THE ROLE OF FEAR OF NEGATIVE EVALUATION AND NATIVE SPEAKER PRESENCE IN FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE PRODUCTION AND CLASSROOM PARTICIPATION By TUBA YILMAZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014
Â© 2014 Tuba Yilmaz
To all people who are in love with learning and teaching foreign languages
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitud e and appreciation to my supervisor, Dr. Ester de Jong, who read my draft copies, listened to my anxieties and encouraged and stimulated me throughout the time I was researching and writing this thesis. I owe a special note of gratitude to Dr. Paula Golombek who was insightful and perceptive in her valuable suggestions and hints to complete this research study. I would also like to extend my special thanks my mother and my brothers whose prayers and love were a source of inspiration, encouragement and motivation for me as I was successfully completing this study. I am also grateful to Dr. Maria Coady, Dr. Jane Townsend, Dr. Kaan and Dr. Steffanie Wulf f f or their supportive suggestions, guidance and c ritiques. I would also wish to thank to my best friends, Hilal Peker Ozbay, Emir Salihovic, Guliz Seray Tuncay , Hasan Durmus and Ali Ozcan who have endured me throughout this period. Finally, I am extremely thankful to all the participants who provided me rich and detailed data for the study and lent breadth and value to the research findings.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURE S ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 13 Why Do I Focus on Fear of Negative Evaluation? ................................ .................. 14 Presence of Native Speakers as a Factor Influencing Fear of Negative Evaluation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 15 The Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................ 17 Rationale of the Study ................................ ................................ ............................. 18 Research Aim s and Objectives ................................ ................................ ............... 19 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 19 Research Site and Subjects ................................ ................................ .................... 20 Si gnificance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 20 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 22 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 22 The Definitions of Foreign Language Anxiety ................................ ......................... 22 Potential Sources and Effects of Foreign Language Anxiety ................................ .. 23 Foreign Language Anxiety from Cognitive Perspective ................................ .... 24 Foreign Language Anxiety from Curriculum Perspective ................................ . 26 Foreign Language Anxiety from Cultural Perspective ................................ ...... 27 Performance Anxieties ................................ ................................ ............................ 28 Communication Apprehension ................................ ................................ ......... 29 Test Anxiety ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 30 Fear of Negative Evaluation ................................ ................................ .................... 31 Measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation ................................ ......................... 32 Factors Influencing Fear of Negative Evaluation ................................ .............. 36 Individual factors and the factors related to teachers ................................ . 36 The influence of proficiency level, gender and age on fear of negative evaluation ................................ ................................ ............................... 37 evaluation ................................ ................................ ............................... 39 The Impact of Fear of Negative Evaluation on Classroom Participation ........... 40
6 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 43 Qualitative Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 43 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 43 Instruments and Procedure ................................ ................................ ..................... 44 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 46 4 FINDINGS AND RESULTS ................................ ................................ ..................... 48 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 48 Survey Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 48 Results Related to Fear of Making Mistakes ................................ .................... 49 Results Related to Fear of Negative Judgments ................................ .............. 50 .................. 52 Results Related to Classroom Participation ................................ ..................... 53 Interview Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 55 The Interaction of L2 Learners with NS Students ................................ ............. 55 perceptions about NS ................................ ..................... 55 ................................ ................................ ......... 57 ................................ ................................ ....... 58 Classroom Practices ................................ ................................ ........................ 59 Affective environment of classrooms ................................ ......................... 59 ................................ .............................. 59 Discussion topics ................................ ................................ ....................... 61 Perfectionist Tendencies ................................ ................................ .................. 61 Classroom Participation ................................ ................................ .................... 62 Personality ................................ ................................ ................................ . 63 Preparedness ................................ ................................ ............................. 64 Fear of making mistakes ................................ ................................ ............ 65 Language Production ................................ ................................ ....................... 66 ... 69 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 72 Discussion of Survey Results ................................ ................................ ................. 72 The Discussion of Interview Findings ................................ ................................ ..... 74 The Interaction of L2 Learners with NS Students ................................ ............. 74 Classroom Practices ................................ ................................ ........................ 75 Perfectionist Tendencies ................................ ................................ .................. 77 Classroom Participation ................................ ................................ .................... 78 Language Production ................................ ................................ ....................... 79 ... 80 6 CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH ................................ ... 81 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 81 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 82
7 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 83 APPENDIX A S URVEY QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 85 B TRANSCRIPTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 89 C MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION VALUES ................................ ................... 121 D INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT ................................ ................................ .. 122 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 124 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 128
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Response percentages of items related to Fear of Making Mistakes ................ 49 4 2 Response percentages of items related to Fear of Negative Judgments ........... 51 4 3 Response percentages of items related to Comfort Level of the participants ..... 52 4 4 Response percentages of items related to Classroom Participation and Fear of Negative Evaluation ................................ ................................ ........................ 54
9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Potential sources of foreign language anxiety from three perspectives .............. 24 2 2 Performance anxieties as factors provoking foreign language anxiety and some possible outcomes ................................ ................................ .................... 30 2 3 Some of the measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation ................................ ...... 35
10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CA The term refers to communication a pprehension which means fear or anxiety that appears when communicating with people EFL Students Thes e are the students who are learning English as a foreign language in a community where English is not spoken as a first language ESL Students These are the students who are learning English as a second language in a community where English is spoken as a first language. T he participants of this research study fall into this category ESOL S tudents These are the students who are learning English as a second language in elementary/secondary/high schools. These students take English class for the speakers of other languages (ESOL) classes in addition to mainstream classes. FLA This term is use d to refer foreign language anxiety which appears while producing the second/foreign language. FNE This term refers to fear of negative evaluation which means the worries and concerns that others would judge oneself negatively L2 learners T he term refers to any language learners learning a second/foreign/target language after the acquisition of first language. In this research, it refers to English for speakers of other languages. NNS In this study, this te rm refers to non native speakers of English who learned English as foreign or second language. The term includes both ESL and EFL students. NS In this study, this term refers to native speakers of English who learned English as a first language.
11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Education THE ROLE OF FEAR OF NEGATIVE EVALUATION AND NATIVE SPEAKER PRESENCE IN FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE PRODUCTION AND CLASSROOM PARTICIPATION By T uba Y ilmaz August 2014 Chair: Johanna Ester de Jong Major: Curriculum and Instruction (CUI) This study address es the issues related to fear of negative evaluation in two classroom settings: the classrooms where the majority of the students are native speakers and the classrooms where the majority of the students are non native speakers. The purpose of th is study is to enlighten the experiences of L2 learners related to fear of negative evaluation in these classroom settings. The study included one survey and five personal interviews. P articipants of the survey were 22 college level L2 learners studying at different u niversities in the USA. The survey was prepared as a combination and adaptation of Foreign La nguage Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) designed by Horwitz (1986), English Language Anxiety Scale (ELAS) (Pappamihiel, 2002), the Japanese Class Anxiety Scale deve loped by Kitano(2001), Fear of Negative P articipants of interviews were five college level L2 learners who took the survey, and were identified with high er level of fear of negative evaluation. The results of the survey showed that L2 learners had more fear of negative evaluation in the classrooms composed by pre dominantly NS compared to the classrooms composed by pre dominantly NNS. The i nterviews indicated that the interaction of L2 learners with
12 be influenced by their the presence of NS in the classrooms may influence L2 learners language production negatively depending on their comfort level with NS.
13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background Language learners report that second/foreign language learning can be a traumatic experience for them when learners are highly anxious during the language learning process (Tanveer, 2007). Students who experience high level s of foreign language anxiety may have trouble in concentrating, suffer from heart palpitations, experien ce worry and fear, and even cry during the tests (Horwitz et al., 1986). Moreover, they may perceive language production as a threatening situation, avoid expressing their own opinions, sit in the back row of the classrooms and demonstrate lower performanc e than their native speaker counterparts since they underestimate their own communicative skills in the foreign/second language (Conway; 2007; Pappamihiel, 2002). These behaviors, in turn, may negatively affect test performance, overall achiev ement, comprehension of the target language, target language production and classro om participation (Horwitz et al., 1986; Trang et al . , 2012). Due to its significant negative impact on language learning, language production and classroom participation, fo reign language anxiety is an important issue that should be taken into consideration seriously by educators and SLA researchers. Especially in English as second language (ESL) contexts , second language learners indicate that they may experience high level s of anxiety because of their limited comprehension and the affective environment of the mainstream classes that include a large number of native English speakers. Pappamihiel (2002) reported in her study with 178 Mexican born middle school students that L2 learners were more successful and less anxious in the English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) classes rather than in mainstream
14 classes because they felt less confident with their English language skills in mainstream classes where most of their pe ers were native English speakers. Besides, the ) implied that they had considerable amount of fear of negative evaluation by their native English speaking peers. Why Do I Focus on Fear of Negative Evaluation? Many researchers studied the relationship between foreign language anxiety and fear of negative evaluation, and they found a strong positive correl ation (Aydin, 2008; Kitano, 2001 ; Shabani, 2012). Thus, fear of negative evaluation may be considered as one of th e major factors that contributes to increased foreign language anxiety (Shabani, 2012; Young , 1991 ). Fear of negative evaluation is described as expectations that others w cited in Horwitz et al., 1986, p. 128). Many studies assert that fear of negative 2008; Horwitz et al., 1986). The students having high level of fear of negative evaluation may feel unwilling to speak aloud in the classrooms in order not to be corrected and criticized by the teachers and their more proficient peers (Daubney, 2005 ; Horwitz et al., 1986). As a result , they will do less speaking practice with the targe t language compared to students experiencing less fear of negative evaluation. In this study , fear of negative evaluation is emphasized, because given what research has shown about the negative effects of be aware of how to decrease its negative influence from classroom environment , and the pr evious research stays limited to help them.
15 Fear of negative evaluation appears when the language learners perceive that their proficiency level in the target language is lower than their counterparts, and fear that the teacher or their peers will judge them for their mistakes (Kitano, 2001 ). Multiple factors contribute to fear of negative evaluation rwitz et al., 1986; Kitano, 2001 ; Shabani, 2012). While researched to a lesser ex tent, presence of native speakers also appears to increase the level of fear of negative evaluation. In particular, studies suggest that fear of negative evaluation may influence the classroom partic ipation negatively (Kitano, 2001 ; Pappamihiel, 2002). Th erefore, this study focuses on NS presence as a potential factor of fear of negative evaluation, and it investigates the experiences of ESL students whose fear of negative evaluation level provoked by NS presence in the classrooms. Presence of Native Speak ers as a Factor I nfluencing Fear of Negative Evaluation Presence of native speakers in the classrooms is regarded as a potential factor contributing to fear of negative evaluation. Its influence can be stronger in ESL context than EFL context due to the la rger numbers of native speaker students in the classrooms. Several Mexican their language anxiety level which might be stemming from fear of negative evaluation was extremely high in ma instream classe s because Mexican students feared that their native speaker counterparts were going to make fun of them if they made mistakes while speaking English. As an outcome of their high level of fear of negative evaluation triggered by native speakers, the Mexican born L2 learners noted that they preferred to avoid speaking in the mainstream classes to protect their face.
16 Considering the fact that many ESL students take classes with native English speakers in regular classrooms in the USA today, the influence of na tive speaker even proficient language speakers may experience high levels fear of negative evaluat ion in the classes (Kitano, 2001 ), fear of negative evaluation is an issue that should be studied more by the SLA researchers. As a result of more study, some accommodations to alleviate fear of negative evaluation from classrooms where NS are class activities may be increased. Research suggests that native speaker presence may be a significant factor increasing foreign/second language anxiety level of language learners (Bozavli & Gulmez, 2012; Pappamihiel, 2002). Bozavli and Gulmez (2012) found in their study w ith 90 Turkish students that students who were taking speaking classes from native English speaker professors were more anxious in the classes compared to the students who were taking the same class from non native English speaking professors. Although few researchers imply that native speaker presence may be a factor provoking language anxiety, only limited research exists investigating if the native speaker presence in the classrooms provoke fear of negative evaluation, and if presence of native speakers in oral language production and classroom participation. Moreover, though it is suggested in the research that advanced level older students can experience more anxiety stemming from fear of negative evaluation (Kitano, 2001 ), research examining the effect of fear of negative evaluation
17 quite limited. For this reason, this research paper aims to investigate the experience s of college level L2 learners who have high level of fear of negative evaluation especially in classrooms where the majority of the classmates are native speakers. The S tatement of the P roblem Many SLA researchers propose that language anxiety can have si gnificant negative influence on language learning and production. Fear of negative evaluation is considered as one of the components of language anxiety. Many language learners seems to avoid using the target language in order not to leave negative impress ions on others because they believe that their proficiency level is lower than their counterparts, and their counterparts will judge them for their mistakes. Since participation to the classroom activities plays a big role in learning the content successfu lly, and fear of negative evaluation should be given more importance in the literature. Besides, only few researchers investigated how the presence of native speakers in fluences the fear of negative evaluation level of the language learners. In order to alleviate the negative influence of fear of negative evaluation provoked by the presence of native speakers, language practitioners need to know what L2 learners with high level of fear of negative evaluation experience in classes where majority of the students are native speakers and in the classes where majority of the students are non native speakers. Moreover, the same amount of attention should be given to how the fear of negative evaluation participation and language production.
18 Rationale of the Study Foreign language anxiety that most second/foreign language learners in all proficiency levels experience while learning and producing the second/foreign language is an issue that has attracted the attention of many researchers and educators throughout the years due to its crucial effect on foreign language learning process. Although some researche rs have made significant studies about the influence of foreign language anxiety on foreign language learning and classroom participation (Aida, 1994; Hewitt & Stephenson, 2012; Horwitz et al., 1986; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991), there are limited empirical studies that investigated fear of negative evaluation provoked by native speaker presence in the classrooms, and how it might influence the language production and classroom participation of L2 learners . Pappamihiel (2002) suggests that anxiety level of fo reign language learners may increase when they are taught with native target language speakers in the same classroom. Young (1991) states that foreign language learners frequently compare their language skills with their peers, and may perceive that their skills are weaker than that of others. As a result, they may think that the students with stronger language competence will look down on them when they are producing the language verbally. about making mistakes especially in front of fluent speakers of the target language. Thus, research suggests that the linguistic assumptions of second/foreign language learners can be negatively influenced by the fear of negative evaluation provoked by native sp eaker presence in the classrooms. Studies confirm that fear of negative evaluation (as an indicator of anxiety) has
19 avoidance, speaking less or producing language with pronunciation errors. Several researchers (Aydin, 2008; Horwitz et al., 1986; Koch & Terrell, 1991; Koralp, 2005; Price, 1991; Shabani, 2012) found a positive correlation between foreign language anxiety which seems to influence language production negatively and fear of negative evaluation. However, the studies that particularly explore the fear of negative evaluation in relation to the composition of classrooms that are mainstream classrooms (native/non native) is limited. In this study, I will examine the experiences of L2 learners in different classroom settings, i.e . classrooms with predominantly NS and classrooms with predominantly NNS, and investigate how the presence of native speakers that may prov oke the level of fear of negative evaluation may influence classroom participation and language production in the classrooms at the tertiary level. Research Aims and Objectives The major purpose of this study is to shed light into the experiences of ESL s tudents in classes where the majority of the students are native speakers and where the majority of the students are non native speakers. Through interviews with L2 learners who are suffering from high level of fear of negative evaluation especially in the class room s composed by dominantly NS related to fear of negative evaluation, classroom participation and language production . Their experiences will help language teachers facilitate language learners feeling c omfortable and overcome fear of negative evaluation . Research Questions 1 . Is there a perceived difference at the fear of negative evaluation levels of college level second language speakers in the classrooms including pre dominantly NS and the classrooms including pre dominantly NNS?
20 2. What are the college evaluation in classrooms where the majority of the students are NS and in classrooms where the majority of the students are NNS? Research Site and Sub jects This research was conducted with twenty two participants for the online survey and five participants for the interviews. The participants of the interviews were chosen from the participants of the survey. The participants of the survey were recruited from the University of Florida, the University of Central Florida and the University of Ohio while the participants of the interviews were recruited only from the University of Florida. As a first step of research, 22 participants were invited to fill ou t the online survey. Based on the analysis results of survey responses , five participants who seemed to have higher level of fear of negative evaluation in the classrooms where the majority of the students were NS were called for the interviews. In the int erviews, participants were requested to report their experiences in the classrooms where the majority student group wa s NS. Besides, specific questions were asked to reveal the influence of NS presence on their language production and classroom participati on. Significance of the S tudy attention due to its contribution to language anxiety which appears to have a significant negative influence on second/foreign language learning, la nguage production, classroom participation and ultimate achievement. By investigating the experiences of L2 learners about fear of negative evaluation in native English speaker dominant and non native speaker dominant classroom settings, this study aims to be a guide to
21 professors or educators teaching in similar classroom contexts. Besides, it involves suggestions from participants suffering from FNE to minimize the negative influence of to increase the
22 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction attention for years since it appears to have adverse impact on language learning, language production, classroom participation and achievement in tests (Horwitz et al., 1991; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991; Pappamihiel, 2002; Xianping, 200 3 ). Foreign language anxiety can be provoked by multiple factors such as teachers methods and classroom activities, and communication apprehension. Fear of negative evaluation is considered one of the major factors influencing th e increased language anxiety, and will be the focus of this study. This chapter will first define foreign language anxiety, and explain its possible sources and effects on language learning from three perspectives: cognitive, curriculum and cultural. Secon dly, it will explain three performance anxieties which are considered closely related to foreign language anxiety because of their significant contributions to of ne gative evaluation which is one of performance anxieties. The measures of fear of negative evaluation, the potential factors provoking fear of negative evaluation and the and language production will be discussed in this part. The Definitions of Foreign Language Anxiety Foreign language anxiety has been described as (1) trait anxiety that considers urs whenever
23 individuals encounter a threatening situation, and (3) situation specific anxiety that appears only in certain situations, and when anxiety increasing factors such as vicarious experiences are present (Spielberger, 1983 as cited in Pappamihie l, 2002). While the first and second definitions perceive foreign language anxiety similar to other anxieties such as public anxiety, test anxiety and social anxiety that can arise in multiple situations, the third definition suggests that it is unique to the foreign language learning context. The third definition claims that students who do not feel anxious when learning other content such as mathematics or biology may feel anxious when learning a foreign language because of the specific circumstances that occur only in foreign language classrooms. These specific circumstances may include the use of the target language to convey messages, paying attention to form and meaning of the input and output at the same time and providing many opportunities to the te acher and peers for corrections and evaluations. Throughout the paper, foreign language anxiety will be considered as a situation s perceptions, beliefs, feelings and behaviors related to classroom language learning arising from the . , 1991, p. 31). Potential Sources and Effects of Foreign Language Anxiety Foreign language anxiety has been a significant issue in the literature d ue to its assumed debilitating effects on foreign/second language learning process, language production and classroom participation. Research suggests that multiple factors can provoke foreign language anxiety, and high level foreign language anxiety can h ave serious negative outcomes due to its subtle effects on language learning process (Macintyre & Gardner, 1991; Ohata, 2 005; Xianping, 2003; Young, 1991 ).
24 Zheng (2008) analyzes the relationship between foreign language anxiety and its potential sources a nd effects on second/foreign language learning process from three perspectives: cognitive, curriculum and cultural perspectives (see Figure 2 1). In the sections below, each of these perspectives will be briefly discussed Figure 2 1: Potential sources of foreign language anxiety from three perspectives Foreign Language Anxiety from Cognitive Perspective (2008) framework, the cognitive perspective investigates the role of anxiety o n effective cognitive processing of input in the target languag e, and achieving meaningful comprehension (MacIntyre& Gardner, 1994; Tobias, 1986). Worry and emotionality are regarded as the two main factors related to language anxiety hampering cognitive processing of the input and output (Eysenck, 1979). Eysenck
25 (197 9) found in his study that worried and emotional language learners tended to be distracted by irrelevant tasks in the classroom, and their working memory was influenced negatively by these distractions. He concluded that because they increase d the sensitiv ity to off task distractions, worry and emotionality might delay or block the cognitive processing of the target language information. Similarly, Sellers (2000) found in his study with students learning Spanish that students were having difficulty in focu sing on their reading texts because of their interfering thoughts expressing worry , and they could not complete reading tasks on time. This affected their reading comprehension negatively to large extent. Maclntyre and Gardner (1989) found that vocabulary learning occurred at a slower rate when students had a high level of language anxiety. Highly anxious students had a harder time remembering the previously learned vocabulary items. These empirical studies suggest that language anxiety may hinder effective cognitive processing, which in turn and performance tests (Zheng, 2008). perspective o n language anxiety. According to Krashen (1985), language anxiety may increase affective filter, and this , in turn , blocks the input in the target cannot be converted into meaningful information (Cited in Du, 2009). As a result, when students experience anxiety, it may place a barrier to effective cognitive processing of the information in the target language, and results in limited comprehension.
26 Other than worry and emotionality, other individual factors that can affect as identity, low self esteem and self confidence, weak volitional control, introversion, perfectionism and being anxious in nature (Conway, 2007; Oxford, 1999; Pappamihiel, 2002; T ran et al., 2012; Zheng, 2008). Foreign Language Anxiety from Curriculum Perspective (2008) curriculum perspective investigates classroom related language anxiety provoki ng factors such as pedagogical practices, classroom environment, error language production and classroom participation. Classroom practices, which require language production in the target language, may increase foreign language anxiety because students may be afraid of responding incorrectly and looking level EFL learners sho wed that classroom activities that required a more spontaneous and authentic use of the foreign language increase dL2 stay silent in t he classrooms and avoid participation in the se kinds of classroom activities (Kitano, 2001 Pappamihiel, 2002 ). dered as sources of foreign language anxiety. Learners who believe their speaking abilities are always graded might feel more anxious in speaking activities. Besides, teachers who adopt believe mistakes
27 negative outcomes such as avoidance of participation or incorrect language production. Error correction is also regarded as one of factors provoking language anxiety in the literature (Capan & Simsek, 2012; Renko, 2012) Renko (2012) found in his study with 100 elementary level Finnish EFL students that error correction could be perceived offensive and embarrassing by some language learners, and it could increase language anxiety. As a result, cu rriculum perspective considers language anxiety as an issue stemming from classroom practices, and multiple factors related to classroom practices appears to provoke FLA. Foreign Language Anxiety from Cultural Perspective (2008) third perspective i s a cultural and policy perspective. According to this perspective, a behavior or action which is appropriate and right for one culture may cultures, some behaviors such as t urn taking or volunteering for answers can contribut e to language anxiety, and lead to negative outcomes such as misinterpretation or negative judgments about language learners. Ohata (2005) reported in his qualitative study with five Japanese language le arners that Japanese cultural values such as avoiding to express ideas or not being assertive during the discussions hamper ed participation. These kinds of cultural conflicts may increase the anxiety level of students. T herefore, some cultural practices applied in foreign language classrooms might be perceived incongruous to some language learners, and increase their anxiety level if they are asked to perform these practices. (Zheng, 2008). As a result, from a cultural pe rspective, foreign language anxiety level of students may be provoked by some
28 cultural practices of the target language which are perceived different and face threateningbyL2 learners, and increased anxiety may hinder the language production classroom part icipation (Ohata, 2005). Performance Anxieties Performance anxieties are main variables affecting language learning (Horwitz et al., 1986) Performance anxieties include communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation. Zheng (2008) examined the relationship between language anxiety and foreign/second language learning from three perspectives above. However, she did not discuss the relationship of performance anxieties with language anxiety or second language learning in her perspecti ves in detail. For that reason, performance anxieties will be discussed as a separate section in this paper. Performance anxieties are considered different varieties of foreign language anxiety in some studies (Aydin et al., 2006 ) while they are perceived as the components of language anxiety in some other studies (Tanveer, 2007). In this study, I will consider performance anxieties as components of language anxiety because it seems that when the levels of performance anxieties increase, the level of foreig n language anxiety increases. Besides, each factor increasing performance anxieties also increase foreign language anxiety. Lastly, the effects of foreign language anxiety on second/foreign language learning embody the outcomes of performance anxieties (Se e Figure 2 2) . In this part, only communication apprehension and test anxiety will be discussed. Fear of negative evaluation will be discussed separately in the next section in detail as it is the focus of this study.
29 Communication Apprehension Communicat associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or may appear when language learners perceive the ir own communicative competence insufficient to convey their ideas or opinions clearly (Horwitz et al . , 1991). The students having communication comprehension may believe that their proficiency level in the target language is not enough to maintain a conve rsation with more proficient target language speakers, the teacher or native speakers. As a result, these students may stay silent in language classes, and avoid conversations with native/more proficient speakers since they may not have self confidence an d full control of the conversations (Conway, 2007; McCrosky et al . , 1985; Pappamihiel, 2002). In their study with 50 students doing their degree in Business Administration in a college in Malaysia, Mustapha, Ismail and Singh (2010) found that 4 5% of students had high level of communication apprehension (scored over 80 in the PRCA 24 test), and these students suffering from high level of communication apprehension expressed that they did not like public speaking and they felt tense and nervous wh en they were asked to communicate with people in group discussions, too. In conclusion, students tend to avoid speaking in classrooms because of communication apprehension, and they may experience high level of anxiety if they have to speak.
30 Figure 2 2: Performance anxieties as factors provoking foreign language anxiety and some possible outcomes Test A nxiety Test anxiety is considered another performance anxiety that contributes to foreign language anxiety substantially. Test anxiety occurs when stu dents feel that their foreign language capability is tested, and they are going to fail. Test stress may increase language anxiety level of students especially when foreign language learning is compulsory and students have to pass the language test to be e nrolled in a college or to find a good job (Zheng, 2008). Test anxiety seems to be the most common performance anxiety, and many language learners can be adversely influenced from it during the tests (Zheng, 2008). Many language learners expressed in Horw they forgot what they knew especially related to vocabulary and grammar during the tests because of high level of anxiety. Besides, research shows that due to test anxiety, language learners may feel overstressed b efore the tests; they may overstudy but still
31 obtain low scores, so they may feel frustrated, and they may even cry because of fear of failure during the tests (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1994). As a result, many language learners suffering from test anxiety may perform low scores in the tests, and it may provoke foreign language anxiety significantly in the next time when students feel that their skills in the foreign language are tested (Horwitz et al., 1986). Fear of Negative Evaluation Fear of negative evalua closely related to communication apprehension. While communication apprehension occurs when language lea rners feel that their communicative competence is not enough to have a conversation with others, fear of negative evaluation appears when language mistakes or pronunciation mist akes. Fear of negative evaluation is assumed to have a big influence on the level of foreign language anxiety (Aydin, 2008; Koralp, 2005). Kitano (2008) revealed in his study with 212 Japanese language learners that fear of negative evaluation had a stron g positive correlation with foreign language anxiety. He suggests that indicates that fear of negative evaluation has a significant interaction with sources and effects of foreign language anxiety. He claims that fear of negative evaluation may influence L2 towards th e language and their classroom participation.
32 Fear of negative evaluation can be described as concerns about unpleasant evaluations of people about not meeting their expectations . Fear of negative evaluation emerges when someone feels threatened by negative judgments of others. Language learners experiencing fear of negative evaluation may feel that their knowledge and performance in the target language is monitored and evaluated by people around them. As a result, they may become over concerned about making appropriate impression on people ( Mesri, 2012 ; Ohata, 2005 ). Besides, they may believe that they will be criticized, humiliated and scorned by their teachers or their classmates in case of a mistake during speaking (Capan & Simsek, 2012). In their study with 131 Turkish EFL students to compare freshmen and levels studying at a college , Capan and Simsek (2012) found that m any students from both grade level s wer e afraid of speaking in the classrooms due to the fear of making mistakes in front of others, and tallied oral student presentations a ould be noted by their peers when they we re speaking out loud in front of whole class ( p. 120). Price (1991) found in his study that anxious students who consistently compare d their language skills with their peers, and perceive d lt looked down on and weak, and demonstrate d low p artici pation . These studies show that fear of negative evaluation may influence participation considerably, so it should be emphasized more in the literature. Measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation Multiple measures can be used to determine fear of negative evaluation. Some of these measures can be listed as fear of leaving unfavorable impressions, fear of negative judgments, comfort level of L2 learners in the learning setting, self esteem,
33 p erceptions of their own abilities, fear of shortcomings noted and real or imagined peer evaluation (Aydin, 2008; Shabani, 2012) . In this part, only five of these measures will be discussed ( See figure 2 3). impressions on others is strongly related to fear of negative evaluation (Aydin, 2008; Mesri, 2012; Ohata, 2005). In his study 61 college level L2 learners , Shabani (2012) and in his st udy with 112 EFL learners , Aydin (2008) revealed that leaving unfavorable impressions is a strong source of fear of negative evaluation. Fear of l eaving unfavorable impression occurs when L2 learners make mistakes while speaking , and fear that the listener s make false assumptions about them. Cummins (1996) suggests that people can perceive low level proficient L2 learners as less significant individuals (Cited in Pappamihiel, 2002) . Pappamihiel (2002) pointed out in her study that many Mexican L2 learners t ried to get effective situational appraisals from others by minimizing their linguistic differences. For that reason, learners who perceive their level of proficiency to be lower than their classmates are more likely to have high er level of fear of negativ e evaluation provoked by the fear of leaving unfavorable impressions ( Pappamihiel, 2002 ; Price, 1991). The fear of making mistakes can also be regarded as one of the most common signs of fear of negative evaluation (Koch and Terrell, 1991; Price, 1991). P rice (1991) found in his study that anxious students most feared from making mistakes in front of others and being laughed by them. Similarly, o ne of the ESL case study (2002) with 178 Mexican born students state d ike speaking with native speakers or in front of them because I think that if I says something wrong,
34 study sa id it, with friends of mistakes because they are afraid of negative judgments of native speakers in the mainstream classes. Therefore, fear of making mistakes can be accepted as a measure of fear of negative evaluation. Self esteem can be regarded as third measure of fear of negative evaluation . There might be a negative correlation between self este em and fear of negative evaluation because Frost, Turcotte, Geimberg, Mattia, Holt and Hope (1995) found in their study that students who experienced high level of fear of making mistakes reported low self esteem (Cited in Gregersen & Horwitz, 2002) . Krash en also expressed in esteem worry about what their peers e learners with low self esteem can be more sensitive to negative evaluations of o thers when they are asked to practice the target language in the classroom setting , and they , in turn, can experience high level of fear of negative evaluation. Self perceptions of L2 abilities can be used as another measure of fear of negative evaluation perceived low ability level in a FL or L2 are the most likely to be anxious in the cl 550). Kitano (2001) found a n interaction between self perceived speaking ability and fear of negative evaluation which influence d language anxiety levels of L2 learners. Therefore, L2 learners who assume that their
35 communicative competence in the target language is not enough to convey their messages or to interact with native speakers have high level of fear of negative evaluation in the classroom settings. Figure 2 3: Some of the measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation Lastly, fear of negative judgments can be used as another measure of fear of negative evaluation ( Aydin, 2008 ; Shabani, 2012). Fear of negative judgments appears when L2 learners feel that they will be judged for their language skills. Shabani (2012) and Aydin (2008) found a positive correlation between fears of negative judgments and negative evaluation . Bel tran (2011) suggested in his study that fear of being judged can it can affect L2 self confidence , which, in turn, may result in language anxiety. Some L2 case study (200 5 ) with five college level students reported that they were afraid of being evaluated and judged by people for their mistakes, lack of vocabulary, their inability to choose appropriate words or expressions to the specific
36 social contexts. As a result , fear of negative judgments by others can be considered as a measure of fear of negative evaluation. Factors Influencing Fear of Negative Evaluation Multiple factors can influence fear of negative evaluation . Some of them are personality, tendencies, age , and proficiency levels of L2 learners. The factors emphasized in the literature will be discussed under three titles in this part: Individual factors and factors r elated to classroom practices, (2) proficiency level, age and gender, and (3) presence of native speakers in the classrooms Individual f actors and the f actors related to teachers n individual factor contributing fear of negative evaluation. Perfectionist tendencies can make (Gregersen & Horwitz, 2002; MacIntyre& Gardner, 1991). It is revealed that perfectionist studen ts we re not easily satisfied with their accomplishments , and they were much more worried about their mistakes than moderate level perfec tionist students (Xianping, 2003 ). Perfectionist students may think that they always have to produce the language perfec tly in order not to be judged by others (Zheng, 2008). Gregersen and Horwitz (2002) interviewed with eight college level L2 learners and suggested that w hen perfectionist language learners had to speak in front of others , their level of fear of negative ev aluation increase d considerably because speaking wa s perceived as taking risk. For that reason, perfectionist evaluation (Horwitz et al., 1986).
37 Students who are unprepared for spontaneous classroom di scussions can also have high level of fear of negative evaluation. Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) report ed that students tend ed to freeze in situations requiring spontaneous use of language. They add ed that students fe lt more comfortable with prepared sp eech and drills. Students fear s m a y stem from their fear of making mistakes when they are asked to speak spontaneously . Making m istakes may be threatening and result in negative judgments of teachers or peers during error correction (Pappamihiel, 2002) . A s a result, L2 learnersmay have high level of fear of negative evaluation that is triggered by unpreparedness to a s pontaneous language production (Fandino, 2010) . Lastly, according to Horwitz et al. (1986), fear of negative evaluation can also be trigge red by the teacher as a fluent speaker when they are providing feedback to students or correcting their errors (Pappamihiel, 2002) negative feedback may be identified by language learners as a marker of being incompetent in t he target language. In his study with 15 language learners, Von WÃ¶rde (2003) found that students fe lt disturbed and frustrated especially when teachers beg an to reprimand students for their mistakes. Similarly, Capan and Simsek (2012) found in their study with 131 Turkish College level English language learners that many students we correcting the mistakes. As a result, error correction can be a potential source of fear of n egative evaluation if it is not done in a kind way by the teacher. The i nfluence of proficiency level, gender and age on fear of negative e valuation Whereas research is relatively confident regarding the role of perfectionist tendencies, preparedness and error correction in fear of evalu a tion, results have been more ambiguous for the influence of proficiency level, gender and age of L2 learners on
38 fear of negative evaluation. overly in the literature because of their vague roles in the increase of language anxiety. The roles of proficiency level, gender and age are included in this part because I argue that fear of negative evaluation. Many researchers found inconsisten t results concerning the influence of proficiency level, gender and age on language anxiety while some researchers claimed that there wa s no correlation between them. In this part, I will discuss the findings that show a positive or negative correlation, a nd relate the correlations with fear of negative evaluation. influence on their fear of negative evaluation. Kitano (2001) found that fear of negative evaluation appear ed more stro ngly at advanced level rather than intermediate or ed that the Japanese d as the instruction continue d and students bec a me more proficient (as cited in Kitano, 2001). Besides, Saito and Samimy (1996) found that advanced level Japanese speaking students scored higher language anxiety provoked by fear of negative evaluation than less proficient students . As a of negative evaluation may have a positive correlation. Age can also be regarded as a factor influencing fear of negative evaluation. People usually gain self dy ) esteem manifests at the (p.1) . People with high self esteem
39 judgments after making mistakes. A s we discussed before, self esteem is a measure of esteem can be perceived as learners had a lesser degree o f fear towards leaving an unfavorable impression, disapproval by others, and making mistakes in the foreign language classes than the (p.435) . In conclusion, age may play a big role in the level of fear of negative evaluation , and it may have a positive correlation with self esteem. Lastly, gender may on fear of negative evaluation. In his study with 52 college level L2 learners, Mesri (2012) implied of negative evaluation threshold mig ht be lower than male students because of the worry they fe lt about leaving good impressions on other people. On the other hand, some studies suggest ed that males might be suffering from the fear of negative evaluation more than females (Capan & Simsek, 20 12; Zheng, 2008). Pappamihiel (2002) argue d that males we re less likely to admit their fears, so it m ight be one reason some studies f ou nd females more afraid of being judged than males. As a result, the level of fear of negative evaluation may change acco rding to the gender of L2 learners . The i valuation Being in the same classroom with native speakers may provoke fear of negative evaluation levels of language learners . There is limited study investigating the influence issue that should be studied more. Some studies suggested that presence of more proficient peers in the same clas t ion (Baker &MacIntyre, 2000; Conway, 2007 ; Ohata, 2005 ; Pappamihiel, 2002 ). In his study with five college -
40 level Japanese L2 learners , Ohata (2005) found that many L2 learners we re concerned about th eir own performances in classroom activities and oral presentations when they compare d their performances with those of more proficient peers. Similarly, Conway (2007) assert s target l anguage, which lead to embarrassment and shame when they are not d in her article that some L2 learners m ight assume that their native speaker peers w ould make fun of them when they c ou ld not produce the target language accurately. Finally, in her study with 178 Mexican immigrant students, Pappamihiel (2002) reported that overall anxiety levels of L2 learners we re significantly high in mainstream classes rather than in ESL classes due t o the presence of native speakers in the classroom and because L2 learners we re afraid of judgments of native speakers. can be higher in classes with native speakers than classes with other language learners because the proficiency level of native language speakers can be perceived much higher than the classrooms due to linguistic limitations compared to N S. Besides, the classes with native speakers can be more open to judgments and criticisms, and speaking practicesmay be more face threatening in these classrooms . As a result, presence of native speakers in class rooms may provoke fear of negative evaluatio n since it increases the risk of being evaluated by their highly proficient peers. The Impact of Fear of Negative Evaluation on Classroom Participation Studies have found that the fear of negative evaluation can have a negative impact on classroom partici pation . The fear of negative evaluation can make students
41 As a result, speaking activities can be perceived highly face threatening for L2 learners suffering from fear of negative evaluation, so p eople who fear negative evaluation rarely initiate a conversation and int , p.2). Students experiencing high level of fear of negative evaluation te nd to stay passi ve in the classrooms, withdraw from activities that could help them practicing their speaking skills, and avoid participation entirely (Gregersen, 1999 cited in Xianping, 2003 ). One of the students with high l evel of fear of negative evalua t ) expressed that I am so bothered about speaking in front of the class and feel shameful because I sense that everybody is looking at me. I am looking like fool. Although I know what I am thinking is not the case, I cannot st op thinking that way (p. 9). As a result, research suggest s that fear of negative evaluation may have an adverse classroom participation . Fear of negative evaluation may also have a negative impact on the quality of language output. Stu dents who have fear of negative evaluation mostly focus on accurate language production. However, the more they are concerned about making mistakes, the more mistakes they tend to make. In her study conducted with 97 non English major college students thro ugh interviews and observations, Xianping (2003 ) indicate d that students with high level of fear of evaluation tended to talk less, produce fewer and shorter sentences and few of their sentences were error free. Moreover, Beltran (2011) noted in his study conducted with 3 students through interviews, observation and checklist that students with high level of fear of negative evaluation spoke slowly and forg o t some vocabulary and grammatical rules during speaking in the target language , so they were not able to convey clear messages . Lastly, Djigunovic
42 (2006) revealed that students with language anxiety provoked by fear of negative evaluation seemed to have clause pauses, and rarely repeat ed the main points and start with false discourse to the conv , 2012, p. 2). To sum up, students who fear negative evaluation may demonstrate l ess participation and produce low quality output in the classrooms . The stress that fear of negative evaluation provokes and concerns about mak ing mistakes may decrease the quality of their output, and L2 learners may produce the target language below their proficiency level. When students feel fear of negative evaluation, they can forget what they know and make more mistakes than they usually do . All these behaviors can be observed at any context where L2 learners have fear of negative evaluation independent from proficiency level , age and gender of the student. For this reason, more studies should be conducted to understand the nature of fear of negative evaluation, and some possible solutions to alleviate its negative influence from classroom environment should be proposed by SLA researchers and language educators.
43 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Qualitative Study The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of college level L2 learners related to fear of negative evaluation in classrooms where the majority of the students are NS and where the majority of the students are NNS. A qualitative study is , therefore , an appropriate choice. A qualitative study et al., 2000, p.26) , and captures the varying experiences of second language learners in the college level classes where majority of the students are native speakers and where majority of the students are non native language speakers. The data of this study are collected throu gh an online survey and personal interviews. Participants The participants were informed about the study through social and academic network. From the volunteers who expressed their interest to be a part of this study, the ones who took courses in classro oms composed of predominantly NS and classrooms composed of predominantly NNS were selected and invited to the online survey through e mail s . Based on their responses to survey items, the ones identified with high er level of fear of negative evaluation com pared to other participants were invited to interviews, and their experiences formed the basis of this study. The participants of online survey include 22 graduate students enrolled in different universities in the USA including University of Florida, Univ ersity of Central Florida and University of Iowa. The participants share d different ethnic backgrounds like Chinese (9), Turkish (5), Arab (2), Korean (2), Persian (1), Japanese (1), Dutch (1) and
44 German (1) . Sixteen of the participants are female and six of them are male. The ages of the participants range d from 18 to 55, but 59% of them we re at the age of 26 35. 82% of the participants we re studying ESOL/Bilingual Education or Linguistics at the graduate level. All the participants learned English as a fo reign language in their home countries, and currently , they speak it as a second language at the advanced level. Before participants were recruited, it was assured that all participants had been in classes where the majority of the students were native spe akers and the classes where the majority of the students were non native speakers. For the interview part of the study, the survey results were analyzed, and the participants who seemed to have higher level of fear of negative evaluation in the classes whe re majority of the students were native speakers than the classes where majority of the students were non native English language speakers were invited to interviews. Five participants were interviewed for the study. Four of the participants are studying E SOL/Bilingual Education, and one participant is studying at the department of Linguistics. All participants of the interviews are female and, they are graduate students v oluntary, and pseudo names are used to refer them throughout the paper. Instruments and Procedure The study followed two steps to obtain data. In the first step, participants were asked to fill out an online survey which was prepared in Qualtrics program a nd which took around 20 minutes to fill out. The survey was distributed to participants through e mails so that they could feel comfortable while filling it out. As the second step, 5 participants were interviewed based on their levels of fear of negative evaluation . The interviews took 25 35 minutes, and the interviews were audio recorded to be
45 transcribed and analyzed later in detail. The purpose of the survey is to understand whether there is a difference at the fear of negative evaluation of college le vel L2 learners in the classrooms where the majority of the students are NS and where the majority of the students NNS while the purpose of the personal interviews is to provide detailed information about what they experience d in classrooms where majority of the students we re NS and where the majority of the students were NNS . For the first step, a 60 item survey was created for this study. Before the last version of the survey was formed, a pilot study was administrated, and some modifications were made to fix the problematic parts and to make the survey clearer for the participants. The survey was pr epared as a combination and adaptation of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) designed by Horwitz (1986), English Language Anxiety Scale (ELAS) (Pappamihiel, 2002), the Japanese Class Anxiety Scale developed by Kitano(2001), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (Leary, 1983) and the re ( See Appendix A for the survey ) . The survey contained a background information questionnaire (10 items) and two questionnaires (50 items in total ) ces at two different contexts: classrooms where majority of the students were native speakers and the classrooms where the majority of the students were non native English speakers. The items of the two questionnaires were scored on a 5 point Likert scale: 1 (Strongly Agree), 2 (Agree), 3 (Neither agree nor disagree), 4 (Disagree), 5 (Strongly Disagree). in the classrooms where majority of the students we re NS, the oth er questionnaire
46 of the students we re NNS. Each questionnaire included items related to three measures of fear of negative evaluation, that is fear of making mistakes , fear of negative judgments, comfort level of ESL students in the classes. Besides, it involved some items t hat asked participants to dictate if and how evaluation influenced their classroom participation. In the second step , five participants who appeared to have high er level of fear of negative evaluation compared to the other participants based on their responses to the survey items were interviewed for 25 35 minutes to get more detailed information about their experiences and the influence of fear of negative evaluation and native presence on their language output and classroom participation. Five people were interviewed because they were the only available ones for interviews from the participants with higher levels of fe ar of negative evaluation. The interviews were held at the campus facilities where participants felt comfortable. At the interviews, six ten open ended questions and some additional questions based on their responses were asked to the participants dependin g on their experiences and their responses to the survey items. Interviews were recorded to be transcribed and analyzed later( See Appendix B for guiding interview questions ) . Data Analysis To analyze the survey, the questionnaire items were clustered under the four categories reflected in the survey: fear of making mistakes, fear of negative judgments, and comfort level with NS or NNS. The last category examined the influence of fear of classroom par ticipation. Then, percentage of participants ratings, the mean s and standard deviation values we re calculated for each item (See App endix C) .
47 F ive participants were invited to interviews to find out more about their experiences. Before they were interviewed, their survey responses were noted and the questions that would be asked in the interviews were organized and modified based on their respons es to survey items. Their responses were also referred during the interviews. defining the elements mentioned in the data, and categorizing the elements under certain domains b ased on their semantic relationship with each other (Spradley,1979). Spradley (1979) notes that three important concepts should be emphasized in domain analysis: included terms (individual categories), cover terms (title given to a set of individual catego ries), and semantic relationships. After the identification of included terms, researchers are supposed to assign a code to each set of terms based on the semantic relationship with the included terms in each category. After transcribing the recorded inte rviews, the key terms related to the fear of negative evaluation were defined. These key terms were coded with some cover terms. Then, all the comments of the participations related to key terms were compiled under the cover terms, and presented as themes .
48 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND RESULTS Introduction Th is chapter starts with the analysis of survey results related to : (1) fear of making mistakes, (2) fear of negative judgments, (3) comfort level of the L2 learners with NS and NNS, and (4) classroom partici pation. Then, t he chapter explains the interview findings which include five themes emphasized by the subjects: (1) the interaction of L2 learners with NS students (2) classroom practices, (3) perfectionist tendencies, (4) classroom participation and (5) l anguage production. The chapter ends Survey Results Twenty two college level L2 learners participated into the online survey. The participants shared different ethnic backgr ounds like Chinese ( 9 ), Turkish (5), Arab (2), Korean (2), Persian (1), Japanese (1), Dutch (1) and German (1). All of the participants c ould speak English at the advanced level as self reported on the survey . Sixteen of the participants are female and six of them are male. The ages of the participants range d from 18 to 55. Most of the participants were studying at the ESOL/Bilingual Education program or at the department of linguistics. All participants had been in classes where the majority of the student s were NS and the majority of the students were NNS. This section involves four subsections. The first three subsections report fear of making mistakes, fear of negative judgments and comfort level with NS or NNS. The four
49 fear of negative evaluation. The survey results are discussed through percentages in this section. Results R elated to Fear of Making Mistakes Survey results indicate d that most of the participants ha d a moderate level fear of making mistakes in the classrooms where the majority of the students we re NS and where the majority of the students were NNS . However, they seem ed to be less concerned and worried about making mistakes in the classrooms where the majority wa s NNS. Six items in the survey investigates if L2 learners have the fear of making mistakes in the classrooms composed by dominantly NS and composed by dominantly NNS (See Table 4 1). However, only the items (Qs 1, 5, 6, 12, and 25) that imply a difference in these two classroom contexts in terms of fear of making mistakes will be discussed in this section. Table 4 1: Response percentages of items related to Fear of Making Mistakes Fear of Making Mistakes Questionnaire Type Item Number Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree NS Q1 14% 36% 5% 36% 9% NNS Q1 14% 55% 8% 23% 0% NS Q5 0% 23% 9% 50% 18% NNS Q5 0% 9% 0% 64% 27% NS Q6 9% 14% 9% 45% 23% NNS Q6 0% 14% 9% 45% 32% NS Q12 5% 55% 12% 23% 5% NNS Q12 27% 64% 0% 5% 4% NS Q14 14% 10% 19% 33% 24% NNS Q14 5% 14% 13% 59% 9% NS Q25 0% 18% 37% 27% 18% NNS Q25 9 % 27 % 23% 36 % 5 % Participant responses to the items related to fear of making mistakes show that
50 9 % of the participants agreed or st rongly agreed that they d id not feel worried about making mistakes in front of other L2 learners. 23% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that native speakers w ould notice their mistakes as 9% of the participants agreed that L2 learners w ould not ice their mistakes. 23% of the students agreed or strongly agreed that they ma d e more mistakes speaking in front of NS, and 14% of the participants agreed that they ma d e more mistakes speaking in front of NNS. Moreover, as 60% of the participants agreed o r strongly agreed that they d id not feel embarrassed when they ma d e mistakes in the classrooms where majority of the students we re NS, 91% of them agreed or strongly agreed that they d id not feel embarrassed when they ma d e mistakes in front of second langu age speakers. Lastly, only 18% of the participants note d that NS w ould note their mistakes when they sp oke English while 36 % of the students agreed or strongly agreed that NNS w ould not note their mistakes when they sp oke English. Results R elated to Fear of Negative Judgments Item responses related to fear of negative judgments show ed that participants ha d higher level of fear of negative judgments in the classes where majority of the students we re native speakers compared to the classroom where majority o f the students we re non native English speakers (see Table 4 2). Six items related to fear of negative judgments we re involved into the online survey; however, only the ones (Qs 7 , 10, 11 and 24) that show ed a significant difference in two different classr oom settings will be reported in this part. Survey results indicate d that 45% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed to
51 while 63% of them agreed or strongly agre ed that they d id not care if non native speakers w ould laugh at them when they sp oke English. 66 % of the participants disagreed or st r judgments of NS when I speak English in the classroo Table 4 2: Response percentages of items related to Fear of Negative Judgments Fear of Negative J udgments Questionnaire Type Item Number Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree NS Q7 18% 27% 27% 14% 14% NNS Q7 18% 45% 10% 18% 9% NS Q10 0% 29% 5% 52% 14% NNS Q10 9% 5% 0% 54% 32% NS Q11 14% 18% 5% 36% 27% NNS Q11 0% 10% 5% 52% 33% NS Q13 5% 9% 4% 50% 32% NNS Q13 0% 10% 0% 45% 45% NS Q22 5% 5% 5% 50% 35% NNS Q22 0% 14% 9% 41% 36% NS Q24 14% 18% 9% 50% 9% NNS Q24 18% 55% 9% 18% 0% Similarly, 14% of the participants strongly agreed and 18% of them agreed that they we re afraid of criticisms and humiliations of native speakers when they ma d e mistakes while only 10% of them agreed that they we re afraid of criticisms and humiliations of non native speakers when they ma d e mistakes.
52 Results R Survey results suggest that participants fe lt more comfortable in the classes where majority of the students we re non native speakers rather than the classes where majority of the students we re native English speakers (see Table 4 3). Survey includes seven items in each questionnaire related to comfort levels of participants in the classrooms. Yet, only the items (Qs 3, 8, 15, 16, 18) indicating a s ignificant difference in the classrooms where the majority of the students we re NS and where the majority of the students we re NNS will be discussed in this part. While 82% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that they fe lt comfortable speaking around native speakers, 91% of them agreed or strongly agreed that they fe lt comfortable speaking around non native speakers. 65% of the L2 learners disagreed or speaking in f disagreed that they g o t nervous when they we re speaking in front of non native speakers. Table 4 3: Response percentages of items related to Comfort Level of the participants Comfort Level of Participants in the classes with NS/NNS Questionnaire Type Item Number Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree NS Q3 9% 73% 9% 9% 0% NNS Q3 14% 77% 9% 0% 0% NS Q8 0% 25% 10% 40% 25% NNS Q8 0% 5% 13% 50% 32% NS Q15 23% 50% 27% 0% 0% NNS Q15 45% 50% 5% 0% 0% NS Q16 5% 29% 19% 33% 14%
53 Table 4 3 Continued Comfort Level of Participants in the classes with NS/NNS NNS Q16 36% 45% 10% 9% 0% NS Q18 5% 48% 23% 19% 5% NNS Q18 23% 45% 14% 18% 0% NS Q20 0% 27% 5% 36% 32% NNS Q20 0% 18% 27% 41% 14% NS Q23 0% 42% 19% 29% 10% NNS Q23 5% 33% 33% 24% 5% Furthermore, 73% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that their NS classmates we re good to them when they ma d e a mistake while speaking, 95% of them agreed or strongly agreed that their NNS classmates we re good to them in case of mistakes. 47% of the participants disagreed or strongly disagreed that they fe lt relaxed in the class although they d id not understand NS, 81% of them agreed or strongly agreed that they d id not feel nervous when they d id not understand NNS in t he classrooms. Lastly, 53% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that they fe lt confident about their L2 communication abilities in the cl assrooms where majority of the students we re NS , 78% of them agreed or strongly agreed that they fe lt confident about their L2 skills when they we re in the classrooms where majority of the students we re NNS. Results R elated to Classroom Participation The o verall analysis of the items related to classroom participation indicate d that most of the participants prefer red to participate into classroom discussions regardless of their fear of negative evaluation levels (See Table 4 4). Six items related to classro om participation we re integrated to the survey, but only the items (Qs 4, 17, 21) that show a
54 difference in the classroom participations of the L2 learners will be discussed in this part. Survey results point ed out that 73% of the participants disagreed or strongly they d id not volunteer in fro nt of NNS because of the fear of making mistakes. Besides, 36% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that they fe lt shy to as k the teacher an explanation in front of NS when they d id not understand the topic as only 5% of the participants agreed th at they fe lt shy to ask for an explanation to the teacher in front of NNS. Lastly, 72% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that when they we re prepared to speak, they fe lt relaxed in the classes where the majority of the students we re NS whereas 96% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that when they we re prepared, they feel relaxed in the classes where majority of the students we re NNS. Table 4 4: Response percentages of items related to Classroom Participation and Fear of Negative Evaluation Participation and Fear of Negative Evaluation Questionnaire Type Item Number Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree NS Q2 9% 23% 13% 41% 14% NNS Q2 0% 23% 4% 50% 23% NS Q4 0% 18% 9% 55% 18% NNS Q4 5% 18% 36% 36% 5% NS Q9 14% 50% 22% 14% 0% NNS Q9 14% 45% 41% 0% 0% NS Q17 9% 27% 9% 32% 23% NNS Q17 0% 5% 22% 55% 18% NS Q19 0% 18% 18% 36% 28% NNS Q19 0% 9% 5% 45% 41% NS Q21 27% 45% 18% 5% 5% NNS Q21 23% 73% 4% 0% 0%
55 Interview Results Based on survey results, five participants who appeared to have high level of fear of negative evaluation in the classrooms where majority of the students were NS were invited to personal interviews to learn more about their experience s in the classrooms. The Pseudo names of the participants are defined as Alina, Bao, Daria, Yin and Zhen. All participants are female. Three of the participants, Bao, Yin and Zhen, are Chinese. Alina is Arab , and Daria is G erman. Four of the participants, Bao, Yin, Zhen and Daria, are studying at ESOL/Bilingual education program while Alina is studying at the department of Linguistics. All participants we re from University of Florida, and they we re proficient speakers of Eng lish. In the section below, the main themes that emerged from the domain analysis will be presented. The Interaction of L2 Learners with NS S tudents perceptions about NS war d L2 learners is an issue emerged frequently across interviews . All participants th ought that most of the native speakers we re very kind to L2 learners, and they usually d id not judge them for their m istakes. Alina, who is an Arab graduate student studying in the department of Linguistic, made the following comment about NSs: One thing that I also noticed here that native judge your English even if you have a lot of mistakes while you are more attention to your grammar especially like more the students here are well educated so and they are kinda nice (36). Similarly, Zhen, who is a Chinese ESOL/Bilingual education program said that about NSs:
56 We assume they (NSs) would pay attention to our mistakes like grammar or spelling or word ending. But the thing is th really care about our accent. The thing is if our accent sounds foreign, learners, we, assume tha t, but I found that only few of them really care what mistakes we made. They more care about what our ideas are like (84). Furthermore, some of the participants claimed that NSs were more advantaged in the classes because of their faster comprehension, qu ick replies and ability to questions quicker than L2 learners, and they could also understand even small details times I feel like if I am like a native speaker, I could get my way out of this question (the question that she is not students were more active students in classes relate d to ESOL methods than L2 learners. Daria suggested that are advantaged and I mean before I have formed my thought about something on the high level like this at least myself, ... you have them right there. Just being a native speaker is a big advantag e; you have two pieces together (181). Yin also compared her NNS performance, Sometimes, international students, non native students, they will also have very quick ideas, but due to the language barrier, they may have hard time to advantage in terms of classroom performance because NS do not h ave a language
57 NS attitudes towards NNS I what she thought Another thing I feel really strong is Proteach students, some of them are guess, intentionally give us the es I had with Proteach students (96 98). ProT each program at UF, which is a five year education program for elementary school teachers. Bao, another Chinese student who is doing h ESOL/Bilingual Education program also explained her experience with one of her NS classmate like that: So there was an American student, the first semester we came here. There were like eight Chinese students in our class, and there are other international students as well. But every time when we were doing group discussion, she is trying to avoid from us, and go to other groups. I mean international no (234). attitudes imply that L2 learners may perceive some behaviors of NS students as negative, and these negative perceptions may increase their fear of negative evaluation. P articipan ts also shared some of their experiences with negative judgments of NS , NS attitudes and their feelings about them . Daria, a German student , shared her feelings based on her negative experiences with NSs like that: With native speakers, I am afraid that t because of my accent, because I experienced that people asked me
58 happened maybe three times, so that happened often. And in that cases, I try to speak people in this academic language, people are speaking on the very high level, and I just try to, I just fe el I have to match that somehow (151). Alina also explained her feelings while she was speaking to NSs like that: I feel like when they are listening to me, if you are some non native or your sentence full of mistake, I feel like they are perceiving you as a person who is, I d you need to learn before speak (8). These comments indicate that they feel worried about speaking to some NSs because they assume that these NSs are going to judge them for their mistakes. NNS Lastly, some of the participants expressed their expectations from NSs in the classrooms or outside while having personal conversations. Daria asserted that: I would judge native speakers as making a judgment and not, first of all, not helping the person, not correcting before. If somebody say it would be better if you say like this, I would not be offended instead of somebody thinking that she some how cannot speak proper English (155). She noted that some NSs could not understand h ow L2 learners felt because NSs did not have to speak an academic level foreign language in their lives. Zhen also made some comments about what she expected from NS classmates. She said that: ative English is, then we will have lower anxiety. If you can sense from her or h at international students think (90).
59 their NS classmates to help them improve their English through corrections and not to judge them because t hey c ould not speak English as well as they d id . Classroom Practices Interviews suggest ed that classroom practices including the affective fear of negative evaluation nega tively. Affective environment of classrooms Some of the participants expressed that in the classrooms, they spoke worse than they usually did outside. They claimed when they were in the classrooms, they made more mistakes than usual. Alina expressed her e xperiences in the classrooms (52). Alina also stated that classroom atmosphere made her anxious because she did not want to sound stupid in the classroom (6). practices and practices in the classrooms are another issue highlighted by the participants. Most of the participants expressed that that teachers talked with NSs more than they talked with L2 learners in the classrooms. Alina explained her fee ls more comfortable talking with the native speakers because they get the answer
60 quickly, and they can understand any small details when they are saying... They are looking at them more than they are looking non asser ted that some teachers did not understand what L2 learners felt and experienced tryi Furthermore, some participants claimed some teachers could not understand their speeches or accents, but they did not ask for clarifications. Zhen expressed the following quote on this issue: we said. So we had different ideas. What the professor said was not our words. They did not understand but t to waste time listening to us (96) . language production. Some participants asserted that even if teachers understood what the L2 learner was going to say, they did not help them although they saw the s tudent was having difficulty in remembering a word. Alina made the following suggestion about this issue: if the teacher can like jump in using some words while you are speaking, trying to save you with some words like if she can see you like struggling w ith one word, but she gets what you are going to say, so she can jump with words, that will help like. Yeah I guess this is the only way. Maybe she can complete the answer but not to stand still and just looking at you waiting for your answer. This gives y ou a lot of pressure, yeah I would prefer if she jumped in speaking or change the topic may be (32). Organizations of the groups iors.
61 While Daria prefer red to be grouped with NNSs, Zhen and Alina prefer red to stay in the groups of NSs to improve their English. Bao claim ed that she would feel offended if she wa s grouped with NNSs all the time because then she would assume that teach ers believe d her proficiency level wa s not good enough to speak with NSs. In conclusion, teachers need to be careful about grouping NNSs because it may affect their fear of negative evaluation, and may result avoidance of participation Discussion topics La ed that the philosophical topics that require high level of academic language put her under stress because she felt that her academic language vocabulary sometimes stayed at titudes and practices, classroom environment, group discussions and the topics discussed in the classrooms are the themes emphasized by the participants of this by the se topics. Perfectionist Tendencies Perfectionist tendencies were another topic repeatedly highlighted by the tendencies and the perceptions about how perfectionist N S are seemed to have a participation. Interviews indicated that L2 learners wanted to use the target language perfectly in order not to be judged by NS who were also described as p erfectionist. Four
62 participants emphasized the importance of using the target language perfectly. Alina, who defined herself as a perfectionist person based on her experiences, mentioned about a strategy that most of the NSs she knew and she, herself, used time to time. hundred percent sure of that what they are going to say is the perfect know what you are going to say and that thing must be 100% perfect (12). She also explained how her perfectionist nature affected her decisions about pick up the chances, perfect chances f or me. I try to pick the topic that I know and I can classroom discussions if she believed what she would say was error free. She said that: d to write everything very clear so that I thi nk I can avoid some mistakes. , ( 327 ) . She also added that she tried to talk as perfect as possible when she felt she was going to be judged or evaluate d by other. Daria asserted that she was obliged to speak perfect, like native like because Americans are maybe perfectionist and if I make a mistake, it may reflect nega tively in language perfectly in order not to be humiliated or judged by others, and their perfectionist tendencies seem ed to influence their participation. Classroom P a rticipation Participants highlighted classroom participation during the interviews. In this study, classroom participation refers to participating into the whole class discussions,
63 asking questions to the teachers and answering their questions during the c lass. wa s mainly affected by discussions and their fear of making mistakes. In this part, the findings of interviews on these three issues will be reported. Personality Personal int erviews reveal that some participants perceived participation as a matter related to personality. Some participants suggested in the interviews that having a shy, self closed personality might hinder their participation. Yin made the following comment on t his issue: I think the reason I feel anxious is because of my personality. I remember the first classes in college, and my professor asked everyone to introduce yourself in English. I guess she wanted to use this way us like basic test about your spoken s use I feel so weird and nervous (278). On the other hand, some participants claimed that their easy going, curious and extrovert personality moti vate d them to participate when they had high level of fear of negative evaluation. When I asked Daria if her fears about negative judgments affected her classroom participation or her decisions to ask questions, she responded like that: I am very curious so even if I, I know that I would maybe expose myself, but mostly I wanna know it right now, and I ask the question. You know, I important to right then to participate in class proper ly as everybody else. So I would not wait ... I would ask right away (169 171). Likewise, Alina claimed that her talkative and easy going personality overcame her fear t here is a chance with the topic that I know, I try to jump in, and start talking before I
64 classroom participation both negatively and positively. Preparedness Preparedness participate. Interviews suggested that language learners who felt unprepared for the peak English, your mind do not come through your mouth, so you do not know what is going to happen, what are you going to say, whether you are they fe lt more nervous an d stressed when they we re not prepared. I feel horrible. I hate when things like this happened. For example, she have nothing to say, I feel like I wanna leave the classroom... When I am glish (18). She also added that being prepared before every cla ss wa s one of the strategies that she used to decrease her anxiety. Daria also expressed that she felt under pressure a lot when she was asked questions that she was not ready to answer, and she felt high level of fear of negative evaluation because she as sumed that her language skills would be judged based on her answer (173). Bao also explained what she experienced when she was not prepared to answer classmates in the class, even though I prepared a little bit, I would feel a little bit
65 answer in 311). Consequently, preparedness can be a Fear of making m istakes Most of the participants reported in the interviews that they were afraid of making mi stakes because their peers or teachers could judge them for their mistakes. The mistakes they emphasized were grammar and pronunciation mistakes, but at some parts, they also involved comprehension. Some of them also claimed that fear of making mistakes ke pt them under pressure, and affected their willingness to participate negatively. Yin, who th ought some L2 learners were more judgmental about mistakes than NSs, was very concerned about making mistakes while speaking English because she experienced that s mistakes. Her concerns seemed to influence her willingness to participate adversely. proficiency, I would like v observe is all classmates, the thing is when we had more native speakers, we would know the answer, or like to speak native like especially with her pronunciation, in order to leave good impressions on NSs or professors (157). Lastly, Alina emphasized t hat she spoke whenever she was sure that her sentences were formed accurately because she did not want to sound stupid. To sum up, many L2 learners may prefer not to participate into the classroom discussions due to fear of making mistakes.
66 Language Produ ction Most of the participants noted that they fe lt more relaxed when they we re around other NNSs compared to the times when they we re talking to NSs, and this comfortable atmosphere change d the way they sp oke in the target language. Participants expressed that they could speak fluently and more native like in terms of pronunciation when they felt comfortable. Participants also reported what happens to their language production on around NS and other L2 learners, and the way they sp oke when they fe lt anxious will be discussed. Personal interviews hinted that L2 learners did not feel anxious all the time they spoke with NSs. They reported that when they were talking with their NS friends in their social network, they could speak more fluently. On the other hand, when they were talking with their NS classmates, they felt more tense and concerned about negative judgments. Alina explained how she spoke when she was with her NS friend s like that: participants also claimed that they requested their NS friends to correct their mistakes. I would just ask them if you hear any mistakes I may have about grammar, just go On the other hand, s ome participants asserted that the way they speak with their NS classmates is not very comfortable all the time. Alina explained the difference like that:
67 I think that classroom environment is what makes me more like anxious, d, just start bumbling anything that comes to speak out of nowhere. But when it comes around people I feel like myself speaking, I know how to use slangs, idioms. But when it comes to classroom language, I feel like kinda I need to think, more imp ortantly, I need to be prepared (6). Daria also reported her feelings while she was speaking in the classrooms like that: I feel very much that I have to speak very well and also my pronu nciation on one hand, I feel like I try to suppress my accent, my German accent, but then when I try harder, it comes out more. Because I am more tense, American pronunciation wou ld come out better. Then being tense causes me pronounce it more hard like German word. (157). When I asked Daria what kind of changes happened in the way she spoke when she was speaking with her NS peers, she said that: nd the right word in English. And then, I am afraid that my sentences are kind of very simple maybe, you know because if you try to explain something difficult, or use simple words, it u sounding very bad, or I mix of the forms, maybe I use the present form or I make a mistake maybe with the tenses or sentenc e structure sometimes depending (193). In conclusion, the wa y L2 learners speak may differ depending on classroom environment and their comfort level with their classmates or friends. On the other hand, most of the participants asserted that they felt more relaxed and less anxious while speaking English with other L2 learners regardless that those L2 learners were their friends or classmates or they were in the classroom or outside. However, some participants claimed that their fear of negative evaluation level might cy level. It seems that some participants felt fear of negative judgments when they were with more proficient L2 learners.
68 Zhen explained how she felt in the classrooms where most of the students were now why , I guess because I am more relaxed, I feel less judged, and I feel more lik e we are on the same board, trying when I am around people that I like I am superior. I can speak freely most of the participants reported that they felt less fear of negative evaluation when they were with other L2 learners because m aking mistakes could be considered natural in L2 groups. On the other hand, two of the participants, Alina and Yin, expressed that although they usually felt relaxed when they were speaking with other NNSs, some situations might still increase their fear of negative evaluation, and make them stressed about speaking English. Yin claimed that she felt more anxious when she was speaking with Chinese L2 learners who could speak more fluently and accurately than her. She explained her feelings like that: I hav English, so if I have to speak English, I would just try to perform my best and form as good as, as perfect as poss ible (349). be affected by their relationship s with NS. Besides, their output could also have different quality when they were speaking with more proficient L2 learners and when they were
69 speaking with less proficient L2 learners. It appears that when they felt comfortable, they could speak more fluently; however, when they felt anxious, they could make more mistakes, forget vocabulary, and use simpler sentences. Participant Recommendation s to Teachers about Fear of Negative Evaluation Study result s show that fear of negative evaluation cannot be disregarded by the teachers because it can influence participation and language production. Besides, teachers teachi ng in the classrooms where the majority of the students NS negative evaluation and classroom participation. To decrease the negative influence of NS presence and fear of negative evaluation in the classrooms, interview participants were asked to make some suggestions to teachers . Their suggestions to teachers include (1) having comforting talks with ESL students, (2) language simplification and modifications, (3) sentence completions, (4) organizing group discussions and (5) preparing a welcoming classroom atmosphere. explained what she would tell to L2 learners if she was the teacher in this way: I defin hear other classmates make mistakes, we should not laugh at them. We can help correct after class or you can raise up your hand and say this should be that, (120). She also added that she would know her students more , ask them questions about their lives, and help them in or after the classes. This suggestion complies with Horwitz, ms and making the learning context less stressful.
70 Language sim plification and modification was another suggestion of the participants to decrease the debilitating effect of fear of negative evaluation in the classrooms. Yin suggest ed teachers to modify t heir language when they we re speaking with ESL students. She claimed that using simple sentences, less slang words or idioms and speaking slowly c an make communication easier, and increase their comprehension. She thinks that successful comprehension of th e target language can about fear of making mistakes. to teachers made by Alina and Daria. Alina claim ed that: they see that the student, the non native speaker, has the answer but the rget or having trouble spe aking (54). Likewise, Daria expressed that if she was the teacher, she would complete ESL added that she would rephrase their answers to be sure she understood correctly, and she would always be respectful and nonjudgmental to their mistakes. Some participants believe that group activities can help ESL students overcome their fear of negative evaluation because the number of listeners in group discussions will be smaller t han that of whole class discussions. Besides, group activities can keep Alina explain ed why students should be away from teacher pressure that the teacher itself makes a lot of pressure of the students because of the grades. I
71 ed why group activities are good for ESL students like t evaluation due to sc affolding from peers, its teacher pressure free atmosphere and small number of listeners . Lastly, preparing a welcoming classroom atmosphere wa s emphasized by the welcomi ng atmosphere includes free talks, respectful attitudes, nonjudgmental expressions and a classroom away from pressure. Alina explain ed what she would do if she was the teacher of ESL students like that: So maybe if I can give them like days of the week wh ere I specifically tell themselves s peaking at home where they are much comfortab le, and I can take a look at it (50). Bao suggest ed teachers to use humor to ask questions to L2 learners so that they can feel relaxed, welcomed and valued. Her suggestion was based on her own experience in a classroom where she was the only ESL student, but she felt comfortable about speaking and participation (259). Lastly, Zhen suggest ed teachers to be friends with them so that they c ould know the teacher wa s always there to help them. All these strategies p articipants advised to prepare a welcoming classroom for L2 learners aim ed to decrease the negative influence o f fear of negative evaluation from classroom environment .
72 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Discussion of Survey Results The first research question invest igates if there was a perceived difference at the fear of negative evaluation levels of college level L2 learners in the classrooms including dominantly NS and in the classrooms including dominantly NNS. The overall analysis of the survey results show ed that most college level L2 learners had a moderate level of fear of negative evaluation both in the classrooms where the majority was N S and the classrooms where the majority was NNS. However, there was a perceived difference at the fear of negative evalu ation levels of the L2 learners in the classrooms where the majority of the students were NS and in the classrooms where the majority of the students we re non native speakers. This result conforms to 8 middle school L2 learners, she found that Mexican L2 learners felt more anxious in the mainstream classes than ESOL classes. The items related to fear of making mistakes indicated that participants had less fear of making mistakes in the classrooms whe re the majority of the students were NNS than the classrooms where the majority of the students were NS. In the classrooms where NS were dominantly present, L2 learners were more worried about making mistakes, most of the L2 learners feared that NS were go ing to notice their mistakes, and most of them agreed that they made more mistakes while speaking in the classrooms. Besides, many L2 learners seemed to feel more embarrassed when they made a mistake in front of NS rather than other L2 learners. Based on these findings, I conclude that L2 learners experienced more fear of making mistakes in the classrooms
73 composed by dominantly NS because they felt that NS would notice their mistakes, and judge them for their mistakes. The items related to fear of negativ e judgments showed that students felt less judged in the classrooms where the majority of the classmates were L2 learners. In the survey, many participants agreed that they felt more threatened by negative judgments in the classrooms where the majority of the students were NS, and they were afraid of criticisms and humiliations of NS when they made mistakes. On the other hand, they mistakes. These findings suggest that most L2 learners feared that NS would judge, criticize and humiliate them more for their speaking skills and mistakes in the classrooms where the majority of the students w ere NS than the classrooms where the majority of the students w ere NNS. The comfort levels of many participants appeared to be higher in the classrooms composed by dominantly L2 learners compared to the classrooms composed by dominantly NS. Most L2 learners stated that they felt more comfortable around NNS than NS. Few of the participants state d that they felt comfortable when they did not understand NS, but most of them noted that they did not feel nervous in the classrooms where the majority was NNS although they do not understand NNS. Lastly, many L2 learners reported that they felt more conf ident about their L2 skills when they were with NNS rather than NS. The findings clearly imply that many L2 learners felt more comfortable with speaking or making mistakes in the classrooms where the majority of the students we re NNS compared to the classr ooms where the majority of the students we re NS.
74 participation differed in the classrooms where NS were the majority and where the majority were NNS, but the difference was n ot significant. The survey results showed that m any L2 learners participated into the classroom activities although they had fear of making mistakes in the classrooms where the majority of the students were NNS. Considering the fact that fear of negative e valuation and language anxiety have positive correlation and language anxiety can have significant negative influenc e on participation (Kitano, 2001 ; Xianping, 2003 ), the findings of this study may contradict with the findings of many studies. The Discuss ion of Interview Findings Personal interviews aimed to answer second research question: What are the college where the majority of the students are NS and in classrooms where the majority of the students are NNS? The overall analysis of the personal interviews showed that the increased their perfectionist tendencies, hindere d their classroom parti cipation in whole class discussions and hampered their accura cy in language production. The Interaction of L2 Learners with NS Students attitudes towards L2 learners, and their fear of negative evaluation negatively . usually kind to them, and rarely judged them for their language skills. Although this was the case, many participants ex pressed that they were afraid of negative judgments of NS for their second language skills . -
75 expectations more than what they actually do. Likewise, Ohata (2005) and Pappamihiel (2002) suggested in their studies L2 learners were afraid of being evaluated and judged by their peers for their mistakes, lack of vocabulary, their inability to choose appropriate words or expressions to different contexts. real or anticipated negative attitudes seemed to be another theme emphasized by the participants. Some participants were exposed to negative judgments of NS, and it clearly affected their feelings and perceptions about NS. Similarly, Pappamihiel (2002) revealed in her study that L2 learners avoid speaking in order not be laughed at by their peers. Lastly, participants had some expectations from NS. Most participants expressed that they expected from NS to correct their mistakes, to value their contributions in the classes and to help them improve their Eng lish. Failure in meeting these expectations appeared to influence their fear of negative evaluation. There is no study related to this issue in the literature. Classroom Practices group discussions and the topics discussed in the classrooms can have negative classroom p claim (1999) that classroom activities and methods can correlate with language anxiety , of which one component is FNE . feelings, linguistic behaviors and participation negatively. Many participants reported
76 that they spoke more fluently outside of the classrooms. Research suggest s classroo m itself is vulnerable to anxiety due to several factors such as the risk of being humiliated by other students, being scorned by the teacher in case of a mistake and a & Simsek, 2012, p.117) , and o ur findin g complies with research . emphasized by the participants. Findings of this study attitudes such as insufficient linguistic assistance while L2 learners we re having difficulty in finding or remembering a word, avoidance of speaking with NNS, Similarly, Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986 ) asserted that anxiety levels of students may be provoked by teachers. Some participants reported that when teachers did not assist them while speaking, or when teachers did not appreciate their hard work, they felt less comfortable in the classrooms, and they might avoid speaking in the classrooms. The organization of group discussions and the topics discussed in the classrooms we re other issues emphasized. Some participants indicated that groups with NS could provoke their anxiety and might result in av oidance. However, most of the participants preferred to be grouped with NS in order to improve their language skills through comprehensible input. This result implies that it is not an either/or situation. Their fear of negative evaluation or preferences m ay change depending on their On the other hand, topics discussed in the classrooms can be threatening for the students. Some
77 students stated that they would not talk in the classrooms if they were not comfortable with the topics. The appropriateness of topics can also change depending on L2 simultaneously good or bad implications. These findings suggest that te decisions about grouping students and the topics of the discussions might affect L2 Literature stays limited to support our finding. Perfectionist Tendencies Perfectionist tendencies w ere another issue that was emphasized by t he participants of interviews. Findings showed that all participants wanted to speak perfectly especially in an environment involving NS in order not to be judged. Besides, be cause NS were perfectionist about language. The L2 learners who described themselves perfectionist seemed to experience high level of fear of negative evaluation when they were asked to speak spontaneously and without preparation. This finding complies wit authentic and spontaneous use of target language may increase language anxiety levels of the L2 learners. Perfectionist tendencies seemed to influence classroo m participation. Some participants noted that they did not want to speak unless they were sure what they were going to say was perfect in terms of meaning and form . perfectionis t learners had high expectations about their classroom performance. That is, t he findings of this study about perfectionism and classroom participation parallel with s .
78 Classroom Participation Classroom participation participate were emphasized by the participants. M any participants expressed that they usually preferred to participate into the classroom discussions although they feared negative evaluation. However, certain factors which appeared to affect their decisions to participate. Although this part of the interviews focused on the factors influencing L2 below can also affec The factors can be listed as personality, preparedness and fear of making mistakes. Findings of the interviews suggest that the negative influence of these factor s wa s intensified by the presence of NS because partic ipants were more concerned about their language when they were with NS Interviews indicated that personality could have a both facilitating and debilitating factor for classroom participation. Participants who described themselves as outgoing, curious and talkative reported that they participated into the classroom discussions although they had fear of making mistakes and negative judgments. On the other hand, participants who described themselves as shy and introvert noted that they would avoid speaking in the classrooms until they were sure that what they would say was perfect. The second factor influencing classroom participation was preparedness. Most of the participants expressed that when they were not prepared to speak in the classrooms, they avoided participation. As Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) reported, most L2 learners felt more comfortable with prepared speeches. Therefore, t he risky nature of speaking without preparation made L2 learners more nervous and resulted in avoidance of participation .
79 Fear of making mistakes was the third factor emphasized by the participants. Many participants noted that they avoided speaking in the classrooms , they wrote their speech on paper or organized their talk in their minds before they spoke because they did not want to be judged for their mistakes. The findings related to fear of making mistakes comply with Pappamihiel study findings (2002) where she found that many L2 learners avoided speakin g in the mainstream classrooms for the fear of saying something wrong and being judged. Language Production P articipants asserted that presence of NS might influence the quality of their output negatively because of high level of fear of negative evaluation they experienced when they were in the classrooms with dominan tly NS . They indicated that they could make more mistakes ( grammar and pronunciation) , forget vocabulary , form simpler sentences and speak less fluently or avoid speaking entirely in the classrooms where majority of the students we re native speakers becaus e presence of NS increase d their fear of negative evaluation , and made them concerned about making mistakes and being judged . These findings support findings of ) study conducted with 97 non English major L2 learners. In her study, she fou nd that students with high level of fear of evaluation tended to talk less, produce fewer and shorter sentences and few of their sentences were error free. Moreover, Beltran (2011) study students with high level of fear of negative eva luation forg o t some vocabulary and grammatical rules during speaking in the target language also comply with our study findings. As a result, comfort level of L2 learners, presence of NS, and familiarity of NS could influence the quality of oral language production.
80 Participant Fear of Negative Evaluation As the last part of personal interviews, participants are asked to make suggestions to teachers to decrease the negative influence of presence of native speakers and fear of negative evaluation from classroom environment suggestions were based on their own experiences . Participants recommend ed teachers to prepare a welcoming classroom environment for the L2 learners to comfort them, to compl ete sentences when they are having difficulty in finding the appropriate vocabulary, to organize group activities with NS so that L2 learners and NS can have good relationships and L2 learners can improve their English with a lot of comprehens ible input , and to simplify their language to make communication and comprehension eas ier . The suggestions of participants are practical and can easily be applied to current classroom environments by teachers who have L2 learners in their classrooms. Howe ver, the classroom environment is a dynamic and evolving atmosphere . Students can become more comfortable with time i n the right environment. Besides, their preferences to feel comfortable and less fear of negative evaluation can change in time. For that r eason, it is not a do this or that thing issue. The recommendations of the participants are only some issues that teachers should keep in mind when they have ESL students in their classrooms.
81 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH Conclusion The results of this study clearly suggest that fear of negative evaluation is an issue that many L2 learners we re suffering from even at the college level . Although this study attempted to report the experiences of L2 students who had high level of fear of native speakers can also feel fear of negative evaluation for similar or different reasons, and it may also affect their participation or language production negativ ely, too. T he phenomenon requires further research due to its complicated nature and significant influence on willingness to participate into the classroom activities and oral language production . Survey results indicated that most of the college level L2 learners ha d moderate level fear of negative evaluation in the classrooms . However, the fear of negative evaluation levels of participants seemed to be higher in the classrooms where NS were the majority. Participants appeared to experienc e more fear of making mistakes and fear of negative judgments in the classrooms where the majority of the students are NS. On the other hand, t hey felt more comfortable in the classrooms where the majority of the students were NNS. Lastly, survey results s how ed that L2 learners participation might be higher in the classrooms where the majority of the students were NNS . These results imply that there was a perceived difference in the fear of negative evaluation levels of the students in the classr ooms where the majority of the students were NS and where the majority of the students were NNS.
82 can be influenced by the interaction of L2 learners with NS, NS or L2 lear perfectionist tendencies, and classroom practices. Besides, it showed that other than fear of negative evaluation, personality, perfectionist tendencies and preparedness may affect L2 learners classroom participation negatively. Lastly, it put forth that increased fear of neg ative evaluation may hinder accurate oral language production. In conclusion , the findings of this contribute to literature by revealing experiences of L2 learners in the classrooms where the majority of students we re NS and whe re the majority of the students were NNS. The study revealed that presence of NS in the evaluation and have more negative outcomes compared to the classrooms composed predomi nantly NNS. With this study, I suggest t eachers who are teaching in these classrooms to be aware of th ese potential negative outcome s of presence of NS in the classrooms and to make necessary accommodations to alleviate the influence of the fear of negativ e evaluation stemming from NS presence. Limitations of the Study This study involves several limitations. The number of participants who we re studying at different departments like engineering or sociology was very small in the survey. P articipants invite d to interviews because of their high level of fear of negative evaluation were studying either in the ESOL/Bilingual Education program or at the department of Linguistics. L2 learners studying other majors can have different experiences. Besides, t he part icipants of the survey and interviews were only graduate level college students, so L2 learners studying at lower grades may experience differently.
83 The number of interviewed participants (5) who claimed to have high level of fear of negative evaluation wa s very limited, so more participants are needed to reflect more . The durations of interviews (25 35 minutes) might be insufficient to investigate a complex issue such as fear of negative evaluation. Moreover, the participants of the interviews we re all females and advanced level L2 learners . For that reason, the results of other studies involving male participants or L2 learners at lower proficiency levels may reveal different findings Lastly, the participants might have hid d e n some of their negative experiences or negative emotions in the interviews for the fear of negative judgments by the researcher . Future Research Future research can focus on experiences of both female and male students suffering from fear of negative eval uation and studying in an ESL environment more . By this way, the influence of native speaker presence on male willingness to participate can be revealed. This kind of study may provide a sample to teachers to understand their female and male e xperiences. Besides, it may help them identify the L2 learners suffering from fear of negative evaluation in their classrooms. Th us , teachers can assist these identified L2 learners , and make accommodations to alleviate the negative influence of NS presenc e from their classroom atmosphere. Another study may focus on fear of negative evaluation levels of students studying in different programs. Future researchers may also compare fear of negative evaluation levels of ESL students studying in two way immersi on programs with fear of negative evaluation levels of ESL students studying in pull out programs. By this way, identified. Besides, schools applying these programs can make accommodations or
84 modifications in their strategies to decrease the negative effect of fear of negative evaluation from the classroom environment. Our study focuses on only the negative influence of presence of NS on classroom participation and qualit y of language output by using personal interviews. assumptions. For this reason, further research can investigate the same issue by using extra different methods such as observati ons. Therefore , researchers can analyze the and find more reliable results. As a result, the issue of fear of negative evaluation stemming from presence of NS is an issue that should be investigated more to assist L2 learners in ESL settings. The issue of fear of native evaluation is a complex phenomenon. Many studies including this study suggest that it can influ ence classroom behaviors negatively (Aydin, 2008; Baker &MacIntyre, 2000; Horwitz et al., 1986; Kitano, 200 1 ; Pappamihiel, tendencies, personality, preparedn ess, and NS attitudes can influence fear of negative evaluation levels of language learners (Shabani; 2012; Kitano, 200 1 ; Pappamihiel, 2002). Any of these factors can be the topic of further research, and contribute significantly to the literature.
85 APPENDIX A S URVEY QUESTIONS This survey aims to explore the influence of fear of negative evaluation and native speaker presence on your target language production and classroom participation. Your responses are valued and will be used to contribute to relevant literature to encourage further research. PART I: Personal Information (Note: please mark the boxes provided and answer the questions) 1. What is your name? 2. What is your gender? Male Female 3. How old are you? 18 25 26 36 35 55 4. How long have you been in the USA? Less than a year 1 3 years 3 10 years more than 10years 5. How many years have you been studying in the USA ? Less than a year 1 3 years 3 10 year s 6. What is your major? 7. What is your native language? .................................................... 8. How many classes have you taken in which the majority of your classmates are native English speakers? 9. How many classes have you taken in which the majority of your classmates are second language speakers? 10. What is your latest TOEFL/IELTS sco re? PART II: Fill out the following questionnaire according to your experiences in mixed classes where majority of your classmates were native English speakers . Use following glossary to understand the statements below: Second language speakers: Non native English spea kers Native speakers: Native English speakers Mixed Classes: classes that include both native and non native English Speakers Please indicate your responses according to the following scale: SD: Strongly Disagree, D: Disagree, NA D: Neither Agree or Dis agree, A: Agree, SA: Strongly Agree
86 SD D NA N D A SA 1. majority of students are native speakers. 2. I start to panic when I have to speak without preparation in classes where majority of students are native speakers. 3. I feel comfortable speaking aro und native speakers. 4. I do not volunteer answers because of the fear of making mistakes in front of native speakers. 5. I am afraid that native speakers notice my every mistake in the class. 6. I make more mistakes when I am speaking in front of native speakers rather than second language speakers. 7. I do n't care if native speakers laugh at me when I speak English. 8. I get nervous and confused when I am speaking in front of native speakers. 9. I am active in the classes with native speakers. 10. I feel threatened by negative judgments of native speakers when I speak English in a class. 11. I am afraid of criticisms and humiliations of native speakers when I make a mistake. 12. I feel embarrassed when I make a mistake. 13. I do n't want to speak in mixed classes because I don't want to leave a negative impression on native speakers. 14. I pay more attention to the grammar when I am speaking in front of native speakers. 15. My native speaker classmates make fun of me when I make a mistake while speaking. 16. I feel relaxed in the class when I do not understand native speakers. 17. I feel shy to ask for explanation to the teacher in front of native speakers when I do not understand the topic. 18. I feel very sure and relaxed about my seco nd language (Eng lish) in a class where the majority o f students are native speakers. 19. I can feel my heart pounding when I'm going to be called on in classes where majority of students are native speakers. 20. I can get so nervous that I forget things I know in front of native speakers. 21. l relaxed in classes where majority o f the students are native speakers.
87 22. In class es where the majority o f students are native hat my teachers are ready to co rrect every mistake I make . 23. I feel very self conscious about speaking English in front of native speaker classmates. 24. I do not ns of me when I speak English. 25. I am afraid of native speakers noting my shortcomings when I speak English. PART II: Fill out the following questionnaire according to your experiences in classes where majority of your classmates were second language speakers . Use following glossary to understand the statements below: Second language speakers: Non native English speakers Native speakers: Native English speakers Mixed Classes: Classrooms that include both native and non native English speakers Please indicate your responses according to the following scale: SD: Strongl y Disagree, D: Disagree, NA D: Neither Agree or Disagree, A: Agree, SA: Strongly Agree SD D NA N D A SA 1. I don't worry abo ut making mistakes in classes where majority of the students are seco nd language speakers. 2. I start to p anic when I have to speak without preparation in classes where majority of the students are seco nd language speakers. 3. I feel comfortable in speaking around seco nd language speakers. 4. I vo lunteer for answers because I am not afraid to make mistakes in front of seco nd language speakers. 5. I am afraid that second language speakers no tice my every mistake in the class. 6. I make mo re mis takes when I am speaking in front of seco nd language speakers rather than native speakers. 7. I d on't care that the other seco nd language speakers will laugh at me when I speak English. 8. I get nervo us when I am speaking in front o f second language speakers. . 9. I actively participate i nto the classes where the majority of the students are seco nd language speakers.
88 10. I feel threatened by negative judgments of seco nd language speakers when I speak in a class. 11. I am afraid of criticisms and humiliations of second language speakers when I make a mistake. 12. I feel embarrass ed when I make a mistake in fro nt o f seco nd language speakers. 13. I do n't want t o speak in classes because I do n't wan t to leave a negative impression on seco nd language speakers. 14. I pay more attention to the grammar when I am speaking in front of second language speakers. 15. My seco nd languag e speaker classmates make fun o f me when I make a mistake while speaking. 16. I feel nervous in the classes when I do not understand second language speakers. 17. I feel co mfo rtable asking the teacher for an explanation in classes where the majority of the students are seco nd language speakers . 18. I feel very confident and relaxed about my seco nd language (English) in classes where the majo rity of the students are seco nd language 19. I can feel my heart pounding when I'm going to be called on in classes where majority of the students are second language speakers. 20. I feel that my seco nd language speaker classmates speak English better than I do . 21. 22. my teachers are ready to correct every mistake I make. 23. I feel very self conscious abo ut spea king English in front of seco nd language speaker classmates. 24. f me when I speak English. 25. I don't think seco nd lan guage speakers in my classes no te my mistakes when I speak English.
89 APPENDIX B TRANSCRIPTION INTERVIEW I: ALINA 1. T: Hi, Thank you participating. Can you tell me how you learned English, When and where did you start learning it? And when did you come to USA? 2. A: Well, I start learning English very early, when I was 12 years old. It was at my home country which is Saudi Arabia. I studied for 6 year before I start studying at the University. My major was English department where I had to learn English. The first year was focused more on speaking, listening, reading and writing . And then I specialized more on the linguistic part, and the drama part and the American literature and art. So I studied like 4 years, and then after that I went to the state. It was 2001 I guess, and I took a summer course, it was three months English i ntensive course, and after that I stopped for a while, and I started teaching back home, and then here I am. 3. T: Ok, Were you more anxious when you were speaking English in your country or in the USA? And what may be the reasons? 4. A: I think I felt more comf ortable when I was speaking English back home, but still sometimes when I am around like smart people who can speak English fluently or near native like, I somehow rethink before I start speaking, not when I am around my friends or you know students who do es not know how to speak English. So like I am superior. I can speak freely without like concerning about the mistakes or the grammar or anything. 5. T: Good, ok. It seems like you have high level of fear of negative evaluation. Can you tell me more about it? How do you feel? What makes you feel that way in the classrooms? 6. A: yeah, you said I guess my fear comes from the classroom environment itself, not from the native speaker s. I was thinking about this like a lot. And then I think wanna sound stupid, just start bumbling, anything that comes into my mind. I always like make sure what I am going to say. But when it comes around people I feel like myself speaking, I know how to use slangs, idioms. But when it comes to classroom language, I feel like kinda I need to think, more importantly, I need to be prepared. I thin k this is like most of the fear came. 7. T: It seems like you are afraid of making mistakes more when you are with native speakers according to your survey results. How do you feel when you are with native speakers? 8. A: Well, I feel like when they are listening to me, if you are some non native or your sentence full of mistake, I feel like they are perceiving you as a person who is, I wanna say stupid, but you need to speak more English, or you need to learn befor e speak, so because sometimes, I can think of them listening to me when I am listening to those you come to Saudi Arabia, trying to speak Arabic. So I look at them like, whhaat hy I try, most of them think, before I speak. And sometimes, I had to repeat the sentence when I figure out that there is a mistake in the
90 sentence, or sometimes I focus more on the grammar, and then I forget what I was going to say, or like it is not like when you are speaking with your friends, I feel like more freely when I am speaking with them. I can use as I told you more idioms. I feel like I am more like native. But when it comes to those people I know, or classroom, I feel the difference. Yea h, I can tell, sometimes I hate myself, I say like whhhyy! I know how to speak English, why do I need to think, and rethink. This is kind of.. 9. second language speakers, right? 10. A: No, not at all. I feel especially when I am speaking with those who have a heavy accent like Japanese , Chinese speakers, I feel like more freely speak English, because my English is somehow better than them. So I feel more freely yeah to speak with them. 11. classroom performance? 12. A: Him m perfectly, so I always try to pick up the chances, perfect chances fo r me. I try to pick the topic that I know, and I can talk about more freely. So if there is a subject or topic that I am not very comfortable about, I try to avoid it. And whenever like, there is a chance with the topic that I know, I try to jump in, and s tart talking before I lose this chance. And one thing that I have noticed here is that even the native s like, she is really smart especially in that area of study, and she was, she said to me once, I you are smart, and you are English, native speaker of English, so you sh percent sure of that what they are going to say is the perfect thing, so somehow, I 13. T: I understand that. Sometimes I feel when I am speaking with my friends in the classroom that they are, the native speakers are the only speakers. They are chance to talk, involve into the discussions. Do you have something like that? 14. A: I think the teachers sometimes feels more comfortable talking with the native speakers because they get the answer quickly, and they can understand any small details when the y are saying. I think that sometimes They are looking at them more than they are looking non native speakers, so sometimes, even I know the answer, it is just a quick and I will leave it to native speakers because they ca n answer like. And sometimes I think that they can answer all of those questions, but sometimes they just wait, they participate. Sometimes, I feel like if I were a native speaker, I would answer all those questions, but you have to think I guess. 15. T: mistakes I they even correct your mistakes?
91 16. a graduate program at correct the content of what you are saying not like, you know, when you were in the class English classrooms, they try to correct your mistakes. I gu ess at this point 17. T: Ok, how do you feel when teachers ask you something that you are not prepared to answer? 18. A: Yeah, I feel horrible. I hate when things like this happened. For example, she nothing to say, I feel like I wanna leave the classroom. I wanna like. When I am not prepared, kinda hard to explain yourself with your English, and sometimes I feel like if I am like a native speak er, I could get my way out of this question, but if you are non trouble . So I try to prepare all before coming to class. I like l that you raise your hand. It rarely happened where they ask about your topic. So you always have to have a back up plan in case of any questions like this. 19. now the topic? 20. A: I guess both things like the topic and the language. They like simultaneously y from the teacher, from the classroom, everyone is looking, everyone is waiting for an answer, a the, we were together in the classroom, and she started asking about each topic. And I wasn experience for me. 21. understand the topic, so do you feel shy to ask for clarification? And does your comfort level change when many students in the classroom are native speakers. Like you speakers will judge me, so like that. Do you feel that? 22. knowing the word, like an English word, and not knowing the topic of the classroom, or things like you said in the classroom. Yeah, I would never ask a what does this word like maybe stupid. But I try to distinguish between the words like in the classroom l ike I can ask her what this theory is
92 to that? But not trying to ask about specific words, specific kinda idiom or slang. I would rather look it up later or ask one of my classmates, then ask the teacher himsel f. Yeah 23. T: so would you prefer to ask it right in the middle of the, you know class? Or after the class to the teacher? 24. A: Ok, I would prefer after the classroom, but it depends on the , a lot of reason I guess. It depends on the teacher herself, and clas sroom mates. Maybe I would hard to what is this or what is that. But maybe at the end of the s emester when we all like know the each other I feel like more easy to understand like I mean to ask, and participate maybe more. So I guess it is not only the teacher, but also the people around you in the class like affect your, the way you participate in the classroom I guess. 25. T: Ok, so if your all classroom mates were second language speakers, would you be more comfortable in the classes in terms of participation your know performance? 26. being around the non native speakers, they ar English that well, they know the topic well. So sometimes if you are asking a lot, maybe you will make them uncomfortable because like you are asking a lot, you delay the classroom time or things like this, so even with a non native, I guess you have to be cautious like how many questions you ask, but of course, I would feel grammatical mistake that I am saying or they would easily get what I am saying, somehow. 27. T: I see, so now you are advanced level English speaker. Think about the first time you came to United States , the classes that you took like with native speakers , were you more anxious that time? 28. A: I think is that when I came, I was already in advanced level, so maybe that speaking English back home, yeah, it was hard. I remember we h ad one native speaker teacher where I had really troubled time speaking in the classroom compared to other non native speaker teachers. Also you have to speak English, but I was kinda more relaxed when I spoke with them compared speaking with that native s peaker. But I learned a lot of things, because I had to think a lot before like I speak. One thing when I was speaking with non native speakers, I could sometimes switch to Arabic, I was really beginner at that time. So it was kinda easy. The communication was going easy because of the switching back and forth. understand any Arabic although she was married to an Arabic speaker. So it was kinda struggle you know speaking with her, but I learned a lot of words, because you know when you try to explain something with just a few tiny words, she give you then the whole word, you had to say this and this. Yeah it was helping a lot.
93 29. T: I understood. So do you think the professors here are fair to both native speakers and non native speakers in the classroom? I mean do they behave in the same way to the native speakers and non native speakers? 30. easier talking with native speakers. They joke with them you know in the breaks, within the breaks time. They feel much more comfortable, and I know that some teachers or hurt you saying anything. So Sometimes, I guess they are trying to avoid like speaking , having any way or another. Although we are all same, but they are still. But within the classroom, I feel like they are treating us normall y. 31. T: Do you have anything in your mind to decrease the anxiety level of nonnative speakers that teachers can do in the class? 32. A: Maybe if the teacher can like jump in using some words while you are speaking, trying to save you with some words like if she can see you like struggling with one word, but she gets what you are going to say, so she can jump with words, that will help like. Yeah I guess this is the only way. Maybe she can complete the answer but not to stand still and just looking at you waiting for your answer. This gives you a lot of pressure, yeah I would prefer if she jumped in speaking or change the topic maybe or. 33. T: What about grouping like group discussions? Do you think you would be more comfortable in the group with native speakers or n on native speakers? 34. A: I think I learn a lot from native speakers. So I prefer to stay with them or work with them even with my project and everything. Sometimes, having native speakers like pushes you more perfect English than the broken English that you speak with a non native speaker, so I guess it helps sometimes especially when you are working in groups and there is no pressure from the teacher. 35. T: Yeah, I understand. Ok. 36. A: I also wanna add one thing that I guess it was one of the questions here like do to this level. It is kinda not comfortable, being like if you are not in uncomfortable pl ace, sometimes try to avoid these things which is English, speaking English. But I speak or not participate at all, but all try to be smart maybe if you speak and not participate less but participate when I know the correct and perfect answer. One thing that I also noticed here that your gram mar especially like more the students here are well educated so and 37. T: Do you think your pers onality changes when you speak English? Do you feel like somebody else is speaking? 38. because culture differences so the way you speak is kinda differ. Yes, maybe, yeah so. Do you feel?
94 39. T: Yeah, many English learners say that especially in the beginner level. When I first came here, yeah I felt that way, now not that much, because I guess I am used 40. A: Ye ah, things like you say in your own language, even if you translate it into word, it would sound funny in English although it sounds great in your languages. So yeah, so metimes, you feel like kinda two different person. 41. T: you said you focus on grammar more when you are speaking with native speakers and less with non native speakers. So what may be the reason for that? 42. A: Did I say none with the non native speakers? Beca use I would say like grammar when you are speaking English, your language has to have correct grammar in order for the other person to understand it. But maybe I am around t he nonnative, I ative English speakers, I try to rechange my sentence more than one sometimes. But I guess the level, the comfort level like if you are not a person more, you feel like more relaxed, you even pay attention to grammar, and then your English would soun d more fluent compared when you are speaking within the classroom, your environment. You have to focus really on your grammar, sometimes, even if you have like small sentence or short sentence, as long as the grammar is correct, and you are sa fe. But if you discuss with a native speaker, also some non native speakers are smart. So sometimes, you need to be like smartly the grammar. 43. T: Do you normally have a perfectionist personality? 44. A: Did you get this from my answers? 45. T: no actually. Because I am doing my literature review, it says like some people are perfectionist and they want to do everything perfect, speak the l anguage also perfect. So these people feel more anxious. Do you have that kind of thing? 46. A: yes exactly, you are describing me, yes being perfectionist always put me like in trouble actually. I remember once that I was doing my homework, and I did all by the lot of quotes from different source, and then when I turn in my homework, I was called by one of my use internet. So want this one the one that you wrote, it sounds much better than the one copied and you used from the Yeah, I am perf SLA. I stayed in the classroom in the exam hour and a half. Everyone left in the fifteen or twenty minutes. Although I got all my questions correct, I was rereading, and making sure that
95 47. T: This makes you more anxious I guess. Ok I guess we are all done. Ooh, what would you do as an ESOL teacher of the future to make your students more 48. A: I will going to teach back home, right. 49. them more comfortable? (27.27) 50. A: I guess I liked your idea. Letting them work in groups maybe. I know that the teacher itself makes a lot of pressure of the students because of the grades. I not time to be graded. But they are all think like they are graded all the time. So maybe if I can give them like day see. Maybe let them like making videos of themselves speaking at home where they are much comfortable, and I can take a look at it. So yeah, trying to be away from classroom environment is the perfect way to make your students less anxious. 51. T: Yes, I was also thinking that. You are right, def initely. 52. A: I can speak with my friends really clearly, discuss like complicated topics. I where the vocab goes, and everything seems missed. And you are like focusing the tea cher, the content, your classmates, the timing. I mean even the timing. Like wrap up things quickly. I know because we all know that native speakers talk very fast compared to us, sometimes we are just trying to catch, with all pressure from delaying it, so. 53. T: Yeah, another like thing that anxious people express is that they forget the vocabulary they know when they are speaking. 54. A: Exactly, exactly, and yeah . It is the teache speaking especially when they see that the student, the non native speaker she has the answer but the thing is that she must understand that the level of that anxious is what makes them forget or having trouble speaking. But I know that we are not in this advanced level or we are graduate students, so this means that we are smart. We are not here because I mean the content, the topic that our department, so just the language. 55. T. Thank you 56. A: You are welcome. 57. A: so for exampl e, my husband, he never and never and ever talk in any of the classes. Like he is in the linguistic department, and he has been here for two years. And I know that participating here is not mandatory so you can pass your class without participating at all.
96 know, writing, and everything, quizzes. But when it me. He speaks but he kinda shy person with a shy personality. He speaks less in eak at all in the you need to speak, and he prefer to.. 58. T: In his social life, he is l ike that, too? 59. A: yes he has only not friends, but classmates who speak with him sometimes of friends. 60. T: Native speaker friends I mean. 61. A: not even the native speakers and non native, so. 62. T: ok, so do you think males are more anxious than females in the foreign language classrooms? 63. because I have seen a lot of students who speaks whatever that comes into their classrooms so I think it depends on their personality. And I guess the older you are, the more conscious you become because most of the ELI students like English c lassrooms. They are very young, 19, 18s. so they are kinda young and they wanna explore everything around them. They speak a lot compared to my husband is 35 now, so maybe he is more anxious because like a he feels or he consider himself like an old man li may be unlike me. I would prefer to speak even if not that correct, I would prefer to try. And I have a lot of native speaker friends compared to him. Actually my friends are his friends so I would be happy to h ave more native speakers, but I can now that native speakers sometimes they are not comfortable around non native speakers. So they have their own friends, but sometimes they gave you some of their times, but they have more friends that. 64. T: I remember that you are learning Hebrew, right? Are your feelings more intense when you are speaking Hebrew? 65. A: the thing is that we learn Hebrew just it was more focused on writing and is in t he textbook like everyone has to read one sentence so. 66. T: How do you feel when you are reading a sentence then? Are you relaxed? 67. A: much more relaxed maybe because the classroom. I know that the teacher told us at the beginning of the classroom that every graduate student will get an A as long as you like work. So it was like more relaxed and I knew that I am gonna take an A, so it was just reading and doing all my staff because you have to, but I And everyone in the classroom, we were all on the sa me level, like very beginner so everyone had a lot of mistakes basically we were speaking more English in the classroom that even the instructor. 68. 69. A: No 70. T: have you ever met with a native spea ker?
97 71. A: no, unfortunately. I would like to. And I would like to see how my Hebrew would sound, but no. Yeah, we hardly speak in Hebrew, so. 72. T: Ok, thank you again. INTERVIEW 2: ZHEN 73. T: Hi, thank you for accepting participating into my study. 74. Z: You are welcome. 75. T: Can you tell me your English language learning process? When and where did you start learning? 76. Z: I actually started in 5 th grade. But in China, back then, we supposed to start English learning from 4 th grade. But I transferred to better schoo l when I turned to 5 th grader. There , school has high requirement of English. In my 4 th even know there were 26 letters. But the new school, they had high requirements. e, they would just ask me to go back to my old school. So my mum was really worried, and talked to my aunt, like her cousin. She just graduated from a university with an education major, something. She was very good at English teaching. So she asked her co usin whether she could tutor me. Then we started to learning English letters, started learning English with that small things, then every day , I also had to catch up. So aft er I went home from school, we finish tutoring, I had to go over and over all the textbook, first one and the second one, then listen to the tape, so I would later, my English was as good as my other classmates. When I went to middle school, my English points were really high. So I guess to be proud of my big improvement, I kept learning English every day . I would preview the next chapter, and review the chapter we learned. And do the same thing, listen to the audiotape, 77. T: Ok, so when you come to US, you were advanced, right? 78. Z: I think so, but my listening. I guess I understood more than I could speak at the first. Also I was really n ervous because I was newcomer, but then, I also grabbed, like picked up more English words, the used in daily life, not I learned from 79. T: Ok, and were you more comfortable in speakin g English when you were in China or in US? 80. Z: I would say here because in China, when I try to have conversation with my 81. T: What about your feelings, anxiety? 82. Z: because we never really tried having a conversation in English, even in college nxiety because they feel nervous. When I came here, fir st figure out what the teacher was talking about. She spoke too fast to catc h up. So I
98 nervous. 83. T: Ok, I understand now. So you also said in your survey that you are more afraid to make mistakes when you are speaking with native speakers rather than second language speakers. Can you explain it? 84. Z: I guess we assume they would pay attention to our mistakes like grammar or e sometime they also our accent. The thing is if our accent sounds foreign, then they would look down on at only few of them really care what mistakes we made. They more care about what our ideas are like. So I still have the assumption. In a big class with everyone was foreigners, so I feel anxious like the one Intercultural certificate program. I had things I wanted to share, but they were all really talkative and they speak so fast, 85. T: Yeah I felt the same in the same class as well. So think about your normal classes, does this fear affect participation or your performance? 86. Z: They would affect a little bit, but my participation will mainly base on whether I to pretend I know. But another thing is if the half of the classmates are all English ause I am 87. T: Do you think there is any clear difference between two classes like majority is native speakers and majority is second language speakers? Do you have any observation that you see in these classes? 88. Z: For me, I would prefer not sitting with non native speakers because then we you sit with native speakers. So in those mixed class, I prefer to sit far away from non native speakers, and close to native speakers. What I observe is all classmates, the thing is when we had more native speakers, we would prefer not just afraid of ma king mistakes. 89. T: Ok, do you feel native speakers will judge you when you make mistakes while speaking? Did you ever experience that like harsh judgments? 90. whether their t could not understand what she was talking about or just because their attitude was attitudes of our classm who we are and how our English is, then we will have lower anxiety. If you can n, we then we, some of we, oh my god, I have to try really better to express my ideas. So when I have teammates who are bit pissed off and also nervous. 91. T: While speaki ng to only that speaker or all native speakers?
99 92. want to participate because no value to my input. 93. T: ok, so think about the class that you take in our department. Do you think the na tive speakers? 94. 95. T: no. what are the differences that you have observed? 96. Z: I guess our teachers, they are really patient with us. But one thing I found e they we had different ideas. What the professor said was not our words. They did not u know why education. international education like how we learn English and how English education is in our country. So I guess it depends, but most of the time I think American students are more active in all the ESOL class. And another thing I feel really strong is P roteach students, some of them are really bad. 97. T: in terms of knowledge? 98. Z: not knowledge, in terms of their attitude to international students and they I guess intentionally give us the pressure, gi interact in group discussion. They just write on what you think. That makes me feel really bad because ESOL methods, they will be Engli sh language teachers. They will definitely have some ESOL kids. But even they were taking class with us, they t like classes I had with P roteach students. 99. T: can we say that you are more anxious because of your peers rather than your teachers? 100. Z: yeah I think so. 101. T: ok, so when you are speaking with native speakers or non native speakers, do you mostly focus on form or meaning? 102. Z: I would say meaning because I still messed up a lot forms, and verb tense so call it English grammar parts. I just say meaning, I more focus on meaning part, not 103. T: Is there any difference between your output with native speakers and non native speakers? Like you make repetitions and you realize you are making mistakes? 104. Z: I think probably the same. I just want to get through what we were thinking now. But with my roommates, because our relationship is really good, friends, so I would just ask them if you hear any mistakes I may have about grammar, just go ahead and correct me. So they would do that. But with other friends if they are Americans or non English native speakers, I just say the same about meaning. Even I found
100 sorry I made a mistake, I should have used that verb instead of this except it is the meaning when I picked something, oh I bout meaning. 105. something that the teacher is talking about. Would you ask in the class like full of native speakers for clarification? Or would you prefer to ask later after the class? 106. Z: oh I would say half and half. Sometimes I would assume it is my mistake because everyone else understood. 107. know? 108. Z: so there are majority native speakers and several i nternational students. I would assume oh everyone understood. I better ask this question in the end of the class. then I would just lift up my hand and say what did you mean by this by saying I need clarify. So like the grammar class I took with the linguistic department, I would always ask questions because I am more confident in English grammar. The student sat beside me, we just have really quick conversation like if we do understand something, they would just ask. But in the other statistics class, I never ask in the office hour. So I guess it depends on the class and my assumption. 109. T: o k, also maybe the subject. 110. Z: yeah subject. 111. T: So do you think, I know you have some native speaker roommates, do you think that they have a positive impact on your anxiety I mean emotions? 112. when you make content so they will understand what you said. I guess it definitely helped me to nat ive speakers, I just feel the same. It definitely helped because I have the ask. You have to figure out all what they meant, you have to ask for clarification positive effect. 113. T: ok, so think about your social life, do you have a lot maybe many native speaker friends, not Chinese? 114. Z: I guess I would say, majority of my friends, they are Americans, then non native speakers then least part is Chinese. 115. T: ok I see. One last question I guess. Do you have any suggestion to our teachers in this department like to make us feel more comfortable? 116. Z: One thing I thought maybe it s ass with the Proteach students, but the other thing is some of them are really good and friendly, they just explain times after times to you to understand. So I would say maybe to have conversation with them at the beginning of the semester like orientatio n, party, let international students meet American students because sometimes, they still have stereotypes of international students, so maybe before the classes start, give some
101 parties and invite everyone international students and all Proteach students, just ask them to talk to each other of educational topics. I think it will improve because I know one girl who attitude changed we got to know each other because at best up, so she was definitely more friendly to international students. I think have conve rsations after class or before it starts really help because sometimes if we feel we like this person even in the class, we tend to be more friendly and more welcoming to that person. So I guess if we have something like that, it helps. Also because they a re native speakers, they will definitely give us good English input together it is helpful but we should do something to build up like strong friendship. 117. T: Ok, and what about grouping, should they group us mostly with native speakers or non native speake rs? Or does it matter? 118. Z: I think it definitely matters. Maybe it depends on the discussion topics. If it is about. Yeah I think it is better if just mixed groups, native speakers and non native speakers because then we have more input more valuable. If th ey just put international students together, and most of them Chinese speakers, we will just speak in Chinese. And we feel weird when we talk to each other English. So they wasting time. They are already really professional in their first language. So I guess put them together and they have different background, different knowledge. It helps them to improve their perspective on education like globally. Also it helps non native speak prefer mixed group. 119. T. think about your own classroom like when you start teaching, what would you do to make your students more comfortable in speaking English? Just think about it emotionally 120. you hear other classmates make mistakes, we should not laugh at them. We can help correct after class or you can raise up your hand and say this should be that, in after class. If you tend to be like friends, and pay attention to talking about it and ask them what was going on with their lives, especially younger children, they will really open up to you and they will perform better in your class. I just make sure to feel safe t o make mistakes and make sure you are there to help them, no matter 121. T: and teachers here in the department, do they ever correct your mistakes? 122. Z: I think it only happened twice. 123. T: how did you feel? 124. mistake, I want to improve. 125. T: how was their attitude? How did they correct you? 126. corrected me after I finish my part of talking. The not in class. I guess in class I never see professors correcting international
102 127. T: so would you feel more anxious if she said it in the class? 128. Z: I think yeah, I will feel bad. 129. T: ok, are you learning another language? 130. Z: I learned Korean for three months and then I stopped. I could not pick up so I stopped. Japanese, I started learning. I was review ing. It was like one semester, but then I stopped. 131. T: ok so in these two languages, have you ever had a chance to speak with a native speaker in that language? 132. Z: I had, but I conversation with her spoke to each other in Japanese. In Korean, no because it was so beginning, I er talk to them in Korean because my Korean so little. 133. 134. feel confident. She would understand me because I th ink my Japanese level went back to beginner level. If I came here and I met her at the first semester here, I probably would have conversation with her, and ask her to improve my Japanese because back then, I were studying Japanese every day. I used to be proficient in Japanese and be confident. But she came in third semester and I forgot a lot, and I ashamed. 135. T: ok, you feel more anxious when you are beginner level? 136. Z: Yeah, I would just use common language we share. Also low proficiency gives me less confidence. So I will not do that. 137. T: So think about this is Japan. Your thoughts change like Japanese is the second language of the country, for you I mean. 138. Z: then I think I will definitely do that. I would just probably express my opinion and ask for the words if I just definitely use Korean more than Chinese or English. Only when I cannot figure out what we are talking about, it is hard for me to get my ideas to my listeners. I the efficiency. 139. T: Ok, do you feel you are perfectionist about everything? 140. cause I think it is hard for adult learners be native like in a target language. So I will not give myself pressure. I just mean I am perfect in everything. I just say as long a s you can get your ideas perfectionist. 141.
103 INTERVIEW 3: DARIA 142. T: Thank you very much for accepting to interview with me. Can you tell me how you learned English language, and when and where did you start learning it? When did you come to USA? What was your proficiency level when you came here? 143. D: I started learning English I think at 5 th or 6 th grade when I was a young teenager. And l wa s in Germany. It was just, how can I say, in the school settings. speak it outside school at that time. Then later, I mean we in Germany we have to continue with English. So I think I always had English, every year until graduating from with the qualification to go to the university. But because I had, was a lit tle hesitant to speak, I did an exchange program, and I went to Kansas for a couple of, maybe two or three months to, yeah, it was an exchange. I learned there to lose this fear of speaking in general. Yeah, the hesitance. Yeah, it was English as a second language. And then when I grew old, I had chances to speak some English, but I spoke more to people who themselves had English as a second language like people from Africa, people from Caribbean. And not too much to Standard English speakers. So when I a rrived to US, I spoke English on the level of I would say not a standard English, but just a mixture of whatever I had learned, get it too far. 144. T: you were able to speak fluently, right when you came here? 145. D: Yes, fluent. I could speak fluent because my husband also speaks English. But he is not, he also speaks Spanish, I am not sure, he speaks, he may speak of Standard English but not Academic English I would say. So my English was like that, not academic at all. 146. T: What did you study in the university in Germany? 147. D: At the university in Germany, I studied romance languages that was Spanish as my basically first foreign language was English throughout the school, and my second foreign language was Latin that I also took until the end. I had a third langu age which was French because I grew up as a child with French also and I went to a French preschool. What a confusion. But yeah. So French was always resent because my dad is from Algeria, he speaks French, so I always had French like in my ear basically a little bit, but I never spoke it fluently. But yeah, so first foreign language was English, and second foreign language Latin, and some French, and then yeah. 148. Germany or in the USA , and what may be the reasons? 149. I never had the experience in Germany that there was another English that I needed to speak. I was not aware because there was never the ne ed basically to community college, I had an English class. I noticed then that I had a lot to learn. And then, when I did my, when I switched to University of Florida , at the beginning, when I took, my major was German, I was lucky that I could speak German most of the time. And what was evaluated was my ability of German, and not so much eng .. bec ame really a big pressure, but I really tried to do my best.
104 150. T: Ok it seems like you are afraid of making mistakes more when you are with native speakers rather than with non native speakers. How do you feel? Can you explain it more in classes I mean? 151. D: Ihm, First of all, when I speak German, my native language, I can speak on a high level, and so I try to find words for I think in German and I try to find words in English to say what I want to say. And if the people, yeah with native speakers, I am afrai in that cases, I try to s people in this academic language, people are speaking on the very high level, and I just try to, I just feel I have to match 152. T: this is normal, everybody says that. worry about it, be relaxed about your feelings. So do you often make more mistakes when you are speaking with native speakers? Not on the pronunciation but also maybe grammar compar ed to other ones, like when you are speaking with, maybe you are relaxed. 153. know why. I mean, it may not really be the case because you are not a German speaker so your mistakes m ay be different than the mistakes that I make. But yeah especially with native speakers, I try to see it the right way and sentence structure people to think that I am not able to speak English or they think from my mistakes 154. 155. D: I believe so, I think I o say I would judge native speakers as making a judgment and not, first of all, not helping the person, not correcting before, if somebody say it would be better if you say like this, I would not be o have the feeling that native speakers may not have to expose to such a situation have to speak an academic language sometimes. 156. performance? 157. D: I feel very much that I have to speak ve ry well and also my pronunciation on one hand, I feel like I try to suppress my accent, my German accent, but then when I try harder, it comes out more. Because I am more tense, and I am less.. I think I pronunciation would come out better. Then being tense because that would I think want to make good impression, and you know I want to show I know something, and then I can speak proper English. I mean at times I might then some people be laugh and
105 maybe join in the jokes, but overall I want to make sure that they are not dealing with, you know I am not joking around. I am trying hard, you know. 158. T: so do you focus more on form or meaning when you are speaking with native speakers? 159. D: I try to focus on form because I, I think I might experience that if I make a mistake in the form, then try, the form I mean like syntax, and the structure of the sentence, I try to do it right, yeah. 160. T: and what is the situation when you are speaking with non native speakers? 161. D: Then I feel much any person so I know that if you speak another language, you might still have lack of knowledge even though you may not be able to expresses like that, so. 162. T: so do you think in the classes with m ostly non native speakers, do you feel more comfortable? 163. D: Yeah, I feel more relaxed, I feel less judged, and I feel more like we are on the same board, trying hard and. 164. correct you in the classes? 165. 166. T: and would you mind if they correct you? 167. D: Yeah it would be, it would have to happen in a very respectful way. I know that you know out of the, in the moment, you might not find a right a way to correct somebody in appropriate, and everybody is different, and maybe feels different about being corrected but at least yeah I mean in the classroom, it may be difficult thing if they are at least other nonnative speakers, the teacher could for ex ample I trying hard I see you all trying hard to just as an example, you could say like this, I mean I would definitely benefit from it, then. 168. T: so think about that you didn would you be relaxed about asking about the content in the immediate time or after the class? 169. D: I am very curious so even if I, I know that I would maybe expose myself, but mostly I wanna know it right no w, and I ask the question. You know I just have to just accept the way it is then. 170. 171. important to right then to participate in class properly as everybody else. So I would not wait, which you know, I would ask right away. 172. T: Good, so you said I think you want to be prepared. Anyway, how do you feel when teachers ask you something that you are not prepared to answer? They are l ike, Aicha what do you think about this, and you are not prepared at that time. 173. to explain it, or try to speak about something. However, sometimes people use words t hat I might be unfamiliar with or I also make, have the experience that sometimes Americans have a way of asking that is going to the point or I might not understand the question correctly, that happen in the past. So If this happens, I
106 would have to ask a gain, and that would then again show I am not familiar with this on that whatever it is, but also you know the way of asking could be tricky sometimes, but I try to master as much as I can. 174. T: Do you think your decision to participate into the class, clas sroom discussions is affected by number of native speakers in the class? So if there are many native speakers? 175. Americans. And The Americans were from the English department. And that was a challenge. I able to see, I think for all the Germans, because their English was not on the level, so if they are people from the, you know native speakers with very good English, I would think twice of answering and I would prepare answer really go od. I would, this would put me definitely under pressure. 176. T: Yeah, ok I understand. What should teachers do to make you more comfortable in the classroom? 177. D: They could, they have non native speakers. They could either have something syllabus like the par ticipation, whatever. How they are going to accept other be helpful especially in classes that are very demanding and very high level where like, for example, philosophical con tent like the class was only film class with a philosophical content with all kinds of theories that are really difficult, and o yeah, in a class like that I think, it would be at least you know really ensuring to the students if maybe you know personal 5 minutes or something just to address that. 178. T: So About the groupings, you know sometimes we make groups to discuss something, so would you be more comfortable in the groups with native speakers or mixture or non native speakers? 179. D: Yeah, for sure, I would be more comfortable with either mixture or non native speakers. I would fear, I mean it may have other reasons, also but if we, yeah, as a non native speaker, you feel comfortable with people that also non native would feel more relaxed. 180. T: And do you think native speakers are quicker to answer or quick to involve into the discussions in the classroom like you are in the background plan? 181. D: The native speakers? I am just think ing on if the class is on the very high level, advantaged and I mean before I have formed my thought about something on the high level like this at least myself, I mean the other n on native speakers because they are much better than I am for sure, but yeah. For sure, you have them right there, just being a native language a big advantage, you have two piece together, and you think in another language, yeah. 182. T: Ok, so if you are an ESOL teacher, what would you do to make your student s more comfortable, like an ESOL teacher, maybe mainstream teacher in a middle school or high school? What would you do to make involve your non native speaker students into the discussions? 183. D: For sure, with something. I would first of all finish his sentence. I would basically restate somehow what a person said to make sure that I understood it right. And I would
107 try to be very resp ectful and very you know nonjudgmental ad if the students need help with finding a word, I would try. You know I would. 184. T: SO you would expect same things from teachers here? 185. D: It is a question, you know. Because somebody chooses to go to university, wh ether speak another language, then you could say but you have to talk to the standard here. But I would say if the university has an interest in having non native speakers at the university, they should be at least very yeah, very respectful, they should b e very accommodating as much as they can. You know. 186. more with native speakers, looking at only to them? 187. ager so I am a little older, so when I went to school in Germany, it is not so relaxed atmosphere. belong somewhere, then you know difficult, you yourself may have issues that, that seen outride, like different kind of treatment, but not every professor m ay be so experienced or comfortable, willing you know, to deal you know on a certain level with non native speakers which I cannot say that I have found hostility anything like know, I cannot say anything like definitely what I experience like that. but sometimes as a feeling like that I have there may be some distance maybe a lot of distance between you know somebody from another country, the professor that is maybe not so expe 188. T: So, I will also ask you some questions about your social life. Do you have a friend group composed by native speakers like do you have friends, native speaker friends? 189. D: Let me think. No, actually no. 190. T: do you think it would affect your emotions if you had some native speaker friends? Like you would be more relaxed in the classes because you have the experience to talking to them in your out of classroom environment? 191. D: Maybe, probable, I would get to know them better. 192. T: Oh about the mistakes, what kind of mistakes do you do when you feel anxious in the classes? Like do you forget something, forget some vocabulary? 193. e right word in English. And then, I am afraid that my sentences are kind of very simple maybe, you know because if you try to explain something difficult, or use simple words, it may sound like low level English you know. So I try to watch the news, and I listen to journalists because they speak on a very high level in language, so forms, maybe I use the present form or I make a mistake maybe with the tenses or sentence structure sometimes depending yeah. 194. T: So are you perfectionist person like you want everything be perfect? 195. e the qualification for university, people or at least I think in general an educated person
108 be very critical to people making mistakes in German writing. And then, also language wise, you cannot make mistakes in the tenses in German if you want people think that you are educated. So if this is the only native language, so however, if somebody is clearly second language German speaker, then you know you have to be a little lenient. But yeah I feel, maybe because of that, I feel I have to speak perfect English because the Americans are maybe perfectionist and if I make a mistake, it may reflect negatively in some way. 196. T: Thank you INTERVIEW 4: BAO 197. T: Hi, thank you for part icipating into my study. Can you tell me your English language learning process like when and where did you start learning English? And when did you come to the USA and what level was your English proficiency when you came here, so? 198. B: hmm, so, my native l anguage is Shan g h ain ese because I was born in Shanhai. And my native lang uage , well. This is a little bit complicated. So in china, t here are a lot of dialects. So S hangh ain Mandarin. Ihmm, so until three yea r old or probably four year old, before that, I i nese. But I started to learn English when I was 4, I started learn Mandarin Chinese probably 4.5 or probably 5. So I learned English actually be fore Mandarin. And I went to an English Training center when I was young. So they have Native American teachers or native English speakers to teach us. And I stayed there for three years until I e to do other things, extra curricular activities in China, there in elementary school. So I stopped going to English training center. But that time like 20 years ago, the Chinese system is like in elementary school, the first graders and second graders, t hey do years. Then, in the 3 rd grade, I started to learn the formal, the so called formal too simple for me because they started fr om the beginning. And I already have a lot of basic things, basic knowledge, so I for the elem entary school. Then I went to middle school, and our system is very have foreign teachers in our middle school. So we got to learn more grammar. But because in the elementa ry school, I did not pay much attention to English, so I am school as well. And I can say my grammar is really really poor at that time, but when I went to high school, we have the college entrance exam. English is one of the subjects, which means English takes one/fourths of the scores, the total score. And I realized I need to learn grammar, so I started to pick up English, and trying to e much chance to speak even though we have a randomly, I went to English major. At first, I applied for the medical major, I wanted
109 to be a doctor in the future, but our system is like you go to different universities according to your scores, your final scores. So my first choice is doctor, and the for university name and majors. That year, the ph ysics is really hard for me. So I was doing English major there, and my specialty is English literature. Well we have ike American teaching style adopted Chinese teaching way. So he is giving the textbook, and give you a topic and have you write down 5 sentences you wanted to say. And later, e veryone is 199. 200. grandmother is an interpreter, and so when I was young, I s tarted to chat with her in English, and she were ask me some questions in English and trying to improve my English, but when I grow older, I really have chance to go with it my like the last two y ears before I came to the US, and the two years that helped improve my oral English most. Because I was working in an English training center, teaching students English, but we have four te .. , we have two teacher for each class. One fore ign teachers, and one Chinese as native speaker but speak, well, a foreign teacher, and because I work well, they gave me several more classes which makes me have more oppor tunity to communicate with more foreigners. 201. T: I understand, so when you came here to US, we are pretty advance, right? 202. B: I think so. 203. more anxious speaking in English in Chi na or in US? 204. my English is a lot better than a lot of my peers. And I am a English teacher, right? Obviously, a lot of the Chinese native speakers, your English is not as good as mine, but when I came to US, I am a English as second language learner. But all of the other students, non native speakers, few of them from my aspect, their English, well they are not doing English major. So their English may not be really good, a nd can I help them understand others, and they cannot communicate with others in English, but most of the people coming to the US, their English are pretty good. And some of them, especially some of my friends, they are doing computer science majors or the y are doing other majors, which is not related to English. And I am a English major, and I feel like their English is sometimes better than mine. 205. T: How do you feel about it? 206. ish it will be much better because all I have is now English, and English literature which is not enough to compare to anybody that is English as native speakers. 207. T: ok, so according to your survey results, it seems like you are afraid of making mistakes when you are speaking with native speakers, so how do you feel about it?
110 208. B: so , if I have a native speaker, I have several American friends, they are really They would correc each other. But for strangers, especially when you are in a large class or large meeting and you are the only Chinese speaker, or you are only the foreigner but you need to speak your.., feel native language and when you speak English, your mind do not come through your mouth, so you do not know what is going to happen, what are you going to say, whether you are going to make mistakes or not. 209. T: So, would you avoid speaking, or would you just speak and make mistakes? 210. B: It depends. So if I feel comfortable speaking, it depends on different occasions, and my emotions. Sometimes, I feel comfortable speaking, I would just speak. And would just stay there and keep silent. But sometimes, in a large meeting, I need to speak. Before tha t I will need to think about what I am going to say before I speak. 211. T: ok, so you control your sentence, you prepare your sentence before and then produce it, right? 212. B: Yeah, 213. T: So what makes you comfortable in these classes? 214. B: In what kind of classes? 215. classroom. How would you be more comfortable like the questions that you know, another quest ion, the number of native speakers affect your feelings or would you prefer more non native speakers in the classroom to speak comfortably? 216. native language learner, no native language speakers, their proportion matters a lot to me. I do care about the relationship between classmates and me, so if this is the first class and I have several friends in this class, it will make me more comfortable. Even my friends as American spea kers, English native speakers, so if there are more foreign students, I would prefer to have several American friends there or several native other language speakers there better their having a lot of of them. I would prefer to the first one. 217. T: Ok, think that you have to speak with the teacher or another native speaker. But you are not prepared. So you are anxious. Would you make mistakes like grammar mistakes, or forget some vocabulary, or just put s ome simple sentences? What kind of effect would be on your English? 218. B: the number of people I am talking to. When I am doing one on one talking, I am always comfortable with that, but if there are like 20 students, 30 students or 30 classmates in the class , even though I prepared a little bit, I would feel a little bit uncomfortable. If I am unprepared, that would be totally disaster. 219. T: ok, so preparedness is very important for you. Would you focus on grammar, I mean, form or meaning when you are speaking with native speakers?
111 220. B: well a lot of my friends said that they can understand me well, but I know I make grammar mistakes and accent, so after I come to US, I feel like accent is not that you can change, right even though I am improving on my accent tha t. so I am not sure. I try to express myself and most of them say that they can understand me, so for my close friends, they correct my grammar mistakes, and for other friends, at I make grammar mistakes because it is on nature and we just say it loud without thinking through your head, mind I mean, brain actually. So I think I would pay more attention to meaning compared to grammar. 221. T: ok, good. So do you think people will judg e you when you speak wrong, when you make mistakes? 222. teacher, or you are applying other jobs. If you cannot communicate yourself, why would they hire you? So in the interview, I am a little bit nervous for all of the interview in English. 223. T: What about the classes? Do you think people, I mean your native speaker classmates; will judge you be cause you make mistakes? 224. l like that if there are a lot of international students there, so yeah. 225. T: so presence of international students makes you more comfortable? 226. B: yeah, you can say that, yes. 227. n umber of native speakers in the classroom? 228. B: Yes, of course. 229. T: ok what kind of changes did you observe? 230. B: For example, one of the classes we did, I feel like the teacher is going to explain more, elaborate the requirement more, because there are more in ternational students , a n d the teacher would give longer time and the teacher would probably give more accommodations for us. 231. T: did you observe any negative things like ignore international students? 232. m teachers, any of the UF 233. T: What kind of things they do like ignore you because you cannot speak like them? 234. B: so there was an American student, the first semester we came here. There were like eight Chinese students in our class, and there are other international students as well. But every time when we were doing group discussion, she is trying to talking to ot hers, she was nice, but no international no. 235. grammar? 236. B: From professors? 237. T: Yeah, how do you feel about the corrections?
112 238. B: Every time I am handing the papers, they will do a lot of grammar.. 239. T: No, only verbal corrections. 240. B: ohh, verbal corrections, only one time I remember. I went to ask a question for us, I forget the question, but for these kind of questions, native speakers, they derstand it in the other way. And felt the difference, the culture difference and the language difference. She explained it to us like this is the way you should understa nd this sentence and you should answer no. 241. 242. B: yeah 243. are not prepared, you have to speak, how would you feel? 244. 245. T: ok, what about if it is a question that the vocabulary you have to know is not know that topic , how would you feel? 246. B: Well, at the first year of my program, I would probably feel very bad, but after I stayed here for so long, I feel like being international is so natural and if we make mistakes, it is common. We cannot have to feel bad about it or embarrassed about it. 247. T: Did you take any class without native speakers here? 248. B: no, but I took several classes that all of the students except me are native speakers. 249. T: Ok, how was that class for you? How did the presence of native speakers affect your classroom performance? 250. B: There are good things about being the only one foreign student in class o you can force yourself to talk to native speakers and your English will improve more because if you have friends that speak the same language with you, you are just chatti native speakers because you have someone to group with you when you are doing But when you are in a native sp student in the class. Every time you are doing any project or homework, and when the teacher is asking, you need to participate and communicate with native speakers because they are your classmates. If you d o not ask them, ask professor, right? 251. Would you ask like at that time, or would you ask after the class to the professor for clarification?
113 252. B: So, it is still not comforta ble for me to ask questions in large classroom. I would prefer to ask afterwards. But sometimes I ask questions in small groups where we hand in large class and ask quest ions probably because of our tradition. Because we do not do this in the large classrooms in China. 253. T: ok what about this that you are making a classroom discussion as a whole class. Do you feel like because native speakers are more quick to understand a nd answer, do you feel like you are a little bit late, slow about it and it affects your classroom participation? 254. B: sometimes, yes. So if the teacher is giving an assignment or she is talking about a topic that I am not familiar with, and a lot of native speakers, they are getting it, problem, it just affects some details of the hom preventing me from getting the grades or doing projects, I would do it right away. 255. T: ok it seems like you are not very anxious in the classrooms, but there are students who are international and very anxious and avoid speaking English because people in the classrooms are better in speaking English. What kind of suggestions would you make to teachers in that kind of environment? The professors I mean the college professors. 256. B: So, one professor I had last semester , and I was doing a psychology class. And I was the only international student there. 257. B: At first I felt a little bit awkward, after because I want to do teacher certification, el. So I was supposing I am the only graduate student there. Actually I am. So this is the first reason that makes me a little bit awkward in the classroom. The second one is I am the only foreign student there, and I can say I am the only Asian there. 258. T: Ok, what kind of accommodations would you expect the teacher do for you? 259. he asked everybody to introduce themselves which is not common for undergraduate students, righ t? And we went around and he asked our major and other blab groups. And in the small groups, I feel more comfortable talking. So I think small group is really good strategy teachers to use to help international students. For those international students who are anxious but they want to practice their English, or do the class work, I believe they are going to talk more in small groups rather than talking in front of a lot of others. And t he other thing the professor did is in class he took attendance every time, so he could not read my name, right? So he was trying to pronounce my name and saying some jokes and asking me some questions which forced me talk in front of everybody. It makes m e more welcomed in the class rather than just randomly asking for questions. He chose the way he wh 260. T: ok I understand. Ok you talked about grouping students. As a teacher, would you prefer grouping students with native speakers, native speakers with non native
114 speakers, or a mixture or just non native speakers together? How would you prefer to make them more comfortable, non native speakers I mean? 261. B: Definitely non experience for the native speakers at all because they got to learn other culture and othe r languages. And you have other perspectives, especially when you are doing the group discussion or group project. People from different countries usually have very different perspectives. Although I know like everyone in the United States , they have diffe rent opinions and different aspects for different things, but internationals because of your background, your culture, you are understanding of speakers which makes you p ractice your English, and I believe most of the native speakers with native speakers, English language learners with English language rs will feel uncomfortable, but probably their thinking like the professor feel my English level or my academic performance is not high enough to allow me to group with native speakers. I cannot follow them, but no. 262. T: I understand. Do you feel like other non native speakers speaking better than you? 263. B: some of them, but not all of them. 264. T: ok, do you feel like in a competition with native speakers? 265. B: no, because English is their native language. There is no reason for me to compete with them. And I have Chinese, right? 266. quite natural to make mistakes, right? Ok, the last question is abo ut your social environment. You said you have many native English speaker friends. Do you they have affected your emotions about speaking English with other people? 267. B: Do you mean social environment in the US? 268. T: yeah , I mean only your social environment w that compared to last year, this year do you feel more relaxed because you have native speaker friends right now? 269. B: Well I feel like a lot of my friend told me I am the person that is very easy going, and can make fr strangers, so even to others one on one or through small groups. But I think the attitude is really important. If you want to improve your English, you have to get involved in this to play with those who are speaking the same language with me, we can t. And what is the question again, sorry? 270. T: so native speakers make you feel more comfortable speaking with strangers? Your native speaker friends? 271. B: yeah, that what I said. They are not making me feeling more comfortable speaking to other strangers beca use talking to strangers is kind of common to me. 272. T: ok, what about your English?
115 273. training center in China, I got the most exposure to talk to foreigners. You know I feel 274. T: Ok, thank you. I think we answered all the questions. Thank you. INTERVIEW 5: YIN 275. T: Hi thank you for participating into my st udy. So my first question is can you tell me about your English language learning process? When and where did you learn it? And when did you come to USA and what was your English proficiency level when you came here? Just tell me about it. 276. Y: Actually, I s tarted learning English when I entered middle school, so I should be almost twelve years old. I was like around 6 or 7, my mom sent me to like a private institute. So I kind of learned a little bit, like one two three, how to count, how to say good morning , good night. But when I was in middle school, I start learning English seriously. Three years in the middle school, three years in the high school, but during these 6 years, middle school and high school I mean, my English learning was just focused on gra how to talk, how to use the language. And then I entered college, and chose 277. T: so you spoke English when you were in college, rig ht? In the classes? So were you more anxious when you were in China or when you are here? 278. Y: I think the reason I feel anxious is because of my personality. I remember the first classes in college, and my professor asked everyone to introduce yourself in E nglish. I guess she want to use this way us like basic test about your spoken skill talk in English because I feel so weird and nervous, and my professor said you must sp eak something in English. So I think it is because of my personality. 279. T: And then you started speaking English I guess later? You overcome your fears. 280. T: so here, do you think native speaker presence affects your participation or performance in the classr oom? So in the classes there are native speakers, you think about them, you think they are going to judge me when I speak English? Do you think that? 281. Y: I think that. 282. T: it seems like in the survey, you are more worried about second language gments. Why is that? 283. Y: I think second language learners judge more than native speakers because if I nd language learner, I feel very anxious. 284. T: so, since you are feeling very anxious when you are with second language speakers, do you do more mistakes because you are anxious like grammar mistakes or pronunciation mistakes? Or you are speaking the same w as that you are speaking with native speakers.
116 285. I never count them, but I feel like that. But I feel like talking with native speakers, I speak more fluently. 286. T: so do you have a fear of negative evaluation like people will judge you, will make fun of you when you make mistakes or when you say something wrong? 287. Y : I Chinese, I mean Chinese friend, and if she or he make some mistakes while the grammar m istakes, but the pronunciation, you know. Only if they were close friends, you know. Ohh their pronunciation sound weird. 288. T: do you compare yourself with other second language speakers like my English is worse than this one, my English is better than th is one? Do you say that? 289. Y: I guess I compare only with speakers who share the first language with me. Just Chinese. 290. T: Do you focus more on form or meaning when you are speaking with second language speakers and native speakers? 291. Y: hard to say. I think m eaning. 292. T: Is it the same for both NS and NNS? 293. Y: yes. 294. differently? 295. Y: I mean all the teachers will have , I guess they will feel more comfortable to talk with native speakers because they share the same culture, something. It might be easier for both of them to communicate with each other. Maybe when the teachers, when they need to talk with the non native s peakers, they need to modify their talking speed, grammar. They may not use some slang or some informal words. 296. T: Do you feel comfortable about it? 297. 298. T: I just want to learn like would you prefer to be behaved like native speakers like I wish they also make some jokes to me. Do you say that? 299. 300. and? They are would you ask them for explanation? 301. 302. T: I would also ask the same question for a formal way like the teacher is teaching ask like immediately, or would you ask after the class? Why? 303. Y: After the class. I think there are two reasons. The first one is still my personality. 304. T: so think that the same thing happened in Chinese class, would you ask more comfort ably about that like? 305. Y: no
117 306. T: ok, so your English proficiency level does not affect your behaviors. Can we say that? 307. Y: yeah. 308. T: Ok, how do you feel when teachers ask you something that you are not prepared? 309. Y: I would feel nervous. 310. T: because? 311. Y: If I in a good way or very correct. 312. T: so, you are just worried about your English? 313. Y: yes. Not only it. 314. T: ok so you know that in the classes, especially in ESOL classes, there are participate. As a teacher of the future, what would you do to make them more comfortable? 315. hard question. Maybe I would try to talk with them more. And in this its ok. See we your English is not 316. T: Ok, so would you expect the same thing from the professors here? 317. Y: think that you are not comfortable in a class, and you maybe have a f ear. 318. T: Would you expect the teacher talk to you in private? 319. Y: yes 320. T: Do you think your classmates affect your comfort level. How does this happen? Can you give me more detail? 321. Y: Especially with the native speakers because I still remember the first clas s I took others because sometimes if Dr. Stone asks me to join like the activity, and the ask others. So I just pretend to be understand, 322. T: what about like you know the topic and NS also know the topic. And the teacher asks somethi ng. And you know the answer. Do you feel like NS are more quick to give the answer to the teacher. Did you feel like they are fast, and you are slow. I 323. Y: if you say language, I think so. But not content or the ideas. I think because sometimes, international students, non native students, they will also have very quick ideas, but due to the language barrier, they may have hard time to explain their ideas. So in a language level, I think so. 324. T: So do you volunteer in the classes to express your ideas? 325. Y: Not much. 326. T: When you do, what is your criterion? Like you prepare your words in your mind before, what do you do? You just..
118 327. Y: Maybe, when I just came here, I wanted to write everything very clear so that I think I can avoid some mistakes. simultaneously. 328. T: you say my second language classmates speak English better than I do. What is your criterion for that? 329. Y: I think as non native speakers, everyone h as their own way to express, maybe like use different sentence structure. What I find other non native speakers like their way like their own sentence structure which is very different from mine. I feel that way, ooh they are using that structure. Or some words, if they are using some that way. 330. T: since you talked about these words thing, when you feel anxious, do you forget some vocabulary? 331. Y: yeah it happens. 332. T: What else happens when you feel anxious? 333. Y: I feel hard to express myself. 334. T: ok, you said also that you are afraid of that teachers will going to correct you if you make mistakes. Did you experience that here? Any teacher corrected you? 335. Y: Actually the teach 336. T: but you still have the fear, right? 337. Y: yeah, I mean, they me in front of other classmates, but sometimes, in my writing, they give me some feedback on paper, and they will correct my grammar mistakes. I feel oh why feel like that. 338. T: so what about verbal mistakes, when you do verbal mistakes? 339. Y: It feels ok. 340. T: so if the teacher corrects you, you will feel ok? But it still depends on the manner? 341. Y: yeah , I feel ok. 342. T: ok great. So do you have a perfectionist personality? Like if I learn English, it should be like perfect, like a native like? 343. Y: yeah. 344. T: ok so do you think it affects your speaking ability? 345. udge my pronunciation or my proficiency, I would like volunteer more I guess. Actually, I really think that it affects language learning. 346. I spoke with one of my native speaker friends, and they corrected me, and I felt very embarrassed. So when I am speaking with another native speaker, I feel the same way. I think they are also going to correct me, and I will feel embarrassed. I started to avoid speaking. Do you experie nce these kinds of things? 347. 348. T: so second language speakers correct you? 349. English proficiency so I want
119 judge my English, so if I have to speak English, I would just try to perform my best and form as good as, as perfect as possible. 350. T: so do you have native speaker friends in your social life? 351. Y: yeah. 352. T: Are they your good friends? 353. Y: some of them. 354. T: do you think their being your friends affect your comfort level with native speakers positively. 355. Y: yeah. 356. 357. Y: I think I wo uld feel bad about English proficiency. 358. T: so they make you comfortable, right, when you make a mistake? 359. 360. T: Ok you have a good friend, American? 361. Y: yeah, he is American, and in my, I personally think he is quite a balanced b ilingual. He speaks very good Chinese. I feel very anxious to speak English with him. So when I talked with him, most of the time, I would just speak Chinese. me to practic 362. T: I would say probably it is because you also want to be that good with your English. I would do like I wanna speak like them, I wanna s peak perfectly like them, so 363. Y: But I think Chinese is his second language, and English is my second language, but I think his second language is much better than my second language, so I feel like oh my, I just speak English as good as his Chinese. So just avoid that. 364. yourself. 365. proficient my English is, because I just speak Chinese with him. 366. T: Do you have the same background with second language? Maybe he studies more than you the Chinese? 367. Y: he lived in China for three years, then he came back, then, he went back to China again. And now he lives in China. 368. T: so this is your second year in US, right? So, he stayed in China longer than you. 369. Y: he is that kind of person who wants to communicate like a native speaker, so he has many many Chinese friends, he knows many many slangs. He knows everything about Chi 370. T: Do you feel comfortable when you are speaking with native speakers in your daily life? 371. Y: Yeah. I feel very comfortable, actually I like speaking. 372. T: So would you prefer speaking English in daily lif e or in academic life in the classrooms? 373. Y: Daily life. I feel more comfortable. Daily life speaking English is quite easy for me. But in formal setting, I mean in Academic setting, I feel more anxious. 374. T: Is it because of English or is it because of clas sroom environment?
120 375. Y: both. 376. T: ok , t hank you.
121 APPENDIX C MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION VALUES Questionnaire with NS Questionnaire with NNS Item Mean St. Dev Item Mean St Dev Fear of making mistakes Fear of making mistakes Q1 3. 09 1. 31 Q1 2. 41 1. 01 Q5 3. 64 1. 05 Q5 4. 09 0. 81 Q6 3. 59 1. 26 Q6 3. 95 1. 00 Q12 2. 68 1. 04 Q12 1.9 5 0. 95 Q14 3. 43 1. 36 Q14 3. 55 1. 01 Q25 3. 45 1. 01 Q25 3. 00 1. 11 Fear of Negative Judgments Fear of Negative Judgments Q7 2. 77 1. 31 Q7 2. 55 1. 26 Q10 3. 52 1. 08 Q10 3. 95 1. 17 Q11 3. 45 1. 44 Q11 4. 10 0. 89 Q13 3. 95 1. 09 Q13 4. 27 0. 88 Q22 4. 09 1. 02 Q22 4. 00 1. 02 Q24 3. 23 1. 27 Q24 2. 27 0. 98 Comfort level Comfort Level Q3 2. 18 0. 73 Q3 1. 95 0. 49 Q8 3. 65 1. 14 Q8 4. 09 0. 81 Q15 2. 05 0. 72 Q15 1.59 0. 59 Q16 3. 24 1. 18 Q16 1.81 0. 92 Q18 2. 71 1. 01 Q18 2. 27 1. 03 Q20 3. 73 1. 20 Q 20 3. 50 0. 96 Q23 3. 05 1. 07 Q23 2. 90 1. 00 Participation Participation Q2 3. 27 1. 24 Q2 2.27 1. 08 Q4 3. 73 0. 98 Q4 3.18 0. 96 Q9 2. 36 0. 90 Q9 2. 27 0. 70 Q17 3. 32 1. 36 Q17 3.86 0. 77 Q19 3. 73 1. 08 Q 19 4. 18 0. 91 Q21 2. 14 1. 04 Q21 1. 82 0. 50 Mean and standard deviation values of survey items based on measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation
122 APPENDIX D INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT Project Title: The Role of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Native Speaker Presence on Foreign/Second Language production and Classroom Participation Principal Investigators: Tuba Yilmaz; University of Florida, College of Education NORM; Gainesville, FL 32611, USA Phone: 352 328 2877 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research project The purpose of the study is to examine what international students experience in classrooms where native or non native speakers of English are the majority. What you will be asked to do in the study In this study, you will be asked to fill out an online survey with questions about your emotions and experiences when you are in the classes where most of your classmates are native speakers, and where most of your classmates are international students. Pl ease note that you do not need to answer any question that you do not want to answer. You will fill out the online survey yourself. Based on your answers in the survey, the investigator may request to interview with you on another date for 30 45 minutes. Y ou will be asked open ended questions to obtain more detailed information about your experiences in the interview. This interview will be audio taped . What are the survey and interview about? The survey and the interview ask about your emotions and experi ences when you are in the classes where most of your classmates are native speakers, and where most of your classmates are international students Time required 30 minutes for survey; 30 45 minutes for personal interviews (if selected) Risks and Benefits There are no risks associated with this interview. There is no direct benefit to you, although your participation will ultimately help us understand better what international students experience in our classrooms. Compensation Your participation in this study is voluntary. You will not be provided compensation.
123 Confidentiality Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information and data will be assigned a code number. The key to this code will be kept in a password p rotected electronic file that is accessible only by the principal investigators. Your name and other personal identifying information will not be connected in any other way to the data collected in this study. In addition, your name and other personal iden tifying information will not be used in any other scientific reports. After the study, any recordings and the linking codes will be destroyed. Voluntary participation Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not pa rticipating. Right to withdraw from the study You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study Tuba Yilmaz, MAE, College of Education, email@example.com , +1 352 328 2877 Ester de Jong, EdD, College of Education, P.O. Box 117048, Norman Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611; USA. firstname.lastname@example.org . +1 352 273 4227 Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant? UFIRB Office, box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250, USA; +1 352 392 0433. In case you have any question about the purposes or procedures of the experiment that need to beclarif ied before you give your consent to participate, please feel free to ask them to the researcher now. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure above I do not agree to participate in the procedure above
124 LIST OF REFERENCES Aida, language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese . Modern Language Journal , 78, 155 168. Aydin, S. (2008). An investigation on language anxiety and fear of negative evaluation a mong Turkish EFL learners. Asian EFL Journal , teaching Articles, 30(1), 421 444 Aydin, S., Yavuz, F., &Yesilyurt, S. (2006). Test anxiety in foreign language learning. Journal of Graduate School of Social Sciences of Balikesir University, 9(1), 145 160 Bel tran, M. A., (2011). Anxiety e ffects on EFL l earners w hen c ommunicating o rally. Unpublished pa per. University of Pamplona, 151 170 Native and Non native English Speaker Classes. US China Education Review B. 12, 1034 1043 Capan, S.A., &Simsek, H. (2012). General f oreign l anguage a nxiety among EFL l earners: A Survey Study. Frontiers of Language and Teaching , Vol. 3, 116 124. Cohen, L, Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000) . Rese arch m ethods in e ducation . 5 th edition London: Routledge Falmer Conway, J. (2007). Anxiety in s econd l anguage l earning: Causes and s olutions. Unpublished paper. Retrieved on June 1, 2014 from http://www.academia.edu/5425739/380Paper_Jennifer Daubney, M. (2005) . Language a nxiety: Part and parcel of the foreign language classroom. The APPI Journal , Year 5, no. 1, spring 2005, 10 15. Du, X. (2009). The Affective f ilter in s econd l anguage t eaching. Asian Social Science . 5, ( 8 ) Eysenck, M. W. (1979). Anxiety, learning, and memory: A reconceptualization. Journal of Research in Personality, 13 (4), 363 385. FandiÃ±o, Y. (2010).Explicit t eaching of s ocio a ffective l anguage l earning s trategies to b eginner EFL s tudents*1.Ikala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura . 15 (24) Gregersen, T., &Horwitz, E. K. (2002). Language learning and perfectionism: Anxious and non ns to their own oral performance. The Modern Language Journal , 86, 562 570.
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128 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Tuba Yilmaz joined to Universi ty of Florida as a graduate student in 2012 , and stud ied ESOL/Bilingual Education program in the college of Education. She completed her undergraduate degree at the Middle East Technical University (METU) in Turkey, and studied English Language Teaching a s her major. During her academic life, she made research on classroom management, language revitalization and language anxiety, and she presented her paper titled Tertiary Level Classroom Management Problems and Possible S olutions in Foreign Language Con February , 2014 . Tuba Yilmaz taught English as a Foreign Language for one year to elementary and middle school students and for two years tertiary level vocational technical school stu dents , and gained incredible experiences about foreign language teaching .