BEGGARS SITTING ON A SACK OF GOLD?: LOCAL STAKEHOLDER PERCEPTIONS OF LARGE SCALE MINING IN ECUADOR By LEAH HENDERSON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE RE QUIR EMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF THE ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014
Â© 2014 Leah Henderson
To my family y o u have helped me move mountains
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank my friend s and family for their consistent and persistent support throughout this entire process. I would not have had the courage or the perseverance to be able to accomplish these milestones without them. I would also like to thank Kati Alvarez, the community of Playas Arapicos, and the friends I made along the way while in Ecuador. Care and compassion transformed my relationships with perfect strangers to enduring friendships, for which I am eternally grateful. I would also like to thank Dr. Flora Lu for her end uring support through the years and her continued faith in me. I am eternally grateful for her friendship ongoing support. I would also like to thank Dr. Marianne Schmink for her presence on my committee, and my advisor, Dr. Rick Stepp. Finally, I would al so like to thank the Charles Wagley Research Fellowship available through the Tropical Conservation and Development Program and the Doughty Award, made available through the Anthropology department as both allowed me to make the possibility of research a r eality in the summer of 2013.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 1 3 2 BACKGROUND ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 18 Mining and Extractive Indus tries in Latin America ................................ .................. 18 Ecuador: Past and Present ................................ ................................ ..................... 21 Mining in Ecuador ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 24 Environmental Impli cations ................................ ................................ ..................... 30 The Cordillera del CÃ³ndor ................................ ................................ ....................... 31 The Shuar ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 35 3 THEORY AND LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ................. 39 Political Ecology Frames ................................ ................................ ......................... 39 Environmental Justice ................................ ................................ ............................. 48 Locating My Investigation ................................ ................................ ....................... 58 Participatory Risk Mapping (PRM) and Participatory Tenables Mapping (PTM) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 62 Combining Theory and Method ................................ ................................ ........ 64 4 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 66 Participatory Risk Mapping (PRM) ................................ ................................ .......... 66 Participatory Tenables Mapping (PTM) ................................ ................................ ... 68 Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 70 Fieldwork in the Ecuadorian Amazon ................................ ............................... 70 Research Design ................................ ................................ .............................. 70 Statistical Description of Sample ................................ ................................ ...... 71 5 FIN DINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 74 Participatory Risk Mapping Results ................................ ................................ ........ 74
6 Quadrant Four: High Incidence and High Severity ................................ ........... 74 Quadrant Three: High Incidence and Low Moderate Severity ......................... 75 Quadrant Two: Low Incidence and High Severity ................................ ............. 78 Quadrant One: Low Incidence and Low Severity ................................ ............. 81 Coping Strategies ................................ ................................ ............................. 88 Participatory Tenables Mapping Results ................................ ................................ . 90 Responses Based on Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ............... 96 Hypothesis 1: Shuar respondents stress risks of contamination and territorial integrity as primary concerns . ................................ ........................ 96 Hypothesis 2: Shuar respondents perceive fewer benefits of large scale mining than colonos ................................ ................................ ...................... 98 Hypothesis 3: Colonos are more likely to move as a coping strategy to potential risk ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 99 6 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 101 PRM and PTM Categories ................................ ................................ .................... 101 Responses Based on Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ............. 103 Contextua lizing Intra Cultural Variation ................................ .......................... 113 Broader Significance ................................ ................................ ...................... 115 7 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 117 APPENDIX A TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 120 B RESULTS RETURNED TO COMMUNITIES ................................ ........................ 124 C MATERIALS OBTAINED FROM ECSA ................................ ................................ 127 LIST OF R EFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 130 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 148
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 5 1 Perceived risks: participatory risk mapping ................................ ........................ 88 5 2 Perce ived benefits: tenables mapping table ................................ ....................... 95 A 1 Community and risks ................................ ................................ ........................ 120 A 2 Community and assets ................................ ................................ ..................... 121 A 3 Community and coping strategies ................................ ................................ .... 121 A 4 Ethnicity and risks ................................ ................................ ............................. 122 A 5 Ethnicity an d perceived benefits ................................ ................................ ....... 122 A 6 Ethnicity and coping strategies ................................ ................................ ......... 122 A 7 Coping strategies based on perceived risks ................................ ..................... 123
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Mirador concessions location in Ecuador ................................ ........................... 27 2 2 Map of Mirador property rights ................................ ................................ ............ 29 2 3 Map of southeastern Ecuador's protected lands ................................ ................. 33 2 4 Map of Corriente Resources' concessions and protected parks ......................... 34 4 1 Example of p articipatory r isk m ap ................................ ................................ ....... 68 4 2 Example of p articipatory t enables m ap ................................ ............................... 70 5 1 Mural in El Pangui ................................ ................................ .............................. 76 5 2 Notice outside a Shuar community (reads: private property. The person or company that enters or causes damage to this property will be criminally persecuted or subject to indigenous justice.) ................................ ...................... 81 5 3 Four generations of Shuar women ................................ ................................ ..... 83 5 4 Privatized land from land concessions ................................ ............................... 84 5 5 Signs before the bridge entering Tundayme ................................ ....................... 85 5 6 Participatory risk map ................................ ................................ ......................... 89 5 7 Distribution of responses regarding proposed coping strategies ........................ 90 5 8 Graffiti in El Pangui, reads mining= jobs ................................ ............................. 91 5 9 Bridge connecting Tun dayme to the main access road ................................ ...... 92 5 10 Sign in El Pangui, reads: mining transforms your community! ............................ 93 5 11 Sign in Tundayme, reads: mining stimulates El Buen Vivir for your community! ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 95 C 1 ECSA cartoon depicting Shuar benefits from i ndustrialization .......................... 127 C 2 ECSA cartoon d epicting c olono benefits from i ndustrialization ......................... 127 C 3 ECSA cartoon depicting community benefits from i ndustialization ................... 128 C 4 ECSA DVD regarding mineral extraction p hases ................................ ............. 128
9 C 5 ECSA DVD explaining mineral i ndustrialization ................................ ................ 129
10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CSR Corporate Social R esponsibility CVA Ca pacities and Vulnerabilities Analysis ECSA Ecuac orriente EIA Environmental Impact A ssessment EJ Environmental Justice FISCH Shuar Federation ( FederaciÃ³n Interprovincial de los Centros Shuar) IFIs International Financial Institutions LULU Loca lly Unwanted Land Use ML045 PRM Participatory R isk Mapping PTM Participatory T enables mapping TNCs Transnational Corporations
11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of the Arts BEGGARS SITTING ON A SACK OF GOLD?: LOCAL STAKEHOLDER PERCEPTIONS OF LARGE SCALE MINING IN ECUADOR By Leah Henderson December 2014 Chair: John Richard Stepp Major: Anthropology Large (Condor mountain range) mining expansion. This case study examines how perceptions of risks, benefits, and proposed coping strategies vary betwe en and among indigenous Shuar and colono populations living near the largest concession, Mirador. Using participatory risk and tenables mapping methodologies, I explore the ways in which Shuar reactions to large scale mining are largely informed by a sense of distributive, participatory, and procedural inequality characterized by environmental justice discourse. Shuar conceptions of risks are a reflection of their cultural connection to the land, in addition to the limited resources they have to buffer them selves in the face of adversity. While colonos suggest migration as a potential coping strategy, some Shuar informants are unsure of the resources they have to mobilize; for others , the answer is clear. They will fight to defend what is rightfully theirs. Grounded in a political ecology and environmental justice framework, this investigation explores the ways that indigenous peoples respond to looming resource industrialization imposed by national development agendas that privilege economies of extractio n. This
12 investigation not only marks the beginning of a new extractive frontier in Ecuador, but it explores how indigenous peoples contest environmental degradation using the ir cultural identity and property rights.
13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION You do know that [ the Shuar ] are the tribe or ethnicity that made the Tsant s a, or shrunken heads, yes? You see, t he Shuar are combative by nature. I think it i s because of their ge netics. They are a warrior race. When I read about Shuar origins, I realized that they inter pret war and fighting as something positive, and we have to understand that and adapt to their cul ture; adapt by respecting them. 1 Felipe Casanueva 2 ECSA employee Large scale mining is set to take place along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor (Condor Mountain r ange), in southern Amazon or Oriente . The Chinese owned company , Corriente Resources Inc. will begin mineral exploitation in a part of the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor nicknamed the Copper Belt. Ecuacorriente (ECSA) is i n charge of their largest concession known as Mirador . Mirador represents the first industrial mining venture in Ecuadorian history and is projected to become the largest mine in all of Latin Amer ica (Warnaars 2010). Recent investigations of local stakeho lder reactions to this large scale mining operation have been characterized by contestation , as episodes of violent clashes erupted between protestors and police in 2006 and again in 2008 (Warnaars 2010, 2012, 2013a, 2013b; Ponce de Leon 2011). Comprised o f indigenous Shuar and colonos ( colonist settlers), the local population has mostly rejected claims that mineral industrialization will transform the region for the better. Local resistance has even entered public consciousness and mass media as well, most recently in an article in the 1 Tu conoces que [los Shuar] son del tribu o la etnia que hacia las Tsant s a las cabezas reducidas. Los Shuar son conflictivos por naturaleza. Yo creo que por genÃ©tica. Son asÃ. Ellos son una raza guerrera. Cuando yo leo los orÃgenes de los Shuar, me d i cuenta que la guerra y la pelea se veÃa como algo positivo. Hay que entenderlos y adaptarnos a su cultura; adapta respetÃ¡ndoles. 2 Pseudonym
14 February 2013 of Salon To get the gold, they will have to kill every one of us (Zaitchik 2013). The article explains that if legal recourse fails to keep the industry out of their lands, the Shuar will ta ke matters into their own hands and defend their territory with their lives . The article portrays contemporary Shuar resistance as a revitalization of their guerrero or warrior legacy. Moreover, the above quote from the former head of sustainable de , affirms the way in which the company also engages with Shuar communities in the area according to the notion that they are inherently antagonistic and aggressive. The problem with this characterization is that it fails to capture the complexity of local livelihoods by something other than incarnations of the Ecologically Noble Savage ( cf. Redford 1990) as environmental stewards in this twenty first century struggle against industrial mining. It does not acknowledge a reality in which the Shuar are a heterogeneous population engaged within a broader market economy. Resurrecting the image of the timeless warrior and basing contemporary relations with the Shuar on this identity does not allow for a space to understand how diverse Shuar crash croppers, mothers, merchants, and teachers are reacting to the introduction of industrial mining in their territory . My previous research in 2010 and 2011 with migratory Shuar communities in Oriente explore d the ways in which Shuar livelihoods complicate and contest western notions of i ndigeneity through their mobility and evolving connection to place (Henderson 2011) . This work this examined the ways that migratory Shuar communities maintain ed yet complicated the ir cultural identity as they lived in a way that did not overly stress a territorial connection to a particular place. I build off this
15 past work through an investigation that explores how these local stakeholders perceive the emergence of large scale mini ng in their traditional lands. In a way, I return to an investigation which questions the centrality of Shuar territorial connection , but I do so using the context of looming mineral extraction and perceptions of its associated impacts . Moreover, I incorpo rate both colono and Shuar perceptions to understand the broader implications of how socio cultural, ecological, economic, and global processes are being played out on the landscape . Based on my recent fieldwork undertaken during the summer of 2013 and 201 4 in Shuar and c olono communities in the Ecuadorian provinces of Morona Santiago and Zamora Chinchipe, I explore the socio cultural landscape of risk and coping among the local population in the face of large scale mining . My research seeks to understand how local populations in this area perceive resource extraction leading to environmental degradation. H ow perceptions of risk , benefit , and coping strategies differ between and among populations living near the Mirador concession? I use a mixed method appr oach consisting of participatory risk and tenables mapping to understand the inter and intra cultural variation of responses. I hypothesize that perceptions vary according to ethnicity, and Shuar respondents are more likely to mention the risks of enviro nmental contamination and risks to their ancestral territory. I also hypothesize that colonos perceive more benefits from large scale mining. Finally, I hypothesize that colonos are likely to suggest migration as a coping strategy in the face of perceived risks. I base my hypotheses on a theoretical framework which is grounded in political ecology and environmental justice theory. Political ecology acknowledges the multi scala r processes and interactions that facilitate
16 resource extraction and industrial ex pansion in economic and geographic peripheries that locate global processes on local landscapes. A subset of literature that addresses resource related social conflict is also examined to understand the factors that contribute to a breakdown in stakeholder relations. I draw from theories within the literature on environmental justice that highlight patterns of distributive, participatory, and procedural inequality to understand how environmental burdens are disproportionately experienced among socially, eco nomic, and politically marginalized populations. Patterns of environmental injustice resulting from economies of extraction shape and reshape socio ecological geographies across time and space. This combined framework not only speaks to how and why broader global processes are CÃ³ndor, but it can be used to understand how distinct groups perceive different risks and benefits based on their socioeconomic, historical and cultural experiences . These distinct aspec ts inform the ways that these groups perceive their vulnerability to the potential consequences of resource industrialization and how they conceptualize th eir ability to cope and recover from adversity. The nature of large scale extractivism requires an an alysis of risk assessment and the socio cultural factors which structure how individuals conceive of and evaluate the impacts of these economic endeavors. Furthermore, d istinct cultural histories, socioeconomic marginalization, and a lack of political re presentation contribute to the way that indigenous people perceive the risks and resources of extraction in their territories. An emp hasis on territorial rights and environmental integrity represent important resources that the Shuar are mobilizing to prot ect themselves from the risks associated with large scale mining. T heir concern for
17 their land also reflects the ways in which the Shuar perceive large scale mining as a threat to their cultural identity. For this reason, they will defend their lands by an y means necessary. This investigation adds to body of literature examining the factors that comprise local stakeholder perceptions of resource extraction . This study articulates the ways in which assessments regarding the benefits, costs, and hazards enta iled by extractive project s are filtered through specific socio cultural, political, and economic lenses. Additionally, t his research contribute s to the literature by providing an example of the ways in resource extraction can be used to create or alleviat e spaces of vulnerability depending on the available resources that local populations have to mobilize in response to perceived risk. This case study , as large scale mining represents an untapped extractive fr ontier . The Cordillera del CÃ³ndor possesses biodiversity hotspot with high conservation value. The fact that industrial mining is developing in this expansive yet fragile environ ment has important implications not only for the future of this sensitive ecosystem, but for the people that call it home.
18 CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND Th is chapter describes the underlying forces that help explain the emergence of large scale mining in Ecuado r. First, I describe the economic and political forces occurring at multiple scales that have served to promote extractivisim throughout Latin America , with particular emphasis on mining industries . I then present a history of mic instability and their current trade relations with China to show why a Chinese conglomerate is now in charge of mining operations. I then shift topics and introduce the Mirador project and its implications and potential risks . Finally, I provide cultur al and ecological background on the region where mining is taking place , a contested frontier formed through a history of militarized conflict. Mining and Extractive Industries in Latin America Latin America is rich in natural resources including mineral r ich soil and reserves of natural gas, petroleum, hydrocarbons, and coal deposits, which make it an obvious location for resource extraction (Bebbington and Bury 2013; Mittermeier et al . 2004). The development of extractive industries was encouraged through global market incentives and government policies promoting the exploitation of specific resources beginning in the 1980s (Pinedo Va s quez et al . 2001). During the 1980s through the 1990s, Latin American countries underwent a period of regional structural a djustment and neoliberal reforms to attract industrial investment from multinational corporations (Bebbington et al. 2008a; Bebbington and Bury 2009; Maconachie and Hilson 2013; Bridge 2008, 2010). At the global scale, international financial institutions (IFIs) such as the IMF and the World Bank incentivized foreign investment in Latin American countries by encouraging less stringent conditions for foreign investors to develop natural
19 resource industries (Ballard and Banks 2003). At the regional scale, man y countries followed the neoliberal model to encourage foreign investment and underwent a series of series of policy changes, which reduced state control, regulation, and taxation rates from these extractive industries (Bridge 2004). With respect to the m ining sector, the confluence of global institutional encouragement and regional incentives was complemented by a general increase in global mineral prices , and set the stage for a burgeoning mineral sector in de veloping countries (Bridge 2004, 2010). Begin ning in the late 1970s 1980s, a global boom in mineral prices promoted prospecting activity around the world (Ballard and Banks 2003). Mineral exploration and exploitation targeted regions along the Andes, parts of tropical West Africa, Papua New Guinea, t he Philippines, and mineral rich countries in Africa (Bridge 2004). In the 1990s , technological innovations in exploration, production, and environmental manage ment techniques comple mented open pit mining practices as they allowed companies to exploit depo sits that were originally overlooked or considered unviable due to the geographical location and/or expenses associated with exploration and extraction (Bebbington et al. 2008a; Maconachie and Hilson 2013). New technologies were able to improve the efficie ncy with which a company could explore and exploit mineral deposits and thereby reduce the costs of operations which facilitated the proliferation of the mining sector throughout Latin America into regions that had no previous history of it (Davies et al. 2012; Bebbington et al . 2008b). From 1990 to 1997, global investment in mining alone increased by 90 percent; in Latin America, it increased by 400 percent (Bebbington and Bury 2013).
20 Another force promoting extractive industries throughout Latin America i s the growing resource demands of developing countries. BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) are responsible for tremendous global investment in extractive industries and continue to drive its expansion to meet population demands (B ridge 2004; Ballard and Banks 2003; Bebbington et al. 2008a). China in particular is now considered a dominant player behind many extractive industries within Latin America, as the country is a major source of foreign direct investment (FDI) and a key trad e partner in the region (Ellis 2009; Jenkins 2010; Bebbington and Bury 2013). significantly increased in 2000 (Gallagher and Porzecanski 2007). Over the decade, trade relations between Latin America and the Caribbean region with Chin a grew at an average of over 30 percent (Kotschwar 2014: 203). China is now one of the top three export markets for a number of Latin America countries (ECLAC 2008), and in 2010, the country became t he third largest source of FDI in the region, with 90 percent of these investments directed toward extractive sectors including hydrocarbon development and industrial metals including copper (Bebbington and Bury 2013). erica can in part be explained by Latin investment and increased trade relations with Latin American countries created a seemingly 3 , mutually benefitting situation wherein China was able to secure a stable supply of primary products to feed its industrial expansion while at the same time, Latin American countries were able to expand their economies through Chinese investment 3 Literature on the topic reflects a contingency among scholars regarding the positive and negative implications of increased trade relations between China and Latin America (see for example Moreira 2007; Gallagher and Porzecanski 2007; Lederman et al. 2007)
21 s erved to strengthen Latin American export in the late 1990s (Jenkins 2010 ) also facilitated their ability to more directly participate in other global institutions such as the World Trade Organization, International Monet ary Fund, and World Bank . I n 2008, China was formally recognized as a member of the InterAmerican Development Bank (Jenkins 2010). By creating a place at the table of dominant global investment institutions, China is able to influence policy reforms with t heir economic interests in mind. Ecuador: Past and Present Ecuador has a tenuous political and economic legacy, as failed presidencies, th century. The economic stagnation that plagued Latin America du a series of neoliberal policy reforms promoted by the Washington Consensus in the government policies that aim to priva tize, liberalize, and deregulate the national a liberalization of trade regulatio ns, and industrial deregulation to attract foreign investment (Ponce de Leon 2011 ) . The implementation of these reforms did not worsened given increasing inflation and globa l price volatilities (Lane 2003). Political instability served to exacerbate the situation as presidential platforms promising to lift the country out of duress continuously failed due to issues of corruption, military coups, and political uncertainty (Saw yer 2003 ). The height of
22 culminated when the country defaulted on a $6 billion Brady Bond debt and $500 million debt in Eurobonds in 1999 (Lu and Silva 2013). As the first country to ever default on a Brady Bond, the Ecuadori an government was forced to adopt a series of austerity measures and change its currency from the Sucre to the US dollar in 2000 (Gerlach 2003). Adding political insult to fiscal injury, the country went through seven presidents in the ten years leading up in 2006 (Lu and Silva 2013). President Correa ran on a platform to address poverty and inequality, reassert political sovereignty, instigate regional integration, and provide economic relief (Escr ibano 2013; Lu and Silva 2013). Trained as an economist, President Correa was able to distinguish himself from other politicians and the tainted political legacy that President Correa and his party Alianza PaÃs , campaigned on a platform known as the Ã¡ Revolution was used to explain and justify his agenda of reforms to reverse privatization and promote progressive taxation systems in order to stimulate infrastructural and social programs as a means to reaffirm Ecuadorian sovereignty (Conaghan 2008). President Correa has pursued a somewhat divergent economic approach for the country, defined . In this economic model, the central gover nment plays a more dominant role in the economy through resource nationalization, yet Ecuador still embraces foreign investment and depends on the
23 infrastructural growth (Gonz Ã¡lez Vicente 2013). Oil accounts for over 50 percent of rnings, over 15 percent of GDP, and approximately half of the growth is so intimately tied to globa l oil prices and production makes its economy more vulnerable to current commodit y boom s than other countries in Latin America given the 2013: 153; Acosta 2009). To cur b this dependence, President Correa has pushed a series of changes to diminish by incorporating large revenue streams (Warnaars 2013 b). As President Correa explains in his book (2009), a transition to the metallic metal industry will allow the government to access funds which will allow the country to provide expanded social reforms th Revolution. In 2008, President the passing of amendments to the Ecuadorian constitution. These reforms introduced new judicial control of the central government, taxation and economic regulations, the rights of nature, the ri ghts of Indigenous peoples, and the rights to El B uen V ivir (good living, or Sumac K awsay ) ( Lu and Silva 2013; Acosta 2008) . Ecuador unique in that includes guidelines highlighting economic development through enhanced well being or E l Bu en V ivir (Gudynas 2011). The constitution stresses the fulfillment of El Buen V ivir through a series of social and economic stipulations highlighting the importance of community participation and intact ecosystems ; the incorporation of E l
24 Buen V ivir i n the constitution is designed to address the need for economic exportation (Acosta 2008). While the tenets of El Buen V ivir are based on indigenous Kichwa nation and thei r traditions that emphasize the value of nature through cultural and ecological conservation, the constitution still emphasizes economic the 2008 Constitution marks the incorporation of stipulations regarding more stringent regulations and greater fiscal incentives for investment with respect to mining exploitation in th e country (Ponce de Leon 2011) . Mining in Ecuador Small scale and artisanal mining activities characte history with the industry since approximately the 1980s (Warnaars 2010). Mining communities such as Chinapintza and Nambija, located in the southern province of Zamora Chinchipe catalyze the height of gold mining activities during the 1980s , where over 25,000 miners inundated the area surrounding Nambija alone (Rudel 2009). The case of Nambija in particular , is shrouded in controversy as its legacy is condemned for violations in child labor , as well as cyanide and mercury contamination (Sand oval 2002; Betancourt et al. 2005; Melo et al. 2013). The environmental and social impacts that scarred the area are said to be a reflection of the neoliberal reforms that Ecuador implemented between 1980 2000s, and the lack of oversight , regulation and mo nitor ing (Ponce de Leon 2011). Because artisanal and small (Melo et al. 2013: 8). The mining laws of 2000 only requ ired that parties pay the cost of the patent associated with the age of a particular mining concession, which ended up
25 costing approximately US$ 1 per ha/year for the first one to t hree years, and went up to US$1 6 per ha/year after year thirteen (Registro O ficial No.144, 2000). As President Correa suspended mining concessions, imposed environmental restrictions, ordered a large proportion of concessions to be reverted back to the state, and set a basis for a fut ure renegotiation and regulations to limit the number of mining contracts from expanding Canadian interests (Melo et al. 2013; Moore and VelÃ¡squez 2013). The goal of the moratorium was to reinsert the state back into the industry in order to establish legi slation to regulate environmental and social impacts and also ensure greater economic benefit to the state (Moore and VelÃ¡squez 2013). Under a new legal framework implemented in 2009, President Correa introduced the Mining Law (ML045) to a way to address t he lack of mining governance in the past, strengthen mining legislation to promote sustainable practices for the future, and capture the potential revenue that the developing industry would generate through a reformed taxation system (Warnaars 2012). ML045 distinguishes itself from previous neoliberal models of resource development as it increases state oversight, yet it also conforms to neoliberal policies as it caters to international investment and development in order to diversify Ecuad (War naars 2012). Large scale mining is promoted as a national, populist endeavor and publicized in stark contrast to the neoliberal development characterized by oil extraction (Davidov 2013). ML045 outlines a new legalization process for any party who would l ike to engage in mining activities and addresses a series of penalties for those who mine illegally (Melo et al. 2013). The law is criticized for its taxatio n because subsistence,
26 small, medium, and large scale miners are all taxed the same amount at the s ame rate ( Melo et al. 2013). The drawback of this approach is that, generally , subsistence miners cannot afford or lack the proper resources to go through the legalization process and are consequently condemned to illegality or can no longer practice this livelihood strategy. The Correa administration defends the law and promotes large scale mining over smaller operations given the argument that corporations are able to conduct extraction through technologically advanced operations that are considered less environmentally harmfu l. Small scale and artisanal miners do not have the resources to access refined technology and are therefore more likely to contaminate; regulation and accountability is more difficult to enforce among a group of small scale miners in comparison to one large scale mining company (Moore and VelÃ¡squez 2013 ) . Large Scale Mining in Ecuador . In March 2012, President Correa signed a US$1.4 billion contract with Chinese conglomerate Corriente Resources Inc. to begin large scale mining for th e first time in Ecuadorian history (Escribano 2013). Corriente Resource Inc. was originally a Canadian company founded in 1983 and specialized in property acquisition and mineral exploration (CEDHU 2 010; Warnaars 2010, 2013a ). Corriente Resources initially bought the property rights from BHP Billiton Plc. in 2000, a company that identified the viable copper, gold, and silver deposits, but sought greater financial and technical support to further the project (Warnaars 2010). The company was subsequently boug ht by the Chinese conglomerate CRCC Tongguan in 2010, which now holds 100% of the exploitation rights to twenty four concessions in Ecuador, (CEDHU 2010; Warnaars 2013). The Corr iente Copper Belt encompasses more than a
27 20 by 80 kilometer area (Figure 1) 4 along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor mountain range in Figure 2 1 . Mirador c oncessions l ocation in Ecuado r ( Corriente Resources Inc. 2008 ) 4 See http://www.corriente.com/corporate/corporate_history.php
28 A ccording to the company website (c orriente.com 2008) , Corriente Resources Inc. is comprised of four subsidiaries in Ecuador: EcuaCorriente S.A. (ECSA) holds eleven concessions in Zamora Chinchipe that comprise the Mirador project. ExploCobre S.A. (EXCA) owns thirteen concessions in Morona Santiago, forming the Panantza San Carlos project. PuertoCobre S.A. is in charge of the construction and operation of Port l province of El Oro to distribute the mineral ore to global buyers from around the world. Finally HidroCruz S.A and water demands needed for mining activities. Hi droCruz is also in charge of developing, operating, and administering drinking water and sewage waste management ( CEDHU 2010 ; Warnaars 2010, 2012, 2013; Corriente Resources 2010). d the Panantza San Carlos mine. The Mirador mine is located in the province of Zamora Chinchipe, between the parishes of Tundayme and El GÃ¼ismi, spanning over an area of 9,230 hectares within the canton of El Pangui (Ponce de Leon 20011). Mirador is the fu and will begin exploitation in 2015 ( CE DHU 20 10 ). Mirador is set to become the largest mining project in all of Latin America as it is projected to ext ract 11 billion tons of copper, processing approximately 30,000 tons of ore per day , over an 18 20 year life span (Ponce de Leon 2011; Terrambie nte Consultores 2009; Chicaiza 2013 ). roughout production (Chicaiza 2010). The ore will be extracted through open pit mining, which is
29 considered the superficial level of the ground (Miranda et al. 2003). Within t he pit, layers of ground are removed creating a series of terraces until the mineral rock is visible or reachable; each terrace is then mined using explosives to uproot the mineral deposits (Terrambiente Consultores 2009). The Mirador pit will measure 1 sq uare kilometer in depth, while the concessions comprising the project cover a total of 9,230 hectares ( CEDHU 20 10 ). The two waste dumpsites will measure 75 hectares and 47.9 hectares respectively, while the two tailings facilities will measure 56.6 hectare s and 312 hectares respectively (Chicaiza 2010). The waste dump sites will contain rock and ore that has been processed but discarded, while tailings facilities contain the residual mixture left af ter the mineral is processed; tailings contain heavy metals and remnants of the reagents used in mineral processing such as cyanide (Miranda et al. 2003). Figure 2 2 . Map of Mirador property rights (s ource: CEDHU 2010)
30 Environmental Implications scale mining is environmentally disruptive and requires an extensive amount of infrastructure and planning to move and process mass amounts of earth. Before mining extraction can even begin, deforestation and topsoil removal must take place where the mine will be locat ed, along roads and access ways, processing plants, tailing structures, pipelines, water reservoirs, and mining camps (Postigo et al. 2013; Miranda et al. 2003). These types of physical alterations and manipulations to the landscape can have adverse affect s on the natural ecosystem , as deforestation and topsoil removal increases runoff during rainy seasons, and can cause devastating mudslides. Deforestation also causes habitat loss and/or fragmentation, affecting the abundance and diversity of wildlife popu lations (Postigo et al. 2013). Additionally, hydroelectric dams are also typically installed before mining begins to be able to support the necessary amount of water and energy. Disrupting hydrological pathways can induce habitat loss through river fragmen tation , which can negatively impact aquatic flora l population s as a result of the forced flooding and/or drought; it can also impact aquatic faunal populations by cutting off species habitat and food sources (Kemp et al. 2010). Mining activities can cause pollution and contamination during mineral extraction , as the earth is removed and ore is chemically separated from undesired earth, and waste is typically placed in tailings facilities (Kemp et al. 2010). Physical contamination can occur during this proc ess due to the emission of particulates (dust and aerosols) into waters and soil (Bridge 2004) . Chemical contamination can also occur during this process as it is possible for the reagents used during mineral processing (arsenic, mercury, and antimony) to escape into the atmosphere (Norgate et al. 2007; Gregorio
31 2003). Chemical contamination can also occur through a process known as acid rock drainage 5 (Bridge 2004; Akcil and Koldas 2006). ARD occurs when sulfide bearing rocks like copper are unearthed duri ng the mining process . As the sulfides interact with air and water molecules present in the atmosphere , the metal sulfides oxidize and create sulfuric acid (Armony 2012). Both types of chemical pollutants are absorbed into the environment and can seep into major waterways, causing widespread, long term contamination that is difficult to contain (Akcil and Koldas 2006). This contamination creates substantial health risks as these toxic metals spread across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (Robles Arenas et al. 2006). In tropical areas where large scale mining occurs, the fundamental concern regards the containment of contaminated waters from coming into contact with rivers and streams (CEDHU 2010). Extreme poundments in the open pit mine and storage facilities, as inundation can cause surplus water to seep out into local waterways (Miranda et al. 2003; Kemp et al. 2010). significant im pacts on water quality will stem from the tailings management and waste dumps (Corriente Resouces Inc. 2008). The Mirador project is criticized for its lack of follow up regarding waste management, environmental impact prevention strategies and safeguards, closure planning and protocols, and lack of consultation from local populations living in the a rea (Becker 2011; CEDHU 2010). The Cordillera del CÃ³ndor The Cordillera del CÃ³ndor is a mountain range that sits between the Andes and the Amazon Basin, and can be described as a sub Andean mountainous buffer between 5 Also known as acid mine drainage (Akcil and Koldas 2006)
32 the Eastern Andes and Amazon lowlands (Ponce de Leon 2011). It is part of a region whose landscape is marked by its unique geological formations, hydrological systems, and ecological diversity that c omprises the area. Spanning 150 km North South along the Ecuadorian and Peruvian border, the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor encompasses 1.1 million hectares in its entirety and forms part of the Tropical Andes Hotspot (Meittermeir et al. 2004). It is also known for its natural resources found below in the subsoil, namely minerals such as copper, gold, and silver (Rudel 2009). This mineral wealth is the along the lower Andean slopes (Me ittermeir et al. 2004). Due to its unique geographical placement and year round humidity, the region encompasses 16 different ecosystems or ecotones that are home to distinct flora and fauna at every level (CEDHU 2010; Schulenberg et al. 1997). With over 4 ,000 species of identified vascular plants, including a particularly eclectic population of orchids and other bromeliads, as well as a range of endemic fauna including eleven mammalian species on the brink of extinction, the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor is famous for the unique and fragile life it sustains (Schulenberg 1997). The Cordillera del CÃ³ndor is known for its intense hydrological cycles that inundate the area with water as the meeting of ecologically distinct environments converge to produce low cloud cov er moisture, feeding back into the major watersheds of the area. Characterized by vital river basins such as the Coangos in the north and the Nangaritza in the center, the formation of watersheds, streams, and other bodies of water feed into important Amaz on tributaries such as the MaraÃ±on River (Neill 2007). T he Cordillera del CÃ³ndor constitutes part of the Abiseo Condor Kutuku conservation corridor, a series of protected forests and ecological reserves that spans
33 thirteen million hectares (Ponce de Leon 2 011). Yet, as Figure 2 3 and Figure 2 4 Corriente Resources' concessions demonstrate , there is significant overlap between targeted exploitation sites and ecological conservation areas. While conservation sites and mining concessions appear antagonistic to one another, three quarters of active mines and exploratory sites overlap with areas of high conservation value and important watershed s ; moreover, it is estimated that one quarter of active mines and exploratory sites overlap with or are within a 10k rad ius of strictly protected areas (Miranda et al. 2003). It appears that areas of high biological diver sity and conservation value do not preclude exploitation (Bridge 2004) . Figure 2 3 . Map of southeastern Ecuador's protected l ands (source Perreault 2003 a) Large scale mining along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor highlights contradictions between theory and practice , delegitimized by development agendas that continue to rely on extractive industries. Th is contradiction is further italicized by the ease through which the state can assert
34 as if Fi gure 2 4 . Map of Corriente Resources' concessions and protected p arks
35 resources and the pre sident can authorize a mining project even if it is located within a conservation park, reserve, or on indigenous lands if it is deemed necessary for the nation (Warnaars 2010). T his constitutional loophole allows the President veto power to be able to car ry out developmental agendas areas of high biological diversity and conservation value . indigenous Shuar, who call the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor home, are said to be mobilizing and protect what is t heirs (Warnaars 2012; Ponce de Leon 2011) . The Shuar ( estimated 115,000 people ) ha ve inhabited the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor since before the time of the Incas , and represent one of the most studied indigenous groups in lo wland South America ( Harner 1972 ; Karsten 1935; Pellizzaro 1976; Hendricks 1993; Browder 1995; Descola 1996; Rubenstein 2001; Rudel et al. 2002). T he Shuar belong to the broader Jivaroan linguistic taxonomy that is shared by the Achuar, Shiwiar, and Aguaru na (Harner 1972). E xplana tions of their origins describe how the Shuar were created in the waterfalls of this region, and they revere them to this day as their source of life (Descola 1996; Harner 1972 ; for vision quests, crux of Shuar mythology highlights the waterfalls that flows throughout Morona Santiago and Zamora Chinchipe, though the population is no longer isolat ed to this provinces and migratory communities can be found in the provinces of Orellana, Napo, Sucumbios, and Pastaza in addition to others. Before colonization, the Shuar were considered egalitarian people , as there was no established governing hierarchy between and
36 among families (Harner 1972; Rubenstein 2001). They lived semi nomadic lifestyles as their movement was predicated upon porous boundaries negotiated by their relations to other tribes locations in the Amazon, however their settlement patterns were not restricted to a particular region (Harner 1972; Descola 1996) . Their subsistence was based off of their hunter horticulturalism; a mix of hunting, gathering, and shifting cultivation of their gardens ( huertas/chacras) (Browder 1995). They were kno wn for their elaborate gardens containing fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants (Bradley 1992 ; Boster 1985 ). Previous ethnograph ies of the Shuar focused on the barbarity of their warfare rituals (Descola 1996; Harner 1972; Rudel et al. 2002) meaning, is conducted not to wreak vengeance, but to secure as many human heads as tsant s as , have been over determined as facets of Shuar culture and do minated the European imagination since the 19 th century. Given their history of contact and resistance towards European colonizers and the Incas before them, the Shuar and other Jivaroan groups developed a reputation as fiercely independent, and successfu lly avoided forceful domination by outside groups until the Sale sian missionary efforts beginning in the 19 th century. The Salesian Order established missions in Mendez in 1914 and Macas in 1921 (both places now important cities in Morona Santiago) to conv ert Shuar communities to Catholicism (Rubenstein 2001). President Velasco over a designated reserve for the Shuar in 1935, which marked the first ethnic boundary recognized by the Ecuadorian st ate ( Rudel 2009 ). The conversion to Catholicism was not met with overwhelming resistance because missionaries had legal control over
37 Shuar territory, provided trade goods, and organized Shuar access to the market economy (Rubenstein 2001: 268). During this period, Sale sian missionaries sought to the Shuar by teaching Spanish, converting the Shuar to Catholicism, introducing them to the market economy, discouraging them from polygamy, and encouraging families to live in clusters of ho uses in or settlements (Rudel et al. 2002 ; Rubenstein 2001 ). The Salesian Order is responsible for creating a Shuar 2001: 270). The creation of centros not only gave Shuar members land title, but the central location of these settlements allowed them to participate in the local market. Centros began organizing into associations, in response to their interactions with colonos . Up until this time, the Salesian Orde r owned their land, and the Shuar did not have legal land title . In 1964, agrarian reform laws promoting colonization of the area threatened to displace Shuar peoples if they could not show legal title for their land. The formation of the Shuar Federation or FISCH ( FederaciÃ³n Interprovincial de Centros Shuar) in 1964 was a way to ensure legitimacy to land title claims through legally recognizable terms (Perreault 2003b) . One of the stipulations within agrarian reform claimed that land tenure would be given to those who dedicated at le a st one quarter of their land to economic activities as a means to The promotion of cattle production among Shuar fa milies and centros guarante ed Shuar claims to land as the cattle raising was considered a marketable commodity. The Shuar Federation was helped Shuar families establish credit and take out loans to purc hase cattle, secure Shuar rights to land, and promote their incorporation into the national economy
38 (Rubenstein 2001). The FISCH is known as the first indigenous organization to mobilize on behalf of the rights of their nationality and obtain legally recognized, collectively held title for communities living along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor in the provinces of Morona Santiago and Zamora Chinchipe (Rudel et al. 2002; Rubenstein 2001; Perreault 2003b). E is interpreted as an attempt to populate a disputed area during their border w ars with Peru . By promoting colonization, these land along disputed borderlines with Peru. Ecuador and Peru have fought over the borders delineating their countries since 1941 when the countries initially began reconfiguring boundary lines along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor (Ponce de Leon 2011). During the Cenepa War of 1995, the state encouraged indigenous colonization as a response to a geo political need for land. Th encouraged to fight given their tacit knowledge of the forest (Warnaars 2010). In addition to this tacit knowledge, many Shuar soldiers participated as a means of promoting their inclusion under Ecuado rian sovereignty to fortify their identity as Ecuadorian citizens (Lane 2003; Rudel et al. 2002). However, because these wars were based on territorial disputes of borders that cut through their traditional territory, Shuar 2010). A tenuous past that shaped the geo political contours of the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor has contributed to a living social memory of the way in which Shuar bodies were deployed to defend their country , and is said to contribute to their reactions to large scale mi ning in the area (Warnaars 2010, 2013).
39 CHAPTER 3 THEORY AND LITERATURE I ground my in vestigation in a political ecology and environmental justice framework to understand environmental degrad ation within a social, cultural and economic context: who incurs these burdens and why? I begin with an exploration of political ecology and resource related conflict , and then transition into environmental justice discourse and the various forms of inequa lities. I present the ways that large scale mining along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor has been addressed in the literature, and the ways in which my investigation provides a different way of understanding stakeholder perceptions of mineral industrialization n ear Mirador . Political Ecology Frames Scholarship comprising political ecology has evolved significantly since its early links to cultural ecology within anthropology, and its structuralist foundations based on homeostatic notions of a closed environment concomitant with a systems approach (Rappaport 1971; Bennett 1976; Ellen 1982). Broadly defined to engage with various texts and ways of thinking, studies within political ecology have ranged from neo Marxist positions linking political and economic produ ction to resource depletion (Blaikie 1985), and examinations of how knowledge production and power relations mediate human environment interactions (Escobar 1996; Peet and Watts 1996). Political ecological inquiry can be understood through its discursive a pproaches that examine environmental change as a result of political, economic and social processes. Efforts within political ecology to understand these various processes incorporate different analyses to show the ways in which space, time, and scale also function to influence the landscape as well. Political ecology investigates the ways that physical landscapes are
40 Political ec ology can help explain the motivations behind the industrialization of mineral extraction in Ecuador. Classic modernization theory highlights the ways that foreign direct investment in the mineral sector can generate foreign exchange earnings as mineral ro yalties can provide an important source of revenue for national governments (Bridge 2004; Miranda et al. 2003). As President Correa famously stated 6 to explain in one of future of our country and open the doors to come out of underdevelopment 7 No daremos marcha atrÃ¡s en la ley de MinerÃa, porque el desarrollo responsable de la minerÃa es fundamental para el pr ogreso del paÃs Correa makes a convincing point in that resource abundance can serve to benefit a country when managed properly, as economic diversification can lead to greater overall economic stability. At the local level , extractive industries like large scale mining can serve to represent viable avenues for economic diversification and opportunity (Ballard and Banks 2003; Connell and Howitt 1991). Large scale mining has the potential to benefit local, rural, and indigeno us communities as the industry creates direct and indirect employment, stimulates the local economy, and attracts new and improved infrastructure such as roads as well as improved access to services such as healthcare and education. The majority of these i mprovements however, are not the result a local 6 http://copperinvestingnews.com/14124 ecuador codelco chile copper mesa cornerstone mining.htmlaccessed March 28, 2013. 7 http:/ /www.elciudadano.gov.ec/info2008.pdf.
41 projects that accompany extractive industries come from corporations themselves. This ph enomenon is associated wit h Corporate S ocial Responsibility (CSR). CSR is a broad conceptual term and business model utilized by corporations to foster a positive working relationship with communities , often through the creation of infrastructural projects and services where opera tions are taking place (Jenkins and Yakovleva 2006). Through the implementation of projects and/or initiatives that address local community development and environmental conservation as well as engaging in open dialogue to address community needs and/or po tential impacts from company operations, CSR is intended to promote corporate transparency and accountability (Warnaars 2012). While there are no specific guidelines or requirements as to how CSR should be carried out, companies typically operationalize th is business strategy by taking advantage of the lack of development in local rural regions where governments have neglected or have yet to implement basic services (Jenkins and Yakovleva 2006). In many cases, CSR fills a niche left by governmental neglect and under resourcing characteristic of marginal areas in need of basic services and support (Davies et al . 2012). As a completely voluntary undertaking, CSR is seen as a philanthropic endeavor intended to stimulate positive community relations in order to public facilities is in part, a self promotional strategy that serves to enhance corporate sence (Jenkins and Yakovleva 2006). Corporations promote their good deeds as a way to counter potential criticism regarding the extent to which their activities negatively impact the local landscape. Their
42 promotion is typically manifested through media an d public relations campaigns to further instill a corporate image of social responsibility that is meant to bolster community support (Appendix C ) (Warnaars 2012; Maconachie and Hilson 2013). There are tangible and intangible benefits that incentivize ind ustrial development of natural resources at both the national and local level, but there are also potential consequences of resource exploitation. A political ecology lens can be used to understand why natural resource abundance does not always translate i nto economic growth and stability. One argument against extractive resource development contends that exploitation perpetuates the very economic disparities that an industry such as large scale mining attempts to improve. This phenomenon is known as the re source curse (Auty 1993). The resource curse explains the phenomenon of how mineral rich countries continue to experience poor economic performance despite engaging in large scale resource extraction and global exportation (Auty 1993, 2001). Extractive act ivities such as mining perpetuate a sort of resource colonialism, wherein mineral rich countries put all of their eggs into one basket, making them more vulnerable to fluctuating global mineral prices. As local and national economies become more export dep endent, they also become more vulnerable to the volatility of boom and bust cycles typical of single commodity industries (Miranda et al. 2003). This overreliance in conjunction with the mass amounts of land, capital, water, and energy required to sustain large scale mining restricts the potential for economic diversification of non mineral related sectors, such as agriculture and manufacturing, thus creating an industrial bottleneck. Furthermore, the advanced stages of mineral extraction require only skill ed labor and engineering, therefore limiting the very job opportunities that the industry initially promotes. The
43 dominating presence of mining sectors in local communities in addition to the lack of non sector related job opportunities condemns a signific ant portion of the population to poverty (Bebbington et al. 2008a). The resource curse explains how natural resource abundance can generate economic and political misrepresentations and inevitably weaken the very contributions that mineral wealth is said to make toward national development (Auty 1993, 2001; Bebbington et al. 2008a; Bebbington et al. 2008b). It is for this reason that the resource curse is claimed to be a source of civil unrest and social conflict (Ross 2001, 2008; Melo et al. 2013; Collier and Hoeffler 2005). While the debate regarding the resource curse and the relationship between resource abundance and economic stagnation wages on, political ecologists, geographers, and environmental anthropologists continue to explore the reasons behind extraction 2008; Flier 1990; Connell and Howitt 1991; Warnaars 2010, 2013a, 2013b; Davidov 2013; Little 1999; Bury and Norris 2013; Postigo et al. 2013; Bebbington et al. 2013b, Switzer 2001; Hin d ery 2013; Muridan et al. 2003). Given that large scale mining along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor has been characterized by social conflict and local resistance in the past (Warnaars 2010, 2013a, 2013b; Ponce de Leon 2011), an exploration of the literature spe cifically focusing on natural resource related social conflict helps to illuminate the underlying factors and processes that incite local stakeholders to mobilize against industrial resource expansion. Resource r elated c onflict . A discussion of resource r elated conflict reveals how differing social, environmental, political, and economic values often form the basis
44 of contestation given the clash of fundamental ideological differences that cannot be nderstand contemporary debates over mining and environment, it is necessary to recognize how mineral moral landscape not only reflects differing belief systems that peop le have regarding resource control and human intervention with the environment, but it also reflects the multiple ways in which individuals conceive of and react to proposed and imposed development models, globalized markets and environmental resource mana gement plans (Warnaars 2013b; Bridge 2004). exploration of development initiative and policy interventions regarding Bolivian coca farmers in the 1980s. During the United States Against Drugs, policy makers met with Bolivian officials to promote alternative development programs to counteract coca leaf and cocaine production through agricultural diversification based on tropical fruits among a popular coca producing area in Chapare. This development initiative was met with unforeseen opposition because local producers interpreted the move to diminish coca leaf production as a direct threat to their cultural identity (Arce 2003). Coca farming is not only a historically important livelihood strategy for many Bolivians, but its production and consumption recreates its social and cultural significance. A paternalistic, economic adjustment policy seeking to replace coca leaf production with cultura lly insignificant crops was considered insulting instrument used to decriminalize farming practices away from the cultivation of coca,
45 rather than a means to enhance local liveli hoods on terms defined by the people resource extraction, it still embodies a similar pattern where global and national development agendas are imposed on local landscap Bolivian coca farmers explains how economic development regimes are only as effective as they are realistic for the local populations for whom these programs are designed. Another source of contention concerns the loss of c ontrol and/or dispossession of land and resources (Bebbington et al. 2008a; Bridge 2004). Local communities can feel powerless or disregarded in the way their lands are accessed, resources extracted, and royalties are allocated. This powerlessness reflects community exclusion from the decision making processes that determine compensation and mitigation strategies. Indigenous populations, in particular, have been historically overlooked, excluded and disregarded during important decision making processes reg arding industrial development and expansion within local regions (Connell and Howitt 1991; Jackson 1991). The lack of consultation for important decisions during development can result in the often unequal distribution of wealth and benefits proposed from mining industrialization, and can lead to conflicts resulting from unfulfilled expectations (Peluso and Watts 2001). The case of the Ok Tedi copper mine in Bougainville, Papua New Guinea is a poignant example of conflict as a result of unfulfilled expecta tions (Flier 1990; Connell and Howitt 1991). Despite financial negotiations between local residents and the company Rio Tinto Zinc, conflict still erupted because of the non monetary
46 value that local residents had for their land and the inability of Rio Ti nto to address non intensive activity in which employment opportunities only rarely meet local expectations, especially beyond the construction phase when employment lev els may fall, mainly for addressed the short term needs of local residents, but caused disappointment and unrest regarding enduring improvements to both the social and e conomic landscape. experiences in the Zambian Copperbelt, unfulfilled expectations can also stem from the inevitable disappointment that accompanies promises of modernity. In rural c ommunities where residents have limited employment opportunities and live below or on the cusp of poverty, opportunistic industries such as mining can serve as symbols of development and opportunity that were not present or accessible before. But, given th e reality of operations, the extent to which these industries can remedy institutional, economic, and social disparities is limited, and the physical site of extraction and company presence can serve to reify feelings of discontent to the extent that local 294). Some authors stress how social conflict is not merely the product of company com munity relations, but that it also has to do with state presence and oversight, as governing institutions have the power to influence important outcomes (Bebbington et al. 2008a; Bebbington et al. 2013; n
47 determining the final disposition of costs and benefits hinges around the existence and quality of institutions, (meaning laws on consultation, transparency mechanisms, tax systems, impact tress that governing bodies have the potential to address local concerns before they devolve into disputes through institutional mechanisms that enforce accountability and transparency and make explicit expectations from the beginning, during, and after ex traction takes place. The safeguards are important because they have the potential to regulate power asymmetries and control the degree to which environmental and social changes take place ( An examination of literature that focuses on resource related social conflict can be used to better understand the underlying issues and dynamics that incite and exacerbate contestation. A political ecology lens to resource related conflict speaks to the economic processes which incorporate local populations into regional development initiatives that transform their landscapes and subject them to the environmental and social vulnerabilities associated with large scale extraction. Social conflict can be understood through local stakeholder responses to feeling misled, manipulated, and/or marginalized in the face of industrial resource extraction. The underlying causes and dynamics of resource related conflict can also be understood through an environmental justice discourse which illuminate procedura l and distributional inequalities that local stakeholders experience as a result of resource industrialization in their environments. An environmental justice perspective not only explores social inequalities embedded within geographies of environmental de gradation and contamination, but it can also be used to understand the diversity of local stakeholder perspectives as environmental
48 economic position. Environmental Justice scholarship identified the distributional inequalities that characterize the placement of extractive industries and scale mining, logging, oil drillin g, and waste disposal in and around geopolitical and economic peripheries inhabited by communities of color and lower socio economic classes (Bullard 1990; Walker 2009; Schlosberg 2004. 2007; Muridan et al. 2003; Mohai et al. 2009). The EJ movement emerged out of the recognition that social injustice informs the way environmental risks are unequally distributed onto marginalized populations who lack the resources and recourse to demand environmental justice (Gedicks 1993). An environmental justice frame fo cusing on global distributional inequalities makes visible the inherent connections between neoliberal policies and patterns of environmental injustice. Several authors have explored the distributive injustices evidenced by the disproportionate amount of e nvironmental hazards and risks in developing countries in comparison to the industrialized nations (Adeola 2001; Pellow et of distributing environmental benefits [and b urdens] in the Third World, current practice 2008: 551). Pellow et al. (2001) use the example of environmental waste placement to illustrate the ways that neoliberalism has f acilitated the shift of burden from developed to developing countries. They show that although industrialized countries like the United States, Germany, and Britain have produced the majority of global hazardous waste in
49 the past five decades, the bulk of it has been sent to developing countries in Africa, Asia, and South America (Tiemann 1998). Pellow et al. (2001) attribute geographies of global waste to fiscal incentive; it is cheaper for industrialized countries to outsource toxic waste because of the m ore stringent environmental regulations that have made waste treatment and disposal more expensive in their own countries. Neoliberalism has cost effective to ship ind ustrial waste to developing countries at a fraction of the price. (Escobar 1995: 196). This pattern of outsourcing environmental risks to developing countries is also m ore cost effective to conduct resource extraction and environmentally degrading search of lower costs, TNCs in environmental hazardous sectors may locate facilities in Within an economic framework, the goal is to maximize profit while reducing the cost of business (Mohai et al. 2009). Dangerous or potentially environmentally hazardous projects are often legitimated through cost benefit analyses that offset environmental consequences with benefits such as financial compensation, increased employment opportunities, and infrastructural development (MartÃnez Alier 2002). The confluence of national development agendas and global financial incentives characterized by neoliberalism in developing countries contributes to global patterns locating environmental injustices. The commodification of natural resources has been a dominant economic development strategy for
50 (Urkidi and Walters 2011: 685). Environmental j ustice d efinitions . Since the establishment of EJ and its focus on the relationship between distributional inequalities and race, the discourse has expanded its breadth of analysis to incorporate diverse manifestations of environmental injustice and have also included discussions regarding the ways that inst itutional and systemic discrimination inform distributional environmental inequalities (Walker and Bulkeley 2006; Walker 2009; Young 1990). Patricia Widener defines environmental onomic equality, equal distribution of environmental risk...and the participation of diverse and T his definition reveals an articulation of justice in its varying forms, and identifies the importance of distribution, participation and procedure (Walker 2009). For this reason, it is important to characterize the different types of environmental justice. A s a hallmark of environmental justice discourse, distributive injustices are characte socio cultural landscape (Jamieson 2007). An analysis of LULU placement reflects patterned geographies of social inequality as marginalized communities experience the brunt of e nvironmental burdens, and typically reap fewer benefits derived from operations (Walker and Bulkeley 2006; Walker 2009, 2010; Sze and London 2008; Schroeder et al. 2008). Distributive justice argues for social and economic equality through the reallocation correct the inequalities which are responsible for patterned geographies of
51 environmental risk (Schlosberg 2004). Distributive injustices add another theoretical lens through which to understand ge ographies of extraction and the proliferation of natural resource industries into previously untapped environments. While technological advancements have facilitated the expansion of natural resource industries into new geographies, distributive environmen tal justice claims point to the degree to which anthropogenic activities have always been located in socio economic peripheries. While distributive injustice illuminates patterned geographies of environmental risk, it does not identify the processes of s ocial inequality which create and perpetuate these disparities to begin with. Young (1990) and Fraser (2000) argue for a broader application of distributive justice to contextualize the underlying symptoms causing these distributive injustices. Justice as recognition claims that distributive justice can only be achieved once underlying social, economic, and institutional inequalities have been addressed (Schlosberg 2004, 2007). The lack of recognition of social difference and distinct cultural identities in political and economic discourse has resulted in unjust distributions of environmental risks and resources (Young 1990). Recognizing how specific historical contexts, unequal power relations and economic development initiatives have shaped socio spatial p atterns of environmental injustice is the first step misrecognition are cultural and institutional processes of disrespect, denigration, insult and stigmatization, which devalue some 625 626). This form of injustice emphasizes how marginalized groups characterized by social, cultural, and ethnic differences have been disregarded and/or ignored .
52 Recognition leads into the other forms of EJ , which call for participatory and procedural justice to address institutionalized discrimination. Distributive inequalities and a lack of recognition are intimately intertwined and result from political and social processes which create and perpetuate env ironmental injustices (Urkidi and Walter 2011). These forms of justice are informed by the lack of consultation and incorporation of affected communities during institutional decision making processes and policy formation (Walker 2009; Schlosberg 2004). It is for this reason that environmental justice calls for participatory and procedural equality. Procedural injustice results from misrecognition and participatory exclusion from the very economic, social and environmental policies that directly affect thes e marginalized communities through LULU placement. Participatory justice calls for the inclusion of local stakeholders during decision making processes (Hunold and Young 1998). Procedural and participatory justice shifts the discussion from inequality base d on distribution of environmental risk to information, representation, consultation, and intermediation (Lake 1996). Whereas distributive justice functions in the aftermath of policy formation, participatory and procedural justice attempt to correct the way that policies are constructed from their inception through the inclusion of affected populations in these crucial decision making stages (Hunold and Young 1998). A review of the different forms of environmental justice makes evident the ways in which these forms of inequality mirror the very issues that underlie resource related conflict. In Muradian et al. (2003) case study of local opposition of large scale mining in rural Piura, Peru, stakeholders contested the way that economic benefits were
53 distributed among the transnational mining corporation and the central government, while environmental burdens were left for the local population. Local opposition also brought attenti on the local population without their consultation (Muradian et al. 2003). Conflict resulted because of the way in which participatory, procedural, and distributive injustices were legi at the expense of exposing the local population to undue risk. Environmental justice not only concerns itself with where environmental inequality takes place, but who experiences the bru nt of environmental burdens and why. An environmental justice framework can be applied to understand why certain groups are more vulnerable to environmental hazards than others. Adger defines and is unable to cope which agrarian, peasant and indigenous communities disproportionally bare the burdens of environmental injustice (Kousis 1998; Adeola 2001; By rne et al. 2002). One reason for their unequal exposure to environmental burdens has to do with their rural livelihoods. Communities in rural areas tend to rely on natural resources to varying degrees because of the distance and limited access to the avail able market economy in addition to employment and educational opportunities, and political representation (Rudel et al. 2013). Subsistence based livelihoods imply a degree of socio economic marginalization because of the ways in spatial dislocation limits the ability to access these varied resources readily found in cityscapes. Although a sustainable livelihoods approach emerged out of development studies to as a way to understand and combat
54 rural poverty, economic marginalization is also a cause and sympto m of environmental justice and the framework can be applied to show how these particular groups have less resources to ameliorate their exposure to the consequences related to resource development and environmental degradation. A livelihoods perspective u based on their available resources or assets (Scoones 1998). A rural livelihoods approach defines resources as assets or capitals that fall into four categories: social (community networks and associations), human (skills and knowledge, good physical health), produced (savings, access to loans, convertible liquid assets, infrastructure), and natural capital (water, soil, resource cycling) (Chambers and Conway 1992; Bebbington 1999; Scoones 1998; Bury 2004, El lis 2003; Putnam 1993). This resource and Fordham 2014: 858). A sustainable livelihoods approach to environmental injustice acknowledges that populations who experi ence the brunt of environmental burdens do so because they have limited resources to avoid adversity and are unable to fully recover from it . A livelihoods perspective can be used to identify who experiences environmental injustices resulting from extract ive economies as well as the sociopolitical, cultural and historical factors of causation (Eakin and Luers 2006; Wisner and Fordham 2014). Bebbington and Batterbury (2001) explain that rural livelihoods are recursively produced and maintained by external t ransnational flows dictating commodity prices, knowledge acquisition, and resource attainment. In attempts of locating intangible processes of globalization, and the way in which global ties inform local spaces, a livelihood
55 ecologies of globalization in notions of livelihood, scale, the accessibility of resources, as participation, representation, and recognition informs the resources a per son has at their disposal. Groups who lack political power are more vulnerable to environmental injustices because they are underrepresented in government and lack the funds to influence legislation through lobbying (Pellow et al. 2001). It is for this rea powerlessness, and other conditions of marginalization constitute the major factors result in fewer resources tha t a community can mobilize in response to environmental risks, which therefore makes them more vulnerable to harm (Pellow et al. 2001). Amerindians, like other indigenous groups, live in predominately rural areas characterized by poverty, as is the case in Ecuador (Rudel et al. 2013). According to the percent lives in poverty (INEC 2001). In the case of the Shuar, statistics taken in 2010 reveal that 92.5 percent of the ir population lived in rural areas (INEC 2011). Rudel et al. attribute the overwhelming degree to which Shuar households live in rural areas to pay money for items like lodging and food makes many Shuar reluctant to spend much time in urban centers. Their relatively low income and the secure landholdings in the centros the Shuar were semi no madic peoples and their mobility gave them access to different resources without overly relying on one particular area or over stressing their reserves.
56 Now, a lack of financial resources has limited Shuar mobility to the extent that mestizos are considere d more transient than the Shuar (Larrea and Torres 2006). In addition, rapid population growth among Amerindian groups including the Shuar have put additionally pressure on their resources as they maintain and sustain their growing families (McSweeney and Jokisch 2007). And although educational achievement is increasing among Shuar households, they typically only have access to rural schools and have little opportunity to continue their education beyond an eighth grade level , which limits the type of work t hey are able to find, and where they are able to find it (Rudel et al. 2013). Limited educational access and attainment diminishes the likelihood of livelihood diversification in non farming sectors, which makes it harder for indigenous populations to brea k out of cycles and circumstances that perpetuate their social, economic, and political marginalization. Oriente is a poignant example of the extent to which indigenous Amazonians experience the brunt of environmental injustices caused by resource extraction (Kimberling 1994). The lawsuit launched against the transnational corporation Texaco (now Chevron) in 1993 was the result of the com widespread contaminat ion of the soil and waterways. From 1964 until 1990, Texaco dumped over 18 million gallons of crude oil and toxic waste in the area and caused irreparable damages to the land and the indigenous people that live there (Patel 2012). Indigenous Secoya, Siona, CofÃ¡n, Kichwa and Waorani populations were exposed to contamination through their contact with the ir water reserves as they use it to drink, cook, and bath. They were also exposed to toxicity through their consumption of plants and animals that
57 were conta minated through the trophic levels. Thousands of people have died from contamination related illnesses and tens of thousands of people have suffered from cancer, miscarriage s , birth defects, skin rashes, and gastrointestinal illnesses (Patel 2012) . Indige nous people not only burden by health impacts caused by oil contamination, but these indigenous populations also lost millions of acres of forest territory due to the infrastructure projects needed to support oil extraction and production and caused widesp read deforestation and environmental degradation (Sawyer 2004). Forest territory and access to natural resources threatened and continue to threaten food security and quality of life for indigenous populations affected Oriente. 2006: 460). The enduring effects of oil exploration , exploitation and contamination have left indigenous populati ons along the Rio Napo with consequences they will have to contend with for centuries to come. While the Aguinda vs. Texaco Chevron case has ruled in favor of the 30,000 indigenous and campesino plaintiffs, Chevron continues to appeal and has yet to pay t highlights how difficult it is for locally affected citizens to get effective redress for the substandard environmental and social conduct of multinational corporations in coun tries decision to prioritize oil industrial development without any institutional oversight during the 1960s late 1980s allowed Texaco to decide their own safety standards wh ich
58 proved to be nonexistent (Kimberling 2006). The Ecuadorian government should be considered complicit in this case against Chevron , as they are equally guilty of committing participatory and procedural injustices that allowed for distributive calamities that indigenous Amazonians will continue to face for generations. Locating My Investigation Ponce de Leon (2011) investigates large del CÃ³ndor through an exploration of social movement frameworks and citizenship ri ghts. Her thesis looks at the ways that indigenous resistance has mobilized against extractive industries in the past in Ecuador, and compares it to the way that the Shuar are using legal mechanisms to oppose large scale mining in this current example. She promoting oil extraction in indigenous territories during the 1990s. Sawyer argues that struggles defen ding indigenous lands and resources are, at the same time, struggles to defend cultural identity. In this sense, identity is not only a reflection of cultural integrity, but it also incorporates spatial dimensions that promote territorial preservation as w ell. Ponce de Leon uses this understanding to investigate the ways that the Shuar actors are resisting large scale mining. The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE) has leveraged a case against the State and accuses the 2009 Mining Law of directly violating constitutional amendments that guarantee the rights of nature and indigenous peoples. The case against large scale mining has largely depended on the mobilization of Shuar cultural identity as intrinsically linked to environmental
59 imbued with cultural significance and it represents the crux of their arguments in this case. P Shuar sentiment regarding large scale mining. She explores to a degree, the differing opinions that certain Shuar individuals articulate, as large scale mining also represents an oppor tunity to some to propel local populations out of poverty. She alludes to the concern that Shuar individuals convey about the intra communal conflict that the industry will generate as some will inevitably benefit over others, but she does not delve any fu rther to understand these variations. She does not explore the depth of this diversity, but she acknowledges that it exists. I seek to understand the diversity of perspectives regarding large scale mining as it reflects both the risks and benefits of extra ction. Can opposition be understood as the need to protect territorial integrity? scale mining along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor puts primacy on the landscape to understand local reactions of the de veloping industry. Her research investigates incidences of violence near the Mirador site in 2006, when in the neighboring canton of El Pangui, police intervened during a public protest against ECSA, and the interaction escalated into armed confrontations, violence and progressive militarization of the area (Warnaars 2010). Warnaars characterizes the emergence of large concept of territorialit y to understand local struggles against resource industrialization in the area. This analytical framework acknowledges how social mobilization in El Pangui not only reflects local opposition to large scale mining, but it can also be understood as
60 a result of tenuous social, cultural, political and economic processes that have shaped Agrarian Reform triggered land and resource conflicts between Shuar and colonos living in th e area as property rights delineated boundaries and ownership regimes that were antagonistic to Shuar mobility and conceptions of common property (2010, 2013a, 2013b). Warnaars also uses the example of the Cenepa War to demonstrate the different ways that the landscape has been contested. During this border war with Peru, and protect national boundaries. As she describes, the social memory of war has not been forgotten an d people are resentful of the fact that their bodies were used on the actively protected their sovereign lands, many people, both Shuar and colono , now feel betrayed by t history, 2004: 241). Warnaars suggests that territorial transformations can be used to expand political ecological discussion that link local struggles to national trends and global issu es. Warnaars and Ponce de Leon both characterize local reactions to large scale minin g along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndo r by resistance. Whereas Ponce de Leon stresses Shuar mobilization through legal mechanisms and cultural frames to protect ancestral lands , Warnaars highlights the ways that territorial dynamics employed in the past have
61 shaped the landscape, and these considerations can be used to understand current resistance. These works lead me to ask the question, are there different conceptual lenses t hat can be used to characterize local interpretations of the emerging industry? In what other ways can local reactions and perceptions of large scale mining be scale mining is currently mostly conceptual, an idea (Warnaars 2013b: 91). The case study of Mirador, and the broader impacts of large scale mining in Ecuador are still unfolding, and the dynamics between local stakeholders and ECSA are still evolving. Local stakeholders are grappling with these forces of change as they are occurring and it is important to understand the extent to which both Shuar and colonos perceive the implications of large scale mining. As Bebbington et al. a ssert: there is still much ethnographic and quantitative work to be done to document and analyze actual and perceived benefits, actual and perceived costs, who incurs these, the knock on effects of these adverse and positive impacts and the multiple ways i n which all these impacts are interpreted by different players (2013: 5). Given that large Cordillera del CÃ³ndor, I document the ways in which local stakeholders interpret encroaching extrac A political ecology and environmental justice framework serves to illuminate the distinct ways in which Shuar and colonos conceptualize the burdens and benefits of the industry and how they plan to deal with the potential adversity. This study provides a different perspective which to understand local stakeholder responses and expands on literature of risk perception and resource extraction by relying participatory risk mapping (PRM) and participatory tenable s mapping (PTM) methodologies.
62 Participatory Risk Mapping (PRM) and Participatory Tenables Mapping (PTM) P articipatory risk mapping (PRM) methodology operationalizes subjective perceptions of risk to understand the motivations behind risk reduction. Ris k mapping is effective because it focuses in on individual, subjective formations of risk, and compares notions of risk may vary across a seemingly homogenous group of p eople (Smith et al. 2000, 2001). Using PRM among pastoralist communities in arid and semi arid lands in Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya, Smith et al. (2000; 2001) demonstrate how conceptions of risk are contextually specific and vary according to econ omic patterns, environmental conditions, location and access to resources, and gender roles. Participatory risk mapping has also been utilized in other arid regions of Africa. For example, Quinn et al. (2003) use risk mapping to identify factors influencin g local perceptions of livelihood concerns in rural communities in semi arid Tanzania. This case study was able show the varied concerns among residents in local communities based on differences of livelihood strategies, community location, and gender. In 2009, Baird et al. also incorporated PRM methods to explore the effect of conservation on local risk perception and the way risk perceptions may influence risk mitigation and coping strategies in various Maasai agro pastoralist villages located along the b order of Tarangire National Park in Northern Tanzania. They find variation among perceptions influence on perceptions of risk and consequently land use strategies beyond the b responses to risks vary among village proximity to the park, which serve to directly impact local livelihood strategies and ecosystem services. PRM has been
63 predominat ely used in Africa, but has more recently been in South America, as Lu et al. (2014) add to participatory risk mapping literature by expanding the geographical region in which this methodology has been used through their exploration of risk perception in t he Northern Ecuadorian Amazon. Lu et al. (2014) implement the PRM methodology among four distinct Native Amazonian groups (CofÃ¡n, Shuar, Kichwa, and Waorani) to explore how perceptions of risk and resources vary in the face of ecological and economic trans formation. Specifically, the study identifies the inter and intra cultural variations of concerns regarding socio cultural, economic and physical well being. Overall, their findings reveal cross cultural concerns over basic services, such as healthcare a nd education, and resource acquisition such as livelihood security in the midst of extractive activities. Results from Shuar respondents in comparison to the other groups showed that Shuar being as it related to financial concerns (as reflective of their level of market integration and status as findings related to Shuar respondents showed mild concern for consist ent and quality educational retention as well as socio cultural categories such as group unity or social conflict; additionally, Shuar respondents did not reveal concerns about the environment and issues relating to contamination, degradation, or resource acquisition, though they mentioned concerns about drinking water and food security. Lu et al. (2014) not only expand on participatory risk mapping methodologies by incorporating different geographic regions, but they also introduce a new, corollary methodo logy called participatory tenables mapping (PTM) (Silva 2012). Participatory
64 tenables mapping is designed and implemented similar to risk mapping, yet instead of asking participants to identify perceived risks, it asks participants to identify their percei of analyzing the perceived resonance and importance of socioeconomic, political, implementation o f both PRM and PTM presents a more comprehensive understanding of local realities. Silva (2012) developed and operationalized participatory tenables mapping methodologies in his investigation exploring perceptions of symbolic and material resources among i ndigenous Amazonian Waorani and CofÃ¡n youth. He finds, that in the face of oil development, these distinct groups of indigenous youth interpret the benefits of oil as related to economic opportunity and community infrastructure. Yet, Silva also finds that these benefits are weighted with the recognition of potential threats that the industry imposes. Combining Theory and Method PTM and PRM methods explain how perceptions of risks and resources are articulated among Shuar and colono informants in my investig ation. PRM and PTM responses not only illuminate the way in which beliefs inform behavior, but they may also be telling about the ways in which livelihood strategies and cultural identity inform perceptions. Using a political ecology and environmental just ice framework , I seek to understand how local populations near Mirador perceive looming resource extraction. How do stakeholder perceptions differ inter and intra culturally? Based on the theory and literature, I hypothesize that the Shuar will perceive a disproportionate amount of risks associated with mineral industrialization, and little if any benefits. More specifically, I hypothesize that Shuar informants will articulate environmental risks regarding
65 contamination and territorial integrity (H3), give n their historical connection to the land, reliance on natural resources, and limited financial resources as evidenced by Rudel et al. (2013). I also hypothesize that colonos will perceive more benefits from large scale mining in comparison to the Shuar (H 2), given the literature on environmental justice and the ways in which distributive, procedural, and participatory inequality may serve to inform Shuar perceptions. Finally, I hypothesize that colonos will suggest that they will migrate to successfully co pe with potential environmental and social consequences of resource industrialization (H3). I anticipate this outcome because I believe colonos do not have the same cultural connection to the land as the Shuar, and they have greater financial resources to mobilize in response to adversity.
66 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY To examine the socio cultural landscape of risk and coping in the face of large scale mining, I undertook a mixed method approach that linked participant observation, interviews, participatory map ping, and archival research (human subjects approval from University of Florida Institutional Review Board Protocol #2013 U 870) . I n this section, I address the significance of both participatory risk and tenables mapping methodologies, and explain how the y were operationalized. I then characterize my study sample , and address the limitations associated with my investigation. Participatory Risk Mapping (PRM) Participatory risk mapping is a method within cultural domain analysis (Bernard 2006) that allows pa rticipants to articulate their concerns through their own words (Baird et al. 2009). Smith et al. (2000, 2001) developed the method as a means to examine the ways in which risk perceptions may vary amo ng a seemingly homogenous group , given ifferent histories, preferences, and/or information can cause different Smith et al. uncertain circumstances, and in particular exposure to potentially unfavora definition, something undesirable (2000: 1946). Following this definition, the authors characterize risk as the result of exposure, perception, mitigation, and coping. For the pur pose of PRM statisti
67 of opinion regarding how widely a risk is mentioned among a group of people, and also how intensely individuals perceive the risk to be. The results can be used to suggest poten tial causal explanations that link perceptions of risk to behavior, which are identified by mitigation, and coping, relating to the capacity to reduce the adverse effects of hazards, either ex ante (mitigation) or ex post (coping) (Smith et al. 2001: 9). P articipatory risk mapping is a two stage system of ordinal rankings where the respondent is first asked to identify risks prompted by open ended, non leading questions. The respondent is asked to list as many or as few risks as they would like, and then as ked to rank the identified list from most to least severe (Quinn et al. 2003). Once the participant has ranked their list, they are asked to explain their mitigation residen Incidence refers to the proportion of people that mention the particular risk in the sample size using an index of 1.0, signifying that all respondents mentioned that part icular risk, a nd 0, meaning that no one did. Severity measures the overall concern or rank t hat participants have associate d with the risk. It is assumed that the number of items on each list varies as well as the weight of concern , acco rding to each parti cipant. To remedy this, Smith et al. (2000) use uniform intervals to rank each concern posed by each respondent between 1 (most severe) to 2 (least severe) (Quinn et al. 2003). The interval is defined as 1/ n i where n i is the number of n risks identified by respondent i . Calculating an individual risk severity value R ij for risk j of rank r among a group of n risks is: R ij = 1 (r ij 1)/n i (Smith et al. 2000: 1948). As Lu et al. (2014) point out, this creates a counter intuitive graph. Smith et al. (2001: 5) remedy this discrepancy by
68 calculating the severity index as 2 R ij , which shows the y axis of risk severity between 0 and 1, where 1 is indicative of risks that are considered most severe, and 0 is align with risks considered least severe. Risks maps are divided into quadrants to facilitate data interpretation. When an incidence index (I) is above 0.5, it will be referred to as high, when under 0.5, as low; the severity index (S) is also interpreted as high if the risk is above 0.5 and low if it is under (Lu et al. 2014: 9 10). Figure 4 1 is an example of a risk map. Severity Index (U) ===> 1.0 0.5 0 0.5 1.0 Incidence Index (I) ===> Figure 4 1 . Example of p art icipatory r isk m ap Parti cipatory Tenables Mapping (PTM ) P articipatory tenables mapping is meant to comple ment risk mapping (Silva 2012) with quantifiable data collection akin to participatory risk mapping, to be able to provide a more comprehensive discuss ion of perceived risks by incorporating a discussion regarding perceived resources. Tenables mapping, as a parallel methodology is meant to show how common a resource, or in this case, benefit, is perceived among individuals in addition to the overall perc eption of importance it is assigned relative to other identified [benefits] (Lu et al. 2014). Silva (2012) defines For instance, both an outboard motor and perceived access to gasoline could be described as ten ables, despite the distinction
69 that the motor itself is a material resource and perceived access to gasoline is a 98). The methodology associated with tenables mapping is similar to risk maps used by Smith et al. (2000) (Silva 2012) . It applies the same principles as risk mapping to understand the distribution and significance or a given asset or resource. For tenables the case of an Amazon com munity, both an outboard motor and perceived access to gasoline could be described as tenables, the motor itself a material resource and the severity, assets are measured by utility, forming the y same manner as risk mapping and reflects the percentage of respondents who identified the benefit in the samp le size (Silva 2012). The utility index is determined in the same manner as the severity index, as items are assigned even intervals to determine the average rank participants attributed to the resource. The equation is to calculate the individual utility index value A ij for asset j of rank r among a group of n assets is: A ij = 1 (a ij 1)/n i , but utility is calculated as 2 A ij , where 0 is considered least important and 1 is considered most important (Silva 2012; Lu et al. 2014). When a utility index (U) is above 0.5, it will be referred to as high, when under 0.5, as low; the incidence (I) index is also considered high if it is above 0.5, and low if it falls below (Lu et al. 2014: 9 10). Figure 4 2 is an example of a participatory tenables map.
70 Utility Index (U) ===> 1.0 0.5 0 0.5 1.0 Incidence Index (I) ===> Figure 4 2 . Example of p articipatory t enables m ap Research Fieldwork in the Ecuadorian Amazon Fieldwo rk consisted of two field summers in Ecuador in the provinces of Morona Santiago and Zamora Chinchipe during 2013 and 2014, a total of four months , part of which was accompanied by two Shuar research assistants (Alex Ayui and Wilmer Ayui) . In order to unde rstand the scope and level of variation among perceptions about large scale mining activities corresponding to the impacted area near Mirado r, we traveled to various Shuar and c olono communities to conduct risk and asset mapping with willing participants. Typical recruitment of interviews consisted of walking into communities, locating the president of each community, introducing ourselves and explaining the reason for our visit. Depending on the situation, I would introduce myself, or my Shuar assistants w ould introduce me and I would follow up with a greeting depending on their reaction. I explained their right s as human subjects and asked for oral consent . I then asked permission to take notes and record our interview and also asked if I could take pictur es. Research Design The overarching question driving this investigation seeks to understand how perceptions of risks and benefits of large scale mining differ between and among
71 populations living near Mirador . I investigate if there is a difference between the way that risk s , benefits , and coping strategies are perceived between indig enous and colonos . I operationalized this study through cultural domain analysis (Bernard 2006), as it is a way to elicit cognitive and affective components related to risk per ception because of the way it engages participants to create and order indicators according to a specified domain. I hypothesized that Shuar participants stress risks of contamination and territorial integrity as primary concerns (H1 ). I also hypothesized that colonos are more likely to move as a coping strategy to potential risk (H2 ). Finally, I hypothesized that colonos are more likely to move as a coping strategy to potential risk (H3). Demographic characteristics were elicited prior to risk and tenables mapping to be able to analyze potential connections once I collected all of my data , including livelihood strategy or profession, gender, community affiliation, ethnic identity , and age . To investigate potential patterns regarding variation of perceptions , I use Stata statistical program to run pair wise correlations to examine how ethnicity and community benefits, as well as coping strategies. I disaggregate responses based community aff iliation to examine the intra cultural variation among responses . St atistical Description of Sample I interviewed 101 individuals in 10 different communities within the Ecuadorian provinces of Morona Santiago and Zamora Chinchipe. Five communities were in digenous Shuar (Santiago Pa ty, Etsa, Kampanak, Santa Rosa , and Charip), one community is colono ( El Pangui), and the four remaining communities are considered mestizo ( Remolino Bajo , Tundayme, Santa Cruz, and Machinaza). In terms of interview distribution among communities, I interview ed 11 people from Santiago Paty (11%), 6
72 people from Etsa (6%), 11 from Machinaza (11%), 10 people from Kampanak (1%), 7 people from Santa Cruz (7%), 9 people from Santa Rosa (9%), 19 people from Remolino Bajo (19%), 6 people from Charip ( 6 %), 8 people from Tundayme (8%), and 14 people from El Pangui (14%) . In terms of ethnicity, I interviewed 67 Shuar individuals (66%) and 34 colonos (34%). Although I did not investigate gender, I interviewed 59 men ( 58% ) and 42 women (42%). One of the limitations associated with this study regards the way in which I phrased the prompt to construct the participatory tenables map. I asked informants what benefits they perceived from large scale mining. This phrasing inadvertently restricted the way an informant coul d respond; a more comprehensive strategy would have been to begin with the question that asked participants to identify their general assets in life, and then to ask what assets large scale mining could provide. This distinction would have provided a more nuanced understanding of the extent to which participants anticipate the potential impacts of the industry and whether or not they carry a positive or negative connotation. Another limitation of my research reflects the categorizati on of risks and resources. The process of grouping highlighted concerns and assets results in the inevitable loss of diversity among participant responses. For example, during the free listing part of risk mapping with informants, some respondents made the point to specifically highlight water contamination, air contamination, and land contamination, while others only stated environmental contamination. For the purpose of categorization, I did not distinguish between who mentioned a specific type of contami nation over those who mentioned contamination in general. The same issue arose with the distinction that
73 some participants made regarding the term environment or el medio ambiente and nature or la naturaleza . For the purpose of this analysis, I distinguish ed concerns over nature under the category environmental degradation because of the reference to natural resource use and management. I categorized concerns for the environment under the category of environmental contamination because of the reference to p ollution and various ways in which pollution affects the environment. This distinction informed how the results were mapped. The length of this study can be considered a limitation of my research . My investigation captures a moment in history, but is not emblematic or representative of sentiments over time. Evolving opinions are not possible to capture unless one is able to conduct a longitudinal study to reveal change in opinion over time given the evolution of company community relations, extractive acti vities, and policy formation. Additionally, opinions regarding the most severe risks and benefits may change over time as operations transform perceptions into lived experiences.
74 CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS The overarching question driving this investigation seeks to understand how perceptions of risks and benefits of large scale mining differ between and among populations living near Mirador. I first present the categories of the free listing methodology for both risk and tenables mapping and I incorporate qualita tive data to contextualize these results. I then present the results of statistical analyses of disaggregate responses based on ethnicity and community affiliation. Participatory Risk Mapping Results The categories of risk formed after conducti ng PRM with respondents include : Company, Scale, Noise, Community Conflict, Social Repression, Crime, Sickness, Future Generations, Shuar Territory, and Take our Riches. In the follo wing paragraphs, I will explain how each category is understood and defined by participants , using qualitative data collected during open ended interviews. I present the categories by the quadrant they are located in incidence and severity of risk , based o n the results of the participatory mapping. I begin with quadrant four (high incidence and high severity), and description, I present the results of the risk map (Figure 6 ) in terms of how these categories rank in incidence and severity among my sample. I then describe the coping strategies that informants propose to buffer themselves from potential risks. Quadrant Four: High Incidence and High Severity The category , over potential water, land, and air pollution caused from mining activities. Approximately
75 90% of the respondents interviewed mentioned this concern. Informants would tell me how at this moment in time, people can breathe in fresh air; they can drink water from streams, and they can grow the food they need to sustain themselves. One young man in particular pause d after he explained this to me. He told me to look around, and then said that it will never be the same once mining begins. Environmental contamination their fear that the water w ill be poisoned and that the contamination will spread into the we will have to loo k for another source to drink f r o m. We will have to look for another place to live, but where ? 8 only category that has a high incidence and severity index (I=0.89, S=0.92), meaning that it was the most frequently cited concern that participants expressed, and it was also con sistently ranked with overwhelming importance. Quadrant Three: High Incidence and Low Moderate Severity on the part of the company towards the community members , as well as the fear of contra ctual loopholes that nullify or dissolve established agreements between communities and ECSA. For example, four residents in Tundayme explain that ECSA has rescinded their agreements with the local parish given that is likely they will have to relocate. Be fore, social relations representatives assured Tundayme residents that ECSA was committed to community improvements and infrastructural upgrades. R esidents have heard 8 Si contaminarÃa el agua, hay que buscar otro fuente de agua. Hay que buscar otro lugar para vivir, pero adonde ?
76 recently that , because ECSA is planning to relocate the town of Tunda yme once extraction begins, they are no longer contractually obligated to deliver on these infrastructural projects. Figure 5 1 . Mural in El Pangui (photo courtesy of Leah Henderson) also large scale mining to the oil in Oriente , and the broken or unfulfilled agreements between extractive companies and the local indigenous communities where extraction transnational pe troleum activities. The royalties never came and communities were left in worse conditions, and because of that, there is a lot of fear; it is a huge risk . 9 Distrust is not only the byproduct of the breakdown of agreements, but it is also a response to th e failure or facade of government initiatives protecting constitutionally recognized decrees such as El Buen V ivir and the rights of nature. Ten informants specifically 9 No hay que olvidarse de que pasÃ³ con las actividades petroleras transnacionales. La regalÃa nunca lleg aron a las comunidades y se quedaron en peores condiciones y por eso hay un miedo; hay un gran riesgo .
77 allude to the 2013 closure of the YasunÃ ITT Initiative, proposed by the Ecuadorian gov ernment to keep crude oil reserves underground and untouched within an Oriente. The YasunÃ ITT I nitiative made an international statement demonstrating the importance the country p laces on intact ecosystems, but its closure served as an indicator that these individuals interpret the failure of YasunÃ ITT as proof that even government backed camp aigns can fall apart despite reassurances promising environmental severity (S=0.34) when compared to other categories highlighted by participants in the participatory risk map. the anticipation that the industry will attract employment opportunities, and that an inundation of migratory populations to the area will result in higher rates of violen ce, prostitution and other forms of delinquency . In the communities I went to, people know stories even if their communities are located approximately 10 20 km apart. Thi s sense of overarching community creates a sense of security for people regarding their surroundings. In El Pangui, the family I stayed with did not lock the doors of their car, day or night. They told me that their house had been robbed one summer while t hey were away, but they knew the kids who broke in. An influx of strangers to the area threatens this social fabric, and residents are weary and distrustful of people they do not
78 nce, but a moderate severity among the sample (S=0.37; I=0.53). Quadrant Two: Low Incidence and High Severity , wages, working conditions, and the rights and treatment of emp loyees who work for ECSA. All thirteen ECSA employees explained that they cannot live off of their paid wages. Yet, employees do not dare complain about their situation. Before I arrived in Ecuador, eleven ECSA employees were fired, but were not given a re ason for their termination. Many employees feel that their jobs could be taken away at any moment, given the recent incident. A former ECSA employee divulged that he had been fired a year ago, and like the others, he was never given a reason. He went on to explain that when he received his last check, the company had neglected to pay him the full amount he was due. He notified the accounting department of the discrepancy, but they told him he had been mistaken and they would not pay . This former employee su ed the company and was eventually paid the rest of his wages . The results of the PRM show that meaning that it is an important concern among participants who identified it (I=0.1, S=0.54). diminishing floral and faunal abundance and productivity that large scale mining will places to hunt, farming land will be taken away or rendered unusable, and that there will be greater deforestation in the area. Shuar communities in particular, rely heavily on the environment for their livelihood s . The results of the risk mapping show th at although
79 who identify it (I=0.21, S=0.59) . informants concerns over the fact that E cuador does not have a history of large scale and regulate potentially hazardous impacts. In all the interviews conducted, informants cannot specify how ECSA plans to man age potential environmental and social impacts. They are told that the industry will not contaminate. Residents are therefore required to take a leap of faith , and hope that ECSA and/or government bodies have a plan of action t o mitigate problematic impact s. In two interviews, informants explained how President Correa has equated the scale of this project to the contamination that small scale agricultorialists create. Rural communities lacking defined waste management systems contribute to water and soil co ntamination through exposure to animal and human waste. Yet, these informants call , given that these Quito; look a t the scale. It is not the same . 10 The results of the risk map show that low incidence, but high severity among the overall sample (I=0.06, S=0.67). will be lost or compromised given increasing migration, environmental degradation, 10 CÃ³mo se comparen? Dicen que esa es contaminaciÃ³n, pero mire a las ciudades como Quito; mire la escala. No es la misma.
80 contamination , and/or relocation. Besides the concern about land tenure, the concern . There were five instances where informants articulated their concern of cultural assimilation, as a result of an increasing population of miners in the area. One informant explained that, in one the informant phrased it. But in another sense, the increased presence o f outsiders will cause some Shuar people to gravitate toward the allure of a modern lifestyle; one informant went so far as to call it ethn ocide . interpret large scale mining as an other form of racism and discrimination. Nine informants specifically mention the way that industry embodies yet another form of repression against indigenous peoples as it threatens their lives given the impacts of contamination, degradation, illness, and displacement. One informant explained how the industry was like a tornado as it has destroyed everything in its path, and now it is headed straight for them. Large scale mining has killed indigenous peoples in other countries. Now it is headed for us; th ey want to end us . 11 characterized by low incidence, it is considered high in severity among those who list this risk (I=0.07, S=0.51). 11 Esta minerÃa de gran escala, e sta minerÃa es lo viene terminando el indÃgena de diferentes paÃses. Quiere acabar el indÃgena .
81 Figure 5 2 . Notice outside a Shuar c ommunity (reads: private p roperty. The person or company that enters or causes damage to t his property will be criminally persecuted or subject to indigenous justice.) (photo courtesy of Leah Henderson) Quadr ant One: Low Incidence and Lo w Severity uality of life from exposure to mining contamination is d as the result of mining might be transmitted from mother to child in vitro, and that children could be born with birth defects. The other concern is that children are more vulnerable to illnesses because of their developing immune system, and they may be more susceptible to illness and disease in general own mortality, but also as it reflects the fact that man y Shuar people do not have the resources to be able to buy recommended medicines or vaccines necessary to cure and
82 and severity among participants (I=0.31, S=0.37). The cat fear that informants have regarding the delayed impacts associated with large scale mining. leaving our children and our grandchildren ? 12 The decision to develop large scale mining is a burden that futur e generations will ha ve to contend with, as certain environmental i mpacts such as degradation will develop over time and the full extent of these repercussions will be experienced in the decades to come. The results of the risk severity ( I=0.23, S=0. 4). and/or negotiated relocation. One reason that households and communities fear this risk is because they believe that environmental contamination is inevitable and will drive communities away. Another way that households and communities interpret from local property owners to build the infrastructure needed to support exploitation activities. One exampl e of community relocation that has been met with resistance is the case of San Marcos. The community of San Marcos would have been the closest community to the mine, but it no longer exists. San Marcos was dissolved; a farmer sold the property rights to EC SA. The residents of San Marcos were paid a sum of money for their relocation and were 12 nuestros nietos ?
83 forced to move out. One elderly woman remains and she refuses to leave. She has been served court ordered eviction notices, but she will not leave her home. Police are s cheduled to physically remove her from the premises if she and ECSA cannot come to some sort of agreement. While I was conducting fieldwork, locals were eager to tell me how the church and school, the last remaining vestiges of San Marcos, were destroyed r ecen t ly low incidence and moderate severity (I=0.16, S=0.3). Figure 5 3 . Four generations of Shuar w omen (photo courtesy of Leah Henderson) epresents the general mistrust in Chinese management , given their poor environmental and social record regarding extractive industries. It also entails their lack of social integration and financial inversion within Ecuadorian society. During open ended in terviews, seven informants specifically mentioned that ECSA is far worse now that a Chinese company owns it. Before, the Canadians owners were said to have been nicer; they spoke the language and gave
84 presents to their employees and the ir families during t he holidays. Wages were also reported to have been higher, and the working environment was more secure. Figure 5 4 . Privatized land from land c oncessions (photo courtesy of Leah Henderson) In seven open ended interviews, informants said that they would be for large scale mining if the industry were a strictly national enterprise. As one participant relayed, on a project differently that does not come from another place that injects us with policies that are not really our own . 13 could prompt employees to put more care into their work, which would cause the industry to contaminate less. This proposition also reflects the hope that the natio nalization of the , but through the development of a mineral refinery as well. A refining industry could contribute to economic diversification more than mining alone. The results of the risk incidence, but perceived with moderate severity among the sample (I=0.13, S=0.28). 13 Creo que entre Ecuatorianos podemos atendernos mejor y colaborar un proyecto muy diferente y no que viniera de otro lugar y inyectarnos con un a polÃtica que realmente no es nuestra .
85 Figure 5 5 . Signs before the bridge e ntering Tundayme (photo courtesy of Le ah Henderson) fear that community members are divided in their opinions about large scale mining and this causes social strife within and among communities. One community has already divided into two because residents could not reconcile their opposing positions about ECSA. This category also reflects the fear that ECSA will use these internal divisions against communities to be able to conduct operations without majority conse nt. The among themselves to be able to present a definitive list of demands to ECSA. communiti es have benefited more than others from ECSA . In one example, a young man from the Shuar community Santiago Paty received a scholarship from ECSA to attend a university in Cuenca. Certain residents in Santiago Paty communicated to me that he did not do any thing to deserve this financial aid, and they were resentful of him
86 among informants (I= 0.06, S=0.24). regarding the tendency for certain individuals to pocket the negotiated fees of doing business, instead of dispersing royalties evenly among community members. industry and the majority who do The category is characterized by relatively lower incidence and severity (I=0.05, S=0.1 3). discontent against ECSA and industry in general , as some pe ople have been criminalized and/ or threatened as a result. I was able to interview one man who was charged wit h acts of terrorism and sabotage , and sentenced to twelve years in prison for his participation in a march protest ing water privatization legislation in 2009. As we sat outside his home, he explained to me that the Ecuadorian Constitution guarantees the ri ghts of nature and the collective rights of human beings. Yet, he has been exploitation in our territory. 14 g of public roads near Mirador. I experienced this surveillance as I walked to meet the elderly woman who refused to leave her home in San Marcos. As I was walking, two security guards approached me on their motorcycle and took pictures of me. They asked m e for my name , nationality and the reason for my travels. I found myself in this situation two 14 por ser un hombre que resiste ante un explotaciÃ³n minera en nuestro territorio .
87 more times during my fieldwork, while walking on public roads to communities located near Mirador. Though I was never given an explanation for the pictures or th e persistent need to identify myself, I assume it was because they thought I was an activist or protestor, and they wanted me to know t hat I was being watched. The results of the risk ant s to mention, yet for those that do, it is of moderate concern (I=0.03, S=0.3). is believed to result in the loss of faunal abundance and it will also force people to move as well. and severity among participants (I=0.07, S=0.07). lace cultural value on the natural resources found in the subsoil . It forms part of their national identity informants explained how , although the rest of the world may see Ecuador as a poor and underdeveloped country in relation to the rest of the world, the country is actually quite wealthy as the land is full of numerous valuable minerals and nutrients. Informants fear th at extraction will strip their land of their ric they have extracted our wealth, we will be the ones left behind, looking at all the treasure they have taken . 15 The results of the risk map demonstrate that the category is ranked lowest in terms of incidence and sev erity in comparison to the other categories (I=0.05, S=0.05). 15 DespuÃ©s de extraer las grandes rique zas, nos quedamos nosotros, mirando que lo han llevado.
88 Table 5 1. Perc eived risks: participatory r isk m apping Category Incidence Severity Contamination 0.89 0.92 Deceit 0.58 0.34 Crime 0.53 0.37 Degradation 0.21 0.59 Scale 0.06 0.67 Wo Rights 0.1 0.54 Shuar Territory 0.07 0.51 Sickness 0.31 0.42 Future Generation 0.23 0.4 Relocation 0.16 0.3 Chinese Company 0.13 0.28 Community Conflict 0.06 0.24 Corruption 0.05 0.13 Social Repression 0.03 0.3 Noise 0.07 0.07 Take Our Ric hes 0.05 0.05 Coping Strategies Listed coping strategies were formed in response to categories identified in the felt there was no way to minimize or avoid potentia l risks associated with large scale mining. If an informant responded this way, they would typically ask me rhetorically, answered this way is due to a lack of resources; they do not see how they could save feeling powerless to be able to influence a different outcome, or it was a response of
89 apathy, as mining was not perceived a s highly impa ctful. Overall, 46 percent of the sample proposed this coping strategy as a response to potential risks. Figure 5 6 . Participatory risk m ap will actively protest large sc ale mining activities with the hope of stalling or impeding production. It also represents the choice to protest potential social and environmental violations that will directly affect local communities. Eighteen percent of the sample size proposed this co ping strategy as a response to perceived risks. desire to avoid potentially adverse impacts by leaving the area. Respondents who propos e this coping strategy explain that they would worry about the h ealth and safety of their families and they will not subject their loved ones t o potentially harmful impacts. Two respondents in particular explained how they were from the coast, but had come here for work. Once Contamination Degradation Workers' Rights Deceit Corruption Relocation Chinese Company Scale Noise Community Conflict Social Repression Crime Sickness Future Generations Shuar Territory Take Our Riches 0 0.5 1 0 0.5 1 High Severity High Incidence Overall Sample
90 their job was done, they would leave. Alter natively , four informants explain ed how the land would be less productive and they would not be able to live there if they could not grow their own food or sell their own crops. Overall 36 % of informants proposed this coping strategy as a response to perce ived risks. Figure 5 7 . Distribution of responses regarding proposed coping s trategies Participatory Tenables Mapping Results Tenables mapping generated the following categories: Employment, Infrastructure, Community Development, Education, Economic Sec urity, and Other. In the following paragraphs, I will explain how each category is defined by the participants in this sample using qualit ative data collected during open ended interviews . I will present each category based on their placement in the tenabl es map, beginning with quadrant two, as there were no categories that are located in quadrant three or four . I begin with resources characterized by highest incidence and utility, and I end with the category characterized by lowest incidence and utility. A description, I present the results of the tenables map (Figure 5 12 ) in terms of how these categories rank in incidence and utility among my sample. One answer that is not reflected in the tenables map, but was expressed by ove r half of my sample is the Nothing Fight Move
91 response that there are no anticipated benefits associated with large government says that communities will see benefits, but we still have not seen anything yet . 16 ceived resource that large scale mining will create direct and indirect job opportunities. Employment opportunities emerge from ECSA, as they need workers to help develop infrastructure around the mine itself. In every community I went to, at least one per son worked for ECSA. Though the y are paid less than they would hope, employees would rather have their job than nothing at all. Employment opportunities also emerge indirectly around the industry. Taxi drivers , restaurants, hotels, and other local business es are in higher demand to accommodate a growing population. Results of the tenables mapping reveal that incidence an d high utility (I=0.39, U=0.81). Figure 5 8 . Graffiti in El Pangui, reads mining= j obs (photo courtesy of Leah Henderson) 16 El gobierno dice que va a ver beneficios en las comunidades, pero todavÃa no hemos visto ningÃºn beneficio .
92 bridges), facilities (health posts, waste management), and a greater increase in the local economy thro combination of other perceived assets listed in the tenables mapping. Improvements can already be seen as ECSA CRCC Tongguan , constructed the bridge connecting Tundayme to the main highway . The company is also responsible for maintaining the condition of the local roadway leading into Tundayme. Additionally, ECSA has donated cyber cafes in Tundayme and the neighboring parish of El GÃ¼ismi, which allows local residents to use the computers free of charge. ECSA has also opened a community health center, and has implemented a waste management and recycling facility in Tundayme. The national government has also contributed to the infrastructure in the region, as major roads leading in to El Pangui have been repaved. Figure 5 9 . Bridge connecting Tundayme to the main access r oad (photo courtesy of Leah Henderson)
93 to ECSA sponsored programs and initiatives (e.g.: cacao projects, tilapia fisheries, communal houses or casas comunales , and community bathrooms) to improve the overall well being and economic potential within local communities. In both Remolino Bajo and Charip , I was told that the communities would support the industry if ECSA implemented community projects to benefit them directly. They believe that ECSA has the resources to implement community projects, and furthermore, ECSA has the responsibility to de liver to these community building initiatives. Corporate social responsibility or CSR is interpreted as a basic human right moderate in both incide nce and utility (I=0.05, U=0.5). Figure 5 10 . Sign in El Pangui, reads: mining t ransforms your c ommunity! (photo courtesy of Leah Henderson) the ability to access primary, secondary, and university schooling. One Shuar informant explained th at when he was younger, he had
94 to walk approximately 12km to El Pangui for school , but some days it was impossible because the paths were too muddy from the rain. Now, at the age of 56, he recently earned his high school diploma because of the school in Tu ndayme. He directly attributes his higher education t o mining in the area, because he would not have been able to go to school if not for ECSA . During another interview, an informant told me how excited she was that the government was constructing a univer sity along the road entering El Pangui. It would give her children the opportunity to go to college and earn a professional degree. Her children could live close to home and still make something of incidence and utility are characterized as moderate (I=0.04, U=0.05). provid being. As one informant conveyed during our interview, everything he does is for his children. He works so that h is children may be able to have access to the opportunities that he was never given as a child. The results of the tenables mapping illustrates that among participants in this ty (I=0.07, U= 0.33). is composed of distinct resources that were not mentioned enough to stand as a category on their own. They include technological advancement ( new techno logy used to enact responsible minin g,) global interconnection ( creating a new industry in Ecuador
95 and linking it to global industries around the world), tourism, and attainment of El Buen V ivir the good life. Everyone in the world wants that. 17 results of the tenables map considered low in incidence, and is characterized by low to moderate utility among participants (I=0.06, U=0.22). Figure 5 11 . Sign in Tundayme, r ead s: mining s timulates El Buen Vivir for y our c ommunity! (photo courtesy of Leah Henderson) Table 5 2. Perceived benefits: tenables mapping t able Category Incidence Utility Employment 0.39 0.81 Infrastructure 0.32 0.52 Community Developme nt 0.05 0.5 Education 0.04 0.5 Economic Security 0.07 0.33 Other 0.06 0.22 17 N ecesitamos El Buen Vivir. Todo el mundo queremos eso .
96 Figure 5 12 . Participatory tenables m ap Responses B ased on Ethnicity This systematically depending on examine responses based on community affiliation as well to explore the variation of perceptions among ethnicities, as communities are also ethnically distinct . I organize the results based on my hy potheses. Hypothesis 1 : Shuar respondents stress risks of contamination and territorial integrity as primary concerns . Based on statistical analysis, c olonos have an inverse relationship to the 0.4670), sugge sting they are less likely to perceive this risk (Table A 4 ). This link is further supported through an examination of responses disaggregating community affiliation as well (Table A 1 ) . There is an inverse Employment Infrastructure Community Development Education Economic Security Other 0 0.5 1 0 0.5 1 High Utility High Incidence Overall Sample
97 relationship between and the colo no community of El Pangui (correlation= 0.2001) and the mestizo community of Sa nta Cruz (correlation= 0.2019) . These results can be used to solidify part of my hypothesis ( H1 ) suggesting that Shuar respondents are more likely perceive the risk of contamin ation than colonos . Statistical analysis used to examine potential relationship s between ethnicity and perceived risks (Table A 4 ) reveals a strong relationship between Shuar respondents ). This suggests th at Shuar informants are very likely to articulate this concern during risk mapping. However, t his finding is problematized when responses are disaggregated b ased on community affiliation (Table A 1 ). Statistical analysis reveals that there is no significan t correlation between These findings present somewhat divergent claims because, although there is no relationship between and individual Shuar communities , there is a strong rela tionship between Shuar responses and when disaggregating ethnicity. also suppor ted by statistical analysis (H1 ) (Table A 4 ) . However, when disaggregating responses based on community affiliation (Table A 1 ) , the only Shuar communities that exhibit a strong relation ship to mentioning this risk are Kampanak (correlation= 0.3011) and Santiago Paty (correlation= 0.3011) . Although not explicitly addressed by my hypotheses, the additional relationships found upon examination of proposed risks and ethnicity (Table A 4) reveals that the scale mining (correlation= 0.2874). In addition, the S huar have an inverse relationship to mentioning the risk,
98 0.3822), meaning that colonos have a positive relationship to this category and are more likely to mention it. Analysis at the community level reveals that the mestizo communi (correlation= 0.4974), but there are no other significant relationships concerning these two risks found at the community level. The correlations found at the ethnicity level to can be used to differentiate Shuar and colono responses , and the significance of these differences will be addressed in the following section. Hypothesis 2 : Shuar respondents perceive fewer benefits of large scale mining than colonos Analysis between ethnicity and assets (Table A 5 ) reveals interesting results , as Shuar respondents are correlation of 0.2670. In addition, Shuar informant s have a n inverse relationship (correlation= 0.31 32 ) community affiliation, as the Shuar community of Santa Rosa has an inverse relationship with this categ ory (correlation= 0.2033) as well (Table A 2 ). Shuar communities do not perceive the same benefits, however, as the results also show. Responses based on community affiliation reveal that members of the Shuar community Santiago Paty are likely to mention the perceived resource , (correlation= 0.1972 ) . The results may be explained by the fact that members of Santiago Paty benefit from ECSA, not only in terms of employment, but also through community development projects and scholarships. Additionally, r esidents of the Shuar community Employment
99 Upon examination of c olono responses, analysis reveals there is a moderately positive relationship (correlation= 0.3132) between c olonos a nd the perceived asset, when looking at responses based on community affiliation , as El Pangui is also strongly linked with the category In addition, there is also a v ery high correlation of 0.3573 among members of the mestizo community Remolino Bajo , and the asset The se findings present similar results as found in the preceding examination of my previous hypothesis. An examination of perceived assets based on ethnicity reveals that colono respondents have a positive relationship to mentioning the benefit of meaning they are not likely to mention it. Furthe rmore, analysis also reveals a strong relationship between Shuar participants and the response that they do not perceive any benefits of mining. However, upon examination of responses based on community affiliation, Shuar communities list more perceived be nefits than colono communities. Hypothesis 3 : C olonos are more likely to move as a co ping strategy to potential risk When comparing potential relationships between ethnicity and coping strategies (Table A 6 ), Shuar participants demonstrate a strong relati onship to the strategy, (correlation= 0.2812). H owever, statistical analysis also reveals a moderate relationship between Shuar informants and the strategy, (correlation= 0.2124 ) . As us in the mountains. They are not going to settle us in the coast because we are not from the coast; we are not from the mountains. We are not from the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. We are from here
100 and here we will stay. 18 These findings are corroborated b y an examination of proposed coping strategies based on community affiliation as well (Table A 3 ), although the communities of Kampanak (correlation= 0.2053) and Santa Rosa (correlation= 0.4166) propose this strategy. That being said, there is a relationship between the believe this can be explained for reasons that will be addressed i n the discussion. The re outcome that will be discussed further in the following discussion section. When comparing coping strategies with c olonos , there is a strong rela tionship to mentioning, 70. This finding supports my hypothesis (H3) that colonos are more likely to suggest this coping strategy when faced with potential risks resulting of l arge scale mining. A disaggregation of copi ng strategies based on community affiliation also support this claim as evident in the strong 0.3286) . Additionally, community level analysis reveals that the mestizo community Remolino Bajo has a str 0.3737). 18 La compaÃ±Ãa no nos van a acomoda r en la sierra. No nos van a acomodar el la costa porque nosotros no somos de la costa, nosotros no somos de la Sierra. Nosotros no somos del Oriente al norte. Somos de aquÃ, y aquÃ vamos a quedarnos .
101 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION In this section, I will discuss the significance of the PRM and PTM categories and the way that these themes reflect the literature regarding resource related conflict. I then di scuss the significance of Shuar and colono responses and the conclusions that can be drawn at the population level of analysis. The differences characterizing Shuar and colono contexts, which have shaped their connection to the land and their current livelihoods. I then provide context to understand the intra cultural variation evident at the community level. Overall, the differences that distinguish Shuar and colono perceptions reflect broader trends about the ways in which indigenous peoples experience and anticipate distributive, participatory and procedural inequalities associated with environmental injustice. PRM and PTM Categories The categories formed from the participator y risk mapping methodology reflect the broad spectrum of potential risks that participants associate with large scale mining. Although PRM asks informants to rank risks from most to least severe, each category encapsulates important issues in and of themse lves that deserve acknowledgement, and merits further discussion. The categories reiterate the very ideological concerns that Bebbington et val ues inherent within the ( 2008a: 903). The c onception of these categories with in this investigation makes concrete the notion that individuals have a strong connection to the land, not only as it reflects their ties to the physical landscape , but also as it reflects the ir national
102 and cultural ident ity. of the way these categories speak to a growing public consciousness about the distribution of cos ts and benefits of large scale mining and the reality that local stakeholders will bare the brunt of operations, either through exposure to toxic pollutants, or through a dispossession of land and resources (MartÃnez Alier 2002; Bebbington and Bury 2013; W these issues directly reflect public concern over the lack of transparency and accountability characterizing concerns also speak to a lack of local stakeholder involvement in decision making processes, which serve to accentuate public concerns regarding corporate and government transparency. The overwhelming conc ern over environmental contamination should also be addressed, given that this risk also informs other These findings suggest that local communities would greatly benefit from a forthright discussion regarding mitigation strategies concerning potential environmental contamination from large scale mining . Local residents do not want to be told that there will be no contamination associated with the industry ; rather, they want to know what they can do to lessen their exposure to it. The results of the PTM methods reflect the advancements which resource industrialization campaigns on. The assets that locals hope to benefit from are the reasons why not all local stakeholders are comp letely for or against the industry. That
103 sort of dichotomous positioning oversimplifies an otherwise complex reality in which local populations are looking to advance themselves and provide for their families. As residents desire the benefits associa ted infrastructure, job opportunities, community development projects, and greater educational access so that they may be able to attain El Buen Vivir. Local residents want to obtain the securities that come with these associated improvements, but are unce rtain about the socio environmental costs of development. The politics of resource industrialization are being played out in the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor and the case study of Mirador is emblematic of the social, political, and economic processes that underli ne resource related conflict. The composition of concerns referenced in the PRM methods is consistent with the literature on social conflict and reiterate the importance of transparency, accountability, and consultation if resistance is to be avoided. Resp onses Based on Ethnicity A difference in Shuar and colono responses to perceived risks, benefits, and proposed coping strategies are the result of distinct socio cultural histories and experiences of these two groups which have shaped their connection to t he land and available resources they can mobilize in response to potential threats. The fact that the majority of Shuar informants in this study perceive distinct environmental and social risks associated with mineral industrialization, yet expect to reap minimal to no benefits is consistent with environmental justice theory. A history of colonization and
104 discrimination along with socioeconomic marginalization has resulted in a greater sense of vulnerability to potentially negative consequences associated w ith large scale mining, given their anticipation of distributive inequalities and lack of procedural and participatory inclusion. Whereas colonos addressed in the literature. Concerns associated with contamination reflect the degree to which Shuar communities depend on the environme nt and natural resources. The communities of Santiago Paty, Etsa, Charip, Santa Rosa, and Kampanak are rural communities, and while members may have different professions, the majority of Shuar families sustain themselves through agriculture, cash cropping and livestock production, and each household relies on natural resources for their subsistence to some extent. They cannot afford to buy all the food they need from grocery stores. Their diet typically consists of rice, fruits and tubers like manioc and s weet potato, and forest resources such as hearts of palm, guayusa leaves for tea, fish from the streams and river, bush meat, and sometimes chicken and/or duck from their available livestock. They also use at they use to carry their crops from their gardens to their desired destinations. Shuar communities also rely on natural resources to hunt and fish; for example, Shuar people sometimes use a root called barbasco to fish. The Shuar, like many other indigen ous groups, depend on their available natural resource base for income strategies, household sustenance, medicinal
105 opposition to large mental concerns are a matter of the ways that Shuar communities rely on environmental resources, but it also speaks to how they envision adapting to and recovering from the consequences of contamination. Toxic emissions not only serve to reduce the pool of natural resources on which Shuar households rely, but exposure to contamination also has implications on their health. Oil Oriente caus ed multiple forms of cancer, birth defects, miscarriages, and other illnesses among the indigenous CofÃ¡n, Secoya, Siona, Kichwa, and Woarani communities living in the area. The Shuar are concerned they will experience a similar fate with mining, and that t hey will not be able to adequately protect themselves from contamination related illness. Concern over contamination may also speak to the importance that the natural world has played in the construction of Shuar cultural identity. As one informant Shuar F biodiversity because, in reality, the Shuar, we love nature and with it, we have lived. We come from nature and we have to care for it. 1 nstill some sense of responsibility that comes through in Shuar articulations of concern over the environment and potential contamination. This explanation can also be used to understand the level of concern that Shuar informants articulate over territoria l integrity. 127). The formation of the Shuar reserve and the Shuar Federation intrinsically informed the construction of Shuar cultural ident ity as rooted in 1 Que conservamos el medio ambiente, la biodiversidad d e la flora y la fauna...porque en realidad los Shuar, nosotros amamos la naturaleza porque con esa nos hemos vivido. Somos de la naturaleza y hay que cuidarla .
106 this specific area. Territory served as the foundation for identity formation, and with it, the Shuar were able to benefit from specific rights associated with land tenure. o pasture and crops and mineral mines...has greatly compromised the capacities for self determination and independence of indigenous peoples (Byrne et al. 2002: 10). The process of colonization and the role of the Salesian Order in the establishment of the Shuar reserve made concrete the cultural connection to this territory and fundamentally transformed the relationship that Shuar people had to the land. Not only did colonization promote sedentary lifestyles, but it also gave them a means to interact with the state and claim rights through land occupation. The Shuar Federation had a similar function and structuring role over the relationship that Shuar families had with the land as the organization helped secure property rights, and further integrated famil ies into the ethnic boundary, land title, and a politically recognizable Federa tion advocating for the rights of the Shuar people have all served to instill the power and importance of place based identity, which influenced the way that the Shuar depend on the land to ensure their rights and their cultural identity. Large scale min ing threatens Shuar territory because of the potential for Additionally, the effects of environmental degradation may render the land uninhabitable and force Shuar communities to relocate in the future. Shuar territory was established as a response to agrarian reform and colonization when colonos began migrating in
107 Oriente (Rudel et al. 2002) . Shuar territory, at the very least, ensured that Shuar communities had a place to live. Mineral industrialization along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor not only threatens to displace a people from a territory on which they based their cultural identity, but it also could jeopardizes the legitimacy of the Shuar Fede ration and the work they did to secure their people a land base. Cultural identity also informs the way that Shuar informants articulate concern for two Shuar informants articulated during our interviews that they believe ignorance and r acism are contributing factors as to why large scale mining activities are developing along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor. They feel invisible and cast aside because they cannot comprehend how the government can allow mining exploitation to occur in these popu lated areas. They feel mocked and taunted by these claims more than anything else. An elder Shuar couple explained that the government must think they are stupid and gullible for them to believe that they would benefit from large scale mining. In an interv iew with a Shuar participant named Ronaldo 2 mining is progress, that it brings work, that every family will be rich, but rich in what? How? I do not believe this will ever happen. Some will be rich, but not us. 3 response is evocative of the extent to which Shuar respondents feel cast aside during directly reflects environmental justice theory regarding recognition (Schlosber g 2004, 2007; Young 1990; Fraser 2000). Shuar informants articulate the ways in which mineral industrialization has caused them to feel disrespected, invisible, and even insulted. 2 Pseudonym 3 Solo dicen que la minerÃa es un progreso, que trae trabajo, que cada familia va a ser rico. Pero ricos en que? Como? JamÃ¡s creo. Algunos van a ser ricos, pero no nosotros.
108 Concerns related to recognition, and the lack thereof, not only inform certa in risks that Shuar participants are likely to mention, but it also informs their perceptions of distributive benefits, as touched upon above. While colonos anticipate infrastructural benefits, the Shuar are not likely to perceive any benefits from mining at all. Perceived distributive inequalities demonstrate the extent to which Shuar informants have internalized feelings of marginalization and discrimination and participatory and procedural exclusion. Disparities in perceived distributive benefits are rea ffirmed series of cartoon illustrations, ECSA demonstrates the different ways that Shuar and colonos can benefit from the industry. In one of the cartoons (Appendix C 1), a picture of a Shuar man dressed in traditional garb and adorned with a feathered crown, is trade for me! 4 In another cartoon (Appendix C 2), a colona in a green blouse is presented with the . 5 The inference made from both of these cartoons is that large scale m ining will facilitate different portrayals of the Shuar and colono s reacting to mineral industrialization in the area illustrates the stark contrast of how ECSA believes Shuar people will benefit from mining as compared to colonos. antiquated stereotype and the rhetoric serves to spatialize their capacities in a way that difies the notion that Shuar territory is 4 Ser guÃa de turismo para enseÃ±ar y compartir nuestro hermoso mundo natural es para mÃ el oficio mÃ¡s bonito del mundo ! 5 Ahora si. Con trabajo, poco a poco ahorrando , podrÃ© ampliar mi tienda.
109 distinct and is not affected by industrial mining. Based on the pamphlet, ECSA essentially promotes the idea that large scale mining could prompt a tourist industry in the area, and Shuar people could take advantag e of the opportunity to use their skills benefits that Shuar communities can anticipate, in contrast to what colonos can anticipate, like a successful local store, captures a broader narrative about how the company, and perhaps larger Ecuadorian society, views indigenous capacities and resources through the stereotype of the ecological steward. Though unintentional, alities of resource development and the limited benefits that Shuar communities can anticipate from the industry. The factors underlying factors differentiating the way that Shuar and colonos conceptualize the burdens and benefits associated with mineral industrialization is also visible in the type of coping strategies they propose. Coping strategies are not only a result of the different ways that Shuar and colonos perceive their access to and utilization of resources, but it also speaks to their distinc t socio cultural and historical positionalities and the way these different contexts have shaped Shuar and colono connections to the land. The propensity for colonos to suggest that they will migrate speaks to their financial and material security and stab ility that allow them be mobile base and livelihood options, are likely...to end up just coping, moving to new livelihood 8: 189). The fact that Shuar informants are unlikely to suggest migration in the face of potential risks may reflect a lack of
110 resources to be able to a secure livelihood somewhere else. One Shuar informant proposed a hypothetical situation where the gover nment or ECSA relocated his family countryside. Where will I have work? And when my family comes to live in the house, all of us together, how will we maintain ourselves? What wil l we eat ? 6 This statement 7 reaction to the thought of living in a city is powerful because of the way it reflects his own perceptions about his capabilities, access to resources, and alternative livelihood options. He believes his life experiences have not identity as a Shuar man from the countryside ha s informed the way that he conceives of and associates his own survival and productivity to a specific place that cannot be replicated in an urban setting. The implications of a place based identity serve to constrain how a person envisions the utility of their resource base in different settings, even when faced with adversity. Shuar informants who suggest that they will not do anything in response to potential risks may lack resources to mobilize to be able successfully minimize their exposure and vulner ability to the negative impacts associated with large scale mining. A lack of financial assets, political representation, as well as participatory and procedural equality are among the resources that the Shuar could mobilize in the face of potential harm. Although the Shuar Federation was influential in securing its people land rights in the past decades, transnational companies like ECSA have been 6 C on que se mantiene? Tenemos vivido en el campo. y si no tengo trabajo? Llega la familia para vivirnos, pero con que se mantiene? Que van a comer ? 7 Pseudonym
111 successful in diminishing the representative power of political organizations like the FISCH because they hav e taken advantage of internal divisions among community members and negotiated with local land owners instead of the Federation. Another possibility for the reason why some Shuar informants propose to do nothing has to do with the scale of operations. The thought of being able to resist of adapt to the broad spectrum of environmental and social risks caused by a transnational Chinese mining conglomerate that has the full support of the Ecuadorian government is altogether inconceivable for many Shuar inform ants. They feel somewhat paralyzed by the thought of it, and the combination of socio economic and cultural marginalization results in feelings of further powerlessness. For other Shuar informants that responded this way, this proposed coping strategy migh t also speak to the fact that large scale mining is still largely theoretical given that it is still in the development stages. Because the direct and indirect impacts have not yet been realized, perhaps people do not feel a pressing need to come up with a contingency plan for the time being. Proposed inaction could be the result of the fact that large scale mining has yet to alter the daily lives of the people living in and around Mirador, and until it begins to affect them, there is no pressing need for a plan of action. because of the distinct set of resources that some Shuar informants perceive and propose to mobilize in the face of adversity. This particular coping strateg y speaks to extent in which distinct ethnic groups have experienced the same history as colonos , but from vastly different perspectives, and this in turn, has structured their connection to the land and the way they deal with adversity. The formation of th e Shuar reserve
112 engrained their identity into the landscape and when they propose to fight for their land, they are also proposing to fight for their cultural survival. The proclivity for some Shuar ly represents their cultural and ancestral lineage, but it mirrors the way that the government and larger Ecuadorian society has engaged with the Shuar in the past and continues to structure their relationship presently. Ecuador effectively mobilized Shuar during border wars with Peru and relied on their historical warfare tactics to defend Ecuadorian sovereignty. The legacy that defined Shuar culture in the past as a warrior people and their tacit knowledge of the landscape wa s called upon by the Ecuadorian state throughout the latter part of the twentieth century. As one Shuar informant explained to me: they put our people on the line of fire...we won the Paquisha, Mayeco, Machinaza and Cenepa Wars, not because of the people that came from Quito or Guayaquil. It was because of our people, and if it were not for us, this place would not be Ecuadorian territory; it would have been Peruvian territory. 8 The quote in the introduction of this thesis by the former head of sustainable development and community relations highlights the way that this past informs the way that some colonos associate and interact with Shuar groups, which has served to perpetuate the way that the Shuar see themselves. There is a degree to which this identit y is mobilized among the Shuar and it is a resource that they are willing to use to our own strength, we will defend; we will fight. We do not have guns; our gun is our 8 Paquisha, Mayeco, Machinaza y Cenepa no por la gente que vinieron de Quito o de Guayaquil. Fue por nuestra gente, y si no fuera por nosotros, este lugar no seria territorio Ecuatoriano, seria territorio Peruano.
113 m achete . 9 This assertion not only engages with the historical and ancestral distinction, but it also reflects which capacities and resources some Shuar people will mobilize in the face of potential risk. Contextualizing Intra Cultural Variation An exami nation of responses based on community affiliation reveals the extent to which other contextual factors contribute to intracultural variation . The results show that the Shuar community of Etsa perceives potential employment associated with large scale mini is located next to from Mirador), and a number of residents living in the community are directly employed by the ECSA. Visible p roximity , in this instance , influences the degree to which communities experience the benefits of industrial expansion. I make the distinction of ommunities of Santa Rosa and Kampanak are si tuated on the other side of the river Zamora, approximately 2km from Mirador, they are on the other side of the mountain ridge and less visible to the public eye. These communities are still waiting for typical of CSR campaigns , but remain pessimistic about the likelihood of these improvements for the future. other findings that link the Shuar community of Santiago Paty with the perceived asset, for one resident in this community, and a number of employment opportunities for other members as well. 9 Sabemos lo que es defendernos. Sabemos lo que guerra. Con nuestro esfuerzo vamos a defender; vamos a luchar. No tenemos armas; nuestra arma es el machete.
114 In contrast to Shuar communities, perceived assets among colono communities reveal a combines technological advancement, global interconnection, and El Buen V ivir. This result may be used to support the claim that c olonos not only hope to benefit from additional basic s ervices from infrastructure, but that they also hope to benefit from advancements reflecting a heightened socio economic status. As a c olono canton, El Pangui is one of the only nearby places for local commerce and it is likely that infrastructural contrib utions will occur in and around this particular area given its higher population density and greater visibility. One of the current projects is the construction of a new university along the main road leading into El Pangui that will specialize in environm ental sciences, tourism, and mining. In an open ended interview with three Santa Rosa residents, they felt that the majority of infrastructural projects implemented in the area are not implemented in less visible communities. Infrastructure has been strate gically placed in more visible locations, as demonstrated by the repaving of the main roadway entering El Pangui. of the main tenets within a discussion of environmental racism in terms of the distrib ution of risks and benefits disproportionately experienced by marginalized communities. Although statistical analysis disaggregating ethnicity and community affiliation complicate my results, qualitative data collection suggests that there are disparities in the ways that Shuar and colono participants perceive the potential benefits of mining. Responses based on community affiliation largely support the broader patterning of responses based on ethnicity. There are irregularities which complicate the way th at
115 ethnicity informs coping strategies, but I believe there are contextual reasons to explain these disparities. The findings show that residents Santiago Paty propose to migrate as a way to ameliorate their exposure to perceived risks. This finding proble matizes my previous assumptions regarding resource access and mobility, but I believe it can be the informants I interviewed. The main road leading to El Pangui obs tructs the physical location of Santiago Paty , as the highway cuts the community in two . The fact that the community has already been truncated, and is therefore more exposed to potential landscape changes may be influential in explaining these findings. Broader Significance A discussion of the various responses of both Shuar and colono informants regarding their perceptions of risks, benefits and proposed coping strategies reveal the extent to which ethnicity informs local stakeholder reactions to large scale mining along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor. Some of the more salient differences that emerge from this discussion speak to the limited resources that comprise contemporary indigenous livelihoods. Indigenous people are restricted by their social and econo mic marginalization which serves to perpetuate their limited livelihood strategies. Natural resource dependence may be a reflection of unique cultural histories, but as more and more forest tracts transform into agricultural production zones, sites of reso urce extraction, and even energy generation through hydroelectric development, indigenous indigenous territory diminishes, these populations are expected to transition and participate in the market economy or retreat into the remaining forest. In the face of transnational corporations and national economies of resource extraction and
116 development, indigenous peoples maintain no illusions about who benefits and who suffer s from the disproportionate burden of industrialization. Resistance based on land rights is simultaneously about access to resources and the right to self determination and sovereignty. Rights based claims are one of the last remaining avenues that indigen ous people can mobilize in the face of overwhelming diversity.
117 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION In the face of landscape transformation, local stakeholders along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor are forced to evaluate the distributive impacts associated with large scale mi ning and decide if the benefits are worth the environmental and social burdens. In this thesis, I explored the diversity of local perceptions regarding looming landscape transformation in the face of l arge outhern Oriente. By uti lizing a methodology that relies on emic formations of risk and benefit assessment characterized by participatory risk and tenables mapping , this investigation sought to unpack the heterogeneous perceptions that characterize local perceptions. The overarc hing question driving this investigation asked how local populations perceive and propose to respond to the impacts associated with resource extraction and related environmental degradation? I hypothesized that Shuar informants would stress risks of enviro nmental contamination given their limited livelihood strategies and dependence on natural resources. I also hypothesized that Shuar participants would stress risks to their ancestral lands given the importance that Shuar territory has played in the formati on of their cultural identity. My additional hypotheses proposed that colonos would perceive more benefits associated with the industry when compared to Shuar informants, and that colonos would suggest that they will leave if they feel threatened by enviro nmental and social risks associated with large scale mining. I grounded my investigation in a political ecology and environmental justice framework to explore the landscapes of politicized environments as they are defined by geographies of extraction and e conomies of environmental injustice. In addition, a review of the literature on resource related conflict makes visible the degree to which
118 conceptions of value, equity, ownership, and process are important considerations for local stakeholders, as these i ssues often underlie cases of contestation. The results of participatory risk mapping methods articulates the ways in which stakeholder concerns must be addressed before the situation returns to a state of active resistance and marked conflict. The resul ts of my investigation speak to the ways in which colonos have access to a distinct set of resources which enable them to move if adversity becomes overwhelming. S huar informants interviewed in this investigation will stay in the area, regardless of the ri sk, and either try to adapt to the changes or fight to defend what remains of their land. While the findings illuminate the extent of intra cultural variation among groups, contextual explanations can be used to understand diversity. The results of this inv estigation speak to the different ways that to believe that that Shuar and colonos perceive the impacts of large scale mining. There are recurrent themes expressed by Shuar informants that speak to the degree to which they have internalized distributive, p rocedural, and participatory inequalities associated with mineral industrialization. These inequalities are not unique to the Shuar but are characteristic of the general indigenous realities contending with the globalizing industries and national developme nt agendas. In the face of landscape transformation, what resources are indigenous people able to mobilize to buffer themselves from environmental harms caused in the pursuit of economic advancement. My research adds to the body of literature that addres ses local stakeholder perceptions of resources extractio n and environmental degradation and the ways in which these perceptions influence decision making processes and coping strategies .
119 My investigation also contributes to future efforts to understand ind ustrial mining along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor by providing a baseline study to explore local perceptions over time. Future research would greatly benefit from a longitudinal study that incorporates participatory environmental monitoring projects. Given t he results of this investigation demonstrating an overwhelming concern that local residents have over environmental contamination, a participatory environmental monitoring program could serve to empower residents, as they would be actively engaged in traci ng potential impacts to their water quality, floral and faunal abundance, soil composition, and even air pollution. The results of my research show the ways in which people feel paralyzed by the thought of environmental contamination, and a participatory e nvironmental monitoring initiative could serve to enable communities by providing them with tools and resources to let them cultivate their own knowledge about these landscape transformations as they occur. The fact that mineral exploitation is still in th e beginning stages along the Cordillera del CÃ³ndor provides an important platform for future research to provide pivotal benchmarks that can trace social and environmental changes over time.
120 APPENDI X A TABLES T able A 1 . Community and r isks San. P ^ Etsa ^ Mach ~ Kam ^ S.C ~ S.R ^ Rem. ~ Char ^ Tund ~ Pang Contam 0.0530 0.005 7 0.0224 0.0378 0.2019* 0.1357 0.0701 0.1090 0.1272 0.2001 * Degrad 0.0065 0.077 7 0.0558 0.0882 0.1398 0.0110 0.0655 0.0255 0.1503 0.1291 Worker Rights 0.0011 0.056 9 0.09 69 0.1099 0.0401 0.0127 0.0949 0.0833 0.0255 0.1384 Crime 0.0499 0.071 4 0.1128 0.0164 0.2087* 0.1199 0.0522 0.0714 0.0880 0.2302 * Child 0.0065 0.128 8 0.1791 0.3203* * 0.0523 0.1823 0.0655 0.1288 0.0599 0.1454 Sick 0.00 50 0.076 4 0.0259 0.2106* 0.0971 0.0933 0.0457 0.1960 * 0.1157 0.0968 Shuar T 0.3011* * 0.096 3 0.0954 0.3011* * 0.0745 0.0854 0.1314 0.0686 0.0800 0.1140 T.O.R 0.1037 0.068 4 0.1093 0.1037 0.0854 0.1461 0.0616 0.0684 0.0369 0.1626 Chines e 0.0095 0.046 6 0.0818 0.0969 0.0954 0.0022 0.1683 0.0879 0.1025 0.2115 * Corrupt 0.0772 0.135 7 0.0798 0.0757 0.0623 0.0888 0.1237 0.0574 0.0669 0.0953 Scale 0.0757 0.057 4 0.5063* * 0.0757 0.0623 0.0888 0.1099 0.0574 0.0669 0.0953 Nois e 0.0905 0.068 6 0.0297 0.0905 0.0745 0.0854 0.1314 0.0686 0.4974* * 0.1053 Com Con 0.0569 0.063 2 0.0466 0.0569 0.0963 0.2154* 0.1210 0.0632 0.0737 0.1050 Social Rep 0.1027 0.051 0 0.0710 0.0673 0.1445 0.0635 0.0322 0.0510 0.1284 0.0848 D eceit 0.0107 0.042 1 0.2209 0.0779 0.0070 0.0524 0.0977 0.0421 0.0501 0.0431 Reloc 0.0530 0.109 0 0.1095 0.0378 0.4154** 0.0405 0.2088 * 0.1090 0.2744* * 0.1812 ^= Shuar community , ~ = mestizo community
121 T able A 2 . Community and a ssets San. P^ Etsa^ Mach ~ Kam^ S.C ~ S.R^ Rem. ~ Char^ Tund ~ Pang No ben efit 0.0565 0.1601 0.0214 0.0762 0.1251 0.1831 0.0397 0.1751 0.1380 0.1826 Jobs 0.1310 0.2187 * 0.0346 0.0715 0.0668 0.1170 0.0368 0.1225 0.1308 0.0617 Infrast 0.0704 0.1116 0.1205 0.0704 0.0921 0.2033 * 0.0911 0.717 0.0302 0.3378 ** Com. Dev. 0.0757 0.0574 0.0667 0.0757 0.0623 0.0714 0.3573 ** 0.0574 0.0669 0.0953 Edu 0.1027 0.1637 0.0920 0.1027 0.0554 0.0635 0.0977 0.0510 0.0596 0.08 48 Econ. S. 0.1972 * 0.1140 0.1810 0.0569 0.0686 0.0786 0.1210 0.0632 0.0737 0.1050 Other 0.0569 0.1140 0.0466 0.0833 0.0686 0.0786 0.1210 0.0632 0.0737 0.2484 * ^= Shuar community, ~ = mestizo community Table A 3 . Community and coping s tr ategies San. P^ Etsa^ Mach ~ Kam^ S.C ~ S.R^ Rem. ~ Char^ Tund ~ Pang Nothing 0.2366* 0.0225 0.0632 0.1035 0.0147 0.1465 0.3737* * 0.1907 0.0474 0.1583 Fight 0.0281 0.1108 0.1573 0.2053 * 0.0186 0.4166 8* 0.2165* 0.1131 0.0640 0.1879 Move 0.2378* 0.0996 0.0716 0.0391 0.0403 0.1602 0.2524* 0.0996 0.0114 0.3286 ** ^= Shuar community , ~ =mestizo
122 Table A 4 . Ethnicity and r isks Shuar Colono Contamination 0.4670** 0.4670** Degradation 0.0073 0.0073 Rights 0.0985 00.09 85 Crime 0.0837 0.0837 Future Gen. 0.0950 0.0950 Sickness 0.1616 0.1616 Shuar Territory 0.1969* 0.1969* Take Our Riches 0.0044 0.0044 Chinese Company 0.1525 0.1525 Corruption 0.1647 0.1647 Scale of Project 0.0291 0.0291 Noise 0.3822** 0.38 22** Community Conflict 0.0924 0.0924 Social Repression 0.0689 0.0689 Deceit 0.2874** 0.2874** Relocation 0.1714 0.1714 Table A 5 . Ethnicity and perceived b enefits Shuar Colono No benefit 0.2670** 0.2670** Jobs 0.0455 0.0455 Infra. 0.3132 ** 0.3132** Com. Dev. 0.0678 0.0678 Edu 0.0388 0.0388 Econ. Sec 0.0036 0.0036 Other 0.1742 0.1742 Table A 6 . Ethnicity and coping s trategies Shuar Colono Nothing 0.2812** 0.2812** Fight 0.2124* 0.2124* Move 0.4470** 0.4470**
123 Table A 7 . Coping strategies b ased on perceived r isks Nothing Fight Move Contamination 0.2334* 0.1952 0.3565** Degradation 0.1193 0.0349 0.0757 0.1035 0.0281 0.0302 Crime 0.0343 0.1548 0.1287 Children 0.0766 0.1608 0.0247 Sicknes s 0.1242 0.0449 0.1367 Shuar Territory 0.1713 0.3982** 0.1217 Take Our Riches 0.0069 0.1379 0.0876 Chinese Company 0.2559** 0.0976 0.2043* Corruption 0.1171 0.1413 0.0745 Scale of Project 0.1171 0.0193 0.1161 Noise 0.1713 0.0186 0.2039* C ommunity Conflict 0.2298* 0.3347** 0.0996 Social Repression 0.0182 0.0443 0.0451 Deceit 0.0455 0.1111 0.1271 Relocation 0.0156 0.1227 0.1301
124 APPENDIX B RESULTS RETURNED TO COMMUNITIES R esultados Entregados por Leah Henderson El aÃ±o pasado, viaje a las provincias de Zamora Chinche y Morona Santiago visitando comunidades en la Cordillera del CÃ³ndor. La meta de mi investigaciÃ³n fue entrevistar personas Shuar sobre los beneficios y riesgos potenciales de la minerÃa a gran escala. Cada en trevista fue confidencial y los participantes fueron informados que su participaciÃ³n era voluntario. Mi equipo y yo fuimos a las comunidades de Santiago Paty, Etsa, Machinaza, Kampanak, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Remolino, Chichis, y Charip. Entrevistamos 3 0 personas incluyendo 19 hombres y 11 mujeres. Entrevistamos 6 agricultores, 3 empleados de ECSA, 4 mineros artesanales, un profesor, y 10 madres de la familia. Uno de los puntos centrales que surgiÃ³ en las entrevistas es que el tema de la minerÃa no es solo un discurso que esta estar en contra o a favor de la industria. Hay bastantes aspectos que uno tiene que considerar porque la megaminerÃa tiene impactos directos e indirectos que afectan aspectos diferentes de la vida incluyendo el empleo, la sobreviv encia, infraestructura, salud, educaciÃ³n, y el medioambiente. Es decir que posiciones sobre la industria minera tiene que ver con las percepciones de los beneficios y riesgos potenciales. Las entrevistas con participantes Shuar ilumina que la introducciÃ³n de la minerÃa de gran escala es mucho mas que la mina. En tÃ©rminos de los beneficios potenciales que vienen como resultado directo de la minerÃa es el desarrollo de la infraestructura y servicios bÃ¡sicos. Cosas como vÃas, puentes, centros de salud, y mas escuelas del milenio y universidades se facilitan el progreso del paÃs y el avance o adelanto para cada persona que aprovecha estos servicios. Los participantes que me explicaron sobre l os beneficios de la megaminerÃa mencionaron que el desarrollo de la ed ucaciÃ³n tambiÃ©n es un gran beneficio para todos y para las futuras generaciones. El trabajo que ofrece ECSA tambiÃ©n es una manera de proveer por su familia y poder sacar adelante a la zona y alas comunidades a la parroquia, al cantÃ³n, al paÃs. Que todos me recen la oportunidad avanzar para poder lograr eso, necesitan desarrollar y necesitan trabajar. Necesitan el Buen Vivir, que todo desarrollo. La plataforma de la revoluciÃ³n ciudadana fomenta que los componentes del Buen Vivir requiere el desarrollo sano, y hasta que parezca que la minerÃa gran escala esta haciendo daÃ±o, la minerÃa presenta una gran oportunidad para el PaÃs y su gente. El tema sobre el futuro de las generaciones Shuar es uno de los aspectos mas importantes par a en las percepciones de los participantes. No es un tema de estar en contra o a favor de la minerÃa, todos se preocupen por el futuro de sus hijos, nietos, y los que siguen despuÃ©s. Los futuras generaciones forman parte del argumento para
125 estar en contra y a favor de la minerÃa a gran escala. Los dos lados estÃ¡n mirando al futuro de sus hijos. Otro tema importante es que no todos estÃ¡n en contra de la minerÃa a gran escala en su totalidad. Si la empresa contribuirÃa a proyectos de infraestructura en comu nidades, educaciÃ³n, y que ayudarÃa con la economÃa en comunidades, y no solo se enfocaran la exploraciÃ³n o impactos ambientales, pero si estarÃan consiente de las realidades del Pueblo Shuar, ECSA seria mas acept ada. TambiÃ©n inclusive porque gente estÃ¡ tra bajando para la minerÃa pero es por la necesidad y no por el apoyo de la empresa. El tema de desconfianza surgiÃ³ en las entrevistas tambiÃ©n. Algunos expresaron desconfianza en la gente de afuera, Por ejemplos en los ONGs, que esos son instituciones priva das, que mas se meten en problemas ajenos. Fundaciones que a veces dicen no a la minerÃa, que cogen ciertas personas, algunos dirigentes y publican o diseminan resultados apoyando y cumpliendo con la agenda de la ONG. En cambio, otros participantes comen tan que no tienen confianza en el gobierno o ECSA cuando se dice que la minerÃa puede controlar y mitigar el nivel de la contaminaciÃ³n que va a producir. TambiÃ©n, algunos participantes articulan que no estÃ¡n convencidos en la propaganda de la minerÃa ni la del gobierno cuando dice que la minerÃa es un gran progreso que crearÃa mucho trabajo para la gente de la regiÃ³n y que muchos van a beneficiarse econÃ³micamente. Dicen que fuera bueno si les ayudarÃa a todos. Â¨Algunos van a hacerse ricos, pero no nosotros. Â¨ Parte de este argumento es que si ECSA les informarÃa bien de sus actividades en cada comunidad y no solo en las que estÃ¡n reconocidas como comunidades de impactos directos, mas gente podrÃan comunicar sus preocupaciones y desarrollar una mejor relaciÃ³n con ECSA para poder crear verdadero desarrollo sostenible. En tÃ©rminos de riesgos potenciales, el 100% de la gente entrevistada mencionÃ³ que el riesgo principal con respeto a la minerÃa de gran escala es la contaminaciÃ³n del agua y de la tierra. Esta cont aminaciÃ³n tambiÃ©n se relaciona con la reducciÃ³n de flora y fauna en el Ã¡rea. TambiÃ©n los participantes mencionan que les preocupa su salud y la salud de sus hijos. La diferencia entre percepciones sobre la contaminaciÃ³n queda en la confianza que uno tiene en la minerÃa sostenible y el uso de la tecnologÃa avanzada para disminuir el daÃ±o potencial al medio ambiente y la naturaleza. Todos quieren una vida sana y que conserven el medioambiente, la biodiversidad de la flora y fauna, y que no la destruya porque con ella han vivido. Mas que el oro y el petrÃ³leo, estÃ¡n con la naturaleza y el agua. Ecuador no tiene experiencia con un proyecto a gran escala. No se sabe la magnitud de los impactos porque es la primera vez que Ecuador estÃ¡ permitiendo un proyecto a c ielo abierto. Mencionan que hay un antecedente con las actividades petroleras transnacionales y nacionales y les impactÃ³ mucho a las comunidades. Es la perspectiva de algunos participantes que la regalÃa nunca llegaron a las comunidades y quedaron en peore s condiciones y por eso hay un miedo sobre la megamineria y la posibilidad de los convenios de cumplir lo que ofrecen. Por eso, algunas personas no
126 confÃan mucho en ECSA porque dicen que no cumplen lo que ofrecen. El tema sobre el fracaso del YasunÃ ITT ta mbiÃ©n contribuye a dudar porque dicen que aunque estaba firmado, se lo vendiÃ³. Algunas personas dicen que seria mejor si Ecuador desarrollara la industria sin la ayuda de China porque quizÃ¡s los recursos quedarÃan en el paÃs. Entre Ecuatorianos podrÃan atenderse mejor y colaborar con un proyecto diferente y que no viniera de otro lugar e inyectarse con una polÃtica que realmente no es suya134i. En cambio, otras personas dicen que no importa que sea Ecuatoriano ni una empresa extranjera, no deben desarrol lar esta industria en Ecuador. Algunos se sienten ofendidos que el Presidente haya hecho un acuerdo, abriendo las puertas de la Cordillera del CÃ³ndor a las empresas transnacionales sin una comprensiva consulta previa de todas comunidades de la zona. Algu nos estÃ¡n especialmente ofendidos porque fueron ellos quien lucharon en las guerras con Peru, defendiendo el paÃs y protegiendo la soberanÃa no como shuar sino como ciudadanos de Ecuador. Ahora dicen que Corriente Resources estÃ¡n moviendo Â¨como si nosotros no existiÃ©ramos.Â¨ Puede hacer un extractivismo donde no hay nadie, pero en cambio acÃ¡, hay la gente Shuar. ECSA esta comprando terrenos,y va de casa en casa , y las personas no quieren ser desalojadas pero se siente indefensos por que no es su decisiÃ³n. Y parece que si van a perder su territorio no saben si quedan o van. Porque despuÃ©s de extraer las grandes riquezas, se quedaran solos, mirando que se han llevado . En algunas entrevistas, algunos participantes hablaron de la desapariciÃ³n de la cultura Shua r. Que con la llegada de la minerÃa a gran escala van a ver mas gente extranjera que traerÃan delincuencia. Culturalmente, algunos dicen que la cultura Shuar va a desaparecer mas rÃ¡pido que antes, mientras otros dicen, van a desaparecer por la contaminaciÃ³ n y desplazamiento de su terreno. Algunos dicen que no hay como reubicarse porque son de la zona y aquÃ van a quedarse. No hay otro lugar para vivir.
127 APPENDIX C MATERIALS OBTAINED FROM ECSA Figure C 1. ECSA c artoon d epicting Shuar b enefits from i ndustrialization Figure C 2. ECSA c artoon d epicting c olono b enefits from i ndustrialization
128 Figure C 3. ECSA c artoon d epicting c ommunity b enefits from i ndustialization Figure C 4. ECSA DVD r egarding m ineral e xtraction p hases
129 Figure C 5. ECSA DVD e xplaining m ineral i ndustrialization
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148 BI OGRAPHICAL SKETCH Leah Henderson grew up in Northern California, just north of S an Francisco, in Marin County. She we nt to the University of California Santa Cruz for my undergraduate degree in Latin American and Latino Studies from 2006 2010. She studied abroad in Argentina and conducted fieldwork in the Ecuadorian Amazon during this time. Her love for South America, th e outdoors, and traveling in general, inspired her to continue her education, which is how she decided to attend graduate school for anthropology at the University of Florida. Leah was told if she wanted to be an A mazonianist, then UF was where she should be.