THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE SPORT EVENT TRAVEL CAREERS THROUGH CYCLING TOURISM By RICHARD J . BUNING , Jr. A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014
Â©2014 Richard J . Buning , Jr.
To my wife and family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My accomplishments at the University of Florida would not be possible without the support and guidance provided by many people. First, I want to thank my advisor and committee chair, Dr. Heather Gibson, for her guidance during my doctoral program. Her leadership, work ethic, and friendship has shaped the direction of my prof essional career as a scholar and educator and I will always be grateful. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Michael Sagas, Dr. Yong Jae Ko, and Dr. Mickie Swisher, for their wonderful support and advisement. I would especially like to tha nk Dr. Sagas for his extraordinary assistance and friendship during my graduate study at UF. I want to thank several organizations and individuals that helped during the data collection phase of this dissertation: Bike Florida, The International Mountain B ike Association, The Florida Bicycle Racing Association, Dr. Dan Connaughton, Jeff Barber, and Singletracks.com. Also, I would like to thank all of my classmates at UF for their friendship and help including: Mike Odio, Stephen Gerhard, Cornell Foo, Heathe r Bell, Ryan Wang, Wonseok Jang, and many others. I also owe a debt of gratitude to all of my friends in Gainesville and the many cyclists and cycling teams that I have ridden and raced with over the years. Everyone has made my time living in Gainesville e xtremely memorable and enjoyable. Finally, I want to thank my family. To my grandfather and dad for inspiring me to attend UF. To my mother and Ken Sinervo for their endless support and encouragement to pursue graduate school. To my loving wife and best f riend, Casaundra Buning, for her endless love and encou ragement throughout the last several years, her support made this all possible.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 1.1 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................. 14 1.2 Conceptual Framework ................................ ................................ ..................... 16 1.3 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 18 1.4 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ......................... 18 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 22 2.1 Sport Tourism ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 22 2.2 Cycling Tourism ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 2.3 Charity Sport Event Participation ................................ ................................ ...... 29 2.4 Event Travel Career ................................ ................................ .......................... 32 2.4.1 Serious Leisure ................................ ................................ ....................... 32 2.4.2 Travel Career Pattern ................................ ................................ .............. 36 2.4.3 Social Worlds ................................ ................................ .......................... 39 2.4.4 Event Travel Career Studies ................................ ................................ ... 43 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 48 3.1 Introduct ion to Mixed Methods Research ................................ .......................... 48 3.2 Phase I: Qualitative Study Method ................................ ................................ .... 51 3.2.1 Qualitative Data Collection ................................ ................................ ...... 51 3.2.2 Qualitative Participants ................................ ................................ ............ 53 3.2.3 Qualitative Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ......... 53 3.3 Phase II: Qua ntitative Study Method ................................ ................................ . 54 3.3.1 Quantitative Data Collection ................................ ................................ .... 54 3.3.2 Quantitative Instrumentation ................................ ................................ .... 55 3.3.3 Quantitative Participants ................................ ................................ .......... 5 9 3.3.4 Quantitative Sample Characteristics ................................ ........................ 60 3.3.5 Quantitat ive Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ...... 61 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 66 4.1 Qualitative Study: Results ................................ ................................ ................. 66
6 4.1.1 The First Event ................................ ................................ ........................ 66 4.1.2 Starting Out ................................ ................................ ............................. 67 4.1.3 Motivation ................................ ................................ ................................ 68 4.1.4 Temporal ................................ ................................ ................................ . 73 4.1.5 Travel Style ................................ ................................ ............................. 77 4.1.6 Destination Criteria ................................ ................................ .................. 79 4.1.7 Event Types ................................ ................................ ............................ 82 4.1.8 Spatial ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 84 4.1.9 Later in Life ................................ ................................ .............................. 85 4. 2 Qualitative Study: Grounded Theory ................................ ................................ . 87 4.3 Quantitative Study: Results ................................ ................................ ............... 89 4.2.1 Research Question 1: Does Motivation Differ with ASETC Stage? ......... 92 4.2.2 Research Question 2: Does Motivation Differ Based on Racing Orientation? ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 93 4.2.3 Research Question 3: Do Pr eferred Event, Destination, or Travel Style Characteristics Differ with ASETC Stage? ................................ .................... 93 4.2.6 Research Question 4a: Does the Presence of a Non Cycling Travel Companion or Travel Distance Change Preferred Event or Destination Characteristics? ................................ ................................ ............................ 95 4.2.8 Research Question 4b: Does the Presence of a Non Cycling Travel Companion Change Preferred Travel Style Characteristics? ........................ 97 4.2.9 Research Question 5: Do Preferred Event, Destination, or Travel Style Characteristics Differ Based on Racing Orientation? ................................ .... 98 5 DISCUSSI ON ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 121 5.1 The Stages of Active Sport Event Travel Careers ................................ .......... 121 5.2 Constructs Associated with Active Sport Event Travel Careers ...................... 126 5.3 Practical Implications ................................ ................................ ...................... 136 5.4 Limitations and Delimitations ................................ ................................ .......... 138 5.5 Future Research ................................ ................................ ............................. 141 5.6 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 143 APPENDIX A QUALITATIVE STUDY INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL ............. 146 B QUALITATIVE STUDY WEB BASED SELF REPORT QUESTIONAIRE ............. 147 C QUALITATIVE STUDY INTERVIEW GUIDE ................................ ........................ 154 D QUANTITATIVE STUDY QUESTIONAIRE ................................ ........................... 157 E SHORT FORM LEISURE MOTIVATION SCALE ................................ ................. 167 F QUANTITATIVE STUDY INSTITITUIO NAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL ......... 168 G QUANTITATIVE STUDY PARTCIPANT GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS ................ 169
7 H MOTIVATION MODEL CORRELATION MATRIX ................................ ................ 171 LIST OF REFRENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ 172 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 185
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Types of social world integration ................................ ................................ ........ 45 3 1 Qualitative participant pseudonyms and descriptive information ........................ 63 3 2 Quantitative sample socio demographic characteristics ................................ ..... 64 3 3 Quantitative sample cycling characteristics ................................ ........................ 65 4 1 Motivation item descriptives ................................ ................................ ............. 100 4 2 Social World S egmentation Instrument descriptives ................................ ......... 101 4 3 Event preference item s descriptives ................................ ................................ . 102 4 4 Destination preference items descriptives ................................ ........................ 103 4 5 Travel style preference items descriptives ................................ ........................ 104 4 6 Motivation model confirmatory factor analysis model comparisons .................. 105 4 7 Motivation model confirmatory factor analysis results ................................ ...... 106 4 8 Social World Segmentation Instrument model fit indices ................................ .. 107 4 9 Social W orld S egmentation I nstrument confirmatory factor analysis res ults .... 108 4 10 Social world segmentation and motivation MANOVA ................................ ....... 109 4 11 Racing event orientation and motivation MANOVA ................................ .......... 110 4 12 Event preferences and social worlds MANOVA results ................................ .... 111 4 13 Destination preferences and social worlds MANOVA results ........................... 113 4 14 Travel style preferences and social worlds MANOVA results ........................... 114 4 15 Event preferences repeated measures ANOVA results ................................ .... 115 4 16 Destination preferences repeated measures ANOVA results ........................... 116 4 17 Travel style preferences paired samples t test results ................................ ...... 117 4 18 Racing event orientation and event preferences MANOVA results .................. 118 4 19 Racing event orientation and destination preferences MANOVA results .......... 119
9 4 20 Racing event orientation and travel style preferences MANOVA results .......... 120 G 1 Quantitative participants international locatio n ................................ ................. 169 G 2 Quantitative participants US location ................................ ................................ 170 H 1 Revised motivation model means, standard deviations, and correlations. ....... 171
10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Concept ual f ramework ................................ ................................ ............................ 20 1 2 Grounded theory active sp ort event travel career stages ................................ ........ 21 2 1 Travel career pattern (TCP), adapted from Pearce (2005). ................................ ..... 46 2 2 A typology of a distance run ning social world, adapted from Shipway (2008) ......... 47
11 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School University of the Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Ph ilosophy THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE SPORT EVENT TRAVEL CAREERS THROUGH CYCLING TOURISM By Richard J. Buning, Jr. August 2014 Chair: Heather Gibson Major: Health and Human Performance Utilizing an event travel career perspective, this study examined fact ors perceived to influence career progression from entry to withdrawal in the sport of cycling. To establish a conceptual foundation for the study the concepts of serious leisure, travel careers, and social worlds were utilized. A complimentary sequential mixed methods approach combining qualitative and quantitative methods was employed to first develop a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon , and then to test the theory amongst a larger generalizable sample. In depth semi structured interviews were con ducted and analyzed . These revealed event travel careers evolve through a complex progression of nine core themes including: the first event, starting out, motivation, temporal, travel style, destination criteria, event types, spatial, and later in life. Based on these findings , a six stage travel career model was proposed consisting of: initiation, introduction, expansion, peak threshold, maintenance, and withdrawal. From this model, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to an international sample of cyclists through an online survey method. The quantitative phase discovered active cycling event travel evolves throughout time and experiences
12 which in turn influences motivation and travel behavior. T heoretical contributions, suggestions for future r esearch, and practical implications for sport tourism and event management are discussed.
13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION While concerns grow over declining physical activity rates in the United States (Brownson, Boehmer, & Luke, 2005) some individuals have adopt ed and created lifestyles based upon active leisure. Accordingly, individuals engaged in active leisure pursuits often travel to participate in events related to their interests, which has aided in the establishment of sport tourism as a distinct niche wit hin the travel and tourism industry (Gibson, 1998a). Sport tourism has grown significantly in recent years and has attracted attention from both scholars and communities attempt ing to attract tourists ( Hinch & Higham, 2001 ). S port tourism is typically divi ded into three general areas , based on the physically active or passive intentions of the travel , which include event sport tourism, nostalgia sport tourism, and active sport tourism (Gibson, 1998a, 1998b). Cycling is one particular sport that has grown during this time period and is rated as the second most popular outdoor activity (Outdoor Foundation, 2011). C harity sport events have also grown in recent years as some participant sport events contribute a significant portion of their proceeds to a speci fic 2009). Nevertheless, m any cyclists regularly take part in organized events and as such can be categorized as event active sport tourists as they are typically required to travel away from home to participate in cy cling events that are either recreational or competitive in nature. Sport tourists engaged in cycling specific travel spend over $70 billon on travel related expenses annually in the process ( Outdoor Industry Association, 2012). Formally, sport tourism is described as individuals temporarily leaving their home communities for leisure based travel focused on a particular sport of interest (Gibson, 1998a). Further, a subdivision of sport tourism, event active sport tourism refers to
14 individuals that travel specifically to participate in their sport of interest in an event related context (Kaplanidou & Gibson, 2010). Recently, Getz (2008) proposed that these event active sport tou rists might follow a career like pattern in terms of their involvement and commitment to their sport. He termed this potential lifelong career of travel to participate in sport events an event travel career (ETC). Getz (2008) provides a general definition of an ETC as a potential lifetime pu rsuit of travel to participate in sport events that progresses over time and leads to evolving preferences for event characteristics and travel arrangements . As individuals progress along a career this eventually leads t o modified behavior from the experienced event tourist. However, to further distinguish active sport event travel from other potential types of event related travel careers such as sport spectatorship , I propose use of the term active sport event travel ca reer (ASETC). discern the term from other areas of sport tourism as travel can vary based on the type of event and whether the purpose of the travel is to act as an event spectator or event par ticipant (Gibson, 1998b). 1.1 Statement of the Problem While the study of sport tourism is still relatively new compared to the larger fields of leisure, tourism, and sport management it has received considerable attention in recent years. Since a specia l issue of the Journal of Sport Management solely focused on sport tourism was published in 2003, sport tourism has gained extensive support in the field of sport management through theoretical and empirical research (Gibson, 2003). S port management has be en described as having five core research directions pertaining to health, salubrious socialization, economic development, community development, and national identity (Chalip, 2006). The current study
15 advances sport tourism research and distinc tive sport management theory by exploring three of these core research directions through the investigation of travel to , and participation in, sport events. The physical and emotional health benefits derived from physical activity and sport event participation are well known among academics and practitioners (Shipway & Holloway, 2010; World Health Organization, 2010). Specifically, participation in sport events has been shown to maintain and increase attitudes towards physical activity (Funk, Jordan, Ridinger, & Kap lanidou, 2011). Thus, the current study intends to understand the processes by which individuals pursue healthy lifestyles through lif etime sport event participation. T he findings of this study embrace the salubrious socialization aspect of sport by provid ing a better understanding of the style of travel and the subculture amateur athletes prefer, create, and maintain. The results will allow sport event managers to more efficiently market and plan their events towards amateur athletes in order to positively impact economic and community development. Since the ETC concept is relatively new, empirical research on the topic is scarce. Thus, little is known about the trajectory and interrelated concepts regarding ASETCs besides the six hypothetical ASETC dimens ions proposed by Getz and McConnell (2011), which include: motivation, t ravel style, temporal, spatial, event types, and destination criteria. These dimensions are projected to provide a framework for studying the trajectory of ASETCs. As called for by Getz and McConnell , research is needed to improve the integration of leisure, sport and tourism theory for improved event management and sport event tourism marketing related to ASETCs . Lamont, Kennelly, and Wilson (2012) suggest future research should focus on defining the
16 stages of an ASETC . Further, Lamont et al. and Getz (2008) suggest understanding and defining the specific stages of a sp ort ASETC will aid in understanding the antecedents and choices individuals make in developing an ASETC. Research is also needed to understand the process that charity sport event participants experience when electing to participate in an event (Filo, Funk , & I nterdisciplinary research has been advocated to further advance the field of sport management (Doherty, 2012) . Thus, the current study will answer this call through an integration of knowledge from the fields of leisure, tourism and sp ort management. Implications from this study will ultimately allow event managers and destination management organizations (DMOs) to better organize and market events to amateur athlete s and aid in constraint negotiation so individuals can successfully tra vel to , and participate in , sport events and procure the associated benefits t herein. 1.2 Conceptual Framework Although the notion of an ETC is relatively new it is supported by a strong foundation of scholarly work located in leisure, tourism, and sport , which is depicted in Figure 1 1. Conceptually, the ETC concept resides within the field of sport tourism, which is focused on understanding phenomenon related to travel for sport spectatorship, sport participation, or sport nostalgia (Gibson, 1998b). Cycl ing tourism is an emerging research context and a niche within the larger field of sport tourism that is gradually gaining attention. While concerns grow over physical inactivity (Brownson, et al., 2005), cycling tourism may exist as an intervention for ph ysical inactivity and it continues to grow in popularity (Outdoor Industry Association, 2012), research in this area is likely to garner increased scholarly attention in the foreseeable future. Arguably the domain of sport tourism evolved from the larger f ields of leisure sciences, tourism
17 and sport management. These distinct fields of study support the notion of an ETC through the concepts of serious leisure (Stebbins, 1982) and travel careers (Pearce, 1988). Serious leisure provides the ETC concept with a theoretical foundation through an understanding of the patterns and behaviors associated with a lifestyle focused towa rds a specific leisure pursuit. The three forms of serious leisure ( volunteers, hobbyists, and amateurs ) provide a conceptual perspective for the of study active event travel within general leisure research (Stebbins, 2007 ). Further, serious leisure is depicted through six distinct qualities (perseverance, career potential, significant personal effort, durable benefits, a unique ethos, and identification with the leisure pursuit) that characterize the involvement of individuals engaged in an ETC. Likewise, (Pearce & Caltabiano, 1983; Pearce, 1988, 1993, 2005; Pearce & Lee, 2005) on travel careers supports ETC resea rch through an understanding of the pattern of motivations tourists seek throughout their lifetime. Pearce provides the ETC concept with the fundamental idea that tourists are able to have travel careers that provide short and long term motivation through the travel career ladder and travel career pattern. Further, the concept of social worlds offers a background understanding of social connection within a particular subculture related to an activity and progression within it ( Strauss, 1979; Unruh, 1979 , 19 80 , 1983) . Social worlds are organized around four types of participants ( strangers, tourists, regulars, and insiders ) based on the orientation, experiences, relationships and commitment of these participants to particular social world (Unruh, 1983). Thus, the social world concept provides ETC research with a characteriz ation of the social connection and progression of individual involvement related to an ETC . L astly, scholarly work in the field of sport
18 management has applied these concepts from leisure an d tourism to sport which provides the current study with an introductory look into the dimensions related to ETCs (Getz & McConnell, 2011) . As such, the current study seeks to advance these areas of inquiry through the exploration and avocation of ASETCs w ithin the context of cycling tourism and the growing focus on charity sport event participation. In pursuit of this objective, the first phase of the study developed a grounded theory model (Figure 1 2), which formed the foundation of the phase two study. The concepts associated with ASETCs are discus sed in more detail in Chapter 2 while the grounded theory model is discussed in Chapter 4. 1.3 Purpose of the Study Since the conceptualization of the ASETC (previously the ETC) is still in the early stages of development, a mixed methods design was adopted consisting of two phases: qualitative and quantitative. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to ex plore the evolution and trajectory of ASETCs through stages of development among cyclists. Through providi ng a more in depth understanding of the trajectory of ASETCs the study allow s for an understanding of the dynamics of career progression from entry to withdrawal. Implications from the study encompass the positive health, social, community and economic ben efits of active sport event travel . 1.4 Research Questions First, in order to move from a mere description of the phenomenon and inductively develop a theoretical understanding of the ASETC process t he following research questions were examined in the qual itative study. R esearch Qu estion 1 : How do amateur cyclists progress or regress through active sport event travel careers?
19 R esearch Q uestion 2: How do event travel career dimensions evolve throughout active sport event travel careers? R esearch Q uestion 3 : What factors affect movement along an active sport event travel career? Second, based on the results from the phase one, the qualitative study, and the aforementioned purpose of the study the following research questions were addressed in phase two, the quantitative study. Research Q uestion 1: Does motivation differ with ASETC stage? Research Q uestion 2: Does motivation differ based on racing orientation? Research Q uestion 3: Do preferred event , destination, or travel style characteristics differ with ASETC stage? Research Q uestion 4 a : Does the presence of a non cycling travel companion and/or travel distance change preferred event or destination characteristics? Research Q uestion 4 b : Does the presence of a non cycling travel companion change preferred travel style characteristics? Research Q uestion 5: Do preferred event , destination, or travel style characteristics differ based on racing orientation?
20 Figure 1 1. Conceptual f ramework Active Sport Event Travel Career Serious Leisure (Stebbins, 1982) Social Worlds (Unruh, 1979) Proposed Dimensions (Getz, 2008) 1.Motivation 2.Travel Style 3.Temporal Patterns 4.Spatial Patterns 5.Event Type 6.Destination Criteria Travel Careers (Pearce, 1988)
21 Figure 1 2. Grounded theory a ctive sport event travel career s tages
22 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The following sections focus on an overview of research related to sport tourism and more specifically ETCs. Embracing an interdisciplinary approach to conducting social research literature from the fields o f tourism, sport management, and sport tourism are explored. The review begins with a detailed description of the development of sport tourism research then proceeds to explore the literature related to the context of the current study, cycling tourism and charity sp ort event participation . Subsequently, a review of serious leisure, travel careers , social worlds is provided which form the theoretical underpinnings for the event travel career concept. Lastly, current literature exploring the ETC concept is reviewed. 2 .1 Sport Tourism Early understandings of sport tourism emanating primarily from Europe described sport tourists as active individuals that participate in sport while on holiday (DeKnop, 1987). Later, DeKnop (1990) refined this description of the sport tour ist to include three the private sporting holiday, and the sporadic acceptance of organized sport. Following this early work by DeKnop, Redmond (1990, 1991) propos ed that in addition to active sport tourists, that sport tourism encompassed two additional forms, spectating and visiting sports related museums. While initially in the US the focus was on sport tourists traveling to spectate in sport events , primarily as this type of tourism was seen as providing host communities with an economic stimulus (Turco & Eisenhardt, 1998). Whereas, active sport tourism was reported mainly in terms of traveling to play golf, snow sports or scuba (Gibson, 1998b). After several oth er definitional attempts, Gibson
23 leisure based travel that takes individuals temporarily outside of their home communities to participate in physical activities, t o watch physical ac tivities, or to venerate attractions associated with physical a ctivities categorization contends that three distinct styl es of sport tourism behavior exist , which are termed: active sport tourism (actively participating), event sport tourism (spectating), and nostalgia sport tourism (visiting and possibly paying homage to sport venues). Although the exact terminology referri ng to active sport tourism has been debated (Weed, 2009; Weed & Bull, 2004), Kaplanidou and Gibson (2010) argue active sport tourism is actually comprised of two ma cro forms (non event and event). Thus, Kaplanidou and Gibson devised the term active event s port tourists to discern participatory sports related travel associated with event participation other non event active sport tourism pursuits such as travel for golf or snow sports. Initially research on active sport tourism was considered scarce, descriptive, and atheoretical (Gibson, 1998b). Despite most of the early focus positioned towards event sport tourism, recently active sport tourism has received the most scholarly attention (Weed, 2006, 2009). While research on event sport touris m is often focused on economic impacts (e.g. Preuss, 2004), active sport participation research is typically concentrated on behavioral research (Weed, 2006). A variety of issues have been explored in behavioral active sport tourism research including: des tination image (Funk, Toohey, & Brunn, 2007), visitor loyalty (Gandhi Aroa & Shaw, 2002), satisfaction and perceived value (Petrick & Backman, 2002a, 2002b), constraints (Williams & Fidgeon,
24 2002), motivation (Gillet & Kelly, 2006) and user values and conf lict (Carothers, Vaske & Donnelly, 2001). An early study by Gibson, Attle, and Yiannakis (1998) in this area investigated active sport tourism amongst New England residents through a lifespan perspective. The authors discovered an overall negative relation ship between active sport tourism and age (i.e., participation decreased with age) and that active sport tourists differ based on several life stage related and gender characteristics. In another line of research, Green and colleagues investigated the subc ulture, social identity, and serious leisure characteristics of active sport tourism (Green, 2001; Green & Chalip, 1998; Green & Jones, 2005), which is especially pertinent to the current study as social connection appears to be a prominent theme. Thornton (1996) knowledge, credibility, and identification with a subculture. Green and Chalip (1998) contend active sport tourism provides participants with an opportunity to celebrate the identity that they and their fellow participants have elected to share. Thus, what makes an event enjoyable and worthwhile attending is the opportunity it provides the participants to escape their daily routine and celebrate the subculture a ssociated with the sport. Wheaton (2000) expands this idea and argues that components of contemporary post modern culture such as a loss of self identity has driven image based sport consumption. Green (2001) contends subcultural identity is also important to event organizers as they are able leverage it to promote sport events. Later, Green and Jones (2005) revealed sport tourism provides serious leisure participants with a way to create/confirm leisure identity, an opportunity to connect with others, cele brate a social identity, progress their leisure career, and as such indicate their serious leisure
25 career stage. Further, Green and Jones (2005) suggest using the term serious sport tourism to describe this relationship. Support for the concept serious sp ort tourism can be found in the leisure studies literature where Kane and Zink (2004) combined the concepts of serious leisure and social worlds in a study investigating the careers of kayaking tourists. Using a participant observation method the authors f ound the ka yakers became more embedded in the kayaking social world during a trip and as result the travel served as a significant marker in their serous leisure careers. Similarly, Robinson and Gammon (2004) investigated the intersection of serious leisur e and active sport tourism in an attempt to create a sport tourism framework to categorize the sport tourist based on is still relatively unknown in what ways sport and tourism motives combine and inte ract and how this might affect consumers' expectations and satisfactions Highly involved runners have received considerable attention in serious sport tourism research , involvement is a related concept to serious leisure . McGehee, Yoon, and Car denas (2003) found that highly involved runners traveled more frequently on overnight event trips compared to medium involved runners and that higher involvement leads to greater levels of participation. Another investigation into highly involved runners b y Chalip and McGurity (2004) discovered four clusters of runners based on the importance they placed on bundles of event and destination characteristics. The event serve d as an opportunity to combine running with a vacation at the host
26 attraction to the destination. Exploring this area further, Shipway and Jones (2007, 2008) investigated the running experiences of amateur distance runners through an ethnographic research design. The results indicated that the runners collected subcultural capital and built their subcultural identity at the events, which led to the development of several s erious leisure dimensions including a unique ethos of the activity, the perseverance of participants , the durable benefits obtained , and the caree r structure associated with the social world . 2.2 Cycling Tourism In addition to a consistent focus on runners as active sport tourists, recently cycle tourism h as become more pervasive as both an industry and area of scholarly inquiry. cyclists constitute an important group of sports tourists, in terms of their overall travel patterns and re lated behaviour and motivations cycling participation and cycling based travel is exceedingly popular as a leisure pursuit ( Outdoor Industry Association, 2012) early attention directed towards cycling in the sport tourism literature is scarce. In an early study exploring bicycle tourism amongst New Zealand cycle tourists, Ritchie (1998) provided a definitional attempt of the cycle tourist as: A person who is away from their home town or country for period not less than 24 hours or one night, for the purpose of vacation or holiday, and for whom using a bicycle as a mode of transport during this time is an integral part for their holiday or vacation. This vac ation may be independently organized or part of a commercial tour and may include the use of transport support services and any type of formal and/or transport support services and any type of formal and/or informal accommodation. (p. 568). However, this early definitional effort of cycling tourism was focused towards bike tour participants not a ctive event sport tourists (Kap lanidou & Gibson, 2010) and racing cyclists (Bull, 2006). Still, Ritchie provides an exploration into the potential for bicycle
27 rela ted tourism development with several key findings pertinent to the current study. Ritchie found less experienced cyclists were more likely to be motivated by competence mastery, while more experienced cyclists were motivated by solitude. More recently, Bul complex picture of motives, destination criteria, event quality, and social connections that argues racing cyclist are an important area of inquiry within sport tourism. Exploring cycling tourism further, Kaplanidou and Vogt (2007) investigated the revisit intentions of bicycle tour participants based on their perceived destination image, sport event image, event satisfaction, and past event and destination experience. In this study, Kaplanidou and Vogt found destination image and past experience significantly contributed to revisit (2007) explored weekend group ride participation through an ethnographic approach. The authors found the cyclists they studied developed a sense of belonging and self identity through the group ride as they preferred to distance themselves from formal competition and were able to fulfill their competitive deserves without traditional consequences. In the last few years, a resurgence of cycling related sport tourism research has (2009) definitional discussion on bicycle tourism. I n an attempt to clarify and expose the full range of cycli ng tourism markets Lamont compared previous attempts at defining cycling tourism and proposed his own definition: and an over night stay (for overnight trips), or trips involving a minimum non cycling round trip component of 50 kilometers and a minimum four hour period away from home (for day trips) of which cycling, involving
28 active participation or passive observation, for holi day, recreation, leisure and/or competition, is the main purpose for that trip. Participation in cycling may include attendance at events organized for commercial gain and/or charity (competitive and non competitive), as well as independently organized cyc ling. (p. 20). In an investigation into the expenditures of cycling tourists, Downward, Lumsdon, and Weston (2009) developed a model of expenditure based on the travel diaries of cycling tourists. The authors found income, group size and activity duration were interconnected determinants of expenditure and as a result there is potential for direct economic impact. Additional studies on cycling tourism have recently explored issues related to charity based events, which are discussed in Chapter 2.3. Gibson a nd Chang (2012) explored cycling involvement and benefits sought amongst bicycle tour participants in Florida using a gendered life cycle perspective. Similar to Pearce and Lee core motives are the most important d eterminants of travel reasons, G ibson and Chang found social needs (i.e., motives) tended to be the most important benefits sought from sport event participation among the cyclists they studied . Further, Gibson and Chang revealed cycling tourists differ based on their life stag e in regards to benefits sought and enduring involv ement. More specifically, mid life participants were the most involved with cycling and pursued cycling for relaxation while older cyclists participated in events to gain new experiences. In a recent st udy that investigated the experiences of sport tourists at the Tour de France through a case study approach, Lamont (2014) introduced authenticity as a concept relevant to the study of cycling tourism. Authentication related to tourism is defined by Cohen Lamont makes the case traveling to the Tour de France is an example of authentication
29 within sport and cycling tourism. Further, Lamont suggests authentication in sport tourism can act as a career marker for highly i nvolved cyclists and elevate an study of cyc ling tourism, recreational specialization, was investigated quantitatively by Lamont and Jenkins (2013) through a large Australian single day participatory cycling event. The concept recreation specialization originally developed by Bryan (1977) is a popul be placed on a continuum from general interest and low involvement to specialized Lamont and Jenkins argue cycling events might predominately attract individuals that However, the authors suggest this finding might be relative to the difficulty of the event the y investigated. Consistent with Bryan, Lamont and Jenkins found that cyclists with higher experience, skill, and affect towards cycling were attracted to longer and more challenging courses. Other scholarly work in this area has investigated a range of iss ues including: the intersection of sport tourism and the Tour de France (Berridge, 2012; Lamont & McKay, 2012), and physical activity intervention (Bowles, Rissel, & Bauman, 2006) . 2.3 Charity Sport Event Participation Scholarly research on participation i n charity sport events has garnered significant attention within the last several years as charities seek to use sport events as a catalyst for donations and event managers attempt to differentiate their event in the consumer marketplace. Charity sport eve nts are often considered to include sport events that contribute a significant portion of its proceeds to a specific charitable cause
30 (Filo et al. , 2009). A variety of constructs have been investigated within this area of scholarly inquiry, but motivation is the primary focus of the ma jority of published work. Filo et al. (2008) conducted a qualitative investigation amongst a sample of participants from the events of the Lance Armstrong Foundation and found that intellectual, social, and competency motives were the primary drivers for event participation . While participants were also motivated by factors related to reciprocity self esteem, the need to help others, and the desire to improve the charity organization, the charitable component of the event was a rgued to influence social and competency motives. Another study investigating the events of the Lance Armstrong Foundation found that attachment to charity sport events is characterized by the camaraderie between participants, the associated cause, and the competency related to the physicality and fitness of the event (Filo, et al., 2009). Further, following this line of research Filo, Funk, events and found both types of mot ivation contribute to an attachment with charity sport events. Using a push and pull motivation approach Snelgrove and Wood (2010) found the motives of supporting others and learning about the destination, and cycling identity predicted event choice among st a sample of charity bicycle tour participants. Push motives are considered to create the desire to travel and are connected with internal attractiveness (Crompton, 197 9; Dann, 1977; Dann, 1981). The authors argue that although first time visitors might be initially motivated by the physical characteristics of an event and discovering a new destination this motivation may decline over time as
31 they create a stronger ident ity related to the sport and charitable cause (Snelgrove & Wood, 2010). A study investigating charity sport event motivation amongst a sample of college students found philanthropic motivation was the most important and that individual motivation differed based on demographic background (Won & Park, 2010). A similar study conducted by Bennett, Mousley, Kitchin, and Ali Choudhury (2007 ) investigated motivation for charity event participation amongst a British sample and found motives were primarily related t o involvement with the cause, pursuit of a healthy lifestyle, general involvement with the sport, and social motives. Further, the authors found that individuals were willing to pay a higher registration fee if the event was prestigious, the participant wa s highly involved with the cause, or the individual was motivated by the pursuit of a healthy lifestyle. Recently, a study conducted by Rundio, Heere, and Newland (2014) compared the motives of participants from cause related events and non cause related e vents. The authors discovered that participants of the cause related event motives rated motives related to self esteem, personal goal achievement, competition, and recognition/approval were significantly higher that non cause related event participants. Filo, Spence, and Sparvero (2013) utilized a slightly different approach to researching charity sport events and explored the sense of community amongst participants. The authors argued that sense of community was present amongst the charity event particip ants under investigation as they possessed dense and demanding cycling travel utilized a unique approach to this area of inquiry as she provided an autoethnographic acco unt of her experiences at a three day cycling charity event
32 located in Australia. Coghlan argued the existence of two previously unidentified themes: fear and anxiety related to event safety as a potential barrier to event participation and the expression of creativity through fundraising. A follow up study to comparison method to explore their results collectively. Coghlan and Filo argue the role of connection is paramount to charity event participation and that it plays a central role escapism was an import ant motive for multi day events, but is often diminished with charity sport events. 2.4 Ev ent Travel Career Within active event sport tourism, Getz (2008) combined the ideas of serious leisure (Stebbins, 2007) and the travel career pattern (Pearce, 2005) by coining the term event travel career ( ETC ) and suggested amateur athletes that are engag ed in serious leisure can create a lifelong car eer of travel to sport events. Getz (2008) argued what he called a travel career, might actually be more applicable to i ndividuals with special interests as they increase their involvement over time such as amateur athlete s attending competitive events. In describing the idea of an ETC , Getz (2008) suggested a travel career trajectory has six dimensions and hypothesized an ETC is characterized by changes in these six dimensions, which include: motivation, travel style, temporal patterns, geographic preferences and patterns, event type, and destination criteria. 2.4.1 Serious Leisure ualization of the ETC it is useful to examine the concept of serious leisure . Engagement in leisure behavior such as sport
33 tourism can range from casu al to serious (Stebbins, 1992). Stebbins defined serious leisure hobbyist, or volunteer activity that is sufficiently substantial and interesting for the participant to find a career there in the acquisition and e x pression of its spec Serious Leisure or later known as the Serious Leisure Perspective (Hartel, 2013) is defined through six distinctive qualities, which distinguishes it from unserious forms of leisure activity, these qualities consist of: perseverance, career potential, significant personal effort, durable benefits, a unique ethos, and identification with the leisure pursuit (Stebbins, 1982). Although, participants are driven by pleasurable experiences they are required to endure unplea sant moments in order to engage in serious leisure, thus there is an occasional need to persevere. Since engagement in serious leisure involves enduring pursuits that have distinct stages of achievement and involvement along with a series of choices, parti cipants have the propensity to create careers in their endeavors (Stebbins, 1982). Serious leisure pursuits differ from other leisure involvement in that they are not ephemeral compared to other casual activities. Thirdly, as participants become more invol ved and engrossed in their leisure pursuits a career is built by exerting significant effort based on special knowledge, training and/or skill specific to the leisure activity. This significant effort and special skills/knowledge/training differentiates am ateurs and hobbyists from other lesser involved individuals. Fourth, as shown by early research on serious leisure from Stebbins (1979, 1980, 1981a, 1981b) eight durable benefits are provided to those that engage in serious leisure, which include: self ac tu alization, self enrichment, renewal of self, feeli ngs of accomplishment, enhance ment of self image, self expression, social interaction and
34 belonginess, and the lasting physical products of the activity . In addition, participants also experience the flee ting benefits of self gratification, but this benefit is also enjoyed by those engaged in unserious leisure. Fifth, a distinct quality that separates serious leisure from unserious forms of leisure is a unique ethos that surrounds the activity. As particip ants experience the aforementioned qualities they develop and maintain a subculture with unique beliefs, values, morals, norms, and performance standards (Stebbins, 1982). Unruh (1980) describes these subcultures as social worlds, a concept which will be d iscussed in detail later in this chapter. Lastly, the sixth quality of serious leisure and arguably the most important occurs when participants personally identify with their selected leisure pursuit, termed social identification. Tajfel (1981) describes s that part of the individuals' self concept which derives from their knowledge of their membership of a social group (or groups) together with the value and emotional significance of that membership" (p. 255). Through this identific ation with a leisure activity, serious leisure participants tend to spe ak proudly, excitedly, and frequently about the activity to other people, and to present themselves as a career participant in the activity (Stebbins, 1982). Serious leisure has the abi lity to create its own social identities, which include patterns of time allocation, expenditures, family relationships, and norms (Gillespie, Leffler, & Lerner, 2002). Further, Shamir (1992) argues that social identity related to leisure behaviour becomes important when i t expr esses and rovides social recognition beliefs. The three types of serious leisure (volunteers, hobbyists, and amateurs) are discernable by the style, individ ual characteristics, and the nature of the particular
35 leisure pursuit. Volunteers are characterized by offering uncoerced action not primarily aimed towards financial gain, which involves engagement in helping activities that are deemed beneficial (Van Til , 1979). Hobbyists are engaged in specialized pursuits outside of their occupation and are committed to their endeavors, but do not have a professional counterpart, which distinguishes them from amateurs (Stebbins, 1982). Typically, hobbyists are classifie d into five different categories (originally four), which include: collectors, makers, tinkerers, non competitive activity participants (i.e., fishing, barbershop singing), sport participants with no professional counterparts, and liberal arts enthusiasts (Stebbins, 2007). The corresponding commercial role of hobbyists lacks the conventional characteristics of a traditional profession as hobbyists typically are enamored with their pursuits, which diverges from ordinary work roles (Stebbins, 1982). In regar ds to professionals, the serious leisure model typically consists of three interdependent groups: amateurs, professionals and publics originally described as the professional amateur public (P A P) system (Stebbins, 1982). Professionals establish a high le vel of excellence previously unknown to the activity, once participants might meet these new these standards they become amateurs. In serious leisure, publics are groups of people that share a common interest and are not served by, but informed, enlightene d, or entertained by professionals and amateurs through financial support, performance or product feedback and role support (Stebbins, 1992). More recently, Yoder (1997) in a study exploring tournament bass fishing reconceptualized the P A P system as a mo re complex triangular model with the addition of commodity agents. influential collection of groups and
36 individuals involved in the production, facilitation, and exchange of activity related commodities . 415). The new understanding of the P A P system consists of a system of relationships that connects commodity agents, professionals/commodity agents, and amateurs/publics together also known as (C PC AP), which distinguishes amateurs from hobbyists. Ama teurs, the focus of the current study, benefit from their leisure pursuit because of their refusal to remain a novice and thus the activity evolves into an avocation motivated by seriousness and commitment (Stebbins, 1982). Further, amateurs express their seriousness and commitment to their activity through structured practice, schedules, and organization. Amateurs typically exist in entertainment, science, art and most notably sport and they are linked to professional counterparts through the aforementione d P A P system (Stebbins, 2007). Professionals differ from amateurs through economic distinction as professionals are dependent on the income they earn from an activity that other participants pursue with either minimal or no monetary compensation (Stebbin s, 2007). The serious leisure perspective has been used in numerous studies exploring a wide range sport participant involvement from Canadian curling (Apostle, 1992) to youth sports (Siegenthaler & Gonsalez, 1997). However, more recently Getz (2008) and G etz and McConnell (2011) developed the notion of an event travel career combining the application of serious leisure to sport with sport tourism through a career perspective, which the current study seeks to investigate further under the ASETC acronym. 2.4.2 Travel Career Pattern The idea tourists are able to develop travel careers that provide short and long term motivation was first conceptualized
37 early sociological description of a career which defined the perspective in which the person sees his life as a whole and interprets the meaning of 410), Pearce (1988) devised the travel career ladder approach to unde rstanding tourism behavior. Pearce argued the career perspective is particularly valuable as a framework for studying travel as it based on the idea an individual progresses through a series of ordinal stages and that each of these stages incorporates expe riences that have concept. Early research by Pearce and eer model. dimensions: self centered and non self centered. Pearce (1988, 1993) further refined this idea and argued that travel careers can be viewed as a laddered system encompassing change and promotion both across and within motivation levels which he deemed the travel career ladder (TCL). The TCL depicts tourism needs/motives through fiv e subdivided hierarchal levels including: physiological needs, safety/security, love and belonginess (relationship needs), self esteem (development needs), and self actualization (fulfillment needs) (Pearce, 1988, 1993). Later, Pearce (2005) modified the TCL by increasing the emphasis on the change of motivation patterns rather than on the hierarchal levels, this reconceptualization was termed the travel career pattern (TCP). Under the TCP, Pearce (2005) describes a travel career as a dynamic concept based on the idea tourists have
38 identifiable stages throughout their travels that are influenced by previous travel experiences and life stage or contingency factors. Further, the pattern of travel motivation should be linked to or describe the current state of career, which can be operationalized through a combined attention to travel experience, age and life cycle (p. 55). Adopting the travel career pattern approach, Ryan and Glendon (1998) found that tourists can be clustered into disti nct groups that share similar motivations and socio demographic characteristics, which affect their preferred holiday destination attributes. More specifically, clusters of tourists exist based on Beard four motivational factors: relaxa tion, social, intellectual, and mastery. In a 2005 study, Pearce and Lee investigated the travel motives of Australian tourists and their corresponding travel experience and established motivation could be identified as a pattern and combination of several motives, which are influenced by prior travel experience and age. The participants in the study were primarily motivated by a core group of motives that were important across different experience levels including: self development, relationship, novelty, and escape or relaxation (Pearce & Lee, 2005). The novelty seeking motive has received substantial empirical attention in tourism research (Cohen, 1972; Crompton, 1979) and has been described through four dimensions: thrill, change from routine, boredom a lleviation, and surprise (Lee & Crompton, 1992). However, Pearce and Lee (2005) found individuals with higher levels of travel experience were more highly motivated by self development (host site involvement & nature seeking), while individuals with lower levels of travel experience were more motivated by factors related to stimulation, personal development, self actualization, security, nostalgia, romance and recognition, which contradicts the
39 original TC L. As a result, Pearce and Lee argue personal develo pment motives maybe more important to less experienced tourists while host site involvement motives are emphasized by experienced tourists. In an update to his original model, Pearce (2005) conceptually illustrated the TCP as a three layered system of tra vel motivation, which is reproduced in Figure 2 1. Moscardo and Pearce (2004) built upon the TCP motivational work through integrating life cycle , travel style, and tourist experiences. The term life cycle refers to a sequence of eras biopsychosocial in na and has been used to investigate activity preferences in sport tourism (Gibson & Chang, 2012) and tourism more generally (Gibson & Yiannakis, 2002; Oppermann, 1995). A study by Moscardo and Pearce (2004) with Australian travelers revealed a combination of traveler motivation, life cycle, and demographic characteristics dictated preferred travel style and destination criteria. 2.4.3 Social Worlds Social worlds, the notion that individuals develop and mainta in subcultures related to an activity, a component of serious leisure (Stebbins, 1982), was most notably described by Strauss (1978) and Unruh (1979) as a form of social organization. However, an earlier look into social worlds described the concept as a c ulture area where people and groups position their behavior in some sort of indefinable way (Shibutani, 1955). Social worlds are considered to develop around a primary activity (i.e., cycling), have a site where the activities occur, involve technology of conducting the activity, and a division of labor that evolves in organizations to promote an aspect of amorphous and diffuse constellations of actors, organizations, events, and practices
40 which have coalesced into spheres of intere st and involvement for a partici pant typically without a centralized authority structure. More specifically, social worlds are described through four distinctive features of involvement tha t set social worlds apart from other approaches to social organization: voluntary identification, partial involvement, multiple identification, and mediated interaction (Unruh, 1980). First, the admission to and withdrawal from a social world is fundament ally considered voluntary although some social worlds may require individuals to possess specific characteristics to gain admittance. Second, as social worlds might be exceptionally large in membership and exist over an expansive territory a single individ 278). Thus, smaller subdivided sections of social worlds exist and develop which are known as subworlds. Third, since social life is commonly segmented individuals are typi cally involved in multiple social worlds and a single social world is seldom comprised of a singular actor. Further, as an assortment of different mediums of discourse (e.g., TV, internet, written) are available people maintain involvement through a wide r ange of communication channels, thus total involvement in a singular social world is essentially impossible. Lastly, since the boundaries of social worlds are set by communication (Shibutani, 1955) rather than by the location of the formal membership, medi ated interaction is a common characteristic of social world interaction (Unruh, 1980). Mediated interaction occurs as social world members are often forced to interact through some sort of medium such as telephones or the internet. However, smaller local s ocial worlds might predominately depend on formal face to face interaction.
41 Unruh (1979, 1980, 1983) argued four distinct social types exist within a particular social world that differentiate individuals based on their social proximity and knowledge rela ted to a social world which he termed: strangers, tourists, regulars, and insiders. Strangers are marginally involved and exist outside of the central concerns of a ed by Unruh (1980, p.281). Although tourists are more involved than strangers they are only generically involved through curiosity and have little to no commitment to the operation of a specific social world. Next, regulars are characterized through habitu al participation, significant commitment, and integration into the ongoing activities of a social world. Lastly, insiders are differentiated from the other social types through involvement that encompasses close to their entire life as these individuals ar e focused on creating and maintaining activities for other social world members and recruiting new members. Ultimately, insiders are the individuals that create and expand social worlds. However, the evolution through the four social types is not always li near or orderly as most individuals do not progress through more than one or two of the social types (Unruh, 1983). In order to describe the idea of social world integration as a progressive development Unruh (1983) provides a figure to depict the orientat ion, experiences relationships, and commitment of the four social types which is reproduced in table 2 1. social worlds, Scott and Godbey (1992) described social worlds within a le isure context through the social world of contract bridge as: A unique scheme of life in which members share an in a special set of meaning and in which various cultural elements activities and events, conventions and practices, and speculated knowledge, technology, and
42 language are and made meaningful by social world members and serve to set the social world apart from other social worlds. (p. 49) The authors found that individuals actively involved in leisure behavior differentiated between social and se rious groups to define their orientation towards the activity, which differed in terms of recruitment of members, the characteristics of members, primary function, the nature of relationships among members, and other aspects. Prior to the present study, th e social world construct has been specifically examined within sport and recreation contexts that vary from winter sports (Papadimitriou, Gibson, & Vasioti, 2005) to fishing (Ditton, Loomis, and Choi, 1992), and senior games (Chang, Kang, & Gibson, 2007). An interesting study that investigated the social world of YMCA members found greater social world integration was positively related to higher levels of loyalty, involvement, and commitment with the YMCA (Gawwiler & Havitz, 1998). More recently, Shipway (2008) proposed an updated conceptualization of social world characteristics through an investigation of distance runners which he described as a typology of dist ance running social worlds (F igure 2 2). This typology depicts the four social types as concen tric circles with insiders located in the innermost circle and outsiders represented by the outermost circle. Building upon this work, Shipway, Holloway, and Jones (2012) conducted a study into the social world of distance runners through an ethnographic a pproach. The authors argue that the distance running social world allows for both development and confirmation of a running related identity that type is charact erized by their orientation, experiences, relationships, and commitment to the social world. In order to avoid confusion with the tourism component of this study,
43 the social world type descriptors (insiders, regulars, occasional, and outsiders) generated b y Shipway et al. is adopted in the current study. 2.4.4 Event Travel Career Studies As the ETC concept is relatively new, scholarly work on the topic is scarce, and to date is limited to four published studies. Getz and McConnell (2011) explored the idea o f an ETC by conducting a study on cyclists who participated in an iconic Canadian mountain bike event. A similar study was also completed by Getz and Anderson (2010) with runners participating in a Swedish hallmark half marathon event. In regards to the af orementioned six dimensions, a summary of the results from Getz and McConnell and Getz and Anderson are provided here. (1) Motivation: highly involved participants were primarily motivated by self development regarding athleticism and challenge, while soci al motives and extrinsic motives were less important. Also, higher involved runners reported a significant change in their motives over time compared to lesser involved runners. (2) Travel style: primarily male participants traveled in groups of friends lo cally, regionally, and internationally. (3) Temporal: higher involved participants participated more frequently than lesser involved participants and were more willing to travel throughout the year compared to seasonally. (4) Spatial: inconclusive results partially confirmed the idea that higher involved runners were more willing to travel further to events. (5) Event types: participants completed a portfolio of different events in their career and more highly involved runners were more motivated to attend iconic events. (6) Destination criteria: the higher involved were more highly motivated to visit iconic destinations, while the participants in general placed less emphasis on destination criteria in regards to iconic events.
44 Outside of the initial work c onducted by Getz and colleagues on ETCs only two other published studies have investigated this concept to date. This work by Lamont and Kennelly (2011) and Lamont et al. (2012) suggests the progression of a sport related ETC is constrained by interrelated and cyclical competing priorities that interfere with daily life and the pursuit of such a career. In a study analyzing online forum postings from Australian triathletes, Lamont and Kennelly discovered competing priorities exist in the form of intraperson al, interpersonal, and structural constraints and as such align with the leisure constraints model pioneered by Crawford and Godbey (1987) and Crawford, Jackson, and Godbey (1991) and subsequently refined by other scholars. Later, Lamont et al. identified seven competing priorities as constraints among a sample of amateur triathletes, which include: sociability, domestic responsibilities, finances, leisure, well being, work/education, and familial relationships. These different priorities were identified as being interrelated and as such, individuals must accept opportunity costs in one domain to be able to pursue another in an attempt to negotiate constraints. In regards to ETC trajectory, Lamont et al. (2012) found progression was heavily influenced by the number of events available compared to the desire to travel to larger, more challenging, or more iconic events. Nevertheless, Lamont et al. argued ETC participation pulsates as individuals expand and contract their involvement over time. This idea of puls ation contends ETC participants go through phases of intense training where ETC priorities are predominant before an event, and then after event participation the participants experience a recovery phase when non ETC priorities are dominant. Thus, the lite rature referenced in this chapter provides the conceptual foundation for the study on ASETCs.
45 Table 2 1. Types of social world integration Social style world type Strangers Tourists Regulars Insiders Orientation NaivetÃ© Curiosity Habituation Ident ity Experiences Disorientation Learning Integration Creation Relationships Superficiality Transiency Familiarity Intimacy Commitment Detachment Entertainment Attachment Recruitment Note . Adapted from Unruh (1983).
46 Figure 2 1. Travel c areer p at tern (TCP) , adapted from Pearce (2005).
47 Figure 2 2. A typology of a distance running social world , adapted from Shipway (2008) Experienced "Insiders" "Regular" Runners "Occasional" Runners Sporting "Outsiders"
48 CHAPTER 3 METHODS As aforementioned, t he overall purpose of the study was to explore the evolution and trajectory of ASE TCs through stages of development. More specifically, the study s ought to understand the dynamics of travel career progression from entry to withdrawal. This chapter presents an overview of mixed methods research, the data collection procedures, instrument ation, and data analysis. 3.1 Introduction to Mixed Methods Research Though authors might define mixed method research in slightly different terms it typically refers to a research design that utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data (Johnson, Onwue gbuzie, & Turner, 2007). Creswell and Plano Clark (2007) describe mixed methods research as: It focuses on collecting, analyzing and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or series of studies. Its central promise is that the use o f quantitative and qualitative approaches, in combination, provides a better understanding of research problems than either approach alone (p.5). As mixed methods research combines the classic models of research design it has However, some scholars argue against the use of mixed methods research due to concerns regarding epistemological views a nd traditional understandings of research research tool or procedure is inextricably embedded in commitments to particular ). Thus, under this stance the decision to utilize a specific approach to data collection (e.g., observation,
49 questionnaire, etc.) represents a predisposition to an epistemological stance such as positivism and social survey research (Bryman, 2008). Howeve r, while a specific research approach might provide an inclination towards an epistemological stance this is not a definite connection as research methods can be utilized for different purposes with varying epistemological orientations (Bryman, 2008). Simi larly, criticism against mixed methods research argues quantitative and beliefs and dictates which for scientist in a particular discipline influence what should be st udied, how research should be done, and how results should be interpreted (Bryman, 1988, p. 4). Lincon and Guba (1985) describe this argument as a purist stance as these paradigms are thought to be fundamentally incommensurable. Still, this stance towards mixed methods research overlook s areas of overlap and commonality between quantitative and qualitative research, which has led to a more modern understanding of mixed methods research from paradigm wars to being regarded as the third research para digm (Cam eron & Miller, 2007). Thus, mixed methods research attempts to integrate quantitative and qualitative research. Hammersly (1996) argues three principal approaches to mixed methods research exist, which he describes as (1) triangulation the use of one met hod to corroborate the findings of the other (2) facilitation occurs when one method is used to supplement the other strategy, and (3) complementarity this arises when the two methods are utilized in order that different aspects of the study can be mer ged. However, Morgan (1998) proposed four approaches to performing mixed methods research based on two distinct criteria: (1) the priority decision the extent to which
50 either the qualitative or quantitative method will be the principal tool for collectin g the the sequence or order the quantitative or qualitative data are used. Thus, either method can be considered the principal method or the complementary methods. Observably, a variety of approaches exist fo r attempting to integrate quantitative and qualitative methods in mixed methods research and great debate surrounds this topic (Bryman, 2008). Investigating this issue empirically, Bryman (2006) performed a content analysis of 232 social science articles a nd discovered 18 different techniques quantitative and qualitative research have been integrated. The current study utilized a complimentary sequential mixed methods approach to integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods. Morgan (1998) des cribes strengths of different methods through a division of labor... using a qualitative and a quantitative method for different but well connected purposes within the same o verall data collection occurs when one form of data provides a basis for the collection of another form of data. Thus, the qualitative study as phase one provided the theo retical foundation for the quantitative study as phase two, which empirically tested some of the propositions raised in the qualitative findings and enhanced the generalizability of the results. Lastly, t he quantitative phase of the study used a cross sect ional survey design to investigate the aforementioned research questions. Cross sectional research designs within the social sciences are typically characterized by four components as described by de Vaus (2001) (1) data collection occurs at a single time point (2) reliance on
51 existing differences, (3) no random allocation to groups, and (4) a minimum of one independent variable with two categories. 3. 2 Phase I: Qualitative Study Method Due to the infancy of the ASETC concept, a qualitative grounded theory approach utilizing in depth interviews was deemed the most appropriate for phase one. The target population was amateur cyclists currently residing in the state of Florida that were actively engaged, beginning, or have culminated ASETCs. Contrary to the st udy conducted by Lamont et a l. (2012), participant selection criteria of maximum time limits for travel requirements was not included. The selection criteria used by Lamont et al. was not enforced in order to provide maximum breadth of knowledge from great er and lesser involved individuals and individuals that have concluded their ASETC as called for by Getz and McConnell (2011) . The sport of cycling presented a n ideal area of inquiry for the study as athletes are distinctly engaged in specific levels of in volvement that varies by skill level (subjective and objective by the governing body) and competitive disposition (i.e., racing or non racing) . T he state of Florida was selected due to the widespread dispersion of its major population centers and the locat ion of the lead researcher. Preceding data collection, institutional review board approval and inf ormed consent was obtained ( Appendix A). 3.2.1 Qualitative Data Collection Prospective participants were recruited using organizational affiliations (i. e., l ocal cycling clubs) and social networks. Prior to individual interviews , prospective participants completed a brief web based self report questionnaire to assess their qualifications for inclusion in the study and to collect basic demographic and contact i nformation. A total of 77 potential respondents completed the selection questionnaire
52 (A ppendix B). In order to stimulate the collection of relevant data and to assist in the interview process a semi structured int erview guide was generated ( Appendix C ). E ach interview began with opening comments and warm up questions , before questions pertaining to each of the ASETC dimensions identified by Getz and McConnell (2011) were asked , which included: motives, travel style, temporal, spatial, event types, and dest ination criteria. The actual questions and order of the questions varied depending on the individual responses from the study participants. P robing and follow up questions a thorough understanding of the complexities of active sport event travel at an individual level. Data collection consisted of three sampling phases of semi structured in depth interviews with amateur cyclists using the theoretical sampling approach descr ibed by Strauss and Corbin (1998 ) and Charmaz (2006). The first sampling phase consisted of purposeful sampling in order to gain maximum variation based on the aforementioned ASETC dimensions identified by Getz (2008 ). Further, several demographic characte ristics were used in the purposeful sampling process including: gender, age, employment status, dependent children, and marital status. Lastly, participants were purposefully selected based on their years of experience of travel to participate in cycling e vents in order to include a broad spectrum of lesser and more involved individuals. The second and third phases employed relational, variational , and discriminate sampling strategies in the process of discovering differences through the data and v alidating the emerging theory. Interviews were either conduct ed at a physical locatio over the phone or via Skype voice over IP
53 service. Each interview lasted approximately 60 to 90 minutes in duration and was audio recorded. Sample size was determined as the study progressed and terminated when saturation of data was achieved as described by Marshall (1996) . 3.2.2 Qualitative Participants The sample consisted of four females and eight males to create a total sample of 12 participan ts . To protect the identity of the participants, pseudonyms were assigned to each individual by the lead researcher. Select descriptive information and the pseudonyms for the study participants is provid ed in Table 3 1. The participants ranged in age from 22 to 67 years old and 1.5 to 40 years of experience of active cycling event travel, which coincided with the exploratory nature of the study and facilitated the competitive orien tation was assessed during the interview process, while descriptive information was obtained through the selection questionnaire. 3.2.3 Qualitative Data Analysis Each interview was transcribed verbatim then analyzed as each phase of data collection was co mpleted, which resulted in 334 typed pages. Prior to data analysis, the primary researcher carefully read and reread the interview transcripts. Subsequently, the data w ere analyzed using a constant comparison approach utilizing QSR NVivo 8.0 qualitative da ta analysis software. ) procedure for coding grounded theory data which consists of open, axial and selective coding in conjunction with each of the aforementioned sampling phases was emplo yed. First, the open coding was an analytical process that discovered and identified concepts and the related properties within the data. Second, the process of axial coding related categories to the relevant subcategories created earlier to generate speci fic and comprehensive
54 explanations of the phenomenon under investigation. Lastly, the selective coding stage refined and integrated the categories to form the grounded theory. Throughout the analys is, codes emergent from the data and a priori codes from th e existing literature were considered. 3.3 Phase II: Quantitative Study Method The second phase , the quantitative study, of this complimentary sequential mixed methods design was based upon the results of the first phase, the qualitative study. The followi ng sections describe the methodology used for the second phase in regards to data collection, participants, instrumentation, and data analysis. 3.3.1 Quantitative Data Collection For the quantitative phase of the current study, data were collected via a web b ased survey using Qualtrics research software provided by the University of Florida. To ensure confidentiality and anonymity study participants were not asked to provide their name, address or e mail address or any other identifiable information . As such, t here was responses. No direct comp ensation or benefits were provided to the study participants. In order to ensure adequate response rate and coverage, data collection closel y related recommendations/guidelines. A web based survey was used as it has several advantages compared to traditional mail surveys pertinent to this study such as the abilit y to reach a geographically diverse sample, low cost, and a shorter data collection period (Dillman et al., 2009). Prior to survey distribution, the questionnaire was pretested using cognitive interviews with five prospective participants to reduce measur ement error as described
55 by Willis (2005). Cognitive interviewing is a survey pretest method used to improve questionnaire design through a think a loud process that identifies problematic questions (Drennan, 2002). After the cognitive interview process wa s complete, final revisions to the questionnaire were completed and it was distributed online for data collection. Relying on the recommendations provided by Dillman et al. (2009) a three contact survey strategy (initial invitation and two follow up invita tions) was utilized to encourage survey response. A meta analysis of 49 studies using electronic surveys conducted by Cook, Heath, and Thompson (2000) found multiple contacts to be the best predictor of response rates amongst web based surveys. The sample and the specific procedures used to distribute the survey are described in section 3.3.3. Prior to data collection, institutional review board approval and informed consent was obtained ( Appendix F). 3.3.2 Quantitative Instrumentation The ques tionnaire ( Ap pendix F) consisted of closed ended and partially open ended questions that were divided into five main sections: (1) motivation, (2) social worlds, (3) event, destination, and travel style characteristics (4) ancillary items (e.g., experience, racing orie ntation), and (5) demographic background ( Appendix D). Several previously developed scales and additional items developed for this study were assessed and are described below. Motivation. The Leisure Motivation Scale was originally developed by Beard and Ragheb (1983) to assess the psychological and sociological reasons for leisure activity participation. The Leisure Motivation Scale is a 48 (full version) or 32 (short version) item five point Likert type scale, which measures four dimensions of leisure mo tivation of the Leisure Motivation
56 Scale are intellectual 12 mastery 12 Leisure Motivatio n Scale is located in Appendix E. The intellectual component assesses motivation to participate in an activity that encompasses mental activities such as exploring, learning, discovering, creating, and/or imaging. The social component assesses motivation related to social reasons consisting of two basic needs: the need for friendship and relationships, and the need for the esteem of other individuals. The third component, competence mastery, measures ompete. Lastly, the stimulus avoidance component measures the intent to escape and get away from over stimulating life situations as some individuals desire to avoid social contacts, seek solitude, and calm conditions while others desire to rest and unwind through the activity. Later, Ryan and Glendon (1998) successfully adapted the Leisure Motivation Scale to tourism amongst a sample of British tourists with 14 items using a seven point Likert type scale where seven is the highest ranking. The abbreviated Leisure Motivation Scale consisted of: social (5 intellectual (3 competence (2 and Jenkins (2013) adapted items from the Leisure Motivation Scale to assess the motivations of participants at a large Australian road cycling event. Thus, the present study adapted items from the short form of the Leisure Motivation Scale to assess the motivation of the sample. However, the Leisure Motivation Scale does not measu re charity related motivation, a noteworthy theme identified in the qualitative study. Thus,
57 charity related motivation items were adapted from the scale developed by Bennett et al. (2007). Benne t t et al. (2007) originally developed the scale to measure m otivation to participate in a charity affiliated sporting event with six items using a five point Likert Leisure Motivation Scale only contains two health related items, it does not adequately assess motivation related to the desire to pursue a healthy lifestyle, another theme identified in the qualitative study. So, items were adapted from McDonald, Milne, and Hong (2002) and Bennett et al. (2007). In a study investigating the sport participation motives amongst a national sample of sport consumers McDonald et al. measured physical adapted these items to measure the desire to pursue a healthy li festyle with five items using a five point Likert scale point Likert type scale were constructed using a panel of exp erts and anchored by and to capture a wide range of responses all motivation dimensions were measured using a five Social world segmentation instrument . In a study investigating the social worlds surrounding YMCA member involvement Gahwiler and Havitz (1998) developed the S ocial W orld S egmentation I nstrument orld integration characteristics. The SWSI consists of four ordinal level closed ended items
58 referring to the four subworld world types. For instance, relationships with ot her social e personal friendships career cyclists and ASETC progression the SWSI was adapted for this study. The entire SWSI is provided in Appendix D . Ancillary i tems . Questionn aire items supplementary to the aforementioned scale items were constructed to measure travel, event, and destination characteristics, event travel experience, racing/non racing orientation, participation patterns, and demographic background. For event, tr avel style, and destination characteristics, a range of items were constructed and assessed utilizing a Likert type scale measuring assessing preferred event (22 items; i.e., entry fee, size, etc.) travel style (12 items; i.e., low cost, traveling with friends, etc.) and destination (10 items; i.e., scenery, weather. etc.) characteristics were generated from the results of the qualitative study and adapted from Getz and M interviews. Likewise, these items were also asked in the context of event travel with non cycling travel companions and non regional event travel, which was defined as travel to events that requir ed more than four hours of travel one way. For event travel experience, participants were asked about how many years they have been traveling to, and participating in, cycling events. Further, participants were also asked about the number of events they ha ve completed within the last 12 months. For racing/non racing
59 orientation, one five orientation towards racing or non participation patterns, respondents were asked about participating with family/friends, weekly time spent cycling, involvement in other sports, and cycling discipline involvement. Lastly, for the demographic background section eight variables were included : gender, age, employment status , ethnicity, education, marital status , household income, and location. 3.3.3 Quantitative Participants The survey population for the quantitative phase was amateur cyclists who are actively engaged, beginn ing, or have cul minated ASETCs. Similar to the qualitative phase, selection criteria used by Lamont et al. (2012) was not enforced in order to provide diversity of knowledge from greater and lesser involved individuals and individuals that have concluded their AS ETC. Typi cally, data collection in scholarly work related to active event travel involves a single event. However, this approach is considered limited as the unit of analysis should be the individual and not confined to an individual event (Getz & McConnell, 2011). However, data collection outside of an actual event eliminates the potential use of a sampling frame to draw the sample. Thus, the participant sample was recruited using organizational affiliations (i. e., local cycling clubs), social networks, and indust ry associations (i. e., cycling based websites) an approach advanced by Getz and McConnell (2011). Partnerships were created with cycling advocacy groups and event promoters to aid in dispersion of the study information to potential respondents. In order t o qualify for the study, potential respondents were asked two screening questions (see below). If potential respondents
60 had not travelled to participate in a cycling event that meets the following criteria and/or were under the age of 18 they were excluded from participation in the study. The purpose of the event travel must be to actively participate in a cycling event (adapted from Lamont, 2009): 1. Requiring a 50 mile one way trip, or 2. Requiring an overnight stay (away from home for 24 hours) 3.3.4 Quanti tative Sample Characteristics The online data collection procedure procured N = 1452 total usable responses with N = 1190 complete responses from 49 states and eight countries ( Appendix G for participant locations). The sample was predominantly male ( n =889), married ( n =788), college educated ( n = 1058 ), non first generation immigrant ( n =1139), and white/Caucasian ( n =1082). The majority of the sample reported annual household income between $30,000 and $129,000 ( n = 692) with a median between $90,000 and 109,000 ( n =158) , while only 6.9% reported income less than $30,000 ( n =76) and 6.3% reported income more than $250,000 6.3% ( n =69). The detailed socio demographic characteristics of the sample are provided in Table 3 2. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 85 ( M =5 2.03, SD =13.446) and from 1 month to 60 years of active cycling event travel experience ( M =12.42, SD =9.97). In regards to cycling characteristics, the sample reported a mean of 9.17 hours spent cycling during an average week ( SD =5.71), a mixed orientation towards racing events ( M =2.47, SD =1.43), participation in at least one event for a mean of 2.1 cycling disciplines ( SD =1.07), and an average of 1.5 primary cycling disciplines ( SD =.69). The detailed cycling characteristics of the sample are provided in Tab le 3 3. To ensure non response error was not a considerable threat to the generalizability of the study the demographic characteristics of the sample were
61 compared to the data from the United States national governing body for cycling, USA Cycling (Larson, 2013). The comparison revealed the current study captured a similar sample in terms of the demographic background of USA Cycling members. 3.3.5 Quantitative Data Analysis Data analysis included several steps and was conducted via Mplus 7 statistical mode ling software and SPSS 22.0 statistics software. First, descriptive statistics were calculated for all constructs to gain an overall understanding of the data and investigate concerns related to coding errors, outliers, skewness, and kurtosis. Second, the validity and reliability of the Leisure Motivation Scale and the SWSI were assessed within the context of the study. To assess the factor structure and the discriminant and convergent validity of the constructs within the Leisure Motivation Scale and the S WSI confirmatory evaluate the fit of the data to the measurement model for the Leisure Motivation Scale and the SWSI the following fit indices were calculated: 2 goodness of fit, normed 2 2 /df ) root mean square of approximation (RMSEA), comparative fit index (CFI), the non normed fit index (NNFI), and the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) was assessed according to the recommendations by Hu and Bentler (1999), MacCallum, Brownem and Sugawara (1996). To assess the convergent validity of the motivation factors average variance extracted (AVE) was calculated and assessed based on recommendations from Hair, Black, Babin, and Anderson (2010). To evaluate the intern al consistency of the Leisure Motivation Scale and item total correlations were calculated and compared to the commonly agreed upon
62 recommendations . (2010) . Thi rd, to evaluate RQ1 a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) analysis was conducted with the social world segmentation types (outsiders, occasionals, regulars, and insiders) and motivation factors/items. Fourth, to evaluate RQ2 a MANOVA analysis was pe rformed on racing orientation groups (racing, mixed, and non racing) and motivational factors /items. Fifth, to evaluate RQ3 a MANOVA analysis was conducted with social world segmentation types and preferred event characteristics, destination characteristic s, and travel style characteristics. Sixth, to answer RQ4 a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to assess the effect of the presence of a non cycling travel companion in regards to preferred event characteristics, destination chara cteristics, and travel style characteristics. Seventh, for RQ5 a paired samples t test was conducted to assess the changes in preferred event characteristics and destination characteristics on travel distance. Lastly, for RQ6 a MANOVA analysis was conducte d to evaluate the differences between racing orientation groups in regards to preferred event characteristics, destination characteristics, and travel style characteristics.
63 Table 3 1. Qualitative participant pseudonyms and de scriptive information Part icipant p seudonym Gender Age Employment Marital status Predominant competitive orientation Approximate years traveling to events Marie Female 35 Full time Married with children Racing 11.9 Walter Male 43 Full time Living w/ Partner Racing 27.4 Hank Male 61 Full time Married with children Non racing 11.1 Pete r Male 67 Retired Divorced Mixed 40 Gus Male 29 Full time Single Racing 13.3 Jane Female 54 Full time Married without children Non Racing 7.5 Todd Male 47 Full time Married with children Mixed 2.2 Steven Male 44 Full time Married with children Racing 24.1 Ted Male 42 Full time Married with children Racing 3.2 Michael Male 56 Full time Married with children Racing Unknown Lydia Female 22 Student Single Racing 1.5 Andrea Female 55 Full time Sin gle Non racing 34.7
64 Table 3 2 . Quantitative s ample socio demographic characteristics Characteristics Percent (%) Frequency (n) Gender ( n =1190) Male 74.7 889 Female 25.3 301 Marital Status ( n =1188) Single 13.7 163 Married without children 17.3 206 Married with children 18.5 220 Divorced 12.4 147 Separated 1.3 16 Widowed 1.3 16 Living with partner 4.9 58 Married with children not living at home 30.5 362 Education ( n =1191) Less than HS 0.3 4 High School or GED 6.7 80 Technical School 4.1 49 2 year college degree 9.7 116 4 year college degree 38.4 457 Graduate degree 40.7 485 First generation i mmigrant ( n =1189) Yes 4.2 50 No 95.8 1139 Race/Ethnicity ( n =1188) American Indian/Native American 1.0 12 Asian 1.1 13 Black/African American 1.4 17 Hispanic/Latino 2.9 34 White/Caucasian 91.1 1082 Other 2.5 30 Household i ncome ( n =1104) Less than 30,000 6.9 76 30,000 49,999 10.6 117 50,000 69,999 13.9 154 70,000 89,999 13.9 153 90,000 109,999 14.3 158 110,000 129, 999 10.0 110 130,000 149,999 7.7 85 150,000 169,999 5.9 65 170,000 189,999 4.3 47 190,000 209,999 3.2 35 210,000 229,999 1.4 16 230,000 249,999 1.7 19 250,000 or more 6.3 69
65 Table 3 3 . Quantitative sample cycling characteristics Item M SD Minimu m Maximum Age 52.03 13.45 18 85 Years of experience of active cycling event travel experience 12.42 9.97 .08 60 Average week cycling hours 9.17 5.71 0 60 Racing event orientation 2.47 1.43 1 5 Cycling disciplines: At least one event 2.1 0 1.07 1 7 Cy cling disciplines: Primary 1.53 .69 0 4
66 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 4.1 Qualitative Study: Results The results from phase one, the qualitative study, revealed the trajectory of ASETCs are depicted through several main themes and related subthemes that are linked to individual circumstances. The following sections outline the trajectory of individuals that are engaged in or have culminated an ASETC as guided by the aforementioned research questions. The results are presented in accordance with the six ASETC dimensi ons proposed by Getz and McConnell (2011) and themes emergent from the data (the first event, starting out, and later in life). 4.1.1 The F irst E vent The first theme termed the first event was depicted through two subthemes experiences traveling and participating in their first event based on the role of peer influence on their decision to attend the first event. The respondents described their first event as predominantly local or in a neighboring area that did not require an overnight stay in the host city. If the decision to attend the first event was not heavily influenced by a peer, participants typically traveled to the event individually or with a friend, participated in the event and then returned home without overnig ht accommodations This first subtheme was exemplified by Walter a 43 year old he race started proba bly a ten borrowe up, thr ew the bike in the back and rode there, did the race, and then went back home
67 However, if participation in the event was driven by a peer or a group of peers the respondents were willing to travel further to participate in their fi rst event. This second subtheme was articulated by Marie a 35 year old experienced racing cyclist as The first one was a collegiate mountain bike race up in North Caro was mostly becau se my best friend was going and it sounded like a good idea at the time, it sounded like something fun to do participate in their first event chose a similar travel style as they tra veled to and from the host city for the sole purpose of participating in the event with little to no other tourism activities. 4.1.2 S tarting O ut The second theme , starting out , emerged as participants described their lifetime experiences with travel to cycling events as several different sources emerged that drove their initial involvement in the sport. Participants reported originally gaining interest and becoming involved with cycling due to health concerns, injury, involvement in triathlons, friends a nd family, and culture. Initial involvement due to health concerns and a desire to lose weight were voiced by two participants, as Ted a 42 year old started like three or four years ago, 2010. I was trying t o actually just lose some weight. I was like 230 pounds and trying to go to the high school class reunion and just started focusing on cycling participants to quit a different sport and ch o ose to pursue cycling as a low impact alternati ve. Walter illustrated this subtheme as he explained: My junior year of high school, I broke my ankle skateboarding and a t the time, I was a pole vaulter . That was my main athletic thing, but when I hree months of
68 physical therapy that I was doing, my doc recommended that I find a low impact way to stay in shape and asked if I had a 10 speed, which was bike and started riding it several times a week. Participation and involvement in triathlons motivated two participants to pursue cycling events initially, which then led to a reduction in triathlon participation. As Marie explained: I started probably about 15 years ago maybe , riding bikes. I started off with mountain biking. I originally was doing triathlons, then when I got more into the bike side of it I realized that cycling was a lot more fun than running . The influence of friends and family were also described as source s for initial involvement. Gus a 29 year old experienced racing cyclist explained his father inspired Well, my dad used to race. He got me into it when I was pretty young, as a junior racer. I started racing at like 15 4.1. 3 Motivation The first ASETC dimension hypothesized by Getz and McConnell (2011), motivation, emerged throughout the interview process as participants retrospectively reflected on their individual motivation to travel and participate in cycling event s. The results revealed motivational factors shifted amongst five subthemes: competition, accomplishment, enjoyment, health concerns, social connections, and charitable intentions . The thrill of c ompetition. Motivation related to competition was consisten t throughout the entire sample. However, the application of competitive motivation was divided across time and the participants in regards to competing with other cyclists or competing against oneself. Participants either reported being motivated by compet ing
69 with others or against oneself after successfully establishing their career. Lydia a 22 year old inexperienced racing cyclist explained: Yeah, f irst events I was just obviously trying to survive. I didn't really care too much about winning. I was just there, to be there. Now, I want to do well and sending out resumes to better teams and trying to get better sponsors so I can go to more events and do well at those too. Further, Steven a 44 year old racing experienced racing cyclist said: the same and everybody wants to compete and they all want to find out what I look for, for my personal satisfaction. Howeve r, participants in later stages of a career progression reported the motivation to compete with others shifted to internal competition later in their career. This was articulated well by Peter a 67 year old veteran cyclist who mixed racing and non racing e vents throughout his career when asked about the changes in his motivation over the years. It was har ycling was more you went training or what you did that day after d ay, weeks, months go by and you know, it just wears on you physically and mentally. I mean now, I want to do it. I want to be out there. A t that age (referring to earlier years) , you want to find out how good you can be and so it should how to ride a bike competitively and how to do tactics and how to train and all that. It was interesting for quite a while to gain that knowledge and experience. Accomplishment, enjoyment, and t ype II fun . Although, some sources of motivation seemed to change as individuals gained more experience, motivation related careers across the entire sample. However, participants of ten reported experiencing unpleasant attitudes when actually participating in some events, especially during
70 events or sections of an event course that were more difficult. Retrospectively, once the event was over participants tended to describe an event a s enjoyable and that the feeling of overcoming a challenge encouraged them to continue their career. This subtheme is categorized as type II fun as participants often only described an event as enjoyable post hoc. Hank a 61 year old experienced non racing cyclist exemplifies type II fun in that: These events are kind of addictive. I c an remember climbing this awful climb called H ogpen and saying, I know I'm within a couple months I'd forgotten about that and I'm ready to g o again. I just love the challenge and the sense of accomplishment. Similarly, Michael a 56 year old racing cyclist said: I need to listen to my own heartbeat. I need to see the sweat drip off my nose, and those are the things I love. It's weird. It's jus t my personality. I'm sure you'll find people like that, as you do your study with the same answers. We just like to suffer. We like to put ourselves through the suffering f e st. The general sentiment among the participants was that actual event participat ion allowed them an opportunity to benefit from their training and time spent dedicated to I mean like, training, giving a purpose to all those hours you put on your bike and wanting to be fast, I guess. I guess that's the main reason Social connection. The third motivation subtheme, social connection , appeared throughout career progression as the participants described the varying importance of social motivation, with the actual source of social motivation being different b etween early career stages and later career stages. As aforementioned, several participants gained awareness and were motivated to complete in their first event due to social connections. However, these social connections often evolved over time from a soc ial connection with non cyclists or cyclists new to the s port to a connection with other
71 career cyclists. This became paramount as participants described lost connections with non cycling friends to a proliferation of career cycling friends as articulated by Andrea a 55 year old experienced non hat happens over time is that you just pick cyclists for friends world was evident for the entire sample. This subtheme was cle arly described further by Jane a 54 year old moderately experienced non racing cyclist who in talking about how she initially became involved in cycling said: Now, I have a bigger base of cycling friends I made more friends cycling, cycling, and we look for events to go to together. My non cycli ng friends o do other things. Throughout the entire sample regardless of the level of competition, participants reported that creating and maintaining connection with other career cyclists was an important motivational factor for traveling to events. This need to maintain social connections with other career cyclists was articulated well by Ted: Well, because of cycling, I have more friends than I ever had in high school, you know how they say oh, you had all your friends in high school and you wish you had, well, because of cycling, I have more friends today than I ever had in the past. So they're my family. I look so forward to going to that family reunion every single weekend . The participan ts generally felt that social connections served as a highly desirable characteristic of cycling when compared to other sports and actually discouraged them from participating in other sports as they were perceived to be less social. Participants that appe ared to have reached an advanced career stage described an immersion in the cycling social world and a detachment from individuals outside of
72 the cycling social world. Gus described his desire to be connected with other career cyclists when asked about his connections with co workers: I realize that these people don't know a lot about cycling, so I don't go into detail. I think if they, when I say I won, congratulations and I just leave it at that and there's no reason to give them the full recap of what happened in the race, like I would, for example teammates. Many of the participants also mentioned the social connections combined with health concerns motivated them enough to continue their career and negotiate difficult c onstraints. This trend was articulated by Marie: Fitness, good health, enjoyable times. Lots of times it was the only social life I would get was when I would go on group rides, because I was so busy doing other stuff most of the time that I couldn't soci alize. Riding my bike with other people, the social aspect. Health concerns . Another common subtheme amongst the entire sample was a desire to participate in cycling events in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle. As aforementioned, certain participants began their initial involvement in cycling due to health concerns. However, the majority of the sample later in their careers began to appreciate and realize the health benefits related to participating in cycling events and this strongly contributed to th e decision to continue their travel career. As Andrea explained: I think when I was first into it, the motivation was more adventure and meeting new people and being outside and now it's more ... I'm much more aware, which is natural when you get older but I'm much more aware of how difficult it is to stay fit. Likewise, Peter said: around, I see guys my age who are just thier person than a lot of my contemporaries.
73 Participants were also motivated by mental health concerns as they sought out cycling events to relieve everyday anxiety. Todd a 47 year old relatively inexperienced cyclist that participated in racing and non racing events verbalized this trend when he mean cycling just makes me feel like a kid Charitable intentions. T he sixth subtheme emerged as t hree participants described their involvement in cycling events was motivated by charitable intentions and careers charity based events served as a primary motive for event travel. The c harity aspect of the events motivated these participants to partake in events that expanded the distance they were willing to travel and to increase the difficulty of the event. As Jane explained the style of riding she preferred, she said: I guess I shoul d add in there cycling basically to do the MS ride, Miami got going in the distance cycling was to do longer distance charity rides. As these participants progressed in their trav el career charitable intentions became less important and travel motives related to charities diminished. Jane further explained: T keep increasing the amount of money you have to fundra ise, and there are so many other events where you just have to pay a small entry fee for 4.1.4 Temporal An initial introductory phase was described by several participants as they became acclimated to a new leisure pursuit once they became more immersed in their cycling career and the cycling social world their event travel frequency increased. Jane enunciated this trend as she st ated:
74 The first couple of years probably just three or four a year, and then it built weekend you could go to. In some cases, participants reported increasing the frequency of their travel and event participation rapidly after their first event, as described by Marie: I think I really did start off pretty strong and hardcore. It wasn't really much build up. I was kind of all in from the beginning, and then within a year or two I had gotten really fit and was racing even more frequently and traveling more. Peak threshold . The first subtheme, peak threshold , developed as the majority of participants described the freque ncy of their active event travel as a steady progression with varying rates of escalation that increased until a peak frequency or a threshold was reached. From this point, the participants either attempted to maintain this high level of travel for a perio d of time or succumbed to constraints and reduced their active event travel frequency. Todd explained: racing everything just worked, schedule, my work travel, just everything wo rked that fell together so I was able to do them all except that one , but I think three or four centuries a year between me and my wife and then have many of the cross series. Cyclocross or often specialized equipment that combines characteristics of road and mountain bike events as participants race for a specified amount of time on a closed course over obstacles such as mud, sand, barriers and stairs. After the peak threshold was reached, several participants reported taking a break from the sport due to overwhelming constraints. Michael described his break from like I said, the re was a big fifteen
75 year gap where I just concentrated on (his soccer participants became reengaged with the sport and resumed their travel career as constraints became negotiable, this sabbatical from the travel career lasted several years in some instances. Walter explained: I kind of got the itch to start riding again at the beginning of 2011 when I had a sabbatical (from work) and more flexible time than I did and started riding my bike some. Basically, within about four weeks, I was really back more equally. However, after the sabbatical, their approach to cycling appeared to take on a new meaning and the seriousness of the ir involvement achiev ed during the peak years was no longer a career objective. Maire articulated this as she described her return to cycling after a sabbatical: Yeah, I went from being competitive type of athlete to dropping in the competitive side and just wanting to go out on my bike and enjoy the ride and look at the trees and enjoy the weather. It's turned way more into a leisurely, just recreational activity rather than competitive, performance based activity that it used to be. Seasonality. The second reoccurring sub th eme under the temporal theme regarding event travel was related to the seasonality of cycling events, which was influenced by the location, cycling discipline, and constraints related to attending an event. The only discernable pattern amongst the sample w as a higher amount of event travel within the state of Florida during the spring and fall due to limited event offerings in Florida during the summer. The reduction in event offerings during the summer months in Florida provided an incentive for some parti cipants to travel out of state. As Ted explained: There's really, unless you're doing the road bike racing in Florida, the mountain bike, there's really not much going on in the summer. Just down in Florida, there just isn't a lot of mountain bike racing g oing on.
76 However, opportunities for year round travel based on different cycling disciplines were available to the study participants depending on their specific interests as described by Walter: Cyclo cross was in the fall. Collegiate road racing was in the spring and then mountain bike racing would be throughout the summer. It largely depended on where I was and what the racing seasons looked like and what kind of racing I was doing. Location. Although inclusion in the study required the participants to reside in the state of Florida , several participants discussed portions of their career while they lived in other areas of the country. As these participants described their event travel frequency in other states a common pattern appeared. The participants that were engaged in cycling travel while residing in other states described varying levels of event travel frequency based on the availability of events. The number of event offerings in close proximity to the participants varied as some locations were d escribed as having more events than Florida. Steven explained this: When I first had my USCF card (cycling race license) , I probably only did Dayton , Ohio and I had more events around within an hour and a half or days of racing a year and that includes road and cyclocross. In Ohio , you could race lot of weekends when you had to decide which direction you were going to go for a race because you could race every weekend. Other locations were described by participants as having very few events compared to Florida as enunciated by Peter: I was with the bike clubs and we were having small teams go to events hard to recollect that much bu t in first the co uple years I did a little more, a little more, then a little more, and then moved from Florida to Vermont.
7 7 nearly as much activity back in the backwoods, so that set me back a bit and I did local events for a while. Thus, event travel frequency at times was due to the availability of events based on location. 4.1.5 Travel S tyle The results revealed two subthemes associated with the ASETC dimension of travel style throughout the com plete sample as the participants described their style of travel to participate in cycling events throughout their career. These two subthemes, racers make poor tourists and the overnight cutoff , were related to whether the travel was to an event that was oriented towards competition or recreation and the travel distance. Racers make poor tourists. The first subtheme emerging from travel style, racers make poor tourists competitive events (e. g., road races, time trials, etc.) as vastly different compared to the travel style utilized to participate in non competitive events (e. g., centuries, charity events, etc.). Competitive event participants chose to travel alone, or with a group of friends and would participate in the event and return home without partaking in any other tourist attractions or activities. Further, competitive event participants expressed extreme frugality and would put great effort into reducing travel expenses to an absolut e minimum. As Peter described his experiences traveling to competitive events early in his career, he said: always get there and get back. We didn't travel that far, we were ou get six or eight guys packed into a van or pitching in for gas, uple of hours in a road i t was bare bones put it that way. Ju st get there and get back.
78 Likewise, Walter in reminiscing about his early career said: up early the next morning, have some breakfast, do the race, and usually drive back home. I t was very much a solo, low budget effort. The desire to use a minimalistic style of travel and to reduce expenses ultimately Marie explained: Another factor that comes into play a lot of times when I'm traveling or used to travel for riding is if I had a good reliable lodging around. If I knew different people in different towns who I could stay with, that definitely, put a priority on going to those races or events to try to control the cost of traveling and racing and stuff. However, if participants were traveling with non cyclists such as a spouse or children their travel style changed drastically from an event specific to a mixed motive trip in order to accommodate the interests of the non cycling travel companion(s). Steven described this trend as he reflected on the travel style he chose when traveling with his family: Now I look for a little bit more in terms of the hotel, they got to have a nice to be a nice quality hotel. They got to have free breakfast for the family. The events that I travel to now are as much family events as they are athletic events. In the past it was purely about the racing and just about athletics. The overnight cutoff. T he second subtheme associated with travel style termed the overnight cutoff emerged as the participants almost always drove to events and only utilized a plane flight in rare circumstances, partially due to the high cost of shipping cycling equipment. The participants often employed a travel distance rule for staying overnight when driving to an event. If a single day event required more than two to three hours of travel time than the participants would typically stay overnight in the host
79 community, otherw ise they would travel to and from the host community without an overnight stay. Michael explained this as he said: I think we kind of made our own cut off that if it was less than a two hour trying to do it in one day , but if it was more than a two drive up the night before and get a hotel room and then come back afterwards unless it was a Sunday race, unless it was a race weekend pendent on the drive. However, some participants were willing drive during the early morning hours in order to reduce their travel costs as articulated by Peter: drive back the same up the next day and go home, you know n next day is return? So I try to go the night before or you c an get up at away, five hours away, ride the event then drive home . 4.1.6 Destination C riteria The fourth ASETC dimension investigated was destination criteria , similar to the fi ndings related to travel style the results revealed a distinct divide between travel to competitive events and travel to non competitive events regarding destination criteria. As the participants described their travel to competitive events the role of th e destination was mostly an afterthought and the focus was solely on event aspects not the attractiveness of the destination. This trend was enunciated by Gus when he was asked about the role of the destination in his decision to attend an event, he said: No, I mean, if it's there and I want to do it, then I'll go, like this weekend was in, it was in Ocala and it was kind of like in this town called Reddick and there's nothing there. So I went to it, I didn't care. It's just a race and you go do it.
80 If a competitive event happened to be located in an attractive destination then the auxiliary benefits related to scenery, uniqueness, etc. were thought of as an added benefit and rarely influenced the initial decision to attend an event. Gus explained: M ost ra ces ar e not in a very luxurious place to begin with, so it wasn't ever like something that I would definitely consider, like, oh, this race is in, I don't know, it's in St. Augustine, and that's cool, let's go there. That wasn't like I thought that, just, oh, the race is here, and it just happens to be in St. Augustine, all right cool, we could look to see what's in St. Augustine, it's more like that . The destination is important occasionally. The first subtheme associated with destination criteria was the destination is important occasionally . If participants were traveling to an event that was non competitive then destination criteria became increasingly important. This pattern was evidenced with both racing cyclists and non racing cyclists, but the speci fic event attributes that stimulated the importance of destination criteria differed. Racing cyclists began to consider individually important destination criteria if they were traveling to an event that required extensive travel. For example, Michael expl ained: Seventy percent of the events I do within a two, two and a half, hour radius around Gainesville. And there, you do the event whether you like the scenery or not. You just do it because it's there and you're friends are there. But then two or three events a year you pick and yeah, you pick those because of the scenery So the events further than two and a half hours, yeah I'm a little picky. I mean, if I have a choice of doing one south can go to do one in northern Georgia, I'll pick the one in Georgia . When racing cyclists began to evaluate an event based on destination criteria their evaluation was directed towards the quality and the terrain of the event course rather than the usual t ourism related characteristics as Marie explained: The destination determines and dictates what the terrain is going to be and what the course is going to be. Like I said before, if it's a course that I've been to before and know I loved and really enjoyed it, I make much
81 more of an effort to make it there versus some courses in South Florida that I went to before and I absolutely hated . However, when extended travel was due to participation in a national level competition, destination criteria was no long er a factor in the decision to attend as described by Ted, ell, you know, the destination is just wherever USA Cycling decides to put nationals characteristics whe n traveling with non cyclists. Walter, a racing cyclist explained the difference in the importance of destination criteria when traveling with his family compared to traveling alone. He said: Quite honestly, at this point, that question is largely a functi on of whether (family names) and I are all going. Sometimes out here in Washington (the participant was on an extended summer trip during the interview) will be the case that we all four y length of time travelling at all, the question will be is there something fun that all four of us can do? much more likely to just go and do the race and spend minimal time at the venue and come back home. Non racing cyclists t ypically considered destination criteria more important in their decision to attend an event regardless of having travel companions. However, the role of the destination in making travel choices only became important after their career became established a s evidenced by Andrea, a non racing cyclist, when describing the early portion of her travel career she said: No, I didn't have that option, I just had to pick things that were close by. When I first started, it was a stretch to drive 50 miles and then spe nd the night somewhere that was a big expense for me. If it's within 8 10 hours, I don't think anything about driving , m y reach has gotten bigger. This non racing cyclist began to appreciate and evaluate an event based on the destination criteria once her travel career became established. Andrea, a non racing cyclist said:
82 I think mostly it's been ... like I mentioned earlier, is it a new place I haven't seen or ridden my bike in or is there some new geographical feature that I haven't seen, like New Engla nd in the fall or is it ... a ride to the beach or something like that where you get to hang out on the beach when you're done with your bike ride or is there some special feature in conjunction with the bike ride. 4.1.7 Event T ypes The fifth ASECTC dimen sion explored was event types , as the results revealed both similar and dissimilar patterns across the sample when participants were asked about the type of events they preferred throughout their career. As the participants progressed in their career they became more knowledgeable about event travel and as a result their event preferences evolved. The more experienced participants overwhelmingly demanded more out of their event experience and more carefully deliberated as to which events they would attend. they put much less effort into evaluating an event prior to their actual travel. Steven, a racing cyclist described his increase in event assessment: o be well run, well behind. You very quickly learn which promoters do a good job at events much of a sacrifice as far as travel time or expense or anything like that to long down here in Florida to figure out who does the better job than who and which events I wanted to go to and which events or which promoters were going to put on events. A variety of event aspects were considered important to the participants including, but not limited to: distance, cycling discipline, competition, course quality, size, quality of organization/promoter, loca tion, course support, awards, prestige, and safety. For example, Michael explains the growing importance of safety as a favorable event attribute:
83 S afety, over the years, has become more and more important to me. In 1991, I probably didn't have the experie nce. I would ride any event. But over the years, safety has become a bigger issue to me that has changed . The f u rther the participants traveled to an event the more rigorous their evaluation of event attributes became. If an event was local or required mi nimal travel and was low cost, the participants were more lenient in their evaluation of event attributes. Lydia described her increase in event assessment as she traveled to an event that required extensive travel: It was a lovely 18 hour drive. They ha d a really cool host housing in the camp, it was really cool over there. Not only was it just a bike race, the whole town made it look like a festival. I think that was the greatest time that I've had at an event. It wasn't just racing for us since it was such a big travel event. We tried to get a little enjoyment out of it too. It's not like we are going all the way to Illinois and not seei ng the sights . Two subthemes were evident in the event types dimension, the first was ll about the ride . As participants progressed into the later stages of their travel career, the quality of the actual ride or race (i.e., course quality, difficulty, competition) became the most important, and other superfluous event attributes (e.g., char ity, entertainment, food, etc.) that might have originally drawn them to event travel became less important. Jane described the importance of the actual ride Expandi ng interests. The second subtheme was expanding interests as the results revealed the majority of the participants were originally involved in a single cycling discipline early in their career, but as their career progressed the participants began to expan d their travel to events for different cycling disciplines. This subtheme was articulated by two racing cyclists that primarily focused on road events. First, Gus said:
84 Well, last year wasn't the first time I'd dabbled in cross, but last year was definitel y the first like full cross season that I did, competed in. I do some track racing as well. Eventually, I'll get a mountain bike and do that, but that's not going to happen any time soon. Second, Michael explained: Actually, you're right, because then I didn't do any cycl o cross , and now I pick out some cyclo cross events here and there, which I really like and I didn't do any mountain biking in the early 90s either, which I do now. In the early 90s I had one bike in my garage, now I have nine. However, so me cyclists were reticent about expanding their interests to other cycling disciplines and chose to concentrate only on a singular discipline throughout their travel career. Steven a career road cyclist described his hesitance about participating in other good at it , but just never really got into mountain biking a whole lot 4.1.8 Spatial The results confirmed the sixth ASETC dimension, spatial, across the entir e sample, which was related to the distance the participants were willing to travel for an event. Although foreseeably career progression would be marked with an increase in travel distances, expanding travel distance was more dependent on constraints. Thi s about his desire to expand his traveling distance, he said: I don't know, tough question because Florida obviously is not going to change, but then maybe I'll have more time off of work or more money, to start something and then I'll be able to do like, all right, let's go do a race in California, you know, that would be cool. But until then, I doubt it. However, the willingness to travel further appeared to also to be directly related to the uniqueness and at tractiveness of the event. Michael explained: T hen I have events like Six Gap and that's about a six hour drive. I've done that fifteen years in a row. I've got a streak there that I don't want to
85 drop. If I had to walk, I'd go do it. That's six hours, but that's still worth it for a good Century once a year that is absolutely picturesque. A century is a non competitive road cycling event that requires participants to complete a paved 100 mile route, which is often supported with rest stops. Steven describ ed his willingness to increase his typical travel distance when he described a trip to a national championship event. He said: At that point in time it definitely was out of the ordinary. That one, the draw the r e was jus t the scope of the event itself, bei ng a national championship event and just everything that went along with that. It was a bigger event, the biggest one of its kind. The results also revealed the participants would travel to events in other states in the very beginning of their careers, t his pattern was described by Marie as she discussed her initial involvement with cycling event travel: Initially , I would do lots of distance (travel distance) . We would ride, it wasn't unusual for me to go up to ... in the Southeast, to go up into the mou ntains in North Carolina and Georgia was every weekend initially, not every year but probably 10 to 20 times a year go out of the state of Florida at least. We've even driven all the way up to Vermont to race, all around the Northeast, racing up there. 4. 1.9 Later i n L ife The third and final theme termed later in life was revealed as the interview process asked the participants about their plans for the later stages of their travel careers. These responses were compared with the four participants above the age of 50, in order to discern advanced career stages from intermediate stages . A s a result several trends and one subtheme , giving back, emerged. As two participants approached the conclusion of their travel careers , they reported a decline in event trav el frequency and a slight f ocus on non competitive events. T his theme was evidenced by Those days have kind of passed and as
86 ymore for events o f most Later stages of ASETCs as determined by participant age and travel experience were also depicted by an increase on the importance of each event participation experience and enjoying the event destination. Michael explained: I 'll be quite fr ank with you, ten years from now when I'm 65 the best case scenario is I'll have 15 more years. You don't think I'm going to make my destinations worthwhile? I may go to Hawaii and go bike the volcanoes. Whereas today that wou ldn't be a choice. Similarly, Steven said: not going to get much farther in this. good in that, ma ybe not pretty good but it does offer opportunities for masters athletes and all the athletes into their 50s and beyond, the t Giving back. As t he participants described the later stages of their travel career a common subtheme emerged indicating a desire to give back to the sport through two different means. First, a willingness to volunteer at cycling events in advanced career stages emerged and was portrayed by Michael: I also see a bigger involvement when I retire in volunteering and helping with setting up events. I always thank these people that volunteer at these even ts for helping out because with out those volunteers there wouldn't be any e vents. And I think at that time, ten years from now I'll be 65 , but prior to that age I'll be helping out setting up events. It will be my turn to do that then so a lot of people can bike. Second, the results indicated participants desired to give back to the sport by helping new cyclists progress through the early stages of their event travel career. Steven explained: three on the team and the focus of the whole team now is about get ting
87 recreational events, trying to get them involved in competitive events. A couple of us have worked together and tried to get some new folks what it used to be. 4.2 Qualitative Study: Grounded Theory The qualitative findings revealed several components to the complex development of ASETCs. As such, a clearer understanding of the trajectory of amateur athletes is now apparent through the nine themes and related subthemes which are depicted through the grounded theory model as ASETC stages (Figure 1 2): initiation, introduction, expansion, peak threshold , maintenance, and withdrawal . ASETCs appear to be initiated due to a variety of antecedents including health concerns, injury, involvement in triathlons, friends and family, and culture. The first event of the travel career was competed individually or wi th a friend and was primarily local or in a nearby location that did not require overnight accommodations. A minimalistic travel style was employed in early career stages as participants traveled to and from a host city for the sole purpose of participatin g in an event. However, if participants were compelled to attend their first event by an experienced career cyclist they were willing to travel further and stay in the host city longer . After an initial introductory career stage was completed , the particip ants appeared to become more immersed in the t rave l career and their event travel frequency increased. As career development continued further , the frequency of event travel was dependent on the location of the primary residence of the participant and the corresponding availability of events in the immediate vicinity. E vent travel frequency increased until a peak frequency or a threshold was reached. After reaching the threshold many participants reported taking a sabbatical from the sport due to overwhelmi ng constraints such as commitments to family and school.
88 Although the participants were quite homogenous in their responses, racing and non racing cyclists diverged in their style of travel and the importance of desti nation criteria. Racing cyclists typic ally chose an event specific minimalistic travel style either alone or with a small group that was directed at reducing travel expenses. If a singl e day event required less than two to three hours of travel time the n participants typically traveled to and from the host community without an overnight stay. Racing cyclists put little consideration into destination criteria as the focus was solely on event characteristics . Racing cyclists only began to consider destination criteria if they were traveling to an event that required extensive travel. If racing cyclists evaluated an event based on destination criteria their evaluation was directed towards the attractiveness of the event course. However, if racing cyclists were traveling with non cyclists such as a spouse or children the travel style changed dramatically from an event specific to a mixed motive trip focused towards destination criteria to accommodate the interests of the non cyclists. Conversely, non racing cyclists considered destination criteria im portant in their decision to attend an event regardless of having travel companions. Under the event types theme, a n assortment of event characteristics appeared to be important to the participants throughout their ASETC inc luding: distance, cycling discip line, competition, course quality, size, quality of organization/promoter, location, course support, awards, prestige. Some participants described risk aversion increased later in their career as they placed a greater emphasis on safety. As travel distance and career development increased the cyclists put more rigor into the evaluation of these event characteristics . However, career progression was portrayed b y an emphasis on the quality of the actual
89 ride or race and a reduction on the importance of superf luous event attributes (e.g., charity, entertainment, food, etc.) that might have originally attracted them to event travel. Veteran participants overwhelmingly demanded more out of the event experience and thus , more judiciously considered the events the y were attending in terms of event characteristics and destination criteria. Early career development for most was limited to a single cycling discipline (e.g., road, mountain, etc.), but as the ASETC progressed the participants began to expand their trave l to events for other cycling disciplines. Contrary to previous notions, expanding travel distance was more dependent on constraints than travel career progression. However, the willingness to increase travel distance was directly related to the uniqueness and attractiveness of an event. The final phases of travel career progression was revealed as participants reported a decli ne in event travel frequency and a slight focus on non competitive events . Further, advanced career progression was also portrayed b y a willingness to volunteer at cycling events and to give back to the sport by assisting new cyclists through the early stages of their ASETC. 4.3 Quantitative Study: Results The quantitative study further explored the themes identified in the qualitativ e study and the results are described here. Descriptive statistics revealed the sample captured a wide range of responses from the questionnaire items. In terms of 4 segmentation groups as follows: outsiders (1 1.75; n=52), occasionals (2 2.5; n=467), regulars (2 .75 3.25; n=584), and insiders (3.5 4; n=242). The participants were also
90 divided by racing event orientation , which resulted in three groups: non racing (1 2; n=745), mixed (3; n =235), and racers (4 5; n=362 ). The highest rated event preference item acros destination ) Complete descriptive statistics for motivation (35 items), event preferences (22 items), destination preferences (10 items), travel style preferences (12 items), and social worl d segmentation (4 items) are located in Tables 4 1, 4 2, 4 3, 4 4 and 4 5. The confirmatory factor analysis for motivation revealed that a revised seven factor (31 items) solution best fit the data: intellectual (4 items), social (6 items), competency mas tery (4 items), stimulus avoidance (5 items), healthy lifestyle (5 items), charity (4 items), giving back (3 items). P ost hoc model modification of the initial model (35 items) was performed using the modification index and expected parameter change stati s ti cs as recommended by Kaplan (1990, 1991) . All modifications to the hypothesized model were conducted individually as a single step approach as described by Boomsa ma (2000). Four items were removed from the hypothesized model due to poor factor loadings, convergent validity, and internal consistency of the
91 were retained for subsequent analyses as they were prevailing topics in the qualitative study. The revised motivation model (31 items) indicated good to excellent model fit according to the rec ommendations from Hu and Bentler (1999) and MaCallum et al. (1996). Model comparison using the likelihood ratio test revealed the revised model significantly fit the data better than the initial model, 2 (9) =11278. 89, p < .0 0 1. The motivation model comparis ons and associated fit indices are provided in Table 4 6 and the complete motivation model results are provided in Table 4 7. In regards to internal consistency for the motivation scale , six of the factors met or exceeded the required threshold for Cronba recommended by Nunnally (1978): social ( =.863), competency mastery ( =739), stimulus avoidance ( =.859), healthy lifestyle ( =.916), charity ( =914), and giving back ( =.734). These six factors also met or exceeded required thresholds for AVE and CR as recommended by Hair et al. (2010) indicati ng sufficient convergent validity and reliability for the latent variables. The analysis revealed the latent variable intellectual ( =.661, AVE=.351, CR=.680), scored slightly lower than commonly agreed upon d CR, which raises concerns about scale to measure motivation and previous literature supports the contention that the factor intellectual is adequately measured (Ryan & Glendon, 1998). The confirmatory factor analysis for the SWSI revealed the hypothesized single factor had excellent model fit based on the recommendations from Hu and Bentler (1999) and MaCallum et al. (1996). The measurement model fit indices for the SWSI
92 are provided in Table 4 8 and the model results are in Table 4 9. The SWSI model ( =.804, AVE=.514, CR=.808) exceeded the commonly agreed upon recommendations (2010 ). Thus, the SWSI demonstrates acceptable validity and reliability by commonly agreed upon requirements. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted for the event, destination, and travel style characteristics, however no theoretically acceptable factor s tructure emerged and thus the items were analyzed individually. Further, analyzing the event, destination, and travel style items individually will ultimately help practitioners improve event management and destination marketing as the subsequent results w ill be actionable rather than abstract. 4.2.1 Research Question 1 : Does Motivation Differ w ith ASETC Stage ? The results of the one way between groups MANOVA indicated a significant multivariate effect between the dependent variables, motives, and the ind ependent variable, social world segmentation groups (outsiders, occasionals, regulars, and insiders), F (27, 4005) =12.851 , p<.001. The trace was utilized as it is considered more robust than other statistics when dealing with unequal N values according to Tabachnick and Fidell (2007), which is an issue in this study. Each of the dependent variables individually reported significant between group differences based on social world segmentation at the p <.05 level of significance or better . Post hoc analysis using Bonferroni correction revealed numerous differences between individual social world segmentation groups and motivation factor/items. Bonferroni correction is a technique used with multiple comparisons to ensure the overall confidence level is sufficiently high (Agresti & Finlay, 2009). The complete
93 MANOVA results are located in Table 4 10. Notable post hoc results indicate the motives intellectual, social, mastery competence, healthy lifestyle, giving back segmentation groups from outsider to insider. 4.2.2 Research Question 2: Does Motivation Differ Based o n Racing Orientation ? The results of the one way between groups MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate effect between the dependent variables (motives) and the independent variable, racing orientation groups (racers, mixed, and non racers), Pillai's Trace = .406, F (18, 2664) =37. 679, p <.001. Significant difference s were reported for each of the dependent motivation variables except intellectual based on the three racing event orientation groups. Post hoc analysis using Bonferroni correction reve a led significant differences between the individual racing event orient ation groups and motivation for mastery competence, stimulus avoidance, charity, giving back and the individual items significantly higher than the non racers group for mast racers group was higher than the racers group for the motives stimulus avoidance and charity. The complete MANOVA results are provided in Table 4 11 . 4.2.3 Research Question 3: Do Preferred Event , Destination, or Travel Style Characteristics Differ w ith ASETC Stage? First, a one way between groups MANOVA with preferred event characteristics (22 items) as the dependent variables and social world seg mentation (4 groups) as the independent variable revealed a statistically significant multivariate effect, Pillai's Trace = .204, F (66, 3555) =3.937, p <.001. Of the 22 preferred event characteristic items, 17
94 items had statistically significant between gr oup differences based on social world segmentation. Post hoc analysis using Bonferroni correction reveled statistically significant differences at the p <.0 0 1 level or better between the individual social world segmentation groups and the following ten item s: prize money, a challenging course, larger events, a well organized event, any easy course, a new experience at each event, event media coverage, a scenic course, a party atmosphere, and attending the same event. More specifically, the insiders groups wa s significantly higher at th e p <.0 0 1 level or better for four However, th e post hoc analysis revea led seven event preference items did not significantly differ based on individual social world segmentation groups a scenic and r esults for Research Question 3a a re located i n Table 4 12. Second, a one way between groups MANOVA with preferred destina tion characteristics (10 items) as the dependent variables and social world segmentation (4 groups) as the independent variable revealed a statistically significant multivariate effect, Pillai's Trace = .040, F (30, 3792) =1. 702, p <.001. However, only two individual at the p <.05 level of significance or better based on social world segmentati on . The p ost hoc
95 The MANOVA results for research question 3b are shown in Table 4 13. Third, a on e way between groups MANOVA with preferred travel style characteristics (12 items) as the dependent variables and social world segmentation (4 groups) as the independent variable revealed a statistically significant multivariate effect, Pillai's Trace = .0 86, F (36, 3171) =2.607, p <.001. Post hoc analysis using Bonferroni correction reve a led significant differences between the individual social world of staying with f lower research question 3c are provided in Table 4 14. 4.2.6 Research Question 4a : Does t he Presence o f a Non Cycling Travel Co mpanion o r Travel Distance Change Preferred Event or Destination Characteristics? First, a series of repeated measure one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis were conducted to compare the scores of preferred event characteristics (22 items) across t hree event tourism conditions: (1) traveling solo or with other cyclists, (2) traveling with non cyclists, and (3) traveling more than four hours one way. The differences in preferred event characteristics based on the event tourism conditions were statist ically significant for 21 of the 22 event items. The single item s mall and was the only non significant item, F (1, 648) = 1.78, p =.183. The complete results for the repeated measures ANOVAs and the pairwise
96 comparisons of the main effects using a post hoc test with Bonferroni correction are provided in Table 4 15. Overall, a majority of the event preference items were rated as less important when traveling with non recommendation to attend t with non cyclists. Several items were rated as more important when traveling more than four hours one way and the least important with non cyclists. This pattern was statistically significant at all event website is user with other cyclists than the other tourism conditions. Second, a series of repeated measure o ne way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis were conducted to compare the scores of preferred destination characteristics (10 items) across three event tourism conditions: (1) traveling solo or w/ other cyclists, (2) traveling with non cyclists, and (3) t raveling more than four hours one way. The differences in preferred destination characteristics based on the event tourism conditions were statistically significant for each of the destination items except the F (1, 622) = 2.79, p =.096. The complete results for the repeated measures ANOVAs and the pairwise comparisons of the main effects using Bonferroni correction are provided in Table 4 16. The pairwise comparisons ntertainment is available i n the area here are things to do in the area besides the event he area has activities for families he destination is of
97 historical significance cyclists than the other event tourism conditions at the p <.05 level of statistical significance or better. When traveling more than four hours one than traveling solo or with other cyclists at the p <.05 level of statistical significance or better. 4.2.8 Research Question 4 b : Does the Presence o f a Non Cycling Travel Companion Change Preferred Travel Style Characteristics? A paired samples t test was conducted to evaluate the changes in travel style preferences (12 items) when traveling with a non cycling travel companion compared to traveling solo or with other cyclists. There was a statistical ly significant difference at the p<.05 level or better between the two event tourism conditions for all of the travel style he ability to travel to the cycling event and return home without staying ove rnight test results are located in Table 4 he availability of staying with friends or family in stead of a hotel xpensive/luxury accommodations I can visit family or friends in the area with non cyclists compare d to traveling solo or with other cyclists at the p <.001 level of statistical signifi
98 with other cyclists compared to traveling with non cyclists at the p <.001 level of statistical significance. 4.2.9 Research Question 5: Do Preferred Even t , Destination, or Travel Style Characteristics Differ Based o n Racing Orientation? First, a one way between groups MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate effect between event preferences (22 items) and racing orientation (racers, mixed, and non racers), Pillai's Trace = .385, F (44, 2316) =12.549, p <.001. Each of the dependent racing event preference items reported significant betwe en group differences based on , Post hoc analysis using Bonferroni correction revealed racers preferred prize money, a challenging course, a larger event, reputation and prestige of the event, and a professional cycling component, more than the m ixed and non racing groups at the p <.05 level of statistical significance or better. Further, post hoc analysis discovered at a p <.05 level of statistical significance or higher that the non racers group preferred a scenic course and neutral support more t han the mixed and racers groups. The complete MANOVA results are presented in Table 4 18. Second, a one way between groups MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate effect between destination preferences (10 items) and racing orientation (racers, mixed, and non racers), Pillai's Trace = .173, F (20, 2464) =11.695 , p <.001. Statistically significant between group differences were present for all of the destination preference and
99 analysis using Bonferroni correction revealed non racers preferred favorable weather conditions, a historical destination, a scenic destination, and safety more than the mixed or racers groups at a p<.05 level of statistical significance or higher. The complete MANOVA results are presented in Table 4 19. Third, a one way between groups MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate effect between travel style preferences (12 items) and racing orientation (racers, mixed, and non racers), Pillai's Trace = .073, F (24, 2052) = 3.233, p <.001. Statistically availability of staying with friends or family instead of a hotel I can visit family or friends in the area he ability to travel to the cycling event and return home without staying overnight hoc analysis discovered racers preferred minimal total travel time more than the mixed and non racers groups. Further, the racers group preferred traveling with friends, staying with friends/family, and the ability to travel to an event without staying ov ernight more than the non racers group. T he comprehensive MANOVA results are provided in Table 4 20
100 Table 4 1. Motivation item descriptives Items N M SD To increase my cycling knowledge 1455 3.66 .94 To discover new places and things 1455 4.52 .63 To use my imagination 1453 3.25 1 .03 To learn about myself 1455 3.65 .99 To be with others cyclists 1452 3.99 .81 Have a good time with cycling friends 1452 4.41 .73 Build friendships with other cyclists 1455 3.92 .84 Develop close friendships with ot her cyclists 1450 3.68 .91 Gain a feeling of belonging 1455 3.33 .99 To reveal my thoughts, feelings, or physical skills to others 1453 2.63 1.10 To gain other's respect 1450 2.72 1.01 To maintain social connections with other cyclists 1445 3.73 .84 U se my physical abilities 1449 4.37 .65 Challenge my abilities 1452 4.32 .75 To improve my skill and ability in cycling 1452 4.09 .83 To compete against myself 1456 3.92 1.10 To compete against others 1443 2.88 1.20 To get a feeling of achievement 1445 4.26 .72 Relax mentally 1445 3.96 .91 Be in a calm atmosphere 1443 3.48 1.00 Relax physically 1445 3.68 1.02 Avoid the hustle and bustle of daily activities 1438 3.64 1.02 To relieve stress and tension 1446 4.01 .87 To stay physically fit 1445 4.53 .59 To keep me healthy 1443 4.52 .61 To develop my physical fitness 1407 4.30 .68 To maintain my physical fitness 1407 4.42 .63 To be physically fit 1406 4.41 .61 To become involved in events supporting a charity or charities 1409 3.38 .96 Supporting a charity or charities makes my own life better 1408 3.47 .95 To enhance the status of a charity or charities involved with an event 1402 3.29 .97 I want to help the charity or charities involved with an event 1407 3.53 .95 To volunteer at the event 14 07 3.01 .97 To mentor new cyclists 1404 3.11 .99 To give back to the sport 1409 3.51 .92 Note . All items measured from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).
101 Table 4 2. Social W orld S egmentation Instrument descriptives Ite ms and segmentation groups N M SD Total My general orientation to the activities, events, programs, people, and practices that make up cycling events is 1380 2.78 .73 My experiences with cycling event services, procedures, scheduling, and protocol is 1375 2.83 .62 My relationships with most others at cycling events is 1375 2.77 .81 My commitment to cycling events is best described as 1376 2.83 .80 Outsiders My general orientation to the activities, events, programs, people, and practices that make up cycling even ts is 53 1.72 .46 My experiences with cycling event services, procedures, scheduling, and protocol is 476 1.89 .51 My relationships with most others at cycling events is 595 1. 25 . 43 My commitment to cycling events is best described as 245 1.74 .08 Occ asionals My general orientation to the activities, events, programs, people, and practices that make up cycling events is 53 2.22 .45 My experiences with cycling event services, procedures, scheduling, and protocol is 473 2.45 .54 My relationships wi th most others at cycling events is 595 2.21 .5 0 My commitment to cycling events is best described as 245 2.18 . 47 Regulars My general orientation to the activities, events, programs, people, and practices that make up cycling events is 53 2.94 .45 My experiences with cycling event services, procedures, scheduling, and protocol is 476 2.95 .357 My relationships with most others at cycling events is 595 2.94 . 55 My commitment to cycling events is best described as 245 3.06 . 56 Insiders My gener al orientation to the activities, events, programs, people, and practices that make up cycling events is 53 3.73 .45 My experiences with cycling event services, procedures, scheduling, and protocol is 476 3.51 .50 My relationships with most others at cyc ling events is 595 3.7 6 .45 My commitment to cycling events is best described as 245 3.78 .42 Note. All items measured from 1 to 4 based on SWSI descriptions adapted from Gawiler and Havitz (1998).
102 Table 4 3. Event preference items descriptives Ev ent t ourism c ondition a Solo or w/ other c yclists w / Non c yclists More than 4hrs one w ay Item N M SD N M SD N M SD Prize money is awarded 1353 1.34 .83 826 1.31 .79 1003 1.34 .88 A low entry fee 1350 3.12 1.11 823 2.92 1.26 1005 2.96 1.21 It is a challenging course 1343 3.09 1.19 828 2.82 1.31 1002 3.04 1.32 The larger the better (many participants) 1347 2.22 1.18 824 2.08 1.20 1006 2.21 1.23 The event is well organized 1347 4.38 .75 823 4.05 1.11 1007 4.39 .86 Participants receive gifts (shirt s, medals, etc.) 1349 2.13 1.10 828 1.99 1.14 998 2.07 1.21 A course that makes it easy to get a good result 1346 2.01 1.16 826 1.78 1.05 1001 1.94 1.16 The event is exclusive 1343 1.58 .93 824 1.40 .79 1004 1.56 .93 Involvement of a major corporate spo nsor 1348 1.65 .99 824 1.46 .84 1005 1.55 .98 I want a new event experience every time 1348 3.21 1.14 827 2.30 1.14 1003 2.68 1.22 A recommendation to attend the event from someone I trust 1347 2.60 1.15 826 2.94 1.17 1003 3.24 1.20 The event gets media coverage 1331 1.59 .94 784 1.55 .93 978 1.60 .98 A scenic and interesting course 1334 4.13 .88 783 3.62 1.17 978 4.02 .95 Small and intimate (few participants) 1324 1.89 1.01 789 1.78 .95 977 1.83 1.02 A party atmosphere surrounding the event 1327 2.54 1.23 784 2.52 1.32 979 2.57 1.27 I prefer to go back to the same event(s) 1331 2.82 1.08 786 2.53 1.09 969 2.58 1.10 The event website is user friendly 1331 3.69 1.09 784 3.58 1.24 971 3.93 1.03 Everything I need to know is on the website/social media 1331 3.74 1.11 787 3.54 1.27 975 3.89 1.12 The reputation and prestige of the event 1327 2.60 1.18 782 2.33 1.21 978 2.64 1.26 The event has neutral support, SAG stops, aid stations, etc. 1329 3.59 1.15 787 3.40 1.32 974 1.61 1.05 The event has a profes sional cycling component 1330 1.67 1.03 788 1.61 1.03 977 3.78 1.16 Event and course safety 1326 4.07 1.02 785 3.91 1.24 976 4.22 .97 Note . All items rated from (1) not at all important to (5) very important. a R espondents only answered event tourism cond itions if applicable.
103 Ta ble 4 4. Destination preference items descriptives Event tourism c ondition a Solo or w/ other c yclists w/ Non c yclists More than 4hrs one w ay Item N M SD N M SD N M SD The expected weather conditions are favorable 13 24 3.71 1.05 772 3.80 1.11 975 3.89 1.06 The event is in a world class destination 1323 1.86 1.01 769 2.11 1.15 969 2.11 1.18 Entertainment is available in the area 1323 2.42 1.11 770 3.04 1.25 969 2.75 1.20 There are things to do in the area besides th e event 1322 2.93 1.17 770 3.46 1.23 968 3.14 1.18 The area has activities for families 1325 2.11 1.16 768 2.94 1.40 969 2.25 1.27 The destination is iconic/unique (e.g., unique, famous) 1326 2.48 1.13 771 2.66 1.20 970 2.62 1.20 The destination is of historical significance 1324 2.28 1.13 771 2.58 1.21 972 2.40 1.16 The destination is scenic 1324 3.76 1.01 768 3.72 1.11 968 3.83 1.04 The destination has attractive terrain 1324 3.74 .96 768 3.58 1.10 976 3.84 1.00 The destination is a safe place to s tay and visit 1320 3.98 .99 769 4.01 1.11 968 4.12 .98 Note. All items rated from (1) not at all important to (5) very important. a Respondents only answered event tourism conditions if applicable.
104 Tabl e 4 5. Travel style preference items descriptives Event t ourism c ondition a Solo or w/ other c yclists w/ Non c yclists Item N M SD N M SD Keeping my overall costs low 1311 3.35 1.11 749 3.30 1.21 My friends are also going 1306 2.96 1.21 752 2.79 1.22 My spouse or family wants to go there 1307 2.67 1.37 749 3.46 1.29 Special travel and accommodation packages are provided 1315 2.42 1.18 752 2.56 1.27 Reducing my total travel time, from leaving home to returning home 1312 2.76 1.13 754 2.85 1.20 The availability of staying with friends or family in stead of a hotel 1314 2.09 1.22 753 2.32 1.25 Economical/budget accommodations 1306 3.24 1.12 749 3.14 1.23 Expensive/luxury accommodations 1315 1.43 .79 753 3.63 1.17 I can drive there 1310 3.81 1.12 754 2.52 1.24 I can visit family or friends in the area 1311 2.14 1.15 751 3.15 1.27 The opportunity of combining the trip with a vacation 1308 2.81 1.22 634 1.61 .93 The ability to travel to the cycling event and return home without staying overnight 1133 2.24 1.18 638 2.31 1.22 Note. All items rated f rom (1) not at all important to (5) very important. a Respondents only answered event tourism conditions if applicable.
105 T able 4 6. Motivation model confirmatory factor analysis model comparisons Model 2 df NC RMSEA CFI NNFI SRMR I nitial seven factor model (35 items) 3576.36 539 6.64 .06 .877 .86 .061 Revised seven factor model (31 items) 1612.53 425 3.79 .04 .948 .94 .044
106 Table 4 7 . Motivation model confirmatory factor analysis results Factors a nd Items a AVE CR M SD Intellectual (4 items ) .661 .351 .680 To increase my cycling knowledge .657 3.66 .935 To discover new places and things .488 4.52 .631 To use my imagination .537 3.25 1.026 To learn about myself .668 3.65 .991 Social (6 items) .863 .519 .865 To be with others cyclists .716 3.99 .805 Have a good time with cycling friends .629 4.41 .731 Build friendships with other cyclists .791 3.92 .836 Develop close friendships with other cyclists .799 3.68 .906 Gain a feeling of belonging .599 3.33 .988 To maintain social connections with other cyclists .763 3.73 .841 Competency Mastery (4 items) .739 .493 .796 Use my physical abilities .707 4.37 .650 Challenge my abilities .677 4.32 .74 8 To improve my skill and ability in cycling .743 4.09 .826 To get a feeling of achievement .681 4.26 .718 Stimulus Avoidance (5 items) .859 .543 .855 Relax mentally .794 3.96 .914 Be in a calm atmosphere .729 3.48 1.001 Relax physical ly .664 3.68 1.023 Avoid the hustle and bustle of daily activities .694 3.64 1.023 To relieve stress and tension .795 4.01 .871 Healthy Lifestyle (5 items) .916 .645 .900 To stay physically fit .762 4.53 .593 To keep me healthy .693 4.52 .614 To develop my physical fitness .807 4.30 .684 To maintain my physical fitness .897 4.42 .626 To be physically fit .843 4.41 .611 Charity (4 items) .914 .717 .910 To become involved in events supporting a charity or charities .864 3.38 .962 Supporting a charity or charities makes my own life better .817 3.47 .951 To enhance the status of a charity or charities involved with an event .850 3.29 .969 I want to help the charity or charities involved with an event .856 3. 53 .945 Giving Back (3 items) .734 .515 .759 To volunteer at the event .674 3.01 .970 To mentor new cyclists .656 3.11 .991 To give back to the sport .814 3.51 .922 Note . Standardized estimates are presented using STDYX and Maximum Like lihood estimation. All items measured from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).
107 Table 4 8. Social W orld S egmentation I nstrument model fit indices Model 2 df RMSEA CFI NNFI SRMR Measurement Model 2.976 2 .02 1 .998 .01
108 Table 4 9 . Social W orlds Segmentation Instrument confirmatory factor analysis results Items AVE CR M SD Social Worlds Segmentation (4 items) .804 .514 .808 My general orient ation to the activities, events, programs, people, and practices that make up cycling events is .781 2.78 .725 My experiences with cycling event services, procedures, scheduling, and protocol is .653 2.83 .620 My relationships with most others at c ycling events is .705 2.77 .807 My commitment to cycling events is best described as .723 2.83 .801 Note. Standardized estimates are presented using STDYX and Maximum Likelihood estimation. All items measured from 1 to 4 based on SWSI descriptio ns adapted from Gawiler and Havitz (1998).
109 Table 4 10 . Social world segmentation and motivation MANOVA Social world segmentation Outsiders ( n =52 ) Occasionals ( n =467 ) Regulars ( n =584 ) Insiders ( n =242 ) Motivation M SD M SD M SD M SD F (3 , 13 41 ) p Post hoc a b Intellectual (4 items) 3.42 .76 3.70 .57 3.81 .63 3.87 .71 9.75 .000** 1<2*, 2<3*, 1<3**, 1<4**, 2<4* Social (6 items) 3.02 .82 3.65 .61 3.93 .58 4.17 .62 72.84 .0 00** 1<2**, 2<3**, 3<4**, 1<3**, 1<4**, 2<4**, Mastery Competence (4 items) 3.96 .80 4.18 .52 4.29 .52 4.43 .55 17.55 .000** 1<2*, 2<3*, 3<*4, 1<3**, 1<4**, 2<4** Stimulus Avoidance (5 items) 3.45 .79 3.69 .73 3.82 .78 3.80 .81 5 .12 .002* 1<3*, 1<4* Health y Lifestyle (5 items) 4.25 .71 4.40 .53 4.46 .51 4.50 .58 4.09 .007* 1<3*, 1<4*, Charity (4 items) 2.98 1.16 3.33 .79 3.52 .80 3.45 .94 9.64 .000* 1<2*, 2<3*, 1<3**, 1<4* *, 2<4** Giving Back (3 items) 2.58 .81 2.98 .72 3.29 .71 3.60 .83 52.39 .000* 1<2*, 2<3**, 3<4**, 1<3**, 2<4**, 1<4** To compete against myself (1 item) 3.65 1.24 3.83 1.00 3.98 .99 4.05 1.00 4.32 .005* 2<4* To compete aga inst others (1 item) 2.40 1.24 2.55 1.07 2.95 1.18 3.39 1.25 31.68 .000* 2<3**, 3<4**, 1<3*, 1<4**, 2<4** Note. Pillai's Trace = .2 39, F ( 27, 4005) =12.851, p <.001 . * p < .05; ** p < .0 0 1. a Post hoc analysis performed using Bonferroni correction. b 1= outsiders , 2=o ccasionals, 3= r egulars, and 4= i nsiders.
110 Table 4 11 . Racing event orientation and motivation MANOVA Racing e vent orientation Racers ( n =362 ) Mixed ( n =235 ) Non Racers ( n =745 ) Motivation M SD M SD M SD F (2, 1339 ) p Post hoc ab Intellec tual (4 items) 3.73 .65 3.82 .59 3.76 .65 1.41 .328 Social (6 items) 3.82 .65 3.88 .60 3.76 .65 0.58 .007* Mastery Competence (4 items) 4.41 .48 4.34 .50 4.15 .58 32.35 .000** 1>3**, 2>3** Stimulus Avoidance (5 items) 3.50 .84 3.79 .73 3.87 .71 29.2 2 .000** 1<2**, 1<3** Health y Lifestyle (5 items) 4.39 .53 4.42 .53 4.45 .55 1.79 .013* Charity (4 items) 3.30 .85 3.57 .78 3.41 .87 7.34 .047* 1<2**, 2< 3* Giving Back (3 items) 3.29 .80 3.35 .71 3.13 .78 9.69 .003* 1>3*, 2> 3* To compete against myse lf (1 item) 4.27 .84 4.17 .87 3.67 1.07 54.54 .000** 1>3**, 2> 3** To compete against others (1 item) 3.89 .97 3.22 .91 2.28 .98 359.91 .000* 1>2**, 1>3**, 2>3** Note. Pillai's Trace = .406, F (18, 2664) =37.679, p < .00 1 . * p <.05; ** p < .0 0 1. a Post hoc analysis performed using Bonferroni correction. b 1= r acers, 2= m ixed, and 3= n on racers.
111 Table 4 12. Event preferences and social worlds MANOVA results Social w orld segmentation Outsiders ( n =52) Occasionals ( n =467) Regulars ( n =584) Insiders ( n =242) Item M SD M SD M SD M SD F (3,1204) p Post hoc ab Prize money is awarded 1.21 .72 1.20 .61 1.36 .84 1.58 1.06 11.14 .000** 1<4*, 2<3*, 2<4*, 3<4* A low entry fee 2.89 1.20 3.13 1.09 3.13 1.11 3.00 1.11 1.39 .243 It is a challenging course 2.45 1.27 2.87 1.17 3.19 1.12 3.46 1.21 18.16 .000** 1<3**, 1<4**, 2<3**, 2<4** The larger the better (many participants) 1.91 .95 2.07 1.07 2.26 1.17 2.54 1.34 9.05 .000** 1<4*, 2<4**, 3<4* The event is well organized 3.89 1.09 4.32 .74 4.43 .71 4.51 .71 10.45 .000** 1<2 *, 1<3**, 1<4**, 2<4* Participants receive gifts (shirts, medals, etc.) 1.98 1.03 2.06 1.07 2.18 1.12 2.12 1.10 1.16 .324 A course that makes it easy to get a good result 2.11 1.18 2.06 1.15 2.03 1.14 1.78 1.10 3 .32 .019* 2>4*, 3>4* The event is exclusive 1.40 .80 1.42 .78 1.65 .97 1.70 .97 7.32 .000** 2<3*, 2<4* Involvement of a major corporate sponsor 1.34 .70 1.56 .92 1.71 1.03 1.63 .94 3.46 .016* I want a new event experience every time 2.47 1.25 3.15 1.1 3 3.20 1.11 3.49 1.06 11.80 .000** 1<2**, 1<3**, 1<4**, 2<4*, 3<4* A recommendation to attend the event from someone I trust 2.18 1.01 2.56 1.14 2.66 1.13 2.65 1.16 2.78 .040* 1<3* The event gets media coverage 1.45 .90 1.45 .82 1.60 .93 1.84 1.11 8.77 . 000** 1<4*, 2<4**, 3<4* A scenic and interesting course 3.83 1.15 4.17 .80 4.11 .89 4.22 .86 3.05 .028* 1<4* Small and intimate (few participants) 1.81 1.15 1.86 1.00 1.90 .98 1.87 .98 .21 .890 A party atmosphere surrounding the event 2.13 1.21 2.43 1 .21 2.52 1.22 3.03 1.23 14.44 .000** 1<4**, 2<4**, 3<4** I prefer to go back to the same event(s) 2.55 1.19 2.58 1.07 2.95 1.05 3.04 1.70 13.51 .000** 1<4*, 2<3**, 2<4**
112 Table 4 12. Continued. Event preferences and social worlds MANOVA results Social W orld Segmentation Outsiders ( n =52) Occasionals ( n =467) Regulars ( n =584) Insiders ( n =242) Item M SD M SD M SD M SD F (3,1204) p Post hoc ab The event website is user friendly 3.57 1.21 3.75 1.07 3.69 1.06 3.74 1.08 .62 .602 Everything I need to know is on the website/social media 3.74 1.29 3.79 1.07 3.72 1.09 3.8 1.1 0.43 0.731 The event has a professional cycling component 1.55 1.02 1.52 .93 1.70 1.02 1.96 1.23 8.71 .000** 2<4**, 3<4* Event and course safety 3.79 1.22 4.06 .99 4.12 .97 4.07 1.07 1.62 .184 Note. Pillai's Trace = .204, F (66, 3555) =3.937, p < .00 1 . Items measured from (1) not at all important to (5) very important. a Post hoc analysis using Bonfer roni correction. * p <.05; ** p < .0 0 1. b 1= Outsiders, 2= Occasionals, 3=Regu lars, and 4=Insiders.
113 Table 4 13. Destination preferences and social worlds MANOVA results Social w orld s egmentation Outsiders ( n =52 ) Occasionals ( n =467 ) Regulars ( n =584 ) Insiders ( n =242 ) Item M SD M SD M SD M SD F (3, 1271) p Post hoc ab The expected weather conditions are favorable 3.26 1.38 3.82 .95 3.73 1.00 3.62 1.17 5.319 .001* 1<2*, 1<3* The event is in a world class destination 1.66 .98 1.79 .96 1.89 1.03 1.94 1.08 1.870 0.13 Entertainment is available in the area 2.28 1.09 2.42 1.13 2.45 1.10 2.40 1.09 .401 0.75 There are things to do in the area besides the event 2.86 1.29 2.92 1.15 3.00 1.18 2.81 1.18 1.591 0.19 The area has activities for families 2.34 1.36 1.99 1.11 2.18 1.19 2.15 1.16 2.945 .032* The destination is iconic/unique (eg., unique, famous) 2.44 1.15 2.42 1.09 2.49 1.12 2.52 1.18 .503 .680 The destination is of historical significance 2.08 1.23 2.24 1.07 2.35 1.16 2.20 1.41 1.952 .119 The destination is scenic 3.62 1.21 3.82 .95 3.77 .96 3.69 1.18 1.136 .333 The destination has attractive terrain 3.52 1.15 3.80 .90 3.72 .94 3.77 1.02 1.587 .191 The destination is a safe place to stay and visit 3.92 1.18 4.02 .95 4.03 .93 3.88 1.09 1.398 .242 Note. Pillai's Trace = .040, F (30, 3792) =1.702, p < .0 5 . * p <.05; ** p <.0 0 1. All items measured from (1) not at all important to (5) very important. a Post hoc analysis performed using Bonferroni correction. b 1=outsiders, 2=o ccasionals, 3= regulars, and 4=i nsiders.
114 Table 4 14 . Travel style preferences a nd social worlds MANOVA results Social w orld s egmentation Outsiders ( n =52 ) Occasionals ( n =467 ) Regulars ( n =584 ) Insiders ( n =242 ) Item M SD M SD M SD M SD F ( 3,1066) p Post hoc ab Keeping my overall costs low 3.36 1.16 3.35 1.08 3.25 1.13 3.44 1.071 1.501 .213 My friends are also going 2.36 1.37 2.77 1.27 2.97 1.21 3.16 1.00 7.652 .000** 1<3*, 1<4*, 2<4* My spouse or family wants to go there 2.82 1.60 2.65 1.36 2.68 1.36 2.72 1.38 0.242 .867 Special travel and accommodation packages are provided 2.55 1.25 2.49 1.23 2.43 1.16 2.31 1.14 1.125 .338 Reducing my total travel time, from leaving home to returning home 2.55 1.09 2.78 1.16 2.72 1.13 2.58 1.10 1.598 .188 The availability of staying with friends or family instead of a hotel 2. 16 1.29 1.94 1.14 1.94 1.15 2.30 1.23 5.057 .002 2<4*, 9<4* Economical/budget accommodations 3.34 1.18 3.22 1.13 3.17 1.12 3.25 1.15 0.537 .657 Expensive/luxury accommodations 1.82 1.11 1.40 .78 1.45 .79 1.39 .71 3.93 .008* I can drive there 3.45 1.3 9 3.81 1.13 3.83 1.10 3.73 1.10 1.695 .166 I can visit family or friends in the area 2.22 1.27 2.01 1.09 2.07 1.13 2.33 1.31 3.629 .013* The opportunity of combining the trip with a vacation 2.84 1.31 2.82 1.24 2.79 1.21 3.01 1.19 1.492 .215 The a bility to travel to the cycling event and return home without staying overnight 2.18 1.28 2.33 1.20 2.21 1.18 2.10 1.16 1.682 .169 Note. Pillai's Trace = .086, F (36, 3171) =2.607, p < .00 1 . * p <.05; ** p <. 0 01. All items measured from (1) not at all importa nt to (5) very important. a Post hoc analysis performed using Bonferroni correction . b 1=outsiders, 2=o ccasionals, 3= r egulars, and 4= i nsiders.
115 Table 4 15 . Event preferences repeated measures ANOVA results Event t ourism c ondition Solo or w/ c yclist s w / Non c yclists More than 4hrs o ne w ay Item M SE M SE M SE F (1,648) p Post hoc bc Prize money is awarded 1.37 .03 1.33 .03 1.41 .04 12.38 .000** 2<3** A low entry fee 3.07 .04 2.88 .04 2.98 .05 16.75 .000** 1>2**, 2<3* It is a challenging cour se 3.23 .05 2.89 .05 3.21 .05 73.26 .000** 1>2**, 2<3** The larger the better (many participants) 2.29 .05 2.07 .05 2.32 .05 53.03 .000** 1>2**, 2<3** The event is well organized 4.38 .03 4.05 .04 4.37 .04 73.73 .000** 1>2**, 2<3** Participants rec eive gifts (shirts, medals ) 2.12 .04 1.95 .05 2.13 .05 45.83 .000** 1>2**, 2,<3** A course that makes it easy to get a good result 1.91 .04 1.76 .04 1.91 .05 22.81 .000** 1>2**, 2<3** The event is exclusive 1.61 .04 1.39 .03 1.64 .04 79.29 .000** 1>2**, 2<3** Involvement of a major corporate sponsor 1.63 .04 1.46 .33 1.59 .04 41.23 .000** 1>2**, 2<3** I want a new event experience every time 3.17 .04 2.29 .05 2.70 .05 257.00 .000** 1>2**, 1>3**, 2<3** A recommendation to attend the event from someone I trus t 2.57 .05 2.93 .05 3.28 .05 133.25 .000** 1<2**, 1<3**, 2<3** The event gets media coverage 1.63 .04 1.53 .04 1.66 .04 17.815 .000** 1>2**, 2<3** A scenic and interesting course 4.12 .04 3.62 .05 3.97 .04 114.61 .000** 1>2**, 1>3**, 2<3** Small and in timate (few participants) 1.83 .04 1.78 .04 1.80 .04 1.78 .183 A party atmosphere surrounding the event 2.62 .05 2.55 .05 2.64 .05 5.27 .022* 2<3* I prefer to go back to the same event(s) 2.87 .04 2.51 .04 2.60 .04 56.68 .000** 1>2**, 1>3**, 2<3* The event website is user friendly 3.65 .04 3.59 .05 3.93 .04 70.06 .000** 1<3**, 2<3** Everything I need to know is on the website/social media 3.70 .05 3.54 .05 3.92 .05 53.15 .000** 1>2**, 1<3**, 2<3** The reputation and prestige of the event 2.64 .05 2.3 4 .05 2.72 .05 82.07 .000** 1>2**, 2<3** The event has neutral support, SAG stops, aid stations, etc. 3.53 .05 3.36 .05 3.76 .05 53.90 .000** 1>2*, 1<3**, 2<3** The event has a professional cycling component 1.71 .04 1.60 .04 1.70 .04 13.63 .000** 1>2*, 2<3* Event and course safety 4.03 .04 3.90 .05 4.19 .04 35.17 .000** 1>2*, 1<3**, 2<3** Note. All items measured from (1) not at all important to (5 ) very important. * p <.05; ** p <.0 0 1 . Estimated marginal mean s and standard errors reported. b Pairwise compar isons performed using Bonferroni correction. c 1=solo or with cyclists, 2=traveling with non cyclists, and 3=traveling more than four hours one way.
116 Table 4 1 6 . Destination preferences repeated measures ANOVA results Event t ourism c ondition Sol o or w/ c yclists w/ Non c yclists More than 4hrs o ne w ay Item M SE M SE M SE F (1, 622) p Post hoc ab The expected weather conditions are favorable 3.62 .04 3.80 .05 3.84 .04 48.55 .000** 1<2**, 1<3** The event is in a world class destination 1.91 .04 2.10 .05 2.19 .05 46.96 .000** 1<2**, 1<3** Entertainment is available in the area 2.47 .04 3.07 2.86 2.86 .05 110.53 .000** 1<2**, 1<3**, 2>3** There are things to do in the area besides the event 2.98 .05 3.46 .05 3.21 .05 67.07 .000** 1<2**, 1<3** , 2>3** The area has activities for families 2.20 .05 2.92 .06 2.53 .05 177.16 .000** 1<2**, 1<3**, 2>3** The destination is iconic/unique (eg., unique, famous) 2.56 .04 2.68 .05 2.68 .05 7.29 .007* 1<2*, 1<3* The destination is of historical signific ance 2.30 .05 2.58 .05 2.46 .05 29.72 .046 * 1<2**, 1<3**, 2>3* The destination is scenic 3.74 .04 3.72 .05 3.79 .04 2.79 .096 The destination has attractive terrain 3.76 .04 3.59 .04 3.82 .04 35.00 .000** 1>2**, 2<3** The destination is a safe place t o stay and visit 3.98 .04 4.02 .05 4.10 .04 15.44 .000** 1<3** Note. All items measured from (1) not at all important to (5) very important. * p <.05; ** p <.0 0 1. Estimated marginal mean s and standard errors reported. a Pairwise comparisons performed using Bon ferroni correction. b 1= s olo or with cyclists, 2=t rave ling with non cyclists, and 3=t raveling more than four hours one way.
117 Table 4 17 . Travel style preferences paired samples t test results Event t ourism c ondition Solo or w/ c yclists w/ Non c yclists Item M SD M SD t df p (2 tailed) Keeping my overall costs low 3.34 1.09 3.30 1.22 1.36 745 . 174 My frien ds are also going 3.00 1.17 2.79 1.22 5.39 747 .000** My spouse or family wants to go there 2.80 1.32 3.46 1.29 14.10 745 .000** Special travel and accommodation packages are provided 2.39 1.18 2.56 1.27 4.55 750 .000** Reducing my total travel time, from leaving home to returning home 2.77 1.11 2.85 1.20 1.97 751 .049* The availability of staying with friends or family instead of a hotel 2.09 1.19 2.32 1.25 6.18 751 .000** Economical/budget accommodations 3.24 1.10 3.14 1.23 2.62 740 .009* Expens ive/luxury accommodations 1.44 0.79 3.63 1.17 41.97 752 .000** I can drive there 3.81 1.09 2.52 1.24 22.00 753 .000** I can visit family or friends in the area 2.18 1.12 3.16 1.26 18.84 746 .000** The opportunity of combining the trip with a vacation 2.90 1.19 1.61 .93 23.66 626 .000** The ability to travel to the cycling event and return home without staying overnight 2.25 1.18 2.31 1.22 1.66 637 .097 Note. All items measured from (1) not at all importa nt to (5) very important. * p <.05; ** p <.0 0 1.
118 Table 4 18 . Racing event orientation and event preferences MANOVA results Racing e vent o rientation Racers ( n =362 ) Mixed ( n =235 ) Non r acers ( n =745 ) Item M SD M SD M SD F (2, 1178) p Post hoc ab Prize money is awarded 1.89 1.22 1.25 .61 1.11 .45 117.57 .000** 1>2**, 1>3**, 2>3* A low entry fee 3.21 1.11 3.12 1.11 3.04 1.11 2.60 .075 It is a challenging course 3.77 .93 3.28 1.00 2.71 1.20 101.91 .000** 1>2**, 1>3**, 1>3** The larger the better (many participants) 2.64 1.24 2.24 1 .14 2.01 1.11 32.28 .000* 1>2**, 1>3**, 2>3* The event is well organized 4.39 .73 4.40 .71 4.36 .78 .33 .72 Participants receive gifts (shirts, medals, etc.) 2.33 1.16 2.23 1.09 1.98 1.05 12.04 .000** 1>3**, 2>3* A course that makes it easy to get a g ood result 1.85 1.04 1.88 1.10 2.08 1.19 5.41 .005* 1<3* The event is exclusive 1.77 1.03 1.60 .89 1.46 .84 12.19 .000** 1>3** Involvement of a major corporate sponsor 1.79 1.04 1.65 .94 1.55 .94 6.44 .002* 1>3* I want a new event experience every time 3.36 1.14 3.15 1.11 3.15 1.13 4.12 .017* 1>3* A recommendation to attend the event from someone I trust 2.54 1.14 2.61 1.14 2.61 1.14 .50 .607 The event gets media coverage 1.72 1.00 1.70 1.03 1.48 .86 9.09 .000** 1>3*, 2>3* A scenic and interesting c ourse 3.89 .98 4.06 .88 4.27 .79 21.63 .000** 1<3**, 2<3** Small and intimate (few participants) 1.77 .93 1.83 1.05 1.93 1.00 2.81 .06 A party atmosphere surrounding the event 2.82 1.27 2.63 1.19 2.43 1.22 11.56 .000** 1>3** I prefer to go back to the same event(s) 3.07 1.07 2.80 1.01 2.71 1.09 12.37 .000** 1>3**, 1>2* The event website is user friendly 3.63 1.10 3.75 1.06 3.73 1.08 1.14 .319 Everything I need to know is on the website/social media 3.74 1.14 3.76 1.13 3.75 1.09 .04 .966 The repu tation and prestige of the event 2.81 1.14 2.52 1.16 2.52 1.18 7.39 .001* 1>3*, 1>2* The event has neutral support, SAG stops, aid stations, etc. 3.13 1.19 3.53 1.11 3.83 1.08 42.03 .000** 1<3**, 1<2**, 1<3* The event has a professional cycling component 2.20 1.23 1.77 1.02 1.42 .85 66.84 .000** 1>2**, 1>3**, 2>3** Event and course safety 3.95 1.07 4.00 1.02 4.14 .99 4.59 .01* 1<3* Note. All items measured from (1) not at all important to (5) very important. Pillai's Trace = .385, F (44, 2316) = 12.549 , p < .00 1 . * p <.05; ** p <.001. a Post hoc analysis performed using Bonferroni correction. b 1= r acers, 2= m ixed, and 3=n on racers.
119 Table 4 19 . Racing event orientation and destination preferences MANOVA results Racing e vent o rientation Racers ( n =362 ) M i xed ( n =235 ) Non r acers ( n =745 ) Item M SD M SD M SD F (2, 1240) p Post hoc ab The expected weather conditions are favorable 3.37 1.11 3.55 1.06 3.91 .95 34.34 .000** 1<3**, 2<3** The event is in a world class destination 1.90 1.06 1.89 1.00 1.80 .97 1 .54 .215 Entertainment is available in the area 2.31 1.09 2.48 1.10 2.44 1.12 1.95 .142 There are things to do in the area besides the event 2.69 1.15 2.91 1.12 3.03 1.19 9.30 .000** 1<3** The area has activities for families 2.15 1.19 2.33 1.20 2.0 2 1.14 6.38 .002* 2>3* The destination is iconic/unique (eg., unique, famous) 2.41 1.19 2.51 1.13 2.46 1.09 .55 .578 The destination is of historical significance 1.94 1.04 2.13 1.08 2.45 1.14 25.54 .000** 1<3**, 2<3** The destination is scenic 3.40 1.11 3.67 1.01 3.95 .92 35.49 .000** 1<2*, 1<3**, 2<3* The destination has attractive terrain 3.65 1.02 3.70 .93 3.80 .93 3.19 .042* The destination is a safe place to stay and visit 3.69 1.13 3.93 1.00 4.13 .88 23.56 .000** 1<2*, 1<3**, 2<3* Note. All items measured from (1) not at all important to (5) very important. Pillai's Trace = .173, F (20, 2464) =11.695, p <.001 . * p <.05; ** p <.001. a Post hoc analysis performed using Bonferroni correction. b 1= racers, 2= mixed, and 3=non racers.
120 Table 4 20 . Racing event orientation and travel style preferences MANOVA results Racing e vent o rientation Racers ( n =362 ) Mixed ( n =235 ) Non r acers ( n =745 ) Item M SD M SD M SD F (2, 1036) p Post hoc ab Keeping my overall costs low 3.43 1.09 3.41 .98 3.25 1. 13 3.20 .041* My friends are also going 3.10 1.14 2.90 1.11 2.85 1.27 3.66 .026* 1>3* My spouse or family wants to go there 2.75 1.29 2.77 1.36 2.64 1.40 .93 .396 Special travel and accommodation packages are provided 2.27 1.17 2.50 1.09 2.46 1.20 2 .57 .077 Reducing my total travel time, from leaving home to returning home 2.99 1.09 2.58 1.05 2.64 1.15 9.44 .000** 1>2*, 1>3** The availability of staying with friends or family instead of a hotel 2.36 1.29 2.14 1.15 1.87 1.12 15.28 .000** 1>3**, 2> 3* Economical/budget accommodations 3.20 1.13 3.31 1.07 3.17 1.13 1.08 .339 Expensive/luxury accommodations 1.36 .74 1.42 .68 1.48 .85 1.79 .167 I can drive there 3.92 .97 3.71 1.18 3.77 1.15 1.92 .147 I can visit family or friends in the area 2. 29 1.20 2.11 1.12 2.03 1.11 4.19 .015* 1>2* The opportunity of combining the trip with a vacation 2.80 1.15 2.95 1.19 2.80 1.25 1.09 .337 The ability to travel to the cycling event and return home without staying overnight 2.49 1.23 2.27 1.10 2.14 1.18 7.37 .001** 1>3** Note. All items measured from (1) not at all important to (5) very important. Pillai's Trace = .073, F (24, 2052) = 3.2 33, p < .00 1 . * p <.05; ** p <.001. a Post hoc analysis performed using Bonferroni correction. b 1=racers, 2= mixed, and 3=non racers.
121 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 5.1 The Stages of Active Sport Event Travel Careers The grounded theory model (Figure 1 2) created through the qualitative phase of this study depicts the complex development of ASETCs and consists of six stages: initiation , introduction, expansion, peak threshold, maintenance, and withdrawal . ASETCs appear to be initiated due to a variety of antecedents including health concerns, injury, involvement in triathlons, friends and family, and culture. After an initial introducto ry career stage was completed, the participants appeared to become more immersed in the ir travel career and their event travel frequency increased. Event travel frequency increased until the peak threshold was reached then participants either took a sabbat ical from the sport, maintained involvement, or decreased their event travel frequency. The discovery of the (2011) ), which advances the idea of focusing on individual experiences rather than a singular event . In contrast most of the existing work in this area has focused on a single event, by focusing the interviews on career progression it was possible to identify how cyclists encoun ter various stages in their travel careers, including negotiating constraints and making changes based on competing life priorities (Lamont et al. 2012; Lamont & Kennelly (2011 ). motivation to travel and participate in events was derived from several sources, although social connection, enjoyment, and accomplishment were the most important. The se findings reflect the distinctive qualities of serious leisure, which suggests
122 persever ance, career potential, personal effort, durable benefits, a unique ethos, and identification with the leisure pursuit are fundamental to serious forms of leisure (Stebbins, 1982). However, the social motives had an evolutionary nature. Motivation related to social connections evolved from connections with non cyclists or cyclists in the introductory stage to connections with other career cyclists. This finding knowle dge related to a social world progresses as his or her involvement, commitment, and integration into the social world intensifies (Unruh, 1980). Social connections with other career cyclists became so significant, that it actually discouraged participation in other sports, and led to moderate detachment from individuals outside of the cycling social world. Perhaps, as individuals become more involved within a particular social world they are forced to become less involved with another social world . Unruh s uggests this conflict is the result of social world interaction when describing the strangers group their thus strangers as points of reference may provide clues as to the intersectio n of socials worlds and the importance Further explaining this finding Green and Jones (2005) argue as group membersh ip and identification become important to individuals, it amplifies the seriousness of in group and out g roup membership. Indeed, t he arguments by Putnam (1995) and Wheaton (2000) that contemporary post modern culture has led to a loss of self identity and social capital likely applies to this type of sport participation a s individuals seek to create and main tain a subcultural identity through sport event participation (Green & Chalip, 1998; Green &
123 Jones, 2005) . Further, the findings indicate individuals are motivate d to continue their career once this identity is created . Perhaps, the general decline of self identity and social capital discussed by Putnam and Wheaton has aided in the rising popularity of participatory sport events as individuals are motivated to build a sense of community with others over a common interest. C ontrary to Snelgrove and Wood (20 10) who suggested repeat participants are more motivated by identification with a charitable cause, the participants in this study indicated charitable intentions diminished with career progression and that charity events drove initial rather than later in volvement . These participants found the requirements for charity events such as fundraising became overwhelming later in their career as their event frequency increased which ultimately constrained their event participation. Thus, while charity events migh t present an ideal venue to attract inexperienced cyclists and initiate an ASETC , such events may not be as important in career development for more experienced cyclists . Indeed, Hendriks and Peelen (2013) in profiling the participants of a charity cycling event found a negative relationship between event participation longevity and the amount of money raised by participants. Thus, perhaps there is also a threshold in the influence of charity motivations on event participation over time, especially as indiv iduals become more experienced in their respective sports. Although for the most part the participants were quite homogenous in their responses, racing and non racing cyclists diverged in their style of travel and the importance of destination criteria, w hich extends the findings of previous ETC research. Racing cyclists typically chose an event specific minimalistic travel sty le directed at
124 frugality and placed little emphasis on destination criteria as the focus was on event characteristics. Bull (2006) suggests a similar finding that the destination and the setting are relatively unimportant while the quality of the race and environment are important for racing cyclists. demonstrated simila r patterns in their travel behavior as the actual event was identified as their only attraction to the destination. However, if racing cyclists were traveling with non cyclists such as a spouse or children the travel style changed dramatically from an even t specific to a mixed motive trip focused towards destination criteria to accommodate the interests of the non cyclists . study where he also found that a substantial number of racing cyclists indicate that time with fa mily and friends is an important aspect of cycling event travel. This shift in travel behavior for racing cyclists from low destination importance to high importance also occurred with increased travel distance as the racing cyclists felt the need to exper ience and enjoy the destination once heavily invested. Conversely, non racing cyclists considered destination criteria important in their decision to attend an event regardless of having travel companions. Career progression was portrayed by an emphasis o n i ncreased event evaluation rigor, increased social connection, shifting motivation, and a reduction on the importance of superfluous event attributes (e.g., ch arity, entertainment, food ) that might have originally attracted participants to event travel. A growing importance of event and destination safety was also prevalent as participants described lower risk tolerance later in their career, which is an important finding as fear and anxiety might act as a barrier to event participation ( Coghlan , 2012). T hese findings suggest the event and destination
125 preferences identified by Getz and McConnell (2011) are dependent on competitive orientation and family dynamics as well as cyclist characteristics such as age . Contrary to previous notions advanced by Getz ( 2008) and Getz and McConnell (2011), exp anding travel distance was dependent on constraints rather than travel career progression and frequency of event travel was dependent on the location of the and other constraints. Crawford and Godbey (1987) describe these types of barriers to leisure activity as structural and include barriers such as family life cycle stage and the availability of an opportunity. However, the willingness to increase travel distance was directly related to the uniqueness and attractiveness of an event similar to the findings of Bennet t et al. (2007), which found partici pants are willing to pay a higher registration fee for an event that is considered prestigious. T he concept of pulsation advanced by Lamont et al. (2012) which proposes event participation frequency may pulsate overtime did not manifest in the current stud y . Thus, cyclists might be able to better rebound from each event and maintain a higher event frequency than other participatory sports such as triathlons the sport context of Lamont et al. (2012) . The suggested recovery time for racing events reiterates t his finding as cycling races only require an estimated one to three days of recovery per hour of racing, while triathlon and running races require three to five and four to six days of recovery per hour of racing respectively (Bernhardt, 2002) . Further, re covery is co nsiderably longer with older participants (Magill, 2011) .
126 The final stage of travel career progression was revealed as participants reported a decline in event trav el frequency , a focus on non competitive events, and a willingness to volunteer at events and mentor new cyclists. Similarly, Gibson et al. (1998) revealed individuals decrease their sport related travel frequency later in life . However, the other findings associated with the final ASETC stage is unique to active event travel researc h amongst older participants. T he final stage of the proposed ASETC model suggests individuals may transition later in their career from an amateur to a volunteer within the serious leisure framework (Stebbins, 1992). The desire to mentor new cyclists and volunteer at events coincides with the fundamental principles of social worlds as insiders , the most advanced group in the typology (Unruh, 1983). Unruh explains insiders are consider ed the individuals that create and expand social worlds through recruitin g new members and creating and maintaining activities for the members . 5.2 Constructs Associated with Active Sport Event Travel Career s Although the quantitative participant sample reflected the general homogenous socio demographic structure of individual s that engage in active event travel (Gibson, 1998a) the wide age range captured in this study promotes the notion that ASETCs have the potential for lifelong involvement especially as many participants are involved in physical activities (i.e., cycling ) d uring later stages of life (Gibson & Chang, 2012). The findings of this study challenge and extend previous research through the measurement of the individual and by integrating diversity in regards to experience and age allowing the opportunity for improv ed understanding of the constructs related to ASETCs. The core construct under investigation, motivation, was found to evolve throughout the trajectory of an ASETC. The results indicate that motives related to
127 intellectual, social, mastery competence, givi ng back and comp etition against others escalate as individuals progress through a travel career. This not only extends the findings of the qualitative phase, but also provides measureable c areer markers for future study. However, motivation related to rela xation and a healthy lifestyle seems to peak at the occasionals and regulars stages respectively, which suggest these mot ives are more quickly activated as the participants are able to experience these motives earlier in their career . Gibson and Chang (201 2) similarly found benefits sought related to relaxation was the highest for mid life bike tour participants as they are likely to use cycling as an escape from daily work and family responsibilities . However, Gibson and Chang argued differences in regards to social benefits were absent based on levels of enduring involvement because social benefits accrued from participating in a cycling social world were common across all life stages . Contrary to the findings of the qualitative phase , motivation related to charity peaked at the regulars stage. However, this might be an issue related to the smaller sample size of the outsiders group (i.e., those in the early ASETC stages) . S ome individuals might be primarily focused on participating in only charity events as participant motives differ between cause and non cause related events (Rundio et al. 2014). Perhaps a group of active sport tourists can be segmented to dedicated charity event participants as they only participate in event s with a charity component, wh ile other participants only occasionally participate in charity sport events . Conceivably an ASETC solely based on charity sport event participation is possible, but the qualitative findings present ed here suggest constraints deter this behavior and charit able
128 donations have been found to decrease with repeat participation (Hendriks & Peelen, 2013) . Similar, to the qualitative study individuals in the early career stage reported relatively lower levels of motivation to compete against other cyclists, but w ith the quantitative study a linear trend continued and this motive peaked with the most advanced group . Thus, individuals likely do not possess the skills and knowledge required to compete against others early in their career, but they become more motivat ed by external competition as they obtain the necessary skills and knowledge later in their careers. This finding is explained by the third quality of serious leisure as d quality , significant personal effort, using their specially acquired knowledge, training, ntial and interesting for the participant to find a career there in the acquisition and expression of successfully acquire the knowledge, training, experience , and skill required they are then able to compete against other participants and as their career progresses their competition intensifies. (2005) t ravel career pattern , Pearce argued novelty, relaxation, and social relationshi ps are core motives of travel careers. However, both phases of this study found social motives evolve from a moderate social connection to a strong principal connection to other career cyclists that contributes to prolonged career advancement and preservat ion. Thus, core motives are not fully established early in a career, but become more
129 important as an individual successfully establishes his or her career and successfully completes the initiation and introduction stages . As suggested by Donnelly and Young (1988), subcultural sport careers require several stages beginning with presocialization, when individuals acquire knowledge from media, friends, family, peers, and established members of the subculture prior to initial participation. Then the selection a nd recruitment stages occur which require prerequisites for membership a s opportunity, motivation, and interest from the participant (Donnelly, 1980) as he/ she is either selected by an established member or seeks out membership (Donnelly & Young, 1988). Fi nally, once the socialization stage occurs then individuals establish valuable new identifications with the group. This finding is also similar to work on charity sport events by Filo et al . (2013) that found participants have dense and demanding social co nnections which create a sense of community amongst the participants. While several motivational factors evolved through out career progression, an ion towards racing events also a ffected motivation to travel to and participate in even ts. Individuals that preferred racing events were more motivated towards mastery and competing against other cyclists than individuals that were oriented towards non racing events and a mixture of both disciplines , while the non racing group pursued their career for relaxation more than the other racing event orientations. This finding suggests the core motives of a travel career likely depend on career stage , competitive orientation, and the type of travel (i.e., sport tourism) , issues unobserved by Pearce (2005) who was addressing tourism in general rather than special interest tourism such as cycling or golf. Indeed , the finding s here suggest the
130 on the context of the travel and the type of sport participation (i.e., event active or active sport tourism such as skiing or golf). However, motivation related to intellectual, social, and health seem to be universal to ASETCs regardless of racing orientation. McIntyre , Cole man, Boag, and Cuskelly (1992) found that both serious and casual groups consider socializing as an equally important benefit to their masters sport participation. Ryan and Lockyer (2002) argue masters games participants differ based on t he strength of their social and competition motivation and can be classified into two different groups , which is supported by Gillet and Kelly (2006). Ryan and Lockyer describe the first group, the games enthusiast s , a s having equal social and competitive motives while the second group, the sport purist s , are s imilarly motivated by competition with others they are less motivated by social connection . Later, Ryan and Trauer (2005) although lack ing empirical evidence suggested two other groups also exist, the novice/dabbler , characterized by primary motivation related to fitness and less involved than the other preceding groups, and the spectator, characterized by low involvement, but a serious attitude towards the sport. However, the findings from the curren t study suggest both racing and non racing cyclists are both similarly motivated by social connection although their competitive motivation might differ and that individuals can express characteristics of both of these groups with a mixed racing orientatio n . Thus, the group membership suggested by Gillet and Kelly (2006) and Ryan and Lockyer (2002) is unique to the multisport context (i.e., masters games), as the participants in the current study focused on a singular sport (e.g., cycling) similar to work b y Donnelly and Young (1988) on rugby players .
131 Conceivably , the novice/dabbler group describes the individuals in the final stage of a games partici which coincides with the qualitative findings of the current related to career withdrawal. Nevertheless, t he role of social connection in active event travel is especially importa nt as it plays a central role in the social and emotional wellbeing of an individual (Coghlan & Filo, 2013). The travel pr eferences related to the event also revealed to evolve throughout the trajectory of an ASETC. A notable change was prevalent with the perceived difficulty of an ev ent course, as individuals progressed through their career, they increasingly sought a more challenging course experience. Likewise, individuals in earlier stages pref erred an easier course, which emphases the ment that the unit of analysis should be the athlete not the event as individuals in different career stages are attracted to different events. Extending the findings of the qualitative phase individuals increasingly preferred a well organized event as the ir career progressed. A similar trend was also depicted in respect to individuals seeking a new experience at each event. However, several concerns regarding event preferences were universally important irrespective of career stage including : low entry fee s, corporate sponsorship, smaller and intimate events, website/social media quality, and event/course safety. The appreciation of gifts for event participants was also relatively similar throughout the career trajectory, which is contradictory to the qual itative phase that found certain ancillary event attributes were more important in earlier career stages. However, this might also be due to the relatively small sample size of the outsiders
132 group , the least advanced group , as the participants in the quali tative phase described the importance of ancillary event attributes important in the earlier part of their careers. The findings related to evolving event preferences suggest specific event attributes become increasingly important throughout career progres sion as individuals increasingly demand more out their event participation experience challenging Getz and Surprisingly, destination preferences were relatively similar in regards to career stage , which contradicts Getz and McC more highly involved tourists are more likely to make event choices based on destination criteria rather than event attributes. Similarly, Kaplanidou and Vogt (2007) found sport event image positively affects destination image, but destination image does not influence the sport event image of bike tour participants . Thus, event characteristics are likely more important tha n destination characteristic in regards to event active sport tourism as preferred event characteristics appear to evolve throughout the trajectory of ASETCs which influences destination image, while preferred destination characteristics remain rather . Further, contradicting Getz and career trajectory was shown to alter preferred travel style as individuals were more likely to travel with their friends to an event as they progressed throughout their career , which coincides with the identified overwhelming cumulative social connection to other career cyclis ts . Although, a limited number of event, destination, and travel style preferences changed throughout the trajectory of an ASETC these preferences were largely dependent on the conditions related to the travel. An were depen dent on whether he or she was traveling with a non cyclist such as a family
133 member. Several specific event preferences were rated as less important when traveling with non cyclists and rated the most important when traveling more than fo ur hours one way su ch as event website quality, neutral support, and event/course safety . Still, when participants were traveling solo or with other cyclists, they favored other event preferences including low entry fee s, a challenging/scenic course, and attending the same e vent compared to other tourism conditions. This extends the findings from the qualitative phase, as individuals tend to diminish the importance of several event attributes when traveling with non cyclists, but they become more critical of these event attri butes when traveling further away from home. T he majority of destination preferences except those related to scenery, terrain, and safety became more important when traveling with non cyclists or longer distances. This finding is similar to Ryan and Glendo demographic characteristics affect preferred destination attributes. For instance, the group identified by Ryan and Glendon as the nightcl ubs and bars higher than other groups and had little interest in the culture and relaxed d middle aged and preferred a destination with attractive culture and history. Further, these fin concept that argue career stage is inf luenced by prior travel experience and life stage. P articipants reported that entertainment, things to do beside the event, activitie s for families, and historical significance were more important when traveling with non cyclists. This finding extends the qualitative f indings as individuals more carefully consider the event destination if they have to consider the needs of non cyclists or have
134 to increase their expenditure of time and money to travel more than four hours from home. Similar to the findings related to event preferences, attractive terrain was less important when traveling with non cyclists . work a pplies to these findings as well because the socio demographic characteris tics influence their preferred destination criteria. These findings also reflect the tradeoffs made between competing life priorities identified by Lamont et al. (2012) and Lamont and Kennelly (2011) as the event participants have to restrain their event related interests to accommodate the interests of their non cycling traveling companions, which relates to constraint nego tiation (Jackson et al., 1995). Although, Getz and McConnell , t he finding s here suggest attractive destination criteria likely only become advantage ous if the participants are traveling with non cyclists or longer distances. Travel style w as also largely dependent on travel conditions as participants altered their preferred travel style to accommodate the interests of a non cycling travel companion. If participants were traveling solo or with other cyclists, they preferred traveling with f riends, budget accommodations, and driving to the destination. (2006) research suggests a similar pattern as the majority of the racing cyclists he studied preferred to race locally, considered traveling far was not important, and they traveled beca use racing events were not available locally. However, o nce a non cycling travel companion was introduced, the participants shifted their travel style towards their spou special accommodation packages, staying with fr iends/family, luxury accommodations, and visiting with friends during the trip. However, the desire to decrease travel costs and hotel nights were important regardless
135 of travel condition. Surprisingly, the opportunity of combining a cycling event trip wit h a vacation was more important when traveling solo or with other cyclists. Perhaps the participants preferred to separate traditional family style vacations from cycling related vacations as a tradeoff between competing life priorities (Lamont et al. 2012 ; Lamont & Kennelly, 2011) . This finding contradicts the proposition advanced by Getz and McConnell (2011) that there should be an increase in the combination of event specific and mixed motive trips with career progression. Further, Bull (2006) found only a small proportion of the racing cyclists he studied traveled with other cycling club members culture that is quite as closely knit as one might ever, the current study suggests travel style is dependent on career progression, racing orientation, travel distance, and the presence of non cycling travel companions. racing events heavily influenced event, destination , and travel style preferences . Participants oriented towards racing events preferred prize money, a challenging course, a larger event, a prestigious event, and a professional cycling component to the event more than the other participants. However, the i mportance of prize money was still relatively low for the racing group. Participants that were oriented towards non racing events , such as bike tours ( Gibson & C hang, 2012; Kaplanidou & Vogt, 2007), more profoundly preferred a scenic course and neutral sup port such as rest stops. However, several event preferences were universally important including a low entry fee, a well organized event, recommendations from a friend to attend the event, a nd website/social media quality . This finding is important as atti tudes towards event
136 participation and event satisfaction have been shown to influence intentions to participate in the event again for active sport tourists (Kaplanidou & Gibson, 2010). ed destination and travel style. Partially confirming the qualitative findings, non racers considered the destination as more important than participants orientated towards racing events. Further confirming the qualitative findings, racers preferred a mini malistic travel style compared to non racing participants. More specifically, racers preferred reduced travel time, traveling with friends, staying with friends/family, and the ability to travel to an event without staying overnight more than the participa nts in the non racers group. 5.3 Practical Implications The research presented here provides a better understanding of the travel careers cyclists create and maintain along with the concepts related to this style of travel, which has important implications for event management . The ASETC model identified in this study portrays the trajectory of career cyclists from initiation to withdrawal and provides a f ramework for the future study of active event travel and a potential guide for lifetime physical activi ty. Important for the promotion of physical activity the ASETC model identifies the factors that attract and retain individuals to a lifestyle based on active leisure. Advocacy groups seeking to cultivate cycling involvement should promote the factors rela ted to career initiation (e.g ., health concerns, injury ) and the motives that drive continued participation (e.g., social connec tion, healthy lifestyle ). Improved organization and marketing of events will ultimately allow individuals to successfully travel to and participate in sport events so they can acquire the benefits related to participation such as social connection, subcultural identity, mental health, and physical health. As such, i mplications from this
137 study may also aid the study and practice of physical activity intervention as the participants here successfully created and maintained potential ly lifelong physically active lifestyles. T he results also present specific actionable outcomes for event managers and DMOs to improve event management th rough the constructs explored. E vent organizers and DMOs should seek to market and organize events in regards to the competiveness of the event along with the family dynamics and experience of their potential participants to maximize participant attendance and satisfaction. DMOs and e vent managers seeking to expand the travel distance of their potential participants should focus on the identified event characteristics (e.g., uniqueness) that promote this behavior. Green (2001) argues subcultural identity is also important to event managers as they are able leverage it to promote events. Further, if DMOs and event managers are seeking to increase the economic impact of their event then it should be organized and marketed to cater to individuals trav eling with non cycli sts (e.g., family members ) . For individuals that travel with non cyclists , attractive destination criteria is often more important than event characteristics . Increased emphasis on the role of travel related to participant sport events is exceptionally important for tourist destinations. I ndividuals engaged in cycling event tourism can positively impact local communities Downward et al. (2009), one particular study found that a singular Canadian mountain bike event generated more than $ 11.5 million in visitor expenditures ( Western Canada Mountain Bike Tourism Association, 2006). Further, small scale sport events consistent with community infrastructure and cultural and cultural capital are considered to be a viable form of sustainable to urism
138 development (Gibson, Kaplanidou, & Kang, 2012). D estinations seeking to attract tourists, especially lesser known destinations, should leverage participant sport events and help develop and market these events to remain competitive in the event touri sm market. I mproved event management not only benefits the participants and the events, but also the local com munities these individuals visit. Lastly, sport organizations need to structure events in an effort to allow for successful career development . In order for individuals to advance through a career, a portfolio of events must be available based on his or her current career stage. For instance, events should range in difficulty, cost, travel distance and other factors that vary along the ASETC traject ory. 5.4 Limitations and Delimitations D espite the potential advances towards a better understanding of ASETCs in this study, there are limitations and delimitations that necessitate acknowledgement and present opportunities for future research. While ever y effort was made to establish rapport with the participants during the qualitative phase there is always the chance of social desirability and recall issues when asking about memories of cycling participation. The effects of these issues were minimized by the lead research er who is a member of the cycling subculture and was able to use his insider knowledge during the interview process to build rapport . The primary limitation s associated with the quantitative phase despite the use of cognitive interviews w ere the extensive length of the questionnaire and wording issues due to the comprehensive nature of the study , which likely affected response rate and participant withdrawal. Thus, concerns regarding participant fatigue, wording, and usability may threaten the internal validity of the study. As a result, a considerable portion of respondents did not complete the entire questionnaire and the outsiders group was relatively small compared to the other social world groups .
139 However, several strategies were emplo yed to reduce length and improve the wording of the questionnaire . First, the online nature of the questionnaire allowed for the use of skip logic, which is a technique that only display s questionnaire items that apply to the specific conditions related to a example , if a participant never traveled with a non cycling travel companion the subsequent items related to this section were skipped, which significantly shortened the length of the questionnaire for some partic ipants. Second, as aforementioned a series of cognitive interviews were conducte d prior to data collection. These interviews improved the wording, design, and length of the questionnaire by soliciting help from potential respondents (Willis, 2005). Lastly , the tailored design method established by Dillman et al. (2009) was used throughout the development and implementation of the questionnaire to ensure the survey methodology was appropriate for the context of the study and resources available . In terms of delimitations, the goal of the qualitative phase was depth of knowledge and not generalizability of the findings. To further investigate the generalizability of the findings the quantitative phase was conducted to extend the key findings to a representati ve sample. However, the quantitative study was challenged with delimitations related to the samp le. Specifically, t he lack of an adequate sampling frame from which the participants could be selected potentially compromises the generalizability of the resul ts as threats to external validity arise with non probability sampling methods. If non probability methods are used to select a sample then sampling bias may occur (Agresti & Finaly, 2009) which is described by (Bryman, (2008) as a distortion in the repres entativeness of the sample. However, inferences can
140 still be made with non probability web based survey methods regarding the general population of the study if warnings are provided in regards to the limited external validity (Miller, Johnston, Dunn, Fry, & Degenhardt, 2010). Further, sampling bias from non probability sampling methods can be curtailed by comparing the survey participants to the population in respect to the constructs of interest , background information (e.g, demographics), and willingness to take part in the study (Wretman, 2010). T hus, to reduce non response error the demographic characteristics of the sample were compared to the data from USA Cycling (Larson, 2013) , which revealed the sample was similar to the general population of cycli sts in the US . Further, n on probability sampling is considered a practical choice and an attractive alternative to probability sampling methods, especially with exploratory research, as it can overcome issues related to limited resources and the inability to identify individuals from a population (Henry, 1990). Lastly, as aforementioned , the focus of this s tudy on the investigation of individu al s rath er than a specific event eliminates the potential use of a sampling frame provided by event registration lis ts . The context of this area of study also requires discussion as it establishes a boundary for the findings and the greater body of research on active event travel. First, the general demographic background of individuals who are willing and able to par take in an ASETC and active sport tourism in general is rather homogenous as the population is predominately white, middle to upper class, and highly educated (Gibson, 1998a). Further, the quantitative sample was almost completely void of first generation immigrants , h owever the sample was quite diverse in terms o f cycling related characteristics (e.g., experience, age, and racing orientation ) . Thus, any potential to
141 address physical activity concerns though ASETC research is likely limited in scope in rega rds to a certain socio demographic profile . Second, the research context of the present study is de limited to travel to participate in cycling events, however a variety of other previously unexplored sports may provide suitable settings for future research such as rowing or climbing. Fourth, the term tourist sports is concerned with individuals that have a primary motivation to travel, but happen to participate in sport, physical activity, and/or active outdoor recreation while on vacation (Gammon & Robinso n, 1997). An example of this style of travel would be an individual playing golf while on a trip for business. Thus, as the context of current study is sport tourism the similar but distinct area of inquiry known as tourist sports was not included within t his study. Finally , as the current study concentrated on previous scholarly work from the fields of leisure, tourism, and sport management , future research could draw upon the concepts from the fields of management and organizational behavior such as Super career rainbow. 5.5 Future R esearch The findings discovered by this study present several directions for future research. Although the limitations and delimitations of the study discussed earlier generate some concern in regards to internal and external validity of the study this presents an opportunit y whereby future work could be used to examine the findings in more detail. Future research seeking to address the limits of this study should aim to capture the experiences of individuals that are undergoing the initiation and introduction phases of an ASETC or reside within the outsiders group. Future research on these groups is of paramount importance in regards to attracting individuals to create an ASETC, developing the respective sport, an d potentially adopt ing a physically active
142 lifestyle. This research direction is exceptionally important as creating an identity in sport subcultures requires successful transition out of a pre socialization phase, which can be traumatic for novices (Donnel ly & Young, 1988). However, as the context of a leisure pursuit differ s based on organization and individual characteristics that are unique to that particular context they are likely to have varied career trajectories. Replication of the study with in othe r active event travel contexts (e.g., rowing and climbing) or other geographic regions would strengthen and expand the findings presented here as the study is limited to the cycling context and drawn mostly from a sample residing in Florida . Many active ev ent travel contexts are relatively unexplored as the bulk of research in this area has focused on running or cycling. Also, the ideas associated with event travel careers could potentially be applied beyond sport or active travel such as event travel caree r pursuits related to music or art as suggested by Lamont and Kennelly ( 2011). Another idea for future research would be to use different methodological approaches such as a longitudinal approach to explore the evolution of an ASETC throughout time. An ap proach using this method would allow for real time and a more accurate depiction of an ASETC by removing issues related to memory recall. However, attrition and increased costs can be significant ch allenge s to this type of study. Other methodologies will a lso be useful in future research such as auto ethnographic accounts, focus groups, additional in depth interviews, and additional surveys. Perhaps the single most important recommendation for future research emanating from this study is the promotion of th e measurement of the individual not a singular event , an approach also promoted by Getz and McConnell (2011) . Conducting research related to
143 active event travel careers with a singular event disregards individual career stage and the constraints related to this style of travel as event travel requires the negotiation of constraints related to time, money, and competing life priorities ( Crawford et al. 1991; Lamont et al. 2012). However, a research design focused on the measurement of the individual allows f or a broader inclusion of participants in regards to a variety of important factors that a ffect this style of travel including constraints, difficulty, location, experience, employment, wealth, dependent children, racing orientation, etc. As a result, n ume rous scholarly articles on participant sport events are likely bias based on the study of a singular event due to these factors. For instance, Lamont and Jenkins ut the study race, thus the legitimacy of the claims associated with studies on singular events are problematic . Future research on ASETCs should seek to reduce this type of sampling bias by conducting research focused on individual athletes, a portfolio of events, or at the minimum an event that appeals to wide range of potential participants. 5.6 Co nclusion The contribution of this study emanates from the exploration and confirmation of the event travel career concept under the ASETC acronym . Responding to the calls to action by Getz and McConnell (2011) and Doherty (20112) t he current study success full y integrated work from the fields of tourism, leisure and sport management by drawing upon recent scholarly work and classic concepts developed by Stebbins (1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1992, 2007), Pearce (1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 2005), and Unruh (1979, 19 80, 1983) . T he study investigated the notion proposed by Getz (2008)
144 that event active sport tourists might follow a career like pattern with their involvement and commitment to their sport . This notion of an event travel career was described by Getz as a potential lifetime pursuit of travel to participate in sport events that progresses over time and leads to evolving preferences for event characteristics and travel arrangem ents. Prior to the current study, only two published research article s specifically and empirically investigated the ETC concept (Getz & Anderson, 2010; Getz & McConnell, 2011) . Although the work by Lamont and colleagues (Lamont et al. 2012; Lamont & Kennelly, 2011) also investigated event travel careers the focus with this work was on l eisure constraints not career development or career trajectory. The current study contributes to this line of work through the empirical confirmation of ASETCs, the development of the ASETC model and the exploration of the constructs related to this style of travel . Responding to the call to action by Lamont et al. (2012) , n ine core themes were discovered that depict the trajectory of an ASETC. From these findings, a six stage career model was developed that outlines the specific stages individuals experie nce throughout t heir career from the first even t to the last . The grounded theory model advances distinctive sport management theory by provid ing a potential guide for the adoption and maintenance of a lifestyle based on physical activity , which is directl y related to physical and emotional health benefits (Shipway & Holloway, 2010; World Health Organization, 2010). The ideas generated through the qualitative phase were (2008) original idea that career progression leads to modified travel behavior. Social connection was found to have an evolutionary nature which embrace s what Chalip (2006 ) called the
145 salubrious socialization aspect of sport management by providing a better understandin g of t he style of travel and subculture individuals engaged in active event travel prefer, create, and maintain throughout their career . Further, motivation related to social, intellectual, mastery competence, giving back and competition against others was revea led to escalate with career progression . Racing orientation and travel conditions, variables largely overlooked in previous research, emerged as a key variable s effecting the constructs associated with active event travel. Thus , t he results support event m anagers , DMOs , and advocacy groups and enable them to more efficiently market and plan events towards their potential participants in o rder to positively impact economic, community and, sport development.
146 APPENDIX A QUALITA T I VE STUDY INSTITUT IONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL
147 APPENDIX B QUALITATIVE STUDY WEB BASED SELF R EPORT QUESTIONAIRE Dear Fellow Cyclist, I am a doctoral student in the Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management at the University of Florida, conducting rese arch on how cyclists create lifestyles based on travel to participate in sport events. The purpose of this study is to explore how cyclists engage in active sport tourism related travel. The results of the study may help amateur athletes, event managers, a nd tourism boards better understand how to create sport events that embrace the positive benefits of sport. These results may not directly help you today, but may benefit future sport participants. Participation in this study involves two steps. Firs t you are requested to complete a brief 2 3 minute questionnaire containing general demographic information and cycling participation patterns. Second, you may be asked to participate in a 60 90 minute face to face or phone interview about your experiences related to participating and traveling to cycling events. The interview will take place at the location of your choosing, over the phone or via Skype. With your permission, you will be audiotaped during the interview. The audio recording will be access ible only to the research team for verification purposes. At the end of the study, the tape will be erased. All names will be replaced with pseudonyms to ensure confidentiality and anonymity. Your IP address information will not be collected or stored for any purpose. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provide by law. Results will only be reported in the form of general population data. Participation is completely voluntary and you may withdrawal your consent to participate without pe nalty. You have the right not to answer any question/s. You have the right to ask that information revealed in the course of the interview not be used in analysis. There are o known risks or immediate benefits to the participants. No compensation is offer ed for participation. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact me at email@example.com. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 11225 0, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392 0433.
148 Sincerely, Richard Buning, MS Department of Tourism Recreation and Sport Management Heather Gibson (Faculty Supervisor), PhD Department of Tourism Recreation and Sport Management Q1:I have read and understood the above consent form and agree to participate in this study Yes, I agree to participate No, I do not want to participate in the study Q2: What is your gender? Male Female Q3: What year were you born? Q4: Which of the following best desc ribes your current employment status? Employed full time Employed part time Unemployed/Looking for work Student Homemaker Retired Other ____________________ Q5: Would you describe yourself as: American Indian/Native American Asian Black/ African American Hispanic/Latino White/Caucasian Pacific Islander Other ____________________ Q6: Which occupational category best describes your employment? Management: professional or related occupations Management: business or financial operations occupations Managem ent occupations, except farmers and farm managers Farmers and farm managers Business and financial operations Business operations specialists
149 Financial specialists Computer or mathematical Architects, surveyors, cartographers, or engineers Drafters, engine ering, or mapping technicians Life, physical, or social science Community and social services Legal Education, training, or library Arts, design, entertainment, sports, or media Health diagnosing or treating practitioners & technical occupations Health tec hnologists or technicians Health care support Fire fighting, prevention or law enforcement workers, (including supervisors) Other protective service workers (including supervisors) Food preparation or serving related Building, grounds cleaning or maintenan ce Personal care or service Sales or related occupations Office or administrative support Farming, fishing, or forestry Supervisors, construction or extraction Construction trades workers Extraction workers Installation, maintenance, or repair occupations Production Supervisors, transportation or material moving Aircraft or traffic control Motor vehicle operators Rail, water or other transportation Material moving Other
150 Q7: What is the highest level of education you have completed? Less than High School High School / GED Some College 2 year College Degree 4 year College Degree Masters Degree Doctoral Degree Professional Degree (JD, MD) Q8: What is your current status? Single, never married Married withOUT children Married with children Divorced Separated Widowed Living w/ partner Q9: What is your combined annual household income? Less than 30,000 30,000 39,999 40,000 49,999 50,000 59,999 60,000 69,999 70,000 79,999 80,000 89,999 90,000 99,999 100,000 or more Q10: How many dependent childre n do you have currently living in your home? 0 1 2 3 4 5 + Q11: How many non dependent children do you have currently living away from your home? 0 1
151 2 3 4 5 + Q12: In which state do you currently reside? Q13 How important is training for and competing in cycling events in your life? Not at all Important Very Unimportant Somewhat Unimportant Neither Important nor Unimportant Somewhat Important Very Important Extremely Important Q14: Approximately how many years have you been traveling to and participati ng in cycling events? ______ Length of Participation in Years Q15: Approximately how many cycling events did you travel to and participate in away from your home community within the last year? None 1 3 4 6 7 9 10 12 13 15 16 18 19 21 22 24 More than 25 Q17 Please answer the following statements based on your level of agreement Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree I consider myself a cyclist I have many
152 goals related to cycl ing Most of my friends are cyclists Cycling is the most important part of my life I spend more time thinking about cycling than anything else I need to participate in cycling to feel good about myself Other people se e me mainly as a cyclist I feel bad about myself when I do poorly in cycling Cycling is the only important thing in my life
153 Q18 In order to contac t you if you are selected to participate in this study please provide the following contact information: Your contact information will not be used for any purpose outside of this study. First Name Last Name E mail Address Confirm E mail Address Phone Numb er Q19: Please share any comments here: I would be very depressed if I were injured and could not compete in cycling
154 APPENDIX C QUALITATIVE STUDY INTERVIEW GUIDE Thanks for meeting with me I would like to talk with you about your experiences traveling to and participating in cycling events. I am going to record our talk so I can remember all the details in the future. Do you mind if I record? 1. Can you tell me a little bit about yourself? 2. Tell me about your involvement in cycling? a. How long? b. Background? c. Riding? d. Discipline? e. Travel? f. Training? g. Family? h. Work/School? 3. Can you tell m e about a typical cycling event you travel to from creating a plan to returning home? 4. How often do you travel to and participate in cycling events? a. Does this fluctuate over time over your career? Why? How? b. Are there factors (Personal, Event and/or Destin ation) that limit frequency of travel? Why? How? c. Are there factors (Personal, Event and/or Destination) that enable your frequency of travel? Why? How? d. Are there factors (Personal, Event and/or Destination) that make the timing of travel difficult? Why? Ho w? e. Are there factors (Personal, Event and/or Destination) that aid in the timing of travel? Why? How? f. Has this progressed (increased) or regressed (decreased) over time? How? Why? Future 5. What distances do you typically travel to cycling events? Farthest? Closest? Local? Regional? National? International? a. Are there factors (Personal, Event and/or Destination) that limit distance of travel? Why? How? b. Are there factors (Personal, Event and/or Destination) that expand your distance of travel? c. Why? How? d. Goal s? Future events? If not, than why?
155 e. Has this progressed (increased) or regressed (decreased) over time? How? Why? Future? 6. What different types of events have you traveled to or plan to travel to? Likes and Dislikes? a. Level of competition? b. Uniqueness? c. Qual ity? d. Type of Organization? e. Organizers? f. Branding (Name)? g. Do you perceive certain events to be more prestigious? Iconic? Why? h. Has this changed over time? How? Why? Future? 7. Can you tell me about the role of travel destination criteria in events you have traveled to? or plan to travel to? a. Weather? b. Scenic quality? c. History? d. Travel packages? e. Other aspects? f. Has this changed over time? How? Why? Future? 8. What mode and style of travel do use currently? Past? Future? a. Transportation? b. Travel Group? c. Length of ev ent trips? d. Event specific only? e. Mixed motive trips? Combined with family vacations? As compared to traveling with friends? f. Focus of vacations? g. Has this changed over time? How? Why? Future? h. Are there factors (Personal, Event and/or Destination) that limit travel style? Why? How? i. Are there factors (Personal, Event and/or Destination) that enable your travel style? j. Why? How? 9. Can you tell me about what motivates you to travel to and participate in cycling events? Why? Others?
156 a. What benefits do you seek when traveling to and participating in cycling events? b. Relaxation? c. Stimulation/Novelty? d. Relationships? Social? e. Self esteem? f. Personal development? g. Personal fulfillment? h. Are there specific event aspects that cater to these benefits sought? i. Has this changed over time? How? Why? Future? 10. So, looking back over your career of travel to and participation in cycling events how has your travel and participation changed over time? 11. What problems do you experience traveling to and participating in cycling events? Perso nal? Event related? 12. What strategies have you adopted to overcome these problems? Personal? Event related? 13. Are there specific factors that enable you to overcome these problems? Personal? Event related? 14. How does traveling to and participating in cycli ng events effect other areas of your life? Competing priorities? (Social, Family, Work/Education, Wellbeing, Leisure, Finances, & Domestic Responsibilities) a. Does travel to and participation in cycling events have positive effects on these other areas of yo ur life? b. Does travel to and participation in cycling events have negative effects on these other areas of your life? Yourself? Other people? c. How do you decide which of these areas is more important? Do you have to make tradeoffs between these areas? 15. Do you have anything else you would like to talk about or that I may have overlooked?
157 APPENDIX D QUANTIT AT IVE STUDY QUESTIONAIRE Hello Fellow Cyclist, I am conducting research on how cyclists create lifestyles based on travel to participate in sport even ts. The results of the study will not only be used for my doctoral dissertation but may also help amateur athletes, event managers, and tourism boards better understand how to create sport events that embrace the positive benefits of sport. These results cycling participation. Participation in this study involves completing a brief 10 15 minute online questionnaire containing questions about cycling travel and participation pattern s. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Results will only be reported in the form of general population data. Participation is voluntary and you may withdrawal your consent to participate without penalty. You have the rig ht not to answer any question/s. You have the right to ask that information revealed in the course of the interview not be used in analysis. There are no known risks or immediate benefits to the participants. No compensation is offered for participation. There is a minimal risk that security of any online data may be breached, but since (1) no identifying information will be collected, (2) the online host uses several layers of encryption and firewalls, and (3) your data will be removed from the server so on after you complete the study, it is unlikely that a security breach of the online data will result in any adverse consequence for you. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org. Questions or concerns a bout your rights as a research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392 0433. Sincerely, Richard Buning, MS Department of Tourism Recr eation, and Sport Management email@example.com | 352 294 1679 Heather Gibson PhD (University Supervisor) Department of Tourism Recreation and Sport Management firstname.lastname@example.org | 352 294 1649 1. I am 18 and older and have read and understand the above cons ent form and I agree to participate in this study. a. Yes, I agree to participate b. No, I do not want to participate
158 2. I have traveled to a cycling event with the primary purpose to actively participate requiring a 50 mile one way trip a. Yes b. No 3. I have traveled t o a cycling event the primary purpose to actively participate requiring an overnight stay a. Yes b. No SECTION I: Motivation Thinking about the reasons you travel to and actively participate in cycling events. Please rate the following items from 1=strongly d isagree to 5=strongly agree regarding your motivation to travel to and actively participate in cycling events: 1. To increase my cycling knowledge 2. To discover new places and things 3. To use my imagination 4. To learn about myself 5. To be with others cyclists 6. Have a good time with cycling friends 7. Build friendships with other cyclists 8. Develop close friendships with other cyclists 9. Gain a feeling of belonging 10. To reveal my thoughts, feelings, or physical skills to others 11. 12. Use my physical abiliti es 13. Challenge my abilities 14. To improve my skill and ability in cycling 15. To compete against myself 16. To compete against others 17. To maintain social connections with other cyclists 18. To get a feeling of achievement 19. Relax mentally 20. Be in a calm atmosphere 21. Relax phys ically 22. Avoid the hustle and bustle of daily activities 23. To relive stress and tension 24. To stay physically fit 25. To keep me healthy 26. To develop my physical fitness 27. To maintain my physical fitness 28. I want to be physically fit 29. To become involved in events suppor ting a charity or charities
159 30. Supporting a charity or charities makes my own life better 31. To enhance the status of a charity or charities involved with an event. 32. My desire to help the charity or charities involved with an event. 33. To volunteer 34. To mentor new cy clists 35. To give back to the sport SECTION II: Social Connection Thinking about your social connections with the cycling event community. Please select one response to the following items that best fits your orientation: 1. My general orientation to the act ivities, events, programs, people and practices that make up cycling events is: a. b. rewarding to be at cycling events c. A habitual and regular cycling event participant d. An insider; cycling events are an important part of who I am 2. My experiences with cycling event services, procedures, scheduling, and protocol: a. Disoriented; I am unsure about what I can and cannot do and how to do it b. Learning; I am gradually becoming familiar with cycling events c. Integrated; I have routine and predictable experiences and a good understanding of how things are organized d. Facilitate; I create, organize, or enhance opportunities for other participants 3. My relationships with others are at cycling events: a. b. Transitory; I get to know people only for brief periods of time c. d. Intimate; I have pe rsonal friendships and close associations with others at cycling events 4. My commitment to cycling events: a. Detachment; I am basically indifferent b. Interest; as long as cycling events are entertaining or diversionary, or tinue to participate c. Attachment; a sense of belonging, I intend to continue indefinitely as a participant d. Recruitment; I encourage others to discover how cycling events make a difference in their lives
160 SECTION III: Event Travel Preferences Thinking a bout what you prefer in terms of event characteristics, your travel style, and host destination when you travel to a cycling event please answer the following questions. Please rate the following items from 1= not at all important to 5= very important i n regards to your preferences for cycling events when traveling by yourself or with other cyclist s: 1. Prize money is awarded 2. A low entry fee 3. It is a challenging course 4. The larger the better (many participants) 5. The event is well organized 6. Participants receiv e gifts (shirts, medals, etc.) 7. The course makes it easy to get a good result 8. It is exclusive 9. Involvement of a major corporate sponsor 10. I want a new event experience every time 11. A recommendation to attend the event from someone I trust 12. The event gets media coverage 13. It is a scenic and interesting course 14. Small and intimate (few participants) 15. A party atmosphere surrounding the event 16. I prefer to go back to the same event(s) 17. The event website is user friendly 18. Everything I need to know is on the website /social me dia 19. The reputation and prestige of the event 20. The event has neutral support, SAG stops, aid stations, etc. 21. The event has a professional cycling component 22. Event and course safety Please rate the following items from 1= not at all important to 5= very import ant in regards to your preferences for cycling event destinations when traveling by yourself or with other cyclists : 1. The expected weather conditions are favorable 2. The event is in a world class destination 3. Entertainment is available in the area 4. There are t hings to do in the area besides the event 5. The area has activities for families 6. The destination is iconic/unique 7. The destination is of historical significance 8. The destination is scenic
161 9. The destination has attractive terrain 10. The destination is a safe pl ace to stay and visit Please rate the following items from 1= not at all important to 5= very important in regards to your preferred style of travel to cycling events when traveling by yourself or with other cyclists : 1. Keeping my overall costs low 2. My frie nds are also going 3. My spouse or family wants to go there 4. Special travel and accommodation packages are provided 5. Reducing my total travel time , from leaving home to returning home 6. The availability of staying with friends or family instead of a hotel 7. Econom ical/ Low budget accommodations 8. Expensive/luxury accommodations 9. I can drive there 10. I can visit family or friends in the area 11. The opportunity of combining the trip with a vacation 12. The ability to travel to the cycling event and return home without staying o vernight Have you ever traveled to a cycling event with non cycling traveling companions (children, spouse, etc.)? a. Yes b. No (skip logic will bypass the next set of questions) Please rate the following items from 1= not at all important to 5= very importan t in regards to your preferences for cycling events when traveling with non cycling traveling companions (children, spouse, etc.): 1. Prize money is awarded 2. A low entry fee 3. It is a challenging course 4. The larger the better (many participants) 5. The event is wel l organized 6. Participants receive gifts (shirts, medals, etc.) 7. The course makes it easy to get a good result 8. It is exclusive 9. Involvement of a major corporate sponsor 10. I want a new event experience every time 11. A recommendation to attend the event from someon e I trust 12. The event gets media coverage 13. It is a scenic and interesting course 14. Small and intimate (few participants) 15. A party atmosphere surrounding the event 16. I prefer to go back to the same event(s)
162 17. The event website is user friendly 18. Everything I need to k now is on the website /social media 19. The reputation and prestige of the event 20. The event has neutral support, SAG stops, aid stations, etc. 21. The event has a professional cycling component 22. Event and course safety Please rate the following items from 1= not at all important to 5= very important in regards to your preferences for cycling event destinations when traveling with non cycling traveling companions (children, spouse, etc.): 1. The expected weather conditions are favorable 2. The event is in a world class des tination 3. Entertainment is available in the area 4. There are things to do in the area besides the event 5. The area has activities for families 6. The destination is iconic/unique 7. The destination is of historical significance 8. The destination is scenic 9. The dest ination has attractive terrain 10. The destination is a safe place to stay and visit Please rate the following items from 1= not at all important to 5= very important in regards to your preferred style of travel to cycling events when traveling with non cycli ng traveling companions (children, spouse, etc.): 1. Keeping my overall costs low 2. My friends are also going 3. My spouse or family wants to go there 4. Special travel and accommodation packages are provided 5. Reducing my total travel time from , leaving home to retur ning home 6. The availability of staying with friends or family instead of a hotel 7. Economical/ budget accommodations 8. Expensive/luxury accommodations 9. I can drive there 10. I can visit family or friends in the area 11. The opportunity of combining the trip with a vac ation 12. The ability to travel to the cycling event and return home without staying overnight Have you ever traveled to a cycling event requiring more than 4 hours of travel one way? a. Yes b. No (skip logic will bypass the next set of questions)
163 Please rate the following items from 1= not at all important to 5= very important in regards to your preferences for cycling events when longer distances to destinations requiring more than 4 hours of travel one way : 1. Prize money is awarded 2. A low entry fee 3. It is a challe nging course 4. The larger the better (many participants) 5. The event is well organized 6. Participants receive gifts (shirts, medals, etc.) 7. The course makes it easy to get a good result 8. It is exclusive 9. Involvement of a major corporate sponsor 10. I want a new event experience every time 11. A recommendation to attend the event from someone I trust 12. The event gets media coverage 13. It is a scenic and interesting course 14. Small and intimate (few participants) 15. A party atmosphere surrounding the event 16. I prefer to go back to the same event(s) 17. The event website is user friendly 18. Everything I need to know is on the website /social media 19. The reputation and prestige of the event 20. The event has neutral support, SAG stops, aid stations, etc. 21. The event has a professional cycling component 22. E vent and course safety Please rate the following items from 1= not at all important to 5= very important in regards to your preferences for cycling event destinations when traveling longer distances to destinations requiring more than 4 hours of travel on e way : 1. The expected weather conditions are favorable 2. The event is in a world class destination 3. Entertainment is available in the area 4. There are things to do in the area besides the event 5. The area has activities for families 6. The destination is iconic/uniq ue 7. The destination is of historical significance 8. The destination is scenic 9. The destination has attractive terrain 10. The destination is a safe place to stay and visit SECTION IV: Experience 1. Approximately how long have you been traveling to and participa ting in cycling events?
164 a. Length of Participation in Years ______ Months______ b. Year of First Event______ 2. Approximately how many cycling events did you travel to and participate in away from your home community during 2013_______? a. How many cycling event do y ou plan to complete in 2014______? 3. In what year, did you complete the most events ________ (number of events)? 4. How do you primarily travel to cycling events? a. By myself b. With Cycling Friends c. With Non cycling Friends d. With Family e. Other_________ Please rate the following items from 1= strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree regarding your preference towards racing or non racing cycling events. 1. I prefer to participate in racing focused cycling events 2. I prefer to participate in non racing focused cycling events Please select one response to the following items: 1. How often do you participate in cycling events with family? a. Very Frequently b. Frequently c. Occasionally d. Rarely e. Never 2. How often do you participate in cycling events friends? a. Very Frequently b. Frequently c. Occ asionally d. Rarely e. Never 3. How supportive do you feel your family and/or friends are of your cycling? a. Very Unsupportive b. Unsupportive c. Neutral d. Supportive e. Very Supportive
165 4. During an average week how much time do you spend cycling in hours?_______. 5. Have you par ticipated in any other organized sport events? ________. If so, what type of event?________________________________ 6. What cycling disciplines have you completed at least one organized event in (select as many as apply)? a. Road cycling b. Mountain biking cross country c. Mountain biking downhill d. Cyclocross e. Track cycling f. BMX g. Trials events 7. What cycling disciplines do you primarily participate in (select as many as apply)? a. Road cycling b. Mountain biking cross country c. Mountain biking downhill d. Cyclocross e. Track cycli ng f. BMX g. Trials events SECTION V: Demographic Background 1. What is your gender? 2. What is your age? 3. Which of the following best describes your current employment status? a. Employed full time b. Employed part time c. Unemployed/Looking for work d. Student e. Homemaker f. Re tired g. Other ____________________ 4. Would you describe yourself as: a. American Indian/Native American b. Asian c. Black/ African American d. Hispanic/Latino
166 e. White/Caucasian f. Pacific Islander g. Other ____________________ 5. Are you a first generation immigrant? a. Yes b. No 6. What is the highest level of education you have completed? a. Less than High School b. High School / GED c. Technical School d. 2 year College Degree e. 4 year College Degree f. Graduate Degree 7. What is your current status? a. Single, never married b. Married withOUT children c. Married with children d. Divorced e. Separated f. Widowed g. Living w/ partner 8. What is your combined annual household income? a. Less than 30,000 b. 30,000 49,999 c. 50,000 69,999 d. 70,000 89,999 e. 90,000 109,999 f. 110,000 129,999 g. 130,000 149,999 h. 150,000 169,999 i. 170,000 189,99 9 j. 190,000 209,999 k. 210,000 229,999 l. 230,000 249,999 m. 250,000 or more 9. In which state do you currently reside? a. State? b. Zip Code? 10. Please share any other comments you have regarding your experiences with cycling event travel:
167 APPENDIX E SHORT FORM LEISURE MOTIV ATION SCALE Beard and Ragheb (1983) One of my reasons for engaging in leisure activities is . .. 1. To learn about things around me 2. To satisfy my curiosity 3. To explore new ideas 4. To learn about myself 5. To expand my knowledge 6. To discover new things 7. To be creative 8. To use my imagination 1. To build friendships with others 2. To interact with others 3. To develop close friendships 4. To meet new and different people 5. To reveal my thoughts, feelings, or physical skills to others 6. To be social ly competent and skillful 7. To gain a feeling of belonging 8. 1. To challenge my abilities 2. To be good in doing them 3. To improve my skill and ability in doing them 4. To be active 5. To develop physical skills and abil ities 6. To keep in shape physically 7. To use my physical abilities 8. To develop my physical fitness 1. To slow down 2. Because I sometimes like to be alone 3. To relax physically 4. To relax mentally 5. To avoid the hustle and bustle of daily acti vities 6. To rest 7. To relieve stress and tension 8. To unstructure my time
168 APPENDIX F QUANTITATIVE STUDY INSTITITUIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL
169 APPENDIX G QUANTITA T IVE STUDY PARTCIPANT GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS Table G 1. Quantitative participants international lo cation Country Frequency ( n ) Percent (%) Australia 2.00 0.2 Canada 19.00 1.6 Dominican Republic 1.00 0.1 England 2.00 0.2 Finland 1.00 0.1 Indonesia 1.00 0.1 Ireland 3.00 0.3 USA 1169.00 97.6 Total 1198 100
1 70 Table G 2. Quantitative participants US location US State Frequency ( n ) Percent (%) AL 2 0.2 AK 10 0.9 AR 7 0.6 AZ 11 0.9 CA 30 2.6 CO 37 3.2 CT 7 0.6 DC 8 0.7 DE 3 0.3 FL 496 42.4 GA 66 5.7 HI 1 0.1 IA 9 0.8 ID 4 0.3 IL 21 1.8 IN 16 1.4 KS 3 0.3 KY 27 2.3 LA 4 0.3 MA 10 0.9 MD 14 1.2 ME 5 0.4 MI 29 2.4 MN 17 1.5 MO 13 1.1 MS 2 0.2 MT 8 0.7 NC 53 4.6 NE 5 0.4 NH 2 0.2 NJ 3 0.3 NM 3 0.3 NV 2 0.2 NY 21 1.8 OH 25 2.1 OK 8 0.7 OR 7 0.6 PA 21 1.8 PR 1 0.1 SC 12 1 .0 TN 26 2.2 TX 29 2.5 UT 4 0.3 VA 35 3 .0 VT 12 0.9 WA 10 0.8 WI 25 2.1 WV 1 0.1 WY 2 0.2 Total 1167 100
171 APPENDIX H MOTIVATION MODEL CORRELATION MATRIX Table H 1 . Revised motivation model means, standard deviations, and correlations. Construct M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. Intellectual 3.77 . 64 1 2. Social 3.84 .66 .447** 1 3. Mastery Competency 4.25 .55 .522** .326** 1 4. Stimulus Avoidance 3.76 .77 .452** .329** .300** 1 5. Health 4.44 .54 .331** .255** .537** .427** 1 6. Charity 3.42 .85 .332** .308** .2 32** .256** .235** 1 7. Giving Back 3.29 .78 .386** .440** .275** .334** .216** .553** 1 Note. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed)
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185 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ric hard Buning received his PhD from the Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management at the University of Florida in the summer of 201 4. Earlier, Richard graduated from the Robinson College of Business at Georgia State University with a B.B.A. i n Managerial Sciences in 2006. Later, Richard graduated from the Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management at the University of Florida with a M.S. in Sport Management in 2010 while working in the running event industry. Under the advisement of sport development, sport tourism, participant sport events, youth sports, and social research methods (quantitative and qualitative). Since begi nning his doctoral program, he has continued to work in the running event industry as a consultant managing race logistics and evaluating event outcomes. Richard is a member of several professional organizations and has presented his research at both national and international conferences including the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM), the Sport Marketing Association (SMA) , the European Association for Sport Management (EASM) and the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA). While at UF he se rved a s an undergraduate course instructor and teaching assistant in both online and traditional formats for the following courses: sport and society, legal issues in sport and physical activity, sport ethics, introduction to sport management, diversity in sport organizations, and sports and business finance. Richard is an active cyclist and was a member of several Gainesville cycling groups including
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rfr fnrf f rntt â€” nt t â€” â€” â€”â€” n â€” t â€” â€” tt tt â€” â€” â€” n t â€”â€” â€”â€” n â€” â€” â€” n â€™t n â€” â€” â€” â€” rfâ€˜â€™ rnâ€œ r f f nf nâ€œ â€” â€” â€” â€” â€”â€” â€” t rn nnt tnt nt tn rtrffâ€”nn nnn nnrn nntr nnn â€â€˜tt t rnt n nrn ttnnn tnr ntnr n n n n r â€” â€”t ntâ€™ nâ€“ rnrt rrrn t tâ€˜ n r nt nt nt tt â€” â€˜ tnâ€“
rnfnrfrrrn tt nr nn ntnt nâ€” tnt nnt â€“ttnt â€˜ â€“n ntr t n rtrnâ€˜t nt â€”n râ€” tâ€˜â€”â€” t t rn tt n rrrâ€”râ€t tâ€“nt nâ€”n rnt râ€” ntnt tr tt ntnn t n n ntnr nnrn tnnn rr trt nt n tt nnrntrftn nt n n nr â€” r tr nrr â€˜ntnr â€“ â€“rnr t ffâ€â€¢rf â€™ â€” tnt â€” â€” nt â€”tâ€˜n â€”â€” nnn nn ttn tâ€˜ â€”â€” ntnt â€“n â€” â€ttâ€“ â€”â€ttnn â€” â€” â€” n tt
rfrtn t trttn r ntnn n â€“rnrt ttnt ntn â€“nt rrnrn trtt tn r tâ€n â€˜n rt n ttn â€“rnr n rtnt n nr ntn nr ntt tn nnr rtâ€“nrn â€“ â€â€¢rftn t t tn â€”â€” nt t t â€” â€” tt nt â€” nn â€” n t â€” â€˜nâ€“t nnâ€œ â€”â€” nâ€˜nt â€” n â€” nn ntr â€” â€˜n â€” â€” tn â€” t n â€” â€” â€ntt â€” â€n n â€” n nt
rnfnrfrrrn â€“nâ€˜â€¢ nt nrr tr n â€˜ n â€¢nâ€“ tr tn r nâ€˜r tn rnr â€“n tt râ€¢r tt nn tt nntn tr n â€nn nnrn rtâ€“ nâ€¢â€” rffnâ€nnt n nnt rt nnn rrn nn râ€˜t nnâ€œtr trffn t rfâ€¢n â€¢ â€˜rntr rr n n ttnn â€˜ nn nâ€˜ t t nn rt nt rnr nrn â€˜n tn nr râ€“ â€œtn n t nr nt â€“t t n nâ€“ tnr rtr t nn â€“tnr t n rrr nn r tttn n nn â€nt nn râ€“rr â€“t ntn ttt n ntnt r â€“r nn nt nâ€“ n nr â€“t nr nt t nn nnn
rfrtr nn ntr ntnn â€œt nnnn tn ntnrt n trt nnntt nt nrâ€˜ nr nnt trâ€˜nt nt tnnâ€˜ ntrtrt nrâ€˜ â€“tt rr n nnnnr nnt rrâ€˜n nttnn n trâ€˜rr nn nrr â€˜trr nnn tr tt rnâ€“nn ntr tâ€“nt r t nnâ€¢ tntnr tnn t trnttt tn tr t â€“t nn â€“tâ€™ n â€˜tnnn â€˜n ttrnn â€˜â€“t r t n n n tnnnn nt rt nn nâ€“ntnn ntt r tnnr tn rnt t ntnt tnn r nn n nr nâ€™t rt rnt ntntrnrntr â€“tr â€¢t nâ€n rr nt n n nrâ€˜ttr â€˜fr nnn rn tnn nt nâ€¢ tn nr nâ€˜ n t nrntt t nnâ€“â€n r
rnfnrfrrrn ntâ€œ n r nr ttntnn â€˜nr nnr nnn tt â€˜nâ€œt nnt ntrn tt tn n n ttt r frn rtr rt rt n rtt ntrn nâ€nntn rnt tt tnnr nt nn nnnnr n tt nâ€“ n t rt nr n rnnt rnr nr â€“nnttr n rt rn n nr nt â€˜tt nâ€˜ tâ€n rr tnnn r â€“r n nâ€™ nr tr rn nnn n nnn t ntnnnr n nr nn n rrnrrr nn rfntbtâ€” trnt ttâ€” trn tt rrtrâ€”n t trâ€tnrâ€œ â€rr â€r â€rfrâ€nrnr rntbtâ€”â€” rrr rnt bt â€” rrr nnâ€œ fâ€™â€r n â€”rt rnâ€™ tt rrrrt ttâ€” nrrrnnn n tbtâ€” nrrrnnn nâ€˜ ttâ€”
rfr rrrâ€”n tbtâ€” rrrrrâ€˜ tnnr nnnrr â€˜ tbtâ€” trrr nnttâ€”â€” rrr nn rtrfn tbbtâ€” râ€” r rrrrrnn n rnttâ€” rrrtt tn tbt r n nrrrfnn n t t rrrâ€”â€“t tnnt t t trrrt fnâ€˜n n t t trrrâ€n â€¢nâ€˜ t t r tt rbbâ€¢fnt rtt rr â€˜nt rr fr ntbt trnn tbtâ€”
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