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HOW CAN WORKPLACES RESTORE THE MIND AND SUPPORT EMPLOYEE WELLBEING : A SEVEN MODE RESTORATIVE WORKPLACE TYPOLOGY By DIANNE AUSTRIA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLM ENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF INTERIOR DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014
2014 Dianne Austria
3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I w ould like to thank my committee chair, Dr. Margaret Portillo, for her guidance and support throughout this entire process from the very beginning stages in the research methods course and throughout the following months of data collection, analysis, and writing. I am grateful for her generosity in openly sharing her research expertise and fo r her passion in contributing to the beyond in the concluding achievement of my graduate education. I also want to thank my committee member, Candy Carmel Gilfilen. It has not only b een a pleasure learning from her in design courses, but I have thoroughly appreciated her close guidance on my thesis. hands on approach and care for her esire to succeed as a professional who has the potential to make a difference in the developing field of interior de sign and in the lives of those I work with I want to express my deep gratitude to Steelcase for supporting this research and for welcoming me into its headquarters. I am deeply honored to have had the once in a lifetime opportunity to work with an exemplary leader in workplace solutions and research and for the chance to interact closely with its key researchers an d employees. I am very thankful to have had the oppo rtunity, as well to explore and study their innovative headquarters and to witness their dynamic office culture firsthand. In addition I especially want to thank ces, Jerry Holmes. I am deeply appreciative for the time and effort he took to organize this experience and to share valuable resources and feedback. passion for
4 made this experie nce inspiring and memorable. I would like to thank Daejin Kim for his initial statistical analysis of my data and advisement throughout this process. I want to express gratitude towards Mary Christman for providi ng her statistical expertise with the in de pth analysis of my data and her fast and thorough turnaround with results. I want to t hank Emily Budd, as well for sharing this thesis experience with me and exchanging ideas and resources. I am grateful to my family and friends I would like to thank m y parents for their love and unwavering willingness to always help and be there for me. I wish to thank my sister, as well for her love and for always lending a caring ear and wise advice. I am thankful t o my life long friends back home and beyond for t h e i r s u p p o r t and encouragement to go for my dreams. Finally, I want to thank those friends in my design studios and, most recently, grad studio, whom I have had the opportunity to grow with academically and personally throughout these past years. I ha ve enjoyed this journey with them see what big thing s the future has in store for everyone
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ 3 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ .......................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 13 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 17 Research Questions ................................ ................................ .............................. 21 Significanc e ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 21 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 22 Delimitations ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 23 Summary of Introduction ................................ ................................ ........................ 23 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ......................... 24 Attention Restoration Theory ................................ ................................ ................. 25 Perceived Restorativeness Scale ................................ ................................ .......... 32 Research in Restoration ................................ ................................ ........................ 33 The Changing Workplace ................................ ................................ ...................... 44 Wellbeing and Creativity ................................ ................................ ........................ 46 Summary of Literature Review ................................ ................................ ............... 53 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 55 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 55 Case selection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 57 Instruments ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 59 Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 62 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 68 Summary of Research Design ................................ ................................ ............... 69 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 72 The Workplace Environment ................................ ................................ ................. 72 Employee Demographics ................................ ................................ ....................... 80 Organizational Climate ................................ ................................ .......................... 82
6 Research Questions ................................ ................................ .............................. 85 Question One: How do employees at a large organization that allows mo bility define workplace restoration? ................................ ......................... 85 Question Two: Which environmental perceptions and opportunities for restoration exist in the workplace? ................................ ............................... 87 Summary of Findings ................................ ................................ ............................. 88 5 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ... 106 Workplace Restoration as Defined by Employees ................................ ............... 110 Inter Task ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 1 11 Physical Shift ................................ ................................ ................................ 114 Back to Nature ................................ ................................ .............................. 117 Social ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 119 Me Time ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 121 Change of Pace ................................ ................................ ............................ 124 Bookend ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 126 Environmental Perceptions in Workplace Restoration ................................ ......... 130 PRS Scores within Departmental Co mmunity Areas ................................ ..... 131 PRS within Community Wide Office Areas ................................ .................... 135 Summary of Research Findings ................................ ................................ .... 138 Recommendations for Designers ................................ ................................ ......... 141 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ .............................. 144 Summary of Conclusions a nd Discussion ................................ ............................ 146 APPENDIX A STUDY PERMISSIONS ................................ ................................ ....................... 166 B STUDY INSTRUMENTS ................................ ................................ ...................... 169 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................ 188 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ......................... 195
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Office areas of focus covered in this study. ................................ ....................... 70 4 1 Break Locations and PRS Scores. ................................ ................................ .. 105 5 1 Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT) ................................ .......................... 149 5 2 Break Locations and PRS Scores. ................................ ................................ .. 150
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Key Components of the Attention Restoration Theory (ART ) ............................. 54 3 1 Methodology for this study. ................................ ................................ ................ 70 3 2 Floor plans of office areas co vered in this study ................................ ................ 71 4 1 The headquarters build ing on the Steelcase campus ................................ ........ 90 4 2 Office Wide Community Area ................................ ................................ ............ 91 4 3 Information Area ................................ ................................ ................................ 92 4 4 Lounge Seating Area ................................ ................................ ......................... 92 4 5 Outdoor Seating Area ................................ ................................ ........................ 93 4 6 Food Court ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 94 4 7 Dining Area ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 95 4 8 Quiet Seating Area ................................ ................................ ............................ 96 4 9 Third floor Self Serve Caf ................................ ................................ ................ 97 4 10 Open Work Area ................................ ................................ ............................... 97 4 11 Q uiet Work Area ................................ ................................ ................................ 98 4 12 Glass Booths ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 99 4 13 Outdoor Pathways and Lawns ................................ ................................ ........... 99 4 14 Employee age categories. ................................ ................................ ............... 100 4 15 Employee education levels. ................................ ................................ ............. 100 4 16 Employee positions. ................................ ................................ ........................ 101 4 17 Employee years with company. ................................ ................................ ....... 101 4 18 Employee years at company headquarters. ................................ .................... 102 4 19 Employee work time spent at the headquarters. ................................ .............. 102 4 20 Top areas employees work in. ................................ ................................ ......... 103
9 4 21 Break locations. ................................ ................................ ............................... 103 4 22 Facilities or activities employees wish were available to help them regain focus. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 104 4 23 Frequencies of break activities. ................................ ................................ ....... 104 5 1 The Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT). ................................ .................. 148 5 2 Open Seating Area ................................ ................................ .......................... 151 5 3 Photographs to accompany Restorative W orkplace Typology narratives. ........ 152 5 4 Lounge Area ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 153 5 5 Dining Area ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 154 5 6 Outdoor Seating Area ................................ ................................ ...................... 155 5 7 Information Area ................................ ................................ .............................. 156 5 8 Viewin g documents on larger monitors ................................ ............................ 157 5 9 Quiet Work Area ................................ ................................ .............................. 158 5 10 Open Work Area ................................ ................................ ............................. 159 5 11 Quiet Seating Area ................................ ................................ .......................... 160 5 12 Food Court ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 161 5 13 Glass Booths ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 162 5 14 Self Serve Caf ................................ ................................ ............................... 163 5 15 Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area ................................ ............................. 164 5 16 Outdoor Pathways and Lawns ................................ ................................ ......... 165
10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ART BA COH COM FA FA M Attention Restoration Theory Being Away Coherence Compatibility Fa scination Fa miliarity PREF PRS RWT SCO Preference P erceived Restorativeness Scale Restorative Workplace Typo logy Scope
11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Interior Design HOW CAN WORKPLACES RESTORE THE MIND AND SUPPORT E MPLOYEE WELLBEING : A SEVEN MODE RESTORATIVE WORKPLACE TYPOLOGY By Dianne Austria May 2014 Chair: Margaret Portillo Major: Interior Design This case stud y explored opportunities for workplace restoration in a company, recognized as one of the Fortune that allowed employee mobility Guided by the Attention Restoration Theory (ART) and how employees can suffer from mental fatigue under continuous directed attention Steelcase Inc. was examined to determine design op portunities t hat alleviate d tiredness and facilitated restoration examined. This investigation used a mixed methods approach and collected both quantitative and qualitative data. Through an onl ine employee survey, work and break habits were identified and the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) was applied to break locations. In addition, on site observations included on the spot interviews in which employee participants shared their thoughts and opinions on opportunities for breaks Structured interviews were also conducted to obtain more in depth insight. Finally narratives, based on the data collected, were developed to communicate the multiple perspectives in this study and resulted in the Restorative Workplace Typology
12 (RWT) This typology outlines the seven modes of restoration within the workplace From these modes, further design and research suggestions were presented.
13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION As people get worn out from work place stressors or the many responsibilities of their personal lives, many say they ( R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989, p. 1 83) or take a vacation. Although physically escaping troubles by taking time off or by going on a trip would be ideal, these opportunities are not typically available on a normal basis ( R. Kaplan, 1993) In the workplace especially, the stresses of everyday life can put a strain on a person to the point that they are overwhelmed and have difficulty focusing. This can be especi ally Future Focused: A N ew L ens for Leading O rganizations, 201 2 ottom Line I ) Many employees toil through an 8 hour o r longer workday, leaving them stressed or less engaged ( Future Focused: A New Lens for Leading Organizations 2012) In addition, interruptions such as incoming emails and phone calls, as well as co workers walking by barrage the employee with distract ions (Lin Fisher, 2006). The office serves as an environment where people spend a large majority of their lives and seek rewarding experiences (van Meel & Vos, 2001). Therefore, research is needed on methods to help employees feel restored in mind and st rengthened in their ability to focus (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) It is noteworthy to mention that, n ot only is restoration important in the workplace, it is important in life. Through moments of ife course and goals (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989 ) (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989, p.197)
14 This investigatio n focused on restoration by examining employee break habits. The U.S. Department of Labor recognizes that rest breaks U.S. Department of Labor: Work hours are comm on in workplaces and last from five to 20 minutes. These bre aks are seen as beneficial to employers b y fostering employee efficiency. In addition, meal breaks of 30 minutes or more require that the employee eCFR: Code of federal r egulations U.S. Department of Labor : Wage and hour Employers are not required to pay the employee for this time Employers are not required to give employees meal or break periods ( U.S. Department of Labor: Work hours n.d. ). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) also has not manda ted breaks during the workday due to breaks not y impact[ing] safety and health Frodyma, 2004 para. 2 ) Despite this being the case, OSHA recommends employees ta 4 ) fro m monotonous work by moving, standing, and stretching Although federal laws have not thus far mandated breaks, the nature and role of restoration within the workplace should be evaluated more thoroughly. If breaks can increase employee efficiency and pro vide relief from physical hazards, how can breaks further support overall wellbeing in the workplace? Should breaks be reconsidered and more purposefully integrated into the workday? In this study, c hanging work habits were also considered. No l onger are employees thinking of work as a means to merely pay the bills, they consider it an extension of who they are and who they want to become. They want to build a satisfying career and are willing to work harder and longer. Many employees are on th e
15 clock 24/7 as they continuously receive work emails on their mobile phones (van Meel & Vos, 2001). Workplaces have changed, as well. Think back to the traditional office of years past repetitive rows of desks during the Industrial Age (Harmon Va ughan, 1995) and isolation in high walled cubicles introduced in the 1960s (Bunderson, 2012). Employees sit only a few feet from each other, straining to focus amongst the surrounding distractions they hear and see (Gopalratnam, 2012 ; Chen, 2011 ). With th e evolving landscape of work, advancing technologies, and changing habits and demands of employees, this type of work setting is giving way to workplaces with varied, innovative spaces and amenities such as open shared areas, gardens, lounges, fun dcor, e ye catching branding, and caf s West Coast Silicon Valley dot.com companies of the 1990s brought an innovative shift in how companies and employees worked, including the introduction of stimulating envir onments with gyms, lounges, fun interiors, a casu al atmosphere with informal attire, and unconventional staff meetings and hierarchies ( Danner, 2001; Ligos, 2000; van Meel & Vos 2001 ). As a multitude of successful companies, such as Google, Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Twitter continue to leave the tra ditional office behind and integrate more varied spaces and amenities in their offices toward a modern office culture, the question remains How does the interior design of the workplace affect its employees? According to a U.S. Workplace Survey, employ ees as well as employers believed that a better workplace design could positively affect performance and their business (Schneider, 2007). In thi s study, the researcher explored the ability to maintain mental focus throughout the workday despite demanding tasks and distractions. This study
16 investigated whether interior design can impact employees mind The resulting heighten ed performance and wellbeing could in turn, lead to higher job retention ( Future Focused: A New Lens fo r Leading Organizations ) Research in this arena has centered on restorative environments. Restorative environments are opportunities, either physical or mental, that can help restore the mind when it is tired. This tiredness can resu lt from inte nse concentration on stimuli that is taxing or not fully engaging (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Restorative environments have been attracting a lot of attention in the research community recently. Issues of the Journal of Environmental Psychology and Env ironment and Behavior have been dedicated to the topic of restorative environments and the development of the theory and measurement behind it (Hartig & Staats, 2003) Because people inherently prefer nature, r estoration resea rch has primarily been applie d to this context (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Studies have explored wild, untamed nature, groomed nature, and natural environments in t he form of the wilderness and g ardens ( Ivarsson & Hagerhall, 2008; Nordh, Hartig, Hagerhall, & Fry, 2009; R. Kaplan, 2007; R. Kaplan & S. Kapl an, 1989; Talbot & S. Kaplan, 1986 ) Research has found that nature can contribute vastly to the level of restoration that a person experiences, leaving people feeling renewed and positively affecting their performance on tasks (B erto, 2005; Hartig Evans, Jamner, Davis, & G rling, 2003) Previous research examined the workplace as a restorative environment, but in the context of the impact of including nature, such as the inclusion of window views, plants, and artwork focusing on scenes from nature ( Kweon, Ulrich, Walker, & Tassinary, 2008; R. Kaplan, 199 3 ; Shibata & Suzuki, 2004 ) Both Kaplan (1993) and
17 Shin (2007) explored the impact of windows in the office and views of nature. Kaplan (1993) found that views of only a few tree s or plants can affect restoration. Shin (2007) improve job satisfaction and alleviate stress. Further, Kweon et al. (2008) found that employees were less stressed if th ere was art hung on walls while they completed complex computer tasks, especially if this art included nature. Despite these suggestive findings, few studies have looked at the impact of design as a whole on employee focus Research has also uncovered re storative environments including the monaster y, houses of worship, and art museums ( Herzog, Ouellette, Rolens, & Koenigs, 2010; Ouellette, R. Kaplan & S. Kapla n 2005; S. Kaplan, Bardwell, & Slakter 1993 ) In all cases, the type of environment affected the level of rest or ation. For example, Ouellette et al. (2005) found that spirituality and beauty impacted the restorativeness of a monastery and S. Kaplan et al. (1993) found that the ease or difficulty of wayfinding and familiarity with art impacted the restorativeness of a museum. This study look ed at restoration within the interior, specifically in the workplace, to see if the theory and measurement tools of restorative environments apply to an office in operation. In an environment that is especial ly stress inducing and demanding employee focus? Purpose This study investigated the potential of workplace design in creating a restorative work environment. Factors in th e workplace design may include ( but not be limited to ) furnishings, lighting, sound, the inclusion of open work areas, food, nature, and walking trails. R estoration was explored as a potential product of the office design and, in
18 addition, because the wo rkplace is a complex composite of the physical environment Gifford, 2002 ; Miller, 2005 ) restoration was also e xplored in the context of the activities and behaviors employees exhibit ed This investigation was a case study of a corporate office In selecting a site for diverse range of spaces and amenities (which would expand the scope of this research), business mission and values, and emphasis on wellbeing and perfor mance were taken into consideration. In the end, this Rapids, Michigan. Steelcase was selected as a case study because of : the recognition of its innovative and high profi le office renovation which offered a variety of spaces and furnishings It was designed by Shimoda Design Group led Chang (Bernard, 2012; Fortmeyer, 2013) the awards and recogniti ons it received over the years as a leader in workplace solutions and as a leader in the design industry ( Awards: About Steelcase n.d.) applied research in the workplace and willingness to participate fully in the present study ( Key b uildings n.d.) leadership in workplace solutions, and an extensive portfolio of research. This investigation utilized a mixed methods approach in which quan titative and qualitative data was collected to gain a rich perspective on the employee restorative experience. This study included an online employee survey with a published instrument designed to assess the perceived restorativeness of an environment, on site observations, on the spot interviews, and structured interviews with three key staff. Each step in the process added insight toward a comprehensive understanding of workplace restoration.
19 Variables within this study also included restoration and its effects on wellbeing s in mood, decline in arousal, improved performance on tasks that require directed attention, or other tired and having difficulty focusing, restoration can help the emplo yee recover. This recovery is witnessed in the form of a better mood or en hanced performance on tasks. Previous research has studied restoration in such contexts as stress reduction, life satisfaction, meditation, wellbeing, and creativity and exp lored t he inclusion of nature ( Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006; Kweon et al., 2008; Herzog et al., 2010; R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989 ) arters for the various aspects ( cu ltural, physical, or otherwise) of an office that could contri bute to restoration. In regards to wellbeing, this variable has been connected with health and i ts definition has been uncertain This study adhere d to wellbeing the presence of positive emotions and moods (e.g., contentment, happiness), the absence o f negative emotions (e.g., depression, anxiety), satisfaction with life, fulfillment and positive functioning CDC: Wellbeing concepts para. 12 ). For this investigation, wellbeing included emotional considerations in the workplace, but al so rema ined open to aspects of physical comfort in its analysis In addition to wellbeing, this stu dy looked at creativity as an outcome of development of novel and useful ideas,
20 Blum, 2000, p. 215). Rather than focusing on the end products o f creativity, this study focused on the process of creativity of an employee and between coworkers. Can restoration enhance the creativity proces s and help employees form new connections while problem solving? Although wellbeing is a state of mind (sometimes generally referred to as happiness) and creativity is a process in this study, the two variables relate. For example, Elsbach and Hargadon ( workday can help the employee take a break and feel less pressured and more positive feelings. Positive feelings are related to wellbeing (Rath & Harter, 2010). Because the individual is not overwhelm ed by heightened stress levels, the employee can channel their energy towards creative thinking. This study culminated with a profile of the company and narratives which detail employee thoughts and behaviors, as well as the physical setting and office c ulture, in the context of seven modes of restoration. Through the use of storytelling combined with other methods of inquiry, this study aimed to holistically and empathetically understand the human experience and provide knowledge on the daily interactio n between employees and the built office environment. In ad dition, the narratives help ed to define a workplace typology of restoration By fo cusing on the workplace environment which is wellbeing, life satisfaction, an d overall g rowth and development, this case study shed light on how the office can positively affect the employee in their daily work lives. The ultim ate purpose of this study wa s to extend both workplace and restoration research and add knowledge to the developing fields of interior design and environment behavior.
21 Research Questions Given the paucity of research on this topic, this case study aimed to explore a workplace in detail to understand how employees restore their minds and to find the restorative factors t hat may be present or designed within the office. Two questions guided this investiga tion: (1) How do employees at a large organization that allows mobility def ine workplace restoration? (2) Which environmental perceptions and opportunities for restoratio n exist in the workplace? Significance This study is significant for many reasons. Workplace stress is a major concern Future Focused: A New Lens for Leading Organizations ). Not onl y that, stress can affect overall wellbeing workload pressure [has] been shown to be particularly harmful to professi 2006 p.471 ). White collar work often involves problem solving and is higher in cognitive difficulty (Hopp & Iravani 2009). With the integration of restorative elements in the workplace, perhaps stress from knowledge based processing can be lessened and cognitive resources replenished through the design of the space. With lowered s tress may result higher company productivity levels in the form of effective and focused employees Future Focused: A New Lens for Leading Organizations Results can encourage employers to invest in the design of the workplace, and therefore, bene fit architects and interior designers and businesses. As companies transform their traditional offices into workplaces with a variety of spaces, dcor, and amenities and pay the cost of doing so, research should ask if these design endeavors benefit the u sers and the company as a whole ( Danner 2001). With this research,
22 designers can tailor their designs to leverage restorative environments and enhance the employee experience in the workplace. Finally f urther research is needed in the topic of restorat ion in the workplace. Questions remain regarding natural spaces in the office, such as courtyards or walking paths, and whether they can restore the user (Kaplan, 1993). In addition, can other methods, such as taking breaks by exercising or switching tas ks help an employee regain focus (Elsbach & Hargadon 2006 ; Kaplan, 1993 ; Shin, 2007 )? Most studies have focused on nature and its restorative affects on the user. Studies have explored outdoor nature in wilderness garden s, and parks or indoors with natu re window views, artwork and potted plants ( Bringslimark, Hartig, & Patil, 2011; Ivarsson & Hagerhall, 2008; Nordh, Hartig, Hagerhall, & Fry, 2009; R. Kaplan, 1993; R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989; Shibata & Suzuki, 2004; Talbot & S. Kaplan, 1986 ) Restorati on has also been looked at in the context of spiritual environments and ar t museums ( Herzog, Ouellette, Rolens, & Koenigs, 2010; S. Kaplan, Bardwell, & Slakter, 1993; Ouellette, R. Kaplan, & S. Kaplan, 2005 ). Workplace studies in restoration have generall y revolved around nature themed artwork and views but have not gone beyond in defining restoration from the viewpoint of employees to discover other elements within an office that may help support employee focus and restoration Assumptions This study oper ated under a number of assumptions. First, it was assumed the company had the potential to offer restorative benefits. Because of its variety of dynamic spaces and furnishings designed with its employees in mind, as well as its emphasis on wellbeing and innovation in the workplace, this study assumed this site offered an ideal setting in which to research restoration
23 Second, it was assumed that the senior executive who served as the project liaison helped guide the process to ensure adequate and represen tative sampling. Due to this guidance, it was assumed that the participants involved in this study would offer valuable insight into the general behavior and perceptions of employees at the workplace. Third, the researcher assumed the employees were, to t he best of their ability, providing correct and honest responses to survey questions on restoration and creativity and reflections on their experiences in the office. To encourage this accuracy, the researcher had employee participants agree to the terms of the University Institutional Review Board protocol (IRB) and its guarantee of privacy. Delimitations A delimitation of this study wa s that restoration was only explored at the Steelcase headquarters. The employees were not examined outside of this envi ronment, such as when they were working at home or remotely while traveling. Summary of Introduction With the transformation of the office and work habits and the increasing demands on the employee, opportunities for restoration could benefit both the emp loyee and the (Steelcase) employees and the manner in which they refocus and restore their mind throughout the workday. This investigation included a case study involving a survey with a published instrument, on site observations with on the spot interviews, and structured interviews. The end result was a profile of the company under study, Steelcase, and narrative vignettes re telling its
24 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In the development of this study, the topic shifted significantly in its scope Because much of the restoration research focused on nature the original emphasis of this study was on restoration through the inclusion of nature in the office ( Bringslimark, Hartig, Patil, 2011; Kaplan, 1993; Kweon, Ulrich, Walker, & Tassinary, 2008; Shi bata & Suzuki, 2004; Shin, 2007 ). My original question asked, How could a garden, plants, or o ther natural elements in the workplace help employees refocus and contribute to their individual wellbeing? Through further resear ch and advisement, I realized that other factors outside of nature might play into restoration. Additional s tudies looked at interiors such as the monastery, h ouse of worship, and museum (Herzog, Ouellette, Rolens, & Koenigs, 2009; S. Ka plan, Bardwell, & Slakter, 1993 ; Ouellette, Kaplan, & Kaplan, 2005 ). These studies suggested that other factors in interior environments could enhance or inhibit restoration. In The monastery as a restorative e nvironment (Ouel l ette et al., 2005) monastery, as well as the interesting lives of the monks could have contributed to restor ation And so, this study was expanded in scope from just focusing on natural elements to exploring a wider composition of factors. Whilst considering the new office and its variety of spaces and amenities (Danner, 2001; van Meel & Vos, 2001 ), this study shifted to consider o ther factors that might affect restoration, such as office furnishings, design, technology, opportunities to collaborate and for respite, and access to food. Any review of the literature on this topic must consider the leading enviro nment behavior theory on restoration developed b y R. Kaplan and S Kaplan the Attention
25 Restoration Theory (ART). R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan detail this theory in their book, The Experience of Natu re: A Psychological Perspective (1989). This theory posits that environments have four components (Being Away, Fascination, Extent, and Compatibility) that support restoration. Following from this theory, a tool was developed for measurement the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) and was used in this stud y. Variations of this scale have been developed and tailored by researchers for their studies, but this investigation uses a version from Terry Hartig (personal communication, May 5, 2013), a key researcher who was involved in the validation of this type of measure (Hartig, Evans, Korpela, & Grling 1996). Because this study looked at the workplace environment and restoration, the researcher also reviewed environment and behavior literature on the workplace and the benefits of taking breaks throughout the workday. Since wellbeing is a common concern within restoration studies (as will be discussed), literature on the construct of wellbeing in the work place was also reviewed. Finally due to the innovation ingrained ace, this inv estigation examined the precedent between innovation and restoration specifically, ways in which restoration may yield enhanced creativity. Attention Restoration Theory In The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan (19 89) presented a framework, the Attention Restoration Theory (ART), to identify the qualities of a restorative environment and the need for them. Prior to this presentation, the researchers discussed their studies that were especially relevant to the devel opment of this theory. One study occurred within the wilderness with a program in which participants acquired survival skills, reflected on their lives, and shared reactions on the environment. Trips through the wilderness involved participants
26 traveling in their group and also traveling solo. The findings of the study were presented in three phases Getting to Know, Solo and Solitude, and Changes in Self Concept and Reentry (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989). The experience with the environment chan ges us quickly and quietly. By and large it is not a process to which words are attached. Nor are people aware of how radically affected they are by the way they see the world. (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989, p.136) The quote above concluded the Getting to Know section and sum med up the the wilderness setting and worried about their own survival. Despite their inexperience and uncertainty, participants learned quickly in this natural environment and their fears and slow pace (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) The other two phases presented findings relev ant to restoration. Within Solo and Solitude the researcher s discussed the affects of sights and sounds generally rated positively, while others (e.g. seeing remnants left by other people and hearing airplanes) disturbed some participants (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Within Changes in Self Concept and Reentry, participants returned to their normal lives and reported their troubles with aplan, 1989 p. 143 ). Participants were also unsatisfied with their relationships and surroundings, which now seemed to lack substance (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989)
27 (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989, p.1 45) and the researchers infer a (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989 p.146 ) By spending time in the wilderness away from their normal routines, participants got the chance t o reflect on what was important to them and discover who they were (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Another study that informed the development of the ART related to nature closer to home. R Kaplan and S Kaplan (1989) satisfaction with gardening. They classified a category of satisfaction as Nature Fascination whether they were, for instance, taking care of their gardens or observing them. From this study, the researchers also suggested that the extent of nature does not need to be large. With the wilderness study, the nature setting was vast whereas gardens could be very small and still impact the user (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Also, the researchers inf erred from the results that participants are aware of the sensory and tranquil benefits of gardening but may not be aware of its benefits from being ( R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989, p.171) activity Through research such as the studies above, Kaplan and Kaplan developed the ART. In detailing this theory, Kaplan and Kaplan distinguished between two terms: involuntary attention and directed attention Involuntary attention, on the part of the user, requires no effort. They are able to focus on a stimulus without trying because it is interesting. With directed attention, in contrast, the user must force him or herself to
28 focus on a stimulus because it is not inherently engaging and is not grabbing all of their interest (R. Kapl an & S. Kaplan, 1989) With the effort of continuous directed attention, ( R. Kaplan, 1993, p.195; R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989, p.17 9 ). Mental fatigue denotes a depleted capacity for directed attention and the person suffering from this condition will have difficulty focusing (R. Kaplan, 1993; R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Kaplan and Kaplan (1989) went further to say that dis tractions in the environment could hurt the ability to focus They stated, [T] he greatest t hreat to a given focus of attention is competition from other stimuli or ideas that can be the basis of a different focus. Inhibiting all such potential distractions protects and hence sustains the original focus (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989, p.179 180) Mental fatigue is heightened as one sustaining directed attention, mental fatigue can result and make focusing difficult (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) There are a number of reasons why mental fatigue in the workplace poses a serious concern. Because they are not thinking matters through, people that are tired mentally are more likely to make mistakes. T hey are also less likely to be team player s and work well with other s. In addition, they can be more moody and hostile In the case of white collar professions, tasks demand specialized skills, time, and focus and yet the workplace can be filled with distractions demanding a ttention ( Hopp & Iravani, 2009; R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Mental fatigue can have harmful implications for the productivity of the employee and the operation of the company. It is suggested that a restorative environment can renew the capacity for directed attention and, hence,
29 lessen mental fati gue. The environment can provide opportunities for the mind to rest ( R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan 1989). Ultimately, the implication is that employees with a balance of focused work and restoration (when feeling mentally fatigued) will experience higher levels of wellbeing, productivity, creative thinking, job satisfaction, lowered stress and anger, and so on. Studies focusing on restoration outcomes from wilderness and garde ning experiences helped reveal four key components of restorative environments (R. Kap lan & S. Kaplan, 1989) These components were Being Away, Fascination, Extent, and Compatibility ( & Kap l an, 1989, p.183) Fascination involves involuntary i nterest. A stimulus is inherently interesting. With Extent, the environment has size and parts that sensibly make up a whole. The environment also encourages Compatibility. The user can do what they need or want to do there and the environment suppor ts the The components of ART describe restorative environments and how they lend to the recovery from mental fatigue (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Being Away If an environment evokes the feeling of Being Away, then it of fers people a way to physically or mentally escape. This escape is restorative or restful. To achieve Being Away, people often change locations physically or mentally (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) An example of Being Away could be found in the wilderne ss research discussed earlier. Participants traded in their daily lives for time in outdoor nature. Participants noted their appreciation for the silence and peace of the wilderness trip and
30 lamented the noise and fast pace of their normal lives once the y returned (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) An example, for the purposes of this study, of Being Away in the workplace could entail the employee going to the cafeteria or perhaps walking a few feet to the bathroom. Alternatively, they could simply close th eir eyes and imagine they are in a faraway place or at home. Another method of Being Away would be to stop through wild nature (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Again, another example in the context of the workplace may be that the employee takes a break from their research project and works on another task requiring different skills. Being Away could also be obtained by taking a b reak from working towards goals or by not even thinking at all (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Fascination With Fascination, specific elements or features in the environment attract t have to force themselves to focus on the stimulus. R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan (1989) refer red (p. 192 ) as involuntary attention that allows one to be engaged but not fully captivated. In this way, a person can also reflectively think Fascinating stimuli in restoration often include nature, such as, in the case of the gardening satisfaction study, seeing the progress of a garden as plants grow a nd tending to the soil (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan 1989). In the workplace, for example, perh aps fascinating stimuli could be supplied by novel and engaging features (lighting, wall colors, or technology) in an innovatively branded office to draw in the employee.
31 Extent An environment with Extent has c oherence an d scope (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) It gives pe p .184). To form this coherence, its parts must sensibly connect to form a whole. Also, the environment must have scope it has breadth to it. Although this desc ription concerns the physical, Extent can also consider that which is beyond the visible. In addition being in a whole other world might be achieved by being immersed in an activity ( Hartig, 2004; R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) In the wilderness and gard ening satisfaction research, the environments studied were the natural outdoors and gardens Both contexts had coherence but differed in scope ( Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989, p.184 ) that accustom ed to and gardening provided an (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989, p. 171) activity The wilderness was vast, whereas a garden could be very small in comparison. In the workplace, for example, maybe the employee can examine their immedia te surroundings, but only imagine what is in the distance around the corner. Alternatively, Extent could be achieved by immersing oneself in their work with uninterrupted focus. Compatibility urposes and inclinations (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989, p.186) with the environment; it was compatible with their purposes of learning survival skills, self discovery, reflection, and inne r peace (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) An example in the workplace setting of Compatibility might involve the
32 that employee is working in is filled with constant nois e from passersby and the sound of coffee brewing, then the employee may have a hard time focusing. The environment does not fulfill their needs. With the strain to maintain directed attention on their work, the user may feel mentally fatigued. Literature has especially acknowledged the importance of Compatibility. S. Kaplan (1983) described a compatible environment as offering enough choice and information, as one that is easy to navigate, is mindful of distraction, and supports enjoyable activities (one inclinations). He noted that since supportive compatibility is not always available, there should be varying restorative environments to accommodate the many types of settings that people seek for restoration. Finally the results of incompatible envi ronments can be serious, negatively affecting efficiency, productivity, mood, health, and wellbeing (Kaplan, 1983) all factors that are important in the workplace. ART has been especially studied in the context of natural environments. Because environ ments that are preferred by users tend to be more restorative, natural settings and their appealing aesthetic are especially explored in re storation research Perceived Restorativeness Scale The Attention Restoration Theory (ART) serves as the framework fo r restorative environments, detailing t hose aspects of a setting that c ould help people combat mental fatigue. To test and develop this theory, the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) was created and evaluated for its reliability and validity (Hartig, K orpela, Evans, & Grling 1997). This instrument has been used to measure user perceived restorativeness of environments and, therefore, inform future design decisions. The PRS has been used in a variety of studies to evaluate natural environments, built
33 environments, and environments with both natural and urban elements ( Ivarsson & Hagerhall, 2008; Lindal & Hartig, 2013; Nordh, Hartig, Hagerhall, & Fry, 2009 ). The PRS went through a variety of validation strategies, such as the testing of different pla ces to explore the fluctuation of PRS scores and the use of varying samples and methods of presentation. S ixteen questions fell u nder the ART component s to measure the restorativeness of environments (Hartig et al., 1997). The subscales for this instrume nt measured, therefore, the components of the ART for an environment. Researchers have tailored the PRS for their own studies and varying versions of the mea surement exist. This study used a version supplied by Terry Hartig, one of its key developers, vi a personal communication ( T. Hartig, personal communication, May 5, 2013). Research in Restoration Research in restoration has considered the natural environment, a mixture of natural and built elements, and the built environment (including workplaces and other environments). Through studies in restoration, it is seen that a variety of environments and elements can help alleviate mental fatigue. This literature review section will discuss developments in restoration research within different contexts to give more insight on possible factors that can be restorative within the workplace. Restoration involving Nature Because a preferred environment is more likely to be restorative and because people generally prefer nature, R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan especial ly explored nature in developing the Attention Restoration Theory (ART) (1989). Studies in nature include those by R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan detailed in their book The Experience of Natu re: A Psychological Perspective (1989) on restoration in the wilderness and through
34 gardening. In these studies, which were detailed earlier and will be briefly summarized wilderness research, participants spent time in nature during which t hey learned survival skills and had time to reflect away from their normal routines and urbanization. A experiences, which they recorded in journals. Participants qui ckly transformed from being frightened with the wild, vast terrain into confident explorers who enjoyed the peacefulness of the natural surroundings and opportunity to escape. They were fascinated by the silence, the slow pace, and by how alive they felt among other things. R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan identified this environment as restorative. The experience in the wilderness gave participants a sense of renewal and inner peace (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) isfaction with gar dening was measured. Unlike the previous s tudy, they found that space didn to be restorative. A relatively small space can be restorative in its content and the engaging activities it offers (such as planting fl owers or tending soil) (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) The studies mentioned dea l t with natural elements that were wild versus manicured. This contrast in studies begs the question Which type of setting is more restorative? In r eactions to n earby n ature at t heir w orkplace: The w ild and t he t ame, R Kaplan (2007) conducted a study in which two groups of participants (employees and college students) completed questionnaires on their preference and satisfaction with a variety of photographed na ture some being wild, others being more
35 manicured, and still others with buildings, cars, and parking lots. The nature was near R. Kaplan found that nearby nature did matter to employees and that they preferred less manicured areas to the manicured ones. Sh e also found that parking lots were especially not preferred. As R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan (1989) discussed, preferred environments are expected to be more restorative. Considering that the groomed and built elements (parkin g lot) were less preferred, perhaps they would be less restorative ( R. Kaplan, 2007) Another study that looked closer at the mixture of natural and built elements wa s The perceived restorativeness of gardens Assessing the restorativeness of mixed buil t and natural scene type conducted by Ivarsson & Hagerhall (2008). This study looked at two gardens one large and open to surrounding natural areas and sky and the other smaller and more enclosed. Participants analyzed photographs of the gardens. Som e photographs for the first garden showed buildings. All photographs for the second garden showed a building. This study used the PRS to evaluate restoration, and it was found that the first garden received a higher overall PRS score of 7.0 compared to t garden scored higher on the subscales except on Coherence. The researchers untidiness in natu the difference in subscale and overall PRS scores between the two gardens showed that the PRS is sensitive at the subscale level and can differentiate between two environments of the same type (Ivarsson & Hagerhall, 2008).
36 Nordh et al. (2009) examined components of small urban parks for places that provide opportunities for resto ration as part of ever yday life ( Nordh et al., 2009, p.225 ). Participants were shown photographs of parks. Components studied and quantified included hardscape, grass, lower ground vegetation, flowering plants, bushes, trees, water, and size. Participants imagined they were tired from intense concentration at work and wanted a place to rest. They rated PRS variable s for each photograph. The results showed that size was the main predictor of restoration followed by grass, bushes, and trees; the larger the park, the higher i ts potential for restorativeness. Nevertheless, t he researchers also noted that some of the smallest parks had some of the highest restorative scores. From this finding, it can be inferred that the design of the park and its components can affect its res torativeness and even make the area seem bigger in size (Nordh et al., 2009). The studies mentioned looked primarily at nature, but sometimes considered the nearby built environment. Some patterns in the studies were notable and relate to this study. The first investigation in the wilderness especially revealed the impact that in their own words, one can feel the excitement and tranquility experienced in this e nvironment. This case study gathered qualitative data to further understand and holistically communicate restoration in the workplace. Additionally, both the wilderness research and the research on gardening satisfaction shed light on the importance of n ot only the physical environment in restoration, but on the activities that an environment
37 restoration. The wilderness research emphasized the inner peace, appreciation for l ife, and fast learning of participants while trekking through such an environment. The gardening research emphasized the captivation of participants in simply observing and tending to gardens and the restor ation that could result from the s e activities (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) All studies considered factors in an environment that may lend to restorativeness, but the last three especially did so by considering nearby nature, gardens, and parks (Ivarsson & Hagerhall, 2008, S. Kaplan, 2007; Nordh et al. 2009) Some of the components considered were wild versus groomed nature, size of the area, and proximity or availability of such environments to users. It was realized that design of these factors could affect restoration. How will these factors tran slate in the workplace in terms of restoration? Will these factors be relevant or will other aspects come into play? This study aims to objectively investigate the environment and its users to identify those qualities of the workplace that may enhance or inhibit the recovery from mental fatigue. In addition, participants in the three studies examined photographs of nature instead of engaging participants in the actual environment. In this way, the environments were considered visuall y and not with the o ther senses. Two of the studies also utilized the PRS in analyzing similar environments and testing the This current investigation went beyond the scope of these previous studies by exploring other stimuli (like sounds and smells) in the workplace environment. This study also took
38 environments in overall restoration and within the components of the ART ( Being Away, Fascination, Extent, and Compatibility ) Restoratio n involving the Built Environment Although the majority of research in restoration focuses on natural environments, some studies have looked at the built environment. According to S. Kaplan et al. (1993), ART was created with natural settings in mind, bu t the theory itself is about general restorativeness and can be applied to different types of environments. Three studies, in particular, look ed at urban residential streetscapes, the museum, and the monastery These investigations employed ART, while th e first s tudy listed also applied the PRS. All studies were open to the consideration of other factors specific to each environment that could affect the restorative experience (Kaplan et al., 1993; Lindal & Hartig, 2013; Ouellette et al., 2005). This i nvestigatio n of workplace restoration consider ed the exterior areas of the building along with the interior. A prior study conducted by Lindal and Hartig (2013) involv ed the exterior of buildings and a rchitectural variation, building height, and the resto rative quality of urban residential streetscapes. The researchers explored factors on the streetscapes for the likelihood of restoration. The factors they considered were the roofline, surface attributes, and building height. To account for the combined effect of roofline silhouette and surface attributes, they also created an entropy variable. Participants rated computer generated simulations of a block of residential buildings. Each photo was manipulated for different rooflines, surface attributes, a nd building heights. The PRS was used in this s tudy and participants rated photo s on F ascinat ion, Being Away, P reference, and likelihood of restoration Each participant was asked to
39 imagine walking home and appreciating a stroll while being tired from c oncentrating at work. The study found that higher levels of entropy (architectural variation) was more attention grabbing and led to higher Being Away and Fascination levels, which therefore heightened restoration likelihood. The study also found that hi gher buildings lowered restoration likelihood and the sense of Being Away and that preference and restoration likelihood were positively related (Lindal & Hartig, 2013) This study reiterated the need to consider the multiple factors in the environment th at can lead to restoration. This study stated that, Our results affirm that densely built urban residential settings need not lack restorative quality, and that the design of the built environment can play a significant role in affecting perceptions rega rding possibilities for (Lindal & Hartig, 2013, p. 35 ) In the office environment, employees may have limited space to work in or find themselves sharing space with or working nearby other staff. Can the design of the workplace offer opportun ities for restoration that work with these circumstances? S. Kaplan et al. (1993) examined the museum as a potential restorative environment. The researchers hoped to expand the thought of the museum beyond a p lace to learn about artwork into a restorative place to visit. In the study, they applied the components of ART to the museum. Since most people are not surrounded by art on a daily basis, Being Away can be achieved here. Fascination towards the artwork can be felt but the researchers noted that if the restoration in this category. Extent would inherently occur due to the inclusion of art collections in the considerable am ount of space of a museum. A visitor would
40 experience Compatibility as they learned about the art (which is their purpose for being there), but researchers noted that difficulty in wayfinding could hinder this experience. Participants in the study were vi sitors and non museums). In the end, they found that restoration was more likely when a visitor had around the museum It this way, it wa s shown that different aspects of the built environment can be restorative and that familiarity with the environment can be important (S. Kaplan et al., 1993) Because the workplace setting is an environm ent that employees spend time in during a good portion of their lives, perhaps familiarity will This idea of environmental fascination and familiarity wa s repeated in another study. The monastery was explored for its restorative for visiting this type of environment. The study by Ouellette et al. (2005) included participants who were first time and repeat visitors at a monastery with beautiful architecture and natural surroundings. Visitors staye d at the monastery for some time and had the opportunities to witness the lifestyle of the monks, nature walks, and community prayer. A questionnaire asked respondents about their motivations for visiting the monastery and their experience. The study fou nd that the spiritual motivations for visiting the monastery in combination with the beauty of the environment and happenings occurring there enhanced a sense of rest, meditation, and restoration. The study also looked at the progression of restoration fo r repeat visitors and found that their motivations for visiting the monastery and their patterns of activities changed over time. Repeat visitors took this time to get away from their daily problems to be with their
41 thoughts in this peaceful environment. They also spent their time differently at the monastery since they were familiar with the setting and how things occurred while also considering their own reflection habits. This monastery study extended the ART into a spiritual context that was not form motivations for visiting this type of environment for retreat ( Ouellette et al., 2005) The purposes of this study and the results point to the need for extending the ART into the many domains of the workplace the various spaces and activities that occur in this context and in certain areas throughout the workday. Staats (201 2 ) explored the urban setting for rest oration opportunities in the interior environment. He saw a connection between physical and social aspects and especially saw that restoration was more possible when one could be alone. In the home, he suggested that greater depth (the amount of space passed to get from poin t A to point B) could allow for more opportunities to be alone and feel less stressed due to less crowding In addition, Staats looked at cafs and found them to be very social environments. The study questioned how cafs could promote re storation for th ose coming alone. It was suggested that a large reading table with several chairs be included in the floor plan, which would signal to users that interaction is not necessary (Staats, 201 2 ) In this way, these studies of built environments further exempli fied the application of ART, but also the extension of it with the consideration of other factors particular to each environment. In addition the two studies on the museum and monastery looked at
42 e, which provided rich insight into restoration in these environments In the workplace, research has considered the effect of nature on restoration and other factors such as stress, job satisfaction, and health. Since working can be a major source of men tal fatigue as a person concentrates and directs their attention on tasks, researchers have explored possible opportunities for restoration. Although breaks away from the desk would be ideal, sometimes this is not possible In addition, amenities such a s employee gyms or walking trails are not available. In this case, microrestorative experiences may be a substitute (R. Kaplan, 1993) Studies (1984) research on window views in recovery rooms. It was found that those with na ture views spent less time in the hospital recovering after surgery and took less analgesic doses (Ulrich, 1984). R Ka plan (1993) posited that a respite could be obtained simply by looking out the window briefly, preferably at nature. Her research came to this conclusion through two studies. The first study included desk workers with nature views and then others without nature views. This study also included workers who worked in natural settings. A survey of the participants showed that those desk wo rkers without a nature view reported suffering from more ailments and less job satisfaction. The second study included participants with sedentary jobs. Participants with a nature view were less frustrated, had greater enthusiasm for their jobs, and were more satisfied with their lives. In the end, R. Kaplan expressed that just a small amount of nature (e.g. a few trees) can benefit the user, even alongside built elements. She argued that the availability of
43 nature in the workplace would be cost effecti ve. The addition could help employees and would not be as expensive as other costs ( R. Kaplan, 1993). Another study extended this microrestoration research with specific views of forests or built elements. Shin (2007) distributed a questionnaire to two groups of participants office workers with a forest view and office workers without a forest view. Those without a forest view saw instead paved areas, buildings, cars, etcete ra. It was found that job satisfaction was higher and job stress was lower f or the first group with the forest views (Shin, 2007) Yet another study that explored nature in bias and biophilia: Quantifying the impact of daylighting on occupants h ealth In this study, the researcher considered the r elationship between views of nature and daylighting with employee sick days taken and symptoms of Sick Building Syndrome. areas were analy hours and health symptoms (throu gh surveys) were also collected. The research found evidence towards confirming its hypothesis: Employees with less than satisfactory lighting levels and window views (preferably of nature) took significantly more sick days. The researcher made note that these findings were especially important when considering the potential costs to an organization due to lower employee productivity and higher absenteeism (Elzeyadi, 2011). The last two studies looked at workplace window views of nature and revealed that else.
44 Restoration involving Other Factors Still, other studies have looked at the inter action between the environment, activities, and socializing. Participants imagined themselves either mentally fatigued or not mentally fatigued and then rated situations that mixed different types of environments with different activities in the context of being alone or with others. Findings showed that being alone was preferred when one was mentally fatigued and being with others was preferred when one was an Gemerden, & Hartig, 2010). Johansson, Hartig, and Staats (201 1) explored the benefits of walking in a park and on a street. This study considered the activity of walking alone with the environment and social factors. This study extended past research in which findings showed that friends could assist in restoratio n by lending to a sense of safety or exploration when navigating an environment. Johansson et al. (2011) found that people preferred to walk alone in the natural setting and with company in the urb an setting. The study concluded by noting that there has not been much research examining social factors that could promote restoration (Johansson et al., 2011). The Changing Workplace This case study involved a workplace that was recently renovated. Its innovative design encourage d new ways of working and i nteracting with others. To better understand this environment, the researcher looked into the general change in office design and the reasons for it. According to van Meel and Vos (2001), it is widely believed that offices should no longer look like the t raditional office that was common since the 1950s. Instead of housing a company in a grand high rise, steel building with a marble lobby and floors of
45 repetitive rows of desks, many companies now operate within old warehouses or lofts and offer a variety of amenities, such as gyms, pool tables, and cafs. These spaces are more casual and imaginative and contrast sharply with the dull offices of years past (van Meel & Vos, 2001). This transformation in the workplace can be traced back to the dot.com era with Silicon Valley tech startups. There were a variety of reasons for this change, including: (1) company culture and identity, (2) the labor market (3) the meaning of work, and (4) the need for personal interaction (van Meel & Vos, 2001). Regarding the first reason, companies have become more casual and flexible. Many companies no longer follow the normal hierarchical standards and encourage casual dress and informal interactions amongst staff (Ligos, 2000; van Meel & Vos, 2001) Companies are showcas ing their progressive and daring practices through their office design. In this way, they are standing out from other businesses (van Meel & Vos, 2001). For the second reason, the labor market has changed. The next generation of employees is taking on n ew kinds of jobs and has different personalities and demands on when and where they work. Companies have changed their workplaces to appeal to their needs and to attract the best candidates (van Meel & Vos, 2001). Regarding the third reason, the m eaning of work has changed. No longer are workers just working to pay bills, they want a career. They want to do something fun desire for meaning and a fulfilling caree r by offering a stimulating work environment, perhaps with open spaces in which staff can interact and socialize or a university or neighborhood like setting with the opportunity to walk around (van Meel & Vos, 2001;
46 Danner, 2001). Nowadays, the office is not just a place to work, it is a place for people to live and socialize as they work and build relationships (van Meel & Vos, 2001) Final ly, with the preponderance of technology, employees no longer have to be at the office all day. Employees can ofte n work remotely. Despite this flexibility, companies want to ensure that employees feel engaged and feel pivotal to the By providing a stimulating office environment, employees are more likely to come into the o ffice and socialize with others (van Meel & Vos, 2001). By providing a unique office design, workplaces can showcase their forward thinking identity, appeal to new employees, spur informal interactions, and inspire creative thinking. Office designs can incorporate differen t aesthetics, spaces, and amenities to engage staff and promote a new level of productivity (van Meel & Vos, 2001) Wellbeing and Creativity The study explored two variables relating to restoration wellbeing and creativity. As Chapter 1 stated, wellbein g included the presence of positive emotions and moods (e.g., contentment, happiness), the absence of negative emotions (e.g., depression, anxiety), satisfaction with life, fulfillment and positive functioning CDC: Wellbeing concepts para. 12 ) (Shalley, Gilson, & Blum, 2000, p. 215). This study focused on the process of creativity between coworkers. Through a re view of the literature, it was found that aspects of wellbeing could lead to creativity in the workplace. Ryff (1989) summarized the core dimensions of wellbeing. The dimensions were: (1) self acceptance, (2) positive relations with others, (3) autonomy, (4)
47 environmental mastery, (5) purpose in life, and (6) personal growth. Self acceptance involves a positive attitude towards oneself. The second dimension, positive relations with others, is about having relationships with others full of trust and empat hy. Autonomy involves independence and self governance. Environmental mastery person with a purpose in life has goals and feels there is meaning to life. Final ly, per (Ryff, 1989) Rath and Harter (2010) defined The Five Essential Elements of W ellbeing as: (1) Career Wellbeing, (2) Social Wellbeing, (3) Financial Wellbeing, (4) Physical Wellb eing, and (5) Community Wellbeing (Rath & Harter, 2010) If a person enjoys their work and is passionate about it, then they have Career Wellbeing. They use their strengths and have purpose. The researchers point out that this element is the most essent ial of the elements. If someone does not have Career Wellbeing, then their wellbeing in the other elements lessens dramatically. With Social Wellbeing, people have close, positive relationships with others that help them grow and develop (Rath & Harter, 2010) In Your f riends and y our s ocia l wellbeing: Close f riendships are vital to health, happiness, and even workplace productivity, Harter and Rath (2010) explain that six hours per day of social time is necessary to increase productivity. These six h ours could include time at work, home, online, etcetera. The researchers asked over 15 m illion employees if they had a best friend. They found that 30% of respondents had a best friend and were seven times as likely to be more engaged and exp erience more wellbeing. They went further to add that engagement and wellbeing are not as dependent on what employees
48 are doing but is more dependent on who they are with. Also, the article noted a study conducted by MIT researchers that monitored workers throughout the day and found that casual chatting with coworkers can lead to higher productivity (Harter & Rath, 2010). Financial Wellbeing involves a person handling their money responsibly and spending it on experiences and giving to others. Peopl e with Physical Wellbeing are healthy and work out, eat well, and get enough sleep. Finally, t hose with Community Wellbeing have pride in their community and contribute to it (Rath & Harter, 2010) Steelcase presents another framework on w ellbeing. The c ompany titled it the Six Dimension s of Wellbeing in the Workplace ( Wellbeing: A Bottom Line Issue 2014). The six dimensions included Optimism, Mindfulness, Authenticity, Belonging, Meaning, and Vitality. Optimism included a positive outlook and willin gness to try new things. Mindfulness requires one to be both physically and mentally in the present moment. Authenticity includes the ability to express who you are. Belong ing involves feeling connected to others. Meaning entails that one has a sense o f purpose in what they do. Finally Vitality relates to movement and the senses. Steelcase believes an would promote wellbe i ng and the six dimensions. A subject gaining attention in research and media is mindfulness. According to a recent article in Time 477 scientific journal articles have been published on the subject in 2012. With mindfulness, the goal is to engage the m ind on the present moment. In an age when technology and multitasking is ever present, this ability to focus the mind
49 ( Pickert, 2014, para. 18 ) (Pickert, 2014, par a. 4 ) mindfulness tackles distractions and leaves one feeling happier and healthier (Pickert, 2014). Another recent article on mindfulness has been published in the Harvard Business Review. According to researcher Ellen Langer, mindfulness is he proce ss of actively noticing new things. When you do that, it puts you in the present. It makes you energy b egetting, not energy ( Langer 2014, p. 68) This rich definition of mindfulness poses the state of mind as something one actively and purposefully does. When a person is mindful, they are fully in tune with the present, which is rejuvenating. The researcher expands on mindfulness by saying that it can make one more attentive, creative, and charismatic ( Langer, 2014) Considering this article and the prior one, mindfulness was incorporated into the study as a possible means to focus and enhance both employee wellbeing and creativity. In addition, S. Kaplan (2001) covered mindfulness in his study mental f atigue. He discussed that mindfulness allows one to delineat (S. Kaplan, 2001, p.496). Costs refer red direct attention. In addition he point ed out that this state of mind can be relaxing over the usual analytical manner in which individuals think (S. Kaplan, 2001) The above literature g ave further meaning to the term wellbeing. In researching restorative environme nts, the researcher found that wellbeing is inherently a byproduct of restoration. Restoration is the recovery from mental fatigue as one sustains directed attention. Through restorative environments that offer the sense of Being Away,
50 Fascination, Exten t, and Compatibility, people can rest the mind and experience inner peace and renewal. They can de the things around them or engage in the activities they enjoy (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) These e xperiences were especially shown in the wilderness, gardening satisfaction, monastery, and window view research As discussed earlier, R Kaplan (1993) researched the effect of window views of nature in the workplace on attention restoration and wellbeing. R. Kaplan extended the results of her study to say that breaks by exercising or getting away from the desk are valu able but that microrestoration can be obtained at the workstation, which can possibly be more beneficial (R. Kaplan, 1993) In Enhancing creativity through work: A framework of workday d esign, the benefits of breaks were looked at in more depth and, in this case, applied to the creativity process (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006). Elsbach and Hargadon develop a frame work to incorporat e mindless w ork throughout the workday. They define d mindless work as tasks low in cognitive difficulty and performance pressure. In their discussion of mindless work, they identified work contexts that affect creativity and psychological states of mindl ess work (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006). Certain work contexts inhibit creativity. These are high workload pressures and time pressure. If the employee has too much to do and has limited time, they may become overworked and be easily distracted or impatient. The researchers argue d that mindless work can help alleviate this tension from high workload and time pressures and allow for reflective thinking and incubation of thoughts, which are necessary for creativity. Mindless work involves the psychological st ates of positive effect
51 psychological safety, and high cognitive capacity. With positive effect, the employee enjoys what they are doing and is interested. This effect will promote creative thinking. With psychological safety, the person feels free to be him or herself and will be more open to taking risks, which can also result in more creativity. With high cognitive capacity, the brain can solve problems and think comprehensively. In this way, a restorative environment can come into play and restore the mind from mental fatigue (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006). Mindless work allows for breaks from routine work requiring concentration. By doing simple tasks, one can stimulate the mind. The pressure to perform is also lowered, which can lead to positive af fect and heightened creativity. The study suggested workplaces incorporate mindless work by requiring employees to do simple tasks, which have to be done for the company to operate, at scheduled times. In addition, time oriented tasks should be integrate d in to the workday that measure performance on time instead of quality. In this way, doing these tasks will feel like a break. This break will be characterized by predictability and control and allow the worker the chance to creatively problem solve othe r issues. Finally the study noted that employees, by sometimes asking coworkers for help and decreasing their taxing workload, were actually taking a type of break (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006). Activities, such as mindless work and breaks, can be incorpora ted into the workday to encourage creativity. In addition, the physical space can promote creativity. Martens (2011) discussed that communication with coworkers is key and that employees will be more likely to interact if they are closer in proximity. T his interaction is important, as the researcher found within interviews with creative leaders in business,
52 to share work and knowledge. Also, certain environmental conditions can be installed to promote flow in which a person is thoroughly immersed in th eir work. Perhaps soundproofing can be installed or restorative factors can be integrated in to the environment. Flow can encourage creative thinking. In addition, interviews revealed that creative thinking happened during times of relaxation (e.g. when driving, running, showering) (Martens, 2011). The study also suggested the environment be stimulating to incre ase employee creativity and said that creativity is lessened by unwanted noise, stress, and hunger. The opportunity to take a walk through a ni ce setting can also promote creative thinking. Through interviews, the researcher found that an attractive environment could result in a creative culture in which people collaborate and interact casually. By offering open areas with places to relax and m eet c buzz in the office. A sense that work is in progress and you are part of it (Martens, 2011). Studies in restorative environments have also looked at task performance. Berto (2005) conducted three experiments in whic h participants viewed restoration or nonrestorative scenes briefly, geometric patterns, or restorative or nonrestorative scenes for potentially longer. Participants were mentally fatigued prior to the viewings by performing a task. They had to perform th is same task afterwards, as well. The study found that by viewing restorative environments for a little over six minutes, one performed better on the task afterwards (Berto, 2005). Hartig, Evans, Jamner, Davis, and Grling (2003) completed a study in whic h participants were exposed to natural or urban environments (within a room with nature views or no views and then walking outdoors) and were measured for blood pressure,
53 emotion, and attention levels. The investigation found that positive shifts in the l evels occurred for those in the natural settings. Participants had improved performance in the natural environments and restoration was promoted in these setting s (Hartig et al., 2003) Summary of Literature Review The literature review examined a multi tude of topics from restoration in nature to the fostering of wellbeing and creativity. Through this exploration, restoration and its implications in the Attention Restoration Theory (ART) and the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) have been applied to the core of this case study as tools to question how employees maintain focus. Previous research on restoring mental faculties through the inclusion of natural elements, as well as the built environment have supplied a wealth of knowledge that can be ext ended into the workplace setting. Classic research on restoration has the potential to be extended into the built environment, and studies have found relationships between restoration and the museum, monastery, and houses of worship. Can the workplace, a s well, be a restorative environment? Will the same restorative factors prominent in natural environments and those interiors studied resonate in the office setting? As the workplace continues to change and include a variety of spaces for staff to use, the nature of how employees work has consequently changed. It can only be assumed that this shift in employee work behavior could also mean a change in employee break habits, which can lead to restoration. As employees become reenergized, research sugge sts wellbeing and creativity can be enhanced as well
54 Figure 2 1. Key Components of the Attention Restoration Theory (ART) (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989)
55 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Research Design This case study explored restoration in the workplace whe re employees may find themselves tired or unfocused due to concentrating on demandin g tasks. This research investigated the interaction between the employee and the built environment and the ways the office worker can res t their mind. The following quest ions were answered: (1) How do employees at a large organization that allows mobilit y define workplace restoration? (2) Which environmental perceptions and opportunities for restoration exist in the workplace? This case study focused on Steelcase, a compan y recognized as one of the worldwide for its workplace solutions n.d. ) The research was conducted at its global headquarters in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Throughout the study a project liaison from Steelcase maintained a flow of communication organized and supported travel and accommodations and facilitated employee participation in surveys and interviews At Steelcase, this employee co le d their North American design communit y strategy and the development The research design i ncluded mixed methods in five stages (Figure 3 1) The first stage involved an online employee survey and published instrument for assessing restorativeness. T he online employee survey included both quantitative and qualitative questions regarding employee demographics, office use, and work and break habits. The second stage included on site observations and photographic documentation of the office. In the thi rd stage, the researcher conduct ed on the spot interviews, in which the
56 researcher approached employees and asked them questions on how they used the office. In the fourth stage, structured interviews with key employee s were conducted. In the fifth stage narrative inquiry was used to holistically analyze the data collected. By using both quantitative and qualitat ive methods, this study utilized a mixed methods approach. There we re advantages to this strategy. All methods had their limitations, so by mi xing methods the researcher capitalize d on the strengths and neutralize d the inherent biases of each approach (Creswell, 2009). In addition, findings from one method also informed the development of the data collected, i.e. the researcher chose which loca tions to emphasize in observations based on the online employee survey results regarding top break locations In addition, through triangulation, results fro m different research methods could support each other and give g s (Creswell, 2009). In the end, the researcher created original narratives from all the gathered data to communicate emerging themes across Narrative inquiry is a recent development and is growing in the field of in terior design as a means of understanding and sharing the human experience within the built environment through the multiple perspectives of inhabitants. Research narratives rcher and other readers to ex plore the findings holistically by considering environmental, cultural, social, and individual factors (Dohr & Portillo, 2011). This method is valuable transforms research findings from a collection of data into vivid experiences the reader, and particularly designers, can engage with to create better workplace environments
57 ( Danko, Meneely, & Portillo 2006). Short narrative vignettes were written to en capsulate findings and exemplify how employees find restoration in the office. By using this strategy, the intricacies of the workday and workplace environment, which affect restoration, were comprehensively explored with a wider lens. This case study lo ok ed at restoration in the workplace by applying a mixed methods approach through an online employee survey, observations, on the spot interviews, and structured interviews. Through this combination of quantitative and qualitative inquiry the findings wer e strengthened and woven into a series of narrative vignettes resulting in a typology of human exp erience and restoration Case selection [T] he distinctive need for case studies arises out of the desire to unde rstand complex social phe nomena. In brief, the case study method allows investigators to retain the holistic and meaningful characteristics of rea l (p.2) This investigation utilized the case study method to explore an existing, operating office and to define restor ation in the workplace context. This study involved delving into the real, daily lives of employees while examining their perspectives, as well as the inner workings of a successful global business in order to further understand how the environment can af fect workplaces and staff. The purpose of the case study method, as Yin (2003) states, is to (p.10 ) This investigation tested the Attention Restoration Theory (ART) by Kaplan and Kaplan. In addition, many inquiries in t d is typical of a case study design aimed to explain phenomena from multiple sources of information over time (Yin, 2003) In this case, Steelcase employees supplied various perspect ives throughout the workday and recalled their experiences before the
58 recent renovation in 2011. two years after that renovation, which was part of its initiative to consolidate real estate and m ove employees from its Corporate Development Center into its headquarters by 2012 T his research focused on physical and social characteristics of the office. The workplace needed to have a culture that valued employee wellbeing and creativity and was committed to not only offering an environment in which productivity was optimized, but also an environment in which wellbeing and creativity were promoted through restoration The organization should have considered the o ffice environment as a major factor in affecting human behavior. In addition, to investigate a range of restorative options, as well as factors that could inhibit restoration, the site needed to offer a variety of spaces and amenities, such as private and open spaces to work, access to nature, and flexible furnishings. For these reasons, the Stee lcase headquarters was selected to study. This global, award 1 to optimize emplo yee function. Its office housed a variety of spaces that support ed employ ee work patterns and focus, which seem ed to meet criteria for restoration. This study focused on the main building on the workplace campus, which had five floors in 385,000 sq uare feet and housed 800 900 emplo yees The ose where they worked depending on their activities. Many of the employe es 40% within the headquarters were con sidered mobile and did not have an assigned desk The entire campus had two buildings separated by manicured lawns
59 and pathways and 1200 employees total (J. Holmes, personal communication, March 25, 2014) Its office layout wa s u nique and, additionally, fostered the advancemen t of research. Not only did its spaces serve as a workplace, but the company also utilized its environment to test its developing theories and to implement improvements on its products Key The Chair for this stu dy proposed a research collaboration with the company. Proposal documents were drafted and sent to the company and the research project received approval (Appendix A) The project liaison maintained contact between the company and the researcher, as well as set up the on site visit, tours, and structured interviews. Throughout the process another student also conducted research with Steelcase but covered a different workplace related topic. Prior to starting the investigation, the researcher ob tained University Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for the study and its methodology to ensure the protection of human participants and their welfare and rights ( eview 20 07 ) ( Appendix A ). Each employee participant was required to sign and agree to the terms. The online employee survey was launched from June 24 2013 to July 8, 2013 and on site research occurred between July 8, 2013 and July 11, 2013. Instruments The online employee survey used the Perceived Restorative ness Scale (PRS) a published instrument that measured five items for perceived restorativeness of an env ironment. This scale was developed by Hartig, Evans, Korpela, and Grling (1996) and was based on R. Kaplan and S. ry (ART) (Ha rtig et al., 1996). ART appeared frequently in literature on restorative environments. The theory explained that a person can become mentally fatigued after sustaining their
60 focused (or directed) attention on stimuli that require effort ( R. Ka plan, 1993) and inhibiting their attention from shifting to more interesting stimuli (Hartig, 2004) In other words, if one forces him or herself to pay attention to something less interesting than other distractions in the environment, his or her mind ma y get tired from this effort and not be able to focus. For example, if a student has intensely concentrated on homework, he or she may not have the mental ability to focus on a profess r ow in front of them while that person surf s the internet because it is more interesting To alleviate mental fatigue, ART suggests components of a restorative environment. These components were: (1) Being Away, (2) Fascination, (3) Extent, and (4) Compat ibility ( S. Kaplan, 1995). Being Away involved getting away c onceptually more than physically, since one can be physically in another environment but still stressed The feeling of being away can be obtained by merely looking at familiar settings differen tly or looking elsewhere ( S. Kaplan, 1995). Fascination is involuntary attention which is attention that is effortless and allows the min d to rest from inhibiting stimuli and to recover its ability to direct attention ( Hartig, 2004). The user should fin d stimuli innately interesting (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) enough, so that it constitutes a whole other world . . It must provide enough to see, experience, and think about so that it tak es up a substantial portion of the available S. Kaplan, 1995 p.173 ). The environment must fully engage the user so they feel like they are somewhere entirely different ( S. Kaplan, 1995). Finally, Compatibility means the environment purposes and inclinations (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) With the PRS, this investigation attempt ed to measure the
61 Steelcase headquarters for its levels of restorativeness In this way, comparisons can be made between its restorativeness and the restorativeness of environments examined in previous studies. The PRS gave overall restorativeness scores and subscale measures. Deriving from the aforementioned components of ART, this scale is a measure of an he development and validation of this instrument, four studies were conducted with samples of individuals from America, Sweden, and Finland. Participants rated environments on a scale of 0 to 6 on 16 statem ents that represented the components of ART. Stu dies varied in methodology from on site evaluation, a field condition, video or photography slide simulations, or memories of places Results were consistent across the studies (Hartig et al., 1996). The researcher obtained permission to use the most rece nt PRS version from Terry Hartig Professor from Uppsala University, via email (Appendix A ). This version had 26 i tems on a scale from 0 to 10 with separate instructions for environments that were unfamiliar or familiar to the participant (with restorativ e features that change over time). The latter instructions were used on the online employee survey since participants were familiar with the headquarters building The questions fell into the restorative components Being Away, Fascination, Coherence, Sco pe, and Compatibility. Coherence and Scope were aspects that fell under Extent. Two other items were not components of restoration Familiarity with the environment while Preference described their liking o f it, which could be affected by the restoration experienced ( R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989; Lindal & Hartig,
62 2013 ) Familiarity and Preference were not calculated into the overall PRS scores of each office area. Items for evaluation were stated favorably. Hartig initially sent the researche r a scale with only two items, Being Away and Fascination with the reasoning that they could be applicable to different restor ative processes and not just attention restoration Hartig has shared the full PRS instrument with others over the last 15 years but noted that there was no formal valida tion study as of yet for it ( T. Hartig, personal communication, May 3, 2013). Hartig also noted that there was no normative, standardized data to compare results against ( T. Hart ig, personal communication, August 20, 2013). Thus, this study referred to PRS scores found in other studies. Procedures Data was gathered onl ine, as well as on site in four stages. First, an online employee survey was distributed via email to employees. This survey included questions from the PRS scale instrument, as well as questions on demographics and work and break habits. Second, the researcher visited the site and observed the workplace while also taking photographs Third, employees were interv iewed on the spot as t hey used the environment. Fourth the rese archer interviewed three higher level management employees separately to hear more detailed accounts of their experiences at work. Online Employee Survey The researcher created the online employee survey (Appendix B) using Qualtrics software (http://ufl.qualtrics.com ) provided by the University of Florida. This draft was sent for the project liaison w ith only minor changes The researcher wrote a short summary of
63 restoration, wellbeing, and creativity to avoid hypotheses guessing and biases. This summary was edited by the project liaison and was forwarded with the survey web link to the department leads of Finance Procurement, and Quality which were departments chosen by the project liaison. To improve response rates, the department leads sent the email to their own staff members. In the end, only the areas of Finance and Procurement were able to participate in the study The survey launched on June 24, 2013 and was open for submissions until July 8, 2013 In addition, an email reminder was sent on June 27, 2013 already. In the end, 80 employees out of the 800 900 employees at the headquarters received the survey. Fifty eight participants fully completed the survey, while three partially completed it, giving a response rate of 72.5 %. The survey started with a consent form detailing the protection of a p priva cy how long the survey would take to complete (approximately 15 minutes), and the reassurance that there were no right or wrong answers. After th is consent form, the survey split into four sections. Section 1: Demographic and Backgrou nd Information asked nine questions to gender, age range, highest level of education, department, and position. They were also asked how many years they had worked at S teelcase and at the headquarters, as well as the percentage of their work time spent at the h eadquarters and working alone and with others.
6 4 Section 2: Impressions of the Work Environment asked questions related to factors that could promote or hinder creat ivity in the workplace. From the results, employee perceptions of the company and its creativity were obtained. Section 3: The Facility and How it is Used helped identify where the participants worked at routinely. It also helped the researcher discover the approximate percentage of the employ worked in these areas. Section 4: Work Patterns and Perception asked participants about their frequency of breaks, what they did during breaks, where they took breaks in the office, what amenities they wish ed were at the facility to help them regain focus or reenergize, and why they might have taken breaks in selected locations. In addition, the Perceived Restorativeness Scale questions asked participants about the space in which they most frequently took b reaks. These questions related to Being Away, Fascination, Coherence, Scope, Compatibility, Familiarity, and Preference. Each of the first five categories had four to five questions each. The last two categories had one and two question s each, respectiv ely. From these survey results, the investigator gauged the restorativeness level of spaces. This information was used to determine which areas would be included in the following observations and on the spot interviews. From this online employee survey w ith a total of 51 questions, the researcher was able to collect data on the staff and get a bigger picture of its make up. Results revealed who the participants were, their perceptions of their workplace culture regarding creativity, where they worked, ho w they took breaks, and their perceptions of office areas relating to restoration. From this information, the researcher was able to prepare questions for the following study methods and for the time on site.
65 Observations The on site introduction to the Steelcase headquarters began with a one hour tour of the facility. The tour was guided by a Steelcase employee, who had experienced firsthand the transformation of the workplace and its renovation. The tour guide shar ed information about each space while noting its functional purposes, history, and how coworkers commonly used them. The researcher was free to ask questions and take notes and photographs during this orientation. Later, the researcher observed the site independently by recording notes and ta king photographs. The office areas under study can be found in Table 3 1, and floor plans displaying these areas can be found in Figure 3 2 These areas were chosen due to the responses on the online employee survey. The researcher also decided to focus on these areas after observing employees in them or after interview employees discussed them. The researcher noted the chara cteristics of each environment, such as temperature, lighting, furnishings, users, sounds, the design, activities, and social inte ractions. Photographs documented these variables, as well, for future reference and inclusion in this thesis. were taken on site and supplied by the res earcher, Dianne Austria. In addition, th e researcher was allowed to use photographs supplied by Steelcase in this thesis On the spot Interviews During the planning of the research methods, the project liaison encouraged the researcher to approach employees on the spot during observations and a sk questions that the employees were accustomed to being approached by visitors regularly with
66 questions about their environment and how they used it The on the spot interviews had their own advantages as a research method. Participants could be asked questions based on what they were doing at that very moment in that location. Also, they could look around them as they answered questions by referring to objects, peop le, in a photograph or what they could retrieve from memory. In the end, the researcher conducted 17 of these interviews, which provided a broader cross section of t he sample for study. The observations along with the introductory tour, notes, photographs, and on the innovative facilities and design, as well as its workplace culture. The resea rcher was able to get firsthand experience in the facility and see what an average day in the workplace was like, how employees used the environment, and how they interacted with each other. Structured Interviews Three participants were interviewed ab out their work and break time habits. The researcher prepared questions that allowed for open conversation depending on the i ). Each participant signed a consent form detailing the interview content and confidentiality and agreed to have their 45 minute session recorded with an audio device. These participants were recruited by the project liaison and held higher management positions. This sample off ered one perspective that may have been different from other employee gro ups.
67 Interviewees answered questions regarding topics such as the best and worst parts of their workday, how they defined a break, how they took breaks during the times when they were more busy versus less busy, how they observed other staff take breaks, and how their breaks differed before and after the renovation. From this in depth data, the researcher aimed to create narratives on the employee experience in the office and how restoration might be obtained throughout the day. As mentioned before, an other researcher (doing a separate study) was present during this investigation. Due to the limited amount of available participants fo r interviewing during this investigation student researcher shared th ese interview sessions by alternating questions. The first interview was conducted on the end of the interview, the other student was able to ask a few questions regarding her study. The second interview also occurred on site, but was conducted primarily by the other student, while the researcher for this investigation asked a few questions about restoration at the end. The third interview was conducted off site over the phone because the employ ee was ill during the visit. The researcher for this study primarily conducted this interview and the other student asked a few questions at the end. Throughout all interviews, the other masters student assisted with taking notes, recording audio for a b ackup copy, and occasionally asked questions related to this study if they happened to come up. Analysis The data gathered was analyzed statistical ly using Qualtrics software (http://ufl.qualtrics.com) and SAS version 9.4. The researcher analyzed freque ncies
68 and correlations in the survey results. For example, it was valuable to know the number of times a location was selected as a place to work or take a break. In addition, the research searched for correlations in data, such as between gender and pre ferred break locations Pe r ceived Restorativeness Scale results were analyzed; subscales were looked at individually and each space received an overall restorativeness score. The observations, notes, photographs, and on the spot interviews were analyzed t ogether to cohesively reveal the ways in which employees used their environment, the frequency of visits to certain areas, and how long they stayed. Patterns in the data helped develop a clear picture of the workplace culture and how a typical day progres sed in the office. The on the spot interviews and structured interviews, especially, were analyzed for recurring patterns in employee environmental behavior. The researcher used the resulting patterns to create short narrative vignettes, which explore the restorative habits and the workplace as a restorative environment. These narratives all had common elements a purpose, specified characters, a setting, reasoning behind the situation, an d a takeaway message (Dohr & Portillo 2011). Finally, by analyzing all data from this study, the researcher developed a restoration typology with seven categories for restoration in the workplace. These categories were methods that can be implemented or encouraged in the workplace to help employees refocus. Limitations The time frame in which this investigation was conduc ted was around a major holiday, July 4 Therefore, many employees were out of the office on vacation and the environment (especially the foot traffic through the building) could have varied from
69 normal The holiday also affected the number of available participants for the structured interviews. In addition, the structured interviews consisted only of higher management ierarchy and rspectives of the overall employee base. However the 17 on the spot interviews helped provide a broader employee perspective. Summary of Research Design This study used a mixed methods approach of quantitati ve and qualitative methods. This case study focused on Steelcase, a company recognized globally for its innovative workplace solutions and furnishings. The site investigated was its headquarters building on a campus in Grand Rapids, Michigan. The headqu arters, which has been recognized by Contract and Fortune 500 magazines, had a variety of spaces that promoted worker effectiveness. By working with a project liaison at the company, this study was d eveloped and organized with five stages: (1) an online e mployee survey with a published instrument to measure restorativeness of environments, (2) on site observa tions with photographs, (3) on the spot interviews, (4 ) three separate, structured interviews with key staff on their restorative expe riences in the w orkplace, and (5 ) narrative inq uiry. Data from the first four methods was analyzed to form a complete picture of the company and culture, key areas of its headquarters, and its employees. Patterns in the data were found on how employees restore their foc us. Narratives were then created to exemplify these patterns. Narrative inquiry is especially valuable to this study as a means to bring to light and explore the many employee perspectives and the complex understanding of all the factors individual, so cial, built, and cultural that impact the relationship between the human, the built environment, and restoration.
70 Figure 3 1 Methodology for this study. Table 3 1. Office areas of focus covered in this study. Office Wide Community Area (First Floor) Depar tmental Areas (Third Surrounding Areas on campus Lounge Seating Information Bar Self Serve Caf The Outdoor Pathways and Grounds
71 A B Figure 3 2 Flo or plans of off ice areas covered in this study. A) Office Wide Community Area B) Depar (Floor plans courtesy of Steelcase, edited to illustrate specific content .)
72 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS This chapter presents the an alysis of the quantitative and qualitative data collected in this study. The results include d an in depth look into the physical and social environment of the headquarters, an examination of the staff make up and their work and break habit an d employees. This chapter questions: (1) How do employees at a large organization that allows mobility de fine workplace r estoration? (2) Which environmental perceptions and opportunities for restoration exist in the workplace? The Workplace Environment This study examined the Steelcase global headquarters located in Grand Rapids, Michigan. The headquarters (opened in 1983) was part of a campus (Figure 4 1) that included a second building, Steelcase University. This facility housed a variety of learning and practice installation spaces ( n.d.). The buildings were connected via sidewalk pathways. Sidewalks c ut through grassy areas with benches, trees, flowers, and sculpt ures. The central workplace wa s five stories hig h and 385,000 uildings, n.d.). As experienced during observations, u pon entrance, a central atrium allows one to see all f loors of the office. Originally, employees at the headquarters worked in two separate buildings, one was the five story buildi ng on campus and the other was the seven story Corporate Development Center, which was 664,000 sq ft and pyramid shaped (opened in 1989). In an effort to consolidate, the company started moving its employees from the pyramid building to the headquarters in 2009 ( Christianson, 2013). Prior to renovations i n areas
73 of the second and third floors, the headquarters was approximately 85% 90% resident in which employees were assigned desks Since then, several Steelcase employees floor ( 3E ) is now approximately 65% mobile and the area on the second floor ( 2E ) is approximately 70% mobile (J. Holmes, personal communication, April 4, 2014) This transition came with some resistance but, with the support of leadership staff and training on how to work in a mobile manner, this forward thinking way of working With the renovation and re changed significantly from a traditional office setup. No longer just a cafeteri a, the first floor housed a variety of amenities and casual spaces for working and nourishment ( imeline n.d.; The Next Office: Why CEOs are Paying Attention 2012 ) he Workcaf reclaim [ ed] t raditional cafete ria space and integrat [ ed] areas designed for collaboration and individual work, creating the best of both worlds: a coffee shop vibe with the functionality of a well planned office ( The Next Office: Why CEOs are Paying Attention , p. 16) In addit ion, the office served not research on how employees work ( Key Buildings The Next Office: Why CEOs are Paying Attention 2012 ). Table 3 1 lists the office areas cove red in this study and Figure 3 2 illustrates these spa ces in floor plans These areas were emphasized as being perceived as high in restorativeness i n the online employee survey. The physical and social attributes of office areas will be described f irst to orient the reader. These descriptions were
74 developed from on site observations photographs, and both on the spot and structured interviews. First Floor, Office Wide Community Area known at Steelcase as the Off the central atrium wa s a wide walnut staircase offering a clear focal point in t he space. Above the staircase wa s a white, honeycomb organic sculptural latticed ceiling lit with slowly transitioning colors of pink, blue, green, and purple (Figure 4 2) The visual presence of t his staircase and ceiling above entice d the visitor to enter and ga ve the space a dynamic initial impression. Upon descending this staircase, one enter ed the Office Wide Community Area This area was renovated by Shimod a Design Group and reo pened in 2011 It was 20,000 sq ft and housed a variety of seating, meeting room, technology, and food options, as well as an outdoor area with seating .1) are discussed below. Open Seating A rea Physical Attributes At the bottom of the staircase is an area wit h a range of lounge seating and integrated t echnology in which employees could socialize, rest, conduct meetin gs, or complete work (Figure 4 2 ). The walls were predominantl y white and the carpet contrasted with the walls in a medium grey. A carpet pattern with linear lines along with a dropped ceiling with white cove lighting convey ed a sense of movement through the space and encour age d the eye to travel down the length of the Office Wide Communi ty Area The overall space had soft lighting and music playing quietly.
75 Various furnishings were set up throughout the space to offer options. Unlike other areas in the office, this area wa s asymmetrically arranged, with elements in varying neutral and bright colors. Social Attributes With its location at the bottom of the stairs, the space was a hub of activity that encouraged spontaneous interactions between coworkers who necessar ily see each other in their usual work areas The space also encouraged informal and formal meetings with its variety of furnishings ( from lounge sofas to conference tables with large monitors for co llaboration, also known as media:scape units ) Informa tion A rea Information Bar Physical Attributes Across the Open Seating Area was the Information Area ( F igure 4 3 ). This space contrasted with th e previous space with dark walls and a wide expanse of large screens. These monitors lit up the room with news updates and posts height tables with glass countertops were placed in front of the screens. These zig zag shaped tables had bar height seating. Immediately a djacent to this area was a small kitchenette with microwaves and ice and a kiosk selling coffee and food all day Social Attributes With its central location next to food options and bar height furnishings, this area a llowed for spontaneous interactions and quick chatti ng as employees pass ed before a me eting or while obtain ing or preparing food Lounge Seating A rea Physical Attributes This area (Figure 4 4 ) was adjacent to meeting rooms of the Open Seating Area. Despite being an open space, this area had a much warmer,
76 intimate fee l than other areas with its natural wood tones, shelving decorated with books and trinkets, floor lamp, and lounge furniture. It was set up like a living room and was quieter than surrounding areas. In addition, this room had a red, decorative rug and fl oor to ceiling windows letting in natural light and nature views Social Attributes With its casual setup and relaxed feel this area encouraged informal conversations and solo working or relaxing. Outdoor Seating A rea Physical Attribute s The Outdoor Seating Area (Figure 4 5 ) had a large concrete seating area and manicured lawns with a fire pit and outdoor patio furniture. Electrical outlets were available in wood en walls along the perimeter. A pathway l ed to the surrounding residential n eighborhoods. Along this path wa s a retention pond with a spouting water feature. Social Attributes Employees gat her ed h ere for lunch when the weather wa s cooperative and work ed here alone or with others Food C ourt Physical Attributes The Food Court (Figure 4 6 ) wa s differentiated fr om the rest of the space as it wa s washed in white light reflecting off the white walls and counters. Employees and visitors could line up at the back counter to get food or at two other food stations on t he floor. On the walls were graphics displaying nutritional information. Unlike the coffee kiosk, the Food Court only sold food and drinks during breakfast and lunch times.
77 Social Attributes The area encouraged spontaneous conversations between employee s and Food Court staff. Employees often visited the Food Court in groups to get food or coffee. The Dining A rea Physical Attributes This area (Figure 4 7 ) was across from the Food Court. The lighting here was also soft and, in this c ase, cast with large circular pendant lamps in the accent color orange. Wide expanses of floor to ceiling windows brought in large outdoor views and sunlight. Dining tables sat two or more people and bench seating was arranged along a half wall. Social A ttributes The Dining Area allowed for spontaneous chatting or for working alone or with others. Quiet Seating Area Physical Attributes In the back corner of the Office Wide Community Area was the Quiet Seating Area (Figure 4 8 ). A small cor ridor with bench seating, a bar height Area from the rest of the floor. Along one side of the space glass meeting rooms allow ed one to see people mee ting and working. O pposite, there was a line of w indows allowing natural light and views of an enclosed patio of nature Lounge furnishings gave the space a relaxed feeling. In addition, a wooden shelf separated two desks from the rest of the room. Accents throughout the room included potted plants, books and trinkets organized in the shelf, colorful hanging artwork, and pillows on the lounge furniture. Social Attributes The open area of this space allowed for solo, focused work.
78 Third Floor, Departmental Community Areas Findings from the online employee survey also identified highly used and restorative areas on the third floor, which had departmental workspaces. Four areas were considered, the Self Serve Caf Open Work Area, Quiet Work Area and Glass Booths Self Serve Caf Physical Attributes The Self Serve Caf (Figure 4 9 ) was an open, central location. It included counter space with a sink, as well as a coffee maker and television and two bar height, round tables with decorative p endant lamps. The overall lighting in this area was diffused and soft. Social Attributes This area encouraged informal meetings and conversations and gathering for lunch. It also allowed for people to work solo or in groups. Open Work Area Physical Attributes This open area (Figure 4 10 ) was close to departmental work areas and had windows running along two walls. These windows let in lots of natural light and framed outdoor views of nature and traffic. Large, boxed planters were placed ou tside one set of windows. Blinds could be brought down by users for optimal light levels. There was lighting in the form of overhead, indirect fluorescent lamps and table lamps Also, f urnishings varied in this space for different work modes and posture s, including task and lounge chairs and bar height tables. Social Attributes E mployees work ed alone or together, often for many hours at a time. The location was especially convenient for accessing coworkers for assistance.
79 Quiet Work Area Physical Attributes The Quiet Work Area (Figure 4 1 1 ) was located in a quiet corner and included a large conference table, glass rooms for meeting and working on a treadmill, and seating for working solo There was a v ariety of lounge and task chair s and technology The area included overhead and natural lighting, as well as white noise Social Attributes Allowed for quietly working in groups or solo Physical Attributes These booths (Figure 4 1 2 ) included s mall, frosted g lass enclosed rooms with lounge furniture, a telephone, and wall art Social Attributes These booths allowed for solo working and privacy. Employees often conducted phone calls in these rooms. Surrounding Areas Finally, this study looked at outdoor area s surrounding the building. Outdoor Pathways and Lawns Physical Attributes These pathways (Figure 4 1 3 buildings on the campus. Manicured lawns with nature, benches, and sculptures could be found along the pathways. Social Attri butes These outdoor areas e ncouraged physical activity. E mployees used the paths to travel between the two buildings and to exercise during lunchtime.
80 Summary of the Physical Space The research setting included a variety of spaces on two floors of the headquarters and outdoor surrounding areas. The spaces considered in this study were communal areas with a variety of amenities and environmental factors, such as furnishings, food, nature, and lighting. The workplace was an excellent example of a compa ny instilling its culture and brand into its environment for staff to work effectively and to advance innovative strategies in office solutions. Employee Demographics The online employee survey was received by 80 employees within two departments. Fifty ei ght employees completed the survey, giving a 72.5% response rate. Females made up 51.8% (n=29) of respondents and males made up 48.2% (n=27). Most participants were from Generation X and born between the yea rs 1965 1979 (39.7%, n=23) ( Figure 4 1 4 ). The second highest percentage of respondents fell in the Baby Boomer category born between 1946 1964 (36.2%, n=21). Millennials, or Generation Y born between 1980 2000, made up 24.1% (n=14) of respondents. In terms of education ( Figure 4 1 5 ), 4 4.8% (n=26) o f employees had a m aste degree, 37.9 3.4% (n=2) had a high school diploma. Another 5.2% (n=3) listed that they were currently in school or completed some college. Employee positions we re split into three categories: associate, supervisor, and director (Figure 4 16). Most employees (48.3%, n=28) fell into the associate position. The remaining employees reported being supervisors and directors at 29.3% (n=17) and 20.7% (n=12), respectiv ely.
81 Employees reported their experience with the company (Figure 4 1 7 ). Many respondents, 26.3% (n=15), had been with the company for 11 20 years. Another 26.3% (n=15) was there for 21 years or more. Following these totals, almost another quarter of re sponden ts ( 24.6% n=14) worked with the company for 1 5 years. Additionally, respondents we re also asked how long they had been working at the F igure 4 1 8 ). Most participants (39.7%, n=23) answered 1 5 years. The next hi ghest category was 11 20 years, which 17.2 % (n=10) employees selected. Work Habits. Participants reported their work habits. They were asked to give the percentage of their work time spent at the headquarters location ( Figure 4 1 9 ). Most employees (62.1 %, n=36) said they spent about 100% of their time there while 27.6% (n=16) said they spe nt about 75% Others (6.9%, n=4) spent less than 25% of their time there and the remaining 3.4% (n=2) of respondents spent about 50% of their time at the headquarters. Workers were also asked the percentage of their workday time they spent working alone versus working with others. Working alone had a minimum value of 0.00% and a maximum value of 95.00% with an average value of 50.48% and standard deviation of 24.01. Working with others had a minimum value of 5.00% and a maximum value of 100.00% with an average of 49.52% and standard deviation of 24.01. Participants were asked to choose the top four places they worked at routinely (Fi gure 4 20 ). To better analyze the responses, results were collapsed into categories: (1) Community Wide Office Areas (2) Departmental Community Areas, and (3) Departmental Office Areas. Fifty eight participants answered this question, which
82 allowed for multiple selections and the chance to fill in their own answer if they chose With 58 responses, this gave a total frequency of 232. The highest frequencies occurred in Departmental Office Areas, which were typical office departmental workspaces on the third floor. This frequenc y came in at 154. The next highest frequency occurred in the Departmental Community Areas, which were shared, communal spaces within the departmental areas, at 41. The lowest frequ ency occurred in the Community Wide Office Areas, which were spaces shared by the entire staff on the first floor, at 37. Organizational Climate To analyze the creative climate of the headquarters, the online employee survey had a section on employee perceptions Participants could reply to the questions from 0 questions were used to gauge the overall encouragement of creativity in the office. Most participants (58.6%,n=34) About an taking. Most participants (63.8%, n=37) said i Most respondents (72.4%, n=42) felt performance expectations were realistic. Three q uestions also asked participants about their own jobs and level of creativity. The majority of employees ( 58.6 %, n=34 ) sampled reported that a great deal .0 % seven percent (46.6%, n=27) of (39.7%,
83 freedom to decide where they physically worked (43.1%, n=25), while the rest fell In addition, t wo questions were asked to gauge the inhibition of creativity. The majority of e Finally it was asked whether it was challenging to complete work within given Qualitative data was also considere d to analyze the creative climat e. Va rious factors that may lend to creativity were evident, including socializing (Elsbach & (van Meel & Vos, 2001). First, socializing has been shown to be very predominant at the spot interviews, and structured interviews. Many people took breaks by casually chatting with others, by getting coffee company of others. By socializing with others, as expressed in on the spot interviews, relationships can be formed and maintained. At the Steelcase headquarters, it was common to talk to people in different departments or to bump into someone whom one n eeded to speak to by simply sitting in an open area the spot interview revealed that two coworkers scheduled their meeting to catch up with each other and to Anothe r on the spot interviewee, who was new to the company, admitted to sitt ing in the
84 the same area. By socializing, not only are relationships maintained but trust can also re sult. This trust, according to literature, can encourage risk taking and creativity (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006). Related to socializing in the office, mobile employees could work in close proximity to those they were working with or needed help from. They could also spontaneously and informally meet coworkers by being in community areas. Martens (2011) discussed that employees are more likely to interact if they are closer in proximity and said that this interaction is important to share work and knowledge Second, through observations, on the spot interviews, and structured interviews, ng design features. The Office w ) welcomed visitors with a sculptural sta ircase and overhead condition, which was lit in transitioning bright colors. This feature alone set the tone for the rest of the space as an out of the box workplace meant to stimulate and engage the user. An attractive environment could result in a crea tive culture in which people collaborate and interact casually (Martens, 2011; Miller, 2005, van Meel & Vos, 2001). Furthermore, the bright colors and asymmetrical, energetic a tmosphere that was reflected in how the employees interacted and worked. As shown in the liter ature, with positive affect can result higher levels of creativity (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006). Third, the second and last structured interviewees said that thei r jobs were stimulating in that they offered variety and something new and different every day The
85 second interviewee enjoyed working with many different groups and people. As evidenced in the literature, breaks from the normal routine can stimulate the mind into a more creative state (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006). Research Questions The followin g sections focus on the research questions to define restoration according to the employee, as well as to explore the application of the Attention Restoration The ory (ART) and the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) to the workplace environment. Question One: How do employees at a large organization that allows mobility define workplace restoration? After being asked about their work habits, respondents answered questions about their break habits. The manner in which employees took breaks might give insight on how employees define restoration. Employees were asked where they took breaks on campus (Figure 4 21) As with top work areas, results were collapsed i nto the categories Community W ide Office Areas, Departmental Community Areas, and Departmental Office Areas. The total frequency was 135. The majority of participants (51.1%, n=69) took breaks in Community W ide Office Areas followed by 27.4% (n=37) in D epartmental Community Areas and 2 1.5% (n=29) in Departmental Office Areas. An open ended question asked participants which facilities or activities they wished were available at their workplace to help them regain focus ( Figure 4 2 2 ). Twenty two particip ants answered this question. Half of the respondents (50.0%, n=11) wanted amenities for physical activity, such as a walking track, gym, or a place to nap. Some respondents (27.3.6%, n=6) reported that they were satisfied with the amenities
86 available or 22.7% (n=5) wanted nature amenities, such as outdoor working areas or a garden. Employees were also asked to report what they did during breaks. They could choose multiple activities from a list a For analysis, those activities were grouped into categories: (1) Inter Task, (2) Physical, (3) Nature and ( 4) Social Inter Task meant they did something related to their work tasks, such as organizing their desks, responding to emails that were easy to address, shifting to a task involving coworkers, eating or drinking at their desk, or surfing the internet. Physical referred to activities involving the body, such as walking around the office, getting food, or sitting and relaxing in a quiet place. Nature based activities campus. Social me ant they interacted with others. Figure 4 2 3 displays the four major categor ies and how many times they were chosen (n=257) The largest segment of participants (42.0%, n=108) chose Inter Task, followed by thirty percent (30.0%, n= 77) who chose Physical. Natural activities garnered 14.8% (n=38) of the total and Social took up 1 3.2% (n=34). The above online employee survey question revealed categories of restoration: inter task, physical, nature, and social All categories were revealed in qualitative methods, as well. The inter task category included task related activities, such as answering easy emails, working in a certain location because of a nearby meeting, or planning breaks based on project mil estones. With this category, a structured interviewee mentioned planning The p hysical category involv ed homeostasis, which could include a search for comfortable positions while working,
87 movement food and drinks or comfortable temperatures and possibly the alleviation of eyestrain. This category could also be obtained through the senses. The nature ca tegory involved viewing or being out in nature. Social included working with others and forming connections with coworkers Interviewed employees used key phrases such as During analysis, four mor e categories of restoration were found through commonalities in the data: private, start of day, end of day, and change of pace. The private category included restoration through being alone. Interviewees mentioned needing a pot or end of day happe ned a t specific times and, like a workout, allowed for a warm up and cool down for the workday Finally, t he change of p ace category included working in different way s or in differen t office areas tha change is good and thought it was important that she I mix it up. I might spend a half day here Question Two: Which environ mental perceptions and opportunities for restoration exist in the workplace? As the last section discussed, Section 4 of the online employee survey asked respondents to select the office location in which they took the most breaks and then asked 26 Perceiv ed Restorativeness Scale (PRS) questions The online survey asked employees for the top pl ace they take breaks Most of the locations selected (84.2%, n=19) were in the Departmental Community Areas, with the top choice (28.6%, n =16) being the Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area (Figure 4 9 and Figure 4 10) The next highest percentage (47.6%, n=21) fell into the Community W ide Office Areas, with the top choice (17.9%, n=10) being the Dining Area
88 4 7) and the lowest percentage (28.6%, n=16 ) in the Departmental Office Areas. This analysis looked more into the top choices, the Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area and the Dining Area, due to their higher frequencies. PRS scores are listed in Table 4 1 Scores of 5 or above indicate greater restoration. Survey results showed the Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area received an overall PRS score of 6.29. It ranked highest in the restorative subscales of Coherence at 7.45 and Compatibility at 7.01. For the other restorative subscales, it received a 5.75 in Scope, 5.91 in Being Away and 5.32 in Fascination. Familiarity had a score of 8.25 and Preference had a score of 7.09. The Dining Area recei ved an overall PRS score of 5.74 It ranked highest in t he restorative subscales of Coherence at 6.93 and Compatibility at 6.38 For the other restorative subscales, it received a 5.58 in Scope, 5.38 in Being Away and 4.44 in Fascination. Familiarity had a score of 8.30 an d Preference had a score of 5.80 S ummary of Findings This case study examined the workplace and answered two questions regarding the definit ion of restoration by employees and which environmental perceptions contributed to restoration. Through a mixed methods approach, a multitude of data was collected and analyzed for findings. A more complete picture was formed of the employees at the company and how they perceived their company and took breaks. This data was combined with observations revealing the physical environment of the space, a s well as its culture and utilization by employees. Employees shared their workday experience s though on the spot interviews and structured interviews to give more information that was rich in detail and told of their behaviors and work habits in an innov ative office encouraging new ways of working.
89 In this chapter, it was found that employees define restoration in a variety of breaks that could be broken down into eight categories: (1) inter task, (2) physical, (3) nature, (4) social, (5) private, (6) st art of day, (7) end of day, and (8) change of pace It was also found that the environmenta l perceptions of Compatibility and Coherence had the highest levels in bringing about restoration in this work environment. Chapter 5 interprets and discusses thes e findings in terms of existing literature on restoration In addition, the researcher proposes a Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT) to define key categories of restoring the mind during the workday.
90 Figure 4 1. The headquarters building on th e Steelcase campus. (Photo graph courtesy of Steelcase )
91 A B Figure 4 2 Office W ide Community Area A) Grand s taircase leading to the Office Wide Community Area. B) The first area upon descending the staircase, the Open Seating Area (Photograp h s co urtesy of the author )
92 Figure 4 3 Information Area (Photograph co urtesy of E. Budd .) B Figure 4 4 Lounge Seating Area (Photograph courtesy of the author )
93 A B Figure 4 5 Outdoor Seating Are a. A) Concrete seating area with patio furniture and fire pit. B) Pathway leading to water feature and surrounding neighborhood. (Photograph s courtesy of the author )
94 A B Figure 4 6 Food Court A) Area to pick up and purchase food. B) Graphics detailed healthy eating. (Photograph s courtesy of the author )
95 Figure 4 7 Dining Area (Photograph courtesy of the author )
96 A B Figure 4 8 Quiet Seating Area A) Corridor leading to the Quiet Seating Area. B) Physical attributes of the Quiet Seating Area. ( Top p hoto graph courtesy of Steelcase. Bottom photograph courtesy of the author )
97 Figu re 4 9 Third floor Self Serve Caf (Photograph courtesy of E. Budd ) Figure 4 10 Open Work Area (Photograph courtesy of the author )
98 A B Figure 4 1 1 Q uiet Work Area A) Meeting rooms and conference table. B) Lounge chairs with large monitors. ( Top photograph courtesy of the author Bottom photograph courtesy of Steelcase. )
99 A Figure 4 1 2 Glass Booths (Photograph co urtesy of the author ) Fi gure 4 1 3 Outdoor Pathways and Lawns (Photograph courtesy of the author )
100 Figure 4 1 4 Employee age categories Figure 4 1 5 Employee education levels (n=14) (n=21) (n=23) (n=26) (n=2) (n=3) (n=4) (n=24)
101 Figure 4 16 Employee positions. Figure 4 1 7 Employee years w ith company 48.3% 29.3% 20.7% Associate Supervisor Director (n=28) (n=17) (n=12) (n=14) (n=6) (n=15) (n=15 ) (n=7)
102 Figure 4 1 8 Employee years at comp any headquarters. Figure 4 1 9 Employee work time spent at the headquarters (n=9) (n=23) (n=9) (n=10) (n=7) (n=4) (n=2) (n=16) (n=36)
103 Figure 4 20 Top areas employees work in. Figure 4 21 Break locations. (n=37) (n=41) (n=154) (n=69) (n=37) (n=29)
104 Figure 4 22 Facilities or activities employees wi sh were available to help them regain f ocus Figure 4 23 Frequencies of break activities. (n=6) (n=5) (n=11) (n=77) (n=34) (n=108) (n=38)
105 Table 4 1. Break Locations and PRS S cores. Break Location BA FA COH SCO COM FAM PREF Overall PRS Department al Community Areas Kitchen and Open Work Area ( n=16 ) 5.91 5.32 7.45 5.75 7.0 1 8.25 7.09 6.2 9 Quiet Work Area ( n=3 ) 5.67 3.13 7.67 3.67 7.87 8.00 6.83 5 6 0 Departmental Office Areas Work Area 1 ( n=4 ) 3.95 4.35 8.83 4.50 7.55 9.75 7.38 5. 84 Work Area 2 ( n=4 ) 4.20 5.35 7.00 5.44 7.00 9.00 6.38 5. 80 Work Area 3 ( n=1 ) 4.60 6.80 7.75 6.00 8.00 9.00 5.00 6.63 Work Area 4 ( n=2 ) 5.80 6.60 7.00 5.75 7.80 10.00 7.00 6.59 Meeting Area 1 ( n=1 ) 6.00 6.00 6 .75 6.50 6.40 10.00 8.50 6.33 Meeting Ar ea 2 ( n=4 ) 5.15 4.25 7.08 4. 58 6. 47 7.00 5.25 5. 5 1 Community Wide Office Areas Open Seating Area ( n=4 ) 5.90 5.55 5.88 5.38 7.30 8.75 7.38 6.00 Information Area ( n=3 ) 7.13 5.27 7.58 5.33 7.40 8.00 6.00 6.54 Lounge Seating Area ( n=1 ) 6.80 6.60 7. 50 -7.60 9.00 8.00 -Outdoor Seating Area ( n=2 ) 7.10 7.80 7.38 7.63 8.00 9.00 9.50 7.58 Dining Area ( n=11 ) 5.38 4.44 6.93 5.58 6.38 8.30 5.80 5.74 Quiet Seating Area ( n=1 ) 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 Averages 5. 76 5. 60 7. 27 5.62 7.27 8.6 5 6.94 6. 3 0 BA = Being Away; FA = Fascination; COH = Coherence; SCO = Scope; COM = Compatibility; FAM = Familiarity; PREF = Preference; Overall PRS = Overall Perceived Restorativeness Score
106 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION The U.S. Depar tment of Labor and O ccupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) do not require employers to give employees breaks. Although this is the case, the U.S. Department of Labor recognizes that breaks in the workplace are common, whether they are short 5 20 minute breaks or mea l breaks for 30 minutes or more. The Department recognizes that breaks can OSHA ergonomic solutions from monotonous work by chang ing physical positions ( U.S. Department of Labor: Work hours eCFR: Code of federal r egulations 2014;) These facts beg the questions: If breaks can increase employee efficiency and provide physical relief how can breaks further support overall wellbeing in the workplace? Should breaks be better defined and more purposefully integrated into the workday? The research reported represents a case study looking at the relative ly unexamined area of workplace restoration and employee breaks. This research used a mixed methods approach, gathering both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was collected through an online employee survey that asked questions on demo graphics, work related experience and break habits observations, on the spot interviews, and structured interviews. These methods led to the most important findings of this study, which resulted in the development of the Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT) with seven major modes of employee restoration. This typology, proposed by the researcher of
107 this study, will be presented in this chapter along with narratives based on a composite of observational and interview findings. Secondary findings, derived from the structured interviews, online employee survey, and Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) will be presented to contextualize the organizational work climate and emp loyee perceptions of the work culture. The PRS tests an environment for restorativeness based on the Attention Restoration Theory (ART) components. The PRS used in this study had 26 questions on an 11 point scale; scores of 5 or above indicated higher re storativeness. The PRS results allowed for this research to be placed on the same continuum as past research that examined restoration in nature and other hybrid and built environments. Finall y, this chapter presents recommendations for designers and futu re research directions for the topic under study. These recommendations encourage a greater recognition of the importance of restorative opportunities in the office environment and the further development and testing of restoration theory within the workp lace context. Organizational Climate for Wellbeing The literature review showed that restoration can lead to enhanced wellbeing ( Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006; R. Kaplan, 1993; R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 198 9 ). However, this variable has not be en fully explored i n the workplace, which also has the potential to serve as a restorative environment. This section discusses factors that might contribute to wellbeing in the workplace, including fect
108 interviews. First, since breaks in the workday can promote restoration (Kaplan, 1993; Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006), connections between breaks and wellbeing were explored. For example, findings from interviews showed that breaks were important to manage stress, but to fit these breaks into the workday was not always easy and often requi red careful time management. On e employee who was interviewed shared a recent intense wo rk experience and, upon reflection, wished she had taken a break by walking or even more consciously breathing to alleviate stress instead of plowing straight through the task. In another interview nowadays, with the prevalence of email and smartphones, employees need to force themselves to take breaks. He was guilty himself of answering emails during downtime. The r ecent renovation at the Steelcase headquarters and its effect on breaks also came u p in interviews. One manager expressed that before the renovation, employees usually took their breaks at their desks. Now, because breaks can happen in a variety of spaces and contexts. Cur rently the Steelcase office space under study is less structured one can move around and not feel guilty about not always being at an assigned desk; employees are less afraid of appearing less productive due to not being where the ir supervisors expect t hem to be Before the renovation, as another interview revealed, a break might entail 15 minutes to escape the office. When
109 helped in any way, another senior employee responded that the physical space Another component that appeared to be pivotal t o wellbeing was socializing (Rath & Harter, 2010; Ryff, 1989; Wellbeing: A Bottom Line Issue 2014). All structured interviews mentioned the importance of socializing with coworkers and building professional relationships. One interviewee recalled, for example, how coworkers took breaks together to get sodas. Although he thinks socializing in this way was important to build cohesiveness with fellow team led his staff by as king, during downtime, how they were doing at the beginning of meetings to encourage engagement. He explicitly allowed time for informal chatting before jumping into the formal meeting agenda. Third, all three managers expressed enthusiasm about their jo bs, as well as satisfaction with the office space. They enjoyed working with coworkers and the stimulating variety of their jobs on a daily basis. When asked if they could change anything in the office, only minor and easily re ctified issues surfaced (e. g., closer adjacency to microwaves and trash bins). Interestingly, two managers also mentioned that some workers might take the space for granted. This might suggest that organizations should develop strategies to keep employees actively engaged in their physical environment; for example, by scheduling staff meetings in different spaces in the company rather than continually using the same facilities in the same way.
110 Workplace Restoration as Defined by Employees This study explored employee definitions of restoration within the workplace. As mentioned in Chapter 4, the met hodology analyzed the range of employee breaks in the workday at Steelcase. From these results, employee perceptions on restoration in the workplace were revealed. In the structured examples: 10 minutes to check on staff, a phone call, getting coffee or water, walking outside, short personal conversations, shutting down the computer, working in another locat ion, or moving to a more relaxing setting. The most signi ficant outcome from this study wa s the Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT) developed by the researcher This typology describes the ways that employees seek restoration during the workday and w as based on the data gathered in the study, including the variety of break activities that surfaced repeatedly in the online employee survey, observations, on the spot interviews, and structured interviews. Specific questions on the online employee survey revealed four of the break categories (i.e., inter task, physical, nature, and social). The researcher also included other categories that surfaced through qualitative data. These break categories were consolidated (while still keeping their essence) in to seven modes: Inter Task, Physica l S h i f t Back to Nature, Social, Me Time, Change of Pace, and Bookend (Figure 5 1) (Table 5 1) It should be noted that different types of breaks might overlap across the workday. For example, an employee may start his or her day (Bookend, Start of Day mode) by going downstairs with coworkers to get coffee (Social and Physical S h i f t modes). In the following sections, each mode will be illustrated with both
111 evidence from the findings and short narrative vignettes, which were created from data gathered on site. These vignettes are meant to give a p icture of a moment in time when an employee feels the need to take a break and seek restoration. Inter Task With the Inter Task mode, res toration involve s allow organizing ; responding to email requests that are easy to address ; shifting to a task that involves coworkers ; ; or surfing the internet. The methodology of the study allowed o nline employee survey respondents to report Inter Task breaks. About forty percent (42.0%, n=108) of employees reporte d taking Inter Task type breaks, which represents the most reported break appearing in the study (Figure 4 23) Narrative: Inter Task Ja net, a n employee in her late 40s, had been working on a project non stop for four hours now. She finally looked up from her computer as she noticed several groups of people heading to the food court to grab lunch. She looked down at the clock in the corn er of her computer screen and rubbed her dry, tired eyes. She as she realized she was running out of time to finish th is project. Janet did feel hungry, though. In search for sustenance, she the meeting the day before. Not fine dining, but it would do. As she munched on the bagel, she continued to work. She even took a few minutes to check her Facebook newsfeed for updates on her friends. With time, her coworkers came filtering back into the should have came
112 In this scenario, Janet is too busy to leave her d esk and get lunch. Instead, she stays at her workstation to eat while continuing her project. By doing this, she is able to progress on her work while alleviating the stress from running out of time. At the start of the narrative, she is suffering from eyestrain and is tense. By the end of the story, she feels livelier and is in a better frame of mind. By eating at her desk and taking a few moments to surf the internet, she is able to reenergize herself physically with food and get some work done to li ghten her load. This narrative relates to Ka plan (1993), who proposes micro restorative The Inter Task mode could also involve breaks centered on task goals and deadlines. One ma nager especially showed this mode in his planning strategies. The employee had a very busy schedule and tended to plan in order and t o produce the best outcomes. He stated, ou have to really realize that me in addition to hen you combine those two things together you get a much better what he did over the weekend and with his family, which can be related to the article by Groysberg and Abrahams (2014), in which executives worldwide found it necessary to maintain balance between work and life at home In addition, this person recognized the importance of planning for downtime into his schedule for responding to emails and getting caught up in their work by only having three to five meetings per day.
113 Likewise, another structured interview employee mentioned strategically planning downtow n into their schedule to avoid having days with too many back to back meetings, which they said were the worst types of workdays. Also, multiple employees took breaks in the Office Wide Community Area (e.g. working there when they normally di Area, answering emails shortly) because they had a meeting in the vicinity. The adjacency seemed to facilitate a natural incorporation of a break either before or after a meeting (Figure 5 2) Narrative: Inter Task Jean an em ployee in her late 20s, stared at the whiteboard (Figure 5 3) w here she had just scribbled more ideas for three project concepts which her boss needed fully developed by the end of the week. She had been doing research for hours at the office and at home while consulting with the client. As she paced back and forth in the room alone, she felt so close to finishing her third and final idea but still needed a few more hours. maybe grab a snack Susan nodded and walked away. The idea of a break was tempting to Jean, but she had to power through if she was ever going to get this project done. Suddenly an idea came to her. She wrote notes on the board before she had the chance to forget them. She stood back and looked at With only a few hours before she needed to pick up her son from daycare, she gave herself a time schedule to get ideas on paper detailing her are going to step out onto the terrace for a bit of fresh air. Want to the laptop.
114 Jean finally finished up and printed out the document. She then gave the draft one last careful review and made a few minor revisions. Finally this version looked perfect or as close to perfect as it was going to get. She smiled as she emailed the PDF and headed over to let her boss know mission accomplished. Jean is busy working on a project and refuses several invitations from coworkers to take a break. Once she finally finishes the task, though, she is open to relaxing. This work style contrasts with other coworkers who take regular breaks around the office. She, instead, takes breaks depending on when she finishes her work. This story highlights the relationship between optimizing creativity with continuous focused time and mindfulness (Langer, 2014; Pickert, 2014). Physical Shift Physical Shift breaks involve finding homeostasis in the workplace. Examples of this mode include d emplo yees search ing for comfortable positions while working ; moving instead of sitting all day at a workstation ; taking food and drink breaks; work ing in comfortable temperatures; and alleviating eye strain by changing tasks or increasing the font size on the m onitor Employees expressed preference for sitting in comfortable chairs. An employee leisurely reading a book in the first floor Lounge Area 4) found that a high backed armchair with footstool fit his comfort level on a brea k. Yet another example included an on the spot interview in which the employee described why other employees sat around the edges of the Dining Area (Figure 5 5) instead of where he was seated. The chairs around the edges of the room were more comfortable and
115 were the optimal height for the tables. The bench he was sitting in was too low enough to feel uncomfortable. Another manager discussed how employees frequently walked the outdoor pathways from the office to the surrounding neighborhoods and through parking lots (Figure 5 6 ) Another example of a Physical Shift was reported by two employees during an on the spot interview who said they came downstair s every morning to get ice for their water and sometimes cake. Ice was only available in the office in the kitchenette near the Information Area (Figure 5 7 ) This location encouraged employees to move As expected, employees also fr equently acknowledged getting lunch as a break. Yet another example of a Physical Shift involved an employee during a n on the spot interview expressing that the office was too cold. To escape this discomfort, she went outside to work and to warm up (Figu re 5 6) Also, m any employees during on the spot interviews said they preferred to work at workstations integrated with big screen monitors for their ease of viewing documents (Figure 5 8) Physical Shift could also be obtained through new sensory stimu lation. During observations, people on their way upstairs from getting coffee often stopped at the Open Seating Area television to watch a few seconds of the news or sports (Figure 5 2) Also, during on the spot interviews, an employee in the Dining Area admitted to people watching and wondering what visitors were thinking and another employee enjoyed the dynamism of the first floor Office Wide Community Area (Figure 5 2)
116 people down here doing different t hings. Some are taking a break, grabbing some food. Others are working, having meetings. So, it s just fluid and very Physical Shift mod e as involving the body and the senses. In addition, on the onl ine employee survey, thirty percent (30.0%, n= 77) (Figure 4 23) reported that they engaged in physical breaks, such as visiting the Dining Area or Food Court, working at a treadmill (Figure 5 9) visiting the restroom, wan dering the office, working out at the office gym, working at the WorkCaf, or sitting and relaxing in a location that is quiet or with a lot of activity. This data further establishes the Physical Shift mode as a method for workplace restoration. Narrativ e: Physical S hift Ted, a n employee in his early 40s, rubbed his eye s and yawned. He could feel the weight of his eye lid s closing and his head felt heavy Ted slumped in his desk chair, as the words on the computer screen seemed to blur into one another. His hands hurt from typing and clicking the mouse. He lifted his mug to take a sip but his coffee was cold Ted stood up, stretched his arms, and started to head downstairs for a fresh refill of hazelnut roast A s he walked, he bumped into coworkers from other departments some stopped to say hello, some waved and kept walking. Once he got to the top of the stairwell, he could see a hint of the floor beyond lounge chairs and people walking past with coffee or o n the phone. Walking down the stairwell, his foot touched each wooden step and his hand ran along the smooth, metal railing. The sculptural ceiling above undulated in a wash of magenta, blue, purple, and green light and slightly : sight never ceases to amaze. The stairwell ended and the space opened up (Figure 5 3) He could hear low music playing and smell coffee brewing. The news was on a television to his left and small clusters of folks seemed to be collaborating around the spa ce, engaged in serious and more casual conversations. Ted continued walking until he got to the i nformation area to get a cup of coffee at the kiosk. He slowly poured just the right amount of sugar and cream and watched the swirls of white disappear as he
117 stirred. The taste and warmth of the drink instantly gave him a lift. He stood and focused on the wall of bright monitors, displaying company updates and then perched high on a stool at the zig zag shaped table and slowly sipped his coffee. He watched as passersby filtered through on the path in front of him. He watched as people moved and talked across the way in the c ommunity a rea. eyes were no longer heavy ; his body no longer slumped, and now refreshed, he pulled out his iPad and jotted down ide as for his current project with renewed energy Ted, feeling tired, takes a coffee break. Because the environment is designed so that coffee is located farther from work areas, Ted is encouraged to get away from his desk. On his way, he encounters the st imulating physical and social workplace (Figure 5 3) He soon finds himself more motivated, which positively impacts his creative thinking ( Amabile, 1983 ). His physical movement sitive Wellbeing: A Bottom Line Issue Back to Nature The Back to Nature mode recognizes the restorative quality of nature. This mode appeared repeatedly in the employee data gathered. An emplo yee in a structured interview mentioned looking out a window in the Open Work Area (Figure 5 10) at trees, flowers, and animals. She stated, to watch the people trying t o scare the geese away . . You just need to break every once in a while and j ust look around or walk around. On the online employee survey, about fifteen percent (14.8%, n= 38) (Figure 4 23) reported that they engaged in nature breaks, such as looking ou t a window or walking outside on campus. An on the spot interview employee also mentioned working outside when the weather was cooperative. Another
118 employee expressed their love for nature and how she worked in the Outdoor summer around lunchtime (Figure 5 6) Further, there (Figure 5 11 ) In addition, an employee in her breakfast there, gestured to the window view of the Outside Seating Area as one of the reasons (Figure 5 4 ) Narrative: B ack to N ature Lisa an employee in her early 50s, stared out the window from her desk. She was having trouble concentrating is it so cold in here while staring out at the sunlit sky Even though the temperature in July was very pleasant, it was frigid indoors. She shivere d and looked through her cabinets for a sweater. No luck. Frustrated, she packed up her thi ngs and made her way towards the terrace to work. Outside, the sunlight filtered through the trees as their leaves swayed slightly in the breeze (Figure 5 3) The te mperature was warm, and the fountain added the soothing sound of water shooting up an d then falling to splash against the surface Lisa plugged in her computer into the nearby outlet and got to work. A few minutes later, Lisa found herself stuck on the sam e issue that slowed her down earlier inside the office. She stood up and started pacing back and forth. The breeze rustled the trees around her again and she could see a couple birds hopping between branches. Coworkers walked past inside from the food cour t to their offices. Lisa stopped and ran her foot along the edge of a concrete tile where the grass was showing through. She thought about her project what she had done so far, what her client had said in re sponse, and the feedback she received from her boss. She sat back in her chair and started typing : stream of consciousness Thirty minutes later, she re ad over her work; it was really rough but showed some real was getting close. She continued to work o utside, comfortable in the warm sunlight.
119 This narrative is an example of the Back to N ature category. Lisa escapes the discomfort of the cold office by going outside (Figure 5 3 ) Here, her senses become stimulated as she appreciates the warmth and sens ory stimulation of her natural surroundings. Lisa connects to the setting and this supports research in which participants found restoration in nature and being outdoors (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) By becoming physically comfortable and stimulated, Li sa is also able to better focus on her task at hand and think creatively. This occurrence connects to literature on vitality in the workplace. With inviting places to visit in the workplace, movement and positive feelings can result, leading to higher mo tivation and performance ( Wellbeing: A Bottom Line Issue 2014). Social The Social m ode defines restoration through collaborative work and forming connections with coworkers. During the three structured interviews, managers were asked to describe the be st part of their workday. All three employees had similar responses through spontaneous face to face conversation or casual conversation about p ersonal matters. On the online employee survey, about thirteen percent (13.2%, n= 34) (Figure 4 23) reported that they engaged in social breaks, such as leisurely chatting with coworkers and visiting children offsite at daycare. During observations in th (Figure 5 2) it was common to see employees crossing paths and stopping to talk to each other. Many of the on the spot interviews mention ed such passing social encounters
120 whether it was working alongside another coworker to share information in the (Figure 5 10) or casually chatting with coworkers at Information Bar (Figure 5 7) as in the following quote from an on the spot interview employee I like areas where it allows me opportunities to get to know other people or see people I would not nec essarily normally see. . I that the chances of me run Employees, in addition, often sought Social restoration while doing lighter, less focused tasks. For example, a manager reported working in the third floor Open Work Area (Figure 5 10) when less bu sy because, although she may be interrupted, she could still get work done. Narrative: Social Lily sat in a quiet area of the office for some time now. She traveled to this place at the far end of the first floor when she needed to focus. She enjoyed the cozy chairs, the distant sounds of people chatting, and the serenity of the garden view. Here, she felt, no one could find her. She stared at her computer screen, then back at her notes. Her facial expression reflected the tension in her mind. She rub bed her dry eyes and found her attention wafting towards the distant activity of the other nearby community areas. The far sounds of chatting traveled to her as people walked past the area. The grinding of coffee beans and the mere thought of fresh coffe e, she could have sworn, instantly gave her a jolt of energy. Before she could think twice about it, she shot out of her chair and started gathering her things. She left her quiet corner and looked around. She was now immersed in the familiar, busy si ghts and sounds of the information area (Figure 5 3 ) She read some pretty interesting information from the brightly lit monitors hung on the walls, as she started to make her way towards the aroma of the coffee bar ll her name. She turned and smiled to find one of her favorite coworkers, Nancy, working at a small table nearby. As they sat and chatted, a number of other
121 coworkers said hello before they continued on their way. Lily spoke to colleagues she felt she h minutes, she learned that a former coworker Drew had gotten acquired an exciting new project that she could assist on. After a few minutes of working, Nancy looked up from her computer and asked Lily if she was still going to get that coffee she wanted. Funny The narrative illustrates workplace r estoration by contrasting workplace fatigue with moments of stimulation, which result from informal engagement with coworkers There are two main characters in the story, Lily and Nancy. Lily grows tired and finds her attention waning. She decides to ge t coffee to wake up, but runs into her friend Nancy. As Nancy and Lily talk, others approach them as well. In the process, Lily learns exciting news from her coworkers about their personal, as well as work lives and even acquires the opportunity to work on a new project. From the stimulating environment to the casual conversations (Figure 5 3 ) Lily realizes she no longer needs coffee to wake her up. This story connects to the literature on stimulating environments that can refresh the user (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) and he ighten creativity (Martens, 2011 ). The latter literature also discussed how interaction with employees could encourage the exchange of ideas (Martens, 2011 relates to social wellbeing deta iled by Rath and Hargadon (2010). Me Time On the opposite side of the restoration spectrum was the more private mode Me Time : working alone in more secluded or quiet areas, perhaps when needed heads down concentration In the structured interviews, two employees emphasized this mode of restoration. One
122 (Figure 5 9) and to see w hat she was doing She stated, ferent doing. Or it s private information. . No one can look over your shoulder. just come up to you and ask a ques tion. They respect that space. consisting of a desk, tall, comfortable task chairs, and a moveab le partition (Figure 5 9 ) In addition, during an on the spot interview, an employee using one s he needed time to focus. Also, employees often went into these booths to make personal phone calls. Other examples of the Me Time restoration mode involved the first floor Seating Area (Figure 5 11 ) during observations, had very few people using it and was predominately quiet except for the muted sounds from the Food Court (Figure 5 12) In one structured interview, another manager chose this a rea to work in when he was busier and needed to focus. During an on the spot interview, the em ployee mentioned sometimes working here the entire day and found it relaxing with its comfortable chairs and location away from people talking. The employee had headphones on (perhaps to signal that pace) and reported normally working alone. Another area worth discussing is the Dining Area (Figure 5 5) It was mentioned in an on the spot interview that employees
123 oftentimes positioned themselves at the back walls of the room for privacy and to avoid interruption by passersby. Narrative: Me T ime Jim, an IT employee in his mid 2 0s, came out of his last meeting looking down at his iPhone His eyes widened as he realized it was consumed in back to back mee Jim quietly escaped the group of chatting at the top of the stairwell and made his way downstairs. As he descende d the grand staircase into the community a rea, he nodd ed at familiar coworkers and w a ved to a few o thers as they were leaving the food c ourt with coffee in hand. Jim carefully weaved through the remaining groups of people on his path, turned the corner and finally made it to his destination, which was hidden in a back corner of the build ing (Figure 5 3) Jim laid his belongings on the ground next to a corner lounge chair and looked ou t the window as he started to pull out his laptop. He let out a sigh of relief while his eyes quietly admired the trees as rays of sunshine pushed their wa y through the rustling green leaves. In that brief moment, he forgot about his impending workload. He turned towards the interior of the room. The calm the energy of the other community ar eas. No one was to be found except people quietly meeting in conference rooms across from him. Except for the distant sounds of the food c ourt and people chatting in the conference rooms, no sounds could be heard. This isolation was a welcomed change fr om the hours answering questions and engaging in troubleshooting He settled comfortably into the chair and opened his laptop, ready to finally dig deep into his own work without any distractions. Jim slipped headphones into his ears as the stillness of th e room gave way to the soothing notes of Tchaikovsky. Exhausted from being in meetings with people all day, Jim takes the first opportunity to steal away and travels to the far end of another floor to find respite. In a quiet corner of the building (Figur e 5 3 ) he finds some much needed solitude (barely anyone is around and the relative silence is welcoming). In such a space, he is able to withdraw from coworkers and be in his own head to work
124 productively. This withdrawal relates to the wilderness rese arch; r estoration can result from isolation and having time to meditate while being away from others and the normal routine (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) The story also relates to Compatibility within the Attention Restoration Theory because the environm ent supports his purpose of doing focused work (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Change of Pace The Change of Pace mode achieves workplace restoration by working in different way s or in different office areas than normal. Some reasons for doing this includ e the need for variety throughout the workday, the desire to get away from the desk, proximity and convenience, and curiosity. In one interview a manager expressed her need for variety and ex ploring new areas of the office: [S] o if I find myself always i good. The change is good and getting myself into other areas that [them] having that visibility to me is important. So I vary it, I mix it u try not to do the same thing all the time. Also, during an on the spot interview, an employee explained that she was (Figure 5 5 ) where she usually the spot interview, an individual decided to sit in a task chair out of the blue in the Quiet (Figure 5 9 ) simply because she wanted to try a new chair. Narr ative: Change of P ace Mike, an employee in his mid 30s, saw a calendar pop up n otification on his computer screen ; meeting in fifteen minutes with his supervisor Charles. Although it was a fairly critical meeting for which he had been preparing for days, h e still wa on what to present He noticed that it was
125 L iving Room Living Room usual meeting place As he headed down, he looked at his calendar to reconfirm the location It wa s correct. Charles greeted him as he w alked up. As they sat down on the sofa, Mike asked Charles why he chose the Lounge Area (Figure 5 3) couple hours, so I scheduled ours down here, too. Plus, I wanted to get some food Mike was still somewhat skeptical He thought their mee ting should be in one of the small conference rooms Mike and Cha rles proceeded to talk about the project over coffee and cookies from the food court. Mike leaned forward over his paperwork on the coffee table as Charles leaned back on the sofa, one leg crossed over the other and his arm extended over the back. As Mike tried to present his ideas, he found himself glancing at the trinkets and books in the room. He ran his shoes along the textured carpeting and noticed the trees outside the window as he nervously formulized his ideas into words. As the conversati on threw out some of his own. Mike realized the m eeting was more casual than he had anticipated. With this realization, Mike leaned back on the sofa and began to more freely toss out ideas. here, too like on your own work what? I do. I like to change it up every now and then. Get away Mike is apprehensive about meeting with his supervisor and is under the impression that he has to present fully developed project ideas. He is surprised to lear (Figure 5 3 ) instead of a formal conference room. As the meeting progresses, Mike realizes that the meeting is more casual and that the supervisor, Charles, meant for the meeting to be more of a discussion to spark ideas. In this way, the workplace ends with the supervisor saying he sometimes works in The to change his routine. This story connects to the literature on the creative
126 workplace and work pressure. With an environment that encourages casual behavior and less pressure, Mike was able to relax and more freely contribute ideas to the project (Martens, 2011; Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006). Mike, before relaxing, also noticed the trees o utside the window, which relates (1993) research on how views of nature decreas e stress. This also supports creativity literature in which the beginning phase of idea brainstorming is greatly enhanced by defe rred judgment and hierarchy ( Maslow, 1968; Osborn, 1963). Bookend The Bookend mode reflects transitional restoration and includes, for example, easing into or bringing closure to the workday. Start of Day and End of Day occurred at the beginning and en d of the day and can be compared to the warm up and cool down of a workout. Start of the Day involved rituals of easing into the workday and into higher cognitive tasks. It involved getting into the right frame of mind, for example, by getting a cup of c offee, socializing with coworkers, or working in a more relaxed area of the office. End of the Day involved closure and feeling satisfied. Examples often involved people socializing or even working alone in a different setting to finish key tasks. Engag ing in these sub structured interviews, one manager explained that she started and ended her day in the same way and that these times were her favorite parts of the workda y : The best part of my workday. . ly first thing in the morning. . I just kind of wander through my team and see what And then the end of the day is bas ically the same type of thing. More examples of the Start of Day mode ca me through in the on the spot interviews in three areas the Information Area the Open
127 Seating Information Area (Figure 5 7) two coworkers were talking to each other and eating. They said they would start off every morning getting coffee and perhaps a morning slice of cake in this location as opposed to others because it encouraged quick breaks. Another example of the Bookend mode occurred in the Open Seating Area (Figur e 5 2) The employee sat alone at a table with four lounge chairs in the seat that faced the traffic path enabling her to see everyone walking by and everyone to see her thereby encouraging passersby oci Finally a Glass Booth (Figure 5 13 ) interview revealed that the employee often came here late in the day (End of Day mode) to wrap up tasks and to focus. Narrative: B o okend, Start of D ay Leah, an employee in her late 20s, sat at her workstation clicking through the mass of emails that had piled up over her three day vacation. Each message seemed to add another task to her workday. Suddenly a pop up appeared at the bottom corner of her laptop screen: She had an appointment in 3 0 minutes with her As she tried to plan her day, the sound of an incoming email chimed. She glanced at the unread email subject line and then returned her attention to her planner. Before she knew it, the sound chimed again and again. Leah paused in thought. She took a deep breath and headed to the community break area for her usual morning coffee. As the coffee brewer started, the weatherman on th e nearby television gestured over the map of Grand Rapids to illustrate a warm front approaching. A moment later, she turned as the sound and smell of coffee poured suddenly into her cup. She stirred her coffee, watching as the swirls of cream mixed with the espresso into a milky, caramel color. She returned to her desk and taking the mug in both hands, she brought it close to her face. Leah closed her eyes as she let the hot steam warm her and the smell indulge
128 her senses. Feeling much calmer she looke d back at her emails and began to tackle her day. This narrative shows the Bookend, Start of Day mode. The employee, Leah, usually begins her morning with planning her day over a cup of coffee but finds herself bombarded with emails and other tasks aft er returning from vacation. These interruptions connect to literature on increasing distractions in the workplace that negatively impact productivity (Lin Fisher, 2006). As she becomes overwhelmed, she decides to do her morning ritual getting up and br ewing a cup of coffee. The actions of getting coffee and watching the news on the nearby television help soothe her by engaging her visual, smell, and touch senses (Figure 5 14 ) In the end, she is ready to get back to work. This experience connects to literature on gardening satisfaction and stimulation of the senses (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) as well as mindfulness and being present in the moment ( Langer, 2014; Pickert, 2014). Narrative: Bookend, End of Day Danielle, an IT employee in her 40s, typed the last few words in their email. Her team was finally done with the assignment their boss had given them just that morning. With the click of the mouse, the email was sent and they all sat back in their chairs. Tired smiles came over their faces As her coworkers left her desk, Danielle flipped her wrist to check the time on her watch. There were still some notes she wanted to go over before a meeting the next day. While reading her papers, she often found herself gazing around the busy offi ce and then back at her emails. Conversations surrounded her as people talked to each other or on the phone. Time was ticking, she realized, as she began to bite her fingernail. She turned the corner and her body straightened as she saw that her favori te spot in the quiet work area (Figure 5 3) was vacant. She settled in, protected by the tall back of the cushioned desk chair and enclosed by the privacy panels. As she leaned forward
129 over her papers in the last hour of the workday, the busy office arou nd her seemed to melt away. This story communicates the Bookend, End of Day category. Danielle has had a busy day with her coworkers with a looming deadline. Once her team completes their task, she has to immediately move on to another pressing deadli ne. With time running out in the workday, she finds herself distracted by the busy office and becomes anxious. Danielle closes out her workday by finding a private area away from the myriad of distractions closing in on her. She steals away from her cow orkers to a favorite spot to concentrate (Figure 5 3) This narrative connects to the monastery literature as the character lets her mind rest by escaping to a quieter location (Ouellette R. Kaplan, & S. Kaplan 2005). Her motivations and needs (to focu s on her work) are compatible with this private area (Ouellette, et al., 2005; Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). Additional Relationships Found in the Data Although two departments, Finance and Procurement, took the online employee survey, the two groups were col lapsed for analysis because their responses were found to be more similar than different. There were, though, a few relationships that surfaced First, the Finance dep artment was found to take more p hysical breaks than Procurement. During an on the spot interview, a pap erwork; everything was in his laptop. This enabled him to move around and work wherever he pleased. For this type of reason, perhaps Finance employees could b enefit from physical breaks by having meetings located further away or moving to other areas to work or relax.
130 Second, males reported working in Departmental Office Areas more so than females. This could be attributed to the predominance of territorial be havior in males (Gifford, 2007). By working in departmental areas that were not shared with other staff, they could occupy spaces that they could truly call their own. In addition, males are typically less likely to engage in interpersonal communication further explain ing why they might not work in community areas as often as females ( Gilligan, 19 82 ). Environmental Perceptions in Workplace Restoration On the onlin e survey, employees chose the location they took the most breaks in to complete the 26 Perce ived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) questions. overall restorativeness level, as well as each component of the Attention Restoration Theory (ART). ay, Fascination, Scope and Coherence (aspects of Extent), and Compatibility. The questionnaire also asked employees questions on Familiarity and Preference, but these scores were not used in the calculation of PRS levels (T. Hartig, personal communication May 3, 2013). For this study, a score of 5 or above on an 11 point scale indicated higher restoration. The average PRS scores are shown in Table 5 2 The findings indicated that Coherence and Compatibility had the highest averages of the ART components It is pertinent to note that in past research, Coherence and Compatibility have received higher scores in rating favorite places (Korpela & Hartig, 1996) and have predicted preferences for environments (Lauma nn, Grling & Stormark, 2001). Table 5 2 als o shows a comprehensive summary of
131 the levels for perceived restorativeness and of each ART component for the selected break locations. The highest cited area selected for breaks was within the Departmental Community Areas, followed by Community Wide Off ice Areas : They were the Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area (Figure 5 15 ) (Figure 5 5) respectively. Their PRS scores will be discussed to shed light on the environmental perceptions nec essary for restoration within the office environment. In analyzing these spaces, it should be considered that they were not typical office areas; they observations proved, offer ed a variety of amenities and furnishings, which allowed for di fferent behaviors PRS Scores within Departmental Community Areas It is quite possible that these areas were popular for breaks because of their proximity and accessibility to the work group s, Finance and Procurement, under study These, unlike Community Wide Office Areas were on the same floor, as opposed to farther away on the first floor. The highest cited area within the Departmental Community Areas was the Self Serve Caf and Open Wor k (Figure 5 1 5 ) Key attributes of these area s were that they were both open; allowed for different modes of working alone or with others and for easy access to coworkers; and had coffee (at no extra charge) and large expanses of window s connecting to nature. The location received an overall PRS mean score of 6.29, and 7.45 for Coherence, 7.01 for
132 Compatibility, 5.91 for Being Away, 5.75 for Scope, and 5.32 for Fascination (n=16) With Coherence (7.45) the literatur e describes this component as the perception that the space makes sense and that the parts form a whole (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) Through observations, it was seen that the layout of these spaces was symmetrical and ordered. The rooms were evenly sp lit into areas with each type of furniture arrangement and coordinating colors instead of varying furniture scattered through the space. One area of the office to contrast this score with was the Open Seating Area on the first floor (Figure 5 2) which scored lower in this PRS component at 5.88. The Open Seating Area lacked Coherence most likely due to its arrangement of furnishings, which could be perceived as unordered. Throughout this space, varying conference and lounge furniture in di fferent colors, technologies, and a television were mixed. Although this arrangement added a playful, flexible feeling to the space, this design could also be seen as unordered and less coherent. Compatibility (7.01), as the literature described, relates to the clinations (R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan, 1989) In the Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area, as shown, employees can do what they need to here. The area allowed for employees to make themselves food and coffee watch television, and view nature and activity outside a window. These spaces also housed furnishings that included electrical outlets (for charging phones and laptops) and encouraged different seating and standing positions at bar height tables and in lounge and task seating These choices, as on the spot interview employee s communicated, accommodated the
133 Not only was the Social Mode of the Restorative Workplace Typology ( RWT) exemplified in this area through on the spot interviews, but so were the Me Time, Physical S h i f t and Change of Pace Modes. In addition, one Compatibility are possible for me to that employees enjoy the activities they do here daily within their exhibited modes of restoration. This enjoyment can lead to enhanced wellbeing (Rath & Harter, 2010) and the positive affect c an lead to higher levels of cre ativity (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2010). The level of Being Away (5.91) was lower in the Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area, compared to other scores for Coherence and Compatibility. here helps me not think about the things I must get done of work. In Chapter 4, it was shown that Intra Task breaks were the most common types of breaks. These breaks could include switching to a solo task or to a task with others or answering emails. Understandably, as employees engage in these work related activities, they will not forget the tasks they must complete In analyzing the second question, a structured interview can be considered. This employee mentioned going to an isolated area within the Quiet (Figure 5 9) when she needed to complete more focused work. Contrastingly, that person worked in the
134 have easy access to her Perhaps some employees chose this area for breaks because of its allowance for focused work time i nvolving other coworkers due to necessity, such as being visible to distractions to allow for heads down concentration. The Scope score (5.75) for the Self Serve Caf and Op en Work Area, although lower than Coherence and Compatibility, for comparison purposes scored higher than the Quiet Work Area (3.67) on the same floor (Figure 5 9) The literature described this ART component as relating to the size of an environment. A space must be large enough to be considered a whole other .184). In this manner, the space can be perceived as spacious and allow for exploration. The Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area were open in layout while the Quiet W ork Area was more closed off. The Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area also covered more square footage. Further, a n employee during a structured interview expressed that she would sit in the Open Work Area and look at the windows at traffic, flowers, and geese. Not only is the Nature mode of workplace r estoration coming into play here, but perhaps the space is extended to the exterior of the buildin g large, wall to wall window views (Figure 5 15) (Ivarsso n & Hagerhall, 2008; Kaplan, 199 3; Shin, 2007). The Quiet Work Area, in contrast, only had one wall with windows and no furnishings directly adjacent to them, in which employees could easily sit and gaze outside. Finally Fascination was lowest (5.32) compared to the other compo nents.
135 T. Hartig, personal communication, May 5, 2013). There are many options for working and seating, but w ork is the p rimary activity In this area, e mployees are most likely focused on their work rather than the environment. This score reveal s that this ART dimension may be more appropriate for other t ypes of settings, such as natural environments instead of the workp lace. The non PRS items will also be discussed in reference to the literature. These items were Familiarity (8.25) and Prefe rence (7.09) According to past research, F Lindern, Bauer, Fri ck, Hunziker, Hartig, 2013, p.2). In addition, with more F amiliarity, users have been shown to use a setting differently while considering the activities of the environment and their own habits (Ouellette et al. 2005). Perhaps employees feel safe in doi ng their work and taking breaks in this environment, as well as able to leverage the space to enhance their own productivity. For Preference, literature shows that people prefer environments that promote restoration (Lindal & Hartig, 2013). This higher P r eference level reiterates the higher PRS score acquired by this area. PRS within Community Wide Office Areas Community Wide Office Areas were the second highest category of office areas chosen for breaks. These areas, like the Departmental Community Area s, did not include typical desk workstations but included a variety of amenities and furnishings. Unlike in the Departmental Community Areas, the primary reasons for being in the Community Wide Office Areas were not necessarily work related.
136 As observati ons revealed, employees were often in the latter areas for other reasons, such as getting food or drinks, relaxing, or socializing. Within the Community Wide Office Areas, the Dining Area (Figure 5 5 ) was the highest sited area (n=11). Key attributes of this area were its convenient location across from food options and coffee (at a charge), dining furnishings, warm lighting and low music playing, and abundance of natural light and nature views. Its overall PRS score was 5.74. It scor ed 6.93 in Coherence, 6.38 in Compatibility, 5.58 in Scope, 5.38 in Being Away, and 4.44 in Fascination. The Coherence score (6.93) is lower here than in the Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area (7.45) discussed previously (Figure 5 1 5 ) Considering observ ations, this lower score may be due to the layout of the area. White dining tables and chairs were in rows but could easily be rearranged. At one point during the observations, many of the tables in the middle of the room were set up in a straight line. This easy reconfiguration could lead to the room looking slightly disorganized. In addition, a s opposed to the Self Serve Caf an d Open Work Area this area had open views to the different areas around it that differed drastically in function. Areas wit hin view were the Lounge Area, the Food Court, the Outdoor Seating Area, and a small work area. In addition, different activities happened in the space itself. Employees worked there alone and focused, talked with others in meetings, or ate there. Views of all these different areas and different activities could possibly detract from the coherence of the space. The Compatibility level (6.3 8 ) was also lower here than in the Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area (7.01). Employees were able to get lunch here,
137 illustrating the Physical Shift mode within the Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT) This area was very busy during lunchtime with peo ple eating and socializing. However, an on the spot interview revealed that the furnishings in ible for working. Many employees, especially from the IT department worked in this room, but only along its far edges along the walls and windows. The on the spot interview employee revealed that they worked along there because the furn iture was more com fortable ; the seats were suitable for the table height. In contrast, the bench and table that the employee was sitting at were not suitable, as he said, after an hour due to the bench being too low in height for the table. In addition, this employee expr essed that employees worked at the far edges to avoid other coworkers stopping and talking to them. By sitting far from the main path, employees indirectly showed that they were aspects of working. Scope levels were relatively close for the Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area (5.75) and the Dining Area (5.58). Both places had an open layout and had vie ws to surrounding areas, including surrounding interior areas and views outside. In this way, the size of the spaces could align with Scope the areas communication, May 5, 2013). Being Away and Fascination had scores 5.38 and 4.44. The relatively lower Being Away score might have been because the area allowed for
138 employees to get away from more tradit ional office areas, but because of the openness and easy access to the space, they cannot escape all distractions (including passersby) here. The relatively lower Fascination score may have been due to the fact that there were not many options in the room ; there were just tables and chairs. To discuss the non PRS items, Familiarity (8.30) and P reference (5.80), existing literature was considered. As stated earlier, familiarity may make the ( von Lindern et al. 2013, p.2). Perhaps employees feel safe in doing their work and taking lunch breaks in this place In addition, with more familiarity, inhabitants use a space differently while considering the activities of the setting and t heir own habits (Ouellette et al. 20 05). From observations, the area seemed straightforward; the space had limited furnishings and seemed to be busier at specific times. Perhaps with more familiarity with the space, employees have been able to leverage the environment for their own product ivity, especially by sitting in certain locations of the room to avoid passersby. For preference, as mentioned before, literature shows that people prefer environments that promote restoration (Lindal & Hartig, 2013). This lower preference level reiterate s the lower PRS score acquired by this area. Summary of Research Findings The most important findings from this research study led to the development of the Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT) (Figure 5 1) (Table 5 1) Quantitative and qualitative data w as analyzed for commonalities, which revealed categories of breaks. From these categories, the typology was
139 developed and included seven modes of restoration: Inter Task, Physical Shift, Back to Nature, Social, Me Time, Change of Pace, and Bookend. Inter Task involves restoration through responding to emails that are easy to address, shifting to a task involving It also include s the scheduling of breaks around task goals and deadlines. Physical Shift i nvolves homeostasis an positions and temperatures movement food and drinks, or the alleviation of eyestrain. The Back to Nature mode involves na ture, f or example, by looking out a window or being outside. Social includes working with others and forming connections with coworkers. Me Time i s a private mode and restoration i s s ought by working alone in more secluded or quiet areas. The Change of Pace mode includes working in a different manner or in a different office area than usual. Finally with its sub modes Start of Day and End of Day. Secondary findings involved the Attention Restor ation Theory and the Perceived Restorativeness Scale. Employees indicated which office space they used the most for breaks, and included the Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area (Figure 5 1 5 ) (Figure 5 5) The ART components Coherence and Compatibility rated highest on the PRS in both locations. For a workplace to be considered a restorative environment, it must be perceived to be coherent and compatible. The environment must make sen se (its parts form a whole) and it must support
140 These results were developed from data that was gathered through mixed methods, including an online employee survey with the PRS instrument, on site observations, on t he spot interviews, and structured interviews. The online employee survey was advantageous for its general overview of the workplace and its staff. From the data obtained, an initial picture of the office as a restorative environment came into view. Not until the on site visit, though, was a more comprehensive understanding of the workplace formed. By walking through the space and observing the dynamics of the workday and witnessing the Steelcase culture of employees fully engaged in its environment bot h physically and socially, this study delivers further insight into the very human aspect of work. Of the qualitative methods used to gather data (observations, on the spot interviews, and structured interviews), the on the spot interviews lent to a holi stic perspective of breaks. Since breaks can happen in the moment unexpectedly and even only last a few seconds, the brevity of these conversations and their informal, yet personal quality, aided in exploring employee break habits and motivations for rest oration. This approach le d to a deeper grasp of Steelcase and the relationship it holds in high regards between its innovations, personnel, and workplace environment. The findings in this study support the need for restoration throughout the workday in a variety of breaks ranging from simply looking out a window for a few seconds to wandering an office that is innovatively designed. The workplace environment can encourage restoration by influencing how the employee behaves in a space by influencing, for e xample, where they go to get coffee and
141 food, their posture while they work, where and when they socialize, and so on. The next section will discuss the ways in which the environment, and hence designers, can seamlessly incorporate restoration into the wo rkplace. Recommendations for Designers Designers looking to offer restorative opportunities in the workplace should design the space while considering the seven modes of the Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT) Again, the seven modes are Inter Task, Physical Shift, Back to Nature, Social, Me Time, Change of Pace, and Bookend. Because the workplace is information driven, there is the potential for workers to become creative problem solvers. This section touches, not only on restorative design elemen ts, but also on their impacts towards creativity. Inter Task. Designers can i nclude open work areas with options for lighting, outlets, technology, and seating to allow people to easily switch between working alone and working with others. In addition, de signers should include window views of nature or attractive design features for employees to easily glance at while working. At the Steelcase headquarters, for example, the third floor included a variety of spaces for working with others or alone. The Op en areas, in addition, had window views of nature that staff could enjoy while they worked. As the literature review re vealed, breaks from routine ( variety in the workday can offer this), as well as a stimulating environment can encourage creativity (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006; Martens, 2011; Miller, 2005).
142 Physical Shift. Designers can i nclude various spaces and amenities that encourage employees to move. Amenities should include food and drink to satisfy thirst and hunger If possible, l ocate these amenities close to and further from work areas. In addition, consider d esign ing a stimulating enviro nm ent with dynamic lighting, music, and technology. Furnishings should be flexible and allow for reclining, sitting up straight, or lounging. Designers should also c onsider adding outdoor areas for fresh air and walking in nature. At the Steelcase headqua rters, for example, there are many options for food and drink. In particular, if employees wanted ice, they had to leave their departmental areas and go to the Office Wide location where ice was available. design features, such as the staircase and sculptural overhang, commanded may communicate a creative culture in which people collaborat e and interact casually (Martens, 2011; Miller, 2005; van Meel & Vos, 2001). Back to Nature. Designers can c onsider including gardens or outdoor areas to walk, work, or observe. A designer should also consider designing windows allowing natural light and views to the exterior preferably including nature Steelcase included nature in such areas as the Outdoor Seating Area the campus (Figure 5 16 ) Again, this design element c an align with incorporating stimulating features in the office that can encourage creative thinking (Martens, 2011; Miller, 2005; van Meel & Vos, 2001).
143 Social. Design ers can make the office resemble a campus or neighborhood with main pathways and differen t space s and amenities branching off these pathways. In this way, spontaneous and casual conversations can happen as employees travel throughout the office on a daily basis. In addition, designers can include open areas to encourage working, relaxing, an d employee interaction as well as easy access to others. Also consider including stimulating design components in the environment to create excitement and activity. For housed a variety of seating for working, socializing, and relaxing. Lounge furniture and a television encourage employees to stop briefly and chat with coworkers informally. As the literature communicated, through socializing, relationships can be maintained a nd trust can be built. Through this trust, risk taking and creativity can be encouraged (Elsbach & Hargadon 2006 ). Me Time. D esign ers can incorporate quiet spaces that are isolated from busier areas. These can be hidden in open areas or closed off with a door. Consider including comfortable, lounge seating. At the headquarters, Steelcase included quiet areas allowed for privacy in which employees could do focused, heads down work. This alone time could allow for enhanced creativity in which incubation of thoughts could occur (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006). Change of Pace. Designers can i nclude a variety of spaces and amenities, as well as options in seating for different modes of working and taking breaks. The Steelcase headquarters included options throughout its office. Not
144 only were there open plan spaces for collaborating and socializing, there were private spaces for working alone and even outdoor spaces for exercise, lunchtime, or working. Having a change of pace aligns with creativity research encouraged (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006). Bookend. D esi gn ers can integrate a va riety of spaces and amenities within an office Offer food and drink options that are close to office areas, as well as further away. Also arrange for these spaces and amenities to be open at the start and end of the day At the Steelcase headquarters, for instance, coffee was available at the beginning and end of the day. The headquarters also had a variety of spaces and amenities, such as its gym, Outdoor Seating Area, and lounge chairs, which could be enjoyed throughout the d ay. This variety could Hargadon, 2006). Recommendations for Future Research Future research in workplace restoration could replicate and extend the methodology to include multipl e case studies. The scope of this investigation was to analyze one environment. A comparative study between two or more environments, then, could reveal more information on how different types of employees in contrasting or similar environments define an d incorporate restoration into their work lives. Additional research could also utilize a larger sample and look into differences between departments and gender such as those found in this study, on how they restore themselves in the workplace Future research can look into
145 why males reported working in Departmental Office Areas more than females, while considering male territoriality and how they relate socially with others Perhaps, also, different personality types (e.g. introverts and extroverts) restore themselves in contrasting ways, for example, by taking more private or social breaks. This study looked at a Midwest workplace during the summer months when there was easy outdoor access Other research could look at the workplace during times o f the year when the exten sion of the workplace outdoors is less of an option. Finally, more research in workplace restoration is needed to look at the topic of restoration itself. Studies could explore which specific factors of a work setting affect each component of the Atte ntion Restoration Theory (ART). In addition, research could focus on the typology presented in this study. Research can examine if any of the modes are more restorative than others or if each mode must be experienced for a certain l ength of time before restoration can occur. In addition, a re there different modes or methods of restoration in different types of offices? This workplace case was very innovative in its configuration with amenities such as lounge areas, outdoor areas, u nique dcor, and food. If do employees take breaks ? Also, how do employees restore themselves in workplace cultures that do not encourage mobility? Perhaps there are more variations in Inter Task restoration for employees confined to their desk than occurred in the present study.
146 Summary of Conclusions and Discussion This study examined a state of the art workplace, the Steelcase headquarters, in Grand Rapids, Michigan for employee restorative opportunitie s. A mixed methods approach was used in which quantitative and qualitative data was collected. These methods included an online employee survey with the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) instrument, on site observations, on the spot interviews, and s tructured interviews. With this variety of methods, a more in depth examination of the headquarters was possible. In the end, a typology for restoration was created and narratives were presented to bring understanding to the employee restorative experien ce, as well as to holistically communicate each mode within the typology. The typology was developed by the researcher an d was titled the Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT) The RWT identifies seven modes of restoration including Inter Task, Physical Shift, Back to Nature, Social, Me Time, Change of Pace, and Bookend. Each of these modes describes how employees take breaks and seek restoration during the workday. Narrative vignettes of the modes help bring the quantitative and qualitative data to lif e. Designers looking to enhance workplaces with restorative opportunities should try to incorporate design features that encourage these seven modes of restoration. This study also looked at restorative levels of locations within the office and found tha t the top pla ces chosen ranked highly in their overall PRS scores They especially ranked high in the subscales Coherence and Compatibility, indicating that a restorative work environment should make sense (all its parts
147 form a whole) and support the empl example, their intentions may be to work, relax, or take a break. Through this study, support was found to encourage breaks within the workplace. Breaks can encourage productivity, efficiency, and creativity and sh ould be considered explicitly as a strategy to enhance employee well being and performance. The design of the workplace environment is often an overlooked resource to enhance the worker experience. Through the consideration of design opportunities in re st oration we can transform the ways in which people work daily to benefit both the company and the employee
148 Figure 5 1 The Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT)
149 Table 5 1 Restorative Workplace Typology (RWT) Mode Descri ption If on online employee survey, sample n Inter Task Physical Shift Back to Nature Social Me Time Change of Pace Bookend Start of Day End of Day Restoration involves work tasks Involves homeostasis and e Restoration involves nature Restoration obtained by working with others and for ming connections with coworkers More private mode. Restoration obtained by working alone i n more secluded or quiet areas. Working in different ways or in differe nt office areas than normal. These types of restoration occurred at specific times and offered a warm up and cool down to the workday 108 77 38 34
150 Table 5 2 Break Locations and PRS S cores. Break Location BA FA COH SCO COM FAM PREF Overall PRS Departmental Community Areas Kitchen and Open Work Area (n=16) 5.91 5.32 7.45 5.75 7.0 1 8.25 7.09 6.2 9 Quiet Work Area (n=3) 5.67 3.13 7.67 3.67 7.87 8.00 6.83 5 6 0 Departmental Office Areas Work Are a 1 (n=4) 3.95 4.35 8.83 4.50 7.55 9.75 7.38 5.84 Work Area 2 (n=4) 4.20 5.35 7.00 5.44 7.00 9.00 6.38 5. 80 Work Area 3 (n=1) 4.60 6.80 7.75 6.00 8.00 9.00 5.00 6.63 Work Area 4 (n=2) 5.80 6.60 7.00 5.75 7.80 10.00 7.00 6.59 Meeting Area 1 (n=1) 6.00 6.00 6 .75 6.50 6.40 10.00 8.50 6.33 Meeting Area 2 (n=4) 5.15 4.25 7.08 4. 58 6. 47 7.00 5.25 5. 5 1 Community Wide Office Areas Open Seating Area (n=4) 5.90 5.55 5.88 5.38 7.30 8.75 7.38 6.00 Information Area (n=3) 7.13 5.27 7.58 5.33 7.40 8.00 6. 00 6.54 Lounge Seating Area (n=1) 6.80 6.60 7.50 -7.60 9.00 8.00 -Outdoor Seating Area (n=2) 7.10 7.80 7.38 7.63 8.00 9.00 9.50 7.58 Dining Area (n=11) 5.38 4.44 6.93 5.58 6.38 8.30 5.80 5.74 Quiet Seating Area (n=1) 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7 .00 7.00 Averages 5. 76 5. 60 7. 27 5.62 7.27 8.65 6.94 6.3 0 BA = Being Away; FA = Fascination; COH = Coherence; SCO = Scope; COM = Compatibility; FAM = Familiarity; PREF = Preference; Overall PRS = Overall Perceived Restorativeness Score
151 A B C D Figure 5 2 Open Seating Area. A) View of area and immediate surroundings. B) Grand staircase and sculptural ceiling. C) Television and lounge seating. D) View of area from bottom of staircase. (Top photograph courtesy of Steelcase. Middle p hotograph s co urtesy of the author. Bottom photograph courtesy of E. Budd. )
152 Figure 5 3 P hotographs to accompany Restorative Workplace Typology narratives. (Photographs courtesy of Ste elcase E. Budd, and the author )
153 A B Figure 5 4 Lounge Area A) Up close view of area with outdoor scenery B) Wide view of area with furnishings ( Top p hotograph co urtesy of the author. Bottom photograph courtesy of E. Budd. )
154 A B Figure 5 5 Dining Area A) View of area and adjacencies. B) Dining furnishings and nature views (Photographs courtesy of the author )
155 A B Figure 5 6 Outdoor Seating Area. A) Concrete seating area with patio furniture and fire pit. B) Pathway leading to water feature and surrounding nei ghborhood. (Photograph s courtesy of the author )
156 A B Figure 5 7. Info rmation Area A) Zig zag table s and large screens. B) Small coffee and food kiosk and kitchenette. ( Top p hotograph co urtesy of E. Budd. Bottom photograph courtesy of the author.)
157 Figure 5 8 Viewing documents on larger monitors (Photograph courtesy of Steelcase )
158 A B C Figure 5 9 Quiet Work Area A) W alkstation. B) Comfortable task chairs with privacy panels. C) Lounge chairs with large monit ors (Photograph s courtesy of the author )
159 A B C Figure 5 10 Open Work Area A) View of area furnishings and nature views. B) Another view of area furnishings and nature vie ws. C) Lounge furniture options. ( Top and middle p hotograph s co urtesy of E. Budd. Bottom photograph courtesy of the author.)
160 A B Figure 5 11 Quiet Seatin g Area. A) Lounge furnishings. B) Workstations and nature views ( Top photograph courtesy of the author. Bottom p hotograph co urtesy of E. Budd .)
16 1 Figure 5 12 Fo od Court. (Photograph co urtesy of E. Budd .)
162 A B Figure 5 13 Glass Booths A) Exterior of booths. B) Inside a booth. (Photograph s courtes y of the author .)
163 Figu re 5 14. Self Serve Caf (Photograph courtesy of E. Budd )
164 A B Figure 5 15 Self Serve Caf and Open Work Area A) Small Caf with coffee maker and high top tables. B) Various furnishings and views of nature in the Open Work Area ( P hotograph s courtesy of the author )
165 A B Figure 5 16 Ou tdoor Pathways and Lawns. A) Pathway leading to Steelcase University. B) Benches and art sculptures. (Photograp hs courtesy of the author )
166 APPENDIX A STUDY PERMISSIONS Permission to study Steelcase headquarters
167 Institutional Review Board Permissions
168 Permission to use the Perceived Restorativeness Scale
169 APPENDIX B STUDY INSTRUMENTS Online Employee Survey
186 Structured Interview Questions
187 On the spot Interview Questions
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195 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Dianne Austria received h er Bachelor of Science in Digital Arts and Sciences from the University of Florida in 2006. She worked as a web designer before beginning As a candidate for the Ma ster of Interior Design degree Dianne worked as a research assistant for a study in reti rement c ommunity social spaces and as a teaching assistant leading classes in a humanities course, which wa s many and served as the U niversity of Florida American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) and International Interior Design Association (IIDA) hair. After graduation, she plans to join a commercial design firm specializing in corpor ate workplace interiors.