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Think Globally, Act Locally

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Title:
Think Globally, Act Locally Using Emergy Analysis to Evaluate Small-Scale, Human-Dominated Systems
Creator:
Rothrock, Heather N
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
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University of Florida
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english
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1 online resource (224 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Environmental Engineering Sciences
Committee Chair:
BROWN,MARK T
Committee Co-Chair:
DELFINO,JOSEPH J
Committee Members:
COHEN,MATTHEW J
HODGES,ALAN WADE
Graduation Date:
5/3/2014

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Subjects / Keywords:
Cities ( jstor )
Communities ( jstor )
Construction materials ( jstor )
Electricity ( jstor )
Energy ( jstor )
Housing ( jstor )
Meats ( jstor )
Retirement communities ( jstor )
Wastewater ( jstor )
Water tables ( jstor )
Environmental Engineering Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
emergy
City of Gainesville ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Environmental Engineering Sciences thesis, Ph.D.

Notes

Abstract:
As global resources become more scarce and harder to obtain, greater attention is focused on quantifying environmental support of human-dominated systems. This research focuses on small-scale systems e.g. communities, households, with the idea that resource consumption begins at smaller scales, to support labor, and that labor then supports not only the system in which it is embedded, but also the next larger system(s). Emergy (spelled with an m) is one methodology that stands apart from other methods because it takes into account the quality and environmental contribution of resources and services. This dissertation quantifies material, energy, and monetary flows in two non-traditional communities and an off-grid residence to determine if alternative systems provide a decrease in resource consumption. A third goal was to analyze urban vs. suburban household metabolism. The emergy analyses of three communities showed co-housing community members required two times, and the ecovillage, three times as much labor support, than an average suburban community. While residents of both intentional communities use fewer resources (kwh of electricity, gallons of water) per capita, the ecovillage and co-housing residents have similar emergy support (5.67E16 sej/capita, 8.24E16 sej/capita, respectively), compared to an average suburban community (7.37E16 sej/capita). Next, it was determined there was not a significant difference between urban and suburban household metabolism, a surprising result since urban regions have been found to have higher areal empower intensities in previous studies. Finally, the emergy evaluation of the off-grid house determined it took 4.41E15 sej/m2 to construct the house, a value approximately two times higher than standard construction. However, long term there may be resource savings due to low annual operational costs (0.05 E15 sej/m2/yr). Emergy of service tended to dominate all emergy analyses in this dissertation, a reminder of how all human-inhabited systems are linked with the economy. Overall, this dissertation provided a more solid theoretical framework for the emergy methodology ability to not only better analyze small-scale, human-dominated systems, but also provided alternative solutions to previously unresolved problems within emergy analysis field of study. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2014.
Local:
Adviser: BROWN,MARK T.
Local:
Co-adviser: DELFINO,JOSEPH J.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-05-31
Statement of Responsibility:
by Heather N Rothrock.

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UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Embargo Date:
5/31/2015
Resource Identifier:
907295071 ( OCLC )
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1 THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY: USING EMERGY ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE SMALL SCALE, HUMAN DOMINATED SYSTEMS By HEATHER NICOLE ROTHROCK A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFIL LMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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2 2014 Heather Nicole Rothrock

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3 To my personal and professional evolution and thos e who were instrumental to this

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4 A CKNOWLEDGMENTS My graduate educational experience was by far the most difficult process of my life to date. Through perservence and determination I was able to complete the task I started, and there were numerous people that have helped emotionally, physic ally and intellecutally. I would like to acknowledge everyone who has supported me over the past (nearly) six years: I would first like to thank my graduate a dvisor, Dr. Mark Brown, for both his financial support and intellectual stimulation I hav e most certainly matured a lot in this process, in large part because of his mentorship and am grateful for this. I would also like to thank my committee members, Drs. Cohen, Delfino, and Hodges for their availability and encouragement. Thank you to the Systems E cology research group for helpful ideas and input. Also, I am really appreciative for those who filled out my research surveys and helped me collect data in the two intentional communities. I would like to deeply and graciously thank my family and friends for having patience love, and understanding as I have gone through this process ; I have been a bit out of touch, but that does not mean out of heart and mind. I would like to praise my mother for doing a fine job in raising me and facilitating positivity in my life. I also need to mention family members who passed away during my time in graduate school : My father, to whom I o we my intelligence, stubbornness and tenacity all qualities that helped my success in finishing this degree, and my Grammy Flo who was my biggest cheerleader. They were both great sources of encouragement and I know they are celebrating with me now. Finally, many thanks to Deana, my best friend and other ad visor I am e ternally grateful for you r constant reminders of what this exp erience was really about.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 9 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 11 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 14 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 14 Plan of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 16 Obj ective 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 16 Objective 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 16 Objective 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 16 Emergy Methodological Framework ................................ ................................ ....... 17 Emergy ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 17 Unit emergy values ................................ ................................ ........................... 18 Energy systems diagrams ................................ ................................ ................. 18 Emergy evaluation indices ................................ ................................ ............... 19 Energy signatures ................................ ................................ ............................. 20 2 ................................ ................................ ..................... 22 Background Information ................................ ................................ ................................ 22 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 22 Community Sustainability ................................ ................................ ....................... 22 Emergy in the Context of Community Scale Analysis ................................ ........... 23 Material Flow Accounting of Communities ................................ ............................ 24 Contributions of Human Communities ................................ ................................ ... 25 Overview of Intentional Communities ................................ ................................ .... 25 Ecovillages ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 26 Co housing model of sustainability ................................ ................................ .. 26 Centralization vs. Decentralization ................................ ................................ ......... 27 Brief Overview of Western North Carolina ................................ ............................ 28 The Communities ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 29 Earthaven Ecovillage Black Mountain, NC ................................ ........................... 29 Agriculture and livestock production ................................ ............................... 30 Forest ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 30 In situ water sources ................................ ................................ ......................... 31

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6 Infrastructructure ................................ ................................ .............................. 31 Energy production/consumption ................................ ................................ ...... 32 Households ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 32 Waste and recycling ................................ ................................ ......................... 32 Gray water treatment and human excrement ................................ .................... 33 Westwood Co housing Community Asheville, NC. ................................ .............. 33 Households ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 33 Infrastructure and utilities ................................ ................................ ................ 34 Waste and recycling ................................ ................................ ......................... 35 Suburban Residential Neighborhood ................................ ................................ ....... 35 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ 35 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 35 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 35 Earthaven and W estwood: Administering the Community Survey ......................... 36 The Suburban Residential Neighborhood ................................ ............................... 37 Emergy Evaluation Protocols ................................ ................................ .................. 38 UEVs ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 38 Calculation of Community Labor and Information UEVs ................................ ...... 39 Energy Flow Determination and Considerations ................................ .................... 41 Fuels ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 41 Food ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 41 Building and infrastructure materials ................................ ............................... 42 H ousehold expenditures ................................ ................................ ................... 43 Agricultural and livestock production ................................ .............................. 44 Energy producti on/consumption ................................ ................................ ...... 44 Water ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 44 Waste and recycling ................................ ................................ ......................... 45 Education and annual income ................................ ................................ .......... 45 Additional data sources for emergy tables ................................ ....................... 45 Obtaining data for the average suburban community ................................ ...... 46 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 47 System Diagrams ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 47 Community Emergy Analyses ................................ ................................ ................. 48 Driving Emergy ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 48 Imports ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 49 W ater and food ................................ ................................ ................................ 49 Energy ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 50 Construction materials ................................ ................................ ...................... 50 Labor ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 51 Education of Re sidents ................................ ................................ ............................ 51 Exported Emergy ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 52 Exported labor ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 52 Exported products ................................ ................................ ............................ 52 Exported waste products ................................ ................................ .................. 52 Community Input/Output ................................ ................................ ........................ 53 Total and per capita emergy ................................ ................................ ............. 53

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7 Areal intensity ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 53 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 54 Survey Methodology Potential Sources and Mitigation of Survey Bias ................ 54 Voluntary response bias ................................ ................................ ................... 54 Nonresponse bias ................................ ................................ .............................. 55 Undercoverage ................................ ................................ ................................ 55 Response Bias ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 55 Emergy Analysis Results ................................ ................................ ......................... 5 6 Emergy drivers ................................ ................................ ................................ 56 Emergy quality considerations ................................ ................................ ......... 57 Area Considerations ................................ ................................ ................................ 58 Labor ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 59 Labor productivity ................................ ................................ ............................ 59 Education ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 60 Community Information and Labor ................................ ................................ ......... 62 Exported Emergy ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 64 Community Metabolism ................................ ................................ .......................... 65 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 65 3 URBAN HOUSEHOLD METABOLISM USING THE EMERGY METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 81 Background Information ................................ ................................ ................................ 81 Urban Metabolism ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 82 Emergy as a Measurement of Regional Resource Use ................................ ............ 83 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 84 Emergy Evaluations at the Household Scale ................................ ........................... 84 Data for large cities ................................ ................................ .......................... 85 ................................ ................................ ..................... 85 Calculation of Renewable Emergy Inputs ................................ ............................... 86 Emergy of Servi ces ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 86 Emergy of Labor Wages ................................ ................................ .......................... 87 Calculating Support Area ................................ ................................ ........................ 87 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 88 Emergy Flows of Urban Households ................................ ................................ ...... 88 Emergy of Service and Labor ................................ ................................ .................. 89 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 90 Useful Ways to Describe Emergy Intensity Among Households ........................... 90 Percent renewable emergy ................................ ................................ ............... 90 Emergy use per capita ................................ ................................ ...................... 90 Emergy of service and labor ................................ ................................ ............. 91 Emergy density and support area required ................................ ....................... 92 Waste ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 92 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 93 4 SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION: EMERGY EVALUATION OF AN OFF GRID RESIDENCE ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 108

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8 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 108 Green Building ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 109 Emergy and Sustainable Infrastructure ................................ ................................ 110 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 110 Infrastructure at Ecovillage ................................ ................................ ................... 111 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 112 Emergy Evaluation of Pokeberry Construction ................................ ..................... 113 Emergy of Labor and Services ................................ ................................ .............. 114 Emergy Evaluation of Annual Water and Energy Requirements .......................... 114 Calculation of Long Term Monetary Costs ................................ .......................... 115 Unit Emergy V alues and Baseline ................................ ................................ ......... 115 Results and Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ 116 Emergy Evaluation of an Off Grid House ................................ ............................. 116 Annual Energy and Water Consumption ................................ ............................... 116 Emergy Evaluation of Annual Household Operation Costs ................................ .. 117 Emergy of Construction Materials ................................ ................................ ........ 117 Building Areal Empower Intensity ................................ ................................ ........ 118 Annual Pokeber ry Operation Costs ................................ ................................ ....... 119 Future Work ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 120 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 121 5 SYNTHESIS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 124 Community ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 124 Chapter 3. Understanding Urban Household Metabolism Using the Emergy Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 124 125 Human Systems: Inte ntional vs. Suburban, Urban vs. Suburban ................................ 125 Labor and Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 125 Scale Matters ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 126 APPENDIX A SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 2 ................................ ................................ ................ 128 B SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 3 ................................ ................................ ................ 165 C SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 4 ................................ ................................ ................ 206 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 209 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................... 224

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Emergy evaluation of resource basis for Earthaven Ecovillage. Lines 53 and 55 were not added to the export total, but it was important to show the value. ...................... 74 2 2 Emergy evaluation of resource basis for Westwood co housing community. ........... 76 2 3 Emergy evaluation of the resource basis of a suburban community located within Asheville, NC. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 78 2 4 Labor emergy required for support and labor emergy exported. ............................... 79 2 5 Emergy of exported waste by products. ................................ ................................ .... 80 3 1 Emergy evaluation of an average household located within New York City (NYC). ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 98 3 2 Emergy evaluation of an average hou sehold located within Chicago, IL. ................ 99 3 3 Emergy evaluation of an average household located within Los Angeles, CA. ...... 100 3 4 Emergy evaluation of an average household located within Houston, TX. ............. 101 3 5 Emergy evaluation of an average household located within Ann Arbor, MI. ......... 102 3 6 Emergy evaluation of an average household located within Boulder, CO. ............. 103 3 7 Emergy evaluation of an average household located within Burlington, VT. ......... 104 3 8 E mergy evaluation of an average household located within Gainesville, FL. ......... 105 3 9 Summary data for A) Households. B) Servic e. ................................ ...................... 106 3 10 Emergy of urban household waste by products. ................................ ...................... 107 4 1 Emergy evaluation of material and labor re quirements to build an off grid residence. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 122 4 2 Emergy evaluation of annual water and energy requirements of an off grid house. 123 A 1 Standard Systems Diagram Symbols with brief descriptions (adapted from Figure Odum, 1996). ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 128 A 2 Intentional community survey administered to residents to determine flows and storages for two intentional communities. ................................ ............................... 130 A 3 Notes to Table 2 1. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 133

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10 A 4 Notes to Table 2 2. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 146 A 5 Notes to Table 2 3. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 155 A 6 Summary emergy flows and indices of three communities. ................................ .... 163 B 1 Notes for Table 3 1. ................................ ................................ ................................ 165 B 2 Notes for Table 3 2. ................................ ................................ ................................ 170 B 3 Notes for Table 3 3. ................................ ................................ ................................ 175 B 4 Notes to Table 3 4. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 180 B 5 Notes to Table 3 5. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 185 B 6 Notes for Table 3 6. ................................ ................................ ................................ 191 B 7 Notes to Table 3 7. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 196 B 8 Notes to Table 3 8. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 201 C 1 Notes for Table 4 1. ................................ ................................ ................................ 206 C 2 Notes for Table 4 2. ................................ ................................ ................................ 2 08

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Earthaven system diagram. ................................ ................................ ........................ 67 2 2 Westwo od system diagram. ................................ ................................ ....................... 68 2 3 Annual emergy flows associated with Earthaven Ecovillage (in logarithmic scale). 69 2 4 Annual emergy flows associated with Westwood co housing community (in logarithmic scale). ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 70 2 5 Annual emergy flows associated with a suburban Asheville, NC community (logarithmic scale). ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 71 2 6 Emergy of goods and energy (without service), imported into three communities for support. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 71 2 7 Comparison of annual labor, service, and total emergy flows of three communities. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 72 2 8 Education levels achieved in both intentional communities compared with averages of the United States. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 72 2 9 Comparison between three communities with respect to A) Emergy per capita. B) Empower density (log scale). ................................ ................................ ..................... 73 3 1 Energy systems diagram of a generic city (Brown, 1998). ................................ ........ 94 3 2 Radar charts show variation between eight communities based on A) Total emergy per capita. B) Emergy per capita (without service). C) Areal empower intensity. D) Renewabl e support area. ................................ ................................ ............................ 95 3 3 Proportion of service emergy to total emergy in each household. ............................. 96 3 4 Graph of two emergy/$ ratios, calculated based on cost of living and annual household salary. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 97

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12 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduat e School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY: USING EMERGY ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE SMALL SCALE, HUMAN DOMINATED SYSTEMS By Heather Nicole Rothrock May 2014 Chair: Mark T. Brown Major: Environmental Engineering Sciences As global resources become more scarce and harder to obtain, greater attention is focused on quantifying environmental support of human dominated systems. This research foc uses on small scale systems e.g. communities, households, with the idea that resource consumption begins at smaller scales, to support labor, and that labor then supports not only the system in which it is embedded, but also the next larger system(s). Emer methodology that stands apart from other methods because it takes into account the quality and environmental contribution of resources and services. This dissertation quantifie s material, energy, and monetary flows in two no n traditional commun ities and an off grid residence to determine if alternative systems provide a decrease in resource consumption. A third goal was to analyze urban vs. suburban household metabolism. The emergy analyses of three communities showed co hous ing community members required two times, and the ecovillage, three times as much labor support, than an average suburban community. While residents of both intentional communities use fewer resources (kwh of electricity, gallons of water) per capita, the ecovillage and co housing residents have similar emergy support (5.67E16 sej/capita, 8.24E16 sej/capita, respectively), compared to an average suburban community (7.37 E16 sej/capita). Next, it was

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13 determined there was not a significant difference between u rban and suburban household metabolism, a surprising result since urban regions have been found to have higher areal empower intensities in previous studies. Finally, t he emergy evaluation of the off grid house det ermined it took 4.41 E15 sej/m 2 to construc t the house a value approximately two times higher than standard construction However, long term there may be resource savings due to low annual operational costs ( 0.05 E15 sej/m 2 /yr). Emergy of service tended to dominate all emergy analyses in this diss ertation, a reminder of how all human inhabited systems are linked with the economy. Overall, this dissertation provided a more solid theoretical framework for the emergy scale, human dominated systems but also provided alternative solutions to previously unresolved problems within emergy analysis field of study.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Hall and Day, 2009: B ardi, 2009 ; Friedrichs, 2010 ; among others) lower energy communities that are adaptive, to the reorganization of energy, resources, and society may result (Odum, 1983) In light of the concerns over peak oil, developing sustainable ways of living at the sc ale of a community or village is increasingly important, yet quantitative measures at that scale, by and large, are missing from the discourse on how to achieve sustainability. Methods for evaluating sustainable practices at a community or village scale ha ve rarely been explicitly or systematically demonstrated. There are several competing lines of discourse related to quantifying sustainable ways of living. The first is that qualitative definitions of sustainability remain ambiguous (Pearce and Vanegas, 2 002; Johnston, et al., 2007). Second, there are no indicators of sustainability that are antitative indicators of sustainability are numerous (over 890 efforts; IISD, 2010) most of these are at the scale of regions or countries; rarely does one find quantitative evaluation of sustainability on a community or village scale (Kaufmann Hayoz and G utscher, 2001). Fourth, many groups and institutions adhere to a multiplicity of indicators that often have conflicting objectives, especially (Munda, 2005). Researc h Objectives Each of these deficiencies will be explicitly addressed in this dissertation.

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15 First, instead of a qualitative definition, this research will rely on quantitative definitions for a sustainable community. Second, a biophysical definition of su stainable community will be developed that focuses on quantifying material flows and resource consumption. Third the scale with which the system is evaluated also is a key element in determining community sustainability. Quantitative evaluation of sustai nability must include at least two scales of investigation: the system under study and the next larger system (i.e., the system in which the study system is embedded). Therefore a systems perspective will be adhered to. Not only will the community as an en tity be evaluated, but its contributions to the next larger system will be evaluated as well. Fourth the quality and duration of infrastructure materials will be considered in both alternative and standard construction practices to determine how they comp are from an emergy perspective. developments that are designed and built with a focus on achieving some level of sustainability (Kirby, 2003; Van Schyndel Kasper, 2008). Some c ommunities equate sustainable with designing communities using permaculture principles (Curtis, 2003; Siracusa et al., 2008). Still others incorporate a host of alternative energy technologies, grow their own food, and minimize the use for non renewable ma terials and energy, which are suggested to lead to more sustainable community life styles. To date, no systematic quantitative evaluation of these approaches has metabolism.

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16 The grand challenge related to community sustainability and the central thesis of this dissertation is do eco communities lead to more sustainable ways of living and are they more or less sustainable than traditional communities designed and built in the latter part of the twentieth century? In order to answer these questions one must have a quantitative means of measuring sustainability, so a second organizing thesis is related to developing quantitative measures of sustain ability at the community scale. Plan of Study Objective 1 From previous studies, it appears that intentional communities could serve as models of resource use efficiency (Meltzer 2005; Mulder et al., 2006; Ergas, 2010; Lietaert, 2010). Therefore, the first objective of the proposed rese arch is to conduct emergy evaluations of an ecovillage, co housing community, and an average community all located within the same geographical region, to make comparisons of resource and energy use and to compute system metabolism. Objective 2 The secon d objective explores the similarities and differences of communities in suburban and urban areas. Four urban communities and four suburban communities were modeled using both locally specific data and interpolated national data. The overarching question to be answered is whether communities in suburban or urban areas are more sustainable. Objective 3 The third objective shifts from community and regional sustainability to sustainable buildings. It is estimated that approximately 40% of all raw resources ex tracted are for construction purposes (Roodman and Lenssen, 1995). The U.S. EPA has estimated that the material debris from building renovation and demolition comprises 25 to 30% of all waste

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17 produced in the U.S. each year (Guy and Shell, 2002). Additional ly, 50% of this energy is used to maintain comfortable internal temperatures within buildings (Pulselli et al., 2007). The fourth object focuses on evaluating all the flows of materials energy and labor necessary to construct an structure and comparing it with a more traditionally constructed structure. In the nex t several chapters (Chapters 2 4 ) each of the research objectives are addressed presented, each including their own introduction, methods, results, and discussion/conclu sion sections, follow ed by a final synthesis chapter (Chapter 5). Emergy Methodological Framework There are several common concepts and methodological approaches that are used throughout this dissertation. They are briefly described next: Emergy Emergy is the measure of previous work needed to make a raw or processed material or provide a service. Emergy synthesis was first proposed by Odum (1988, 1996), and its accounting of material, energy, and currency flows enables the evaluation of complex eco econom ic systems. Emergy normalizes different types of energy flows into one unit, the emjoule (sej), so that they can be comparable and, additionally, flows can have simple algebraic functions applied to them. To date, hundreds of emergy evaluations have been d one, with infinite potential, as every system on earth can be evaluated. An emergy evaluation consisting of five common main steps to different studies (Odum, 1996; Buenfil, 2001) were followed. First, a detailed systems diagram is completed. The second s tep is to translate this knowledge into an aggregated diagram of the system addressing specific questions. Third, descriptions of the pathways in the aggregated diagram are transferred to emergy analysis tables where the calculations needed to quantitative ly evaluate these pathways

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18 are compiled. The fourth step is to gather the raw data needed to complete the emergy analysis tables along with the conversion factors (energy contents, transformities, etc.) into emergy units. Finally, after the raw data has be en converted into emergy units, indices are calculated from subsets of the data. Unit emergy v alues In emergy accounting, Unit Emergy Values ( UEVs ) are a measure of quality, or where each energy type fits on a hierarchical scale (Odum, 1996). There is typ ically a range of transformities for the same product or process due to geographical or computational differences (Brown and Ulgiati, 1999). In the range of transformities, the highest value is the most inefficient and the lowest is an indicator of the sys tem maximizing power (Ulgiati and Brown, 1998). Transformities calculated prior to the year 2000 were adjusted to the new baseline of 15.83 E24 sej/year (Odum, 2000). The importance of the use of appropriate unit emergy values and accurate emergy calculat ions are emphasized in several studies (Brown and Bardi, 2001; Lu and Campbell, 2009). Many times, emergy evaluations of countries, states, or even cities use such gross estimations, or are missing data that is necessary for completeness (Campbell et al., numerical values of the data arises from imprecision of the measuring device, scanty or community level is a manageable scale to quantify all energy flows and storages that support the system. Energy s ystems d iagrams Energy systems diagrams are an invaluable tool that uses energy systems language (Odum, 1994) to describe complex systems pictorially. The symbols are a way to transcend a need for a verbal language, which is useful as emergy theory has become globally recognized

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19 and utilized (Brown and Ulgiati, 2004; Campbell, 199 8). Major flows and storages of energy, their interactions, transformations, and movement within a system can be show n with a suite of symbols as depicted in Table A 1 in Appendix. Emergy evaluation i ndices Once emergy is calculated for each line item and flows are in the same unit, emergy may be manipulated with simple algebraic functions. The emergy can be added or sub tracted, divided or multiplied to produce summary flows and indices. In most system evaluations, especially in complex, human driven systems, e.g., communities, emergy indices are the most robust tool to determine the state of a system; they also serve as a means of comparison. These indices allow for a metric comparison between communities and any other regional scale with the same calculated indices (Brown and Ulgiati, 2004). Calculations for deriving summary indices are given in the standardized tables t hat accompany an emergy evaluation. In the last several decades numerous emergy indicators have been proposed in the literature (Ulgiati et al 1995; Huang and Hsu, 2003; Zhao et al 2005; Siche et al ., 2010 ). While emergy is simply the energy input, pas t and present, used to make something, indices provide insight into system conditions and functions. While most emergy indicators can be applied to regions, e.g., communities, cities, countries, some are more appropriate than others. Perhaps the most impor tant characteristics of human habitations are their contributions to the next larger system. Currently, the indicator used to describe the contribution of a region versus how much it takes to support it from an outside system is the import/export ratio (Ca mpbell et al., 2004). However, this ratio is not comprehensive because is does not include the renewable and non renewable emergy inputs that are combined with imports. Several other indicators are valuable when determining the state of a system. The Emerg y Yield Ratio (EYR), measures the yield or efficiency of a system (Brown and Ulgiati, 1997).

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20 The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR) (Brown and Ulgiati, 1997) is a measurement of pressure on the environment within a system under study. It measures the per centage of renewable resource use versus nonrenewable resource use (Siche et al., 2008); often humans are the dominant consumers of these resources. The Sustainability Index (SI) is an emergy based indicator that is calculated by taking the EY R and dividin g it by the ELR. The higher the SI, the more sustainable a system is, as the idea is to maximize yield, while minimizing load (Brown et al., 2009). The SI tends to be highly sensitive because it is a ratio of a ratio, but so far is the best emergy indicato r of sustainability because it measures environmental yield (efficiency) with respect to intensity bestowed upon the environment. renewability, and load on the environment. If a process has a negative net yield, by definition, it is not sustainable without continuing flows of invested emergy. At the same time, if a process depends entirely on nonrenewable resources, it is not sustainable. . [F]inally, if a process places ex treme load on the environment, it may cause damages that threaten long term produced. Emergy has several indicators of sustainability that allows systems to be evaluat ed and compared with others. Energy s ignatures Energy signatures are a way graphically describing the magnitude of emergy flow and storage within a system. Odum (1983) was the first to propose the utility of energy signatures and subsequent analyses have followed. Ulgiati and Brown (2006) compared signatures of multiple scales: ecosystem (mangrove), industry (agriculture corn production), and nation (Nicaragua, Denmark, Latvia, Italy), to determine relationships between system development and intensity and type of system drivers. In an energy signature of Rome, Italy, Ulgiati et al. (2011)

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21 determined the city was heavily dependent on non renewable resources. Energy signatures of systems are very useful because can provide an instant idea of major flows of e mergy within human dominated systems.

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22 CHAPTER 2 Background Information Metabolism is the rate at which organisms take up, transform, and expend energy and materials. Communi ty metabolism in this dissertation is defined as the rate that human communities take up, transform and expend energy and materials. In this study, the community metabolism of three communities in North Carolina, USA was evaluated, first, in terms of their material, energy and labor requirements and then in emergy terms to elucidate community sustainability. The objective was to evaluate sustainabiliuty at two scales of inquiry. The first at the scale of material flow accounting (MFA) where the quantities o f materials, energy and labor supporting each community were compared, and then at the scale of emergy accounting. While MFA provides information regarding the quantities of materials and energy used and expended thus providing one perspective on communit y sustainability, the emergy analysis takes a broader perspective evaluating sustainability including inputs of support from the larger economy in the form of services. The motivation for evaluating community sustainability using these two different method s of accounting was driven by the observation that often systems that are designed to utilize renewable energy require more indirect, high quality inputs to produce outputs, and that without including the larger perspective that emergy affords, this fact c an be missed. Literature Review Community Sustainability The word community usually refers to a small social unit that shares something in common, such as shared beliefs, backgrounds, interests or economic ties. Sometimes it refers to a geographic area s

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23 used to signify a planned community designed from the start to have a high degree of social cohesion and pers uit of a sustainable lifestyle. In this study, two intentional communit ies are analyzed and compared to a traditional neighborhood of equal size. The intent is to elucidate, using methods of emergy analysis, the commonalities and differences in energy and resource and communities whose goal is the creation of a more sustainable lifestyle. The goal is to quantify community metabolism by analyzing the various flows of energy, materials and information used by each community to place in perspective options for future s ustainability. Emer gy in the Context of Community S cale Analysis Emergy is the direct and indirect available energy required to make something (Odum, 1996; Brown and Ulgiati, 1997). Previous studies using emergy as an evaluative tool have been conducted on many scales: city, state, country (Huang and Hsu, 2003; H uang et al., 2006; Campbell, 199 8; Cohen et al., 2009 ) There have been several emergy studies at the community and household scale. Siracusa et al. (2008) evaluated an 88 ha Italian ecovillage a nd determined contributions to total metabolism from renewable sources were greater than from non renewable sources. Bergquist et al. (2012) analyzed integrated food and biofuel systems in small scale family managed production units in Brazil. Studying foo d production in urban residential landscapes, Beck et al. (2003) found that the high levels of economic inputs required for the installation and maintenance of the plots in an urban context did not lead to a sustainable result. Previous studies of human do minated systems using emergy as an evaluative tool have been conducted at many scales: national and international analyses (Odum, 1987 ; Brown, 2003; Cialani et al. 2005 ; Ferreyra and Brown. 2007; Lomas et al., 2008; Jiang et al.,2008); cities (Odum et al. 1995; Huang, 1998; Huang and Chen, 2005; Huang et al.,200 6; Lei and Wang 2008; Ascione et al ., 2009; Cohen et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009 a ) and state s, (Odum et al

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24 1998; Campbell, 1998 ). There have only been several emergy studies at the community a nd household scale. Siracusa et al. (2008) evaluated an 88 ha Italian ecovillage and determined contributions to total metabolism from renewable sources were greater than from non renewable sources. Bergquist et al. (2012) analyzed integrated food and biof uel systems in small scale family managed production units in Brazil. Studying food production in urban residential landscapes, Beck et al. (2003) found that the high levels of economic inputs required for the installation and maintenance of the plots in a n urban context did not lead to a sustainable result. While these illustrate some small scale emergy analyses, finely detailed analyses at the scale of the residential community using emergy analysis are, by and large, lacking. Despite the scarcity of eme rgy analyses at the community scale, there have been numerous attempts to describe both quantitatively and qualitatively community sustainability (Valentin and Spangenberg, 2 000; Pol, 2002; Dale et al, 2010 ) and the sustainability of households (Druckman a nd Jackson, 2009). Mulder et al. (2006) measured the social sustainability of several intentional communities in Vermont. Moos et al. (2006) as measured in three types of communities (an ecovillage, a new urbanist design, and an up scale estate subdivision ) using ecological footprint analysis and concluded that ecovillages, while a diversion from the norm, are an important model of community design considerations. Material Flow Accounting of Communities Barre tt et a l. ( 2002) evaluated total material requir ement of the City of York, UK using a materials consumption. Household material flow accounts were evaluated by Lorek and Spangenberg (2001) to identify areas of cons umption in which private households can make significant contributions to environmental sustainability, and to present a transparent and comprehensive set of indicators for them. Hobbes (2005) applied rMFA (a local Matterial Flow

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25 Accounting technique that links material flows to issues of land use transition, globalization and food security to villages in Vietnam, the Philippines and Laos. Contributions of Human Communities Perhaps one of the most important characteristics of human communities is the fact t hat their output to the next larger system takes the form of labor rather than a physical product like many other types of systems. Other outputs such as waste by products from the community may also be important, especially in terms of their environment al impact, yet in terms of total emergy, labor is by far the most important (Huang and Hsu, 2003; Huang and Chen, 2005). In this study we evaluate the emergy of labor as a contribution to the larger system as a way of documenting and quantifying the feedb ack. Odum (1989) evalauted the emergy supporting a University system including support of undergraduate, graduate and PhD students as well as its ongoing research activity. Additionally, Odum (1996) calculated average emergy intensities per hour or joule of applied labor at different training and education levels in the USA economy. Campbell and Lu (2009) computed the emergy required to educated an individual with a given education level and then developed this idea further to compute the contribution of h uman know how to the economy (C ampbell et al., 2011). Bergquist et al (2011) suggested that computations of the emergy of labor should include four aspects: calorie intake, quality and quantity of knowledge, and the cultura l context the labor is applied. Overview of Intentional Communities Intentional communities have greatly increased in numbers over the last several decades. According to the Fellowship for Intentional Community website (FIC, 2014), a non profit organization that keeps records of intenti onal communities, there were 300 intentional communities in their database in 1990, 540 intentional communities in 1995, and 2,396

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26 intentional communities currently (2014) listed in their database. It appears from this trend intentional communities will co ntinue to become more widespread globally. There are many different variations and degrees to which ecologically minded communities can achieve sustainability. The term sustainable community denotes a dependence more on renewable resources than the average residential unit. Other innovative techniques that intentional communities may incorporate are composting toilets, wetland wastewater treatment systems or living machines (which mimic wetlands), composting, and worm farming. Sustainable design allows for natural systems to maintain themselves while still supporting viable human utilization. It pairs land uses with locally compatible land intensities (Bailey, 2002, pp. 5 6). In a general sense, there are two basic models of intentional communities Ecovillag es These are a type of intentional community composed of citizens who have a genuine goal of lessening their ecological footprint. In many instances, they are off the grid, semi self sufficient entities. Ecovillages were often built without approval from government regulatory agencies (Wilson et al., 1998; Bowers, 2002;) and have acquired the connotation that they are separate from the rest of society, that they are communes filled with people who renounce worldly possessions and government influence. This is not entirely the truth, although there are some eco villages whose aim is to be as disconnected as possible from the rest of humanity. While most eco villages develop in more rural settings, there are many people and organization taking permaculture pr inciples and other ideals from sustainable villages and applying them to a more urban setting. Co housing model of s ustainability This is a form of intentional community that focuses heavily on the aspect of living. To outsiders, co hou sing communities may seem like standard

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27 townhouses, but the co housing model has far more social and environmental extensions (Meltzer, 2005). Co housing has its roots in Denmark, where the first communities were constructed in the 1970s (Meltzer, 2005). C ohousing communities facilitate the sense of community through potluck dinners, consensus decision making, and required work parties and volunteering within the community. Often they have communal facilities, such as a kitchen and laundry area, that also e ncourage resident interaction. Centralization vs. Decentralization There is an ongoing debate as to whether rural landscapes are more sustainable than their urban counterparts (Rees and Wackernagel, 1996; Newman, 1999). Those that claim cities are more su stainable do so on the grounds that residents use less resources per capita (Newton and Meyer, 2012). Proponents argue that cities are a convergence of resources and information, which generates higher quality services and information. In opposition, the a rgument is that rural landscapes are more sustainable because they are more self sufficient (Chambers and Conway, 1992), more waste conscious (Roseland, 1997), and are less energy intense overall (Ulgiati and Brown, 2006). There are pros and cons to both centralization and decentralization, most of which have to do with the scale and specific system under study. As it pertains to wastewater, individual homes, cluste rs of homes, isolated communities, or institutional facilities, as well as from existing communities, at or near the point of waste generation (Crites and Tchobanoglous, Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems, 1998, pg. 3). Decentralization tends to be most beneficial in rural areas where cost of collection of waste removal, lack of existing infrastructure, and greater transportation costs associated with service make centralizing systems much more difficult and costly (US EPA, 2003).

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28 The ma jority of the past century was dominated by centralized power sources in the energy markets. However, recently there has been growing interst in distributed generation or decentralized energy generati on (Karge r and Hennings, 2009). While there are numerou s reason for the increased interest in decentralized power (IEA, 2002) there still remain disadvantages, including high capital costs and less efficiency in producing electricity (Pepermans et al., 2005) Finally, there is the question as to whether loca l or mass produced food systems are more benefical. It is suggested that decentralized food systems (locally produced food) are more sustainable than large scale agricultural production because they increases food security, cut transportation costs (Bellow s and Hamm, 2003), reduce dependence on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), increase the local economy, increase in sense of community, and decrease in energy use associated with agricultural production (Dunning, 2013). The downside of local food produc tion include generally higher costs paid for food and less variety, especially with seasonal changes. Proponents of large scale food production agrue this methodology is much more efficient in meeting current food demands. However, there are also numerous detrimental implactions to the environment (Tillman, 1999). Brief Overview of Western North Carolina The communities that were studied are located in close proximity to or within Asheville, North Carolina. Geographically, western North Carolina is a mount ainous, land locked region that borders eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. National forest covers much of the undeveloped land; agriculture is dispersed in valleys. Western North Carolina does not typically experience weather extremes. Annual rai nfall averages approximately 90 cm (35 inches), indicative of a temperate deciduous forest habitat. Asheville has a stronger economy and more wealth per capita than surrounding areas (US Census, 2010). Most counties in western North Carolina have higher t han average levels of

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29 poverty, but Asheville continues to thrive economically due to diversified industries that provide many job opportunities. There are several colleges and universities in the area. Tourism is a large part of the economy for six to eigh t months of the year. The Communities Both intentional communities have been esta blished for more than 10 years. Earthaven Ecovillage is entirely off the grid, consisting of mainly experimental infrastructure, and provides residents with some resources fr om the land as well as sources of income. Westwood co housing is relatively more mainstream resembling a typical townhouse complex. Westwood residents rely heavily on resources and services from outside the community and work outside as well.. Their goal i s not exclusion from society, but rather adapted inclusion. The suburban neighborhood is a a standard community is its design, resource use and infrastructure. Earthaven Ecovillage Black Mountain, NC Earthaven Ecovillage was established in 1994 when a grou p of founding members bought 320 acres of mostly forested land. It took several more years to clear this land, build infrastructure, and establish permanent residents. Currently there are 32 dwellings that house 54 full time residents and numerous part tim e residents. When the duration of part time residents are added together, this equates to an additional 12 residents per annum, for a total of 66 residents. Earthaven features widespread sustainable practices, such as natural buildings made out of locally harvested materials, passive solar heating, and full reliance on solar and hydroelectric systems for electricity. The community was also intentionally designed using permaculture principles. Residents strive to grow as much food as possible and have severa l small farming operations. Earthaven is not an income sharing community like some other intentional communities are. There are several businesses within the community that employ locals, while other residents

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30 have skills or knowledge that allow them to wo rk mostly within the community. Bartering and its own currency, called the leap. One leap is equivalent to $10 and requires one hour of work. Everyone who resides in the community for more than three weeks is required to earn at least 4 leaps per week, in an effort to maintain a strong local economy. Agriculture and livestock p roduction The ecovillage has approximately eleven acres of agriculture, with more wooded land set aside for future development. The majority of food produced within the community comes from three farms: Yellowroot, Imani, and Gateway. Yellowroot farm is a community CSA, where people can buy a share of produce, which provides them with vegetab les throughout the growing season. Yellowroot Farm also raises pigs and chickens for community consumption. Some pigs and pork products are exported to the surrounding area. Imani Farm is the community garden for the co housing building within Earthaven. T he residents of Village Terrace Co housing work several hours in the garden per week, six months of the year and, in return, have most fruits and vegetables provided to them. Someimes there is excess for sale or canning. At present, Gateway vision is Icelandic sheep meat. It also provides hardier staples, including garlic, onions, and winter squash, in smaller quantities. In addition to the three major farms described above, many individuals have small gardens for supplementary produce. Fores t Approximately 20 acres (out of 320) of forest was cleared for homesites, agriculture, infrastructure, and solar gain. Prior to community development, the land had been cleared approximately 50 years ago. A portable saw mill was purchased so timbered logs could be milled on the land. The majority of the wood has remained on the land for consturction and firewood with the exception of approximately 10 percent that has either been sold as a raw resource or

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31 used for outside construction jobs. More forest wi ll be harvested as needed and a sustainable management plan was recently developed. In situ water s ources There are several surficial streams that provide water for the micro hydro electricity plant, agriculture, and bathing (during warmer months). Drinkin g water comes from a network of fourteen underground springs that are tapped at several locations. Earthaven members obtain their drinking, cooking and bathing water in one of two ways: pumped water contained in large tanks or rainwater in cisterns. Infra structructure Infrastructure is categorized into three different types: residential, common, and operational. Residential Infrastructure Earthaven has taken an experimental approach to residential house construction. Early houses were built smaller and simpler, with time being a great cosideration. As time passed, and with the increase in finances and new ideas, homes have evolved to larger, more code worthy structures. Carte blanche design still reigns and no one technique prevails in the community, but use of local materials is always emphasized. Common Infrastructure The Council Hall is the central use space, both geographically and socially. The Hut Hamlet Communal Kitchen and Bathhouse is a shared cooking, eating, and bathing space. For the most par t, people who use this facility live in smaller dwellings not equipped with kitchens or bathrooms. Operational Infrastructure This is all other infrastructure that supports the function of community, including gravel roads, woodsheds and other storage spa ces, several bridges, and PVC pipes that comprise the community water bearing systems.

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32 Energy production/c onsumption There are four main types of energy required for ecovillage sustenance: gasoline, propane gas, and electricity generated from solar voltai c panels and a small hydro generator. The former two energy sources are purchased from the outside. The latter two required an initial infrastructure import into the community, but produce electricity from renewable resources on land. Gasoline is imported into the community for generator and machine use. Gasoline also makes the conveyance of goods and services possible. No dwellings have traditional heating or air conditioning systems, despite seasonal temperature fluctuations. Instead, passive solar heati ng is the method for maintaining ambient indoor temperatures, irrespective of outdoor temperatures. Propane is consumed by the majority of Earthaven residents for cooking, refrigeration, hot water, and space heating, or a combination of all three. Househo lds Household size in Earthaven varies from one to 12 people (communal dwellings). Typical household size for non communal dwellings are one or two people. Space is tight as dwellings are usually much smaller than the average American household, providing for due to the direct and indirect environmental implications of larger homes. Additionally, obtaining a bank loan is virtually impossible, so dwellings are built with savings or small personal loans, thus effectively restricting size. The limited household square footage also serves to limit the quantity of purchased goods Waste and r ecycling Although there is a strong effort to compost and recycle, Earthaven does subscribe to a trash and recycling service. Only glass, aluminum, and plastic are recycled. Paper, cardboard,

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33 is recycled back to the land. All food scraps are composted and later used as a soil amendment. Gray water treatment and human e xcrement consumption. Household cleaning products and personal hygiene products are environm entally friendly, biodegradable, and do not require additional treatment before the gray water enters the environment. There are future plans for wetland treatment systems to aid in water purification. There are two flush toilets within the entire communit y; all other residents use is collected and composted for several months before being used as fertilizer. The liquid waste is collected in separate containers an d is disposed of or used as a natural insecticide. Westwood Co housing C ommunity Asheville, NC. The Westwood co housing community consists of 24 townhouses arranged to enclose one common, or community, house. The community is comprised of four acres of par tially much less self sufficient than Earthaven in that all their food, goods, and services are imported into the community. Most of the labor force is exported from the community, with the exception of a few retirees. Working outside of the community has the added expense of commuting and also lacks a community supported economy. Households The aver age household size in Westwood wa s 1.9 people, with a range of occup ants from 1 to 5. Communal living is not as strongly emphasized in co housing as it is in ecovillages. Square footage of townhouses typically corresponds with number of occupants. Square footage

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34 ranges from 656 square feet for a one bedroom apartment to 1, 732 square feet for a four bedroom townhouse. Infrastructure and u tilities Westwood buildings were designed with maximum energy savings in mind. The tight whene ver possible to minimize environmental impact. Westwood households consume electricity from the grid and are billed individually; residents enjoy relatively low energy bills as a direct result of innovative architectural design, passive solar design, and e nergy efficient appliances. common house and provide the heat source for the central hot water heating system. The solar panels were bought second hand, saving the residents the cost of purchasing them new. The dwellings are clustered around one central energy/water system, which eliminates the need for space in each dwelling for a furnace, hot water heater, and floor ducts for hot air transmission; instead each dwelling has a small utility closet on its porch, and the common house has one mechanical room for production and distribution of heat and hot water via underground conduits. The central water heater is turned off at night when not in use, contributing to energy saving s and The local Asheville utility company provides the community with water. There is one Association (HOA) bills each h ousehold for monthly water consumption based on the number of occupants. A community laundry facility is located in the common house, giving the residents the option to forgo individual appliances and reducing redundancy. Several cisterns located on the pr operty collect rainwater, used for watering lawns and small gardens.

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35 Waste and r ecycling There is one central location for garbage and recycling drop off within the community. Waste and recycling is then hauled away by the City of Asheville. Fees collected for the monthly HOA pays for these services. Wastewater is exported and sent to a local treatment facility. Individual households pay for this service. Suburban Residential Neighborhood The suburban Asheville community was modeled after a neighborhood of houses that was adjacent to the Westwood co housing community. This adjacent community consists of 30 dwellings,that encompassed 6.08 acres of land. Average floor area of each house was 1,741 ft 2 and homes were contructed with materials and techniques st andard for that region. According to of children under 18, so for a neighborhood of 30 houses, there would be 51 adults and 13 children for a total population o f 64. Research Questions What is the metabolism of the intentional and average suburban community ? Are the intentional communities successful in both conserving resources and maintaining competitive contributions to society? How much less (or more) ener gy/resource intense are two intentional commun ities compared to a an average suburban community? producer of emergy? M ethods Overview This study investigated the overal l metabolism of three communities in the same geographical region The methodology section is divided into methods of data collection for the two intentional communities, and separate methodology for the average suburban community.

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36 This difference in metho dology is necessary because, although the emergy evaluation procedure is the same for all three communities, the depth of involvement in obtaining data for the communities varied. Most data for the two intentional communities, Earthaven and Westwood, were collected in situ over a four month time frame and involved both observation and measurement on site as well as a community surveys. In contrast, the suburban community was represented solely through the use of data obtained online. A detailed explanation of data collection procedure for each of the communities follows.. Earthaven and Westwood: Administering the Community Survey One of the main sources of data was the Community Survey ( Table A 2 in Appendix). The University of Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval was necessary before the survey commenced and was obtained prior to travel to North Carolina. The Community Survey was administered face to face to a cross sectional subset of both intentional community populations. This was done for s tatistical stratified sampling purposes and to have a good representation of data. Also, face to face survey methodology has a higher success rate of completion when long surveys are administered (Dillman and Christain,2005)... In both intentional communit ies, household size was the categorizing factor. A subset of each household size was surveyed to extrapolate data for other households of the same size. Similarly, dwellings of the same construction materials and design were grouped together, and a subset of each housing type was sampled to estimated infrastructure materials and costs for the entire community. From those stratified groups, residents were selected randomly and asked to participate in the Community Survey. If a member was unwilling or unable to participate in the survey, the next person on the list was asked, until a sample size of thrity percent of households was obtained.

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37 The Suburban Residential Neighborhood Data collection for the suburban residential neighborhood differed from that of t he intentional ecommunities. Through the use of property records for Buncombe County, where Asheville is seated, housing, square footage, construction type, and plans were obtained for each house. Average construction material quantities and cost per squar e foot were obtained through the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB, 2011). National average costs per square foot were made Asheville specific by using a multiplier of 0.75 (R.S. Means, 1998). Household expenditure data was found through the Amer ican Consumer Expenditure Survey, a product of the Bureau for Labor Statistics (BLS, 2010). Utility quantities, such as kilowatt hours of electricity and gallons of water consumption per household, were calculated by using average annual expenditure and di viding it by the local Asheville utility price per unit ($/kWh, $/gallon). The rate of household consumption was then multiplied by 30 households, which represented the entire neighborhood consumption. Annual community food consumption was calculated by us ing national per capita averages from the USDA (2010) and multiplying by 64 people. Dollar values of food consumption were also obtained from the American Community Survey (BLS, 2010). Average annual income data was obtained by taking the weighted average income of all workers in Asheville (BLS, 2011) and multiplying this value by 51 people; the number of people assumed to be of working age. The distinction between income obtained from information versus labor was not made, as was the case with the intentio nal communities, as the exact allocation for the two is not known, and the emergy/$ ratio is the same for both labor and information. Average waste and recycling per capita was obtained through a report produced by the Buncombe County government (Buncombe County, 2012).

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38 Emergy Evaluation Protocols Emergy evaluations have a standard protocol that has been developed over several decades (Odum, 1996; Brown, 1997). The first step of an emergy analysis is to list system drivers (flows of resources energy and in formation that drive the system), internal components, and exports. Second a systems diagram with defined system boundary is drawn. The system boundary for both intentional communities was the property line. The system boundary for the suburban community encircled the identifiable neighborhood The third step is to construct a line item emergy evaluation table based on the diagram and list of drivers.The emergy evaluation table consists of the raw data for flows into and out fo the system, and Unit Emerg y Values that convert flows of materials and energy into emergy. The socio economic and commodity consumption data were collected through the use of the Community Survey. The remaining data necessary to complete the emergy evaluations were collected throu gh visual observations and help from knowledgeable residents. In rare instances, energy flows were determined through literature or databases and are described individually below. U EVs r the UEV, the more emergy it took to make per gram, joule, or dollar. UEVs are the multiplier of any mass, joule, or dollar in order to obtain total emergy for a line item. Emergy values were computed by multiplying the mass, energy, or money content of f low (grams, joules, $) by the UEV (sej/gram, sej/J, sej/$) assigned to that flow. For the purpose of consistency most UEVs or transformities

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39 the literature. UEVs that were calculated prior to 2001 were multiplied by a factor of 1.68 to account for the current global emergy baseline (15.2 E24 sej/yr.). Calculation of Community Labor and Information UEVs Since an important export of the intentional communities was inform ation (via consulting) and the fact that they relied to a large degree on internally generated labor, UEVs were computed separately for labor and information value of human service. The labor transformity for both Earthaven and Westwood was computed by div iding the total emergy supporting the community (Total Emergy = Renewable + Nonrenewable + Imports) by the total energy of labor supporting the community (hours of labor multipled by human metabolism). The information transformities were computed by adding emergy of knowledge that is gained every year since schooling ended. Using the method employed by Odum (1996), the emergy invested in education was computed for levels of an Next, the emergy supporting development of consulting information was computed by taking the years since schooling ended for the consulting population, and multiplying by the per capita emergy for those years. Finally, emergy of an information and formal education were summed to compute total emergy by multiplying the emergy of stored information by 10% (assuming 10x as much information i s required than the information delivered) and dividing by the total hours of consulting activity since schooling ended. To compute the emergy of exported consultant information, hourly rate of consultant information delivery was multiplied by hours of con sultant activity per year. In this study we distinguished between labor (direct input of labor in household and community support) and services (indirect human labor inputs to goods, energy and materials purchased from outside, professional services purch ased from outside, as well as government

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40 services). Earthaven relied for a significant degree on imported labor in the form of visitors who came to the eco worked in construction, g ardening, household support etc. Imported labor was evaluated using educational level of the individuals and the method suggested by Odum (1996). In addition to imported labor, we evaluated internally generated labor required in support of each community. Internal labor included household (routine tasks necessary for the operation and maintenance of a household, including yard work) and non household (agricultural and forestry work and maintenance of community infrastructure) labor. Labor hours were multi plied by a UEV computed separately for each community based on total emergy used divided by total energy of labor (hours of labor multiplied by human metabolism). Imported services were evaluated using the monetary expenditures for imported goods and servi ces multiplied by the USA emergy/money ratio (1.9 E12 sej/$: NEAD, 2013). Imported government services were evaluated using household taxes paid multiplied by the percent of total taxes paid in g overnment wages (BLS, 2009 ). Since an important export of the residential communities is human labor, the emergy of labor was computed separately for each community by dividing the total emergy supporting the community (Total Emergy = Renewable + Nonrenewable + Imports) by the total energy of labor supporting the co mmunity (hours of labor multiplied by human metabolism). In addition, for comparative purposes the emergy of exported labor was also computed based on wage income and using a standard emergy ratio com puted from the USA economy (1.9 E12 sej/$: NEAD, 2013)

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41 Energy Flow Determination and Considerations Fuel s Fuels are imported into Earthaven for both cooking and heating. Estimation of fuel consumed for cooking and heating in Earthaven was obtained through residents completing the Community Survey. Westwood res idents used propane as a back up fuel for their central water monthly propane bill of Westwood and summing 12 consecutive bills provided both annual quantity and dollars spent on propane con sumption. Data for the suburban Asheville community was based on average residential consumption and expenditure for that region (BLS, 2010) Gasoline for vehicular consumption is not technically an import into each community, b ut is included in the import section of the emergy table because it is necessary to support a hicle was recorded as well as an estimate of how many vehicle miles travelled (VMT) per driver per year. Average miles per (EPA, n.d. ). By multiplying VMT by MPG, fuel required for drivin g one year was found and summed for each vehicle for a community total. The suburban Asheville gasoline consumption was estimated by average annual dollars spent on gasoline per capita in the South (BLS, 2010) and divided by average price ( US EPA 2010 a ) f or that year to obtain a volume. Volumes and dollars associated with gasoline consumption were then scaled up to a community by multiplying by the number of residents in the suburban community. Food Annual food consumption was estimated for the entire eco village community by asking Community Survey participants to keep a journal of quantity, source, and quality (organic or not)

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42 of food category (meat, dairy, vegetables, etc.) for a two week period. The respondents were asked if what they were consuming was typical during the two weeks in order to accurately estimate annual per capita food consumption. From the surveyed population, averages of per capita food consumption were determined for each household type (single, 2 person occupancy, 3 person occupancy, and communal). Total food consumption of Earthaven was then found by multiplying average food consumption per capita (per household size) by number of people residing in each sized household. Westwood co housing and the suburban Asheville community resid ents were assumed to have comparable eating habits to the US average so these values were used to find total community food consumption. The most recent values of per capita food consumption were from 2009 and found on the United States Department of Agric ulture (USDA, 2010) website. Westwood residents were asked if they had special dietary restrictions, such as no dairy, meat, or wheat. This excluded them from being counted as consumers of certain food categories. For example if someone were vegan, they wo uld not be included in the meat or dairy calculations. The suburban average food consumption per capita by the number of people within the community. Building and infrastructure mat erials Flows of materials associated with buildings and infrastructure in the two intentional communities were estimated through data that was collected from residents or through direct observation. Ecovillage residents had rough to detailed estimates of materials needed to construct their houses. Materials and costs for common buildings were estimated through bother observation and surveying residents who worked on the construction. Infrastructure such as gravel roads and bridges were estimated through ob servation and literature values.

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43 material quantities were based on these plans. The builder provided a list of types of materials used and costs associated with the construct ion of the houses and shared infrastructure. A useful life of fifty years ( Bribin et al., 2011) was assumed for the material and cost inputs of construction These material and cost inflows were tabulated in an excel spreadsheet to get an estimate of tota l community construction materials and costs. Total construction material and costs values were divided by fifty years to obtain an annual material and dollar flow for the community emergy tables. Household e xpenditures The Community Survey contained a sui te of questions designed to quantify annual household expenditure for major goods and services in the two intentional communities Each household respondent was asked their best estimate of annual expenditures for nondurable and durable goods and services. Households were grouped by size and the same proportion of each household size from the community population was represented. To extrapolate total community expenditure, the average proportion of each commodity (electricity, food, education, etc. ) to a ho usehold of a given size was found and applied to the unsampled households of the community. For example, in the ecovillage, the average proportion of dollars spent on food within a two person household was 15% of total income. Fifteen perce nt would then be ap plied to other two person household s total income to obtain annual dollars spent on food. This was done with all sized households until every household located within each respective community was accounted for. Nondurable goods, such as food and other household items that typically last less than a year, were included as a direct line item on the emergy table. Durable good or those that last longer than one year, s uch as appliances and furniture were included by dividing expenditures by

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44 expected life. For example, if a refrigerator initially cost $1,200 and the owner expects to get 6 years out of the appliance, the annual expendi ture would be $1,200/6 or $200. Finally, annual expenditure on such services as phone, Internet, healthcare, etc. was averaged from survey Agricultural and livestock p roduction Annual agricultural and livestock production was estimated through both visual ed, as the growing season was not finished at the time of data collection. Quantities of food grown that stayed within the community versus what was exported were also noted. Westwood Co housing Community is located in an urban setting and only has a small community garden. The emergy of its vegetable garden was not quantified because it is a very small percentage of the total emergy. Energy production/c onsumption Since Earthaven is completely off the grid, solar power is the main source of electricity and virtually every dwelling has several panels supplying power. The average solar power production and consumption was estimated via the Community Survey and visual observation. Westwood is connected to the energy grid and annual records were obtained from a subset of households. Total community energy consumption was extrapolated from surveyed households: Average electricity consumption per unit area was found from the surveyed households and multiplied by total area of co housing to get total electricity co nsumption. Water As with electricity, most Earthaven residents do not have formal records of water consumption. Earthaven per capita water consumption was also determined from answers on the Community Survey and turnover time of water storages (tanks). For example, if 2,500 gallons of

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45 water was pumped weekly from a local creek to the water tank, and that tank supplied 15 people, then the per capita water consumption would be 8,667 gallons per year. Entire community water consumption was calculated by combin ing estimated household water consumption with water consumed from agriculture and livestock operations. Westwood residents use public water and are sent one bill. This record provided an easy source of total annual community consumption. Waste and r ecycli ng Earthaven and Westwood both had centralized garbage and recycling disposal locations. Garbage was monitored through visual observations and bags of garbage were periodically weighed on a scale. This was also done with recycling to calculate an annual fl ow of waste and recycling f rom each community. The suburban provided by the local Asheville government website (Buncombe County, 2012 ). Education and annual i ncome Education and income for both intentional communiti es was obtained through a combination of the community survey and informal verbal exchange. Every person residing within community was asked their highest level of education, certifications held (if applicable), occupation, income, and numbers of hours wor ked per year. Final ly, income of all residents was summed to compute community wealth and buying power. Additiona l data sources for emergy t ables One of the benefits of doing an emergy evaluation at the community scale is that most data were collected dir ectly. However there was a small reliance on outside sources for fuel prices and average MPG fue l consumption per vehicle type. Data sources for national comparison were obtained through various databases. National emergy values were obtained through the N ational Environmental Accounting Database (NEAD, 2000). National values of per

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46 capita energy, electricity, and water data were collected from the Energy Information Agency (EIA 2009, 2010 2011) and the American Water Works Association ( AWWA, 1999). Obta i ning data for the average suburban community The suburban community was modeled after a neighborhood of houses that was adjacent to the Westwood co housing community. This adjacent community consists of 30 households (same as ecovillage), with 2.13 people per household (US Census, 2010). According to the neighborhood of 30 houses, there would be 51 adults and 13 children for a total population of 64. Through the use of prop erty records for Buncombe County, where Asheville is seated, housing, square footage, construction type, and plans were obtained for each house. Average construction material quantities and cost per square foot were obtained through the National Associatio n of Home Builders (NAHB, 2011). National average costs per square foot were made Asheville specific by using a multiplier of 0.75 (R.S. Means, 1998). Household expenditure data was found through the American Consumer Expenditure Survey, a product of the B ureau for Labor Statistics (BLS, 2010). Utility quantities, such as kilowatt hours of electricity and gallons of water consumption per household, were calculated by using average annual expenditure and dividing it by the local Asheville utility price per u nit ($/kWh, $/gallon). The rate of household consumption was then multiplied by 30 households, which represented the entire neighborhood consumption. Annual community food consumption was calculated by using national per capita averages from the USDA (2010 ) and multiplying by 64 people. Dollar values of food consumption were also obtained from the American Community Survey (BLS, 2010). Average annual income data was obtained by taking the weighted average income of all workers in Asheville (BLS, 2011) and m ultiplying this value by 51 people; the number of people assumed to be of working age. The distinction between income obtained from information versus labor was

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47 not made, as was the case with the intentional communities, as the exact allocation for the two is not known, and the emergy/$ ratio is the same for both labor and information. Average waste and recycling per capita data were obtained through a report produced by the Buncombe County gove rnment (Buncombe County, 2012). R esults In this section compari son of summaries of the major flows of emergy into and out of the three communities are given System Diagram s Figure 2 is the village property line; the scale of the diagram is at the community level. The diagram uses customary systems diagramming conventions and symbols ( Figure A 2 ) to convey the energy flows from outside of the community in the form of renewable resources (sunlight, rain, wind, and streams) and goods and servic es (fuels, infrastructure materials, durable and nondurable goods, government and other services); depreciation of internal storages (soil, earth, forest); internal transformations of forest, agriculture, electricity, commerce; exports of waste, goods, lab or, information; and flows of money that circulate from goods and services to people and back again. The main renewable source that drives Earthaven is the chemical potential energy of rain. Rain drives agricultural production, renewable water extraction, and energy prod uction The most important internal component of the Earthaven system is the household unit, as this is what was focused on in the data collection phase of research. Other important components within Earthaven are production of electricity by water and sun, and internal transformations of forest, ability to purchase external goods and services. Also, a substantial amount of labor and money is

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48 import ed into the village in the form of temporary residents or interns who come to work or learn a skill set. These people are attracted to the village by Figure 2 2 is an energy systems diagram of Westwood co housing circa 2011. As with Earthaven, the systems boundary of Westwood is the property line of the community. The major drinking water and generation of electricity. However, rain does pr water for outdoor use. Westwood and Earthaven have the same non renewable drivers, with the exception of Westwood having the additional utility input and Earthaven having an inflow of mportant internal component is the household unit. All Westwood community labor and information is exported, and exchanged for goods and services. Both communities rely heavily on these imp orts to support the community. Community Emergy Analyses Table 2 1 shows the emergy evaluation table for Earthaven on an annual basis (2011). A separate emergy evaluation of Westwood Cohousing and the suburban community were conducted and the results are shown in Tables 2 2 and 2 3. Sources of data and calculations are s hown in Appendix A Results of emergy evaluations for Earthaven Ecovillage, Westwood co housing community, and suburban community provide insight into the major drivers, flows, storages, and transformations associated with each system. More in depth descri ption of the communities are provided in following paragraphs. Driving Emergy Energy signatures are a pictorial way of quickly identifying major and minor emergy flows of the three co mmunities under study (Figures 2 3 2 4 and 2 5 ). The emergy flows were put on a per capita basis for better comparison. As shown in energy signatures of the three communities, Earthaven has the smallest overall footprint. Emergy flows that are money related

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49 i.e. service in imports and other services and wages paid for labor a nd consulting tend to be the most dominant flow in all three communities. Figure 2 6 shows more detail of emergy of imports for each community Data are graphed on a per capita basi s for ease of comparison. Emergy of services associated with manufacture, transportation, and distribution goods and energy were computed separately. Imports Imported goods into each community such as water, food, electricity, and fuels are presented in bot h measured units (gallons, grams, kilowatt hours) and emergy (sej) per ca pita. Water and f ood Per capita water consumption followed similar trends both with gallons and emergy of water as the rubric. The suburban community was the means for comparison and residents of this community consumed an average of 20 336 gallons per c apita. Ecovillage residents consumed the least water per capita, with and 73% (5561 gallons per capita, without agiculture) less and 58% (8552 gallons per capita) less than the suburban community. Co housing residents consumed 56% less gallons (8910 gallon s) of water per capita than the suburban community. Both intentional communities consumed less water emergy per capita (sej/capita) than the suburban neighborhood. Ecovillage residents, who obtained water from springs located within the community property for both household and agricultural purposes, consumed 43% less than the suburban neighborhood, whose residents consumed utility provided water for household consumption only. Co housing residents consumed 57% less utility provided water than suburban neig hborhood residents. Ecovillage residents consumed less food quantities (kgs) per capita than the cohousing and suburban community residents, with 742 kgs. per person consumed, versus 868 kgs. Co housing and suburban community residents had the same per capita values because the same data

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50 source was used (USDA 2010). However in terms of emergy, e covillage residents consumed 90.1% greater food emergy per capita than the co housing and suburban residents. Co housing and suburban residents had the same va lue per capita beca use U.S averages were used (USDA, 2010 ), as these residents were not surveyed for quantities. However prices of food were unique to each community and are included in the service line item of each community emergy evaluation. Energy Eco village consumed 543 gallons of fuel per capita, compared to co consumption of 581 gallons per capita, and suburban community consumption of 406 gallons per capita. Per capita emergy of fuel values include both emergy of gasoline and eme rgy of propane consumption for each community. Both intentional communities consume more fuels per capita than the suburban neighborhood. More specifically, ecovillage residents consume 36.7% and co housing residents consume 40.3% more fuel emergy per capi ta. Per capita electricity consumption within each community was first measured in kilowatt hours. Ecovillage residents consumed 689 kilowatt hours per capita per year, or 87% less than suburban residents per capita. Co housing residents consumed 1195 kilo watt hours per capita, or 77% less than suburban community residents. In terms of emergy, e covillage and co housing residents consumed 89.0% and 78.0% less electricity emergy than suburban neighborhood residents, respectively. Construction m aterials The f inal imported commodity measured in terms of emergy was construction material. Ecovillage and co housing residents consumed 26.7% and 95.0% less emergy in construction materials than suburban neighborhood residents, respectively.

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51 Labor Service and labor supporting each community are shown in Table 2 4 and compared in Figure 2 7. By far the eco village required the largest amount of labor, both imported and internally generated. Internally generated labor in the eco village was almost four times that of th e suburban community and more than twice that of the co housing. Annually, t he eco village imp orted, on average, 26 people from outside the commu nity who stayed an average of 22 weeks, providing a total of 23,068 hours of labor to the community each year. This labor amounted to a significant contribution to the community resulting in the fact that eco village imported labor was an order of magnitude greater than the suburban community and over seven times greater than the co housing community. Services incl ude the human work previously done to produce, transport, and distribute a good or energy, professional services purchased outside the community (doctors, lawyers, etc. ) and government services. Service imports to the communities were much closer. The ec o village had the lowest service imports (2.16E+18 sej*yr 1 ) while the co housing community had the largest (3.18E+18 sej*yr 1 ). In all, the eco village required the most total labor support (internal, imported, service) of 6.7E18 sej*yr 1 followed by th e co housing community of 4.7E18 sej*yr 1 and finally the suburban community of 3.84E18 sej*yr 1 Education of Residents There we re clear differences in highest education achieved in each community (Figure 2 8). The education category with most full time (40.4%) while 41.5% Using education statistics for Asheville, 13.49% had not completed high school, 25.26% were high school graduates, 28.91% had an A.A. degree or

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52 population had completed a graduate degree (US Census, 2010). Overall, both intentional communities, especially the co housing community, had greater percentages of post secondary degree holde rs than the average US population and avera ge Asheville residents. Exported Emergy Exports from the communities include d labor, the chief export of each community, produced goods, and waste by products. Exported l abor Table 2 4 lists the emergy of exported labor computed using individual labor UEV for each of the communities. T he labor UEV based on the total emergy driving each community divided by labor hours exported, of the eco village and the suburban community are nearly the same, while the co housin g UEV wa s twice as large. The emergy of exported labor wa s greatest for the co housing community (7.42E+18 sej*yr 1 ) followed by the suburban community (4.72E+18 sej*yr 1 ) and the eco village (2.11E+18 sej*yr 1 ). Exported p roducts Earthaven eco village wa s the only community that had exports of produced products. The eco village exports food items (meat) and lumber. Total exports from Earthaven were 2.7E+15 sej*yr 1 (see Table 1). When compared to the value of labor exported (2.11E+18 sej*yr 1 ) the emergy value of exported commodities nearly 3 orders of magnitude smaller. Exported w aste products Waste by products included waste water, solid wastes, and recyclables (Table 2 5 ). Earthaven did not export wastewater, as all wastewaters were recycled on site. Much of their solid wastes were also recycled on site, thus their total solid waste that was exported was

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53 relatively small (2.8E+15 sej*yr 1 ) when compared to the co housing community (31.9E+15 sej*yr 1 ) and the suburban community (94.2E+15 sej*yr 1 ). Comm unity Input/O utput Community input/output is the sum total of inflows and outflows of materials energy and information used by and produced by each of the communities. In order to account for both area and population differences we provide summary indices as both areal empower intensity (sej*m 2 *yr 1) and per capita (sej*capita 1 ). Total and per capita emergy Total emergy inputs to the three communities are summarized in Figure 2 9 on a per capita basis (top) and areal basis (bottom). Emergy per capita was calculated by taking total emergy supporting the population of each community and dividing it by the population of the respective community. The total annual emergy inputs supporting Earthaven residents were 5.67E16 sej/capita, or approximately 23.1% less than the inputs supporting the suburban residents (7.37E16 sej/capita). The residents of the co housing community were supported by 8.24E16 sej/capita, approximately 11.8% more emergy per capita than the average suburban resident. It is relatively obvious in Figure 2 9 that the eco village had renewable emergy inputs amounting to about 6% of their total emergy inflows, while the other two communities, because of their relatively small areal extent had less than 1% of their inflowing emergy from renewable s ources. Only the ecovillage had some internal support of resources, with 10% of total emergy required came from internal sources. The co housing and suburban communities were entirely dependent on outside resources for support. Areal intensity From the p erspective of areal intensity, the ecovillage had an empower density of 2.90E16 sej/ha. This intensity is two orders of magnitude less than both the co housing

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54 community (2.08E18 sej/ha) and suburban community (1.92E18 sej/ha). Areal intensities for each The ecovillage had two orders of magnitude greater land area than the co housing and suburban communities, and could spread its required emergy suppor t over a much l arger land area. Discussion This section is divided into several topics of discussion. The first point of discussion has to do with survey methodology employed, sources of potential bias, and ways bias were minimized in this study. Survey Methodology Pot ential Sources and M itigation of Survey B ias Three main sources of bias that may result from conducting survey research are: Voluntary response bias Voluntary response bias usually occurs when survey participants have strong opinions (Glasow, 2005). A tech nique recommended to minimize this is random s ampling (Glasow, 2005). Volunteers should not be allowed to take surveys as they may have strong opinions that may skew overall survey results. The bias was minimized by the researcher spending 3 4 weeks at the research site before administering a survey. Methodology for selecting survey candidates were as follows: Group residents according to how many people lived in their household. Randomly assign a number to each household in each group category e.g. single dwellers, 2 person households, 3 person households. Within each household category, I went down the list and approached the first person on the list to take the survey. If they said yes, the survey was administered to them. If they responded no, the nex t person on the list was chosen, and so on down the line. In this way, participants did not have the opportunity to volunteer, but were randomly selected.

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55 Nonresponse bias Nonresponse bias can result from people not having a connection to the survey or th ey The research addressed this bias in two ways: The researcher became a tempo rary resident and made contact with potential survey respondents. In doing so, there was an opportunity to explain the importance and implications of the survey both as it relates to the community and with broader research implications. The researcher admi nistered the first part of the survey in person and questions that the respondents had in regards to the survey were answered at that time. Finally a work exchange incentive was provided to help motivate participation in the survey. It was estimated that t he survey would take each participant at least 3 hours, and that was the amount of labor offered for a completed survey. Undercoverage Undercoverage bias occurs when not enough samples or surveys are filled out, or they were filled out by a non re present ative population. Two types of undercoverage bias are: Undersurvey too small sample size of survey participants At minimum twenty percent of each household type (single, double, and triple households) were sampled to greatl y decrease the change of under s u rvey of the community populations. Unrepresentative population Respondents to survey do not represent the population and statistics will not have a normal distribution (Glasow, 2013). These two bias were minimized in this research by randomly distributi ng the survey. Response Bias There are two types of response bias (Butori and Parguel, 2010): towards the questions and answer accordingly which can lead to bias (Butori and Parguel, 2010). Bias was minimized in this re se arch through the straight forward questions that asked about

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56 Finally, questions were not asked in multiple cho ice format where preference may have been shown. Social desirability is the desire for one to be seen in a positive light and they will answer questions to be perceived favorably (Butori and Parguel, 2010). Bias was minimized in this research by telling re spondents that their answers would not be shared with anyone in such a manner that they would be an identifier to the individual. Also, even though researcher/survey administer had become a temporary resident in the two intentional communities, maintaining professionalism was a forefront goal and the researcher did not develop friendships with the community residents to minimize social desirability bias. households and is c onfident bias was minimized as best as possible. Emergy Analysis Results The next several paragraphs discuss in better detail the results of this study and the implications of using emergy methodology as the main form of comparsion between three communiti es. Emergy d rivers The common driver of all three communities was imported service Dollars were paid for resources, government and other human support. Co housing residents consumed the most emergy per capita, with the majority of this emergy comprised of service (84%). It appears the co housing community attracts residents with above average educations and wages. This allows them to purchase more expensive goods and services, and is an indicator of high quality of life, at least in terms of finances. Ofte ntimes, more environmentally friendly choices such as organic food, fair trade textiles, and sustainable construction materials cost more than their standard

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57 counterparts. This is a possible explanation is so high When service was excluded from emergy driving each community, it became apparent both intentional communities used less emergy per capita than an average suburban community. This means residents of both intentional communities have a lower enviro nmental footprint than the average community resident. Ecovillage residents required the least emergy per capita and the lowest proportion of service emergy to total emergy su pport. It is hypothesized this wa s the case because they have a lot of land to gr ow their own food, produce their own electricity, and supply their own water. Also, residents routinely recycle and reuse materials. Both of these factors could reduce the quantities and costs associated with importing emergy into the system. Earthaven and materials and this was found the case in the emergy evaluations. It appears both intentional community residents are demonstrating that resource sharing and choosing environm entally friendly community features lowers per capita consumption Emergy quality considerations As previously mentioned, e mergy methodology has a quality component that allows all flows of energy, materials, dollars, human labor, etc. to be summed toget her to get a final total of community emergy suppo rt per capita. However, this summed emergy value can often be counterintuitiv e to physical quanities of the same resource flows. For example, o verall, the two intentional communities consumed less resouces per capita, and in some cases (water and electricity) much less than suburban community residents How, then, does the co housing community consume the most emergy per capita and all three communities have similar emergy per capita values?

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58 The most pro bable answer to this question is that all three communities are still very much tied to the main economy. Emergy in service values comprise the majority of total eme rgy support for each community. The implication of this is that even if you are an intentio nal community, and succeed in consuming less resources, th ere may still be a larg e su pport of human service required and humans support requires resources. The distinction between the two are direct versus indirect consumption of resources to support a co mmunity or support people that have previously performed a service. Finally, there may be no true way to escape participating in the economy, but perhaps the most one can do is partipate in a local economy so that local business and people benefit. Area C onsiderations Area of each community determines several community aspects measured in this study. A real empower intensity is the amount of emergy required for support over given area. Emergy intensity per area has great implications for appropriate land us es and development. Systems that do not adhere to emergy matching, typically experience inefficiencies (Odum, 1996). Human development should match the surrounding emergy of the environment in order avoid disruption or cessation of environmental processes provides space to trap renewable resources and convert them into practical community uses, such as timber for homes and sunlight for power. Earthaven would not be as successful if placed in an urban enviro nment; the community would not be able to utilize the work renewable resources provide for them and instead, would have to substitute more energy intense resources. Likewise, the Westwood co housing community would not be prosperous in a rural area. Reside nts would either have to quit jobs or endure long commutes to maintain jobs. Their current level of intensity matches urbanism and would not be supported by a lower intensity landscape. There are

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59 appropriate levels of development for urban and rural areas and both Earthaven and Westwood appear to be energy matching their surrounding environment. the amount of available area that could produce agriculture, livestock, and other resources. Only the ecovillage could support more than one person on both renewable flows and at a developed capacity. However, the current community population of 66 has already surpassed the emergy based carrying capacity. The co housing and sub urban communities are in an urban setting and do not have the means to support one person off of their land. Labor The main role of a community is to support labor production. Essentially all renewables, non renewables, and imports drive labor and inform ation production. The next several sections explain quality and quantity of labor support in each community. The ecovillage required the most labor emergy support to maintain internal community processes. It took four times as much labor than the suburban community, to support the ecovillage in order for ecovillage residents to have 10% self sufficiency. There was a clear trade off between self sufficiency aspirations and economic gain. Labor devoted to internal processes such as agriculture and infrastruc ture maintenance meant there was less labor available for export. This is reflected in below average, community salaries, despite residents having above average educations; residents are willing to work for less money in order to pursue other aspects (envi ronmental, social) of quality of life. Labor productivity Labor Productivity, in conventional economics, is the amount of goods or services produced in one hour of labor ( Marchante and Ortega, 2012) There is also a dollar value associated with labor prod uctivity known as wages, which is dollars paid per hour of labor

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60 ( Giampietro et al., 1993 ) Gross Domestic Product ( GDP) is an indicator of labor productivity in the main ec onomy as many dollars are paid for labor and services. Maximizing labor productivity in terms of GDP would be to have low unemployment, highly educated population. Unemployment is a measure of labor unproductivity in that if one is not working, then they are not contributing to the work force or GDP. Conventional labor productivity neglects the value of the biophysical contributions to economic processes ( Giampietro et al., 1993). Both conventional economics and emergy use education as a proxy for labor productivity in the form of salary and contribution to society. Both techniques can relate goods and services in terms of money economics in dollars and emergy in emdollars. Emergy analysis and traditional economics differ in their valuation of labor productivity. Economics values quantity and emergy values quality. The key to understanding the two valuation systems is through distinguishing between the terms donor vs. recei ver. A donor based valuation system such as emergy analysis measures what it takes to directly and indirectly make something. Therefore the more resources and biophysical support required, the more valuable it is (Brown and Ulgiati, 1999). A receiver side of valuation, which is what traditional economics is good or service is (Lu and Campbell, 2009). Emergy per dollar ratio is a form of buying power of real wealth as it represents emergy per unit of currency, whereas salary per hour is based on In this study, labor UEVs were calculated for both physical labor and intellectu al labor to get an idea of quality of labor in each community. Education Academic education is probably the most concentrated means of transferrin g information to an individual. Much emergy is required to build and support infrastructure, teachers, and

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61 sto rages of information, so that people can receive a formalized education. Typically the main driver of receiving an education, especially a post graduate education is to obtain a financially viable job. By increasing education, a laborer is increasing their associated annual wages. The strength of using education to measure labor quality is that it directly measures quality of labor by the amount of emergy required to support the education system. In basic emergy mathematics, t potential to make a greater impact in the system in which it is embedded. A downfall of this method of calculating the labor UEV is that education is treated as coproducts so total emergy driving a nation is allocated to each education class (Odum, 1996). As a result of the calculation, the more people in an education class, the less emergy per person (and vice versa). Also, people in the same education class e.g. high school, PhD have t he same emergy assigned when in fact not all education is equal in how many resources are allocated to support it. For example, there is an emergetic disparity of education received in economically depressed areas vs. wealthy regions. The second way of ca lculating the value of human labor is by summing the annual emergy flows that support a region and dividing by the energy of the work force of that region. For example, in this study, labor UEVs were calculated based on emergy flows that came into three co mmunities and dividing by the energy of their labor force. This allowed comparison of The strength of calculating labor quality based on regional support is that it is very regionally specific and can be calculated at vario us scales e.g. community, county, state, nation, etc. Some weaknesses of using this calculation are that there is no distinction between calories

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62 burned for intellectual labor vs. manual labor and that it only takes into account the energy of the workforce To address the first issue, not all jobs take the same amount of calories to execute. For example, it takes more c alories to perfor m the job of a construction worker, than it does to be an architect and design the layout of the house. Currently, a gene ric 2500 kcal is used for both laborers in the labor UEV. Future work should determine caloric output of labors based on their profession and specific calories burned should be used in the labor UEV calculation. The second weakness mentioned is that the labor UEV calculation based on energy expended by the laborer only takes into account the energy of the laborer, when in fact the total emergy supporting also supports those that do not work e.g. children and the unemployed. Perhaps by finding the percen tage of the population who are part of the workforce and applying this percentage to the total emergy driving a region would give a more accurate UEV for the laborer. A final issue, although maybe not a weakness, is that the labor UEV is closely tied to e ducation. As discussed before, generally increasing education means increasing wages, and therefore increasing ability to spend money to buy goods and services that support a region. However, education is an attribute that is generally earned in another time and another place than where the laborer is currently residing. Because of this, perhaps what the UEV is really measuring is past education and its ability to have an impact on quality of life after graduation. Community Information and Labor There are also two different ways of calculating the total emergy of the work a laborer has performed. The first is to use the labor UEV, which as previously described is calculated either based on education or regional support. This labor UEV is then multiplie d by the energy embodied in the number of hours worked, to obtain a total emergy amount for that labor. The

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63 second way of finding the emergy of labor is by simply taking the wages earned by the laborer and multiplying this by the most appropriate emergy/$ ratio. There are benefits of using the emergy/$ ratio to quantify emergy of labor and service. The first is money is universally identified as a way to value things. The emergy/$ ratio is the direct tie between emergy and economics. It measures the rea l wealth of environmental services to dollars paid. Another benefit is data is more available for dollar values of wages and services. Most times the number of hours spent on a job (which need to be known for calculating emergy of labor with the labor UEV ) has not been calculated, but the dollars spent for a particular job or service are known. It is very easy to then multiply dollars spent by the emergy/$ ratio to obtain emergy of labor. A downside of using the emergy/$ ratio to quantify labor or service is that oftentimes only the national emergy/$ ratio is known and is therefore the one that is used in emergy of living and not the national average, thus mak ing the emergy of labor inflated or deflated based on whether the cost of living is lower or higher than the national average. Chapter 3 of this dissertation provides a possible solution for adjusting the emergy/$ ratio depending on regional variability in cost of living. In most emergy evaluations, including those in this dissertation, dollars are used to quantify labor and service. However, a line item of labor and consulting emergy calculated from joules was shown in each intentional community emergy ta bles so that comparisons could be made. Sometimes to mitigate the difference in labor emergy calculated by joules of labor and labor emergy calculated by wages, the average of the two are taken and used in the emergy evaluation. Also, it is suggested in th

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64 based on not only education, but wisdom acquired from life experience. This would result in higher UEV. Finally, since there is a difference between intellectual work and manual labor, this shoul d be distinguished by having separate line items in emergy tables (this dissertation). All labor and information of people of working age (18+) in either hours or income (or both) were accounted for in each community. However, one may notice that only lab or and information that was exported was calculated in the emergy tables and associated emergy indices. This is due to the double counting rules of emergy. All renewable and nonrenewable resources, as well as imported goods and services, are purchased to u ltimately support the emergy associated with internal labor and consulting were counted again, it would inflate the total emergy supporting the systems as it has already been accounted for in other parts of the emergy table. Earthaven residents expend much effort in growing their own food and supporting their infrastructure, so this is labor that is not available for export. There is clearly a trade off in Ear thaven aspiring to be self sufficient, thereby keeping labor within the community, and and services from the outside. Exported Emergy All three communities in t his study had, labor as the largest export. Only the ecovillage residents produced goods that were sold to the outside. These exported products required internal labor and local resources to produce. Waste was a byproduct of labor production. The two inte ntional communities produced less waste per capita than the suburban community, further suggesting their habits are more environmentally friendly.

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65 Community Metabolism There is a delicate balance between emergy supporting a system and emergy exported from the system. A community cannot be entirely isolated from the next larger system(s). According to the maximum power theorem, systems that contribute to both the larger system that supports it and maintains the smaller internal systems that will be selected for and persist (Cai et al, 2006). In this study, the ecovillage required more support than it exported because there were many internal processes within the community that required labor. The co housing and suburban communities had a community metabolism greater than one, which meant they provided more emergy to larger systems than what was required for support. In general, communities that are dependent entirely on outside sources for support need to export all or most of their labor to acquire such resou rces. This study brought up an important theoretical debate in emergy analysis. The basis of emergy accounting is that what comes out of a system is equal to all of the inputs that went into a system. Under this constraint, a metabolism of a community wo uld have to equal one. However, we see this is not true in cases, when we measure both inflows and outflows of a system. It is hypothesized the metabolism is almost never one in most human dominated systems because there are internal transformations that require maintenance energy, but never leave the system. Also, outputs of the system such as labor are still typically measured by wages and this is a proxy based on education and economy, not necessarily direct flows of resources required for support Conc lusion In conclusion, the main role of a community is to support the production of labor. An important consideration when determining the viability of communities is how much resource support is required for labor production. This study suggests i ntention al communities may serve

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66 as models of sustainability in terms of their ability to conserve resources while maintaining high labor productivity Ultimately, they may be part of the solution to thriving in times of energy decent as described in The Prosperou s Way Down (Odum and Odum 2001). However, the energetic trade off of living in these types of communities, especially ecovillages, is that it takes a greater amount of labor to maintain internal community systems. While not everyone can or would want to m ove to an ecovillage, c o housing communities and transition towns are more mainstream, practical forms of sustainable development, and their popularity will likely continue into the future.

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67 F igure 2 1. Earthaven system diagram

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68 Figure 2 2. Westwo od system diagram

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69 Figure 2 3. Annual emergy fl ows associated with Earthaven Ecovillage (in logarithmic scale) 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Per Capita Emergy (E15 Sej/Yr) Emergy Line Item Energy Signature of Earthaven Ecovillage

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70 Figure 2 4 Annual emergy flows associated with Westwood c o housing community (in logarithmic scale) 0.01 0.1 1 10 Per Capita Emergy(E15 Sej/Yr) Emergy Line Item Energy Signature of Westwood Cohousing

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71 Figure 2 5 Annual emergy f l ows associated with a suburban Asheville, NC community (logarithmic scale) Figure 2 6. Emergy of goods and energy (without service), imported into three communities for support 0.01 0.1 1 10 Per Capita Emergy (E15 Sej/Yr) Emergy Line Item Energy signature of a suburban community 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 Emergy Per Capita (E15 sej/yr) Commodity Annual Per Capita Community Consumption Ecovillage Co-housing Suburban

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72 F igure 2 7. Comparison of annual labor, service, and total emergy flows of three communities Figure 2 8 Education levels achieved in both intentional communities compared with averages of the United States A 1.00E+15 5.01E+17 1.00E+18 1.50E+18 2.00E+18 2.50E+18 3.00E+18 3.50E+18 4.00E+18 4.50E+18 5.00E+18 Internal Labor Imported Labor Gov. Service Total Emergy (U) Annual Emergy (sej/yr) Supporting Emergy Annual Emergy Supporting Three Communities Ecovillage Co-housing Suburban 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 Percentage of Population (%) Highest Education Level Attained Educational Achievement USA Co-housing Ecovillage Full Members Ecovillage Temp Workers

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73 Figure 2 9. Comparison between three communities with res pect to A ) E mergy per capita. B) E mpower density (log scale) B.

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74 Table 2 1. Emergy evaluation of resource basis for Earthaven Ecovillage. Lines 53 and 55 were not added to the export total, but it was important to show the value Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej) RENEWABLE RESOURCES: 1 Sunlight 4.17E+15 J/yr 1.00E+00 4.17 2 Rain, chemical 4.59E+12 J/yr 3.05E+04 139.94 3 Rain, geopotential 1.14E+11 J/yr 4.70E+04 5.35 4 Wind, kinetic energy 1.70E+13 J/yr 2.45 E+03 41.77 5 Earth Cycle 1.87E+12 J/yr 5.80E+04 108.49 R= 139.94 INDIGENOUS RENEWABLE ENERGY: 6 Hydroelectricity 1.89E+10 J/yr 2.80E+05 5.30 7 Solar Electricity 1.83E+11 J/yr 3.36E+05 61.38 8 Humanure 1.08E+06 g/yr 1.14E+04 0.00 9 Agricultu re Production 3.16E+10 J/yr 3.36E+05 10.62 10 Livestock Production 2.50E+10 J/yr 3.36E+06 83.88 11 Water Extraction 1.01E+10 J/yr 2.72E+05 2.74 Total, R1= 163.92 NONRENEWABLE SOURCES FROM WITHIN SYSTEM: 12 Soil Organic Matter 6.80E+06 g/yr 1.68E+ 09 11.42 13 Topsoil Losses 4.61E+09 J/yr 7.40E+04 0.34 14 Clay (Earth) 1.33E+07 g/yr 3.36E+09 44.60 15 Fuelwood Production 2.84E+11 J/yr 2.21E+04 6.27 16 Forest Extraction 3.29E+11 J/yr 2.21E+04 7.28 17 Labor 1.46E+10 J/yr 1.11E+08 1628.39 Total, N= 69.92 IMPORTS AND OUTSIDE SOURCES: 18 Eggs 5.40E+09 J/yr 9.07E+05 4.90 19 Meat 3.58E+10 J/yr 6.90E+05 24.69 20 Dairy 8.83E+10 J/yr 6.74E+05 59.51 21 Grains 9.08E+10 J/yr 3.55E+05 32.23 22 Fruit 1.85E+10 J/yr 3.55E+05 6.57 23 Vegetables 2.59E+ 10 J/yr 2.37E+05 6.13 24 Fats and Oils 7.33E+10 J/yr 2.00E+06 146.64 25 Propane 5.34E+11 J/yr 8.06E+04 43.06 26 Gasoline 4.13E+12 J/yr 9.02E+04 372.48 27 Solar Panels 1.18E+11 J/yr 7.93E+04 9.34

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75 Table 2 1. Continued Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej) 28 Construction material Cement 1.15E+06 g/yr 2.42E+09 2.77 29 Construction material Metals 2.45E+05 g/yr 6.89E+09 1.68 30 Construction material Lumber 2.48E+10 J/yr 6.69E+04 1.66 31 Construction Material Ply wood 4.83E+09 J/yr 1.01E+05 0.49 32 Construction material Drywall 4.89E+05 g/yr 2.64E+09 1.29 33 Construction material Insulation 3.85E+07 g/yr 2.47E+07 0.95 34 Construction material Straw 1.05E+05 g/yr 6.86E+04 0.00 35 Construction material Lime 1.46 E+04 g/yr 1.68E+09 0.02 36 Construction material Gravel 5.26E+07 g/yr 2.24E+09 117.80 37 Construction material Sand 4.13E+06 g/yr 1.68E+09 6.94 38 Construction material Plastics 6.57E+07 g/yr 5.29E+09 347.89 39 Construction Material Rubber 1.14E+05 g/ yr 7.22E+09 0.82 40 Construction Material Glass 2.67E+04 g/yr 2.69E+09 0.07 41 Service in Imports 6.77E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 1307.40 42 Other Services from Outside 1.34E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 257.69 43 Government Service 3.06E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 590.53 44 Labor 6.86E+09 J/yr 1.11E+08 764.65 Total, I= 3343.58 REUSED MATERIALS 45 Plywood (MDF) 2.34E+10 J/yr 1.12E+05 26.24 46 Lumber 2.37E+05 J/yr 2.97E+09 7.06 47 Glass 1.93E+04 g/yr 2.69E+09 0.52 Total, I2= 33.82 EXPORTS: 48 Livestock, meat 6.7 4E+08 J/yr 3.36E+06 2.27 49 Milled Lumber 6.83E+09 J/yr 6.69E+04 0.46 50 Waste 7.08E+06 g/yr 3.97E+07 0.28 51 Recycling 1.08E+07 g/yr 2.26E+08 2.45 52 Service in Exports 1.58E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 305.55 53 Labor 1.07E+10 J/yr 1.11E+08 1194.21 54 Labor 9 .46E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 1824.87 55 Information (Consulting) 8.21E+09 J/yr 1.21E+09 9922.18 56 Information (Consulting) 6.30E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 1216.58 Total, E= 3352.45

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76 Table 2 2. Emergy evaluation of resource basis for Westwood co housing communit y. Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej/yr) RENEWABLE RESOURCES: 1 Sunlight 5.88E+13 J/yr 1 0.06 2 Rain, chemical 6.48E+10 J/yr 3.05E+04 1.98 3 Rain, geopotential 1.61E+09 J/yr 4.70E+04 0.08 4 Wind, kinetic energy 2.75E+01 J/yr 2.45E+03 0.00 5 Earth Cycle 2.64E+10 J/yr 5.80E+04 1.53 R= 1.98 INDIGENOUS RENEWABLE ENERGY: 6 Solar Electricity 2.19E+10 J/yr 3.36E+05 7.34 IMPORTS AND OUTSIDE SOURCES: 7 Utility Water 7.66E+09 J/yr 1.84E+05 1.41 8 Eggs 3.84E+09 J/yr 9.07E+05 3.49 9 Meat 3.66E+10 J/yr 6.90E+05 25.25 10 Dairy 7.98E+10 J/yr 6.74E+05 53.74 11 Grains 5.79E+10 J/yr 3.55E+05 20.56 12 Fruit 1.38E+10 J/yr 3.55E+05 4.92 13 Vegetables 2.82E+10 J/yr 2.37E+05 6.68 14 Fats and Oils 3.71E+1 0 J/yr 2.00E+06 74.22 15 Propane 1.06E+12 J/yr 8.06E+04 85.71 16 Gasoline 2.35E+12 J/yr 9.02E+04 212.39 17 Electricity 1.76E+11 J/yr 4.87E+05 85.74 18 Construction Material Concrete 1.67E+06 g/yr 3.68E+09 6.14 19 Construction Materials Metals 4.17E+0 5 g/yr 6.89E+09 2.87 20 Construction Material Plastic 3.34E+04 g/y 5.29E+09 0.18 21 Construction Material Insulation 5.38E+05 g/yr 5.29E+09 2.85 22 Construction Material Siding 1.17E+06 g/yr 1.00E+09 1.17 23 Construction Material Drywall 1.35E+06 g/y r 2.64E+09 3.55 24 Construction Material Shingles 1.98E+06 g/yr 4.74E+08 0.94 25 Construction Material Lumber 7.42E+10 J/yr 6.69E+04 4.96 26 Construction Material Glass 2.37E+04 g/yr 2.69E+09 0.06 27 Solar Panels 2.48E+10 J/yr 7.93E+04 1.96 28 Service in imports 8.36E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 1613.3 29 Services from Outside 3.39E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 654.9 30 Government Service 4.74E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 915.4 Total I= 2866.9

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77 Table 2 2. Continued Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) ( E15 sej/yr) EXPORTS: 31 Solid Waste 1.75E+07 g/yr 3.97E+07 0.7 32 Wastewater 7.66E+09 J/yr 3.80E+06 29.1 33 Recycling 9.15E+06 g/yr 2.26E+08 2.1 34 Labor 1.29E+10 J/yr 2.23E+08 2876.3 35 Labor 6.10E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 1177.5 36 Information (Consu lting) 1.17E+08 J/yr 1.92E+10 2249.5 37 Information (Consulting) 1.82E+06 $/yr 1.93E+12 3508.9 Total E= 4718.2

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78 Table 2 3. Emergy evaluation of th e resource basis of a suburban community located within Asheville, NC Note Item Data Units UEV S olar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej/yr) RENEWABLE RESOURCES: 1 Sunlight 7.94E+13 J/yr 1 0.08 2 Rain, chemical 8.75E+10 J/yr 3.05E+04 2.67 3 Rain, geopotential 2.17E+09 J/yr 4.70E+04 0.10 4 Wind, kinetic energy 3.72E+01 J/yr 2.45E+ 03 0.00 5 Earth Cycle 3.57E+10 J/yr 5.80E+04 2.07 R= 2.67 IMPORTS AND OUTSIDE SOURCES: 6 Utility Water 2.43E+10 J/yr 1.84E+05 4.48 7 Eggs 5.59E+09 J/yr 9.07E+05 5.07 8 Meat 6.03E+10 J/yr 6.90E+05 41.61 9 Dairy 7.98E+10 J/yr 6.74E+05 53.74 1 0 Grains 5.79E+10 J/yr 3.55E+05 20.56 11 Fruit 1.38E+10 J/yr 3.55E+05 4.92 12 Vegetables 2.82E+10 J/yr 2.37E+05 6.68 13 Fats and Oils 3.71E+10 J/yr 2.00E+06 74.22 14 Propane 9.16E+11 J/yr 8.06E+04 73.84 15 Gasoline 2.46E+12 J/yr 9.02E+04 222.13 16 El ectricity 1.20E+12 J/yr 4.87E+05 587.02 17 Construction Material Concrete 1.08E+08 g/yr 3.68E+09 398.21 18 Construction Materials Metals 2.71E+07 g/yr 6.89E+09 186.34 19 Construction Material Plastics 8.93E+05 g/y 5.29E+09 4.72 20 Construction Materi al Siding 3.02E+04 g/yr 1.00E+09 0.03 21 Construction Material Drywall 3.43E+07 g/yr 2.64E+09 90.59 22 Construction Material Shingles 1.21E+06 g/yr 4.74E+08 0.57 23 Construction Material Lumber 2.14E+11 J/yr 6.69E+04 14.28 24 Construction Material Glas s 6.38E+04 g/yr 2.69E+09 0.17 25 Service in imports 8.68E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 1675.03 26 Services from Outside 2.43E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 468.20 27 Government Service 4.07E+05 $/yr 1.93E+12 784.87 Total I= 4717.26 EXPORTS: 28 Solid Waste 1.29E+07 g/y r 3.97E+07 0.51 29 Wastewater 2.43E+10 J/yr 3.80E+06 92.48 30 Recycling 5.23E+06 g/yr 2.26E+08 1.18 31 Labor 4.45E+10 J/yr 1.06E+08 4717.26 32 Labor 1.93E+06 $/yr 1.93E+12 3723.61 Total E= 3817.78

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79 Table 2 4. Labor emergy required for support and labor emergy exported Item Eco village Co housing Suburban Internal Labor Labor hours 6.23E+04 1.35E+04 1.65E+04 Total Joules 1 2.72E+10 5.87E+09 7.20E+09 Labor UEV (sej/J) 2 1.11E+08 2.23E+08 1.06E+08 Labor Emergy(sej/yr) 3 3.03E+18 1.31 E+18 7.64E+17 Imported Labor Labor hours 2.31E+04 3.16E+03 2.27E+03 Total Joules 1 1.01E+10 1.38E+09 9.89E+08 Labor UEV (sej/J) 2 1.50E+08 1.50E+08 1.50E+08 Labor Emergy(sej/yr) 3 1.51E+18 2.07E+17 1.48E+17 Imported Service Services in impor ts $6.77E+5 $8.36E+5 $8.68E+5 $4.4E+5 $1.18E+6 $6.5E+5 UEV (sej/$) 1.93E+12 1.93E+12 1.93E+12 Service Emergy (sej/yr) 4 2.16E+18 3.18E+18 2.93E+18 Exported Labor Labor hours 4.34E+04 7.64E+04 1.02E+05 Total Joules 1 1 .89E+10 3.33E+10 4.45E+10 Labor UEV (sej/J) 2 1.11E+08 2.23E+08 1.06E+08 Labor Emergy (sej/yr) 3 2.11E+18 7.42E+18 4.72E+18 Labor wages (sej/yr) 1.82E+18 1.18E+18 3.72E+18 1. Product of hours hourly human metabolism 2. Labor UEV computed by dividi ng the total emergy supporting each community by the joules of labor (total labor hours hourly human metabolism) 3. Product of total joules of labor and labor UEV 4. Product of the sum of services and UEV

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80 Table 2 5 Emergy of exported waste by products Flo w Ecovillage Community (E15 sej*yr 1 ) Co housing Community (E15 sej*y r 1 ) Suburban Community (E15 sej*yr 1 ) Wastewater -29.1 92.5 Solid Waste 0.3 0.7 0.5 Recycling 2.5 2.1 1.2 Total 2.8 31.9 94.2

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81 CHAPTER 3 URBAN HOUSEHOLD METABOLISM USING THE EME RGY METHODOLOGY Background Information This chapter explores the concept of urban metabolism using the emergy methodology. Urban household metabolism in this dissertation is defined as the rate that households take up, transform and expend energy and mater ials.. This chapter will explore the energy transformations within households of several cities in the U.S. to evaluate the differences in household metabolism between large cities (New York, NY; Los Angeles, CA; Chicago, IL;and Houston, TX) and small town s (Gainesville, FL; Boulder, CO; Burlington,VT; and Ann Arbor, MI) It is predicted that by 2030, 60% of the global population will live in cities or urban areas (UNSD, 2006). This is one of the key reasons why determining urban metabolisms, is pivotal. The concept of urban systems having a metabolic process was first proposed by Wolman (1965). Later on, cities, states, and even nations were described as having metabolic processes (Newman, 1999; Liu et al., 2009 ; Zhang et al., 2009a, 2009b). According to Hua ng and Hsu (2003) cities are self regulating systems that thrive only due to stable links from outside from which they obtain most of their resources and where wastes are reabsorbed. Past emergy evaluations have heavily focused on national and urban syste m metabolism using top down data (Lei and Wang, 2008; Jiang et al., 2009; Sweeney 2009; Zhang et al., 2009a, 2009b). Very few studies have been conducted using bottom up data (Liu et al. 2005; Moll et al., 2005; Li and Wang, 2009) and even fewer at a com munity scale (Siracusa et al., 2008 ).

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82 Numerous studies have explored quantifying sustainability at a city scale (Odum et al. 1995; Newman, 1999; Su et al., 2009). The following are several emergy evaluations of cities and their major findings: Taipei (Hu This study focused on the impact of the built environment in the city and several indices were developed to describe urban metabolism. Taipei is a heavily industrialized city that re quires large amounts of emergy, especially construction materials, which comprised 28% of total emergy used in 1998 (Huang and Hsu, 2003). Macao (Lei and Wang, 2008) Macao is a city in China that is shifting its dependence on natural resources to gambling and tourism. An emergy evaluation of the city of Macao, comparing it with 6 other cities determined that is had the highest emergy density and per capita emergy use. The study concluded that in general, cities were not sustainable due to their resource con sumption, and Macao was especially unsustainable in the long term. Rome (Ascione et al., 2009; Ulgiati et al., 2011). An emergy evaluation of Rome revealed that per capita emergy consumption, empower density, and emergy/$ ratio were all larger in the city of Rome than the country of Italy (Ascione et al., 2009). A system diversity index was developed based on the emergy table of Rome (Ulgiati et al., 2011). Urban M etabolism en vironmental impacts is becoming more widely accepted. There is a massive throughput of energy, which is the root of environmental and economic costs (Newman, 1999). Figure 3 1 is a diagram of a generic energy systems city (Brown, 1998). It depicts major en ergy flows that could be associated with urban spaces. Urban ecosystems will have a unique energy signature (Collins et al., 2000) and a complex organization of environmental economic social factors (McMullan, 1997). Cities are places of high empower dens ity and their function is to provide high energy services(Odum et al., 1995). Studies have examined altering the design and urban form of cities Wackernagel, 1996). From an urban ecology perspective, cities are considered unsustainable

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83 systems given their continuous dependence on material and energy imports and the export of wastes (Camagni et al., 1998). Thus the sustainability of cities is heavily dependent on the a bility of the surrounding environment to provide the required resources and environmental services functions of distant regions all over the world through commer cial trade and natural biogeochemical cycles. Perhaps the most important insight from this result is that no city or Decker et al. (2000) recognized that cities had a success ion pattern, much as natural ecosystems where different aspects, such as seasonality, succeed one another. They argue that pre modern cities had reached a steady state climax in which they were dependent on local renewable energy as the lack of transportat ion limited any dependence on the hinterland. Brunner (2007) categorizes cities as linear reactors whose metabolism remains open and vulnerable, dependant on the hinterlands for material supply and disposal. In essence, the linear pattern of production, co and Hsu, 2003). Additionally, the inputs outweigh the outputs, resulting in excess material stocks in urban areas that effe cts future energy metabolism. Emergy as a Measurement of Regional Resource U se Emergy is defined as the available solar energy used up directly and indirectly to make a product or service (Odum, 1996). Emergy fluxes can provide a description of the main s metabolism; the more complex the system, the more emergy throughput (Odum, 1996). The great utility of emergy is its associated indices relating to system efficiency, economy, and environmental impact; interconnected relationships are all important consi derations when determining the sustainability of systems.

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84 Indices allow for the complex dynamics of human, environment, and economic interactions to be described, measured, and compared. Some of the most widely used emergy indices to describe the state of regions include the Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), emergy per capita, emergy per area, just to name a few. However, for this particular study, not all standard emergy indices are applicable due to the smaller scale of analysis. At the household scale, there are no non renewable resources, making the calculation of the EYR and ESI impossible. In the absence of these, other ways to describe and quantify sustainability at the household/commun ity level will be explored. Methods Emergy Evaluations at the Household Scale The main objective of this chapter was to model households within large cities and small town s of different geographic regions in the U.S. to determine how similar (or different) th ey were. and Houston) in the U.S. were chosen based on the available of dat a as well as their geographical variability. For comparison, four large towns (Gainesville, FL; Ann Arbor, MI; Burlington, VT; Boulder, CO) were selected based on geographic differences that would cause climate variability relatively similar in population, with the largest being Gainesville, FL, having a population of 113,934 (US Census, 2010) and the smallest, Burlington, VT, with a population of 42,417 (US Census, 2010). Standard emergy evaluation procedures (Odum, 1996) were used for all eight evaluations. Line items in the emergy tables were determined based on the energy flows in and

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85 out of an average household. All line items were standardized in all eight evaluations so that accurate comparisons between cities and to wns could be made. Energy associated with each line item was multiplied by unit emergy values (UEVs) that were obtained or calculated from the 15.83 E24 sej/year baseline to get total emergy of each line item. Total emergy for each flow (renewable, import, export) was tabulated so that associated indices could be calculated. Data for large cities Data for the four major cities, New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston, were readily available from government sources. The U.S. Census (2010) and the America n Consumer Expenditure Survey (BLS, 2010) profiles these regions in detail, so information such as population, land area, and annual household size, salary, and expenditure can be found in government databases. Even though average household salary and expe nditure were available for the four major cities through the BLS, the same source for the four large towns was utilized so that consistent sources were used for all eight regions. Average food consumption and resulting calories were obtained through the US DA (2010, 2012). Housing data were obtained from the American Housing Survey (US Census, 2003) and RS Means (1998 ). Line items in the small town emergy evaluations were the same for cities, so similar data was collected, but data for Gainesville, Boulder, Burlington, and Ann Arbor were more difficult to find as government sources were less available for smaller regions. However data such as population size, land area, and household size were obtained from the U.S. Census (2010). As wi th the cities, average food data and calories were obtained from the USDA (USDA, 2010). Salary and consumer expenditure for each town was obtained from Applied Geographic Solutions, (2012). Applied Geographic Solutions takes data from the BLS consumer expe nditure survey (BLS, 2010) and extrapolates local salary and expenditure data by using national data and

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86 factoring in local demographics and cost of living. Energy data were obtained from either the U.S Energy Information Administration (EIA) website or lo Recycling and waste data were found through municipality websites. Calculation of Renewable Emergy I nputs During this study, it was determined appropriate to use total rain for the rain chemical potential calculation. In the past, only the rain that was transpired was used in the calculation. Instead of rain having the traditional function of providing moisture for plants to photosynthesize, the function of rain in cities is to remove dirt and debris from roofs, sidewalks, ro adways, and other impermeable surfaces. Another nuance in the renewable emergy calculations relates to land area. All renewable calculations in this study (sunlight, chemical and geo potential of rain, wind, and earth cycle) were dependent on land area wi thin the system boundary. Since households take up very little space in relation to the entire area in which they are embedded, it was more accurate to appropriate land to each household based on t the total area of the city and divided by the total popula tion of the city (US Census, 2010) multiplied by the number of people in each household (US Census, 2010). Emergy of Services The emergy in services used by households was computed from annual household expenditures multiplied by an emergy/money ratio com puted for each city. Becasue of differences in cost of living within each city relative to the average U.S. cost of living, the USA emergy/$ ratio (NEAD, 2013 ) was divided by a cost of living inflator. For example, New York 169 relative to the U.S. normalized value of 100 (BLS, 2010). Dividing 169/100 results in an inflator of 1.69, which was used to divide the USA

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87 emergy/money ratio to obtain a new emergy/$ ratio that is both local and takes into account the cost of living Emergy of Labor Wages To compute the emergy/money ratio for labor produced by each household, the total emergy required per household was divide d by the average annual wages. Calculating Support Area Emergy can be visualized as a hierarchy that conver ges and diverges to produce higher quality or more diffuse energy storages (Odum, 1995; Zhang et al., 2009a). Cities are at the top of the hierarchy as they are concentrations of emergy in the form of industry, commerce, culture, information, etc. Conseque ntly, it is then necessary to measure the environmental pressure needed to support these areas of high concentration. A way to measure emergy intensity on surrounding land is to calculate how much land area would be required to support a certain intensity, in this case a community within a city or large town. Equation 3 1 is used to calculate support area (Brown and Ulgiati, 2001): SA(r) = (F + N) / Empd(r), [ 3 1 ] Whe re, SA(r) = Renewable Support Area (m 2 ) Empd(r) = renewable empower density (sej m 2 yr 1 ) F = purchased inputs (sej yr 1 ) N = non renewable inputs (sej yr 1 ) In this study, Equation 3 2 was modified to exclude N due to households not having any non ren ewable inputs. They are supported mostly by purchased inputs and so the equation should look like this: SA(r) = F / Empd(r). [ 3 2 ]

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88 To calculate an empower density per household within each city, renewable emergy and area (m 2 ) was put on a per household basis so that the same basis was being compared. For example a household in NYC has 4.80 E1 3 sej/per year of renewable support. The area that a household occu pies was not actually the physical, but instead was computed as an average area based on the area and population of the city. First, area per capita was found by taking total area (US Census, 2010) of the region (city or town) and dividing by population ( US Census, 2010). Then, per capita area was multiplied by the average number of a people in a household for a particular region to obtain an area per household. Continuing the NYC example, the city had a population of 8,175,133 people and a land area of 78 3,834,002 m 2 (US Census, 2010). Dividing land area by people results in a per capita land area of 96.83 m 2 /person. Average household size in NYC is 2.59 people (US Census, 2010) so area associated with a household was approximately 251 m 2 To obtain househ old renewable emergy density, renewable emergy use per household was divided by the area occupied by that household. Finally, the renewable support area required was found by using the above equation and taking imported emergy of a household and dividing i t by the household renewable emergy density. This was done for all eight urban systems for comparison. Results Emergy Flows of Urban Households Tables 3 1 through 3 8 ( notes in Appendix B) give the results of emergy evalautions of households within large cities and small towns. Renewable inputs for this analysis were computed based on average household land are as as expected, renewable emergy inflows were relatively minor components of th e driving emergy of households. Of course if the support area (Brow n and Ulgiati, 19 99 ) were used as the basis for the renewable input, they would be much greater. Electricity and services dominated the purchased inputs. Per capita utility water

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89 consumption varied across cities and towns by several tens of gallons of wate r per capita per day, which between the largest and smallest household consumers equated to several thousand gallons annually. Even so, the amount of water and the small UEV for utility water resulted in very small emergy amounts (1E14 magnitude) for house holds regardless of the town or city.The emergy of labor wages dominated exports for households. Summary indices of the eight urban households are given i n Table 3 9 and summarized in Figures 3 2 Large cities were expected to differ from towns in their volume of consumption and production of goods and services because cities are thought to be a convergence of emergy (Huang et al., 2001). However, this study found that there were not drastic differences in the line item quantities and overall emergy in h ouseholds located within large cities and small towns. Emergy per capita varies only slightly among the eight communities. When adjusted for cost of living, emergy use in large cities was even closer to that of towns. Emergy per capita then was also unpred ictable in cities versus large towns, even though communities within cities had larger populations, meaning larger denominators. Emergy of Service and Labor Service and labor are a large part of em ergy evaluations of households. Service tends to dominate the emergy in imports. Shown in F igure 3 3 emergy of service comprise the majority of total emergy required to support a household, regardless of geographic location or urban vs. suburban. The Gainesville, FL households have the largest percentage of ser vi ce emergy with 73 % of the total emergy required is emergy of dollars paid for ser vice. Households in Los Angeles, CA lowest proportion of se rvice emergy to total emergy (57%.) Emergy of salary is by far the largest export of each household (Tables B 1 thr ough B 8). Other exports include solid waste, recycling, and wastewater, none of which are high quality exports and were therefore not included in export emergy.

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90 The emergy/$ ratio was calculated two diferent ways for each household in each region. Diff erences between these ratios for each urban area are shown in Figure 3 4 The emergy/$ ratio that was adjusted for cost of living (blue bars) is always smaller than the emergy/$ ratio calculated by dividing salary of a household and emergy required to suppo rt the household (red bars). It is a matter of degree to which it is smaller. For example, NYC has the smallest difference in emergy/$ ratios, while Gainesville, FL has the largest difference between emergy/$ ratios. Discussion Useful Ways to Describe Eme rgy Intensity Among Households Since most traditionally used emergy indices do not robustly describe small scales, this study focuses on ways to best describe small scales of a nalysis The following provides a guide for measurements of interest when using the emergy methodology at small scales. Percent renewable emergy Percent renewable emergy is the renewable emergy divided by total emergy used. The higher the percentage of renewable emergy used, the more sustainable or self sufficient a system would be in the absence of purchased inputs. Not unexpectedly, the percent renewable emergy for each household was nearly imperceptible, ranging f rom 1 E10 3 to 1 E10 4 in magnitude (Table 3 9). This confirms that each community is highly dependent on purchased inputs regardless of whether or not it is emb edded in a city or large town. Emergy use per capita The amount of emergy required to support households in large cities and small towns is relatively the same as shown in Table 3 9. Other studies have found a similar result: 2.20 E16 sej/person/year in the city of Beijing (Su et al., 2009); 2.20 E16 sej/person/year in the country of Italy (Ulgiati et al., 1994); 4.1E16 sej/person/year in the state of Maine (Campbell, 2008); and

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91 4.90 E16 sej/person/year in the city of Macao in 2003 (Lei and Wang, 2008). West Virginia had a slightly higher emergy per capita with 1.22 E17 sej supporting each person per year (Campbell et al., 2004). The Yang et al. (2012) study of households in an urban versus suburban location yielded eme rgy per capita values of 2.44E19 sej/person/year in XM and 3.28E18 sej/person/year in XI, respectively. Usually when a value is several orders of magnitude from a comparable value (in this case emergy per capita), the evaluation should be checked for error In this case, it is believed Yang et al. (2012) yielded higher emergy per capita values because their UEVs are higher. Emergy of service and l abor Emergy of service and labor typically tend to dominate emergy tables at small scales. This stud y is no ex ception and demonstrates the dependence that all households have on the main economy for both services and labor Emergy of service and labor is usually calculated with dollars paid for goods, services, or direct labor. This begs necessity of using the mos t appropriate emergy/$ ratio for the system under analysis. This research suggested by taking into account the local cost of living, the adjusted emergy/$ ratio would more accurately reflect the buying power of the local dollar. It appeared modifying the e mergy/$ ratio contributed to the end result of this study, which was that households in urban areas or small towns have relatively the same metabolism s and associated emergy flows. This may have not been the case, or certainly would have been less of the c ase, if the emergy/$ ratio had not been modified. For comparion, the emergy/$ ratio was calculated a second way, based on imported household emergy and annual household wages. Both emergy/$ ratios are a measure of buying power. In all cases, the emergy/$ ratio based on wages was higher than the emergy/$ ratio adjusted for cost of living, which meant in theory, more emergy per dollar could be purchased.

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92 However, wages are also regionally specific and would need to be adjusted by cost of living to more accur ately reflect buying power. Emergy density and support area r equired Emergy used per area or emergy density represents the level of development pressure imposed by a region on its environment (Zhang et al., 2009a). Emergy Density has a direct correlation w ith support area required: The higher the value, the more intensity or pressure is felt by the hinterland that supports the region. This calculation is particularly important in this study since the renewable emergy support within the systems boundary is s o minute. Not surprisingly, the empower density and therefore the support area for all eight communities is quite large (Figure 3 2 ). The household empower density spanned an order of magnitude (1E10 and 1E11) between regions. Again there did not seem to b e a distinct divide between values for cities or large towns, reinforcing the theory that at the household or community scale there are not marked differences in emergy intensity. The intensity found was similar to the average global renewable empower dens ity, which is about 0.2 E11 sej m 2 yr 1 (Brown and Ulgiati, 2001). Waste Waste is an inevitable byproduct of human consumption, regardless of scale. Households produce waste in the form of wastewater, solid waste, and recyclables that are transported else where, and many times waste is exported outside the system boundary. In this study, values for wastewater, solid waste, and recyclables were shown for each rep resentative household, but not inc luded in the export tabulation. It was expected urban househol ds would produce more waste than households in small towns since urban areas are concentrations of resources, waste should be proportionate to this consumption. As was the case with other emergy flows measured, there was no clear trend in household waste emergy (Table 3 10). Sur prisingly t he average household in New York City

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93 produces the least waste. This is a counterintuitive result because cities are thought to be greater producers of waste. Gainesville, FL was a close second least total waste generated and the highest recycling rate, an indicatation of a strong community support of producing less waste and recycling whenever possible. Los Angeles, CA and Houston, TX had the highest and second highest household waste export respectively, with the major ity of this wastewater emergy. This is an important result because both communities are experiencing water shortages and restrictions. Conclusion This study found that there were not significant differences between average households in large cities and s mall towns. Geographical variability was a parameter chosen to see if location had an effect on renewable inputs to households. Ho wever, renewable emergy input was an insignificant input to each household and so geography had little effect. As with most sm ale scale, human dominated systems such as households, emergy of service was the main driver and labor was the main export. This highlights the inescapable link to economy most households have, especially those in urban spaces. Waste byproducts (solid wast e, wastewater, recyclables) were the only other exports aside from labor. Waste can have a tremendous impact in urban regions, especially the energy that goes into removal. This study found urban areas are perhaps not as environmentally detrimental as othe r literature would suggest. However, it is suspected these same regions in which each household was embedded would have variability if the scale were increased e.g. town, city, county. In all, small scales of analysis may provide a unique set of measuremen ts and conventions from the norm, as highlighted by this research.

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94 Figure 3 1 Energy systems diagram of a generic city (Brown, 1998)

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95 A B C D Figure 3 2 Radar charts show variation betwee n eight communities based on A) T o tal emergy per capita. B) E mergy per capita (without service) C) A real empower intensity. D) R enewable support area

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96 Figure 3 3 Proportion of service emergy to total emergy in each household 0.00E+00 5.00E+11 1.00E+12 1.50E+12 2.00E+12 2.50E+12 3.00E+12 3.50E+12 Emergy/adjusted $

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97 Figure 3 4 Graph of two emergy/$ ratios, calculated ba sed on cost of living and annual household salary 1.00E+11 6.00E+11 1.10E+12 1.60E+12 2.10E+12 2.60E+12 3.10E+12 Emergy/$ Household Location Emergy/$ Ratio Emergy/$ ratio (cost of living) Emergy/$ ratio (from labor)

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98 Table 3 1. Emergy evaluation of an average household located within New York City (NYC) Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej/yr) Renewable Resources 1 Sun light 2.03E+11 J/yr 1 0.00 2 Rain, chemical 1.57E+09 J/yr 3.05E+04 0.05 3 Rain, geopotential 2.70E+06 J/yr 4.70E+04 0.00 4 Wind, kinetic energy 4.67E+08 J/yr 2.45E+03 0.00 5 Earth Cycle 3.64E+08 J/yr 5.80E+04 0.02 R= 0.05 Imports 6 Utility Water 1.77E+09 J/yr 1.84E+05 0.3 7 Eggs 4.53E+08 J/yr 9.07E+05 0.4 8 Meat 2.44E+09 J/yr 6.90E+05 1.7 9 Dairy 4.82E+09 J/yr 6.74E+05 3.2 10 Grains 3.34E+09 J/yr 3.55E+05 1.2 11 Fruit 1.38E+10 J/yr 3.55E+05 4.9 12 Vegetables 1.62E+09 J/yr 2.37E+05 0.4 13 Fats and Oils 2.14E+09 J/yr 2.00E+06 4.3 14 Propane 1.54E+11 J/yr 8.06E+04 12.4 15 Gasoline 1.97E+11 J/yr 9.02E+04 17.8 16 Electricity 2.45E+10 J/yr 2.90E+05 7.1 17 Infrastructure 3.80 m2/yr 2.06E+15 7.8 18 Infrastructure Costs 9667 $/yr 1.12E+12 10.9 19 Services 90980 $/yr 1.12E+12 102.3 Total I= 175 Exports 20 Waste 1.27E+06 g/yr 3.97E+07 0.1 21 Wastewater 1.01E+09 J/yr 3.80E+06 3.8 22 Recycling 4.93E+05 g/yr 2.26E+08 0.1 23 Labor 134492 $/yr 1.12E+12 151.2 Total E= 155

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99 Table 3 2 Emergy evaluation of an average household located withi n Chicago, IL Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej/yr) Renewable Resources 1 Sunlight 1.81E+08 J/yr 1 0.0 2 Rain, chemical 2.59E+09 J/yr 3.05 E+04 0.1 3 Rain, geopotential 2.12E+08 J/yr 4.70E+04 0.0 4 Wind, kinetic energy 6.59E+08 J/yr 2.45E+03 0.0 5 Earth Cycle 8.12E+08 J/yr 5.80E+04 0.0 R= 0.1 Imports 6 Utility Water 1.38E+09 J/yr 1.84E+05 0.3 7 Eggs 4.47E+08 J/yr 9.07E+05 0.4 8 Meat 2.41E+09 J/yr 6.90E+05 1.7 9 Dairy 4.76E+09 J/yr 6.74E+05 3.2 10 Grains 3.30E+09 J/yr 3.55E+05 1.2 11 Fruit 1.38E+10 J/yr 3.55E+05 4.9 12 Vegetables 3.83E+05 J/yr 1.60E+09 0.6 13 Fats and Oils 2.11E+09 J/yr 2.00E+06 4.2 14 Propane 2.41E+11 J/ yr 8.06E+04 19.4 15 Gasoline 2.35E+11 J/yr 9.02E+04 21.2 16 Electricity 3.52E+10 J/yr 2.90E+05 10.2 17 Infrastructure 3.64 m2/yr 2.10E+15 7.6 18 Infrastructure Costs 10381 $/yr 1.81E+12 18.8 19 Services 57022 $/yr 1.81E+12 103 Total I= 197 Expor ts 20 Waste 2.43E+06 g/yr 3.97E+07 0.1 21 Wastewater 1.57E+09 J/yr 3.80E+06 6.0 22 Recycling 1.96E+05 g/yr 2.26E+08 0.0 23 Labor 75163 $/yr 1.81E+12 136.0 Total E= 142

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100 Table 3 3 Emergy evaluation of an average household located withi n Los Angeles, CA Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej/yr) Renewable Resources 1 Sunlight 7.62E+11 J/yr 1 0.0 2 Rain, chemical 1.52E+09 J/yr 3.05E+04 0.0 3 Rain, geopotential 2.53E+07 J/yr 4.70E+04 0.0 4 Wi nd, kinetic energy 1.89E+08 J/yr 2.45E+03 0.0 5 Earth Cycle 1.37E+09 J/yr 5.80E+04 0.1 R= 0.1 Imports 6 Water 1.93E+09 J/yr 1.84E+05 0.4 7 Eggs 3.86E+08 J/yr 9.07E+05 0.4 8 Meat 2.08E+09 J/yr 6.90E+05 1.4 9 Dairy 4.11E+09 J/yr 6.74E+05 2.8 10 Grains 2.85E+09 J/yr 3.55E+05 1.0 11 Fruit 1.38E+10 J/yr 3.55E+05 4.9 12 Vegetables 1.39E+09 J/yr 2.37E+05 0.3 13 Fats and Oils 1.82E+09 J/yr 2.00E+06 3.6 14 Propane 1.27E+11 J/yr 8.06E+04 10.3 15 Gasoline 2.80E+11 J/yr 9.02E+04 25.2 16 Electrici ty 2.54E+10 J/yr 2.90E+05 7.4 17 Infrastructure 3.10 m2/yr 2.06E+15 6.4 18 Inftrastructure Cost 7995 $/yr 1.32E+12 10.5 19 Services 57675 $/yr 1.32E+12 76.1 Total I= 151 Exports 20 Waste 1.42E+06 g/yr 3.97E+07 0.1 21 Wastewater 3.06E+09 J/y r 3.80E+06 11.6 22 Recycling 6.08E+05 g/yr 2.26E+08 0.1 23 Labor 69782 $/yr 1.32E+12 92 Total E= 104

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101 Table 3 4 Emergy evaluation of an average household located withi n Houston, TX Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/ unit) (E15 sej/yr) Renewable Resources 1 Sunlight 1.59E+12 J/yr 1 0.00 2 Rain, chemical 1.23E+10 J/yr 3.05E+04 0.38 3 Rain, geopotential 1.60E+08 J/yr 4.70E+04 0.01 4 Wind, kinetic energy 1.91E 01 J/yr 2.45E+03 0.00 5 Earth Cycle 2.86E+09 J/yr 5.80E+04 0.17 R= 0.38 Imports 6 Water 1.18E+09 J/yr 1.84E+05 0.2 7 Eggs 3.86E+08 J/yr 9.07E+05 0.4 8 Meat 2.08E+09 J/yr 6.90E+05 1.4 9 Dairy 4.11E+09 J/yr 6.74E+05 2.8 10 Grains 2.85E+09 J/yr 3.55E+05 1.0 11 Fruit 3.08E+08 J/yr 3.55E+05 0 .1 12 Vegetables 1.39E+09 J/yr 2.37E+05 0.3 13 Fats and Oils 1.82E+09 J/yr 2.00E+06 3.6 14 Propane 6.24E+10 J/yr 8.06E+04 5.0 15 Gasoline 3.13E+11 J/yr 9.02E+04 28.2 16 Electricity 5.33E+10 J/yr 2.90E+05 15.4 17 Infrastructure 3.37 m2/yr 2.06E+15 6.9 18 Infrastructure Costs 7021 $/yr 2.13E+12 15.0 19 Services 56764 $/yr 2.13E+12 121 Total I= 202 Exports 20 Waste 3.11E+06 g/yr 3.97E+07 0.1 21 Wastewater 2.50E+09 J/yr 3.80E+06 9.5 22 Recycling 6.31E+05 g/yr 2.26E+08 0.1 23 Labor 70713 $ /yr 2.13E+12 151 Total E= 161

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102 Table 3 5 Emergy evaluation of an average household located withi n Ann Arbor, MI Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej/yr) Renewable Resources 1 Sunli ght 4.51E+12 J/yr 1 0.0 2 Rain, chemical 6.22E+09 J/yr 3.05E+04 0.2 3 Rain, geopotential 6.31E+08 J/yr 4.70E+04 0.0 4 Wind, kinetic energy 1.65E+09 J/yr 2.45E+03 0.0 5 Earth Cycle 2.03E+09 J/yr 5.80E+04 0.1 R= 0.2 Imports 6 Water 1.73E+09 J /yr 1.84E+05 0.3 7 Eggs 3.86E+08 J/yr 9.07E+05 0.4 8 Meat 2.08E+09 J/yr 6.90E+05 1.4 9 Dairy 4.11E+09 J/yr 6.74E+05 2.8 10 Grains 2.85E+09 J/yr 3.55E+05 1.0 11 Fruit 6.81E+08 J/yr 3.55E+05 0.2 12 Vegetables 1.39E+09 J/yr 2.37E+05 0.3 13 Fats and Oil s 1.82E+09 J/yr 2.00E+06 3.6 14 Propane 8.42E+10 J/yr 8.06E+04 6.8 15 Gasoline 1.43E+11 J/yr 9.02E+04 12.9 16 Electricity 1.15E+11 J/yr 2.90E+05 33.5 17 Infrastructure 2.52 m2/yr 2.06E+15 5.2 18 Infrastructure Costs 3791 $/yr 1.84E+12 7.0 19 Services 66261 $/yr 1.84E+12 122.2 Total I= 198 Exports 20 Waste 1.62E+06 g/yr 3.97E+07 0.1 21 Wastewater 1.73E+09 J/yr 3.80E+06 6.6 22 Recycling 1.27E+05 g/yr 2.26E+08 0.0 23 Labor 93658 $/yr 1.84E+12 172.8 Total E= 179

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103 Table 3 6 Emer gy evaluation of an average household located withi n Boulder, CO Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej/yr) Renewable Resources 1 Sunlight 4.49E+12 J/yr 1 0.00 2 Rain, chemical 3.36E+09 J/yr 3.05E+04 0.10 3 R ain, geopotential 2.21E+09 J/yr 4.70E+04 0.10 4 Wind, kinetic energy 9.52E+08 J/yr 2.45E+03 0.00 5 Earth Cycle 2.02E+09 J/yr 5.80E+04 0.12 R= 0.12 Imports 6 Utility Water 1.02E+09 J/yr 1.84E+05 0.2 7 Eggs 3.71E+08 J/yr 9.07E+05 0.3 8 Meat 2 .00E+09 J/yr 6.90E+05 1.4 9 Dairy 3.94E+09 J/yr 6.74E+05 2.7 10 Grains 2.73E+09 J/yr 3.55E+05 1.0 11 Fruit 6.53E+08 J/yr 3.55E+05 0.2 12 Vegetables 1.33E+09 J/yr 2.37E+05 0.3 13 Fats and Oils 1.75E+09 J/yr 2.00E+06 3.5 14 Propane 1.12E+11 J/yr 8.06E+ 04 9.1 15 Gasoline 1.27E+11 J/yr 9.02E+04 11.5 16 Electricity 2.68E+10 J/yr 2.90E+05 7.8 17 Infrastructure 2.42 m2/yr 2.06E+15 5.0 18 Infrastructure Costs 3596 $/yr 1.51E+12 5.4 19 Services 62451 $/yr 1.51E+12 94 Total I= 142 Exports 20 Wa ste 1.31E+06 g/yr 3.97E+07 0.1 21 Wastewater 2.16E+09 J/yr 3.80E+06 8.2 22 Recycling 5.92E+02 g/yr 2.69E+05 0.0 23 Labor 81391 $/yr 1.31E+12 106.6 Total E= 115

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104 Table 3 7 Emergy evaluation of an average household located within Burlington, VT Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej/yr) Renewable Resources 1 Sunlight 4.39E+12 J/yr 1 0.0 2 Rain, chemical 6.11E+09 J/yr 3.05E+04 0.2 3 Rain, geopotential 1.21E+09 J/yr 4.70E+04 0.1 4 Wind, kinetic energ y 1.05E+09 J/yr 2.45E+03 0.0 5 Earth Cycle 1.97E+09 J/yr 5.80E+04 0.1 R= 0.2 Imports 6 Water 1.11E+09 J/yr 1.84E+05 0.2 7 Eggs 3.72E+08 J/yr 9.07E+05 0.3 8 Meat 2.01E+09 J/yr 6.90E+05 1.4 9 Dairy 3.96E+09 J/yr 6.74E+05 2.7 10 Grains 2.74E+ 09 J/yr 3.55E+05 1.0 11 Fruit 6.56E+08 J/yr 3.55E+05 0.2 12 Vegetables 1.33E+09 J/yr 2.37E+05 0.3 13 Fats and Oils 1.76E+09 J/yr 2.00E+06 3.5 14 Propane 1.14E+11 J/yr 8.06E+04 9.2 15 Gasoline 1.60E+11 J/yr 9.02E+04 14.4 16 Electricity 2.73E+10 J/yr 2 .90E+05 7.9 17 Infrastructure 4.34 m2/yr 2.06E+15 8.9 18 Infrastructure Costs 4954 $/yr 1.51E+12 7.5 19 Services 46912 $/yr 1.51E+12 71 Total I= 128 Exports 20 Waste 1.92E+06 g/yr 3.97E+07 0.1 21 Wastewater 1.11E+09 J/yr 3.80E+06 4.2 22 Re cycling 4.31E+05 g/yr 2.26E+08 0.1 23 Labor 56223 $/yr 1.51E+12 84.8 Total E= 89.2

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105 Table 3 8 Emergy evaluation of an average household located within Gainesville, FL Note Item Data Units UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 se j/yr) Renewable Resources 1 Sunlight 9.07E+12 J/yr 1 0.0 2 Rain, chemical 1.67E+10 J/yr 3.05E+04 0.5 3 Rain, geopotential 3.57E+08 J/yr 4.70E+04 0.0 4 Wind, kinetic energy 8.37E+08 J/yr 2.45E+03 0.0 5 Earth Cycle 4.07E+09 J/yr 5.80E+04 0.2 R= 0.5 Imports 6 Utility Water 1.07E+09 J/yr 1.84E+05 0.2 7 Eggs 3.84E+08 J/yr 9.07E+05 0.3 8 Meat 2.07E+09 J/yr 6.90E+05 1.4 9 Dairy 4.09E+09 J/yr 6.74E+05 2.8 10 Grains 2.83E+09 J/yr 3.55E+05 1.0 11 Fruit 6.78E+08 J/yr 3.55E+05 0.2 12 Vegetab les 1.38E+09 J/yr 2.37E+05 0.3 13 Fats and Oils 1.82E+09 J/yr 2.00E+06 3.6 14 Propane 2.32E+09 J/yr 8.06E+04 0.2 15 Gasoline 7.62E+10 J/yr 9.02E+04 6.9 16 Electricity 4.83E+10 J/yr 2.90E+05 14.0 17 Infrastructure 3.00 m2/yr 2.06E+15 6.2 18 Infrastruc ture Costs 2164 $/yr 2.02E+12 4.4 19 Services 47591 $/yr 2.02E+12 96.2 Total I= 138 Exports 20 Waste 1.60E+06 g/yr 3.97E+07 0.1 21 Wastewater 1.07E+09 J/yr 3.80E+06 4.1 22 Recycling 7.55E+05 g/yr 2.26E+08 0.2 23 Labor 54154 $/yr 2.02E+12 10 9.5 Total E= 114

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106 Table 3 9. Summary data for A ) H ousehold s. B ) S ervice A Community Location Household Pop. Area Per Household (m2) Ren. Emergy per Household (sej) Non monetary Emergy per Household (sej) Total Emergy per Household (sej) NYC 2 .59 251 4.80E+13 6.15E+16 1.75E+17 Chicago 2.56 560 7.91E+13 7.49E+16 1.97E+17 LA 2.97 944 7.94E+13 6.41E+16 1.51E+17 Houston 2.67 1975 3.76E+14 6.55E+16 2.02E+17 Ann Arbor, MI 2.21 1398 1.90E+14 6.85E+16 1.98E+17 Boulder, CO 2.12 1390 1.17E+14 4.29E+ 16 1.43E+17 Burlington, VT 2.16 1360 1.86E+14 5.02E+16 1.29E+17 Gainesville, FL 2.2 2809 5.08E+14 3.72E+16 1.38E+17 B Community Location Emergy/$ ratio (cost of living) Emergy/$ ratio (from labor) Emergy of Service to Total Emergy Support (%) Emergy o f Imported Service to Labor Emergy NYC 1.12E+12 1.30E+12 0.65 0.75 Chicago 1.81E+12 2.71E+12 0.62 0.94 LA 1.32E+12 2.57E+12 0.57 1.12 Houston 2.13E+12 2.88E+12 0.68 0.90 Ann Arbor, MI 1.84E+12 2.11E+12 0.65 0.75 Boulder, CO 1.31E+12 1.56E+12 0.70 0.7 9 Burlington, VT 1.51E+12 2.29E+12 0.61 0.92 Gainesville, FL 2.15E+12 3.01E+12 0.73 0.93

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107 Table 3 10 Emergy of u rban h ousehold waste by products Community Solid Waste (1E15 sej) Wastewater (1E15 sej) Recycling (1E15 sej) Total (1e15 sej) NYC 3.99 3. 83 0.11 3.99 Chicago 0.10 5.98 0.04 6.12 LA 0.06 11.63 0.14 11.82 Houston 0.12 9.49 0.14 9.75 Ann Arbor 0.06 6.59 0.03 6.68 Boulder 0.05 8.19 0.00 8.25 Burlington 0.08 4.20 0.10 4.38 Gainesville 0.06 4.05 0.17 4.28

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108 CHAPTER 4 SUSTAINABLE CONSTRU CTION: EMERGY EVALUATION OF AN OFF GRID RESIDENCE Literature Review The last several chapters of this dissertation focused on sustainability at the household and community scale. It would then be remiss not to do a comprehensive evaluation of a residential building located in one of these communities. This research now shifts its focus from regional scale analysis to the analysis of sustainable infrastructure by evaluating an ecologically designed home using emergy analysis. The types of materials used, con sideration of the surrounding environmental conditions, and expected useful life of a building all contribute to sustainable infrastructure (Pulselli et al 2009). It is estimated that appr oximately 40% of all global raw resources extracted are for const ruction purposes (Roodman and Lenssen, 1995 ). Additionally, in the United States, 41% of total energy consumed was b y the building sector (DOE, 2010 ). Considering there are such great resource and energy requirements in construction, an emphasis has been p laced on determining more sustainable alternatives to traditional buildings. There is extensive literature on the topics of sustainability and sustainable development (Dale et al. 2008 ; Dutil et al. 2011 ; Mori and Christodoulou 2012 ; Parris and Kates 2 003 ; Pearce and Atkinson 1993 ). Sustainable construction aims to use environmentally friendly materials and to lower demands of both materials and energy in the construction and operation phases of the building. Sometimes, there is a tradeoff between stru ctures that are durable and structures that require less energy intensity to build, maintain, and supply energy to. A goal of sustainable construction is to maximize the and resource consumption.

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109 A negative to sustainable construction is the initial monetary investment, as green or environmentally friendly materials are typically more expensive than standard construct ion materials (Dobson et al., 2013 ). Also, being off gri d comes at a price, as initial money must be spent on alternative power systems and other specialized infrastructure. While short term, sustainable construction may appear to be the less financially viable option to standard construction, the potential lo ng term operation and maintenance savings in terms of money, materials, and energy can make the initial investment more cost effective. Sustainable construction may reduce annual utility, operation, and maintenance costs, as well as vera ll efficiency (Zhou and Lowe, 2003 ). In order to determine if a sustainably constructed house is worth the initial investment, the costs of construction must be Fifty years is consi dered an average useful life and is typically used in many evaluations ( Bribin et al., 2011 ). It is critical then to evaluate initial construction costs with costs associated with 50 years of building operation to determine if sustainable construction is a worthwhile investment. Green Building Integrated environmental accounting methods and global sustainability indicators are required to evaluate the general environmental performances of buildings because the topic of housing is greatly concerned with glo bal environmental problems, such as the use of non renewable energy, ov erexploitation of materials, exhaustion of resources, and wasting of energy (Pulselli et al., 2009 ). Part of the green building initiative is to use local, renewable materials or ones a re made of biodegradable or recycled materials. These are an ecologically responsible alternative to importing materials that may have substantial fossil fuels and service associated with their transport ( Hossai ni and Hewage 2012 ). Another initiative of t he green construction movement is to install alternative energy systems and be less dependent on grid utilities. The

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110 house under study was completely off grid, utilizing solar and hydro electricity and obtaining water from surficial aquifers. In this study it is of interest to see how living off grid effects annual operation costs of a household. Emergy and Sustainable Infrastructure Emergy is a measure of real wealth or environmental costs associated with a process (Odum, 1996 ). Emergy methodology is capab le of measuring both direct and indirect inputs of resources and services that went into making the system under study, all in the same unit, the solar emjoule (sej) (Odum 1996 ). Unit emergy values (UEVs) are the conversion factor from grams, joules, and dollars to emergy (sej). UEVs measure the quality of a product or process by determining how much emergy when into a single unit of grams, joules, or dollars. The more emergy per m 2 the higher the quality or the more emergy that went into the production o f a product or process. The inputs, storages, flows, and outputs of a building may be quantitatively evaluated using emergy Areal empower intensity (sej/m 2 ) is emergy intensity per area. As it relates to construction, areal empower intensity is a measurem ent of development, with a positive correlation between areal empower intensity and intensity of dev elopment (Brown and Reiss, 2010 ). This study was designed to evaluate an off grid home to determine how emergy intense its construction and operation was to provide a more accurate picture of sustainable Literature Review Previous studies have assessed t he environmental impacts of construction in terms of associated gre enhouse gas emissions ( Omer, 2008; Zimmerma n et al., 2005 ). Others have evaluated the building sector with Life Cycle Assessment (Ding, 2008 ; Lippiatt, 1999; Ortiz et al., 2009 ) and buildin g certifications and standards, such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) (Azhar et al., 20 11; Kibert, 2007 ). Several emergy based

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111 analyses have applied such various techniques as ecological footprint ( Bastianoni et al., 2007 ) and life cycl e assessment (Brown et al., 2012; Meillaud et al., 2005 ; Rugani and Benetto 2012 ) to determine the associated environmental costs of building materials There have been several thorough emergy evaluations of buildings. Pulselli et al., 2007 evaluated a 10,000m 3 Italian building combining residential and commercial use. This study found that the most emergy intense phase of a building (construction, main tenance, operation) on an annual basis was the construc tion phase. Meillaud et al., 2005 conducted an emergy evaluation of a 756m 2 experimental Swiss academic building. Initial materials and energy required to construct this building was not evaluated with emergy, but annual operation costs were and it was found the greatest annual emergy flow was attributed to electricity consumption. Buranakarn (1998) did extensive work evaluating the built environment using emergy methodology. Two highlights of his work that relate to this study are the following : 1. a n extensive list of UEVs was calculated for construction materials, both with and without service and 2. e valuat ion of a 981m 2 University of Florida building using emergy and calculat ing building areal empow er intensity (sej/m 2 ). Infrastructure at Ecovillage The off grid house under study is situated within an ecovillage that is located in a mountainous region just outside Asheville, North Carolina USA The property is 130 hectares with 32 residences that a nnually house a total of 66 people. The village is completely off the grid, with electricity supplied by either solar or hydro power. There is only one flush toilet in the communit y; all other waste is composted. Community bylaws require that all new house s be built south facing to increase solar gain. Most dwellings catch rainwater and are built so they do not disrupt environmental processes, such as groundwate r recharge and soil attenuation

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112 Methods The research approach of this emergy analysis was to vi sit with the builder for several months, collecting data that would become inputs into two emergy evaluations, one of the construction of the building and one of the annual operating costs of the building. Using that data, the next step was to calculate al l inputs necessary to construct an off grid, residential house and convert masses and joules of inputs into solar energy equivalents (sej). Once in the same unit, these inputs were summed to find the total emergy required for construction. It is necessary to clarify that these are not annual material, energy, and labor flows, but rather total emergy inputs required to construct the house. Total emergy needed to construct the house was divided by the area of the house to obtain an areal empower intensity, th e emergy intensity of the building (sej/m 2 ) both with and without service Next, a separate emergy evaluation determined the emergy required for annual operational costs of the building. Finally, a long term cost benefit analysis of construction and opera tion costs was done. The residential house under study was constructed over a time period of 18 months in building is a 176 m 2 two story house with two apartments withi n the structure, one on each level. Two people live in each for a total of four residents. Pokeberry resistant vapor barrier and metal lathe, which allows for stronger adherence of t wo coats of earth The foundation is concrete slab, as are the majority of the interior floors, left exposed to increase passive solar gain. A layer of e thylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) or heavy duty rubber provides a water barrier between the structure of the house and the 29 gauge metal roof. Unique features of this sustainably built house include:

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113 Advanced passive solar design : this house was built faci ng south. Photovoltaic panels : their lifetime was taken as the industry standard of 30 years, according to the recommendations provided by the IEA PVPS experts (Alsema et al. 2009 ). Specialized appliances and fixtures (Sundanzer refrigerator/freezer, Ene rgy Star Staber washing machine, 12 Volt DC coffee maker, compact florescent light bulbs (CFLs), 12 Volt DC ceiling fans) suitable to run off solar power and which are extremely energy efficient. Radiant hydronic floor heating Domestic hot water provid ed by flat plate hot water collectors. The building also has a rainwater catchment for graywater use. Cellulosic insulation : g insulation to keep annual energy cost lower. Composting toilets that do not require water to flush, thus a water savings. Earth based plasters and environmentally friendly oils used as sealants. The majority of lumber came from the land. The majority of labor came from the community Emergy Evaluation o f Pokeberry Construc tion The main builder of the house, also a resident of the community, kept an Excel spreadsheet of all inputs of materials, costs, and labor hours. Materials were grouped according to composition, e.g., wood, metal, and plastic. Quantities of materials wer e recorded, but in instances where specific weights were not known they were obtained through various databases, an arduous task, as the source of the material needed to be tracked and multiple steps of conversion applied to the data. For example, the plas tic tubing that comprised the radiant heating system was purchased in linear feet. The quantity was recorded in linear feet and t he final weight in grams was determined by finding the weight per linear foot, converting from linear feet to

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114 grams, and then e ntered into the emergy table This was done until all material, energy, and costs were accounted for in the emergy evaluation (Table 4 1) Emergy of Labor and Services When applicable, each emergy evaluation must account for service and labor. Service is l abor that was previously required to produce an input such as fuel, concrete, etc. Labor is physical work required to construct the system under study in this case by the laborers who built the Pokeberry house Most of the labor was supplied by individua ls who live within the community. In this evaluation emergy of labor was estimated by multiply ing the UEV (sej/ j ) of labor calculated for villagers ( Chapter 2 ) by the number of joules expended during labor associated with construction of the house Emergy of service was calculated by multiplying dollars paid for non labor inputs in the construction of the house by the nationa l emergy/dollar ratio (NEAD, 2008 ). Emergy Evaluation of An nual Water and Energy Requirements Annual energy and water needs for the h ouse were calculated and the raw values were inputs into the emergy evaluation of annual household operation costs. The house under study used a metered well and this was used to determine annual water consumption. There were no associated annual costs in obtaining this well water. Annual propane consumed by Pokeberry the annual operation costs in Table 4 2 The house has seven photovoltaic panels that provide the needs Annual solar electricity consumption was calculated Pokeberry receives backup power from a metered hydroelectric plant. The community char ges a fee for the use of hydroelectricity to pay for annual operational costs of the hydroelectric system and this fee was Table 4 2,

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115 Calculation of Long T erm Monetary Cost s According to the American Consumer Survey, the average annual price paid in the U.S. South for utilities and other household operation expenses was $3,898 (BLS 2011 ). Pokeberry residents spend on average $345 per year for utilities, a cost that is 1/10 of the average Southern resident. The cost of h ousehold operation associated with the useful life (50 years) of Pokeberry would be $17,250. The same 50 year cost of household operation for an average household in the U.S. South based on average annual 2011 expenditure data would be $194,900. In other w ords, over a 50 year time period, it costs 1,030 percent more to operate an average house located in the U.S. South than the off grid house in this study. The cost per square meter to build Pokeberry was $1537. This is about average for a custom house in N orth Carolina ( especially considering the cost of the photovoltaic array, hydronic radiant flooring, and other unique fe atures. An average American house costs $856.40/m 2 (NAHB, 2011 ) to construct, which would translate to $150,726 f or construction of a 176m 2 residential house the same size as Pokeberry. An average American house costs 44.3 percent less to construct than Pokeberry. Adding the initial cost of construction to the cost of operation for 50 years yielded data for a long t erm cost construction and 50 year operation cost was $287,762 as compared to an average home of the same size, which was $345,626. It is 20.1 percent more expensive to build and operate a standard construction home o ver a fifty year period. This suggests there are considerable long term financial savings associated with building a green, off grid house. Unit Emergy Values and Baseline The majority of UEVs used in this study were obtained from Odum (1996) and Buranaka rn (1998) For good analytical comparison, it is necessary that these UEVs have the same emergy baseline. The emergy baseline is the amount of emergy from solar, deep heat, and

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116 e foundation for calculating unit emergy values (Brown and Ulgiati 2010 ). In this study a baseline of 15.83E24 sej/yr. ( Odum 1996 ) was used. UEVs calculated prior to the year 2000 must be multiplied by 1.68 to be brought to the new baseline. Results a n d Discussion Emergy Evaluation of an O ff G rid House The results of the emergy evaluation of a sustainably constructed house are presented in Table 4 1 Each line item has a corresponding mass, an UEV, and an emergy value. Total emergy required to construct Pokeberry, including labor and service, was 7.77 E17 sej. Only 18% of total construction emergy was associated with the environmental work that went into producing the construction materials. The largest material input was drywall (5%), followed by lumber (3%), and concrete, cellulosic insulation, and photovoltaic panels, each contributing 2% to the total emergy required to construct the building. All other material inputs in the emergy table contributed 1% or less to the total emergy required for construct ion. Labor and service (82%) were the greatest emergy inputs to the system. The areal empower intensity without service is 8.12E14 sej/m 2 and with services and labor is 4.41E15 sej/m 2 In addition to the emergy evaluation of materials and services that we nt into constructing a 176m 2 context means energy, water, and services necessary for operation of the house. Annual Energy and Water Consumption On average Pokeberry resid ents consumed 5,846 kWh of electricity annually, or an electricity consumption was 1,462 kWh per person and on square meter basis, 33.2 kWh/m 2 In 2010, the average ann ual electricity consumption for a US residential utility customer was

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117 11,496 kWh, an average of 958 kWh per month, 62.8 kWh/m 2 (US Censu s, 2010 ), and 4,456 kWh per capita (2.58 people per household, US Cens us, 2010 ). On a per capita basis, Pokeberry reside nts consumed 129 gallons of propane per year for both heating and cooking purposes. This value falls between the average annual per capita residential propane consumption for the state of North Carolina (75 gallons) and the U.S. average (170 gallons) (EIA, 2010 ). Water demands in the Pokeberry house are also extremely low on a per capita basis, especially since there is agricultural use associated with the building. Annual total water use for the house was 36,091 gallons and annual per capita water consumpt ion was 9,023 gallons. An average American house with four residents can consume 146,000 gallons of water annually, with 70% of this number associat ed with indoor use (US EPA 2008 ). This is approximately four times more than for Pokeberry, which does not have any flush toilets, thus a potential savings 26.7% of water consumed (Americ an Water Works Association, 1999 ). The annual water consumption for the apartment buildings in Italy was 5.28 gallons per person per day associated with sanitary use and 35.4 g allons per person per day relating to heating, for a total amount of 14,848 gallons per person annually (Pulselli et al., 2007 ) Emergy Evaluation of Annual Household O peration Costs As shown in Table 4 2 solar electricity has the largest emergy input req uired for annual operation (651 1.3 E1 2 sej/yr.), followed by propane (1347.5E12 sej/yr.) and the dollars nee ded to support operation (861.7E 1 2 sej/yr.); the least emer gy required is for water at 200.1 E1 2 sej/yr. Total emergy required for operation was 9,387 .5 E1 2 sej/yr. and on a m 2 basis (176 m 2 ) 53.34 E1 2 sej/m 2/ yr Emergy of Construction Materials The emergy evaluation of Pokeberry resulted in a low ratio of embodied emergy in materials to total emergy required. Only 18% of total emergy inputs were the dire ct result of

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118 services provided by the environment to make the materials that went into constructing the house. The majority of the total emergy was labor and service provided by humans. The emergy of dollars paid for materials (service), 304E15 sej, was le ss c ompared to the emergy of labor (330E15 sej). As a general rule, new construction costs are 50% labor and 50% materials ( This study found there was slightly more emergy associated with labor, but the values are close. Sustai nable materials are often more expensive because they are either of higher quality or are made of recycled materials that require more energy and labor to further refine. They contain much labor emergy because at each increment in the refining process ther e are labor inputs to make the final output or product. Recycled materials, such as the cellulosic insulation used in the construction of Pokeberry, are often used as green alternatives. Taking a material like recycled paper and turning it into a construct ion material requires additional resource and labor inputs, thus adding more emergy inputs and raising the cost of the finished material. The environment is never paid for its services, only people are, and in some cases, it takes many dollars to turn what nature has provided into the end result, in the case, a residential house. Building A real E mpower I ntensity In Table 4 1 the results of the emergy evaluation show that Pokeberry had a higher areal s 1998 value (4.53E15 sej/m 2 vs. 2.60E15 sej/m 2 ) and a lower areal empower intensity than Buranakarn (1998) without service (8.14E14 sej/m 2 vs. 2.07E15 sej/m 2 may be explained by emergy of service an d labor comprising 82% of the entire emergy required of the entire emergy required. Pulselli et al., 2007 found that a 2,700m 2 mixed use building in Italy had 3.96 E15 sej/m 2 4.24 E15 sej/m 2 The areal empower

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119 intensities of the building are essentially the same, but in the Pulselli et al. study, human labor only accounted for 2% of total emergy required for construction. The emergy evaluat ion of the off grid house shows the majority of emergy required to construct a sustainable house is labor and service and this means there is less direct pressure on ity without service and labor (8.14E14 sej/m 2 ) reflects a low emergy intensity of the physical building structure. This suggests that on a per area basis, sustainable materials have a lower environmental impact than standard materials. Had the majority of emergy come from the construction materials themselves, there would be much more pressure put on the environment as a source of raw materials that will be further refined by human labor into more specialized materials. Previous emergy evaluations of standa rd construction buildings (B uranakarn, 1998 ; Pulselli et al., 2007 ) have found a much greater proportion of emergy associated with materials, thus suggesting standard construction is less environmentally friendly than sustainable construction. Annual Pokeb e r ry Operation Costs In general, Pokeberry required lower than U.S. average annual operational inputs. Possible reasons for low per capita water consumption were that there was a lack of flush toilets and dishwashers, combined with low flow showerheads. Sl ow drip irrigation techniques were used for agricultural practices. In terms of electricity consumption, annual values were low due to highly energy efficient appliances, lack of electricity consumption for heating and cooling purposes, and acute energy co nservation awareness and implementation. P okeberry utilized to maximize thermal gain during the winter and to minimize heat gain during the cooling season, combined with eco friendly insulation and radiant floor heating to provide thermal comfort throughout the year. Bastianoni et al., 2007 found

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120 electricity associated with heating and cooling typically comprised 50% of total demand, thus there is a highly likely saving from the lack of demand for electricity nee ded for heating and cooling. Propane consumption in Pokeberry is most likely higher than the North Carolina average because propane is heavily relied on in the house for cooking and heating hot water for the radiant floor system. This indicates that there is somewhat of an energy tradeoff for Pokeberry residents, i.e., less per capita electricity consumed means more propane per capita is The lower annual operation co sts translated to less emergy required as quantities of electricity, propane, and water were converted to emergy by multiplying the associated UEV. F uture Work Future work should focus on conducting extensive emergy evaluations of sustainable materials to assess their emergy intensities and add newly calculated UEVs to a database. Performance of materials is also critical to evaluate on a comparative basis. In addition, a thorough study of the impact of using locally sourced materials vs. imported materials on the fuel inputs to the emergy evaluation is needed. Most of the lumber use in the construction of Pokeberry was from the land, but the UEV used for lumber included transportation costs. It would be interesting to see if there would be a noticeable chan ge in the emergy evaluation had a locally based UEV been used in the study. Finally, more research needs to be done to suggest how to cut costs of sustainable materials so that they are more affordable for use in construction. Environmental accounting and sustainability indicators are of the utmost importance in assessing the environmental impact and sustainability of virtually all processes on the planet. They along with construction standards and certifications such as LEED provide tools for analyzing the building sector. There is not a consensus in the field as to which methodology is the most comprehensive method for evaluation. Emergy analysis was the main methodology

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121 used in this study because of its ability to account for quality of materials and both direct and indirect environmental impacts. Traditional construction consumes extraordinary amounts of raw resources and energy. Even more materials and energy are required for the operational phase of building use. Due to high environmental pressures of s tandard construction, more sustainable, environmentally friendly construction alternatives are sought. In addition, off grid homes enjoy energy independence from the traditional grid infrastructure and are able to harness natural elements, mainly sunlight and water to supply their energy needs. Costs of sustainable construction are usually high upfront, but pay for themselves in the long run. Conclusion This paper presents an emergy evaluation of a sustainably designed and constructed off grid residence to determine associated emergy costs of construction and annual operation It was found that it takes more initial emergy per m 2 to construct a sustainably designed house than previous evaluations of standard construction The majority of emergy required for construction of Pokeberry was in the form of labor and service. Very little emergy (18%) was associated with the materials themselves, suggesting an off grid house may be a sustainable form of construction. Also, the annual energy and water requirements an d associated dollar costs are much less than for the average U.S. household, thus a potential net emergy savings in the long run. A long term monetary cost benefit analysis found the sustainable house cost less than an average American home when both costs of construction and 50 year lifetime were considered. In future work, more must be done to 1. make sustainable construction more economical and 2. emphasize the long term monetary savings associated with oper ation cost of an off grid house

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122 Table 4 1. Eme rgy evaluation of material and labor requirements to build an off grid residence. Note Item Data Unit UEV Solar Emergy (sej/unit) (E15 sej/yr) 1 Cement 8.37E+05 g 2.42E+09 2.0 2 Concrete 4.39E+06 g 3.68E+09 16.2 3 Masonry, 8" CMU 2.29E+ 06 g 2.27E+09 5.2 4 Lumber 1.70E+07 g 1.40E+09 23.8 5 Plywood 1.22E+06 g 2.10E+09 2.6 6 Metals 1.58E+06 g 6.89E+09 10.9 7 Glass 2.19E+05 g 2.69E+09 0.6 8 Drywall 1.39E+07 g 2.64E+09 36.8 9 Cellulosic Insulation 3.41E+06 g 3.69E+09 12.6 10 Plastics 1 .46E+05 g 5.29E+09 0.8 11 Rubber 1.98E+05 g 7.22E+09 1.4 12 Lime 3.41E+04 g 1.68E+09 0.1 13 Sand 2.10E+06 g 1.68E+09 3.5 14 Clay 1.14E+06 g 3.36E+09 3.8 15 Paint 1.31E+05 g 2.54E+10 3.3 16 Furnishings 6.27E+05 g 4.86E+09 3.0 17 Water 2.25E+06 j 2.99 E+05 0.0 18 Fuel 2.14E+10 j 9.02E+04 1.9 19 Solar Panels 1.83E+11 j 7.93E+04 14.5 20 Service in Imports 1.22E+05 $ 2.50E+12 303.9 21 Labor 4.15E+09 j 7.96E+07 330.0 Emergy Intensity( Incl. labor and service) 5.15E+07 g Emergy Intensity( Incl. la bor and service) 176 sq m 4.41E+15 777 Emergy Intensity( w/out. labor and service) 4.86E+07 g Emergy Intensity( w/out.labor and service) 176 sq m 8.12E+14 143.0

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123 Table 4 2. Emergy evalu ation of annual water and energy requirements of an off grid ho use. Solar Emergy Note Item Data Units UEV (E12 sej/yr) 1 Water 6.69E+08 J 2.99E+05 200.14 2 Solar Electricity 1.94E+10 J 3.36E+05 6511.28 3 Hydro Electricity 1.67E+09 J 2.80E+05 466.85 4 Propane 1.67E+10 J 8.06E+04 1347.50 5 Service 3.45E+02 $ 2.50E+12 861.71 Total Emergy Sej 9387.47 Area 176 m2 Emergy per Area Sej/m2 53.34

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124 CHAPTER 5 S YNTHESIS The main objectives of this dissertation were to evaluate small scale, human dominated systems in terms of: 1) intentional vs. suburban 2 ) suburban vs. urban, 3) an alternative, off grid residence. Emergy analysis was the main methodology of analysis and the common theme in this dissertation was how to best describe small scale systems, especially when traditional indices may not perform as robustly at small scales. Much data was collected for this research, h owever, the real value of this work were novel methodologies developed in ligh t of research challenges faced. The following is a summary of this research. Chapter 2 Emergy Evaluation Community In all communities the greatest contributions to the next larger system are labor and information. Labor support and export may be measured and provides insightful comparisions between systems. Se rvice is a larger driver of all three communities. The two intentional communities strive to use less resources per capita, and in most instances they were successful in terms of standard ruberics of measurement such as less use of gallons of water or kilo watt hours of electricity. However, none of the communities could escape making purchases from the main economy and emergy methodology quantified how this interaction outweighted other resource conservation efforts. Chapter 3 Understanding Urban Household Metabolism Using the Emergy Methodology Using the emergy methodology suggested there was not a significant difference between suburban and urban households

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125 Emergy dollar ratios based on local cost of living should be calculated and multiplied by dollar flows in order to accurately reflect the buying power of that region This methodology is a way of dealing with inflation/deflation of a region. Chapter 4 Sustainable Housing: Emergy Evaluat e The UEV calculated for an off grid ho use was greater than the previously calculated (Burana karn, 1998). Cost of material and labor were higher per unit, but quantities of materials were smaller per m 2 Emergy costs associated with constructing an off grid residence may be larger at the outset, but may have a long term savings of emergy associated with maintenance and annual use. Human Systems : Intentional vs. Suburban Urban vs. Suburban Chapters 2 and 3 explored small scales of anal ysis using emergy methodology. In C hapter 2 commun ities were analyzed and C hapter 3 households. In both studies, scale posed a problem with meanifully describing and comparing each systems. However, modes of comparsion were made and suggested for future analysis. The compelling end result was that there w ere not significant differences between intentional communities and an aveage suburban neighborhood and households located within large cities and small towns. A possible reason for this is because money is still very much part of they system regardless o f intentional, suburban, or urban. Humans all need to support the larger scales they are embedded within with their labor and consumerism. Labor and Education Labor and education are two flows that are persistent in human dominated systems. Labor is direct ly calculated by either salary o r joules. In future evaluations, perhaps by taking the average of labor emergy calculated by salary and calculated in joules would yield the most

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126 accurate value for emergy of labor. Also, distinguishing between physical and intellectual labor may have some interesting implications in future emergy evaluations. Measuring is a bit abstract and the calculation has not yet been perfected. Odum (1996) suggested treating education as a c o product and dividing the emergy of the nation by the energy of each education class. By default, people with higher education, such as college and above, have higher UEVs calculated in this manner because there are fewer people in this education class, t herefore fewer joules were expended, and a smaller divisor is applied to annual emergy driving a nation. However, this calculation is fairly generic for each education class. Not all education is of the same quality and learning occurs even when not in a f ormal educational setting. Therefore, to mitigate this point, emergy of more comprehensive. In Chapter 2 the emergy that would result from using this uniquely calculated UEV was shown in two community emergy tables but were not included in the emergy evaluation calculations. Quantifying how much emergy a person has in terms of education, knowle dge, and value is an area of emergy methodology that deserves more exploration. Scale Matters A common theme throughout this dissertation was how scale effected emergy calculations, indices, and other considerations. Where the emergy systems boundary was drawn determined whether emergy was a flow or storage, an import, export, or internal process. At the community level, internal processes that are not calculated included agricultural production, forestry production, and labor. However, if we scaled down t o the household level, everything would be treated as in import or export U nless a resident solely worked from home and therefore their labor would not be considered an export. If the scale is too small, some emergy

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127 indices, such as the Emergy Yield Rati o (EYR) and Sustainability Index (SI) are not calculable because there are no nonrenewable inputs into the system. This study suggested ways of providing meaningful decriptions using the emergy methodology.

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128 APPENDIX A SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 2 Table A 1. Standard Systems Diagram Symbols with brief descriptions (adapted from Figure Odum, 1996) Energy Systems Diagramming Symbols Energy circuit: A pathway whose flow is proportional to the quantity in the storage or source upstream. Source: Outside sou rce of energy delivering forces according to a program controlled from outside; a forcing function. Tank: A compartment of energy storage within the system storing a quantity as the balance of inflows and outflows; a state va riable. Heat sink: Dispersion of potential energy into heat that accompanies all real transformation processes and stora ges; loss of potential energy from further use by the system. Interaction: Interactive intersection of two pathways coupled to produce an outflow in proportion to a function of both; cont rol action of one f low on another; limiting factor action; workga te. Consumer: Unit that transforms energy quality, stores it, and feeds it back autocatalytically to improve inflow.

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129 Table A 1 Continued Producer: Unit that collects and transforms low quality energy under control interactions of high quality fl ows. Box: Miscellaneous symbol to use for whatever unit or function is labeled. Transaction: A unit that indicates a sale of goods or services (solid line) in exchange for payment of money (dashed line). P rice is shown as an external source.

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130 T able A 2. Intentional community survey administered to residents to determine flows and storages for two intentional communities Community Survey Part I Demographics: Age: Gender: Earthaven Membership Status: Highest Education achieved: Current Occupatio n (please note within or outside of Earthaven): Do you own a business? If so, how many are employed (please note full or part time)? Are most of the operations of the business contained within Earthaven? Average Number of Hours per week working within Comm unity: Average Number of Hours per week working outside of Community: Housing/Infrastructure: How long have you lived at Earthaven? Where have you lived since moving here? Current Neighborhood: Specific House Name: Do you have a rough to accurate estima te of how much materials went into the building of your dwelling? If so, would you be willing to have me contact you about calculating material amounts? Do you own or rent? How Many Related People live with you? Unrelated? Total Square Footage of Dwellin g: Number of Solar Panels on Dwelling: Estimated use of Solar Power per week? Do you use power from micro hydro? If so, how much per year (in cost and kWhs) Any other source of power? Water Source: Estimated Average Weekly water use (in gallons) for: Washi ng dishes/ clothes___ Bathing____ Watering grounds/ Gardens____ What do use to cook on?

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131 Table A 2 Continued What type of fuel does this appliance use? How much fuel is used for cooking per month: Do you have a refrigerator? Age and size of refrigerator: W here were the major appliances obtained from? How long have/will you keep your major appliances? Monthly Consumption (in dollar amounts, unless otherwise noted) Please estimate how much is spent per month on the following. Vehicle fuel: Food for home: Per centage of food consumed that is grown at Earthaven_______ Percentage of food purchased from the outside__________ What percentage of food you consume is organic? Food eating out (dollar amount): Number of outings per month: Alcohol: Clothing: Housewa res: Housing rent: Housing own: Housing operation: Recreation: Entertainment outside the home: Entertainment inside the home: Childcare: Other Disposable goods: Other (please name): Annual (yearly) household expenditures (Dollar amounts): Please estimate how much is spent per year on the following. Medical/wellness: Savings/ Insurance:

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132 Table A 2 Continued Education: Vehicle maintenance: Home improvement/ Construction materials: Appliances: Investment: Furniture: How long have/will you keep your curren t furniture: Other: Transportation Total round trip commute to work: How many days per week? Annual estimated number of miles for travel outside of work: Vehicles available per household: Miles per gallon fuel efficiency per vehicle: Part II Two Week Food Journal Please track food type and quantity for each meal over a two week time frame. Indicate source of food and whether or not it is organic (If multiple ingredients make up a dish, then consider it organic if 50% or more of the ingredients are or ganic)

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133 Table A 3 Notes to Table 2 1 Note Item Data Units Source RENEWABLE RESOURCES: 1 SOLAR ENERGY: Land Area = 1.29E+06 m^2 Data Collected Insolation = 9.64E+01 Kcal/cm^2/yr Albedo = 0.20 (% given as decimal) Energy (J) = (area incl shelf)*(avg insolation)*(1 albedo) = (____m^2)*(____Cal/cm^2/y)*(E+04cm^2/ m^2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal) = 4.17E+15 J/yr UEV= 1 sej/J Definition, Odum, 1996 2 RAIN, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 1.29E+06 m^2 Data Collected Rain (land) = 0.90 m/yr NCDC, 2011 Evapotrans rate= 0.72 m/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 1959) Energy (land) (J)= (area)(Evapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(1000kg/m^3 )*(4.94E 3J/kg) = 4.59E+12 J/yr UEV= 3.05E+04 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 3 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: Area = 1.29E+06 m^2 Data Collected Rainfall = 0.90 m NCDC, 2011 Avg. Elev = 50.00 m Data Collected Run off rate = 0.20 % Section 6, pg 241 Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff)(avg elevation)(gravity)

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134 Table A 3 Continued = (____m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(1000kg/m^ 3)*(___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 1.14E+11 J/yr UEV= 4.7 0E+04 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 4 WIND ENERGY: Area = 1.29E+06 m^2 Data Collected Density of Air = 1.30E+00 kg/m^3 Section 6, pg 260 Avg. annual wind velocity = 4.12E+00 mps NCDC, 2011 Geostrophic wind = 6.87E+00 mps observed winds ar e about 0.6 of geostrophic wind Drag Coeff. = 1.00E 03 Section 6, pg 260 Energy (J) = (area)(air density)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) = (_____m^2)(1.3 kg/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(______mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) Energy(J) = 1.70E+13 J/yr UEV= 2.45E+0 3 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 5 EARTH CYCLE Land Area = 1.29E+06 m^ 2 Data Collected Heat flow = 1.45E+06 J/m^ 2 Sclater, 1980 in Odum, 1996 Energy (J) = (area)(Heat flow) Energy (J) = (____m2)(1.00E6 J/m2) = 1.87E+12 J/yr UEV= 5.80E+04 sej/J Odum, 2000, Folio #2 INDIGENOUS RENEWABLE ENERGY 6 HYDROELECTRICITY: Kilowatt Hrs/yr = 5256.00 KwH/yr Data Collected Energy (J) = (Energy production)(energy content) Section 19, pg 583 Energy (J) = (____KwH/yr)*(3.6 E6 J /KwH) = 1.89E+10 J/yr UEV= 2.80E+05 sej/J Odum, 1996, pg. 305, Does not include service 7 SOLAR ELECTRICITY=

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135 Table A 3. Continued Kilowatt Hrs/yr = 5.07E+04 KwH/yr Data Collected Energy (J) = (Energy production)(energy conte nt) Section 19, pg 583 Energy (J) = (____KwH/yr)*(3.6 E6 J/KwH) = 1.83E+11 J/yr UEV= 3.36E+05 sej/J Odum, 1996, pg. 157 includes service 8 HUMANURE: (___g/person/day)(#peopl e)(365 days) mass(g) per capita per day= 45.00 g Data Collected numbe r of people= 66.00 Data Collected Mass (g) = 1.08E+06 g/yr UEV= 1.14E+04 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 9 AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: (__lbs of fruits)(ave calories in fruit per gram)*(454 g/lb)+(__lbs of vegetables)*(ave calories in fruit per gram)*( 454 Fruit/ Vegetable Production = g/lb) Data Collected fruits/vegetables Calories = 5.05E+06 Kcal Calories per 100g vegetable and fruits (USDA, 2012) Energy (J) = 2.11E+10 J/yr Data Collected egg Production (__calories of eggs)*(4187 J/Cal ) Calories per egg (USDA, 2012) Calories= 2.50E+06 Data Collected Energy (J) = 1.05E+10 J/yr Total Ag. Production Calories = 3.16E+10 UEV= 3.36E+05 sej/J Brown and McClanahan 1996 10 LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION: Meat Annual Production = (Total Calories)(4187 J/Cal) Total Meat Calories= 3.22E+06 Data Collected Annual Consumption, J = 1.35E+10 J/yr Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012) Annual Dairy = (Total Calories)(41 87 J/Cal) Total Dairy Calories= 2.74E+06 Data Collected Annual consumption, J = 1.15E+10 J/yr Calories per 100 grams of dairy were obtained by averaging the calories of 4 dairy sub categories (USDA, 2012)

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136 Table A 3. Continued Total Annual Livestock production(Meat+Dairy), J= 2.50E+10 J/yr UEV= 3.36E+06 sej/J Brown and McClanahan, 1996 11 WATER EXTRACTION = 5.43E+05 gal/yr Data Collected Energy (J)= (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) = 1.01E+10 J/yr UEV= 2.72E+05 sej/J Odum et al., 1998 NONRENEWABLE RESOURCE USE FROM WITHIN THE COMMUNITY 12,13 TOPSOIL AND SOM: Harvested cropland = 8.09E+03 m 2 Data collected Soil loss = 8.40E+02 g/m 2 /yr Bloodworth and Berc, 1997 Average organic content (%) = 3 % Odum, 1996 Energy (J) = (__ g/m 2 /yr)*( __ m 2 )*(% organic)*(5.4 Kcal/g)(4186 J/Kcal) = 4.61E+09 J/yr Mass (g) = 6.80E+06 g/yr UEV SOIL= 1.68E+09 sej/g Odum, 1996 UEV SOM= 7.40E+04 sej/J Brown and Bardi, 2001, folio #3 14 CLAY (Earth) mass ( g) = ((___tons)*(907184.74 g/ton))/50 tons= 7.32E+02 tons/yr Data Collected mass( g)= 1.33E+07 g/yr UEV= 3.36E+09 sej/g Odum, 1996, pg. 310, no service 15 FUELWOOD PRODUCTION: Fuelwood Prod = 4.71E+01 m^3 Data Collected Energy (J) = (Tot al production)(energy content) Section 24, pg 689 Energy (J) = (____ m^3)(0.5E6g/m^3)(3.6 kcal/g)(80%)(4186 J/kcal) = 2.84E+11 J/yr Data Collected UEV= 2.21E+04 sej/J Romitelli, 2000

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137 Table A 3. Continued 16 FOREST EXTRACTI ON Harvest = 5.47E+01 m^3 Data Collected Energy (J) = (Total production)(energy content) Section 24, pg 689 Energy (J) = (____ m^3)(0.5E+06 g/m^3)(80%)(3.6 kcal/g)(4186 J/kcal) = 3.29E+11 J/yr UEV= 2.21E+04 sej/J Romitelli, 2000 17 LABOR ((___person hours/yr)*2500 Kcal/day)*(4186 J/Kcal)/24 person hours/day)) J= person hours= 3.35E+04 hrs/yr Data Collected J= 1.46E+10 J/yr UEV= 1.11E+08 sej/J This study IMPORTS OF OUTSIDE ENERGY SOURCES: FOOD a nd AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 18 Egg Annual Consumption = (Total Calories)(4187 J/Cal) Total Calories 1.29E+06 Kcal/yr Average Annual consumption collected in situ; Calories per egg (USDA, 2012). J= 5.40E+09 J/yr UEV= 9.07E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams 2002, folio #4, modified to not include service 19 Meat Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4187 J/Cal) Total Meat Calories= 8.55E+06 Kcal/yr Average Annua l consumption colleced in situ; Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging cal ories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.58E+10 J/yr UEV= 6.90E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, used transformity for beef, modified to not include labor and service 20 Dairy Annual consumption = (Total Calo ries)(4187 J/Cal) total Dairy Calories= 2.11E+07 Kcal/yr Average Annual consumption collected in situ; Calories per 100 grams of dairy were obtained by averaging the calories of 4 dairy sub categories (USDA, 2012).

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138 Table A 3. Continued Annual consumpt ion, J = 8.83E+10 J/yr UEV= 6.74E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, used transformity for milk, modified to not include service or labor 21 Grains Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4187 J/Cal) Total Grain Calories 2.17E+07 Kcal/yr Averag e Annual consumption collected i n situ; Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 9.08E+10 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al. (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 22 Fruit Annual Consumption= (Total Calor ies)(4187 J/Cal) Total Fruit Calories= 4.42E+06 Kcal/yr Average Annual c onsumption collected in situ); Calories per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.85E+10 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al. (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transform ity for fruits, grains 23 Vegetable Annual Consumption= (Total Calories)(4187 J/Cal) Total Vegetable Calories= 6.17E+06 Kcal/yr Average Annual consumption collected in situ; Calories per 100g vegetable (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.59E+10 J /yr UEV= 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000 24 Fats and Oils Annual Consumption= (Total Calories)(4187 J/Cal) Total Fats and Oils Calories= 1.75E+07 Kcal/yr Average Annual consumption collected in situ; Calories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 7.33E+10 J/yr UEV= 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 25 Propane = Energy (J) = (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) liters= 1.56E+04 L/yr Data Collected gallons= 4.11E+03 gal/yr J= 5.34E+11 J/y r

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139 Table A 3. Continued UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 26 Gasoline = 3.18E+04 gal/yr Data Collected Annual energy= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) Annual energy, J= 4.13E+12 J/yr UEV= 9.02E+04 Sej/J Odum, 1996, Accounting pg. 308 Table C 2, does not include service 27 Solar Panels, J= Annual energy = (__)m2 solar panels *1.60E10 J/m2 Brown et al., 2012 m2= 2.21E+02 m^2 Data Collected Energy, (J) = 1.18E+11 J//yr UEV= 7.93E+04 sej/J Brown et al 2012 28 Construction Cement Mass (g) = (___cy)(540lb/cy)(454g/lb) Buranakarn, 1998 CY= 2.34E+02 cy/yr Data Collected mass (g) = (total weight) / (50 years) Total weight = 5.73E+07 g mass (g) = 1.15E+06 g/yr UEV= 2.42E+09 sej/g Burnakarn, 1998 pg. 139, modified to not inclu de service. 29 Construction Metals mass (g) = (total weight) / (50 years) lbs = 2.69E+04 lbs Data Collected Mass (g) = 1.22E+07 g mass (g) = 2.45E+05 g/yr UEV= 6.89E+09 Sej/g Buranakarn, 1998, pg. 142, used UEV for Steel, EAF process, C onventional, without service 30 Construction lumber Energy, J = ((___bf/yr)*(3lbs/bf)*(454 g/lb)*(5kcal/g)*(4186 J/kcal)) / (50 years) bf= 4.36E+04 bf Data Collected Energy, J= 1.24E+12 J Energy, J/yr = 2.48E+10 J/yr

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140 Table A 3. Continued UEV= 6.69E+04 sej/J Buranakarn, 1998, pg. 143, used UEV for lumber without services 31 PLYWOOD sf= 8.48E+03 ft^2 Data Collected ENERGY (J)= (___ sq. feet. 3/4 inch basis/3lbs/sq.ft)*(454g/lb) *(5Kcal/g)*(4186g/Kcal)/ 50 = 4.83E+09 J/yr UEV= 1. 01E+05 sej/J Buranakarn, 1998, pg. 143, used hardwood plywood with service 32 Gypsum drywall mass (g) = (1.4 lbs/sf)(85382.72sf)(454g/lb)/50 sf= 3.84E+04 ft^2 Data Colelcted mass (g) = 4.89E+05 g/yr UEV= 2.64E+09 sej/g Burnakarn, 1998; pg. 14 0, does not include service 33 Cellulosic Insulation (made from 85% recycled paper fibers) Mass, (g) ((____ lbs)*(454g/lb)/50 lbs= 4.24E+06 lbs Data Collected Mass, (g) 3.85E+07 g/yr UEV= 2.47E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 34 Straw Mass(g)= ((__lbs)*(454 g/lb))/50 lbs = 1.16E+04 lbs Data Collected Mass(g)= 1.05E+05 g/yr UEV= 6.86E+04 sej/g Campbell et al., 2004 35 Lime (Ca0)= 10% raw material mass(g)= (0.1*(___lbs)*(454g/lb))/50 lbs= 1.61E+04 lbs Data Collected mass (g)= 1.46E+04 g/yr UEV= 1.68E+09 sej/g Odum, 1996; without service 36 gravel Mass (g) = ((___tons)*(907184.74 g/ton))/50

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141 Table A 3. Continued tons= 2.90E+03 tons Data Collected Mass (g) = 5.26E+07 g/yr UEV= 2.24E+09 sej/g Campbell et al., 2 004 37 Sand mass( g)= ((___tons)*(907184.74 g/ton))/50 tons= 2.28E+02 tons Data Collected mass( g)= 4.13E+06 sej/g UEV= 1.68E+09 sej/g Odum, 1996 38 PLASTICS Mass(g)= ((____ lbs/yr)*(454g/lb))/50 lbs= 7.24E+06 lbs Data Collected mas s(g)= 6.57E+07 g/yr UEV= 5.29E+09 sej/g Buranakarn 1998, pg. 143, Used Plastics (USA) without service 39 RUBBER Mass(g)= ((____ lbs)*(454g/lb))/50 lbs= 1.26E+04 lbs Data Collected mass( g)= 1.14E+05 g/yr UEV= 7.22E+09 sej/g Odum et al., 1987 40 Glass (float, sheet, plate) sq. ft= 1.79E+03 ft^2 Data Collected Mass (g) = (__sq.ft)*(1.64lb/sq.ft. 1/8")*(454g/lb) = 2.67E+04 g/yr UEV= 2.69E+09 sej/g Buran a karn, 1998, pg. 143, used flat glass without servic e 41 SERVICE IN IMPORTS electronics and appliances ((Ave.Dollar Value)*(number of households))/Turnover Time Total Value= 7.20E+04 USD Data Collected Turnover time= 7.40E+00 yrs Data Collected Annual, $= 9.73E+03 USD Disposable Goods (Dolla r Value)/Turnover Time

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142 Table A 3. Continued Annual $= 1.60E+05 USD Data Collected Turnover time= 1.00E+00 yr Data Collected Dollar Value= 1.60E+05 USD Data Collected Finished materials ((Ave.Dollar Value)*(number of households))/Turnover Time T otal Value= 2.08E+04 USD Data Collected Turnover time= 6.20E+00 yrs Data Collected Annual $= 3.35E+03 USD Data Collected Food+Alcohol 3.04E+05 USD Data Collected Gasoline and propane 1.25E+05 USD Data Collected Construction Materials 2.78E+04 USD Data Collected Machinery 1.35E+04 USD Data Collected Office Operation 2.11E+03 USD Data Collected Business Purchases 3.17E+04 USD Data Collected Total Dollar Value= 6.77E+05 USD Data Collected UEV= 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000 42 Other Services fr om Outside Health Care 1.04E+05 USD Data Collected Education 2.77E+04 USD Data Collected Legal Services 1.35E+03 USD Data Collected Total Dollar Value= 1.34E+05 USD Data Collected UEV= 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000 43 Government Service Pro perty Taxes 9.00E+03 USD Data Collected Personal Income Tax 2.95E+05 USD Data Collected Garbage and Recycling Removal 1.10E+03 USD Data Collected Fire Prevention 1.00E+03 USD Data Collected Total Dollar Value = 3.06E+05 USD Data Collected U EV= 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000 44 LABOR

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143 Table A 3. Continued J= ((___person hours/yr)*2500 Kcal/day)*(4186 J/Kcal)/24 person hours/day)) person hrs/yr= 1.57E+04 hrs Data Collected J= 6.86E+09 J/yr UEV= 1.11E+08 sej/J This Study Reused Materi al 45 PLYWOOD(MDF) RECYCLED= 4.11E+04 ft^2 Data Collected ENERGY (J)= (___ sq. feet. 3/4 inch basis/3lbs/sq.ft)*(454g/lb) *(5Kcal/g)*(4186g/Kcal)/ 50 = 2.34E+10 J/yr UEV= 1.12E+05 sej/J Buranakarn, 1998 46 Construction lumber Mass, g = ((___bf/yr)*(3lbs/bf)*(454 g/lb) / (50 years) bf= 8.71E+03 bf Data Collected ENERGY (J)= 2.37E+05 J/yr UEV= 2.97E+09 sej/J Buranakarn, 1998, pg. 143, used UEV for recycled lumber, without service 47 Glass (float, sheet, plate) sq. ft= 1.3 0E+03 ft^2 Data Collected Mass (g) = ((__sq.ft)*(1.64lb/sq.ft. 1/8")*(454g/lb))/50 = 1.93E+04 g/yr UEV= 1.29E+10 sej/g Buranakarn Dissertation, 1998, pg.143, Used float glass without service EXPORTS OF ENERGY, MATERIALS AND SERVICES 48 LIVESTOCK, MEAT Energy(J)= (Total meat calories)(4186 J/Cal)

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144 Table A 3. Continued Meat Exports Calories = 1.61E+05 Kcal/yr Average Annual weig ht of export colleced in situ; Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Energy (J) = 6.74E+08 J/yr UEV= 3.36E+06 sej/J Brown and McClanahan, 1996 49 Milled Lumber= Energy (J) = (Total production)(energy content) Data Collected Energy (J) = (____ m^ 3)(0.5E6g/m^3)(3.6 kcal/g)(80%)(4186 J/kcal) 1.13E+00 m^3 Data Collected Energy (J) = 6.83E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.21E+04 sej/J Romitelli, 2000 50 WASTE= (pounds of garbage per week)*(52 weeks/year)*(454g/lb) This Study lbs= 1.56E+04 lbs Data Collected g= 7.08E+06 g/yr UEV= 3.97E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 51 RECYCLING= (___lbs)(454g/lb) lbs= 2.39E+04 lbs Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000, UEV is Average of glass, aluminum, plastic UEVs g= 1.08E+07 g/yr UEV= 2.26E+08 sej/g Average of glass, al uminum, plastic transformities, Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 52 SERVICES IN EXPORTS: Livestock, Meat 2.86E+03 USD Data Collected Milled Lumber: 1.12E+04 USD Data Collected Herbs 5.62E+04 USD Data Collected Useful Plants Nursery 8.81E+04 USD Data Co llected Total Dollar Value = 1.58E+05 USD Data Collected 53 UEV= 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000

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145 Table A 3. Continued LABOR, J= ((___person hours/yr)*2500 Kcal/day)*(4186 J/Kcal)/24 person hours/day)) person hours/yr= 2.46E+04 hr/syr Data Collected J/yr= 1.07E+10 J/yr UEV= 1.11E+08 sej/J Calculated this study 54 LABOR, $= Annual Community Salary= 9.46E+05 USD Data Collected UEV= 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000 55 INFORMATION, J ((___person hours/yr)*2500 Kcal/day)*(4186 J/Kcal)/24 person hou rs/day)) person hours 1.88E+04 hrs/yr Data Collected J= 8.21E+09 J/yr UEV= 1.21E+09 sej/J Calculated This Study 56 Information, $ Annual Community Salary= 6.30E+05 USD Data Collected UEV= 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000

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146 Table A 4. N otes to Table 2 2 Note Item Data Unit Source RENEWABLE RESOURCES: 1 Land Area = 1.82E+04 m^2 Data Collected Insolation = 9.64E+01 Kcal/cm^2/yr Albedo = 0.20 (% given as decimal) Odum, 1996 Energy(J) = (area incl shelf)*(avg insola tion)*(1 albedo) = (____m^2)*(____Cal/cm^ 2/y)*(E+04cm^2/m^2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal) = 5.88E+13 J/yr UEV = 1 sej/J Definition, Odum, 1996 2 RAIN, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 1.82E+04 m^2 Dat a Collected Rain (land) = 0.90 m/yr NCDC, 2010 Evapotrans rate= 0.72 m/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 1959) Energy (land) (J)= (area)(Evapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(100 0kg/m^3)*(4.94E3J/kg) = 6.48E+10 J/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 1959) UEV = 3.05E+04 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 3 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: Area = 1.82E+04 m^2 Data Collected Rainfall = 0.90 m NCDC, 2010 Avg. Elev = 50.00 m USGS, 2013 Runoff rate = 0.20 %

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147 Table A 4. Continued Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff)(avg elevation)(gravity) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(10 00kg/m^3)*(___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 1.61E+09 J/yr Section 6, pg 241 UEV = 4.70E+04 se j/J 4 WIND ENERGY: Area = 1.82E+04 m^2 Data Collected Density of Air = 1.30E+00 kg/m^3 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Avg. annual wind velocity = 2.00E 03 mps Geostrophic wind = 3.33E 03 mps Drag Coeff. = 1.00E 03 Section 6, pg 260 Ener gy (J) = (area)(air density)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) Average selected cities = (_____m^2)(1.3 kg/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(______mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) Energy(J) = 2.75E+01 J/yr UEV = 2.45E+03 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 5 EARTH CYCLE Land Area = 1.82E+04 m^ 2 Data Collected Heat flow = 1.45E+06 J/m^ 2 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Energy (J) = (area)(Heat flow) Energy (J) = (____m2)(1.00E6 J/m2) Sclater, 1980 in Odum, 1996 = 2.64E+10 J/yr UEV = 5.80E+04 sej/J Odum, 2000, F olio #2 INDIGENOUS RENEWABLE ENERGY: 6 Solar Electricity, J= Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 6.07E+03 KWh Data Collected Annual energy, J = 2.19E+10 J/yr

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148 Table A 4. Continued UEV = 3.36E+05 sej/J Odum, 1996, pg. 157, includes servi ce IMPORTS: 7 UTILITY WATER= Annual consumption = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 4.10E+05 gal/yr Data Collected Annual consumption, J = 7.66E+09 j/yr UEV = 1.84E+05 sej/J Buenfil, 2000, 8 Egg Consumption = (Total Calories)( 4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 9.19E+05 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per egg (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.84E+09 J/yr UEV = 9.07E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, modified to not incl ude service 9 Meat Consumption (Meats +Fish) = (Total Calories of meat and fish)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 8.74E+06 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories f or beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.66E+10 J/yr UEV = 6.90E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2001, folio #4, used UEV for beef, modified to not include labor and service 10 Dairy Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Ca l) Total Calories= 1.91E+07 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100 grams of dairy were obtained by averaging the calories of 4 dairy sub categories (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 7.98E+10 J/yr UEV = 6.74E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2001, folio #4, used UEV for milk, modified to not include service or labor 11 Grains Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.38E+07 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from US DA (2000); Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012).

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149 Table A 4. Continued Annual consumption, J = 5.79E+10 J/yr UEV = 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al. (2004) (15.83 baseline) UEV for fruits, grains 12 Fruit Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal ) Total Calories= 3.31E+06 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.38E+10 J/yr UEV = 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al. (2004) (15.83 baseline) UEV for fruits, g rains 13 Vegetables Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 6.73E+06 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100g vegetable (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.82E+10 J/yr UEV = 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000 14 Fats and Oils Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 8.87E+06 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.71E+10 J/yr UEV = 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 15 Natural Gas Annual energy, J = (therms) (1.055 E8 J/therm) Therms = 1.01E+04 therms/yr Data Collected Annual energy, J = 1.06E+12 J/yr UE V = 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 16 Gasoline, J= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) Gallons= 1.81E+04 gal/yr Data Collected Annual energy= 2.35E+12 J/yr UEV = 9.02E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996, pg. 308, does not include service 17 Electricity, J=

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150 Table A 4. Continued Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 4.89E+04 Kwh/yr Data Collected Annual energy = 1.76E+11 J/yr UEV = 4.87E+05 sej/J Odum, 1996, average from several types of power plants, does not include service 18 Construction Concrete, g= mass (g) = (_____cy)(540lb/cy)(454g/lb) Buranakarn, 1998 CY= 3.54E+03 cy Data Collected total weight(g)= 8.34E+07 g mass (g) = (total weight)/(50 years) mass (g) = 1.67E+06 g/yr UEV= 3.68E+09 sej/g Burnakarn Dissertation, 1998 pg. 142, cement with fly ash, does not include service. 19 Construction Metals (only rebar) mass (g) = (__lbs) (454g/lb) / (50 years) lbs= 4.59E+04 lbs Data Collected mass (g) = 4.17E+05 g/yr UEV= 6.89E+09 sej/g Buranakarn, 1998, pg. 142, used UEV for Ste el, EAF process, Conventional, without service 20 Plastic PEX, g= (__lbs)(454g/lb)/(50 years) lbs= 3.68E+03 lbs g= 3.34E+04 g/yr UEV = 5.29E+09 sej/g Buranakarn, 1998, pg. 187, does not include service 21 Foam Insulation (polyurathayne plastic) mass (g) = (__lbs)(454g/lb)/(50 years) lbs= 5.93E+04 lbs Data Collected mass (g) = 5.38E+05 g/yr 22 UEV = 5.29E+09 sej/g Buranakarn, 1998, pg. 187, does not include service Construction Siding

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151 Table A 4. Continued mass (g) = (__lbs) (45 4g/lb) / (50 years) lbs= 1.29E+05 lbs Data Collected mass (g) = 5.85E+07 g mass (g) = 1.17E+06 g/yr UEV = 1.00E+09 sej/g Dong et al., 2007 23 Construction drywall mass (g) = Weight=(1.4 lbs/sf)(85382.72sf)(454g/lb) sf= 1.06E+05 sf Data Collected mass (g) = 6.73E+07 g total mass/50= 1.35E+06 g/yr UEV = 2.64E+09 sej/g Buranakarn, 1998 pg. 140, does not include service 24 Asphalt Shingles mass (g) = (__lbs) (454g/lb) / (50 years) lbs= 2.19E+05 lbs Data Collected mass(g)= 1.98E+06 g/yr UEV = 4.74E+08 sej/g Bjorklund et al., 2001 25 Construction lumber Energy, J = ((___bf/yr)*(3lbs/bf)*(454 g/lb)*(5kcal/g)*(4186 J/kcal)) / (50 years) bf= 1.30E+05 bf Data Collected J= 7.42E+10 J/yr UEV= 6.69E+04 sej/J Burana karn, 1998, pg. 143, used UEV for lumber without services 26 Glass (float, sheet, plate) sq. ft= 1.59E+03 ft^2 Data Collected Mass (g) = (__sq.ft)*(1.64lb/sq.ft. 1/8")*(454g/lb) = 2.37E+04 g/yr UEV = 2.69E+09 sej/g Bura nakarn, 1998, pg.143 Used flat glass without service 27 Solar Panels, J= Annual energy = (__)m2 solar panels *1.60E10 J/m2/ 30 years Brown et al., 2012 m2= 4.65E+01 m^2 Data Collected

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152 Table A 4. Continued Energy, (J) = 2.48E+10 J/yr UEV = 7.9 3E+04 sej/J Brown et al., 2012 28 SERVICE IN IMPORTS= appliances, ave. $ per household= 4.40E+03 USD Data Collected $= 1.06E+05 USD Data Collected Turnover Time(average)= 5.25 yr Data Collected Total Value, Annually 1.32E+04 USD Disposable G oods $= 2.30E+05 USD Data Collected Turnover Time(average)= 1.00E+00 yr Data Collected Dollar Value= 2.30E+05 USD Data Collected Finished materials, $ per household 8.60E+03 USD Data Collected $= 2.06E+05 USD Data Collected Turnover Time(av erage)= 7.00 yr Data Collected Total Value, Annually 2.95E+04 USD Food+Alcohol 4.38E+05 USD Data Collected Gasoline 6.39E+04 USD Data Collected Utilities 2.21E+04 USD Data Collected Construction Materials 3.95E+04 USD Data Collected Total Valu e, Annually 8.36E+05 USD UEV = 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000 29 Services from Outside Health Care 2.00E+05 USD Data Education 6.36E+04 USD Bank services= 7.55E+04 USD Data Collected Total Value, Annually 3.39E+05 USD Data Collected UEV = 1.93 E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000

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153 Table A 4. Continued 30 Government Service Property Taxes 4.94E+04 USD Data Collected Personal Income Tax 4.22E+05 USD Data Collected Garbage and Recycling Removal 2.37E+03 USD Data Collected Total Value, Annually 4.74E+05 USD UEV = 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000 EXPORTS : 31 Solid Waste, tons per capita 0.42 tons/capit a Data Collected number of people= 46.00 Data Collected Total garbage (g)= (garbage tons)(907184.74 g/ton)(46 people) Total garbage (g)= 1.75E+07 g /ry UEV = 3.97E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 32 Annual Wastewater exportation = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 4.10E+05 gal/yr Data collected Annual Wastewater exportation, J = 7.66E+09 J/yr UEV = 3.80E+06 sej/J Bjorklund, 2000 33 RECYCLING= (___lbs)(454g/lb) lbs= 2.01E+04 lbs Data Collected mass(g)= 9.15E+06 g/yr UEV = 2.26E+08 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000, Average of glass, aluminum, plastic UEVs 34 LABOR J= ((___person hours/yr)*2500 Kcal/day)*(4186 J/Kcal)/24 person hours/day)) person hrs= 2.96E+04 hrs Data Collected J= 1.29E+10 J/yr UEV = 2.23E+08 sej/J This Study

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154 Table A 4. Continued 35 LABOR, $= Annual Community Salary= 6.10E+05 USD Data Collected UEV= 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000 36 Informa tion (Consulting), J= J= ((___person hours/yr)*2500 Kcal/day)*(4186 J/Kcal)/24 person hours/day)) person hrs= 4.68E+04 hrs Data Collected J= 1.17E+08 J/yr UEV = 1.92E+10 sej/J This Study 37 Information (Consulting), $= Annual Community Salary= 1.82E+06 USD Data Collected UEV= 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000

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155 Table A 5. Notes to Table 2 3 Note Item Data Unit Source RENEWABLE RESOURCES: 1 SOLAR ENERGY: Land Area = 2.46E+04 m^2 Buncombe County, n.d. Insolation = 9.64E+01 Kcal/cm^2/yr Albedo = 2.00E 01 (% given as decimal) Odum, 1996 Energy(J) = (area incl shelf)*(avg insolation)*(1 albedo) = (____m^2)*(____Cal/cm^2/y)*(E+04cm^2/m^ 2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal) = 7.94E+ 13 J/yr UEV = 1.00E+00 sej/J Definition, Odum, 1996 2 RAIN, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 2.46E+04 m^2 Buncombe County, n.d. Rain (land) = 9.00E 01 m/yr NCDC, 2010 Evapotrans rate= 7.20E 01 m/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 19 59) Energy (land) (J)= (area)(Evapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(1000kg/m^3)*(4.94E3J/ kg) = 8.75E+10 J/yr UEV = 3.05E+04 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 3 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: Area = 2.46E+ 04 m^2 Buncombe County, n.d. Rainfall = 9.00E 01 m NCDC, 2010 Avg. Elev = 5.00E+01 m USGS, 2013 Runoff rate = 2.00E 01 %

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156 Table A 5 Continued Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff)(avg elevation)(gravity) = (___ _m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(1000kg/m^3)* (___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 2.17E+09 J/yr Section 6, pg 241 UEV = 4.70E+04 sej/J 4 WIND ENERGY: Area = 2.46E+04 m^2 Buncombe County, n.d. Density of Air = 1.30E+00 kg/m^3 Odum et al., 2000, Folio # 1 Avg. annual wind velocity = 2.00E 03 mps Geostrophic wind = 3.33E 03 mps Drag Coeff. = 1.00E 03 Section 6, pg 260 Energy (J) = (area)(air density)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) Average selected cities = (_____m^2)(1.3 kg/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(____ __mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) Energy(J) = 3.72E+01 J/yr UEV = 2.45E+03 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 5 EARTH CYCLE Land Area = 2.46E+04 m^ 2 Buncombe County, n.d. Heat flow = 1.45E+06 J/m^ 2 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Energy (J) = (a rea)(Heat flow) Energy (J) = (____m2)(1.00E6 J/m2) Sclater, 1980 in Odum, 1996 = 3.57E+10 J/yr UEV = 5.80E+04 sej/J Odum, 2000, Folio #2 IMPORTS 6 UTILITY WATER= Annual consumption = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 1.30E+0 6 gal/yr City of Asheville Water Resources, 2011

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157 Table A 5 Continued Annual consumption, J = 2.43E+10 j/yr UEV = 1.84E+05 sej/J Buenfil, 2000 7 Egg Consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.34E+06 kcal/yr Average Annual consump tion per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per egg (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 5.59E+09 J/yr UEV = 9.07E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, modified to not include service 8 Meat Consumption (Meats +Fish) = (Total Calories of mea t and fish)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.44E+07 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 6.0 3E+10 J/yr UEV = 6.90E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2001, folio #4, used UEV for beef, modified to not include labor and service 9 Dairy Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 2.84E+07 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er ca pita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100 grams of dairy were obtained by averaging the calories of 4 dairy sub categories (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 7.98E+10 J/yr UEV = 6.74E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2001, folio #4, used UEV for milk, mo dified to not include service or labor 10 Grains Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.97E+07 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USD A (2000); Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 5.79E+10 J/yr UEV = 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al. (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 11 Fruit Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 4.71E+06 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from US DA (2000); Calories per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.38E+10 J/yr

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158 Table A 5 Continued UEV = 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al. (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 12 Vegetables Annual consumption = (Total Calori es)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 9.58E+06 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100g vegetable (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.82E+10 J/yr UEV= 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000 13 Fats and Oils Annual cons umption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.26E+07 kcal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.71E+ 10 J/yr UEV = 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 14 Natural Gas Annual energy, J = (therms) (1.055 E8 J/therm) Therms = 8.68E+03 therms/yr BLS, 2010 Annual energy, J = 9.16E+11 J/yr UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 15 Gasoline, J= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) Gallons= 1.89E+04 gal/yr EPA, 2010a Annual energy, J= 2.46E+12 J/yr UEV= 9.02E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996, pg. 308, does not include service 16 Electricity, J= Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 3.35E+05 BLS, 2010 Annual energy, J = 1.20E+12 J/yr UEV= 4.87E+05 sej/J Odum 1996 average from several types of power plants, does not include service 17 Construction Concrete, g= mass (g) = (_____cy)(540lb/cy)(454g/lb) CY= 2.21E+04 NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/sf; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2

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159 Table A 5 Continued total weight(g)= 5.41E+09 mass (g) = (total weight)/(50 years) mass (g) = 1.08E+08 g/yr UEV= 3.68E+09 sej/g Burankarn, 1998, pg. 142 18 Construction Metals (only rebar) mass (g) = (__lbs) (454g/lb) / (50 years) lbs= 2.98E+06 NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/cy; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2 mass (g) = 2.71E+07 g/yr UEV= 6.89E+09 sej/g Buranakarn, 1998, pg. 142, used UEV for Steel, EAF process, Conventional, without service 19 Plastics mass (g) = (__lbs)(454g/lb)/(50 years) ducts, lbs 3.47E+03 NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/sf; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2 Insulation, lbs= 9.48E+04 mass (g) = 8.93E+05 g/yr UEV = 5.29E+09 sej/g Burankarn, 1998, pg. 143, Used Plastics (USA) without s ervice 20 Construction Siding mass (g) = (__lbs) (454g/lb) / (50 years) lbs= 1.66E+05 NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/sf; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2 mass (g) = 1.51E+06 mass (g) = 3.02E+04 g/yr UEV= 1.00E+09 sej/g Dong et al., 2007 21 C onstruction drywall mass (g) = Weight=(2 sides) (10 lbs/sf)(85382.72sf)(454g/lb)/50 sf= 1.89E+05 ft^2 NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/sf; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2 mass (g) = 3.43E+07 g/yr NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/sf; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2 UEV = 2.64E+09 sej/g Buranakarn, 1998, pg. 140 does not include service 22 Asphalt Shingles mass (g) = (__lbs) (454g/lb) / (50 years) lbs= 1.33E+05 NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/sf; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2

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160 Table A 5 Continued mass (g)= 1.21E+06 g/yr UEV = 4.74E+08 sej/g Bjorklund et al., 2001 23 Construction lumber Energy, J = ((___bf/yr)*(3lbs/bf)*(454 g/lb)*(5kcal/g)*(4186 J/kcal)) / (50 years) Framing, bf= 3.12E+05 bf/yr NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/sf; Buncombe County, n. d used for ft^2 Hardwood Flooring, lbs= 1.78E+12 lbs/yr NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/sf; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2 J= 2.14E+11 j/yr UEV= 6.69E+04 sej/J Buranakarn, 1998, pg. 143, used UEV for lumber without services 24 Glass (float, sheet, plat e) sq. ft= 4.29E+03 ft^2 NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/sf; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2 Mass (g) = (__sq.ft)*(1.64lb/sq.ft. 1/8")*(454g/lb)/50 = 6.38E+04 g/yr NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/sf; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2 UEV = 2.69E+09 sej/g Buranakarn, 1998, pg.143 Used flat glass without service 25 SERVICE IN IMPORTS= Food+Alcohol 2.51E+05 USD BLS, 2008 used for average proportion of income spent on this category in the South Gasoline 1.16E+05 USD BLS, 2008 used for average proportion of income spent on this category in the South Water, Electricity, Phone, Garbage, and Recycling 1.54E+05 USD BLS, 2008 used for average proportion of income spent on this category in the South Appliances and Electronics 5.79E+0 4 USD BLS, 2008 used for average proportion of income spent on this category in the South Disposable Goods= 1.74E+05 USD BLS, 2008 used for average proportion of income spent on this category in the South Finished materials (furniture and decorations) 5.79E+04 USD BLS, 2008 used for average proportion of income spent on this category in the South Construction (Materials+Labor) 5.76E+04 USD Data Collected Total Value, Annually 8.68E+05 USD UEV = 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000 26 Other Services from Ou tside Healthcare 1.16E+05 USD BLS, 2008 used for average proportion of income spent on this category in the South

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161 Table A 5. Continued Education 3.86E+04 USD BLS, 2008 used for average proportion of income spent on this category in the South Bank Service (Mortgage/Rent) 8.82E+04 USD BLS, 2008 used for average proportion of income spent on this category in the South Total Value, Annually 2.43E+05 USD BLS, 2008 used for average proportion of income spent on this category in the South UEV = 1.93E+ 12 USD NEAD, 2000 27 Government Service Cost of Roads and Sidewalks 3.31E+04 USD NAHB, 2004 used for lbs/cy and $/cy; Buncombe County, n.d used for ft^2 Property Taxes 3.79E+04 USD BLS, 2008 Personal Income Tax 3.36E+05 USD BLS, 2008 Total Valu e, Annually 4.07E+05 USD UEV = 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD,2000 EXPORTS: 28 Solid Waste, tons per capita 3.10E 01 tons/capita Buncombe County, 2012 number of people= 6.40E+01 US Census, 2010 Total garbage (g)= (garbage tons)(907184.74 g/ton)(46 people) Total garbage (g)= 1.29E+07 UEV= 3.97E+07 Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 29 Annual Wastewater exportation = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 1.30E+06 Same as Water Consumed Annual Wastewater exportation, J = 2.43E+10 j/yr UEV= 3.80E+06 sej/j Bjorklund, 2000 30 RECYCLING= (___tons)(907184.74g/ton)(64 people) tons= 5.76E+00 tons/capita Buncombe County, 2012 mass(g)= 5.23E+06 g/yr UEV= 2.26E+08 sej/g Average of glass, aluminum, plastic transformities, (Luchi and Ulgiati, 2 000)

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162 Table A 5. Continued 31 LABOR J= ((___person hours/yr)*2500 Kcal/day)*(4186 J/Kcal)/24 person hours/day)) person hrs= 1.02E+05 Data Collected J= 4.45E+10 UEV = 1.06E+08 This Study 32 LABOR Average Salary Per Capita 3.78E+04 US D BLS, 2011 # of Adults 5.10E+01 Census, 2010 Total Salary= 1.93E+06 USD UEV= 1.93E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2000

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163 Table A 6 Summary emergy flows and indices of three communities Index EYR ELR SI Renewable Emergy Nonrenewable Emergy Imported Emergy F ormula U/(I+I2) (I+I2)/R EYR/ELR R N F+G+P2I Ecovillage 1.06 11.34 9.17 E 02 1.40E+17 6.99E+16 2.5 2E+18 Cohousing 1.00 1451.19 6.91 E 04 1.98E+15 N/A 2.21 E+18 Suburban 1.00 1767.75 5.66 E 04 2.67E+15 N/A 3.46 E+18 Index Total Emergy In flows Total Emergy Used Total Exported Emergy Fraction emergy used from home Imports Exports Exports to Imports Formula R+N+F+G+P2I N+R+F+G+P2I P1E (N+R)/U (F+G+PI+P2) (N2+P1E) (P1E)/(F+G+P1+P2) Ecovillage 3.74 E+18 2.72E+18 3.35 E+18 0.10 2.11E+16 0.99 C ohousing 3.79 E+18 3.79 E+18 4.69E+18 2.46 E 03 2.83E+18 1.24 Suburban 4.72 E+18 4.72 E+18 3.72E+18 5.65 E 04 9.94 E+02 0.79 Index Fraction used, locally renewable Fraction of used, purchased Fraction Imported Service Fraction of "Free" Use Ratio of concentrated to rural Empower Density Formula (R+R1)/U (F+G+P1+P2)/U (P1+P2)/U (R+N0)/U (F+G+P1+P2)/(R+N0) U/(area ha) Ecovillage 0.06 0.90 0.58 0.06 16.05 2.90 E+16 Cohousing 0.0005 1.00 0.84 5.21 E 04 1913.53 2.08 E+18 Suburban 0.0006 1.00 0. 62 5.65 E 04 1767.65 1.92 E+18

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164 Table A 6 Continued Index Emergy per Capita Renewable carrying capacity Developed carrying capacity Ratio of electricity to total use Emergy of fuel, per capita Community Labor UEV Formula U/population (R/U) (population) 8(R/U)(population) (el)/U fuel/population U/Energy of Community Labor Ecovillage 5.67 E+16 2.5 20 0.02 6.30 E+15 1.11 E+0 8 Cohousing 8.24 E+16 0.02 0.2 0.03 6.09E+15 2,23 E+08 Suburban 7.37 E+16 0.04 0.3 0.12 4.62 E+15 1.06E+08 Key: R=renewable, R1=indigenous renewable, N=nonrenewable from within, N0=dispersed rural source, N1=concentrated use, N2=exported without use, F=imported fuels, G=imported goods, I=dollars paid for imports, I2=dollars paid for other services, P1=emergy of services in imported goods and fuels, P2=emergy of other services supporting community, E=dollars received for exports, P1E=emergy value of goods and service exports, U= total emergy used (R+N+I+I2

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165 APPENDIX B SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 3 Table B 1. Notes for Table 3 1 Note Item Data Unit s Source RENEWABLE 1 SOLAR ENERGY Land Area = 2.51E+02 m^2 Census, 2010 Insolation = 9.64E+01 Kcal/cm^2/yr Albedo = 0.80 (% given as decimal) Odum, 1996 Energy(J) = (area)*(avg insolation)*(1 albedo) = (__ __m^2)*(____Cal/cm^2/y)*(E+04cm^2/m^2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal) = 2.03E+11 J/yr UEV= 1 sej/J Definition, Odum 1996 2 RAIN, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 2.51E+02 m^2 Census, 2010 Rain (land) = 1.27 m/yr NCDC, 2010 Evapotrans rate= 1.01 m/yr Energy (land) (J)= (area)(Evapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(1000kg/m^3)*(4.94E3J/kg) Odum, 1996 = = 1.57E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.05E+04 se//J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 3 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: Area = 2.51E+02 m^2 Census, 2010 Rainfall = 1.27 m NCDC, 2010 Avg. Elev = 4.33 m USGS, 2013

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166 Table B 1 Continued Runoff rate = 0.20 % Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff)(avg elevation)( gravity) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(1000kg/m^3)*(___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 2.70E+06 J/yr UEV= 4.70E+04 sej/J [Odum, 2000, Folio #1] 4 WIND ENERGY: Area = 2.51E+02 m^2 Census, 2010 Density of Air = 1.30E+00 kg/m^3 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Avg. annual wind velocity = 5.36E+00 mps NCDC, 2011 Geostrophic wind = 8.93E+00 mps observed winds are about 0.6 of geostrophic wind Wind velocity absorbed= 3.57E+00 mps Drag Coeff. = 1.00E 03 Section 6, pg 260 En ergy (J) = (area)(air density)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) Average selected cities = (_____m^2)(1.3 kg/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(______mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) Energy(J) = 4.67E+08 J/yr (Miller, 1964 quoted by Kraus, 1972) UEV= 2.45E+03 sej/J Odum et al., 20 00, Folio #1 5 EARTH CYCLE Land Area = 2.51E+02 m^2 Census, 2010 Heat flow = 1.45E+06 J/m^2 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Energy (J) = (area)(Heat flow) Energy (J) = (____m2)(1.00E6 J/m2) Sclater, 1980 in Odum, 1996 = 3.64E+08 J/yr U EV= 5.80E+04 sej/J [Odum, 2000, Folio #2] IMPORTS 6 Utility Water= Annual consumption = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 1.04E+05 gal/yr City of New York, 2010 Annual consumption, J = 1.77E+09 J/yr

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167 Table B 1 Continued UEV= 1.84 E+05 sej/J Buenfil, 2000, includes service 7 Egg Consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.08E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per egg (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 4.53E+08 J/ yr UEV= 9.07E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, modified to not include service 8 Meat Consumption (Meats +Fish) = (Total Calories of meat and fish)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 5.83E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USD A (2010); Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.44E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.90E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, used transformity for beef, modified to not include labor and service 9 Dairy Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.15E+06 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 grams of dairy were obtained by averaging the calories o f 4 dairy sub categories (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 4.82E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.74E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, used transformity for milk, modified to not include service or labor 10 Grains Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(418 6 J/Cal) Total Calories= 7.97E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.34E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al. (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 11 Fruit Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.91E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.38E+10 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al. (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains

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168 Table B 1 Continued 12 Vegetables Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 3.88E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is fro m USDA (2010); Calories per 100g vegetable (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.62E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000, includes service 13 Fats and Oils Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 5.11E+05 Cal/yr Ave rage Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.14E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 14 Natural Gas Annual energy, J = (therms) (1.055 E8 J/therm) Therms = 1455.06 therms/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 1.54E+11 J/yr UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 15 Gasoline, J= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) Gallons= 1518.2 gal/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy= 1.97E+11 J/yr UEV= 9.02E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996, Accounting pg. 308 Table C 2, does not include service 16 Electricity, J= Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 6.79E+03 kWh/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy = 2.45E+10 J/yr UEV= 2.90E+05 sej/J Odum 1996 average from several types of power plants, does not include service 17 Infrastructure Average m2/50 yrs= 3.80E+00 m^2/yr NAHB, 2011 UEV= 2.06E+15 sej/m^2 Buranakarn, 1998

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169 Table B 1 Continued 18 Cost of Construction Materials sf= 1.64E+03 ft^2 NAHB, 2011 cost/sf= 2.95E+02 USD NAHB, 2011 Cost/50 years 9.67E+03 USD 19 Services= $86,238 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 Property Taxes= 4,742 USD BLS, 2009, Median Real Estate Taxes Paid Total Value, Annually= $90,980.00 USD UEV= 1.12E+ 12 USD Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013 EXPORTS 20 Solid Waste, lbs per capita 1077.48 lbs/yr Waste and Recycling News, 2011 number of people per household= 2.59 people/household Census 2010 Total household garbage (g)= (lbs of garbage)(454 g/lb) (2.59 people) Total household garbage (g)= 1.27E+06 g/yr UEV= 3.97E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 21 Annual Wastewater exportation = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 1.0 4E+05 gal/yr *Same as imported utility water Annual Wastewater, J = 1.01E+09 J/yr Transformity= 3.80E+06 sej/J Bjorklund, 2000 22 RECYCLING= (___lbs)(454g/lb) lbs= 419.02 lbs/capita Waste and Recycling News, 2011 number of people= 2.59 people/ho usehold US Census, 2010 mass(g)= 4.93E+05 g/yr UEV= 2.26E+08 sej/g Average of glass, aluminum, plastic transformities, (Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000) 23 LABOR Average Salary Per Household 1.34E+05 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 UEV= 1.12E+1 2 sej/$ Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013

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170 Table B 2 Notes for Table 3 2 Note Item Data Units Source RENEWABLE 1 SOLAR ENERGY: Land Area = 5.60E+02 m^2 US Census, 2010 Ins olation = 9.64E+01 Kcal/cm^2/yr Albedo = 8.00E 01 (% given as decimal) Odum, 1996 Energy(J) = (area)*(avg insolation)*(1 albedo) = (____m^2)*(____Cal/cm^2/y)*(E+04cm^2/m^2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal) = 1.81E+08 J/yr UEV= 1.00E+00 sej/J Definition, Odum 1996 2 RAIN, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 5.60E+02 m^2 US Census, 2010 Rain (land) = 9.37E 01 m/yr NCDC, 2010 Evapotrans rate= 7.50E 01 m/yr Energy (land) (J)= (area)(E vapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(1000kg/m^3)*(4.94E3J/kg ) Odum, 1996 = 2.59E+09 J/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 1959) UEV= 3.05E+04 se//J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 3 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: Area = 5.60E+02 m^2 US Census, 2010 Rainfall = 9.37E 01 m NCDC, 2010 Avg. Elev = 2.06E+02 m USGS, 2013 Runoff rate = 2.00E 01 % Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff)(avg elevation)(gravity)

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171 Table B 2 Continued = (____m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(1000kg/m^3)*(___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 2.12E+08 J/yr UEV= 4.70E+04 sej/J [Odum, 2000, Folio #1] 4 WIND ENERGY: Area = 5.60E+02 m^2 US Census, 2010 Density of Air = 1.30E+00 kg/m^3 Odum et al., 2000, Fol io #1 Avg. annual wind velocity = 4.60E+00 mps NCDC, 2011 Geostrophic wind = 7.67E+00 mps observed winds are about 0.6 of geostrophic wind Wind velocity absorbed= 3.07E+00 mps Drag Coeff. = 1.00E 03 Section 6, pg 260 Energy (J) = (area)(air de nsity)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) Miller, 1964 quoted by Kraus, 1972 = (_____m^2)(1.3 kg/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(______mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) Energy(J) = 6.59E+08 J/yr 5 UEV= 2.45E+03 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 EARTH CYCLE Land Area = 5.60E+02 m^ 2 US Census, 2010 Heat flow = 1.45E+06 J/m^ 2 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Energy (J) = (area)(Heat flow) Energy (J) = (____m2)(1.00E6 J/m2) Sclater, 1980 in Odum, 1996 = 8.12E+08 J/yr UEV= 5.80E+04 sej/J [Odum, 2000, Folio #2] IMP ORTS 6 UTILITY WATER= Annual consumption = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 7.36E+04 gal/yr Dziegielewski, 2009 Annual consumption, J = 1.38E+09 J/yr UEV= 1.84E+05 sej/J Buenfil, 2000, includes service 7 Egg Consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal)

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172 Table B 2 Continued Total Calories= 1.07E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per egg (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 4.47E+08 J/yr UEV= 9.07E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, modified to not include service 8 Meat Consumption (Meats +Fish) = (Total Calories of meat and fish)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 5.76E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 grams of meat were o btained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.41E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.90E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, used transformity for beef, modified to not include labor and service 9 Dairy Annual co nsumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.14E+06 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 grams of dairy were obtained by averaging the calories of 4 dairy sub categories (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 4.76E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.74E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, used transformity for milk, modified to not include service or labor 10 Grains Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 7.88E+05 Cal/yr Ave rage Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.30E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 11 Fruit Annual consumpti on = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.88E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.38E+10 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15. 83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 12 Vegetables Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal)

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173 Table B 2 Continued Total Calories= 3.83E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g vegetable (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.60E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000 13 Fats and Oils Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 5.05E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Cal ories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.11E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 14 Natural Gas Annual energy, J = (therms) (1.055 E8 J/therm) Therms = 2.29E+03 therm s/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 2.41E+11 J/yr UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 15 Gasoline, J= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) Gallons= 1.80E+03 gal/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy= 2.35E+11 J/yr UEV= 9.02E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996, Accounting pg. 308 Ta ble C 2, does not include service 16 Electricity, J= Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 9.78E+03 kWh/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy = 3.52E+10 J/yr UEV= 2.90E+05 sej/J Odum 1996 average from several types of power plants, does not include se rvice 17 Infrastructure Average m2/50 yrs= 3.64 m^2/yr NAHB, 2011 UEV= 2.06E+15 sej/m^2 Buranakarn, 1998 SERVICE IN IMPORTS=

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174 Table B 2 Continued 18 Cost of Construction Materials sf= 1988.88 ft^2 NAHB, 2011 cost/sf= 260.97 USD NAHB, 2 011 Cost/50 years 10380.75 USD 19 Services= 57022.00 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 Property Taxes 3494.00 USD BLS, 2009, Median Real Estate Taxes Paid Total Value, Annually 6.05E+04 USD UEV= 1.81E+12 USD Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013 EXPORTS 20 Solid Waste, lbs per capita 2088 lbs/yr Waste and Recycling News, 2011 number of people per household= 2.56 people/household Census, 2010 Total household garbage (g)= (lb s of garbage)(454 g/lb) (_ people) Total household garbage (g)= 2.43E+06 g/yr UEV= 3.97E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 21 Annual Wastewater exportation = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 7.36E+04 gal/yr Same as imported utility wate r Annual Wastewater exportation, J = 1.57E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.80E+06 sej/J Bjorklund, 2000 22 RECYCLING= (___lbs)(454g/lb) lbs= 168.74 lbs/capita Waste and Recycling News, 2011 number of people= 2.56 people/household Census, 2010 mass(g)= 1.96E+05 g/yr UEV= 2.26E+08 sej/g Average of glass, aluminum, plastic transformities, (Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000) 23 LABOR Average Salary Per Household Total Salary= 7.52E+04 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 UEV= 1.81E+12 sej/$ Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013

PAGE 175

175 Table B 3 Notes for Table 3 3 Note Item Data Units Source RENEWABLE 1 SOLAR ENERGY Land Area = 9.44E+02 m^2 Census, 2010 Insolation = 96.4 Kcal/cm^2/y r Albedo = 0.8 (% given as decimal) Odum, 1996 Energy(J) = (area)*(avg insolation)*(1 albedo) = (____m^2)*(____Cal/cm^2/y)*(E+04cm^2/m^2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal) = 7.61865E+11 J/yr UEV= 1 sej/J D efinition, Odum 1996 2 RAIN, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 9.44E+02 m^2 Census, 2010 Rain (land) = 0.326 m/yr NCDC, 2010 Evapotrans rate= 0.2608 m/yr Energy (land) (J)= (area)(Evapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = ( ____m^2)*(____m)*(1000kg/m^3)*(4.94E3J/kg) Odum, 1996 = 1.52E+09 J/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 1959) UEV= 3.05E+04 se//J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: 3 Area = 9.44E+02 m^2 Census, 2010 Rainfall = 0.326 m NCDC, 2010 Avg. Elev = 42 m USGS, 2013 Runoff rate = 0.2 % ( percent, given as a decimal ) Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff)(avg elevation)(gravity) Section 6, pg 241 (____m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(1000kg/m^3)*(___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 2.53E+07 J/yr

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176 Table B 3 Continued UEV= 4.70E+04 sej /J WIND ENERGY= 4 Area = 9.44E+02 m^2 Census, 2010 Density of Air = 1.3 kg/m^3 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Avg. annual wind velocity = 2.55 mps NCDC, 2011 Geostrophic wind = 4.25 mps observed winds are about 0.6 of geostrophic wind Wind ve locity absorbed= 1.7 mps Drag Coeff. = 0.001 Section 6, pg 260 Energy (J) = (area)(air density)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) Average selected cities = (_____m^2)(1.3 kg/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(______mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) Energy(J) = 1.89E+08 J/yr Mi ller, 1964 quoted by Kraus, 1972 UEV= 2450 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 5 Earth Cycle Land Area = 9.44E+02 m^ 2 Census, 2010 Heat flow = 1450000 J/m^ 2 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Energy (J) = (area)(Heat flow) Energy (J) = (____m2 )(1.00E6 J/m2) Sclater, 1980 in Odum, 1996 = 1.37E+09 J/yr UEV= 5.80E+04 sej/J Odum, 2000, Folio #2 IMPORTS 6 Utility Water= Annual consumption = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 1.03E+05 gal/yr LADWP, 2011 Annual consumption J = 1.93E+09 J/yr UEV= 1.84E+05 sej/J Buenfil, 2000 7 Egg Consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.24E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Annual consumption, J = 5.19E+08 J/yr Calories per egg (USDA, 2012).

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177 Table B 3 Continued UEV= 9.07E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], modified to not include service 8 Meat Consumption (Meats +Fish) = (Total Calories of meat and fish)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 6.69E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Annual consumption, J = 2.80E+09 J/yr Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). UEV= 6.90E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], us ed transformity for beef, modified to not include labor and service 9 Dairy Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.32E+06 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Annual consumption, J = 5.52E+09 J /yr Calories per 100 grams of dairy were obtained by averaging the calories of 4 dairy sub categories (USDA, 2012). UEV= 6.74E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], used transformity for milk, modified to not include service or labor 10 Grains Ann ual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 6.80E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Annual consumption, J = 2.85E+09 J/yr Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012). UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 11 Fruit Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 2.19E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Annual consumption, J = 1.38E+10 J/yr Calo ries per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 12 Vegetables consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 4.45E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capit a is from USDA (2010); Annual consumption, J = 1.86E+09 J/yr Calories per 100g vegetable (USDA, 2012). UEV= 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000

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178 Table B 3 Continued 13 Fats and Oils Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 5.86E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Annual consumption, J = 2.45E+09 J/yr Calories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). UEV= 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 14 Natural Gas Annu al energy, J = (therms) (1.055 E8 J/therm) Therms = 1.21E+03 therms/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 1.27E+11 J/yr UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 15 Gasoline, J= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) Gallons= 2.15E+03 gal/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 2.80E+11 J/yr UEV= 9.02E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996, Accounting pg. 308 Table C 2, does not include service 16 Electricity, J= 0.00E+00 Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 7065.63 kWh/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 2.54E+10 J/yr UEV= 2.90E+05 sej/J Odum 1996 average from several types of power plants, does not include service 17 Infrastructure Average m2/50 ysr= 3.10 m^2/yr NAHB, 2011 UEV= 2.06E+15 sej/m^2 Buranakarn Dissertation, 1998 SERVICE IN IMPORTS= 18 Cost of Constructio n Materials sf= 1667.00 ft^2 NAHB, 2011 cost/sf= 239.80 USD NAHB, 2011 Cost/50 years 7994.93 USD

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179 Table B 3 Continued 19 Services= 54576.00 USD Appl ied Geographic Solutions, 2012 Property Taxes 3099.00 USD BLS, 2009, Median Real Estate Taxes Paid Total Value, Annually 5.77E+04 USD UEV= 1.32E+12 USD Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 201 3 EXPORTS 20 Solid Waste Solid Waste, lbs per capita 1.05E+03 lbs/yr Waste and Recycling News, 2011 number of people per household= 2.97 people/household Census, 2010 Total household garbage (g)= (lbs of garbage)(454 g/lb) (_ people) Total household garbage (g)= 1.42E+06 g/yr UEV= 3.97E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 21 Annual Wastewater exportation = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 1.03E+05 gal/yr *Same as imported water Annual Wastewater exportation, J = 3.06E+09 J/y r UEV= 3.80E+06 sej/J Bjorklund, 2000 22 Recycling= (___lbs)(454g/lb) Waste and Recyling News, 2011 lbs per capita= 1.34E+03 lbs/yr mass(g)= 1.81E+06 g/yr UEV= 2.26E+08 sej/g Average of glass, aluminum, plastic transformities, (Luchi and Ulgiat i, 2000) 23 LABOR Average Salary Per Household 6.98E+04 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 UEV= 1.32E+12 sej/$ Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013

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180 Table B 4. Notes to Table 3 4 No te Item Data Units Source RENEWABLE 1 SOLAR ENERGY= Land Area = 1.98E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Insolation = 96.4 Kcal/cm^2/yr Albedo = 0.8 (% given as decimal) Odum, 1996 Energy(J) = (area)*(avg insolation)*(1 albedo) = (____m^2)*(____Cal/cm^2/y)*(E+04cm^2/m^2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal) = 1.59395E+12 J/yr UEV= 1 sej/J Definition, Odum 1996 2 RAIN, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 1.98E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Rain ( land) = 1.26 m/yr NCDC, 2010 Evapotrans rate= 1.01 m/yr Energy (land) (J)= (area)(Evapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(1000kg/m^3)*(4.94E3J/k g) Odum, 1996 = 1.23E+10 J/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 1959) UEV= 30500 se//J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 3 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: Area = 1.98E+03 m^2 Rainfall = 1.26 m NCDC, 2010 Avg. Elev = 32.67 m USGS, 2013 Runoff rate = 0.2 % Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff )(avg elevation)(gravity)

PAGE 181

181 Table B 4 Continued = (____m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(1000kg/m^3)*(___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 1.60E+08 J/yr Section 6, pg 241 UEV= 4.70E+04 sej/J 4 Wind Energy= Area = 1.98E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Density of Air = 1.3 kg/m^3 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Avg. annual wind velocity = 0.002 mps NCDC, 2011 Geostrophic wind = 0.003 mps observed winds are about 0.6 of geostrophic wind Wind velocity absorbed= 0.001 mps Drag Coeff. = 0.001 Section 6, pg 260 Energy (J) = (area)(air density)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) Average selected cities = (_____m^2)(1.3 kg/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(______mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) Energy(J) = 1.91E 01 J/yr Miller, 1964 quoted by Kraus, 1972 5 UEV= 2.45E+0 3 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Earth Cycle Land Area = 1.98E+03 m^ 2 Heat flow = 1.45E+06 J/m^ 2 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Energy (J) = (area)(Heat flow) Energy (J) = (____m2)(1.00E6 J/m2) Sclater, 1980 in Odum, 1996 = 2.86E+09 J/yr UEV= 5.80E+04 sej/J Odum, 2000, Folio #2 IMPORTS 6 Utility Water= Annual consumption = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 63345.75 gal/yr Water for Texas, 2012 Annual consumption, J = 1.18E+09 J/yr UEV= 1.84E+05 sej/J Bu enfil, 2000

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182 Table B 4 Continued 7 Egg Consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.11E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per egg (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 4.67E+08 J/yr UEV= 9.07E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, modified to not include service 8 Meat Consumption (Meats +Fish) = (Total Calories of meat and fish)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 6.01E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.52E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.90E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, used transformity for beef, modified to not includ e labor and service 9 Dairy Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.19E+06 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 grams of dairy were obtained by averaging the calories of 4 dairy sub categories (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 4.96E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.74E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, used transformity for milk, modified to not include service or labor 10 Grains Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 8.21E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.44E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits grains 11 Fruit Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.96E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.08E+08 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+ 05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains

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183 Table B 4 Continued 12 Vegetables Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 4.00E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (201 0); Calories per 100g vegetable (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.67E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000 13 Fats and Oils Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 5.26E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per c apita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.20E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 14 Natural Gas Annual energy, J = (therms) (1.055 E8 J/th erm) Therms = 5.91E+02 therms/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 6.24E+10 J/yr UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 15 Gasoline, J= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) Gallon s= 902.46 gal/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J= 3.13E+11 J/yr UEV= 9.02E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996, Accounting pg. 308 Table C 2 16 Electricity, J= Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 1.48E+04 kWh/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 5.33E+10 J/yr U EV= 2.90E+05 sej/J Odum 1996 average from several types of power plants 17 Infrastructure Average m2/50 yrs= 3.37 m^2/yr NAHB, 2011 UEV= 2.06E+15 sej/m^2 Buranakarn, 1998

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184 Table B 4 Continued SERVICE IN IMPORTS= 18 Cost of Construction Mat erials sf= 1814 ft^2 NAHB, 2011 cost/sf= 194 USD NAHB, 2011 Cost/50 years 7021 USD 19 Services= 56764 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 Property Taxes 788 USD BLS, 2009, Median Real Estate Taxes Paid Total Value, Annually 57552 USD UEV= 2.13E+12 USD Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013 EXPORTS 20 Solid Waste, lbs per capita 2566 lbs/yr Waste and Recycling News, 2011 number of people per household= 2.67 people/househo ld Census, 2010 Total household garbage (g)= (lbs of garbage)(454 g/lb) (_ people) Total household garbage (g)= 3.11E+06 g/yr UEV= 3.97E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 21 Annual Wastewater exportation = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 6.33E+04 gal/yr *Same as imported water Annual Wastewater exportation, J = 1.18E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.80E+06 sej/J Bjorklund, 2000 22 Recycling= (___lbs)(454g/lb) mass(g)= 6.30E+05 g/yr Waste and Recycling News, 2011 UEV= 2.26E+08 sej/g Average of glass, aluminum, plastic transformities, (Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000) 23 LABOR Average Salary Per Household 7.07E+04 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 UEV= 2.13E+12 sej/$ Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013

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185 Table B 5. Notes to Table 3 5 Note Item Data Units Source RENEWABLE 1 SOLAR ENERGY Land Area = 1.40E+03 m^2 Census, 2010 Insolation = 96.4 Kcal/cm^2/yr Albedo = 0.2 (% given as decimal) Odum, 1996 Energy(J) = (area)*(avg insolation)*(1 albedo) = (____m^2)*(____Cal/cm^2/y)*(E+04cm^2/m^2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal) = 4.51308E+12 J/yr UEV= 1 sej/J Definition, Odum 1996 2 RAIN, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 1.40E+03 m^2 Rain (land) = 0.9 m/yr NCDC, 2010 Evapotrans rate= 0.72 m/yr Energy (land) (J)= (area)(Evapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(1000kg/m^3)*(4.94E3J/kg) Odum, 1996 = 6.22 E+09 J/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 1959) UEV= 3.05E+04 se//J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: 3 Area = 1.40E+03 m^2 Census, 2010 Rainfall = 0.9 m NCDC, 2010 Avg. Elev = 256 m USGS, 2013 Runoff rate = 0.2 %

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186 Table B 5 Continued Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff)(avg elevation)(gravity) (____m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(1000kg/m^3)*(___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 6.31E+08 J/yr Section 6, pg 241 UEV= 4.70E+04 sej/J [Odum, 2000, Folio #1] 4 WIND ENERGY: Area = 1.40E+03 m^2 Census, 2010 Density of Air = 1.3 kg/m^3 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Avg. annual wind velocity = 4.6 mps NCDC, 2011 Geostrophic wind = 7.667 mps observed winds are about 0.6 of geostrophic wind Wind ve locity absorbed= 3.067 mps Drag Coeff. = 0.001 Section 6, pg 260 Energy (J) = (area)(air density)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) (_____m^2)(1.3 kg/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(______mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) Miller, 1964 quoted by Kraus, 1972 = 1.65E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.45E+03 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 5 EARTH CYCLE Land Area = 1.40E+03 m^ 2 Census, 2010 Heat flow = 1.45E+06 J/m^ 2 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Energy (J) = (area)(Heat flow) Energy (J) = (____m2)(1.00E6 J/m2) Sclater, 1980 in Odum 1996 = 2.03E+09 J/yr UEV= 5.80E+04 sej/J Odum, 2000, Folio #2 IMPORTS 6 UTILITY WATER= Annual consumption = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g)

PAGE 187

187 Table B 5 Continued gal = 9.28E+04 gal/yr City of Ann Arbor, 2011 Annual consumption, J = 1.73E+09 J/yr UEV= 1.84E+05 sej/J Buenfil, 2000, 107 118 7 Egg Consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 9.23E+04 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per egg (USDA, 2012). Annual consump tion, J = 3.86E+08 J/yr UEV= 9.07E+05 sej/J Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4, modified to not include service 8 Meat Consumption (Meats +Fish) = (Total Calories of meat and fish)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 4.97E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption p er capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.08E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.90E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], used transformity for beef, modified to not include labor and service 9 Dairy Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 9.82E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by av eraging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 4.11E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.74E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], used transformity for milk, modified to not include service or labor 10 Grains Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 6.80E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012).

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188 Table B 5 Continued Annual consumption, J = 2.85E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 11 Fruit Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.63E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 6.81E+08 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 12 Vegetables Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 3.31E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consum ption per capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100g vegetable (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.39E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000 13 Fats and Oils Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 4.36E+05 Cal/y r Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2000); Calories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.82E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 14 Natural Gas Annual ene rgy, J = (therms) (1.055 E8 J/therm) Therms = 7.98E+02 therms/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 8.42E+10 J/yr UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 15 Gasoline, J= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon)

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189 Table B 5 Continued Gallons= 1.10E+03 gal/yr EIA, 2010 A nnual energy= 1.43E+11 J/yr UEV= 9.02E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996, Accounting pg. 308 Table C 2, does not include service 16 Electricity, J= Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 3.21E+04 kWh/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy = 1.15E+11 J/yr UEV= 2.90E+ 05 sej/J Odum 1996 average from several types of power plants, does not include service 17 Infrastructure Average m2/50 yrs= 2.52 m^2/yr NAHB, 2011 UEV= 2.06E+15 sej/m^2 Buranakarn, 1998. SERVICE IN IMPORTS= 18 Cost of Construction Materia ls sf= 1353.68 ft^2 NAHB, 2011 cost/sf= 140.00 USD NAHB, 2011 Cost/50 years 3790.30 USD 19 Services= 66261.00 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 Property Taxes 3898.00 USD BLS, 2009, Median Real Estate Taxes Paid Total Value, Annually 7 0159.00 USD UEV= 1.84E+12 USD Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013 EXPORTS 20 Solid Waste, lbs per capita 1.62E+03 lbs/yr City of Ann Arbor, 2009 number of people per household= 2.21 pe ople/household Census, 2010

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190 Table B 5 Continued Total household garbage (g)= (lbs of garbage)(454 g/lb) (_ people) Total household garbage (g)= 1.62E+06 g/yr UEV= 3.97E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000 21 Annual Wastewater exportation = (gallons) (3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 9.28E+04 gal/yr *Same as imported water Annual Wastewater exportation, J = 1.73E+09 J/yr Transformity= 3.80E+06 sej/J Bjorklund, 2000 22 RECYCLING= (___lbs)(454g/lb) lbs= 2.80E+02 lbs/yr City of Ann Arbor, 2009 mass(g)= 1.27E+05 g/yr UEV= 2.26E+08 sej/g Average of glass, aluminum, plastic transformities, (Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000) 23 LABOR Average Salary Per Household 9.37E+04 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 UEV= 1.84E+12 sej/$ Calculated thi s study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013

PAGE 191

191 Table B 6. Notes for Table 3 6 Note Item Data Units Source RENEWABLE 1 SOLAR ENERGY= Land Area = 1.39E+03 m^2 Census, 2010 Insolation = 96.4 Kcal/cm^ 2/yr Albedo = 0.2 (% given as decimal) Odum, 1996 Energy(J) = (area)*(avg insolation)*(1 albedo) = (____m^2)*(____Cal/cm^2/y)*(E+04cm^2/m^2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal ) = 4.49E+12 J/yr UEV= 1 sej/J De finition, Odum 1996 2 RAIN, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 1.39E+03 m^2 Census, 2010 Rain (land) = 0.49 m/yr NCDC, 2010 Evapotrans rate= 0.39 m/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 1959) Energy (land) (J)= (area)(Evapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(1000kg/m^3)*(4.94E3J/kg) = 3.36E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.05E+04 se//J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 3 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: Area = 1.39E+03 m^2 Census, 2010 Rainfall = 0.49 m NCDC 2010 Avg. Elev = 1655 m USGS, 2013 Runoff rate = 0.2 % Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff)(avg elevation)(gravity) Section 6, pg 241

PAGE 192

192 Table B 6 Continued = (____m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(1000kg/m^3)*(___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 2.21E+09 J/yr UEV= 4.70E+04 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 4 WIND ENERGY: Area = 1.39E+03 m^2 Census, 2010 Density of Air = 1.3 kg/m^3 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Avg. annual wind velocity = 3.84 mps NCDC, 2011 Geostrophic wind = 6 .4 mps observed winds are about 0.6 of geostrophic wind Wind velocity absorbed= 2.56 mps Drag Coeff. = 0.001 Section 6, pg 260 Energy (J) = (area)(air density)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) (Miller, 1964 quoted by Kraus, 1972) = (_____m^2)(1.3 k g/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(______mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) = 9.52E+08 J/yr UEV= 2.45E+03 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 5 EARTH CYCLE Land Area = 1.39E+03 m^ 2 Census, 2010 Heat flow = 1.45E+06 J/m^ 2 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Energy (J) = (area)(He at flow) Energy (J) = (____m2)(1.00E6 J/m2) Sclater, 1980 in Odum, 1996 = 2.02E+09 J/yr UEV= 5.80E+04 sej/J [Odum, 2000, Folio #2] IMPORTS 6 UTILITY WATER= Annual consumption = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 1.15E+05 ga l/yr Kenny et al., 2009 Annual consumption, J = 1.02E+09 J/yr UEV= 1.84E+05 sej/J Buenfil, 2000

PAGE 193

193 Table B 6 Continued 7 Egg Consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 8.85E+04 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USD A (2010); Calories per egg (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.71E+08 J/yr UEV= 9.07E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], modified to not include service 8 Meat Consumption (Meats +Fish) = (Total Calories of meat and fish)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 4.77E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.00E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.90E+ 05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], used transformity for beef, modified to not include labor and service 9 Dairy Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 9.42E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from US DA (2010); Calories per 100g milk (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 3.94E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.74E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], used transformity for milk, modified to not include service or labor 10 Grains Annual consumption = (Total C alories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 6.52E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.73E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 11 Fruit Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.56E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 6.53 E+08 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 12 Vegetables Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 3.17E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g vegetable (USDA, 2012).

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194 Table B 6 Continued Annual consumption, J = 1.33E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000 13 Fats and Oils Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 4.18E+05 Cal/yr Avera ge Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.75E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 14 Natural Gas Annual energy, J = (therms) (1.055 E8 J/therm) Therms = 1.06E+03 therms/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 1.12E+11 J/yr UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 15 Gasoline, J= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) Gallons= 9.77E+02 gal/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy= 1.27E+11 J/y r UEV= 9.02E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996, Accounting pg. 308 Table C 2, does not include service 16 Electricity, J= Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 7.46E+03 kWh/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy = 2.68E+10 J/yr UEV= 2.90E+05 sej/J Odum 1996 average from several types of power plants, does not include service 17 Infrastructure Average m2= 137 m^2/yr NAHB, 2011 UEV= 2.06E+15 sej/m^2 Buranakarn 1998 SERVICE IN I MPORTS= 18 Cost of Construction Materials sf= 1473.77 ft^2 NAHB, 2011

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195 Table B 6 Continued cost/sf= 122.00 USD NAHB, 2011 Cost/50 years 3596.00 USD 19 Services= 60525 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 Property Taxes 1926.00 USD BLS, 2009, Median Real Estate Taxes Paid Total Value, Annually 62450.57 USD UEV= 1.51E+12 USD Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from N EAD, 2013 EXPORT 20 Solid Waste, lbs per capita 1.36E+03 lbs/yr Boulder County Conservation Center, 1998 number of people per household= 2.12 people/household Census, 2010 Total household garbage (g)= (garbage lbs)(454 g/lbs) (# people) Total h ousehold garbage (g)= 1.31E+06 g/yr UEV= 3.97E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgaiti, 2000 21 Annual Wastewater exportation = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 1.15E+05 gal/yr *Same as Water Import Annual Wastewater exportation, J = 2.16E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.80E+06 sej/J Bjorklund, 2000 22 RECYCLING= (___lbs)(454g/lb) mass(g)= 5.70E+05 g/yr Boulder County Conservation Center, 1998 UEV= 2.69E+05 sej/g Average of glass, aluminum, plastic transformities, (Luchi and Ulgati, 2000) 23 LABOR Aver age Salary Per Household= 8.14E+04 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 UEV= 1.31E+12 sej/$ Calculated this study; based on cost of living from B LS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013

PAGE 196

196 Table B 7. Notes to Table 3 7. Note Item Data Units Source RENEWABLE 1 SOLAR ENERGY Land Area = 1.36E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Insolation = 96.40 Kcal/cm^2/yr Albedo = 0.20 (% given as decimal) Odum, 1996 Energy(J) = (area)*(avg insolation)*(1 albedo) = (____m^2)*(____Cal/cm^2/y)*(E+04cm^2/m^2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal) = 4.39E+12 J/yr UEV= 1.00 sej/J Definition, Odum 1996 2 RAIN, CHE MICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 1.36E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Rain (land) = 9.10E 01 m/yr NCDC, 2010 Evapotrans rate= 7.28E 01 m/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 1959) Energy (land) (J)= (area)(Evapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(1000kg/m^3)*(4.94E3J/kg) = 6.11E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.05E+04 se//J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 3 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: Area = 1.36E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Rainfall = 0.91 m NCDC, 2010 Avg. Elev = 499 m USGS, 2013 Runoff rate = 0.20 % Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff)(avg elevation)(gravity) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(1000kg/m^3)*(___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 1.21E+09 J/yr Section 6, pg 241

PAGE 197

197 Table B 7 Contin ued UEV= 4.70E+04 sej/J [Odum, 2000, Folio #1] 4 WIND ENERGY: Area = 1.36E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Density of Air = 1.30 kg/m^3 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Avg. annual wind velocity = 4.00 mps NCDC, 2011 Geostrophic wind = 6.67 mps observed w inds are about 0.6 of geostrophic wind Wind velocity absorbed= 2.67 mps Drag Coeff. = 1.00E 03 Section 6, pg 260 Energy (J) = (area)(air density)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) = (_____m^2)(1.3 kg/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(______mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) = 1.05E +09 J/yr Miller, 1964 quoted by Kraus, 1972 UEV= 2.45E+03 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 5 EARTH CYCLE Land Area = 1.36E+03 m^ 2 US Census, 2010 Heat flow = 1.45E+06 J/m^ 2 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Energy (J) = (area)(Heat flow) E nergy (J) = (____m2)(1.00E6 J/m2) Sclater, 1980 in Odum, 1996 = 1.97E+09 J/yr UEV= 5.80E+04 sej/J Odum, 2000, Folio #2 IMPORTS 6 UTILITY WATER= Annual consumption = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 5.91E+04 gal/yr USGS, 2010 Annual consumption, J = 1.11E+09 J/yr UEV= 1.84E+05 sej/J Buenfil, 2000 7 Egg Consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 9.02E+04 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per egg (USDA, 2012).

PAGE 198

198 Ta ble B 7 Continued Annual consumption, J = 3.77E+08 J/yr UEV= 9.07E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], modified to not include service 8 Meat Consumption (Meats +Fish) = (Total Calories of meat and fish)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 4.86E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.04E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.90E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams 2002, folio #4], used transformity for beef, modified to not include labor and service 9 Dairy Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 9.60E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g milk (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 4.02E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.74E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], used transformity for milk, modified to not include service or labor 10 Grains Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) T otal Calories= 6.65E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.78E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 11 Fruit Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.59E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 6.65E+08 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+ 05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 12 Vegetables Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 3.23E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 10 0g vegetable (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.35E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000

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199 Table B 7 Continued 13 Fats and Oils Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 4.26E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.78E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 14 Natural Gas Annual energy, J = (therms) (1.055 E8 J/ therm) Therms = 1.08E+03 therms/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 1.14E+11 J/yr UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 15 Gasoline, J= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) Gallons= 1.23E+03 gal/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy= 1.60E+11 J/yr UEV= 9.02E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996, Accounting pg. 308 Table C 2, does not include service 16 Electricity, J= 0.00E+00 Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 7.60E+03 kWh/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy = 2.73E+10 J/yr UEV= 2.90E+05 sej/J Odum 1996 average from several t ypes of power plants, does not include service 17 Infrastructure Average m2/50 yrs= 3.16 m^2/yr NAHB, 2011 UEV= 2.06E+15 sej/m^2 Buranakarn, 1998. SERVICE IN IMPORTS= 18 Cost of Construction Materials m2= 1.58E+02 m^2 NAHB, 2011 cost/ m2= 9.68E+02 USD NAHB, 2011

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200 Table B 7 Continued Cost/50 years 3.06E+03 USD 19 Services= 5.92E+04 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 Property Taxes= 3.95E+03 USD BLS, 2009, Median Real Estate Taxes Paid Total Value, Annually 4.69E+04 USD U EV= 1.51E+12 sej/$ Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013 EXPORTS 20 Solid Waste, lbs per capita 1.96E+03 lbs/yr DSM Environmental Services, Inc., 2005. number of people per household= 2.16 people/household Census, 2010 Total household garbage (g)= (garbage lbs)(454 g/lbs) Total household garbage (g)= 1.92E+06 g/yr UEV= 3.97E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgaiti, 2000 21 Annual Wastewater exportation = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 5.91E+04 gal/yr *Same as Water Import Annual Wastewater exportation, J = 1.11E+09 J/yr Transformity= 3.80E+06 sej/J Bjorklund, 2000 22 RECYCLING= (___lbs)(454g/lb) lbs= 9.50E+02 lbs/yr DSM Environmental Services, Inc., 2005. mass(g)= 4.3 1E+05 g/yr UEV= 2.26E+08 sej/g Average of glass, aluminum, plastic transformities, (Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000) 23 LABOR Average Salary Per Household= 5.62E+04 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 UEV= 1.51E+12 sej/$ Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013

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201 Table B 8. Notes to Table 3 8 Note Item Data Units Source RENEWABLE 1 SOLAR ENERGY Land Area = 2.81E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Insolation = 96.4 Kcal/cm^2/yr Albe do = 0.2 (% given as decimal) Odum, 1996 Energy(J) = (area)*(avg insolation)*(1 albedo) = (____m^2)*(____Cal/cm^2/y)*(E+04cm^2/m^2)* (1 albedo)*(4186J/kcal) = 9.07E+12 J/yr UEV= 1 sej/J Definition, Odum 1996 2 RAIN, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY: Land Area = 2.81E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Rain (land) = 1.2 m/yr NCDC, 2010 Evapotrans rate= 0.96 m/yr (80% of pan, Kohler et al., 1959) Energy (land) (J)= (area)(Evapotrans)(Gibbs no.) = (____m^2)*(____m)*(1000kg/m^3)*(4.94E3J/kg) = 1.67E+10 J/yr UEV= 3.05E+04 se//J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 3 RAIN, GEOPOTENTIAL ENERGY: Area = 2.81E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Rainfall = 1.2 m NCDC, 2010 Avg. Elev = 54 m USGS, 2013 Runoff rate = 0.2 % Energy(J) = (area)(rainfall)(% runoff)(avg elevation)(gravity) (____m^2)*(____m)*(____%)*(1000kg/m^3)*(___m)*(9.8m/s^2) = 3.57E+08 J/yr

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202 Table B 8 Continued UEV = 4.70E+04 sej/J [Odum, 2000, Folio #1] 4 WIND ENERGY: Area = 2.81E+03 m^2 US Census, 2010 Density of Air = 1.3 kg/m^3 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Avg. annual wind velocity = 2.91 mps NCDC, 2011 Geostrophic wind = 4.85 mps observed winds are about 0.6 of geostrophic wind Wind velocity absorbed= 1.94 mps Drag Coeff. = 0.001 Section 6, pg 260 Energy (J) = (area)(air density)(drag coefficient)(velocity^3) (_____m^2)(1.3 kg/m^3)(1.00 E 3)(______mps)(3.14 E7 s/yr) = 8.37E+08 J/yr Miller, 1964 quoted by Kraus, 1972 UEV= 2.45E+03 sej/J Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 5 EARTH CYCLE Land Area = 2.81E+03 m^ 2 US Census, 2010 Heat flow = 1.45E+06 J/m^ 2 Odum et al., 2000, Folio #1 Energy (J) = (area)(Heat flow) (____m2)(1. 00E6 J/m2) Sclater, 1980 in Odum, 1996 = 4.07E+09 J/yr UEV= 5.80E+04 sej/J Odum, 2000, Folio #2 IMPORTS 6 UTILITY WATER= Annual consumption = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 5.70E+04 gal/yr GRU, 2012 Annual consumption, J = 1.07E+09 J/yr UEV= 1.84E+05 sej/J Buenfil, 2000 7 Egg Consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 9.19E+04 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per egg (USDA, 2012).

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203 Table B 8 Continued Annu al consumption, J = 3.84E+08 J/yr UEV= 9.07E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], modified to not include service 8 Meat Consumption (Meats +Fish) = (Total Calories of meat and fish)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 4.95E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual c onsumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 grams of meat were obtained by averaging calories for beef, chicken, and pork (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.07E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.90E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], used transformity for beef, modified to not include labor and service 9 Dairy Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 9.77E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g milk (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 4.09E+09 J/yr UEV= 6.74E+05 sej/J [Brandt Williams, 2002, folio #4], used transformity for milk, modified to not include service or labor 10 Grains Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 6.77E+05 Ca l/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g grain (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 2.83E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (2004) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 11 Fruit Annual c onsumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 1.62E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g fruit (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 6.78E+08 J/yr UEV= 3.55E+05 sej/J Campbell et al (200 4) (15.83 baseline) Transformity for fruits, grains 12 Vegetables Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal) Total Calories= 3.29E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100g vegetable (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.38E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.37E+05 sej/J Comar, 2000 13 Fats and Oils Annual consumption = (Total Calories)(4186 J/Cal)

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204 Table B 8 Continued Total Calories= 4.34E+05 Cal/yr Average Annual consumption per capita is from USDA (2010); Calories per 100 g of fats and oils are an average of butter and cooking oil (USDA, 2012). Annual consumption, J = 1.82E+09 J/yr UEV= 2.00E+06 sej/J Estimate 14 Natural Gas Annual energy, J = (therms) (1.055 E8 J/therm) Therms = 2.42E+01 th erms/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy, J = 2.32E+09 J/yr UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996 15 Gasoline, J= (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) Gallons= 1.29E+03 gal/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy= 7.62E+10 J/yr UEV= 9.02E+04 sej/J Odum, 1996, Accounting pg. 308 Table C 2, does not include service 16 Electricity, J= Annual energy = KWh*3.6E6 J/KWh KWh = 2.95E+04 kWh/yr EIA, 2010 Annual energy = 4.83E+10 J/yr UEV= 2.90E+05 sej/J Odum 1996 average from several types of power plants, does not include service 17 Infrastructure Average m2/50 yrs= 2.51 m^2/yr NAHB, 2011 UEV= 2.06E+15 sej/m^2 Buranakarn, 1998 SERVICE IN IMPORTS= 2.59E+03 18 Cost of Construction Materials sf= 1352.00 ft^2 NAHB, 2011 cost/sf= 80.00 USD NAHB, 2011 Cost/5 0 years 2164.00 USD 19 Services= 45635 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 Property Taxes 1956.00 USD BLS, 2009, Median Real Estate Taxes Paid

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205 Table B 8 Continued Total Value, Annually 47591 USD UEV= 2.02E+12 USD Calculated this study; based on cost of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013 EXPORTS 20 Solid Waste, lbs per capita 1.61E+03 lbs/yr Alachua County Growth Management Department, 2009 number of people per household= 2.20 people/household Census, 2010 Total household garbage (g)= (lbs of garbage)(454 g/ton) ( people) Total household garbage (g)= 1.60E+06 g/yr UEV= 3.97E+07 sej/g Luchi and Ulgaiti, 2000 21 Annual Wastewater exportation = (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) gal = 5.70E+04 gal/yr *Sam e as imported water Annual Wastewater exportation, J = 1.07E+09 J/yr UEV= 3.80E+06 sej/J Bjorklund, 2000 22 Recycling= (___lbs)(454g/lb) lbs= 7.56E+02 lbs/yr Alachua County Growth Management Department, 2009 mass(g)= 7.55E+05 g/yr UEV= 2.26E+ 08 sej/g Average of glass, aluminum, plastic transformities, (Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000) 23 Labor Average Salary Per Household Total Salary= 5.42E+04 USD Applied Geographic Solutions, 2012 UEV= 2.02E+12 sej/$ Calculated this study; based on cos t of living from BLS, 2010 and emergy/$ ratio from NEAD, 2013

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206 APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER 4 Table C 1. Notes for Table 4 1 Note Variable Value Units Source 1 Cement mass (g) = 8.37E+05 g (__lbs)(454g/lb) UEV= 2.42E+09 sej/g Based on Odum, 1 996 2 Concrete Mass (g) = 4.39E+06 g (___cy)(540lb/cy)(454g/lb) UEV= 3.68E+09 sej/g Based on Buranakarn, 1998 3 8" block Mass (g) = 2.29E+06 g (___cy)(540lb/cy)(454g/lb) UEV= 2.27E+09 sej/g Based on Buranakarn, 1998 4 Lumber Mass (g ) = 1.70E+07 g ((___bf/yr)*(3lbs/bf)*(454 g/lb) UEV= 1.40E+09 sej/g Based on Buranakarn, 1998 5 Plywood Mass, (g)= 1.22E+06 g (___ sq. feet. 3/4 inch basis/3lbs/sq.ft)*(454g/lb) UEV= 2.10E+09 sej/g Based on Buranakarn, 1998 6 Metals Fasten ers (g)= 5.49E+05 g (_lbs)* 454 g/lb Roof (g)= 4.32E+05 g (_lbs)* 454 g/lb Rebar (g)= 3.87E+05 g (_lbs)* 454 g/lb Other (g)= 2.11E+05 g (_lbs)* 454 g/lb Total (g) = 1.58E+06 g sum previous rows ((_lbs)* 454 g/lb) UEV= 6.89E+09 sej/g Based on Bura nakarn, 1998 7 Glass (float, sheet, plate) Mass (g) = 2.19E+05 g (__sq.ft)*(1.64lb/sq.ft. 1/8")*(454g/lb) UEV= 2.69E+09 sej/g Buranakarn, 1998 8 Drywall mass (g) = 1.39E+07 g (10 lbs/sf)(85382.72sf)(454g/lb) UEV= 2.64E+09 sej/g Based on Bur anakarn, 1998 9 Cellulosic Insulation Mass, (g)= 3.41E+06 g ((____ lbs)*(454g/lb) UEV= 3.69E+09 sej/g Luchi and Ulgiati, 2000. Used UEV for recycled paper 10 Plastics Mass(g)= 1.46E+05 g ((____ lbs/yr)*(454g/lb)) UEV= 5.29E+09 sej/g Based o n Buranakarn, 1998 11 Rubber Mass(g)= 1.98E+05 g ((__sf*.33lbs/sf*454g/lb) UEV= 7.22E+09 sej/g Based on Odum et al., 1987 12 Lime (Ca0)

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207 Table C 1 Continued Mass (g)= 3.41E+04 g (0.1*(___lbs)*(454g/lb)) UEV= 1.68E+09 sej/g Based on Odum, 1 996 13 Sand Mass (g)= 2.10E+06 g ((___tons)*(907184.74 g/ton)) UEV= 1.68E+09 sej/g Based on Odum, 1996 14 Clay Mass (g) = 1.14E+06 g ((___tons)*(907184.74 g/ton)) UEV= 3.36E+09 sej/g Based on Odum, 1996 15 Paint Mass (g)= 1.31E+05 g ( __gallons)*(11.68 lbs/gallon)*(454 grams/lb) UEV= 2.54E+10 sej/g Based on Buranakarn, 1998 16 Furnishings Mass (g) = 6.27E+05 g (__lbs)*454g UEV= 4.86E+09 sej/g Buranakarn, 1998 17 Water Extraction = Energy (J)= 2.25E+06 J (gallons)(3785 cm 3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) UEV= 2.99E+05 sej/J Buenfil, 2001. Used UEV for groundwater 18 Gasoline = Energy, (J)= 2.14E+10 J (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) UEV= 9.02E+04 sej/J Based on Odum, 1996 19 Solar Panels= Energy, (J) = 1.83E+11 J (__)m2 so lar panels *1.60E10 J/m2 (Brown et al., 2012) UEV= 7.93E+04 sej/J Brown et al., 2012 20 Service in Imports= $= 1.22E+05 $ Data Collected UEV= 2.50E+12 sej/$ NEAD Database, 2008 21 Labor J/yr= 4.15E+09 J ((___person hours)*2500 Kcal/day)*(41 86 J/Kcal)/24 person hours/day)) UEV= 7.96E+07 sej/J Calculation in Chapter 2

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208 Table C 2. Notes for Table 4 2 Note Variable Value Units Source 1 Water Extraction = Energy (J)= 2.25E+06 J/yr (gallons)(3785 cm3)(1 g/cm3)(4.94J/g) UEV= 2.99E+05 s ej/J Buenfil, 2001 2 Hydroelectricity Energy (J)= 1.67E+09 J/yr (____kWh/yr)*(3.6 E6 J/kWh) UEV= 2.80E+05 sej/J Based on Odum, 1996 3 Solar Electricity Energy (J)= 1.94E+10 J/yr (____kWh/yr)*(3.6 E6 J/kWh) UEV= 3.36E+05 sej/J Based on Odum 1996 4 Propane Energy (J)= 1.67E+10 J/yr (gallons) (1.3xE8 J/gallon) UEV= 8.06E+04 sej/J Based on Odum, 1996 5 Service $= 344.7 $/yr Data Collected UEV= 2.50E+12 sej/$ NEAD, 2008

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209 LIST OF REFERENCES Alachua County Growth Manag Alachua County Evaluation and Appraisal Report Issue Paper: Recycled Materials and Waste Alternatives. from: http://govconnect.alachuacounty.us/edac/Shared%20Documents/Evaluation%20and %20Appraisal%20Report%20(EAR)%20Issue%20Papers/Recycling%20and%20Waste% 20Alternatives.pdf Accessed February 13, 2012. Alsema, E., Fraile, D., Frischknect, R., Fthenakis, V., Held, M., Kim, H.C., Plz, W., Ra ugei, M., de Wild Scholten, M., 2009. Methodology guidelines on life cycle assessment of photovoltaic electricity, Subtask 20 Avail ab l e from: http://www.iea pvps.org/ Accessed January 11, 2013. American Water Works Associat ion (AWWA) Research Foundation, Available from: http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense/docs/ws_indoor508.pdf Accessed February 18, 2013. http://www.point2homes.com/US/Neighborhood.html Accessed various dates. Ascione, M. Campanella, L Cherubini, F, Ulgiati, S. 2009. Environmental driving forces of urban growth and development: An emergy based assessment o f the city of Rome, Italy. Landscape and Urban Planning 93, 238 249. from: http://asheville nc.com/index.php?brand=Tourism&eid=10&type=blurb&item=42 Accessed February 18, 2013. Azhar, S., Wade, A., Carlton W.A., Olsen, D., Ahmad, I. 2011. Building information m odeling for sustainable design and LEED rating analysis. Automation in Construction 20, 217 224. Bailey, Robert G. 2002. Ecoregion Based Design for Sustainability. New York, New York: Springer Verlag New York, Inc. Bardi, U. 2009. Peak oil: The four stages of a new idea. Energy 34, 323 326. Barrett, J.,Vallak, H., Jones, A., Haq, G., 2002. A Material Flow Analysis and Ecological Footprint of York, Technical Report. Stockholm Environment Institute. Stockholm, Sweden. Bastianoni, S., Galli, A. Pulselli, R.M., Niccolucci V., 2007. Environmental and economic evaluation of natural capital appropriation through building construction: practical case study i n the Italian context. Ambio 36 (7), 559 565. Beck, T. B., Quigley, M. F., Martin, J. F. 2001 Emergy evaluation of food production in urban residential landscapes. Urban Ecosystems 5(3), 187 207.

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210 Bellows, A.C., Hamm, M.W. 2003. International effects on and inspiration for community food se curity policies and practices in the USA. Critical Public Health 13 (2), 107 123. Bergquist, D. A ., Cavalett, O., Rydberg, T., 2012 Participatory emergy synthesis of integrated food and biofuel production: a case study from Brazil. Environment, Developmen t and Sustainability 14 (2), 167 182. Bjrklund, J. 2000. Emergy analysis to assess ecological sustainability. Strengths and weaknesses. Department of Ecology and Crop Produ ction Science, Uppsala. Bjrklund, J., Gerber, U., Rydberg, T., 2001. Emergy anal ysis of municipal wastewater treatment and generation of electricity by digestion of sewage sludge. Resources Conservation & Recycling 31 (4), 293 316. Bloodworth, H., Berc, J.L. 1997. Cropland Acreage, Soil Erosion, and Installation of Conservation Buffer Strips: Preliminary Estimates of the 1997 National Resources Inventory. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Boulder County Conservation Center, 1998. Waste an Available fr om: http://bcn.boulder.co.us/basin/local/indicators/recycling.html Accessed February 13th, 2012. Bowers, J. 2002. Planning ahead the difficulties facing those wishing to live alternative and sustainable lives in the UK. The E cologist 32 (1), 39 41. Brandt Williams, S. 2002. Handbook of Emergy Evaluation Folio 4: Emergy of Florida Agriculture Cente r for Environmental Policy, University of Florida, Gainesville. 40 pages. Available from: http://www.emergysystems.org Accessed various dates. Bribin, I.Z., Capilla, A.V., Usn, A.A., 2011. Life cycle assessm ent of building materials: Comparative analysis of energy and environmental impacts and evaluation of the eco efficiency improvement potentia l. Building and Environment 46 (5), 1133 1140. Brown, M.T., ble from: http://www.cep.ees.ufl.edu/emergy/resources/symbols_diagrams.shtml Accessed June 27 th 2013. Brown, M.T., 2003. Resource Imperialism: Emergy perspectives on sust ainability, balancing the welfare of nations and international trade. In S. Ulgiati (ed) Advances in Energy Studies. Proceeding of the conference held in Porto Venere, italy, October 2002. University of Siena, Italy. Brown, M.T., McClanahan, T.R. 1996 Emergy analysis perspective of Thailand and Mekong River dam pro posals. Ecological Modelling 91 (1 3), 105 130.

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211 Brown, M.T., Ulgiati, S. 1997. Emergy based indices and ratios to evaluate sustainability: monitoring economies and technology toward environ mentally sound innovation. Ecological Engineering 9 (1), 51 69. Brown, M.T., Ulgiati, S. 1999. Emergy Evaluation of the Biosphere and Natural Capital. Ambio 28, 486 493. Brown, M.T., Bardi, E., 2001. Emergy of Ecosystems. Folio No. 3 of Handbook of Eme rgy Evaluation, The Center for Environmental Policy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, p.93 Available from: http://www.emergysystems.org Accessed various dates. Brown, M.T., Ulgiati, S. 2001. Emergy mea sures of carrying capacity to evaluate economic investments Population and Environment 22 (5), 471 501. Brown, M. T., Cohen, M.J., Sweeney, S., 2009. Predicting national sustainability: The convergence of energetic, economic and environmental realities. E cological Modelling 220, 3424 3438. Brown, M.T., Raugei, M., Ulgiati, S. Synthesis and LCA: A case study on thermal vs. photovoltaic electricity. Ecological Indicators 15, 227 235 Brunner, P.H. 2007. Reshap ing Urban Metabolism. Jour nal of Industrial Metabolism 11 (2), 11 13. er University of Florida, United States -Florida: ProQuest. Web. 22 October 2010. eographical Infom ations Systems Available from: https://www.buncombecounty.org/governing/depts/gis/ Accessed various dates. Buncombe County, North Carolina nty, N.C. Table 6 4: Residential Waste Disposed and Recycled by Buncombe County Jurisdictions, Available from: http://www.buncombecounty.org/common/solidWaste/BCS olidWastePlan.pdf Accessed July, 21, 2012. Buranakarn, Vorasun. 1998. "Evaluation of Recycling and Reuse of Building Materials using the Emergy Analysis Method." University of Florida, United States -Florida: ProQuest. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. Bureau for Lab Region of residence: Average annual expenditures and ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.r equests/ce/region/y0708/region.txt Accessed various dates. Bu reau for Labor Statistics (BLS), http://interactive.taxfoundation.org/prop ertytax/ Accessed Various Dates.

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224 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Heather Nicole Rothrock was born in Northeastern Pennsylvania, but the call of the ocean brought her to St.Petersburg, Florida. She completed her Bachelor of Science degree in b iology from Eckerd College in 2005 Upon graduation, Heather venture d to New Zealand, returning to the States, she worked offshore as an Oceanographer and Marine Mammal Observer, which allowed her the freedom to continue travell ing in between jobs. Serendipidously she enrolled in the Systems Ecology Progr am at the University of Florida; Heather had always had an innate knowledge that everything was connected and she happened to stumble upon a science that quantified this connec tivity. Her research led her to several intentional communities where she learned not only how to think like a scientist, but also many us eful life skills that will perist in her future She completed her Ph. D from the Department of Environme nt al Enginee ring Sciences in May 201 4.