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Exploring the Use of Three-Dimensional Urban Simulation to Model Form-Based Codes Regulations

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Title:
Exploring the Use of Three-Dimensional Urban Simulation to Model Form-Based Codes Regulations
Creator:
Duan, Leilei
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
Publisher:
University of Florida
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Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (65 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.U.R.P.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Urban and Regional Planning
Committee Chair:
ZWICK,PAUL D
Committee Co-Chair:
BEJLERI,ILIR
Graduation Date:
8/9/2014

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architectural design ( jstor )
Architectural models ( jstor )
Building codes ( jstor )
Cities ( jstor )
City planning ( jstor )
Modeling ( jstor )
Three dimensional modeling ( jstor )
Urban design ( jstor )
Windows ( jstor )
Zoning ( jstor )
3d -- cityengine -- form-based-codes -- geodesign
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
City of Gainesville ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.

Notes

Abstract:
Geodesign emphasizes cooperation among professionals from different background. In such a collaborative working process, multiple varieties of different types of information are being exchanged and evaluated. However, individuals who lack in a planning and design background have difficulties understanding all of the information correctly, especially when working with planning regulations that include complex details, such as Form-based Codes (FBC). Therefore, this thesis aims at developing an easy way of sharing detailed planning information in Form-based Codes by building a procedure modeling template with CityEngine software. Three primary research questions are generated: (1) How can the zoning regulations in FBC be transferred into three-dimensional (3D) modeling? (2) How well can zoning regulations be represented by 3D models? (3) What are the potential uses of rules-based 3D modeling in urban planning? The methodology of this thesis seeks to create a computer generated architecture (CGA) code-based template that can be applied to all FBC transect zoning regulations. The principle of CGA code is explained and the process of generating associated CGA scripts is displayed. Gainesville, Florida is used as a case study to test the scripts. It is shown in later chapters of this thesis the 3D modeling results of five FBC transect zones within study area. 3D modeling with CityEngine is proved to be an efficient method for massive modeling process. This thesis discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the modeling procedure introduced, including the further uses of the FBC 3D models, such as the collaboration with other urban planning theories, and further analysis with ArcScene. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2014.
Local:
Adviser: ZWICK,PAUL D.
Local:
Co-adviser: BEJLERI,ILIR.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-02-28
Statement of Responsibility:
by Leilei Duan.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Copyright Duan, Leilei. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Embargo Date:
2/28/2015
Classification:
LD1780 2014 ( lcc )

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EXPLORING THE USE OF THREE DIMENSIONAL URBAN SIMULATION TO MODEL FORM BASED CODES REGULATIONS By LEILEI DUAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE O F MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND RE GIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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© 2014 Leilei Duan

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To my parents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my committee chair, Dr. Paul Zwick, and co chair, Dr. Ilir Bejleri, for their guidance and assistance throughout my thesis work. Dr. Zwick is a great mentor who stimulates my interest in Geodesign , especially for using CityEngine to build city models and combining Geodesign concepts with land use suitability analysis. Without his support, I would not have made this happen. Thank you also to Dr. Bejleri for his guidance and insight, part icularly with regard to the methodology part of self learning CGA code less difficult. Both professors have influenced my academic research significantly, and I anticipate t hat they will continue guiding my future professional career. A special thanks also goes to the LUCIS 689 team, headed by Dr. Zwick. They have always provided inspirations and insights for my research. Finally, I would like to thank my beloved parents for their selfless love and support all the time.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURE S ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 2 LITE RATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 15 Definition of Form based Codes ................................ ................................ ............. 15 History of FBC ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 15 Discussion about FBC ................................ ................................ ............................ 16 Advantag e of FBC ................................ ................................ ............................ 16 Disadvantage of FBC ................................ ................................ ....................... 17 History of the Use of 3D Modeling in Urban Design ................................ ................ 18 Real Model 3D Modeling ................................ ................................ .................. 18 Computer assisted 3D Modeling ................................ ................................ ...... 19 Introduction of CityEngine ................................ ................................ ....................... 19 The Evolution of Geodesign ................................ ................................ .................... 20 Summary of Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................ 21 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 23 General Introduction of the Work Flow of CityEngine ................................ ............. 23 CGA Code Design for This The sis ................................ ................................ .......... 28 Source of the Codes Used ................................ ................................ ............... 28 CGA Code Modifying and Creating Process ................................ .................... 29 4 RESULTS OF USING 3D MODELING FOR GAINESVILLE FBC AREAS ............. 40 Study Area Background ................................ ................................ .......................... 40 Study Area Overview ................................ ................................ .............................. 44 Study Area with FBC ................................ ................................ ............................... 47 Gainesville FBC Results ................................ ................................ ......................... 49 T3 Sub urban ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 50 T4 (R) General Urban (Residential) ................................ ................................ .. 52 T4 (M) General Urban (Mixed) ................................ ................................ ......... 53

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6 T4 (T) General Urban (Transit) ................................ ................................ ......... 54 T5 Urban Center ................................ ................................ ............................... 55 Study Area FBC Results ................................ ................................ ................... 56 5 DISCUSSIONS AND FURTHER STUDIES ................................ ............................ 58 Evaluation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 58 Advantages ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 58 Disadvantages ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 60 Further studies ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 60 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 63 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 65

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Comparison of conventional planning and Form Based Codes .......................... 17 4 1 ................................ ......... 47 4 2 e applicable with CityEngine FBC template ................................ ................................ ............ 50

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 The stakeholders, the Geodesign team, and the framework for Geodesign ....... 20 3 1 Example lot ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 24 3 2 Example lot subdivided ................................ ................................ ....................... 25 3 3 Two types of rule script view ................................ ................................ ............... 25 3 4 S cript example 1 in textual view ................................ ................................ ......... 26 3 5 Script example 1 in visual view ................................ ................................ ........... 27 3 6 Results of script example 1 ................................ ................................ ................ 27 3 7 Inspect or window of script example 1 ................................ ................................ . 28 3 8 FBC t emplate CGA code, color setting ................................ ............................... 30 3 9 FBC temp late CGA code, setbacks setting ................................ ........................ 30 3 10 FBC template CGA code, footprint generation ................................ ................... 30 3 11 FBC template CGA code, floor height, building height , and number of stories setting ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 31 3 12 FBC templat e CGA code, mass information reporting ................................ ........ 32 3 13 FBC template CGA code, zone color assigning ................................ .................. 33 3 14 FBC template CGA code, building function setting ................................ ............. 33 3 15 FBC template CGA code, building function color zones split .............................. 33 3 16 FBC template CGA code, building function zones color assign .......................... 34 3 17 FBC template CGA code, inspector window ................................ ....................... 35 3 18 FBC template CGA code, template result ................................ ........................... 35 3 19 FBC template CGA code, FAR calculation ................................ ......................... 36 3 20 FBC template CGA code, report ................................ ................................ ......... 37 3 21 FBC template CGA code, target FAR ................................ ................................ . 38

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9 3 22 FBC template CGA code, target FAR report ................................ ....................... 38 4 1 Gainesville FBC area ................................ ................................ .......................... 41 4 2 Gainesville FBC proposal transect zones ................................ ........................... 42 4 3 Study area ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 43 4 4 Study area with FBC transect z ones ................................ ................................ .. 44 4 5 Buildings with no height information ................................ ................................ ... 45 4 6 Study area b uilding footprint in CityEngine ................................ ......................... 46 4 7 E xisting buildings in study area ................................ ................................ .......... 46 4 8 Specific regulations for Gainesville FBC transe ct zones ................................ .... 48 4 9 3D modeling results of T3 transect zone within study area ................................ 50 4 10 T3 area with inspector window ................................ ................................ ........... 51 4 11 Results of parcel subdivision ................................ ................................ .............. 52 4 12 3D modeling results of T4(R) transect zone within stud y area ........................... 52 4 13 T 4(R) area with inspector window ................................ ................................ ...... 53 4 14 3D modeling results of T4(M) transect zone within study area ........................... 53 4 15 T 4(M) area with inspector window ................................ ................................ ...... 54 4 16 3D modeling results of T4(T) transect zone within study area ............................ 54 4 17 T 4(T) area with inspector window ................................ ................................ ....... 55 4 18 3D modeling results of T5 transect zone within study area ................................ 55 4 19 T5 area with inspector window ................................ ................................ ........... 56 4 20 Stu dy area FBC 3D modeling results ................................ ................................ . 56 5 1 Web s cene generated from the results ................................ ............................... 59 5 2 Arcscene scree nshot from Philadelphia example ................................ ............... 62

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10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 3D Three dimensional CAD Computer Aided Design CGA Computer Generated Architecture ESRI Environmental Systems Research Institute FAR Floor Area Ratio FBC Form based Codes FBCI Form Based Codes Institute GFA Gross Floor Area GIS Geographic Information System VR Virtual Reality

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning EXPLORING THE USE OF THREE DIMENSIONAL URBAN SIMULATION TO MODEL FORM BASED CODES REGULATIONS By Leilei Duan August 2014 Chair: Paul Zwick Cochair: Ilir Bejleri Major: Urban and Regional Planning Geodesign emphasizes cooperation among professionals from different background. In such a collaborative working process, multiple varieties of different types of information are being exchanged and evaluated. However, individuals who lack in a planning and design background have difficulties understanding all of the information correctly, especially when working with planning regulations that include complex details, such as F orm based Codes (FBC). Therefore, this thesis aims at developing an easy way of sharing detailed planning information in Form based Codes by building a procedure modeling template with CityEngine software. Three primary research questions are generated: (1 ) How can the zoning regulations in FBC be transferred into three dimensional (3D) modeling? (2) How well can zoning regulations be represented by 3D models? (3) What are the potential uses of rules based 3D modeling in urban planning? The methodology of this thesis seeks to create a computer generated architecture (CGA) code based template that can be applied to all FBC transect zoning regulations. The principle of CGA code is explained and the process of generating

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12 associated CGA scrip ts is displayed. Gainesville, Florida is used as a case study to test the scripts. It is shown in later chapters of this thesis the 3D modeling results of five FBC transect zones within study area. 3D modeling with CityEngine is proved to be an efficient m ethod for massive modeling process. This thesis discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the modeling procedure introduced, including the further uses of the FBC 3D models, such as the collaboration with other urban planning theories, and further anal ysis with ArcScene.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the planning profession, urban sprawl is not a new concept. Modern use of the southeastern America, Earle Draper (Nechyba & Walsh , 2004). Years since Draper's issue has grown. Over the years, urban sprawl has raised problems including air pollution, traffic congestion, water over consumption, loss o f wildlife habitat, and increased risk of health issues such as obesity. Form based Codes were created to improve the built environment, enable a better development pattern, as well as fighting to stem the tide of urban sprawl. FBC create the most desirabl e urban form for each neighborhood by regulating elements, including building forms and functions, streets, green spaces, and landscapes. The purpose of FBC is to create more mixed use, pedestrian friendly communities (Kim, 2010). FBC provide a clear dire ction of new development to developers (Parolek, Parolek & Crawford, 2008). Compared to the conventional planning methods, FBC focus on creating predictable physical form (Parolek, Parolek & Crawford, 2008). As an urban planning tool that derived from New Urbanism, FBC have been proven effective in many cities and communities since 1980s (Kim, 2010). The concept of Geodesign was brought up as a trend of collaborative cooperation among professionals from different backgrounds. As an urban planning process, FBC themselves are a Geodesign project. Information sharing plays an important role in any collaborative cooperation. 3D city models provide an effective and clear way for displaying visualized concepts and communication. Unlike other 3D

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14 modeling software, CityEngine works based on CGA scripts, therefore it works better with situations that emphasize the mass modeling of buildings which share the same zoning regulations rather than focus on the details of individual buildings. The work flow of CityEngine di ffers from other 3D modeling software in that the majority of work done in CityEngine is script writing, or in another words, CGA rules that generate the template for the buildings. Once the rule files are prepared, city models can be generated very quickl landscapes. The characteristics of FBC make them suitable to work with CityEngine. Additionally, the sharing advantages of CityEngine improve the experience of involving the publi c to participate in the planning process. From the above point of view, the best way to integrate FBC with CityEngine is to create a CGA rule file template that works with most of the FBC situations. The methodology part of this thesis is to transfer FBC r egulations into CityEngine CGA scripts. The city of Gainesville, Florida has been reviewing a FBC draft from the Littlejohn consulting firm. The content from Gainesville FBC draft is used to test the template created in the methodology part.

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15 CHAPTER 2 LI TERATURE REVIEW Definition of Form based Codes Form based codes foster predictable built results and a high quality public realm by using physical form (rather than separation of uses) as the organizing principle for the code. They are regulations, not mere guidelines, adopted into city or county law. Form based codes offer a powerful alternative to conventional zoning. ( http://www.formbasedcodes.org/what are form based codes ) The ke y to understanding Form based Codes is that it is a planning regulation that considers urban forms in a comprehensive way. Instead of segregating land use into small pieces, Form based Codes emphasize how to associate building façades with the public realm ( http://www.formbasedcodes.org/what are form based codes ). The key elements of Form based Codes commonly include: Regulating Plan; Public Space Standards; Building Form Standards; Ad ministration; Definitions ( http://www.formbasedcodes.org/what are form based codes ). Unlike conventional planning, Form based Codes are a kind of urban planning regulation that is aga inst urban sprawl or suburban (Parolek, Parolek & Crawford, 2008). History of FBC Over the last century, land use zoning regulations in the United States have changed evolutionarily (Parolek, Parolek & Crawford, 2008). In the early twentieth century, urban

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16 separating houses because of efforts to prevent fire spreading (Parolek, Parolek & Crawford, 2008). Urban sprawl first started after people returned from World War II. Baby boomers created an increasing demand for single family housing, which has a total system of separating working and residential areas (Parolek, Parolek & Crawford, 2008). The separatio n of living and working areas required a longer distance of commuting. Single increasing travel distance led to an inadequacy of the existing roads, which resulted in further r oad expansion. The design of urban roads focused more on how to reduce the traffic jam situation than make it a walkable place for pedestrians (Parolek, Parolek & Crawford, 2008). As the disadvantages of conventional planning became more apparent, FBC appe ared as an alternative zoning method for the conventional zoning methods. In the walkable, mixed use, sustainable communities as described in the principles of Smart Growth and the Charter of the New Urbanism worked both individually and Discussion about FBC Advantage of FBC As discussed above, FBC appeared because people started to realize th at conventional planning was inadequate. The comparison of FBC and conventional planning are shown in the table below.

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17 Table 2 1. Comparison of conventional planning and Form Based Codes (Parolek, Parolek & Crawford, 2008, p. 13) Conventional Planning an d Zoning Codes Form based Codes Auto oriented, segregated land use planning principles Mixed use, walkable, compact development oriented principles Organized around single use zones Based on spatial organizing principles that identify and reinforce an urban hierarchy, such as the rural to urban transect Use is primary Physical form and character are primary, with secondary attention to use Reactive to individual development proposals Proactive community visioning Proscriptive regulations, regulating what is not permitted, as well as unpredictable numeric parameters, like density and FAR Prescriptive regulations, describing what is required, such as build to lines and combined min/max building heights Regulates to create buildings Regulates to create places To conclude the table above, compared to conventional zoning regulations, which cares more about the micro aspects of urban design and land use segregation, FBC focuses more on the connection between the community and the street façade in a macro point of view. Disadvantage of FBC Because of the nature of FBC, some architects tend to think that FBC is a factor of restriction when designing individual buildings. Urban planners often consider the macro view of the community and city, while architects focus on the details of design. This conflict has raised some questions about to what extent the urban form should be coded. The fear is the codes are going to have an overpowered impact on the details of urban design. The truth is, as long as the FBC is kept at a basic level, which means it only has an influence on the spatial location of the buildings and keeps the urban order,

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18 years that many outspoken critics calling people concerning about the over use of FB C. Katherine Woodward (2013) states that the initial idea of FBC is to aesthetically please the pedestrians with building façade and street views rather than focusing on the function of the building. Walters (2007) then argues that FBC includes some basic ideas of what a well functioning community should be. Thankfully, there are architects who found their balance between the consistency with the codes and the creativity of building. One of the examples is the Catalan architect Antonio Gaudi. Gaudi was able to create buildings that are famous for their creative architecture elements without breaking the city codes (Walters, 2007). History of the Use of 3D Modeling in Urban Design Real Model 3D Modeling things that do not exist, but are contemplated, and represented or simulated allowing the user virtually to peer into (Kwartler & Longo, 2008, p. 5). Since Kevin Lynch came up with the idea of explaining urban dynamics using graphics, urban pla nners have been searching for methods to represent the complex city forms with visualization. The methods have changed from simple physical models to more complicated visualized computer simulation models (Kim, 2005). The first simulation tool that was use d to build 3D architecture were physical models made with wood or Styrofoam in different scales. (Kim, 2005) The scaled models are used in public decision making, visual analysis, and other fields. However, the disadvantages of these models are that they c annot provide

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19 the actual eye level view while walking around the city. In order to overcome these disadvantages, full size mock up models were created. (Kim, 2005) Computer assisted 3D Modeling Over the past 30 years, computer assisted urban planning and design have been developing (Kwartler & Longo, 2008). No matter how the three dimensional simulation methods changed, they all follow three steps: data collection, 3D modeling, and presentation or analysis (Kim, 2004). The first idea of Geographic Informat ion System Design with Nature , documented the process of a new planning process, which was to determine the suitability of a land by l ayering different geo referenced sheets on top of each other. This way he could tell whether an area of land was suitable for new development by analyzing factors such as whether or not that land had critical species activity or was agriculture use land ( McHarg, 1969). Computer based GIS analysis has been around at least since the1960s (Coppock & Rhind, 1991). As the computer technology matures, 3D software for modeling and presenting such as Virtual Reality (VR), Computer Aided Design (CAD), Sketchup Comm unityViz, CityEngine are starting to be recognized. Introduction of CityEngine alone software product that provides professional users in architecture, urban planning, enterta inment, simulation, GIS, and general 3D content production with a unique conceptual design and modeling solution for the efficient creation of 3D cities and

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20 ( http://resources.arcgis.com/en/communities/cityengine/01w90000000m000000.htm ). For the function and usage of CityEngine, please see the ESRI CityEngine webpage. As a software that is designed for both urban planners and architects, CityEngine has bee n widely used in many cities and projects. The Evolution of Geodesign Figure 2 1. The stakeholders, the Geodesign team, and the framework for Geodesign . Source of image: Steinitz, C. (2012). A Framework for Geodesign . Changing Geography by Design, p. 25 . Geodesign is not new, but it is different (Steinitz, 2012). The definition of Geodesign proposals with impact simulations informed by geographic contexts, systems thinking, and d

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21 Design with Nature influenced urban planners, landscape architects, and other scientists (Steinitz , 2012). Carl Steinitz (2012) created the Geodesign framework, which is a workflow for Geodesign studies. In his book, Steinitz states that it is unlikely that Geodesign becomes a profession. Geodesign is a corporation of architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning. There is no reason to merge these well developed seperate fields into one. On the other hand, Geodesign should be a concept that is understood and accepted by architects, landsc ape architects, and urban planners (Steinitz, 2012). Summary of Literature Review The literature review of Form Based Codes, current 3D modeling methods, and Geodesign methods reveals that FBC is an effective zoning method that can decrease the speed of th e expansion of urban sprawl. As a zoning method focusing on function, FBC divides the zoning area into different districts, and applies rules and regulations to parcels and buildings to restrict population densities by applying limitations (both a minimum and a maximum number) on variables such as lot area, building stories, and so on. FBC are against urban sprawl and prone density in urban center area. Thus increasing the number of parcels which are zoned as mixed use is important. However, from the presen tation point of view, a zoning plan or a 2D zoning map is not as direct and impressive as urban models that transfer all the rules and regulations in the zoning plan into 3D models. For the general public, 3D models are also an easier way to understand the master plan. Among current 3D modeling software, CityEngine has the ability to generate models based on rules files written in Computer Generated

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22 Architecture (CRA) rules, which makes it work better with zoning regulations that provide specific numbers. Therefore, visualizing FBC with CityEngine is a good method. In addition, creating a better presentation is a part of Geodesign methods.

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23 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This thesis aims to both test and assess the usage of three dimensional modeling based on Form b ased codes (FBC). Three primary research questions are generated: (1) How can the zoning regulations in FBC be transferred into 3D modeling? (2) How well can zoning regulations be represented by 3D models? (3) What are the potential uses of rule based 3D m odeling in urban planning? According to the research focuses above, the methodology of this thesis is composed of two parts. First, a comprehensive analysis of case studies to generalize the 3D modeling process with CityEngine; second, designing the method to incorporate FBC into CityEngine rules based on the previous case studies. General Introduction of the Work Flow of CityEngine alone software product that provides professional users in architecture, urban planning, entertai nment, simulation, GIS, and general 3D content production with a unique conceptual design and modeling solution for the efficient creation of 3D cities and http://resources.arcgis.com/en/communities/cityengine/01w90000000m0000 00.htm ) CityEngine allows the user to generate 3D city models procedurally. The core of CityEngine is the scripts that are collectively called Computer Generated Architecture (CGA), which is a computer language that creates the 3D models. CityEngine is an integrated modeling tool that allows users to work on basic information such as existing parcels, streets, terrain then generate the models and export them back to GIS for further a nalysis. It is also possible to share the models through ArcGIS online.

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24 CityEngine allows users to: Generate 3D building models bas ed on their 2D information Modify 3D data Geodesign in 3D based on GIS information and planning regulations Further analyze the modified data from Geodatabase Sh are 3D information through Web s cene The method used for this thesis is to create scripts in CityEngine that fit the general requirements of FBC, then modify and apply these scripts to the study area based on the speci Here is the explanation of the scripts used in this thesis: Basically, CityEngine works using three steps. First, CityEngine provides tools to create streets and polygons. Second polygons are divided into different lot s based on default values or user defined values. Here is a square representing a parcel that will be developed. It is generated with based on certain criteria. In this exam ple, the lot is subdivided as follows: the minimum lot area is 2000 square meters, the maximum lot area is 4000 square meters, and the minimum lot width is 30 meters. The figure below shows the result of the subdivisions of the lot. Figure 3 1. Example l ot .

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25 Figure 3 2. Example lot subdivided. Secondly, CityEngine provides both textual and visual ways to create and view the scripts. Here is an example of what the rule scripts look like in both views. Figure 3 3. Two types of rule script view. Rule scripts can be created using either window. If generated in the textual window, it is about writing the script itself. If generated in the visual window, the user can add a new rule file, attributes, constants, and functions by right clicking in the window. The purpose of the duel rule generation system is to let users have a wider range of choices based on their own scripting level or their preferences of different user interface. As mentioned above, CityEngine does not have a complete CGA code scrip ting manual so

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26 far. This duel rule generation system provides a chance to learn how CGA code works while working with it. After talking to several CityEngine developers, it was noticed that the textual way is preferable in the more complicated projects. Fr personal experience, the generation of CGA code in the textual perspective has much more flexibility than in the visual way. However, for users who have less of a computer programming background, creating a rule in the visual window generat es the corresponding CGA language structures automatically in the textual window. The user can then start modifying the code content instead of worrying about the structure errors, which is a quicker and easier way for beginners to start creating rule scri pts. Here is a very simple example of how the textual and visual views are related in this case. One of the basic rules when transferring a 2D shape into a 3D model is to generate the building height. If Shape A is the target building footprint, the 3D bui lding height should an integer that varies between 12 feet to 36 feet. These lines of code can achieve that goal. Figure 3 4. Script example 1 in textual view. of the attribute value will not exceed 12 or 36 when generated automatically.

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27 > extrude These are the basic lines of code that give Shape A a d efault height of 24 feet. Let us take a look at the corresponding code created in the view window automatically. Figure 3 5. Script example 1 in visual view. After applying this rule file to Shape A by dragging and dropping, Shape A is generated into a 3D mass, which is the first step of any 2D to 3D generating process. A B Figure 3 6. Results of script example 1. A) Before the rule files are applied, B) after the rule files are applied. When clicking on the 3D model, it will show in the inspecto r window the rule file name that is associated with the model, the start rule of the model, and all of the attributes with their values. Start rule is the term for the specific line of rules that the user wants to create models with. One rule file can hav e multiple start rules, such as lot, footprint, etc. Therefore, it is important to assign the correct start rule based on the character of the object.

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28 Figure 3 7. Inspector window of script example 1. ssign the rule files to the building. There are two ways to do it. One method is to drag and drop the rule file from button next to Rule File, and assign the rule file man ually. CGA Code Design for This Thesis Source of the Codes Used Literature is reviewed to see how 3D modeling can be used in urban planning, especially in this case and in FBC zoning regulations. Some of the codes being used in this research are modified from their original form in Redlands Redevelopment 2013. Redlands Redevelopment 2013 is a template made by the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) to demonstrate the use of CityEngine in urban planning and design. The Redlands Redevelopment 201 3 focuses on the redevelopment of an abandoned mall located in downtown Redlands, CA. The purpose of the modeling zoning regulations that display the before and after downt own redevelopment (Redlands Redevelopment 2013, 2013). Because there is neither a user manual nor a script writing manual of CityEngine published yet, Redlands Redevelopment 2013, the only official

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29 CityEngine example, was used as a study resource for this thesis. The developers of CityEngine have being notified of the modification of their codes, and authorized the use of it in this thesis. CGA Code Modifying and Creating Process The literature about Form based codes (FBC) is further reviewed to see that the FBC zoning process corresponds with the procedural planning process. This is the reason why CityEngine, a rule based software, is suitable for creating 3D city models for FBC zoning regulations. In addition to this, one of the great benefits of rule ba sed urban design is that once a standard rule file is created, it can be applied to similar situations without changing the basic structure but only the content of the rule file. According to the website of the Form based codes Institute (FBCI), FBC regula tes types of streets and buildings, including the number of floors, setbacks, the Floor Area Ratio (FAR), etc. ( http://formbasedcodes.org/definition ). Thus, the methodology of this thesis is to create a standard template of the CityEngine Rule file that fits with some of the FBC zoning criteria. The research for the use of the GIS's ability to analyze FBC planning is on going for the author. This thesis shows the research that has been completed to date. As mentioned previously in the literature review, applying FBC criteria into CityEngine regulations due to the time that this amount of research consumes. of stories, land mixed use type, building setbacks, and Floor Area Ratio (FAR) which

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30 includes reporting bo th the current FAR from an existing building and generating a building based on a given FAR. The rule file scripts are as follows (Note that because of the pre settings of other roject is in meters.): Figure 3 8. FBC t emplate CGA code, color s etting . At the beginning of the script, several constants are set to represent the color of different zonings. CGA uses a different code to represent the colors which can be found in CityEngine forum online. In this template, nine types of zoning are being considered. Figure 3 9. FBC t emplate CGA c ode, setbacks setting. Figure 3 10. FBC template CGA c ode, footprint generation.

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31 Except for the report part, the scripts above cut a fo otprint out of a parcel based on given setbacks. Setting different setbacks as attributes gives users flexibility to setback (frontSetback) { street. number, then delete the rest of the shape, which is the shape between street front and the setback. Then run the second line of code , which does the same thing to the remainder with the street side setback. Last but not least, the third line of code cuts the remainder from previous code with the setback from the back street and creates the building footprint. There are several ways to get a building footprint. One way is to import the existing footprint from ArcGIS. The second way is to hand draw the building footprint. The third way was the method that was used here, which was to cut the footprint out of a parcel based on different set backs. This third method is being used because it fits with the concept of procedural planning, provides users with more flexibility, and ultimately saves time. Figure 3 11. FBC t emplate CGA c ode, floor height, building height, and number of stories set ting.

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32 Figure 3 12. FBC template CGA c ode, mass information reporting. The code above generates the 3D building model and splits it into different floors. upper floor hei ght. Number of building stories is an integer between 2 and 10. The default value is 8. Therefore the whole building height can be calculated with the formula shown above. The footprint can be extruded based on the known building function basically divides the building volume one step at a time. It first divided the whole building volume into two, between the ground floor part and the rest. It then divided the rest of the upper aspect into different floors according to the given up per floor height value. Considering that FBC encourages mixed land use in some of the areas, this template will include code that allows users to change the zoning use of different floors in the same building. The concept is to separate the same building i nto different zones, and change the use of each of the zones by changing the number of stories assigned and give it a certain color.

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33 Figure 3 13. FBC template CGA c ode, zone color assigning. Figure 3 14. FBC template CGA c ode, building function setting. Figure 3 15. FBC t empl ate CGA c ode, building function color zones split.

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34 Figure 3 16. FBC template CGA c ode, building function zones color assign. These sets of above code separate the building volume into different zones. Each zone height equals the number of stories in each zone multiplied by the corresponding floor height. This ensures the separation of each zone coincides with the separation between two stories. Then the code in Figure 3 17 shows how users can interact with the types of mixed use land. By changing the number of floor counts in each zone and the type of use of it, users can change the mixed use element of a building very easily.

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35 Figure 3 17. FBC template CGA c ode, inspector window. Here is what the building look s like when one applies the above rule files to the parcel. Figure 3 18. FBC t emplate CGA c ode, t emplate r esult . The last factor in the template is the FAR of the building. As mentioned above, the goal of this part is to report the FAR of a generated building, and to generate a building based on a given FAR. Here is the code of calculating FAR from an existing buil ding.

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36 Figure 3 19. FBC t emplate CGA c ode, FAR c alculation . filled with the value calculated from the area of the selected parcel. The command in CityEngine only works in a downward flowing direction, which means that once the object is split, the command only works on the split parts. In other words, the value of the whole object should be obtained before it splits, which is why in this case the

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37 important. In order to get information for potential further study, this template collects the parcel area, footprint area, parcel coverage (which is equal to the footprint area divided by the parcel area multiplied by 100), gross floor area (GFA), and fl oor area ratio (FAR). The definition of FAR is the total area of a building divided by the total area of the lot the building is located on. ( http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/floor area ratio.asp ) Figure 3 20. FBC t emplate CGA c ode, r eport . In this case, the FAR of the generated building is 4.16, when the GFA is 8209.51, and lot area is 1972.05. In another case, if a certain FAR is given, these extra code can help to generate the building.

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38 Figure 3 21 . FBC t emplate CGA c ode, t arget FAR . a time. If the rest area, which means the target GFA calculated based on the given target FAR, is smaller than the actual GFA of the building, then stop the loop. Otherwise, if the rest area is bigger than the actual GFA, then keep building up one floor at a time until the rest area is smaller than the actual GFA. Figure 3 22 . FBC t emplate CGA c ode, t arget FAR r eport .

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39 In the inspector number of FAR is 2.93, not 2.6. The reason for the error is because in this scenario, the footprint of the building is not changeable, and the height of each floor is not associated with the accurate target FAR number is not an integer. CityEngine will automatically round it up or down to an integer. There are other potenti al scenarios of generating buildings with accurate FAR numbers. These scenarios will be discussed in the later chapters of this thesis.

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40 CHATER 4 RESULTS OF USING 3D MODELING FOR GAINESVILLE FBC AREAS This chapter discusses the current conditions of the study area in terms of natural and built environment, economic situation, FBC regulations, and 3D modeling results for different zones. Study Area Background Gainesville is located in Alachua County, near the center of Florida. According to the United Stat es census bureau, the population of Gainesville in 2010 was 124,486 people, and the estimation of the population in 2013 is 127,488 people. As the primary location of the University of Florida, Gainesville attracts thousands of people every year. Currently , the city of Gainesville is still working on the proposal for Form based Codes to better express the shape and function of public areas by introducing multiple transect zones. In an interview that Thomas Hawkins, Commissioner of the City of Gainesville, d id with the Gainesville Sun in 2011, higher density development was proposal process. The proposal is now still in a drafting stage ( http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/2013/12/11/gainesville fl city commissioner thomas hawkins on land use and economic development/ ). The City of Gain esville Land Development Code Update/ Form based codes was drafted by Littlejohn, a consulting company founded in 1989, located in Nashville, Tennessee, which is involved in multiple fields including engineering, planning, and environmental conservation ( http://www.leainc.com/about us/history.html based codes principles for the downtown and surrounding

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41 ( http://www.leainc.com/portfolio/430/gainesville land development code update and form based code.html ). The FBC draft was formed c onsidering the existing community characters, priorities of each neighborhood, and the consistency with the Comprehensive Plan. Multiple graphics, maps, and tables were used to illustrate the FBC areas and criteria. The City of Gainesville Planning and Dev elopment Service Department acknowledged that the FBC applicable area including the city core and other outlying areas are intended to be developed as pedestrian friendly neighborhoods. The proposed FBC areas are shown in the following map. Figure 4 1. G ainesville FBC a rea. Source of image: Littlejohn Engineering Associates. (2012). City of Gainesville Land Development Code Update/ Form Based Code Draft.

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42 Figure 4 2. Gainesville FBC proposal transect zones . Source of image: Littlejohn Engineering Associ ates. (2012). City of Gainesville Land Development Code Update/ Form Based Code Draft. Figure 4 2 above is the summary of the proposed FBC applicable areas within the city limits of the City of Gainesville. The FBC areas are separated into different transe cts types. This map was used to insure the study area was covered by the FBC land use zoning code. The green circled area in Figure 4 1 was used in the proposed draft as an example of how the FBC works. Once the proposal is approved by the city, it is plan ned that the FBC will be applied to the whole areas. As in this thesis, the definition of study area is the parcels within University Avenue, 13 th street, northwest 8 th avenue, and northwest 17 th street.

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43 A B Figure 4 3. Study a rea. A) Farther view of study area, B) closer view of study area . The reasons to choose these parcels as study areas are: First, the area chosen is within the FBC applicable area; second, based on the zoning code showing in Figure 4 4, the

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44 study area covers five types of FBC tr ansects, which are T3, T4(M), T4(T), T4(R), and T5. These five types of transects are the most used within the FBC applicable areas. A B Figure 4 4. Study a rea with FBC transect zones . A) Transect zones with study area, B) l egend. Source of image: Littlejohn Engineering Associates. (2012). City of Gainesville Land Development Code Update/ Form Based Code Draft. Study Area Overview The study area contains 295 existing buildings. Among which 100 buildings do not have an associated number of stories re cord.

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45 Figure 4 5. Buildings with no height information. changes before and after FBC rules are being applied to the parcels. In order to generate the existing build ing models, the author documented the number of stories manually through field observation on site, and organized the results into the existing attribute table of the study area. After the existing building footprints were imported into CityEngine, with si mple rules applied, the existing building models were generated as showing in the following Figure 4 7. The building footprint data and parcel information is from Alachua County Property Appraiser.

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46 Figure 4 6 . Study area building footprint in CityEngine. Figure 4 7 . Existing buildings in study area. Figure 4 7 neighborhood conditions after FBC rules are applied.

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47 Study Area with FBC The FBC proposal drafted by Littlejohn include s a regulating plan, which functions as the implementation guidelines which identify each transect zones in section of a region that reveals a sequence of environments that ranges from rural to urban City of Gainesville Land Development Code Update/ Form Based Code Draft , 2012 , p. 5). Transects exist to ensure there is a diversity of building functions, civic space types, as well as appropriate characteristics within each community ( City of Gainesvi lle Land Development Code Update/ Form Based Code Draft , 2012). In general there are six types of transect zones: T1 Natural Zone, T2 Rural Zone, T3 Suburban Zone, T4 General Urban Zone, T 5 Urban Center Zone, and T6 Urban Core ( City of Gainesville Land De velopment Code Update/ Form Based Code Draft , 2012). Table 4 . Source of image: Littlejohn Engineering Associates. (2012). City of Gainesville Land Development Code Update/ Form Based Code Draft. T3 Sub urban T4 General Urban T5 Urban Center T6 Urban Core Density low density residential area; adjacent to higher density mixed use zones consists of mixed use, mostly residential urban areas; wide range of building types higher density mixed use buildings; contains retail, offices, and apartments highest density and height development; greatest diversity of uses Setbacks deeper setbacks variable Street irregular streets aligned to natural environment are allowed streets with curbs and sidewalks define medium sized blocks tight network of street; wide sidewalks have steady street plants Other outbuildings area allowed includes T4M (mixed), T4R (residential), and T4T (transit) buildings set close to sidewalks buildings set close to the wide sidewalks

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48 zones: T3, T4, T5, and T6. A description for each of the zones can be concluded within the following Table 4 1. It is stated in the Gainesville FBC draft that not all of the transect zones follow the property line. If the property is within two or more transect zones, it is must designed in a way that the certain portion of the building meets the assigned transect z one regulations. After examining the study area, there is no property that has more than one of the transect zones assigned. The transect zone development standards charts are as follows: Figure 4 8 . Specific r egulations for Gainesville FBC transec t zones . A) Part I, B) Part II. Source of image: Littlejohn Engineering Associates. (2012). City of Gainesville Land Development Code Update/ Form Based Code Draft. A

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49 Figure 4 8 . Continued . As mentioned in the methodology chapter, researching the transferring specific FBC criteria into CityEngine scripts is on generate building models that fit every one of the FBC standards. Current with the time this thesis is written, the standards that can be appl ied as scripts are building height, floor height, setbacks, and FAR. Gainesville FBC Results It is more convenient to apply CityEngine rules to a layer instead of selecting individual features. Therefore before being examined in CityEngine, six new layers were exported from the parcel shape files of the study area based on different transect zones. Then each layer was assigned the designed rule template introduced in the methodology part. Due to the working environment settings from previous projects, the B

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50 u nit associated with CityEngine is meters. All of the data was transferred into meters before being processed in CityEngine. Here is a table listing all of the parameters used in the visualization process. Table 4 2. regulations which are applicable with CityEngine FBC template Building Height Floor Height Setbacks Minimum Maximum First Floor (min residential/ non residential) Additional Floor(s) Front/Street Side Side (min) Rear (min) T3 NA 2 stories NA/ 3.0 NA 3.7 min / 6.1 max 2.3 6.1 T4(R) 7.3 meters 4 stories (with bonus) NA/ 3.7 2.4 2.4 min / 6.1 max 1.5 3.0 T4(T) 7.3 meters 6 stories (with bonus) NA/ 4.6 2.4 2.4 min / 6.1 max 1.5 3.0 T4(M) 7.3 meters 8 stories (with bonus) NA/ 4.6 2.4 2.4 min / 6.1 max 0 3.0 T5 2 stories 10 stories (with bonus) 3.7/4.6 2.4 2.4 2.3 3.0 T3 Sub urban Figure 4 9 . 3D modeling results of T3 transect zone within study area.

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51 Figure 4 10 . T3 area with inspector window. The area of the red circled parcel below in Figure 4 10 is 99317 square feet. If it is built as a whole parcel, the result is as shown in the figure above. However, as a parcel zoned in the suburban area, it is not likely to only build one building such as this on just one parcel. Therefore the parcel is sub divided based on the minimum number of the lot width, which is 40 feet (12.2 meters) in this case. Results show that multiple buildings are generated on that parcel, on which the scale is more consistent with buildings adjacent.

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52 A B Figure 4 11 . Results o f parcel subdivision . A) Before s ubdivision, B) a fter s ubdivision . T4 (R) General Urban (R esidential) Figure 4 12 . 3D modeling results of T4(R) transect zone within study area.

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53 Figure 4 13 . T4(R) area with inspector window. T4 (M) General Urban (M ixe d) Figure 4 14 . 3D modeling results of T4(M) transect zone within study area.

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54 Figure 4 15 . T4(M) area with inspector window. T4 (T) General Urban (T ransit) Figure 4 16 . 3D modeling results of T4(T) transect zone within study area.

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55 Figure 4 17 . T4(T) area with inspector window. T5 Urban Center Figure 4 18 . 3D modeling results of T5 transect zone within study area.

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56 Figure 4 19 . T5 area with inspector w indow . Study Area FBC Results Figure 4 20 . Study area FBC 3D modeling results.

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57 The models displayed above are building envelopes that are allowed to be built within the range of the FBC. They can be, but are not necessarily, the actual buildings' shapes. However, any future developments of the study area have to be built inside of the envelope range. As mentioned above, the purpose of FBC is to decrease urban sprawl and to increase the density. In addition, FBC regulates the urban form by setting regulations such as minimum and maximum building height, and setbacks in each transect zones. After being compared to the existing building models, FBC models have increased the urban density.

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58 CHAPTER 5 DIS CUSSIONS AND FURTHE R STUDIES This chapter evaluates the effect of applying FBC regulations to CityEngine 3D modeling. Both advantages and disa dvantages of the method will be discussed. In addition, this chapter will explain how the research results can be approved, and how the research results can be used with other urban planning processes. Evaluation This thesis introduced a method to create 3D city models in procedure planning results display. After being compared to the existing building models, the FBC models show a gradually increasing density among transect zones. Advantages First of all, 3D mode ling is a more direct way to show planning results. In this case, the transparency of the building materials provides the chance for users to check whether the existing buildings or new development designs fit into the FBC development envelope. Secondly, the FBC 3D modeling template created in the methodology part provides users with the convenient user interface in which the function of a building can be controlled, which includes both the use type of each floor and the number of floors in each type. In t of a building by dragging the control bar in the inspector window, or by typing the number directly. The building model changes accordingly. Thirdly, in order to better sharing the mode ling results, CityEngine comes with

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59 ( http://events.esri.com/uc/QandA/index.cfm?fuseaction=answer&conferenceId=CCAEE E69 1422 2418 7F1D0EB8490B776D&questionId=4911 ) CityEngine web scene can also be published to online GIS, where people can have the access to view and leave comments on the models. If not published, web scene can be viewed offline on the web scene does not require CityEngine instal led. As long as the model creator shares the browser link with public, people can easily view the models by opening a browser. In to the public. Public can leave comment s right at a certain building model in the web scene. For a redevelopment plan such as the Gainesville FBC plan, displaying both before and after scenarios with the swipe function in the web scene makes it easier for people to understand the plan visually. Figure 5 1. Web scene generated from the results.

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60 Last but not least, CityEngine works better with large scale procedure modeling. Compared to other software, rule driven modeling method takes less time when working with unified regulations. Disadvantag es CGA coding process takes time for users who do not have computer programming background. The purpose of the methodology part of this thesis is to create a template that covers all the criteria of FBC. When applied to different cases, users just need to future study. The created scripts can be improved. Some attributes can be added to user inspecto r window to make the user interaction friendlier, such as the transparency of the model. Because of the size of existing parcels, some of the building models are too narrow. In future studies, one of the methods is to better the scripts to only build build ings on parcels that are not smaller than a certain number. Otherwise user will receive a warning and change the parcel size manually. CityEngine models cannot be regenerated easil y. Compared with CityEngine, ArcScene lacks the ability of procedurally generating massive models. However compared with ArcScene, CityEngine is not flexible at 3D analysis. the 3D analyzing skills of CityEngine could be improved. Further studies 3D modeling is a tool to visualize urban planning results or theories. FBC 3D models can be used with other urban planning processes.

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61 First, for urban designers, FBC 3D models offer a design frame that fits zoning regulations f or each parcels. When comparing the urban design to the zoning regulations, it is easy for designers to make adjustment. For land use planners, generating buildings with given FAR helps to visualize the actual buildings based on future population density a goals to combine land use suitability results and population allocation results with FBC 3D visualization. For this part, the future study will focus on examining the consistency of FBC with l and use suitability. Then build buildings based on population projection and allocation results. In addition, compare the building to the FBC building envelope, and make adjustment to the buildings that violate the zoning regulations. Second, research is n eeded regarding how to better engage the public in the policy and decision making process. Further studies can focus on using web scene to involve public into planning review process, especially on how to make it realistic for public to select a certain bu ilding by searching the parcel id in the attribute table, swipe the window to view the urban form changes, and leave comments on the new development or plan. Finally, future research is needed to focus on the analysis of CityEngine results with GIS abiliti es. Further 3D analysis can be performed on the built 3D models. With can be generated. Advanced analysis such as skyline barriers, observer points, and visibility prov ide the opportunity to predict the future impact of the new development. Figure 5 indicating the shadow impact on the park nearby. ArcScene results can be shared

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62 through web scene as well. This additional function adds to the importance of 3D display in public participation process. Figure 5 2 . A rcscene screenshot from P hiladelphia example .

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63 LIST OF REFERENCES Chester, C. (2013, December 11). Gainesville, FL City Commissioner Thomas Hawk ins on land use and economic development. Smart Growth America . Retrieved from http://www.smartgrowthamerica. org/2013/12/11/gainesville fl city commissioner thomas hawkins on land use and economic development/ Coppock, J. T., & Rhind, D. W. (1991). The history of GIS. Geographical information systems: Principles and applications , 1(1), 21 43. Definition of 'Floor Area Ratio FAR'. (n.d., para. 1). Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/floor area ratio.asp Environmental Systems Research Institute. (2013). Redlands Redevelopment 2013 . Redlands, CA: Esri Esritv. (2010, April 5). Geodesign Summit 2010: Michael Flaxman: Fundamental Principals of Geodesign. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=elk067YU2s8 Form Based Codes Defined. (n.d., para. 1). Retrieved from http://formbasedcodes.org/definition Gainesville Land Development Code Update & Form Based Code (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.leainc.com/portfolio/430/gainesville land development code update and form based code.html History. (n.d., para. 1). Retrieved from http://www.leainc.com/about us/history.html Kim, D. (2004). 3D Visual Urban Simulation: Methods and Applications. Korean Local Administration Review . Kwartler, M., & Longo, G. (2008). Visioni ng and Visualization. People, Pixels, and Plans , Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Estados Unidos. Lewis, S. (2005). Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing. MA: Architectural Press. Littlejohn Engineering Associates. (2012). City of Gainesville L and Development Code Update/ Form Based Code Draft McHarg, I. L., & Mumford, L. (1969). Design with nature . New York: American Museum of Natural History. Moughtin, C., Oc, T., & Tiesdell, S. (1999). Urban design: Ornament a nd Decoration. Routledge. MA: Arc hitectural Press.

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64 Nechyba, T. J., & Walsh, R. P. (2004). Urban sprawl. Journal of economic perspectives , 177 200. Parolek, D. G., Parolek, K., & Crawford, P. C. (2008). Form based codes: a guide for planners, urban designers, municipalities, and developers . John Wiley & Sons. Steinitz, C. (2012). A Framework for Geodesign: Changing Geography by Design . CA: Esri Press. Walters, D. R. (2007). Designing Community: charrettes, master plans and form based codes . Routledge. http://events.esri.com/uc/Qan dA/index.cfm?fuseaction=answer&conferenceId=C CAEEE69 1422 2418 7F1D0EB8490B776D&questionId=4911 What is CityEngine. (n.d., para. 1). Retrieved from http://resource s.arcgis.com/en/communities/cityengine/01w90000000m000000.ht m Woodward, K. A. (2013). Form over Use: Form Based Codes and the Challenge of Existing Development. Notre Dame Law Review , 88, 2627 2653.

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65 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH As the province that has the most minority groups in China, Yunnan is known for its culture diversity and urbanization complexity. Growing up in the capital city of Yunnan Province, Leilei Duan experienced rapid changes and recourse exploitation in her hometown. With an initial interest in obtaining skills to make cities better places to live in, Leilei received a in urban management at East China University of Science and Technology. Leil ei pursued a Master of Arts in u rban and r egional p lanning at University of Florida t o better understand the important factors in urban planning. Concentrating in GIS and land use analysis, Leilei will continue her research career as a doctoral student of u rban and r egional p lanning at University of Florida .