1 D EVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR A RECIPROCAL SAFETY IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEM (RSIS) IN THE PAKISTANI CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY By ADEEBA ABDUL RAHEEM A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014
2 Â© 2014 Adeeba Abdul Raheem
3 To my encouraging and ever faithful parents and parents in law, loving and supportive husband, my sweet and patient kids and siblings
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are number of people without the help of whom this thesis would not have been possible and whom I greatly admire and owe a debt of gratitude . I would like to give a special honor to the late Prof. Dr. Jimmie W. Hinze for all the dedication and time he spared for me while being in Texas he roically fighting C ancer. His work will remain an inspiration for the global construction industry. He was one of the most humble persons I have ever met. H i s designation as Doctor Safety is truly appropriate . I would like to also express my sincere and de epest appreciations to my committee chair, Dr. R. Raymond Issa, who has been fully commit ted to me as a great mentor guiding me in all the ups and downs during my stay at UF. His experience in research, teaching and scholarship persistently helped me pave my way towards my goals, which would not have been possible otherwise. In addition, I would also like to express my appreciation to the other members of my doctoral committee, Dr. Svetlana Olbina, Dr. Ralph Elis and Dr. Larry C. Muszynski, who were always there to help me whenever I had a ny questio n or concern related to any personal or professional issue. I would also like to thank the Rinker School staff especially Dottie Beaupied, Patty Barritt and Jennifer Mashbu rn (former staff member) who were always th ere to help and guide me in my need s . All my colleagues and friends in the department played a vital role whenever and wherever I need ed their help. I also want to express my appreciat ion to all the government agencies, private and public institutes, con tractors and all the other people whom I visited to collect the data in Pakistan. I also appreciate the time that was exp e nded by the participants in the
5 expert panel. Their opinion s were instrumental in finalizing the proposed safety framework in this research. I would also like to show my appreciat ion the role and prayers of my parents and parents in laws in my success. We had been far away from each other from the past six years but I a lways felt their prayers and well wishes for me in all the matters of my personal and professional life . Last but no t the least I want to extend my heartiest appreciations for my husband Mr. Muhammad K. Hameed for all his support that made me strong enough to complete my tasks in time and in a best possible manner. His moral and physical support w ere instrumental for me and my kids Abyan Kashif and Aayat Kashif. It was only due to him that I was able to stay strong and persistent in the pursuit of my goals as he was always there for guiding me and holding my hand in distress. A special love to my kids for their endurance especially in their early days in this world. Thanks to both of them for understanding the busy daily schedule of their PhD mom and for all those smiles and hugs to soothe me after reaching home at the end of my long days.
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................ 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 9 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ..................... 16 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 17 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ .............................. 19 Background and Justification ................................ ................................ ............ 19 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................... 21 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ .................. 22 Research Design ................................ ................................ ........................ 23 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ................................ ................................ ........ 26 Literature Review for Benchmarking Phase ................................ ...................... 26 Benchmarking Process ................................ ................................ ............... 26 Importance of implementing safety in construction .............................. 27 Need for benchmarking standards A global perspective ..................... 32 Construction Safety Implementation in Developing Countries .................... 34 Current Construction Safety Situation in Pakistan ................................ ...... 36 Literature Review for Development Phase ................................ ........................ 44 Defining Safety Culture ................................ ................................ .............. 44 Factors Affecting Safety Performance ................................ ........................ 46 Role of Various Stakeholders for Better Safety Implementation ................. 51 Defining stakeholders ................................ ................................ .......... 51 Major stakeholders in the construction industry ................................ ... 51 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ............................. 65 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 65 Benchmarking Phase ................................ ................................ ........................ 66 Global Analysis ................................ ................................ ........................... 66 Regional Ana lysis ................................ ................................ ....................... 70 Local Analysis ................................ ................................ ............................ 72 Evaluation Phase ................................ ................................ .............................. 78 Development Phase ................................ ................................ ......................... 78 Delphi Technique ................................ ................................ ....................... 79
7 Procedure Fo llowed for Delphi Analysis ................................ ..................... 80 Preliminary survey instrument ................................ .............................. 80 Selection criteria for an expert panel ................................ .................... 82 Identification of potential participants ................................ ................... 82 Mode of interaction ................................ ................................ .............. 84 Statistical method adopted for analysis ................................ ................ 84 Finalizing the framework ................................ ................................ ...... 86 Scope and Limitations ................................ ................................ ....................... 86 4 DATA COLLECTION ................................ ................................ ........................ 88 Benchmarking Phase ................................ ................................ ........................ 88 Global Analysis ................................ ................................ ........................... 88 Regional Analysis ................................ ................................ ....................... 89 Local Analysis ................................ ................................ ............................ 89 Development Ph ase ................................ ................................ ......................... 92 5 DATA ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ .............................. 95 Benchmarking Phase ................................ ................................ ........................ 95 Global Ana lysis ................................ ................................ ........................... 95 Fatality/Injury statistics ................................ ................................ ......... 95 Construction safety standard systems adopted by different countries . 98 Regional Analysis ................................ ................................ ..................... 114 Political/Legal factors ................................ ................................ ......... 114 Financial factors ................................ ................................ ................. 116 Technical factors ................................ ................................ ................ 121 Local Analysis ................................ ................................ .......................... 123 Construction safety in Pakistan ............... 123 Safety culture of construction companies in Pakistan ........................ 132 Evaluation Phase ................................ ................................ ............................ 136 Global Analysis ................................ ................................ ......................... 136 Injury/fatality information to be collected ................................ ............ 137 Identifying the root causes of accidents ................................ ............. 139 Local Analysis ................................ ................................ .......................... 140 Findings through the preliminary research data ................................ . 140 Findings through the interviews and surveys ................................ ..... 141 Development Phase ................................ ................................ ....................... 142 Preliminary Survey Instrument ................................ ................................ . 142 Background information of the participants ................................ ........ 142 Current construction safety situation in Pakistan and role of various stakeholders ................................ ................................ ................... 143 Safety training ................................ ................................ .................... 145 Safety improvement initiatives ................................ ........................... 147 Delphi Analysis First Round (Round 1) ................................ ................... 149 General information about the participants ................................ ........ 149 Proposed safety framework ................................ ............................... 153
8 Delphi Analysis Second Round (Round 2) ................................ .............. 165 Consensus measurement after Round 2 ................................ ........... 166 Analysis of responses in Round 2 ................................ ...................... 168 6 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ................................ ................................ .......... 182 Regulatory Safety Action Plan ................................ ................................ ........ 182 Immediate Safety Improvement Actions (1 5 years) ................................ . 184 Future Safety Improvement Actions (5 10 years) ................................ ..... 188 Corporate Safety Action Plan ................................ ................................ .......... 189 Administrative Level Safety Improvements ................................ ............... 189 Site Specific Safety Improvements ................................ ........................... 190 Safety Training Improvement Plan ................................ ................................ .. 192 For Managers ................................ ................................ ........................... 192 For Workers ................................ ................................ .............................. 193 7 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 194 Recommendation s to Implement the Proposed Strategies ............................. 195 Future Research ................................ ................................ ............................. 196 APPENDIX A WEB LINKS OF CONSTRUCTION SAFETY RELATED INFORMATION RESOURCES IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES ................................ ..................... 198 For Comparative Analysis ................................ ................................ ............... 198 For Developing Guidelines ................................ ................................ .............. 1 98 B SURVEY FOR GLOBAL ANALYSIS ................................ ............................... 200 C SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CONTRUCTION FIRMS IN PAKISTAN ... 202 D PRELIMINARY SURVEY FOR DEVELOPING SAFETY FRAMEWORK ....... 208 E SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR DELPHI ANALYSIS ................................ .. 210 F EXCERPT FROM PAKISTAN ENGINEERING COUNCIL DOCUMENT FOR LICENSE RENEWAL ................................ ................................ ...................... 216 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ....................... 218 BIOGRAPH ICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .................... 230
9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Comparison of different benchmarking types ................................ ............... 27 2 2 Summary of the literatur e review for benchmarking phase ........................... 38 2 3 Ratios of occupational injuries to employment percentages in various industries of Pakistan in 2012 ................................ ................................ ....... 40 2 4 Facto rs affecting safety performance ................................ ........................... 47 2 5 Guidelines for improving construction safety for various stakeholders ......... 53 2 6 Key hazards which the des igner may potentially influence ........................... 61 3 1 List of the selecte d countries from each continent ................................ ........ 69 3 2 List of official online resources for comparative study ................................ .. 72 3 3 Categories for contract ing firms as devised by the PEC ............................... 75 3 4 Coding for mean percentage rank ings ................................ .......................... 85 4 1 Survey response rates ................................ ................................ .................. 89 5 1 Defining characteristics of OSH stan dards in the selected countries .......... 101 5 2 Source organizations for collecting injury/fatality stati stics in the selected countries ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 105 5 3 Methods adopted for calculating fatality rates in selected countries as provided to the Internat ional Labor Organization ................................ ........ 107 5 4 Different formulas used for calculating injuries/frequency/severity rates in the selected countries ................................ ................................ ....................... 110 5 5 Laws governing OSH in construction industry. ................................ ........... 115 5 6 Rating of different companies based on risk management details in the safety policy manuals. ................................ ................................ ........................... 133 5 7 Ra ting of different companies based on safety communication detai ls in the safety policy manuals ................................ ................................ ................. 134 5 8 Rating of different companies based on safety monitoring details in the safety policy manuals. ................................ ................................ ........................... 135
10 5 9 Ranking of the suggested improvements in th e e xisting legal infrastructure ................................ ................................ ............................... 155 5 10 Mean rating and coefficient of variance for the ease of implementation and effectiveness of administrative safety aspects at the corporate level ......... 158 5 11 Mean rating and coefficient of variance for ease of implementation and effectiveness of site specific safety aspects at the corporate level ............. 160 5 12 Mean rating and coefficient of variance for priority and effectiveness of safety training aspects fo r managers ................................ ................................ .... 163 5 13 Mean rating and coefficient of variance for priority and effectiveness of different safe ty training aspects for workers ................................ ............... 164 5 14 Response rate in each round ................................ ................................ ..... 165 5 15 Criteria for measuring consensus. ................................ .............................. 167 5 16 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 169 5 17 regulatory framework in Pakistan in Round 2. ................................ ............ 171 5 18 administrative safet y at corporate level in Round 2 ................................ .... 173 5 19 specific safet y at corporate level in Round 2 ................................ .............. 176 5 20 manager training aspects in Round 2. ................................ ........................ 178 5 21 ers training aspects in Round 2 ................................ ................................ ........ 181 6 1 Development of s afety credit point (SCP) scheme ................................ ..... 187 6 2 Safety credit points scheme for different contractor categories .................. 187
11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Comparison of the total labor force and total injuries/fatalities in the Pakistani construction industry ................................ ................................ ..................... 19 1 2 Labor and accidents related statistics of various industries in Pakistan ....... 20 1 3 Research objectives ................................ ................................ ..................... 23 1 4 Research design ................................ ................................ ........................... 24 2 1 Fields of benchmarking application ................................ .............................. 28 2 2 Construction spending in various countries of the world in 2011 .................. 29 2 3 Global construction growth in future ................................ ............................. 29 2 4 2008 rate of fatal injuries per 100,000 wo rkers in the construction industry of the selected countries ................................ ................................ ................... 30 2 5 Economic impacts of accidents ................................ ................................ .... 31 2 6 Pakistani construction industry and fatalities ................................ ................ 39 2 7 Percentage distribution of fatalities in major sectors of Pakistan ( 2008 2012) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 40 2 8 Construction workers at the major city construction sites in Pakistan ........... 43 2 9 Elements of organizational safety culture ................................ ..................... 45 2 10 Compo nents of a strong safety system ................................ ........................ 46 2 11 Loss causation model: layers of defense against loss ................................ .. 50 2 12 Accident causation models ................................ ................................ ........... 51 2 13 Stakeholders responsible for construction safety at the industry level in d eveloped and developing nations ................................ ............................... 52 2 14 Different project delivery methods and safety ................................ ............... 55 2 15 Major owner concerns in tradition al industry settings and safety .................. 57 2 16 Guidance for the role of owner und er 2007 CDM regulations ....................... 58 2 17 Stakeholde ................................ ........................ 60
12 2 18 Safety models adopted by the UK ................................ ................................ 62 2 19 Types of practices use d on projects to promote safety ................................ . 63 2 20 Duties of a contractor as described by HSA ................................ ................. 64 3 1 Overview of the me thodology adopted for the study ................................ ..... 66 3 2 Co ntinents selected for the study ................................ ................................ . 67 3 3 Selected countries from different continents ................................ ................. 69 3 4 Methodology flowchart ................................ ................................ .................. 71 3 5 Asian countries selected for analysis ................................ ............................ 72 3 6 Selected cities for the research study ................................ ........................... 74 3 7 Methodology adopted for the collection of primary data. .............................. 76 3 8 Framework of the safety survey fo r contruction f irms in Pakistan ................. 77 3 9 Sur vey process of Delphi technique ................................ ............................. 80 3 10 Proced ure adopted for Delphi analysis ................................ ......................... 81 4 1 Framework for the regional comparative study ................................ ............. 90 4 2 PEC designated categories of the selected contracting companies ............. 91 4 3 Categories used in the analysis of safety culture of P akistani construction companies ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 92 5 1 Fatal injury rate per 100,000 workers employed in the selected African and Asian countries 1999 2008 ................................ ................................ ........... 95 5 2 Fatal injury rate per 1000,000 work hours in the selected Asian countries 1999 2008 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 96 5 3 Fatal injury rate per 100,000 workers in the selected North and South American countries ................................ ................................ ....................... 97 5 4 Fatal injury rate per 100,000 workers in the selected European countries 1999 2008 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 97 5 5 Fatal injury rate per 100,000 workers in Australia ................................ ......... 98 5 6 Standard workdays, maximum working d ays/week and minimum daily rest req uired by the selected countries ................................ .............................. 104
13 5 7 Accident reporting form in Sri Lanka ................................ ........................... 112 5 8 Accident reporting form in Canada ................................ ............................. 113 5 9 Average daily 2011 ........................... 117 5 10 Comparison of n umber of working hours per week ................................ .... 118 5 11 Hours worked per week and average construction worker daily wage in the selected countries ................................ ................................ ....................... 119 5 12 Percentage employment and unemploy ment by sector in Taiwan ............. 121 5 13 Number of construction injuries/illness/fa talities reported/investigated 2007 2010 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 123 5 14 PEC designated categories of the selected contracting companies ........... 126 5 15 Different contracting methods used by the selected contractors. ............... 126 5 16 Worker hours worked per week. ................................ ................................ . 127 5 17 Qualification requirements for safety personnel by t he selected companies ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 128 5 18 Investigating authorities as described by the selected companies. ............ 129 5 19 Duration of worker or ientation ................................ ................................ ..... 130 5 20 Frequency of project visits by home office personnel ................................ . 130 5 21 Home office involvement in safety reports rev iew ................................ ....... 131 5 22 Number of safety manuals re ceived from different companies ................... 132 5 23 Safety culture wheel ................................ ................................ ................... 136 5 24 Factors causing poor sa fety implementation in Pakistan ............................ 140 5 25 Educati onal background of participants ................................ ...................... 1 42 5 26 Professions of participants ................................ ................................ ......... 143 5 27 Rating of construction safety situation in Pakistan by p ercentage of total participants ................................ ................................ ................................ . 144 5 28 Mean effectiveness of roles of different stakeholde rs as rated by the participants ................................ ................................ ................................ . 144
14 5 29 pe rcen tage of total responses ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 145 5 30 Reasons for lack of safety training in Pakistani construction industry. ........ 146 5 31 Effect of providing safety training to various stakeholders on the overall construc tion safety culture of Pakistan ................................ ....................... 147 5 32 Improvements suggested by the participants. ................................ ............ 148 5 33 Obstacles that can hinder the safety improvement proces s as listed by the participants ................................ ................................ ................................ . 149 5 34 Educati onal background of participants ................................ ...................... 150 5 35 area of expertise ................................ ................................ .... 151 5 36 Professional e xperience of panel participants ................................ ............ 151 5 37 Institutional affiliatio ns of the selected participants ................................ ..... 152 5 38 Percentage effectiveness of roles of various stakeholders in Pakist an as rated by the participants ................................ ................................ ............. 154 5 39 Percentage agreement range categories for m easuring ease of implementation ................................ ................................ ........................... 156 5 40 Percentage agreement range categor ies for mea suring effectiveness ....... 156 5 41 Mean percentage rating for ease of implementation and effectiveness of administrative safety aspects at the corporate level. ................................ .. 157 5 42 Mean percentage rating for ease of implementation and effectiveness of site specific safety management aspects at the corporate level ....................... 159 5 43 Percentage agreement range ca tegories for measuring priority ................. 161 5 44 Percentage agreement range categor ies for measuring effectiveness ....... 161 5 45 Mean percentage rating for the priority and effectiveness of safety training ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 162 5 46 Mean percentage rating for the priority and effectiveness of safe ty training aspects for workers ................................ ................................ .................... 164 5 47 Procedure followed for measuri ng consensus among participants ............. 168 5 48 Percentage effectiveness of the roles of vari ous stakeholders in Pakistan as rated by the participants in Round 2. ................................ .......................... 169
15 5 49 Mean percentage rating for ease of implementation and effectiveness of administrative safety aspects at the corporate level in Round 2 ................. 172 5 50 Mean percentage rating for ease of implementation and effectiveness of site specific safety management aspects at the corporate level in Round 2 ..... 175 5 51 Mean percen tage rating for the priority and effectiveness of various safety training aspects for managers in Round 2. ................................ ................. 177 5 52 Mean percenta ge rating for the priority and effectiveness of various safety training aspects for workers in Round 2 ................................ ..................... 180 6 1 Comparison of responses regarding the effectiveness of the role of various stakeholders ................................ ................................ ............................... 183 6 2 Final ranking of suggestions for the improvement of regulatory infrastructure in the construction industry of Pakistan. ................................ ..................... 183 6 3 Safety wheel of the effectiveness and ease of impl ementation of various suggestions to improve corporate level administrative safety as rated by the expert panel. ................................ ................................ ............................... 190 6 4 Safety w heel of the effectiveness and ease of implementation of various suggestions to improve corporate level site specific safety as rated by the expert panel. ................................ ................................ ............................... 191 6 5 Safety wheel of the priority and ease of implementation of various suggestions to improve safety training for managers as rated by the expert panel. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 192 6 6 Safety wheel of the priority and ease of implementation of various suggestions to improve safety training for managers as rate d by the expert panel. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 193
16 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers CII Construction Industry Institute CHAIR Construction Hazard Assessment Implication R eview CV Coefficient of Variance CDM Construction Design and Management D4CS Design for Construction Safety ERIC Elimination, Reduce, Inform and Control GDP Gross Domestic Product HSE Health and Safety Executive H & S Health and Safety ILO International Labor Organization LABORSTA Labor Statistics Database NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health OSH Occupational Safety and Health PEC Pakistan Engineering Council PCPs Professional Credit Points SCPs Safety Credit Points
17 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR A RECIPROC AL SAFETY IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEM (RSIS) IN THE PAKISTANI CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY By Adeeba Abdul Raheem August 2014 Chair: R. Raymond Issa Major: Design, Construction, and Planning Despite the fact that the construction industry in Pakistan has witnessed a rapid growth in the past few years, workers are still working in poor safety conditions. The high injury/fatality rate in Pakistan is probably due to the direct exposure of workers to hazardous conditions, such as working at elevation or in confined spaces without any formal safety training and personal protective equipment . While Pakistan has several occupational safety and health laws, they are too broad to be applied directly to the construction industry . Due to the presence of a weak regulatory system, worker safety is not a principal focus of the construction industry. This study is conducted to improve the current construction safety situation in Pakistan by developing a framew ork for better implementation of safety practices and thus bridging the safety related perceptual gaps between different stakeholders and regulatory authorities. A three phase research three phases are: 1) Benchmarking 2) Evaluation 3) Development. During the benchmarking phase, various reasons were identified for the poor construction safety implementation in Pakistan. The existing situation was further evaluated through survey question naire and interviews. After conducting an extensive literature review and field study, the research
18 entailed the development of a framework for better construction safety implementation in Pakistan. The proposed framework is composed of guidelines for a re ciprocal safety implementation system with aspects such as regulatory enhancements and corporate safety culture improvements . The emphasis of this system is to extend all the efforts for minimizing the risks for construction workers thro ugh stronger regula tions and voluntary compliance efforts by all the stakeholders. This stu dy will help initiate a sustainable regulatory environment for safety implementation specifically designed for construction workers in Pakistan.
19 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background and Justification Pakistan is a developing country and has experienced rapid expansion in construction activities during the past few years with more than 3 million workers employed by the industry (PBS 2010). These employed workers constitute 7.44 percent of the total labor force, but injuries and fatalities in c onstruction represent about 15 percent of the total labor force fatalities of Pakistan (Figure 1 1) . Despite these alarming statistics, there have been few or no serious efforts expende d to improve the safety conditions of the Pakistani construction workers (Rahe em et al . 2012). Like most of the other developing countries, there are many difficulties and challenges that Pakistan is facing to better implement safety regulations within the industry. Figure 1 1. Comparison of the total labor force and total injuries/fatalities in the Pakistani construction industry . ( Data source: Pakistan Bureau of Labor S tatistics 2012 ) 7% 93% Total labor force(%) Construction Others 15% 85% Total injuries/fatalities (%) Construction Others
20 The prevailing safety standards in Pakistan are not specific to the construction ( Pakistani Ministry of Labor 2011) . These acts primarily address the occupational safety and health issues of factor y workers. The national rules and regulations addressing occupational safety and health (OSH) are numerous but due to their segmented framework and the unique nature of construction work, the direct application of these laws to construction safety is diffi cult. According to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (2011) , 31 percent of the total labor force is employed by the service industry (Figure 1 2(A)) . T he construction industry is ranked 3rd among all the economic sectors and 1 st among the service sector relative to the percentage of reported occupational injuries/diseases (Figure 1 2 (B ) ) . A B Figure 1 2 . Labor and accidents related statistics of various industries in Pakistan . A) Distribution of total lab or force in P akistan , B) Percentage of accidents in major industry sectors of Pakistan relative to the reported occupational injuries/diseases . ( Data source: Pakistan Bureau of S tatistics 2011) 51% 18% 31% Labor force (%) Agriculture Manufacturing Service 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Agriculture Manufacturing Construction Whole sale retail & trade Transport & Communication %age of total accidents reported Accidents Sector wise Service industry (Major sectors)
21 Due to the weak safety infrastructure, the work hazards are either not perceived at all, or they are perceived as being less dangerous than they actually are. In past research studies, construction site safety was measured in terms of a Safety Performance Index with a magnitude of 0.52, which indicates a lack of basic practices and no standard safety management system (a safe index value would be > 0.6) . This is typified by the prevalent lackadaisical attitudes of workers that ha ve proven to be a significan t barrier towards implementing site safety. Moreover like other developing countries, the regulatory authorities in Pakistan are lacking a safety implementation framework designed specifically for the construction industry. Due to the absence of the strate gic system of implementing safety in the construction industry, other stakeholders have low concern and commitment to ensure the safety environment for the construction workers on job sites. All these facts strongly suggest that there is a dire need of a p roperly designed safety system to be implemented to reduce the risks for laborers working on construction jobsites. Research Questions In order to effectively address the grim safety situation in the Pakistan i construction industry , three major research qu estions were addressed in this dissertation: 1. What role can regulatory authorities potentially play in the better implementation and promotion of worker safety in the Pakistani construction industry? 2. What are the perceptual differences related to worker safety among the stakeholders , i.e. owners, designers, contractors and workers? 3. What are the most appropriate steps to initiate the proposed safety system without disturbing the economic objectives of all the stakeholders?
22 Research O bjectives A detailed research framework is shown in Figure 1 3 .This research utilize d the existing literature to conduct a detailed study on safety regulations, technology, training and techniques adopted by Pakistan to gather in depth information. The main objectiv es of the thre re: B ENCHMARKING THE CURR ENT CONSTRUCTION SAF ETY CONDITIONS IN P AKISTAN . 1) Current safety regulations and their implementation in Pakistan as compared to other Asian countries were studied. The aim was to i de n tify the potential obstacles to the implementation of c onstruction safety .This was accomplished through the existing li terature and field studies. The information help ed to gain further insight s for the planning of an enduring future safety framework . 2) Additional literature was reviewed related to the roles and responsibiliti es of different stakeholders to improve safety conditions for construction workers. A NALYZING THE COLLECT ED DATA . Survey questionnaires were distributed to different stakeholders a nd personal inte rviews of top management were conducted. The results were analyzed to understand the general safety perceptions in the Pakistani construction industry. D EVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR A RECI PROCAL SAFETY IMPLEM ENTATION SYSTEM (L EVEL 1 ) . Based on the literature study, field observations, statistical results from surveys and interviews and cultural knowledge, a framework was developed for helping regulatory authorities to better implement worker safety rules. This system has two important characteristics: 1) Minimizes the inherent risks associated with construction work because s afety is inversely proportional to the risks involved. So if the risks are minimized, the safety of the construction workers will be improved. 2) Inc reases collaboration between the stakeholders to help them understand their roles and responsibilities. Level 2 of the framework (Figure 1 3) is recommended to be develop ed in future once L evel 1 goals ha ve been achieved. M ultiple set s of guidelines should be prepared for assisting ow ners, designers and contractors in the future encouraging them to play a vital role in improving working conditions on jobsites .
23 Figure 1 3 . Research objectives . Research Design T he research study was completed in four phases as shown in F igure 1 4 . The first phase was divided in two parts: 1) Benchmarking: I nformation was collected to study the construction safety systems developed/ adopted by various developed and developing countries in the world. E xisting literature on the socioeconomic reasons for the poor w orker safety situation in Asian developing countri es (including Pakistan) was reviewed. This provide d a broad understanding of the issues that constr uction workers are facing in developing nations of Asia. The literature was analyzed to compare how much efforts the Pakistan i construction industry is expending to implement safety rules on construction site s as compared to other Asian countri es. This comparative study help ed to benchmark the construction safety situation in Pakistan. The research Safety framework Part of current research study Suggestions for f uture work
24 resources that were utilized to study the current safety situation in the Pakistani construction industry include d past research articles and reports, federal and provincial reports on occupational safety and health, news articles and statistical data from the websites of Pakistan Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Labor. Literature was also reviewed on the roles a nd responsibilities of different stakeholders in general to improve worker safety on construction jobsites. 2) Development: Literature was reviewed on Delphi technique and statistical criteria for measuring the consensus among the participants of the exper t panel. Figure 1 4 . Research design . During this second phas e, survey questionnaires were developed to conduct analyses on global, regional and local levels . At the local level d ue to time and budget limitations, the surveys were distributed among the contracting companies that fell under the top five contractor categories, namely C A, C B, C 1, C 2 and C 3 as defined Theoretical framework Data collection and analysis Framework development and Delphi analysis Discussion, conclusions and recommendations Regulatory framework Corporate framework Safety training framework Global analysis Regional ana lysis Local analysis
25 by the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) . This categorization is based on the cost of construction put in place w ithin a specified duration (one/two/three years) for the . Along w ith the surveys, efforts were expended to conduct personal interviews with the owners and top managers of construction firms to get an idea about t he safety perceptions of these stakeholders. During the third phase, a safety framework was developed b ased on the literature study, field obser vations, statistical results, cultural knowledge and opinions from the expert panel for helping regulatory autho rities to better implement worker safety rules. The proposed safety framework was focused on improving three areas: regulatory infrastructure, corporate level safety management and safety training for workers and managers . Various safety improvement sugges tions were made that were rated/ranked by an expert panel which was formed according to a set of criteria. During the fourth phase, a fter a rigorous analysis these suggestions were grouped as short and long terms actions based on the ease of implementatio n, effectiveness within a short period of time and priority. It is expected that t he results of this study will not only provide a clear view of the current construction safety situation in Pakistan but also offer guidance for improving the working environment for construction workers through strong safety regulations and collaborative efforts of all the stakeholders.
26 CHAPTER 2 THEO RE TICAL FRAMEWORK Literature Review f or Benchmarking Phase Benchmarking Process The b enchmarking process can be defined in many ways but essentially it is a process of measurement and analysis that compares internal practices and processes with those of other entities/organizations. The purpose is to identify performance gaps and thus incr ease the efficiency. Similarly, the Construction Industry Institute (CII) defines benchmarking as a systematic process that is used to determine best practices improvement in performance when adopted and utilized (CII 2011). According to the American Productivity and Quality Center (1993) , there are two distinct approaches to benchmarking: competitive and process benchmarking. Competitive /performance benchmarking is a proces s that focuses on the relative performance of competitors using a select set of measures whereas process measures discrete process performance against leader entities/organizations. Bogan (1995) added the third type named strategic benchmarking that concen trates on long term successfulness pattern . Harington ( 1996 ) also explained that there are numerous other classifications of benchmarking process which were summarized by (2011) in a tabular form suggesting that the combination of internal and ext ernal benchmarking is the best practice among all the others. In this type comparison is made on a bigger scale but longer time is required to complete this process (Table 2 1).
27 Table 2 1. Comparison of different benc hmarking types. (Adapted from Harrington, H.J., and Harrington, J.S. (1996). High performance benchmarking: 20 step to success (Page 33 37). McGraw Hill, USA. 1996) Benchmarking type Decision making time Benchmarking partners Targets Results Internal 3 4 months Within the company Similar operations within different units Significant improvements External competitive 6 12 months Competitors Specific products, processes or methods Better than competitors External industrial 10 14 months Same industry Similar functions c omparison with the industry Creative b reakthrough and significant performance improvement External generic 12 24 months All industries worldwide Practices and processes independent of industry Change of rules Combined external and internal 12 24 months All industries worldwide Practices and processes independent of industry The best of kind In all these types of benchmarking, t he data obtained from this process help identify strengths and weakness es and evaluate risks . Utilizing benchmarking principles in the strategic planning phase is the most beneficial move in order to reap greater benefits in the future (Figure 2 1 ). Importance of implementing safety in c onstruction The construction industry plays a major role in many eastern and western 2007). In 2011, the estimated total construction spending of the world was approximately $4.6 trillion (F igure 2 2). Researchers in the past (Turin 1969 , Strassmann 1970, Drewer 1980, Edmonds and Miles 1984 and Wells 1985) have
28 established that there is a positive relationship between construction activity (construction output) and economic development (GDP per capita). Turin ( 19 78) and Wells ( 1985 ) have argued that the share of construction in GDP first grows during LDC ( less developed country ) status, peaks during NIC ( newly industrializing country ) status and then declines as countries move from NIC ( newly industrializing country ) to AIC ( advanced industrialized country ) status. Figure 2 1. Fields of benchmar king application. (Adapted from Spendolini, M. J. (1992).The Benchmarking Book. Amacom Press, New York. ) In a recent report released by Global Const ruction Perspectives and Oxford Economics, the growth in the construction volume has been forecasted to be more than 70% to $15 trillion worldwide by 2025 (Global Construction 2013). An interesting prediction is this growth could far outpace global GDP, a nd emerging markets are expected to account for 55% of the total construction market by the end of this decade (Figure 2 3(A)). In fact according to the recent statistics provided by the AECOM , Asian countries will be spending the largest share (46%) of t Determination of short term and long term company's objectives Strategic planning Projection of future trends in the relative business areas Projection Functional learning and thinking New ideas Comparison with competitors or companies having the best results Product/production process comparison Determination of business objectives in relation to the level of achievements of the leading companies Determination of objectives
29 followed by Western European (24%) and North American countries (17%) (Figure 2 3(B)). Figure 2 2 . Construction spending in various countries of the world in 2011 . ( Adapted from AECOM. (2012). World construction 2012 (Pag e 3). Davis Langdon, AECOM company ) A B Figure 2 3 . Global construction growth in future . A) Global construction spending timeline in developed and developing countries as forecasted by the Global Construction Perspectives and Oxford Economics , B) Share of construction spending by region 2020 . ( Source: A) Global Construction 2013, B) AECOM. (2013). Asia construction outlook 2013 (Page 35). AECOM company ) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Spain Mexico Australia Korea Italy UK France India Brazil Germany Japan USA Others China US $bn
30 T he irony is that d espite the considerable economic contributions of the construction indu stry (current and expected) , the construction industry is associated with a disproportionately high number of injuries and fatalities (Figure 2 4 ) . In industrialized countries , the construction sector employs approximately 6% to 10% of the workforce but it accounts for 20% to 40% of the occupational fatal accidents (ILO 2005) . This trend is similar or even worse in developing nations. It is estimated that a total of 60,000 const ruction fatalities occur per year around the world which equates to one constructi on fatality every ten minutes. Figure 2 4 . 2008 r ate of fatal injuries per 100,000 workers in the construction industry of the selected countries . (Data source: ILO 2011) 3.3 4.2 4.5 5.6 5.8 6.2 7.4 8.1 8.7 9 10 10.6 10.8 12 12 13.62 14.8 15 15.3 16 16.2 18 18 18.4 19.5 19.7 19.9 28 28.6 28.8 35 36.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Norway Switzerland UK Ireland Sweden Finland Malta Zimbabwe Canada Bahrain Italy Spain USA Austria France Hungary Poland Cyrus Czech Republic Slovakia Republic of Moldova Portugal Macau Bulgaria Taiwan Slovenia Lithuania Kyrgystan Croatia Turkey Romania Argentina Rate of fatal injuries per 100,000 workers
31 About 17 per cent of all fatal w orkplace accidents occur in construction sector only (ILO 2005). According to the global trade union federation, the numbers are much higher i.e. approximately 108,000 fatalities in construction per year that represents 30 p er cent of all work related accidents (one construction fatality every five minutes). This essentially means that the construction industry has a highly conducive environment for the human and monetary losses all over the world ( Garrett and Teizer 2009) . F o r most contractors it is a myth that implementation of construction safety will require high cost adding to the original budget but the cost associated with delays due to ac cidents is much higher than the cost of establishing a proper safety system (Figure 2 5 ) . Estimates of the ratio between indirect and direct costs have varied from 4 to 1 to 17 to 1 (Stanford technical report #260) . That is why in developing countries because of lack of legal infrastructure for construction safety it is very difficult to enforce safety standards in the industry. . Figure 2 5 . Economic impacts of accidents. Loss of human health and life First aid and medical treatment Liability cost Repair and replacement Direct Cost Safety personnel Personal protective equipment and supplies Time and cost associated with training and meetings Administrative Cost Training new/subsitute employee Reputation Delays Loss of crew effciency Legal cost Wages for loss time/injuries Effects on crew moral Indirect Cost
32 Need for benchmarking s tandards A global p erspective Constructio n work is dynamic and complex. It is inherently dangerous (Behm 2005, Carter 2006, G ambatese et al. 2008, JÃ¸rgensen 2008, Sm allwood 1996, Toole et al. 2006 ), but many risks can be avoided through the proper implementation of safe work practices. Construction safety standards are rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safe work performance. Th ese rules are usually a combination of prescriptive and performance requirements, the development and enforcement of which varies considerably among different countries. In most of the developed and developing countries the power of forming and regulating these standards is vested in government agencies or quasi governmental organizations, whereas in some developing countries it is the responsibility of the federal government, but is actually performed by the local authorities. Safety management practices v ary not only between developed and developing countries but this situation also exists among developing nations (Raheem et al. 2011). This can be attributed to the varying defining characteristics of safety performance adopted by different nations. Researc h studies related to safety regulations have shown that even in those developing countries where safety legislation exists, the governing (Lee et al. 2003). According to a study done by Koehn et al. (2000) injuries are often not reported in developing countries and the employer merely provides some form of compensation (usually a small cash amount) for any injuries to employees. The major causes of injuries/fatalities in construction are related to the unique nature of this industry, human behavior, difficult work site conditions, and poor safety management
33 (Abdelhamid et al. 2000). The construction industry has unique work conditions so it requires a unique approach fo r controlling human behavior and managing site conditions that are acceptable to ensure worker safety. This standardization process could be helpful in comparing safety performances of different countries in a quick and comprehensive manner. Occupational health and safety (OHS) laws and standards are based on a technical approach to manage the risks associated with working conditions (Holmes et al. 1999). Poor safety standards and la w enforcement make workers vulnerable to accidents in both the northern an d the southern hemispheres (Watterson 2007). Although occupational accidents and work related diseases have been of interest for occupational accidents and work related dise ases result in missing data in many countries (Hamalainen et al. 2009). Enhassi et al. (2008) concluded that in many developing countries, the legislation governing occupational safety and health is significantly limited when compared with many developed nations. In many developing countries, construction activities are not adequately planned, resulting in workers being exposed to hazardous conditions without proper training or appropriate personal protective equipment. Many safety measures are taken only after a dramatic incident occurs (Raheem et al. 2011, Mbuya et al. 2002). On the other hand, in developed countries, construction activities are generally carefully planned and are carried out by a skilled workforce which is trained to execute the work pro perly. Despite these efforts, a lack of awareness of safety requirements and other circumstances can still result in injury accidents.
34 As defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA 2011 ) in the USA, occupational safety and health s conditions, or the adoption or use of one or more practices, means, methods, operations, or processes, reasonably necessary or appropriate to provide safe or tance of this defined safe working environment in construction is more extensive than in any other industry because this sector cannot be completely mechanized. Every construction worker in any part of the world has a right to have a safe working environme nt, but unfortunately these standards vary considerably in the global arena. According to research done by the Center for Construction Research and Training USA ( 201 0 ) , there are numerous obstacles to developing an effective international construction safe ty standards system to improve injury/fatality data comparability. The most evident obstacles are: different coverage periods (minimum time that must elapse from the time of the accident to the time of death) for qualifying deaths as work related, variabil ity of classifying injuries involving commuting accidents, varying methods of classifying industries, inconsistent injury/fatality measurement methods and other non standardized definitions. Construction Safety I mplementation in Developing Countries Const ruction within developing countries often fails to meet the needs of modern competitive businesses in the marketplace because of poor safety conditions (Dorji et al. 2006, Ali 2006). In adopting different approaches to health and safety in developed and de veloping countries, two main differences can be identified. The first is the existence of legislation and its effective implementation; the second is hazard awareness. According to previous research studies conducted in different developed
35 countri es ( Ali 2 006, Beckmerhagen et al. 2003, Biggs et al. 2011, Raheem et al. 2011 , Ahmed 2013 ), many safety acts and legislation s exist and are implemented effectively. Nominated safety officers promote hazard awareness with the help of regular safety training sessions . In developing countries, however, safety rules barely exist at all; and an y that do exist are inadequate ( Mbuya and Lema 2002 ), ineffective (Raheem 2011), out of date (Ahm ed 2013 ) and based on conditions that prevailed while the country was s till being colonized . Additionally, the regulatory authorities are usually weak in implementing rules effectively (Raheem et al. 2011 ), and work hazards are either not perceived at all, or they are perceived as being less dangerous than they a ctually are (Arezes et a l. 2003, Hinze 1997, Ali 2006). Worker safety does not receive a high priority in developing countries. At the same time, the need to address safety appears to be quite strong in the construction industry. The poor safety performance in developing countrie s has an adverse impact on productivity.The increased risks encountered in construction have been attributed to the nature of the work, often taking place in the elements and on projects where the work environment changes on a day to day basis. Abdelhamid and Everett (2000) attributed poor safety performance in construction to the unique nature of the industry, human behavior, difficult work site conditions, and poor safety management. Jobsite accidents can have serious implications on construction projects such as loss of work hours, work stoppages, project delays, decreased worker morale, increasing the cost of construction, compromising productivity and adversely impacting the reputation of the industry (Muhammad 1999, Hinze 2006).
36 The overall costs of se rious construction worker injuries will include the cost to repair materials and equipment, training replacement workers, transportation costs (from work place to medical facilities), and various types of productivity losses ( lost working hours, disturbanc e in the crew due to incident, efficiency lost after s tarting work again) (Hinze 2000, Ng et al. 2004, Pearse et al. 2001). The costs of serious construction worker injuries can be compelling reasons to expend efforts to improve safety performance. The In ternational Labor Organization (ILO 1987) attributed the poor health and safety records on construction projects within developing countries to: The high proportion of small firms and high number of self employed workers; The variety and comparatively shor t life of construction sites; The high turnover of workers; The large proportion of seasonal and migrant workers; and Various trades and occupations working in the same area Mbuya and Lema (2002) concluded that in most developing countries, the implementat ion of construction safety is not given a priority, and employment of safety measures during construction is considered a burden. In addition, most of the developing countries do not have regulations to ensure the safety of construction workers on jobsites (Mohamed 1999). Current Construction Safety Situation in Pakistan The existing literature related to construction safety practices in the developing countries provided an overview of the associated problems of poor safety conditions in developing countries such as Pakistan. To have in depth knowledge of the safety situation in Pakistan, additional literature was collected from in country resources such
37 as past research reports, federal statistical data and prov incial reports related to occupational safety and health , all of which are summarized in Table 2 2 . Like other developing nations in the world, Pakistan is facing many socio economic issues associated with this poor safety situation. According to Ali (2006 ) , the Pakistani construction industry is more labor intensive with the moderately less use of mechanization and with t he enforcement of safety regulations being quite weak . Some people may even argue that the framework of existing occupational and health conditions of Pakistani construction industry is fragmented and inadequately enforced. Likewise in any industry, good health and safety conditions constitute good and safe business practice s . According to the statistics provided by the Pakistan Bu reau of Statistics (2012 13), after agriculture workers in construction were suffered the most from occupational injuries/fatalities. The highest number of construction accidents were reported in KPK (26.36% of all the reported occupational accidents in KP K province in 2011) followed by Balochistan (20.53%), Sindh (11.98%) and Punjab (11.94%). The biggest province (population wise) of Pakistan is Punjab (55.69%) having the least percentage of injuries/fatalities whereas workers in Balochistan (least pop ulou s province) suffered a high number of accidents in 2011 (Figure 2 6). The data have shown that the ratio of total accidents in construction (%age) to the total worker employed by the construction industry is the highest (2.05) among all the other sectors which clearly is an indication of an extreme lack of safety measures to control this disproportionately high number of accidents in the construction industry (Table 2 3).
38 Table 2 2 . Summary of the literature review for benchmarking phase. Year Authors Re search a rea Conclusions/Discussions 2005 Mohammad et al. Safety behaviors Construction workers have a good understanding of risk involved in construction work but system is lacking to provide them proper training 2006 Qazi et al. Awareness of construction safety practices Need of regulatory improvements, stakeholder participation and training programs to promote safety culture in Pakistan 2007 Ali et al . Risk management practices Frequently encountered risks on construction jobsites in Pakistan 2007 Rizwan et al. Safety culture Lack of commitment, cooperation, expertise and familiarity with tools to implement safety culture are obstacles hindering better implementation of safety on construction sites in Pakistan 2007 Rizwan et al. Delays in construction Empirical study Critical causes of delays and responsibility allocation in the Pakistani construction industry 2008 Arif et al. Safety performance Average SPI of Pakistani construction industry is 0.52 that is unsatisfactory 2008 Ahmed et al. Safety culture and behavior Importance of building positive attitudes and perceptions to improve construction safety in Pakistan 2008 Rizwan et al. Bid procurement practices Outdated, defective and non transparent procurement rules and regulations are problematic 2008 Sarosh et al. Critical factors for successful project in Pakistan Decision making effectiveness Contractor experience representative Site management Supervision Planning effort Prior project management experience ability to make decision 2008 Mohammad et al. National culture and work behavior There is a strong correlation between cultural perceptions in the Pakistani construction industry 2009 Arif et al. Safety climate on construction sites An Agreement Index was developed 2010 Farrukh et al. Risks in construction Empirical study Risks control measures in Pakistani construction industry Safety is only. 2010 Saqib et al. Site safety management Top ten safety management issues in Pakistan
39 Table 2 2. Continued Year Authors Research Area Conclusions/Discussions 2012 Hassan Health, safety and environmental practices Employer, administration and workers all lack knowledge about occupational health and safety issues in Pakistan 2013 Nawaz et al. Safety performance Non application of safety laws, lack of safety management plan, lack of safety and health of workplace, inadequate arrangement of first aid, absence of accident reporting mechanism are the prevailing characteristics of management systems in the Pakistani construction industry 2013 Haider et al. Safety training Targeted safety training is essential for improving safety implementation in Pakistan 2013 Choudhry et al. Sub contracting practices Communication gap between prime and sub contractor must be bridged and training programs must be established A B Figure 2 6 . Pakistani construction industry and fatalities. A) Percent age distribution of occupational fatalities (2012) in major industry sectors of Pakistan, B) Percent age distribution of construction related fatal injuries in the provinces of Pakistan. ( Data source : Pa kistan Bureau of Statistics 2012 2013 ) Another interesting aspect was observed (from the comparison of statistics provided by the Pakistan Bureau of Labor Statistics from the year 2008 to 2012 ) that construction is the only sector in which the accident rate has increased in 2012 13 (16% more acc idents than in 2011) (Figure 2 7 ). 0 10 20 30 40 50 Agriculture Manufacturing Construction Whole sale and retail trade Transport, storage %age distribution of occupational fatalities 11.94 11.98 26.36 20.53 55.67 24.91 14.4 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 %age distribution of construction fatalities vs. %age distribution of population population
40 Table 2 3 . Ratios of occupational injuries to employment perce ntages in various industries of Pakistan in 2012 . Industry Percentage of all workers employed in different sectors Percent age of all occupational accidents reported Ratio (A) (B) (B/A) Agriculture 43.71 49.15 1.12 Manufacturing 14.06 13.32 0.95 Construction 7.44 15.24 2.05 Whole sale and retail trade 14.39 9.2 0.64 Transport, storage 4.98 7.03 1.41 Figure 2 7 . Percentage distribution of fatalities in major sectors of Pakistan (2008 2012). ( Data s ource: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics 2012) The prevailing law in Pakistan governing Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is the Factories Act of 1934 that traces its origins to legislation inherited from India at the time of partition of the Indo Pak subcontinent . The Hazardous Occupation Rules of 1978 regulate certain occupations as hazardous, and contain special provisions to regulate the working conditions in those occupations. The s e law s provide safety provisions specifically designed for the workers employed by the factorie s. 50.43 49.93 49.82 49.77 49.15 13.96 12.8 14.9 15.78 13.32 14.54 14.25 14.15 13.1 15.24 7.54 9.77 9.7 9.78 9.2 8.14 8.02 7.85 7.06 7.03 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 %Age distribution of fatalities(2008 12) Agriculture Manufacturing Construction Whole sale and retail Transport, storage
41 Unfortunately, there are no occupational health and safety laws specific to the construction industry in Pakist an as of today . R egulations under the Factories Act of 1934 require the employers to abide by all the basic rules in order to run the busines s in a safe manner. Unfortunately, even these basic factory regulations are not applied to the c onstruction industry by Law. Some of the large firms mostly doing joint ventures with the international companies are i mplementin g some of these rules as it is a matter of their market reputation and in most of the cases safety related clauses are added in the main contracting documents. The law imposes upon the employer certain obligations to make sure that a safe working environment is pr ovided to the workers, such as : A written safety policy will be prepared by each employer describing the rights and responsibilities of workers. Public officers are appointed as inspectors by the Provincial government to examine any type of violation in any manufacturing unit. Under the provision of section 5, these officers can enter the premises of any fac tory to take on the spot action. By the virtue of the Factory Act, the workers are provided with all the workplace facilities like proper ventilation and lighting, clean drin king water, clean urinals, vaccination & inculcation and welfare officers . Detailed safety and health related provisions are written in the Chapter III section 13 33Q of the Factory Act of 1934 providing guidance to the employer as how to take fundamenta l steps to take care of worker hygiene. Some of the steps are as follows : C LEANLINESS . Provide c lean and safe work environment and special care should be taken to have an effective drainage system . D ISPOSAL OF WASTES AN D EFFLUENTS . Effective arrangements s hall be made in every factory for the disposal of wastes and effluents due to the process es carried at the workplace.
42 V ENTILATION . Effective and suitable provisions should be made to adequately ventilate the working space. D UST AND FUMES . Prevent inhalat ion and accumulation of dust and fumes. This necessitates the use of personal protective equipment and proper exhaust. P ROVISION OF H UMIDIFIERS . Provincial governments should prescribe the standards and regulate the methods used for increasing humidity whe re needed. O VERCROWDING . No working space should be crowded to an extent injurious to the health of the workers employed . S pace limitation is described as 14. 2 cubic meters space per worker. P ROVISION OF SUFFICIE NT L IGHTING . S ufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, or both should be provided. D RINKING WATER . D rinking water should be placed at least 6m a way from the restrooms. If more than 250 workers are working then cold wat er facility should be installed S ection s 21 33Q of the Fact or y Act of 1934 provide equipment related safety details to the employer such as: f encing of machinery e lectrocution c asing of new machines h oists and lifts c ranes, c hains, ropes and lifting tackles safe working pressure for p ressure plants The Factory La w of 1934 also has provisions related to the maximum working hours, minimum rest time, paid leave, minimum worker age, minimum wage rate etc. Unfortunately in the construction industry of Pakistan , the employers are not bound legally to abide by any such rules on the construction sites. Workers are allowed to work overtimes (with or without overtime wage rate) and in multiple shifts. The fundamental rules described in the Factory Law of 1934 can be expanded to cover construction workers by providing specif ic technical details on various operations on the construction jobsites. To accomplish that, t here is a great need for collaborative effort s by all the
43 stakeholders to develop a proper legal and professional infrastructure to improve the safety situation i n the construction industry of Pakistan. Additionally, due to the lack of enforcement of labor law s , the majority of the construction accidents are not reported to the Labor Department. Usually , only those incidents that result in fatalities or gain media attention are reported. It therefore seems unlikely that available occupational health and safety data would be reliable. Thus, without the proper information on the basic causes of accidents and injuries, it is difficult to initiate effective measures to reduce the frequencies of accidents, or to improve the overall safety standards within the Pakistani construction industry. Furthermore, as a majority of the construction companies belong to the private sector, and due to limited financial and technical re sources, poor working conditions are quite common (Figure 2 8 ) . Figure 2 8 . Cons truction workers at the major city construction sites in Pakistan. ( Photo courtesy of SCEE graduate students , NUST Pakistan )
44 Despite being an important part of the national economy and having rapid growth in the past few years, the government is not taking any steps to control the health and safety hazards for con struction workers. Even in the Labor P olicy of 2010, the governmen t was unable to enact any legislation for the safety of construction workers. It states conditions for those employed in this vital sector of the economy, the Government shall enac t suitable legislation to ensure the health and safety of construction workers and to 2010 Labor Policy of Pakistan ) . The statement itself explains the importance of the construction industry in t he national economy and the negligence of government to provide any legal framework for the safety of construction workers as compared to other formal sector workers. Literature Review for Development Phase Defining Safety Culture Past research has identi fied safety culture as a key to reducing injuries, illnesses and fatalities on construction worksites. facet of organizational culture, which is thought to affect member's attitudes and behavior in relation to refer to reactions (Misnan et al. 2006), attitudes (Varner 2005) and unspoken ru les of behaviors (Ostrom et al. 1993) from individuals who work for an organization and these norms along with other intrinsic (individual) and extrinsic (group) elements reflect the safety culture of any organization (Figure 2 9 ). According to ANSI standards (2005), a a set of interrelated elements that establish and/or support occupat ional health and safety policy and objectives, and mechanisms to achieve those objectives in order to continually improve occupational safety and health
45 An efficient safety management system ought to be based on the safety awareness that should become a culture in the construction industry involving all the parties. Figure 2 9 . Elements of organizational safety c ulture According to Hughes (2006 ), there are some really important components of a positive safety culture to which an organization should adhere for establishing good safety performance. These factors are : l eadership commitment to improve construction s afety h igh organizational goals and standards set to reduce accidents a well rounded risk assessment, control and monitoring systems a strong safety and health policy statement w ell designed training programs and effective communication a prompt investigation system Similarly Hughes (2006) described that there are few important indicators of poor safety culture leading to poor safety performance safety such as: l ack of compliance with the safety regulations h igh accident/incident/absenteeism/loss work days rate l ack of monetary and human resources for effective management p oor selection of management and selection procedures p oor level of communication h igh insurance premium due to poor safety performance Intrinsic Elements Extrinsic Elements Organization al Safety Culture Value s Beliefs Norm s Behavior s Individual Group
4 6 Past research has shown that human behavior (an individual safe or unsafe behavior) is partly guided by personal beliefs, values, and attitudes (Kleinke 1984) and organizational safety culture sets standards to shape and influence these individual behavior s to some extent (Williamson et al. 1997). Indeed, safety is for people but controlling human behavior is the real challenge. Glendon and McKenna (1995) explained that for maintaining an effective safety environment it is imperative to control both functio nal and human sub systems like management, control, monitoring, communication and leadership. In broader terms, s afety culture is not just an act or a set of instructions rather it i s a s yste m having four important aspects: planning, management, training a nd education (Figure 2 10 ) . Figure 2 10 . Components of a strong safety system . Factors Affecting Safety Performance Generally safety performance issues can be structured on four levels: individual worker project or site teams company or organization industry/country wide
47 A system wide approach suggests that for outstanding safety performance issues on all the levels must be given equal priority and attention. There are many factors affecting the development of safety culture at various levels of management (Table 2 4 ) . Table 2 4 . Factors affecting safety performance . Performance level Factors affecting safety performance Regulatory Industry/country level Lack of official safety data and records of construction acc idents leads to lack of awareness among stakeholders about the importance of safety (Kartam et al. 2000) Government role is critical in stricter legal enforcement of safety legislation (Zeng et al. 2004) Safety audits safety laws and regulation and accident investigations are really important to have sustainable improvements in construction safety(Aksorn 2007) Good safety management depends on an appropriate S&H infrastructure and government role is instrumental in establishing that infrastructure (Cheah 2007) Corporate Administrative Organizational level Research has shown positive effects of feedback, goal setting and training on safety performance (Duff et al. 1994) Communications between management and the workforce is really important to improve safety performance of any organization (Stranks, 1994, Vredenburgh 2002) Clearly established goals are necessary for an outstanding safety program (Pierce, 1995a) Realistic and achievable goals help measure and monitor performance (Weber 1992a, Blake 1997). Organizational commitment leads towards increase in safety budget and improved safety programs for training (Jaselskis et al. 1996) Safety awards or incentive programs for workers, safety training programs, safety committees and level of subcontracting are really important to be considered seriously to improve s afety performance (Tam and Fung 1998) Organizational safety pol icy is instrumental in improving safety culture (Sawacha et al. 1999) Safety committees at company level and communication of safety policies are crucial to develop safety culture (Wong et al.1999) Management support, safety accountability, safety communication and employee involvement are really important to improve safety performance (Erickson 2000)
48 Table 2 4. Continued Performance level Factors affecting safety performance Administrative Organizational level Effective delegation of responsibilities lead to cooperation of individuals (Rue and Byars 2001) positive influence (Ng and Tang 2001) The development, maintenance and implementation of an effective safety program is key to outstanding safety performance (Hislop 1991, Hinze and Gambatese 2003) An effective safety program result in a triple win; safety for workers, cost reduction, and high production rate (Henshaw 2004) There is a p ositive relationship between safety program implementation and safety performance (Liska et al. 1993, Hinze 2002) Nearly 90% of all construction accidents leading to death could (or should) have been prevented, 70% by positive management action (Coleman 1999) Site specific Project level Significant improvements in site safety when the contractors emphasized ho usekeeping (Tam and Fung 1998) Safety induction training is essential to reduce the accidents on site (Tam and Fung 1998) Post accident investigation is the most effective strategy for reducing site accidents (Poon et al. 2000) Employment of full time safety managers and safety procedure orientations are the key elements for superior safe ty performance (Findley et al. 2004) Safety practices and procedures, compliance of safety measures and disciplinary action for non compliance are the most effective factors for improving on site safety performance (Wong et al.1999) Individual worker level Experience and skills of workers are less prone to hazards (Laukkanen 1999) Behavioral based safety management are really effective in improving safety performance on site (Lingard and Rowlinson 1997) Human experiences influence actions on site an d involvement in safety management systems (Fang et al. 2004) About 80 to 90% of accidents are triggered by unsafe employee behavior (Lingard and Rowlinson 2005) Change orders induce unsafe behaviors precluding the effectiveness of straightforward health and safety system (Musonda and Smallwood 2005) Laziness is an important factor in the unsafe act of leaving sharp objects in dangerous positions (Aksorn and Hadikusumo 2007)
49 Table 2 4. Continued Performa nce level Factors affecting safety performance Individual worker level Male workers have much higher occupational fatality rate than female workers (7.4 compared to 0.9 per 100,000 full time workers) (Lin et al. 2008) Safety culture is a subset of organizational culture composed of artefacts and behaviors, espoused values and assumptions (Schein 2004, Whittingham 2012) Time pressure on workers is perhaps the most important factor influencing behavioral responses of individual (Ahmed et al. 1999, Oswald et al. 2013) Including jobsite workers in the safety process is the most effective way of reducing accidents (McGraw 2013) Human and individual characteristics influ ence behavior at work in a way which can affect health and safety (HSE) Safety culture, risk taking, experience/training and poor risk perception are the most important factor contributing to improving site safety (Oswald et al. 2013) According to Ogunlana et al. (1996) the construction industry performance problems in developing economies can be classified under four categories : p roblems of shortages or inadequacies in industry infrastructu re problems caused by clients and consultant s problems caused by contractor incompetence/inadequacies problems related to poor budgetary and time control Figure 2 11 shows a modified form of the Loss Causation Model, originally developed by Bird and Loftus (1976) and Bir d and Germain (19 85 ) . The model suggests that jobsite accidents are caused by multiple failures at the management and staf f level that include violations (routine, optimizing, situational and exceptional), human errors, breached control and defense and sub standard working co nditions.
50 Figure 2 11 . Loss causation model: layers of defense against loss . ( Adapted fro m Bird, F. E., and Germain, G. L. (1985). Practical loss control leadership. Loganville, Georgia: International Loss Control Institute, Inc. ) Similarly Heinrich (1931) focused on human factors (termed as man failure by him) as the cause of m ost accidents. He proposed that the unsafe acts and mechanical hazards are the core factors that lead to an accident and removal of these core factors will make preceding factors ineffective (Figure 2 12 (A)) . He summarized the direct and proximate causes in a chart form proposing that human factors contribute heavily towards the accidents. Unlike Heinrich, Reason (1990) in his Swiss Cheese Model stressed that accidents were not mainly due to human errors on site but lay in the wider systematic organizational factors of the upper s (1997 ) further modify his model and presented a comprehensive model of systems safety that shifted focus from person approach to system approach in occupational safety and health (F igure 2 12 (B)) . Latent failures Pre conditions Active failures incl. unsafe acts Failed system Incident
51 A B Figure 2 12 . Accident causation models. A) Direct and proximate causes of accidents according to Heinrich (1931) model of systems safety . (Adapted from Reason, J.T. (1997). Managing the risks of organizational accidents. Aldershot, Ashgate and HaSPA. (2012). The core body of knowledge for generalist OHS professionals ( Page 13). Tullamarine, VIC, Safety institute of A ustralia. ) ) Role of Various Stakeholders for Better Safety I mplementation Defining s takeholders According to the a group or individual who can affect or is affected by achieving the organiz In a broader sense stakeholder s can be defined as parties contributing to and/or being affected by a decision making process ( Freeman 1984, Phillips 2003 ) . Major stakeholders in the construction i ndustry Every stakeholder has a role to play to make a concerted effort to promote a strong safety culture in any construction industry but the roles of these stakeho lders are different (Hinze 1997, Gambatese 1996, Toole 2002). Griffith (1995) cites lack of Which cause Management Controls Main Failure Knowledge, attitude, fitness, ability Unsafe acts of people Unsafe physical condition 88% 10% Accidents Which causes or permits
52 awaren ess, knowledge, supervision, regulation and commitment as the major causes of accidents. Many safety problems stem from a failure to adequately deal with risks during construction or to proactively recognize them during design (Leslie 1993) so a collaborat ive effort is the key to successfully implementing safety regulations and improving the safety culture. In the construction industry major stakeholders are: regulatory authorities, contractors, owners, engineers, architects, workers and researchers. In mo st of the developed nations like US, UK, Australia, Canada, all of these stakeholders are trying to work together as a part of an integrative process to improve the construction safety culture at the national and corporate levels but in developing countrie s the situation is quite different from that. In most of the developing nations construction safety is considered to be a sole responsibility of contractors only (Figure 2 13). Figure 2 13. Stakeholders responsible for construction safety at the industry level in developed and developing nations. Worker s Architect s Developed nations Construction safety is considered as a mutual responsibility
53 According to Hinze (1997), o wners can play a vital role to improve construction the contract , and participating in safety m anagem 1997). In his research study, Enshassi (1997) examined the various causes of accidents on construction jobsites and he believed that many accidents on site can be attributed to design faults. According to Munro and Str ydom (1997) designers do not adequately play their role for improving worker safety. They sometimes design structures in such ways that create unsafe working environments for the workers. Efforts have been made in many developed countries to design guideli nes in order to help each stakeholder to fulfill their respective roles for improving safety conditions. Examples of some of the guidelines are shown in Table 2 5 . Table 2 5 . Guidelines for improving construction safety for various stakeholders. Stakehold er Guidelines For Owners Construction (Design and Manag ement) regulations 1994 (CDM), UK 1998, USA For designers Construction (Design and Management) regulations 2007 by health and safety executive (HSE), UK Construction hazard assessment implication review (CHAIR) by occupational safety and health regulatory authority, Australia OSHA alliance program construction roundtable design for construction safety (D4CS), USA NIOSH Prevention Through Design Program, USA For contractors Global best practices in contractor safety, IOSH/ASSE good practice guidelines 2012, UK Environmental health and safety guidelines for construction, renovation and demolition 2004, University of Maryland, USA Contractor safety handbook 2006, University of Kentucky, UK For all the stakeholders Guidelines for a successful construction project 2003, The Associated General Contractors of America, American Subcontractors Association, Inc., Associated Specialty Contractors
54 These guidelines are designed not only to help understanding roles and responsibilities, but also to provide assistance to develop a sense of team collaboration. The major goal is to prepare every stakeholder to play his role in facilitating the construction worker from planning through the execution phase in a safest possible way (zero incidents/accidents). For example, n on compliance with CDM r egulation in UK comes under criminal law . In these reg ulations o wners and d esigners are given specific legal responsibilities to play an effective role in positively influencing safety in the design, construction, maintenance and eventual demolition of structures. These regulations are intended to focus attention on planning and management throughout projects, from design concept onwards . Key aims of the regulations are: Improve the process of project plan ning and management from the beginning stages . Identify hazards early on, so that they can be elimina ted or reduced at the design or planning stage, and the remaining risks can be properly managed . Target effort where it can do the most good in terms of health and safety . Minimize political effects by discouraging unnecessary bureaucracy . According to the results of a recent survey (2013) conducted by McGraw Hill, most of the contractors now think that there is a relationship between construction quality and construction safety so through integrated delivery approach companies are trying to improve various site specific safety aspects. The nexus of safety and quality has prompted many companies to take proactive actions by improving their safety culture. The goals of zero rework and zero injuries require integrated planning where the risk is shared b y all t he stakeholders unlike the traditional delivery systems where project design, planning and safety are not/less integrated. Integrated effort help
55 bringing sub contractors early into the process and incorporate safety in the management plan in a more effect ive way (Figu re 2 14 ) . Figure 2 14 . Different project delivery methods and safety . ( Adapted from Hasso , M. ( 2012 ) . Comparative design delivery methods. Harvard workshop on Safety in design and construction: A lifecycle approach , Boston, Massachusetts) 1. Role of regulatory a uthorities . The r ol e of regulatory authorities cannot be denied for establishing a strong and sustainable OSH system. These authorities provide the legal framework and the tools to achieve the goal of safe and healthy workplaces. Integrated Delivery Methods and Safety Design Bid Build Design Bid Construction Management (CM) at Risk with Guaranteed Price Traditional Delivery Methods and Safety
56 The legal framework sets out the rights and duties of all parties in the workplace that further streamline the safety process. The authorities also establish procedures for dealin g with workplace hazards and provide means for enforcement of the law where compliance has not been achieved voluntarily by workplace parties. For example, the Directorate of Construction (US) serves as OSHA's principal source for standards, regulations, policy and programs. The authority is striving to serve the nation by improving occupational safety and health standards and proving assisting to improve multiple aspects of OSH system. The authori ty provides safety standards to ensure safe working conditions for th e nation's construction workers; coordinate and provide assistance to other regulatory agencies on the implementation and enforcement of major construction laws and stan dards; keep injury/fatality record . The role of regulatory author ity is very important to make sure that fair and healthy workplaces are provided to the workers that are characterized by productive relationships and high performance ( Ontario Ministry of Labor 2013 ) . Some of the major functions of any reg ulatory authority for OSH safety are: e stablishing and maintaining a construction compliance guidance and assistance program p rovision of technical services in engineering, safety, hygiene, and statistical analysis e valuation of the effectiveness of nationwide OSH targeting program 2. Role of o wners . Owners have substantial influence and contractual control over project related decisions so their approach towards health and safety issues is really important. In a traditional system an owner was mostly concerned about issues related to design, co nstruction and quality of work but now due to increasing improvements in
57 safety and health regulations owners are equally concerned about safety as other pr oject related issues (Figure 2 15 ). Figure 2 1 5 . Major owner concern s in traditional industry settings and safety. Owners should recognize that managing principles that are applied to cost, schedule, quality and productivity are also applicable to improve the safety performance. Owners can take proactive measures to ensure that the safety will be implemented on jobsite , such as: p rovision of safety guidelines p ermit requirement for hazardous activities m aking sure that a competent and trained safety personnel is employed on site s afety discussion at owner contractor meetings s afety audits r equirement for accident investigations According to the guidance provided by Health and Safety Executive (CDM regulations 2007), owners need to take the following measures to ensure worker safety on the project site (Figure 2 16 ). S ome of the best practices suggested by Gambatese (2000b) that a n owner can implement to improve safety on jobsite are : Major Owner Concerns Designability Constructibility Contractibility Management Industry practices Construtction Quality Safety a nd Health + Traditional Settings Traditional Settings
58 Figure 2 16 . Guidance for the role of owner under 2007 CDM regulations. Adjusting different activities or construction phases that would otherwise occur at the same location and be performed simu ltaneously. This is to improve the crew efficiency and avoid accidents by providing them enough space to work. Provide a list and location of toxic substances and other hazardous materials that are located on the site. Do not allow schedules that contain sustained overtime or night work. Overtime work schedules are one of the biggest causes of accidents especially in developing countries. Impose a ceiling on the number of workers on site or in a particular area. Confirm that the contractor knows of the p otential hazards of all construction materials and their proper storage and disposal. Appoint a Planning Supervisor and a Principal Contractor for each project, being satisfied that these "duty holders" are competent and have the resources to perform their duties adequately. Appoint competent people Owners need to allow enough time for the design, planning and construction work to be undertaken properly. Allow adequate time Provide the planning supervisor with information about the state or condition of the premises where the work is to be carried out . Provision of information Verify that any designer or contractor that is appointed directly is competent for the task and has allocated sufficient resources to it Competent team selection Ensure that the contractors provide adequate welfare facilities forconstruction workers as soon as possible, before work starts. Ensure adequate welfare The file is a record of useful health and safety information and will help owner manage health and safety risks during any future maintenance, repair or demolition. Keep health and safety file Not permit the construction work to start unless a health and safety plan Health and safety plan
59 On renovation or retrofit projects, provide the contractor with complete and updated as built drawings of the existing structure. Conduct a pre construction meeting wit h the contractor (including all subcontractors) to discuss safety issues. Clear and frequent communication is key to successful and safe project execution. In conclusion all owners, regardless of the type and size of their projects, should recognize the im portance of their role in improving construction safety. Safety should be integrated into the overall project objectives (quality, budget, time) of the owner. 3. Role of d esigners . Designers are in a unique position and can play a key role in reducing the ri sks that arise during construction work. The importance of the role of specifically emphasized the safety training for the designers to prepare them for the integration of he alth and safety measures into the design and planning process. ILO further stated that designers should not include anything in a design which would necessitate the use of dangerous structural or other procedures or hazardous materials which could be avoided by design modifications or by substitute materials, and take into account the H&S of workers during subsequent maintenance . Designer decision s fundamentally affect the health and safety of workers during the construction and maintenance phase as well. If safety issues are discussed right from the beginning then designers can have a greater ability to improve safety on sites during the e xecution phase (Figure 2 17 ). They are therefore a key contributor to construction health and safety. Accordin g to the Health and Safety Authority (EU), some Choosing the position and design of structures to avoid or minimize risks from known site hazards, inclu ding buried services, including gas pipelines, ove rhead and underground power lines ;
60 traffic movements to, from, around, and adjacent to the site ; contaminated ground (for example by using driven rather than bored piles) . Figure 2 17 Example of safety guidance for d esigners . The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 by Health and Safety Executive (HSE), UK provides guidance to the designers for hazard elimination and risk reduction (HERR) in a better way. According to these regulations, her relevant design eliminating or reducing it The methodology adopted for describing the sequence of the design risk assessment process is a qualitative technique simila (Figure 2 1 8 ) . Client Designers Contractors Site Operatives Project planning &execution environment Project planning &execution environmen t Use and maintenance
61 The ERIC model suggests the elimination of an identified hazardous situation in the first place and it is a mandatory requirement for the designers to con sider design alternatives in the UK . The designer should reduce the associated risks as far as regarding identified hazardous situations and risks (that have not been addres sed in the design) must be provided to the contractor by the designer and then it becomes the responsibility of the on site team constructing or maintaining the facility to control those risks. This process enhances the concept of an integrated effort to p rovide a safe working environment from the planning phase to facility management. These regulations also provide a list of key project related and health related hazards which the designer may potentially influence (Table 2 6 ) . Table 2 6 . Key hazards whi ch the designer may potentially influence . Project related Health related Working at elevation Musculo skeletal Vehicles and other transport Noise induced hearing loss Power cables and electrical installations Hand arm and whole body vibration Structural instability Dermatitis and other skin related problems Slips, trips and falls Asbestos related diseases Other project specific hazards Other project specific hazards 4. Role of contractors . The contractors are responsible for hav ing a proactive , goal oriented safety management system in place that outlines the policies, processes, instruction, and documentation involved. A comprehensive effective system can serve to establish the culture of safety and understanding for all the parties involved on the project.
62 A B Figure 2 1 8 . Safety m odels adopted by the UK. A) ERIC m odel for Prevention through Design , B) industries . Good management of health and safety on site is crucial to the successful delivery of a construction project. The key duty of principal contractors is to properly plan, manage and co ordinate work during the construction phase in order to ensure that the ri sks are minimized . According to the McGraw Hill Smart Market Report (2013) , some of the common practices that are used on project by the contractors and sub contractors are (Figure 2 19 ) : i ncl uding jobsite workers in safety process a nalyzing potential site safety hazards in preconstruction e stablishing an open door policy for workers to report hazards c onducting regular project safety audits with foreman/workers a ppointing and authorizing project safety personnel d eveloping site specific health and safety p lan
63 s ite specific training program for workers and subcontractors c onducting thorough incident investigations Figure 2 19 . Types of practices used on projects to promote safety. (Data source: McGraw Hill Construction 2013 ) Contractors can improve safety on a project site either by directly addressing site condition s or incorporating a strong safety process like assigning safety personnel or involving job s ite workers. The Occupational Safety and Health Act imposes the followi ng duties on employers: pro vide a hazard free workplace obey occupational safet y and health standards adopted by OSHA This essentially means that the contractor is responsible for managing risks, securing the workplace and comply ing with all the safety regulations. Similarly the 86 89 86 81 78 75 69 68 72 60 62 63 62 63 54 47 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Include jobsite workers in safety process Analyzing potential site safety hazards in preconstruction Establishing an open-door policy for workers to report hazards Conducting regular project safety audits with foreman/workers Appointing and authorizing project safety personnel Developing site specific health and safety plan Site specific training program for workers and subcontractors Conducting thorough incident investigations % General contractors Subcontractors
64 European Health and Safety Authority (HSA ) has described the role of contractors as having significant duties relating to w ide range of issues (Figure 2 20 ). Figure 2 20 . Duties of a contractor as described by HSA Duties of a Contractor Comply with safety rules and safety and health plan Provide site specific information Report accidents to the relevant authrities Identify hazards, eliminate the hazards or reduce the risks Facilitate the site safety representative Provide workers with the appropriate training Monitor compliance and take corrective actions
65 CHAP TER 3 METHODOLOGY Overview The methodology adopted for this research is described in Figure 3 1. The study was conducted in three distinctive phases: Benchmarking, Evaluation and Development. The benchmarking phase was started with the collection of data for global analysis of construction safety systems in various developed and developing countries. After having a global view , the study focused on the constr uction safety situation in Asian countries (regional analysis) . The study then concentrated on expl oring the reasons of poor safety implementation and opportunities for improving the existing infrastructure in Pakistan (local analysis) . The information collected during the benchmarking phase was thoroughly evaluated and findings were then used to propos e a safety implementation framework for improving worker safety in Pakistani construction industry. During the development phase, a preliminary survey instrument was developed, conducted and analyzed to propose a construction safety framework considering t he existing construction infrastructure in Pakistan. After that an expert panel was formed and their opinion s were utilized through consensus to prioritize the various aspects of the proposed safety implementation framework at the national and corporate le vel. The framework was developed to improve safety in the existing regulations, in the corporate environment and in the safety training programs for various stakeholders. The tools and techniques used for data collection, analysis and framework development are discussed in detail in the subsequent sections.
66 Figure 3 1. Overview of the methodology adopted for the study. Benchmarking Phase Global Analysis Construction workers are often exposed to the inherent risks associated with working conditions on construction sites. Safety standards of various countries prescribe a variety of mechanical safeguards and procedures to ensure that work is performed safely , but it is evident from the available statistical data on construction safety standards that there is no globally standardized system of regulations nor is there a common definition for the computation of injury/fatality rates. The components that form th ese statistics vary from country to country in many aspects, including the legal
67 framework for reporting accidents, the economic sectors covered, and the definitions of injuries/fatalities. Thus, the statistics from different countries are not directly com parable and cannot be interpreted with a single approach. In order to get a global perspective , the research was started by studying construction safety systems in different countries in all the inhabited continents (Europe, Asia, North and South America, Australia and Africa) (Figure 3 2) . Figure 3 2 . Continents selected for the study . (Source: World press 2011) The aim was to compare and contrast the methods for defining and reporting construction s afety performance as adopted by different countries throughout the globe before focusing on a particular region. The injury/fatality data from all the inhabited continents were col lected using the following two sources: I NTERNATIONAL L ABOR O RGANIZATION . M ost of the data were collected from LABORSTA which is a database for labor statistics composed of injury/fatality data collected from all over the world. The problem with this database was that it is not frequently updated and most of the countries do not provide data specific to the construction industry but report all construction related statistics under ser vice industry. D EPA RTMENT OF LABOR OF E ACH COUNTRY . The contact details for the representatives were found through the central government websites of each of
68 the selected countries. These representatives were contacted through emails asking details regarding their occupational safety and health systems. They were also invited to participate in this research study by completing an online surv ey. The survey questionnaires were sent either to the occupational safety and health department or to the department of labor in those countries where there is no operational OSH department. The survey questionnaire was designed to cover the basic charact eristics of safety system s such as data collection, processing and reporting. Data were collected from the six inhabited continents, selecting a sample of countries from each continent. Countries selected generally had occupational safety and health regula tions that were formulated by government agencies or quasi governmental organizations and collected injury/fatality data specifically for the construction industry that are published annually. The responses from these countries help ed to insure th e authen ticity of the data collected from other resources. Table 3 1 shows the list of countries that responded from each continent, whereas Figure 3 3 ( A F ) graphically presents the geographic al extent of the research study. This study was limited to defining the core of the safety standards system adopted by different countries as they pertained to injury/fatality statistics. The expectation was to isolate any unique attributes associated with specific continents. The purpose of this study was to get started with the most basic components which will provide the foundation for conducting further research that addresses detailed safety practices in different countries. A number of variables were selected to achieve the objectives of this study. These variables were grouped as follows: A. Definitions 1. How are injuries and fatalities defined?
69 Table 3 1. List of the selected countries from each continent . Continen t Countries selected for the detailed study Africa Egypt, Tunisia Asia Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Sri Lanka North America Canada, Costa Rica, USA Europe Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Turkey, England Australia Australia Africa Zimbabwe South America Argentina, Brazil A B C D E F Figure 3 3 . Selected countries from different continents . A) Africa , B) Asia , C) Australian continent , D) Europe , E) North America , F) South America . (Source: World press 2011) HK N. hemisphere S. hemisphere
70 2. How are safety standards defined? B. Data collect ion 1. What are the s ources of reported data ? C. Calculations 1. How is injury/fatality rate calculated? 2. How are l ost days due to injury calculated? D. Reporting 1. What are the m ethod s adopted for reporting injuries/fatalities ? Figure 3 4 shows a flowchart of the process adopted for this study. First of all, only a few crucial or vital safety standard components were selected in order to lay the groundwork for this research study. Within the research study environment, two resear ch processes were conducted. The process with the dotted lines (P1) shows the statistical data flow of the collected data from each selected country. The other process, with a solid boundary (P2), within the study environment is the comparative analysis be tween safety standards adopted in the selected countries. After comparing and contrasting the definitions used in different countries, some important statistical facts were compiled. Regional Analysis After studying the construction safety systems prevale nt in different countries , the study was focused on regional analysis before narrow ing down to a specific country. Seven Asian developing countries (Bhutan, China, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, South Korea and Taiwan) had been selected to conduct a comparativ e study in order to understand the relative safety of the construction industry when comparison was made between different countries in the same region with similar socioeconomic conditions.
71 Figure 3 4 . Methodology f lowchart . In almost all these countries the construction industry has a considerable economic impact on the overall GDP of the country. Figure 3 5 ( A ) shows the geographical extent of the research study that covers south and southeastern parts of Asia. The aim was t o select count ries with the similar socio economic background s . The following information was collected from different Federal departments and local OSH organizations based on the following issues: p revailing construction safety laws m ajor obstacles preve nting the implementation of s afety on construction sites i ndustry perception about the value of safety and health programs This information was collected online from the official resources shown in Table 3 2.
72 A B Figure 3 5 . Asian countries selected for analysis. A ) Geographical location of Asian countries selecte d for research, B) Construction industry as a %age of total GDP . (Data sources: State Bank of Pakistan Annual Report (2008 2010), Bank Negara Malaysia BNM Monthly Sta tistical Bulletin August 2010, Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and statistics, T aiwan 2010, National Bureau of S tatistics of China 2010, IHS 2009) Table 3 2. List of official online resources for comparative study . Country Resources Bhutan Ministry of Labor and Human Resources China National Bureau of statistics and Department of Labor and Social Security India Ministry of Labor and Employment Malaysia Department of Labor Pakistan National Bureau of Statistics South Korea Ministry of Employment and Labor Taiwan Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics Council of Labor Affairs Local Analysis After conducting the global and regional comparative study, a comprehensive list was prepared consisting of the basic characteristics of a safety system and data were
73 collected to compare and contrast the existing worker safety situation of the Pakistani construction indus try . The data were collected in multiple stages. Preliminary data were collected from the existing li terature in the form of newspapers, research papers, federal websites and private occupational safety and health organizations/institutes . The existing literature was reviewed specifically for writings addressing the safety situation on construction sites in Pakistan. The available literature was explored with the aim of collecting information related to the basic characteristi cs of a safety system (that was thoroughly studied during the global analysis). The characteristics that were explored are as follow s: C onstruction labor statistics of Pakistan that include, but are not limited to 1) t he total percentage of the industrial workforce that is represented by construction labor in Pakistan , 2) p ercentage and type of occupational diseases a nd injuries e.g. a ccidents, percentage of fatal, serious and minor injuries, and 3) t he specific health diseases caused by jobsite working conditions . P revailing o ccupational safety and health legislation/ infrastructure in Pakistan . O perational structure of the constructio n Industry in Pakistan and the relative importance of worker safety . R easons for site specific non compliances . P revalent practices and procedures that are adopted to address worker safety in the construction industry . Primary data were collected through personal site visits, interviews and survey questionnaires . Multiple survey questionnaires were designed to specifically address contractors and designers to gain an understanding of safety perceptions among different st akeholders. In order to understand the impacts of geographical dynamics thoroughly, four major Pakistani cities were selected for collecting data from different sites (Figure 3 6 ) .
74 Figure 3 6 . Selected cities for the research study . (Source: lo nelyplanet 2011 ) From the initial data it was observed that the initialization of a piece of legislation is a time consuming process and it cannot be initiated before studying the perception of different stakeholders especially the contractors . Thus the collection of primary data was started with studying the perception of contractors regard ing construction safety through interviews, surveys and analyzing the safety policy manuals. A. Understand the reasons that are hindering the implementation of safety on construction sites It was observed during the literature review that safety on construction sites is considered the sole responsibility of contractors. This makes them the prime stakeholder that can play a major role in bringing in the improvements with a properly d esigned safety system by the regulatory authorities. Twenty two companies participated in this part of the research representing a large volume of construction work being performed in four major cities of Pakistan, namely Islamabad, Kara chi, Lahore and Multan (Figure 3 5 ). The selected companies were categorized as C A, C B, C 1, C 2 and C 3 by the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), based on the cost of construction put in place
75 within the duration (on e/two/three years) for the renewal/upgrading of license (Table 3 3 ). These categories were selected for the following reasons: 1. During the research it was observed that the companies below category C 3 (relatively small firms) did not have sp ecific safety manuals and appeared to provide little consideration for worker safety. The reasoning that was offered was that it is too expensive to implement safety on site for relatively small construction companies involved in local projects. 2. Most of th e companies performing international projects fall between categories C A to C 3 and it is mandatory for them to implement safety on site as it is not only a vital part of their contractual obligations, but their progress payments depend on the ir overall p erformance including their performance in worker safety on site. 3. Because of time constraints and limited funding, it was not feasible to include all members. Also, for the same reasons it was not possible to expand the study throughout the country. Table 3 3. Categories for contracting firms as devised by the PEC. Constructor C ategory Limit of Construction Cost of Projects * (million dollars U.S. ) (million Rs. Pakistan ) C A No Limit No Limit C B Up to 22 Up to 2000 C 1 Up to 11 Up to 1000 C 2 Up to 5.5 Up to 500 C 3 Up to 2.7 Up to 250 *The cost is provided in Pakistani Rupees in the standard registration/renewal form for contractors by the Pakistan Engineering Council and is converted into U.S. dollars . The study was conducted in two phases: interviews and survey s . The interviews were conducted either with the owners or project managers of the selected contracting companies and the questions asked were open end ed. This open ended format was used to provide each interviewee an opportunity to talk in a comprehensive manner about the answers to the questions. These firms further participated by completing safety related survey questionnaire (Figure 3 7 ).
76 The interv had. The survey questionnaire was divided into four parts (Figure 3 8): 1) general information about the company, 2) safety performance (including info rmation about safety personnel, safety incentives and PPE ), 3) company safety culture (including information regarding home office involvement, safety addr e ssed in the mission statement, subcontractor selection criteria, accident/incident investigation and site specific safety planning) and 4) safety training (including information about toolbox meetings, worker orientation and safety training for manager ). Figure 3 7 . Methodology adopted for the collection of primary data . B. Understand the safety culture of construction companies in Pakistan . The safety policy manual of any company helps not only to identify the ir safety strategy, but also to devise the mechanism which is directed towards the management of a safe environment for the workers. In a nutshell, the safety policy manual describes the
77 overall safety culture of a company. The Pakistani construction industry is suffering from a weak safety regulatory framework and this leads to a non standardized system of site safety control by different companies. This situation can compromise the safety of workers on a project as a company focuses on expediting the work in order to 1) meet de adlines 2) make more profits 3) and use resources on multiple projects. Twenty nine companies were selected on the basis of the categories designated by the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), ranging from a net worth of 22 million dollars to 2.7 million d safe ty policy manual. Of the twenty nine companies from which safety policy manuals were requested, 14 responded by providing their safety policy manuals . Figure 3 8 . Framework of the safety survey for c ont ruction firms in Pakistan .
78 C. Explore the potential roles of different stakeholders in improving the current construction safety situation . To understand the importance and effectiveness of the roles of various stake holders, multiple surveys were conducted. Respondents were asked to rate the individual roles considering the existing safety situation in Pakistan. This was done to design an immediate safety action plan and focus on those stakeholders who h ave the greatest influence on t he jobsite safety and health. Evaluation Phase The results from the multiple surveys and interviews were evaluated for understandinf the gaps and opportunities in the existing regulatory infrastructure. A list of some basic c haracteristics of a safety system was also prepared that helped in designing the safety framework in the development phase. Development Phase Based on the literature review , field observations, statistical results and cultural knowledge, a rec iprocal safe ty framework was developed for helping 1) regulatory authorities in Pakistan to better imp lement worker safety rules 2) Contractors to improve their safety culture. The proposed safety implementation framework consisted of three major elements : r egulatory framework c orporate level framework a) a dministrative b) s ite specific s afety training framework a) s afety training for managers b) s afety training for workers
79 As there was not any statistical way to test this framework within a short period of time , it was decided to validate the framework by collect ing expert opinion s through the use of the Delphi t echnique . Delphi Technique The Delphi technique is widely used method to gather expert opinions related to a particular problem when it is difficult to get objective data and experimental research is unrealistic ( Linstone and Turoff 1975 , Ulschak 1983, Ludwig 1997 , Young and Jamieson 2001 ) . Consensus is built using a series of survey questionnaire s administered in multiple rounds. Hsu and Sandford (2007) have stressed that t here are a few very important aspects that should be considered while designing and implementing a Delphi study such as: c riteria for participant selection t ime allocated for each round r esponse rate p ossibility of biased opinion Rowe and Wright (1999) suggest ed that the Delphi technique is characterized by four key features such as a nonymity of Delphi participants , iterations, c ontrolled feedback and s tatistical aggregation of group response . Various objective s that can be achieved wit h the Delphi technique are indicated by Delbecq et al. (1975) as: determination of program alternatives exploring factors for varying perceptions seeking a consensus on particular issues between the participants studying the expert opinions on topics of wi de range of disciplines gathering knowledge on diverse and interrelated aspects of particular issues Theoretically, the Delphi process can be iterated in multiple rounds until consensus is reached, however past studies have shown that generally 2 3 iterat ions are sufficient to narrow down the results ( Cyphert and Gant 1971, Brooks 1979, Ludwig
80 1994, Ludwig 1997, Custer et al. 1999 ). Rowe and Wright (1999) describe d this process as a judgment, decision aiding or forecasting tool and the selected expert panel for conducting analysis can range from three to 80 members and anywhere from two to six rounds have to be conducted to reach consensus depending on the type of study conducted. Figure 3 9 . Survey process of Delphi technique . Procedure Followed for Delphi Analysis Preliminary s urv ey i nstrument The analysi s was conducted in two rounds and was completed over the period of five months from October 2013 to March 2014 (Figure 3 10 ) . Before conducting the Delphi a nalysis, a short survey wa s developed consisting of 12 structured and open ended questions which were prepared based on the information collected during the earlier phases of this research study . The survey was distributed to the Pakistanis from academia, industry and governmental agencies who were interviewe d during the earlier phases of this research study. This survey was also distributed during the International Participants in the expert panel Participants in the expert panel Delphi moderator
81 Conference on Safety, Construction Engineering, and Project Managem ent that was held in Pakistan in August 2013 . This survey helped in soliciting information regarding the existing safety situation and role of different stakeholders in bringing improvements to the Pakistani construction industry from a broader audience. This minimized the possibility of biased opinions from any particular group of t he construction industry while designing a preliminary survey instrument for the first round. The responses were collected at the end of various sessions of the conference and via email. The collected information was converted into a well structured questi onnaire that was used for the first round of Delphi a nalysis. Figure 3 10. Procedure adopted for Delphi a nalysis. Knowledge collected during earlier phases of the research study Develpment of prelimniary survey Responses from various stakeholders Survey instrument for Round 1 Delphi Analysis Round 2 Delphi Analysis Final Framework
82 Selection criteria for an expert panel The literature on Delphi analysis was studied to understand how to select participants for the expert panel because the quality of results in Delphi analysis depends on the selection of appropriate participants (Judd 1972, Jones and Twiss 1978, Taylor and Judd 1989, Jacobs 1996 ). According to Adler and Ziglio (1996 ) in general terms, partic ipants selected for the Delphi a nalysis process should meet four requirements: knowledge and experience with the topic under study capacity and willingness to participat e time commitment to participate in the Delphi analysis effective communication skills The participants were recruited from a pool of experts on construction safety in Pakistan who were either interested in or working on improving the construction safety situation in Pakistan . These experts were selected based on the following criteria: Must be a citizen of Pakistan . Must have an advanced degree of engineering or management preferably in construction . related t o construction industry of Pakistan . Must have at least two research papers/invited presentations in the field of construction safety . Must have attended at least three construction safety related training workshops/ conferences . Must have p rofessional reg istration such as Professional Engineer (PE ) / Licensed Safety Trainer . Identification of potential participants The potential participants of the safety expert panel were identified during the following efforts: 1. Personal interviews with the representative of various construction firms .
83 2. Meetings with the representatives of federal/provincial and private OSH institutes . 3. International Conference on Safety, Construction Engineering, and Project Management that was held in Pakistan (August 2013) and jointly organized by Auburn University, Alabama, USA; University of Florida, Gainesville, USA; King Faisal University (KFU), Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia; and National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan. The conference served as an internat ional forum for researchers, engineers, practitioners, and safety and health professionals around the globe to address current issues affecting the successful achievement of safety, construction engineering and project management in construction. This conf erence provided a perfect opportunity to discuss and extend an invitation for participation to academicians, administrators, and practitioners from educational institutions, government agencies, contracting organizations, consulting firms, and other constr uction related organizations. The contact information and qualifications details were saved in a .docx file and continually updated as needed. A list of potential participants was prepared based on the criteria described earlier. Formal invitations were se nt to each of the potential participants using an email explaining the purpose of the study, the time required to complete the survey and approximate timeline to send back the completed survey. A part of the research study was also presented during the con ference to get the audience familiarized with the research aim s and receive feedback if any. Each one was asked to reply back confirming their willingness to participate in the study within ten days of receiving the
84 email. In the meantime , a pilot study wa s conducted prior to distributing the survey instrument to the expert panel . The aim of the pilot study was to pre test the appropriateness and clarity of the survey instrument. There were some minor changes proposed to enhance the clarity so the survey wa s finalized accordingly. Mode of i nteraction The first round (Round 1) was started as soon as confirmation of participation was received from the participants. Twelve participants out of 18 agreed to be the part of expert panel for this study. The Round 1 survey q uestionnaire was sent with a deadli n e in the third week of December 2013 . The Round 1 survey questionnaire was converted into an online survey using Qualtrics that is a w eb based survey software. Using this software, s urveys can be created and dis tributed by anyone with an account . Survey data can be analyzed as it is collected and researchers can pre create reports with graphs, charts, and tables that populate in real time. The consent form was also developed describing the procedure and all the rights/responsibilities of the participants. Statistical method a dopted for a nalysis Upon completion of Round 1, the responses were consolidated, analyzed, and utilized in the devel opment of the Round 2 survey questionnaire. Mean values of all the ratings along with standard deviation and coefficient of variance values were calculated. responses regarding a specific aspect to its corresponding mean value. Coefficient of variance (CV) = Standard Deviation/ Mean A large value of the coefficient of variance for any safety aspect in the survey indicated scattered response pattern compared to the mean value of the responses for that aspect. Descriptive statistics were developed using MS Excel and SPSS to show the
85 anonymous perceptions of other experts in Round 2. The Round 2 survey questionnaire was then delivered to participants via email in February 2014. The participants were asked to reconsider their answers so that a consensus c ould be reached. An extensive literature review was conducted for selecting most the suitable method for analysis of the data to establish consensus in Delphi a nalysis. Acc ording to the literature reviewed earlier, non parametric statistical methods should be used instead of the parametric methods to measure consensus between the participants when (Yang 2003, Kalaian and Shah 2006) : the number of experts in the panel is les s than 30 and/or the distribution of the responses for each of the items are skewed (non normal distribution). The number of participan ts in the selected panel was 12 which is less than 30 . Also the responses obtained were not normally distributed to eith er side of median in most of the cases so the following two non parametric s tatistical methods were used to. c onvergence of opinions (CG ) a nk correlation c oefficient (rs) Since all these methods are based on various point scale systems so for the sake of simplicity, the percentage ranks/rates were coded into a scale of 10 . Table 3 4 . Coding for mean percentage rankings. Actual mean ranking 0 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 51 60 61 7 0 71 80 81 90 91 100 Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 It was assumed that c o nsensus was reached when the following three criteria were met: Convergence of opinions(CG) <1 rank correlation coefficient (rs)<1 Percent age mean change < 15%
86 Finalizing the f ramework Based on the expert opinion s consolidated through the Delphi t echnique, the framework was revised by prioritizing different aspects of the propose d safety implementation system . Also short and long term safety improvement action plans were develop ed using the results of Delphi a nalysis . Scope and Limitations The scope of this study was to develop a safety implementation framework with an emphasis on improving the existing infrastructure in Pakistan rather than introducing something absolutel y new to the system thus minimizing the resistance to acceptance by various stakeholders. Some of the limitations of this study are as follows: Alt hough the role of each stakeholder is important in improving the safety situation in the construction indust ry of any county , this study was limited to the two major stakeholders in the Pakistani construction industry , i.e. regulatory agencies and contractors. The reason is that i t has been observed during the earlier phases of this research study that construct ion safety is considered a sole responsibility of the contractor and this is included in writing in the standard contract documents as well those provided by the Pakistan Engineering Council. So because of limited time and funding, it was decided to start developing a framework with an emphasis on improving the role of these two main entities. It was also not possible to include all the contracting firms in the study so the study was limited to the five top categories devised by the Pakistan Engineeri ng Council based on the cost of construction put in place within the duration (one/two/three . Since Pakistan is a country where social arguments can dominate economic or technical considerations , it w as decided to develop the framework based on the opinions of people who are associated with the Pakistani construction industry in terms of research, training and practical knowledge. The participants were provided a thorough desc ription about the procedure to fill out the survey during the Delphi a nalysis ; however, individual perceptions were beyond the control of the researcher.
87 The participants were invited from academia, industry and government but the equal participation from these sectors in the final expert panel was not possible because not everybody invited for this study was ready to commit the time required to complete the multiple rounds . The intent of using the Delphi t echnique is to get consensus of the expert s and not to produce statistically significant results so the size of the expert panel is normally kept small. The outcome of this analysis is not necessarily a representation of the perceptions of com mon population. This research was the first attempt to develop a safety implementation framework in Pakistan so it was not possible to form a panel of experts rep resenting all the stakeholder .
88 CHAPTER 4 DATA COLLECTION Benchmarking Phase Global Analysis For the global analysis of constructio n safety standards, data were collected from the following sources: D EPA RTMENT OF LABOR OF E ACH COUNTRY . The available information on the federal websites related to construction labor was collected. I NTERNATIONAL L ABOR O RGANIZATION . LABORSTA database of labor statistics was used to collect basic statistics related to construction industries in the selected countries . Survey questionnaires were sent to the occupational safety and health department or to the department of labor in those countries where there is no operatio nal OSH department. The contact information of the representative persons was found through the Federal websites . The collected data were compare d for defining and reporting construction safety performance as adopted by selected countries around the world . This analysis provided a global perspective that proved to be extremely helpful in the development phase. Structure of the survey q uestionnaire . The survey was comprised of basic questions, including how injuries and fatalities are defined and how the inj ury/fatality rates are calculated. The surv ey was sent to individuals in 45 countries via email. Responses were received from 23 countries, yielding a response rate of 51% (Table 4 1) . The questionnaire replies from most of the African countries were not su fficiently thorough or complete for the data to be utilized in this research. For these countries , more useful information was obtained from the department of labor of each country and the ILO.
89 Table 4 1. Survey response rates . Continent No. of surveys sent No. Returned Response rate Africa 8 3 38% Asia 10 6 60% Europe 16 8 50% N. and S. America 10 5 50% Australia 1 1 100% Total 45 23 51% Regional Analysis To have a broad perspective and to assess the major issues related to the implementation of construction safety in a comprehensive manner, seven Asia n developing countries were selected including Pakistan, India, China, South Korea, Taiwan, Bhutan and Malaysia. In almost all these countries construction industry has a considerable economic imp act on the overall GDP of the countr y. Data were collected related to the various factors affecting the construction safety such as political, financial and technical factors. The framework used for this analysis is shown in Figure 4 1. To collect the rele vant information various feder al and provincial web resources were used. Also emails were sent to the representatives of Department of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health Authorities when needed to collect the information that wa s not available online . Data were also used from the database (LABORST A ) of International working hrs. per week in the selected countries. Local Analysis The research data were collected through inte rviews and surveys. The information collected from the interviews consisted of vital first hand facts that helped the research team to better understand the real obstacles to incorporating safety into the operational structure of the Pakistani construction industry. The questionnaire
90 survey was conducted to empirically gauge the safety practices on site and to determine how firms plan to strategically implement safety regulations. Figure 4 1. Framework for the regional comparative study. The companies were selected on the basis of the categories designated by the Pakistan Engineering Council (Figure 4 2 ), ranging from a net worth of 22 million dollars to 2.7 million dollars (U.S.). The companies were first c ontacted via emails and telephone asking for their willingness to participate in the research study. The purpose of the study was explained thoroughly along with the basic requirements (approximate time required to fill out the survey, provision of the saf ety policy manuals, arrangements . After getting their informal
91 consent, t he survey was distributed through emails as well as during the in person interviews with the representatives of the selected compani es. Figure 4 2 . PEC designated categories of the selected contracting companies. Although there are many aspects of safety culture, for this study the analysis was limited to the following three (Figure 4 3 ): r isk management (AC1) s afety features: sa fety personnel, standard operating procedures, em ergency response plan, personal protective equipment s afety communications (AC2) s afety features: orientation, incentives, training s afety monitoring (AC3) s afety features : inspections, permits, investigations After analyzing the manuals, data were compared to study the perceptual differences and various safety features were rated on a scale from 0 to 3 based on the strengths or weaknesses in the overall safety culture of different companies. Th e scale worked as follows: 0= Weakness details are not provided in 90% of the companies; 1=Some aspects covered; 2=Could be improved; 3=Strength (safety details are 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C A C B C 1 C 2 C 3 Number of companies
92 provided in 90% of the companies ) . The results were presented by plotting a safety culture wheel for each analysis category. Figure 4 3. C ategories used in the analysis of safety culture of Pakistani construction companies . Development Phase A safety framework was developed based on the information collected through the literature review , field visits, i nterviews, surveys and professional knowledge on construction safety. It was anticipated that the only feasible way to validate this framework is to take expert opinions from the professionals working on impro ving construction safety in Pakistan . The Delphi t echnique was used and the analysis was completed in two rounds. The Round 1 survey was consisted of questions designed to strategize the safety implementation process in the construction industry of Pakista n . The responses were collected and the Round 2 survey was designed accordingly. The Round 1 survey was developed with two major parts:
93 1. general information 2. e lements of proposed construction safety infrastructure in Pakistan regulatory framework c orporate l evel framework a) administrative b) site specific sa fety training framework a) safety training for managers b) s afety training for workers Under the general information section, information was collected related to education, professional experience, safety related research publications, certifications, and invited presentations and professional affiliations with occupational health and selection criteria is met. T he participants w ere asked to rank and rate various elements of the proposed safety framework to establish preliminary priorities . The elements were ranked from 1 to 10 with 1 being the highest rank. The effectiveness and ease of implementation of each proposed actio n was rated from 1 to 100% where 100% is being the highest rating . The responses were statically summarized into medians and upper and lower quartiles. A regulatory framework was proposed with the following improvements in the existing regulatory infrastructure: 1. I MPROVEMENTS IN THE S TANDARD CONTRACT DOC UMENTS PREPARED BY T HE P AKISTAN E NGINEERING C OUNCIL (PEC). The contract documents were studied thoroughly and it was observed that though it was emphasized many times throughout the documents to provide workers a s afe and healthy work environment, but there is n owhere any concrete guidance provided in terms of standard procedure and measurements or penalties in case of non compliance. 2. I NCORPORATION OF S AFETY C REDIT P OINTS ALONG WITH THE P ROF ESSIONAL C REDIT P OINTS (P CP) IN THE CONTRACTOR S LICENSE RENEWAL PR OCESS . It was observed through research that the role of contractors is very important to bring improvements in the system but there is no binding for them.
94 3. R EQUIREMENT OF A SAFE TY PROFESSIONAL . A qualified safety professional should be hired on projects with more than 200 workers on the project site . 4. E STABLISHING A PROPER INJURY / FATALITY REPORTING S YSTEM . A reporting system should be established initially for contracting companies with average annual worth of more than $10 million within the last three years . 5. I NSURANCE COVERAGE . F o r public (all) and private (worth more than $20 million) projects . 6. M ANDATORY SAFETY TRAI NING PROGRAMS . These programs should be designed specifically for different stakeholders . 7. S ITE INSPE CTIONS BY THE PEC DESIGNATED INSPECTOR S IN CASE OF INJURY / FATALITY . It is extremely important to investigate the reasons that led to incident in case of any injury / fatality. This is helpful in recognizing the gaps in training or administrative procedures. 8. M ANDATORY PROJECT SPE CIFIC SAFETY PLAN . In order to qualify for bidding of any Federal project , the contracting firm should submit a project specific safety plan along with the other required bidding documents. 9. S AFETY PROFESSIONAL . A qualified safety prof essional should participate during all the project phases (design construction) as a part of the management team . At the corporate level, administrative and site specific safety improvements were suggested which were rated/ranked by the expert panel. I mpro vements were also suggested for the safety training programs specifically designed for managers and workers.
95 CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS Benchmarking Phase Global Analysis Fatality /I njury statistics The fatality/injury statistics for the selected countries (collected by the ILO) were available from 1999 2008 but in a discontinuous pattern. The data clearly show that there are no or very few parameters defined for safety standards in these countries, i .e., there is limited ability to collect and analyze data from the responding African countries (Figure 5 1 ). Figure 5 1. Fatal injury rate per 100,000 workers employed in the selected African and Asian countries 1999 2008 . (Data s ource: ILO LABORSTA 2011 ) The fatality /injury data specific to construction are difficult to estimate in most of the African and Asian countries because of the varying classifications in the construction industry statistics. For example, in Tunisia reported accidents in
96 con struction, electricity and water projects are class ified as a single category (Figure 5 1 ). Among all the selected Asian countries Hong Kong has the highest fatality rate with an average fatal injury rate of 60.53 per 100,000 employees over the ten year pe riod (1999 2008). The given statistics cover workers employed outside of Hong Kong, if they are employed by a Hong Kong employer, as well as workers involved in work accidents within the territory, even if they normally reside outside the territory. This m ay or may not be the case in the other Asian countries. For example, in Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Japan and Kyrgyzstan only those accidents are covered which occurred within the territory, while in Sri Lanka workers employed overseas by the Sri Lankan employer are also included in the national statistics (Figure 5 2) . Figure 5 2 . Fatal injury rate per 100 0,000 work hours in the selected Asian countries 1999 2008 . (Data s ource s : ILO LABORSTA 2011 , Department of Labor South Korea 2010 , KOSHA Korea 2010 , Ministry of Labor, Health and Welfare Japan 2011 , Department of Labor Sri Lanka 2011 ) In the western part of the northern hemisphere the problems related to standardizing standards are different. The response rate from European and South
97 American countr ies was reasonably good but a great deal of uncertainty was associated with the defined national standards in each country (Figure 5 3 ). Figure 5 3 . Fatal injury rate per 100,000 workers in the selected North and South American countries (CI=Compensated injury, RI= Reported injury) . (Data source: ILO LABORSTA 2011 ) In the selected European countries Turkey reported the highest fatality rate averaging about 37.32 per 100,000 workers in a ten year time period (Figure 5 4 ) followed by Romania with a fata l injury rate of 25 per 100,000 workers (1999 2008). Figure 5 4 . Fatal injury rate per 100,000 workers in the selected Euro pean countries 1999 2008 . (Data s ource: ILO LABORSTA 2011 )
98 The Australia n data show ed a sharp declining trend in the fatality rate after 2001 continuing until 2005. After that , the trend shows slight changes until 2008 and ag ain a sharp rise in 2009 (Figure 5 5 ). The average fatality rate was calculated as 5.7 per 100,000 workers in an eleven year time period. Figure 5 5 . Fatal injury rate per 100,000 workers in Australia . (Data source: ILO LABORSTA 2011 ) Construction safety standard systems adopted by different countries For the analysis the four major components of each safety standard system were selected and info rmation was collected for each component in the selected countries. In some cases a conflict of statistics was found between different information resources. T he statistic of greatest interest was the more accurate statistic, reliability the data collection and reporting system. The conditions were never completely comparable from one country to another. Also , underreporting is likely even in the most advanced countries. The analysis was conducted based on the selected four major components of the safety standard system: defining the system, data collection, data processing and data reporting. After collecting
99 the required dat a for each selected component, the disparities for each process were then analyzed for different countries within the same region. A. D efining the s ystem . A well struct ured system of defining various characteristics of a safety standard system is vital for t he establishment and operation of occupational safety and health infrastructure in any country. To compare the prevailing safety standard systems in the selected countries the information based on the following aspects was collected: How are occupational accident s / injur ies / disease s defined? What types of accidents are included under the definition of occupational accident? What are the max imum and min imum limits for qualifying as lost workday injury (temporary incapacity) and death? How is a standard wor kday defined? Maximum working days per week? Minimum daily rest required by law (hours) ? As adopted in the Sixteenth International Conference of Lab or Statisticians (ICLS) (Geneva unplanned oc currence, including acts of violence, arising out of or in connection with work which results in one or more worker s In almost all the selected countries the theme of this definition has been adopted , perhaps using different wording . In Asian and African countries , occupational accident is defined as the unwanted, unplanned, undesired work related event either in the workplace or in a direct way related to the work place. There are no specific conditions attac hed to the definition for further elaboration. Accidents caused by demolition, fire or explosion are also not specified under the occupational accident category in more than
100 80% of the selected Asian, African and South American countries (Table 5 1) . In most of the European countries this definition is accompanied by information regarding pre existing conditions, min/max qualification for lost work days/death , etc. Also , accidents caused by demolition, fire or explosion are specified under the occupa tional accident category. It was observed that the minimum period of time for the qualification of a lost work time injury varie d within all the continents. That is, the study examined how many days an injured worker had to miss work before the injury was classified as a lost workday injury. For lost work time the limit ranged from 1 to 4 days in the selected African countries, 3 to 4 days in the Asian countries, 1 day in American countries, 3 days in European countries and 5 days in Australia (Table 5 1). There were also variations in defining the period of time that death occurred after injury occurrence. For example, there was a specified number of days that could pass after an injury until the time of death for the incident to still be regarded as a work related fatality. I n most of the selected Asian countries the maximum period of time after an accident for the accident to be qualified as a work related death was either not specified or there was no limit set for this purpose. In African countries this time period range d from 6 months to a year after injury occurrence. M ost of the American and European countries did not establish a consistent period of time for death to occur after injury occurrence . For example this limit is 90 days max imum in Hungary a nd one year in Portugal. In Australia , this limit is set to be 3 years and all the records are updated for a period of two years prior to the reference year.
101 Table 5 1. Defining characteristics of OSH standards in the selected countries . Country Occupational accident Demolition, fire and explosion included Min/Max period for qualification Lost work day 1 (temp . incapacity 2 ) Death 3 Egypt Any sudden and unplanned incidence normally causing bodily harm or injury; it may occur during working hours on the direct way to or from work regardless of its cause or where it occurred 1 day ( min) 6 Months (max) Tunisia An accident arising out of or in connection with work sustained by any worker Not specified 4 days ( min) None Zimbabwe An unlooked for mishap or untoward event or process of work arising out of and in the course of a worker's employment 1 day (min) 1 year (max) Azerbaijan All accidents that occur when work related duties are carried out (including those when a worker is on detachments) whether on or away from the working site Not specified 1 day (min) 4 None Bahrain An injury to a worker as a result of an accident arising out of or during the course of the performance of work. Not specified Not specified Not specified Hong Kong An accident to an employee arising out of and in the course of employment. 3 days (min) None Japan Injuries caused by accidents while working or on duty Not specified 4 days (min) Not specified S. Korea Any work related injury arising during the clearly stipulated work days and working hours Not specified None None Sri Lanka Fatal and non fatal injury from any occurrence arising out of or in the course of work Not specified 3 days (min) 1 year ( max) Canada An accident involving at least one employee in the performance or in connection with his or her work 1 day (min) None Costa Rica Any accident that occurs to or from the place of work due to work duties None None 1 T he qualifying period for compensation for lost wages 2 It is defined as an incapacity which is of a temporary nature and which negatively effects the earning capacity of an employee in any employment in which the injured worker was engaged at the time of the acci dent 3 P eriod following the accident for the death to be considered a fatal occupational injury 4 I t is advised to change the duty to relax the worker for one day or more
102 Table 5 1. Continued Country Occupational accident Demolition, fire and explosion included Min/Max period for qualification Lost work day (temp. incapacity) Death USA An injury or illness is considered to be work related if an event or exposure in the work environment either caused or contributed to the resulting condition or significantly aggravated a pre existing condition 1 day ( min) None Brazil Any accident or disease to which workers are exposed, arising out of or in the course of work Not specified 1 day (min) None Bulgaria A death, temporary incapacity to work or disability resulting from abnormal conditions of work Not specified Not specified Not specified Hungary An accident which occurred in the course of the work activity or in connection with the work activity, or on the way to or from the workplace irrespective of the place and time of the accident 3 days (min) 90 days (max) 5 Italy An accident which takes place during work and results in death or full or partial permanent disability, or full temporary disability resulting in an absence from work of more than three days 3 days (min) None Portugal An accident arising within the workplace and during working time, that causes directly or indirectly body injury, functional disturbance or disease which results in death or the reduction of the worker's capacity for work and for earnin g. Not specified None 1 year (max) Romania A violent injury to the body, including acute poisoning, arising out of or in the course of work, without taking into account the legal nature of the work relationship under which the work is performed, and the consequence of which is a temporary incapacity to work of at least three days, invalidity or death 3 days (min) None Spain Any bodily injury sustained by a worker that arises out of or in connection with work 1 day (min) None 5 F ollowing the day of the accident
103 Table 5 1. Continued Country Occupational accident Demolition, fire and explosion included Min/Max period for qualification Lost work day 6 (temp. incapacity 7 ) Death 8 Turkey Accidents occurring during work or outside the workplace Not specified Not specified England An accident that has arisen out of or in connection with work 3 days (min) 1 year (max) Australia All work related injuries which are the result of a single traumatic event occurring while a person is on duty or during a recess period and where there was a short or non existent latency period 5 days 9 (min) 3 years 10 (max) Source: International labor organization (ILO), International finance corporation data (2011), the World Bank, National Branding and Investment data (2012) Data have shown that in most of the selected countries eight hours per day is the standard workday , except in Zimbabwe and Turkey ( nine hours per day). There was a varying trend observed for the minimum daily rest time required by law in each continent. In European and North/South American countries the rest periods range d between 11 to 12 hours per day (Figure 5 6 ) . I n most of the Asian countries t here is nothing specifically mentioned about the daily rest period except the stipulation of a few minutes break time after every 6 to 8 hours, which encourages the trend to work without break between shifts , which may increase the chance of accidents due to fatigue. 6 T he qualifying period for compensation for lost w ages 7 It is defined as an incapacity which is of a temporary nature and which negatively effects the earning capacity of an employee in any employment in which the injured worker was engaged at the time of the acci dent 8 P eriod following the accident fo r the death to be considered a fatal occupational injury 9 The day on which the accident occurred is only included in work time lost if the accident occurred on the way to work 10 All the r ecords are updated for a period of two years prior to the reference year
104 Figure 5 6 . Standard workdays, maximum working days/week and minimum daily rest required by the selected countries . B. Data c ollection . In most of the selected countries the statistical data for injuries/fatalities are not first hand information. The organizations which are responsible for collecting these data are dependent mostly on the information provided by the insurance companies. For example, all the responsible organizations in Zimbabwe, H ong Kong, Azerbaijan, South Korea, Canada, Hungary and Spain collect injury/fatality data from the reports submitted for compensation to the insurance companies. It is obvious that in each country the insurance companies have their own standard framework a nd these standards may even differ within a country. In some countries insurance companies are controlled by the government authorities in terms of data collection but in many Asian and African countries insurance companies are working privately and their terms and conditions regarding insurance premiums, types of coverage and exclusions (regarding temporary or permanent employment) are different 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Egypt Tunisia Zimbabwe Azerbaijan Bahrain Hong Kong Japan S. Korea Sri Lanka Canada Costa Rica USA Argentina Brazil Bulgaria Hungary Italy Portugal Romania Spain Turkey England Australia Standard workday(hrs.) Max working day/week Min daily rest (hrs.)
105 from each other. Especially in the developing countries , the responsible organizations were mostly dealing with the issues such as labor employer relations, w orkers' health, safety and rights have emerged as the primary source of occupational safety and health data. For example, t he Tunisian National Social Security Fund (Caisse Nationale de SÃ©curitÃ© Sociale ) ( CNSS) ( 2011 ) (Table 5 2) is a public establishment responsible for data collection endowed with civil status and financial autonomy and is organized separately into Central and Regional structures. In Canada, the Compensation Boards of C anada (AWCBC) ( 2010 ) ( provincial and territorial ) provide the primary data to the responsible organizations. It was founded as a non profit organization and is now financially operated by the national office. Table 5 2. Source organizations for collecting injury/fatality statistics in the selected countries . ( Data source: International Labor O rganization 2011 ) Country Organization responsible for collection/compilation of statistics Source of statistical data Egypt Manpower Directorates Manpower Directorates Tunisia National Social Security Fund National Social Security Fund Zimbabwe Ministry of public service labor and social welfare, National Social Security Authority Fund Azerbaijan State Statistical Committee (GOSKOMSTAT) of the Azerbaijani \ Republic Labor Inspectorate Bahrain General Organization for Social Insurance (GOSI) General Organization for Social Insurance (GOSI) Hong Kong Labor Department, Labor Department and Statistics Department Labor Department under the Employees' Compensation Ordinance Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Industrial Safety Division S . Korea Ministry of Labor, Industrial Safety and Health Bureau Insurance records Sri Lanka Industrial Safety Division, Department of Labor Industrial Safety Division of the Department of Labor Canada Labor Branch (HRDC L) and the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada (AWCBC), Human Resources Development Canada, National Work Injury Statistics Program (NWISP) Canadian provincial and territorial workers' compensation boards
106 Table 5 2. Continued Country Organization responsible for collection/compilation of statistics Source of statistical data Costa Rica Instituto Nacional de Seguros (INS) INS and the statistical information program on occupational risks and health USA US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Brazil Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social INSS of the MinistÃ©rio da PrevidÃªncia e AssistÃªncia Social (MPAS) (Ministry of Social Welfare and Assistance Reports by ServiÃ§o especializado em engenharia de seguranÃ§a e em medicina do trabalho, SESMT Bulgaria National Medical Information Centre National Medical Information Centre Hungary OrszÃ¡gos MunkaÃ¼gyi Ã‰s MunkabiztonsÃ¡gi FofelÃ¼ugyelosÃ©g (National Inspectorate of Labor and Labor Safety, NILLS) Reports submitted to the National Inspectorate of Labor and Labor Safety Italy Istituto Nazionale per l'Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro (INAIL) Claims for compensation submitted to the INAIL Po rtugal Department of Statistics, Ministry of Labor and Solidarity (Departamento de EstatÃstica do MinistÃ©rio do Trabalho e da Solidariedade) Insurance companies Romania Ministry of Labor and Social Protection, National Statistics Commission State Inspectorate for Labor Protection Spain SubdirecciÃ³n General de EstadÃsticas Sociales y Laborales ,Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales SubdirecciÃ³n General de EstadÃsticas Sociales y Laborales, Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales Turkey Social Insurance Institutions Social Insurance Institutions Australia Australian Bureau of Statistics, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), Safe Work Australia ( Government statutory agency) C. Data a nalysis . In the selected Asian countries there are different methods adopted for reporting fatality rates; the most used methods we re number of fatalities per 100,000 full time workers and per 1 , 000,000 work hours. For example, in Japan and Sri Lanka, the fatality rate is calculated per 1,000,000 hours worked (Table 5 3) . In each country the number of hours per person is calculated based on a varying standard working h ours per week , so again the statistics are not comparable. In Azerb a ijan the fatality rate is calculated per 1000 workers including temporary or seasonal workers, non regular workers, trainees and even the students receiving practical training or carrying
107 out work in construction enterprises . In Kyrgyzstan temporary workers are not covered in the statistics. A s tandard working week of 40 hours is typical in almost 90% of the selected American and European countries (Table 5 3), but the distribution of hours within a week is subject to the mutual agreement between employee and employer. This also holds true in case of overtime and shift work . In case of the selected Asian and African countries , a mixed trend was found, having wor k week ranging between 40 to 48 hours. A standard work week is generally considered five 8 hour workdays in Egypt , from Sunday through Thursday to a maximum of six full days (Saturday being the sixth day) . Lost w ork time due to injuries is calculated as work days in all the selected Asian and 90% of the Africa n and American countries, and a similar trend was observed in Australia. L ost work time is calculated in terms of calendar days in all the European countries . Most of the selected Asian countries sta ted their data related to reported injuries whereas in other countries the data were related to the reported and compensated injuries . In all the selected African countries the rate of inj ury is based on 100,000 workers. T able 5 3. Methods adopted for cal culating fatality rates in selected countries as provided to the International Labor Organization ( 2011 ) . C ountry Fatality rate calculated Type of injury/fatality data Normal working hrs . per week Type of injury/fatality covered under occupational accident reporting Work time lost Occupational diseases Commuting accidents Egypt Per 100,000 employees Reported 48 Calendar day Tunisia Per 100,000 employees Compensated 48 Work day
108 Table 5 3. Continued C ountry Fatality rate calculated Type of injury/fatality data Normal working hrs . per week Type of injury/fatality covered under occupational accident reporting Work time lost Occupational diseases Commuting accidents Zimbabwe Per 100,000 workers insured Reported 45 11 48 12 Work day Azerbaijan Per 1000 employees Reported 48 Work day Bahrain Per 100,000 employees Reported 48 13 Work day Hong Kong Per 100,000 employees Reported 48 Work day Japan Per 1,000,000 hours worked Reported 40 14 15 Work day S. Korea Per 1,000,000 hours worked Compensated 40 16 Work day Sri Lanka Per 1,000,000 hours worked Reported 44 Work day Canada Per 100,000 employees Compensated 40 17 Work day Costa Rica Per 100,000 workers insured Compensated 40 Work day USA Per 100,000 employees Reported 40 Work day 18 Brazil Per 100,000 employees Compensated 40 44 Calendar day 19 11 9 hrs./ da y (excluding lunch break) when employee works a five day week 12 8 hrs./day (excluding lunch break) when employee works a six day week 13 Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MOLSA) Bahrain 14 Chapter 4, Article 50 , paragra ph 1 of the Labor Standards Act ( http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/wp/wp hw2/part2/p2c3s2.pdf ) 15 diseases are limited to the disastrous diseases, excluding food poisoning, communicable diseases and occupational diseases 16 Chapter 5, Article 22, Standard employment rules, Minist ry of Labor, S. Korea ( http://www.moel.go.kr/english/search/search.jsp ?keyword=definition+of+occupational+accident&x=0&y=0 ), Ministry of employment and Labor, South Korea (www.moel.go.kr), National Statistical Office (www.nso.go.kr) 17 Commuting accidents are only included if they are covered for compensation 18 Excluding day of injury 19 It is not measured for fatal injuries
109 Table 5 3. Continued C ountry Fatality rate calculated Type of injury/fatality data Normal working hrs . per week Type of injury/fatality covered under occupational accident reporting Work time lost Occupational diseases Commuting accidents Bulgaria Per 100,000 workers insured Reported 40 48 20 Calendar day Hungary Per 100,000 employees Reported 40 Calendar day Italy Per 100,000 workers insured Compensated 40 21 Calendar day Portugal Per 100,000 workers insured Reported 40 22 23 Calendar day Romania Per 100,000 employees Reported 40 24 Calendar day Spain Per 100,000 workers insured Reported 40 Calendar day Turkey Per 100,000 workers insured Reported 45 25 Calendar day England Per 100,000 employees Reported 40 Calendar day Australia Per 100,000 employees Compensated 38 26 Work day 27 D ifferent methods have been adopted within the selected countries to calculate injury/fatality rate s , frequency rate s and severity rate s . Table 5 4 shows different formulas adopted for this purpose within different countries. It was observed that in African and Asian countries the formula used to calculate the fatality rate is based on 20 W eek ly normal daytime working hrs.= 40 hours, night work up to 35 hrs.(from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. ). The maximum allowable daytime weekly hour s including overtime = 48 hrs., 44 hrs. night work. the Bulgarian labo r legislation 21 Commuting accidents are not covered by insurance in most of the cases 22 The Portuguese Labor Code 2003 , Directive 93/104/EC 23 Commuting accidents are not legally defined as occupational accidents 24 Statistics on occupational diseases are compiled separately 25 The total daily working hours not to exceed 11 hrs./ day 26 The data on commuting accidents are collected but ex cluded from most analyses re lated to occupational accident 27 The day on which the accident occurred is only included if the accid ent occurred on the way to work
110 1000 w orkers employed/insured (Tabl e 5 4). This is also the case in Australia where the fatality rate is calculated as the number of occurrences expressed as a rate per 1,000 wage and salary earners employed . In North and South America the fatality rate is based on 100,000 equivalent full t ime workers working 40 hours per week for 50 weeks per year . On the other hand in South Korea fatality rate is based on 10,000 workers covered by the accident compensation insurance ( see Table 5 4 ) . In Egypt to calculate frequency rate hours worked per person per year are estimated as 300 days x 8 hours per day = 2400 hours, whereas in Zimbabwe the hours are estimated as 250 x 8= 2000 hours. The formula to calculate the frequency rate is based on 1,000,000 worker hours in Egypt, Zimbabwe and Australia whereas in American and South Korea it is based on 200,000 and 100 workers hours respectively. Table 5 4. Different formulas used for calculating injuries/frequency/severity rates in the selected countries . Egypt Zimbabwe USA 28 South Korea 29 Australia Rate of fatal injuries ( Number of persons fatally injured / number of persons employed) x 1,000 ( Number of persons fatally injured / number of insured employees) x 1,000 (Number of fatalities/ number of workers employed during the calendar year) x 100,000 (Number of fatalities/Numb er of workers covered by the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance) x 10,000 ( Number of fatalities / number of wage and salary earners employed ) x 1000 * * number of occurrences expressed as a rate per 1,000 wage and salary earners employed 28 http://www.bls.gov/iif/osheval.htm 29 http://english.kosha.or.kr/content/report/2007_3.html
111 Ta ble 5 4. Continued Egypt Zimbabwe USA 30 South Korea 31 Australia Frequency rate 32 ( Number of persons injured during the (Number of persons injured during the year / (average N / EH x 200,000 Where: N = number of (Number of injuries and illnesses/Numb er of workers ( Number of injuries and diseases / number of year / (average number of persons employed during the year x 2,400)) x 1,000,000 number of insured employees during the year x 2,000)) x 1,000,000 cases of injuries/illness EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year 200,000 = base for 100 equivalent full time workers (working 40 hours per week for 50 weeks per year) covered by the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance) x 100 hours worked) x 1,000,000 Severity rate 33 (Total number of days lost during the year / (average number of persons employed x 2,400)) x 1,000 # of days lost during the year / (average number of insured employees x 2,000)) x 1,000 Total #of lost work days in year/ total number of hrs. worked by all employees) x 200,000 (a standardized estimate of the hours worked by 100 employees) (Number of illnesses/Numb er of workers covered by the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance) x 1, 000 D. Reporting . Reporting system s differ in different countries. Data have shown that in developing countries there is weak or no formal regulatory framework for worker safety in the construction industry so less/no attention is paid to reporting incidents at 30 http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshev al.htm 31 http://english.kosha.or.kr/content/report/2007_3.html 32 injury rate per y hours worked 33 number of days lost per z number of workers. A severity rate is calculated to examine the safety performance
112 the construction sites. Most of the incidents are reported under the prevailing factory laws. For example , in Sri Lanka accident s on construction site s are reported on a form developed under the Factory O rdinance of 1942 (Figure 5 7 ) . In most of the selected African and Asian countries , injuries are reported with short generic information with minimum attention to the details regarding the cause s of the accident s . The generic information collected contains the following features: sit e and employer informati on where the accident occurred personal characteristics ( injured person) characteristics of accidents amount of work time lost c haracteristics of injurie s Figure 5 7. Accident reporting form in Sri Lanka . (Source: Sri Lankan Department of Labor 2011 )
113 In most of the developed countries the accident report is more extensive than the reports utilized in developing countries. For example , in Canada (Figure 5 8) there are other details required along with the above mentioned points , such as a full description of the incident, information on pre existing conditions, details regarding the medical treatment provided to the injured worker and the opinion of the supervisor regarding misrepresentation or concealment . Figure 5 8. Accident reporting form in Canada . (Source: Service Canada 2012 )
114 Regional Analysis A comparative analysis was conducted to study the construction safety regulations, technology, training and techniques adopted in different Asian developing countries such as Pakistan, India, China, Bhutan, Malaysia, South Korea and Taiwan. This analysis provided a clear understanding related to the current issues th at are hindering the proper implementation of safety techniques in the construction industry of the se developing countries. In most of the Asian developing countries, the construction industry is on e of the major stakeholders in the national economy but co nstruction safety has been neglected mainly due to a fragmented relationship between prevailing law s and enforc ing agencies . This analysis had shown that t here are many other factors that affect the safety enforcement process in developing countries . For t he sake of simplicity , all these factors were analyzed under following three main categories: political/legal, financial/economic and technical. Political/L egal f actors In most of the Asian developing countries there is not any specific legislation related to construction safety. The n ational rule s and regulations concerning Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) are numerous but due to the segmented framework , direct enforcement of these laws affecting construction safety is really difficult. Due to this reason the construction industry has been treated under general industry regulations. The workers are not even provided with the basic OSH protection that is available to other industrial workers, becaus e most labor laws do not apply to this sector, and the rate of accidents, diseases and injuries is consequently higher. Major laws that govern OSH in the construction industry for the selected Asian countries are listed in Table 5 5 . The order of implemen tation is devised as Excellent -
115 Good Fair Moderate Low None. If a country has proper operational OSH department and labor statistics are available including ult to get fatality/injury data then the implementation in the country is rated as Moderate fair. If neither proper OSH department nor fatality/injury data exist then implementation of law is rated as low/none. Table 5 5. Laws governing OSH in constructio n i ndustry . Countries Laws governing OSH Implementation of Laws Bhutan Chathrim for Wage rate, Recruitment Agencies and worker compensation Law 1994, Labor and Employment Act, 2007, labor administration policy and law, 2003 Moderate F air China Labor Law 1994 Moderate India Factories Act 1948 (amended 1954, 1970, 1976, 1987), Insurance (ESI), The Explosives Act, 1884, The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 19 89 Low/ None Malaysia Labor Law 1955, Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1994, The Factories and Machinery Act 1967 Fair Good Pakistan 1923, Minimum Wage Ordinance, 1961 Low/None South Korea Labor Standards Act ( last amended on 20 February 1998), Trade Union and Labor Relations Adjustment Act (last amended on 20 February 1998), Labor Relations Commission Act, Act Concerning the Promotion of Worker Participation and Coo peration, Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency Law, 1987 Fair Good Taiwan Labor Standards Law 1984, Labor Insurance Act 1958, the Employment Services Act 1992, Labor Safety and Health Law, 1974, The Labor Inspection Law, Occupational Hazard Prevention Program, Construction Industry Act, 2003 Fair Good ( Data source s: Department of Labor (Bhutan, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, South Korea) 2010 2012 , Taiwan Council of Labor Affairs 2010 , Department of labor and social security China 2008 ) It was noted that the seven contributing countries each had some type of safety legislation; however, it was clear that none have legislation that is specific to
116 construction. Despite the existence of this legislation, the fragmentati on of the construction industry essentially makes enforcement a mute issue, i.e., while child labor laws tend to exist in most countries, the construction industry is known to regularly employ children. From this, it could be concluded that safety legislat ion that is specific to the construction industry is needed. Child labor is strictly prohibited in all the selected countries and its enforcement is a part of labor law but it i s a common practice in Pakistan, India and Bhutan to take work from the childre n under the age of 18 on construction sites in form of helpers performing different activities about which they have no technical knowledge. These children are working either on very low wage or employers just provide them food to survive. Also except larg e/international companies, there is no concept for paid leave in case of sickness/injury for construction workers in these countries so workers who are ill or injured temporarily send their young children to work even under hazardous site conditions. The l ack of necessary skills or unfamiliar ity with the job process exacerbates the situation and results in increasing number of accidents. Financial f actors Average daily wage of construction workers . Unlike in the developed countries, i n most of the Asian dev eloping countries the minimum wage for construction worker s is way lower than in other competing sectors like manufacturing or service i ndustries . It has been observed that the workers with the longest working hours are the ones who are least paid. In fact, construction is often viewed as a typical example of a free labor market. Due to the low average daily wage in most of Asian developing countries , the workers look for overtime to improve their livelihood. Within the selected countries, South Korea o ffers the highest average ($31.84 ) daily wage to construction
117 laborers , however, that is still three times less than the se workers are paid in the U.S. On average in the U.S. a construction worker is paid $14.32/hr. (U.S. B ur eau of Labor statistics 2011) w hereas in South Korea as well as other selected countries, the rate is either approx . equal to or slightly greater than the minimum wage rate set by the government (Figure 5 9 ). Figure 5 9. Average daily laborer wage in construction (2005 2011) . (Data source: International Labor O rganization 2011 ) Working hours per week . The prevalent labor laws and policies on working hours have a limited influence on actual working hours in the Asian developing countries. Due to weak law enforcement, a ttempts to reduce hours in these countries have been unsuccessful for various reasons including the worker s willingness to work long hours to make better income and the widespread use of overtime by employers in an effort to increase the output under conditions of low productivity (Karen et al . 2008). 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 U.S. South Korea Malaysia Taiwan China India Pakistan Bhutan Wages/day($) 114.56 31.84 28.25 20.7 6.78 3.86 2.36 2.23 Wages/day($)
118 In shor t, increased working hours seem beneficial both for workers and employers in this scenario because workers have no choice but to endure long working hours because the minimum wage is not a living wage. This fact paves an easier way for employers to keep workers for longer hours with little overtime rate. Research has shown that in most of the Asian developing countries standard working hours per week are greater than 40 ( F igu re 5 10 ). Figure 5 10. Comparison of number of working hours per week . ( Data sources: Department of Labor (U.S, Bhutan, China, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, South Korea) 2010 2012 , Taiwan Council of Labor Affairs 2010) Also the greatest number of working hours is observed in India, Pakistan and Bhutan where the least daily wage is offered as compared to the other selected countries. That clearly means there is a connection between minimum wage rates, long working hours and ultimately this leads to a higher rate of accidents in the construction industry (Figure 5 11) . By comparison, construction workers in the United States earn an average daily wage of $114.56 when working 40 hours per week . 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 U.S. South Korea Malaysia Taiwan China India Pakistan Bhutan Work hrs./week 40 44 44 42 40 48 48 48 Working hours per/week
119 Figure 5 11. Hours worked per week and average construction worker daily wage in the selected countries . (Data source: ILO 2011 ) . Another important factor is the forged implementation of the standard working hours in these countries. Due to illiteracy and poverty most of the construction workers especially in India, China, and Bhutan do n o t have any idea about the existence of such a standardize d work time devised by their legislature which in most cases is already more than the standard productivity w orking hours (40hrs/week). They are just told that they will be paid a lump sum amount if they complete certain multiple tasks in a day. Therefore in order to complete that task the workers work overtime without any additional compensation. Economic p ress ure . Mostly the growth of the construction industry in Asian developing countries is based on the demands deriv ed from both the g overnment and the private sector, including Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) . I t is evident from the history that whenever ther e is an economic crisis in most of the Asian developing countries, government tries to compensate through an increase in taxes/duties and prices for construction materials and equipment escalate at once. On the other hand, 44 44 42 40 48 48 48 31.8 28.3 20.7 6.78 3.86 2.36 2.23 SOUTH KOREA MALAYSIA TAIWAN CHINA INDIA PAKISTAN BHUTAN Hours per Week or Wages ($) per Day Hrs/Week Wage/Day
120 employers try to compensate throu gh less workers and prolonged working hours. As compared to other selected countries, the Malaysian government and private sector have been supporting the construction industry through such slow down periods in the economy . For example when the economy slow ed down in 2001, the g overnment pumped into the construction sector stimulus packages of total RM 7.3 billion (CIDB Malaysia). The Ninth Malaysia Plan (9MP 2006 2010 ) (last five year development program under vision 2020 plan) was also a great step reco gnizing k ey t hrusts and strategic i nitiatives involving the construction s ector . The third largest government funding recipient in 9MP was the safety sector with a government allocation of RM21.20 billion and RM4.28 billion for private finance initiative ( PFI) . Another important aspect is the lack of any legal framework to protect the safety rights of the construction workers and to provide them job security. Consequently, because small scale companies cannot sustain increasing tax/duty pressures under any economic crises, these companies lay off workers and the remaining workers have no option but to obey their employees by working long hours and working on multiple activities at the same time. Nobody can deny the fluctuation in economics so unemployment ca n increase during the dark hours. For example, according to ANZ Taiwan Monthly Chartbook report (2011) , in the year 2010 about 8% of the total employed people were working in construction whereas in the same year the unemployment in the construction sector was 13% of the total. Therefore the employment rate was lower than the unemployment rate (Figure 5 12 ). D ue to the absence of proper leg a l enforcement of construction safety in selected countries, employers usually hire the willing unemployed workers paying them less and making
121 them work for longer hours than the standard without any basic training or orientation. Sometimes the workers insist on work ing in multiple shifts continuously without any break and they are allowe d to do so because companies especially small scale companies can save a lot of money that way . Figure 5 12 . Percentage employment and unemployment by sector in Taiwan (2010) . ( Source: ANZ Taiwan monthly c hart book report 2011 ) Technical f actors Lack of g overnment support . Alt hough the construction i ndustry is considered few efforts that have been exerted to improv e construction safety standards. It i s rare that the governmen t would allocate a special budgetary amount for the bett erment of the OSH department / agency . Government s can help by decreasing taxes on imported safety equipment and providing funding for different advertising programs related to construction safety. In most of the selected countries, the major part of the overall budget is devoted to enhancing the whereas negligible efforts are done for improving the construction industry. In such an environment of indust in the past.
122 Data collection . The biggest issue is the transparency in data collection related to fatality/injury rate. In most of the selected countries like Pakistan, India, Bhutan, Ch ina, there is no proper reporting system to collect data related to construc tion or even any other type of i ndustry. The only information one can get is from newspapers. In the other selected countries different methods have been adopted for data collectio n. In Malaysia , the OSH department is under the Ministry of Human R esources and the information related to occupational accidents is available in descriptive as well as statistical form (Malaysia OSH department). Only those cases are included which are investigated by the department itself. The collected data are divided into three categories based on non permanent injuries, permanent injuries and deaths. Though the department is relative ly young and data is available from 2007 on and only for the investigated cases , it i s a healthy sign for the future of the Malaysian construction i ndustry ( 2011 ) ffairs is working with the mission of providing secu rity for health and safety in the workplace and has established the Department of Labor Safety and Health to collect fatality/injury data by sector. The data consist Korea Occupatio nal Safety and Health Agency has been working since 1987 but after 2001 this agency established itself in true manners. The data provided by the agency consist of occupational injuries and illnesses s tatistics and pattern chan ges by sector from 2005 onwar ds ( Figure 5 13) .
123 Figure 5 13 . Number of construction injuries/illness/fatalities reported/investigated (2007 2010) . ( Data sources: KOSHA Korea 2011 , DOSH Malaysia 2010 , CLA Taiwan 2010 ) Lack of training . The c onstruction Industry in all the selected countries employs a very large number of workers. About 18 million people in India and 24 million people in China are working in the construction industry . Unfortunately despite of this large labor of employment the workers seldom get any training or orientation while working on any project. Unlike factory workers, people working as construction laborers are not informed about any work related hazards. Workers are exposed to unsafe conditions because there is weak or no enforcement of safety rules. Illiteracy and poverty are other big issues and workers have to tradeoff their safety rights due to the powerlessness imposed by the frail policies. Local Analysis Construction s afety in Pakistan A c The research data were collected through interviews and survey questionnaire s . The information collected from the interviews consisted of vital first hand facts that 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 South Korea(Reported) Malaysia(Investigated) Taiwan(Reported) South Korea(Reported) Malaysia(Investigated) Taiwan(Reported) 2010 22504 120 9673 2009 20998 102 9596 2008 20473 129 9860 2007 19050 181 9560 2010 2009 2008 2007
124 helped the research team to better understand the real obstacles to incorporating safety i nto the operational structure of the Pakistani construction industry. A survey was also conducted to empirically gauge the safety practices on site and to determine how firms plan ned to strategically implement safety regulations. A. Personal i nterviews . Durin g the interviews, the representatives of 22 companies were asked questions regarding their views about the importance of safety within their organizations and how it can or does impact the macro and micro climate of the company. This influence includes pr oductivity and morale of construction workers, project delays and project costs; and the reputation of the company itself. Almost all interviewees had the opinion that the implementation of safety impacts the working environment and it should be implemente d properly. Despite this, they had different points of view regarding the obstacles to implementing safety in the Pakistani construction industry. Lack of legal infrastructure specific to the construction industry was viewed as the prim ary reason for havi ng fragmented views and methods to incorporate safety into defining injury and how to prevent injuries in the future. All held the view that since there are no strict constr uction safety regulations and since safety is not addressed in the standard contract language prepared by the Pakistan Engineering Council, they tend ed to pay less attention to safety implementation on local projects. Though 90% of the interviewees replied affirmative about providing worker safety training/orientation, it was evident that the orientation is given to only selected personnel on site, such as the site manager or group leader and it is assumed that information will
125 be disseminated to the worker s u nder the manager/group leader. They all acknowledged that there are very few training sources locally available to provide training specifically designed for the different stakeholders. They also felt that there should be standardization of safety termi nologies and injury/fatality recording methods. One interesting comment regarding safety implementation was about the sternness of the applied rules and how this will impact the overall culture and profit of the company itself. Almost all the interviewees felt that , as a relatively small developing economy , there are some limitations to the implementation of safety rules as described by the safety standards, such as those promulgated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). It was s uggested that there should be a strong collaboration between the various stakeholders to come up with an approach to safety that is suited to the Pakistani construction industry. B. Questionnaire s urveys . The survey was analyzed and results were grouped und er three categories: general information, safety performance and safety culture. General i nformation . The companies were selected on the basis of the categories designated by the Pakist an Engineering Council (Figure 5 14 ), ranging from a net worth of 2 .7 million dollars to 2 2 million dollars (U.S.). Each company provided the research team with their safety manual that explain ed the safety specific duties of each team member.
126 Figure 5 14 . PEC designated categories of the selected contracting companies . Seventy percent of the participating companies were using the general contract arrangement for most of their projects, 25 percent were using design build and ten percent were using multiple forms of contracting methods, including unit ra te and turnkey met hods (Figure 5 15 ). The design build method was adopted by those companies having very large volumes of international construction work under contract, as there is a growing acceptance of this approach in the international community. Figure 5 15 . Different contracting methods used by the selected contractors . Almost all the interviewed companies were using cost plus contrac ting for reimbursements on most or all of their projects. Approximately 40 percent of the 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C A C B C 1 C 2 C 3 Number of companies PEC categories 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 General contract Design-build Others % of participating companies Contracting methods
127 companies had employees who worked 36 to 45 hours per week . This was computed by utilizing the number of worker hours worked in the past year and the number of field workers employed in the past year. The computation of the hours worked per week provides information on the amount of overtime that is worked . A typical worker in Pakistan works 48 hours each week . T hus, t he companies whose workers were working more overtime reported the highest number of hours worked per week. Some companies were considerably above the 48 hours worked per week . T here was no statistically significant correlation found between the number of hours worked per week and the category of the company , i.e. , some large companies had small ratios and vice versa. S ome very large companies employed workers for 26 to 35 hours p er week (Figure 5 16 ). Figure 5 16 . Worker hours worked per week . Safety p erformance . The most difficult measure to determine in this research pertained to safety performance, due in large part to the lack of standardization of the defini tion of safety terms and methods of recording worker injuries. Four companies within the selected pool described thoroughly what incidents 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 15 25 26 35 36 45 46 60 Number of companies Worker's hours per week
128 they regard ed as injuries, however they still were lacking the details regarding record keeping. Because of the ambiguity reg arding recording methods adopted by different companies, they were specifically asked about the number of injuries treated by physicians in the last year. The answers provided ranged between 0 and 6 injuries. The researchers were doubtful that firms actual ly had zero accidents, especially in an environment with no formal construction safety regulations and no established safety infrastructure. Another major performance related issue observed was the training/qualification of safety personnel. Of the select ed firms 28% provided details regarding the qualifications (BSc. /BE/ BTech.) and preferred safety certifications of the safety personnel (Figure 5 17 ). The other 72% of the companies either required field experience of 5 ree of Science, Engineering and Technology (40%). This indicates that even within the large contracting companies proper safety certification is not required, either due to the lack of training resources or a weak safety culture within the industry. Fig ure 5 17 . Qualification requirements for safety personnel by the selected companies . 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Degree+NEBOSH/Other cert. Field experience of 5-10 years BSc./BE /B.Tech % of participating companies Qualifications of the safety personnel
129 Half of the selected companies named the project manager as the investigating authority in case of any accident. Twenty three percent of the companies indicated that the project manager and safety representative both were authorized to investigate accidents and to determine their causes (Figure 5 18 ). No firm selected a foreman or the superintendent as an investigating authority on site. Figure 5 18 . Investigating authorities as described by the selected companies . It was observed during the survey analysis that there was a linear relationship between the size of the company and the duration of safety orientation training sessions. From category C A t o C 1 the duration of the safety orientation was 20 50 minutes whereas from category C 2 to C 3 it was reduced to 10 20 minutes (Figure 5 19 ). That is, as the size of the company declined , the duration of the worker orientation sessions was also reduced. N ote that i n the equation shown in Figure 5 19 that x represents the size of the firm, expressed in dollars (volume of construction work in the past three years) . Safety c ulture . In relevance to safety culture, a survey question was asked regarding home office involvement, the inclusion of safety in the mission statement and safety communications. Large c ompanies ( under the categories C A and C B ) replied 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Project Manager Safety Representative Both Foreman/superin. % of participating companies Investigating authority
130 that someone from the home office made safety inspections on projects on a weekly or b iweekly basis, whereas in the smaller companies the home office visits were genera lly on a monthly basis (Figure 5 20 ). Figure 5 19 . Duration of worker orientation . Figure 5 20 . Frequency of project visits by home office personnel . Companies were asked who in the home office review ed safety reports generated by the projects, and the results showed that company presidents we re never 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 27,050,000 25,030,000 22,000,000 20,540,000 18,607,000 15,046,090 11,000,000 10,540,000 9,808,700 7,609,878 7,476,589 6,598,700 5,953,897 5,500,000 5,250,000 4,598,790 3,509,800 2,700,000 2,678,000 2,448,760 2,209,800 1,240,000 Training Minutes Size of company y= 1.41e 6 x + 13.943 R 2 = 0.93 C A C B C 1 C 2 C 3 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Weekly/bi-weekly Monthly Quarterly Bi-yearly % participating companies Frequency of visits
131 involved in this review. These safety reviews are generally performed by the safety director or other persons in the h ome office, including the Manager QHSE, CEO , etc. This finding reinforces the perception of minimal involvement in safety planning and implementation by the presidents/vice presidents of construction companies in Pakistan. Figure 5 21 . Home office involvement in safety reports review . Almost all participants indicated that there was an increased use of personal protective equipment (PPE) on their construction sites. It was common for participants to state that 70% to 80% of the construction workers were compliant with wearing proper PPE, but it was not clear which PPE was being utilized . T hat i s, was it utilized purely for the sake of safety or was it utilized for the task being performed. Large c ompanies ( under category C A and C B ) provided a det ailed safety manual and safety policy for the ir compan ies . All safety aspects were clearly demonstrated and the preferred actions for better implementation of safety on site were described. A large percentage of the companies in the remaining three categor ies had 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 President Vice-President Safety director Other % of participating companies Home office involvment
132 safety manuals which were very abbreviated and generic, with some aspects of safety implementation and monitoring that were not addressed . Safety culture of construction c ompanies in Pakistan Fourteen safety manuals were received from the 22 compan ies selected from five different PEC designated categories: C A, C B, C 1, C 2, and C 3. The number of manuals received from each category is shown in Figure 5 22 . Figure 5 22. Number of safety manuals received from different companies. The safety manuals were analyz ed under three broad categories : risk management, safety communication and safety monitoring. Risk m anagement (AC 1) . Risk management is a process not only to identify the potential hazards but also to evaluate the substitution of othe r control techniques. of its commitment to safety that permeates throughout all levels of the organization, from frontline personnel to executive management. The manual s were analyzed and information was collected regarding various aspects of risk management on job sites such as safety personnel; standard operating procedures; emergen cy response plans and personal protective equipment. In the safety manuals received from the companies 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 C A C B C 1 C 2 C 3 Number of safety manuals received PEC Categories
133 C A and C B, the aspect of managing risk was discussed in great detail and emphasis was placed on defining the responsibilities of safety personnel and hazard identification and evaluation prior to work execution. Most of the companies in C 1 categories put responsibility mainly on the jobsite team to take precautionary measures to avoid any incident whereas minimal or no details were found in manuals provided by the smaller companies under categories C 2 and C 3 (Table 5 6 ). It was also obse rved that in some of the larger companies ( from higher categories such as C B and C 1 ) it was not clearly mentioned that personal protective equipment (PPE) was mandatory to wear or that PPE would be provided to the workers. A much generalized statement wa s found common in this regard saying : Table 5 6. Rating of different companies based on risk management details in the safety policy man uals . Category Average length of manual (# of pages) Risk management Safety personnel Standard operating procedures Emergency response plan Personal protective equipment Cumulative rating of companies C A 67 Yes Yes Yes Yes 3 C B 23 Yes Yes/No* Yes Yes 2 C 1 8 Yes No No Yes/No 1 C 2 3 Yes No No No 1 C 3 1 Yes No No No 0 Cumulative rating of safety features 3 0 1 1 *means only 50% of the companies provided the details regarding the particular safety feature Safety c ommunication (AC 2) . Safety communication aspects were analyzed based on whether orientation or training programs were offered to all the new workers/employees (Table 5 7) . The analysis revealed that rules are well defined
134 regarding the orientatio n/training requirements and timing in the safety manuals of large companies ( under the categories of C A, C B and C 1). Table 5 7. Rating of different companies based on safety communication details in the safety policy manuals . Category Average lengt h of manual (# of pages Safety Communication Orientation Incentives Training Cumulative rating of companies C A 67 Yes Yes Yes 3 C B 23 Yes Yes/No Yes 3 C 1 8 Yes No Yes/No 2 C 2 3 Yes/No No No C 3 1 No No No 0 Cumulative rating of safety features 2 0 2 Interestingly, in all the manuals of C A, C B and two C 1 companies, it was clearly mentioned that the orientation would be given to all the workers of sub contractors on the jobsite. In the manuals of companies from categories C 2 and C 3, it was found out that the details about orientation and training of workers for safe w ork were never provided (Table 5 7 ). The analysis clearly showed that safety communication is not considered as a vital part of the safety culture in the small companies (under C 2 and C 3 categories ) . It was also found that safety incentives are not the part of the safety culture of companies in categories C 1, C 2, and C 3. Safety m onitoring (AC 3) . The analysis revealed that safety monitoring was given the least importance in all the manuals which shows that companies in Pakistan do not pay much attention to the inspections of the jobsites for proper safety implementation and also to investigate in case of any accident s . The companies from high categories (C A, C B) had included a detailed procedure for incident reporting in their manuals. These companies typically required the supervisor or site manager to investigate the incident and prepare an accident report within tw o days. The companies
135 from categories such as C 1, C 2 and C 3 did not provide any details for investigating any incident in their safety policy manuals. Table 5 8. Rating of different companies based on safety monitoring details in the safety policy ma nuals. Category Average length of manual (# of pages Safety Monitoring Inspections Permits Investigations Cumulative rating of companies C A 67 Yes Yes Yes 3 C B 23 Yes Yes Yes/No 2 C 1 8 Yes/No No No 1 C 2 3 No No No 0 C 3 1 No No No 0 Cumulative rating of safety features 1 1 0 The results from the analysis we re shown by plotting a safety culture wheel for each analysis category (Figure 5 23 ). The values in a strong safety culture wheel should never be concentrated in the middle ; rather the plot would spread outwards. It was evident from the analysis that there is only one peak value (responsibilities of safety personnel (AC 1.1)) in the plot representing the relatively important aspect of the safety culture of different construct ion companies in Pakistan. Other important aspects of safety culture are either not included or well defined in the safety manuals which indicate that improving their selected Pakistani construction companies .
136 Figure 5 23. Safety culture w heel . Evaluation Phase Global Analysis The initial conclusion from this research effort during the benchmarking phase has been that safety does not receive a high priority in developing countries. At the same time, the need to address safety appears to be quite strong in the construction industry. The importance of the construction industry is depicted by the portion of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that is attributed to the construction industry. It was not ed that in the countries for which th e information was available, construction constituted a considerable economic impact on the GDP. Most importantly it was deduced from the data collected during benchmarking phase that there is currently limited informat ion about injuries/fatalities in most of the developing nation. There are no formalized mechanisms for collecting this information. There are isolated instances in which newspapers will describe the events associated with either serious injuries or fatalit ies. Some developing countries have begun to 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 AC-1.1 AC-1.2 AC-1.3 AC-1.4 AC-2.1 AC-2.2 AC-2.3 AC-3.1 AC-3.2 AC-3.3
137 investigate occupational accidents, but the data are limited to those incidents which happen to come under media light. Information about injuries and fatalities might be collected by two means. Ideally, the se ri ous injuries and fatalities should be investigated by the appropriate gov ernmental authorities. This would help to ensure that the data are collected in a systemati c and consistent manner . Companies might also conduct their own independent investigations and report the information t o the appropriate agency, but again the system should be established in such a manner where there are minimum chances of manipulation. Injury/fatality i nformation to be collected General construction industry i nformation to b e captured . To be able to assess the safety performance of the construction industry in one country, it must first be possible to make comparisons with the safety performances of the construction industry in other countries. To achieve this, there must be consistency in the manner in which the data are collected. This can be best accomplished if the countries use the same definitions and same basic format in data collection. For the construction industry in a country, the following will be useful to put th e safety performance into perspective: number of construction workers percent of unemployment in construction hours worked per week per worker total hours worked in the industry number of injuries number of fatalities average daily wage Construction project i nfo rmation to be captured for the day of the i ncident . When information is collected on a particular incident, it will be helpful to obtain specific information about the project being constructed. Some of this information will be of a
138 generic na ture while others will pertain to the working conditions of the project at the time of the incident. In some cases, the information may point to a contributing cause of the incident. Some information will be of particular value when the project conditions of a large number of incidents are consolidated into a common database. Project information of particular interest include the following: sector of the industry type of project phase of construction value of project percent completion of project number of workers on the project number of subcontractors number of workers per supervisor weather conditions area of project being constructed In cident specific information to be captured for the time of incident o ccurrence . Information about the conditions and circumstances associated with a specific injury/fatality will typically be collected to identify the underlying or root cause of the injury. When the information on a number of incidents is consolidated into a common database, certain patterns of inci dent causation might become apparent. While the following list is not exhaustive, it does contain some of the key bits of information that should be obtained: age of injured worker trade of injured worker task being performed number of days injured worke r was on project location where incident occurred proper protective equipment time of incident occurrence day of the week
139 Identifying the root causes of accidents The ultimate objective of analyzing a specific incident would be to identify the underlying or root cause of a n incident. While some regulatory agencies present the root causes as being either falls, struck by, caught in/between, electrical shock and other , these do not fully capture the details that are needed if successful efforts are to be expended to prevent the future occurrence of similar incidents. Moreover, the root causes need to be more detailed, such as the following: I. Electrocution by: building power faulty construction tools/wire faulty existing wiring powerlines other II. Falls : from elevation from same/ground l evel III. Caught in/between : equipment material other IV. Cave i n : excavation/tunneling trench V. Struck b y: equipment falling equipment material falling material other VI. Struck a gainst: equipment falling equipment material falling material other VII. Miscellaneous: asphyxiation drowning
140 explosion/fire natural causes homicide/suicide chemical exposure equip. mishandling heat related stress/stroke structural/equip. malfunction lightning other Local Analysis Findings through the preliminary research d ata It was observed that the major obstacle in implementing safety on construction site s in Pakistan is the lack of regulatory framework specific to construction workers. All the other obstacles are the trickling effects of the lack of construction laws and regulations (Figure 5 24) . Figure 5 24. Factors causing poor safety implementation in Pakistan. The following safety trends were observed through the study of the preliminary research data collected in Pakistan through surveys, interviews and field visits : There are inadequate safety provisions promulgated by the existing regulatory en vironment which has failed to establish safety as a major industry objective . Strict safety implementation is seldom ensured on project sites . Weak regulatory framework Lack of reporting system Little awareness about the role of each stakeholder Lack of formal training
141 criteria . Generally the cont ractors are not required by project owners to maintain a safety program on projects . Most contractors have a fatality rate in the range of 2 5% . Most contractors can be categorized as being in the range of being extremely unsafe to moderately unsafe . Safe ty training programs are few in number and even the available ones are not well equipped or publicized. When provided, training is not formally disbursed . Most of the safety personnel are selected on the basis of their construction experience rather than their safety training . The contractor is generally not required to submit a site specific safety plan . There is a lack of a standardized framework to define and prevent injuries/fatalities . There is no well defined mechanism for injury/fatality recordkeepi ng or incident investigations . Findin gs through the interviews and s urveys The lack of legal infrastructure specific to the construction industry was viewed as the prime reason for having fragmented views and inconsistent methods to incorporate safety into All the participating companies held the view that since there are no strict construction safety regulations and since safety is not addressed in the standard contract language prepared by the Pakistan Engineering Council, they ten d to pay less attention to safety implementation on projects. While 90 percent of the interviewees stated that they provided worker safety training/orientation, it was evident that the orientation is given to only selected personnel on site, such as the si te manager or group leader. These firms assume that relevant information will be disseminated to the workers under the manager/group leader. All the companies acknowledged that there are very few training sources locally available to provide training speci fically designed for the different stakeholders. They also felt that there should be standardization of safety terminologies and injury/fatality recording methods.
142 It was suggested that there should be a strong collaboration between the various stakeholders to come up with an approach to safety that is suited to the construction industry of Pakistan. Development Phase Preliminary Survey Instrument A preliminary survey was developed in order to design a well structure d questionnaire for the Delphi a nalysis . The survey consisted of 12 short questions These questions were a combination of well structured and open ended questions. Background information of the p articipants Eighty survey questionn aires were distributed and 57 completed surveys were collected via email and at the end of various sessions during the international safety conferen ce in Islamabad, Pakistan yielding a response rate of 71%. Th e majority of participan ts had a bachelor (55%) and about 16% had PhD (Figure 5 25 ). Figure 5 25 . Educational background of participants. The participants were also asked about their current role in the organizations that they were working for . Half of the participant s were engineers (50%) by profession 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PhD Masters Bachelors Number of participants (n=57)
143 working as contractors and consultants in the industry. Other participants were professional designers, urban planners and administrators. About 35% of the participants were affiliated with different academic institutes offering advanced degrees in construction management, construction engineering and construction safety & health (Figure 5 26 ) . Figure 5 26 . Professions of participants . Current construction safety situation in Pakistan and role of various s takeholders The participants were asked to rate the current construction safety situation in Pakistan on a scale of 1 4, 1 being the worst and 4 being excellent. More than 70% of the participants rated the situation as worst and 30% as bad. No t a single participant ra ted the situation as good or excellent (Figure 5 27) . The participants were further asked about the effectiveness (in percentage) of the role of various stakeholders in the Pakistani construction industry. The mean values were calculated of all the rated values and it was observed that the percent age 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Management Urban Planning Design Engineering Number of participants (n=57)
144 effectiveness value of regulatory authorities was the highest one followed by contractors, workers and regulatory authorities (Figure 5 28). Figure 5 27 . Rating of construction safety situation in Pakistan by percentage of total participants . Figu re 5 28 . Mean effectiveness of roles of different stakeholders as rated by the participants. It was also observed during the earlier phase of research that in most of the contracting companies in Pakistan that safety is considered the responsibility of worker s themselves . A question was asked about who was 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Worst Bad Good Excellent % of total responses 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Regulatory Authorities Contractors Designers Workers Mean effectiveness of the role (%)
145 construction jobsites. The responses were really interesting as 3 0% said that workers are responsible for their safety on site (Figure 5 29 ) and about 1 5% selected multiple options meaning that this is a team effort and pro active measurements need ed to be taken from the head office to make sure the people working on site are safe. Another interesting trend observed was th at the participants who were of the view that workers themselves and field supervisors are responsible for worker safety on site had construction experience of 1 3 years. Those who selected owners and project managers had extensive construction industry ex perience . This indicated that there was a lack of safety related knowledge among the people working in the Pakistani construction industry. Figure 5 29 . percentage of total responses. Safety t raining All the participants unanimously agreed on the fact that the existing construction safety training programs in Pakistan are not technically sufficient and are not frequently offered. There are very few licensed safety trainers in Pakistan and those trainers even 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Owners Project Managers Safety Officer Workers Field Supervisor % of total responses
146 had admitted during interviews in earlier research phases tha t larger companies from higher PEC categories occasionally contact them for training specific group of people worki ng for the company. The trainer recalled few occasions when they were asked to provide safety training directly to the construction workers. The participants were further asked to list three major reasons for insufficient safety training programs in the co nstruction industry and the reaso ns are listed in the Figure 5 30 . Figure 5 30 . Reasons for lack of safety training in Pakistani construction industry. Training programs designed specifically for various stakeholders are extremely effective. The participants were asked about the effectiveness of such training programs to improve overall constru ction safety culture in Pakistan (Figure 5 31 ) . The m ajority of 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Lack of construction safety regulation Lack of OSH regulatory authority Lack of construction safety regulations in standard contract documents Least priority given by the companies Considering worker responsible for his own safety Lack of professional trainers Lack of corporate safety culture No/least company's budget reserved for safety training Lack of awarness Not a reuirement by the client Social reasons % of total responses
147 the participants were of the view that training programs designed for contractors will be hi ghly effective (81 %). Figure 5 31 . Effect of providing safety training to various stakeholders on the overall construction safety culture of Pakistan. Sa fety improvement i nitiatives Two open ended questions were asked at the end of the survey regarding the initiatives that must be taken to improve the construction safety situation in Pakistan and obstacles that can hinder this improvement process. Suggested i mprovement initiatives were grouped under two categories: National and Corporate. At the National level, a majority of the participants (90%) suggested pass ing construction specific safety legislation in order to legally put emphases on the protection of construction workers on construction sites (Figure 5 32 ). About 80% of the participants suggested form ing an occupational safety and health regulatory authority like OSHA in Pakistan. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Owners Contractors Designers Workers Field Supervisor % of total responses
148 Figure 5 32 . Improvement s suggested by the participants. The last question asked was regarding the obstacles that can hinder any proposed improvement framework. Most of the participants agreed that the economic reasons are the biggest hurdles followed by the role of bureaucracy in the country (Figure 5 33). 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Safety legislation Occupational safety regulatory authority Role of Ministry of Manpower Updating the Factories Act Safety awarness through media Safety training Zero accident approach Upper management role Allocation of safety funds by the company Safety monitoring and control Safety officers Safety incentive programs % of participants At Corporate Level At National Level
14 9 Figure 5 33 . Obstacles that can hinder the safety improvement process as listed by the participants. Delphi Analysis First Round (Round 1 ) After the analysis of the preliminary survey responses , a detailed survey instrument was developed considering resp onses and suggestions by the various stakeholders. A panel of experts was formed and the Delphi technique was adopted to develop a consensus among the selected experts. Twelve participants out of 18 (invited) agreed to be the part of the expert panel for this study . The survey was designed in two distinct parts: general information about the participants and three aspects of the proposed safety framework for the Pakistani construction industry . General i nformation about the p articipants Academic q ualifications . One of the selection criteria was their academic qualifications. Most of the selected participants had PhD degrees in 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Lack of funds Political reasons Lack of proper PPE Social status of workers Low bid award system Attitute of workers Lack of any legal binding for contractor % of total responses
150 holders (Figure 5 34 ) . The fi eld of construction safety had not been given much importance and attention in Pakistan . Consequently, there were not many people having research expertise or educational background in construction safety related issues. Most of the participants obtained t heir advanced degrees from international institutions. Fi gure 5 34 . Educational background of participants. Professional e xpertise . The participants were also asked about their area of expertise i n construction. They were asked to define it under any one of three categories: Management, Engineering and Law. Most of the participants had their expertise in construction management (75%) and no one indicated to have expertise in construction law (Figure 5 35 ) . To further explore the ir professional expertise, the participants were asked whether they had any international construction work experience and how long they had been working with the local industry. About 75% of the selected participants (Figure 5 36) had no international cons truction working experience. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PhD Masters # of participants
151 Figure 5 35 . The participants had local construction experience ranging from 5 years to 30 years except for one participant who had extensive experience in occupational safety and health trai ning but relatively little experience in construction management . It was really important to select people having experience in engineering and management in terms of research, training and practical knowledge related to occupational safety and health. A B Figure 5 36 . Professional experience of panel participants. A) Percentage of total participants having intern ational construction experience, B) International and local construction experience of participants in number of years . 0 2 4 6 8 10 Law Engineering Management # of participants 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% International Local % of total participants Experience 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0-5 years 6-10 years 11-15 years 16-20 years 21-25 years 26-30 years # of participants Experience in years Local International
152 The Delphi a nalysis is based on expert opinions and after the first round the participants are under the influence of the opinions of other experts selected in the panel ( Cuhls 1998 ), however the experience of the selected participants is extremely important. O ccupati onal safety related certification and t raining . I nformation was collected related to any certification that participants had related to occupational safety and health. About 67 % of the participants had safety related training or certification like OSHA 30 hr . certificate, certificate course on OSHA teaching and trainings on safety management. About 85 % of the participants had completed 30 40 occupational safety and health related training hours. One of the participant had more than 8000 safety training hour s completed. Institutional affiliation . About 75 % of the selected participants were faculty members of accredited institutions of higher education with a teaching and research focus on injury prevention in construction. Among these, 5 5 % were associated w ith local institutes (Figure 5 37 ) . Figure 5 37 . Institutional affiliations of the selected participants. Series 1 , 20% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Training institute Local educational institute International educational institutes % of total participants
153 Research contributions . All of the participants had research contributions in terms of peer reviewed publications in the proceedings of national and internat ional conferences and journals and had delivered special lectures related to occupational safety and health. Combined together th ey all had delivered around 900 special lecture s at various local and international venues. Proposed safe ty f ramework The stakeholders were asked to rate and rank various aspects of the proposed safety framework. In the beginning they were asked the most crucial question about the role of different stakeholders in improving the current construction safety sit uation in Pakistan on a scale 1 100% where 100% is the most effective role. The participant rated the role of contractors as high as 83% followed by the workers themselves (77%) and role of regulatory authorities (69%) like the Pakistan Engineering Council in improving the overall construction safety situation in Pakistan. The role of structural designers was rated low (36%) as compared to the other stakeholders (Figure 5 38 ) . These findi ngs further reinforced the results from earlier research that regulatory authorities and contractors can play a significant role in making sustainable improvemen ts in the construction industry. The safety implementation framework was developed in thre e dis tinctive parts: regulatory , corporate and training. The description of each part was provided and e ach participant was ask ed to rank/ rate the suggestions for regulatory, corporate and training framework .
154 Figure 5 38 . Percentage effectiveness of roles of various stakeholders in Pakistan as rated by the participants . Regulatory f ramework . The first aspect of the pro posed framework was related to regulatory improvements in the existing infrastructure. Various suggestions were made based on the comprehensive analysis conducted during earlier parts of the research study. The suggestions were ranked by the participants in order of priority with the intent of listing first the suggestion that is the least subject to manipulation by contractors (Tabl e 5 9) . The ranking was calculated based on the average mean of the rankings given to each suggestion by the participants. The least mean value corresponds to the highest rating ( as 1 being the highest and 9 being the lowest ranking option given to be sele cted by the participants). According to the responses provided by the participants, improvements in the standard contract documents by PEC is the most important suggestion and is least subject to manipulation. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Workers Architects Structural Designers Contractors Regulatory authorities like PEC Mean %age effectiveness
155 Table 5 9. Ranking of the suggested improvements in the existing legal infrastructure. Suggestions Rank Mean 1 2 Improvements in the standard contract documents prepared by the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) Mandatory project specific safety plan to qualify for bidding of any Federal project 1 2 3.21 5.64 3 Incorporation of Safety Credit Points along with the renewal process 3 6.44 4 Establishing a proper injury/fatality reporting system for contracting companies with average annual worth of >Rs.25 million for the last three years 4 6.77 5 Requirement of a safety professional on projects with more than 200 workers on the project site 5 6.98 6 Mandatory safety training programs designed specifically for different stakeholders 6 7.12 7 Safety professional as a part of the management team 7 7.56 8 Insurance coverage for public(all) and private(>Rs.60 million) projects 8 7.89 9 Site inspections by the PEC designated inspectors in case of injury/fatality 9 10.3 3 Corporate f ramework . Under this category, participants were asked to rate various aspects of safety management (a dministrative and site specific) at the corporate level according to their ease of implementation and effectiveness within a short period of time. a) Administrative aspects . The participants were given the option to rate various administra tive level safety aspects from 1 % to 100% based on two conditions: E ASE OF IMPLEMENTATIO N . where 1 % means being impossible to implement and 100% means easiest to implement considering the current safety and regulatory situation in Pakistan. The coding used for percentage ea se of implementation is shown in Figure 5 39.
156 Figure 5 39. Percentage agreement range categories for measuring ease of implementation. E FFECTIVENESS TIME PERIOD . where 1 % means not effected at all within a short period of time and 100% means effectiveness within a very short period of time (T<3years) . The coding used for percentage effectiveness is shown in Figure 5 40. Figure 5 40. Percentage agreement range categories for measuring effectiveness. According to the rating gi ven by the participants, making a safety policy manual a requirement for all the contracting companies is the easiest management aspect to implement (62%) but may not be very effective alone. Also selection of subcontractor according to the safety performa nce is the most difficult to implement (26%) as there is 81 100% 61 80% 41 60% 21 40% 1 20% easiest to implementation without any resistant very easy to implement with little resistance easy to implement with moderate resistance moderately difficult to implement impossible to implement in near future 81 100% 61 80% 41 60% 21 40% 1 20% effective immediately(115 years) Not effective at all within a short period of time
157 no safety record that can be used for measuring safety performance of contractors but it can be the most effective one if implemented properly (47.16%). For the next Delphi round those aspects which had mean percentage r ating less than 50% (Figure 5 41 ) were excluded from the questionnaire . Figure 5 41 . Mean p ercentage rating for ease o f implementation and effectiveness of administrative safety aspect s at the corporate level. Coefficient of variance (CV) values were also calculated to see how much opinions were varying within the group regarding a particular safety aspect. Sometimes standard deviation is calculated for the same purpose but a lower standard deviation does n o t al ways mean less variable data. According to the calculated values, there was 62% 55% 51% 33% 38.57% 30.29% 25.71% 36.57% 48% 38.71% 50.98% 32.33% 31.57% 51.00% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Safety policy manual as a mandatory requirement for all the contracting companies Safety training for management Company record of fatalities/doctor-treated injuries/first aid injuries Qualifications of the safety professional employed according to a set standard by PEC (proposed) Substance abuse program Safety incentive program Subcontractor selection according to the safety performance % of total responses Ease of implementation Effectiveness within a short period of time
158 not much variation in the opinions provided by all the participants except regarding safety incentive program (CV ease and CV eff >1) (Table 5 10). Table 5 10. Mean rating and coef ficient of variance for the ease of implementation and effectiveness of administrative safety aspects at the corporate level # Safety aspects Ease of implementation Effectiveness Mean rating (%) SD ease CV ease Mean rating (%) SD eff CV eff 1 Safety policy manual as a mandatory requirement for all the contracting companies 62 30.24 0.49 36.57 27.34 0.75 2 Safety training for management 55.43 27.63 0.50 48 31.9 0.66 3 Substance abuse program 38.57 24.36 0.63 32.33 30.45 0.94 4 Qualifications of the safety professional employed according to a set standard by PEC (proposed) 32.80 33.29 1.01 50.98 40.53 0.79 5 Company record of fatalities/doctor treated injuries/first aid injuries 50.86 33.13 0.65 38.71 25.29 0.65 6 Subcontractor selection according to the safety performance 25.71 25.02 0.97 51 24.39 0.48 7 Safety incentive program 30.29 38.55 1.27 31.57 31.97 1.01 b) Site specific aspects. The participants were further asked to rate various site specific safety management aspects according to their ease of implementation and effectiveness within a short period of time. According to the participants, site specific safety planning is the eas iest (70%) to prepare for any company as a part of the pre planning phase especially with the help of emerging te chnologies like BIM (Figure 5 42 ). Also its effectiveness can be extremely visible during the actual execution of the specific construction pro ject (63%) . In addition the effectiveness of job hazard analysis was rated the highest in all the other aspects (75%). Incident investigation and analysis was rated (32%) as the most difficult aspect
159 to implement in the construction industry of Pakistan as it is considered to be an expensive and time consuming process whi ch most of the contractors do not want to handle. This is also not a requirement by law or contract binding in the existing system. Similar ly the requirement of the personal protective equi pment was rated as a moderately difficult task (45%). Figure 5 42 . Mean p ercentage rating for ease of implementation and effectiveness of site specific safety management aspects at the corporate level. 70% 43.30% 41.10% 32% 46.13% 65.20% 45.10% 60.20% 63.20% 63.45% 62.30% 56.20% 55.30% 75.50% 62.50% 71.10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Site project specific safety plan Safety training for working force Safety inspections Incident investigation and analysis Emergency preparedness Job hazard analysis Requirement of the personal protective equipment Housekeeping % of total responses Ease of implementation Effectiveness within a short period of time
160 The coefficient of variance was also calculated for the ease of implementation and effectiveness of different site specific safety aspects at the corporate level . Again incident investigation and analysis had a CV value greater than 1 which means the participants had varying views regarding t he ease of implementation and effectiveness of this particular aspect (Table 5 11). Table 5 11. Mean rating and coefficient of variance for ease of implementation and effectiveness of site specific safety aspects at the corporate level # Safety aspects E ase of Im plementation Effectiveness Mean rating (%) SD ease CV ease Mean rating (%) SD eff CV eff 1 Site specific safety plan 70 29.9 0.43 63.2 30.68 0.49 2 Safety training for working force 43.3 29.52 0.69 63.45 28.93 0.46 3 Safety inspections 41.1 35.08 0.86 62.3 25.12 0.40 4 Incident investigation and analysis 32 34.31 1.07 56.2 36.87 0.66 5 Emergency preparedness 46.13 32.27 0.70 55.3 30.88 0.56 6 Job hazard analysis 65.2 28.01 0.43 75.5 34.38 0.46 7 Requirement of the personal protective equipment 45.1 39.47 0.88 62.5 27.88 0.45 8 Housekeeping 60.2 38.94 0.65 71.1 12.97 0.18 Safety training f ramework . Training is essential for the development of good safety culture. To improve the existing training programs , the participants were asked to rate various suggested aspects of safety training for managers and workers according to two criteria: the priority that should be given to these aspects and effectiveness within a short period of time. P RIORITY . where 1 % means the least priority and 100% means the highest priority that should be given to the particular aspect considering safety situation in Pakistan. The coding used for percentage priority is shown in Figure 5 43.
161 Figure 5 43. Percentage agreement range categories for measuring priority. E FFECTIVENESS TIME PERIOD . where 1 % means not effected at all within a short period of time and 100% means effectiveness within a very short period of time (T<3years). The coding used for percent age effectiveness is shown in Figure 5 44. Figure 5 44. Percentage agreement range categories for measuring effectiveness. a) Safety training f or m anagers . According to the responses by the participants, first aid training and monthly safety meetings are really important for managers for making site safe r for the workers so these aspects should be given high priority (78%, 66%) as their effectiveness will be greatly visible on site (76%, 69%) (Figure 5 45 ). 81 100% 61 80% 41 60% 21 40% 1 20% must be a requirement by law great priority should be given. Must be a part of written safety policy moderate priority should be given less priority can be given depending on the budget Not a priority 81 100% 61 80% 41 60% 21 40% 1 20% effective immediately(115 years) Not effective at all within a short period of time
162 Figure 5 45. Mean percentage rating for the priority and effective ness of safety training 31.67% 56% 57.83% 55.33% 78% 65.50% 54.50% 50.86% 58.14% 73.29% 68.71% 75.57% 68.14% 61.71% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Safety communication through company newsletter Site specific safety briefings Training for protecting site when any incident happen First Aid training Monthly safety meetings Hazard recognition training % of total responses Priority Effectiveness within a short period of time
163 Similarly, coefficient of variance values were calculated for priority and effectiveness of various training aspects for managers . All the values were less than 1 meaning there was less variation in opinions to the corresponding means (Table 5 12). Table 5 12. Mean rating and coefficient of variance fo r priority and effectiveness of safety training aspects for managers. # Safety aspects Priority Effectiveness Mean rating (%) SD prio CV ease Mean rating (%) SD prio CV eff 1 Safety communication through company newsletter 31.67 21.3 0.67 50.86 29.77 0.59 2 56 33.27 0.59 58.14 24.23 0.42 3 Site specific safety briefings 57.83 31.74 0.55 73.29 24.19 0.33 4 Training for protecting site when any incident happen 55.33 22.93 0.41 68.71 24.05 0.35 5 First Aid training 78 18.32 0.23 75.57 15.02 0.20 6 Monthly Safety meetings 65.5 13.23 0.20 68.14 23.77 0.35 7 Hazard Analysis 54.5 27.29 0.50 61.71 34.89 0.57 b) Safety training for w orkers. According to the responses by the participants, all the suggested aspects were really important as they all were rated well above 50%. Tool box meeting s and use of PPE were rated to be given highest priority (76%, 75%) whereas toolbox meeting s and understanding of safety posters and signs will have greatest effectiveness if applied properly ( 73%, 72 %) (Figure 5 46 ). Similarly, coefficient of variance valu es were calculated for priority and effectiveness of various training aspects for managers . All the values were less than 1 meaning there was less variation in opinions to the corresponding means (Table 5 13).
164 Figure 5 46 . Mean p ercentage rating for the priori ty and effectiveness of safety training aspects for workers. Table 5 13. Mean rating and coefficient of variance for priority and effectiveness of different safety training aspects for workers. # Safety aspects Priority Effectiveness Mean rating (%) SD prio CV ease Mean rating (%) SD prio CV eff 1 Basic induction safety training 70.57 32.47 0.46 69.14 29.73 0.43 2 Toolbox meetings 76 24.14 0.32 72 30.58 0.42 3 Training for proper care and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) 75 32.8 0.44 68.57 20.66 0.30 4 Understanding safety posters and other visual aids 71.86 36.1 0.50 73.48 14.72 0.20 5 Training for reporting unsafe behaviors 63.29 29.53 0.47 62.14 22.51 0.36 6 Training for the safe use of hand and power tools 65.86 26.7 0.41 73.43 17.98 0.24 70.57% 76% 75% 71.86% 63.29% 65.86% 69.14% 72% 68.57% 73.48% 62.14% 73.43% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Basic induction safety training Toolbox meetings Training for proper care and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) Understanding safety posters and other visual aids Training for reporting unsafe behaviors Training for the safe use of hand and power tools % of total responses Priority Effectiveness within a short period of time
165 Delphi Analysis Second Round (Round 2) After the analysis of the responses obtained in the first round, the survey was sent to the participants for the second round (Round 2) with the information in form of mean rated values of all the safety related aspects for regulatory, corporate and training framework. In Round 2 , survey was revised by excluding all those safety aspects having an average ranked valu e of less than 50% (McKenna 1989) in all of the following criteria: ease of implementation effectiveness within a short period of time priority The safety aspects having either one of the above mentioned criteria value greater than 50% were still carri ed forward to the next round. D etailed information regarding the purpose of Round 2 along with direction s to respond was provided to all the participants. The questionnaire consisted of three sections all related to the suggested safety framework . The questio nnaire was sent as an excel file through emails and a time of one month was granted to the participants to complete it. Reminder emails were sent every two weeks to all the participants but not all the participants provided their respons es within the alloc ated time. Therefore an extension of 2 weeks was provided and a reminder was also sent after a week. At the end of the deadline, the response rate was 83.33% (Table 5 14). Table 5 14. Response rate in each round. Response Round 1 Round 2 Response rate (%age) 100% 83.33%
166 Consensus measurement after Round 2 After the responses were received from the participants, detailed non parametric analysis was run to measure whether the consensus had been reached or not. Two statistical methods used to measure the consensus between the responses of each safety aspect received over successive survey rounds were convergence of opinions : Convergence of opinions (CG). The most important statistics that were use d to describe the distribution (center and spread) were calculated as follows: M EASURE OF THE CENTER OF THE DI STRIBUTION . Median (Q2) was calculated to describe the cen ter of the distribution M EASURE OF THE SPREAD OF THE DISTRIBUTION . Interquartile range ( IQR) = Q3 Q1, where Q3 is upper qua rtile (75 th percentile) and Q2 is lower quartile (25 th percentile) The convergence was calculated from the interquartile ranges of two consecutive rounds. Consensus was considered to be reach ed when the CG value was no la rger than 1 unit on a 10 unit scale . CGi and CGi = amount of convergence of group opinions for statement i , IQR 2i = interquartile range in round 2 for statement i , IQR 3i = interquartile range in round 3 for statement i oefficient (r s ) . The ratio provided a measure of the extent to which consensus was being achieved from Round 2 to Round 3. The higher positive value of rs agr eement between the participants (Table 5 15) .
167 Percentage change of ranking/rating . In addition to the two statistical values (CG and r s ) , a variable was accep ted if the percentage change in the ranking/rating of that variable in two consecutive round s was less than 15% . Figure 5 47 explains the procedure followed to measure the consensus after Round 2 was completed and responses were analyzed. Table 5 15 . Criteria for measuring consensus . Consensus level Values 1 Convergence of opinions(CG) (Scheibe et al. 1975, Ray and Saho 1990, Landata 2006, Gracht et al. 2010) Low agreement 0 0.3 Average agreement 0.31 0.5 High agreement 0.51 1 2 s ) (Runyon 1977, Volk 1993, Clark and Wenig 1999, Pallant 2001, Dawson and Trapp 2004, DeLeo 2004) Disagreement 015% * The closer r s falls to +1, the greater the correlation/agreement between the ranks in opposite direction (disagreement) from the two consecutive rounds ** The closer r s falls to +1, the greater the correlation/agreement between the ranks from the two consecutive rounds
168 Figure 5 47 . Procedure followed for measuring consensus among participants . Analysis of responses in Round 2 The second round was started by asking about the effectiveness of the roles of regulatory authorities, contractors and workers. The other two options (structural designer, architects) were eliminated in this round as their mean percentage effectiveness was less than 50%. A change of less than 15% was observed in the calculated mean values of two survey rounds , Round 1 and Round 2 (Figure 5 48). Table 5 16 shows the interquartile ranges calculated from the ratings provided by the participants in both rounds. It was observed that in Round 1 the IQR values were high but in Round 2 all the IQR values were less than one. Also the absolute percentage
169 mean values had changed with a maximum absolute value of 11.07 for the role of workers and a minimum of 3.77 for the role of contractors (Table 5 16). Figure 5 48 . Percentage effectiveness of the roles of various stakeholders in Pakistan as rated by th e participants in Round 2 . Table 5 16. Measurement of the consensus between Round 2 Regulatory f ramework . The participants were asked to rate various suggestions for improving the regulatory infrastructure specific to the Pakistani c onstruction industry . These suggestions were ranked again after calculating the mean values of all the 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% Workers Contractors Regulatory authorities like PEC %age effectiveness Stakeholders Round 1(R1) Round 2(R2) Consensus criteria Mean IQR (1 10 point scale) Mean IQR (1 10 point scale) Absolute %age mean change CG rank correlation (R1 R2) Regulatory a uthorities Contractors 69.2 83.14 3 .53 2.9 2 74.56 80 1.52 1. 0 1 7.75 3.77 0.51 0.7 0.78 0.95 Workers 77.14 2. 32 68.6 1.1 8 11.07 0.5 0.68
170 responses (w ith 1 representing the highest and 9 the lowest rank). It was observed that the ranking of the two following suggestions was changed in Round 2 (Table 5 17 ) : Establishing a proper injury/fatality reporting system for contracting companies with average annual wor th of >Rs.20 million for the last three years ( R1 rank=4, R2 rank=6 ). Mandatory safety training programs designed specifically for different stakeholders ( R1 rank=6, R2 rank=4 ). Alt hough there was some change in the rankings and percent age m ean values fro m Round 1, s that the data from two survey round s had a significant correlation indicating a consensus in Corporate f ramework . Under this category, participan ts were asked to rate various aspects of safety management (a dministrative and site specific) at the corporate level according to their ease of implementation and effectiveness within a short period of time a) Administrative aspects. The list of administrati ve safety aspects was revised excluding all those aspects having percentage mean rating less than 50%. The participants were asked to rate all these aspect again considering the percentage mean rating provided to them after the data analysis in Round 1. M aking safety policy manual a mandatory requirement at the corporate level was rated as the most effective and easy safety aspect to implement for any construction company in Pakistan (Figure 5 49). A panel consensus was observed through IQR value improveme nts (less than 2 on a 10 point scale) and r s values less than 1 but greater than 0. It was clear from the analysis that the consensus was not reached for the following administrative safety aspects:
171 Table 5 17 . Consensus measurement among regulatory framework in Pakistan in Round 2 . Suggestions Round 1 (R1) Round 2 (R2) Consensus criteria Rank Mean Rank Mean Abs. % age mean change rank correlation (R1 R2) 1 2 Improvements in the s tandard contract documen ts prepared by the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) Mandatory project specific safety plan to qualify for bidding of any Federal project 1 2 3.21 5.64 1 2 2.89 4.87 9.97 13.65 0.85 0.78 3 Incorporation of Safety Credit Points along with the Professional Credit Points (P license renewal process 3 6.44 3 5.45 15.37 0.61 4 Establ ishing a proper injury/fatality reporting system for contracting companies with average annual worth of >Rs.20 million for the last three years 4 6.77 6 6.29 7.09 0.79 5 Requirement of a safety professional on projects with more than 200 workers on the project site 5 6.98 5 6.02 13.75 0.68 6 Mandatory safety training programs d esigned specifically for different s takeholders 6 7.12 4 5.95 16.43 0.39 7 Safet y professional as a part of the management team 7 7.56 7 6.39 15.4 0.65 8 Insurance coverage for public(all) and private (>Rs.60 million) projects 8 7.89 8 6.56 16.86 0.52 9 Site inspections by the PEC designated inspectors in case of injury/fatality 9 10.33 9 9.22 10.75 0.98
172 Ease of implementation for q ualifications of the safety professional employed according to a set standard by PEC proposed (percentage change = 24.6, CG=0.5 , r s = 0.27 ) . Ease of implementation for s ubcontractor selection according to the safety performance (percentage change= 17.08, CG = 0.4 8, r s = 0 . 56) . This means that al though the effectiveness of mandating subcontractor selection according to the ir safety performance can be come really effective with the passage of time , it is not very easy to implement by the Pakistani regulatory authorities at the moment (Table 5 18 ) . Figure 5 49 . Mean percentage rating for ease of implementation and effectiveness of administrative safety aspe cts at the corporate level in Round 2 . 70% 65% 61% 46% 21.21% 55.95% 60% 51.00% 45.67% 41.00% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Safety policy manual as a mandatory requirement for all the contracting companies Safety training for management Company record of fatalities/doctor-treated injuries/first aid injuries Qualifications of the safety professional employed according to a set standard by PEC (proposed) Subcontractor selection according to the safety performance % of total responses Ease of implementation Effectiveness within a short period of time
173 Table 5 18 . Consensus measurement among p ar administrative safety at corporate level in Round 2 . # Safety aspects Ease of implementation Round 1 (R1) Round 2 (R2) Consensus criteria Mean IQR Mean IQR Abs . % age mean change CG rank correlation (R1 R2) 1 Safety policy manual as a mandatory requirement for all the contracting companies 62 2.7 70 .71 1. 06 14.05 0.61 0.9 7 2 Safety training for management 55.43 3.5 62 .54 1.91 12.83 0.45 0.89 3 Qualifications of the safety professional employed according to a set standard by PEC (proposed) 32.80 3.87 40.87 1.83 24.6 0.53 0. 2 7 4 Company record of fatalities/doctor treated injuries/first aid injuries 50.86 4.6 58.1 2.20 14.24 0.52 0. 73 5 Subcontractor selection according to the safety performance 25.71 3.23 30.1 1.67 17.08 0.48 0.56 # Safety aspects Effectiveness 1 Safety policy manual as a mandatory requirement for all the contracting companies 36.57 3.96 41.87 1.95 14.49 0.71 0.8 1 2 Safety training for management 48 2.59 54.8 1.23 14.17 0.6 0.78 3 Qualifications of the safety professional employed according to a set standard by PEC (proposed) 47.86 1.98 45.7 7 1.6 4.5 0.44 0.25 4 Company record of fatalities/doctor treated injuries/first aid injuries 38.71 2.99 43.2 1.85 11.6 0.38 0.5 3 5 Subcontractor selection according to the safety performance 51 4.95 4 5.6 4.2 10.58 0.51 0.43
174 Also the participants agreed that mandating qualifications of the safety professional employed according to a set standard by PEC would also be difficult to implement as currently there is no legal safety infrastructure functional in the Pakistani construction industry for guidance. b) Site specific aspects . All the site specific safety aspects were ra ted above 50% in either both or one of the evaluation criteria , i.e. ease of imp lementation and effectiveness therefore all these aspects were carried fo rward to Round 2 of the Delphi a nalysis. The analysis had shown that the participants had highly rated the following three aspect in both of the evaluation criteria in each round (Figure 5 50): site specific project safety plan (R1 ease rating: 70%, R2 ease rating= 73.5% R1 effi rating =63.23%, R2 effi rating=65.6%) jo b hazard analysis (R1 ease rating: 65. 2%, R2 ease rating= 73.2% R1 effi rating =75.5%, R2 effi rating=82.1%) housekeeping (R1 ease rating: 60 .2 %, R2 ease rating= 65 .3% R1 effi rating =71.1%, R2 effi rating=80.1%) The percentage change between the two ratings for all the safety aspects i n both evaluation criteria was less than 15% except for the safety inspection aspect (22 % ) . The participants had provided quite varying opinion s yielding a small s correlation value (0.34 ) (Table 5 19 ). Safety training f ramework . In the third part of the survey, participants were a sked to rate various aspects of safety training for managers and workers.
175 Figure 5 50 . Mean percentage rating for ease of implementation and effectiveness of site specific safety management aspects at the corporate level in Round 2 . a) Safety training for m anagers . All the safety training aspects for managers were carried forward to Round 2 as all of them had a value of mean rating above 50% in either of the evaluation criteria. In Round 2 the aspect of monthly safety meetings (74.3%) was rated as the one that should be given the highest priority followed by training for protecting the site when any incident happens (68.4%), first aid training (67.3%) and site specific safety briefings (65.4%) (Figure 5 5 1). Similarly all these aspects were given high ratings for their effectiveness. The CG values of all the training aspects were calculated and all values less than 2. 73.50% 48.80% 50.40% 36.40% 53.10% 73.20% 40.60% 65.30% 65.60% 72% 67.30% 63.40% 67.50% 82.10% 68.30% 80% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Site project specific safety plan Safety training for working force Safety inspections Incident investigation and analysis Emergency preparedness Job hazard analysis Requirement of the personal protective equipment Housekeeping % of total responses Ease of implementation Effectiveness within a short period of time
176 Table 5 19 . specif ic safety at corporate level in Round 2 . # Safety aspects Ease of implementation Round 1 (R1) Round 2 (R2) Consensus criteria Mean IQR Mean IQR Absolute % age mean change CG rank correlation (R1 R2) 1 Site specific safety plan 70 2.2 73.5 0.98 7.57 0.55 0.85 2 Safety training for working force 43.3 2.35 48.8 1.23 12.7 0.48 0.73 3 Safety inspections 41.1 2.67 50.4 1.7 3 22.63 0.35 0.2 4 4 Incident investigation and analysis 32 1.56 36.4 0.76 13.75 0.51 0.66 5 Emergency preparedness 46.13 1 57.1 1.46 15.11 0.52 0.57 6 Job hazard analysis 65.2 1.79 73.2 1.03 12.27 0.42 0.68 7 Requirement of the personal protective equipment 45.1 1.78 40.6 1.01 9.98 0.43 0.68 8 Housekeeping 60.2 1.67 65.3 0.67 8.47 0.6 0.83 # Safety aspects Effectiveness 1 Site specific safety plan 63.23 2.78 65.6 1.1 3.5 0.6 0.83 2 Safety training for working force 63.45 1.87 72.4 0.86 14.1 0.54 0.68 3 Safety inspections 62.12 1.79 67.3 0.87 8 0.51 0.74 4 Incident investigation and analysis 56.2 3.45 63.4 1.12 12.1 0.67 0.74 5 Emergency preparedness 55.3 3.24 67.5 2.01 14.6 0.38 0.45 6 Job hazard analysis 75.5 1.45 82.1 0.85 8.6 0.41 0.65 7 Requirement of the personal protective equipment 62.5 1.32 68.3 0.76 9.3 0.42 0.67 8 Housekeeping 71.1 1.58 80.15 0.78 12.7 0.51 0.41
177 Figure 5 51 . Mean percentage rating for the priority and effectiveness of various safet y training aspects for managers in Round 2 . 39% 62% 65.40% 68.40% 67.30% 74.30% 62.50% 53.50% 64.30% 80.10% 65.30% 70.23% 76.30% 71.30% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Safety communication through company newsletter Site specific safety briefings Training for protecting site when any incident happen First Aid training Monthly safety meetings Hazard recognition training % of total responses Priority Effectiveness within a short period of time
178 Table 5 20 . manager training aspects in Round 2 . # Safety aspects Priority Round 1 (R1) Round 2 (R2) Consensus criteria Mean IQR Mean IQR Absolute %age mean change CG rank correlation (R1 R2) 1 Safety communication through company newsletter 31.67 3.27 40.3 1.52 22.83 0.54 0.6 2 handbook 56 5.2 62 1.98 10.71 0.62 0.75 3 Site specific safety briefings 57.83 3.7 65.4 1.45 13.09 0.61 0.61 4 Training for protecting site when any incident happens 55.33 3.45 68.4 2.00 23.62 0.42 0.35 5 First Aid training 78 2.05 67.3 1.08 13.72 0.47 0.56 6 Monthly Safety meetings 65.5 1.75 74.3 0.64 13.44 0.63 0.86 7 Hazard Analysis 54.5 2.18 62.5 0.87 14.68 0.6 0.82 # Safety aspects Effectiveness 1 Safety communication through company newsletter 50.86 3.1 53.5 .55 5.19 0.5 0.71 2 handbook 58.14 3 64.3 1.13 10.60 0.62 0.67 3 Site specific safety briefings 73.29 3.55 80.1 0.98 9.29 0.72 0.75 4 Training for protecting site when any incident happens 68.71 3.85 65.3 1.9 4.96 0.51 0.91 5 First Aid training 75.57 2.35 70.23 1.49 7.07 0.37 0.47 6 Monthly Safety meetings 68.14 4 76.3 0.87 11.98 0.78 0.65 7 Hazard Analysis 61.71 3.63 71.3 1.84 15.0 4 0.49 0.54 had percentage change values greater than 15% priority wise (Table 5 20). safety communication through company newslette r (22.83%)
179 training for protecting site when any incident happens (23.62%) Since the percentage change of mean values of the above mentioned aspects were less than 15% in the evaluation category of effectiveness, it was considered that the consensus had been reached. The aspect of safety communication through a company newslette r was the only aspect that was rated less than 60% in both evaluation categories in Round 1 and Round 2. b) Safety training f or w orkers . All the safe ty training aspects for workers were also carried forward to Round 2 as all of them had a value of mean rating above 50% in either of the evaluation criteria. In Round 2 the aspect of tool box meeting (81 . 2 3%) was rated as the one that should be given the highest priority followed by training for proper care and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) training (78.34%) and t raining for the safe use of hand and power tools (76.3%) (Figure 5 52) . Similarly all these aspects were given high ratings for their effectiveness to improve the safety training for workers . The CG values of all the training aspects were calculat ed and all had CG values less 1 but the aspect of training for reporting unsafe behaviors had percent age change values greater than 15% effectiveness wise (Table 5 21) : training for reporting unsafe behaviors (21.82 %) As the percent age change of mean values of this aspect was less th an 15% in the evaluation category of effectiveness (7.92%) therefore it was considered that the consensus had been reached. All the aspects had percent age mean value of greater than 65% in both the evaluation criteria ranging from 68.6% to 83.5%.
180 Figure 5 52 . Mean percentage rating for the priority and effectiveness of various safety training aspects for workers in Round 2 . 74.50% 81.23% 78.34% 74.50% 68.30% 75.60% 75.30% 82.40% 73% 71.30% 75.70% 83.50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Basic induction safety training Toolbox meetings Training for proper care and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) Understanding safety posters and other visual aids Training for reporting unsafe behaviors Training for the safe use of hand and power tools % of total responses Priority Effectiveness within a short period of time
181 Table 5 21 . workers training aspects in Round 2 . # Safety aspects Priority Round 1 (R1) Round 2 (R2) Consensus criteria Mean IQR Mean IQR Absolute %age mean change CG Spearman correlation (R1 R2) 1 Basic induction safety training 70.57 4.85 74.5 1.88 5.57 0.61 0. 7 1 2 Tool box meeting 7 6 3 .2 81.23 1.04 6.88 0.6 8 0.63 3 Training for proper care and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) 75 3. 5 78.34 1. 7 4.45 0 .5 1 0. 8 1 4 Understanding safety posters and other visual aids 71.86 3.0 5 73 . 6 1.83 3.67 0.4 0 0.5 5 5 Training for reporting unsafe behaviors 63.29 4.4 5 68 .3 2.01 7.92 0.55 0.4 6 6 Training for the safe use of hand and power tools 65.86 1.9 76 .3 0. 96 14.79 0.49 0.5 6 # Safety aspects Effectiveness 1 Basic induction safety training 69.14 3.45 75.3 1.97 8.91 0. 43 0.5 1 2 Tool box meeting 69.43 4.35 82.4 1.45 14.14 0.6 7 0.68 3 Training for proper care and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) 68.57 3.4 73 1.37 6.46 0. 60 0.7 3 4 Understanding safety posters and other visual aids 73.43 1.35 71.2 0.74 2.9 0.45 0.5 1 5 Training for reporting unsafe behaviors 62.41 2. 9 75.7 1. 53 21.82 0.4 7 0.35 6 Training for the safe use of hand and power tools 73.43 1.85 83.5 0. 65 13.71 0. 65 0.7 5
182 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS A safety framework has been proposed for improving worker safety in the Pakistani construction industry . The framework consists of three major components: r egulatory , c orporate and t raining aspects. After the comprehensive analysis of t he responses by the panel experts , it was determined that t here is a high degree of consensus on the three most important parties that should assume safety responsibilities: Regulatory authorities who set up the legisl ative framework that governs safety and health policies and practices . C on trac tors who employ the workers. W orkers who execute the physical works . In f act a similar pattern was found from the responses collecte d during the initial survey and Round 1 of Delphi a nalysis (Figure 6 1) . However a wider disparity of views was observed on the safety responsibilities that should be shouldered by structural designers and architects. Regulatory Safety Action Plan After an extensive literature review (in form of research articles and reports, newspapers, federal and provincial construction related data), field visits and interviews with representatives of regulatory agencies, construction and design companies, sugge stions were made to improve the existing regulatory infrastructure. An expert panel of twelve participants were asked to rank these suggestions in order of priority with the intent of listing first the suggestion that are least subject to manipulation by c ontractors.
183 A B C Figure 6 1. Comparison of responses regarding the effectiveness of the role of various stakeholders. A) Preliminary survey responses, B) Delphi round 1, C) Delphi round 2. Participants were asked to rank from 1 to 9 with 1 being the highest priority and no ties were allowed . The responses were analyzed and the lis t was final ized at the end of Round 2 of Delphi Analysis when the consensus was reached. Figure 6 2. Final ranking of suggestions for the improvement of regulatory infrastructure in the construction industry of Pakistan. 50% 85% 70% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Workers Regulatory authorities like PEC Contractors %age effectiveness 77% 69.20% 83% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% Workers Regulatory authorities like PEC Contractors %age effectiveness 69% 74.70% 80% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% Workers Regulatory authorities like PEC Contractors %age effectiveness
184 It has been deduced from this research study that the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) being the statutory regulatory body in Pakistan can play an instrumental role in improving safety c onditions on jobsites. Since its inception, the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) has played a vital role in achieving rapid growth and to shape the industry standards in Pakistan. Thus, it is expected that the PEC can play a strong and vital role in the incorporation of safety in construction practices by devising legal means. A two step safety improvement plan has been proposed i.e. immediate and future. It has been suggested that the immediate action pl an should be implemented as soon as possible. Immed iate Safety Improvement Actions (1 5 years) T he t op three suggestions ranked by the panel of experts were selected to be a part of the immediate action plan to improve the existing regulatory structure in construction. Improvements in the standard contrac t documents prepared by the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) . The consensus was reached upon the fact that there is a dire need to re write the existing contract documents by the Pakistan Engineering Council including explicit details regarding the role s and responsibilities of various stakeholders to make construction jobsites safe to work. Currently a very generic language is being used regarding worker safety in these documents. For example, the safety clause in the standard PEC bidding document Due precautions shall be taken by the Contractor, and at his own cost, to ensure the safety of his staff and labor at all times throughout the period of the Contract. The Contractor shall further ensure that suitable arrangements are made for the prevention of It i s very clear just
185 reading the statement that the requirements are too broad and that there is no standardized system of safety implementation that has been devised so the contractor will provide what he thinks is suitable and hygienic . Therefore it is imperative to improve these documents by providing specific directions for safety improvements and details of possible legal actions in case of non compliances . Mandatory pro ject specific safety plan to qualify for bidding of any project . This suggestion was ranked as the number two most important suggestion to improve regulatory system in the construction industry. Preparation of site specific safety planning well before the actual execution can help in multiple ways: improving a clear understanding regarding the roles and responsibilities of the people involved, giving an idea of inherent risks involved in the project and how to mitigate them . Currently the following documents are requir ed to prepare the bidding package for procurement of construction works in Pakistan : instructions to bidders bidding data general conditions of contract particular conditions of contract specifications special provisions specifications technical provisions form of bid & appendices to bid bill of quantities form of bid security form of contract agreement forms of performance security and mobiliza tion advance guarantee/bond drawings It has been proposed that i t should be a requirement to submit a project safety plan along with the other bidding documents to qualify for competing for t he bids.
186 Incorporation of Safety Credit Points alo ng with the Professional Credit Points (PCP s . The third suggestion that was rated really important to improve the safety in the Pakistani construction industry is incorporation of safety credit points icense renewal process . Construction companies are categorized by the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), based on the cost of construction put in place within the duration (one/two/three years) . To get t he license each company is required to be able to get professional credit points that are specific for that particular category under which the company falls. These points ranges from 15 (C 6 category) to 150 (C A category) and mostly depend on the academi c qualifications of the professional team working with the company. It has been proposed that safety credits should be included (along with the professional credit points) in the new license or license renewal criteria under PEC. A point scheme has been pr oposed as shown in the Table 6 1. The percentage ratios of PCPs between subsequent categories were calculated and t he same ratio was maintained for safety credits between the subsequent categories. For example, 150 and 100 PCPs are required for companies under category C A and C B respectively where 100 is 66% of 150. In the proposed scheme, SCPs are suggested to start from 50 (1/3 of the highest PCPs). According to the scheme, 50 and 33 SCPs are required for companies under category C A and C B respectively where 33 is 66% of 50.
187 Table 6 1. Development of s afety credit point (SCP) scheme. PCPs ratios between subsequent categories SCPs 150 50 100 67 % 33 75 75 % 25 30 40 % 10 20 67 % 7 15 75 % 5 5 33 % 2 5 100 % 2 a) Proposed Safety Credit Points (SCP) s cheme . The following is the proposed number of safety credit points for each type of the category. These points are proportional to the professional credit points (PCPs) required for each category. Table 6 2 . Safety credit points sc heme for different contractor categories . b) Allocation of Safety Credit Points . The safety credit points can be allocated based on the documentation provided for adopting specific safety practices by the contractor during the three year licensure period such as . Implementation of safety on site as a contractual obligation . Preparation of a site specific safety plan for each project . The allocation of some percentage of the contract money for worker safety other than to facilitate the construction work itself (e.g. facilitating access to heights). Constructor's c ategory Limit of c onstruction cost of Project (million Rs.) PCPs r equired Safety credit points (SCPs) r equired C A No Limit 150 50 C B Upto 2000 100 33 C 1 Upto 1000 75 25 C 2 Upto 500 30 17 C 3 Upto 250 20 1 2 C 4 Upto 100 15 4 C 5 Upto 30 5 2 C 6 Upto 15 5 2
188 Providing basic personal protective equipment such as hard hats, safety shoes, protectiv e eyewear, full body harnesses and lanyards and gloves. Preparation and provision of a mandatory copy of the project safety manual . Contractors to maintain a project by project record of fatalities/doctor treated injuries/first aid injuries . Having a full time safety professional . Qualification of the full time safety professional . Tools for a ssistance . Some of the resources available to the regulatory authorities for assistance are as follows: 1. Before the actual implementation, the PEC with the help of t he Constructors Association of Pakistan (CAP) (formerly All Pakistan Contractor Association (APCA)) can plan the structure and timeline of the safety system implementation. 2. The PEC in collaboration with the federal, provincial and private institutes workin g on safety and health issues specifically for construction industry can schedule regular training programs addressing safety issues for different stakeholders. Some institutes are offering different certified training courses in a quite comprehensive mann er related to construction tools/equipment explaining the basic uses of the tools/equipment, typical safety concerns, injury/fatality facts and safety procedures that should be adopted to minimize the possibility of any incident while using these tools/e qu ipment when performing work. There are also some free online courses available through the academic institutes to provide basic and advanced knowledge on construction safety issues and best practices to the practitioners and trainers. 3. For the assistance o f all the contractors, the PEC can provide them a standard safety policy as a sample addressing basic requirements to successfully acquire the safety credits points. Future Safety Improvement Actions (5 10 years) The other suggestions for regulatory frame work were as ranked by the participants are suggested to be addressed once the top three suggestion are implemented. These suggestions (in order of priority) are as follows: Mandatory safety training programs designed specific ally for different stakeholder s. Each stakeholder has to play his role in different capacity to improve safety related issues so guidance in form of training is essential to make sure that all the stakeholders are assisting each other rather than playing the blame game.
189 Requirement of a safety professional on projects with more than 200 workers on the project site . Establishing a proper injury/fatality reporting system for contracting companie s with average annual worth greater Rs.20 million for the preceding three years . Safety professional as a part of the management team rather than just an individual full filling a legal requirement. Insurance coverage for public (all) and private (>Rs.60 million) projects. Initially it is suggested that it should be made compulsory fo r the private projects of worth greater than Rs.60 million because a nascent system needs least resistant to progress. The companies with smaller projects cannot bear the financial burden at the moment but in future when the system has its foundations deep er into the industry, then these actions can be taken for project s less than this specified worth. Site inspections by the PEC designated inspe ctors in case of injury/fatality. As the safety system will grow, regulatory authorities will need to build their trained human resources to enforce the regulations. Corporate S afety Action Plan The second part of the proposed framework is corporate level improvements. The framework was divided into two parts: administrative and site specific. Suggestions were made t o improve the corporate safety culture in Pakistan and participants were asked to rate all these suggestions with respect to the ir ease of implementation and effectiveness in a short time. Administrative Level Safety Improvements Safety policy ma n ual as a mandatory requirement. The safety policy manual of any company helps not only to identify the safety strategy but also to devise the mechanism which is directed towards the management of a safe environment for the workers. In a nutshell, the safet y policy manual describes the overall safety culture of a company . Safety training programs for management should be properly designed. Company should maintain a record of fatalities/doctor treated injuries/first aid injuries . Qualifications of the employe d safety personnel should be according to a standard set by PEC (proposed) .
190 Subcontractors should be selected based on the ir past safety performance . As it can be seen in the Figure 6 3, the top three rated suggestions in both evaluation criteria (ease of implementation and effectiveness) are: requirement of safety policy, safety training for management and maintain ing injuries/fatalities . It has been proposed that to get started with developing a safety culture these three aspects shoul d be given priority. Figure 6 3. Safety wheel of the effectiveness and ease of implementation of various suggestions to improve corporate level administrative safety as rated by the expert panel. Site Specific Safety Improvements The suggestions for sit e specific corporate safety improvement were rated by the participants and again the emphases was to see how effective and easy to implement are these suggestion considering the current safety culture in Pakistan. The consensus was reached for the following suggestions to be considered for improving site specific safety at the corporate level (Figure 6 4) : s ite project specific safety plan ( effectiveness= 73.50%, ease of implementation= 65%) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Safety policy manual Safety training for management Company record of accidents Qualifications of the safety professional Subcontractor selection Ease of implementation Effectiveness within a short period of time
191 s afety training for working force (48.8%, 72.4%) safety insp ections (50.40%, 67.3%) incident investigation and analysis (36.4%, 63.4%) emergency preparedness (53.10%, 67.5%) job hazard analysis (73.2%, 82.1%) requirement of the personal protective equipment (40.60%, 68.30%) housekeeping (65.30%, 80.15%) As conclud ed by the experts, top three suggestions that are easy to implement and most effective at the same time are: job hazard analysis (73.2%, 82.1%) site project specific safety plan (73.50%, 65%) housekeeping (65.30%, 80.15%) Figure 6 4. Safety wheel of the effectiveness and ease of implementation of various suggestions to improve corporate level site specific safety as rated by the expert panel. Incident investigation and analysis was considered difficult to be implemented (36.4%) probably because there is lack of training for conducting risk analysis. It is suggested that companies should start implementing the top three suggestions that mostly are under the control of contractors. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Site project specific safety plan Safety training for working force Safety inspections Incident investigation and analysis Emergency preparedness Job hazard analysis Requirement of the personal protective equipment Housekeeping Ease of implementation Effectiveness within a short period of time
192 Safety Training Improvement Plan For Managers The training suggestions we re rated according to the priority and effectiveness within a short period of time. The top three safety aspects for managers suggested by the participants were as follows (Figure 6 5): site specific safety briefings (priority= 65.40%, effectiveness= 80.10 % ) monthly safety meetings (74.30%, 76.30% ) first Aid training (67.30%, 70.23% ) The aspects of safety communications through newsletter and hazard recognition training were rated low in priority probably again there needs to be a basic setup first to buil d on safety specifics. Figure 6 5. Safety wheel of the priority and ease of implementation of various suggestions to improve safety training for managers as rated by the expert panel. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Safety communication through company newsletter Site specific safety briefings Training for protecting site when any incident happen First Aid training Monthly safety meetings Hazard recognition training Priority Effectiveness within a short period of time
193 For Workers The training suggestions were rated by the panel in Round 2 and consensus was reached that all of them are important and should be implemented for providing training to the workers. These suggestions include (Figure 6 6): Basic induction safety training (priority=74.50%, effectiveness=75.30%) Toolbox meetings (81.23%, 82.40% ) Training for proper care and use of pers onal protective equipment (PPE) ( 78.34% , 73% ) Understanding safety posters and other visual aids (74.50%, 71.30% ) Training for reporting unsafe behaviors (68.30%, 75.70% ) Training f or the sa fe use of hand and power tools (75.60%, 83.50% ) Figure 6 6. Safety wheel of the priority and ease of implementation of various suggestions to improve safety training for managers as rated by the expert panel. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Basic induction safety training Toolbox meetings Training for proper care and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) Understanding safety posters and other visual aids Training for reporting unsafe behaviors Training for the safe use of hand and power tools Priority Effectiveness within a short period of time
194 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS This study provide d a clear understanding regarding the current issues that are hindering the proper implementation of safety rules in Pakistan. The C onstruction industry was ranked 2 nd among the most hazardous industries in 2012 (3 rd in 2011) where workers suffer from occupational injuries/diseases/long term illnesses . Extensive data was collected and analyzed that helped in developing a framework to enhance collaborative effort s for providing a better working environment to the construction workers in Pakis tan . A large number of industry stakeholders were interviewed as part of this research and some grim statistics were collected showing a serious lack of safety awareness, knowledge and training among all construction industry stakeholders. To initiate a cu ltural and behavioral shift regarding safety perceptions in Pakistan, it is imperative that a construction safety and health legal infrastructure be developed without any further delay. The research has shown that government is unlikely to take any improve ment measures for improving construction workers safety in near future because of the bureaucratic arrangements in the political system. There is a dire need for some proactive steps to be taken by the relevant regulatory authority such as the Pakistan Eng ineering Council so that the contractors/consultants are bound to be pragmatic in the application of contractual conditions and procedures. The regulatory authorities need to pursue four major strategies to improve the implementation of safety for workers in construction industry: Developing an i ntegrated approach to streamline all the regulatory means of action, including standardization of performance measures , codes and guidelines, technical cooperation, safety research and information dissemination .
195 En hancing stakeholder collaboration to establish a proper safety culture by reinforcing the Internal Responsibility System (IR S) and the workplace structures . Developing human resources in the construction industry through proper and continuous training and awareness programs . Setting up construction safety and healt h targets at the industry level that are measurable . It is recommended for the regulatory authorities to have a clear mission and vision to formulate, implement and evaluate a proper safety implementation system . Recommendations to Implement t he Proposed Strategies The following actions are recommended to plan and implement these strategies: R1. The regulatory authorities should fully implement a safety system specifically designed for construction workers that incorporates a limited number of prescriptive aspects into a proactive, goal oriented risk management system for health, safety, and the environment in Pakistan . At this stage, the emphasis should be to d evelop new regulations and requirements within the existing regulatory infrastructure. Through this study a list of immediate and future actions is suggested that are easy to implement and effective within a short period of time. R2. Regulatory authorities should work very closely with other stakeholders helping in developing comprehensive corporate safety goals and increasing compliance with the safety standards that should be provided by the authorities. R3. The existing contracting procedure and documents must be revised using well established international standards and best practice guidelines. More emphases should be put on the specific details regarding the implementation of safety on the construction job sites. R4 . Extensive efforts should be undertake n to expand significantly the formal education and training of all the stakeholders .
196 R5. Authorities and corporations have to devise a mechanism to measure the progress in terms of safety system implementati on at the national and corporate level. In order to accomplish that they have to determine appropriate key performance indicators . At the corporate level, voluntary efforts will be required to develop a sustainable safety culture . All the other stakeholder s need to do collaborative efforts with the reality in mind that improving the safety culture in construction is a slow but achievable process. During this study, an extensive information was collected about the safety systems working in various developed and developing countries in the world. Although there are many differences in defining, implementi ng and monitoring these systems when it comes to construction workers, some principles are universal: Every worker wants to be treated fairly (pay) Every wor ker enjoys seeing the results of their labor No worker wants to be injured The Pakistani construction industry is playing its role in boosting the national economy and the workers employed by this industry deserve to be provided with a safe and health y wo rk environment. In order to accomplish that there is a dire need for a strong regulatory framework specifically addressing the complex and varying nature of construction work. This will lead toward a sustainable shift in the overall safety culture of the construction industry. Future Research Some of the suggestions for the future research are:
197 F1 . Exploring the role of structural designers and architects in greater details for improving the safety in the construction industry of Pakistan . F2. Devising a ppropriate key performance indicators for the Pakistani construction industry in collaboration with all the stakeholders. F3. Developing a cost structure to estimate the direct cost of implementation of a safety system in large companies in categories C A, C B, C 1 and C 2. F4 . Study the role of technology for improving the safety culture in developing countries such as Pakistan in consideration with their socio economic situation. F5 . Case studies for return on investment through collection of data from th ose contracting companies in Pakistan who have developed a construction safety system and are working on international joint ventures. The analysis can serve as a reference model for regulatory authorities.
198 APPENDIX A WEB LINKS OF CONSTRUCTION SAFETY RELATED INFORMATION RESOURCES IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES For Comparative Analysis Ministry of Labor and Human Resources, Bhutan http://www.molhr.gov.bt/molhr_site/?page_id=855 National Bureau of statistics China http://www.stats.gov.cn/eng lish/ Department of labor and social security China http://www.mohrss.gov.cn/ Ministry of Labor and Employment, India http://labour.nic.in/content/ Department of Labor, Malaysia http://jtksm.mohr.gov.my/index.php?lang=en National Bureau of statistics Pak istan http://www.pbs.gov.pk/ Ministry of Employment and Labor, South Korea http://www.moel.go.kr/english/main.jsp Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and statistics, Taiwan http://eng.dgbas.gov.tw/mp.asp?mp=2 Council of Labor Affairs Taiwan http://www.cla.gov.tw/cgi bin/siteMaker/SM_theme?page=48e31c0e The Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners http://www.pcatp.org.pk/ For Developing Guidelines Construction (Design and Management) regulations 2007 by health and safety executive (HS E), UK http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/cdm.htm Construction hazard assessment implication review (CHAIR) by occupational safety and health regulatory authority, Australia http://www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/formspublications/p ublications/Documents/chair_sa fety_in_design_tool_0 976.pdf OSHA alliance program construction roundtable design for construction safety (DfCS), USA http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/alliances/roundtables/round tables_construction.html
199 Construction (Design and Management) regulations 1994 (CDM), UK http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1994/3140/contents /made Global best practices in contractor safety, IOSH/ASSE good practice guidelines 2012, UK http://www.iosh.co.uk/information_and_resources/idoc .ashx?docid=b83f0284 3e9f 4296 9e36 ce045a523370&ver sion= 1 Environmental health and safety guidelines for construction, renovation and demolition 2004, University of Maryland, USA http://www.des.umd.edu/hw/rest/ehs.pdf Contractor safety handbook 2006, University of Kentucky, UK http://ehs.uky.edu/docs/pdf/con_safe_hndbk.pdf Guidelines for a successful construction project 2003, The Associated General Contractors of America, American Subcontractors Association, Inc., Associated Specialty Contractors http://www.mpgroup.com/articles /Guidelines.pdf
200 APPENDIX B SURVEY FOR GLOBAL ANALYSIS F LUOR P ROGRAM F OR C ONSTRUCTION S AFETY A T T HE U NIVERSITY O F F LORIDA 1. For which country are you providing information _________________________ 2. Does your country have a department or agency that tracks or maintains records on the number of construction worker fatalities that occur each year? ____ yes ____no If yes, how is a fatality defined or what criteria must be met in order for a worker d eath to be recorded in the construction statistics? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. How are fatality frequency statistics maintained? (Check he appropriate answer) _____ fatalities are reported per 1,000,000 workers _____ fatalities are reported per 100,000 workers _____ oth er (please describe)_____________________________________________ 4. How many construction workers are employed in your cou ntry (approx.)? ____________________________________________________________________ 5. How many construction worker deaths occur each year in your country? ____________________________________________________________________ 6. What percent of the industrial workforce is employed in construction? ____________________________________________________________________ 7. Does your country have a department or agency that tracks or maintains records on the number of construction wo rker injuries that occur eac h year? _____ yes ____no If yes, how is an injury defined or what criteria must be met in order for a worker injury to be recorded in the construction statistics? __________________________________ 8. How are injury frequency statistics maintained? (Check he appropriate answer) _____ injuries area reported per 1,000,000 hours of worker exposure _____injuries are repor ted per 100 full time employees _____ other (please describe) _________________________________________ ____
201 For example: in the United States the following would be the appropriate answers 7. Does your country have a department or agency that tracks or maintains records on the number of construction worker fatalities that occur each year? X yes If yes, how is a fatality defined or what criteria must be met in order for a worker death to be recorded in the construction statistics? Fatalities are recorded when there are two independent documents that testify to the fatality. 8. How are fata lity frequency statistics maintained? (Check he appropriate answer) _____ fatalities are reported per 1,000,000 workers __X __ fatalities are reported per 100,000 workers _____ other (please describe) _____________________ __________________
202 APPENDIX C SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CONTR UCTION FIRMS IN PAKISTAN General Information 1. What is the total estimated annual volume of construction work done by the firm: _____________ Rs . 2. What type of contracting arrangement is used most frequently? build C.M. (agency) 3. What type of reimbursement is most common, e.g., lump sum, cost plus 4. Total number of field workers employed by the firm this past year: _________ 5. How many hours are worked by field workers in a typical week? _____hours 6. Total number of construction projects undertaken last year by the firm: ______ 7. What types of projects are typical of those constructed by the firm? plants, petro chem 8. 9. What percent of the pr ojects are outside of the Pakistan borders? ________% 10. What percent of the work is typically subcontracted to other firms? _________% 11. 12. Are there any union shop subcontractors on this If yes, how many union subcontractors? ___________ If yes, how many workers are employed by them on this project? _____
203 Safety Personnel a nd Performance 1. How many worker hours were worked last year by the field employees? ____hrs 2. Last year, how many workers were injured to the extent that they needed to be treated by a physician? ____________ injuries Safety Personnel 1. Is there a full time safety representative employed by the firm? ___ yes ___ no 2. How many safety personnel are employed by the firm? __________ 3. On what size of project would a full time safety representative be assigned to the project?___________ 4. When full time safety representatives are assigned to projects: 5. What are the job responsibilities for this project s afety manager? 1. ___________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________ 6. Does the safety manager have the authority to stop unsafe work? ___ yes ___ no 7. What are the qualifications to be a safety manager? 1. ___________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________
204 4. ___________________________________________ Safety Incentives/Disincentives 1. Do you have a program whereby workers are rewarded when they do not incur If yes, please describe: ___________________________________________________________ _________________ __________________________________________ 2. Give an example: ______________________________________ 3. How many sanctions have been issued on this project? ______ Personal Protective Equipment R egarding personal protective equipment, what percent of the workers will typically wear the following: Hard hats ____________% Safety shoes ____________% Safety glasses _____________% Safety Culture Home Office Involvement 1. How often does someone from the home office make safety inspections on projects? 2. Who in the home office reviews safety reports generated by these projects?
205 ce 3. Safety in mission statement and safety communications 4. 5. What is the primary means used to communicate the importance of project safety to the wor kers? -------------Accident/Incident investigations 1. What types of accidents are investigated? _______ 2. Who conducts these accident investigations? Compensation) 1. Does your firm have an insurance company to provide coverage for worker 2. What role does your insurance company play in managing jobsite risks? (for example, does the insurance company make jobsite inspections?) _______ _______________________________________________________________ 3. 4. 5. If yes, give an example: ________________________________________________________ Site Specific Safety
206 If yes, who prepares it? _________________________ ____ If yes, how extensive is it? ______________________________ Subcontractors 1. no 2. Are sanctions in place for subcontractors who do not comply with project safety requirement If yes, give an example of sanctions that have been imposed on past projects? ______________________________________________________________________ Safety Manual Worker orientation 1. Who receives orientation training on projects? 2. Who typically conducts the or ientation training? ____________________ 3. How long are typical orientation training sessions? __________ minutes 4. Project Managers and Safety Training 1. Do superintendents and project man 2. What is the duration of this training? ___________ minutes
207 Tool box meetings 1. If yes, how often ar e they held? 2. ___
208 APPENDIX D PRELIMINARY SURVEY FOR DEVELOPING SAFETY FRAMEWORK
210 A PPENDIX E SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR DELPHI ANALYSIS FIRST ROUND General Information 1. Highest degree received _____________Masters _____________ PhD 2. Expertise in area(s) of construction _____Engineering _____Management _____Law 3. Certifications related to Occupational Health and Safety, if any ________________________________________________ 4. Con struction Experience Local (in Pakistan)_____________Years International _____________Years 5. Occupational Safety and Health related research experience _____________ Years 6. Are you a faculty member at an accredited institution of higher education with a research or teaching focu s on injury prevention in construction? ________Yes ________No If yes, t hen please provide the details ________________________________________________ 7. No. of research publications written related to Occupational Safety and Health _ ____________Conf erence papers _____________Journal papers 8. No. of research publications in which you are a primary author _ ____________Conference papers _____________Journal papers 9. No. of special lectures delivered on a safety related topic _____________Local ___ __________International 10. Are you an author or editor of a book or book chapter on the topic of injury prevention in construction? Yes No
211 If yes, then please provide the details_________________________________________________________ 11. No. of occupation al safety and heal th training hours completed _________ hrs. 12. Are you a member of any international construction safety organization? Yes No If yes, then please list the name(s) of those organizations _________________ 13. How effective can the role of different stakeholders be in improving the construction safety situation in Pakistan?
212 Elements o f proposed construction safety framework in Pakistan a) Regulatory Framework The research team has made the following suggestions for improving the regulator y framework for construction safety in Pakistan. Please rank these suggestions in order of priority with the intent of listing first the suggestion that is least subject to manipulation by contractors. (Please use numbers 1 9 to rank each suggestion with 1 being the highest priority and no ties allowed). Improvement suggestions Ranking Improvements in the standard contract documents prepared by the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) Incorporation of Safety Credit Points along with the Professional Credit Points (PCP) 34 Requirement of a safety professional on projects with more than 200 workers on the project site Establishing a proper injury/fatality reporting system for contracting companies with average annual worth of>Rs.25 million for the last three years Insurance coverage fo r public(all) and private(>Rs.60 million) projects Mandatory safety training programs designed specifically for different stakeholders Site inspections by the PEC des ignated inspectors in case of injury/fatality Mandatory project specific safety plan to qua lify for bidding of any project Safety professional as a part of the management team b) Corporate Level Framework A number Scheme has been developed to assist the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) for incorporating safety credit points in the license renewal process for contracting firms. The contracting firms will get safety points for implementing various elements of a safety management system. Rate the following elements of safety management at the corporate level (Administrative and site specific) according to their ease of implementation and effectiveness within a short period of time. 34 ofessional credit points earned by a person, or by an organization on the basis of professional strength and are computed in the manner prescribed in the PEC by laws(See Appendix D)
213 i. Administrative ii. Site Specific
214 c) Safety Training Framework Do you think that the existing construction safety training programs in Pakistan are sufficient technically and frequency wise? Yes No If no then please list three major shortcomings 1. 2. 3. Training is essential for the development of good safety culture. A detailed training framework with in depth training material will be provided to the PEC to improve the existing training programs. Please rate the following training components in order of priority an d their effectiveness after implementation. i. S afety training for managers
215 ii. Safety training for w orkers
216 APPENDIX F EX C ERPT FROM PAKISTAN ENGINEERING COUNCIL DOCUMENT FOR LICENSE RENEWAL Source: Pakistan Engineering Council Computation o f Professional Credit Points (1) for each year of experience to professional engineers engaged in the construction and operation of engineering works from the date of passing B.Sc Eng. or B.E. degree subject to a minimum of 10 PCPs and a maximum of 30 PCPs. However, PCPs beyond 65 years of age will be reduced using the following scale: (i) 65 75 years .. .. .. .. 1 PCP/year; (ii) 75 80 years .. .. .. .. 2 PCP/year; and (iii) above 80 years .. .. .. .. 5 PCP/year (2) Those applicants/licensees who have in their permanent employment professional engineers registered with PEC, other than partners and shareholders having more than 15 percent share, who have continuity of service in the applicant's organizat ion of more than 10 years, will be entitled to bonus professional credit points as follows: For every professional engineer employed without break for Bonus PCP credit. 10 14 years .. .. .. .. 2 15 19 years .. .. .. .. 4 20 24 years .. .. .. . . 8 25 years and over .. .. .. .. 12 (2A) Extra points for postgraduate engineers and those who have paid a membership fee for life shall also be allowed as follows: (a) MS / ME .. .. .. .. 2 points. (b) Ph.D. / D.E. .. .. .. .. 4 points.
217 (c) Fee paid for life. .. .. .. .. 1 point. (3) Applicants having professional engineers as their owners, partners or shareholders shall be entitled to extra bonus professional credit points as follows: Equity of professional engineers Extra bonus PCP credit 10 19% .. .. .. .. 05 20 49% .. .. .. .. 10 50 74% .. .. .. .. 15 75% and over .. .. .. .. 20 (4) Regardless of the category, the license granted by the Council obliges every licensee to maintain adequate professional engineering strength to manage the projects at hand that he has at all times a PCP credit of: (i) in the case of a constructor, one point for ever y twenty million rupees construction cost of projects in hand at any time, or the minimum requirement of PCP credit prescribed for the category of their license, whichever is more; and (ii) in the case of an operator, one point for every twenty million ru pees cost of projects in hand at any time or the minimum requirement of PCP credit prescribed for the category of their license, whichever is more.
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230 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Adeeba A . Raheem received her Bachelor of Science degree with Honors in Architectural Engineering and Design from the University of Engineering and Technology , Lahore, P akistan in 2006. She came to the United States of America i n 2008 and completed her first m Management from the Rinker School of Construction Management at UF in 2010. After that she starte d her Ph.D. in the same departme nt and pursed two other m (Master of Science in Construction Engineering and Master of Science in Environmental Engineering) under a n on traditional d octoral/ m d egree p rogram. As a Ph . D . student, she ser ved the department as a teaching and research assistant. During her stay at UF, she had been involved in various graduate student organizations and was selected to serve as President of the Graduate Student Advisory Council and Chair of the GSC Internation al Graduate Student committee in 2013. Adeeba received her Ph.D. from the Univers ity of Florida in the summer of 2014. During her stay at UF she got so many opportunities at the national and international level to grow professiona lly. In fact her six year s at UF were nothing but an era of lifelong learning, passionate service and enduring relationships. She firmly believes that the aim of education is the knowl edge not of facts but of values.