferences are subject to change as U.S. Hispanics progress up the acculturation ladder, but this research suggests that U.S. Latinos over index on the same genres of content as mainstream audiences regardless of language. U.S. Hispanics choose the media they want to consume based on authentic cultural context. These cultural traits are not exclusive to Hispani c culture or American culture but rather a fusion of both in an organic manner. In Genre Content television networks targeting Latino and multicultural audiences are developing and relying on a variety of content to reach and retain their audience. The program schedules of Networks TUBM and CFXY do not include original scripted series, which is surprising given how popular and valuable scripted storytelling is for Spanish langua ge networks such as Univision and Telemundo and how While it may be true that younger Hispanics are not watching Spanish language content on these traditional Spanish languag e networks as much as their parents and older Hispanic Americans do, it is interesting to see that English language networks targeting this demographic are steering clear of scripted series. U.S. Hispanics are over indexing on the same kind of content tha t mainstream audiences are enjoying which includes scripted television, whether it is found on streaming services such as Netflix and Hulu or traditional cable networks such as AMC, HBO and Showtime.

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89 Networks targeting Hispanic audiences can benefit from original scripted series with Latino and multicultural talent and creative but the lack of minorities in programming and development threatens this growth opportunity. Significance The U.S. Latino population is projected to be represented by one in four Americans by 2050 (Economist, 2015). According to a blog in the Wall Street Journal , % of employment American, at 28 years old, is significantly younger than Anglo Americans and all other minority groups, meaning they are forming spending habits, having children and starting families sooner. Subsequently, it makes sense that every industry wants to tap into this l ucrative consumer opportunity. Brands, companies, marketers and content producers are this elusive demographic that is more complex than marketers and advertisers realize. Limitations This study may be limited somewhat by researcher bias. The investigator is a young, Hispanic millennial and very much a part of the market that the networks are trying to reach and retain. However, other researchers and experts reviewed the study and have offered alternative interpretations to avoid a bias. since the secondary data was gathered and analyzed and the networks have experienced changes in brand positioning and distribution as well during the course of

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90 the study. Network CFXY is currently undergoing a merger with an entertainment cable channel and is in the process of ada pting their content development and marketing strategies to reach a broader, multicultural audience. The investigator faced challenges in acquiring access to executives, program directors, marketers and researchers at each network. As a result, fewer inte rviews were possible in each department and many interviews were postponed, cancelled or were passed on to lower level network associates in different departments. In addition, many participants had limited industry experience at their respective networks in their respective fields. Many participants refrained from sharing specific marketing strategies and research measurements due to the proprietary nature of their network goals and strategy.

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91 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION This study aimed to examine and analyze th e programming schedules, content development strategies, marketing strategies and challenges in reaching and retaining the U.S. Hispanic audience on television. The Hispanic American population will undoubtedly increase and surpass the Anglo American popul ation. This major change in the American population will affect all aspects of life, culture, entertainment and consumer marketing. The demand to reach the Hispanic American audience is high among various industries. The main contribution of this study is a new understanding of how best to reach the bicultural, bilingual U.S. Latino in a more nuanced, multicultural way that exists organically through its content. In addition, this study offered fresh insights into the representation of Latinos and minoritie s in media and entertainment and the identification of outdated perspectives in the television industry regarding the U.S. suggests that marketers and content producers are still struggling to find out what the right kind of content is for this underserved demographic considering that U.S. Advertisers and marketers are hungry to reach this lucrative consumer opportunity and television networks have been trying to crack the code to reach and retain this audience with slow progress. Content producers and marketers need to understand the complexity of this heterogeneous market in order to tap into its increasing spending power.

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92 Television networks that are trying to reach this highly sought after demographic need to conduct further research about the content that resonates with Latino and multicultural audiences. The most significant change these television netwo rks and marketers can make to speed up the process is to hire a diverse collection of talent, creative and staff in order to organically represent the changing American audience. These television networks also need to be innovative in the way they reach La tino and multicultural audiences due to changing TV habits and time shifted viewing. Future research is recommended on the TV viewing habits of English dominant Hispanic households since there is a lack of research on this specific sub group of U.S. Hispan ics. This new research would be invaluable to academics and professionals targeting various sub groups in the Hispanic demographic as they are currently grouped together with Spanish speaking Hispanics under a general Hispanic umbrella. Further research is also recommended on younger Hispanics, i.e. millennials, and their media consumption habits as they account for a large portion of the U.S. millennial population. It is recommended that marketers also examine the spending habits of U.S. Hispanics, their brand loyalty and their response to advertisements on the television networks that target this consumer group. Television networks should compare these findings to the general market to determine the value of the Latino American consumer. Since there is mo re English language, Latino themed and multicultural themed programming, it is also suggested that television networks and marketers compare these audience ratings and going . Though, this will be tough to measure accurately since many of these networks do not have the same reach and distribution as the major television networks ( ABC,

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93 NBC, CBS and FOX). Further research is also recommended in geographical locations experiencin g an unprecedented growth of their Hispanic populations such as Ohio, North Carolina and Midwestern America. How are these Hispanic communities developing their consumption habits in regions that are not known for having large Hispanic communities? How are brands attracting and serving these Hispanic Americans in these areas? The future of the U.S. Latino market is uncharted territory. This is why television networks targeting the demographic have had to retune and refine their content development and marke ting strategies as they learn more about this complex consumer group. Television networks that specifically targeted Latino Americans have shifted focus and are trying to reach a diverse, multicultural audience rather than hyper targeting Hispanics and are using the same marketing strategies as they would for the general market. The goal is to develop resonating, authentic and culturally attuned content and market it in a way that is appealing to various audiences in an inclusive manner. The major televisio n networks and marketers are still behind in terms of reaching and retaining the U.S. Hispanic consumer and without a precedent it is too soon to say what this shift in audience focus will mean for the smaller networks and companies seeking this audience. Television networks will have to continue to experiment with their content development and marketing strategies as they have been doing. Through trial and error they will gather valuable insights and will better understand their target audience, their desi res and their media consumption habi ts.

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94 APPENDIX A SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS Table A 1. Ten places with the highest populations and p ercentages of Hispanics or Latinos: 2010 Ten cities with the highest p opulation of Hispanics: 2010 Rank Place Total Popul ation Hispanic or Latino Population 1 New York, NY 8,175,133 2,336,079 2 Los Angeles, CA 3,792,621 1,838,822 3 Houston, TX 2,099,451 919,668 4 San Antonio, TX 1,327,407 838,952 5 Chicago, IL 2,695,598 778,862 6 Phoenix, AZ 1,445,632 589,877 7 El Pas o, TX 649,121 523,721 8 Dallas, TX 1,197,816 507,309 9 San Diego, CA 1,307,402 376,020 10 San Jose, CA 945,942 313,636 Ten cities with the highest p ercentage of Hispanic population: 2010 Rank Place Total Population Hispanic or Latino Percentage 1 East Los Angeles, CA 126,496 97.1 2 Laredo, TX 236,091 95.6 3 Hialeah, FL 224,669 94.7 4 Brownsville, TX 175,023 93.2 5 McAllen, TX 129,877 84.6 6 El Paso, TX 649,121 80.7 7 Santa Ana, CA 324,528 78.2 8 Salinas, CA 150,441 78.2 9 Oxnard, CA 197,8 99 73.5 10 Downey, CA 111,772 70.7 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2010 File Summary 1

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95 Table A 2. Languages spoken at h ome 2009 2013 American Community Survey 5 Year Estimates Percent of specified language speakers Subject Total Speak E nglish "very well" Speak English less than "very well" Estimate Estimate Estimate Population 5 years and over 291,484,482 91.40% 8.60% Speak only English 79.30% (X) (X) Speak a language other than English 20.7% 58.3% 41.7% Spanish or Span ish Creole 12.9% 56.4% 43.6% SPEAK A LANGUAGE OTHER THAN ENGLISH Speak Spanish or Spanish Creole 37,458,624 56.40% 43.60% 5 17 years 8,423,519 77.80% 22.20% 18 64 years 26,300,484 51.50% 48.50% 65 years and over 2,734, 621 36.80% 63.20% CITIZENS 18 YEARS AND OVER All citizens 18 years and over 217,576,962 95.50% 4.50% Speak only English 85.90% (X) (X) Speak a language other than English 14.10% 68.10% 31.90% Spanish or Spanish Creole 8.00% 70.30% 29.70% Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2009 2013 American Community Survey 5 Year Estimates

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9 6 APPENDIX B NETWORK PROGRAMMING SCHEDULES

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97 Table B 1 . El Rey Network programming s chedule Jan 19 th 25 th , 2015 Time Program Genre Program Type Program Description Mon. Jan 19th, 2015 6:00 AM Core Culture Sports Syndicated Originally from USA, the series features alternative sports lifestyle and profiles athletes who participate in extreme sports and highlights extreme sports competitions . A weekly segment p rofiles musical acts and influences that bind the culture of extreme sports. 7:00 AM Core Culture Sports Syndicated 8:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated Two Miami Dade Police Department detectives working undercover in Miami during the cocaine boo m of the 1980s. Crockett and Tubbs often resort to violence in the course of their work. 9:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 10:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 11:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 12:00 PM Miami Vice Crime/Dra ma Syndicated 1:00 PM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 2:00 PM Dark Angel Sci Fi /Drama/Action Syndicated Originally from FOX, a genetically enhanced superhuman prototype, Max, escaped from a covert government military facility. As an adult, she join s forces with idealistic cyber journalist Logan to battle corruption in post apocalypse America. 3:00 PM Dark Angel Sci Fi /Drama/Action Syndicated 4:00 PM Dark Angel Sci Fi /Drama/Action Syndicated 5:00 PM Dolemite Blaxploitation/Kung Fu Feature Film A wrongly jailed man and his female kung Fu friends seek vengeance on the rival who put him away. 7:00 PM Shaft Blaxploitation/Kung Fu Feature Film John Shaft is the ultimate in suave black detectives. He finds himself up against Bumpy, the leader of a black crime mob, the against black nationals, and finally working with both against white mafia who are trying to blackmail Bumpy by kidnapping his daughter. 9:30 PM Dolemite Blaxploitation/Kung Fu Feature Film 11:30 PM Shaft Blaxploitation/Kung Fu Fe ature Film 1:00 AM N/A N/A N/A

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98 2:00 AM The Black Belly of the Tarantula Horror/Foreign Feature Film An Italian detective hunts a health spa killer who uses a knife dipped in venom. 4:00 AM Paid Programmin g N/A N/A Tues. Jan 20th, 2015 6: 00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 7:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 8:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 9:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 10:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 11:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 12:00 PM The Outfit Crime/Feature Feature Film Petty crook Earl Macklin seeks revenge on the murderer of his brother. When he discovers who is responsible for the death of his brother, he realizes they are also after him. 2:00 PM The New Yor k Ripper Horror/Foreign Feature Film A homicidal madman's vendetta against promiscuous women is taken to grisly extremes on the streets of Manhattan. 4:00 PM The Crazies Sci Fi /Horror/Action Feature Film An unknown toxin turns peaceful citizens into blood thirsty lunatics. Authorities block off the town and Sheriff Dutten, his wife and two companions must find a way out. 6:00 PM The Shaolin Avengers KungFu/Action Feature Film Also known as "The Invincible Kung Fu Brothers," retells the stories of legendry Shaolin fighters Fong Si Yu and Hu Wei Chien. 8:00 PM Back Home Docu/Reality Acquired This series follows a different celebrity guest each week on an intimate and emotional voyage to their family's country of origin 8:30 PM Director's Chair: John Carpen ter Talk Show Original Candid, off the cuff conversations between filmmaking's most fascinating figures. Top directors tackle insightful questions only other directors would think to ask. Hosted by Robert Rodriguez. 9:30 PM Director's Chair: Guillermo Del Toro Talk Show Original 10:30 PM Back Home Docu/Reality Acquired 11:00 PM The X Files Sci Fi /Drama/Action Syndicated FBI special agents investigate unexplained cases involving paranormal phenomena. Fox Mulder believes in the existence of aliens and the paranormal while Dana Scully remains a skeptic.

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99 12:00 AM The X Files Sci Fi /Drama/Action Syndicated 1:00 AM The Shaolin Avengers KungFu/Action Feature Film 4:00 AM Paid Programmin g N/A N/A Wed. Jan 21st. 2015 6:00 AM Core Culture Spo rts Syndicated 7:00 AM Core Culture Sports Syndicated 8:00 AM Core Culture Sports Syndicated 9:00 AM Core Culture Sports Syndicated 10:00 AM Back Home Docu/Reality Acquired 10:30 AM Back Home Docu/Reality Acquired 11:00 AM Back Home Docu/ Reality Acquired 11:30 AM Maniac Sci Fi /Horror/Action Feature Film A psychopath troubled by his childhood abuse, loose in NYC, kills young women and takes their scalps as his trophies. Will he find the perfect woman who ends his killing spree? 1:00 PM Logan's Run Sci Fi /Drama/Action Feature Film In the distant future, young residents enjoy an idyllic lifestyle within the confines of a doomed city. The general belief is that when each person turns 30, they are reincarnated. Those who know the truth becom e "runners" and flee. 3:45 PM The Beastmaste r Sci Fi /Drama/Action Feature Film Prehistoric Dar uses ESP with animals to save a slave girl from a sorcerer. 6:00 PM Lucha Undergroun d Wrestling/Sports Original High flying, explosive moves of Lucha Libre, an ancient combat tradition. Watch as good and evil wage war in a grittier battleground called "The Temple." 7:00 PM Lucha Undergroun d Wrestling/Sports Original 8:00 PM Lucha Undergroun d Wrestling/Sports Original

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100 9:00 PM Lucha Undergroun d Wrestling/Sp orts Original 10:00 PM Lucha Undergroun d Wrestling/Sports Original 11:00 PM Lucha Undergroun d Wrestling/Sports Original 12:00 AM Director's Chair: Quentin Tarantino Talk Show Original 1:00 AM City of the Living Dead Sci Fi /Horror/Action Feature Film A newsman and a prematurely buried woman confront the living dead in Massachusetts. 4:00 AM Paid Programmin g N/A N/A Thurs. Jan 22, 2015 6:00 AM Director's Chair: Guillermo Del Toro Talk Show Original 7:00 AM Director's Chair: John Ca rpenter Talk Show Original 8:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 9:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 10:00 AM Miami Vice Talk Show Original 11:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 12:00 PM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 1: 00 PM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 2:00 PM Vengeance Thriller/Foreign Feature Film A man returns to track down and kill the men who murdered his brother in China 1925. 4:15 PM Vengeance is a Golden KungFu/Action Feature Film A young woman se eks vengeance against those who stole her father's sword.

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101 Blade 6:30 PM The Five Deadly Venoms KungFu/Action Feature Film A dying master sends his last student to check up on five former pupils, who each know a special style of kung Fu . 9:00 PM Crippled Aven gers KungFu/Action Feature Film Three men, crippled by an evil warlord, become friends and learn kung Fu with the help of an old teacher and his idiot pupil. 11:15 PM The Five Deadly Venoms KungFu/Action Feature Film 1:45 AM Crippled Avengers KungFu/ Action Feature Film 4:00 AM Paid Programmin g N/A N/A Fri. Jan 23rd, 2015 6:00 AM Director's Chair: John Carpenter Talk Show 7:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 8:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 9:00 AM Miami Vice Cri me/Drama Syndicated 10:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 11:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 12:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 1:00 PM The Lizard KungFu/Action Feature Film In Shanghai, police are baffled by a cunning thie f known as "The Lizard," a modern day Robin Hood who steals from the corrupt upper class and gives to the poor. 3:15 PM The Magnificent Ruffians KungFu/Action Feature Film Yuan Ting Fei is the descendent of the one known as Golden Sword and himself is a m aster of the technique as well as being boss of the town. 5:30 PM Shaft Blaxploitation/Featur e Feature Film 8:00 PM Director's Chair: Quentin Tarantino Talk Show Original

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102 9:00 PM Director's Chair: Quentin Tarantino 2 Talk Show Original 10:00 PM R ats: Night of Terror Horror/Foreign Feature Film One hundred years after a nuclear war has devastated the planet, society has been reborn into two factions; the underground society and the scavengers above in the wastelands . A group of scavengers on bikes come across a town infested with flesh eating rats, and soon the gore is spilling everywhere. 12:15 AM Outland Sci Fi /Drama/Action Feature Film In the distant future, a police marshal stationed at a remote mining colony on the Jupiter moon of Io unco vered a drug smuggling conspiracy, and gets no help from the populace when he later finds himself marked for murder. 2:30 AM Director's Chair: Quentin Tarantino Talk Show Original 3:30 AM On Set: 'From Dusk Till Dawn: The Series' Docu/Reality Original Behind the scenes during the filming of original series 'From Dusk Till Dawn' 4:00 AM Paid Programmin g N/A N/A Sat. Jan 24, 2015 6:00 AM Core Culture Sports Syndicated 7:00 AM Core Culture Sports Syndicated 8:00 AM Lucha Undergroun d Wres tling/Sports Original 9:00 AM Lucha Undergroun d Wrestling/Sports Original 10:00 AM Fright Night Sci Fi /Horror/Action Feature Film When a teenager learns that his next door neighbor is a vampire, no one will believe him. 12:15 PM The Black Cat H orror/Foreign Feature Film American honeymooners in Hungary are trapped in the home of a Satan worshipping priest when the bride is taken there for medical help following a road accident. 2:15 PM Deathdream AKA Dead Sci Fi /Horror/Action Fea ture Film A young man killed in Vietnam inexplicably returns home as a zombie.

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103 of Night 4:15 PM Opera Sci Fi /Horror/Action Feature Film A young opperata is stalked by a deranged fan bent on killing the people associated with her to claim her for himself. 6:3 0 PM The Black Cat Horror/Foreign Feature Film 8:30 PM Deathdream AKA Dead of Night Sci Fi /Horror/Action Feature Film 10:30 PM Opera Sci Fi /Horror/Action Feature Film 12:45 AM Fright Night Sci Fi /Horror/Action Feature Film 3:00 A M Director's Chair: Quentin Tarantino 2 Talk Show Original 4:00 AM Paid Programmin g N/A N/A Sun. Jan 25, 2015 6:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 7:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 8:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 9:00 AM Miami Vice Crime/Drama Syndicated 10:00 AM Films of Fury KungFu/Action Feature Film The history of the martial arts film genre. 12:00 PM House of Traps KungFu/Action Feature Film A team of skilled fighters navigating a house rigged with an array of ingenious and deadly traps. 2:00 PM Masked Avengers KungFu/Action Feature Film A repentant killer who vows to destroy the masked gang of which he was a member. A young fighter and his martial arts brothers come to the town to catch the killers, b ut one of them is not be trusted! 4:00 PM House of Traps KungFu/Action Feature Film 6:00 PM Masked Avengers KungFu/Action Feature Film 8:00 PM The X Files Sci Fi /Drama/Action Syndicated

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104 9:00 PM The X Files Sci Fi /Drama/Action Syndicated 10:00 PM The X Files Sci Fi /Drama/Action Syndicated 11:00 PM The X Files Sci Fi /Drama/Action Syndicated Source: El Rey Network Episode Guide. (2015, January 19). Retrieved January 27, 2015.

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105 Table B 2 . Nu voTV programming s chedule Jan 19 th 25 th , 2015 Title Program Genre Program Type Program Description Mon. Jan 19th, 2015 6:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 7:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 8:00 AM House of Joy (Music, Marriage, Mayhem) Reality/ Docu/Music Original Grammy Award winning producer Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins has masterminded hits for some of today's hottest stars. But, his greatest love -his wife Joy Enriquez -is about to become his toughest client. Between Joy and Rodney's creative c onflicts in the studio, and all of the hijinks in their house, the series showcases one of Hollywood's most fun loving families. 8:30 AM House of Joy (Music, Marriage, Mayhem) Reality/Docu/Music Original 9:00 AM Curvy Girls Reality/Docu Original An al l access pass inside the glamorous world of professional modeling by shining the spotlight on four plus size models. Their passion and pride fuel their drive, but secret battles with insecurity, eating disorders and rocky relationships threaten to singe th eir competitive spirit as they navigate the fast lane of auditions and catty competition. 9:30 AM Curvy Girls Reality/Docu Original 10:00 AM Curvy Girls Reality/Docu Original 10:30 AM Curvy Girls Reality/Docu Original 11:00 AM Love & Salsa Realit y/Competition/ Dance/Music Original Hosted by Courtney Lopez, the series is a musical matchmaking competition where contestants will have to find chemistry with a dance partner and ignite fireworks on the dance floor. Every episode ends in an exciting dance off finale where the audience will vote to decide which couple has found true love and which couple will get their walking shoes. 11:30 AM Love & Salsa Reality/Competition/ Dance/Music Original 12:00 PM Love & Salsa Reality/Competition/ Dance/Music Orig inal 12:30 PM Love & Salsa Reality/Competition/ Dance/Music Original

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106 1:00 PM Mario Lopez: One on One Talk Show Original In this exclusive interview series, Hollywood insider Mario Lopez goes one on one with some of today's hottest celebrities and most influential Latino superstars. Special guests have included Ice T, Cheech Marin, Danny Trejo, Michael Pena and more. 1:30 PM Mario Lopez: One on One Talk Show Original 2:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated Originally from TLC, this Am erican reality show follows the events of the High Voltage Tattoo studios in Los Angeles, California starring Kat Von D 3:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 4:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 5:00 PM Cash C ab Game Show Syndicated Originally from Discovery Channel, unassuming people enter the "Cash Cab" as simple passengers taking a normal taxi ride, only to be shocked when they discover that they're instant contestants on an innovative game show. The drive will ask general knowledge questions and every correct answer is awarded with cash. Three wrong answers and contestants are kicked out of the cab. 5:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 6:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 6:30 PM Cash Cab Game Sh ow Syndicated 7:00 PM NuvoTV Cinema ANACONDA Thriller/Adventure Feature Film A film crew for National Geographic has been taken hostage by a snake hunter who is going after the world's largest giant anaconda in the Amazon Rainforest. Starring Jennifer Lopez, Ice Cube, John Voight, Danny Trejo and many more. 9:00 PM NuvoTV Cinema BAD ASS Drama/Action Feature Film Frank Vega is a decorated Vietnam War veteran who takes justice into his own hands when his best friend is murdered. Starring Danny Trejo, C harles S. Dutton, Chris Spencer and many more. 11:00 PM Dexter Crime/Drama Syndicated Dexter Morgan is the Miami Police Department's forensics expert who specializes in blood splatter analysis. He solves crimes by day and commits murders by night. He str uggles with a compulsion to kill people and his desire for true happiness. 12:15 AM Dexter Crime/Drama Syndicated 1:30 AM NuvoTV Cinema BAD ASS Drama/Action Feature Film 3:30 AM Unacceptable Behavior Comedy/Sketch Syndicated This Latino sketch co medy show is a mash up of funny Latino comedians performing short sketches.

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107 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A Tues. Jan 20th, 2015 6:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 7:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 8:00 AM Styleyes Fashion Original 8:30 AM Styleyes Fashion Original 9:00 AM Pastport Reality/Docu Original Latino celebrities such as Wilmer Valderrama, Tatyana Ali and many more travel to the land of their ancestors, including Cuba , Argentina and Venezuela. And they will discover that thei r pasts shapes their future. 10:00 AM Pastport Reality/Docu Original 11:00 AM Mission Menu Reality/Food Original Master chefs employ their experience, tastes and talents to combine flavors and ingredients to create culinary artistry. Because of this ra re expertise, restaurant owners of all varieties turn to these superstar chefs to overhaul their menus and save their failing restaurants. 11:30 AM Mission Menu Reality/Food Original 12:00 PM Mission Menu Reality/Food Original 12:30 PM Mission Menu Reality/Food Original 1:00 PM Adrenalina Extreme Sports/Reality Original Picturesque global destinations are the backdrop for a look at thrill seeking extreme sports. 1:30 PM Adrenalina Extreme Sports/Reality Original 2:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D R eality/Docu Syndicated 3:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 4:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 5:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 5:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 6:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show S yndicated 6:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated

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108 7:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 7:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 8:00 PM NuvoTV Special Pete Correale Docu/Reality Original "The Things We Do For Love" stars Tonight Show veteran Pe te Correale in a stand up comedy special. 9:30 PM NuvoTV Special Alonzo Bodden Docu/Reality Original "Who's Paying Attention?" stars comedian Alonzo Bodden in a hilarious 2010 New York stand up concert. 11:00 PM Dexter Crime/Drama Syndicated 12:15 A M Dexter Crime/Drama Syndicated 1:30 AM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original Filmed on location at the Cabo San Lucas Comedy Festival, this series combines hilarious comics with a breathtaking locale hosted by Julissa Bermudez and Jose Sarduy. 2:00 AM S tand Up & Deliver Comedy Original 2:30 AM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original 3:00 AM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original 3:30 AM Unacceptable Behavior Comedy/Sketch Original 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A Wed. Jan 21st. 2015 6:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 7:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 8:00 AM Fight Factory Reality/Fitness Original Step inside MMA coach Javier Mendez's American Kickboxing Academy and Josh Koscheck's Dethrone Base Camp and witness the grueling training, ungua rded candid moments and solid as brass brotherhood that comes with chasing the American dream in a sport that can turn a college wrestling hero into a global MMA superstar overnight. 9:00 AM Fight Factory Reality/Fitness Original 10:00 AM Fight Factory Reality/Fitness Original

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109 11:00 AM Operation: Osmin Reality/Fitness Original A reality series that found physical trainer Osmin Hernandez working 10 overweight people into the shape of their lives in a brutal, 30 day challenge. But it doesn't end there. 12:00 PM Operation: Osmin Reality/Fitness Original 1:00 PM Operation: Osmin Reality/Fitness Original 2:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 3:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 4:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D R eality/Docu Syndicated 5:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 5:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 6:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 6:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 7:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 7:30 PM Cash Cab Ga me Show Syndicated 8:00 PM The Shield Crime/Drama Syndicated Originally from FX network, the shield is an experimental division of the LAPD featuring a group of detectives called the Strike Team. The team uses a variety of illegal and unethical method s to prosecute criminals and maintain peace on the streets while making a profit through illegal drug protection schemes and robbery. 9:00 PM The Shield Crime/Drama Syndicated 10:00 PM The Shield Crime/Drama Syndicated 11:00 PM Dexter Crime/Drama Syndicated 12:15 AM Dexter Crime/Drama Syndicated 1:30 AM The Rub Talk Show Syndicated An innovative talk show that tackles sensitive issues about sex, love and relationships hosted by Diego Varas, Kristina Guerrero, Kerri Kasem and Sam Sarpong 2: 00 AM The Rub Talk Show Syndicated 2:30 AM The Rub Talk Show Syndicated 3:00 AM The Rub Talk Show Syndicated 3:30 AM Unacceptable Comedy/Sketch Syndicated

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110 Behavior 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A Thurs. Jan 22, 2015 6:00 AM Paid Pr ogramming N/A N/A 7:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 8:00 AM The Fight for Brazil Soccer/Reality Original Your insider's guide to the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament. Explore the stadiums, meet the teams and players, and witness all of the excitement an d anticipation in Rio as the city prepares to host one of the world's biggest and most revered international sporting events. 8:30 AM The Fight for Brazil Soccer/Reality Original 9:00 AM Road to Rio Travel/Reality Original An action packed travel serie s showcasing the beautiful sights of South America starring comedians Mark Watson and Henning Wehn. The pair will dig deep into the people and the culture behind six South American countries participating in the 2014 FIFA World Cup. 9:30 AM Road to Rio Tr avel/Reality Original 10:00 AM Los Jets Reality/Docu Original This is the real story of Los Jets, a North Carolina high school soccer team made up almost entirely of young Latino men whose parents immigrated here in search of a better life. Follow their journey to compete to win the state championship as they defy odds, face adversity, experience defeat and taste victory on and off the field. 10:30 AM Los Jets Reality/Docu Original 11:00 AM Adrenalina Extreme Sports/Reality Original 11:30 AM Adren alina Extreme Sports/Reality Original 12:00 PM Adrenalina Extreme Sports/Reality Original 12:30 AM Adrenalina Extreme Sports/Reality Original 1:00 PM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original 1:30 PM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original

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111 2:00 PM LA In k with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 3:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 4:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 5:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 5:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 6:00 PM Cas h Cab Game Show Syndicated 6:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 7:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 7:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 8:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 8:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 9:00 PM NuvoTV Cinema S.I.S Crime/Drama Feature Film The Special Investigation Squad, an elite secret police force, hunts down criminals in the streets of Los Angeles. Starring Keith David, Christina Cox, Peter Stebbings 11:00 PM Dexter Crime/Drama Syndicated 12:15 AM Dexter Crime/Drama Syndicated 1:30 AM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original 2:00 AM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original 2:30 AM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original 3:00 AM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original 3:30 AM Unacceptable Behavior Come dy/Sketch Original 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A Fri. Jan 23rd, 2015 6:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A

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112 7:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 8:00 AM Adrenalina Extreme Sports/Reality Original 8:30 AM Adrenalina Extreme Sports/Reality O riginal 9:00 AM A Step Away Dance/Reality Original An intimate look at the unique journeys of a sexy and ambitious crew of professional dancers performing with global superstar J .L o on her first ever world tour. 9:30 AM A Step Away Dance/Reality Orig inal 10:00 AM Model Latina Reality/Competition Original Features 10 beautiful Latinas who are on a quest to kick their competition off the catwalk as they compete for a huge cash prize and modeling contract. Hot celebrity judges and intense challenges. 11:00 AM Model Latina Reality/Competition Original 12:00 PM Model Latina Reality/Competition Original 1:00 PM Love & Salsa Reality/Competition/ Dance/Music Original 1:30 PM Love & Salsa Reality/Competition/ Dance/Music Original 2:00 PM LA Ink wi th Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 3:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 4:00 PM LA Ink with Kat Von D Reality/Docu Syndicated 5:00 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 5:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 6:00 PM Cash Ca b Game Show Syndicated 6:30 PM Cash Cab Game Show Syndicated 7:00 PM NuvoTV Cinema S.I.S Crime/Drama Feature Film 9:00 PM NuvoTV Cinema Sudden Death Crime/Drama Feature Film Ex fireman Darren McCord is working security at the Pittsburgh Civic Arena during the Stanley Cup Finals, unaware that the place has been taken over by a group of terrorists. He is forced to jump into action to save the day. 11:30 PM NuvoTV Cinema Sudden Death Crime/Drama Feature Film

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113 2:00 AM The Collective by Vevo Mus ic/Variety Original Variety show featuring DJs and celebrity tastemakers offering music picks and covering trends in music, fashion, live events, viral videos and more. 3:00 AM The Collective by Vevo Music/Variety Original 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A Sat. Jan 24, 2015 6:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 7:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 8:00 AM Pastport Reality/Docu Original 9:00 AM Pastport Reality/Docu Original 10:00 AM The Collective by Vevo Music/Variety Original 11:00 AM The Collective by Vevo Music/Variety Original 12:00 PM Curvy Girls Reality/Docu Original 12:30 PM Curvy Girls Reality/Docu Original 1:00 PM Curvy Girls Reality/Docu Original 1:30 PM Curvy Girls Reality/Docu Original 2:00 PM Mario Lopez: One on One Talk Show Original 2:30 PM Mario Lopez: One on One Talk Show Original 3:00 PM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original 3:30 PM Stand Up & Deliver Comedy Original 4:00 PM NuvoTV Cinema Cheech & Chong's Nice Dreams Comedy Feature Film Superlat ive pot smokers Cheech and Cong realize that one of their pals is developing a strain of marijuana that slowly turns smokers into reptiles. They begin selling the product disguised as ice cream sellers and find themselves in trouble when a police officer i s on to them. 6:00 PM Anjelah Johnson: The Comedy Special

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114 Homecoming Show 7:30 PM NuvoTV Special Gabriel Iglesias Docu/Comedy Original Comedian Gabriel Iglesias presents "Rick Gutierrez: I'm Not Mad, I'm Just a Parent," a stand up special featuring the comedian's hysterical take on everything from family life to the Internet. 9:00 PM NuvoTV Special Selena Gomez Docu/Reality Original 10:30 PM NuvoTV Special Gabriel Iglesias Docu/Comedy Original "Living the Dream" series premiere follows Selena's journey from child phenomenon to international sensation with interviews from experts and Selena herself. 12:00 AM NuvoTV Special Selena Gomez Docu/Reality Original 1:30 AM NuvoTV Cinema Cheech & Chong's Nice Dreams Comedy Feature Film 3:30 AM Un acceptable Behavior Comedy/Sketch Original 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A Sun. Jan 25, 2015 6:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 7:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A 8:00 AM Mission Menu Reality/Food Original 8:30 AM Mission Menu Reality/ Food Original 9:00 AM Mission Menu Reality/Food Original 9:30 AM Mission Menu Reality/Food Original 10:00 AM Model Latina Reality/Competition Original 10:30 AM Model Latina Reality/Competition Original 11:00 AM Model Latina Reality/Competiti on Original 11:30 AM Model Latina Reality/Competition Original

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115 12:00 PM The Shield Crime/Drama Syndicated 1:00 PM The Shield Crime/Drama Syndicated 2:00 PM The Shield Crime/Drama Syndicated 3:00 PM The Shield Crime/Drama Syndicated 4: 00 PM The Shield Crime/Drama Syndicated 5:00 PM NuvoTV Cinema S.I.S Crime/Drama Feature Film 7:00 PM NuvoTV Cinema Suicide Kings Crime/Drama Feature Film Five privileged , wealthy men kidnap a former mafia boss in a desperate attempt to raise a ran som to save a friend's sister. 9:00 PM NuvoTV Cinema S.I.S Crime/Drama Feature Film 11:00 PM NuvoTV Cinema Suicide Kings Crime/Drama Feature Film 1:00 AM NuvoTV Special Pete Correale Docu/Reality Original 2:30 AM NuvoTV Special Alonzo Bodden Docu/Reality Original 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A Source: NuvoTV Listing. (2015, January 19). Retrieved January 27, 2015 ; Brings It Home The Way It Is! Latinheat.com. Retrieved: http://www.latinheat.com/tv 3/tv news tv 3/nuvos house of joy brings it home the way it is/ ;Discovery Channel About the Show: Cash Cab. Retrieved January 30: http://www.discovery.com/tv shows/cash cab/about this show/about/ ; Unacceptable Behavior Facebook Page. Retrieved January 30, https://www.facebook.com/pages/Unacceptable Behavior/906027692747956?sk=info&tab=page_info ; Del Valle, E. (2005). Si TV Launches International Syndication of http://www.hispanicmpr.com/2005/12/01/si tv launches international syndication of the rub/ Music Series. Variety.com. Retrieved: http://variety.com/2014/digital/news/vevo pacts with nu votv and jennifer lopez for the collective weekly music series 1201110531/

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116 Table B 3 . Fusion programming s chedule Jan. 19 th 25 th , 2015 Title Program Genre Program Type Program Description Mon. Jan 19th, 2015 6:00 AM Drug Wars Docu/Reality Ori ginal A behind the scenes look at the battles being waged against the intercontinental drug trade. We'll give you unprecedented access, bringing you shoulder to shoulder with the DEA and Coast Guard officials, as well as Panamanian and Columbian anti drug forces as they combat smugglers, guerrilla fighters, and seize hundreds millions of dollars of cocaine. 6:30 AM Drug Wars Docu/Reality Original 7:00 AM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original Jorge Ramos, one of the most influential journalists of the d ay, goes wherever the story is to bring you a bold and uncompromising look at the issues that matter to you. 8:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original A new way of viewing documentaries. The films will be shown in their entirety, but in between segments, j ournalist and host Mariana Van Zeller will interview the film's creators and cast about the struggles they encountered making the film, their feelings about the topics presented and what has occurred since the cameras stopped rolling. 10:00 AM Fusion Inve stigates News Original The network's team dedicated to original investigative reporting, with an emphasis on stories that will have an impact. Through narrative storytelling we cover issues about immigration, injustice, corruption, the economy, and the dru g war. 11:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 1:00 PM The Dukes of 2Square Reality/Docu Original Meet Justin and Jeremiah, aka 2Square. Two street artists from Tennessee who left a comfortable life to pursue their desire to paint. Follow them on an epic journey through Europe and beyond. A true testament to life, art and the pursuit of happiness. 1:30 PM The Dukes of 2Square Reality/Docu Original 2:00 PM The Dukes of 2Square Reality/Docu Original 2:30 PM The Dukes of 2Square Reality/Docu Origi nal 3:00 PM The Dukes of 2Square Reality/Docu Original 3:30 PM The Dukes of 2Square Reality/Docu Original 4:00 PM Fusion Investigates News Original

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117 5:00 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 5:30 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 6:00 PM Dr ug Wars Reality/Docu Original 6:30 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 7:00 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 7:30 PM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original Alicia Menendez takes on the big three -sex, money and power -with thoughtful commentary, i ntimate interviews and conversations with young voices across the country. 8:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 10:00 PM The Soccer Gods Sports Original The ultimate roundup of the most interesting stories from the wonderful world of soccer brought to you by two people who are way too obsessed with it for their own good. 11:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 12:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 1:00 AM The Soccer Gods Sports Original 2:00 AM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 2:30 AM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 3:00 AM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 3:30 AM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A Tues. Jan 20th, 2015 6:00 AM The Soccer Gods Sports Original 7:00 AM Document al Docu/Reality Original 9:00 AM The Soccer Gods Sports Original 10:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 12:00 PM The Soccer Gods Sports Original 1:00 PM Alicia News Original

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118 Menendez Tonight 1:30 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original Strange Medicine follows Dr. Juan Rivera on his search for the strangest cures and most exotic medicines around the world. Dr. Juan is adventurous and unrelentingly curious -however he's no Bear Grylls. It's Heart of Darkness meets Anthony Bourdain with a healthy slice of Fear Factor. 2:00 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 2:30 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 3:00 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 3:30 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 4:00 PM The Soccer Gods Sports Original 5:00 PM Fusion Special News Original 5:30 PM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 6:30 PM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 7:30 PM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 8:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 9:00 PM Fusion Special News Original 9:30 PM Fusion Special News Original 10:00 PM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 11:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 12:00 AM Fusion Special News Original

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119 12:30 AM Fusion Special News Original 1: 00 AM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 2:00 AM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 2:30 AM Fusion Special News Original 3:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 4:00 AM Paid Programming Original Wed. Jan 21st. 2015 6:00 AM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 7:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 8:30 AM Fusion Special News Original 9:00 AM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 10:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 12:00 PM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 1:00 PM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 1:30 PM Cannabusine ss Report News Original An insider's perspective on the mainstreaming of marijuana in the United States and beyond, from host Ryan Nerz, author of Marijuanamerica. 2:00 P M Cannabusine ss Report News Original 2:30 PM Cannabusine ss Report News Original

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120 3:00 PM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 3:30 PM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 4:00 PM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 5:00 PM Fusion Special News Original 5:30 PM Fusion Investigates News Original 6:30 PM Fusion Investigates News Original 7:30 PM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 8:00 PM Documental Docu/Reality Original 10:00 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 10:30 PM Drug War s Reality/Docu Original 11:00 PM Documental Docu/Reality Original 12:00 AM Documental Docu/Reality Original 1:00 AM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 1:30 AM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 2:00 AM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 2:30 AM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 3:00 AM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 3:30 AM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A Thurs. Jan 22, 2015

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121 6:00 AM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 6:30 AM Drug W ars Reality/Docu Original 7:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 8:30 AM Fusion Special News Original 9:00 AM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 9:30 AM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 10:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 12:30 PM Dru g Wars Reality/Docu Original 1:00 PM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 1:30 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original Back Home follows a different celebrity guest each week on an intimate and emotional voyage to their family's country of origin. Every episode is an exciting journey of self discovery that shed light on the power of family, friends and our roots. 2:00 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 2:30 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 3:00 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 3:30 PM Back H ome Reality/Docu Original 4:00 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 4:30 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 5:00 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 5:30 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 6:00 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Ori ginal 6:30 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 7:00 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 7:30 PM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 8:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original

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122 10:00 PM Half Like Me Reality/Docu Original Prompted b y a family reunion, The Daily Show's Al Madrigal goes on a quest to learn how to be a better Latino and finally understand what it means to be "half like me." 11:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 12:00 AM Documental Docu/Reality Original 1:00 A M Half Like Me Reality/Docu Original 2:00 AM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 2:30 AM Documental Docu/Reality 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A Fri. Jan 23rd, 2015 6:00 AM Half Like Me Reality/Docu Original 7:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 9:30 AM No, You Shut Up! Comedy/News Original A comedy news program hosted by Paul F. Tompkins and his puppet cohorts that takes on the issues of the day until everyone gets too angry to discuss them any further. 10:00 AM No, You Shut Up! Comedy/News Original 10:30 AM Documental Docu/Reality Original 11:30 AM Fusion Special News Original 12:00 PM No, You Shut Up! Comedy/News Original 12:30 PM No, You Shut Up! Comedy/News Original 1:00 PM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 1:30 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 2:00 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 2:30 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original

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123 3:00 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 3:30 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Origin al 4:00 PM No, You Shut Up! Comedy/News Original 4:30 PM No, You Shut Up! Comedy/News Original 5:00 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 5:30 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 6:00 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 6: 30 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 7:00 PM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 7:30 PM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 8:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 10:00 PM Fusion Investigates News Original 11:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 12:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 1:00 AM Fusion Investigates News Original 2:00 AM Alicia Menendez Tonight News Original 2:30 AM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 3:00 AM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Ori ginal 3:30 AM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 4:00 AM Paid N/A N/A

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124 Programming Sat. Jan 24, 2015 6:00 AM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 7:00 AM DocuMental Reality/Docu Original 9:00 AM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Or iginal 9:30 AM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 10:00 AM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 10:30 AM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 11:00 AM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Original 11:30 AM Strange Medicine Reality/Docu Orig inal 12:00 PM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 1:00 PM Fusion Special News Original 1:30 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 3:00 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 3:30 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 4:00 PM Drug Wars Reality/D ocu Original 4:30 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 5:00 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 5:30 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 6:00 PM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 7:00 PM Fusion Investigates News Original

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125 8:00 PM Back Hom e Reality/Docu Original 8:30 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 9:00 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 9:30 AM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 10:00 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 10:30 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 11:00 PM Bac k Home Reality/Docu Original 11:30 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 12:00 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 12:30 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 1:00 AM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 1:30 AM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 2:00 A M DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 4:00 AM Paid Programming N/A N/A Sun. Jan 25, 2015 6:00 AM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 8:00 AM Fusion Special News Original 8:30 AM Fusion Special News Original 9:00 AM AMERICA with Jorge Ramo s News Original 10:00 AM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 10:30 AM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 11:00 AM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 11:30 AM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 12:00 PM Back Home Reality/Docu Original 12:30 PM Back Hom e Reality/Docu Original 1:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality

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126 3:00 PM Fusion Investigates News Original 4:00 PM AMERICA with Jorge Ramos News Original 5:00 PM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 5:30 PM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 6:00 PM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 6:30 PM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 7:00 PM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 7:30 PM Cannabusine ss Report News Original 8:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original 10:00 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu O riginal 10:30 PM Drug Wars Reality/Docu Original 11:00 PM DocuMental Docu/Reality Original Source: Fusion Schedule. (2015, January 19). Retrieved January 27, 2015.

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127 APPENDIX C RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS

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128 Table C 1 rofiles Network GHDA Network TUBM Network CFXY Programming Associate Director of Programming & Acquisitions Executive in Programming & Development Original Content Coordinator Director of Programming & Development Director of Development, Branded Content Marketing Integrated Marketing Manager Senior Marketing Manager Marketing Operations Manager Director of Integrated Marketing Director of Affiliate Marketing Research Vice President of Audience Strategy & Insig hts Digital Research Analyst Director of Research Other Sales Coordinator Director of Communications & Special Events N/A

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129 APPENDIX D MAJOR CATEGORICAL THEM ES

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130 T able D 1 . Major categorical t hemes Target Audience Content Development Marketing Str ategies Research Barriers GHDA Desired Audience Content Criteria Digital Presence Resources Network Challenges Male/Female 18 49 Rebellious Social media awareness Nielsen ratings Digital visibility Multicultural audiences Authenticity Social media mar keting Independent research Young network English speaking Cutting edge Engaged social media audience Nielsen Hispanic Research Audience fragmentation 2nd & 3rd generation Latinos Cinematic/High production value Communicating brand identity to adve rtisers Reflective of American population Culturally influential movies Feedback Learnings "New Mainstream" Multiculturalism Positive feedback Capturing desired audience Industry Challenges Forward thinking English language Hispanics don't like to be marginalized Time shifted viewing Resonating Traditional Approaches Need for research Millennial TV viewing habits Hispanic audiences Non traditional Cross promotional efforts Research is very important in content acquisitions Oversaturated dig ital market place Over index on same content as mainstream Shareable Audience skews male and older Lack of research Growing demographic Changes No filters in measuring Latino audiences Vocal audience Original Content Integrated marketing Nee d to diversify executive pool Don't want to be marginalized Repurposed to reach different audiences Follow your audience Need better solutions for fair representations Develop content based on network needs Need to be organic and clever Mille nnial Viewer Build content of existing franchises Have to answer to advertisers Millennials are online Search for best available content

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131 & talent English language Brand Identity Inherently Latino Acquired Content Young net work Business decisions Building brand awareness Subtitled content Badass identity Majority of content "New Mainstream" Non traditional New Strategies Committed to pursuit of diversity Mixing Am erican and Hispanic cultural aspects Mixing English and foreign languages Race enriches storyline, not drives it Breaking stereotypes Latino talent behind and in front of camera Representative of audience Heavy Executive board involvement

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132 TUBM Desired Audience Content Attributes Digital presence Resources Network Challenges Male/Female 18 34 English language Social Media marketing Qualitative research Millennial TV viewing habits Multicu ltural millennials Hispanic emphasis Engaged social media audience Internal Research Limited financially English speaking Multiculturalism Partnerships with digital platforms Not Nielsen rated Limited distribution Intellectually , Socially & Culturally Attuned Unique POVs Nielsen Research Limited human resources Reflective of American population Representative of audience Feedback Geography Forward thinking Unscripted Positive PR Learnings Still defining right content Authenticity Positive f eedback Happy with growth Lack of brand marketing Hispanic Audiences Forward thinking Strong grasp on audience Need to improve digital visibility Need more innovative ways to reach audiences Don't want to be hyper targeted Intellectual Past network f ailures Want to be inclusive Liberal Traditional Approaches Hispanics don't like to be marginalized Industry Challenges Over index on same content as mainstream Shareable Target geographically Need to understand the Hispanic millennial Growing de mographic Cutting edge Target psychographically Cord cutters Watch Univision with family Entertainment focus Target attitudinally Need to diversify executive pool 2nd & 3rd generation Latinos Diversity Cross channel promotion Fighting old traditi ons/stereotypes Time shifted viewing Millennial Viewer Original Content Changes Short attention spans Don't like using the world "millennial" Develop shows around talent Cross platform experience Need better solutions for fair representat ions Engaged online audience Salacious topics Experimental approaches Hispanic demographic is underrepresented Millennials are online 90 percent originally developed content Need more diversity Complex identities

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133 Hispanics are major p art of demographic Acquired Content Brand Identity International sources Champion/Celebrate diversity of America Documentary programming Voice to the Voiceless Organic Representations of audience New Strategies Building br and awareness Experimental approaches Building brand perception Traditional approaches to development Forward thinking network Broad digital offerings News organization Reputable & Experienced hires Award winning s taff Millennial Talent Multicultural Talent CFXY Desired Audience Content Criteria Digital Presence Resources Network Challenges Male/Female 18 34 Authenticity Social Media influencers, trendsetters Independent research Lack of consumer marketing High spending power Storytelling Social media marketing Qualitative research Limited distribution Multicultural millennials Unique talent POV Nielsen rated Need more forward thinking people Sophisticated audience Entertainment f ocus Feedback Nielsen research Finding resonating content Value in established names/brands Positive feedback Need to take risks Hispanic Audiences Relevant content Learnings

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134 Modern Latino audience English language Traditional Approaches Mill ennial research is broad Industry Challenges English speaking Reflective of audience Target demographically and geographically High viewership, not targeted audience No outlet for Hispanic voices 2nd & 3rd generation Latinos Latino Talent In house mark eting Hispanic viewership original content Need better solutions for fair representations Don't want to be hyper targeted Multiculturalism Lack of consumer marketing Highest gross audience movies Past failed networks Watch Univision with family Shar eable Cross platform/channel promotion TV viewership is older Networks switch gears quickly in audience targeting Millennial Viewer Original Content Changes Need to research social identity Millennials are online Audience skews younger N eed more consumer marketing Need more research Latino talent Increased budgets to reach multicultural audiences Resonating digital content Marketing to Hispanics same as mainstream Eliminated Spanish language ads Acquired Co ntent Strategic marketing geographically Latino cast member Broader audience targeting Brand Identity Celebrate diversity of America New Strategies Network rebranding Social Media influencers, trendsetters Millen nial multicultural brand Multiculturalism exists organically Non traditional network Increased multicultural

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135 representations Diverse talent and staff Multicultural talent behind and in front of camera

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136 APPENDIX E QUESTIONNAIRE Interview Questions for Programmers & Researchers 1. What is your name and job title? 2. How long have you been working in the television industry? 3. How would you describe the target audience for (television network)? 4. How would you describe the c ontent that (television network) is producing for its target audience? 5. What are some approaches to developing and producing content for (television ) target audience? 6. How is (television network) targeting Hispanic millennials? 7. What are the highes t rated programs at (television network) ? 8. How important is Spanish language programming to (television network) ? 9. How does (television network) represent the bicultural mindset in its programming? 10. What is the response of your target audience to the content (television network) is developing and producing? 11. What are the challenges to developing and producing content for (television target audience? Interview Questions for Internal Marketers 1. What is your name and job title? 2. How long have you been w orking in the marketing & advertising industry? 3. How would you describe the target audience for (television network)?

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137 4. How would you describe the content that (television network) is producing for its target audience? 5. What are some of ( approaches to marketing and advertising to reach target audience? 6. How have marketing approaches changed from a holistic point of view? 7. What marketing strategies are used by ( television network) to target the Hispanic millennial? 8. How important is marketing in both English and Spanish to ( to reach target audience? 9. How does (television network) represent itself from a branding standpoint to its target audience? 10. What are the challenges to marketing to a heterogeneous demographic such as U. S. Hispanics?

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138 LIST OF REFERENCES Agurcia, A. (2013). U.S. Hispanic Media: what you really need to know. Response Magazine. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/ps/i.do?action=interpret&id=GALE%7CA3 54443452&v=2.1&u=gain40375&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount=1 Albert, N. G., Ennis, S.R., Rios Vargas, M. (2011). 2010 Census Briefs: The H ispanic Population: 2010. Issued May 2011. Accessed by: http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br 04.pdf Alvarez, C. M. O., Dickson, P R., Hunter, G. K. (2014). The four f aces of the Hispanic consumer: An acculturation based segmentation. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 67, Issue 2. Ariens, C. (2015). NBCU Hispanic Group will put culture first and challenge the market http://www.adweek.com/news/television/nbcu hispanic group will put culture first and challenge market latino ize 164669 Berry , J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. A.M. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models, and some new findings, Westview Press, Inc., Boulder, CO pp. 9 27 Berry, J. W. (1997). "Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation". Applied Psy chology 46 (1): 10. Retrieved from Lexis Nexus database Brugal, I. (2013) The role of television in the adaptation process of U.S. Hispanics. St. Thomas University M. A. Thesis. Cartagena, C. (2013) Latino Boom II: Catch the Biggest Demographic Wave Since the Baby Boom. Worthy Shorts Publishing Carter, B., Vega, T. (2012). Networks Struggle to Appeal to Hispanics. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/06/business/media/networks struggle to appeal to hispanics without using stereotypes.html?_r=0 Coffey, A. J. (2008). Trends in U.S. Spanish Language Television, 1986 2005: Networks , Advertising and Growth. Journal of Spanish Language Media. Vol. 1. Retriever from: http://ttunewscentral.com/zspanishmedia/wp content/uploads/2013/12/vol 120 08.pdf Coffey, A. J. (2014). The power of cultural factors in Spanish language advertising: ethnic group traits and metrics may predict advertiser investment across media platforms. Journal of Advertising Research. Vol.44, p. 346 355.

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139 Cohen, D. L. (201 2). Comcast to bring four new independent minority owned networks to consumers Academic database Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sag e Publications. Cunningham, T. (2014). Hispanic Moviegoers Had Major Impact on 2013 Box Office. The Wrap. Retrieved from http://www.thewrap.com/hispanics record impact 2013 b ox office/ Dávila, A. (2001). Latinos INC: The Marketing and Making of a People. University of California Press (2012). Lights, camera, accion! Hispanic television in America. The Economist. Retrieved from: http://go.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/ps/i.do?action=interpret&id=GALE%7CA3 11992214&v=2.1&u=gain40375&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount=1 Del Valle, E. (2 MPR.com Retrieved: http://www.hispanicmpr.com/2005/12/01/si tv launches internat ional syndication of the rub/ ; Discovery Channel About the Show: Cash Cab. (2015). Retrieved January 30, 2015: http://www.discovery.com/tv shows/cash cab/about this show/abo ut/ ; Eastman S., Ferguson D. (2012) Media Programming: Strategies and Practices. Cengage Learning; Ninth edition http://www.economist.com/news/special report/21645996 one american six now hispanic up small minority two generations ago El Rey Network Episode Guide. (2015, January 19). R etrieved January 27, 2015. Latinheat.com. Retrieved: http://www.latinheat.c om/tv 3/tv news tv 3/nuvos house of joy brings it home the way it is/ Fixmer, A. (2012). Jennifer Lopez Joins NuvoTV to Target U. S. Latino Viewers. Bloomberg News. Retrieved from: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012 09 12/jennifer lopez joins nuvotv to target u s latino viewers.html

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140 Fox News Latino. (2014). Top Hollywood Movies Still Lack Hispanics In Leading Roles, Study Finds. Ret rieved from: http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/entertainment/2014/08/04/top hollywood movies still lack hispan ics in leadings roles study finds/ Fusion Schedule. (2015, January 19). Retrieved January 27, 2015. Gratereaux, A. (2012). Robert Rodriguez Wants You for New Network Channel. Fox News. Retrieved from: http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/entertainment/2012/02/21/robert rodriguez wants/ Konodolojy, A. (2014, November 4). mun2 to Relaunch as NBC Universo Cable Network. Zap2it. Retrieved from: http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2014/11/04/mun2 to relaunch as nbc universo cable network/324069/ Korzenny, B., Korzenny F. (2012) Hispanic Marketing: Co nnecting with the new Latino Consumer. Routledge; Second Edition Kuperberg, J. (2015). El Rey Network Creating Diversity Council. Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved from: http://w ww.broadcastingcable.com/news/fates and fortunes/el rey network creating diversity council/140680 Levin, G. (2003, September 10). Hispanics finally break the TV barrier. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/408967061/abstract/141BE2442C14F99B2F F/1?accountid=14129 . Mantillo, J. (2014, September 29). The New U.S. Hispanic Mobile Consumer Video [Video file]. Retrieved from: http://pages.mobilemediasummit.com/hispanic mobile consumer video.html?aliId=1061150 Markert, J. (2007). The George Lopez Show: The same old Hispano? B ilingual Review/La Revista Bilingüe, 28(2), 148 165. Marszalek, D. (2012). MundoFox Triggers Explosion in Local News. TV News Check. Retrieved from: http: //www.tvnewscheck.com/article/61142/mundofox triggers explosion in local news Mendoza, R. H. (1989). An empirical scale to measure type and degree of acculturation in Mexican American adolescents and adults Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 20 (4) pp. 372 385

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141 Mora, A. R. (2012) English language Latino themed programming (ELLTP): How self esteem? The University of Texas at San Antonio M. A. Thesis Munoz, M. (2009) Expandi ng the televisual borders: The emergence of Latino themed programming in contemporary English language television. University of California, Los Angeles Ph. D Thesis Navarro, M. (2006). Focusing on an Attitude Rather Than a Language. New York Times. Ret rieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/25/arts/television/25mtv.html?pagewanted=all& _r=0 Nielsen (2012). Report: State of the Hispanic Consumer: The Hi spanic Market Imperative. Quarter 2. Retrieved from: http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/corporate/us/en/reports downloads/ 2012 Reports/State of the Hispanic Consumer.pdf NuvoTV Listing. (2015, January 19). Retrieved January 27, 2015 insults Latinas. The Miami Herald. Retrieved from: http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/05/24/3414814/commentary sofia vergaras modern.html market. http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/07/21/3512427_p4/spanish or english the dilemma.html http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/2012/04/PHC Hispanic Identity.pdf Profile America Facts for Features: Hispanic Heritage Month 2014: Sept. 15 Oct. 15 (2014) U.S. Census Bureau News. Accessed by: http://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census /newsroom/facts for features/2014/cb14ff 22_hispanic.pdf Quintana, S.M., Scull, N.C. (2009). Latino Ethnic Identity. Handbook of U.S. Latino Psychology. pg 81 98. Sage Publications. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm data/29836_Chapter6.pdf

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144 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Uni versity of Florida College of Journalism and Communications. She received her bachelor of arts in political science from the University of Florida in 2012.