Mapping Power Relations in the Alternative Food Movement

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Mapping Power Relations in the Alternative Food Movement Uneven Resistance to Inequality in the Spaces of Food Labor and Urban Land Use Politics
Sbicca, Joshua A
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University of Florida
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Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
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University of Florida
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Sociology and Criminology & Law
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Agricultural land ( jstor )
Community associations ( jstor )
Farming communities ( jstor )
Farms ( jstor )
Food ( jstor )
Foodways ( jstor )
Labor ( jstor )
Land use ( jstor )
Political power ( jstor )
Social activism ( jstor )
Sociology and Criminology & Law -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
alternative-food-movement -- environmental-sociology -- food -- food-justice -- labor -- land -- power -- social-movements -- space -- urban-agriculture
City of Indian Rocks Beach ( local )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
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Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Sociology thesis, Ph.D.


While the alternative food movement (AFM) is making notable gains in spreading environmentally sustainable production and consumption practices, problems such as labor exploitation and limited land access and use prominently remain. To get at this gap, this dissertation asks two questions that investigate the potential for the AFM to integrate goals of social justice into their projects and activism: 1) How do economic, political, and social forces shape sites of alternative food activism?; 2) In what ways does alternative food movement activism alter and/or resist various sociospatial relations of power? To help answer these questions, I first theoretically synthesize a number of literatures to argue for the importance of taking a sociospatial, dialectical, and multi-institutional approach to understanding the relationships between exploitation, domination and resistance. Specifically, I focus on issues tied to labor practices and perspectives, and land use laws, public space and private property. I use a comparative historically informed ethnographic case study method to investigate three social movement organizations, each in a different California metropolitan area (San Diego, Oakland, and Los Angeles). I triangulate three data sources: seven months of fieldwork, roughly two and a half months with each organization, 20-40 hours per week; 70 semi-structured in-depth interviews, one to two hours each and; almost 200 archival sources including newspapers, reports, blogs, YouTube videos, social media, and internal documents. I find that there is mixed potential for the AFM to integrate concerns of social justice and advance this through its projects and activism. Given uneven economic, political, and social structuring forces operating in different territorial, scalar, and place based ways, the landscape of resistance for the AFM varies. Explaining this variance is the following: the degree to which organizations and their networks of resistance recognize and act upon non-food social forces impacting their goals; the degree and form of organizational embeddedness in political and economic institutions, and the ability to use this for movement goals; the form of land use law strategic leveraging to institutionalize models of community economic development; the creative forms of social solidarity generated by diverse segments of the AFM across a range of identities. In short, despite common struggles regarding food labor and land use laws across an array of contexts, the AFM engages in diverse, often contradictory sociospatial practices as it resists and alters relations of power. ( en )
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2014.
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by Joshua A Sbicca.

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2 2014 Joshua Sbicca


3 For Jennifer and human flourishing


4 AC KNOWLEDGMENTS This dissertation is a collective product. While there were times when I felt like a lone wolf in the desert support in the form of critical feedback, encouragement, a hug, or a hot meal were readily and often supplied. In the first semester of graduate school, I took a seminar in Environmental Justice from Brian Mayer. Wanting to understand how people were fighting for environmental goods, I became enamored with the topic of food. No one in the department is a food scholar, but I received not hing but support from all those I encoun Brian and Christine Overdevest were strong supporters of my work and endorsed my qualitative project in the hopes this would feed into a dissertation. In addition, Stephen P erz always allowed my intellectual curiosities to guide me, partially because we share a wide view of environmentally related social science. Moreover, he offered regular constructive criticism and editing advice for my first two publications. I especially want to thank Whitney Sanford for requiring that we read by John Bellamy Foster. This work proved to be a deep source of inspiration at a critical time in my graduate training. Katrina Schwartz turned me onto political ecology and its treas ure trove of insights into human/nature relations. Given my focus on social movements and qualitative methods, Kendal Broad served as a wonderful guide into the complexities of capturing the ways in which humans collectively strive to change the world arou nd them. I also want to thank many of the people at University of Florida for funding various steps of this dissertation research: the O. Ruth McQuown Scholarship, the McGinty Dissertation Fellowship and the Dissertation Sc holarship from UF Graduate Schoo l. A number of other people also need thanking. Chuck Gattone was always open for discussing theory, graduate school politics, and career trajectories, oftentimes over


5 beers and burritos at Boca Fiesta. Of special note is Barb Zsembik, who not only taugh t two of the most practical seminars I took in graduate school, focused on publishing and teaching, but also she proved to be a deep well of insight into the realities of academic life and a tireless career counselor. Other UF professors who helped me alon g the way include Connie Shehan, Monika Ardelt, and Tanya Koropeckyj Cox Over the years, a number of administrative staff made my life so much better, namely Donna Balkcom, Nadine Gills, Susan Ciccarone Spaulding and Sheryl McIntosh My fellow graduate s tudent colleagues and friends made my experience memorable: Gina Alvarado, Dionne Banks, Georgia Bianchi, Luis Caraballo Burgos, Robert Cavazos, Lisa Christiansen, Jeanne Collins, Lawrence Eppard, Rachel Hallum Montes, Steve Jacobs, Ginger Jacobson, Meggan Jordan (GAU for life), Billy Jeffries (thanks for the advice to turn term papers into publications), Deeb Kitchen (inspiring teacher!) Laura Kowler, Kenzie Latham (thanks for being a model graduate student), Flavia Leite, Kevin Lynn, Ka tie Nutter (best d esk buddy ever), Greg Pavella, Geo Perez, Tom Reynolds (punk!), Estelle Robichaux and Orli Zaprir. Robert Perdue served as my partner in (academic) crime: I loved listening to Krishna Das, dod ging owls on bikes, and rocking foosball at the Top, while at a ll times juggling conversations on our next manuscript, dissertation idea, or crazy life story. Of special note are a number of admirable scholars who embraced my work or offered me feedback and professional support: Ben Agger, Julian Agyeman, Allie Alkon, Brett Clark, David Featherstone, Bob Gottlieb, Jill Lindsey Harrison, Alfonso Morales, Nathan McClintock, and Tom Shriver. This dissertation would not be possible without the openhearted welcome I received from each organization I worked with. I especial ly want to express my gratitude


6 to the following: Mannah, Mel, Renae, Lisa, and Mindy at San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project; Gavin, Haleh, Andrew, Marcelo, and May at Planting Justice; and Rigo, Jean, Matt, Nam, Ron, and Armando at United Food and Co mmercial Workers 770. Many of your colleagues and comrades also inspired the direction of this dissertation. You are all on the frontlines of the battle to ensure human flourishing for those working in and to improve the food system. Solidarity! Withou t my parents encouraging me from a young age to read everything I could get my hands on, I would not be here. They were also an indispensable socializing power given their choice to homeschool me for a number of years. I guess all those independent study h abits paid off! I also want to thank Jen for her ceaseless support, love, and affection. I know at times graduate school seemed like it would never end, but your patience and poise, particularly at the end, was invaluable. Thank you for joyfully reminding me to celebrate. I love you.


7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 13 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 14 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 16 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 19 CHAPTERS 1 INT RODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 21 The Organization of Power in the Agrifood System ................................ ................ 21 Food Inequality Formation ................................ ................................ ...................... 23 Food Movements Rising ................................ ................................ ......................... 24 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 26 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ............................... 27 Contributions of the Research ................................ ................................ ................ 27 Dissertation Outline ................................ ................................ ................................ 29 Chapter 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 30 Chapter 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 31 Chapter 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 33 Chapter 5 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 34 Chapter 6 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 36 Chapter 7 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 39 Chapter 8 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 41 Chapter 9 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 43 2 THEORY ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 45 Socioecological Metabolisms and Metabolic Rifts in an Era of Neoliberalization .... 45 Theorizing the Metabolic Rift for Urban Food Based Struggles ........................ 46 Bringing Together Capital, the State and Identity through Neoliberalization .... 51 Histories and Spatialities of Institutional Power and Social Change ....................... 54 Contextualizing Power ................................ ................................ ...................... 56 The Spatialities of Multi Institutional Politics ................................ ..................... 58 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 68 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 68 Research Methodology ................................ ................................ ........................... 70


8 Historical Comparative Methods ................................ ................................ ....... 73 Ethnographic Case Studies ................................ ................................ .............. 75 Research Sites ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 76 Procedures of Data Collection and Analy sis ................................ ........................... 81 Data Sources ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 82 Going through the Institutional Review Board ................................ ............ 82 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 82 Fieldnotes ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 83 Archival sources ................................ ................................ ......................... 85 Operationaliz ing Research Question 1 (RQ1): How do Economic, Political, and Social Forces Shape Sites of Alternative Food Activism? ...................... 86 Operationalizing Research Question 2 (RQ2): In What Ways Does Alternative Food Movement Activism Alter and/or Resist Various Sociospatial Relations of Power? ................................ ................................ .. 88 Operationalizing Overarching Research Question (ORQ): What is the Potential for the Alternative Food Movement to Integrate Concerns of Social Justice i nto their Projects and Activism? ................................ ............ 89 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 90 4 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT ................................ ..................... 96 Overview of the American Agrifood System ................................ ............................ 96 A Critical Interpretation of the California Agrifood System ................................ ...... 99 Antecedents of Contemporary Food Movements ................................ .................. 105 Agrarian Populist Mov ement ................................ ................................ .......... 105 Food and Farmworker Labor Organizing ................................ ........................ 107 Environmentalism and the Growth of Organic and Sustainable Agriculture ... 109 Food Justice and Radical Anti Hunger Politics ................................ ............... 114 Possibilities for Transforming Agrifood Systems ................................ ................... 117 Taking Race and Class Seriously ................................ ................................ ... 118 Bringing Labor Back In ................................ ................................ ................... 121 Private Property, Public Land U se, and the Commons ................................ .. 123 Understanding Actually Existing (Radical) Food Politics ................................ 129 5 SAN DIEGO ROOTS SUSTAINABLE FOOD PROJECT AND THE FIGHT FOR REMUNERATION IN THE CONTEXT OF NEW URBAN AGRICULTURE BATTLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 133 Part 1: Food Labor Practices and Perceptions: Economic Justice as a Peripheral Concern ................................ ................................ ............................ 133 Save the Farm! ................................ ................................ ............................... 133 Unpacking the Labor Practices and Organ ic Ideals at Wild Willow Farm ....... 136 Revaluing labor or valuing volunteerism? ................................ ................ 139 Causes and consequences of devaluing paid labor ................................ 147 Labor in the context of neoliberal subjectivities and strategies ................ 155 Race, Ethnicity and the Contradictions of Labor in the Borderlands ..................... 166 A Brief Overview of Immigration and Agriculture Relations in San Diego ....... 167


9 Race Relations along the US/Mexico Border ................................ ................. 170 The city is aflame, but not all receive protection ................................ ...... 170 Per ceptions of migrant labor flows ................................ ........................... 172 ................................ ................................ 176 The Politics of Sustainable Farming versus Racial and Economic Justice ..... 178 Part 2: Interpreting Urban Agriculture Land Use Victories and Experiments in an Era of Neoliberalization ................................ ................................ ...................... 183 Round 1: Community Garden Ordinance and its Impacts on SD Roots ......... 186 Round 2: The Role and Perception of Outside Money in the Urban Agriculture Ordinances ................................ ................................ ................ 192 Reproducing or Contesting Rel ationships to Land? Considering San ...... 20 1 Efforts to Own and Build the Movement in a Post Policy Victory Context ...... 210 Privatizing Dietary Health Spaces through De Politicizi ng Race and Class ... 217 Summary of Chapter 5 ................................ ................................ .......................... 233 6 IMPOVERISHMENT BY MEETING MARGINALIZED COMMUNITY NEEDS ...... 240 Part 1: Food Labor Practices and Perceptions: Economic Justice as a Process .. 240 ................................ ...... 246 D issecting Alternative Valuations of Work ................................ ...................... 253 Bending Empowerment Strategies toward the Arc of Justice ......................... 256 Harvesting individual empowerment ................................ ........................ 256 Canvassing the commons ................................ ................................ ........ 259 Connecting and spreading alternative economic models ......................... 264 F ood Justice as Economic Justice as Racial Justice ................................ ...... 271 Barriers to Alternative Economic Models ................................ ........................ 278 The successes of capitalism ................................ ................................ .... 278 This land is my land, not your land ................................ ........................... 280 The revolution wi ll not be ushered in by non profits ................................ 282 Part 2: Beyond Land Use Law Holding Patterns through Reimagining Public and Private Land fo r Urban Agriculture ................................ ............................. 285 Capitalist Pressure, State Failure and the Drive to Take Back Land for Human Flourishing ................................ ................................ ...................... 288 The context of socially stratified private and public land .......................... 290 Perceptions and critiques of economic inequality and its spatial reality ... 293 Growing food to build community power ................................ .................. 298 Political engagement with the problems of land access and use ............. 301 The influence of Occupy politics ................................ .............................. 309 .................... 311 From private spaces of oppression to re humanizing through private space ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 311 From privatized permaculture space to permacult ure for the people ....... 316 Bypassing the State 101 Learn to Think Like a State ................................ .. 320 Land Is Necessary but Insufficient ................................ ................................ .. 331 Summary of Chapter 6 ................................ ................................ .......................... 333


10 7 UNITED FOOD AND COMMERCIAL WORKERS 770 LEVERAGING LOS ANGELES FOOD CHAIN LABOR AND LAND USE LAWS TO PREVENT A LOCAL RACE TO THE BOTTOM ................................ ................................ ......... 345 Part 1: Food Labor Practices and Perceptions: Economic Justice as Principle .... 345 The Political Economy of Poverty, Crisis, Corporate Power and a Weakened State ................................ ................................ .......................... 349 Bad economic times breed fights for economic justice ............................ 350 Place based politics and the complications of mul ti level governance ..... 351 Political economy through the lens of meatpacking and food processing 357 Stand Up, Damned of the Earth, and Join Labor Unions ................................ 367 The Winning of Hearts and Minds through Multiracial Labor Struggles .......... 372 Seeing the necessity of immigrant organizing ................................ .......... 375 Navigating the legal complexity of immigrant organizing ......................... 377 ............... 379 Opportunities to Bridge the Gap between Foodies and Unions? .................... 386 Part 2: Grocery Retail Land Use Victories and Defeats and the Double Imperative of Eating and Working Well ................................ .............................. 393 (Unevenly) De veloping Urban Grocery Retail Landscapes ............................ 395 Grocery Retail Policy on the Frontline of Urban Restructuring Struggles ....... 398 Strike! Inconsistent Impacts of a Spatial Tactic on Corporate Grocers in Neoliberal Times ................................ ................................ ......................... 403 Holding the line for grocery store workers in the 1980s ........................... 403 throughout the 2000s ................................ ................................ ............ 405 The Sociospatial Dialectics of Wal Mart Food Fights in Los Angeles ............. 416 The frontline anti Wal Mart comprehensive campaign of UFCW 770 and its labor allies ................................ ................................ ........................ 419 Fighting to preserve culturally significant Chinatown fro m Wal Mart ........ 421 With nothing left to lose we might as well fight by going out on strike ...... 427 in the Context of Food Deserts ................................ ................................ .... 433 Summary of Chapter 7 ................................ ................................ .......................... 447 8 UNPACKING THE SOCIOSPATIAL RELATIONS OF RESOURCE FLOWS, POLITICAL OPENINGS, NETWORK REACH, AND RESISTANCE ACROSS AN UNEVEN CONTENTIOUS FOOD POLITICS LANDSCAPE ........................... 460 Economic, Political, and Social Spatial Structuring Processes ............................. 463 Economic Structuring Processes ................................ ................................ .... 463 San Diego ................................ ................................ ................................ 464 Oakland ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 465 Los Angeles ................................ ................................ ............................. 465 Political Structuring Processes ................................ ................................ ....... 466 San Diego ................................ ................................ ................................ 468 Oakland ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 471 Los Angeles ................................ ................................ ............................. 474


11 Social Structuring Processes ................................ ................................ .......... 477 San Diego ................................ ................................ ................................ 477 Oakland ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 481 Los Angeles ................................ ................................ ............................. 484 Resisting and Altering the Spatiotemporal Trajectories of Economic, Political, and Social Life ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 486 Working for Social Change through Restructuring Work Meaning and Practice ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 487 San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (San Diego) ......................... 488 Planting Justice (Oakland) ................................ ................................ ....... 491 United Food and Commercial Workers 770 (Los Angeles) ...................... 494 Land and the Contentious Politics of Place ................................ .................... 496 San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (San Diego) ......................... 497 Planting Justice (Oakland) ................................ ................................ ....... 500 United Food and Commercial Workers 770 (Los Angeles) ...................... 503 W ithout Fighting Social Battles the Economic and Political Victories Ring Hollow ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 506 San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (San D iego) ......................... 506 Planting Justice (Oakland) ................................ ................................ ....... 509 United Food and Commercial Workers 770 (Los Angeles) ...................... 512 M apping the Spatialities of Contentious Food Politics and the Potentialities for Metabolic Healing ................................ ................................ .............................. 515 (Re)Working Labor Sites as Pl aces of Metabolic Healing .............................. 517 Leveraging the Politics of Place to Mend Metabolic Rifts ............................... 520 Restructuring Place as a Social Strategy for Just and Sustainable Metabolisms ................................ ................................ ................................ 523 Toward Networks of Resistance ................................ ................................ ..... 527 9 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 544 Main Findings and Contributions ................................ ................................ .......... 545 Toward a Broad Based Alternative Food Movement ................................ ............ 551 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 554 A INFORMED CONSENT AND INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ................................ ..... 558 B LIST OF SECONDA RY DATA ANALYSIS DOCUMENTS USED IN THE RESEARCH ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 561 C DEMOGRAPHICS CALIFORNIA WID E AND CITY WIDE FOR LOS ANGELES, OAKLAND, AND SAN DIEGO: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010 ................................ ...... 575 D TABLES FOR MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME AND INDIVIDU AL POVERY LEVELS OVER TIME BY CITY WITH RACIAL BREAKDOWN ............................ 579 E CHANGING RACIAL COMPOSITION BETWEEN 1980 AND 2010 IN SELECTED LOCATIO NS ................................ ................................ ..................... 581


12 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 583 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 606


13 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Interview Demographics for UFCW 770, PJ and SD Roots ................................ 95 6 1 Plan ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 342 C 1 Demographics of Cities with California Comparison 1980 ................................ 575 C 2 Demographics of Cities with California Comparison 1990 ................................ 576 C 3 Demographics of Cities with California Comparison 2000 ................................ 577 C 4 Demographics of Cities with California Comparison 2010 ................................ 578


14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 5 1 Tijuana River Valley and the US/Mexico border. ................................ .............. 236 5 2 Wild Willow Farm permaculture design. ................................ ........................... 237 5 3 Subtle signs of a security climate at the border. ................................ ............... 238 5 4 Supporters of the urban agricul ture ordinance inside local politics. .................. 239 5 5 WWII Victory Garden posters and cover of San Diego Reader in 2009. .......... 239 6 1 Mural on East 12th Street as it approaches 16th Avenue. ................................ 338 6 2 ..... 339 6 3 Community Rejuvenation Project murals for Oakland AFM organizations. ...... 340 6 4 Design map for Big Pine Paiute Tribe community garden. ............................... 341 6 5 Digital permaculture design plan and photo of transformation process. ........... 343 6 6 Design map for Wild and Radish, LLC. ................................ ............................. 344 7 1 Poultry processing plant. ................................ ................................ .................. 452 7 2 Protest over desktop raid at Overhill Farms in 2009. ................................ ........ 452 7 3 UFCW activists arrested for civil disobedience at 2013 immigration reform march in Washington D.C. ................................ ................................ ................ 453 7 4 Union sponsored 2012 Thanksgiving ad. ................................ ......................... 454 7 5 Bucol ic images of Farmer John meatpacking plant (Photos by Noah Albert and Efrain D. Guzman). ................................ ................................ .................... 455 7 6 Community support for striking UFCW 770 members 2003. ............................ 456 7 7 Adopt a Store group during 2003 Southern California grocery strike. .............. 457 7 8 March 26, 2011 Los Angeles rally while UFCW was in grocery negotiations. .. 458 7 9 OUR Wal Mart Black Friday strikers at the Paramount store in 2012. .............. 459 8 1 Sociospatial relations between approaches to economic inequali ty and political, economic, and social structuring processes. ................................ ...... 537


15 8 2 Sociospatial relations between outcomes associated with land use struggles and political, economic, and social structuring processes. ............................... 538 8 3 Scale of resource inflows by each organization. ................................ ............... 539 8 4 Target scale of social change in different arenas by ea ch organization. .......... 540 8 5 San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project network. Arrows connote direction of support. The thicker the lines, the stronger the network tie. ........... 541 8 6 Planting Justice network. Arrows connote direction of support. The thicker the lines, the stronger the network tie. ................................ .............................. 542 8 7 United Food and Commercial Workers 770 organizing network. This network consists of those relationships directly relevant to advancing the rights and interests of grocery retail, meatpacking, and food processing workers. Arrows connote direction of support. The thicker the lines, t he stronger the network tie. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 543


16 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AFL AFM AIN ALOFT BCLT BOD BPP CAIWU CBA CCED CEQA CHIP CIO COI CPC CSA CTW CUP DEH EBUAA EFCA EIA American Federation of Labor Alternative Food Movement Ag Innovations Network A Loca l Organic Farmland Trust Back Country Land Trust Board of Directors Bl ack Panther Party Cannery, Agricultural, and Industrial Workers Union Community Benefit Agreement Chinatown Community for Equitable Development California Environmental Quality Act Community Health Improvement Partners Congress of Industrial Organizations Childhood Obesity Initiative Community Planners Committee Community Supported Agriculture Change to Win Federation Conditional Use Permit Department of Environmental Health East Bay Urban Ag riculture Alliance Employee Free Choice Act Environmental Impact Assessment


17 EIR EJ FCWA FGC FJ GMO ICO IGP IRB IRC IWW LAANE NLF U NLRB OAEC OF PC OPRD PCOM PJ RCIU RGEC SDFSA SDHHSA Environmental Impact Report Environmental justice Food Chain Workers Alliance Friends of Garrity Creek Food justice Genetically Modified Organism Interim Control Ordinance Insight Garden Program Institutional Review Board International Rescue Co mmittee International Workers of the World Los Angeles Alliance for a New Economy National Farm Labor Union National Labor Relations Board Occidental Arts and Ecology Center Oakland Food Policy Council Oakland Department of Parks and Recreation Pacific Co llege of Oriental Medicine Planting Justice Retail Clerks International Union Regional Garden Education Center San Diego Food System Alliance San Diego Health and Human Services Agency


18 SD Roots SNAP TURF TYY UCAPAWA UFCW 770 UFW US USDA VGSD WWF San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project Supplemental Nutritional Assis tance Program The Urban Resilience Farm Transform Your Yard United Cannery, Packing, House, and Agricultural Workers Union United Food and Commercial Workers 770 United Farm Workers United States of America United States Department of Agriculture Victory Gardens San Diego Wild Willow Farm


19 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy MAPPING POWER RELATIONS IN THE AL TERNATIVE FOOD MOVEMENT: UNEVEN RESISTANCE TO INEQUALITY IN THE SPACES OF FOOD LABOR AND URBAN LAND USE POLITICS By Joshua Sbicca May 2014 Chair: Brian Mayer Major: Sociology While the al ternative food movement (AFM) is making notable gains in sprea ding environmentally sustainable production and consumption practices, problems such as labor exploitation and limited land access and use prominently remain To get at this gap, t his dissert ation asks two questions that investigate the potential for the A FM to integrate goals of social justice into their projects and activism: 1) How do economic, political, and social forces shape sites o f alternative food activism? ; 2) In what ways does alternative food movement activism alter and/or resist various socios patial relations of power? To help answer these questions, I first theoretically synthesize a number of literatures to argue for the importance of taking a sociospatial, dialectical, and multi institutional approach to understanding the relationships betwe en exploitation, domination and resistance. Specifically, I focus on issues tied to labor practices and perspectives, and land use laws, public space and private property. I use a comparative historically informed ethnographic case study method to investig ate three social movement organizations, each in a different California metropolitan area (San Diego, Oakland, and Los Angeles) I triangulate three data sources: seven months of fieldwork,


20 roughly two and a half months with each organization, 20 40 hours per week; 70 semi structured in depth interviews, one to two hours each and ; almost 200 archival sources including newspapers, reports, blogs, YouTube videos, s ocial media, and internal documents I find that there is mixed potential for the AFM to integra te concern s of social justice and advance this through its projects and activism. Given uneven economic, political and social structuring forces operating in different territorial, scalar, and place based ways, the landscape of resistance for the AFM vari es Explaining this variance is the following: the degree to which organizations and their networks of resistance recognize and act upon non food social forces impacting their goals ; the degree and form of organizational embeddedness in poli tical and econo mic institutions and the ability to use this for movement goals ; the form of land use law strategic leveraging t o inst itutionalize models of community economic developme nt; the creative forms of social solidarity generated by diverse segments of the AFM a cross a range of identities. In short, despite common struggles regarding food labor and land use laws across an array of contexts, the AFM engages in diverse, often contradictory sociospatial practices as it resists a nd alters relations of power


21 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Contestation over the production, distribution, consumption, and disposal of food are longstanding. Beyond the mundanity of daily sustenance, food deeply weaves in and out of the social, political, economic, and ecological fabr ic of our lives. Not only does fo od join people together, but also food can drive deep divides. The use of panem et circenses (bread and circuses) to distract populations from social and economic inequalities ignored or perpetuated by political and economi c elites is well understood. Therefore, food becomes a means to maintaining various social control ends. In an era marked by the intersection of a number of crises, attention t o the power relations embedded in and through food increase. Most commonly, scholars point to the commodification of food relations, differential access to healthy and culturally appropriate food and the corollary of diet related health problems, the worki ng conditions of food and agricultural workers, and wide ranging ecological degradation to water, soil, air, flora and fauna. The Organization of Power in the Agrifood System The contemporary agrifood system relies on industrialized and highly technologiz ed modes of food production, corporate consolidation in the agrifood sector, and neoliberal trade p olicies that strip local food sovereignty from communities the world over (Friedmann 1993; McMichael 2005; Bello 2009 ). While t hes e three factors contribute to local ecolo gical, human health, economi c, and political problems (Goodman and Redclift 1991 ; Magdoff, Fost er and Buttel 2000 ; Holt Gimnez and Patel 2009 ), glo bally there are problems with climate change, nitrogen loading, ocean


22 acidification, and inter national food commodity markets (McMichael 2009b; Foster, Clark, and York 2010). The global geologic al epoch of the Holocene gave way to the Anthropocene: humans are now the dominant planetary species with a capacity to alter social and ecological systems at a global scale. Interactions between global and local systems of power are increasingly complex, and investigations into the agrifood system give us a window into some of these relations and contestations. One of the clearest means by which to understa nd such power dynamics is by investigating how social inequalities infiltrate and get contested in spaces of work, residence, and recreation. These inequalities take on specific material and symbolic importance in terms of how people physically produce and consume food and how people think about and understand food. The most salient problems of food in the United States (US) concern issues of social inequality and environmental degradation First, pressure to reduce the cost of food to the consumer and maxi mize profit for agribusiness leads to exploitation of wo rkers throughout the conventional food chain, thus applying economic pressures on workers in alternative supply chains. Second, processes of industrialization, urbanization, and commodity crop product ivism produce urban and rural spaces of chronic hunger alo ngside widespread diet related problems oftentimes complicated by private property regimes, and land use policies and practices. Third, increasing dependency on petroleum and synthetically based ch emical pesticides, herbicides, fertilizer, and industrial farms and production facility equipment leads to (non) human environmental problems; this is exacerbated by a growing global urban consumer class intensifying the climate and toxic rebound effects.


23 Food Inequality Formation Building on the environmental justice (EJ) analysis that the environment includes where we live, work, and play, many critical food scholars highlight how social inequalities operate in and because of the organization of the conve ntional agrifood system (Gottlieb and Joshi 2010; Alkon and Agyeman 2011 ). Leading food scholar system does not meet the fundamental criteria of social justice such a s freedom from A large body of EJ literature focuses on t he study of environmental inequality ntersection 000: 582). While food inequality may fall under the larger tent of environmental inequality this study uses a food specific definition influenced by Allen and Wilson (2008) Food inequality is from farm to table the experience of inequality tied to system s of class, racial, ethnic, and/or gender exploitation/domination. This definition brings in the concept of the agrifood which food activists fight for more just and sustainable alternatives (Gottlieb and Joshi 2010:5). Although similar to notions of environmental inequality in its focus o n hierarchical power relations, food inequality offers an optic aimed at attending to f ood specific and/or related issues 1 Thus, to better attend to the myriad forms of food politics operating within, outside, and/or because of (alternative) agri 1 This is not to say that theories of environmental inequality are ill equipped to guide a study pertaining to inequalities in the agrifood system. My adoption of this alternative definition is as much a semantic shift as it is a convenient way to keep clear the focus of this study.


24 of interaction between ho Dupuis 2002: 6). Food Movements Rising A rapidly growing body of research is dedicated to understanding how and why people are creating alternative food networks and a spreading alternative food moveme nt (AFM) 2 This often entails the establishment of urban gardens, community distribution centers, nutrition, cooking, and gardening education and other models that take ownership of food supply chains. While many similar strategies are employed by those working to reclaim food production, those conc erned with food access are especially focused on improving the quality/quantity of food banks and increasing the number of grocery sto res that stock healthy and affordable food. Moreover, activists are increasingly vigilant around matters of food safety, either in encouraging greater organic food production or fighting for stricter policy standards to prevent the spread of food borne ill nesses, pesticide laden food, and genetically modified foods. Much of the critical research on these alternatives evaluates the degree to which activists are committed to developing agri food systems that are just and sustainable, paying particular attenti on to the way s that communities experience and activists resist the intersection of systems of exploitation and domination (Agyeman 2005 ; Alkon and 2 Similarly to Harrison (2011), I use the alternative food movement as an overarching term meant to capture a wide range of efforts aimed at reforming and/or transforming the agrifood system within the United States. This includes sustainable farming advocacy, local food supply chain creation, back to the land permaculture, urban agricultural expansion, food safety activism (including pesticide use), anti hunger and food justice organizing, food and farmworker labor organizing, nutrition and health promotion (including vegetarianism and veganism), and food sovereignty work. I am uninterested in differentiating between these often overl apping strands of movement activism. I take a different approach than Harrison (2011) and many other scholars because I see food based activism not just directed towards changing the agrifood system, but toward other social systems. Moreover, there are oft en unintended consequences of various forms of food activism that perpetuate or entrench social inequality.


25 Agyeman 2011 ). In addition, working frameworks hopefully provide food activism inspiration and focus For ex o change the system as a whole the potential to be integrated into other social justice movements, such as those concerned with community economic development, the environment, housing, or and structures that (re)produce inequality while concurrently creating alternative food models that may lead to sustainable, economically viable, and just agri food systems. Because of the civil rights and EJ movements, the FJ framing resonates with many food activists attentive to racial and economic inequalities who believe that these basic rights are in need of pr otection and advancement. Other critical framings include foo d sovereignty, which exceeds rights based framing by emphasizing self reliance, self determination, and self definition in the organization of food relations (McMichael 2009c). It mirrors FJ in that the principles and framings are counter hegemonic and attentive to/supportive of new subjectivities, but focuses less on repairing ecological rifts through the development of healthy agroecosystems. However, unlike many international food sovereignty activists, particularly in the global south where this framing originated and is most popular, many community food security and FJ activists in the US are less committed to and cognizant of the forces of neoliberalization (Mares and Alkon 2011 ). That being said, there is a growing contingent of activists organized through the US Food Sovereignty Alliance that recognize the problems of capitalism, while seeking to leverage the state to minimize its excesses and at the same time promote social welfare. While such differences in


26 emphasis help shed light on the alternative imaginaries and actually existing (radical) projects of contemporary food activists, there is a much deeper history within which to contextualize such struggles. Significance of the Study Whet her various prefigurative models with a food component reform and/or corrode institutions and systems driving such inequality is o f central importance to research at the intersection of social inequality and (alternative) agrifood systems A growing chorus of scholars is arguing that we need to carry out food research beyond food. 3 I take this to mean that we need to investigate core sociological problems tied to agri food system s reveal what purpose food serves as a lens for policy change, and evaluate the potential for food activism to expand political imaginations and practices. On the one hand, this requires attention to the ways powerful social forces shape local conventional and alternative agrifood systems. On the other hand, it requires that we as sc holars seek to uncover the elements of food activism, food based social movement organizations, and local food movements that tap into social movement traditions and/or institutional practices that may not e xplicitly relate to food. This dissertation enri ches a processual understanding of how and why the AFM deepens and/or contests social inequality. Given the tendency for some scholarship to overpraise the merits of various AFM projects and successes, it is important to place different AFM social change e fforts in a broader economic, political, and social context and compare them to find out why some efforts directly challenge structural forces and others do not, maybe even entrenching such forces further. Overlooked are two 3 See for instance a panel of well respected food scholars at the 2013 Association of American


27 particular issues. First, issue s having to do with private property, land access, and urban land use Second, issues having to do with food and farm labor Research Objectives Driving my research is an interest in the potential for the alternative food movement (AFM) to integrate disc ourses and practices into their projects and activism that advance social justice. This marks an important moment in the movement because or ganic and local food are more widely available and environme ntally beneficial practices continue to spread, but prob lems such as labor exploitation and limited land access and use prominently remain. A central aim, then, is to uncover three under articulated issues facing the AFM: expanding land access/challenging private property relations, improving labor conditions w ithin both the movement and the conventional agrifood system, and developing empowerment strategies with emancipatory democratic potential. In so doing, I address the following questions : 1) How do social, state, and economic forces shape sites of alterna tive food activism? 2) In what ways does alternative food movement activism alter and/or resist various sociospatial relations of power? Contributions of the Research This dissertation uses a comparative historically informed ethnographic case study method to investigate three cases in three different metropolitan areas in California that are engaged in an array of contentious food politics. To understand the (re)production of food inequalities and their contestation I uncover the makeup of relevant parts o organizational forms and priorities, tactics and strategic alliances, (net)work spaces and activist and organizational discourses. There are a number of independent relevant


28 literatures capa ble of helping me analyze my data, and advance their concepts and theories. These include the literatures on environmental inequality, metabolic rift, food justice, neoliberalization, multi institutional politics, and the spatia lities of contentious politi cs. Collectively, however, they offer a much richer picture of observed empirical phenomena. My analysis relies on a ll these bodies of literature in order to highlight areas of theoretical convergence and synthesis by focusing on the vari ety of social forc es taking place in the contentious food politics of each of my cases. The result is an overarching concern for the re lationship between 1) how the local political economy shape s alternative food activism regarding issues of land and labor, and 2) whether/h ow such land and labor based activism alters insti tutional and cultural spaces, norms, and disco urses Considerable empirical evidence suggests that the capitalist makeup of the conventional agri food system as well as neoliberal policies and its supporting ideologies not only impact workers and eaters in its own supply chain, but those throughout alternative food supply chains and networks. Some of m y results suggest that while this most certainly remains true, there are specific unaccounted for mechanisms by which food activists, their organizations, and the local movement in that city reproduce and/or contest dynamics responsible for social inequalities related to food. Various discourses, resources, and racial and class politics help shape the form and sp aces of alternative food activism, oftentimes blunting their transformative potential. Also much more radical efforts go beyond food only solutions by linking their land and labor politics to anti capitalist, prison abolitionist, and racial and economic ju stice movements


29 In addition my dissertation contributes to the literature on food based social movements by critically deconstructing a number of policy battles. For example, I evaluate policy aimed at expanding urban agricult ure. These cases reveal the powerful influence of institutional ideologies and discourses on the kinds of policies that pass, in turn pressuring grassroots groups and non profits to alter or adopt various positions and programs At the same time when a local food movement includes key organizations and activists that build connections to broader social struggles and effectively deploy various organizing and protest tactics, the movement is able to better drive the policy process. There are also instances where strategic alliances sp lit due to different interpretations of what policies or programs improve a community. The crux of some debate s is whether and how to leverage different laws Some options offer improvements for both the health and economy, some offer partial improvements on both, and some offer no improvements and may actually make the situation worse. While this research aims to advance understanding of the contentious food politics of the policy making process, there are implications for other cities where such policy ba ttles are or will be taking place. In short, I am pushing the boundaries of research on food based a ctivism and social movements by more broadly investigating questions of social inequality and unearthing the ways f ood is a means to create wider social cha nge. Dissertation Outline The remainder of this dissertation divides into seven chapters. Below I briefly describe the content contained therein. This is simply an outline to orient the reader to the general flow of the dissertation.


30 Chapter 2 This chap ter provides an overview of three major bodies of literature that in combination equal my theoretical framework. I begin by recalling that environmental sociology is strongest when it draws from multiple perspectives in its efforts to explain human/environ ment relationships. From this point, notion of the metabolic rift, and subsequent theorizations by a number of sociologists and human geographers. Beyond the separations between humans and nature that evolved with the rise of global capitalism, there are specific times and spaces that can be understood through a metabolic lens. Specifically, I am interested in urban food based struggles. In essence, urban food production, distribution, and consumption constitute a set of me tabolic relationships central to the reproduction of social and biological life. Yet, these relationships reflect social inequality in various forms. Specifically, the appropriation and commodification of land and labor leads to alienation, exploitation, a nd domination. Not only do ecological use values become exchange values, but also other social and political systems buoy capitalism and its spatial expression, urbanization. Therefore, the metabolic rift theory can expand by attending to neoliberalizatio n and its contestation. I draw off the work of those seeking to rescale our understanding of metabolic rifts to include not only global ecological rifts, but also social and individual rifts in the form of land enclosures and cognitive and labor alienation Moreover, by taking an intersectional analysis to the metabolic relationships of contentious food politics, one can better attend to systems of racism and sexism. To understand these intersectional realities, I follow social movement scholars that argue for understanding how multiple institutions impact social movements. In short, this is the multi institutional


31 politics approach. With this approach in mind, I seek to theorize resistance to neoliberalization and efforts to mend metabolic rifts. Given tha t systems of power are always influencing forms of activism, I see the (re)production of food inequalities in relationship with what I deem actually existing radical projects. There may be utopian ideals that drive activists, but systems of power do not si mply disappear. To ground these ideas, I theorize that we need to attend to the temporalities and spatialities of contentious food politics. I follow those that argue for a trilectic understanding of time, space, and social forces. After summarizing the po sitions of a number of sociologists and geographers, I turn more specifically to social mo vement scholars that seek to understand the relationship between time, space, and social movements. By attending to different scalar dimensions of the metabolic rift (individual and social) through the lens of land and labor politics in local urban food struggles, I essentially bridge explanations for why rifts occur and are maintained, with an analytical strategy for evaluating how and whether such rifts can be healed Chapter 3 In this chapter I explain the methods used in this study. Given that I am interested in the potential for the AFM to integrate discourses and strategies aimed at advancing social justice, I pursue an ethnographic comparative case study approa ch. My research draws off the experience of three organizations in three different metropolitan areas in California. Specifically, I investigate the labor union United Food and Commercial Workers Local 770, and the non profits Planting Justice (PJ) and San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (SD Roots) Because I am focused on land and labor politics, these cases provide an appropriate range of urban conditions (i.e. Los


32 economic position, create green jobs, expand urban agriculture, develop better grocery retail zoning laws). My qualitative research approach helps me to unravel the relevant complexities of AFM activism in each city, organiza tional practices, and activist understandings and actions. Moreover, I investigate the uneven nature of local, regional, and state scalar processes on the contentious food politics in each of my cases. Qualitative methods include 70 in depth interviews, se ven months of fieldwork generating hundreds of pages of field notes, and more than a hundred archival documents including newspapers, reports, blogs, YouTube videos, social media, and organizational internal documents. Data analysis involved the use of NV ivo 10, which allowed me to both deductively and inductively code my interviews and fieldnotes. Because I am interested in the specific issues regarding land and labor, my coding reflects attention to these categories. However, once coding within these cat egories, I took a grounded approach that allowed themes to evolve. In the end, I wrote about the most frequent and most significant themes. In the process of writing up results, I triangulated my interviews and fieldnotes with archival documents. Where the re were discrepancies I cross referenced multiple sources until I arrived at information most often stated as fact. This iterative process of moving between different forms of data helped me to see the different scalar processes at work. In addition, I dra argues that to arrive at more me so or macro level themes one must to move back and forth between theory and data. In short, no single method or data source is inherently superior. Instead, they are mutually cons titutive. Therefore, I not only report the socially constructed discourses and material practices of activists and the organizations of


33 which they are part, but the economic, political, and social forces influencing and being influenced by such discourses and pract ices. My dialectical approach does not aim at arriving at some final synthesis, but at a deeper understanding of the various historical, spatial and social forces reproducing metabolic rifts, and efforts to repair such rifts. Furthermore, while m y cases do not present a resolve to human/human, human/nature sep arations, they point to where efforts succeed or fail and reasons why. Chapter 4 This chapter provides a historical background for understanding contentious food politics. First, I provide a general overview of the American agrifood system. This overview orients the reader to the various social inequalities and ecological problems resulting from the organization of the conventional agrifood system. In addition, it points to how other social s ystems affect the experience of workers and eaters. I then turn to common form of agrarian capitalism. In addition, it is a state where the history of colonialism, imm ig ration, and racial politics profoundly shaped the course of the attend to the most salient historical moments in order to focus the reader on what is at stake in efforts to create alternative agrifood systems. This background sets up a brief history of food and agriculture based social movements. Specifically, I focus on the agrarian populist movement, food and farmworker labor organizing, organic and sustainable farming, certification campaigns, healthy eating movements, food justice, and anti hunger politics. I ground my cases in these social movements in order to show how their discourses, tactics, and organizational form s spill over in various com binations, in turn shaping future


34 generations of activism. Additionally this calls attention to the history of perpetual resistanc e, and that such resistance plays a role in the nature of conventional and alternative agrifood systems. After presenting these movements, I turn to grappling with what this history teaches us. In short, I argue that we need to 1) understand the intersections of race and class food politics ; 2) bring labor back into our analytical frameworks; 3) use private property, public land use, and the commons as a historical and spatially grounded means to understand exploitation, domination, and resistance; and 4) tackle the contradictions in and liberatory potential of actually existing (radical) food politics. Chapter 5 A case study of SD Roots and content. My focus is on the social struggles and spatial forms of contentious labor and land political, and economic struct ures, I reveal the organizational challenges to providing stable, fair, and upwardly mobile work. I argue that class and racial privilege obfuscate efforts to take labor issues seriously. For instance, there is a culture of volunteerism supported by a beli ef in non commodified forms of exchange. While ostensibly a resistant notion, it is more an organizational requirement given gardens in need of building, a farm necessitating hundreds of hours of labor a week, and a non profit model that does not generate many grants or other sources of revenue. Many food activists come down to farm from Central San Diego into a largely Latino /a border community, yet they do not interact or work to address the issues of that community. There is a spatial isolation on the f arm even as migrants cross through the


35 spatial category of the border with its heavily militarized and securitized technologies and attendant discourses also reduces the level of p olitical resistance raised by San Although many food activists realize the border exists and wish for a social system that mirrors the ways non human species transcend human borders, there is a general paralysis, lack of vision, and frankly l anguage skills necessary to bridge sociospatial gaps. With no concrete social action, ecological imaginaries amount to little. I also elucidate the ways in which SD Roots perpetuates and relies on health discourses to advance their work. We see this most c learly in the case of recent land use battles over community gardening and urban agriculture. After money flowed in These health disc ourses took material form in land use laws, which increasingly are transforming the urban landscape, while at the same time entrenching the power of private property Activists fought for many years to l oosen community garden and urban agriculture laws so that more people could grow their own food. However, it took a financially robust non profit to pay tens of thousands of dollars in permitting fees to start a community garden and Michelle Obama visitin g this garden for political momentum to shift. Coupled with County and City agencies receiving money to draft new ordinances, what once eluded food activists became law. Now people who own their own property or receive approval from a proprietor can grow their own food, raise certain animals, and sell some of that food. One result is land use laws premised on neoliberal logics of self reliance, entrepreneurialism and


36 local solutions, which also reflect racial and class privilege. These laws reflect how pri Although there are San Diego no profits that serve immigrant groups and people of color, these are the exception. For example, m arkets exist in communities such as City Heights, but there are also projects like San Diego Public Market in Barrio Logan run by white middle class people ri ding a wave of gentrification. With these laws firmly in place, I identify opportunism by AFM for ces from Northern California seeking to support local efforts by creating a more permanent network of food activists. Instead of creating a food policy council with more legal and political power many San Diego food activists joined the Food System Allian ce, a loose knit group maintained with resources coming from Ag Innovations Network Issues of radical economic alternatives. Instead, health is once again the organizing pr inciple food system. This may eventually change, but for the time being local food assessments reflect statewide goals that work within the political economy of the Californ ia agrifood system but with a sustainable veneer. Chapter 6 Unlike the previous case where reformative measures take a strongly neoliberal form, and flows of resources and discourse from federal governance structures organize the local AFM, the case of Oak land and Planting Justice reveals a more radical positioning of activism in the interstitial spaces of city life seeking to burst forth if given an institutional chance. Influenced by previous activist, non profit, and travel


37 experiences the founders of PJ sought to leverage their skills in a way that uses a burgeoning social interest in urban food systems as a way to address a variety of a network of environmental justice, e conomic justice, racial justice, and food justice activists seeking to minimize the worst effects of uneven capitalist urbanization, while simultaneously developing prefigurative alternatives, supports such an undertaking This chapter presents PJ as an o rganization that achieved some notable successes in a short period due to a variety of related factors. First, they take a structural analysis to food inequalities, which lead to creatively addressing one of the main social problems to result from the Grea t Recession, namely the loss of living wage employment and the deterioration of opportunity for low income people of color. Realizing that middle to upper class people should not be the only beneficiaries of es living wage work for people with barriers to employment, which in this case include former prisoners and youth of color. Second, the organization develops relationships with community based anti poverty and racial justice organization, thus spreading th eir skills as food activists beyond the white middle class dominated AFM. The resulting projects co plant seeds of resistance in social spaces where historically political and economic elites inflicted harm, and life chances. Third, PJ reimagine the non profit organizational structure by creating a non hierarchical diverse board that offers any staff member who so chooses to join the board. This led to conversations and practices distancing PJ from the vagaries o f funding cycles and conservative funder worldviews. Nonetheless, neoliberalization is the structural context, so programs such


38 as canvassing private donations in public spaces for initiatives possibly better handled by the state persist. In addition to i dentifying how the sociospatial context influences labor practices, and in turn how PJ is transforming this context, I present a discussion of contentious land politics. ople how to grow food, PJ dep loys such places as a means to redistribute wealth. For every three full paying client, communities where former San Quentin inmates and former Oakland high school students live or come from receive a free or heavil y subsidized edible landscape. Additional ly, the organization works with a broader set of coalitions to change local land use laws in order to expand access to public and private land. One of the main ways in Oakland to advance greater equity in food production is to assist those that live in the urban flats, a largely renter class, to obtain access to vacant land owned by those in the hills, and to open up much more of the public green space in the hills to food production. Although plans are in place to overhaul urban agriculture ordinances, imp lementation by the city is very slow. Without robust political support on a local level and little to no push from federal are creating alternative land tenure models. I exp lain one such model started by Wild and Radish to create an eco village with crowd sourced funding and a partnership with PJ to build the largest urban farm in the Bay Area. The plan for the land is to incubate worker owned cooperatives and improve food se curity for low income communities of color. In short, this case reveals actually existing radical food projects linking land and


39 labor issues together in creative ways that while not always directly challenging flows of power, are providing models that may corrode exploitative and domineering institutions. Chapter 7 Finally, through the lens of United Food and Commercial Workers Local 770, this last results chapter provides an ethnographic and historical account of the contentious food politics intersectin g with the meatpacking and food processing and grocery retail sectors in Los Angeles. movement history and provide a truncated account of 65 year history. Next, I delve into an analysis of t he political economy of poverty, crisis, corporate power and neoliberal reforms. I argue that bad economic times are the fodder for campaigns to grocery retail workers. For food labor activists, there is a strong commitment to ensuring a pathway to economic security for historically marginalized immigrants, low income and working class people, and communities of color Unlike the other organizations under study with shallo wer historical roots or institutional connections than UFCW 770, this case reveals a set of place based contentious f ood politics playing out at all scales of governance. Although much weaker than they were only 40 years ago, labor unions still offer an in stitutionalized representation of the labor move ment that influence s federal, state, and local governance structures. Locally, UFCW 770 knows that in order to stay relevant it must build connections with other labor advocacy organizations, community based groups, and non traditional allies to prevent declining wages and improve workplace conditions and remuneration. However, given the size and influence of Los Angeles, there is a belief that UFCW 770 reaching impacts elsewhere. After di scussing


40 these themes through the example of meatpacking and food processing, I turn to the ideological position staked by labor advocates on unions. With family backgrounds in low wage food chain wo rk many union organizers, union representatives, and lab or advocates empathize with those they spend countless hours supporting and organizing Witnessing firsthand the economic, social, and political benefits of labor unions, one sees the ideological commitment to union power as grounded in material gains. Suc h material gains push members of UFCW 770 and some of their food labor allies to frame good jobs as a prerequisite for obtaining good food. Activists see these efforts as a matter of racial justice. At the same time, t hese social differences with many segm ents of the AFM exacerbate some of the challenges in bridging concerns of health and worker rights. This chapter goes to great lengths to explain racial and class politics as it pertains to grocery retail land use politics and public protest by UFCW 770. W ith greater resources than organizations presented in the first tw o cases, UFCW 770 can deploy a variety of high profile political tactics. In this chapter, I focus on the use of strikes, protests, lawsuits, and workplace agitation, which the union leverag es in order to slow down and direct the process of grocery retail restructuring. The specter of Wal politics in Los Angeles because it does not want union density to decl ine and it wants to ensure economic and food security in the communities withi n which union members live However, t he Los Angeles foodscape is uneven, with grocery gaps most prominent in South and East Los Angeles while West Los Angeles thrives Some groups interpret this through a food desert lens, whose solution is to o pen any type of new supermarket


41 no matter its labor standards. Others see these same spaces lacking living wage employers. From this perspective the solution is to create living wage jobs so people can afford bette r food, which will en courage a positive cycle of union friendly grocery development. Either way, both groups face the reality that a race to the bottom is afoot. Through an investigation of the sociospatial dialectics of this struggle, I argue that the po wer of a company like Wal Mart to materially alter urban landscapes and symbolically exemplify the problems of corporate capitalism creates the conditions for producing a more unified opposition. With UFCW 770 taking a lead role in carrying out a comprehen sive campaign, but collaborating with key labor and AFM organizations, the union is working to elevate issues of economic inequality and provide an alternative This positive framing challenges the negative framing of food deserts as places of lack by suggesting that land use politics should focus on creating an abundant commons. Not only does this challenge a consumption first approach, but also it puts the issue of workers into the spotlight. Chapter 8 This chapte r provides a comparison and synthesis of the three previous chapters by going back to my research questions and theoretical framework. By breaking down how economic, political, and social forces operate and are resisted in each of my cases I show how AFM a ctivism is shaped and in turn how it reshapes the social, the historical, and the geographical. Specifically, I focus on issues of labor and land to explain the potential for the AFM, in its various guises, to integrate social justice as concept and practi ce into programming, projects, and activism. The sociospatial relations presented in this chapter reveal entanglements of power between domination, exploitation, and resistance. First, there are economic


42 structuring processes that each organization confro unemployment, and the prison poverty trap. Second, there are political structuring processes that create distinct land use laws, territorial imperatives, and private property regimes. Lastly, organizations contend with social s tructuring processes, such as racism, healthism, and neoliberalization as ideology and subjectivity. Taking seriously the multi institutional politics approach to my analysis, I show how economic, political, and social structuring processes intersect in va rious ways to produce the landscape of struggle within which each organization and its related social movements operate. Next, I unpack the resistance and alteration of economic, political, and social spatiotemporal trajectories. This analysis focuses on t he contradictions inherent in actually existing radical food projects and therefore the incomplete nature of efforts to mend individual and social rifts. First, I explain the spectrum of perspectives and practices aimed at creating greater economic justice The spectrum includes economic justice as principle, process, and peripheral. Second, I break down variance in the forms of political contention, specifically as it pertains to land and the politics of place. This variance is due to resources, political opportunities, worldviews, and identities. Similar to the previous typology, the spectrum for understanding the outcomes of land use struggles include victory, holding pattern, and defeat. Last, I highlight how each organization fights social battles. With out engaging the social, say issues of institutionalized racism, economic and political battles ring hollow. Therefore, I show how race and ethnic relations, health and environmental practices, and notions of democracy support or contradict activism aimed economic and political targets.


43 To conclude this chapter I offer some theoretical synthesis. By investigating the AFM, I offer insights into how people work to meet basic human needs and envision a world where the provisioning of food is based on socia lly just and environmentally sustainable principles and practices. Food offers a unique lens through which to examine experiments with labor and land and evaluate the efficacy of efforts to mend individual and social rifts. To do so, I use the previous ana lysis to map the spatialities of contentious food politics and the potentialities for meta bolic healing. Institutional forms of power intersect in complex ways to produce landscapes of resistance. At the same time, activists create networks of resistance t hat work to alter different sociospatial relations. I ground my theoretical postulations in my empirical findings with a discussion of how labor sites become places of metabolic healing, how leveraging the politics of place mends metabolic rifts, and how r estructuring place is a social strategy for creating just and sustainable metabolisms. In conclusion, I offer insights into the AFM as a movement of movements through a discussion of networks of resistance. Each case represents a different kind of network aimed at achieving different ends. I end by discussing the degree to which dialectical tensions are resolved through the activism carried out by these networks of resistance. Chapter 9 I conclude by briefly reflecting on the importance of addressing labor and land issues in the alternative food movement. Without attention to these issues, it is nearly impossible to evaluate the degree to which the AFM advances social justice. In this reflection, I consider some strategies that might assist the AFM in creat ing greater economic and racial justice through creating living wage work and fighting political


44 battles that might alter a range of land use, policy, and institutional prerogatives. These reflections stem from the main findings of this dissertation. I f ind that there is mixed potential for the AFM to integrate concerns of social justice and advance this through its projects and activism. Given the uneven economic, political, and social structuring forces, operating in different territorial, scalar, and p lace following: the degree to which organizations and their network of resistance recognizes and acts upon non food social forces impacting their goals ; the degree to whi ch and form of organizational embeddedness in and ability to leverage poli tical and economic institutions; the form of strategic leveraging of land use laws as a tool t o inst itutionalize models of community economic development; the creative forms of socia l solidarity generated by diverse segments of the AFM across a range of identities. After presenting these findings, I point to areas of convergence and divergence in terms of labor and land between segments of the AFM represented by my cases. While there are inevitable challenges to advancing human flourishing in agrifood systems and using food for similar ends, the proces s is open to transformation particularly because activi sts are gel ling around the importance anti despite and post capitalist organi zing. This then leads me to offer a number of avenues for future research.


45 CHAPTER 2 THEORY Socioecological Metabolisms and Metabolic Rifts in an Era of Neoliberalization A wider theory of ecology as a process of change involving contingency and coevoluti on is necessary if we are not only to understand the world but to change it in conformity with the needs of human freedom and dominated one sidedly for narrow human ends, or whether, in a so ciety of associated producers, the alienation of human beings from nature and from each other will no longer be the precondition for human existence, but will be recognized for what it is: the estrangement of all that is human. Foster (2000: 254) O n the one hand, environmental sociology concerns itself with unraveling the socioecological complexities that drive environmental degradation. On the other hand, the subdiscipline investigates efforts to improve human and non human relationships through in stitutional and non institutional means. Goldman and Schurman (2000) argue that not only should environmental sociologists find ways to integrate other intellectual trends within sociology into a dialectical understanding of human/nature relations, but als o they should reach outside of sociology and integrate cross disciplinary concerns into an interdisciplinary conversation. Specifically, they see promise in other social Gram ling and Freudenburg (1996) saw as the navel gazing that environmental sociology needs to avoid if it is to remain relevant. Some of the theoretical and empirical future directions that will help expand environmental sociology beyond its initial normative, empirical, and theoretical concerns w ith environmental degradation lie in the fields of ecological Marx ism, political ecology, and studies of science, knowledge, and power (Goldman and Schurman 2000). Moreover, there is a need to break down geographical b arriers, particularly between American and European environmental


46 soci ology (Mol 2006). ociology remains at its best when it tries to understand how new and enduring structures, institutions, and practices exploit and dominate people and n ature, as well as revel new strategies for emancipatory (Goldman and Schurman 2000: 578). As long as the human/na ture dialectic is a central acceptance of diverse v iews within this sub discipline will remain a strength and means to transcend the eco apocalyptic foundations in favor of transformative human/nature alternatives. Most broadly, I am concerned with this dialectical process T heorizing the Metabolic Rift f or Urban Food Based Struggles To investigate the s e relationship s requires a broad, yet fine grained dialectical fra mework allowing for inquiry into the mutual constitution of social and ecological systems and processes at this stage in capitalist history ( Fost er, 2000; Swyngedouw and Heynen 2003) ) concept of metabolism and the development/perpetuation of metabolic rifts are compelling In short, humans as part of nature maintain a metabolism with nature in general and through the labor process which sustains social and ecological relations. Although under capitalism (i.e. land and labor are deprived of their specific use values and made into commodities for exchange) the metabolic experience is alienated it spatially and historically differs and i s always open to change (Foster 2000). T he first metabolic rift recognized by Marx results from an increasingly industrialized agriculture robbing rural farmland of its nutrients with the resulting food products enter ing the cities largely into the hands of the wealthy (Marx 1976 ). The interruption of the soil nutrient cycl e leads to a rift in the social metabolism, a process tied to natural laws.


47 Clark and York (2008) argue t hat t he alienation of humans from nature (especially land), their labor, and each other results from numerous ecologi cal shifts and rifts that arise during the initial stages of capital accumulation with the industrialization of agriculture: [T] o overcome natural limits, capital engages in a series of shifts to sustain production, importing natural fertilizers and producing artificial fertilizer. As a result, the social metabolism is intensified, as more of nature is subjected to the demands of capital, an d additional ecological problems are created (19 ). Such ecological rift s are being by human being. The driving force is a society based on class, inequality, and oster et al. 2010: 47). This process of alienation is manifest in the rise of private property the enclosure of the commons, and a disruption in the nutrient cycle, all driven by a false valuation of money that deprive s humans and nature of their use valu e (Marx 1976 ). Non capitalist socioecological relations in food production, consumption, and disposal are devalued in order to commodify food for mass consumption, which requires the dispossession of land, and forcing subsistence farmers into factory jobs in cities. This localized process eventually expands to the level of global capitalism, itself an ecological project that shapes not only social relations but also ecosystems; metabolic rifts therefore are central contradictions (Moore 2011). Clark and Yo rk (2008 ) note, The development of capitalism, whether through colonialism, imperialism, or market forces, expanded the metabolic rift to the global level, as distant regions across the oceans were brought into production to serve the interests of capital ists in core nations. While incorporating distant lands into the global economy a form of geographical displacement helped relieve some of the demands placed on agricultural production in core nations, it did not serve as a rem edy to the metabolic rift (16 ).


48 The rift between humans and nature results from the development and expansion of capitalism which requires the extraction of res ources from one place and movement to another place. The localized use value of these products, say wheat for subsistenc e or trade with someone who makes shirts from hemp, are transformed into exchange values in global markets controlled by capitalists and wealthy consumers. In this sense, contradictions. These processes and resistance s to this organizatio n of the global food system also results in the production of varying food regimes. McMichael (2009a ) suggests that the food regime is an important optic on the multiple determinants embodi ed in the food commodity as a genus fundamental to capitalist history allows us to refocus from commodity as object to the commodity as relation, with definite geo political, social, ecological and nutritional relations at significant historical mo t can alternatively (or complementarily) express uneven and/or particular structuring processes in food relationships associated with the world history of capitalism (163). In short, although we can point to the rise of industrialized agriculture as a watershed historical metabolic rift, we can point to the increasing number of ecological rifts (e.g. global warming tied to livestock production), the experience of these processes, and other social and cultural systems that intersect in ways to prod uce a variety of outcomes and forms of resistance. The abovementioned shift in the town/country division of labor is a condition of and cause for the development of industrial agriculture and greater urbanization, which exacerbates the social metabolism w ith nature. The resulting food inequalities (outlined in the first chapter) become most visible in the stratified space of the city, itself an ongoing socioecological (re)production. It is here where we witness neoliberal capitalist


49 processes of uneven dev elopment and resistance(s) by historically marginalized groups. As Swyngedouw and Heynen (2003) note: One of the striking features of urban life is the ubiquitous necessity for socially and materially metabolised nature to sustain urban life and its fabri practices of everyday life, urbanised nature is a crucial material and symbolic good that is imbedded in and engenders urban social conflicts and struggles along class, gender and cultural cleavages over its use and control (914). To uncover so me of these urban processes I follow McClintock (2010) who contends that metabolic rift theory overly focuses on ecological rifts at global scales often pitting town versus country and does not adequately attend to individual and social rifts operating at local scales within cities. For example, d espite major production increases s poor can not afford healthy food. It is here that we can begin to see the impacts of industrialized agriculture on those living in No rthern urb an spaces (McClintock 2010). Thus, there are three forms of metabolic rift, which m utually constitute one another in urban spaces throughout the North and South. In addition to what Foster et al. (2010) term the ecological rift, which for McClintock (2010) includes both the rift in a particular biophysical metabolic relationship (such as nutrient cycling) and the spatio temporal rescaling of production from the commodification of land, labour and food at the alienation of humans from nature and from the products of our labour ( McClintock 2010: 3). These rifts are the outcome of specific relations of power. Most simply,


50 disp roportionate access to and use of resources under capitalism perpetuate ecological, social, and individual rifts. 4 The question then becomes what is required to mend metabolic rifts. For Marx (1975), the answer is communism: as fully developed naturalism equals humanism, and as fully developed humanism, equals naturalism; it is the genuine resolution of the conflict between man and nature, and man and man, the true resolution of the conflict between existence and being, between objectification and self a ffirmation, between freedom and necessity, between individual and species (348). nature; 2) rational regulation by the associated producers of the metabolic relati on between humanity and nature; 3) satisfaction of communal needs not only of present inquiry into how particular, scalar dependent metabolic relations shape (new) met abolic forms (Swyngedouw and Heynen 2003). Moreover, given that an end state such as communism would also include an abolishment of racism, sexism, homophobia, nationalism, and other hierarchical systems of power, evaluation of the liberatory potential of projects to mend metabolic rifts should include such efforts. By attending to two, less recognized forms of the metabolic rift, individual and social rifts, through an investigation into three urban struggles to improve the human condition through food an d in the agrifood system, we can finely begin to unravel possibilities for social change. Agriculture is a fundamental metabolic relationship 4 This is not simply a materialist argument based on capitalists controlling all the physical and financial commodities and their concomitant spaces. There is also a deeply biopolitical and symbolic element to the formation and maintenance of these rifts. Neolibe ral ideologies, policy regimes and subjectivities support the expansion and perpetuation of these rifts. Not only then is the metabolic rift explaining power relations under capitalism, but also it can be expanded and modified to include other political an d social forces.


51 unifying or dividing human and non human worlds, evident in nutrient and energy flows created, captured, or wasted through various forms of human organization. Metabolism and metabolic rift provide a historically grounded set of concepts to investigate the socioecological dialectics of rupture and repair between humans and their food. At the same time, these relations hips imbricate with other social, cultural, and political processes. Thus, I use the metabolic rift as a theoretical approach to understand how the (re)production of food inequalities and individual/collective resistance(s) are constantly in motion and ref ormulated in ongoing processes of neoliberalization. Bringing Together Capital, the State and Identity through Neoliberalization Because a Marxist approach such as the metabolic rift theory may ignore the importance of the state and social boundaries resu lting from cultural classification systems (e.g. Foster et al. 2010), I see processes of neoliberalization as central to (re)producing metabolic rifts, and influencing forms of contentious food politics. Similarly because on the other end are statists who largely ignore the power of capital and cultural systems of meaning, or reduce social change efforts to those that seek redress from the state (e.g. Tilly and Tarrow 2006), it is necessary to seek a more integrated e interconnectivity of many food inequalities present activists with many options for intervention, but mirroring most alterna tive food activism, analysis largely focuses on the creation of various shorter food supply chains and certification schemes (Guth man 2008 b attending to the individual and social rifts within cities further, I focus on the obstacles and opportunities food activists face challenging alienation, and the commodification of land and labor. Such rifts are imbricated with material and symbolic systems of racism and sexism (Allen and Sachs 2007; Hayes Conroy and Hayes Conroy 2008; Slocum


52 2011). 5 Activists face and engage in numerous forms of contention given the social and symbolic forms. In particular, many interstitial strategies that bypass (elements of) the state and capital may potentially set the foundations for a rupture with the dominant order, or slowly expand the scope of emancipatory alternatives (Wright 2010) While metabolic rift theory contends that social and ecological relations are always open to transformation, neoliberalization and systems of racism and sexism still permeate progressive and radical organizations at the margins making inroads toward just and sustainable metabolisms. The conventional agrifood system operates in and through many metabolic relations and processes. On the one hand, poor and working class people experience individual rifts because what they (do not) eat often leads to experi ential and cognitive alienation from the (agro)ecological systems that produce food. Relatedly, these same people, if employed, are highly likely to work in low paying positions somewhere along the food supply chain, in turn becoming de skilled workers rem oved from the production decisions that affect their lives (Food Chain Workers Alliance 2012). Such experiences are often gendered or racialized. For example, women face the double shift with the expectation they cook for their family after being at work a ll day, which coincides with a deskilling in the kitchen as the time crunch leads to preparing processed or pre cooked meals (Allen and Sachs 2007). Mexican farmworkers labor long hours in the fields of California picking specialty fruits that sell for a p remium, with the expectation that they 5 My use of material and symbolic is straightforward. Material refers to the physical forms and spaces that surround our lives: food, technologies, land, and money. The material component of systems is relevant as far as it produces hierar chies and difference based on who has what where. Symbolic refers to interpretive elements of social life: gestures, languages, images, sounds. The symbolic component of systems is relevant as far as it reinforces and/or creates the interpretive field for the maintenance of hierarchy.


53 perfectly fit this work and do it because it affords them a better life than they had in Mex ico. Yet, these farmworkers experience very high levels of food insecurity that prevents them from affording the food they pi ck (Brown and Getz 2011). On the other hand, the commodification of land and labor leads to social rifts. These rifts are most relevant in terms of the increasing conversion of urban landscapes into spaces of consumption where the buyer does not see labor relations behind commodities. Social stratification ensues: the wealthy can afford/access the most nutritious foods, while the poor are stuck in neighborhoods with cheap land values often filled with convenience and liquor stores and fast food restaurants (McClintock 2011). This spatial expansion of capitalism directly challenges those seeking to use public space to redistribute food waste and/or take over land for urban food production (Sbicca 2013). Similar to the racialized elements of individual rifts, social rifts imbricate such processes as well. For example, there are agricultural racial formations whereby the dispossession of Chinese, Japanese, and Hmo either exp licitly or implicitly racializes through set s of laws, policies, or prac tices thereby socially marginalizing these specific ethnic groups (Minkoff Zern et al. 2011). In cities, we see similar processes, such as East New York where blacks want to grow their own food but experience systematic denial and expropriation of land (M eyers 2013). Repairing these metabolic relationship s is not simply a matter of reasserting a right to shaping urban life through traditional democratic channels. There is greater need for transformative tactics and organizational forms that would eliminat e food inequalities and place the (re)production of urban life at the heart of revolutionary struggles (Harvey 2012). Many progressive and radical alternatives are emerging from


54 the social margins of urban interstitial spaces, attempting to fill the inters tices left by neoliberalization. The roll back of social benefits such as public schools, homeless services, food safety and environmental protections, and a more progressive tax system, and the roll out of feeding bans, restrictions on collective bargaini ng, and the incarceration and surveillance state is pervasive, but incomplete. Although incomplete, neoliberal subjectivities often still operate within more progressive and radical organizational forms that offer solutions to mending individual and social rifts. Such subjectivities can be tied to norms of beauty (e.g. thin bodies), acceptable foodways (e.g. kale smoothies), and lifestylism (e.g. eating and exercise as means to attaining health), all of which can reflect an ideological predilection of indiv idual choice that perpetuates unspoken notions of whiteness and class privilege. Thus, there are radical potentials in struggles over food, but we must still recognize limitations. Such a critical evaluation helps sheds light on strategically how to procee d. Histories and Spatialities of Institutional Power and Social Change For decades, environmental sociologists argued that institutionalized racism and the driving logic of accu mulation within capitalism produced spaces of environmental inequality ( Schnai berg 1980; Foster 2000; Mohai, Pel low, and Roberts 2009). This is not without the rise of movements such as the environmental justice movement protection, instead reformulating t he environment as places where people live, work, and play. The same communit ies exposed to various toxics are often th e same communities prevented from or lacking access to environmental goods, such as green space, public transportation, and clean food an d water supplies ( Lerner 2010; Harrison 2011; Gould and Lewis 2012; Sbicca 2012). As a re sponse, increasing attention


55 focuses on efforts aimed at cr eating socially just and environmentally sustainable communities (Agyeman 2013) T his study seeks to advance our knowledge of not only how historically and spatially marginalized communities experience economic, political, and social forms of food inequality, but how activists and (networks of) organizations struggle toward slowing some of the drivers of these i nequalities while simultaneously developing socially just and environmentally sustainable solutions Given that this study is primarily concerned with the relations of power regarding land access and use, and labor practices and discourses, the preceding d evelopment of metabolic rift theory helps interpret the generative healing potential of social justice and sustainability projects. Food is a necessity for human survival, so it provides a focal point for social movements seeking to improve the human cond ition by altering both the historical and spatial dimensions of social life. To explain social movements, sociologists are with his tory. This attention to time often subordinates spatial understandings of the social world, blunting the explanatory power of sociological theory (Soja 1989). Gaps remain, then, in our understanding of how social movements (re)produce social space, ( Martin and Miller 2003; Leitner, Sheppard an d Sziarto 2008 ). However, progressive and radical food movement s, with their explicit focus on both the material and symbolic importance of food, provide an ideal case to explore how sociospatial processes influence social movements which in turn shift and transform because of such movements A focus on sociospatial processes can help expand the explanatory power of social movement theory by progressing efforts to bridge the structure versus culture di vide ( McAdam, McCarthy and Zald 1996; Tilly and Tarr ow 2006; Armstrong and


56 Bernstein 2008). The material and symbolic spatial struggles of food based movements include challenging the worst excesses of capitalism such as the genetic modification of food(like) organisms, or private property relations and the commodification of food. In addition, these movements, particularly the progressive and radical elements, contest and seek to dismantle constitutive classification systems such as gender and racial categories. In short, an historical and geographical imag ination is required to interpret the fluidity of sociospati al processes involved in movement change efforts aimed at mending rifts. Contextualizing Power Social hierarchies tied to food inequality reflect the organization of power within the agrifood sys tem. When one controls the means and modes of production in a capitalist economy, one exerts power over those who do not hold these things (Marx 1976 ). This economic power influences the nature of labor relations between different segments of society. In t he California agricultural context the dynamism of agrarian capitalism is overwhelmingly responsible for increasing the power of agribusiness elites through a process of commodifying land and labor (Walker 2004). Gramsci (1971) built off Marx by showing th at the state also plays a role in dictating power relations. State elites wield economic and political control through cultural and ideological means and material means to reinforce their hegemony (i.e. consent of the masses to the interests of dominant gr oups in a society). Once again, in the C alifornia context, the state historically plays a key facilitation role for agribusiness interests and racist reactionary groups seeking to rationalize migrant labor flows as means to quelling farmworker unrest, whil


57 object and a matrix of power. All power is, ultimately power over people. One way of exercisi (68). These related forms of economic and political power actively drive inequality throughout the agrifood system by helping to dictate who produces and consumes various forms of food (Holt Gimnez and Patel 2009; McMichael 2009 a ; Guthman 2011). Of central importance are systems of private property and wage labor and the dynamics of power they (re)produce. Power is multifaceted, though. Lukes (2005) argues for a three dimensi onal power that transcends pluralist views (Dahl 1968) and elite vi ews (Mills 1956; Domhoff 2009). In the first dimension, power is decision making in formal institutions. In the second dimension, power is also agenda setting through institutions and infor mal influences. However, the third dimension involves all the elements of the first two of beliefs and desires, by imposing internal constraints under historically changi ng 144). Domination occurs through institutional constraint and culturally defined discurs ive formations, but faces counteracting protest and pressure (Scott 2001). In this sense, to comprehend how power operates throug hout t he agrifood system and food based social movement s requires a relational approach and understanding Taking the third dimension of power as a starting point, but adding a spatial component reminiscent of Harvey (1996) and Castells (1996), Sharp et al. (20 00) argue domination and resistance that oftentimes mutually constitute one another. As Harvey


58 ize throughout society. Moreover, it is only within material spaces where people, actions, imagin ations, and institutions spatially entangle and produce relations of power (S harp et al. 2000:24). I n order to investigate various forms of contentious food politics and evaluate the possibility for metabolic healing throughout the agrifood system (and related systems?) it is intellectually imperativ e to unravel entanglements of ma terial and symbolic power The Spatialities of Multi Institutional Politics Traditionally, variability in why social movements arise, choose various strategies, and either succeed or fail is explained by the level and type of resources, the political con text, ho w issues are framed, and the formation of collective identities (McCarthy and Zald 1977; Benford and Snow 2000 ; Polletta and Jasper 2001 ; Meyer 2004 ). Similarly, activists and organizations throughout food based movements access different levels of resources, face a variety of political circumstances, embody numerous (often conflicting) identities, and frame their issues in no one way. More integrated understandings of social movements and contentious politics are beginning to surmount d ebates betwe en these v arious schools of thought Specifically, this study relies on the multi institutional politics perspective, which arg ues that domination inheres in multiple institutions and culture, which activists variably target (Armstr ong and Bernstein 2008). From this perspective, p olitical engagement seeks fundamental alteration of power relations by making both material and symbolic changes to institutions and culture. Because the logics of various in stitutions and cultures can support and/or contradict the other, the ability for activists to challenge domination will strategically vary. To untangle


59 the overlapping institutional and cultural forms of power that (re)produce food inequalities and to evaluate the efficacy of various forms of resistance and alte rnative imaginaries I follow McAdam, Tarrow and Tilly (2001) who call for paying more attention to mechanisms and processes within social movements. In addition to the integrated relational perspective offered by Armstrong and ins movement toward grappling with the spatial turn in social theory. In one of the first attempts at developing a social ontology that integrates space, time, and social life, and moves beyond the s trict historical materialism of Marx, Giddens (1984) writes that importance to social theory as ar This study works to integrate time and space into a more critical understanding of social change. Lefebvre (1991: 33) provides a helpful conceptual triad to think through how social movements spatially operate First is spatial practice reproduction, and the particular locations and spatial sets characteristic of each social life, such as farms, groce ry stores, and houses. Second, is representations of space This refers to the socially con structed discourses and meanings of space by planners and engineers, and by activists and artists. For example, we see this in debates about zoning laws and land


60 prod uction. Third, representational space are sometimes coded, sometimes not, linked to the clandestine or underground side of This refers to the directly lived physical spaces overlaid with symbolic unders tandings that In this triad, each component is not distinct. tri ad of the perceived [spatial practice], the conceived [representations of space], and Pure materialism and pure idealism are two poles across which we witness the human experience of objectively operating sociospat ial systems and subjective interpretation and transformation of such systems. Whil e a few attempts seek to better understand and theorize space ( Sewell 2001; Tilly 2000, 2003; Martin and Miller 2003 ), t he social movement literature within sociology large ly addresses social movements from an aspatial perspective. For the purposes of my research, such considerations are especially salient given that food movement s take as a central consideration the spatial reordering of the agrifood system, and sociospatia l processes are central to the (re)production of many inequalities gender, and class divisions tied to who owns space, and a regulatory apparatus that controls access and exclusion (Davis 1990: 224). The construction of such social relations occurs in the built environment among those challenging, but at times reproducing various forms of privilege and p ower. Activism takes place in particular locations, under particular spatial and temporal realities. Spatial relations, then, are not


61 only the condition for, but are the symbol of social relations (Simmel 1971). Thus, by attending to space it is possible t o reveal the often complex negotiations around contentious multi institutional food politics occurring in the built environment. A n integrated social, historical, and spatial ontology and epistemology can expand our understand ing of organizational and act ivist struggle against institutionalized processes (taking place at all scales) such as racism or capital accumulation and how such processes reflect, reproduce, and challenge in an ongoing matrix of relations the creation of more just and sustainable plac es. A few food scholars study t he e mbodied experience of identity and its reformulation in specific locales (Slocum 2007 ; Alk on 2012 ), but more concerted efforts need to focus on how and why space matters to social movement scholars who are often aware of (Carolan 2006) where food activists work, live, and play. Moreover these spaces are not immune from how race, class, and gender intersect in ways that challenge efforts to improve social/food relations. Carolan (200 6) argues that if there are to be meaningful deliberative spaces for solving social and environmental problems, then they must allowed to see, taste, touch, smell, and h ear for themselves the phenomena around which knowledge used to elevate cultural foodways in order to highlight how different groups of people experience and contest food inequalities as anoth er way to build alliances to strengthen alternatives. Such tactile and spaces of solidarity hold out the promise of mending individual rifts and possibly setting the foundation for scaling up empowering labor relations and relations to the land. The theore tical consideration then turns to how


62 activists build networks of resistance that challenge institutionalized food inequalities, while simultaneously imagining and building oppositional alternatives to mend ecological rifts. Such considerations fall within a larger commitment to a dialectical ontology and epistemology. Arguing for the open endedness of dialectical historical materialism, Lefebvre (2009) [1968] knowledge or offer a closed totality, of which all previous systems had been no more y paying attention to the actual social relations and the knowledge systems embedded in s uch relations social scientists can take a more integrated thinking emphasizes the understanding of processes, flows, fluxes, and relations over the analysis of elements, things, structures and org central to a position that sees a ll the elements of an institution, structure, or system as heterogeneous and irreducible to their constituent parts. As Levins and Lewontin (1985) makes whole, and whole m akes In short, specific spatiotemporal realities actively construct the processes and p arts While sociological research on social movements inconsistently addresses spatiotemporal considerations, albeit often in implicit ways, there are some explicit statements on the matter Where there are treatments, they offer different, yet overlapping perspectives. Below I address four conceptualizations of space and contentious politics. The title of each of these articles reflect particular conceptual of


63 Over Space and in and 2003), an of sociologist among this set of authors is Tilly, the rest of who are geographers, with the exception of Sewell who is a political scientist. The contextual point here is that soci ological studies on social movements are not, nor should they confine themselves to, disciplinary walls. On the contrary, by investigating some of the seminal articles articulating or progressing a spatial approach to the study of social movements, we migh t gain greater insight into the processes of social movement contention. relational understanding of the exertion of state power and its resistance. Tilly (2000) interprets space as the plane upon which contention plays out and as a tool for both domination and opposition. In his historical interpretation of struggles in Paris and London, spaces of contention, whether contained or transgressive, involve social movement activity that seeks redress from the state for its grievances. This interpretation of the role space plays in social movements exclude movements that do not target the state (e.g. prefigurative movements, cultural change movements), thereby narrowing the forms of spatia l tactics and symbols deemed relevant for political activity. Here space includes static sites of contention where governments perform duties, display symbolic power, and defend their authority, and where activists and protestors march, understand such pow er, or becomes reinterpreted for political purposes. In this sense, space impacts people, but people do not impact space beyond symbolic


64 places as sites of contention removed from the influence of other scalar or network Space and Tilly (2003) furthers his argument by noting advancements proffered by Sewell (2001) and Martin and Miller (2003), all of whom are influenced by Lefebvre. Specifically, he addresses the issue of scale by schematically articulating dynamics of contention on a two dimensional plane of spatial variation, proximity and mobility. In this formulation, we see variation in spatial connections among social sites: local fixed, large scale fixed, local mobile, and large scale mobile. For example, on one end are local political struggles over public space, and on the other end are transnational struggles, with claim s making fixed on one end to specific social or political norms, and on the other end high transferability of spatial repertoires. Once again, though, the ontological orientation is toward space as a plane of contention over which there is struggle. Sewel l (2001) takes a more dialectical approach to understanding contentious constraining, but t hey are also subject to transformation as a consequence of the very addition, he sees contentious politics taking place beyond the stat e. space, Sewell the ways that spatial constraints are turned to advantage in political and social struggles and the ways that such struggles can restructure the meanings, uses, and strategic valence of s Much of this reading is predicated on the notion of copresence as a determining factor


65 for the (re)production of sociospatial structures and/or their transformation through social age ncy. Issues such as location, spatial differentiation, and deployment of networks, time distance and the role of nature, technology and the built environment, spatial routines, the cultural meanings inscribed in and given to space, scale, and the role of p ower all influence the form and contentious politics takes. Notions of space and contentious politics evolve as process based in Martin and understanding of sociospat ial structures and human agency, but more explicitly influenced by Lefebvre they suggest that geographies of contention are tied to social and historical processes that structure and are open to change. I follow Martin and injunction that t e.g. politics, how key actors, organizations, and institutions relate to and affect other actors, organizations, ial movements (149). As argued by Le 2003:149). In this reading, economic, political, and social processes and relations are all embedded in and reflect or en gender the potential to transform space, contingent on the scalar and place dynamics of perceived, conceived, and lived space. There is a dialectic between more socially just and sustainable food spatialities (guerilla gardens, cooperative markets and r estaurants, permaculture edible landscapes, anti GMO networks, food justice conferences) and exploit ative and dominating food spatialities ( urban landscapes after undergoing demarcated devaluation, industrialized farms, corporate grocery stores and fast fo od restaurants)


66 and a ctivists participation in the various spaces of contentious food politics. Such considerations are based in an empirical desire to consider the spatialities of contentious politics, namely owledge, crafting and intuiting strategies that they hope will succeed, and which simultaneously In short, Leitner et al. (2008) contend that most scholarship on the spatialities of contentious poli tics elevates one form of spatiality above others. Instead, they suggest that various combinations of place, positionality, scale, mobility, and networks are at work as context for, and deployed in contentious political struggles. Therefore, a spatially in formed definition of contentious politics informs this study counterhegemonic social and political action, in which differently positioned participants come together to challenge dominant systems of authority, in order to promote and 2008:157). The multivalency of spatialities requires not only recognition of their presence, but also specifically, how they inform and shape one another in contentious political struggles. In a bridge to considering the metabolism of the spatialities of contentious politics, I concur with Leitner et al. (2008) that strictly social interpretation without attention to the materiality of non human age nts (e.g. technologies, weather, foodscapes, biophysical processes of all sorts) renders contentious politics inert. es of of food based social movements and point to the possible ways activists contest the spatialities of food


67 inequality and strive to create more just and sustainable food spatialities (i.e. mend metabolic rifts) In short, this study takes a multi instituti onal politics ap proach to contentious politics from a spatial perspective. 6 This allows for an analysis that not only sees capitalism in an era of neoliberalization as a driver of social inequality, but also racialized social systems and the generative pow er of cultural and interpretive forms. Given that metabolic rift theory is theory of spatiotemporal change, fleshing out how I am investigating the spatialities of contentious food politics helps to clarify how I arrive at my conclusions. By attending to d ifferent scalar dimensions of the metabolic rift (individual and social) through the lens of land and labor politics in local urban food struggles, I essentially bridge explanations for why rifts occur and are maintained, with an analytical strategy for ev aluating how and whether such rifts can be healed. 6 The methods chapter (Chapter 3) spatially breaks down my approach based on an integrated spatial framework (developed by Jessop, Brenner and Jones 2008) that seeks to bring multiple spatial dimensions to bear on questions of political economy and contentious politics, namely the dimensions of territory, place, scale, and network.


68 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Research Questions While sociologists studying food largely focus on individual cases of food activism within the alternative food movement (AFM) this research expands the scope through historical comparative analysis of three organizations and their social, political, and economic contexts. I investigate three organizations in California: the labor union United Food and Commercial Workers Local 770, and the non profits Planting J ustice (PJ) and San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (SD Roots) These are unique, yet representative cases addressing food labor, food access and sustainable farming. The following questions drive an investigation into three major issues facing the A FM: expanding land access /challenging private property relations, improving labor conditions within both the movement and the conventional agrifood system, and developing empowerment strategies with emancipatory democratic potential. T o highlight the spati alities of contentious food politics I examine these issues. 1) How do economic, political, and social forces shape sites of alternative food activism? No complete analysis of soci al movements is possible without mapping the relations of power within which activists operate. While the corporate food regime receives the ire of many food activists, food activism intersects with neoliberal rationalities such as localism, entrepreneurialism, consumer choice and self improvement (Guthman 2008 b ). Publically prote sting, resisting in workplaces, and lobbying the halls of congress to more directly challenge the structural forces driving food inequality is less common, but increasingly important. Given the concentration of arable land, production facilities, and acces s to cheap wage labor by (trans)national


69 agrifood corporations, I investigate contestation in public and private sites of local food activism, and the degree to which networks develop to challenge food inequalities at greater scales. The background on each case provides this analysis, in addition to a sustained discussion in the results chapters (Chapter 5 and Chapter 6). 2) In what ways does alternative food movement activism alter and/or resist various sociospatial relations of power ? Addressing a compar ative question helps draw attention to the relationship between how domination and resistance operate within food movements across different locations (Alkon and Agyeman 2011) Moreover, there is little comprehension of the sociospatial dynamics of food ac tivism. Developing autonomous food spaces is often the intended goal of mobilization (Mares and Pea 2011). T he power of the state and capital still infiltrate such spaces of production (Lawson 2007). Moreover, race, class, and gender spatially operate as hierarchal systems. Other spatial strategies include creating new market spaces for sustainable food consumption (Allen 2004), but these spaces may overlook questions of labor justice (Alkon and McCullen 2011). Thus, I investigate the degree to which food activism challenges private property and develops fair labor practices and equitable social relations. The two previous questions help me to evaluate my overarching concern: what is the potential for the AFM to integrate concerns of social justice into the ir projects and activism ? I answer this question through a critical investigation of the process of creating a lternatives within the restrictions of wider social forces. Alternative food organizations often subordinate social justice considerations to ecol ogical considerations (Allen et al. 2003). However, mobilizing around radical discourses


70 increase food activism aimed at advancing social justice (Morales 2011; Sbicca 2012). Such activism is often local in scope, and therefore limited in its ability to fu rther a structural reordering of the food system (Born and Purcell 2006). Therefore, I investigate the similarities and differences between organizations (mis)understandings and critiques of structural drivers of labor exploitation and the commodification of land, with particular attention to the influence of practices and discourses premised on neoliberal rationalities. Because any struggle to reorganize social relations inevitably engage s its spatial bases, these questions advance the sociological l iterature by attending to the intersections of space, social movements, and food. Efforts to end inequalities in the agrifood system require critical attention to the structural processes that (do not) facilitate movement goals. This research strategically proceeds with these considerations in mind Research Methodology Given my focus on different forms of food inequality, I follow Pellow (2000) who argues for a research perspective the Environmental Inequality F ormation (EIF) which links three major ar eas often overlooked by researchers of environmental inequality: process and history; multiple stakeholder relationships; and the production and consumption of goods from a life cycle approach. we can move beyond simplist ic race or class causal explanations by more broadly looking at the unequal distribution of power and resources through an interconnected analysis that links some of the abovementioned processes. O ne sector or group in society does not monopolize power. Ra ther power expresses itself in many ways and


71 through multiple mechanisms. Thus, in order to understand the broad patterns, we need to attend to the interconnections. The nuanced analytical frame offered by EIF greatly inform s my research approach, but I p rimarily focus on process and history, and multiple stakeholder relationships. While EIF offers a major advancement in how to think about and carry out arises and activi sts resist across spatial dimensions is in need of more research. By looking across these different dimensions, we can better answer why variations occur. However, space is not just a playing field upon which social and temporal action takes place. Attenti on to variation in spatial dimensions also provides useful and analytically nuanced descriptive and explanatory devices. In this way, t here is an urgent need to understand the role that space plays in restricting and facilitating attempts by food activists to dissolve food inequality. As Soja (1989) notes space, time, and social be expand upon Pellow (2000) by focusing on individual and integrated place s of production and consumption (Goodman 2002; Goodman and DuPuis 2002) and employing methodological tools that highlight the relational and complex dynamics taking place by activists engaged in oppositional food production and consumption (Holloway et al. 2007). To investigate thes e sociospatial rela tions I atten d to the dimensions of scale, place and networks To break down such an approach in terms of space while maintaining a relational understanding of power, I follow Jessop, Brenner, and Jones (2008) injunction to take a relational approach to multiple spatial dimensions. Four major spatialities tend to occupy social scientists: territory, place, scale, and network.


72 Although some scholars weave together multip le spatialities, the literatures on spatiality tend to be distinct, either because of m ethodological, theoretical, or topical reasons. Jessop et al. (2008) appeal to the importance of historically situated analyses, which should necessitate spatially integrated understandings of the object of analysis. They h preferences territory, place, scale, and ne twork as the spatialities for analysis. In this sense, I see an opportunity to synthesize relational perspectives by attending to the many dimensions of power as domination, exploitation, and resistance, as well as its sociospatial forms. As Jessop et al. (2008) note, t he TPSN framework is useful to understand contentious politics. There are two relevant ways that this study uses this framework: [1] would entail using it to decipher the strategies and tactics of individual and collective agents, organizations, and institutions that are engaged in deployed to pose new questions regarding the interplay between the spaces of contentious politics and the geohistorical periodization of capital accumulation and state power (398). Given the variety of cases this study investigates, all four spatialities are relevant in various combinations at different times and in different places. Specifically, I c onsider how local, regional, and state scalar processes impact and are influenced by the specific places of contentious food politics, albeit in uneven ways. In addition, territorial boundaries and different network combinations reveal the ways in which do minating and exploitative forms of power get exerted and contested. This research, then, uses archival research, partic ipant observation, and interviews to support a nested arran gement of data collection units. In terms of scalar boundaries, I investigate the operation of local, regional, and national poli tical and economic institutions. This intimately intersects with territorial rules and enforcement. I


73 examine sites relevant to or created by food activists and organizations in order to attend to place M y methodological entry point for understanding the polymorphous relations between these various spatial arrangements are the various places of alternative food work by activists in each of my cases. While my entry is through one dimension (place) this is i nvestigated in the context of other spatial relations (scale and networks). In short, I attend to material forms (e.g. mobilizing resources to increase political and economic influence both in interstitial spaces and central nodes of power) and symbolic/di scursive understandings (e.g. framing activism as helping a particular food politics of the AFM. Histo rical Comparative M ethods My research borrows from historical com parative methods. One of the problems looking at multiple cases, scholars often draw con nections w ithout recognizing how cases mutually constitute one another over space and time. The AFM attempts to resolve food inequality from farm to table, which requires multiscalar strategies to achieve this transformative vision. McMichael (1990, 1992) therefore calls for historical historical, fluid concepts and on an emergent totality comprised of a multiplicity of determinants and relations. The units of analysis for this research are the individual activists, the organizations, and the cities within which food inequality and food activism co occur. Historical comparative methods allow for methodological flexibility between theory and data, for flexibility across time and space, and recognize that theory is


74 provisional (Clemens 2007). Moreover, this methodology reveals both necessary and sufficient causes of various processes through analysis of a few cases, paying attention to variation in sequence and duration of even ts, and through concept analysis, by carefully operationalizing and scoring the indicators of interest (Mahoney 2004). To situate relationships between organizations throughout the AFM within California this study focus es on multiple historical processes, structures, and resistances tak ing place across three different city scale spatiotemporal ities. This understanding of the spatial and historical context of contentious politic s, a comparative case study design is superior. Moreover, my historical analysis of the AFM pays attention to narratives used by activists to connect historical events and sociospatial practices (Abbott 1992; Gotham and Staples 1996). These narratives refl ect situated knowledge, which provides an entry point to understand human lived experience, while also directing my attention to perceptions of the most important social, political, and economic forces. Because many historical methods do not account for ac tivist narratives, I use this situated knowledge to reconstruct and link macro structures (e.g. capital accumulation, neoliberalization, nutrient cycling) with micro processes (e.g. l abor organizing, growing food) Specifically, I trace the following histo ries : 1) t he cont entious politics of relevant municipality (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5); 2) farm and food worker labor struggles, and debates within the AFM over labor rights (Chapter 4 and Chapter 6) ; 3) the h istor y of relevant political projects and social movements that influenced the organizations in each of my cases (Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6)


75 Ethnographic Case S tudies My study follows the tradition of carrying out multiple, shorter ethnographic case stu dies/sites (Nadai and Maeder 2005; Yin 2009). The case study is the most appropriate method to study the AFM given its geographic, historical, and strategic diversity. Moreover, my research mirrors th e criteria Yin (2009) considers necessary for case studi posed, (b) the investigator lacks control over events, and (c) the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within a real that scho lars interested in bounded social phenomena, thick descriptions, and triangulation of methods should consider case studies (147). My research meets these criteria. The goal of studying three cases is to illuminate the complex social interactions, routines and activities of activists within specific times and places, so I deploy thick descriptions to capture such intricacies Lastly, the AFM is taking place within a larger social context irreducible to one case, thus my use of comparative analysis. My res earch draws off the extended case method because it overcomes concerns about the micro focus and often lack of generalizability of case studies (Burawoy et al. 1991; Burawoy 1998). Instead of inductively deriving theory from qualitative data a la the groun ded research of Glaser and Strauss (1967), I follow Burawoy (1998) by looking at particular features of a social situation and then working to reconstruct theory (resolving internal contradictions and/or highlighting silences and gaps) in a way tha t matche s observations by the researcher. Such an approach lends this study external validity. Macro spatiotemporal concerns are often invisible to activists entrenched in day to day operations. However, they are often aware of the specific micro functions


76 blocke d or facilitated by various social forces. The extended case method attempts to lay out structural considerations before going into the field. For example, the literature speaks to spatiotemporal processes such as urbanization and racialization that drive the AFM to redirect/surmount these processes. When my assumptions were wrong I listen ed for confirming evidence from many people within the field and consult ed appropriate theory to expand observations. Linking historical and qualitative methods attentive to space overcomes ahistorical and aspatial theoretical understandings that explain social phenomena, and instead situate what is happening in the field with extralocal forces and historical specificities that speak to various theoretical positions. Resear ch Sites My case selection comes from a bounded universe of cases. Specifically, the cases meet criteria based on a variety of organizational, geographic, and theoretical considerations. First, the organization needed to address some relationship between f ood/agriculture and equitably meeting human needs (economic, health, social, political). Given that the AFM increasingly focuses on developing more just and sustainable human relations as it pertains to food, my organizations fall into a universe of cases relevant to such progression. Second, I selected my cases so that each was addressing a distinct, but core part of the AFM: labor, food access, and sustainable farming. Third, t he organizations needed a distinct leadership, and a distinct population that t hey were serving and/or representing. Having such organizational structure provides me with a clear way to access in depth organizational knowledge of each case, and differences in perspectives between people with different levels of organizational influen ce. Fourth, I selected cases that had a diverse racial and ethnic makeup. One of the critical concerns voiced by an increasing number of scholars and activists is that


77 racism still permeates conventional and alternative agrifood systems. Therefore, it was important to select cases that allowed me to explore the different perspectives that might emerge between races/ethnicities. Fifth, the cases all needed to be located in California. All three organizations chosen for this study are in California to limit e xogenous variables tied to geography. Specifically, I wanted to limit differences in external politics at the state level. Although the cases are in different parts of California and may be subject to different local ordinances, there should be more contin uity than if the cases were in different states or regions. Moreover, for comparative purposes, I am able to make a stronger argument for why there are similarities and differences among cases. However, the cases are all in major metropolitan areas consist ing of large and socially and economically diverse populations. Sixth, the case selection considers whether they were explicitly engaged in spatial politics, protest, and/or activism. Given that one of the major goals of this study is to unearth the forms of spatial power that shape activism, it is imperative that organizations are somehow responding in a spatial way ( arguably, there is no way not to respond spatially). To confirm whether groups were engaged in spatial politics, protest, and/or activism, I verified through each physical or symbolic space. Last, I selected cases never researched by others before in any sort of detail. I spoke with activists and scholars who agree t hat it is important to shed light on the operation and political context of groups who do not receive much public attention outside of their immediate community. Thus, my choices were purposeful to improve our understanding of the AFM by exploring as many organizations that make up this movement as possible.


78 There is widespread study of c ontentious food politics in California. However, as Walker (2004) contends because of the early installation of capitalist production i.e., a commercial, businesslike, and industrial agriculture California represents an historical vanguard of sorts, in which many features of agribusiness now found around the world were originally worked out (or very nearly have caught up with California agribusiness and its practices (17 18). Agrar ian capitalism of this sort produced resistance and a drive to develop new agricultural models and relationships, many of which come from within California. Despite the neolibera l forms and subjectivities at the heart of many of these alternatives (Guthman 2007), food activists across the country often look to California to inform their own activism. Thus, my cases are representative of the sorts of food politics activists engage with, specific ally food and farm labor, food access, and sustainable food production. Investigating three cases illuminates the social interactions, routines, and activities of food activists within specific times and places, through thick descriptio ns tha t capture detail while embedding them in broader spatiotemporal processes. The first case is San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (SD Roots) based in San Diego California, an organization whose mission is to strengthen the local food movement in the San Diego region and to create a sustainable urban rural partnership that brings healthy local food to our communities and sustains the working landscapes and people This organization is distinct in its approach to sustainable farming becau se it works to integrate both social and ecological concerns into their efforts, with special attention to educating a new generation of farmers and gardeners. Moreover, this organization works to link rural and urban concerns with attention to social just ice considerations. The kinds of spatial practices that SD Roots engages in


79 provide a unique comparative lens with the predominately urban practices taking place by U FCW 770 and PJ. Researching organizations that represent the three dominant concerns for f ood act ivists affords this study greater analytical strength to understand the promises and possibilities of the AFM and more broadly, changes to human/food relations. The second case is Planting Justice, an Oakland based FJ organization working towards r acial and economic justice through urban agriculture efforts that increase affordable access to healthy and culturally appropriate food. 1 This is the most common form of F J organization. PJ is distinct with its grassroots canvass efforts to build support f or creating food production jobs through urban farming and residential edible landscaping, and by leading regular workshops on food justice, culinary arts, and permaculture design. This case is important because it engages in many efforts to create food ju stice, through a praxis that integrates social justice and permaculture. primary agenda has been to assist people to become more self reliant through the design and development of productive and sustainable gardens and farms. The design pri nciples were derived from the science of systems ecology and study of pre industrial examples of sustainable land use approach that explicitly seeks to transform urban spaces, PJ provides a distinct lens from which to compare the other cases. However, it is also their commitment to seeing food as a vehicle by which to address problems in other institutions such as prisons and public schools as well as working to increase access to land that makes PJ stand out. 1 I sat on the board of directors for Planting Justice since its founding in 2008 until 2014.


80 The third case i s United Food and Commercial Workers Local 770 (UFCW 770) a labor union representing 30,000 members in grocery stores, pharmacies, packinghouses and food processing plants throughout the coastal regions of southern and central California. UCFW 770 is also part of the recently formed Food Chain Workers Alliance (FCWA), whose mission is to improve pay and labor conditions for workers along the food chain. Although most research on fo od related labor struggles pertain to farmworkers, exploitation of food work ers occurs throughout the food chain. Therefore, it is important to shed more analytical light on those whose livelihoods rely on working in food processing, distribution centers and grocery retail I investigate how union organizers, reps, and leadership along with a few activist workers in each of the labor activism. Some of the companies UCFW 770 represents workers from include Vons, Albertsons, Stater Brothers, Goldberg and Solovy Foods, Inc., Farmer John, and Overhill Farms. Given that my other two cases involve the beginning and end of the food commodity chain, production and consumption, the case of UCFW 770 is representative of those in a middle position, processing and distribution. Labor unions are more likely than anyone else actively to address the concerns of food and agriculture workers. Numerous arguments maintain that labor and class struggles throughout the agrifood system need to be included in the AFM if s ocial justice is going to spread (Gottlieb and Joshi 2010; Holt Gimnez and Shattuck 2011). At the same time, it is important for labor unions to reengage in broad based social movement activism as part of a bottom up, democratic, and multi front effort to challenge the cooption of labor by the Democratic Party and union bosses, while still recognizing the


81 necessity for mainstream political work (Aronowitz 2003; Milkman 2006). Only such a strategy will achieve economic equality, security, and safety in the face of the pervasive barriers that often prevent building inclusive social movements for such efforts (Aronowitz 2005). Non profits who tend to make up a large percent age of those organizations working in the AFM are less likely to take on questions of economic justice at the point of food production and distribution in the conventional agrifood system. Last, while much is known about food access and sustainable (urban) farming struggles that attempt to bridge sustainability and social justice, less is known about how unions might play a key role in fighting for a more just agrifood system. Procedures of Data Collection and Analysis The combination of methods used in th is study highlights different scales and perspectives to comprehend the relationship between macro and micro social processes. The AFM operates within larger institutional scales irreducible to one case, thus a historical comparative approach reliant on ar chival research is used. I complement u nderstanding larger scale processes such as wage labor conditions in the conventional agrifood system by directly observing specific places and behaviors, and speaking with activists. This provides an interpretive loc al lens to buffer the historical narrative. The multiple sources of evidence derived from these methods lend construct validity which lea answer ing questions by using diff erent forms of evidence ) (Yin 2009).


82 Data Sources I triangulated data between three sources: interviews, fieldnotes, and secondary data analysis of archival, online, and printed materials. Below I describe the details of each data source. Going through the Institutional Review B oard Before entering the field and going through the Institutional Review Board (IRB), I spoke with directors/leaders in each organization and asked if it would be allowable to con duct a qualitative study. I expressed my desire to do field observations at the various programs and conduct i nterviews both with those served by these programs as well as staff/members. I received verbal consent to go ahead with this qualitative study. Next, I went ahead with filling out my Social and Behavior Research Protocol Submission form through the IRB. I clarified that a ll participants would be recruited face to face, unless through snowball sampling a respondent introduced me to someone else. The participants received an explanation of the study at the time of recruitmen t. If they were interested in participating, I had them review the informed consent form, and either conduct ed the interview on the spot, or contact ed them later in order to set up a n interview. Participants did not receive compensation f or participation i n the study. As best of my ability. I received approval from the IRB at the University of Florida (see Appendix A). Interviews I formally spo k e with activists in inte rviews to receive targeted and focused responses. Interviews provide d rich descriptions about personal thoughts and experiences. For each case, I collected in dept h semi structured interviews with


83 orga nization staff, volunteers, participants and important community allies/supporters. The research depended on 70 interviews. 64 were in person, and 6 were over the phone. 25 interviews were with PJ, 26 were with SD Roots, and 19 were with UFCW 770. My interview sample include d a cross section of each organizat based on their roles, responsibilities, and status. UFCW 770, I interviewed over 90% of current active participants. In the case of UFCW 770, I primarily interviewed organizers, union reps, and key union leaders. The interviews were one time, ran between one and two hours, were digitally recorded, and then transcribed. I completed transcriptions with the help of two hired people. The demographics for the interviews of each case varied. Table 3 1 pres ents the results. The single largest groups were white males (24%), white females (19%), Asian females (10%), Latino males (9%), and Latina females (9%), all with college degrees. Overall, the respondents were overwhelmingly white (47%) and had a college d egree (79%). Fieldnotes To comple ment these interviews, I also took extensive fieldnotes while working as an intern with each organization. I spent roughly 20 40 hours per week as a participant observer. With PJ, I split my time between assisting the orga nization with administration and office duties, such as developing a database and internal personnel homes. Beginning in June 2012, I spent two and a half months with this or ganization. For the next two and a half months, I participated with S D Roots as an intern on their six acre farm, Wild Willow Farm. I built compost, formed rows, planted seeds, managed the nursery, watered plants, pulled weeds, harvested crops, fed the chi ckens, prepared CSA baskets, teas, and herbal tinctures, and attended weekly sustainable farming


84 workshops. Last, I spent two months with UFCW 770, ending January 2013. This consisted of administrative office duties such as developing maps and surveys, cal ling strategic community partners to participate in various demonstrations, assisting with preparation for meetings with community activists and business owners, visiting food processing, distribution, and grocery workplaces, and participating in union spo nsored or supported protests. The ordering was purposeful. I spent time first with PJ and SD Roots because their peak activity is during the summer growth and harvesting season, whereas with UFCW 770, the conclusion of some major campaigns, including elect ion year politics took place during the late fall/early winter. I recorded r eal life settings thro ugh fieldnotes because they allow ed me to record instances as they occur red and therefore, detail the everyday lives and activities of actors (Emerson et al. 1995). In r ecording my experie nces as a participant observer, I I was by no means a natural observer free from biase s, but I attempt ed to understand the complexity of everyday life by witnessing it for myself. Thus a dialectical relationship took also changed the context by my mere presence. My writing was undertaken without the knowledge of participants. On one occasion, though, a PJ staffer noticed th at I was writing vigorously in my notebook during a staff meeting. He My presence and intentions as a researcher were known, but were not always directly comme nted on by others. In short, m y fieldnotes provide a means for understanding my impressions and feelings about what happened which is important given the iterative process occurring between personal biases and objective reality.


85 Fieldnotes were recorded o ver the duration of my time with each organization. While volunteering I t oo k mental notes and then recorded jottings immediately upon leaving the field. I first recorded these notes as a voice mem o and then transcribed them, or directly typed them into a computer. I always carried around my jottings notebook i n case some thing came to mind, or something happened that I wanted to record. I use d these jottings to write descriptive fieldnotes. These fieldnotes follow ed Emerson et al. ( 1995) advice to write abo ut how my positionality influences and is influenced by the field, pay special attention to indigenous meanings and concerns, and These fieldnotes also describe in detail the spatial configur ation of each place of food production and consumption. ion that fully understand ing the relationship between humans and nature (e.g. food relations) requires recording how the place of qualitative research affects people and organizations. In addition to writing detailed fieldnotes, I wro te occasional memos to check on how I was feeling throughout the data collection process and chronicle emerging themes. Archival sources Throughout the research process, I collected mate rials to help me triangulate my interviews and fieldnotes. First, while working with each organization, I amassed internal documents, posters, leaflets, financial records, personnel information, promotional materials, and reports. These physical materials provide visual clues into how organizations perceive themselves and their work. Moreover, they give important information on internal processes and the outcomes of various decision making processes. Second, I collected virtual materials about each organiza tion. This includes YouTube videos, Facebook postings, Google Groups, listservs, and blogs. Some


86 materials are organizational products, while others come from friends, critics, dispassionate observers, or those from the media. This leads to my third archiv al source, virtual news media. All of the issues and organizations in this study receive different forms of news media coverage. The first means by which I sought these materials was by searching in various databases such as LexisNexis and Access World New s for each organization in mainstream national and local newspapers and local weeklies. In addition, I used these databases to search for specific sectors within which each organization works. These searches included the relevant cities and the types of ac profits, foundations, policy institutes, and local, state, and federal governments on matters of relevance to thi s study. These reports are essential in that they provide sources of information that help me verify different statements made interviews or in the field. Furthermore, they help to provide me with political, economic, and social context. Appendix B breaks down all of these sources by city (i.e. case). When cited directly, they appear in the References. The following clarifies how the operationalization of each research question frames each theme Operationalizing Research Q uestion 1 (RQ1): How do E conomic Political, and Social Forces Shape Sites of Alternative Food A ctivism? Three specific questions guide this research question: 1) What institutional and cultural rules and norms around land and labor do activists challenge?; 2) How does the spatiotempora l context differ between cases?; 3) Why does this context shape activism differently? In depth interviews are one method used to investigate RQ1. To map the relations of power within which each organization works I asked leaders in each


87 organization to enum erate the greatest institutional barriers to advancing their goals. Power operates at multiple scales, so I asked activists to consider barriers to their work. Jurisdictional (i.e. territorial) boundaries are commonly used demarcations by organizations bec ause they are relevant for how operations function and the degree of engagement in various activities. For example, 501(c)3 non profits cannot engage in the traditional politics of lobbying or elections. However, labor unions operate under different federa l statutes that allow such activity. Through this inductive exercise, it turns out that after participants freely offer barriers, local scale barriers are more common than national scale barriers. I also attend to the spatialities of identity politics by a sking ? and mples of where such issues This inductive mapping points out the multiscalar stakeholder relationships used to help guide historical research. unaccounted temporal factors. Archival data for each organization includes news accounts (local, state, and national mainstream papers and indepe ndent blogs/internet sites) and printed and online materials from each organization going back 10 years. In addition, scholarly histories on the city and state that focus on the role institutions play in the formation of the places within which each organi zation works are included. I cross referenced this empirical process with social theory to illuminate the relationship between institutional power and efforts to reform or transform such institutions. For example, activists noted the lack of grocery stores in predominately people of color neighborhoods. They often then argued that large grocery chains do not want to open


88 up businesses in neighborhoods that will not make them money. In the course of historical research, it may come to attention that redlinin g and zoning laws in some of these neighborhoods prevented black people from opening up businesses and owning houses. By tying these various streams of data to social theories of race provides the broader process through which racism is (re)produced in urb an neighborhoods. Once again, my research moves between theory informing data and data informing theory. Operationalizing Research Question 2 (RQ2): In What Ways Does Alternative Food Movement Activism Alter and/or Resist Various Sociospatial Relations of P ower? This research question is guided by two specific questions: 1) What are the discursive frames and collective identities that influence how activists think about (trans)forming spaces of production and/or consumption?; 2) What resources and practices are (not) used to address social inequalities where/in the way an organization works? I use in depth interviews and participant observation to investigate RQ2, in order This study of the AFM requires the triangulation of methods to supplement each Snow and Anderson 1991). I ask questions such as the location of pro most important for achievi By allowing activists to frame their answers in terms that make sense to them, I am able to examine the symbolic/discursive patterns that guide particular spatial strategies. Additionally, I use archival research to map the successes and failures of various campaigns and mobilization efforts by each organization. The intent is to trace where activism takes place, the tactics us ed to contest different relations of power, the flows of


89 resources into organizations, the scales at which activism operates and is supported, and the media reach each organization and its AFM network are able to muster. The degree to which AFM activism va ries due to these factors helps explain the following overarching research question. Operationalizing Overarching Research Question ( ORQ ): W hat is the Potential for the Alternative Food Movement to Integrate Concerns of Social Justice into their Projects a nd A ctivism? This research question is guided by three specific questions: 1) How do individual organizations (not) propose integrating s ocial justice ?; 2) Do organizational proposals match the actual work carried out by organizations?; 3) What role does c oalition and alliance formation play in building power for just food and social Similar to RQ2, in depth interviews and participant observation are the specific methods used to investigate ORQ oals are action oriented, I ask a ctivists achieving successfully achieved a socially just and Such questions allow activists to express how they understand their activist networks. I use this to examine how networks d evelop to accomplish organizational program and policy goals. In turn, the spatialities of contentious food politics become more visible as a larger sociospatial process that includes social actors outside of the organizations under study, namely allies an d those in the wider political economy. In addition to asking activist s specific questions, I evaluate the degree to which organizations are actualizing socially just outcomes through participant observation


90 Specifically, I evaluate social justice based on the degree of equitable distribution, recognition of marginalized populations, and procedural participation. I looked for whether mor e people experienced improved working conditions and access to food and whether a plurality of people representing the c ommunity within which organizations work are involved in decision making. Last, I and understandings of resource use by evaluating where resources come from, and how they influence organizational activities. By co mparing each organization concerning the abovementioned questions and topics, I arrive at a wider critical analysis of social inequality/justice perceptions and the degree to which these perceptions lead to creating social change not only in agrifood syste ms, but also in other systems of power. Data Analysis Of the ten interviews I transcribed and all fieldnotes originally recorded as voice memos, I used the transcription software Express Scribe Pro. The transcriptions do not include verbal f illers ( e.g. Um, uh, like, you know, etc.) Moreover, I did not record or note in the transcripts background noises, interruptions, side conversations, and emotional cues. Although there were respondents comfortable with me using their name, this was by no means a univ ersal sentime nt. While each transcription contains the original name of the person interviewed, the final write up uses pseudonyms and avoids signifiers. To analyze and code my fieldnotes, interviews, and archival data I stay ed close to the data (Charmaz 2006), but made sure that thematic categories were direct ly link ed to my research questions a nd reflect ed the language found in archival materials (Franzosi 1987). However, I did not keep codes mutually exclusive because certain expressions were relevant f or a variety of reasons.


91 some of the same text. Dur ing the coding process, I also inductively arrived at Hahn (2008) notion of memos which you record when explain participant demographics, sequential events, discrete incidents, actions and By c ombining action (participants doing something) and factual oriented codes (descriptions of space, events and behavior) I strategically mapped the relations between the social forces driving food inequality, organizational operations, tion s of their activism. I used the qualitative data analysis program NVivo 10 to analyze my data First fieldnotes and interviews were imported. Next, I performed a text inquiry for all references to major themes To find salient themes I used cutting an d sorting and key words in context techniques (Ryan & Bernard 2003). Although I began from an a priori critical theoretical understanding of political economy, race/ethnic relations within the agrifood movement and resistance to food inequalities (cf. Sl ocum 2007; Guthman 2008 b ; Alkon and Agyeman 2011), I inductively derived themes from the results of the text inquiry. Although there is variance in themes within and between cases, there are some overarching areas of convergence. My analytical strategy is to arrive at the broadly shared themes, which for the purposes of this dissertation revolve around each For analytical purposes, topics remain separate, but in practice, I recognize that many issues regarding l and and labor coexist and intersect. Briefly, the major shared themes are health, race and class relations, sustainability, social justice, private property, labor practices and discourses, and


92 organization of local political economy. Then within each case I investigate the processes and mechanisms that result in various outcomes. T h e specificity in each case explains the difference between cases which I leave to explaining in the analytical chapters. These themes drive my analysis, with attention to both a theoretical understanding of relevant literatures and a historical /geographical reading of contentious food politics in each city This software allowed me to systematically disassemble and then reassemble my data to test theory and cross analyze many d ifferent codes, thus illuminating relationships between my themes in a more code in order to systematically develop and link categories with subcategories, selective c ode to refine and integrate meta categories, and most importantly process code to see reflect naturally occurring themes in my archival research, fieldnotes, and interviews. The process described above achieve d internal validity, specifically through matching patterns within and between cases. I also used relevant theory in environmental sociology, social movements and geography to influence the coding and int erpretation of the data. For RQ1 I code d for structuring principles of race and class The spatialities of these social categories were also coded, namely by place, scale, and networks (Jessop et al. 2008). In addition, I coded for processes contributing to metabolic ri ft at the individual and social scale, namely regarding alienation and commodification. Toward these ends I coded for words and concepts tied to labor and land. For RQ2 I code d for expressions of social justice,


93 food inequality, tactics (reformative or tr ansformative), and use of space, paying triad (perceived, conceived, and lived space) Again, I coded for organizational labor and land practices, paying particular attention to issues regarding zoning, private property, paid work versus volunteerism, and building/obstructing working class solidarity. For ORQ I code d for definitions of success, forms of distributive, procedural, and representational justice, and va rio us degrees and types of resource use by each organization Moreover, I coded the different ways activists understood different types of justice (food, social, economic, racial). To buffer such interpretations, I also coded for different stated goals and ap proaches to improving the agrifood system and other social systems. These differences within cases helped me later to understand variance in outcomes between cases. This approach further s providing multiple theoretical expl anations for emerging patterns. To analyze the data, I also compared and contrasted the three cases. The first metric of comparison focuses on the space. Specifically, each case focuses on different symbolic and material spaces that are relevant in the foo d supply chain. Recall that my cycle approach to production and consumption of environmentally derived products. Through a multi institutional analysis, I investigate how various institutions form the places at various scales within which activists are working to create and/or improve economic, political, and social conditions through food and in sectors involving food. Comparisons are also made between the different ty concerns, namely food access, labor conditions, and environmental su stainability. This


94 concerns itself more with what activists are doing. The comparisons highlight spatial tactics to explore the possibility of transforming the agrifood system along more just and sustainable lines.


95 Table 3 1. Interview Demographics for UFCW 770, PJ and SD Roots Demographics UFCW 770 Planting Justice SD Roots Race and Ethnicity White Black Latino /a Asian Gender Male Female 3 (16%) 12 (63%) 4 (21%) 10 (53% ) 9 (47%) 11 (44%) 7 (28%) 4 (16%) 3 (12%) 17 (68%) 8 (32%) 19 (73%) 3 (12%) 3 (12%) 1 (3%) 12 (46%) 14 (54%) Education College degree Some college High school degree 15 (79%) 4 ( 21%) 18 (72%) 2 (8%) 5 (20%) 22 (84%) 2 (7%) 2 (7%) Organizational Role Paid staff (including former) Unpaid staff Intern Shop steward (UFCW only) Board member (including former) Not employed by organization (mutually exclusive cat egory) 13 2 4 12 13 6 2 3 9 6 Totals Interviews 19 25 26


96 CHAPTER 4 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Overview of the American Agrifood System The following summary presents some illustrative historical and contemporary e xamples highlighting how the American agrifood system does more than produce, distribute, and sell food: it (re)produces power relations. While not exhaustive, the summary reveals some of the major concerns voiced by food activists and scholars critical of booster mythology often perpetuated by grower associations such as the American Farm Bureau and federal agencies such as the United States Department of Agriculture. As will be shown later in detail agrifood system. The growing and production of food in the US includes a history of oppression, dating from slaves taken from Africa to the US to work in agriculture, to the exploitation of Chinese, Japanese, a nd Latino/a immigrants who grew and harvested food at differen t points in American agricu ltural history. Farmworkers are historically at the margins, but so too are those working in meatpacking facilities, slaughterhouses and food production facilities. As Upton Sinclair (1906) famously wrote Here is a population, low class and mostly foreign, hanging always on the verge of starvation and dependent for its opportunities of life upon the whim of men every bit as brutal and unscrupulous as the old time slave drivers; under such circumstances, immorality is exactly as inevitable, and as prevalent, as it is under the system of chattel slavery (126). The mistreatment of workers is also occurring in food sectors usually outside the purview of both the public and scientific establishment. For example, restaurant workers (Jayaraman, 2013).


97 Secondly, there are inequalities tied to food access. Throughout urban and rural cities there are many geographically defined spaces lacking adequa te healthy foodstuffs and communities whose traditional foodways are lost or disrupted (Eisenhauer 2001; Shaw 2006; Short, Guthman and Raskin, 2007 ; Alkon and Norgaard 2009 ). Poor people and people of color disproportionately live in such neighborhoods and disproportionately experience health problems often tied to food, which may not simply result from where one lives, but because histories of institutionalized racism genetically pass through marginalized populations (i.e. social systems of inequality mani fest biologically) (Guthman 2011). Nonetheless in the face of price barriers, many p eople in these communities develop alternative means by which to obtain culturally appropriate and healthy foods (Short et al. 2007; Alkon et al. 2013). In terms of the hi storical role gender and technology play regarding changes in food consumption, Goodman and Redclift is occurred at the same time that new technologies were increasing agricultural productivity, thus decreasing the amount of labor needed to grow food, and preserving perishable food, which made cooking quicker and m ore efficient. This process parallels the rise of fast food and attempts by powerful food corporations to avoid any policies that might educate the consumer on the nutritional quality of food (Nestle 2007). While an incredible variety of food is available to the consumer, much of it is energy den se, but not nutrient dense (Drenowski and Specter 2004). While food is now easy to cook and is widely available, much of it is of poor quality. Moreover, over the last few de cades food safety problems increased, ranging from beef contaminated with bovine


98 s pongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease), poultry containing salmonella, to peanuts and spinach colonized by different strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) (Nestle 2010). Last, the American agrifood system perpetuates or reflects environmental concerns ranging from peak oil, peak phosphorus, virtual water, pesticide toxicity, dead zones, genetically modified organisms, biofuels, and global warming For example, pes ticide dependency le a d s to the contamination of fresh water supplies, the death of domesti c animals, degradation of fisheries, and collapse of vital bee colonies, which is predicated on a perpetual treadmill whereby pests develop resistance to pesticides, necessitating increasing pesticide application and toxicity (van den Bosch 1978; Leach and Mumford 2008; Pimentel 2009). Such problems connect to a series of rifts alienating humans from each other and from their natural environment due to the expansion of capitalist modes of production and processes of urbanization (Marx 1976). As more people moved to the cities, leaving agricultural livelihoods for factory jobs, the soil nutrient cycle was disrupted (Foster 1999). One of the best examples illustrating this is the Dust Bowl. Increasingly intensive farming methods depleted the soil of its nutrie nts in order to feed a rapidly increasing urban population and various war efforts, which simultaneously disrupted the character of the topsoil. Consumption of m ore food nutrients in the cities exceeded what was r ecycled back into the soil of the countrysi de. As such, entire grassland ecosystems were devastated in turn displacing mor e than half a million Americans. While such historical events and processes regularly take place throughout much of the US, the socioecological power relations descr ibed are pa rticularly relevant in California.


99 A Criti cal Interpretation of the California Agrifood System Histories of California agriculture reveal myriad debates and a complicated story that I do not seek to reproduce here. Instead, I draw from the rich trove of ar ticles and books by historians of California agriculture (McWilliams 1939, 1946, 1949; Starr 1985, 1996; Mitchell 1996; Olmstead and Rhode 1997, 1998; Henderson 2003; Walker 2004). The overview briefly orient s this study and provides a justification for th e continuing relevance of research on California food and agriculture systems and their contestations. Industrialization of California agriculture in many ways begins with the Gold Rush economy and the ideology of manifest destiny backed by the American f ederal government and military. The mining boom in the mid 1800s provided the capital to develop technologically intensive modes of extraction, which once ended buoyed a new phase of surplus capital investment into food and agricultural technologies that d rove urbanization and the industrialization of the countryside (Henderson 2003). In a sense then, investments in and deployment of industrial technologies is central to the history of California agriculture (Jelinek 1982; Olmstead and Rhode 1998). As Walke r (2004) established market system, leads to the commodification Pr ior to the mid 1880s, the California (Mexican) countryside consisted primarily of cattle ranches. Concurrently with the Gold Rush, the United States and Mexico were embroiled in the Mexican American War, or what Mexicans refer to as La Intervencin Estadou nidense (The American Intervention). This resulted in the 1848 Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement, commonly referred to as the Treaty of Guadalupe

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100 Hidalgo. Although the treaty originally stipulated that Mexicans living in the lands now unde r American control (e.g. California) would automatically become US citizens or could remain Mexican citizens, the US Senate modified the law to allow Congress to keep Mexicans out (Bokovoy 1999) In addition to capital intensive means and modes of producti on, the growth of agriculture in Southern California accelerated because white farmers squatted on large ranches of elite Californios, who often had thousands of acres granted to them from the Mexican government for military or public service (Pitt 1966). Influenced by the Lockean notion that p roperty rights require putting land into productive use, the Land Law of 1851 was invaluable in furthering white control of Mexican lands. Moreover, because California was exempt from the Homestea d Act of 1862, which sought to break up public lands into small family farms of no more than 160 acres, privatization resulted in large agricultural estates, which remain today (Ganz 2009). After drought and disease killed off many ranch animals and crops were under production in the 1860s, agriculture shifted to raising sheep and growing wheat (Olmstead and Rhode 1997, 1998; Walker 2004). Agriculture expanded throughout the remainder of th e 19 th century and into the 20 th century, primarily due to the rapid expansion of citrus production predicated on a revolving door of mobile foreign born labor, most eventually from Mexico, working in a rotating monocultured landscape of high value commodity crops. Central to the shift from extensive to intensive agricultural production over a narrow window of time, if not immediately, (Walker 2004) and the various phases of agricultural industrialization and urbanization was the influence of mobile finance capital (Henderson 2003). From the very beginning of California agriculture, the country side

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101 represents a commodifiable landscape evidenced by investment in newly emerging and high value crops. myriad hydro projects that funnel water to these industrial farms, growers specialize in many high value, but labor intensive crops. Therefore, m echanization (i.e. a form of fixed capital) does not overcome the need for farm labor. While mobile finance capital (e.g. loans and other credit instruments) is able to overcome many of the natural cycles of farm pro duction to 2003). Social and political processes buffer the circulation of capita l as well. An imperial legacy left by American territorial expansion into Mexico is the historical premise of American i mmigration policy requires programs to import needed labor, provide foreign workers with legal re sidency, but construct immigrants as a foreign race and deny the prospect of citizenship (Ngai 2004). Indicative of this logic was the Bracero Program, which included a series of laws and diplomatic agreements between the US and Mexico from 1941 to 1964 th at imported temporary farmworkers to work on large agro industrial estates. These neocolonial practices occurred within a context of ceded Mexican territory and increasing American economic influence in Mexico. Ngai (2004) suggests that migratory Mexican l abor appears embedded in formal agreements between nation states based in like relations with Me Maintaining th e flow of undocumented migrant

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102 agric ultural labor occurs through social customs such as the racialization of migrant labor (Maldonado 2009) and other legal tools such as the H 2 program (SPLC 2013). The roll out o f s uch legaci es includes a history of resistance A gricultural landscape s are site s of contestation (see below for a fuller development of this point). While the symbolic purpose of perfectly manicured and monocultured landscapes is to hide the exploitatio n, racialization, policing, and disposal of farmworkers by growers and their state supporters, the very mobility of California farm labor repeatedly ruptures such representations (Mitchell 1996). Henderson (2003) argues that Workers are sites of biologica l processes and energy flows for which capital has only partial substitutions (e.g., robotics). They are themselves obstacles to capitalism. Bodies persist. That they are waged bodies is a capitalist solution. That they are waged bodies is a capitalist pro blem (41). Farmworker dependency on growers to earn the means by which to survive compels farmworkers to go back into the fields, but their ability to migrate, at core their agency, provides a means by which to fight back. Farmworkers (i.e. labor) cannot be biologically reify all in its path. Many observers of California farmworker activism look to Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers as the epitome of labor militancy and resistance to grower power, but as Ganz (2009) points out, there were three prior waves of farm labor organizing (see below for greater explanation). Agrarian capitalism of the sorts seen in California spread throughout the United States, for it is h ere where many models were developed, modified, and perfected (e.g. irrigation districts, scientific agronomy, biotechnology, mass marketing) (Walker 2004). Model development aside, some recent statistics should reinforce the point that powerful economic f orces dominate California agriculture. In 2007 47% of all farms

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103 (almost 38,000) account for a tiny share of total agricultural sales (less than 0.5%), while 10.6% of all farms (about 8,500), each with over $500,000 worth of sales, account for 90% of all ag ricultural sales (UCAIC 2012). Almost all the farms in the former category make less than $10,000 a year. While farming employs roughly 500,000 of the 20 million workers in California, total food chain employment (i.e. farming, processing and production, d istribution, sales, retail and supporting industries) includes a little more than 2 million workers (10% overall and 15% of private sector). Wages and benefits in this sector are generally low, and wage inequality tied to race is rampant (FCWA 2012). In sh ort, a small number of operators and owners own most of the land, buildings, and relevant technologies and capture most of the profits, while food workers remain marginalized. Admittedly, the focus is largely on what happens in the countrysid e, but as Mar xist observers note the city and country are in dialectal tension, each mutually constituting the other. Elements of the agrifood system that are concentrated in cities experience major changes as well. While agrarian capitalism in California is not the s in all other sectors of the commodity chain (Hauter 2012). Arguably, the central power nodes are in cities. A s companies such as Walmart manage to control more of their supply chain, the number and variety of food processing plants, distribution c enters, and grocery stores dwindle. Such trends parallel the corporate consolidation of food brands under mega food companies such as Pepsi, Nestle, Kraft, General Mills, Kellogg Sara Lee. Fast food and corporate grocery retailers litter the urban landscape. For example, the top ten fast food companies account for 47% of all fast food sales, while

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104 the top four food retailers account for 50% of all grocery sales (Hauter 2012) Not only do food company directors sit on other corporate boards, but also these same directors often sit on financial compan y boards. Decisions made in boardrooms by urban elite s (overwhelming white men) profound ly impact social, economic and political relations. Moreover, p owe rful lobbying firms influence US food and agricultural policy, and former board members and CEOs often receive influential political appointments (Hauter 2012). Elite California universities, both public and private, are training a nd housing urban scientific elites in agricultural biotechnology, resulting in greater profits for large growers, food processing and fast food corporations, and grocery retailers. For example, Calgene, a company started by UC Davis professor Raymond Valen tine and Flavr Savr tomato When not contracting their services, or leaving the university to go work for agricultural biotech startups, scientists also receive funding for project s sponsored by corporations and the federal government. To sum up, economic, political, and social factors in the urban zones influence the rural and vice versa. I want to clarify one thing early on. My focus is on contentious food politics in the city. I recognize though that given the unique characteristics of California agriculture (e.g. large landholdings, widely exploited migrant labor, tight collusion between politicians and growers) encourages new experiments in agricultural production, distribution and consumption. This brief foray into some of the power relations of the American and California conventional agrifood system helps set a foundation for understanding the current forms of food based social movements. As should be clear by the following e xposition, urban food based social movements slowly gained in

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105 prominence as more people moved to the cities and those in the cities increasingly long for greater connection to their food, or see food as a fundamental means by which to create social change. Antecedents of Contemporary Food Movements Agrarian Populist Movement After the Civil War ended millions of Americans experienced economic marginalization, most of who were farmers. Try as they might, many Southerners were unable to pull themselves out of a crop lien system where merchants never paid for a life. However, economic r eality was still difficult for those who settled out West and became increasingly worse throughout most of rural America. Landless tenant farmers increased, small landholders accrued larger and larger debts, and peonage became more widespread (Goodwyn 1978 ). In turn, rumblings of revolt turned into the largest democratic mass movement in history, consisting of both landed and landless people. One of the chief collective economic responses to the consolidation of land ownership, monopolization of the railro ads, and tightening of financing was to create cooperative warehouses, grain elevators, and community run exchanges (Postel 2007). Chief among these endeavors was the National Farmers Alliance and Industrial Union, which set the organizational foundation f or not only cooperative economic power, but also an education on how the corporate state squashes participatory forms of democracy (Goodwyn 1978). The populists also set up alternative social institutions such as newspapers and local schools, while also ma king sure to increase rural scientific literacy and create agriculturally relevant programs within universities.

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106 Although the populist revolt eventually withered because southern Democrats used violence, race baiting, and fraud to undermine the movement, a few important legacies are instructive of how movements tied to food and agriculture may develop going forward (Hild 2007). First, cross racial alliances developed both among farmers and between industrial workers and farmers (Hunt 2003). Class solidarit y was able to bring blacks and whites together even in the aftermath of the Civil War. This is not to say though that no white supremacists were within the movement, or that blacks, Chinese, and Jews faced no discrimination (Gerteis 2007). 1 Women also rece ived equal political participation in Populist organizations, which helped provide an important base Second, in those places where such strong ties were built between the poor in urban and rura l locales, the the Union Labor Party elected) (Hild 2007). Third, it is possible for mass movements to challenge the consolidation of land and the financial and legal inf rastructure used to maintain elite power. Such movements, though, need to be able to navigate the political and economic interests that seek its dissolution. Seeking to control the levers of political and economic power from below can lead to either reprod ucing such systems and all their flaws and/or colluding with elites within these institutions to receive marginal personal gains or reforms while sacrificing more structural transformations (Goodwyn 1978). 1 At the grassroots level, there was much greater c ross racial cooperation. However, the creation of the

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107 Food and Farmworker Labor Organizing Food and agr icultural labor in California historically relies on an immigrant workforce. While many accounts claim that these workers are willing to work for less, work harder than the native born population, and are a more docile population, the historical record rev eals ongoing labor struggles. There were three waves of organizing before the United Farm Workers came along in the early 1960s and carried out the most successful organizing campaigns to date. In the early 1900s, there was a wave of organizing by Japanese labor associations and the International Workers of the World (IWW), a radical labor union committed to organizing immigrants and other marginalized laborers. Ethnic solidarity coupled with the fact that they could not own land led the Japanese to stage m any strikes, and when need be form interethnic labor associations with Mexicans and Filipinos to improve wages (Ganz 2009). These were always short term contracts. Building off worker unrest in the fields, the IWW sought to organize workers at the Durst Br others Hops Ranch in Wheatland, California. The housing conditions and pay were deplorable, with many workers laboring through dysentery and typhoid fever (Mitchell 1996). After the denial of worker demands for better pay, and working and living c onditions workers voted to strike. The following day, a riot ensued wrestled away and used to kill him and the district attorney. While the IWW lost this battle, they won many workplac e wage increases through wildcat strikes and established local union halls as free speech spaces for migrant workers to build solidarity and strategize (Mitchell 1996). The next phase of organizing came during the 1930s and early 1940s. Due to sharp wage c uts and fewer farmworkers per acre of land, radical organizers, mainly

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108 from the Communist Party, ethnic labor associations, and finally the official American labor movement (American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (C IO)) stepped back into the fields (Ganz 2009).The Cannery, Agricultural, and Industrial Workers Union (CAIWU) successfully leveraged the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 to get the federal government to intervene in wage negoti ations with growers. W hen this proved ineffective, CAIWU staged some of the largest and most successful strikes to date. This era also saw the founding of unions in territory and sector confl icts between the AFL and CIO, the formation of the Longshoremen, Teamsters, and the United Cannery, Packing, House, and Agricultural Workers Union (UCAPAWA) created a new generation of unions representing food and agricultural workers. Their successes were modest, and oftentimes excluded Mexican and Filipino interests, which resulted in the formation of ethnic labor associations that continued to represent farmworkers as the newly formed industrial unions turned to the cites and away from the country (Ganz 2009). Organizing continued throughout the 1940s and into the early 1950s, particularly Labor Union (NLFU). Although largely unsuccessful in their boycott and strike ef forts, due to their lack of accountability to their Mexican and Filipino constituency and inability to quell the influence of a new bracero program, the NLFU set the stage for the formation and future success of the United Farm Workers (UFW) (Ganz 2009). F or the first time ever beginning in the 1960s racial justice claims were coupled with economic justice claims to bring major gains to the fields of California where the famous grape

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109 boycotts won better wages, working conditions, pesticide protections and b ans, and most importantly the power of labor contracts through collective bargaining (Pulido 1996). At the same time in cities, a wave of unionization efforts by the Retail Food Clerks Union resulted in major grocery retail chains such A&P, Lucky Stores, a nd Safeway paying workers better and giving them a seat to bargain for better working conditions. From 1944 to 1968, the Retail Food Clerks Union International membership grew from 60,000 to 500,000 (Walker 2004). While grocery retail made major gains fas t food establishments, restaurants, and big box retailers are still resolutely anti union. Even in the fields, the gains of the UFW were short lived; an overwhelming majority of farmworkers remains non union with few other protections or advocates. Enviro nmentalism and the Growth of Organic and Sustainable Agriculture Beginning in the 1960s, gr eater public attention turned to more sustainably managing natural resources, the negative environmental and social outcomes of scientific and industrial technology, and a desire particularly among urbanites for closer communion with nature. Silent Spring she wrote, and essential relations between plants and animals. Sometimes we have no choice but to disturb these relationships, but we should do so thoughtfully, with full awareness that what we do may have consequences She was reflecting on the fact that chemicals such as DDT, used as a pesticide in industrialized agriculture, was not only dangerous to plants and animals, but to humans. This same sentiment, that humans an d the non human environment dialectically relate to one another, and that there are not only ethical questio ns, but also survival questions implicated in such connections, was to grow in the popular imagination and materialize in environmental social movements, lifestyle modifications, public policy and economic

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110 practices (Brulle, 2000; Gottlieb 2005). In Califo rnia, advocacy was aimed at land conservation, both for recreational and aesthetic reasons, healthy eating, which included non the name of protecting farmworkers, animals, and eaters, organic gardening and small scale farming, and anti more just and sustainable models of living. These converging and interrelated streams of countercultural social consciousness and change effo rts are important contextual factors for understanding contemporary food movements (Belasco 1989). largest in the United States. Here we witnessed the first organic labeling s ystem started in 1973 by California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF), a certifying agency and trade association. Started by those identifying with the countercultural trends at the time, including many back to the landers, CCOF was instrumental in beginni ng to define the standards by which consumers could know the difference between organic and conventional foods (Guthman 2004). The idealism of CCOF and organic farming was short lived as other certification schemes and laws vied for legitimacy. Huge grower s soon dominated the sector, which over time weakened organic standards and enforcement, increased costs (financial, time, knowledge) for small farmers, and set up a pricing system that excludes large numbers of eaters. Both the promotion of organics by gr owers and consumer perceptions reflect an agrarian ideal of an industry made up of small scale farmers taking care of the land and growing food differently than the conventional farming sector, but the reality is quite different. There is thus a paradox

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111 be tween the ideals driving the organic industry and its capitalist composition (Allen and Kovach 2000; Jaffee and Howard 2010). Guthman (2004) concludes that [S] ince past rounds of intensification and innovation have been capitalized into land values, curre nt land values reflect the social and ecological exploitation that produced profitability in each of those rounds (compelling regulations undermine the ability to subvert industrial processes, b ecause they, too, contribute to land values through rent creating conventions (178). Organic standards reflect agrarian capitalism, not an agrarian ideal (W alker 2004). The result is the perpetuation of models that while better, fall short of an oppositio nal system of small family farms using agroecological practices that directly sell to consumers or to independent processing and retail outlets. Harkening back to some of the original critiques of the environmental and organic food movement, activists inc reasingly want fair labor standards at the point of production for various global food commodities. With fair trade certification labels the the global south by cutting o ut middle buyers, while simultaneously creating oversight fair trade markets are popular, most of the food grown (coffee, bananas, sugar, tea, cocoa, etc.) accounts f or a miniscule percentage of the global market in each commodity (Jaffee 2007). Moreover, many questions remain as to whether fair trade will actually set up alternative institutions and systems of trade that are outside of capitalist markets. This is no s mall concern given the recent volatility of global food commodity markets, partially a result of speculative investments in various crops that drove the recent food crises of 2008 and 2011. Questions remain as to how fair trade fits or

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112 conflicts with rural development, poverty alleviation, and wealth redistribution (Jaffee 2007). Since the rise of neoliberalization in the 1980s, many f ood activists and projects moved away from some of the political and social considerations that had initially inspired their et al. 2003). Organic agriculture as an industry markets its products to those concerned wit h greening their food consumption. A common assumption is that the causal direction begins with greater consumer demand for green foods and ends with increased green food production. The conventionalization of organic agriculture in California belies this conception, as pressures to remain profitable drive the adoption of industrial production practices (Guthman 2004). Epitomizing this trend is Earthbound Organics, the largest grower of organic produce in the United States, most recognized for their package d salads. Their rags to riches story is striking. Beginning on 2.5 acres in Carmel Valley, California, the company now boasts over 53,000 acres under organic production, much of it contracted to a network of growers who own their own land. After the levera ged buyout specialists HM Capital Partners purchased a 70% controlling share in the company, they morphed into a new private equity firm Kainos Capital, whose focus is the food sector. Earthbound sell their produce to over 75% of all American supermarkets. In 2012, the company h ad over $460 million in revenue and $75 million in earnings ; it might also sell for as much as $600 or $700 million (Oran and Kim 2013). In addition to the influence of finance capital in the organic sector, multinational food corpor ations increasingly buy organic food processing companies (Howard 2009) This

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113 consolidation includes the selling off of major California organic companies. Examples include Kashi (Kellogg), Odwalla (Coca Cola), Naked Juice (Pepsi), Back to Nature (Kraft), addition organic and natural food retailers and distributors also consolidated, with Whole Life capt uring an overwhelming majority of available profits (Howard 2009). A weakening of organic standards and labeling, and a ballooning of profits parallels this drives these national and international trends. As I previously mentioned notions of localism and sustainability predominate in most contemporary alternative food projects White middle class activists dominate this movement and they focus on reform strategies, which reflect an ecologically focused ideology stemming from traditional environmentalism and a dedication to local alternatives to globaliz ed agrifood systems ( DuPuis and Goodman 2005 ; Alkon 2008 ). Some of the most common solutions proffered in California are local entrepreneurial environmental stewardship of farmland and city food policies, and education initiatives such as nutrition programs in schools and food production and cooking classes for adults (Allen et al. 2003). However, many of these solutions fail to incorporate concerns about racial and economic inequality in the agrifood system. Charges of elitism grow in light of influential organizations such as Slow Food USA championing local organic food despite its high costs, which often shut out low income consumers, and wide disregard for food and farmworker labor.

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114 Food Justice and Radical Anti Hunger Politics Two influential movements within contemporary food politi cs are expanding the critical scope by naming root causes of food inequalities: capitalism and institutionalized racism. The FJ movement, which is strong in California, takes its cue from the EJ and the black power movements. Food Not Bombs (FNB) is an int ernational, decentralized movement of people committed to ending war, challenging capitalism, and mee ting a variety of anarchist, pacifist, and deep ecology movements. Below is a brief overv iew of how these mo vements ca me to influence the current panoply of food politics. While a deep political consciousness and activist spirit were present within many that activists reached beyond their communities to a national audience. The black community responded to the failure of the liberal welfare state to lift blacks into working class positions by developing strategies for self determination (Self 2005). With the brutal police beat ing of a black man in Watts (Los Angeles), the assassination of Malcolm X, and the subsequent urban black rebellions taking place across the US, Bobby Seale and Huey Newton formed the Black Panther Party for Self Defense (BPP) in Oakland. While caricatures of the BPP focus on the organization 's stance against white supremacy by wielding guns to protect their community against p olice brutality, their main concern was with developing social programs to provide basic community needs (Self 2005). The first prog ram was the Free Breakfast for Children Program, which gave black and poor children in West Oakland food before they went to school. The other major struggle in many of the same communities is over various environmental inequalities. One of the most promi nent examples in Oakland involved

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115 the struggle against Red Star Yeast, whose factory was the largest toxic emitter and air polluter in West Oakland. The closure of Red Star Yeast came after political resistance via coalition building between local communit y groups, elected officials and academics Such examples highlight efforts by poor communities of color to assert their right to live in environments free from environmental toxics. Struggles for EJ, particularly the rights based framing of the movement st ems from the civil rights movement (Bullard 2000; Taylor 2000). What the civil rights, black power, and the EJ movements all share is an dismantlement through instituti onal and non institutional means. Interestingly, claims for EJ where o ne lives, works, and plays ble e d into the most recent struggles for healthy and affordable food, turning fights against environmental bads (proxy for racism) into fights for environmenta l goods (proxy for community empowerment). It is within this context that FJ activists mobilize. The rise of FJ activism is a response not only to unjust racial and economic conditions perpetuated by the state, but grievances by activists are tied to the f ailure of the welfare state, the corrosive influence of corporate power, and the perpetuation of institutionalized racism. Thus, racia l justice and EJ movements influence for emancipatory politi them prisoners of poverty and inequality and to create alternative spaces where the amelioration of hunger and poverty could faci the ideology grounding FJ effo rts throughout communities with histories of strong black power movements (Heynen 2009: 419).

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116 FJ incorporates concerns with inequalities, builds on previous social justice movements, and seeks a radical transformation of the agrifood system (Gottlieb and Joshi 2010). For example, at the annual Slow Food USA conference in 2008, a panel was held including FJ activists who debated the importance of anti racist activism in the context of a broader food movement known for its white privilege. 2 Yet, other FJ spe cific conferences put on by the Growing Food and Justice for All Initiative ho ld workshops on other inequalities faced by different groups. For example, at the 2011 conference there were workshops titled Women, Gardening and Healing and Queering the Farm: Heteronormativity and Food Justice FJ thus pursues a liberatory principle focusing on the right of historically dise nfranchised communities to healthy, culturally appropriate food, which is also justly and sustainably grown. Another strand of radical act ivism is Food Not Bombs. FNB is a global, decentralized movement to redistribute food that would otherwise go wasted to the poor and homeless. There are over 1000 chapters in over 60 countries working to bring awareness to issues related to poverty, specif ically the fact that spending on militarie s and war often inversely relates to social stratification within and between societies. Non hierarchically organized and steeped in the combined anarchist principles of freedom and equality, each autonomous FNB ch apter relies on consensus decision making. Although there are universal claims made by FNB that elevate human dignity above rty visible in the hope of altering the geography 2 FJ co organizational mission and more broadly being integrated, evidenced by the annual conference put on by the Community Food Security Coalition: Food Justice: Honoring Our Roots, Growing the Movement

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117 of survival and the biopolitics of neo The premise of the politics is a universal commitment to non violent direc t action. Believing the state and corporations lack legitimacy for failing to meet many spaces of need. By feeding people in public FNB visually displays the failure s of neoliberalization, by showing the gap between the rich and the poor, oftentimes in gentrifying or consumer oriented city spaces (Sbicca 2013 ). Therefore while just feeding people is a neoliberal response, FNB occupies public space to elevate hunger a nd its structural drivers. Not only does this public expression reveal a broken agrifood system, but also it provides a shared space to develop solutions that might obviate the need for FNB sharings. Possibilities for T ransforming Agrifood System s As othe rs show ystem does not exist without resistance and organizing by those facing food inequalities or desiring food that is less environmentally destructive (Mitchell 1996; DuPuis 2000; Allen et al. 20 03; Guthman 2004; Ganz 2009; Heynen 2009; Harrison 2011; Mares and Pea 2011; Alkon 2012; Mitchell 2012; Sbicca 2012). Nonetheless Walker (2004) argues, of anarchism socialism, and utopianism in the air blowing out in the fields and the California countryside has steamrolled the anarchist communist, the business populist, and the farmw orke hat has been the

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118 Guthman (2008) fleshes this out further when she contends, [T]he essence of California agro food politics today is its particular romanticization of the local. Most of the sustainable agriculture sine qua non of neoliberal rationalities, thou gh, is that, as demonstrated in the opening epigraph, it is also put forth as a way to maintain a competitive edge in the world economy this in a state with enormous agro neoliberalization limits the conceivable because it limits the arguable, the fundable, the organizable, the scale of effective action, and compels activists to focus on putting out fires (1180). While such critical analyses point to the failures of transforming the agrifood system due to either the power o f corporate agribusiness and their political alliances, or activist reliance on models that reproduce the very systems responsible for food inequalities, there a number of hopeful avenues. Taking Race and Class Seriously Over the past decade, both social j ustice activists and scholars revealed how food and farming offer a point of unification for a multicultural, anti sexist, and anti racist movement that includes all the concerns of the EJ movement (Williams 2005 ; Allen 2008; Alkon and Agyeman 2011). Gottl ieb and Joshi (2010) offer a potentially unifying environment, food and health, food and labor, food and hunger, and how food is grown, produced, accessed, and eaten, an attempts to open the possibility for a more trenchant critique of capitalism, racism, and patriarchy while simultaneously proposing a set of alternatives that may build ecologically viable and just food systems (Gottlieb and Fisher, 1996; Gottlieb 2001, Gottlieb, 2009; Alkon and Agyeman 2011).

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119 Most FJ scholarship focuses on how institutional racism impacts food access, while at the same time recognizing that class inequality is highly correlated within the US (Alkon and Norgaard 2009; Brown and Getz 2011; McClintock 2011; Minkoff Zern 2012; Sbicca 20 12). Not only is instit utionalized racism a contributing factor to food inequality, but race is also a site of privilege (Pulido 2000). In this sense, racism permeates the alternative food movement, which further enforces racial oppression (Slocum 2007; Guthman 2008 a ). For example, the enactment of whiteness occurs in ops, while often uncon sciously excluding people of color from discussions about changing the agrifood system ( Slocum 2008 ; Alkon and McCullen 2011 ). Similarly, Guthman (2008) contends that whites are often color blind and perpetuate a universalizing alternative food discourse ( drivers of food and health inequalities. Much of this scholarship uncovers how racial and ethnic inequalities operate both within the conventional agrifood system and food movements. While most recent literature di scussing class reflects a critical race lens in order to investigate the perpetuation of racial inequality, a body of literature also reveals how class operates in ongoing processes of neoliberalization and its contestation (Sbicca and Perdue 2013). The class fallout of the related financial and food cri ses of 2008 resulted in more poverty and food insecurity. Although Americans spend less of their average income on food than ever before, the absolute cost of food is at an al l time high (Carolan, 2011). 2010 saw the highest number of food insecure people ever recorded in the US, with 17.2 million households insecure (14.5% of households) (Coleman Jensen

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120 et al., 2011). Moreover, in May 2011 food stamp usage hit an all time high with 45,753,078 people and 21,581,234 households, an increase of about 20 million people and 10 million households since 2007 (USDA, 2011). For food system workers, these realities are even more daunting. In 2011, 23% of food system workers in California were using CalFresh food assistance versus 11% of the general population, while 54% of California non supervisory food system workers lacked health insurance (Los Angeles Food Policy Council 2013). There is widespread understanding of t hese trends, but few efforts by food activists to reduce class inequality (Allen and Wilson 2008). For example, the development of many local food systems is predicated on commodity relations, which reflects or exacerbates class inequality as opposed to a deeper commitment to using food as a vehicle for social justice (Hinrichs 2000; Hinrichs and Kremer 2002; Hinrichs and Allen 2008). Given the form that many alternative food practices and experiments take Holt Gimnez and Shattuck (2011) contend that food inequality will not be solved the diminished political and economic power of the poor and lower working While meatpackers made significant gains through industrial unions betw een WWII and the early 1980s, and farmworkers saw some victories in California through the United Farm Workers, between 1960 and the early 1980s, food labor is now largely peripheral to alternative food activists. It is this experience of class that holds the potential to begin articulating food based social change efforts around economic justice and class solidarity.

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121 Bringing Labor Back In Despite having the highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a number economists and politicians often point to as evide nce of a thriving society, on other economic measures, the US fares far worse. The US is a society of great and growing inequality. There are greater increases in inequality t he three years following the Great Recession than the preceding twelve (OECD 2013 ). Wages stagnated or dropped over the past thirty years for a majority of Amer icans while the wealthiest accumulated a 2013). For example, the minimum wage should be $21.72 an hour if it kept up with increases in worker productivity or $10.52 an hour if it kept up with inflation (Schmitt 2012). Almost half of Am ericans hold no assets (Allegretto 2011) and one in six live in poverty according to the Census Bureau, whic h includes all forms of public assistance (USCB 2013), without which over 50% of households would be living in poverty based on wages alone (Buchheit 2013). These macro statistics are reflected in the lives of most of 20 million food workers, who constitu te the largest segment of the US workforce (one in six overall, and one in five of private sector), and produce over 13% of the GDP (Food Chain Workers Alliance 2012). The workers include those at all stages of the food supply chain, which include producti on, processing, distribution, retail, and service. For 17 million frontline workers, average wages are poor ($18,900) and use of public assistance and experience of food insecurity is higher than the overall workforce (Food Chain Workers

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122 Alliance 2012). In addition, there are few opportunities for most food workers for upward class mobility given the weakness of labor unions. 3 Such figures are sobering, but t here are a number of recent efforts to improve the labor conditions of workers throughout the food chain, by both workers and their allies. Some of the most successful campaigns come from the Coalition for Immokalee Slavery Campaign and their Campaign for Fair Food. The founding and leadership of this organization come from tomato pickers in the fields of Immokalee, Florida. The former campaign includes three major objectives: 1) public education about the practices of modern day slavery in the agricultural industry; 2) assistance in uncovering, investigating, and suppor ting in the prosecution of farmworker slavery rings; 3) worker empowerment aimed at defending labor rights as a means to challenge major corporate buyers to apply pressure up the supply chain to end slavery. Such worker empowerment is also important to the other campaign. Beginning in 2001, CIW led a boycott against Taco Bell aimed at winning improved wages and working demands. Since then, McDonalds, Burger King, Whole Foods Subway, Bon Apptit Mexican Grill signed agreements that are more comprehensive Perhaps the most fruitful labor campaign in the past 20 years culminated in a victory for 90% o f Florida tomato pickers covered under a fair food agreement signed with the Florida Tomato Growers Exchange. 3 According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of 2011, seven of the ten lowest paying jobs are food system jobs. These include Fast food cook $8.91/hr., $18,540 annually ; Food preparation and service workers $8.95/hr., $18,610 annually ; Dishwashers $8. 98/hr., $18 ,680 annually ; Counter attendant $9.27/hr., $19,280 annually ; Hosts and hostesses $9.43/hr., $19,600 annually ; Cashiers $9.52/hr., $19,810 annually ; Farm workers $9.24/hr., $20,040 annually

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123 resolution system, a participatory health and safety program, and a worker to wor ker 3). All of these successes include the support of activists throughout the US, including students, religious leaders, labor unions, and community groups. In addition, activists are now organizing in other segments of the supp ly chain. The Food Chain Workers Alliance includes members working in the fields, processing, distribution, and food retail. The alliance succeeds in raising social consciousness, particularly among the left a nd within food movement circles. Furthermore, i ndividual members won improved labor conditions through their own efforts in concert with alliance members. Although Restaurant Opportunity Center is the major organization service restaurant group, a larger coord inated boycotts, shareholder meeting actions, petition gathering, worker organizing, and public education through books like Behind the Kitchen Door (Ja y ar aman 2013), effort s are underway to advance economic justice for restaurant workers. In a creative effort to build a domestic fair trade certification for sustainable farms, the Agricultural Justice Project developed a set of standa rds by which farmers would label their pro if they meet both ecological and economic stand ards. In short, labor issues are back in focus at a time of economic insecurity. These efforts not only include labor activists, but a growing cadre of urban farmers, food access advocates, organic gardeners, and health activists. Private Property, Public Land Use, and the Commons One of the major challenges facing those seeking to transform the conventional agrifood system is the question of land access, use, and control. The di scussion of labor

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124 i ssues along the supply chain largely rests on workers selling their labor for a wage because they do not own the land and means of production. In this conceptualization of the problems faced by workers, private property is simply the pla ying field upon which class struggle plays itself out. However, efforts are emerging that seek to challenge, subvert, or ignore such property relations. The most recent forceful expression is the Occupy Wall Street protests, where activists in hundreds of cities throughout the world take over both public and private spaces in order to protest the power of financial capital and austerity politics, and prefigure myriad alternatives. The response by government authorities reflects a concern by elites that such protests express deep social unrest and the potential for broader social transformations (Starr, Fernandez, and Scholl 2011; Gillham, Edwards, and Noakes 2013). For example, municipal authorities found ways to coordinate policing of protests, and the law enforcement apparatus of the federal security state, namely the FBI and Department of Homeland Security, coordinated efforts to monitor and shut down the Occupy movement (Cherkis 2012; Wolf 2012). This resulted in over 7750 arrests (Occupy Arrests 2013). S uch explicitly spatial politics elevate the role private property plays in mediating and expressing social relations. Central to this era of protest and prefigurative politics is the formation of collecti ve spatialized identities through expressions of sp atial citizenship, that is, public democratic participation and direct challenges to private property and the commodification of public space (Sbicca and Perdue 2013). More explicitly related to food, are efforts of groups like Food Not Bombs. In Orlando, Florida Food Not Bombs (OFNB) was embroiled for over five years in a controversy over feeding people in public parks. Despite five to one public opposition at a four hour public hearing in July of 2006,

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125 controlled parks in the downtown area without a permit. No group legally receives more than two permits a year per park, each of which requires a fee. The passage of the ordinance came after pressure by individuals who liv ed and worked in the area upset at the number of homeless people congregating in Lake Eola Park, and by development interests driving the gentrification of the surrounding neighborhoods. The commodification of downtown Orlando, coupled with the pushing of homelessness and low income services out of downtown set off a series of protests, lawsuits, and food sharings, which became entry points for challenging the privatization of public space (Sbicca 2013). Activists continued to feed, leading to 28 arrests. S uch public resistance eventually led to a compromise where activists can feed on the steps of city hall, a park covered by the ordinance, thus breaking the law every week. In the San Francisco Bay Area, FJ non profits are strategically beginning to work t ogether and with other community based organizations and urban farmers to coordinate resources and build collective power. For example, many activists joined forces to Occupy the Farm, a ten acre plot owned by the University of California at Berkeley, know n as the Gil Tract. In a week, they planted two acres of vegetables and introduced beehives and chickens, but by the end of week three faced forcible eviction The narrative of the occupation was to use the land as a community run urban farm instead of for development of a Whole Foods. Although there are no longer plans for the Whole Foods there is now a plan for a Sprouts Farmers Market, a high end natural and organic grocery store. Again, a ctivists are planting rows of crops and occupy ing the land in hop es of using it for public purposes. Perhaps most importantly, the space provides

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126 an opportunity to develop and expand campaigns to address food inequalities through re skilling food and agricultural workers, creating cooperative food based enterprises, and revaluing and redefining unused urban land for agricultural purposes (Sbicca 2013). While the abovementioned examples are largely protest based, there are also many efforts to transform the food system through new property and land based alternatives. Mos t efforts in the global South are aimed at stopping land grabs by Northern governments, corporations and transnational development organizations (Borras and Franco 2010; Zoomers 2010). This initial stage sets the foundation for corporate agribusiness to br ing land into production for global commodity markets, mainly for Northern consumers (McMichael 2008 ). Given that the initial and ongoing sta ges of agrarian capitalism led to high levels of land concentration in the US, attempts to de commodify land relati ons, recapture land for public uses, and/or reimagine private property uses looks much different. A dvocacy for preserving agricultural lands by small scale farmers and the creation of local food models premised on social and economic dev elopment is growing (Lyson 2004), p artly a s a result of land consolidation and concentration by corporate agribusiness and large landholders (Heffernan 2000; Lobao and Meyer 2001; Walker 2004), urban encroachment on agricultural lands (Francis et al. 2012), and a desire for open space preferably free of industrial farming (Kline 2 005; Lobao and Stofferahn 2008) Efforts include public acquisition of land, regulatory and incentive based approaches, and the use of (communal) land trusts to preserve/access conservation areas as well as open farmland for small family farms, and resource strapped and aspiring farmers (Bengston, Fletcher and Nelson 2004; Brewer 2004; Lobao and Stofferahn 2008).

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127 Also at issue are the difficulties farmers face adopting sustainable farming techniques given the unstable land tenancy for farmers, over half of whom rent their land (Carolan 2005). P ressures to adopt industrial monoculture models of organic production also raise questions about the tradeoff between more environmentally friendly farming tech niques versus maintaining social power relations predicated on private property (Guthman 2004). Moreover, with the mainstreaming of organic food the organic industry is becoming increasingly concentrated as corporations buy up independent companies and acc umulate most of the available capital (Jaffee and Howard 2010). These pressures make it increasingly difficult for small organic farms to compete, gain access to land, and/or develop alternative property arrangements. While foo d activists and farmers dea l with land and property relations in the countryside, many are turning to the city and experimenting with new property and land models to increase control over urban food systems (McClintock 2010). It might be, then, that the historical power of corporati ons to acquire large landholdings and turn these into giant industrial farms, using widely available cheap migrant labor (Stoll 1998), now inspires food activists to look elsewhere besides the countryside to create fo od system change. A lthough the back to the land movement did not inspire a mass urban exodus to the countryside to live a life of collective ownership and altern ative social arrangement new urban activists longing for a reconnection to their food now bring rural aesthetics and practices into t he urban. Such efforts take many forms. One of the most common arrangements are community gardens where local residents take over, either legally or through squatting, vacant and/or underutilized private or public land for food production. These arrangemen ts are often tenuous,

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128 particularly if the land is privately owned (Irazabal and Punja 2009), but even in the case of public lands local officials may kick out community gardeners if land values increase due to development pressures (Blomley 2004; McClintoc k 2010). Even if the community garden is sanctioned and secure, these land uses may attract upwardly mobile people to move into the neighborhood, leading to gentrification that displaces the historical community (Quastel 2009). Further complicating urban l and use struggles are racialized discourses that perpetuate unequal entitlement to property rights for poor people of color (Barraclough 2009). That being said, community farms run by poor people of color on vacant land can serve as a means to assert cultu ral identity, exert agency and self determination through food production, and create some sense of autonomy (Mares and Pea 2011; White 2011). Evidenced by the proliferation of home gardening books, popular media accounts, DIY gardening gimmicks, non prof it and agricultural extension programs, and increasingly popular. Many food activists claim that such projects can sidestep participation in global food commodity chains, i ndustrial modes of food production, and as a tactile way to reconnect to nature (Carolan 2007). Sometimes this takes the form of hiring an edible landscaping company to c in some respects the aesthetic essence of private property into a home scale garden (Naylor 2012). For the entrepreneurial minded, recent experiments include growing food on private parcels to sell to local markets or neighbors (Lovell 2010).

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129 Public/private dichotomies of land use may obscure the conservative or oppositional tendencies of various food projects and the complicated relationships that often exist within cities and communities and between community groups and politicians and planners (Thibert 2012). Therefore at a minimum these alternative property arrangements reveal many hybrid experiments, and at a maximum may contain the seeds for more public and collectively managed uses of land as a commons (Eizenber g 2012). One of the keys to understanding the spectrum of transgressive to regressive Understanding Actually Existing (Radical) Food Poli tics If nothing else, the preceding discussion portrays a long history of contentious food politics. Many of the forces at work thirty, sixty, one hundred years ago are also contributing to food inequalities today, albeit in altered, contested, or unrecogn izable forms. Neoliberalization is one of the most historically significant forces in its economic, political, and social forms. Therefore, understanding food inequality and its contestation requires attention to its embeddedness in n eoliberalization. Scho lars analyze this process on a number of levels: as an uneven policy regime (Brenner and Theodore 2002), a form of political economy (Harvey 2005), an ideology (Bourdieu 1999), and a mode of subjectivity (Bondi 2005). Regardless of the lens through which o ne identifies n eoliberalization, it reflects material and symbolic modes of organization, behavior, and understanding that valorize individuality and reduce sociality to capitalist exchange. The institutional corollary is the roll back of state protections and the roll out of public private partnerships and initiatives that control, criminalize, and discipline the poor and working classes. For example, in the context of hunger, this means removing social

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130 safety nets and programs to reduce poverty, while in the case of diet related problems, state support for industrial production, distribution and consumption of corn, wheat, and soy based processed foods. It must be recognized, though, that the processes of i ncomplete (Brenner and Theodore 2002). Given its uneven nature, many interstitial social spaces operate as incubators of resistance for progressive and radical food activists. Despite the food inequalities experienced by the most marginalized workers and eaters, it is clear that efforts abound to solve these problems ( Kloppenburg et al. 2000; Gottlieb and Joshi 2010; Levkoe 2011). Oftentimes these relatively powerless people occupy interstitial spaces where there is some greater modicum of flexibility and freedom to develop alternatives (Hendrickson and Heffernan 2002). Many interstitial strategies that bypass (element s of) the state and capital contain the potential to either set the foundations for a rupture with the dominant order, or slowly expand the scope of emancipatory alternatives (Wright 2010). Even when marginalized people can access organizations (e.g. labor unions) that successfully navigate centralized places of power, the concerns of the core constituency are often a secondary concern to inst itutional elites. Alternatives, then, can be both oppositional to and outside of, but also by those challenging institutional networks of power invested in maintaining the conventional agrifood syste m ( Hassanein 2003 ; DuPuis and Goodman 2005 ). Echoing the concerns of many other scholars much scholarship overly praises the merits of these variou s

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131 alternatives, so more focus is needed on where challenges remain in creating socially just and sustainable alternatives (Mares and Alkon 2011). To resolve food inequalities, many activists and organizations turn to market mechanisms to increase healthy food (Alle n and Guthman 2006; Guthman 2011 ). The ideological and institutional processes of neoliberalization inscribing alternative food provisioning strategies at the individual level and through the market, in an increasingly deregulated environment, re produces social and economic inequality (Allen 1999; Mares and Alkon 2011). Thus, many local alternatives relying on neoliberal logics will at best lead to reforms, but may not do so in meaningful ways (Guthman 2011). Without a strong state willing to deve lop and enforce policy advancing the interests of h istorically marginalized groups cities and counties take on more of the burden within their territory. This raises both obstacles and opportunities for solutions emerging from interstitial spaces, particul arly when activists by pass the state (Wright 2010). Most observers of contemporary struggles to challenge the conventional agrifood system and/or create reformative or oppositional alternatives recognize that socioecological relations are always open to t ransformation. Nevertheless, even radical (oriented) food activists and organizations making inroads toward just and sustainabl e agrifood systems operate in a context of neoliberalization. While a nascent potential exists in oppositional and reformative so cial spaces, these same spaces often perpetuate neoliberal subjectivities and tactics, deriving from both the larger political economy and capitalist culture and from food enthusiasts w hose politics opt for voting While neoliberalization p ermeates many facets of urban social life, the impacts are varied and incomplete; simultaneously contentious forms and imaginaries

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132 are revealing potentially transformative alternatives (Hendrickson and Hef fernan 2002; Leitner et al. 2008 ). Given these comp lexities and arguably the inherently contradictory nature of many forms of food politics that work to expand the spaces of emancipatory social empowerment alongside and from the interstices of neoliberalization (McClintock 2013), I approach my dissertation or reformative food politics as wholly regressive. Instead radical food politics operate in the context of economi c, political, and social forces that influence the forms of collective and individual agency expressed by organizations and activists. In turn, such agentic expressions reveal the generative power of radical alternatives to alter the economic, political, a nd social landscape. In short, a focus on actually existing radical food politics helps to reveal this dialectic of contention as a process containing the conditions for and restrictions on transforming human relations in, around, and through food.

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133 C HAPTER 5 SAN DIEGO ROOTS SUSTAINABLE FOOD PROJECT AND THE FIGHT FOR REMUNERATION IN THE CONTEXT OF NEW URBAN AGRICULTURE BATTLES Part 1: Food Labor Practices and Perceptions: Economic Justice as a Peripheral Concern Organizational economic independence is a common goal in the current non profit alternative food movement context. The process by which an organization strives toward such financial autonomy is important to tease out. This process includes people, behavior, and places. Of the utmost importance i s attending to the places where, and the conditions under which, labor takes place. What forces of power are obstructing better labor standards? How do organizations make labor decisions? Why do they choose certain labor standards? What is it about the pla ces where labor occurs that can facilitate or hinder fair labor practices? How do food activist networks reinforce the location of certain kinds of labor? What is the relationship between the place and the labor? The following answers these questions throu gh an integrative investigation of San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (SD Roots) labor practices, activist role of race and class, and the places of work. To begin wi th, I provide a brief review of Save the Farm! Beginning in 2001, a group of organic farming enthusiasts joined to save 160 acres of organic farmland in a fertile riparian zone fr om the onslaught of suburban time, these enthusiasts were volunteering with Good Faith Farm, a small three acre plot leased from the farmer who owned the 160 acres. The land tenure was insec ure. Most of the

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134 people joining the effort to save the farm were members of Ocean Be Co op looking for a place to volunteer on a farm. Because the co op bought from the farm, a working relationship set the foundation for sending out volun teers. This history of volunteerism drives a shared culture around its importance. For example, Nancy, a homeschooling mother became interested in going out to Good Faith Farm. As she tells it, t your farm talking about all the differe nt regulations for organic agriculture and workers, and all the red tape he had to go through just to get people to work on his farm and economically how hard it was to farm in Southern volunteer and sell the produce. I got to understand the challenges of farming and also got paid in vegetables, which made me happy. While the motivations varied for why people were volunteering, from want ing to to farm, eventually a core group formed A Local Organic Farmland Trust (ALOFT) in order to buy the land themselves. Lacking resources to fully incorporate their g roup, and profit ry Land Trust (BCLT). The hope at the time was to acquire the land, which would then set the foundation for setting up a family of farms that grew food for the local community, and provided an educational space for organic farming. ALOFT members wanted to preserve the farm as an asset for the community As

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135 really a profit making enterprise. But we sort of had this vision like this is a great resource for the community just things happening all over the country, but especially in Southern California, where property values made it possible to make more money selling the land than farming. Through tabling, flyering, scho ol visits, and other public outreach strategies, they sought to raise awareness and get people to donate enough money so they could buy the farm. They were attempting to raise somewhere between $6 million and $8 million. ALOFT fell fall short of raising th e necessary money to prevent the sale of the land In the course of public outreach, they learned that many people were unaware of the number of organic farms in San Diego County, the loss of farmland, and the value of supporting local farmers. Most peopl e they spoke with would ask why they should save farmland, which led these burgeoning activists to start a deeper conversation about organic farms and local food systems in San Diego. In 2003, three members of ALOFT then formed SD Roots toward those ends, although it was not until 2007 that they stepped out from under BCLT to start their own non profit. This history reveals that from the outset SD Roots was committed to educating San Diegans about the plight of family farms and the financial difficulties o f small scale organic farming. Moreover, they wanted to develop demonstration sites to show that it is possible to grow healthier organic produce with collective effort. Embedded in this decision is a central contradiction. Their approach to labor both cha llenges the wage labor system and obscures the economic difficulties of food workers. To unravel this contradiction further I discuss the project of Wild Willow Farm (WWF).

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136 Unpacking the Labor Practices and Organ ic Ideals at Wild Willow Farm For two and a half months, I participated with SD Roots as an intern on their six acre farm. WWF is a six acre farm in the heart of the Tijuana River Valley, two thirds a mile north of the US Mexico border, less than three miles from the Pacific Ocean, and between th e communities of Imperial Beach and San Ysidro, which is in th e South Bay. 1 See Figure 5 1 for an aerial view of this region. Facing difficulties acquiring enough grant money to suppor t the organization, SD Roots focused almost exclusively on making WWF pr ofitable. The goal is to use WWF as a demonstration farm and a revenue stream that supports other non profit programs, pays staff livable wages, and reduces organizational reliance on outside sources of funding. In a competitive grant environment that also diverts or drives organizational missions, the desire to become financially independent seems obvious. 2 An organization can seemingly do more of what it wants. To date, WWF successfully educates many San Diegans about organic farming and to a lesser degre e financially profits from the courses taught and food grown on this site. While improving health frames the goals of S understanding of the means by which the movement creates a m ore local food system is a direct reflection of the number o f local organic farms. The farm economy, then, is an important contextual factor in understanding the relationship between labor values and the places 1 A tangle of government agencies overlaps each other thr oughout this valley. The city and county of San Diego co manage Tijuana River Valley Regional Park. The Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve is a partnership between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, California State Parks (Visi tor Center and Border Field State Park), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Tijuana Slough National Wildlife Refuge). 2 Autonomy is not inherently beneficial, nor does it necessarily come from a desire to create higher labor standards and/or economic just ice.

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137 of work. In an environment where activists create non profits in order to institutionalize their social c hange efforts, and creatively generate revenue to put back into the movement through their projects and programs, oftentimes competing with the for profit sector, such dynamics are in need of greater appraisal. Concerning the case at hand, SD Roots decided a few years into the development of WWF to ramp up production, hire a food marketing person, and a lead and assistant farmer. Leaders placed value on paying these people for their efforts with the hope that the new CSA, and restaurant and market sales wou ld help the farm break even. The reality proved to be far more profit driven AFM, the possibility for creating full time dignified wor k, and in turn an economically sustainable local food system. The farm school at WWF serves as a litmus test for the values and historical understandings of organic farming in San Diego. James, a San Diego native and longtime organic gardener, farmer, my cologist, and native plant encyclopedia, is the Luiseo in what is now the norther n edge of the San Diego metropolitan area. This Native American tribe would walk from the coast to the peak of Palomar Mountain in one season. They followed the food supply as the seasons changed, an ancient form of human organization strategizing survival in the form of food acquisition. These nomadic people c reated rotating camps to abandon and then reoccu py once a year. E dible wild plants were a gatherable food source taken into camps. Eventually these plants grew out of old compost piles left after the Luiseo moved on to another camp. They

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138 eventually made the connection that people can stay in one location and grow their own food. This started the process of plant selection and breeding and animal domestication. Grains and tree seeds were the first plan ts grown because they were easier to use in different ways and their seeds were sturdy and durable. With flooding in the area, many nutrients flowed down from the mountains. People would farm when flooding season ended. The Kumeyaay, a tribe occupying what is now southern coastal San Diego and northern Mexico also went through a similar process. With the onset of colonization and gradual advancement of water management technologies the agricultural landscape shifted away from an integrated agroecological la nd management strategy to capital and resource intensive agriculture as we now know it. As James sees it, nature became something to completely control. He ended his le cture by saying that farming is now Such a narrative serves as an important backdrop in understanding SD Roots organic philosophy and by extension labor practices. For those who are now forty years or older and grew up in San Diego, there is nostalgia for a time when the food system was m ore local, but a recognition that even then, there were forces radically altering the landscape. Jerry once talked about growing up in Escondido. There used to be farms and processing infrastructure in this area. However strip malls slowly colonized these lands. Over the years, he faced a lot of resistance to growing organic food and creating grow food on their properties anymore. They wanted lawns and palm trees. SD Roots leaders share a longing for a greater connection with nature through food, seeing food

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139 and farming more as an end for personal fulfillment, improved health, and environmental sustainabil ity than as a means to profit. This ecological rejection of trad itional wage labor systems coincides with using the farm as a community gathering place for people to advance their organic philosophy. continues to grow along with organic restaurants and natural food gro cery retailers Given the number of small scale organic farmers, and dominance by a few very large organic growers, access to these local rm, is 140 acres with 85 employees. WWF is a non profit with a different mission than a for profit farm, which raises issues of market competition and the degree to which it can extricate itself from reliance on grants. The disjuncture between organization al form, organic farming values, and leader s personal commitment to revaluing work provides some context for u nderstanding many of the challenge s faced by WWF Revaluing labor or valuing volunteerism? The first farmer, Sam, frames the motivating drive be gardeners in San Diego we needed to do more than offer one off Saturday volunteer Such an educational model relies on unpaid labor, which accou nt for an overwhelming majority of hours spent working at WWF. Interns perform most of the labor hours and pay to attend the farm school, in essence paying to work on the farm. At the time that I was an intern, there were 15 of us, and one part time farmer one full time farmer, and one part time sales/marketing person. The internship cost $100 a month unless one was receiving course credit through a service learning project, or was doing work exchange to defray some of the costs beyond the 12 hour a week

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140 r equirement. 3 Doing the math, interns put in a minimum 180 hours of labor a week, while paid staff put in 80 hours. If one includes the volunteer labor hours of those board members who occasionally came out and worked the land, and weekly Saturday volunteer s, this adds at least another 70 hours of unpaid labor. 4 My estimate for the total number of farm labor hours per week is 330 labor hours. During this time, roughly 25% of the labor was paid. There were other benefits to working as an intern, such as weekl many board members and staff realize that without volunteers, WWF would fold. As The reliance on volunteers is now an organizational necessity, not simply an idealist One of the core challenges the AFM faces is creating jo bs. However, the process by which one finds these jobs restricts many people from ever trying. For example, apprenticeship there. Wild Willow had just been started and was taking interns. I did this as well. I had about a year where I was not going to work and just full on got into freedom that allows them to spend the required number of hours a we ek down on the farm. Reflecting on how to free labor, Janelle goes on to say, 3 The 12 week internship has taken different forms. Since it began in 2011, the curriculum has integrated book and field learning, the cost of the internship has grown from nothing to $500, and the number of rom about 15 hours a week to 7 hours a week. 4 To create this figure I assume across all board members that roughly 25 hours of labor is dedicated toward some aspect of the farm, and conservatively that nine volunteers work for five hours each (45 in total ).

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141 volunteering. Right now because there are so many people interested in th is, they are willing to give a lot of their time and it makes it seem like it is alright, that you can set work for little to nothing in order to get such knowledge. Ho wever, there are not many employment options in urban agriculture or organic farming that allows one to support a family. Where there are job s, people who first put in many free hours to build the necessary rapport and networks land those jobs Because the political economy of conventional agriculture is much different from the non profit and urban agriculture sectors, and there is not a clear economic alternative that can sustain the level of desire for an alternative, volunteerism is pervasive. The major social and spatial consequence of these patterns of volunteerism is position justifying volunteerism is that movements such as the AFM start with privileged people who can afford to take off time for a cause, or pay to help a cause, and then they really start groups are oftentimes students, or mid career professionals looking for a change. However, there is a large contingent that loves the recreational and communal aspects of spaces su Therefore,

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142 while the farm needs as much volunteer labor as possible, some people just enjoy communing with those wanting a more sustainable agrifood system. many non support the work unless they have a core group of volunteers to financially support zation. On the one hand, you cannot survive unless you rely on volunteers. On the other hand, if you rely on volunteers, your organization is going to collapse due to burnout. The work churns a small number of people who can volunteer, but this pool of peo ple is small to begin with. Without an influx of people from outside the community to sustain food production at places such as WWF, food production wanes in absence of profits that sustain paid labor. Justifying volunteerism is the belief in non monetary exchange values; economically and socially transformative nuggets reside in efforts to revalue labor relations outside the capitalist wage labor system. It is possible, then, that economic exchange can take place under agreements that support voluntary as sociation where people come together around shared values not grounded in wage for labor. Places such as WWF help young people get into organic farming. Jenna argues, experience have gotten into a little legal trouble having apprentices or people that doing the old way of knowledge conveying, working on the farm and learning about the system in that way. So Roots is really responding to that in terms of providing a legal way that people can get this knowledge and have some experience so that they can come to some of our really successful organic farms and get a job there.

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143 SD Roots adopted an approach that provides a jumpstart to those interested in organic farming careers. Fair labor practices in the conventional sense are secondary to an apprentice style of education with a non monetary form of exchange ( i.e. time and effort for knowledge). At the same time, it is also possible that such arrangements, by sidestepping problems with the capitalist wage labor system, further entrench its by providing dignified work while simultaneously creating alternatives. In the case of WWF there are discursive nods toward the former, but in practice tend toward the latter. I develop t he tensio n between these two below. Because of widespread loss of s kills such as growing and cooking food, many people argue for the benefits of keeping knowledge of these skills alive. For many SD Roots activists the justification usually includes something about self sufficiency. Ned In order to acquire th ese skills, one has to give freely Once these skills are developed, the gardener receives non monetary forms of payment. d in a sense for what you do. You do this and you get this, you get some food, you get eggs, you get milk, you get cheese, you get beer, all Consider an SD Roots program th at builds gardens called Victory Gardens San community by a bunch of people coming together and doing something and ending up with the memories of feeling good about it and A share d sense of the requirements to reskill gardeners also brings people together around a shared purpose.

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144 Similarly, WWF is a site for reskilling, which can lead to the replication of more organic farms or garden spaces. As Mary, a share the environment so, if we learn tools in order to mitigate our destruction of it I feel WWF also allows people to see and experience farming where otherwise it might be very difficult. Sarah articulates this point rather well, and wal k through and have their hand held, a lot of people need that Educatio n is central to this process. It is this communal work ethic coupled with creative educational spaces of productive food growth and a shared commitment to reskilling that partially shapes the rejection of capitalist wage labor relations. For those on the farm, especially interns, there is an opportunity to learn not only about the practical details of farming, but to build relations around a shared interest in organic farming. communicating with peo ple out here. Just talking to other people out here I learned a lot come and I get t have gone through in those areas. It could make us more familiar with what is going on part

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145 permaculture Ideally, spaces such as WWF become sites where cultural exchange takes place, but in the context of poor job markets for many college educated people, and a pervasive belief that intern ships are a prerequisite toward a particular career end, they may reproduce economic inequality. Nonetheless, some activists ar e critical of providing free agricultural labor and express a desire to compensate fairly those working at WWF. Eddie contends, want to actually have living wages for our farm workers, whether they are farmworkers Therefore everyone was ing 2012. The vision was to create a production side of the farm that makes money with full time farmers paid living wages, which supports the educational side of the farm and only brings in students for practicums, not as an essential labor pool. As Jenna cla he founders of SD Roots who gave ortions of their Unfortunately the reality did not always live up to the dream. Speaking of the lead farmer at the time, I also came to find out that that without non farming sources of income Am ara 's salary was insufficient to survive

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146 Many SD Roots activi sts do not see their farm or m any other farms make much money, and struggle to develop a model to do so. this work, then we understand why nobody can. How do we create that job, the money which they would be unable to scale production to the level needed to make the farm turn a profit, and not using their labor strategi cally to carry out work that direct ly impact s the same goal. For instance, the farm struggled t o keep crops protected from gophers and rabbits, but took four years to build a fence around the perimeter. One of the issues was that organizational leaders did not want to use volunteer labor on hard manual labor not directly tied to teaching interns and volunteers how to grow food. This delay impacted farm production levels, which in turn led to a reduction in paid staff and an farm school. In addition, there is an organizational expectation that a higher level of commitment is required of people, particularly in light of a question posed by Stacy, economy Questions of time versus money are less important than questions of how do food activists begin to develop models predicated on other exchanges such as sharing and bartering resources (whether knowledge or skills, raw materials, valued added products, e tc.) grow this an Seeing the need to respond collectively to the realities

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147 of a precarious labor environment leads many SD Roots members to commit to creating alternatives that use food as a means by which to better their community. Causes and conseq uences of devaluing paid labor Paying someone money for performing a job is widely considered necessary to survive in the current economy. SD Roots challenges the necessity of this wage labor system, but there are still kinks in the alternatives. Organiza tional challenges, strategic mistakes, and ideological differences help account for the gap between monetizing labor and developing alternatives that would obviate the need for money. WWF is both a site for experimental demonstration and organic farming ed ucation. First, a spirit of experimentation runs through SD Roots. This allows for a regular flow of new ideas and a level of flexibility that leads to a greater variety of workshops, farming techniques, and land uses at WWF. Even VGSD and the fruit gleani ng program, Harvesting San Diego (HSD), started as loosely formed ideas, which slowly developed into programs. Support for experimentation comes from VGSD grants and a few revenue sources while HSD is totally volunteer based. In the case of VGSD, one of t he reasons this program functions well is because the two men that run it do not take a full salary, thus freeing up resources to invest in VGSD. However, because for tax purposes SD Roots is also VGSD, the money generated by VGSD helps keep WWF afloat. Th e money WWF generates from grants is largely insufficient to support its experimental predilections. Nevertheless WWF is learning to generate more money through its internship program and is hoping to this site of experimentation turns into a productive f arm that can afford paid labor. One day I was speaking with a longtime WWF volunteer who was around when the farm started. Billy appreciates the year and a half he ca me down to the border and

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148 farm given the lack of such opportunities in San Diego. However he expressed nothing out in the fields, and that the first farmer wanted to make permabeds. 5 Billy said, lly cutting down the convinced the board of directors that they needed to use the hoophous es and invest in a small tiller. This was the only way to bring food production to the levels desired by SD labor. Before this intern class, there were really only one or tw o people coming out on a labor intensive development of low technology skills. Even when the techniques shifted to lighten the required labor inputs, the scale of production increased, which then increased labor needs. Experimentation is also a product of minimal organizational farm management experience. Coupled with myriad financial constraints, paying fo r basic needs such as water and seed is difficult. In turn, paying full time farmworkers is almost impossible under current realities 6 In the context of SD Roots as an educationally focused non 5 T his is a farming technique to pile and form long rows of farm waste Seeds are then planted into these rows with the expectation that the farm waste will slowly break down, acting as compost that slowly releases nitrogen and does not disrupt the soi l structure. 6 The board of directors wanted to do the right thing by paying livable wages for three farm related positions (only one was fulltime), but this lasted only into the fall of 2012. The CSA and the restaurant sales were insufficient to keep all but one fulltime position. In turn, CSA sales slowed and restaurant sales s topped, but there are new plans to increase these come the end of 2013.

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149 profit, members openly share such beliefs For instance, WWF raises a small number of chickens ducks, and goats However, these animals are managed by very dedicated volunteers, without who m the l eadership would require their removal Arrivi ng at this conclusion took time. The organization paid for chicken feed, but the number of eggs produced from the hens did not generate enough profit to justify keeping all the roosters and hens. The organizatio n was bleeding money from their chicken management practices, which they were able to minimize, but not before taking loses. raised the eyebrows of some of its neighbors. One farmer named John recognizes the educational benefit of WWF, but bristles at the fact that cheapest CSA in town now at $15 a week, which is really they have volunteers an d they have interns paying to be there doing the advantages to labor. While WWF receives outside advice about how to properly manage and scale their ope rations, the management strategy often felt like a finger in the dam approach to solvi ng problems. The result is a mix of practices that seeks to maximize capital inflow while minimizing labor costs. In the midst of such difficulties is a strong communal work ethic. As actualized on the farm, this means that people split a wide variety of tasks and are open to undertaking any new tasks. The slow development of WWF reflects this commitment. After clearing the land, a permaculture design gradually shaped the form of WWF See Figure 5 2. Along wi th planting f ood, efforts turned toward creating irrigation systems

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150 Relationships were built with key community members and businesses interested in selling WWF produce. Pe st management strategies composting systems to generate fre sh soil, and workshops helped advance the farm Potlucks built community and and outside the organization volunteered their time to bring to light what Jerry envisioned as a community farm. Mirro that a lot of our seeds and fruit trees and other things would be donated. I think that is Every single one was donated by Therefore even those who are part of this communal volunteer process express reservations about how such a model translates into an effective alternative. Moreover, this comment points to the difficulty sustaining class, Central San Diegans that drive down to the border, only to reproduce their co mmunity in a new space. In general, many board members, program managers and paid farmers operate from the assumption that people will continue to find them and provide a steady communal labor pool from which to build WWF. The strategy partially works. The re is no denying that a handful of very dedicate d people collectively keep an organization with minimal financial resources afloat. The consequences of relying on volunteer labor are many. First is the very insecurity of the volunteer and intern role. As

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151 ficacy of the farm as well. One Saturday volunteers were responsible for transplanting lettuce into larger trays. On Monday, as Amara looked over the work of volunteers managed by interns with minimal management experience he noticed that weeds were transp lanted often with no lettuce. The stakes Thus, the farm is less effi cient than it would be with a skilled labor force able to put in focused work. However, the trade off is in meeting the an educational tool. While these outcomes are not mutually exclusive, they raise the issue of how to strategically scale production and keep teaching aspiring gardeners and farmers. In short, there is a feedback loop of sorts where insecure volunteer labor produces suboptimal results, but such results continue because there are few paid people with the requisite skill sets to ensure that volunteers learn and contribute to the production goals of WWF. A cautionary tale told by many SD Roots food activists involves La Milpa a for profit farm that for seven years used an apprentice like system, which ultimately put the farm in conflict with labor authorities. One day an inspector came out from the Department of Industrial Relati ons and found that people lacked any sort of benefits h free room and board, and when paid with cash it was not reported. Supposedly, these apprentices were happy. The farm owner, Barry Logan, served a night in jail, paid a $4000 fine, and ultimately shut down the farm. However, there was not a universal agre ement ove r the

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152 lessons of La Milpa. very well and good, and it needs to be there for the people who abuse that sort of ptions when they a final public speech he expressed, I want to apologize to you for abandoning these fields. I am not clever enough to simultaneously inhabit the natural world of a living organic system and its antithesis, the modern state with the bizarre and unnatural conditions it dictates. Unfortunately, growing food, and living as free people is not compatible with the ill considered and unjust mandates, rules, laws a experiments. We need places where we can freely explore these questions and build new models for a rapidly changing world. Freedom is a word that has been accorded great reverence in the lexicon of this thing we call America. I believe that we need more of it. Such expressions reveal the alternative and oppositional nature of some segments of associating people t o choose how and where they want to spend their time. La Milpa was already on the social margins, so when the state enforced labor laws, it catalyzed further distrust of the state and the creation of legally acceptable organizational forms. As a testament around a shared commitment to organic farming and developing new forms of Reflecting on the many potlucks he attended and their perceived ability to break down racial and class barriers, Sam exclaims, You just get people that are filling their mouths with delicious food and dancing, playing music, chatting, playing with animals, just everything. It seems like th ose issues disappear as the mirage they seem to be in many ways. That is one of the most powerful things about food is that it brings everyone to the table in a very natural way.

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153 Adding another layer to the idea that when people freely come together in ne w forms of community and connection to nature they are challenging social, legal, and economic conventions is that food itself facilitates these prefigurative experiments. There are contradictions embedded in such statements. WWF legally uses volunteer lab or, which facilitates ongoing farm operations, and therefore community building events, namely potlucks and workshops. Moreover, potlucks turn into a bubble space where the sociospatial contradictions of the political e conomy of borderland farming momentar ily freeze (See the next major section). This is not to say that food cannot lead to solidarity building, but the history of racial and class inequality and ongoing contemporary effects do not actually disappear. Such linguistic expressions, then, are an a ttempt to link efforts at community building to a history of efforts aimed at creating greater social equity. As a single strategy potlucks serve as a way station between the day to day challenges of sustainable farming and education and the variety of con tentious local food politics SD Roots activists regularly engage in. The outstanding task remains to develop models that meet the needs of all groups of peo ple, particularly those racially and economically marginalized. Relatedly experimentation often ma sk s the social realities of unfair labor practices. This becomes more understandable in the case of SD Roots when where their food comes from, but often do not understand who grew their food and under what conditions. For instance, during the Urban Rural Roundtables, which were a series of

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154 (See section on land use battles), there was almost no discussion on labor issues. Mindy tells the story of one of those meetings in Escondido: A labor group showed up and they only got one person who got to get up that people talked about that had nothing to do with labor and then when a thing about money, there is no support for that piece here, and we have to invest in it more. We have to invest in creating those jobs. We have to There are a lot of people who will try to stop that conversation pretty quickly, because it can get pretty bad. Unsurpri sin gly, one outcome is no real labor representation in the San Diego Food System Alliance ( SDFSA ). As Amy, the director of the SDFSA stakeholder categories that we had on the wall last week [first SDFSA meeting], food labor was the one t not complete ignorance on the matter either. Th e food system assessment to come out of the Urban Rural Roundtables explicitly talked about the poverty level wages most food workers re ceive throughout the food supply chain. In a later meeting where food workers were present, there was clearly some tension. Mara explains thusly, part of our Food System Alliance. S o everybody was so excited because sense of themselves as really being bona fide workers. So they are really vo got to go. I got to go and get my fish for those in La Jolla. I know how many of you would like me to sell my fish somewhere else, to some other community or whatever, or sell it to everybody in San Diego, not just rich people in La Jolla. But the question for you all is how do you make it worth

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155 Such realities reflect the class divides between those working in AFM non profits and organic farms, and those working throughou t the conventional food supply chain. To this day, there are no SDFSA members that explicitly represent labor issues. There is the pervasive belief that because one is choosing to work for free/little in one of many AFM experiments, that fair labor standar ds do not apply. This complicates building solidarity with groups of people who may see and experience food and food labor differently. Labor in the context of neoliberal subjectivities and strategies Challenging the communal ethic underlying unpaid and paid labor is a variety of interrelated neoliberal subjectivities and organizational forms. First are pressures to profit. WWF internalizes as necessary t h e consumer model driving large segments the AFM Market based solutions are central to economic sust ainability, which then allow you to do other things. This ordering of prio rities set s and then drives organizational behavior. First, monetize the model or secure regular funding. Next, run and maintain programs. Add less financially profitable programs if possible. Repeat. This schematic is not universal, but it speaks to the current experiences of SD Roots, specifically their farm. Even those that are slightly more idealistic or radical seem resigned to this market approach. Reflecting on the class divide present at the restaurants WWF sells to, kind of work with what is right now and what will keep you afloat to get you to that but at the same time a part of it is Furthermore, profit motives can conflict with the disproportionate access to and use of private property. For example, many SD Roots activists were excited that

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156 Governor of California, Jerry Brown signed in to law the Homemade Food Act. 7 As Sarah arguments made below on land use and priv ate property, this law perpetuates individual entrepreneurial solutions advoca ted by the AFM. It rests on people owning or being able to use enough rented property to provide a profitable product, which itself is stratified based on race and class. ite popular in SD Roots, and premised on creating individual empowerment outside of the wage labor system. This raises questions. Can you only fish if you own water rights? What about people prevented from growing where they live, such as renters and those in apartment complexes? What about property owners with little time or toxic soil exposed to air pollutants? It is not that food activists completely ignore these ine qualities Eddie comments that many marginalized grou ps l ack the same time to participate in changes advocated by the AFM. Moreover, have any kids and have some expendable social conditions that obstruct widespread public participation. Second, there is the common notion that social change takes place thr ough capitalist market exchange. A post political discourse and series of behaviors support such a proposition. Harry, a local restaurant owner and member of SD Roots board 7 After completing a food processor training course, which costs roughly $10, one is eligible to make proces sed foods from home as long as they do not contain dairy and meat. No longer is one required to go to a commer cial kitchen, and bring ingredients and cooking supplies.

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157 t during my fieldwork, which took place close to the 2012 presidential elections, membe rs of SD Roots would bemoan the political process and say that they were not going to vote in the election. Ironically, notions of social change through the free market undermine efforts to rearticulate and revalue labor in the AFM beyond the traditional w age labor system, instead reinscribing neoliberalization. For instance, in discussing the plight of those seeking employment in the current economic downturn, Sam Yet, this spirit contains lot of people have learned whether they were laid off or just graduated from college and to become empowered and taking the opportunities themselves or in partnership with others to start small businesses and start things in their com munities indicative of greater social significance given to developing business models that are in line with a San Diego culture that celebrates and widely supports everyth ing from small business owners to stay at home internet and sales pyramid schemes. Relatedly, there is a degree of class privilege that undermines the development of or advocacy for fair labor practices. For example, Hilary, who comes from a wealthy fam ily, left a high paying job in order to pursue a passion for sustainable farming and Surely, this is commendable, but a number of comments suggest h ow class divides reproduce ink it is going to be a trickle down from starting with the more affluent, educated, wealthy

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158 people that are interested and then supporting it enough that we can start offering more cified, but somehow the price of local food will go down (there is no mechanism for wages to go up), and everyone will be participating in a local food economy. Yet, even by activists own admission, the current local food economy is weak. Reflecting simila r justifications thing like on the economic margins, to expect them to follow the same path without also meeting basic needs ignores day to day social and financial obstacles. Third, and contradictorily, individual notions of empowerment trump collective notions. In the most assertive of statements, activists promote self care through growing for a community that is working together. A lot of it comes down to individual initiative Unrela ted to growing foo d, people receive individual o pportunities to learn about problems in the food system. The goal is to educate others about organic and local food with the hope that enough people will eventually make individual choices that taken together might lead to food system change. If broader change does not occur, there is

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159 A corollary is that people want this knowledge and connectivity, but are willing to work for little to nothing in order to get such knowledge. The political economy of conventional agriculture is capital and technology intensive, and there currently is not a robust economic alternative capable of sustaining the demand for an alternative. In turn, people often interna lize these neoliberal subjectivities of entrepreneurialism as a path out and way to make money. Indicative of this mentality is a series of claims made by Barry about what needs to happen in order to achieve some sense of fulfillment from food: 40 for the week, otherwise I will not get off my sofa and stay home start doing this for fun and not fo r money and then realize they can get a week. As long as they are not getting desperate for that cash flow to pay do it more pay them, they are going to make the effort and come up with the investment of time, cash, and land. While there are examples of San Diegans making money from homegrown or community garden grown food, particularly in immigrant and refugee communities, this is supplementary. For those with economic security, such efforts are much more a hobby. For those on the economic margins, such efforts are more a survival strategy. Ye t, SD Roots programming largely does not distinguish between uses of such knowledge and frames their programming around individual empowerment. Buffering individually focused empowerment strategies is the belief that if people learn to grow their own food then they are less reliant on corporate and government powers. For example, Sarah claims, I truly think the government is starting to freak out at this resurgence of self sustainability because if we take ourselves out of the market, where

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160 does the mone homestead off the grid is the only choice because you have to do all the work yourself and be ok with that. While most respondents d id not go so far as to suggest complete removal from major social institutions, there was a pervasive belief that growing your own food is a threat to various political and economic forces and a means by which to become more self was able to see around me a lot of young people who were not necessarily working full time but were doing OK because they were consciously surrounding themselves with healthy, incredibly delicious food and living a simple lifestyle with the pleasure of fo evasive strategies is that if you are unhappy with your job then you should bypass any political strategy and take on the responsibility of sustaining yourself. Fourth, there are health discourses t hat place the onus of change on the individual. Very simply, many SD Roots and San Diego AFM activists see the local The implication is that home gardens, nd many other AFM projects serve consumer interests The consumer is thus a vessel through which local organic body spirit connection. A series of market exchanges begins to stand in for the movement Jill expresses it thusly, knowing how healthy you feel versus how y lack

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161 the social relations of labor behind Labor relations tend to operate in a vacuum, or only become visible when some government regulation or restriction regarding food safety or certification requirements, threaten the livelihood of a family or small scale farmer. Not alone in this sentiment, He is bothered with the role of certifying agencies, which charge cost prohibitive fees for many small prod ucers This is n ot to say that these issues are unimportant, but government receives the ire for meddling in the lives of those that are improving the health of the population. This situation presents those working on small organic operations and those seeking to learn or ganic farming in a difficult position. As Jenna way farming knowledge is passed on is via doing and talking, and when people are working on an organic farm like in ou r setting, we want people to learn the whole secondary position to an apprentice style of education with a non monetary form of exchange (i.e. time and effort for knowl edge). Organic farmers and food producers are elevated as important players in providing a source of health, but larger organic farmers get a pass for not creating a process by which to provide sustainable livelihoods, and small farmers are resource strapp ed, so non profits fill the gap. Nevertheless there are some within SD Roots pushing against the neoliberal tide. see what that state

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162 of our society really is, how unbalanced it is. People are doing a lot of the work and puts labor front and center. Health in this sense must include the conditions under which food and farming work takes place and remuneration for such work. Yet, there is conflict within the organization on these matters, which is partially due to the board of directors making all major decisions regarding WWF but not having major farm management experience. One day, I had a conversation with the two lead farmers who told me that the level of communication between themselves and the rest of the organization is problematic. The board wants increased production, and the farmers want the resources they need to make this actually happen. For example, the farmers were unaware of two important tests carried out on the land, a well water test noting high salinity, and soil PH test noting that the soils are very alkali ne. While the the results of these tests months ago, so that we could make th e appropriate changes challenge the farmers, who hold a different vision for the food grown at WWF. They are interested in healthy food, but they are much more committed to coming up with strategies to link to the local Latino/a community and expand access to those deemed in greater need. order to even out the balance sheets and pay for full time farming pos itions and the lack of labor power and farming resources to provide quality produce to those wanting healthy food. However, a lack of developed market relationships prohibited the sale of

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163 large volumes of grown food This partially results from local groce ry retailers not supporting direct farm sales as much as farmers would like. Local small organic farmers struggle to capture as much of the health craze as their larger competitors. Laura the oranges, avocados and such are from wholesalers. If our local co A regular volunteer and I received instruction one day to pull u p many rows of bell pepper plants still producing much fruit. prepared all these rows and planted all those peppers. Look at their condition now. The pep pers are just lying in the rows come out here and get their hands dirty, an d see the conditions under which we are without regard to labor conditions, Amara pushed against wasted labor and the idea that people need to pay a premium for their h ealth through organic food purchases. He would give away unsold pro duce to Latino/a neighbors and African refugees on his block. Perhaps most problematic is the increased role played by non profits with the roll back of state protections and services. As an organizational form, non profits may be neutral, but in the context of contemporary democratic capitalism, they serve as a key neoliberal organizational logic and response. This then leads to my fifth point: WWF must compete as a non profit in a for pro fit atmosphere. In turn, this means that the

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164 organizational goal is not so much to provide dignified work that contributes to non alienating forms of labor, but to capture funding dollars and support of political elites seeking to develop the city of San D iego in line with growth logics that outsource social welfare. Reflecting this reality, Stacy, a founding SD Roots member says, profit models are also becoming for ways to bring in but if you can just sort of build you certainly will get people to the workshops and acquir e the reputation that would contribute to making organization, you are trying to fundraise for grants and money. Competition is increasingly a reality for food based non profits as the sector grows and health prerogatives of city officials creates a funding bubble for projects aimed at individual responses to more entrenched institutional problems. Many activists complain that the funding race restricts the scope of organizational g oals and projects. On the one hand, becoming financially independent might free the On the other hand, by monetizing non profit programs to support a more radical agenda, organizations reinforce the very neoliberal logic that created and continu es the conditions for founding non profits However, in the time period between SD Roots founding and now, neoliberalization seems to manifest itself in a new form, deepening its influence because of the Great Recession. Non profit resources waned alongside public resources, at the exact time that there was increased demand (Morreale 2 011). In turn many non profits created or expanded market efforts, fee for service activities, and/or increased pri ces (Salamon, Geller, and Spence 2009). The hope is to keep people employed in non profits at a time of high unemployment. Although the food, agriculture,

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165 and nutrition sectors experienced growth in the number of non profits and o verall revenues during the Great Recession, the mon ey that flowed into San Diego dried up (see land use section), and money available in other related sectors such as enviro nmental and public benefit sharply declined. The intensification of neoliberal processes means that non profi ts take on even more untraditional tasks usually reserved for the for profit sector. Confirming this shift, Stacy says, suffering? This is non w are sayin g we have to do for profit work now. Whoa, what does it mean? Selling food? Or is that really being in the farm business? Is it always going to be Striving for financial independence therefore stems from a combi nation forces: a commitment to expanding organic production and education, and greener consumer practices, and because of social forces embedded in the process of neoliberalization. Organizationally, these shifting social forces create problems for those actually A number of more progressiv ely oriented board members raised such concerns as well. There is a desire on the part of some activists to think beyond market relationships that reflect and perpetuate divides between people. However, activists often ignore the uncertainty about class privilege within the AFM because of the recognition that if there are to be paid positions, then the organization must generate revenue. This very contradiction creates internal conflict on how to navigate current fiscal priorities in a manner that lives up to the ideal of paying livable wages for all major organizational positions, while at the same time ensuring organizational solvency and advancing

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166 projects that begin to meet the goals of environmental and social s ustainability. Non profits hold potential to become incubators for alternative economic forms that provide good food jobs, but there is the ever present possibility for internalizing neoliberal market logics that do not adequately challenge social struct ures perpetuating social inequality. Race, Ethnicity and the Contradictions of Labor in the Borderlands As well as attending to organizational labor practices, it is important to understand how racialized discourses can further social inequalities at the point of labor. political economy. Racialization processes within agriculture historically serve to further capital accumulation and (neo)colonial projects (Henderso n 2003; Ngai 2004). Deconstructing activist discourse, though, is not only relevant as a means to decode how race, ethnicity, and nationality operate to entrench difference and inequality within urban agriculture projects, organizations, and movements. Rac ialized discursive patterns and ideologies also reveal the power of political and economic structures to reproduce particular racialized social systems (Bonilla Silva 1997). Building off such an analysis, the development of urban agricultural projects cann ot ignore the sociospatial power dynamics at the intersections of race, ethnicity, and nationality and the state. Borderlands in particular are useful to investigate as sites of embedded and contested power dynamics in the social and physical landscape (Ne vins 2002). 8 To draw relevant connections between these flows, I offer illustrative examples of race relations in the 8 My notion of borderlands comes cate a fixed topographical site between two other fixed locales (nations, societies, cultures), but an interstitial zone of

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167 S an Diego/Tijuana region and the process of food a ctivist s struggle to understand and prioritize racial and economic justice. A Brief Ov erview of Immigration and Agriculture Relations in San Diego predominantly Spanish speaking, most coming from Mexico (documented and undocumented) (Aguirre 2005). An increa sing number though are of indigenous background from rural Mexican communities. Given the increase in foreign born agricultural workers, the difficulty obtaining legal documents, the economic impacts of NAFTA, and the greater ease with which growers (i.e. farm owners) can exploit a mobile labor force, estimates regularly place the number at over 50% (Mitchell 1996; Aguirre 2005; Nabhan et al. 2012). Reliance on this labor is reflected in the fact that as of 2007, there were 21,114 paid farmworkers, which is double that of growers (Ellsworth and Feenstra 2010). Although there are more small farms less than 10 acres in San Diego County than any other county in the United States, roughly 6,500, growers primarily produce high value crops, around 70% of which are ornamentals, which requires intensive labor. This farm labor will not likely disappear, particularly in San Diego County because of the ornamental and specialty crop industries. The drive for commodification creates challenges for small scale organic grow ers similarly reliant on labor intensive fruit and vegetable crop production. In the organic farming sector in San Diego County in 2011, 347 registered growers produced over 150 varieties on 6700 acres. Over 80% of the organic farms grow avocados and citru s. The organic sector is small, accounting for roughly .02% of all acres under production. However, excluding field and specialty crops (e.g. range, hay, pasture), which account for a majority of harvested acres, the organic sec tor is

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168 closer to 13% ( County of San Diego Department of Agriculture, Weights and Measures 2011). Despite having the most registered organic farms of any county in the US, San s many of the social relations at the intersection of race, class, and nationality. This is most clearly evidenced by two major reports and assessments of political economy of migrant farmworkers impacts their future sustainability (economic, ecological, and social) (Ellsworth and Feenstra 2010; SDFSWG 2011). 9 Despite the traditional porousness of the border, and the increased integration of were used b y California conservative talk radio hosts and influential politicians to restrict immigration from Mexico (Davis 2000). Key to this strategy was former San Diego Mayor, and former California Governor Pete Wilson who argued that ar too many state resources in the midst of a southern California recession (Nevins 2002). In 1994, he came out in support of Proposition 187, which restricted undocumented immigrations from receiving public education, health care, and other social service s. 10 Partially responding to mounting pressure from California politicians, but also due to rigidifying social perspectives on the U.S./Mexico border, the Clinton administration then passed Operation Gatekeeper (Nevins 2002). This set off a new round of mil itarizing the border, enhancing state control over the border by radically growing the enforcement unit of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and Border Patrol, primarily in San Diego. 9 The recommendations make a brief n od to advancing fairer wages in the food system and a minor suggestion to support and strengthen training programs for new, minority, and immigrant farmers. 10 Proposition 187 was found unconstitutional by a federal court in 1999.

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169 There are conflicting messages sent by economic and poli tical authorities about the spatial category of the border, and the status of those living, working, and crossing this border on a daily basis. On the one hand, there is a nutritional and economic imperative to maintain flows of food and people. For Americ an eaters, the cheap cost of imported food is a result of undocumented farm labor in the United States and poorly paid Mexican labor in Mexican fields, subsidized staple crops (e.g. corn) and water, crop price guarantees, and the lowering of tariffs on foo d imports. For Mexic an eaters, this same system produces many of the foods seen in Wal Mart (Walmex), now the largest grocery retailer, and the largest private employer in the country (Biles 2008; Staff 2010). On the other hand, since 9/11 a more invasive and intensive securi ty and surveillance context strategy resulted in US Customs and Border Protection (CBP), US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and US Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicato r Technology (US VISIT) receiving a massive increase in funding to police borders and criminalize migrant communities. With the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, funding for these agencies doubled from $6.2 billion to $12.5 billion b etween 2002 and 2006, and by 2012, the funding grew by another 43 percent. Border enforcement received the largest budget increases in the last decade, with nearly 85 percent growth between 2005 and 2012 ($6.3 billion to $11.7 billion in absolute dollars), resulting in r oughly 3.5 million deportations (Meissner et al. 2013). In turn, border crossings sharply dropped. While seemingly separate economic, political, and social issues, agriculture, immigration, and increasingly the military industrial complex in tersect to produce a set of

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170 Race Relations along the US/Mexico Border The many contradictions of the San Diego/Tijuana border present those working in urban agriculture with conflicting paths on what if anything shou ld be done. Driving the following analysis is a presentation of the juxtaposition between agricultural realities for two different groups of workers in this transnational metropolis: migrant farmworkers and alternative food activists faming along the borde r. In turn, I investigate racial/ethnic inequalities and privilege that food activists understand, ignore, perpetuate, and benefit from. Central is the process and expression of internalizing racialized discourses and state and economic structures. Of part icular concern is how interpret ations of the border elevate ecological considerations when the racial and ethnic realties are seemingly apparent. In highlighting these processes, I illuminate the implications for improving labor practices. The city is afl ame, but not all receive protect ion For a week, beginning on October 21, 2007 wild fires spread throughout the San Diego region. These fires were noteworthy not only because they were some of the largest fires in California history, but also for their dev astation to private property and effective halting of commerce in the most affected locales. Although the mandatory evacuations and disaster relief efforts were largely compassionate, a racist undercurrent affected many undocumented farmworkers and Latino/ a residents. At Qualcomm Stadium, the main evacuation center, Border Patrol received several calls to deport Latino/as for allegedly stealing donated items. In addition, Border Patrol agents created an intimidating atmosphere for many Latino/as, and San Di ego police officers randomly demanded identification to ensure that people were from evacuation zones. If people were unable to produce identification, they were sometimes deported. For those without

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171 official residency status, but needing assistance, the r esponse by law enforcement and even Red Cross volunteers amounted to racial profiling (SDIRC et al. 2007). Furthermore, many farmworkers working in and around the canyons deemed mandatory evac uation zones were prevented from leaving These marginalized fa rmworkers already live in some of the worst housing conditions in greater San Diego. cany you cook all your food there in the canyon. Use the bottom end of the canyon as your 11 Despite poor wages, and generally lacking access to food, clean water, and health care services, they did not receive rel ief services (Martinez and Nez Alvarez, 2009). Even one of the oldest and well regarded organic f arms, Be Wise Ranch, was keeping workers out in the fields in order to save the stra wberry crop in hazardous air quality. Although most of these incidents involved farmworkers voluntarily working, this was largely a false choice given fear of losing facing deportation while trying to evacuate (SDIRC et al. 2007). This momen t of disaster highlights the plight of immigrants in San Diego: there is division among residents on how they should be treated, and whether policies should be passed to improve their economic and social standing. For those at SD Roots recounting these sto ries there is shock and indignation that immigrants receive such treatment. Although the disaster serves as a reminder of how racialized social systems 11 Documentation confirms u nsafe and unsanitary housing co nditions in San Diego County For example, there is a documentary expose called The Invisible Mexicans of Deer Canyon by John Carlos Frey.

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172 operate, how food activists understand migrant labor flows reveals some of the racialized discourses tha t prevent much from changing. Perceptions of migrant labor flows The following specifically investigates how perceptions in SD Roots of migrant farm labor stymie or facilitate the positive impacts of WWF, which is open to all San Diego residents as a site of community building. In the context of a transnational metropolis where materials, people, and ideas unevenly flow, perceived and real power differences may limit the appeal of certain types of urban agriculture. One of the core perceptions of thos e involved with SD Roots is that migrant survival concerns predominate because of economic, political, and social marginalization. This ope rates through a few key racialized notions. First, agricultural labor exploitation of immigrants is presented as an i ntractable problem. Second, farmworker exploitation is quasi necessary because of the perceived correlation between labor costs and food costs. Third, foreign born farmworkers take on difficult work that Americans are unwilling to perform. For different racial and ethnic groups within SD Roots, lab or exploitation of immigrants is a problem with historical foundations. As George, a white local chef and from China or Mexico migration is NAFTA. K corporations wanted to control and create conventional farming models for people that

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173 have any way Activists see c orporate agribusiness and free trade agreements, making land grabs and negotiating without those immediately impacted as structural force s that complicate local intervention Nevertheless, as many S omewhat acceptable is labor exploitation given its perceived relationship to food cost. here, our local agriculture industry would come to a screeching halt and food prices required to pay overtime to someone working in agriculture up to sixty hours a week. Even whi how white guilt silences discussion on the interconnectedness of race and economic r scale organic farms co ntend with a political economy of farming predicated on labor exploitation, and face difficulty linking their work to solutions that would stall these forces. While the premise of the first jus tification is becomes easi

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174 the degree where necessities are not met, and ostensibly not wanted or fought for. Reflecting a common justification for maintaining economic inequality, a white active unpaid staff perspective ignores how corporate agribusiness and politicians representing agricultural communities c ollude to draft laws that maintain low wages in order to accumulate more capital, particularly through the racialization of immigrants (Mitchell 1996; Henderson 2003). For small scale growers in the organic sector, such laws may also contribute to keeping farms afloat in allowing them to deflate labor costs and turn a greater profit through the valorization of their organic products (Guthman 2004). Victim blaming also overlooks the class struggle, both victories and losses, for California and San Diego farm workers (Mitchell 1996; Miller 2003). Labor exploitation is far from the aspirational ideal of many organic growers Yet, despite the helplessness felt by some, the following r The order of operations in this quote belies most grower farmworker relations: migrant farmworkers are told what they will make and most often do not offer to do the w ork for less (SPLC 2013). In addition to common misunderstandings of agricultural labor relations, there is the racial coding of the willingness of those with no recent agricultural background to perform agri cultural labor George is skeptical whether peo ple from more privileged

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175 everything and so if food gets more expensive, then I de finitely think we can afford to Essentially, until the AFM offers better paying food production work, poor labor conditions for migrant farmworkers is a necessary sacrifice. Yet, there are conflicting perspectives. For example, Ned, a white board member believes that This expectation applies downward pressure on small scale farming operations like WWF to provide fair wages in the context of business utilizing people coming Moreover, as scales. Food is cheap because organic has to pay extra. some truth, they also normalize racialized agricultural labor relations through obscuring 12 Part of this analysis reveals how a reification of Mas low's Hierarchy of Needs can discourse also strips political agency, therefore bracketing out potential allies in borderlands. While individual perceptions may vary, the orga nization also internalizes the discourse. A board member named Laura recognizes that as individuals, people in rant workers are alternative strategies for building social solidarity and economic sustainability. The 12 reproduced when the conditions of agricultural labor are ignored.

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176 organization must hierarchically fulfill basic needs before they c an take on higher order problems. In short, there is not only the normalization of exploit ative labor relations but also neoliberal subjectivities of individuality and personal responsibility justify inaction. While there a misperceptions of migrant labor flows, there is general resistance to the militarization of the border. On my first day at WWF, I immediately confronted this reality. Interrupting a conversation, a Border Patrol agent in dark sunglasses sticks his head he makes air quotes. Taking this comment a step further, Paul once said that the only noise you really hear out here on a regular basis are the military helicopters, and then s to the lead farmer. Earlier, the lead farmer, Amara, originally from Liberia, saw the person in question crossing the border and running through the farm. Critically comme fresh pair of clothes behind some bushes; he often makes an effort to leave out food for bord er crossers. While animosity toward the Border Patrol and policies that regulate immigrant mobility is common, ambiguity on how or whether to work towards policy solutions is begins with the recognition that economic marginalization within Mexico drives people to

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177 cross into the United States looking for work. However, because of the prevalent military culture within San Diego, some activists point to how feelings of insecuri ty may squash resistance to the increased border militarization. As Mara, a black food activist explains, d with using that lens of homeland security and military defense to how we build our economy. Such power is visible in the case of research and development of surveillance technologies (Trioni 2012) and record resource allocations to government agencies responsible for border security (Meissner et al. 2013). Those technologies of control, though, are p rimarily a threat to border crossers. Jenna, a La tina/white staff member who after years, continues to live right along the border with their semi automatic weapons and the new fence going up. We hear the rustling in crossing this heavily militarized area. You would only do and spatial regulation (Sha mir 2005; Turner 2007) where racialized groups are monitored, but to resist or publically condemn is often seen as too great a risk. For example, a militarized border culture permeates the built environment of the farm. Signs surveillance camera also pictured on the signs pepper the tool shed, Quonset hut, mobile office, and outdoor kitchen and barn. Ostens ibly, these cameras dissuade potential burglars, but they also serve to notify border crossers not to occupy the premises (Figure 5 3).

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178 Confrontation with the realities of the border often instigated conversations over possible solutions or alternative visions of less territorially definitive socioecological relationships and more just labor relations. After hearing about Border Patrol trying to locate crossers earlier in the day, a few interns and the farm assistant, all people of color, began reflecting on the permeability of the border. At first, the focus of the conver sation was on the pervasive surveillance presence. A young intern Brady replied, to keep people out. People have b een moving around the world for ever. Migration is a invisible boundaries. There is so much to learn from each other, for instance in terms of what transcend the social boundaries enforced by borders, to reject the spatial logic of territories, is strongest among people of color within the organization, a small minority. 13 In stead, Brady and Janelle are asserting that the costs of maintaining borders far outweigh the benefits, especially considering that ecosystems (i.e. flora, fauna, water, air, soil) do not abide by socially designated boundaries. Toward such ends, SD Roots creatively works to inspire people throughout the local AFM to rethink social and ecological relations. The Politics of Sustainable Farming versus Racial and Economic Justice In a rousing series of performances at WWF by the Mid City Propagators, an artis t activist puppeteering group that includes a few SD Roots urban farmers and food 13 Three quarters of paid staff are people of color, all of who m spend more time down on the farm than anyone else in the organization.

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179 activists, an eco centric ethos was on full display. Donned in homemade costumes, including papier mch masks and props, they used cantastoria (sung story) to convey the imp ortance of farming in a manner that protects the local watershed ( A Watershed Tale ) and to pass along selected Wendell Barry aphorisms ( Manifesto: The Mad Farmer Liberation Front ). The thirty minute roving performance in A Watershed Tale pit native Tijuan a River Estuary flora and f auna against the cellphone corporation intent on profiting through the greenwashed with Watershed Cellphones. After r ailing against corporate pl undering of the environment due to greed, the tale crescendos in all the cellphone towers from the watershed. In a final creative twist, the tow ers flip around and upside do wn, transforming into radishes. The story advocates a message that people can collectively resist corporate power to protect the environment through supporting local organic farming. Later, in a truncated singsong Manifesto the performe performances reproduce with resistant panache an organizational desire to contribute to socioec ological change by revaluing labor. Such creativity also reflects some contradictory forces. Although SD Roots focus is primarily on developing new urban agricultural ecologies, these take place within the racial and economic politics of the borderlands Consider the issue of human mobility throughout San Diego. Geraldo, an undocumented college student from Mexico who jumped the fence with his fam ily when he was fourteen, reflects on the physical

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180 separation of the Latino/a community, d to mingle with the first restaurants. Why? There are not a lot of us who have the careers that would allow us to 003). Even communities with t he social and economic capital to move through various spaces tend to stay in their community, unless that community chooses a different location to come together. While the white and middle to upper middle class se gments of San Diego experience greater mo bility privilege, their views of Tijuana are negative and they rarely visit the borderland frontlines. A KPBS/Competitive Edge Research poll conducted in 2003 found that those with widely unfavorable perceptions of Tijuana rarely, if ever visit, and a maj ority would like more restrictive border policies or are content with current enforcement standards (Nienstedt 2003). Unsurprisingly, there are much higher visitation levels and positive perceptions of Tijuana by Latino/as, particularly those living closes t to the borde r The following investigates how these divisions operate within WWF and surrounding organic farms by looking at notions of community building, alternative creation and reconnection to nature. In many ways, SD Roots embodies the racial and class tensions in borderlands. For those who attend the monthly potlucks, it primarily consists of people driving from Central San Diego down to the border to see a small scale working organic farm. Similarly, most interns committed to learning and improvi ng their sustainable farming skills drive from far away to work this land. Most of the people coming to this farm for events or to farm are white. While they are a greater percentage of the population in Central San Diego (28%), they are still a minority, and even more so in the South Bay

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181 (22%) (HHSA 2011). 14 Farming takes on a romantic guise for visitors in particular, but also for interns. in the United States. We can pay fo r someone who has more need to do a job that owever, white activists may not want to engage in these politics As Hilary, a white staff member at Roots expresses, it comes to racial classification negative connotations and racial issues that obviously we all face For volunteers and interns at the farm, their labor experience does not reflect that of the Latino/a portrayed in the picture above. Reflecting an idealized notion of farming, a king on an time work for no or little pay, and enjoy WWF for its therapeutic benefits, while this s ame space contains migrant farmworkers entering the US for poorly paid work. 14 and added them to Central San Diego.

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182 Nevertheless the ecological imaginaries of SD Roots staff and board members contain seeds of resistance. Only fifty years ago, a Mexican American family was farming what is now W WF. They left, though, after a flood destroyed their fields, buildings, and home, a common occurrence in the Tijuana River Valley. The current lease prohibits living on site or constructing permanent structures. This ecological impermanence focuses the org anization on successfully producing food and showing that there are replicable urban agricultural models. As Barry, a board member puts it, A few activists point to the social and ecological conditions of borderlands thus r evealing the complications of working towards greater econo mic justice through building soil U nanswered ques tions follow this recognition hope and promise and sustenance? Not that sort of forced labor where people are Roots provide this alternative vis nd our n a responsibility to help their community base keep knowledge of this area alive. Such integrated perspectives particularly come from those that spend a lot of time on the farm. One day, Amara walked me around the backfields which at the time were not un der cultivation. He kept pointing out the fertile soil in these fields The people managing the land prior built the soil and were growing food. There was even an old

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183 soil/manure/compost area in the middle of these backfields New hands, though, needed to bring it under production. While explaining the prior use of the land, Amara also pointed out the other animals that occupy the land. There were coyote trails, which were visible because of their distinct scat. Also visible were the shallow eroded beds o f dried up rivulets, which etched their own mark on the landscape. Turning to humans, Amara noted that he saw action on the border this morning, specifically crossers with immigrant trails that run through this landscape. People have been using them for a resources on creating a more just and sustainable farming model. On the other hand, indivi duals such as Amara and Janelle want to solve the injustices of the current farming model. Nevertheless there is a contingent wishing to bridge these divides. Part 2: Interpreting Urban Agriculture Land Use Victories and Experiments in an Era of Neoliber alization On April 5 2010, Michelle Obama visited the New Roots Community Farm in the racially diverse neighborhood of City Heights. The almost two and a half acre project of International Rescue Committee (IRC) is split up into 89 plots farmed primarily by refugees hailing from African, Latin American, and Asian countries. As part of the nationwide childhood an ti she is supporting efforts to improve neighborhood health. Reflecting a belief in community scale efforts Obama s statement promotes an effort by the California Endowment called the Building Healthy Communities initiative, a ten year project pumping $100 million a year into fourteen

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184 different California neighborhoods. 15 Part of the money goes to community gardens, farmers markets, and public transportation planning. At the same time that this money was to begin flowing into San Diego, the Center for Disease Control announced that it w ould be providing San Diego County a $16 million grant for very similar efforts. This pot of money became available as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which designated $372 million to be managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services through Communities Putting Prevention to Work grants. Locally, the San Diego Health and Human Services Agency (SDHHSA) distribute the money through Healthy Works grants given out to organizations promoting physical activity and healthy eating. As Wilma Wooten, the County Public Health Officer sees it, The choice of the IRC farm is because it provides a backdrop of a successful effort already und erway to increase healthy and affordable food in a community ravaged by poverty and diet related health problems. Early on, single one (expert) said that the answer is to have the federal government telling them what to do. childhood obesity right at our fingertips. There are so many communities in this country parroting a request by nutrition, individual initiative) that avoided any structural analysis. Most importantly, this 15 City Heights received some of this mon ey.

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185 event is revealing how the state internalizes, reinterprets, and produces its public relations campaigns and policy responses. e problem and its solutions: the environmental health thesis. This postulates that elements of place drive health outcomes, which leads to the following analysis: food deserts lack healthy and affordable food, which contributes to more diet related health problems for people that live in these communities, therefore the solution is to increase the amount of and proximity to such food. As policy, this translates into the government giving money to community based efforts to solve individual problems. Policy aims do not include regulating corporations or powerful entities that may be producing the conditions to begin with. AFM. Besides anti hunger advocates, labor unions that represent food workers, farmworker rights advocates, and organic farming aficionados, all of whom fought for decades, contentious food politics over the past decade now includes urban agriculture, namely efforts to localize the food system. At core is a critique of corporate power and government collusion. For instance, SD Roots evolved out of a group of organic loving urbanites fighting to save farmland into an organic farming, gardening, and educational organization dedicated to building a more local food system. J anelle, a farmer at WWF amounts and spreading it very thinly to the people making it happen and then reaping Alternatively,

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186 is big business and government not really wanting us to succeed because we are AFM, the question of disproportionate resource access and use is important to tease out because it reveals the pressures food activists face and the many complications that come along with seeing government as both a hindranc e and a necessity to building AFM power. script comment about land access is more important to many San Diego food activists than diet related health problems. In addition to the general structural critiques mentioned above, the wa y these specifically play out reveal the profound impact of laws regulating urban agriculture on individual and organizational desires to localize the food system. While successfully creating a thriving community garden, the IRC represents many of the prob laws and the incredible amount of energy and time required to streamline these laws. Below is an investigation into the complexities of these battles, why this matters for SD Round 1: Community Garden Ordinance and its Impacts on SD Roots The clearest example through which to understand the entanglements of power and their concomitant spatialities is the struggle over urban agricultural laws in San Diego, which at core are ov er land use and access. In 2007, the IRC began a prolonged effort to start New Roots Community Farm, which profoundly affected San Prior to the farm, the land was a vacant city owned plot used as a de facto dumping site and thus a visual blig ht Originally, Real Estate Assets Department for the public land, and Councilman Jim Madaffer (R)

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187 obtained a $30,000 federal block grant earmarked for the farm. However, there were long delays because more t han $80,000 was needed to build a city mandated fence, irrigation, portable toilet, tools, and a tool shed. The real issue came though when IRC began moving through the permitting process. In total, the required permits ended up costing a little more than $46,000. 16 However, there was the possibility of paying $10,000 more for things like cement paved sidewalks and streetlights were it not for the assistance of Councilman Madaffer. A long permitting process also became a point of contention. It took 9 months for permit approval and 16 months total approval process. That it took many years for an organization to work its way through the byzantine Land Development Code last overhauled in 1997 is testament to the importance of zoning laws to urban farmers a nd gardeners. At the time, community gardens were going to be exempt from the code, but after some public concerns the code required community gardens to obtain a Neighborhood Use Permit for residential zones and banned them from commercial zones. The exp ense and the onerous notification requirements are the main problem. In addition, there is a requirement to consult the community planning groups. 17 Although seemingly a simple issue to solve, the process reveals policy echoes that shape the political proce ss. That is, if you can access that political process. Reflecting racial fissures similar to those WWF faces working on the border, there are stratified land use issues in the heart of San Diego. Going largely unnoticed the closure of a two acre plot of la nd 16 The direct fees charged by the city include: request for assessor parcel information $58.96; city review charges $21,096.07; landscaping consultation $4,400; site development plan (including copies of report $4,500; biological report and wate r quality report $14,500; permit and CEQA fee $650. 17 There are over 42 active and recognized community planning groups. These break down by neig hborhood, each with their own community plans.

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188 transformed from an empty lot into a productive farm by Cambodian refugees that arrived in City Heights in the early 1980s. Having attended a farming class upon arrival, the newly christened Cambodian farmers received a certificate that many of them tho ught validated their farming the land. In addition to putting the land under productive use and getting the water bill in one of their names, the land was also a community gathering space. The city owns the land, but leases it to the Neighborhood House Ass ociation (NHA), an influential social service agency. Upon the expiration and renegotiation of the lease, NHA decided that after 26 years of looking the other way that Not wanting a confrontation, the y simply abandon posted (Florido 2010). Soon the land turned to blight and the farmers looked to their children for help and/or started using food stamps (Florido 2011). However, after a s eries of reports cast NHA in negative light the farmers now reoccupy the land. and they face eviction at any time, the farm is again a verdant space. In stark contrast, the IRC, a resource rich non profit with operations all over the world, navigated the entire permitting process, shelling out tens of thousands of dollars. Because of this Herculean effort, they capitalized on a groundswell of support for the AFM pushed the city to begin figuring out how to rewrite urban agriculture laws. In a November 2008 Committee, over thirty five organizations, including SD Roots, officially requested that t he city rewrite its urban agriculture policies in order to ease the burden of starting farms and gardens,

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189 while increasing community participation. They framed their argument thusly, and environmental health. It is a land use that complements the development goals of San T o gain greater support activists used local and sustainability framin gs tied to development In a city like S an Diego, where development traditionally follows a pro growth logic (i.e. elite interest groups congeal around a desire to intensify land use and make money by leveraging poli tical institutions), it is difficult for oppositional, non elite forces t various business groups profoundly directs the development of San Diego (Davis 2003), there is a long history of class and race based resistance (Miller 2003), which o nly grows with major demographic shifts represented by a much larger working class, Latino/a population, and greater Democrat voting rolls (see Appendices C and E). While local politics often play themselves out among wealthy elites, in turn influencing th e political map for the rest of San Diego, the contentious food politics over urban agriculture reveals how federal funding and interstitial activist food organizations shake up smoky backroom deals. Although now largely defunct, San Diego Food Not Lawns was the initial hub around which the 1 in 10 Coalition formed, a group of people and organizations dedicated to creating a more just and sustainable local food system in San Diego. In late 2008, California Food & Justice Coalition (now the Community Food & Justice Coalition) and San Diego Food Not Lawns hosted a workshop Out of this event, a core group of about 30 people decided to start regularly meeting every month and about six

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1 90 months later developed a set of policy priorities. A number of these people are also part of SD Roots. These priorities reflect the goal of one in ten households growing or purchasing food within 100 miles of San Diego, thus the name 1 in 10 Coalition. An early aim was the repeal of the Neighborhood Use Permit. However, pursuing this alone without speaking with potentially impacted communities would drive a wedge between food activists and volunteer community planning group members when a central reason for community gardens is to build community (Troutman 2011). The 1 in 10 Coali tion began attending community planning group meetings to advocate for better community garden laws. The six groups that voted (out of eight attended) all favored changing the code. Going through this process eventually gave way when a new political opport unity opened in early 2011. Of the $16 million that came through the Healthy Works grants, a small amount was awarded for a community garden to Project New Village, a non profit started by Diane Moss, herself a longtime community activist in southeast San Diego. As Mara recalls, fight for it and use the money they had gotten from the city to pay the city Tony Young [City Co uncilmember] to build the Mount Hope Garden and they secured the lease from the Southeastern Development Corporation and then they waited. The problem was that the City Council wanted to approve a community garden on land owned by the city in a commercial ly zoned sector, which at the time specifically banned community gardens. This set off a new wave of advocacy and bureaucratic code change reports, meetings, hearings, and votes. Although not directly used for the community garden effort, the city paid sta ffers to research and write a new urban agriculture ordinance after receiving $50,000 in March of 2011 from the San Diego

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191 Association of Governments (SANDAG) 18 SDHHSA gave this money as part of the Healthy Works initiative. The momentum was now in food act As the code changes moved their way through the policy process, food activists continued to provide input. In March of 2011 at the longest hearing of the Community Planners Commi ttee (CPC), which comprises the planning group chairs and acts as an advisory committee to the city government, there was overwhelming support for the proposed ordinance changes. Years of persistence on the part of food activists, coupled with the pressure of federal funding for community gardens held up by outdated policies, led to former Mayor Jerry Sanders signing new streamlined community gardening regulations into law after the City Council unanimously approved the new regulations on June 7, 2011. The new ordinance allows the building of community gardens on any vacant commercial or residential lots, except for land in coastal communities. In additio n, no permits are required The commun ity gardens simply need a sign with contact information and a space dedicated to storing equipment and trash. This law change in fluenced the work of VGSD, one of SD Roots most visible programs. Because VGSD offers workshops on how to start community gardens, there needed to be a law in place that made it clear and more affordable for groups of people to carry out such projects. In the following section, I outline further how a number of SD Roots programs directly reflect the process and outcome of urban agriculture land use battles. 18 This is the San Diego region's primary public planning, tr ansportation, and research agency.

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192 Round 2: The Role and Perception of Outside Money in the Urban Agriculture Ordinances After the comm unity garden victory, food activists quickly turned their attention to while also easing restrictions on raising chickens, goats and bees. Because of the money allocated to the city to draft new urban agriculture ordinances, activists focused on raising awareness of their issues before community planning groups, at public hearings, and behind closed doors with City Planning Division staff. Dan Joyce, the Senior Planner at th e Development Services Department, and one of the key drafters of the new codes publically stated at the City Council meeting on whether to pass the proposed urban agriculture code amendments that the ordinance had to come to a vote before the SANDAG gran t was set to expire on February 1, 2012 The role of outside money was not lost on many food activists, such as an SD Roots board member named one of the founders of the 1 in 10 Coalition, Parke Troutman (real name) received money from the Healthy Works grants to be a Land Use and Planning Consultant. 19 In short, the story of this most recent land use policy change is one of outsider agitation receiving a strong boost from i nsider agency and political interests compelled by a flush of resources. Finally, on January 31, 2012 the City Council unanimously voted to create urban agriculture codes that reflected the desires of many longtime food activists. Specifically, the new co des allow for 19 He helped navigate over a six month period, the CPC meeting, the Code Monitoring Meeting (volunteer committee made up of professionals with familiarity with development codes), the Planning Commission meeting, and a Cit y Council hearing.

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193 1. Chickens to be kept on single family residences, community gardens, and retail farms. Between 5 and 25 chickens are now allowed depending on how far the coops are from property lines; 2. Two miniature goats with appropriate enclosure space and distance from other properties (same distance as chickens for single family residences); 3. Beehives to be kept on single family residences, community gardens, and retail farms. One to two can be kept on single family residences subject to maintain appropriat e property line distance, but infinitely more can be kept in zones where the distance to residences and public right of ways is far greater; 4. Loosened zoning restrictions and fees for daily, weekly, and fulltime farmers markets; 5. New urban retail farms up to four acres in almost all zones (with more commercial and industrial zones requiring more permitting) that have the intent to sell a majority of their produce on site. These changes bring San Diego in line with many other progressive California cities (e .g. San Francisco, Berkeley, and Los Angeles) that also changed and/or created framing. As District 1 Councilwoman Sherri Lightner posited at the January 31, 2012 City Council the urban agriculture movement continues to grow in popularity and why the City 4 shows supporters of the ordin ance changes right after the vote took place. Less than a year after signing the community garden changes, on February 2, 2012, Mayor Jerry Sanders signed the urban agriculture changes passed by City Council. Interestingly, Mara reflects that many of the people in 1 in 10 had been working the new political map is a welcome change. Mir roring such sentiments, James exclaims,

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194 money flowed into San Diego and supporting urban agriculture became a politically profitable position. In short, at the same time activists changed what they perceived as wrong with local government regulations the federal government profoundly impacted In the midst of the furor over the community gardening ordinance, government agencies funneled millions of dollars to support eff orts aimed at increasing the volume of healthy local food and improving dietary health. Part of the money administered came from San Diego County for a school and community garden progr am, the cornerstone of which was five R egional Garden Education Centers (RGEC). As Nick Macchione, fruits and veggies is one way to eat healthier and stay active, both key strategies in Roots received a large sum to set up some of these centers, specifically training garden course teachers. Carol, an SD Roots board member and school garden advocate, was living in Los Angeles at the time when organizations were writing grant proposals for Healthy Works grants. A friend who wanted help writing a large grant for the San Diego County Childhood Obesity Initiative (COI), a public/private partnership that is part of the larger health collaboration Community Health Improvement Partners (CHIP) con tacted her Specifically, Carol wrote the part dedicated to school gardens and wellness in school districts. After receiving the grant, Carol moved down to San Diego and worked as a

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195 contractor for the gardening part, and it was in this role that she facili selection as the organization charged with carrying out the RGEC program. In addition, a former SD Roots director received funding to work with VGSD and teach sustainability classes with Seeds@City, an urban farm at San Diego City College. Wit hout making the to the City Council and all the different neighborhoods that this is something that we want, it is something going on all over the country, and it is someth While certainly true, outside money buoyed such social change efforts Not only was the SANDAG money useful in accelerating the urban agriculture policy process, but federal funding provided greater economic security for those working of San Diego people would be urban farmers, teaching about farming and doing a lot of otes curriculums, Basic Gardening, How to Start a Community Garden, and How to Start and Main This curriculum is freely available online and for those wanting the hands on intensive learning experience of classes taught at each RGEC. If needing further support VGSD acts as a consultant on issues ranging from troub leshooting difficult education scenarios to improving training materials. In addition, SD Root s benefited from WWF's designation as one of the centers. For instance, WWF received a large number of tools shared through a tool lending library, but also instr umental in starting this small urban farm. In turn, official community and school

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196 gardens flourish in San Diego. There are now over 25 community gardens and close to 150 school gardens. Reflecting a typical non profit experience, once the RGECs were develo ped and the grant ended, each group running one of these centers reverted into their own silos couple of meetings, we could do more, but money is the driving factor. Al so we want to find a unifying theme that would tie the six together in some meaningful way and then When the money hand, the economic security provided by the Healthy Works grants led to greater activist participation in developing new urban agriculture projects that at th e same time received institutional support in the form of land use policy changes. On the other hand, once this money dried up the level of explicit collaboration declined and policy change slowed. While internal conflict between politicians and among a gency representatives was fairly minimal throughout the policy process there were moments that shed light on how activists navigated potential defeats to their policy proposals. As Jill recalls, Out of nowhere San Diego County Department of Environmental Health sent a letter to the Planning Division and said they would not support unsafe, but that if you want raw milk you can buy it in the store. The lady on the committee that was pro goat contacted the Health Department in Seattle, Portland, and San Francisco where goats are legal and got them to send official letters saying that no health concerns have ever come up no we were going to yank goats, but then someone else from another office pulled another string and said to put goats back on because the Health Department is not allowed to just send a letter and change ordinance language behind everyone's back and not g ot through the process.

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197 In short, activists leveraged a few spatial strategies to change land use laws. First, they under the logic that if it works in one place it wi ll work in another place. For example, these other cities that have done this and look at the favorable response and there analysis was furthered by blocking territorial prerogative trumped. Even when looking at official documents, such as community planning group letters and various c oalition memorandums presented to governing bodies, activists always argued that other cities were making headway on urban agriculture laws. O f more possible significance than the immediate changes brought by the new urban agriculture laws, the City Counc il adopted urban agriculture amendments to the California state law requires these plans in order to guide future development, and requires updates in order to maintain relevance Such plans increasingly guide the integration of urban agriculture into the landscape. While the impetus for and nature of these changes varies, the abovementioned drivers of recent policy changes in San Diego are also at play with the regards to the Gen eral Plan. Urban Agriculture Amendments were added u one of the longest on paper The amendments were justified in two main ways: 1) as an additional addressing climate change and sustainable

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198 development; 2) as another agricultural resource goal. As principles, but more importantly as policy, the City is now committed to the following general policy goals, Foster an urban agriculture system that is envi ronmentally and economically sustainable (e.g. reduce required land and water, recognize cultural and economic benefits of growing food); Increase opportunities for urban agriculture (e.g. support rooftop gardens and edible landscapes, encourage use of vac ant and underutilized lots for urban agriculture); Support food system planning that increases food system security, links local producers to local markets, creates jobs, and re circulates food dollars in the local economy ( e.g. participatory policy making support and incentivize establishment of food distribution, processing, and wholesaling); Collaborate with public health professionals and others to maximize the public health benefits related to urban agriculture, and seek their participation in the com munity plan update process. Neither the press nor many food activists laud let alone recognize these changes despite the fact that these are an official means by which to make claims on the City to further and deepen urban agriculture into the landscape. T he 1 in 10 Coalition successfully accomplished f iv e of ten policy priorities by the beginning of 2012 : 1) community garden permit process; 2) backyard growers at farmers markets; 3) green carts; 4) city chicken and goat permitting; and 5) urban beekeepin g. Since the passage of major urban agr iculture ordi nances at the en d of February 2012, 1 in 10 focused its efforts on the federal Farm Bill, and locally on the issues of composting and greywater. 20 The shift in 20 By March of 2013, a sixth priority was accomplished, namely the loosening of restrictions and elimination of permits for home greywater systems that reroute water from clothes washers and showers

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199 focus seems to reinforce the importance that outside money played in propping up elements of San constituency. Nevertheless because of the successful policy changes a new set of food activists is empow ered to engage in local politics. One result of this engagement is a was there was incredible she received a call fr om a friend requesting that she drive downtown to a hearing on backing chickens. Jill did not want to make the thirty minute traffic ridden drive, but then stepped outside and noticed that her neighbor was taking pictures of her chicken coop, which at the time was illegal. Incensed, she called up her friend and decided to head downtown. This set off an unexpected political engagement with the issue and she would be sitting in the planning meetings, someone would ask who would speak about chickens, and I reluctantly decided to do so. I don't consider myself an activist or public This example represents the importance of performing citizenship. Mara contends, into home landscapes and gardens. This issue had nowhere near the attention as the community garden and urban agriculture ordinances and 1 in 10 played a less prominent role.

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200 neighbors in my area to represent my area. So people started thinking about those kinds of institutions member and founder of VGSD responded to my question about why he thinks the activist groups have made th em aware and raised the issue in such a way and then There is potential for greater food policy changes in San Diego, but the momentum behind familiar framings of the problems and their solutions that harken back to campaign narrows the possibilities. In a City Council statement released after the passage of the latest urban agriculture laws, Councilwoman Marti can p when we know so many San Diegans face food insecurity, on top of the alarming rate of Activists who pin the onus of responsibility on the individual ofte n reinforce the framing by local politicians For instance, Harry expounds on the that to sustain themselves and not have to go to the grocery store and pay for the stuff, O ften overlooked are q uestions of power, particularly those pertaining to economic privilege, entrepreneurial init iatives requiring private property, and historical legacies of racial in equality in land access The question is not so much as Mara points out below about reconfiguring power relations in order to accomplish certain goals, but about the kind of power

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201 rela tions embedded in the goals themselves as representative of certain class and racial interests. The goal is as important as the new forms of sociality that emerge from urban agricultural experiments. Reproducing or Contesting Relationships to Land? Conside Urban Agriculture Laws and Their Organizational Significance economic opportunities for those wishing to grow their own food. Nonetheless, some unanswered questions remain. Why were these changes all of the sudden politically possible? What is the ideological and discursive premise upon which these gains were made? Who tends to benefit most from these changes and who is left out? How do the laws operate as racial and economic projects? The following is an integrated investigation of these questions. Specifically, I discuss how neoliberal subjectivities permeate the spaces and strategies of SD Roots and their allies, particularly how understandings of private property and individual responsibility intersect to blunt the radical potential of these urban agriculture laws. Moreover, I tease out how the laws themselves embody various racial and class privileges. To explain their policy successes many food activists are conv inced that by having a specific goal and set of policy pri orities, they more effectively pressure d the city. Moreover, proponents leveraged greater collective power b ecause previously disparate groups and projects came t ogether around these priorities 21 Ho wever, many one of those bills that kind of, and purposefully I think they kept it non political. They 21 Some key political allies also helped namely the previous Mayor Sanders, and Todd Gloria (D) who was chair of the Lan d Use and Housing Committee and representing District 3, a hotbed of food activism.

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202 blican; the city council does not so much reveal the apolitical nature of the issue, but the very essence of its politics. Across the mainstream political spectrum, there is o verwhelming support for the notion that the role of government is to get out of the way so that people can make their own decisions. As Ricky, a fruit gleaning expert who started HSD with SD Roots sees it, food or keep my own pet that produce food in my yard when other people have dogs Alternatively, as Barry an den ordinance was great because it got a lot of publicity. The second go around was animals, bees, goats, accessible to be pitched stuff that does not cost a lot and can outcomes could lead to economic and political empowerment for different groups of food production and consumption can there be a process set in motion to shore up a local agrifood system. In this reading, rolling back the state is the primary solution offered to solve problems in the agrifood system. There is a contradictory nature to these neoliberal logics with the use of local government to e xpand the legal framework allowing individuals to grow their own food. Health goals primarily drive these changes although the tagging on of env ironmental issues came with amendments to the new the General Plan. Ricky told me a story a bout how his family used to own chickens, but then their neighbor complained so they gave

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203 them to a friend. Upon the laws changing, they reacqui red the chickens. Rebecca Tolin, th e director and writer of a documentary on backyard chickens in San Diego, then asked them to be i n the film children getting back their chickens. As he tells it, I didn't feel like a fraud, but at the same time the woman who did the documentary, we went to a screening at Whole Foods last week, she out at places that some peo ple would probably be horrified. urban agriculture laws, but it primarily portrays the family as an example of what is required to resist the conventional agrifood example of the disjuncture between the purity required by elements of the AFM and the the social forces that allow some grou ps to take more advantage of this law than others. Issues at the intersection of private property, race, and class reveal the uneven policy change process. Were the framing for community gardens and urban agriculture about land redistribution and opening t he commons, one can imagine that the strongest historical lobby in San Diego, d evelopment interests, would prevail In a sense, the community garden and urban agriculture laws are simply a roll back of the state. At the same time, these law changes open up the institutional space for SD Roots to experiment with prefigurative models that advance more sustainable food production. Since these law changes, the 1 in 10 Coalition shifted prio rities, VGSD and the RGECs retreated to the ir work silos, and SD Roots f ocused on expanding and strengthening WWF. These shifts are parti ally explainable by the many years of

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204 dedication to some ultimately successful land use policy changes and the time came to begin building up individual organizations. Nonetheless, there are contradictions. AFM activists sidestep more far reaching and inclusive poli cy changes b ecause the land use changes favor the constituency that largely lobbi ed for it To explain further, John, a neighboring farmer to WWF observes, The zoning laws only appl y for single family homes; detached single family homes. So if you live in a duplex or a triplex, and you still had a good size family building. And then also the lot sizes. Even if you had a decent sized lot that could fit a group and meet all the criteria of the grazing that they want, the standoff distance to other houses could exclude you from having it. So I hate to say it, but it kind of excludes the people that really need it. Here in San Diego, hous ing is expensive, so you have a lot of people that live in apartments, income areas, the houses are really jammed together, single family homes are or a lot of land. And a lot of people live in multi family houses that are low income as well. John is a largely isolated voice on the reproduction of inequali ties tied to the urban agriculture ordinance. In addition to the problems John mentions, if a g roup of tenants at an apartment complex want to come together to grow some food, they would need to find some land on an empty lot in their neighborhood or join a community garden if one were available. H owever, the person would rent the land or plot, whic h may be a burdensome added expense per month. These points reinforce the disguise of private property forces driving inequality in the form of land use and ownership laws as a means to alleviate unequal access to fresh fruits and vegetables and improve th e health of groups deemed responsible for their predicament. efforts to reclaim public land as a commons for any sort of food production, processing or distribution. Even t hough the community garden ordinance eases the rules governing

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205 land use so that individuals (ostensibly an entire community) can grow food on commercial or residential land, there are no rights to that land even if they improve the land through their garde ning efforts. Some food activists recognize this gap. Ned much of our vacant ac urban agriculture as a politically viable realm, but traditional development interests still dominate local government. There is currently little political will to rewrite laws in a way pretty a key area of policy gains, partially because of Hea lthy Works grant money there is evidence pointing to how these spaces reproduce racial and class privileg e. In the city of San Diego alone there O nly 6 accept SNAP benefits (known as CalFresh in California) but even then, not all vendors participate. Eleven accept Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food a ssistance checks 22 many accessible opportunities. In the racially di verse and economically challenged neighborhood of City Heights, the farmers market CalFresh sales grew from 6% of total 22 The Healthy Works grant created a fund (Fresh Fund) to double the dollars spent by low income

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206 vendor sales to 17% between May of 2009 and February of 2010. When you include WIC and SSI benefits spent through EBT, this figure grew to about 75% of all sales by August 2011. 23 The Fresh Fund program at this market was pivotal to its growth, which slightly declined with the drying up of Fresh Fund grant money. Such efforts are exceptional in a county that for many years worked to root ou t CalFresh fraud at the cost of boosting legitimate enrollment. For instance, before 2012, applications required photographs and fingerprints for each applicant. Further creating difficulties in San Diego are the large number of undocumented immigrants. If their children were born in the US, then parents can get them CalFresh, but they cannot use it for themselves. There is also confusion about agency officials performing home inspections before a person can receive CalWORKs (cash aid and service program fo r low income families); some people mix this up with CalFresh, which does not require home inspections. The lack of readily accessible information, confusion about eligibility, and fear of deportation or punishment contribute to low participation rates. 24 Some food activists recognize these facts Carol argues that a possible reason for San Diego receiving so much money through the Healthy Works grants to improve rates ove markets in San Diego reflect the county trends of low participation because they 23 In order to reach the diverse members of this neighborhood, the San Diego Hunger Coalition set up an Somali, Spanish, and Vietnamese) to screen and sign up participants. 24 San Diego County ranked 49 out of 58 California counties in terms of enrollment versus eligibility. Enrollment estimates by eligible CalFresh recipie nts in 2010 was a mere 45%. These numbers represent those with incomes 125% below the federal poverty gu idelines (Shimada 2013a). In 2011, the participation estimate increased to 51%, putting San Diego a few ranks better, but still far short of an acceptable figure (Shimada 2013b).

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207 overwhelmingly do not provide access to people using food stamps despite how easy it is to s et up the EBT system. Having worked extensively with predominantly Latino/a border communities Carol goes on to say, Federally we got a lot less of that money and it had a lot to do with this border stuff. There was a lot of fear in the community that you would get in trouble for trying to get food stamps or get on any food subsidy program. create some more sustain we could be a point of sale for food stamps. Maybe people would come and buy eggs and different things from us more in that community if the y knew they could use that and maybe sign up there. 25 but problems remain. Politicians and food activists often frame t hese fa as spaces where people can vote with their dollar for local food while also increasing intake of healthy food. Some of these markets open in immigrant communi ties where a concerted aim is to increase access to healthy and culturally appropriate foods. On the one hand, this results in th e elevation of people as consumers, using markets to grow the influence of organic and sustainable farming. On the other hand, there are immigrant populations in need CalFresh, but not legally eligible. In addition, w hile anti hunger advocates fi ght to red uce the fear and stigma immigrant groups feel about using CalFresh, white middle managers do minimal outreach to immigrant communities. Language barriers, cultural 25 One estimate of the annual loss of federal CalFresh benefits for San Diego County puts it at $284 could be made to both increase food security and support local farmers.

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208 misunderstanding, and less of a co mmitment to social justice help perpetuate the 26 The abovementioned issues raise some questions. Reflecting on the gains made by food activists after cobbling together various coalitions, Mara contemplates, ationships can actually reconfigure relations of power remains to be issues SD R oots faces as it continues to build relationships with food activists in San Diego is a general skepticism of mainstream politics. As Jerry, a founding member really smart, politically savvy, something I have no temperament for. People like Oftentimes, supporting such views is a belief that working outside the system is the best strategy for social change. As Sam re higher up types of thoughts and organizations and prefer to work with people on a very personal level and not so much on a policy level. I feel like that grassroots level is what much SD Roots funding come s from federal sources primarily becau se people committed to the 26 The issue is politically charged in San Diego, especiall y after the California State Assembly passed a conservative columnist and editorial board member of the San Diego Union Tribune, Ruben Navarrette Jr. dependency. This man documented immigrants access to food stamps because it would blunt immig positions are common in San Diego where anti immigrant sentiment has a long history (Miller 2003; Nevins 2002). Nonetheless, many farmers and managers pushed back against the idea that they would be burdened, arguing that it would in crease sales at their market and support a local food economy.

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209 tough political work. Moreover, Carol asserts that these large grants can create fallo ut in the movement because [A] only had a year and a half to do all this stuff that was hugely lot of thinking through and community Although the money certainly produced successful results, almost all those engaged in the actual political work were doing so on a voluntary basis with the adde d pressure of a tighter window to pull off their grant proposals. 27 In a sense, it is exactly because of the money that came through San Diego that skepticism about relying on that process emerged and/or solidified, particularly for those working with SD Ro ots, although there were others who took a different path by turning to for profit models. Mara keenly observes that San Diego lacks a political center and then goes on to argue, conversat course of action that worries about a radical critique of capitalism, or a radical critique of this particular histor ical moment or hegemony or go runn ing or surfing or something. 27 One major failure came when a board member blew the whistle on the Tierra Miguel Farm & Foundation for mismanaging grant money that was supposed to be used to develop a regional food hub and house a working group called San Diego Growers. Tierra Miguel Farm was an 85 acre certified biodynamic farm that successfully ran for a number of years, but after some business mistakes gradually fell deeper into debt, taking out hundreds of thousands of dollars in loans. With the addition of the grant distributed by University of California San Diego (UCSD) who made it a reimbursable grant with a multi week turnaround between invoices and repayment the grant became an added financial pressure for the farm to manage. Unfortunately, come the end of June 2011, both Tierra Miguel Farm and San Diego Growers went off the grid, no blog or Facebook posts, tweets, and no one was returning calls. There was a near blackout of publicity and food activists kept lar gely silent. This project, which was one of three proposed pillars to improve nutrition, never came to fruition.

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210 Such unwillingness to name the structural problems and then devise a course of action is a key reason for the avoidance of more radical conte ntious food politics At the same time, this helps to explain why political engagement takes particular spatial forms such largely neoliberal spatialities underlie ongoing AFM efforts in San Diego. Efforts to Own and Build the Movement in a Post Policy Vict ory Context Local food movements take on place based cultural, economic, and political specificities. An often heard critique i s that local food movements sti ck to their own context and can end up not connecting their struggles to much larger regional, nat ional, and international struggles (Born and Purcell 2006). In San Diego, the issue is slightly different, which should give pause as to what drives localism. Generally, the onus is on hat outside forces shape some elements of the local form, which activists then internalize and reproduce specific place based processes. The dialectic then is between social forces operating across space and time and those operating within space and time. In short, this chapter takes a nuanced and complex investigative lens of local food movements, particularly by attending to how activists themselves see these relations. Below, I investigate these sociospatial processes by attending to activist narratives about building the AFM, the role of outside forces, and efforts to bridge various interests in the midst of a competitive funding environment. Alongside the urban agriculture policy change process, San Diego policy insiders and food activists carried out a community food system assessment. After the formation of the San Diego County Food System Working Group in 2009, the result of a California Endowment grant, they agreed to carry out

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211 This group consisted of 10 peo ple, almost all of whom came from a health based government agency or office. Although they were responsible for providing insight into the assessment process, the major facilitator was Joseph McIntyre (real name) of Ag Innovations Network (AIN), and the a ssessment authors were part of the Sustainable Agricultural Sustainability Institute. The reason for the introduction of these northern s that the working group hired them as consultants. Moreover, AIN, which is from Sebastopol, California, is an organization dedicated to developing and facilitating stakeholder initiatives aimed at improving local and regional food systems. The group and t he process worked primarily behind closed doors to come up with 14 goals for th e local food system and then publish a report in December 2010 objectives for a thriving local food system (Ellsworth and Feenstra 2010: 1). While there were different stakeholders at the table during the development of this report, it was a rather small and select group of people. Later, the report notes that there were monthly meetings where members developed a group toward adopting three broad visions that parallel the California Department of 2030 goals, also facilitated by AIN. Consider the parallels: 1) Better health and well being of San Diego County Residents ( Better health and well being); resource base ( A healthier planet); Thr iving Communities and Sustainable Economic Growth ( Thriving communities). While noble goals, the description of an independent

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212 stakeholder collaboration is misleading. Overall, however the report itself is comprehensive in its fleshing out of the local fo od system and 14 specific goals. Finally, in 2011, the working group opened up the process to a much larger group of stakeholders. Over a three month period between March June 2011, over 100 food and agriculture stakeholders from a variety of public and p rivate sectors met in different places on different occasions to discuss ways to build a better local food system and develop some key policy initiatives. Roots of Change convened t he San Diego Urban Rural Roundtable to present their recommendations to Cou nty Supervisor Ron Roberts, San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders, and Secretary of the California Department of Food and Agriculture Karen Ross. As Amy, a food activist privy to these recent happenings comments that the stakeholders from the Urban Rural Roundtab le And so they came up with five priorities, five priorities and three key 28 Although the development of these recommendations and priorities worked t hrough a different process than the food system assessment report, there are clear parallels. 29 Both sets of recommendations suggest greater local state 28 Rec 1: Adopt and implement a comprehensive set of County and City food system policies. Rec 2: Align and leverage the political strength of t he County, City and region to support key federal, state and regional food and agricultural policies. Rec 3: Support the creation of a regional food system alliance. Top priorities for action: 1. Build a broad coalition of urban and rural, business and com munity interests to support subsidization of a pricing differential for water used for food production...2. Invest in local and regional food system infrastructure to connect local producers to local markets, create jobs, and opt procurement policies and nutrition standards that make healthy, fair, policies and programs to ensure that all San Diego residents have access to healthy, affordable, and programs for all ages to provide hands on education and training 29 Overarching Recommendations: 1. In stitute a Food System Council to act as the countywide, coordinating body for fostering collaboration, recommendations, and actions that contribute to a healthy, sustainable, and gainful local food system. 2. Create a Food Commissioner position that works in coordination with the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency and Land Use and

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213 involvement in supporting a local food system, primarily through spending more money, creating better po licies and agency positions, and developing a food hub. One major recommendation to come out of both the assessment and roundtables was an agreement that San Diego should have an official group dedicated to bridging the various food system change efforts This group goes under the name Food System Alliance SDFSA received 18 months of funding through AIN beginning in October of 2012, Communities initiative, the same initiative that Michelle Obama came to San Diego to promote. Behind this choice lay a longstanding rivalry between CHIP, specifically the COI, and UCSD, namely their Network for a Healthy California (NHC). Both these groups raise and spend millions of dollars to improve h ealth through food. Amy, a new hese two organizations were the major players vying to house and head the FSA because it would increase the prestige of the grantee and assist in obtaining future grants. Ultimately, the California Endowment picked neither group and gave the money to AIN, who was a neutral party. The money primarily pays for one full time San Diego position. Os tensibly, the group act s as a food policy council, with representatives at all points along the food supply chain, albeit without the political strength provided by official government sanction and support. Given funding requirements, the group is limited at least for the Environment Group to assure that healthy, local foods are available to all. 3. Develop and finance infrastructure through public and private means that supports the aggregation, processing, distribution, and wholesale of local produce and protein sources.

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214 first 18 months with coming up with solutions to childhood obesity, or as Amy says, that However those who attended the first SDFSA meeting made an agreement that preceding recommendations would serve as recommendations is an informal alliance reliant on outside m oney for its existence speaks to the influence of AIN on the process and a shift in local government towards decentering its direct political influence. 30 Even if COI or NHC had to house SDFSA it would still reflect a trend toward rolling back state influe nce. It may also have possibly perpetuated the health bias of many food system change efforts. Consider that 12 of the 59 current members (20%) represent health issues and the two committees are Local Food Production and Procurement and Food Access. 31 Whil e FS A can take on other issues, it does not have complete au tonomy. Granted housing in a gov ernment agency or office come s with its own restrictions, the lack of direct state support in exchange for a private governance structure also creates barriers to p articipation and decision making Moreover, the informal nature of the Alliance reinforces the neoliberal subjectivities that permeate many non profits, initiatives, and projects. Were this group a food policy council, they would represent a greater politi cal commitment to the state playing a role in reforming the local food system, essentially providing an open forum for democratic participation, and a means 30 Almost all the convening organizations were at the table during the food system assessment process. The reproduction of the social net work came in a new form, the FSA, albeit now there are many other organizations involved, but they represent more of an extension of a particular network and not the creation of completely new one. 31 There are 59 active FSA members, most representing large organizations, agencies, or businesses. Sector breakdown: 20% health, 12% access/food security, 12% education, 10% agricultural support, conservation 10%, community/civic 7%, urban food 7%, food service 5%, grocery outlet 5%, processor/distributor 5%, productio n agriculture 1%.

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215 benevolence. The g rant machine keeping SDFSA and SD Roots al ive also influences the hiring for SDFSA w ho entered Produce Project. 32 Next, she worked with Projec t New Village who is a subcontractor to SDHHSA. 33 Her responsibility was to develop an assessment of the Lincoln Park that in this quarte r mile wide, mile long neighborhood that 33% of adults are obese, that affordable and healthy food options are limited, and that 57% of the population lives in poverty. Harkening back to points made earlier, the money significantly drives the framing and s et of policy initiatives aimed at solving the problem. Another woman named Jenna, who works with SD Roots at the interstices of youth education provides because of the obes ity problem. So county and state organizations are putting money into educating kids about exercising and eating well and how to read labels and all In short, t he obesity problem provides the impetus for government funding. Social inequ ality or poverty is not the problem. It is lack of education. These initiatives end up reinforcing the narrative that choosing healthy foods is the means to improve health. 32 Her funding came from a Healthy Works grant. 33 The funds came

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216 In addition to a strong institutional presence, there is not total buy in fro m San once a month to facilitate SDFSA meetings. Carol asserts, I don't feel like it has traction. There is this feeling with the north/south thing where somebody from the north comes down to tell us what we should be doing. I don't know if everybody down here feels that way, but I actually interviewed for that job. I was turned off because of the arrogance behind what they thought they were going to do and who they thought they were talking to down here, and how they were going to do it. I think there is a little bit of...this is probably one of those places where we have us. Moreover, because the initial food system assessment process took place in private spaces, with private funding and there is no public oversight that would come with a food policy council housed in local government, there is concern of cooptation and redundancy. Amy mentioned that a number of organizations historically doing the work were able to kick Supposedly threating is t he rise of large public a nd private o rganizations particularly before the influx of grant money, consisted of small organic farmers, a few local restaurants, some community garden advocates, and a handful of under/minimally funded non pro fits, all of whom strive toward some similar food loca lization goals as the cultural backbone of the movement. The new players can command more of the grant An interesting result of the rise of SDFSA is that in the vacuum cr eated by the community garden and urban agriculture victories, outside grant money took on the role of maintaining some sense of cohesion and momentum on issues yet to be resolved. In this sense, the funding is incredibly important because it gave groups l ike SD Roots a

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217 tool in the f orm of an assessment to system, while at the same time led to a forum for collaboration across organizations and sectors that may not have occurred otherwise. FSA now seems to hold the coalition space once held by the 1 in 10 Coalition, also buoyed by funding, albeit in a much less organic and open way. 34 This analysis argues that the center of the movement most importantly the acceptable discourses, projects, and policies ebbs a nd flows with what funding is popular. The shape of the local AFM is not always locally determined. It intersects with various people, ideas, and money coming from other places. Driving these movements is an ideology of healthism and an assumption that ind ividual choices must take place in private spaces. The racial and class implications of this ideology are now explored. Privatizing Dietary Health Spaces through De Politicizing Race and Class cial and ethnic composition markedly shifted si nce the 1980s from an overwhelmingly white city to a city with very large Latino/a and Asian populations and newly arriving immigrant refugee groups from throughout the Global South. Such demographic shifts affect the AFM. Arguably, without organizations s uch as the IRC committed to working with refugee populations, who have resources and organizational influence to create large projects, the AFM would be less culturally relevant. Yet, perspectives on race relations, and particularly the performance of whit eness through privatizing health spaces reveals how pervasive divisions remain. The maintenance of divisions occurs due to a discourse and set of practices that center the onus of health on individuals. While there are clearly correlations between diet and overall health, this 34 For example, 1 in 10 has an open Goo gle Groups listserv while FSA has none.

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218 discourse suppresses other correlations such as poverty or exposure to toxic end ocrine disruptors Lost is a commitment to a political course of action that builds collective power from a shared need for greater economic autonomy and resources that recognizes historical privileges and disadvantages. Central to the perpetuation of health discourses and strategies are the places deemed appropriate to address such problems. To investigate these themes, I chronicle the perspectives and act ions of those who work with SD Roots. The following fine grained analysis provides a further window into the reasons for and locations of the production and contestation of power relations Health framing is pervasive throughout SD Roots and it takes dif ferent forms. Two separate, but related positions tend to motivate food activism for a majority of those working with the organization. First, better eating can solve diet related health problems Second, organic food is healthier. Associated with these tw o positions are ideas such as food is medicine, increasing food security can solve diet related health problems and education is the lynchpin around which one moves from a position of poor health to improved health. Missing though from most analysis of su ch framings is attention to the reinforcement of these di scursive patterns through racial and class ties in specific places. Below I will illustrate how these social forces operate within the micro organizational and discursive processes of SD Roots. In general, a strong belief in the food body connection grounds understandings of health and motivation for participating in the food movement. Hilary, a new SD Roots as well and environmental studies a little bit. So I kind of wanted to integrate this whole

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219 The disruption of the h olism between food and body occurs w hen one makes poor food choices that result in h ealth problems I n this reading, the body is the quintessential private space of individual responsibility Holism begins and ends with individual human biology. Sarah concludes from her time as a nanny observing the relationship between weight, food type and own. It was hard to ignore the correlation between the nutritional value of their food and rely a background for the individual. However, there are competing perspectives. For instance, Nancy, an beef, well ok, but you should know what the consequences are, hea lth wise and In this way, th e food body connection extends to include those other human and non human bodies impacted howe ver indirectly through the individual decisions we make. Food and health is central Like most other non profits working on solving local food (system) pro blems, great attention goes to dietary hea lth issues. Recalling the Victory Gardens war during times of crisis and hardship. Se e Figure 5 5 for examples of the reinterpretation of the se images through a contemporary lens. Beginning in early 2009, with t he American economy still struggling with high unemployment, reduced hours and wages,

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220 and a crippled housing market, VGSD worked to increase the number of people tending their own vegetable gardens. The following values drive VGSD: Eating nutritious, locally grown organic food. Promoting genuine empowerment, practical knowledge and self sufficiency. Fostering community, skill sharing and information exchange reconnecting people to food history and its traditions. Growing food in innovative spaces. Encouraging a greater understanding of food systems and their connections to local and global sustainability issues. We help anyone seeking an active role in their own food production! From the preceding list, a few themes jump out. First, there is a link between nutrition and organic food In short, organic is healthier. Relatedly, self sufficiency, that is, the individual (maybe family) is elevated as primarily responsible. Second, such skills can also be communally used This latter position is important to tease out in practice. VGSD requests an application for those wishing to have a garden built on their property. Most of the gardens go to those who can pay for it while a small number of low income families receive them fre e While one is not required to own the property, if one does not, then they must complete an Owner Auth orization Form which approves the garden build. Clearly, renter status becomes a barrier to actualizing the values outlined by VGSD. These facts reflec t a soft commitment to alleviating food insecurity for poor people, who in San Diego tend more likely to be black or Latino/a. This is not to say that those running VGSD are blind to social inequalities, but there is a disjuncture between the description of unhealthy places and the solutions to

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221 long run, that hurts all of us because the more healthy we are, the more knowledgeable we are, the stronger society we an argument sees health as the core issue to solv e before there can be more resources and opportunities for the rest of society. As such, VGSD built numerous gardens for low income people, whether as community gardens, school gardens, or individual gardens. This understanding of inequality is consistent with a commitment to food as the vehicle by which social change through health occurs. Private land can also be a site for redistribution. For instance, describing the HSD project Our volunteers glean excess fruit from private trees to provide fresh, h ealthy food to numerous families who rely on a food bank that can usually only offer processed canned foods. Harvesting San Diego offers growers and volunteers the opportunity to directly engage with the local community and make a tangible, immediate impac t on those who need fresh, healthy food the most. Food insecurity is coupled with worse dietary health. Therefore, redistributing private fresh fruit largesse through publically accessible food banks is a means by which to improve both. This is a basic for m of charity. Take from the haves and give to the have nots. Such a discourse and set of practices reinforces racial and class divisions. The role of the privileged becomes a state substitute/subsidy. Efforts such as these smooth over the worst abuses and oversights of social and economic life. 35 Concretely, private property is racialized. To provide a snapshot, it is estimated that whites disproportionately account for a majority of owner occupied residences (64%), with 35 Charity projects do not redistribute land for people to grow their own food, individually or collectively. Instead, they reinscribe who has what where and who gets what where.

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222 blacks (4.5%), Latino/as (15%), and A sians (14.5%) making up most of the rest. 36 One can deduce that because whites are less likely to be food insecure, and more likely to be property owners, their properties are more likely going to be the sites for redistribution to people of color. For exam ple, San Diego Food Bank estimates that 55% of their recipients are Latino/a and only 29% white (Ataide 2013). Therefore, while HSD creatively rearticulates how to deal with poor dietary health, the program still reinforces racialized property relations. Taking a different approach than the two aforementioned projects, WWF is an organic education farm and community gathering place. Originally conceived and designed as a permaculture education training center, but eventually modified into a more traditiona l small scale diversified organic farm, WWF is the hub around which the organization reproduces its food movement values and norms. After a number of years of building community support through clearing and reshaping the land, WWF set the foundation for ac Communities, Economies, & Ecosystems: Sustainable Agriculture Enhances Quality of wide ranging goals, the farm is creating a model of sustainabl e organic food production, educating people about the importance of local sustainable agriculture, running a farmer education program, and promoting regional food security and healthy agroecosystems. 37 O ver the past four years, WWF positively affected hundr 36 Demographic Characteristics for Occu pied Housing Units. 2007 2011 American Community Survey 5 Year Estimates. 37 leases the land. It is a neighboring organic farm who benefits from the agreement since he Navy, their lessor, from allowing visitors. Given that WWF is a non profit project with a limited budget, the chances of having a more secure land tenure status is unlikely, particularly in the short to mid term.

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223 The major grant support for WWF ref lects the way health mobilize s community support. S ince June of 2011 Ocean Beach op provided $1000/month, specifically for educational fieldtrips to schoolchildren The go al is to expose children at an early age to organic farming and give them tactile experiences that connect them to their food source. The co op was also a site for many years for prove the local food system. Unsurprisingly, many older SD Roots members attended those meetings, from which various projects such as VGSD emerged. Given the strong vegan activist network at the co op, and the sourcing of only organic produce, they have in fluenced the direction of SD Roots. Reflecting a belief that organic food is healthier, Ned, a one time self proclaimed ignoramus on organic foods recalls his original explorations of these topics at the co t sell organic food or places that are organic nurseries and just kind of help direct people h places such as WWF, that people will traverse similar personal journeys. Of central importance to 38 They receive support by helping to t there are food insecure communities that need more healthy and whole fruits and vegetables. A lso racialized is health which conflicts with a specific set of colorblind activist understandings and strategies. For example, two white women, Dale Steele an d Catt White spent years working to open San Diego Public Market, a 92,000 square foot 38 Kashi and their employees donated over $28,000 to improve infrastructure and support farm projects and personnel.

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224 building in the historically Mexican American neighborhood Barrio Logan. When asked the fresh, good, healthy food that is locally grown and produced, but there will be events However when one looks over the Kickstarter page used to raise a little more than $146,000, the area description i s The cultural history of the area is completely ignored, and instead is marketed to foodies and those interested in coming developments and trendy coffee roasters pepper the landscape. For example, the white s hare of the population grew from 11.7% to 32.8% from 2000 to 2010 (Petrilli 2012) and the cost of rent for residences and businesses only continues to increase 39 In some ways, SD Roots activists express that people of color need outside help and that they lack the education necessary to eat healthfully. Instead of addressing roo t causes of problems, each person is often viewed independently of their social position. When asked to what degree it is important to attend to racial and class inequality, guess 39 arriving, Catt told them about an interaction she had with a woman who owned the little M exican taco shop right on the corner of the same block. That morning she came over to the market because of all the dare you not offer a stand in your public ma m the permanent vendors, most of whom are likely to com e from outside Barrio Logan. Therefore, in addition to status, but largely ignored is the Mexican heritage of the neighborhood and local busi nesses

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225 This comment accepts white privilege a s normal. Moreover, Jenna responds to the same question by noting, rming community is promoting to hire management jobs? And I guess sometimes those groups are going for the same goal, but they need to identify with that group to have the power to get the word out about it. This compartm entalizing of issues justifies not taking a more holistic approach to entrenched inequalities that variably intersect. By not taking an intersectional analysis predicated on social solidarity SD Roots takes little o rganizational action (e.g. immigration reform) in the name of a group one is not from (e.g. Latino/a). Taking action would mean educating communities of color. od to be a part of that In short, intersecting racial and class inequalities transform into issues about education, which then justify AFM projects that end up ignoring or perpetuating racial and class divisions. O ne of the keys to SD Roots success is their ability to reproduce their social network in such a way that middle class white families find them, either coming out to potlucks, film screenings, and other events, or by taking courses at WWF and having VGSD in WWF is not widely selling their produce, the space is primarily for maintaining/building community support for organic food. For example, common films shown at WWF include King Corn, The Real Dirt on Farmer John, The Power of Community: How Cuba

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226 Survived Peak Oil, and Chicks in the City. These serve to both educate and inspire attendees to sup port organic farming and healthy eating. Connected to the notion of the food supply chain and perpetuate a toxic model that while happening away from well to do consu mers infiltrates their private homes and kitchens. Take the clear examples of how some SD Roots members speak about children Once again, Jenna because they have such little b odies and you look at how much more effected they are Similarly, A new responsibility, children remind parents that they are vulnerable, and that parents have to take the steps necessary to shore up their food pantries or gardens with food that produces healthy children. Those that cannot take care of their children by buying organic food, or at a minimum more fruits and vegetables, are often seen on the one hand as victims and on the other as agents of change. Explaining the predicament of the food insecure, B arry then they would be healthier. As another example, James argues, I think that is really the biggest crime is that they [governments and corporations] create these food deserts where there is just junk, and people can only afford the cheap 99 cent burgers from these Cola, and Pepsi. You can have it 24/7. It is wrong. It is not good for our bodies. It is creating a whole different human that is unhealthy.

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227 I n this reading, blame rests on powerful social actors and the strategy of SD Roots is to support efforts that add more sustainable land uses to t he urban landscape. Additionally the top. Just go to In and Out Burger once every few months, or once a month, and lf to, instead of making that your problem and the solution is to not frequent those places. The branding of the urban landscape with fast food company logos, coupled with t he creating new foodscapes still reliant on private property, partially contributes to the status quo. What is left is choice. On the one hand, there is the belief, as Barry contends that health costs in the US are On the other hand, as Sarah poignantly states, While certainly a powerful force, if choice only takes place in the consumer realm, then an unequal economic playing field remains A major rationalization for linking food to health is the notion that food is med as medicine, SD

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228 However the organ ization does not often reach out to poor communities of color who ar e deemed the most likely to experience diet related health problems. els of What this reveals is the racialization of health standards 40 Indicative Founded in 1977 by Charlotte Gerson, the daughter of the famous doctor Max Gerson, the institute is a non profit that promotes alternative dietary therapies that use food to cure disease and release toxics. Because the alternative cancer therapy cannot be administered in the US, due to attacks on Gerson that led to his medical license suspension, and almost universal medical science agreement that there are no benefits from the treatment, the Institute supports two licensed Gerson Clinics, one of which is across the border in Tijuana, Mexico. Although there are no randomized cont rol trials Max Gerson wrot e a book where he claims he cured 50 cancer patients. In sh ort, the therapies promote dif ferent combinations of organic vegetarian diets, raw juices, coffee 40 The logic runs thusly. Bodily health is valued. Food is medicine. Food then becomes a means by which to stay or become healthy. Some groups experience more diet related health problems. Therefore, they need to eat healthier (i.e. use food as medicine) These groups tend to be poor people of color. However, these groups lack education and kno wledge. White people experience fewer diet related health problems. They are healthier because they make the choice to eat b etter, ostensibly because they are educa ted. People of color need to be educated so that they can make the same informed choices to become as healthy as white people. Although this is somewhat didactic, it makes explicit the racial and class codes that perpetuate the privatization of health spac es.

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229 enemas, and natural supplements. th birthday. Overlooking the medic if only looking at the literature supported by Gerson practitioners, a literature lacking any control groups and speculative or retrospective comparisons between cancer patients receiving traditional treatment versus those receiving the Gerson Therapy. 41 In addition to the Gerson Institute, WWF partners with the Pacific College of Oriental Medicine (PCOM) because the original farmer was taking a permaculture design course alongside someone from the college. The small group decided to d esign WWF as a permaculture farm for their final project. The design included a space for med icinal plants, including some from PCOM. Although the project waned, the spirit of the project and a number of plants, primarily gogi berries and herbal teas, remain. Efforts to connect with other cultural traditions are a possible countertrend to the individu alization of health care a nd the often color and class blind forms. Laura, an herbalist and alternative health enthusiast claims, more traditionally used as food than separate. Like your astragalus is boiled in your rice. A lot of your traditional herbs are like boiled in your constitutions better than the Western person and so they would just cook their herbs in daily because they knew what they ne eded, and then you could do your acute formulas to get through certain things, but your chronic conditions, those would just be part of your food. 41 See for instance the listed publications on the Gerson Research Organization website, http://gerson

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230 There are many cultural traditions that link food and health. Some of the practices serve as folk traditions that connect wit h a cultural heritage, some can scientifically prove their medicinal qualities, while other medic inal foods do both. SD Roots orga nizational culture often endorses preserving, rediscovering, and/or advancing various alternative cultural med ical traditions that promote food body connections. Such cultural trends are open to also b uild ing ties with indigenous groups and people of color instead of superimposing the foodie dogma of organic and local. Perhaps most important is how cultural value s and the politics of org anic local food play out (Hess 2002). As stated earlier, one way WWF serves as a cultural space is through the reproduction and sharing of various notions of health tied to food. One day during a break from farming, a conversation started about eating healthy food. One said that he drinks a little bit of apple cider vinegar in water every day. It gives him a boost of energy. A long term volunteer named Bill noted that he does not always experience what people tell him he should. Therefore, he does not always stick with different supplements or herbal remedies. However, Brian said that he is really into juicing. Along with his wife, he juices almost usually takes three weeks before you begin to feel the effects from using various were pulling oregano flowers from trimmed oregano branches for use in a tincture. you up i

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231 sinus problems, it relieves the symptoms. 42 became apparent when the discussion turned to how it is diffi cult to know how effective over the counter herbal supple ments are bec ause there is no vigorous testing There are ranges of available products, which many people buy, but which may not be the most efficacious. In addition, most consumers do not know the health complications that could arise due to interaction e ffects with other drugs or supplements. The solution then was to figure what personally works. Places such as WWF are open to the public and also provides a space to reinfor ce the importance of eating better while at home. S ways we do not fully understand or appreciate, buffers t he se conversations. As Laura d sub system, every aspect. The farther you look into each spot in our food chain, it has been altered to plain old make more money. They will On the one hand, SD Roo ts activists are concerned with the biopolitics of widely available processed foods. In addition, there is an analysis that pushes against individualistic discourses, instead promoting a structural analysis. Jerry explains, I remember the time before ther e was fast food as we know it on every 42 It can also be used on wounds as an anti inflammatory treat ment. Apparently, it is also a good herb to use for stomach aches, or to boost your immune system as well.

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232 means lives, the pace of our lives; the economic reality of our lives drive people to have to work to have the same level of co go out and eat crap. On the other hand, there are claims that it is in the interest of both public and private institutions to connect food with health, a nd that the AFM can expand if it taps into this self are going to go bankrupt paying health insurance if we do not do something to prevent At the end of the day, the organization adopts p ragmatic strategies to improve public health and build a more resilient local food system, while strategically minimizing skepticism aimed at institutional power in order to maintain working with various institutions. 43 Taking such health notions to the limits of the socially possible, many food activists claim that the process of more and more people making individual choice s to eat healthy food will eventually scale up and result in the elimination of non healthy everyone I know is eating healthier and refuses to buy GMO foods, is that go ing to filter means by which to do this is by making education culturally relevant. Although the exception, SD Roots activists explicitly see the need for addressing racia l inequality. As James argues, 43 SD Roots relationship with Kashi, who is owned by Kellogg Company, is indicative of this compromise.

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233 I think a lot of it starts with education about their culture, and what they ate, why they ate it and how healthy their cultures were or are in their in their education. If there is no profit in it, then why educate the people? Taking the first quote to its logical extent, a ll groups would require education and the notio ns of social change, greater attention to bridging racial and class divides would be necessary to scale healthy food in order to push out non healthy food. SD Roots strives for such outcomes, but struggles with reinforcing the privatization of health spac es, which disproportionately perpetuates forms of racial and class inequality. Summary of Chapter 5 This chapter portray s contentious l abor and land food politics. The analysis reveals the importance of t aking a multi institutional politics approach to understanding such issues. First, cultural understandings of food, farming, health, race, nationality, and class become eco nomy. Organic idealism stems from an ecological set of beliefs grounded in class distinction, which results in the elevation of volunteerism. This volunteerism then works not only as a cultural marker of privilege, but it manifests in organizational forms that engage with the economic sphere. Instead of prioritizing the development of business models that provide livable wages, benefits, and workplace democracy, SD Roots and res ource flows set by local political and economic elites. Thus, the second reason for why a multi institutional politics approach is important is that various political opportunities and economic structures react, restrict,

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234 drive, or expand the range of wha t is possible. When it comes to much of the insidious forms: first in the concrete sense of building walls, flying helicopters, deploying weapons and surveillance technolog ies; second in the symbolic sense of setting the addition to rolling out a se curity apparatus, the state rolled back many state protections for low income communities. Not only does this result in some of the cultural notions of self terms of the logic behind the community garden and urban agriculture ordinances. It is here where I most concre tely lay out the spatialities of this process. By also investigating the spatialities of contentious politics, I reveal the many geographic levels of political and economic engagement for SD Roo AFM. First, as a national discourse arose f campaign to improve health. In turn national resources flows made their way to local sources, ultimately in the form of organizational grants. At the same time, local food activists face complications concretizing their desire for increasing local food production and opportunities to take this food to market. Local political elites frame the issue around health, and the local AFM complied with the framing in order to capture resources to take back into their respective corners of San Diego. When necessary, AFM networks developed in the form of the 1 in 10 Coalition or San Diego Food Not Lawns to show that civil society was behind making or dinance changes. Interestingly,

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235 victories. Missing from the resulting network now known as the Food Systems Alliance is attention to labor issues or attention to using la nd in a collective form. Health discourses permeate this space as well, which serves as a neoliberal Trojan Horse for political and economic elites opposed to any redistributive or procedural notion of justice that might solve issues of poverty and racial inequali ty. In this sense, discourse produces material spatial consequences when it influences networks to adopt a restricted range of acceptable solutions. Moreover, this discourse supports real land use laws that reinscribe the power of private property, which in San Diego means laws supporting the This spatial stratification reflects social consequences and vice versa. The chapter reveals the mutually constitutive, but often highly uneven processes of resistance, domination, and exploitation. Although these entanglements of power may seem chaotic, there are traceable threads emerge by attending to social, economic, and political processes and the places, scales, networks, and territories within which they operate.

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236 Figure 5 1. Tijuana River Valley and the US/Mexico border. Image taken from Google Maps.

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237 Figure 5 2. Wild Willow Farm permaculture design. Top image taken from Google Maps. Bottom photo by courtesy of Wild Willow Farm.

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238 Figure 5 3 Subtle signs of a security climate at the border. Photos by Joshua Sbicca.

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239 Figure 5 4. Supporters of the urban agriculture ordinance inside local politics. Photo courtesy of 1 in 10 Coalition. Figure 5 5. WWII Victory Garden posters and c over of San Diego Reader in 2009. Collage by Joshua Sbicca

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240 CHAPTER 6 OF LABOR IMPOVERISHMENT BY MEETING MARGINALIZED COMMUNITY NEEDS Part 1: Food Labor Practices and Perceptions: Economic Justice as a Pr ocess Planting Justice (PJ) is an Oakland based non profit whose work is focused on using food as a means by which to advance racial and economic justice. Their model is offers edible landscaping services for a fee, which then creates a resource base to p ay staff livable wages and to offer low income people or community based organizations free edible landscapes. Moreover, the organization commits to offering employment to people with barriers to work, such as high school graduates and formerly incarcerate d men. To buffer these commitments, PJ also runs a community outreach and canvassing operation. Not only do these creative approaches to alternative food movement (AFM) activism le a d to high public visibility, but they also expand th e aperture of what is a cceptable AFM work. This chapter delves into the structural forces impacting this organization and their social movement alliances and the ways in which such forces are resisted and altered through alternative food labor practices and land use politics. At the same time, this chapter presents results with attention to the sociospatial relations of exploitation, domination, and resistance. variety of political organizing jobs. Chief am ong them was canvassing for Peace Action West. 1 As anthropology majors in college, they learned about global struggles for justice against American imperialism, and traveled abroad to places such as India, which taught them firsthand how people resisted th e infiltration of corporate power seeking to 1 Alle and Azadeh were anti war activists.

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241 enclose the commons. What they took from these experiences is directly relevant to calls, and traveled to other states to fundr aise and stir up support for ending the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although Peace Action paid better than many canvassing organizations, their poor labor practices led to organizational discord between the board of directors (BOD), the canvassing direct ors, and the canvassers. 2 In addition, canvassers had no say in how the operation ran. Of particular importance was the experience of walking through hundreds of Moreover, it dawned on Alle that the act of collecting donations can expand to find creative ways to link people together in a community. have people working together and building community and creating tangible change in This epiphany solidified after spending time in a part of Kerala, India where a community was contesting a Coca Cola water bottling plant that was stea ling local water, while providing exploitative jobs. 3 Before this, however, the community used traditional rainwater catchment systems and taught others to do the same during large that was He came back to the US and turned on to permaculture from a friend. reskill ourselves, our communities to meet needs that were going unmet by st ate 2 Specifically, the model was predicated on a low hourly wage, where the only way you made money is if you met a fundraising quota, and if you made more than this quota you were paid more. 3 The water was being privatized in a place where it had previously been free. Ultimately the bottling plant moved 30 kilometers away across state lines into Tamil Nadu.

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242 Berkeley and then left to Bolinas to start an intensive permaculture design course for seven months. Much like the critique of Peace Action, which stemmed from a fru stration that people could not pursue work that improved the world and get paid, he was critical of how permaculture knowledge was privatized and widely inaccessible. Not only was figure out ways to make that knowledge more accessible in low income urban areas inspiration was the cooperative business models developed by Mondragon, whic h is a cooperatively owned bank that funds the work of hundreds of thousands of worker owners in all kinds of different sectors of the economy. Other foo d activists in Oakland are similarly inspired, starting worker owned, democratically operated, cooperat ive businesses such as Arizmendi in Oakland and Emeryville. 4 In the midst of this atmosphere, Alle investigated how to create innovative riffs of such models. At the same time, Azadeh was completing a m specifically looking at social movements in the Middle East resisting militarism. She felt a little disconnected and did not feel like she had a community to work in. She and Alle then started a for profit project that built edible landscapes. However they kept on receiving c orrespondence by interested people who could not afford their services, which further compelled them to figure out how to come up with a better structure. After raising money through door to door fundraising, Azadeh started an educational program 4 These cooperatives take their name from Jos Mara Arizmendiarrieta, the visionary behind the Mondragon Corporation.

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243 at Golest an Kids, a Persian language immersion pre Persian varieties of fruit trees and seeds brought over by their grandparents from Iran and I got to practice speaking Farsi with them while I built the garden and planted with the kid Althou gh they were struggling to get b y, they decided to start a non profit. In short, Azadeh and Alle concluded that they could combine community outreach and canvassing with a fee for service permaculture edible landscaping program (Transform Your Yard (TYY) program) that funded the work its elf, created living wage jobs, and surplus cash to invest in free permaculture spaces. In the summer of 2008, they began Planting Justice. practices is the BOD. Azadeh shares t hat in her experience in other non profits, [T]here was this disconnect between who were making decisions and and so we wanted to have anyone who wanted to be on staff, also be on the board of directors. In order to create such a structure, they dug into their social network because they could not find people who were better known and/or had more institutional power (e.g. professors, former politicians, former non profit directors, small business owners). Much of the initial board consisted of people who could help with developing a website, financial management, and grant writing. In addition, they found that the peo ple who were interested were around 30 years old and had previous experience in social a nd

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244 offer everyone on staff a position on the board, at least 50% of the board must be financially disinterested. As the organization grows they work to actively include members of th e constituencies they work with, such as high school graduates that went t as community activists on related issues. w 5 Board members and staff both contribute a range of work skill sets. While early on this independently helped grow the organization, this shifted to a committee structu re that works on a range of relevant issues. 6 Other board member experiences in non profits concretized the need for a consensus based non hierarchical structure, which led to an organizational form that still observes the laws governing non profits. The c ommittee structure reflects anarchist affinity group processes. People contribute what they can to a variety of organizational needs. Unlike models necessitating or relying on volunteers, the BOD operates more under the auspice of voluntary association. 7 Social media savvy became one of the most needed skill sets. A number of Facebook account. In addition, a group of staff and board members run a new blog 5 The board has varied in size, fro m the low to upper 20s. As of summer 2013 it sits at 23 people. The boa rd consists of many people traditionally ignored: immigrants, people of color, and young people. Given t he corporate culture of many non profits, there is an assumption that to join a b oard requires that you are a bigwig in your respective professional area. 6 These committees include Events and Party Planning, Finance and Personnel, Grant Writers, Marketing and Business Development, Curriculum Development, Print and Online Media, and P olitical Action. 7 There is still a general expectation that board members will contribute four volunteer hours a month, regularly attend BOD meetings, join at least one committee, and become a monthly sustainer at a minimum of $5 a month. Board members re mind each other of these commitments, which most meet or

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245 called Compost the Empir e, with the intent of creating a space for a wider range of topics relevant to the AFM. This pithy phrase encompasses a deep historically materialist and culturally cognizant perspective that exploitative and dominant institutions never last, partially bec ause groups of people always undertake building new models in the shell of the old. The idea is not to destroy the empire, but to re appropriate it into more just and sustainable models of living. These politics of decolonization are also prevalent through built environment (See Figure 6 1). PJ is reflecting in organizational form a politics that leverages technologies such as social media to spread further such messages, albeit in often much subtler ways. More intern ally, the board helps the organization by developing evaluation systems, lending expertise that betters programs and projects, and leveraging social and political networks. 8 Having worked in non profits, Gabriel found that many of them In order to avoid thi s organizational p rocess, the horizontal BOD structure allows PJ to get more work done in a week. The programming is decentralized where people can do their work without having to go through layers of approval. This extends to the non staff board members a s well. If there is an idea, the person can immediately start working on 8 Such assistance by non staff board members is helpful because they are less familiar with the day to day workings of the organization and can come up with a system unclouded by workplace dynamics, while still respecting the need for accountability. Wanting people familiar with the criminal justice system, PJ requested a few lawyers to be on the BO D. For example, Jada has worked extensively on re entry program, she helps in providing feedback on how to create programs that help former prisoners rei ntegrate into society.

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246 it. They can then come to the board to report on it, and if there are issues with it at that point, make modifications Gabriel views the BOD structure as a wheel, which as a is a sacred geometry for building community and realizing all the connections there is diversity in people, skills and desires. These are respected and elevated as important, which allows individual and collec tive autonomy to pursue various ideas. This then goes through a democratic decision making process. respects its workers, the BOD structure s tir s innovation. This brief history and insight into the BOD provides a foundation upon which to expound on the driving mission and set of programming that begins with a handful of people, most being staff members. In addition to the experiences of the founders, the Occup y movement and anti capitalist zeitgeist, parti cularly in Oakland, influences are in that process of hypercapitalism in terms of a smaller group of people as the owner of the means of production and the people that are bene fitting off the system and many in PJ, there is a critical appreciation of the fa ilings of capitalism, but unlike many on the left that spend time only critiquing this system, these food activists actively like a need for people to be able to meet their within reach for communities and they ca n kind of begin to meet their own food needs. It

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247 K is t his longing for something more lif e giving that reflects deeper value systems and pr ovid es a sense of efficaciousness In order to stimulate a process of moving from exploitation to empowerment, PJ elevates the concerns of economically and socially marginalized people. This preferential treatment stands in stark contrast to many AFM mode ls relying on Relatedly, communities within which most Oakland AFM organizations work are, as Alle Generally, only those in an economically privileged position c an afford to give away time free. Azadeh shares the even think you can call it food justice wit opportunities within the food system for people who live in these urban communities that are most directly affected by food injustices or injustices within the food system. This means that their employment pool for their edible land scaping jobs consists of former San Quentin inmates who grew up in, and youth attending high school in, low income communities in Oakland, Berkeley, and Richmond. These are groups often relegated to economically marginal positions, such as working in a fas t food restaurant or gas station where they are not developing many skills. Instead, PJ sees the human potential in those otherwise shuffled into low skill, high exploitation jobs. To break this cycle, PJ works in partnership with Insight Garden Program ( IGP) at San Quentin Prison, and provides a re entry job opportunity for former inmates who went through a gardening and meditation course. While in priso n, self selected inmates receive the opportunity to go through a rehabilitation program that uses organ ic flower

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248 gardening on a 1,200 square foot garden. Not only do the men learn practical principles of the natural world, such as diversity and cooperation, transfer to all levels of segregated area of the prison yard (See Figure 6 2). One of the means by which to build bridges across various social divides is through the accompanying classes that provide a space to develop positive interaction skills transferrable to the workplace. With these experiences, the men re enter society through an organization that respects their social position. The organization sees t hese low in come people of color as the vehicle by which social change occurs. Guiding PJ's notion of econ omic justice is not only equity, but also recognition and representation. Providing employment of this sort partially challenges more alienating work, and creates the resources necessary for greater economi c self reliance. While the organization is also directed at building cross class and cross racial solidarity, there is a belief that ongoing capitalist crises necessitate building the economic power of those disproportionately affected To concretize this vision, many food activists articulate the need to move away ited in our language. Oftentimes we talk culture reflects t his desire for meaningful work For example, at 10 AM the 9 In 9 The office is now in a separate location in Oakland.

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249 you ha space is full of comfortable used furniture, a papaya tree, banana trees, and a record player on an old wooden side table. The office contains a large central table surrounded by bookshelves full of books on political/social theory, activism, history, ecology, farming, and sustainability. On the walls are pictures of people building edible This is also the same space for almost all BOD meetings For many in PJ work/life separations are much more fluid. The invit ing culture and decorations in this work/life space reflect the life of people who choose this path as a calling or vocation. Some of the men coming out of San Quentin who express how working with PJ fulfills a calling also share this deeper connection Ca As not at simply providing jobs for people with barriers to employment, but a bout building a model that other people can use and benefit from. members as well tend to be the kind of people who

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250 economically robust and non hierarchical organizational form is imperative. One of the reasons for why it is possible to make this transition from jobs to work is because the organization creates models that produce greater financial independence. With the roll back of the state, the non profit sector increasingly plays the role of a neo social safety net. Yet, with the Great Recessi on, non profits endured a decline in accessible funds. In essence, the state, the economy, and civil society in the form of non profits are able to acquire funding, there is the larger proble m of falling into a dependency what non it is possib le to start with very little to build a stable organization. Haleh exclaims, We h organization. And now we have a $450,000 a year budget in just three except that because we are a non profit, our profi ts are distributed back into our community, into the community and into our projects. Just demonstrating that care for the earth, care for the people kind of replicable and is a model for This is possible due to the creation of multiple revenue streams. First, they offer edible landscaping services to full paying clients. This revenue stream alone grew the organization to a staff of almost ten p eople. Second, they started a canvassing operation. This added about five more people, while still bringing in greater revenues than expenditures. 10 in addition to spreading revenue sources one of the main reasons for this program is 10 As of August 2013, the staf f consisted of 19 people, all employed for at least one year.

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251 So I think if we make a decision that is not beneficial for the community like the Last, they successfully acquired a number of smaller to mid size grants before receiving a $300,000 USDA Community Food Project grant. Between 2011 and 2012, they received a total of almost $465,000 in grants from 27 sources. As of September 2013, they received a lmost $186,000 from 10 sources. In the same period, they earned $240,000 from the TYY program and another $240,000 from the canvassing program. 11 This means that the organization is about two thirds self funded. As Rafael shares about a comment told to him from a potential contributor, Nevertheless there is the reflexive understanding that non profits will not transform the agrifood system or ind ependently create structural change. M energies focus on acquiring the necessary resources and technologies that lead to incubating for profit worker owned cooperatives It is here where the vision begins to take a more radical form. Putting thi profit industrial complex is a very important context for movements and where we are right now in the US in particular in challenging dominant culture coming into our movements and completely coopting and depolitic become for profit or to develop dependency on a funding system that is contingent on 11 The money raised from the canvass through monthly sustainers has of late 2013 reache d a level where there is surplus capital that has allowed everyone on staff to be salaried, including landscapers coming out of San Quentin. In addition, the financial growth has allowed the organization to build more subsidized and free gardens for low in come and community spaces.

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252 buffering a failing welfare state require reimagining the non profit as a vehicle for creating new economic models. PJ presents a possible alternative trajectory based on developing a network of people with the skills to grow food, take care of the land, teach others that are interested how to do so as well, all the while providing dignified work that offers upward mobili ty. There is a spatial understanding of the process by which this occurs. A permaculture have to come together and be aligned in order for the change to take off at a l arger profit path, there is a deep anarchist streak pushing at the boundaries of what it means to be part of a larger social movement while still within a state sanctioned organizational form. In this spirit, Gabriel argues that PJ gives itself permission to imagine and work n relation to each other osters new work falls and organizing workers is the part that is easing the death of the current systems and making daily life more tolerable for those violently oppressed short, alternative labor visions include taking care of those economically marginalized and figuring out how to move forward.

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253 Dissecting Alternative Valuations of W ork ciated models that PJ uses to help people pursue a vocation aimed at social change is the permaculture notion of abundance. Unlike the logic of capitalism, which leads to the accumulation of capital and concentration of social re sources, abundance is the o utcome of collectively wor king to produce collectively shared and distributed surplus Alex, another permaculture designer, explains that one of the goals of the TYY program Permaculture design works to maximize production in small spaces, producing shareable surplus for those managing such spaces. The second is economic. Alex goes on to say, those building the landscapes, while at the same time creating spaces that hold out the potential to increase food and economic security for full paying clients and subsidized recipients. Mateo, a recent high school graduate, believes that they teach people how to foster self save Not only does the work provide ecologically beneficial abundance but also it offers a way to minimize labor inputs, while maximizing time with family, and eating homegrown food. In order to attain this abundance, there is the need to advance skill sets. Therefore, work is also This

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254 desire to reskil plants, s Other early landscapers share this joy as well. Alex shares that in the fooling around, getting work done for sure but the level of professionalism was much process of sharpening these skills, PJ monetized their model to the degree that they no one of the obstacles is making this work seem like a possible future, not just a future th income, which facilitates reskilling in a way that volunteering to attain this kn owledge does not. PJ activists also see work as a way to share life experiences and make personal improvements. Working with plants becomes a metaphor for post incarcerated life. As together, making them have a good life and just starting it from a seed, and watching it grow, watching orking with PJ he meets people who ngs or can give me insight on you know, as far as how I can be a better dad or you know, how can I be a better

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255 as being an all contextualize this process of self improvement for men coming out of San Quentin. One day, I was speaking with Mac about prison. He told me, When you are in prison, not that you should ever go there. You should definitely not go there. You will be just h anging out, zoning out, off in your and then you interrupted it. Mac was reflecting on the need for freedom, individ ual liberty and the ability to get away and reflect. Prison restricts these opportunities. Prison throws people together in an environment where it is difficult to be with your own thoughts without interruption. While installing edible landscapes, there i s space for reflection and greater mental freedom. There is space to tie the improvement of landscapes to self improvement. More broadly, the walls of AFM projects throughout Oakland express these values a nd perspectives T he Community Rejuvenation Projec t commissions m any of these murals to beautify blighted spaces or spaces needing new color and energy. See Figure 6 3 for a few of these murals. These murals depict scenes of farmers, indigenous people, agroecological landscapes, revolutionary activists, i nsects, and animals. The scenes deploy bright spray paint colors to display larger than life images meant to inspire viewers to consider the relationships between people and land, culture and identity, and labor, resistance and joy. Many of these murals oc cupy the visual field for those participating in community events and gardening in these creative work spaces. The spaces take on new meaning for those engaged in conversations around community organizing, harvesting vegetables for an elderly neighbor, and putting together CSA baskets to sell at subsidized rates for low income people. The idealized

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256 murals present a vision toward which those entering these work spaces strive In short, the visual encompasses much of the actual, while providing a lens into th e potential. Bending Empowerment Strategies toward the Arc of Justice hand, the goal is to stop giving up power to institutions. On the other hand, by taking a process based appro ach, the work is also a means to di scovering the power of human agency This work is more than a job. It is a vocation. As a vocation, this requires using that undermines learning how to work the land, or cook, or have a sustainable business not based on also place based. garden, kitchen, or a community garden. Repurposing private property is one strategy because of the corporate and state control of huge quantities of land. In this sense, efforts such as Occupy the Far m are important forms of work (see section on land use battles). Many Oakland food activists believe in the importance of taking back city or private land for collective, social purposes, a point I come back to in detail Of note here is the relationship b etween empowering work and the locations of empowering work. Harvesting individual empowerment Former inmates often refer to individual empowerment as a key benefit of their work as edible landscapers. Mark shares, gh some things, and you will just get to planting and dealing with the soil, and being outside, it can be a hot day thing. The plants, and planting something and watching it gr

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257 Even though some of the men were born or grew up with gardens in plac es like Mississippi and Alabama they often did not know they would come back to this. r. After reflecting on his love of nature and ual empowerment often begins by reflecting on what The men coming out of San Quentin experience many barriers to employment, not the least of applications. In addition, there are the former pressures to get involved with criminal activity that possibly put them in prison to begin with. For many of these formerly incarcerated men, they express the importance of individual empowerment and choice. never had, you gotta do something you never did. And I wanted to live, man, so I had to do something I n reflect racialized social forces that reproduce the conditions under which the black

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258 community struggles. To rise above processes of criminalization while being true to elements of the community rejecting everything that puts people behind bars is very challenging. Carl, a Richmond native who now works with a different AFM non profit sees that the orga nization is financially sustainable and provides employment opportunities for people coming out of prison. 12 Other people in the organization trumpet these individual transformations as well. Zack recalls the experience of Malcolm X who went to prison at 2 0 years old and upon work with PJ and learn as much as he could while with the TYY ng them to pay the positions where In short, personal transformation is some combination of individual volition, inherent traits, past experiences, and outside assistance. 12 While important these jobs need to be supported by efforts at the federal and state level to improve the economic standing of communities of color disproportionately representing the prison population.

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259 Canvassing the commons Individual empowerment includes a collective component. In particular, there is a strong sense tha t work should build up communities facing a variety of social inequalities. In order to reach greater numbers of people to support the amelioration of inequal ities, PJ pays people to work as community organizers and canvassers. Rafael, l was mentioned earlier, the organization is driven by a desire to create community ba sed solutions that advance community economic development. Toward this end, the canvass is a key revenue source to create greater financial sovereignty from which to reach out to the wider Bay Area. concretiz ing a model of community outreach and organizing that produces resources. To substitute free volunteer time requires either raising money or finding grants. PJ opted for the former. In the spring of 2012, they hired a canvass director who previously worked for the national political consulting firm Grassroots Campaigns, Inc. Frustrated with the Rafael decided to apply for the PJ job. 13 With the exception of Greenpeace, almost no canvassing groups provide hourly wages or healthcare benefits. With this in mind, PJ 13 Most canvassing operat ions require meeting a weekly fundraising quota in order to be paid the base wage. If one raises more, then they are paid a percentage of what they earn above quota. Moreover the industry is renowned for high turnover and retaliation for unionization effor ts.

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260 came up with a workable model that provides fair compensation. The canvass director is paid $30,000 a year salary, while canvassers are paid $15 an hour no matt er how much they raise in a week. In less than a year, the canvass independently raised enough to sustain the program through monthly sustainers and single contributions. 14 Of the current six person team, no one left, missed quota or received termination ov er the course of a year. 15 Despite concerns by the founders given previous canvassing experience that people of color, queer people, and/or women canvassers experience greater levels of discrimination, their staff consists only of these groups. As Azadeh p oints out, despite sets in our landscaping team by having people start to be a part of client relations and shadow the client relation part or table at different e the organization focus on providing skills that build greater community empowerment for groups facing various levels of institutionaliz ed inequality. The impact of the canvass is palpable. In a few years, canvassers raised h undreds of thousands of dollars and spoke with te ns of thousands of people work and the larger AFM. ghout the Bay Area, but also it is a platform for building a network of contr ibutors to support relevant campaigns or policy initiat ives. In addition, there is the benefit of digging up new clients for the TYY program, which spreads the acreage of edible l andscapes, 14 90% of sustainers stay more than six months or longer. 15 In the first six months there were a handful of people that canvassed for PJ, but ultimately left after deciding it was not for them.

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261 economic opportunity for those with barriers to employment, and a deeper AFM network. Kerry contends that the canvassing and community organizing responds to the fact that many people know about the problems, ne to address it and how they can addressing the need for people in the community to have a voice and to be able to work together, and to feel like they can have a direct impact in their loca l regions. In this sense, the canvass program serves as a public education and community empowerment tool. Even if people cannot contribute they can learn about what the organization and AFM are doing to address a variety of problems, and suggest ways for people to take action. All canvassers work from problem, urgency, solutions, and an appeal for support. While each canvasser does not explicitly follow the rap it does provide a tested framing that reso nates with the public. While PJ tends to avoid health and access discourses in much of their work, it comes out in their canvassing. In addition, the rap downplays issues of race in favor of ay already know that low income residents are hospitalized for diabetes, heart disease and cancer more than any other members of the community. One of the major causes for this is lack of ding some statistics revitalizes our neighborhoods, makes healthy produce affordab le, and creates living At this point, a person receives a request to make a monthly contribution.

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262 practicing the rap, we headed out to Bancroft and Telegraph, which is the busiest student area in Berkeley. Cheap eateries, clothing shops, record stores, bookstores and street vendors pepper the street. Students abound. Homeless wander up and down the streets. Tourists meander from shop to shop. We began with eating lunch and then canvassed for two hours. One of the canvassers, Bobby, was very energetic and supportive. Once out in the street, Bobby quickly got pe ople to stop and give donations. are wearing green, so you must care about sav that in public space, making oneself seen and heard is imperative to break through the morass and introversion of people going about their daily routines. It also reveals the fluid nature of this form of community organizing. Once people stop then it is easier to break down the purpose of the interaction. After two hours, we took a 20 minute break, and then canvassed for two more hours. As a public educational tool, canvassing also brings people into the AFM in a new way. I present at length a story told by Rafael to make the point, I was canvasing, it was just end of the day, I was gonna grab one more person and this guy was rushi the idea and concept of food deserts to him and he was just flabb

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263 Bowl, like there are tiny like grocery ompletely shut down, and I gave him my number and I gave him a card and I was up to give $5 a month on the phone with me that way. This positive example shows the potential for canvassing to spread information in a direct, personal way. Bringing people into the organization in this way commits people to supporting a broader mission aimed at social change. Once people are committed, PJ re engages contributors by calling and sending emails to update them on the organization The canvass usually fundraises, but there were also efforts in the spring of 2012 to collect petitions encouraging the City Council to adopt five elements into the urban agriculture zoning update. 16 Not only are canvassers excited about connecting their work to a larger social movement, but a lso the act of going out to the streets to do more than fundraise builds a deeper sense of political efficacy. In another example of the role the canvass plays in stirring up empowerment, albeit much more individual, was their Bring Your Own Cup campaign. 17 The organization generally talks up their social mission, but this focuses more on environmental issues. Specifically, the canvassers performed a carol on numerous occasions that draws attention to the environmental impacts of disposable coffee cups, and encourages people to take personal 16 The petition encourages the following: 1) Define Urban A griculture to include both plant and animal based food production; 2) Allow for on site sales of locally grown produce and value added goods citywide; 3) Ensure affordable and timely permitting for urban agriculture operations; 4) Uphold the highest human e, ecological and neighbor friendly standards of operation; 5) Support residents to access available lands, both public and private for food growing and selling. 17 See the follow up Reusable Cup Anthem: http://vimeo .com/71854642

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264 responsibility for their waste. In addition, they convinced Sweet Adeline in North Oakland, to provide a discount for people who bring their own cup. Connecti ng and spreading alternative economic models Another means by which to build community empowerment is to spread the use and developing locally habituated crops that are stronger This notion ties to an understanding of permaculture that looks at cities as socioecological systems in need of repair and revitalization. Kat shares that interact with our landscapes. There was just something about plants and people coming As part of the AFM, she sees her role as so meone who wants to connect to a network that resists the human and environmental waste that results from urbanization as a sociospatial capitalist process. Specifically she believes building community to kind of our wild selves, kind of r econnect to our history as a social creature, not being component of alternative economic models. The premise of this sociality is community self determination. As Aza deh our families and we can really start to change our communities, the way our communit y Youth are especially important in the process of developing community empowerment. Two Latino childhood friends first came across PJ in high

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265 school where the organization taught a food justice, culinary arts and permaculture de sign program after receiving grant money to build eight raised garden beds. One of the youth, Carlo, had both his father and mother deported, leaving him to figure out how he and his sister were going to eat. Mateo had less economically dire life circumsta nces, but still lacked access to organic foods. As seniors at Mandela High School their experience working in the garden inspired them to attend a 10 week training program with Ashoka Youth Ventures to develop a social entrepreneurship venture, where they then received mentorship under PJ. EAT GRUB (Enhancing Access to Gardens and Revol utionizing Urban Backyards) community with limited access to fresh, organic, and affordable produce. Altho u gh they largely remain inside particularly as employees, their excitement is especially high when they get to install low income and subsidized edible landscapes. In addition, they act as peer mentors to other high school st udents going teach[ing] other people, other youth how to get empowered by growing their own fruits and vegetables and know[ing] what permaculture is and why we need food sovereignty independent, given that it receives both public and private grant money, it operates as a n incubator for teaching youth skills and providing a framework under which to expand food based businesses for youth with barriers to employment.

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266 One way PJ leverages their non profit status towards economic justice ends is as a fiscal sponsor. For exampl e, there are three social justice projects, SOS Juice, the status as a 501(c)3 to receive grants or tax breaks. SOS Juice puts on nutrition events through United Roots in W est Oakland that use music and dance to inspire youth. The aim of the Indigen ous Farming Project is to build gardens on federally recognized Native American reservations through an initiative of the Environmental Protection Agency. The first one is with th e Big Pine Paiute tribe of the Owens Valley. See Figure 6 fiscal sponsor for a $1 a year lease for land for a garden. By working with PJ, there is no requirement to pay property taxes. Bringing these themes together, Alle says that the connections between themselves and their community and between themselves and the people eating healthy food. Instead, they use food to build collective power in the hopes that such social ti es foster greater community participation in solving problems that affect their lives. The Process of Work Space Inner Space Dialectical Transformations Harkening back to the notion that work is irreducible to jobs, but life giving and transformative wor k, Alle provides the following analysis, transforming physical space into something beautiful. So much of o ur

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267 the point where you know like people are being born and dying on asphalt, like take whatever kind of spac es back to life, and abundant life and I feel like a lot of us, whether we know it or not have been really harmed n see and so being able to very tangibly transform a space has the ability to hit us on some inner levels. And so to have a job that enables you to do that, and at the same time enables you to connect with your community and help provide basic needs for pe ople in your community is something that we really need in this next economy, the new economy. Collectively working on constructing edible landscapes lends itself to learning about what it means to take previously underutilized space and creating better en vironments for both the builders and the recipient. BOD member. The installation was straight forward : pull out vines, build two raised beds, install a chicken coop and run, double dig the hardpan to ensure that the soil beneath the beds is aerated, transplant some fruit trees, and plant up the raised beds. On the second day of this installation, B enny bought us all Mexican food. He was interested in connecting/reaching out to the youth working on the installation that day. He asked all of them if they are going to college. If not, then he offered to help them out because he works part time at Mande la High tutoring students on how to get into college. He told them a story about his college experience. He filled out a general application, wh ich only requires one essay that goes to colleges all over the US. He got into Loyola University New Orleans. Ma was a bishop in El Salvado r that was murdered by right wing militants trained in the

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268 School of the Americas. He was killed while saying mass by soldiers trained by studies liberation theology, which is based on a preferential treatment for the poor and at a local community college. Mateo talked about how he wants to transfer somewhere better, but because he is undocumen ted, it is difficult to find scholarships. The conversation turned to the plight of immigrant communities and known deported and manipulated people The installation was not simply a space for advancing food production skills, but a space for building rela tionships that help advance the On another installation, this time a fence build in Berkeley for a full paying client, I spent the beginning of the day using a table saw to make boxes within which to set concrete for the fence posts. Afterwards, Mateo and I spent an hour constructing these boxes. During this time, we spoke a lot about culture and race in the US. He said that America does not value cultural difference, but instead works to assimilate people into entity. This process of cooptation ignores the complexities of history and intentions of various colon izing forces that historically elevate white people and mother is Cathol ic. She would never approve of a tattoo. I think that adopting this idea through d

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269 board member, Gabriel, told Mateo that someone gave him a condor feather. Once given this fea ther he got a tattoo of this on his forearm, a cultural and personal expression. Sharing knowledge is also a premise for many conversations Mateo once told then expect to be taught to someone else down the line. The idea behind this knowledge passing is to bring people up to a level where they can take more successively passes through cohorts of staff and board members. Equally important is nstance, once teaching each other how to grow a which is to provide a place for sharing knowledge. On a symbolic level, this allows for On a mat erial level, knowledge sharing create s econo mic advancement and skills to improve concretely local food systems and marginalized urban social spaces. In addition, these edible landscapes offer new opportunities for reducing social and ecological alienation for recipients. Rejecting claims that the individual level does not matter, Carl argues, Sometimes we want to see the whole f d

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270 like you always talk about the forest, but I know the trees too, and I know the trees are important. For many of the formerly incarcerated men working as edible landscapers, th ey especially enjoy seeing the impacts of their work in the communities they come from. At fruit trees. A woman named Janet White who teaches parenting skills at the she lter of trauma that come with domestic violence and economic marginalization, White goes on people think you do matter. It gives people a feeling of dignity, that somebody cares and These individual changes arise through the place based experience of working with edible plants. In some cases, the skills learne d in these spaces improve the d aily lived experiences of those previously alienated not only from their food source, but also from the mutually supportive relationships that arise out of shared experience. g from yo This overly romanticizes growing food as a subsistence strategy. Other PJ members

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271 this peri see having lived in poor neighborhoods, like a lot of strong working people, like working cons idering growing food as work, there is not a one to one ratio between an hour spent in the garden and an hour spent at a paying job. In evaluating the relationship between spaces of work and internal transformations, it is important to attend to the power of home gardens to facilitate positive behavior changes, but understand that these will not automatically rearrange power relations, either individually or taken together Food Justice as Economic Justice as Racial Justice Pushing the boundaries of food justice work, PJ supports formerly incarcerated men which highlight s distinct connections betwee n social inequalities and unique of oppression and racism and inequal what people wanted to happen. The people that are in positions of power, if they wanted In the absence of such will, organizations such as PJ take on the role of highlighting these structural realities and possibl e solutions Reflexively thinking about the relationship between power and wealth to c ertain groups of people, specifically White males, and everyone else is sort of

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272 em ployment for people with barriers to work. 18 Working with inmates coming from these communities serves multiple purposes. First, it highlights racism in the criminal justice system. Second, it reveals the economic inequalities that exacerbated by going to p rison. Third, it shows possible solutions. The AFM cannot solve all problems through food. However, there are experiments, such as the TYY program, that begin to create spaces that link a variety of old problems with new solutions. The green jobs re entry program shows the possibility for furthering goals of racial and e conomic justice that former inmates find enjoyable and economically stable is an important intervention: C ommonly employed is t h is no tion of a ripple effect t o discuss the interpersonal comments, many food activists to new forms of community through mentoring youth and trans forming yards into beautiful and bountiful health sources. Christopher, a former San Quentin i nmate, expresses that a variety of social and cultural issues need attention simultaneou sly to creating new economic opportunities. 18 Usually work in the TYY program is offered for a few months, roughly 20 hours a week. In this time, these men develop many permaculture design skills that put them in a position to not only work with minimal oversight, but begin designin g landscapes themselves.

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273 changes at 50 years old, he attributes the experience to changing his v iews on how to interact positively with his commun ity. Christopher says that black people in Oakland PJ, he started a landscaping business where he brings male youth with him to show them how to take care of plants. This movement from experiencing racial and class inequality to contributin g to solutions that improve the black community 19 While most of the men I spoke with mirrored claims about the impact IGP had on their thinking and behavior while in prison, a majority expressed motivation by the p rospect of employment with PJ at $17.50 an hour. or not, the $17.50 was my motivation and knowing that I was coming home to a family and I woul d have to inmates, they cannot imagine how they will find employment given their status as convicted felons. K those wanting to grow some of their own food as both an expansion of new human/nature relationships through food and as a redistribution of economic resources. In some ways, this speak s to the possibility of using food f or more radical, redistributive 19 The quote comes from the King James Version of the Bible, Proverbs 27:17.

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274 purposes. This experiment in re entry work reveals the possibilities for greater racial and economic justice post imprisonment. The criminalization of black neighborhoods leads to the rem oval of m any black men from thei r communities. In turn, when PJ offers subsidized and free edible income black communities. After asking Mark about an installation in one of these neighborhoods, he said, It was so wonderful. She was just so appreciative of the work that we did. people are just overwhelmingly appreciative of what we do. How can you not feel good? Because we put our all into the wor gonna tell my friends This response reflects the rebuilding of connections between black men and their neighborhoods after ab andonment and/or removal It also highlights the appreciati on that black female elders show to black men for reinvesting in their communities. For example, Mama T, a kind, gregarious, elderly black woman, runs Elijah Care Bears Family Day Care, which as Ma rk commented, received a low income installation. On the 20 During the consultation for this edible landscape, Alle, Mama T and I were talking about her garden space. She told us, rden with over 20 varieties of fruits and vegetables. There was so 20 Upon arriving to this consultation we passed one police officer driving more than 60 miles per hour down a surface street (Fruitvale Ave.) without slowi ng down. Then on 27 th another cop drove at similar s were carrying automatic weapons and were in full riot gear. This is the police/surveillance context of that this day care center works in.

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27 5 want to have the gar den is so that the children and neighbors can reconnect with nature relationship to the land and each other through caring for plants. After Alle told her about the f unding model and livable wage jobs for formerly incarcerated men, she said, Part of this sharpening proce ss led PJ to create a system where the re entry work is both transitional and for some men, permanent. For the past two years, the only people PJ hired in these positions are people of color coming from San Quentin or youth from their high school garden pr ograms, all of whom are from economically marginalized backgrounds. Alle asserts, communities and in ways that are a lot more relevant and impactful than for college students or white non profit leaders to come in and start to talk nd some of the hardest struggles that there are to face coming out of prison to come doing this work. These acts of racial and economic solidarity lead to concrete psychological, social, and economic change. By beginning to offer full time work with opport unities for upward mobility, PJ illustrates to those in the AFM, but more importantly, those living in income communities of color, that the AFM can and needs to be more than a white, middle class movement. In one of the clearest examples li participation in a collaborative project in deep east Oakland building the Trayvon Martin

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276 garden on a 100 foot sloped dirt lot on McArthur Boulevard and 80 th Street. This project A sweat equity, permanent co housing, education, arts, micro business and social chan ge project for landless/houseless and child care and educational projects through multi cultural and multi lingual curriculum. The community based project comes in re have been displaced, evicted, gentrified and destabilized out of their indigenous lands 21 nd expertise to groups with a radical critique of capitalism and racism as a means to begin immediately relieving some of the stresses of poverty and gentrification. In this instance, food a s a solution is not an imposition Rather it already contains radical meaning. As one Homefulness member my grandma, mi abuelita Y las tortillas a mano come mi recuerden Ass ata Shakur, la mujer de Chiapas Oaxaca and indigenous people around the world, reminds me of the rebel cross racial, global, approach to revolutionary movements links people across time and space as a means by which to build ties that not only take care of the neediest, but also build a foundation for broader based mo vement building. 21 As part of a longer poem written by the Po'Poets/Poetas POBRE's of POOR Magazine in 2010, they Houseles s, Landless, We are many tribes We a poor people led revolution come e is intimately related to land use and land access strategies. PJ is working in tandem with this group is one example where land and labor issues come together through the nexus of economic justice.

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277 Such projects reflect a desire to recover ancestral foodways and claim cultural rights. Related to later discussions of urban agriculture zoning laws, Azadeh explains ing such beliefs, Mateo argues that ackyard. People from his community migrate[d] to areas like California and they come from growing their own buildings, and you gotta work and as soon as you come to California you see t hat disconnection of people not living on farms back from where they the new concept of having a car to get to certain places and nothing is really local, everything has to come f rom an outer area. Such an interpretation recognizes that people carry cultural foodways with them even when they cross borders. For Mateo, the city is synonymous with industrial monocultures with its production of sameness. Moreover, there is the stress of working multiple jobs only to all day and she would just come back home and cook whatever she could. She would These food activists are interested in reclaiming t raditions and histories hidden by capitalist development whether in the form of urbanization or agricultural industrialization. Not only do the edible landscapes developed by PJ reflect the cultural foodways of recipients, but also they maximize

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278 production in the allotted space with diverse companion planting. These expressions represent efforts to re envision economic justice as racial ju stice. The assertion of these rights and telling of these stories creates a polyculture, a more robust socioecological process from which to build new social relations. Barriers to Alternative Economic Models Much of this discussion of PJ conveys an organi zation that recognizes the structural inequalities contextualizing the field within which they navigate creative econom ic alternatives. Nevertheless food activists contend with many barriers both conceptually and practically As an actually existing radic al project, PJ begins with a vision for structural change, but takes daily pragmatic steps to reshape social relations knowing that the process is ongoing and incomplete. Economic justice does not simply arise by stating commitment. There is a process of r efinement with the models to tweak efforts to meet the needs of certain people and places. One key means by which to break down this process is by calling attention to what food activists perceive and experience as barriers. The successes of capitalism On e of the greatest difficulties the AFM faces in its efforts to create alternative 22 By the end of the 2000s, the US economy was in shambles after footing the bill for two expensive wars and bailing out the banks after they crashed the economy in 2007. Nonetheless, Blaze lot of the 22 Western governments throughout the 1980s and 1990s rap idly privatized many formerly public sectors, deregulated retail and financial institutions, and spread the message of globalization. While not without problems, this stage of state supported capitalist development proved successful, particularly in the 19 90s when there were record levels of economic growth, income growth, job creation, and declines in poverty and unemployment.

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279 but it is often difficult to harness that into an effective campaign or political struggle. Alex once told me that some Bay Area urban farms do not take the time to reach out to the communities within which they work. This is problematic given that these urban farms present a model of food production that can potential ly create employment and greater food security. Without making an effort to draw connections for people between why the alternative model makes sense and how they can get involved, it will models. As Darren c ontends, even PJ operates within a capitalist system of you know providing jobs, dealing options, but I think that the idea of it being radical or reformative or transformative, that battle ground between those ideas is the place where the food movement has its most conflict in a lot of ways. Many AFM activists want to create wider social change, but face the challenges of not knowing how to mobilize and show people what is different and why it will work. Ca pitalism, particularly as expressed in the conventional agrifood system seems to meet needs at the consumption end of the supply chain. Expressing dislike of this hat are most The normalization of s uch a reality continues wh While there is a belief that communities can meet their own needs without corporations or the state, the elite within these institutions often successfully maintain power.

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280 The feats of capitalism in producing a managerial and financial class that facilitates accumulation and eases the running of businesses is buoy ed by reactionary positions maintained by many within the AFM against developing the skills of this economic class. For food activists who graduated from college, it is rare to meet one that received a business degree. Reflecting on this state of affairs, could start a lot of businesses if we had people with business sense. I mean how many anti ocratically run worker cooperatives there is the need for financial skills. Such skills can maximize the To compete with capitalism, the AFM must show that their alternatives work. An important exampl e revealing where they be more opportunities to prove that putting the effort and time into learning that can pay rk, doing this kind of work While corporate fast food and restaurant jobs abound showing the ability for food corporations to create jobs, however poor the AFM does not yet provide much adequate employment, partially because it lacks some key skills. This land is my land, not your land E nclosing common land and restricting access to private land perpetuates c sic food needs As will be discussed at length which they would be unable to carry out their projects. M any food activists are developing more equitable for profit businesses k nowing that the non profit model is

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281 ultimately an insufficient economic engine can have the skills, we can have the technologies, but if land is going for half a million Re latedly, there are challenge s with zoning laws that prohibit growing and selling food on private property. Such laws reduce the creation of what Azadeh sees as unique In turn, the economic system forces people into a situation of dependency on corporations for their food and/or employment. The political system supports the economic system in maintaining particular institutional designs. With the built environment becoming a site for capitalist growth, there are elite incentives to reduce competition and keep people from using land for purposes that do not increase we going to change shit if we are just renting and leasing from landowners with gener alternatives to capitalism spread. Perhaps unintentionally, there is also the issue of gentrification. Zack tells the story of how he and his wife bought a small home in a working class neighborhood in Berkeley. Even though they both work in high management positions in non profits, they still struggled to purchase this home. He relates this experience to make the point that many AFM economic models may draw in people like Z ack instead of serving the native population. He goes on to explain, [W]e have all this income coming in and that continues to push communities of color, communities of lower income, immigrant where there options to work in their communities, less stability in their communities,

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282 and just demoralization that com es with being pushed away from either your home for a long time or your community of faith or your community. Not only do corporations and the state restrict land use in ways that may obstruct the development of alternative economic models, but also the pe ople who move to places where such experiments are taking place may entrench economic inequality. Reaching t he more egalitarian goal s of the AFM will be difficult u nless activists invite native communities to join in the process of implementing projects th at advance economic opportunity. The revolution will not be ushered in by non profits One recurring theme in my research on food based social movement organizations is the reliance on the non profit model. Given the desire on the one hand to create posit ive social change, and on the other hand to get paid for doing such work, food activists often turn to non profits. While not inherently problematic, various institutional and organizational restrictions prevent non profits from full political participatio n. Individuals within these entities may be more politically active, but the organization is often rendered mute on matters beyond the immediate mission of the organization. Nonetheless non profits may also serve as a strategic organizational model from w hich to build collective power. This is most readily observable at national food justice conferences such as The Gathering, put on by the Growing Food and Justice Initiative, where non profit representatives predominate. Beyond these generalities, I discus s below a series of other issues PJ members regularly mention c ompetition for r esources as a problem for non profits. For example, in addition to PJ another Bay Area group called Dig Deep Farms (DDF) applied for the USDA Community Food Project. DDF also w orks with formerly

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283 incarcerated people, and wants to incubate cooperative businesses in their non profit. Azadeh mentione d to me that although the relationship with DDF is good after learning that PJ received the grant, the relat ionship with someone at DD F slightly strained. One of the related issues to resource competition is that organizations will keep applying for more money even after reaching h opportunity for collaboration and tions do what they do best and not trying to go into the for 23 The temptation to keep growing may begin with a desire to scale the impact of a non resources instead of m ore strategical ly sharing them within a non profit sector. One of the fears of non profits is that if they do not continue to grow, then they may lose their relevance. There are related pressures on organizations to define success in light of capturing l arge grants H owe ver, there is often disconnection from the communities within which one works. Having worked in a number of non profits, Kerry argues that it is important to know when you need to shift organizational focus, 23 facilitate conversations between Oakland food non profits about racial and class privilege. In the course of these conversations food activists worked out many issues of representation and voice. In addition, the conversations set a new tone for collaboration, particularly passing along p rojects to other groups better situated for the work.

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284 mission should be broad enough to shift to meet local needs and not focus on issues in the past that changed. 24 Even if one is interest ed in connecting their work to a community of interest, the ideological power of capitalism may still infiltrate organizations through individual m embers. Although his views changed, Marty talks about how he felt when he first ything, from three bean plants, I can grow ten and then Expansion is not inherently problematic, but when on reasons for working in a non profit become obscured. reflection is unusual in its expression, but in practice represents neoliberal tensions that come with non profits comp eting in for profit markets. C onnected to these pressures are questions about the role of non profits in the context of retracted state services. In a city like Oakland where med ian household income declined for blacks and Latino/as, and the gap be tween t he rich and the poor widened, the economic trend lines look dire (See Appendices C and D). Scott, a in events such as the US Social Forum argues, a service, like landscaping. The economics have to work so that we can produce something at a profit to have the numbers that work into 24 Such pressures do not preclude developing robust models resilient to funding trends and responsive to community need. However, they point to broader institutional pressures that reduce efforts to cre ate more economically just labor models.

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285 the class war is heating up, and I think work. I n short, he argues for the development of replicable economic models, not models premised on non profit rules in order to stem the conservative tide and build working class power Such comments reflect the thoughts of a number of PJ staff and board members While the organization is successfully leverag ing its non profit status to create dignified work and soon incubate worker owned cooperative the lack of skills and knowled ge to do so prevent most of the non doing the s ame. understandings. There are important organizat ional implications discussed later, but to al economy. In particular, I discuss understandings and practices tied to land use and the contentious food politics within which PJ and the wider Oakland AFM operate. Part 2: Beyond Land Use Law Holding Patterns through Reimagin ing Public and Private Lan d for Urban Agriculture On August 1, 2012, New York Times journalist Jonathan Mahler wrote a story ul in the face of heavy policing, particularly given that there is no major banking sector in Oakland. In short, he argues the movement was a representation of what Oakland does not want to become, a gentrified city overtaken by the capitalist forces of re development. In response, radio host and political activist Davey D wrote an article connecting the civil rights, free speech, and anti war movements, Black Panther Party (BPP), battles over

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286 immigration, and most recently the movement fighting for justice for Oscar Grant 25 to argue that Occupy Oakland was successful because of these previous social justice movements. 26 The article is a useful movement corrective, but still misses a more grounded spatiotemporal accounting of the entanglements of domination an d resistance. 27 the public often views Oakland as a dangerous, crime ridden town with poor schools and little culture. Pushing against the common st ereotypes, scholars offer a rich history of corpora te power, machine growth politics, racial inequality, and social movement resistance (Self 2003; Rhomberg 2004; Clay 2012). This dynamic between social, political, and economic forces and social activism is central to understanding efforts to improve the l ife conditions of those experiencing a variety of inequalities and to create prefigurative The politics of land historically serve as a flash point for social struggle. In the historically black neighborhood of West Oakla nd for example, the social disparities along these lines is clear. Redlining and racial covenants, capital flight and the devaluation of property, low fresh food access, the systematic elimination of black power groups such as the BPP, and a polluted physi a challenging set of structural forces to contend with (Churchill and Vander Wall 1990; 25 before the eyes and phone cameras of dozens of people. Protests and riots ensued, setting off a concerted effort by man y organizations and community activists to bring Officer Johannes Mehserle to justice. 26 Activists renamed the site of their encampment to Oscar Grant Plaza, recalling previous waves of activism and social justice framing. 27 Comedian Dave Chappelle famous thanks for coming to San Francisco. Come back in April we are having a sale on Birkenstocks. Soon as

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287 Rhomberg 2004; Palaniappan et al., 2006; McClintock, 2011). As was mentioned in Chapter 4, groups like the BPP and EJ organizations wo rking to uplift poor communities of color and reduce their exposure to toxics, were influential in the formation of food justice and urban agricultural experiments. However, unlike these largely autonomous and community based h istorical precedents, often r adically oriented in discourse and strategy, the current generation of Oakland AFM activism is heavily influenced by non profit institutionalization. 28 One of the reasons for this is because there is a desire on the part of many people to make a living as a n activist. While the rise of non profits inversely correlates to the decline and failure of welfare policies to support low income continues to play an important role. La nd use politics offer an entry point for AFM non profits to work on issues directly relevant to their projects. Engagement with land use politics takes on the dual process of political engagement and withdrawal. The AFM in Oakland is similar to other plac es throughout the Bay Area in that it wants to create more environmentally sustainable farming models and more access to organic food, but also more heavily promotes an analysis o f social inequality and a commitment to social justice. A land lens is one me ans by which to understand these dynamics. In addition to concerns over urban agriculture expansion, access to safe growing spaces, zoning battles over animal husbandry, and strategies to bring more land under cultivation, there are racial and class inequa lities in public and private land access. A more critical investigation of the contentious politics of land in 28 Out of my thre e case study sites, Oakland has the highest ratio of non profits per capita (1 to 149). San profit database for each city. The overall non profit number was then made into a ratio against the 2010 US Census population numbers.

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288 Oakland reveals the historical and spatial outcomes of social struggle. Issues of fresh food access, urban food production, and the intersect ion of other social inequalit ies, reveal that entanglements of power and resistance operate to produce the spaces within which social life takes place. These spaces are always in flux, some becoming sites to contest inequality and reflect real utopian alternat ives, with others becoming AFM shows commitment to developing land policies that expand urban agriculture on both public and private land. On the other hand, effor ts by gr oups like PJ sidestep the state by both monetizing projects such as edible landscaping, creating guerilla gardens, developing alternative food supply chains, starting co housing projects, and organizing those in marginal and interstitial social spaces. Th network within which they move and leverage, I reveal how actually existing radical projects can create new liberatory relationships with land, while also reproducing neoliberal ization. Not only then do activists change the conditions under which they operate, but also forces oftentimes beyond their control shape them It is this dynamic to which I turn. To begin with, I place PJ within what activists perceive as the current powe Capitalist Pressure, State Failure and the Drive to Take Back Land for Human Flourishing Oakland cannot easil y hide its neighborhood of North Oakland, homelessness, unemployment, and crumbling physical

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289 infrastructure are apparent While the city of Oakland paid out over $57 million in police abuse settlement claims between 2001 and 2011, they were running a $58 million deficit in late 2011. Moreover, Oakland police officers operate in a culture of impunity, which makes it difficul t for poor beha vior to stop. Such payouts only continue with victims of police brutality at Occupy Oakland protests recently rewarded $1 million. 29 I focus on the cost of policing in Oakland as a contrast to the underutilization of public land and decline in public services, especially school closures in a deindustrialized context of high unemployment, which disproportionately impacts black, Latino/a, and low income communities. Coupled with reductions in state funding and a drop in enrollment partially att ributed to gentrification, investment in keeping small neighb orhood schools open continues to diminish reflect the difficulties faced by its residents. Instead, man y efforts focus on finding ways to take back land to teach gardening and urban farming, improve health, create jobs, beautify neighborhoods, and empower individuals and communities to improve their local conditions. This backdoor approach to leveraging pub lic and private space for human needs reveals the potential for incubating prefigurative models that then spread deeper into the institutional makeup of the city. Yet at the same time, complications arise depending upon whether food activists focus on usin g or taking over public or private land. To explain these problems, I investigate ment with the c ontentious politics of land 29 ten police live outside the city of Oakland, pulling over $186 million a y ear in wages and retirement benefits outside the city.

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290 The context of socially stratified private and public land One of the major sociospatial divisions in Oakla nd is between those that live in the flats and those that live in the hills. Carlo, a young PJ staff member and flatland dweller accurately describes this separation, The two main freeways that you have here are the 880 and the 580. The 880 portion of the freeway is located where the low income people live; it goes through low income residences. 580 goes through Oakland hills, t they put them the 880 section, you know. All these people have asthma, they have and going inside their body. P eople that are in the 580, of course, you still You know the people up there, they have more green, they have more trees, they have more life up there, green life, as opposed to th e 880 went to school, they live in better homes, you know. They can afford to live up there. And someone that lives down here in the low income section that something is gonna happen, and someone is gonna say something to you. The political economy of this spatial arrangement reinforces racial and class divisions. Below I provide further details on the inscription of this separation in private and publi c land. An analysis of the current Oakland housing context reveals the importance of understanding the uneven distribution of private property as another major inequality. rty through their edible landscaping program. Although homeownership grew between 2000 and 2005, much of this is attributable to high risk lending practices that drove the housing bubble (HERACA 2007). These loans helped create greater homeownership

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291 rates for people of color. However, when the market crashed, foreclosure rates skyrocketed, which disproportionately affected low income Latino/as and blacks (HERACA 2007). Since this time, the homeownership rates overall declined, but the racial gap remained. 30 Moreover, between 2007 and 2012, there were almost 11,000 completed foreclosures with 1 in 14 households facing foreclosure, which particularly hurt low income communities of color. There are also increasing processes of gentrification. For example, invest foreclosed properties in this time period and 93% of these properties are in low income neighborhoods (King 2012). 31 In many of the more rapidly gentrifying neighborhoods, property values are once again rising give n the availability of cheap credit for buyers, which increases competition with investors, and is coupled with a dearth of available houses. These urban restructuring processes and social conflicts provide an important context for activists committed to ex panding urban agriculture and fighting for economic justice through food. Intimately related to these set of concerns are conflicts in Oakland over use the housing. As homeownership rates are racially and economically stratified, so are business ownership rates. Food activists more concerned with increasing access to the very people whose economic standing necessitates greater food access to begin with oftentimes over look these issues When attended to, food activists focus on creating 30 In 2000, 68% of whites, 49% of Latino/as, and 40% of blacks owned their homes. In 2011, 47% of whites, 35% of Latino/as, and 34% of blacks owned homes. These homeownership rates come from the 2000 US Census, and the 2011 American Community Survey 1 year estimate. 31 In essence, many low income families were kicked out of these neighborhoods because they could not stay in their homes or successfully purchase a short sale.

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292 green jobs, small food based businesses, community gardens that increase property values, and small urban farms. Because of these inequalities, there are more efforts to take over public and underutilized private land. The use of public land is another important consideration when evaluating the influence of contentious land p There is a lot of green space Oakland Most of it though is in the hills, which are whiter and richer than the flats. Because green space is lacking in the flats, efforts abound to grow food in as many locations as p ossible. Yet, these efforts are so far failing to produce anywhere near the volume of food needed to become independent of o utside food supply chains. About a 10% of which is viable to grow food (1,200 acres), which would meet roughly 5 10% of ck and Cooper 2009). Growing on these lands would increase local food supply, but it would still fall short of meeting the emand, roughly 15,000 acres is required. If one were to include paved and dense vegetation spaces, where other forms of agricultural production could take place (e.g. aquaponics, raised beds/fruit tree and mushroom production), then there are thousands mor e available acres. Most of this public land belongs to Oakland Parks and Recreation Department (OPRD) (49%), and the City of Oakland (20%) (McClintock and Cooper 2009). Most of the available sites for food production are in the hills, but most of the food activism is taking place in the flats. Beyond the demographic differences between these two Oaklands, are differences in land use patterns. The hills largely consist of residential and recreational

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293 space, while the flats consist of industrial, commercial, and residential space. The course of deindustrialization capital devaluation was conta ined in the flatlands due to var ious racist policies, and mirrored by (white) capital flight to the hills. Social inequalities embed in the landscape. It is important, then, to not only understand where s influence the forms of land politics P erception s and critique s of economic inequality and its spatial reality The experience of living in Oakland and seeing how the city spends money while large se gments of the community live and work under d ifficult economic conditions influences activist s perception of the problem. One PJ board member and longtime anti livin huma n relationships. As Darren, a recent Oakland transplant argues, Many activist efforts attempt to take more control over t he environment, particularly in the form of growing food. This solution makes sense in the context of what the founders of PJ see as the outcome of our current economic system, namely the alienation between people and between people and the land. However, it is not just capitalism that is to blame. More broadly, a number

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294 of activists see the problem through an intersectional and dialectical lens. For example, a board member named Gabriel makes the nuanced observation, I think that relationship is important to make in terms of how interconnected, interlocking oppressions actually are. The land is a place, a space where we can see where that all plays out. It is a really the land and bu ilding a relationship with the land is a very beautiful humanizing experience [and] is a way of resisting. Power is not just exerted over people, but is a function of the degree to which people resist. Yet power is not immaterial. Instead, it inscribes and reflects the places where we live, work, and play. By connecting systems of power to specific places, PJ makes the pivot from analysis to practice. There is a means by which people can fight back. More than a playing field upon which social life takes pla ce, the land in its various forms is a reflection of social life in material form. The importance of this analysis becomes clearer when considering the material inequalities experienced by those living in the social margins. Repeatedly PJ activists argue that these systems and institutional level processes are the drivers of social inequality and environmental degradation, but the solutions are local in scope. This scalar disjuncture is striking, but understandable. I agree with critiques warning against assumptions that local is inherently more environmentally sustainable and/or just (Born and Purcell 2006), and am interested in understanding the reasons why such strategies are selected to produce the scales and places upon which change occurs. While not all PJ activists consider why local land access strategies work better than other strategies, Alle provides a possible explanation, [O]ur economy is set up in a way that prioritizes things that are most of usurping of local control, local economies and decentralized economies that

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295 One obv ious way to take back local control from corporations is to regain access to what were once the commons. There is a deep distrust of institutional, particularly federal politics given the ity that Zack comments, people literally, having to go to work the next day to earn enough to buy another round foodstuffs and corporate retailers litter the urban landscape, which suppresses wages d development pressures that convert farmland to strip malls, and subsidy structures that shuffle public funds into private pockets. However, such distrust at the federal lev el does not prevent the organization from realpolitik stems from an analysis that recognizes how outside forces facilitate the development of local

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296 historically marginalized communities. Carl, a fo rmer San Quentin inmate who worked for PJ as an edible landscaper only to move back to his hometown of Richmond to work o me that food movement is sustainable, The alleviation of p overty and inequality is possible through local collective efforts, but political support makes this process easier. Overall, this perspective leads to the conclusion that the profit motive inherent to capitalism creates social inequalities, which requires taking that landscape needs. There is a spatial reality to the s ocial inequalities For people raised or living in marginalized social spaces, health is often the interpretive lens. Mac, a permaculture low have and have should you be able to have the privilege to have healthy food in your community. It income communities, you walk in the first thing you see is stacks and stacks of soda, you know. The produce Activi sts not living in the poorest Oakland neighborhoods, but still living in the flats offer East Bay have longer life expectancies than people living in the flatlands down here; it is

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297 person has in West Oakland with absolutely no grocery sto a choice between a corner store or I go to the grocery store whenever I can get a ride between people experiencing and places of social inequ ality. There are many critiques, particularly by academics, of the use of health as a lens for creating food system (social?) change (Eisenhauer 2001; Guthman 2011; Alkon 2012). However, PJ activists are conscious of what Gabriel, a dedicated board member flourished in terms of crusading through diet and obesity, and diet related diseases in cial justice foundation can serve to demarcate and in turn reify socially stratified space, in turn leading to discursively normalizing where and under what conditions people live. As ment that has so much disparity between access to power and resources and privilege within itself and all the participants that want to participate in different ways and what gets to count as food It is still common for interviewed food activists to discuss health inequalities, bu t usually they present this as the result of poverty. Therefore while health framings may not be inherently problematic, many other organizations in health and end with food. Such a narrowing of concerns shuts out the potential for more radical understandings of human/food connections and plays into larger land use policy and funding programs. Opposing this trend are efforts to make the hills and flats equal

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298 Growing food to build community power permaculture demonstration site at Lakeside Communi ty Garden. As I was harvesting ok forward to when they are ripe community garden sites where the public can freely harvest. Throughout the day, other people approached and asked different gardening questions. One Russian man asked where he could get some good soil because his vegetables were not growing. He told Alex, a white PJ permaculture designer, that he bought soil from Home Depot. Alex told him to buy from his local nursery instead. Another white man as ked about some pests in his garden and how to get rid of them. Two white women asked what the different fruit trees were. At another point, a middle aged black man, a local Oakland chef, struck up a conversation with Alex. He ran the neighboring plot. Thei r conversation revolved around their respective focus of work, with each promoting and agreeing to attend the focusing on youth education. He did cooking and nutrition education, but also cooking demos at Whole Foods. The heightened social engagement in this space is indicative of what PJ activists hope to spread through accessing land to grow more food. Such diverse sites of engagement around food provide a foundation t o build collective power. Community building for many food activists includes celebrating this diversity. For example, a Cinco de Mayo event included a

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299 variety of Oakland AFM organizations PJ handed out flyers was a Mayan celebration, there was traditional dancing and mu sic going on and then food that gets produced in a variety of garden and fa r m spaces, Darren points to peoples interactions while bringing together many different groups of people. Beyond th e benefits of building a diverse AFM, there are deeper arguments for much trauma that has be en done upon us through poverty, through incarceration and guess it means kind of reclaiming some of that power and like teaching people how to entiment stems from a belief by many Oakland food activists that growing food is an expression of individual or communal empowerment. For example, PJ collaborates with a group called the Canal Alliance, who works in undocumented Latino/a communities. PJ ta ught a permaculture course in Spanish to 18 youth in the summer of 2011 and started six different community gardens in the Canal District with these youth. In order to build these gardens, the organization reached out to the owners of apartment complexes t o build on their land. In the end, they

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300 successfully urged these owners to communalize private space. This example speaks to the creation of new alliances through food. The 35 year old Canal Alliance reached out to PJ because they wanted to create new food spaces that provide opportunities to being. Obviously, the act of growing food does not inherently build community. Also required is a personal and/or organizational commitment to use food spaces for these purposes. PJ prioritizes g rowing food as a means to build power in low income communities of color. Mateo, a recent high school graduate that works as an edible out to my house and building this gar ble landscaper named Lawrence shares how PJ goes into people that live in that area w people actually building gardens and redesigning landscapes the act of growing food There is also a perceived ripple effect from building edible landscapes, where, as Kerry way of really me asuring a lot of expand this community based power, PJ is pursuing a variety of land access strategies.

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301 P olitical engagement with the problems of land access and use As part of a broader strategy to create more equitable access to public lands for food productio n, PJ participates in two major coalitions. The first is the East Bay Urban Agriculture Alliance (EBUAA). 32 Although its concerns are beyond Oakland, many of the most active groups are from this city. The second is the Oakland Climate Action Coalition (OCAC ), where PJ sits on the Food Justice and Land Access Committee. OCAC convened from 2009 to 2011. They successfully passed one of the most socially conscious climate plans in the county, what Oakland calls the Energy and Climate Action Plan (ECAP). In addit ion to the city adopting over 50 of the 150 policies included in the plan directly from OCAC, they will be guiding the city throughout the policy implementation process. However, all the food and agriculture parts of the plan are still either underway or p ending. 33 The ECAP Implementation Progress Report notes that the following five priority actions are yet to me implemented: 1) develop regulations enabling urban food production; 2) encourage land owners to lease space for food production; 3) advance econom ic development strategies supporting local food production; 4) review permitting requirements for local food distribution efforts; 5) prioritize GHG reductions in zoning updates (urban agriculture updates are not completed). See Table 6 1 for an explanatio n why those parts are not completed. One of the major foci for both coalitions is community outreach. They realize that without a broad base of support the changes sought will not come to fruition because the spokespeople for AFM non profits that can att end coalition meetings do not speak 32 The membership is $25 a year, which partially incentivizes greater participation among its 24 members. 33 As of November 2012, the city has made much headway on implementing this plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 36% by 2020

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302 for everyone. There are also limitations to the non profit model. Scott, a board member, profits have been using that neoliberal context to have these small projects to address these things which there should be public policy political approach given many of the staff and boa labor organizers. Therefore, the aims of the community outreach are to shift policies around zoning and land access issues. One of the main reasons for this stems from the fact that you need land to grow food, but la nd is very expensive and often privately owned. Moreover, on public lands current laws are restrictive. Therefore, these coalitions take a two pronged approach to accessing public and private land. cus on ensuring the enactment of ECAP As was mentioned above, the food related parts of the plan are incomplete. On the public land front, they are working with OPRD and Oakland Public Works Agency (OPWA). OPRD run all activities on public parks, and OPWA run all the environmental, water, landscaping, transportation, and infrastructure services. OPWA manages all the buildings and grounds, while OPRD runs recreation and programming. However, working with these two departments is very challenging. Azadeh exp lains, process is not transparent in terms of who is able to use the land and how

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303 bigger organization and then some groups struggle and get fought on a seasonal basis to even use the land like other groups may be usi ng Although PJ is one of a handful of groups to gain access to a small plot of public land, no zoning laws currently make accessing these lands easy. 34 Another reason for the difficulty behind arriving at a clear set of urban ag riculture land use laws is because there are rules that date back to 1932 with a 1965 update meant to regulate large scale urban farms. These rules are much less relevant in a context where urban farming in Oakland would overwhelmingly consist of small and mid size urban farms. More generally, the last time the city created a general plan was in 1996 (in effect until 2015), and before that 1976. This means that Oakland constantly adjust s to changing conditions on the ground. Ironically, the last general pl an created a completely new set of zoning designations to accommodate a growing desire for open space, with and watershed protection, and even room for growing fresh pr Conservation and Recreation (OSCAR) part of the plan set out the official policy and management guidelines for open land, natural resources and parks. The hills contain a Where there is open space in the flatlands, most of it is also parkland. While important groups in the flatlands, 34 PJ manages a permaculture food forest demons tration within Lakeside Park, which is on the north side of Lake Merritt. PJ was originally contracted by the person who runs the Lakeside Community Garden in this park, which is managed by OPRD. There were a few plots that they wanted an organization to u se for their programming because the plots were not being fully maintained. PJ still has to pay for use of the space, but the space already contained a few old fruit trees, including pear, apple, plum, peach, and pomegranate. They took out much of the Berm uda grass and sheet mulched before planting more annuals and perennials. The food that is grown here is free for the public to harvest.

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304 particularly those with an eco nomic or racial justi ce lens, from access ing these lands in order to produce food. and recommended funding a community and schoo l garden program, there are internal conflicts in the plan. This zoning district, which includes all the public parks that the AFM is seeking to access, p rioritizes recreational uses. W here the plan considers food production, only community gardens receive mention In short, a completely different set of laws governs any farming o r food production The last issue to note is that during the 1960s and 1970s, non profit land trusts managed to amass large tracts of land for open space purposes, community garde ning, and park creation. Many of these trusts slowly lost financial resources, and sold off their land to development interests or the city of Oakland. Hoping to support land conservation and community gardens in the flatlands, the city recommended the cre ation of a land trust coalition. Such a recommendation never fully materialized, resulting in the enclosure of once publically available lands. Given these various On the front lin es of these zoning battles is Phat Beets Produce, part of a group called Neighbors of Dover Street Park (NDSP). In early 2011, after receiving verbal and email permission from OPRD as well as OPWA, they planted vegetables and 30 fruit trees along the perim eter of the city owned Dover Street Park. T his unutilized space is for producing free food for local community members. A few months later, the OPRD advisory committee told the urban farmers and thei r community supporters that they needed approval. The wri ting of a report with concerns about pesticides and park sight

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305 lines did not receive comment from Phat Beets or NDSP. The OPRD Advisory Commission ultimately required that the groups obtain a conditional use permit (CUP) for $2,900. Ultimately, food activi sts raised money for the CUP, where the garden now employment for youth from the Healthy Hearts Obesity Prevention Clinic. Embedded in this controversy are n otions of what const itutes acceptable use of public land, at what point community groups can assume control of public land as a commons if the public in the guise of gov ernment neglects responsibility, and who should pay for it This piecemeal strategy burns out many food act ivists, thus encouraging approaches that are more comprehensive The most visible and concentrated effort to loosen urban agricu lture zoning restrictions comes from the Oakland Food Policy Council (OFPC). After evaluating a number of comprehensive repor administration (1999 2007) 35 the city of Oakland decided to set up a public private partnership 36 to launch the 21 member OFPC. The newly formed OFPC quickly organized community listening sessions and read a number o f major reports to devise a at hand are the recommendations to protect and expand urban agriculture, encourage lthy mobile vending, and create synthetic pesticide and GMO production free zones. T he language of justice, 35 Oakland Food Assessment; Food System Meta Analysis for Oakland, California; Hope Micro Zone Assessment; Oakland Food R etail Impact Study; and Healthy Food for All: Building Equitable and Sustainable Food Systems in Oakland and Detroit. 36 The current funders (as of 2013) include Alameda County Public Health Department, Clarence E. Heller Charitable Foundation, Clif Bar Fa mily Foundation, Kaiser Permanente, The Rose Foundation, The San Francisco Foundation, and The Y & H Soda Foundation.

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306 resiliency, economic development, and health framed t hese re commendations. After blic comment and review stages, effectively driving a specific set of urban agriculture zoning recommendations that passed March influence changing city zoning ordinances diminished These interim measures include new zones that allow Ideally, OFPC and over 30 community based and non profit organizations, want to see more fine grained urban agriculture policies. They are advocating for residential (no permit or fees required), civic (run by community groups on residential and commercial zones wi th minimal need for CUP), and commercial designations (larger more intense operations in commercial and industrial zones; residential with a CUP). Although these issues are not settled, the City Council approved the sale of residentially grown produce with out the use of machinery in October 2011. In short, there are promises of a complete zoning overhaul that would make expanding urban agriculture projects much more feasible, but since 2011, changes mostly stalled. Partially explaining the Planning Departme resources; 2) declining advocacy on the part of OFPC; 3) conflicting city, county and state codes governing urban agriculture; and 4) push back from well organized animal rights activists (McClintock, Wooten and Brown 2012). creatively pursuing strategies to use private property for food production purposes. Framing

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307 because a lot of Therefore, they are working with Rebecca Kaplan, who currently s erves on the City Council as a Councilmember At legal language that sets the foundation for a blight tax or blight ordinance. Under this are allowi ng land to lay to include defunct storefronts and empty lots. 37 While this would beautify neighborhoods and provide free to low cost land for community groups to grow food, it is not ideal because the y would not own the land or receive long term access guarantees which reduces what can happen on the land. However the land access could lead to job creation and skill development. In addition, if the lease is long enough, then organizations can appropriately plan how to shift t heir work once that period is over. Another private property strategy undertaken by EBUAA hopes to speed up the urban agriculture zoning law change by loosening restrictions on growing and selling food on on focused on getting homeowners to speak up about their love of growing food and their desire to sell it if they so desire. Through petition gathering the group garnered the support of a much greater plurality than the non profits comprising EBUAA. The work of this coalition a nd the OFPC resulted in over 300 people showing up for a workshop seeking input from the community on the urban 37 In essence, if a lot is considered blight, then the landowner will get taxed enough to where they might consider entering a lease with an organization interested in growing food for a minimum of five years. This model lease agreement between non profits or community groups and landowners might begin to put more land under production. When considering that many lots are vacant for decades, the law would create an incentive for landowners to allow farming for 5 to 10 years.

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308 agriculture ordinance (McClintock and Cooper 2009). Azadeh expresses that such eir homes and into public While there is greater ease convincing politicians and city p lanners that people should be able to gro w food on their properties, it is far more difficult to get them to agree on the rules governing the sale of food and animal products. After spending many hours meeting with planners and City Council members, they changed a zoning law that previously required a CUP costing close to $3,000. Ironically, this was a few days after Phat Beets and NDSP were told that they had to pay close to $3,000 for a CUP to grow food in a public park that is given away free In a sign of the usefulness of neoliberal framing to get city support, Esperanza Pallana, now director of OFPC had this to s animals. 38 These changes easily passed, because they did not also include larger operations, cooperative selling of urban produce, and selling food from vacant lots. In short, while the law allows for selling plants after receiving about $70 worth of permits, 38 There has been a lot of controversy generated by vegan activists opposed to people being able to raise and sell animals or animal products in the city. After author and food activist Novella Carpenter was caught for selling rabbits from a guerilla garden she had been working in West Oakland, vegan activists weighed in on what was previously thought to be a non problematic practice: urban livestock.

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309 only residents of th e property can work the farm, and only produce grown on that property can be sold. The influence of Occupy politics Many Oakland food activists became involved with Occupy Oakland both on an individual level, and collectively. For instance, a large number of organizations held a teach in/eat in on November 2, 2011, the day of the general strike. 39 As Alex, a PJ staff together all these food justice groups that already exist, but is bringing them together in convergence is Occupy the Farm, an effort that began April 22, 2012 to preserve 10 acres of prime urban agricultural land for farming. Although many organizations, non profits in particular, are reluctant to publically support the actions of Occupy the Farm in Albany, a city a few miles north of Oakland, many lent off the re cord resources and members of these groups privately participated. 40 This land battle created an mobilize around the possible paving over of prime agri cultural land for commercial development. At the same ti me, it served as an informal space for discussing land use in Oakland. A PJ board member named 39 Groups and activist s included Food First, California Food and Justice Coalition, People's Grocery, Baylocalize, Planting Justice, Phat Beets Produce, City Slicker Farms, Ella Baker Center, Friends of the MST, People's Community Market, Biosaf e ty Alliance, Pesticide Action Ne twork, and Chef Jenny Huston. 40 PJ attended a number of meetings by an Occupy Oakland affinity group dubbed O ccupy the Food System, but largely focused on their own projects and did not receive the full support of the board to publically attach their name to actions such as Occupy the Farm. However, they did provide plants, their truck, affordably priced wood, and water tanks.

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310 different local organizations coming out to actually put the garden in and the n to work These actions and varying degrees of support by ge efforts, and the quick implementation of creative circumventions of such laws. Such efforts like Occupy the Farm stand in stark contrast to growing food on private property. The zeitgeist is a reaction to the private accumulation of wealth and the decl ine of public resources. Many food activists are willing to and strategically use private property, but there seems to be growing restlessness among some about the gardens in traditionally a really important aspect of society. That desire came through in Occupy However, t he AFM or PJ do not universally share this interpretation of events For away from the movement. With no real political solution immediately within sight, either on the Occupy ers need Planting Justice to be able to really focus this untamed power. People like to see, to focus their energy on something very physical Next, I describe how PJ is leveraging private property given the lack of publically available l ands.

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311 Leveraging Food activists that work with PJ express a particular understanding of how to leverage private property f or social change. Centra l to this is a belief in the need to change ownership str uctures. Alle clearly articulates, the owners healthy food. In this sen se, private property is not a primitive accumulation strategy. Instead, it is a foundation for people to set up new non alienating food production models that meet ecological relationships to the land. As Gab private property and commodity to relative and ancestor, and living conscious breathing human, animal, or anything that we c concept and reality, which leads to reimagining how current laws can be circumvented or leveraged in new ways, and how there is radical potential for bridging human/environment gaps through the process o f growing food. Nowhere is the understanding of t hese ideas and practices clearer than in the Transform Your Yard (TYY) program, which directly responds to the economic alienation, racial inequality, and dehumanizing experience of going to prison. From pr ivate spaces of oppression to re humanizing through private space The cycles of moving from spaces of poverty to spaces of imprisonment are

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312 higher likelihood of livi ng in poverty than most other groups, but they represent roughly 40% of the current prison population, are six times more likely to be imprisoned than whites and the national average, and ex inmate wages grow at a 21% slower rate than white ex inmates (Lyo ns and Pettit 2011; Alexander 2012). In California, three out of four men in prison are people of color, 41% Latino, 29% black, and 6% are of other non white races; most are between the ages of 18 and 34 (G r attet and Hayes 2013). 41 The criminalization of yo uth of color in Oakland continues through a set of policing tactics that assumes guilt, instills fear, is punitive with few programs directed at rehabilitation, (Rios 2011) leads to an overreliance on prisons as a means to deal with Directly related to prisons and poverty is race. As a tool of social con trol, prisons did not go the way of the dodo as some scholars in the 1970s predicted, but instead morphed into a mass incarceration system, particularly effective in creating a new racial the state sanctioned and/or extralegal production and exploitation of group differentiated (247). Reflecting these ideas, Jada, a PJ board member who works as a lawyer cl aims, 41 Beginning in the 1980s, after almost two decades of black urban insurrection in places such as Los Angeles and Oakland, Californi a began the largest prison building project in global history (Rudman and Berthelsen 1991). Coupled with droughts throughout the 1970s, which resulted in unproductive surplus land for large agricultural landholders, and pressures by finance capitalists on California politicians to reductions in well paying

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313 The criminal justice system was, and still is, such a tool for oppression for certain groups and has been used that way since its inception; especially for blacks and African Americans. There is a time when all someone had to do was say that person, you know, looked at me funny or that person did this and there was no system where they had to prove that it actually happened. All they had to do was say you know this person did this, and that person could be hanged or you know whipped or killed for any kind of thing. The legacy of racism is a key explanation for why mass incarceration in the United S tates disproportionately harms people of color. 42 As such, it is important to PJ activists because they work with people who survived this system. While in p rison, the effects of poverty and racial inequality do not diminish. These spaces of incarceration often amplify what people experienced before becoming inmates. For example, Delilah, a young lawyer, told me about the perpetuation of fo od inequalities in p rison, lunch or dinner and then all they have are these vending machines owned by huge corporations to ma ke tons of money from Santa Rita. I mean Such descriptions are consistent with trends toward the privatization of prison food, with corporations such as Aramark Correctional Services taking the lead. 43 According to the 42 Related to mass incarceration in American prisons are the policing of immigrants, particularly in borderlands. White supremacy expresses itself through these social control efforts with devastating impacts for communities of color. Ho wever, these practices also produce major financial benefits for the companies building the prisons, surveillance technologies, and politicians receiving campaign contributions and tax dollars for their constituencies. 43 Services Management, ABL Management, and U.K. Services and Trinity Services Group.

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314 company, they are in nearly 600 roughly 30% of state and federal corrections facilities. 44 45 This compounding of inequalities complicates where one intervenes, but organizations working with (former) inmates use food as a means to develop new skill unwanted land uses accelerate the mortality of modestly educated wo rking people of all (247). The main point here is that food is a useful optic through which to understand how people navigate and reimagine spaces of domination and exploitati on and create new possibilities. One way that PJ makes connections between these issues is through their re entry green jobs program, which developed as a means to break the prison poverty trap. This begins inside the prison with IGP. Mark, a former IGP p articipant told me, [W]e would come to class, first thing we would do is meditate, you know, the future. And just g Garden Program, stays in the Insight Garden Program. Now this is a therapeutic class so everyone could better themselves. Then w e would go out in the garden, we would do some pruning. The guys they were just so 44 This estimate comes from my own c alculation, which uses the Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional facilities 2005. In addition to the 1821 correctional facilities, there are roughly 3,300 locally operated jails and 2,700 juvenile facilities. 45 Indiv idual and collective efforts by inmates take such food and creatively meet ethnic dietary expressions, and build bonds through resistance to the monotony of jail food (Brisman 2008; Cate 2008). Inmates are a lso known to use food as an agentic expression th rough developing black markets, engaging in food riots (Godderis 2006), and refusing food in hunger strikes (Bennett 1983).

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315 These are c ommon, but always powerful descriptions and claims. In the midst of one of the most monitored, racist, and violent places, humanity and cooperation shine through. Such preparation before re found t hat only 10% of the 117 men who paroled between 2003 and 2009 returned to To support those re entering society, PJ takes a Robin Hood redistributive approach, recognizing that one way to address economic inequality is by leveraging the exact system that perpetuates those inequalities. To help alleviate some of the discrepancies between those wanting but unable to afford TYY services, PJ aims to provide one free or majorly subsidized edible landscape for every three full paying clients. Most often, these free and subsidized edible landscapes go to low income people of color or to community projects that serve the needs of the similar groups (e.g. assisted living facility, school, and community garden). 46 In this way, they begin the process of increasing access to healthy and affordable food. Nevertheless, as Darren Les Misrables Is it the TYY program are necessary because they provide employment and food for people who might otherwise go back to prison. However, it does not directly challenge the racist and capitalist pressures driving mass incarceration. 46 As of August 2013, PJ installed 170 edible landscapes, 60 of which were free or subsidized, roughly maintaining the three to one i nstallation ratio. Forty were for low income households, and 20 were for community organizations.

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316 One reason is that there are only so m any people wanting th eir lawns turned into edible food forests. The lack of public land and the privatization of large tracts of residential and commercial space create barriers to expand economic opportunities for gardens that we were doing are the gardens that people come to us, spaces that people long term d of going back to the same spaces, growing food, creating value added products, and in turn consistent employment, PJ is constantly on the hunt. They are in restless pursuit of a more permanent land solution. From privatized permaculture space to permac ulture for the people The TYY program carries out a unique form of landscaping. Permaculture y. Twelve major principles evolved out of the work of permaculture pioneers Bill Mollis on and David Holmgren: 1) observe and interact; 2) catch and store energy; 3) obtain a yield; 4) apply self regulation and accept feedback; 5) use and value renewable resources and services; 6) produce no waste; 7) design from patterns to details; 8) integ rate rather than segregate; 9) use small and slow solutions; 10) use and value diversity; 11) use edges and value the marginal; 12) creatively use and respond to change (Holmgren 2002). At this point, I will not break down each of these principles. Instead I want to call attention to the dialectical process at play throughout these principles. In short, humans and the environments within which they live are closely connected, but there is no principle that attends explicitly to social dynamics. Although or iginally an ecological design model intended to further the sustainable linkage of social and ecological

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317 systems, there is also a broad a set of ethics The three maxims are 1) care for the earth, 2) care for people, and 3) fair share (Holmgren 2002). A c ommon term used to describe the layering of social and ecological means to use one thing for multiple purposes within a system. There is an assumption in permaculture circl es that ecological design systems lead to better social systems. For example, Zack, a PJ board and permaculture practitioner argues for building community vehicle to rea providing permaculture i nformation for marginalized communities, there is the belief that it will lead to these varied outcomes that build collective power. Perhaps more directly, Kat speaks about the need to recognize the power that comes with working together: a h, I know this person and this person and we have that strength comes through creatively producing more outputs from less inputs. See Figure 6 5 for a permaculture design plan and a picture of a transformed space. One of the problems with permaculture principles is that they do not confront or address private property. In fact, the growing popularity of permaculture design and certification amon g urban agriculturalists usually requires taking an expensive course. The apprentice model is generally a for profit model running a person anywhere from

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318 about $500 to upwards of $2000 depending on the length and requirements fo r on site learning. Once one gains the knowledge one is prepared to create agroecosystems that begin to reconnect humans and nature. Yet, there are contradictions in this model. For example, a cur number of comm entators and permaculture practitioners discussing the importance of private property rights. As Marty a former staff member, depend on gran ts, and it seems like it can expand. pessimistic because of what he saw as the divide between permaculture ideals and reality: I wa baby plants. I never really got to see a plant other than like this big [makes The TYY program necessitates a system of private property for developing ed ible landscapes but the people doing the edible landscaping, while privileged, are largely the renter class. A related concern is whether there is a point at which demand for edible landscapes levels off and no longer provides the volume necessary to provide employment for people with barriers to work and the independent resources necessary to run the program. Capitalism is inher ently a growth based system, but the principles underly ing permaculture require recycling what already exists and repurposing it to

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319 meet the needs of humans and the ecosystems they inhabit. In some respects, there is a critique of urban spaces built by cap italism that permaculture principles challenge. Kat as waste and making them into gold, basically. Just this alchemy that is what soil and life is; really literally apply ing those analogies are a lot of the driving force behind the then, between a TYY model requiring growth to remain independent by furthering the value of those that can pay for edible landscapes in the hills and revaluing spaces in the flats. The capitalist imperative clashes with permaculture as a socially interpreted ecological model. organizati onal form, and their projects, is with ecological and social principles of with the green jobs, teachin issues and eating healthy, they are helping individual property owners, the entry component. The logic PJ activists provide for why diversity is important is that in nature it means that ecosystems are generally more robust and resilient to threats. It is equally as important in so ciety because social problems are complex, so solution creation requires the knowledge and input of many perspectives. Relatedly, permacultur e as practiced by PJ aims to increase ecological literacy. Gabriel, a high that PJ integrates permaculture and the way that permaculture is taught is not just designing food systems, but is learning the language of the land and recovering the

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320 sacredness of land, and it is all those parts of it that are entwined with installing garden along with the TYY program. Bypassing the State 101 Learn to Think Like a State Concurrently with efforts aimed at creating urban agriculture policy changes, PJ is involved in a number of projects that seek to bypass the state. Reflecting a broader social chang e to be effective it has to be somewhat invisible to the state or something A grounds this interstitial not ion of organizing Because food activists see t hese institutions as failing, their energy focuses on creating actually existing radical projects whose intent is to ultimately redistribute resources. Relatedly, there are concerns with the l oss of empowering forms of knowledge in many Oakland communities. In short, there is a common belief that growing food is an act of reclaiming power and th at to create a new world requires develop ing models with greater independence from the failing parts of o ur institutions Edible landscaping is one means by which to create spaces of knowledge production and dissemination that empower people to spread such knowledge to new spaces. Private property can act as a site for creating a knowledge commons. Food activists in Oakland realize that there are a number of obstacles to achieving that commons. First, land is expensive. A report by what it could afford to lease or buy five acres of la nd. Ideally, the site required public

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321 transporta tion access, water access, and no toxic contamination. The committee ultimately found 10 possible sites. They never found a perfect five acre site. The size to cost ratio ran from almost half an acre for $2,500 a month or $285,000 to purchase to 11 acres f or $4,000 a month or $6 million. Second, there are currently many laws that make it difficult to grow higher volumes of food within Oakland city limits. I previously addressed t hese issues so the only thing I will add is that there are competing interests for public land, namely those that wish to keep it open for recreation and those wishing to develop it for housing or retail. The third issue is a belief by policy makers in the tragedy of the commons. As Kat argues, there is the perception that if there is collective space shared among people, like public spaces, that these places will become kind of neglected because there supposedly is this tendency for people to not feel ownership over collective pieces of te property and ownership government kind of promotes: limited access to public and common space. While PJ and the broader Oakland AFM face all these challenges accessing land, a sma ller group of five friends (a mix of PJ staff and board members) successfully managed to gain access to 10 acres of urban agricultural land. Always wanting to start a co housing project and model eco village, these five people eventually formed an LLC call ed Wild and Radish, to serve as a legal entity under which to raise money and work is a story about a dedicated cadre of food activists always in organizing mode, wh o developed a dense social network, and set of agricultural, financial, and organizational skills that leverage institutional rules for more radical ends. The re is a long contentious history of the land upon which Wild and Radish will build the first su stainable, urban farm eco village in the East Bay

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322 47 a compl area, a mlange of ongoing development takes place, often without regard for topograph ical conditions. With increased population growth over the past few decades, there are strains on local roads, schools, parks, and services Therefore, a slow g rowth movement evolved to halt and in some cases roll back development plans. Many of these proj ects sought to build tens to hundreds of homes, but the community consistently succeeded in preventing their development. One 10 acre parcel in particular, the one now owned by Wild and Radish, became a flashpoint for a variety of safety, nuisance, and env ironmental concerns. In 2001, a group of environmentalists formed Friends of Garrity Creek (FGC), a neighborhood advocacy group opposed to the development of a large housing project on an open hillside in El Sobrante, an unincorporated city 20 minutes nort h of downtown Oakland. The developer, Siavash Afshar, wanted to build 41 homes. Concerned that it would increase traffic and change the character of the local community, residents began to mobilize. Although the concerns seemed typically Not in My Backyard (NIMBY) reactions, their major legal tool to prevent the development was an EIA. Residents 47 After occupation by the Huichin for t housands of years a tribe part of the much larger Ohlone people, Spanish missionaries forcibly converted them to Chris tianity and took them to Mission San Francisco in the lat e 1700s. The land then went to Spanish colonists after Mexican independence from Spain in the the land largely consisted of ranches, which eventua lly were subdivided, roads built, and homes constructed. The developments were oftentimes of poor quality and built in locations subject to landslides. For example, in January of 1956, almost every h ome in a 27 unit development experienced some damage after heavy rainstorms. Co nstruction techniques improved and with the rise of the environmental movement in the 1960s and 1970s, environmental impact assessments (EIA) are now required.

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323 argued that it was important to preserve the flow between two natural springs that feed into Garrity Creek and its end point in San Pablo Bay. In addition were effo rts to establish the cultural significance of the site for Huichin, and more broadly, Ohlone descendants. 48 These various considerations compelled 400 residents and 540 homes in Hilltop Green (representing 2,000 residents) to sign a petition opposing the de velopment. Although Afshar hired the engineering consulting firm AMSO to carry out an EIA of the proposed development, residents thought it wa s biased, empirically unsound, and at times vague. 49 Although another revised plan was put in place, there were st ill concerns as of late 2003 that the project was not leaving enough open space and that there needed to be a proper environmental impact report (EIR). In 2004, Contra Costa County Planning Commission approved the project subject to 57 conditions of approv al and various mitigation plans. FGC made an appeal After receiving increasing pressure over three years from the Richmond City Council, El Sobrante Planning and Zoning Advisory Committee, Urban Creek Council, Friends of Garrity Creek, Hilltop Green Homeo wners Association, and the Hilltop Neighborhood Association, the Community Development Department decided to carry out an in depth EIA. T hese groups legally grounded their concerns in the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), which 48 One local Native Americ an activist took members of FGC to show them archeological remains of the king stone, an abrader 49 A first order problem was that there was no adequate plan to reduce landslides. Michael K. Wood Biological Consulting seeking to address the concerns of FGC and provide a revised plan carried out a follow up assessment. In response, FGC added that they were concerned that the project was breaking county ordinances, would cause greater environmental damage than stated, would create undue traffic and pedestrian issues, and had no plan to deal with sto rm drainage.

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324 states that if a d iscretionary project might significant ly impact the environment the n the lead public agency must prepare an EIR. Ultimately, the Contra Costa County Board of Supervisors approved an alternative 35 home project. FGC appealed this in court in 2006, claimin g that in granting the permit, the County was in violation of CEQA. Another supplementary EIR was mandated by a trial court not because it failed to consider a proper range of ause it did not take into account cumulative traffic considerations. The ruling handed down a $100,000 judgment against Afshar, not including fees owed. In addition, the County shared other costs including a new EIR that was never completed or made public. The legal tango danced its way through the County and the courts, until finally Afshar lost and used Brilliant Management, LLC to file for bankruptcy. 50 Friends and colleagues in PJ had been investigating places for a cohousing farm project, but been larg ely unsuccessful until they came upon the contested 10 acres in El others get access to land to create for Radish held a someone who told them about the property and was interested in what they were doing. After pursuing this lead and receiving some enthusiastic responses from a few El Sobrante community membe rs, they canvassed the surrounding neighborhoods for community support. The response was overwhelmingly positive, with many of the community members involved in previous struggles over this land in full support of Wild 50 Afshar never paid the judgment or fees, and after 10 years of legal battles and community animus went through the foreclosure process.

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325 and Radish, including FGC and the Con tra Costa Supervisor of the area, John Gioia. The plan for the 10 acre site includes o ne acre dedicated to housing, four acres dedicated to preserving the creek, native plants, and public walking trails, and five acres turned into farm/orchard. See Figure 6 6 for the design map of the site. Upon completion, this will become the largest urban farm in the Bay Area. This project is in initial phases but it will eventually serve as a cornerstone of a new vision of land and labor relationships. Gabriel express es what he sees as important context in the United States. There are so many Oaklands. There are similar stories of post industrial, post WWII, white flight, gentrification, and the movement of capital and strategy aimed at recreating sociospatial relations with food, not of food. Reflecting on the historical separation of people from places of rganic produce, much less even this historical and spatial separation. However, the first order of business was making sure they came up with the $300,000 required to purchase the land. To fund this project, Wild and Radish used crowd sourcing resources and ideas based on a commitment to the people and communities within which they work. Whether it is canvassing the community (below I elaborate further on the spatialities of t his project), or tapping into social networks to generate buzz, there is general

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326 agreement on the importance of matching local strategies to local support systems. This place attachment connects to an organizational commitment to permaculture taken to the level of funding. Flows of resources that com e from the community are paramount to flows of resources coming from other places with strings attached. Therefore, they sought private loans and personal investors. Friends, family, personal savings, and extend ed food and environmental activist networks were tapped as sources to get Wild and Radish off the ground. In less than a year, they raised the necessary funds to buy the land. The next order of business was to raise money for the first home. In order to bers and their investors believe feel is this kind of future of the now vision that we all share and also share with many members of houses will all be rental properties, which ensure that all members can afford to live on site without having to spend hundreds of thousands of dollars in order to buy a home. Th is is how the project will work. In addition to roughly $115,000 for permitting and infrastructure, the first home and granny unit will cost $420,000. Wild and Radish are actively seeking investors to raise this additional $535,000. With this money, they w ill build homes that become collateral to obtain a 30 year low interest mortgage to pay back short term loans to those investing in the initial phase of the project and fund ongoing development. There will also be seven bedrooms that gener ate additional in come to pay back investors and continue building more homes. The process repeats itself until the completion of four homes and four granny units with 28 bedrooms After a four year development period, this will result in a projected 14% annual profit.

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327 Bey ond traditional loans are a number of creative investment strategies, including self directed IRAs. 51 use to be able to reinvest some of those monies into locally owned businesses and specifically in understanding that there are certain social conditions that people committed to radical social chan ge must face. One strategy is to leverage our institutions for more progressive causes. By using self directed IRAs for example, people can gain access to the resources necessary to promote alternative economic and social arrangements. While the housing pa rt of this eco village is pivotal, the main land use will be a supported (Tsai 2013). It is this re arranging of systems, though, which requires a very different set of knowledge and/or the time to get assistance from people with such knowledge. In a strategic leveraging of not only private property, but of the state, PJ received a $300,000 grant from t he USDA through the Community Food Projects Program to start an almost five acre permaculture farm. 52 The goal is to create this on Wild and The grant ranked the second best proposal in 2012, a no small feat 51 Essentially, there are trillions of dollars in this country, almo st $5 trillion dollars invested in I RAs supporting corporations and publically traded companies. However, there are other ways to invest IRA money. There is an option for people to open up a self directed IRA account and make their own investments in local economies. 52 The grant can be used to fund swales, water storage, food forest, research and development aquaponics systems, commercial worm farm, nursery and seeding station, yurt classroom, so lar dehydrator, food safety certified processing unit, walk in refrigerator, truck, front lifter, van for food delivery, TYY program tools and materials, materials for 15 30 free gardens for low income families, Salary support for Executive Director, Educ ational Director, TYY Director, and TYY teams, travel funds for GFJI conference in Milwaukee, printing costs, student internship stipends, and more.

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328 given the hundreds of groups that apply, l ess than 20% of which receive funding In 10 acre center for food and economic justice and address the issues of poverty, hunger, Specifically, the farm will serv e three main functions, 1) as a job site and training facility for people with barriers to employment interested in sustain able urban food production and ecological landscape design, 2) as an intensive food production facility that will make healthy organic food affordable and accessible to local low income residents, and 3) as a public educational center that will empower you th and adults to become leaders in the food justice movement and take real steps to improve the health and well being of themselves and their community. In emphasizing the economic justice part of the farm, PJ claims they will create jobs in aping, urban food production, value added processing, marketing, assets and a just f ood system about 2000 fruit trees with perennial understories of herbs and vegetables. Th e natural spring will provide water for all the fruit trees. In addition, there will be bees, goats, and chickens. However, the plan also includes inten sive creek restoration projects that rebuild the water table and A key spatial strategy used by PJ to actualize visions that are more radical is coalition building through net However, it will not be the last. Part of the strategy behind TURF is to develop a farm that can serve as an incubato r for projects that receive funding from foundations and

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329 other government grants. Thes e sources of money are startup funds to help PJ then develop financially independent models. For example, representatives of the East Bay Community Foundation, the Kallio peia Foundation, the San Francisco Foundation, and National Reso urces Conservation Service expressed interest in supporting TURF. Many of the same people are raising money for Wild and Radish, albeit in an investment context. T hese funding networks comple ment bridging knowledge gaps by working with people with different skill sets. In one of the most salient knowledge diffusions, PJ adopted a model they seek to improve. The Occidental Arts and Ecology Center (OAEC) currently leases land from Sowing Circle, LLC, who run a residential eco board and Wild and Radish members, as well as eac out a far less expensive deal. The parties agreed to $1 a year lease (not including relevant taxes and bills for the leased acreage ) for 10 years with the option to extend for four additional periods of 5 years. 53 Central to the logic is a desire to create a non monetary exchange between the two projects. T he projects are a comple mentary large scale strategy to capture land for meeting basic human needs. 54 During internal deliberations on starting this farm in El Sobrante, the re was concern with geographically separating from the Oakland community. To paraphrase 53 The market value is $4,000 a month as of April 2013. 54 Arriving at this arrangement required countless h ours spent with lawyers, economists, real estate experts, and long time intentional community dwellers. By reaching out to people with this knowledge, the decision was made to use a limited liability company to purchase the land because there is less finan cial risk than if the non profit were the buyer. Moreover, it is easier for Wild and Radish members to manage a lease with PJ that separates the running of the cohousing project from the farm.

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330 in a higher income, lower ory There were a number of responses that reflect the final decision to go with the El Sobrante site. One, the farm is o n a bus line, it will create innovative distribu tion models, and PJ will work to shuttle people north from Oakland. Two, this is the cheapest possible option to create the greatest possible impact. Three, the project is socially appropriate. To paraphrase Gabriel, The group is largely white, privileged people starting a farm in a community that reflects that reality of the pioneer group, rather than purchasing land in someplace like East Oakland and pioneering a farm project as outsiders with unequal privilege/class dynamics. It is rare to find an organ ized community such as the one in El Sobrante who are demanding a just food supply, and we can view this process as a way to intervene with existing resources. Moreover, we will be self reflexive to maintain clarity around who benefits from access to land. Last, there is the shared belief that the farm will serve as a site to empower people from economically disadvantaged communities with a subsidized/free resource to learn, work with, and develop projects appropriate for their own communities (e.g. Richmon d and Oakland). Ultimately, involved parties frame this perm aculture farm project as selfless because the desire is to spread a new social change platform. do If in one sense there is a separation of PJ from their base community, in another sense they are providing a means for more people to meet comm unity needs.

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331 Land Is Necessary but Insufficient There is a strategic and conceptual gap on the part of many food activists focused on recapturing control of local land as a means by which to challenge corporate and state power. While food activists are no t simply vessels for reproducing neoliberalization because food activists often offer structural critiques and interstitial local solutions, many of the blamed systems and the powerful social actors at the helm are not the target of organizing. Instead, PJ that space [to grow food] wherever we can, basically finding all the nooks and crannies to public land in the hopes tha t the model will diffuse throughout economically and racial ly marginalized communities creates some organizational pushback. The central concern is class inequality. Based on working with landless poor communities, Jada provides an analysis that believes if people are struggling to get by, within your realm of thought. Or even developing it or using it for food cultivation or village like Wild and either education or some other kind of resources, and even the openness and some collective and cooperative living arrangements that require resources such as land and education, but ends with an explanation of the reason more people do not pursue such paths is because they lack education. Thus, a structural problem such as private property arrangements is resolvable by educating people about land access strategies.

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332 In a much more critical interpretation of t he eco village, and cooperative land projects in general, Delilah contends that the individual motivations to live more justly and sustainably do not easily transfer to the collective. I reproduce her comments at length to amplify a perspective that was ra rely, if ever, shared: People we talk to, we hang out with, we work with, I hear a lot of like, I want to live a certain way, I want to live consciously, I want to grow my my own place, that a lot of people who are doing this have their parents buying their change the system you gotta basically buy into the system and buy that d and inaccessible to any body else living in Oakland. Yeh, you can buy that foreclosed house and build your huge garden and you can live your ideals, tied to private property and buy my own house, and hav e my own land, to getting a loan out and buying a piece of property. That seems like, and I know that are very or just poor working class tha have all these foreclosures. Delilah was at first hesitant to share these critiques. She recognizes that food activists are trying to make a difference, but that when looking at private property in historical context, the pursuit of more redistributive land, wealth, and incom e strategies will produce greater economic justice outcomes AFM, PJ, and Wild and Radish reflect some broader tensions in the AFM between

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333 idealism and pragmatism, permaculture landscaping and urban farming, and private property and collective ownership. These tensions reflect the nature of actually existing radica l food projects in an era of neoliberalization. The case of PJ in Oakland is particularly interesting because it represents an organization working at the logical historical extension of previous social movement struggles in that it adopts many of the stru ctural critiques, but does not give away power to the institutions making up these structures. Land is hotly contested, both in its classed and racialized senses, which makes using urban agriculture as a form of metabolic healing quite challenging. Nonethe and PJ are spreading further outwards, and how the development of robust social systems of private property. Summary of Chapter 6 A longstanding history of social struggle puts Oakland in the distinct position as a city where new experiments often arise. At the same time, this is a city where political and economic forces interested in develop ment that do es not threaten elite interests crush many experiments. With the rise of the AFM within Oakland, a similar set of circumstances remains: poverty, racism, social stratification, and segregation. Perhaps unsurprisingly, it is here where AFM organ izations are navigating such difficult realities, with varying degrees of success. This chapter delved into these complexities through the lens of Planting Justice, a fairly young but plucky organization committed to economic and racial justice. Unlike man y of their food activist counterparts, food justice is far more than simply creating access to healthy and affordable food. Instead, there is a deep commitment evidenced by organizational practices and discourses to chipping

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334 away at some of the structural problems they face as an organization and more broadly as a social movement. Primarily wage jobs that provide some prospect of upward mobility. Many of the acti vists in this organization wo rked in pre vious social movement s that spill over into PJ, stimulating them to create models that fund the people doing the work. A rejection of most volunteer labor stems from the realization that because so many AFM organizations rely on the charity of o thers, a privileged group of people ends up taking charge. Although there is recognition that those most experiencing food inequalities cannot volunteer needs. This helps e xplain the development of the Transform Your Yard program, which only hires people with barriers to employment. Along with the canvassing program and some educational programing, PJ is responding to capitalist crises by finding creative ways to employ peop le in AFM work. and supporting those most impacted by economic and racial inequality in redistributing resources, while at the same time creating space for low income peo ple of color to the non profit environment within which much of the AFM operates, but it begins to push back against neoliberal responses predicated on individual respo nsibility and entrepreneurialism. For PJ, the work is much more about taking back the power inherent to human agency and giving themselves permission to restructure the role of non profits within the AFM. Through non hierarchical decision making, preferent ial work

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335 with people such as former prisoners, anti poverty groups, housing organizations, and community development groups run by people of color, PJ offers some hopeful visions This chapter shows that empowerment can be more than an empty neoliberal signifier. Instead empowerment requires impro ving material conditions by creating a positive public presence. Through transforming private landscapes from lawns into abundant food production zones, PJ offers a tangible expression of leve raging a system long used to divide people. Mending the metabolic rift takes place on many levels, including the individual. There is a work place, inner space dialectical process of change for many people through the process of engaging in non alienating food work and in some instances experiencing non commodified relationships with land. Such a model is buffered by intentional community outreach and fundraising. On the one hand, the canvassing model pays for itself (i.e. canvassers raise their own salarie s), which other hand, it is a neoliberal response to the roll back of the state. For example, private ly because the state put people behind bars to begin with and taxpayers already pay incredible amounts of money to house prisoners, much of which goes to private corporations. These contradictions are part of the work, and they reveal the importance of dee per political struggle. Towards these ends are countless ef land use 55 Working with a deep network of community activists, the 55 Markedly absent in these political battles are plans to im prove labor conditions for conventional food system workers.

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336 Oakland AFM recognizes the fundamental problem of limited land acce ss. Although a Office, the results are slow in coming. Given the legacy of stratified land use and development patterns in Oakland, and the fact that the most radical con tingents of the AFM live in the flats, there is political foot dragging, particularly on policies creating easier and greater access to public land and policies incentivizing landowners of vacant, blighted lots to avail their lands. The easiest and most ob viously neoli beral land use law changes passed first. For instance, people can grow and sell food on their properties and new zoning laws allow for crop production and raising animal with permits in certain city locations. These changes are too slow for P J and some of its AFM allies. In particular, PJ actively leveraged its activist network to purchase 10 acres of land that will eventually house the largest urban farm in the Bay Area. Although private property, the goal is to use the space to incubate work er owned cooperatives all the while livable wage employment for tens of people. The struggle over the El Sobrante land is evidence of the persistence of private property to create social division, but it also shows that food activists can capitalize on suc h divisions in order to advance a more radical agenda. By bypassing the state, PJ and Wild and Radish show how it is possible to gain a toehold in the private property system in order to establish a base upon which project development provides skills to pe ople with barriers to work. Whether or not this is sufficient is currently unknown terrible wages, benefits, and workplace conditions, the City of Oakland continues to waste money on a corrupt polic e force while schools close and public land is enclosed

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337 for private purposes, and local politicians are somewhat hesitant to push AFM urban profits such as PJ, and projects such as Wild and Radish to offer non alienating food work, reduce the experience of non alienating food work more broadly, and create non commodified relationships to land.

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338 Figure 6 1. Mural on East 12th Street as it approaches 16th Avenue. Photo by Joshua Sbic ca

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339 Figure 6 2. Photo courtesy of Planting Justice.

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340 Figure 6 3. Community Rejuvenation Project murals for Oakland AFM organization s. Photos courtesy of CRP.

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341 Figure 6 4. Design map for Big Pine Paiute Tribe community garden. Photo courtesy of Planting Justice.

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342 Table 6 1. Plan Priority Action S tatus Explanation PA 22. Develop Regulations Enabling Urban Food Production Underway Planning staff have developed a draft update to zoning regulations to clarify and enable urban food production. PA 23. Encourage Land Owners to Lease Space for Food Pro duction Pending This action is pending completion of new regulations enabling urban food production. MW 29. Advance Economic Development Strategies Supporting Local Food Production Underway Development Recently held the fir st in a series of professional seminars on Logistics, Packaging and Food Safety for the Oakland food & beverage production community. The Office is creating a Food Economic Study as a component of the Economic Development Strategy, with a related Action Pl an to continue support for the growth, expansion and location of new food & beverage companies in Oakland. The Office supports the Sector through representation at Trade Shows, seeks out new financing opportunities in partnership with lender agencies, and offers marketing through the Oakland Food & Beverage Trail, to be developed as a web based program. MW 30. Review Permitting Requirements for Local Food Distribution Efforts Underway The City is considering permitting issues in its review of regulations pertaining to urban agriculture. TLU 5. Prioritize GHG Reductions in Zoning Updat es Underway Planning staff is currently preparing zoning updates for Urban Agriculture and Off Street Parking that will include provisions for GHG reductions.

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343 Figure 6 5. Digital permaculture design plan and photo of transformation process.

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344 Figure 6 6. Design map for Wild and Radish, LLC.

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345 CHAPTER 7 UNITED FOOD AND COMMERCIAL WORKERS 770 LEVE RAGING LOS ANGELES FOOD CHAIN LABOR AND LAND USE LAWS TO PREVENT A LOCAL RACE TO THE BOTTOM Part 1: Food Labor Practices and Perceptions: Economic J ustice as Principle Although underappreciated, food chain workers historically occupied central positions in campaigns to build working class power in Los Angeles since the 1930s, only to become some of the most visible and active workers beginning in the 2000s. Most battles (Davis 2000; Laslett 2012; Milkman 2006). 56 While not denying the importance of this history, I narrow the lens to look specifically at UFCW 770 and how many of these threads of history play out in one union representing a variety of food chain workers. There were major gains in two represented sectors, meatpacking and food processing and grocery retail. Both of these sectors experienced fierce attacks wit h the rise of neoliberal restructuring and corporate consolidation. Before explaining how the political are deploying to build working class power, I present a brief contextu alized union history. UFCW formed in 1979 through the merger of the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America (AMCBW) and Retail Clerks International Union (RCIU) in 1979, becoming the largest union affiliated with the AFL CIO. Before this merger, organized union members in many major metropolitan areas laid the 56 These tend to include 1) the class war waged against workers during the heyday of the open shop; 2) battles between the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) and the American Federation of Labor (AFL) over organizing tactics and level of militancy; 3) the rise of industrial labor union power; 4) the decline of industrial union power and the rise of sweatshops and the service industry; 5) the organizing of immigrants, the elevation of identi ty politics in the labor movement, and the growing influence of low income people of color; and the centrality of Los Angeles to the American labor movement going forward.

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346 groundwork In Los Angeles, the rise of Local 770 began with a produce clerk named Joseph DeSilva and six other food market employees who affiliated with the RCIU. Facing terrib le working conditions, 72 hour work weeks, $18 a week pay ($0.25/hour is charge that resulted in a 40 hour work week for retail clerk workers. The large chains were recalci trant, only willing to accept a 54 hour workweek Once World War II began, Local 770 challenged the War Labor Board to increase wages in Southern California. After refusing to do so, they managed to get a rehearing where they won the first guaranteed 40 ho ur workweek in 1945. While wages remained frozen throughout the war, Local 770 continued fighting for better pay for all, equal pay across race, national origin, and gender, and overtime and benefits. After a 14 day work stoppage in 1947, Local 770 won on all fronts, most importantly winning non discrimination clauses decades before its inscription in federal law. In their second major work stoppage in 1959, the union was asking for better health care benefits, and a cost of living clause in the pension, w hich they won after 28 days. Negotiations in later years expanded to other food chain workers after Local 770 merged with Meat Cutters Local 421 and Butchers Local 274 to become the current UFCW 770. UFCW is now the largest private sector labor union in th e US with close to 1.3 million workers. Within California, UFCW is one of the largest unions, with 770 being one of the largest, and arguably most powerful local in the state. 57 57 In 2012, UFCW 770 had $43,824,562 in assets, $2,316,954 in liabilities, $159,563,1 76 in total disbursements (most of which went into purchasing investments). The assets and disbursements are far greater than most similarly sized or larger locals unions and even some state councils and internationals.

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347 With the decline in industrial union power that paralleled deindustrialization was a rise in the influence of service sector unions. Such trends influenced UFCW 770 where union levels in meatpacking and food processing are low, which makes maintaining, and if possible growing representation in grocery retail important. These are the contemporary frontlines of labor organizing, which are buoyed by a history of successful occupational and service industry organizing experiments that now make Los Angeles one of the most important labor movement centers in the US. Riding a wave of revita lized organizing campaigns, UFCW left the AFL CIO in 2005 to join six other unions in creating a new labor federation, Change to Win Federation (CTW), where they collectively worked to bring new workers into the labor movement. In Los Angeles, the groups m ost willing to join unions are recent immigrants from Mexico and Central America because they face working in low wage sectors rife with exploitation (Milkman 2006). The result is a labor movement in Los Angeles more nimble and creative in its organizing t actics. 58 Since 2004, overall unionization rates in Los Angeles grew fluctuating between 18% and 16% (Tomassetti, Tilly and Zipperer 2012). 59 As part of a larger effort to build a more unified labor movement, UFCW rejoined the AFL CIO in August of 2013. How ever, they continue to work on organizing campaigns with CTW, which combined with AFL CIO political muscle may increase membership. 60 58 Los Angeles labor unions experien ced a one percent overall union decline between 1988 and 2004 because of major membership gains in 1990 and 2002. Comparatively, are two and five percent declines in the same period for California and the United States (Milkman 2006). 59 Private sector unio nization levels are 9% while public sector levels are 58.2%; 1.1 million union members are in Los Angeles (Tomassetti et al. 2012). One of the reasons for this is the high levels of unemployment and underemployment in Los Angeles County (20% overall), prim arily in the service sector where 27% of Latino/as and 32% of blacks are underemployed (Flaming and Burns 2012). 60 One of the issues unions face is a steep decline in worker militancy. While militancy was in decline prior to the Professional Air Traffic C ontrollers Organization strike in 1981, it dramatically decreased and has been on a rapid decline since. A quick look at membership decline (1.77 to 1.43 million) and reduction in

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348 building working class power also involves fightin g racism and sexism. To ward these ends, is the leadership of people such as Art Takei w ho spent 40 years with UFCW 770 diversifying the leadership and supporting the creation of labor advocacy groups for people of color, such as the Alliance of Asian Paci fic Labor. These efforts paved the way for new generations of Latino/as and Asians to move through the ranks of UFCW and women, many of whom are multilingual. While the union consisted of white male consists of two Latino/as, two white women, and two white men. Working into the field representatives, there are eight white women, two blac k women, one Latina, seven white men, and seven Latino/as. For those on the front lines of organizing new workers, the staff consists of almost all Latino/as, a few Asians, and one white male. These people more accurately reflect the makeup of those they r epresent. Despite the membership and affiliation fluctuations, UFCW 770 continues to build immigrant communities working in industries undergoing casualization and deregul ation, there is a concerted effort to work with immigrant advocacy groups and challenge xenophobic immigration laws. For example, in 1994 UFCW 770 worked with a broad coalition against Proposition 187, a proposed ballot initiative backed by Governor Pete W ilson, which would prohibit undocumented immigrants from receiving a wide range of social services, including public education. In possibly the largest mass protest in work stoppages, the primary militant worker tactic (145/year to low tens/yea r) over this period, reveals the waning power of unions.

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349 California to date, roughly 100,000 marched in opposition to this ballot initiative. One of the unintended consequences of Proposition 187 was that it catalyzed an immigrant rights movement whose echoes reverberate in the language and tactics of the current undocumented youth led DREAMers. Predicting these shifts, President Icaza of UFCW 770 wrote in an opinion piece published soon after the march, were young people who more accurately reflect what Los Angeles is and Ironically, as more and more of them participate in the political process it will become backlash at the polls. Such issues continue to play themselves out both in the political arena, where immigrants now face a post 9/11 militarized border and surveillance state, and in the economic arena, where they face various forms of labor exploitation. These broad strokes provide a context for understanding issues directly influencing UFC W 770. The Political Economy of Poverty, Crisis, Corporate Power and a Weakened State In the following section, I break down how union organizers and food labor advocates working in key alliances understand their position in the wider political economy. Ad ditionally, I draw off archival documents to provide greater depth and confirmation of how these forces operate. I focus primarily on those forces that influence meatpacking and food processing, and grocery retail. 61 Recognizing that these are not always mu tually exclusive I proceed to highlight how poverty, the Great Recession, increasing corporate power, and neoliberal policy pressures contextualize the food labor landscapes of the working class, union members, and union organizers. 61 UFCW 770 represents more than food chain workers. They also represent workers in traditional pharmacies and those in untraditional pharmacies such as medical marijuana dispensaries. These are brac keted out of my analysis.

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350 Bad economic times bree d fights for economic justice In Los Angeles where there are high levels of poverty and income inequality, economic considerations are front and center (See Appendices C, D, and E). On any day of the week, you can walk around downtown Los Angeles and throu gh the surrounding neighborhoods and witness homeless people curled up next to abandoned buildings, the working poor collecting cans and bottles to raise a few extra dollars to feed their families, Latino/a immigrants working in the informal economy sellin g homemade ice cream at local parks, and the working classes pushing burritos and For many of these people working in various sectors 62 Mart a, an organizer working to stir up labor unrest in Wal the world states like Wisconsin, there is a shifting political landscape whereby labor issues are coming back to the fore. As Ann, a whirlwind organizer on all of UFC W 770s campaig ns shares, people re assess ed show of power of the working class, the underbelly of the folks, because they heard their personal stories, they actually realigned themselves. They reali zed that this labor 62 living in poverty. Accord ing to this estimate, California has more people in poverty than any state in the US. Less fine grained numbers put poverty at 16.9%, which still places California at level worse than most states.

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351 activists are pushing to create jobs with dignified pay and benefits. The zeitgeist seems to offer a political opportunity toward these ends, but progress on this front is sporadic. Labor unions sustained attacks for decades, facing many losses along the way. For union organizers, this reality creates a feeling that it is imperative to keep people out of poverty by working in unionized industries, and when possible, add to the union roles. back companies that are trying to cut wages or cut a retiree who deserves the pension they got. You find people who lost that battle after bei ng lifelong union members now shopping at Wal feels a responsibility to daily fight back with workers to maintain their collective power. At the same time, in coalitions built at the in tersection of food and labor, poverty is emerging as a unifying concern. Irene, a lifelong labor advocate and food justice proponent expresses how this is bringing people together throughout the AFM and labor advocates address other crises as well because high poverty levels expose the crassness of corporate profit during the downturn while the working classes lose whatever small gains previously achieved. Place based politics and the complications of multi level governance Political organizing is a centra anti union pieces of legislation recently gutting collective bargaining in places such as Michigan and Wisconsin, the labor movement is especially attune to efforts, whether federal, state, or local that seek The current

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352 political climate puts labor unions on the defensive, but in more local political campaigns, particularly in Los Angeles where the labor movement is strong, proactive meas ures serve to protect and expand working class power. Beginning at a federal level, the major failure of the movement over the past five years, particularly since the election of Obama and the Democratic controlled House and Senate prior to 2010, was the disappointing legislative campai gning on the Employee Free Choice Act (EFCA). The bill sought to amend the National Labor Relations Act to allow workers to more easily unionize, force employers into collective bargaining agreements in a timely fashion, and increase penalties on employers who retaliate against workers for union involvement. Although passing the House and Senate in 2007, it did not clear the 60 vote hurdle required to surmount a Republican filibuster. Again, in 2009, the bill faltered this time as legislative efforts shift ed to the Affordable Care Act. Obama backed down from earlier commitments to passing EFCA at the only time in his administration where passage was possible. 63 Furthermore, Boar d (NLRB), which until August of 2013 for a decade lacked five Senate confirmed members. The importance of a full board stems from the requirement of a five person quorum to make any binding decisions. These federal political currents are still playing the mselves out, but what is immediately obvious is that there is little political will to advance the power of the working class. When there is will, roadblocks obstruct every step of the way. Union 63 to step into labor disputes at federally regulated facilities such as Honeywell, where workers were locked out of their jobs for 14 months Obama also did not intervene beyond some non committal rhetoric during the gutting of labor in strongholds such as Wisconsin.

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353 organizers feel the impacts on the ground in every certification election, it would be liked scorched earth in the industry. We would keep losing and alienating the employees that we need to be representing. Taking them through that process is awful. Union busters are n flaws in the NLRB process are exploited to the benefit of employers, which is why it is important to pass something like the EFCA to make the union certification easier through the simple requirement of collecting sig natures from a majority of workers. 64 One of the problems is the time it takes to go through an election. As Connie, a lawyer and negotiations expert at UFCW 770 contends, to work every day. [Employers] can call the employees into meetings and tell them if they vote for the union they are going to be fired or if the union comes they will close the plant. They can say whatever they want basically. They can even fire people for saying they support the union. That is illegal by law; however, only penalty is that once you go through this whole process of proving illegal ac union activity. If you go through that entire process, it will take several years because they can have hearings, appeal it. Even if you ultimately prove it was for union activity, all they h ave to do is give that person their job back and back pay. This process is easily exploitable by employers, and there is little ability for unions to intervene. While employers can agree to a card check, where if there are more than 50% of employees that sign on in support of unionization then the employer recognizes the union, most opt for the full election process. 64 In fact, it was found that of all 22,000 petitions for an election between 1999 and 2004, only one in five unionization efforts ultimately led to a contract in workplaces strongly leaning union (Ferguson 2008). The same study found that when an election was held resulting in a pro union majority, only 56% ultimately reached a first contract.

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354 as well. The most important state level issue facing unions while undertaking my fieldwork was the California ballot initiative Proposition 32. In short, this initiative proposed limiting labor union influence in elections while exempting Super PACs, which largely represent wealthy interests. In the language of cam power, while limiting the voices of teachers, nurse initiative would prohibit unions and corporations from using automatically deducted money from employee paychecks for political purposes. This is the way that union memb er voices organizationally funnel into politica l campaigns, whereas for corporations the practice does not matter in the context of a post Citizens United democracy where Super PACs are largely unregulated. The importance of this money to unions is clear. This was the most expensive campaign Californi a unions spent money on during the election cycle; $60 million went to ad campaigns and outreach to its 2.5 million members. Ann provides the following gun around? You are going to defend yourself or you are going to get killed. It feels that could grow, Ca lifornia unions took their fight to the street. The importance of Los Angeles labor unions is obvious upon reviewing election results. In an election where a little over 10 million people voted on Proposition 32, 1.5

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355 million votes in Los Angeles County alo ne came out against the initiative. Mark told me, That Ultimately, Proposition 32 failed by a 12% margin. However, Diego was less than sanguine about the results. Noting the millions of dollars drained and people power diverted, They won! They took months and months out of our lives. You take the most talented person at beating Wal Mart, pull him completely off of Wal Mart because he is also the most talented person at beating Prop 32. We lost him for months, during the most critical and historic time to take a stand against Wal Mart. As much as we tout all of the wonderful things we have done, it really feels like we are r unning fast to a standstill. Seeking to disrupt this treadmill, UFCW 770 is proactively political organizing. In the absence of effective labor laws and NLRB, many union organizers see e state level, we ends, UFCW 770 is finding creative ways to hold supply chains of large grocery retai lers accountable. Instead of reacting to the inevitable abuses and relying on a non preventative accountability structure, the union is taking the initiative to speak with politicians. Jae, a he state has to look at ways to strengthen worker rights and make companies accountable in the supply ll be held egy is to use the state to scale influence beyond the local. Relatedly, many union organizers express the importance of electing labor e out

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356 there trying to get Jerry Brown elected as governor. He basically credits the fact he got include six full time offices run by the Los Angeles County Federation of Lab or with roughly 185 phone banking a night, and 200 to 300 volunteers a night doing get out the vote work in every neighborhood in the county. 65 Los Angeles labor politics are also very challenging. Moreover, working in Los Angeles labor politi cs reverberates beyond the city itself. With 88 cities in Los Angeles County, whatever battles win and lose in the largest of these cities reverberate outwards. allies looks at key reg ional industries that will not leave, such as grocery retail, and work to improve the economic conditions of workers in those industries. Similarly, UFCW 770 represents workers throughout the county, so it also takes the view that labor needs to work with campaigns by labor allies the Teamsters to legislate green jobs, he shares an example of where legislate that every city building in the city of LA has to have rooftop greening, solar panels and renewable watering systems, that means good plumbing jobs, good electrician j strategy. Whereas the union only used to write checks to politicians, they now run campaigns with narratives for these politicians to use. These campaigns are difficult to 65 Between 2006 and 2010, UFCW International and its subsid iaries gave Jerry Brown $396,400, with UFCW 770 providing $59,300 of the total. Between 2004 and 2012, UFCW 770 has given most of $611,150 to Democratic candidates running for state and local elections.

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357 work on given their newness, but by selectively choosing strategic local campaigns, and developing socially relevant narratives, there is the possibility for wider relevance. Although the broader view helps food labor advocates to frame their work in ways that ap peal to larger networks, for many labor organizers, the day to day difficulties workers face necessitate engaging in local strategies. As Luciana, an industries in the US. Regu This statement contradicts many challenges to federal and state policies that inform local labor battles. However, when considering the immediacy of issues such as Wal supply chains and on uni on density (see next section on land politics in Los Angeles), such statements seem less unusual. There are also the immediate political impacts of getting more people involved beyond just voting. Mark believes that unions are through an analysi s of labor struggles in meatpacking and food processing. Political economy through the lens of meatpacking and food processing With the Los Angeles meatpacking and food processing industry now creating fewer jobs in fewer different companies, unions ho ld less power From the 1950s through the 1970s, Vernon was brimming with packinghouses most of which were owned by different people. Susana, a longtime resident of the area and daughter of a packinghouse union organizer, told me there used to be over 30 a worker got laid off at one place, he could just go across the street and get a job at She went on to tell me

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358 that owners used compensation insurance as the excuse to slowly close down plants and/or move them out of California. there began this horrible process of corporations buying meatpacking houses, bleeding them dry and then spitting them out. There was a tremendous amount of overproduction Part of the problem for these smaller companies was union militancy. Susana Alt hough these sorts of direct actions won many campaigns, such as a nine week strike in 1976 against Farmer John, the industry was undergoing rapid changes. In the late 1970s, there were two packinghouse locals with roughly 30,000 workers, but by 1982 when t he two locals merged, there were little more than 10,000 workers. Eventually, workers carried out a series of unsucce ssful strikes that UFCW 770 never fully recovered from over 20 years later. In September of 1985, 433 out of 462 union members voted to go on strike and promote a boycott of Farmer John products such as the Dodger Dog. Because contract negotiations broke down after the company refused to budge on cutting medical benefits and eliminating the union and company co managed pension, workers began setting up booths in front of Dodger Stadium and in front of grocery stores selling Farmer John bacon and ham. After suffering a major defeat in 1982 by agreeing to a two tier wage system where people performing the same work but hired at different times made greatly different wages, the union dug in for a long strike. Ultimately, the strike failed to keep medical and pension plans, and workers agreed to a slight pay increase that kept in place a two tier system that took nine years for workers to reach pa

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359 worst year for strikes, at least on the West Coast. We had a dozen strikes, 3 quarters of a million lost in worked days, five deaths, a number of the plants decertified; some went out of business, contra merging locals based on geography instead of sector, but even then, by 1986, the packinghouse division only represented around 6,000 workers. Fifteen years later, the division fell into disrepair with less than 1,000 union members. It was at this time that UFCW 770 began redoubling their efforts to unionize the roughly 15,000 people working in this sector. However, they accepted the new reanimated open shop terrain. Despite the fact that Californi to state, the union negotiated contracts with meatpacking and food processing companies such as Farmer John that allow non members to work in the same plant and/or open shop restructuring and the workplace ideology of libertarian economic elites makes it difficult Since that time, the industry still experiences workplace safety violations, no worker compensation, employer retaliation against workers attempting to unionize, poor labor law enforcement, and abuse and exploitation of a new wave of Latino/a immigrants (Compa 2004). 66 With reductions in the power of unions to regulate the actual labor practices within a plant, such as the speed of the line, let alone wage and 66 Meatpacking is a dangerous job. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than one in ten workers experience illness or injury, which is double the rate for all US manufacturing.

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360 benefit st ructures, a new desperation set in. 67 600 workers, many of them after the start of the Great Recession. Emiliano explains, wo were more into the specialty fish for hotels and cruise Unfortunately, there is a sense of permanency to the loss o f jobs especially as companies move to states with less of an active labor movement. When people are able to find new jobs, they are in non union plants where even if they come in with 20 years of experience, ar e not guaranteed commensurate wages and benefits. Meatpacking and food processing companies generally take a has a very large immigrant population of people who are easily exploited, is a big Pla nt closures, though, also hurt the labor movement in Los Angeles. In the p ast 10 years, the number of sh op stewards in these plants dropped from 85 to 20. For many companies, the economic downturn is an excuse to shut down plants, only to reopen them under different names without a union contract. 68 The other response is to cut 67 At Overhill Farms, one line produces 48,000 pounds of Panda Express meals a day. On another line, on a busy day, wo rkers produce a round 80,000 pounds This same line only used to produce 40,000 pounds. Nonetheless, remuneration and the num ber of workers on the line largely remain the same. 68 One company that underwent this transition is Holiday Meat & Provisions, whic h now operates as Rocker Bros. Meats & Provisions, Inc.

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361 b ack benefit packages. People now pay out of pocket for health insurance through their employer, as is the case at Overhill Farms. Perhaps most difficult is the slow removal of pension plans tied to a fund that employers pay into. With fewer unionized plant s, the money is no longer available to support retired union members. Instead, if retirement plans exist, then they are a 401k which do not help because these people work paycheck to paycheck. After I ask, what it would take to build up the power of work ers in the meatpacking and food if we want to survive. UFCW 770 sees the opportunity to set minimum standard s w ith giant packinghouses run by transnational agr ibusinesses such as Farmer John as imperative powe r base and this concentration of employment and employers, it represents an breasted union strategy. Diego proudl This is important because its decisions reverberate throughout the industry a s t he largest company in Vernon However, the day to day organizing of plants is difficult work. The first time I met Ray, a union representative for Overhill Farms, a food processing facility in the industrial town of Vernon, 10 miles from downtown Los

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362 Angel es, he told me that he would like to take me out to the plants. At first, I was a little nervous, but soon became intrigued. There are two plants. The first is a plant that can be packaged for delivery to various restaurants and grocery stores. The second is a plant that puts all the parts together and places them into boxes for shipping to restaurants and grocery stores. 69 Ray said to wear jeans, rubber soled shoes, and a com He went on to reassure me that it is amazing to see this machine human process of food production The last major battle for workers was over healthcare. Most of the time, however, he [s] Peop le sometimes engage in petty theft, physical altercations, or volatile workplace Therefore, Ray works with the employees to help them avoid situations that may lead to termination The employer also makes problems for Ray. For inst ance, after winning the healthcare battle, instead of using the Human Resource (HR) department to deal with theft, they call the police to interview people. This intim idation reminds workers that employer s hold the power to make their lives difficult. The day to day grind of a union representative is difficult without a larger campaign to bring workers together. Ray said he understands the workers but at the same time thinks they often act rashly and put their employment status at risk. 69 Overhill Farms makes products for companies and brands such as Fresh and Easy, Panda Express, Hungry Man Meals, Boston Market, and Jenny Craig.

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363 Volanda also seems to think that worker issues were petty. For instance, there are regular problems with punch cards. Not everyone punches their time card so when paychecks arrive, employees do not always receive adequate compensation They then come in and request a pay co rrection On the one hand, this is a problem because workers are not ensuring that their punch cards (electronic cards) are active. On the other hand, this is a management problem because the machines do not always respond to the swipe of the card. She is somewhat sympathetic to the worker complaints, saying there is inherent conflict between management and workers. At the same time, her view is antagonistic and paternalistic referring to the workers at one A paternalistic attit ude is to some degree also shared by Ray who believes that there are many workers hard to deal with. For example, there are differences between workers in Plant 1 and Plant 2. Plant 1 is more modern and is where the workers suffer fewe r problems. The worke rs in Plant 2 struggle with more petty issues and conflicts. This plant is renowned for being unbearably hot in the summer and freezing cold in the winter. Instead of ascribing differences in temp erament to conditions, there is a reduction to essential tra its of those in one plant versus another. Such hierarchical conditions exist in the division of labor and the physical markers used to separate out different types of workers. 70 These physical demarcations separate out workers in order to reinforce differe nce, making management easier. While there is some equality and solidarity between workers, many of whom work with the 70 Red caps are worn by temp agency workers, green caps by a different temp agency, yellow caps by those with less than one year of experience, and white caps by those with over one year. Light blue coats are worn by sanitation workers, dark blue by mechanics, and brown by those working with organic and foods with allergens.

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364 union, this was not immediately visible in the space. The division of labor between men and women was also acute. Women mainly worked alo ng the assembly lines. Men operated forklifts trolleys, were the mechanics, or worked with the bulk starches, which required harder physical labor such as heavy lifting. By creating this space of difference, management institutionalizes a way by which wor kers fight over different statuses. For example, temporary workers are non union. This dou ble breasted strategy, which splits unioni zed workforce only extracts more value from non union workers, but a lso creates resentment and hierarchy amongst workers. In a recent contract UFCW 770 accepted a deal that 25% of the workforce can be temporary companies say they need these temp workers is due to the fact that s ome people call in reality, this policy leads to greater profits for the company b ecause it can extract more value from the workforce. In some ways, Ray ends up as an apologist for Overhill Farms. These contradictions make it difficult for workers to accept unions even in the midst of an industry that needs the power of unions to protec t workers. Work in these plants is difficult. Repetitive motions on the line is physically demanding, clearly visible as hundreds of kung pao chicken containers and Hawaiian rice bowls are prepared every few minutes. See Figure 7 1. To get all these packa ges prepared is hard, underpaid work. Speaking of the workers who move raw chicken into machines that then get portioned into various packages, Santiago, a steward at Overhill hese

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365 people get their shovels and get all 2,000 pounds of chicken out like nothing. In 20 minutes, The company, any company, wants you 7 days a week, 24 hours a day and they want you 71 A union organizer named Olivia further exten ds this class analysis Referring to the products made by workers at Farmer John, thin and dangerous work conditions. Outside the plants, many workers face economic difficul ties. Pointing out the irony of working in the food chain, but being unable to afford food at the better union at Ralphs, Vons, or Albertsons because they are not affordable. Food for Less is affordable but they are you going to buy your food? The farmers market or the regular store? We look for cheaper food because there are no choices. You wish you could 71 I heard countless stories about how inflation outpaces wages which is especially difficult for people living through Southern California housing bubbles, and gas price spikes. A related issue is work hour reductions, which is an ongoing pro blem at Overhill Farms for those with a standard of living that they then can no longer maintain.

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366 get healthier food but in order to get that you have to make more money. If problem with big corporations that produce food; they use a lot of pesticides on the product and hormones in the meat to make them grow faster. The fa ster they grow the more money they can make. What we eat profits first and our health last. Sometimes we have no choice. You might Food in security is especially problematic when there is a desire to eat better food. I asked a number of workers and organizers whether they would eat what gets produced in these plants, almost all of whom said they would not, given the generally poor quality. W orking in the industry exposes workers to the nature of these foods, workers active in unionized plants, health is directly associated with economic security. People who eat unhealthy food (e.g. Farmer John packaged meats) under forced conditions do so because that is all they can afford, even though they may not want to after seeing the process producing such food For those working at Overhill Farms, the company will expire. T he worker labors in the production process to reproduce his or her a bility to keep laboring. In this example, the company captures the surplus value derived from this p rocess by selling back the worst of the food produced to both contribute to the paid wages thus extracting even more value. These examples expose the inner workings of the capitalist mode of production and i ts capacity to recapture value produced by the labor that went into the food. The political economy of meatpacking and food processing in Los Angeles reflects some broader patterns throughout the food chain that harm workers, which in turn are compelling f ood chain workers to fight back.

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367 Stand Up, Damned of the Earth, and Join Labor Unions Most labor organizers, union representatives, shop stewards, and union management I spoke with told me stories about how they had family who worked in laboring positions somewhere along the food supply chain. These experiences imprinted tangible examples of how power operates in the most mundane, yet important ways. At the point of labor, the day to day life of a person can be alienating or liberating. One labor advocate named Jill had a grandfather who worked at a union grocery store. pasts, Emiliano s aid he picked and prepared apricots the summer before sixth grade: parents wo rked as farmworkers their entire lives. At one point, her father was experiencing wage theft, so he started a campaign to recapture these wages. After the firing of one of the leaders the campaign effectively stopped was part of a c ampaign that increased the number of breaks strawberry pickers directly tied to the l egacy of Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers (UFW). Ray brought tears t lesson taken from these experiences is that labor unions are incredibly important.

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368 Additiona lly, there is a belief that since labor is central to our experience as humans and the economy affects all of us in concrete ways, that labor unions should leaders of the p 72 In spite of sustained losses, there is a feeling that unions provide f ood workers with greater economic power. Mark, a former people who make, prepare, process sell, and deliver the food impact and are impacted r UFCW in particular, they play a central social role as a union that represents food workers. Mark goes on to claim that Los Angeles food workers and For example, Felipe, a packinghouse union organizer with UFCW 770 told me a story about a woman he met that now works at Farmer John Food Services, a recently organized Farmer John sister plant. She worked for Hoffy, another food processing plant for 15 years making only $9 an hour the entire time. Felipe said, 72 Because UFCW is the largest private sector union in the US, there is major potential to begin expanding the labor movement through efforts at organizing food workers. However, there would need to be serious efforts made at union solidarity across the different food and farming sectors aimed at expanding their union membership.

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369 like be ollar or more at a union Such examples support a pro union mentality. 73 Union promotion takes multiple forms. First, although food chain workers regularly experience exploitation when they receive union protection there tend s to be greater upward mobility. many of those opportunities or they have been converted into non union, service sector jobs that you can ba because it is the core of its membership, but because it is strategically positioned to act as an intermediary between the public and unions given the centrality of grocery shopping for mo st people. In this way, it stands as a positive example of how eaters can learn from food workers what fair remuneration for food work looks like. Second, unionized workplaces help stabilize local economies by increasing purchasing power. 74 Adrian, a labor workers have access to quality jobs, they are able to spend more of their income. If they can spend more of their income they will be able to attract businesses or take their there are greater numbers of unionized workplaces 73 According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of 2008, the average earnin gs of meatpacking workers is $11.13/hour, 29% less than the average wage for all US manufacturing jobs. 74 UFCW union members working as food retail clerks earn an average of $162 more per week than their non union counterparts do.

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370 in an industry, it tends to increase overall wages and benefits in that industry. Although this creates a free rider problem, the economic benefits are nonetheless present. Third, pro union worldviews stem from the belief that collectively there is greater power to intervene in passage of worker friendly public policy and oversight of workplace regulatory agencies. have any protection. Y ou just work, w ork, work and that is it. You get your pay every ordinances and citywide procurement policies that encourage fair food labor practices. working with the California legislature, he people elected into office who have balanced view of things in terms of fairness and open our side about working class families Fourth, unions are one of the only organizational and legal forms available to of the puzzle that no one else has. That piece is real people who all come together especially important in the context of contract negotiations. Connie, a chief negotiator in many recent grocery re we are here for, to negot

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371 Fifth, and directly related to issues of collective representation is that to be pro union is to be pro working class, which in Los Angeles means pro people of color. Luciana explains that grocery retail jobs ar e one of the few respectable paths available you look at issues of access to education and resources provided to communities of color, this is just one more door that would Most impacted by deindustrialization and the rise of the food service economy are low income communities of color. L arge corporations, many of which are anti union tend to dominate t hese insecure low wage jobs unionize these sectors, UFCW 770 is on the frontlines of lifting the boats of those most economically marginalized in Los Angeles Last, and most relevant to the process of reducing labor alienation is that a unionized workplace creates more empowered workers who successfully fight for greater respect and opportunities to solve workplace problems. Juan, a packinghouse worker at Far mer John says, because I want everyone to understand the importance of changing the good about yourself because you are helping build this workers movement. Many union organizers told me that the shop floor and not the negotiating room is the foundation of the labor movement Most importantly, as Ray believes, the rank and file the people before us fought so hard for us to have. We were there holding the line for

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372 wages and job security at The Winning of Hearts and Minds through Multiracial Labor Struggles Although multiracial organizing is now common in UFCW 770 historically, the union is pa rt of a labor movement that, jobs [a Facing widespread union decline, Diego goes on to say that in order to get beyond the micro had to go back a healthy workplace with healthy workers that have living wage jobs produces a product that is better for 75 Part of the unio to larger demographic shifts; Latino/as now make up the largest single racial group in Los Angeles (See Appendix C). 76 At the same time, there are many economic inequalities experienced by this b urgeoning population and other people of color. 77 The strategic leveraging and/or emphasis on issues of race and class depend on the issue and campaign, but most often racial and economic justice is mutually constitutive. This stems from a historical analys is of race relations in the US, and the 75 Even after the AFL CI O Executive Council passed a resolution in 2000 calling for the repeal of employment eligibility verification required under IRCA, a position it once supported, a number of UFCW locals opposed the changes. However, along with many in the labor movement who recognized the 76 While unions improve wages for people of color, on average unionized workers are not all paid the same. There are still inequalities base for bridging the racial divide. 77 decision making body on matters of relevance to union members. The board consists of workers in every industry represented by the union, most of whom represent the primary demographics of these industries: people of color, immigrants, and women.

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373 ongoing legacies that play out in the agrifood system. As Lillian observes, these groups structural racism. That is how the food system of color face economic hardsh ips and are on the frontlines fighting for better working not just about anonymou many people in this position, they will go into jobs such as grocery retail. With a growing Los Angeles Latino/a community, there is a rise in the num ber of Latino/a grocery retail chains. While UFCW 770 and some of its partners, such as LAANE, prioritize the interests of low income communities of color, they do not blindly accept poor labor practices just because a particular ethnic group is selling cu lturally appropriate food. S ome of the worst labor practices occur in Latino/a grocery retail low e expansion of them since LA is becoming more and more diverse. Most of those stores Many employers pay undocumented workers under the table, usually below minimum wage. Although U FCW 770 may still wage a full scale campaign, they are well aware of these abuses and feel it is important to lift all boats.

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374 These issues raise some questions. At what point is race subordinated in the good food/good jobs analysis? Even thou gh race and class intersect acknowledgement of racial issues is often passive In addition, weight because they clearly refer to low income people of color. For example, s peaking of conversations with Latino/a and black communities about grocery retail jobs, Jae say s, opportunities that happen, it affects the entir something that is very hard to articulate because it happens slowly over these communities, it will slowly affect others. These discursive turns o f expression act as a political strategy premised on the acceptance of talking publically about economic inequality, and downplaying race by using other words that imply these intersections. Strategizing often begins with a central issue. Jae outlines it t rstanding of the importance of people f rom similar backgrounds involving themselves in and leading the white male leadership at the top and expect rank and file workers w ho are people of This transition in representing the concerns of low income communities of color m eans that

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375 UFCW 770 also fights in t he immigrant rights movement. Seeing t he necessity of immigrant organizing In a conversation with Jae in the lowly lit organizing department, he expresses that historically dangerous and economically marginalized conditions activated workers The result is improved working conditions, child labor standards, work hour/day limits, minimum wages, and rights to collectively ba rgain and organize. These battles are often very difficult when workers are immigrants, because they are easier to exploit and for white society harder to identify with. Many of these groups, like the Italians and Irish eventually assimilate into white soc iety after using the victories made through union organizing as a gateway to the middle class. Within countless unions, the result is an ossification of leadership and tactics. However, as new waves of immigrants took menial jobs, labor unions were slow to way. We need to make sure that we continue to organize workers and listen to s (Milkman 2006), UCFW 770 recognizes the need to more actively organize these new(er) groups. Employers use the undocumented status of workers to break apart workplace solidarity. In succeeding waves of workers throughout the food chain, from Chinese in t he fields and Irish in meatpacking plants to Latino/a workers dominating both these industries, some companies increase profits by bringing in those they perceive as exploitable. Commenting on the experience of food processing workers at Overhill Farms, Sa ntiago says that many undocumented workers are afraid of standing up for

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376 you are go many experienced line workers wanting to work as a lead in some department, they face discrimi nation. According to Santiago, even though the HR person knows Spanish, she only wants English speakers in these positions, even if they are inexperienced. As need to spe ak English, they can read and they have been doing that work for so many types of workplace abuses inspired UFCW 770 to take on the concerns of immigrants. The union know s many of its members are undocumented o r perceived as such and harassed by bosses and law enforcement. Take Proposition 187. As Mark says, people vote against it who were n A pragmatic understanding that these new groups are going to become the rank and file and eventual leadership of the Los Angeles labor movement matches an eth ical imperative. Dave membership power to win. We have to be able to tap into the other sources of community power. The places where we organize, a lot of th ose are led by people of organizing tactics. For example, unlike previous campaigns exclusively reaching out to Vernon plant workers, UFCW 770 is working with groups such as Coalition for Humane

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377 Immigrant Rights in Los Angeles (CHIRLA) to open and run worker centers. Because of limited capacity, UFCW 770 is generally only able to organize one plant at a time, so by supporting the creation of a new labor advocacy space, they can simultaneously incubate new food labor activism. Such efforts are important in light of the legal complexities of employee verification. Navigating the legal complexity of immigrant organizing Organizing and representing undocumented workers pres ents UFCW 770 with a number of challenges. For example, after making a big organizing drive at Farmer John in 2010, there were around 350 workers without legal work documents. The HR department slowly let these workers go, knowing they were interested in u nion representation. In order to do so, they required all workers to sign a letter stating that their Social Security Number (SNN) matches their identity. One reason for requiring these letters is that the Social Security Administration occasionally sends undocumented people sign the letters. Employers still hire them k nowing that many of their identitie s are forged If they ever became a problem for management, there is a pretext for firing. Moreover, it is a means by which to discourage joining the union. Illustrating this reality, Felipe told me a story about a woman who worked there for 11 years, and was fired because she signed one of these letters. He said in the pro cess of we provide their legal status, instead leaving it up to the workers and their employers to

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378 navigate those legal channels. One result is that these workers face th eir undocumented status alone. One of the most visibly contested examples of job insecurity and labor union weakness in the face of mass undocumented firings occurred at Overhill Farms in 2009. A name they fired 254 workers, over a quar ter of the workforce Although the government took no action against the workers, and did not require Overhill to do so, the company still fired workers. As 38 year old Bohemia Agustiano, a mothe ourselves on the assembly lines for years, many of us have injuries from repetitive unjust; no one should is whether unions respond to these mass firings. Without the help of UFCW 770, who represents the fired workers, they sought the assistance of the immigrant rights organization Hermandad Mexicana Latinoamericana to organize two protests (Figure 7 2). Desp ite paying union dues for many years, the union could do little more than try to prevent the firings before they occurred, file grievances after the fact, and direct workers to social service resources. UFCW 770 opposes the sanctions t hat led to the firing s, but lacks recourse and so far is unsuccessful in preventing similar behavior. 78 Given these challenges, unions are advocating for major immigration overhaul. Although union proposals vary widely, many labor activists I spoke with agree with 78 A new union rep came in after the mass firing in hopes that he would build a new relationship with the workf orce. According to this rep, he does not know much about the mass firing and maintains that there is not much that the union could do for fired workers.

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379 companies use many different secret scare tactics, it is difficult to file charges. Even when unions ca tch wind of illegal intimidation tactics, workers may not want to proceed to get d activists are taking more direct action. For example, police arrested four UFCW activists including the director of organ izing at UFCW 770 in October 2013 in Washington D.C. at a maj or immigration reform march (Figure 7 3).The political engagement discussed above direct ly impacts whether unions effectively mobilize food workers. Below I turn to a different set of politics and interpretations of food labor as it pertains to the labor m Approach In the course of my research, I attended to how food labor advocates differ in their interpretations of the relationship between food and lab or compared to those more traditionally investigated by food studies scholars. While many food labor advocates are interested in creating a win win on the good food and good jobs f ronts, good jobs are a necessary precondition. For example, a list of stores the union discourages patronizing because they do not support the right for workers to organize, includes foodie bastions such as Whole Foods, Trader Joes, and Wild Oats. In 2012, in the spirit of celebrating Thanksgiving, UFCW International, along with a number of other unions, put out an ad encouraging union members to buy their corporate food products (Figure 7 4). Although

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380 many consider such corporate influence part of what creates problems for food chain workers, the union largely promotes a labor fir st approach. 79 One of the difficulties of working with the environmental wing of the AFM concerns conventional food production and the clash over labor rights with the perception that there is a tradeoff between environmental and economic sustainability. Companies such as the ones p romoted by UFCW contribute to environmental degradation. Furthermore, some of these food processing companies do not guarantee fair labor conditions earlier in the supply chain, namely on the farm where animals are raised and se nt off to industrial processing plants. Just because unionized labor processes food does excuse environmental degradation, animal cruelty, unsafe and unhealthy food, or labor inequality at other points in the supply chain. Unionized labor is not a totalizi ng category. One of the issues the AFM faces is providing enough jobs at each point of new supply chains to justify efforts that minimize the influence of agrifood corporations. Most efforts to bridge labor justice and ecological considerations are on farm s. Where there are efforts later in the supply chain, these are on a city scale (e.g. LAANE and UFCW working with local communities to surmount the food desert versus Walmart grocery store divide). These problems on the labor movement side do not always st em from some blindly self interested rationalization. There are deeper sociobiological understandings driving the elevation of food labor. One of the key claims made by many food labor 79 Schnaiberg (1980) considered labor unions as a key driver of the treadmill of destruction, whereby t hey supported ever growing capitalist expansion as long as they received a fair share for their members. Thus, ecological considerations, not to mention various social and economic contradictions are often ignored in the name of capturing more productive v alue.

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381 activists is that food labor is central to social reproduction. As such these workers play a critical role in society and deserve a say in how they are treated: Mark argues, You can tell the character of society in terms of how food is processed and involve people are exploited tremendously or whether people are paid a living wage and seen as pillars of the community, those are all reflective of the kinds of communities that they are a part of The condition under which foo to the product. As The activism at UFCW 770, and more broadly within the food l abor advocacy sector, focuses on reflecting back to people how American society looks through the lens of how we treat food workers. Given a widespread obsession with keeping food costs low, food worker conditions are often a secondary consideration to the food itself. Obviously, these are intimately related, but for food labor activists, there is a discursive chicke n, beef, pork or even tofu, it took somebody to take it off, it took a worker to wid espread and growing economic inequality these are fundamentally just fights. can raise a family on or make a decent living, that is obviously a problem for the

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382 econom organizing and taking back some of the money that these companies have been with a growing con versation about 30 years of stagnating wages and the concentration of income and wealth. This belief in the inherent morality of putting workers first challenges a dominant AFM narrative about the importance of eating local, organic, food. In response to a question about the relationship between food labor advocates and the AFM, Adrian tells me about how he grew up in a rough neighborhood with poor food access. He then industries and make them cheaper like we do for the corn industry, then we really need discussion to fundamentally improving food labor conditions, the conversation becom es more inclusive because it highlights what needs to done to democratize access to food. F ocus ing on wages and benefits is a matter of human dignity. I quote Felipe at length to show how many food chain workers feel about fair pay, If your boss or the ow you I would say $25 an hour to live decently. Not necessarily to buy a house but to be able to rent a decen t house for your wife and family, to send your kids to college, you have your own car to come to work and to have money to enjoy your life. You work during the week and you have and to e njoy your life.

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383 Felipe reveals through this analysis that the focus on wage an hour is about more than just the money. The pay also reflects the degree to which human labor is valued. Given its centrality to social life, how people labor is a major compon ent of their identity. Repeatedly members and organizers told me stories about how union shops make substantially more money than non union shops right down the road. For se every 3 or 6 months when we were going 4 or 5 years without a raise. We were working workers, Santiago w as able to level the wages. 80 Once workers recognize these differences, a process of empowerment begins based on the belief that their labor (i.e. their life) is of greater value. In addition to benefiting individuals, there is also the belief that people s hould collectively demand a system of remuneration that fairly treats the entire workforce. With these basic labor concerns in mind, it is easier to understand why there is a belief that much of the AFM is elite in its membership and stated goals. 81 One con cern is that many people buying organic food are more concerned with eating organic fo od than with whether or not workers labor under fair conditions in the process of o rganic food production. When the human labor aspect is missing, many food labor activis ts express skepticism about the potential for the movement to make broader social changes. For example, Jill claims that explicitly organizing around food is difficult 80 In 20 years, Felipe went from being paid $8/hour to $16/hour. He works for Overhill Farms in shipping and receiving, a better department than those working in production. 81 When seeking support for striking Wal Mart workers on Black Friday 2012, Slow Food Los Angeles told me that labor issues for grocery retail workers is not within the purview of their mission. Such responses breed skepticism in food labor advocates that bridges can be built with elite factions of the AFM.

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384 because it intertwines with w hat is ultimately going to allow people to become healthier and have less health Jill claims like many other labor activists that you cannot begin with an abstract thing like food, which itself is a product of human labor and embedded in syst ems of social stratification. Instead, you should begin with economic justice and the process by which society creates the means and modes to live. Moreover, in the context of Los Ange les, class intimately relates to race and ethnicity. nce, type concerns, I voice While the AFM mobilizes around changing parts of the Farm Bill or pass ing legislation that labels genetically modified foods (GMO), the framing does not usually include a working class lens. Many food labor activists see this as a problem because as An through their work they have the power to make change for their entire community and justic e and inequality. Labor, work, and jobs are topics in need of more serious engage ment to ensure the respect of people and respectable work. This quote sums up a longstanding idea that human empowerment comes through labor or as Marx understood it, is the c ore of our species being. As such, it provides a universal lens through which to address other concerns. Ann later told me that for her the most significant political moment where the labor movement can intervene in concerns

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385 shared by the wider AFM is over GMOs, particularly the Obama administrations relationship with Monsanto to solve world hunger. In such instances, food labor unions private sector that produce, serve, In some respects, the California Labor Federation (CLF) took a monumental step toward building collective power with the AFM when it supported P roposition 37, which would require labeling GMOs. During the biennia l statewide convention at the end of July 2012, over 700 union representatives from hundreds of unions gathered to plan on Proposition 37 was neutral. They were not for or against the proposition b ecause it did not directly relate to believe something is an issue, a union cannot unilaterally make the decision to support legislation, candidates or propositions. There to note that labor unions do no automatically take the moral high road. It is difficult to weigh in on all issues because there are limited material resources and political capital. The tide shifted on Proposition 3 7 when a young female union organizer stood up to call on CLF to support Proposition 37. In short, her argument rested on the fact that there are many young union members and organizers for whom the genetic engineering of food is a serious issue. If CLF di d not endorse 37, it would be out of step with the most politically charged issues E veryone eats, and everyone should possess the right to know what is in his or her food. In framing their support, CLF pointed out the major opponents were large corporatio ns with anti worker and anti union stances. In addition, individual unions such as UFCW 770 framed their support as protecting workers and

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386 their families (i.e. consumer protection). Thus, health bridges environmental (food) and labor issues (c.f. Mayer 200 9). On the other hand, one of the perceived challenges of working with the broader There is always going to be a bit of a cultural divide between people who would never cast a vote for Obama versus an institution that will spend tens and hundreds of millions of dollars to ensure he is reelected. Bridging those divides at the grassroots level is probably a significant task to ensure that the leadership and vision of what you want to see happen generations down the road is actually put into practice with a budget, staff, and concrete goals for the short and the long term This pragmatic response threads the needle between institutional and anti establishment politics arguing that at some point institutionalization in whatever form is necessary to ensure a replicable process. Much of the AFM focuses on local level initiatives to increase organic food production, teach people to grow their own foo d, and expand markets for organic farmers. Some organizing aims to pass statewide and federal laws that advance the interests of urban agriculture or maintain food safety and food security. When it comes to the interests of workers or immigrants, particula rly in the conventional food system, the foodie branch of the AFM expends le ss political capital This all leads to whether there are possible ways to bridge a variety of concerns. Opportunities to Bridge the Gap between Foodies and U nions? Seeing the gaps and our market share but when it comes to looking at the deeper issues with food and giving our input on it, I It is difficult to push back against organizational velocity supporting

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387 workers at any cost Many union organizers are sensitive to criticism of union members taking self int erested positions in light of widespread problems. This creates barriers for unions wanting to build alliances across the left or in environmental circles. Nonetheless, in light of greenwashing campaigns by corporations such as Wal Mart, there is a growin g consensus around the need to develop non traditional alliances to make substantive environmental and economic wins. Reflecting on these issues, Jill believes that by selli ng organic produce Wal Mart reduced opposition from environmental groups who would normally oppose the company for other reasons. She otherwise be allied groups. 82 The refore, a number of Los Angeles food labor activists is short Nonetheless, UFCW 770 faces constant pressure to ensure that workers and the communi ties within which they live can access jobs that provide upward mobility. After obs erving that communities contend with whether they keep unionized grocery retail jobs or allow low somehow have a better deal to g et products in. Products, at some point from the origin, 82 Big labor and mainstr eam environmental groups are beginning to realize this. In August of 2013, there was a proposal by the AFL CIO to explore new institutional partnerships with other progressive groups, including environmental groups like the Sierra Club.

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388 lays one of the chief contradictions of labor unions that represent workers who work for corporations. There is an incentive for labor unions to maintain/increase union density, which increases working class power, but does little to nothing to change the current structure of capitalism. By willingly accepting many of the exact elements of capitalism (e.g. growth) that undermine worker power, unions can end up running on a shrinking treadmill that eventually bucks them off. Many of these elements are also responsible for poverty and social inequality ( e.g. lack of access to good food). This desire for non traditional al liance building abuts many pressing concerns, as an organization see the value of our worker? What do we represent? That should shape the identity of the goal, the vision, Therefore, while the desire exists to connect other issues to labor issues, challenges stand in the way of effectively going from rhetorical support to programmatic, material support. At the end of the day protecting aga inst worker abuse and ensuring the rights of workers comes first. Where there is a need to expand alliances is throughout the food chain itself. Toward these ends, Dave notes that this can only happen when resources support Moreover, unions corporate and political elites. Directly related are new political opportunities to work with

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389 One way to concretize the new narrative is to find ways to bring workers to the fore. For many in UFCW 770 it is important to make visible the lives of food workers. As you have to really concentrate to identify all those people who you are passing that are Food workers are often invisible W orkers are largely a means to an end i n a con sumer society where neolib eral subjectivities predominate Consumers matter most evidenced workers and influence social practices that reproduce poor labor conditions. Those promoting bucolic images of small family farmers perpetuate problems food chain workers face by missing a larger point: the US is a consumer society where we face intense marketing pressures that inscribe change at the individual through the market. Neoli beralization in this sense operates as a socialization process justifying worker exploitation. Even in Vernon where a giant mural depicting happy pigs and farmers covers the main Farmer John plant the image serves as a marketing strategy to get the consum er to feel good about eating these products, while ignoring the dangerous working conditions going on inside (Figure 7 5). To shift from consumer to worker requires opening up understandings of social justice to include economic justice and the rights of workers. Assuming the common removal of labor from the social justice equations of activists, Amy argues that in these In terms of animal

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390 rights or environmental justice, a lot of people get centered on the types of justices that This neglect is problematic because owners and managers throughout the food chain do not automatically support workers; their p rerogative is to extract as much value as possible from workers in order to accumulate more capital. Furthermore, as Ann points that many foodies, whether politically active or not, are open to. In an internal series of focus groups with shoppers at Trader Joes and Whole Foods, UFCW investigated what a successful unionizing camp aign would look like. Diego says what they found was that, the union. We compared where they were in terms of right to work and union shop munities or not. All of the demographics favored While they did not run these campaigns because the looming threat of Wal Mart was too great economic justice can mobilize many constituencies. 83 The strength of unions comes from leveraged c ollective power. Many traditional actions such as work slow downs, strikes, collective bargaining, grievance filing by union representatives against abusive management, and dues collection are partially responsible for maintaining union levels within UFCW 770. However, the union recognizes the importance of connecting with grassroots community based organizations to do more than traditional union organizing. As a member of Food Chain 83 As of 2007, the Walton family had a net worth equal to the bottom 30 percent of Americans. After a few years of the Great Recession, this figure jumped to holding as much wealth as the bottom 40 percent of Americans (Bivens 2012).

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391 Workers Alliance (FCWA), UFCW 770 supports non institutional organizing of allied groups such as Coalition for Immokalee Workers (CIW) and Restaurant Opportunity real cultural change at the local level of unions, in terms of what people priori tize. We organizations and building these relationships and alliances as a key component of their Toward these ends, UFCW 770 realizes that if the economic stan ding of food chain workers is to improve and gains maintained, then a diversity of tactics and relationships is a prerequisite. It is here where another possibility arises for working with other segments of the AFM. One proposed framing to integrate these various groups is food justice (Gottlieb and Joshi 2010). While the phrase may capture the liberatory imagination of some, it is the actionable substance of what it means to integrate economic justice into projects and policies that matters to activists o n the ground. There needs to be a concerted effort to build labor solidarity in myriad ways that lift as many boats as possible and humanize the experience of food labor for those removed from such realities. For example, when CIW targeted Trader Joes to s ign a code of conduct to raise the wages and working conditions of tomato pickers, UFCW 770 sent people to a rally at the company headquarters and helped lodge CIW activists with union organizers. Most of the legwork ultimately leading to Trader Joes signi ng the agreement is attributable to a broad based coalition led by CIW, but FCWA members including ROC provided the campaign bodies and resources at different points. Given that they are grassroots organizations largely

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392 run by workers, and lack the same in stitutionalized affiliation as labor unions, similar organizing cultures help to build ties. FCWA is pivotal on these fronts. Beginning in 2009, they quickly garnered national attention in the left media after releasing a series of reports on the working conditions of food chain workers. In addition, leaders of FCWA gave talks and proposed workshops at many food conferences, thus starting to attract the attention of academics. FCWA is reaching out to food justice groups and groups such as the US Food Sover eignty Alliance to build the necessary bridges to change the conditi ons for food chain workers One current campaign to link these various interests is taking on Darden, the largest restaurant chain in the world. Additionally, Lillian claims that there is also around food labor is over city procurement policies and minimum wage increases. Give n that labor unions such as UFCW 770 are breaking out of the industrial unionism By br inging different organizational or cultural strengths together, a broader AFM can be For many food labor activists these efforts do not preclude the need to expand organic and sustainable food production, or increase access to these foods. Lillian points to experiments that might possibly bridge foodies and unions. There is a UCFW local in Cincinnati developing a union co op hybrid model for a regional food hub. A forthcoming farm will train young farmers, who after a year will receive the opportunity to

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393 buy into the farm as a worker/owner. The farm will sell to local institutions like hospitals and schools. In addition, there will be a food processing company based on the same model. Until they start their own retail outlet, they will sell their food to union grocery only taking place in the Lo s Angeles Food Policy Council to pass fair procurement policies that support unionized food businesses or those that can verify their labor practices, but also within UFCW to launch a model similar to the one in Cincinnati. The process of building new orga nizational models is often difficult, time consuming work that cuts against institutional momentum, but examples such as these raise the prospect of an AFM that advances economic justice throughout conventional and alternative food supply chains. With thes e various labor understandings and practices in mind, I turn to the contentious food politics of land use. Part 2: Grocery Retail Land Use Victories and Defeats and the Double Imperative of Eating and Working Well The grocery retail sector constitutes the arena within which UFCW 770 engages in the most intense contentious food politics. Of central importance are the entanglements of urban landscapes with key actors such as workers, union organizers, community allies, politician s, and corporate boosters M a t erial and symbolic factors imbue the landscapes with significance Since the early 1900s, self serve grocery retail is increasingly pivotal for social reproduction. With the spread of suburban development, each community built grocery stores to serve their food needs. Not only do these stores provide a consistent source of nourishment, they also provide local employment. Although many companies such as A&P, Kroger, Safeway, Ralphs, and Lucky were

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394 initially small, they spread their geographic reach and overa ll square footage throughout the 1900s, trailblazing the supermarket model most common today. Seeing the rapid growth of grocery retail, along with the rise of a few highly capitalized supermarket chains, labor unions started organizing workers. The first major victory came in the late 1930s when A&P signed collective bargaining contracts with numerous AFL unions. With the rise of chain stores came more unionized supermarkets. Around this time, many states attempted, and in some cases succeeded in banning c hain stores. However, opponents minimized and in many cases repealed the passage of anti chain store laws with the help of unions, who fought to provide bette r wages than independent stores (Ingram and Rao 2004). Ironically, unions are partially responsibl e for producing the conditions under which they now struggle to maintain membership rates. Where chain supermarkets once stood as bastions of community stability, they are increasingly sites of corporate power and exploitation. Anti union companies such a s Wal Mart perfected the chain model of its predecessors, but without providing the same quality of food or employment. Many people consider such companies blight, a visual reminder that where grocery stores once provided a communal space where money flowe d back into the local economy there now stands an exploitative land use. Framing such interpretive understandings are documentaries such as Robert Wal Mart: The High Cost of Low Price Such accounts paint these supermarkets as vampires that dra in local economies. On the other hand, corporate and development boosters tout these same companies as job creators and cheap commodity providers for low income communities. Additionally, in the contemporary Great Recession context where middle and hi gher wage jobs were replaced by low

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395 wage jobs, many people see supermarket chains as saviors providing at least some form of employment and necessities at a price that matches a growing low wage economy. In this section, I primarily focus on the major land use battles unions and labor advocacy organizations are fighting in Los Angeles. Relatedly, I discuss the tensions that emerge when working toward creating urban landscapes that provide both good jobs and good food. (Unevenly) Developing Urban Grocery Retail Landscapes As a longtime sector with higher unionization levels than most other private sector industries, grocery stores are viewed as a source of economic security and mobility for less educated, lower skilled, and lower income communities. 84 Even in the face of declining wages and benefits partially due to the entrance of anti union competitors such as Wal Mart, Fresh & Easy, and Food Lion, and increasing numbers of independent companies and co ops, grocery stores still act as community economic anchors. These often serve as spaces of respectable work, social exchange, food security, and in some instances, the frontlines of battles for health and economic justice. At the same time, devaluation resulting from historical redlining, grocery retail divestment and gentrification forced many low income urban communities of color into positions of food insecurity. It is in these communities where restructuring in grocery retail is most negatively impactful, both on the economic front and on the health front. In a conversation with Connie, a senior UFCW 770 union officer, she told me, 84 In about a 10 year period between 2003 and 2013, Los Angeles union density in grocery retail dropped from roughly 70% down to 50%.

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396 addition to the losses in meatpacking and food processin g, the grocery retail sector experienced union member losses. In Southern California, all the locals negotiate as one, which includes about 70,000 workers. There is one contract that covers Ralphs, Vons, and A infiltration by Wal Mart, Fresh & Easy, Superior, El Super and other Hispanic stores. 30 years. There was a time when almost all grocery stores, both 85 High union density came with the fact that there were so many chains and mom and pop shops, most of which were nowhere near the size or power of most contemporary supermarkets. The union was able to generally negotiate really good contracts and a level playing field to make sure that everybody sense that grocery retail left to its own devices will level the field in such a way that produces uneven labor conditions within the grocery retail sector. Historically, if workers were to strike a store would quickly sign a contract guaranteeing fair wages and benefits. Shoppers would then go down the s treet to a unionized grocery store. The historical narrative here is that union decline came with the penetration of new large supermarkets and the merger of medium sized supermarkets. Incidentally, larger chains successfully negotiated with unions to give them preferred contracts, which contributed to pushing out smaller union grocery stores. Coupled with the ability for major chains to drive down food prices by controlling their supply chain, smaller 85 For example, Albertsons, which is owned by Supervalu, has lost $2.5 billion throughout 2011 and 2012, which it believes are tied to big box retailers and discou nt stores, compelling it to close down tens of Southern California locations. The six decades of wage and benefit gains has begun to slow as union stores like Albertsons are being replaced by non union stores like Superior.

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397 chains disappeared. As chains become more (multi)nation al corporations, they operate across time and space in way s that local labor unions organizational structure hinders Moreover, corporate consolidation drives unevenness of labor standards, grocery retail development, and therefore consumer shopping patter ns. These scalar dynamics set the stage for current grocery retail land use battles. For labor unions and labor advocates in Los Angeles, grocery development is as Framing this is the idea that communities deserve a say in land use decisions early on and throughout a grocery retail proposal. and Only then is there a belief that these are legitimate additions to the urban landscape. There are tensions, however, between the need for low income communities to access affordable and healthy f ood and work in economically respectable jobs. In Huntington Park, a number of union grocery stores closed 86 In their place, non union Latino/a grocers such as Superior and Northgate Markets opened. Having lived and worked in the area for decades, Susana r when UFCW 770 individually negotiated with each store to improve wages and benefits, the rise of chains means increasing acquisitio ns and mergers that necessitate new strategies. Dave told me that a chain called Vallarta, with about 30 stores in the region, is about the smallest chain the union will go after. It serves low income Latino/a 86 This is the community where mo st meatpacking and food processing workers live.

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398 communities good food, but remuneration is poo go after a company that has standalone store after standalone store. It has to be some sort of agreement with a corporation for neutrality with their chain to be able to do it retched resources, the union faces difficulty staving off geographic restructuring in the communities it is most important to represent. As a private sector union, one challenge UFCW 770 faces is having its success tied to growth imperatives of the compa nies its members work at. As (re)developmen t marches on, the union faces a series of strategic choices: does it block some retailers and not others?; what land use laws can it use to maintain and/or expand union density while not completely obstructing gro wth?; how can it effectively capture enough value to maintain a decent standard of living for its members? because if it closes down our memb becomes how to incentivize certain forms of (re)development, while stopping others. h] Wal e.g. In essence, their model represents a form of growth that conveniently disposes workers and their communities and shuffles mo ney to th e top Although grocery restructuring hurts many Los Angeles communities, there are efforts to use and create land use policies that benefit workers and restrict or overcome hurtful policies. Grocery Retail Policy on the Frontline of Urban Restruc turing Struggles A number of policies make maintaining union density in grocery retail a little easier. These primarily consist of land use and zoning laws that on their face seem

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399 proc edural and/or bureaucratic, but condition political struggles over the d evelopment and operation of businesses in the urban food landscape. There are also a number of local (pr oposed) ordinances that support working class people better navigate capture ownership over, and ideally thrive in this landscape. Below I discuss a nu mber of examples before delving into the major battles UFCW 770 fought throughout the 2000s. There are instances activists can leverage z oning policy to mobilize a variety of community interests against the opening of a non union grocery store. For examp le, Fresh & Easy, a largely self checkout model supermarket selling premade foods, attempted to open up a store at the end of 2012 right across the street from UFCW 770. 87 Given that Fresh & Easy is non unionized, UFCW 770 made the effort to stall the open ing by challenging its alcohol permit because interest. The union bases this on the presupposition that the entire business model of Fresh & Easy is self checkout and they sell alcohol in addition to food. The store woul d be close to a school and other sensitive land uses. Knowing that alcohol permits can be publically contested the union sought to use city ordinances to block the opening of a store that would reduce union density and challenge its ability to represent gr ocery union members throughout its jurisdiction. In essence, a delay on the permit ruling would create more time to mobilize other people in the neighborhood like schools, churches, and other businesses. A multinational company such as Tesco, with its Amer ican chain of stores, Fresh & Easy, may be able to deploy capital across 87 As of October 2013, there are currently about 20 of these Tesco owned stores in Los Angeles, with about 50 in Los Angeles County. While currently finishing up Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings after fiscal year profit declines of 96%, the stores are still operational until The Yucaipa Companies, an investment firm founded by billionaire Ron Burkle, restructures the stores. Having been the largest shareholder of the organic and natural food chain Wild Oats M arkets, Inc. when its brand was sold to Whole Foods in 2007, it will be revived in most if not all of the Fresh & Easy locations.

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400 territories, but unions like UFCW 770 can block the investment of such capital in a storefront through local municipal laws. Thus, activists can use land use laws to challenge a compa Capital struggles transforming itself in the built environm ent when local land use proposals mandate or allow citizen input To incentivize grocery stores to locate in underserved communities, the city of Los Angeles makes c ommunity redevelopment money available. For decades city planners, developers and politicians restructured downtown Los Angeles from a multi racial and middle class urban hub into a highly capitalized faade of expensive skyscrapers that serves as the infr astructural backbone for displacing undesirables (Davis 2006). One of the recent consequences is the infill of chain restaurants and outflow of grocery stores to serve a strange mix of hipsters, banksters, immigrants, and the last vestiges of communities o f color fighting gentrification. Nevertheless because there was no downtown grocery store for many years, UFCW 770 worked with city leaders and community groups to get Ralphs to take redevelopment money in order to build a grocery store. Connie reflects, never operated in that environment before; they like to have their stores in the suburbs rivate partnership does not stop the macro economic forces driving inequality in the downtown zone. However, it does benefit those living here and the labor movement because Ralphs is a union store that provides fair wages and benefits. Without good poli cy in place, UFCW 770 and many of its community partners attempt to push retailers into signing community benefit agreements (CBA). In short,

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401 CBAs are contracts usually signed between a broad based community coalition and a developer. Such agreements outli ne a set of standards, amenities, or mitigations that minimally not protest the project. The intent behind such approaches in a grocery retail context would be to require livable wages, access to healthcare, and local hiring practices. Unlike a strictly neoliberal response that sidesteps local government, CBAs build in legally enforceable elements that create greater inclusivity and accountability in land use decisions. Wh grocery retail workers, the union expends energy fighting bad policy. B elow I explain the details of policy battles around interim control ordinances (ICO), conditional use permits (CUP), and othe r zoning laws that are the current legal foundation Essentially, these land use laws are a means for citizens to debate what enters their communities Given the history of supermarket redlining in many low income urban communities (Eisenhauer 2001; McClin tock 2011) there is a growing focus on effectively managing community economic development to the benefit of working class communities. LAANE is a key policy and organizing partner of UFCW 770. One of their organizers, Luciana encapsulates the prioritizati on of a land use Those seeking to make changes in grocery retail use the law in ways th at block the entrance of big box retailers such as Wal Mart. For instance, Los Angeles used to allow any size retail to enter the city with little to no oversight. Opponents of supercenters, namely Wal Mart consistently argued that

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402 such land uses depress l ocal economies in places already experiencing poverty. A coalition of community, labor, and religious groups drafted and pushed an ordinance that increased scrutiny on retailers wanting to build stores larger than 100,000 feet with more than 10% of their s ales floor dedicated to food. 88 Two quotes encompass the political rationale City Council support. Former council member, and now Mayor of Los while Martin Ludlow exclaime today to send a message loud and clear that we are open for business, but we are not can do whatever they want; th ey must earn community backing. In addition to preventative policy approaches that create new land use laws, struggles are taking place within and across stores that network workers with each other and with community based organizations. Below I discuss ho w a series of disruptive strikes by UFCW 770 and its allies are central to dealing with not owning the land upon which grocery stores operate. Workers sell their labor for a wage, which compels UFCW 770 to leverage exploitation in that system in such a way that compels an otherwise disciplined workforce to engage in disruptive behavior across time and space. Battles over land use policy are only effective insofar as there is a grocery retail workforce willing to engage in public collective behavior that dis plays labor power. 88 Such projects now require economic analyses paid by the company that investigate the proposed impacts on overall employment, wages, and small businesses. City Council is then given the final say, which in essence creates a democratic check on retail development.

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403 Strike! Inconsistent Impacts of a Spatial Tactic on Corporate Grocers in Neoliberal Times T he Southern California grocery strikes that started in October 2003 evoked widespread commentary many writers bemoaning the failure of the stri kes to prevent union entrants onto workers (Bacon 2004; Jordan 2004; Moss Dedrick 2005). I want to focus on what these strikes mean as a form of spatial politics aimed at publici zing perceived economic inequality taking place on private retail property. Moreover, because these accounts came hot on the heels of the strikes, there was not much time to evaluate their impacts, which only become visible through a historical lens of the 1985 grocery retail strike and the contract negotiations following the 2003 2004 strike in 2007 and 2011. Holding the li ne for grocery store workers in the 1980s In 1985, after 1800 workers were laid off or demoted by Ralphs over a 16 month period, South grievances and went into arbitration to resolve conflict over contract language they With profits on the rise, the union insisted that it was an attack on wor kers to claim that industry restructuring and rece ssions were justifications to cut wages and benefits. UFCW publicized this event by protesting and taking a page from Cesar Chavez by promoting a boycott of Ralphs until they settled with the union. In Nove mber of that year, the company reinstated 200 fired workers, and modified its policy of replacing veteran employees with less experienced employees. Additionally, there were labor battles heating up in Albertson's, Alpha Beta, Boys' Markets, Foods Co., Hu ghes Markets, Lucky Stores, Safeway, Stater Bros. and Vons, represented by the Food Employers Council. These involved meatcutters, who at the

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404 slash wages, benefits, and h ours, nearly 10,000 meatcutters went on strike in early November 1985. Also going on strike or lockout were 12,000 grocery warehouse workers, drivers and office workers represented by the Teamsters. The most contentious issue was the proposed two tier wage system w here new employees receive lower wages than those already employed for the same work. All told, these strikes affected 80%, nearly 1,0 00 supermarkets 89 Seven weeks later, the two sides reached a tentative accord, which ultimately meant meatcutte rs and grocery warehouse workers took an unfavorable contract. Costing roughly $2 million a week in strike benefits, the unions began to run out of money while the stores were only making 5% to 10% less profits than at the same time the previous year. This episode of labor unrest is important because grocery retail companies used the same framing for why they needed to weaken labor standards come the 2003 contract negotiations. It is also important because it high lights the challenge of linking high level p rivate space negotiations with a public form of protest that pressures grocery retail chains by diverting customers and slowing supply chains. Throughout the 1990s, both sides averted strikes and lockouts. Nonetheless, grocery retail restructuring applied pressure to reduce wages and benefits. For example, discount warehouse stores like Super K Mart and Wal Mart infiltrated Southern California in earnest in the 1990s, which paralleled layoffs throughout the unionized grocery retail sector costing UFCW 12,0 00 members between 1991 and 89 To support these strikers and food clerks that observe their co their strike fund. This allowed workers to picket in front of various supermarkets to encourage workers to walk off the job and shoppers to go elsewhere.

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405 1995. At the same time, the supermarket chains left the Food Employers Council after 50 years in order to negotiate independently with UFCW. This marked a substantial shift in relations between unions and grocery retailers. Wher e once all the unionized chains negotiated collectively, agreeing to uniform pay and benefits for grocery retail workers, the landscape shifted to allow for mergers and acquisitions that increased the power of unionized retailers to reduce labor costs. Suc h shifts finally came to a head in 2003 balled the UFCW during negotiations in order to extract historically poor concessions. gh collective action throughout the 2000s At the heart of the conflict lay the fact that 71,000 grocery retail workers were making $6 to $14 more than Wal Mart workers, were guaranteed pensions, and paid no premiums for health insurance. The opening salvo for the three supermarket chains, Vons, Ralphs, and Albertsons, included employees paying $1,300 a year for family insurance premiums, increases in deductibles and co pays, reductions in overtime pay, subcontracting positions, wage freezes for current empl oyees, and reductions and new to increase wages 50 cents the first year and 45 cents each of the following two years and maintain a ban on companies opening non union superm arkets. Roundly rejecting the proposed contract on October 9, 2003, all seven UFCW locals with over 95% of the membership voted to strike. 90 This affected 859 stores. As Connie, one of the chief negotiators at UFCW 770 argued, 90 UFCW 770 had 98% of its members vote for a strike.

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406 When I go back and think abou way w Again, workers chose t o strike at Vons, which resulted in Ralphs and Albertsons locking out workers. Also similar to 1985, Teamsters honored picket lines at Vons and at Albertsons and Ralphs warehouse and distribution cen ters until the removal of lines in mid December. 91 Moreove r, the strikes received the backing of labor groups throughout the region, including the Los Angeles Federation of Labor who viewed the strike as a frontline battle to ensure middle class jobs. The strike represented a broader class struggle at the heart of late capitalist urbanization between forces seeking to weaken the position of working class people by taking advantage of loose land use laws that allow for the entrance of companies like Wal Mart, and those seeking to maintain a respectable low skill j ob that provides upward mobility. Proposed slashes to wages and benefits met with particular scorn because about 70% of employees work part time, roughly 24 hours a week. So while their wages were high, some as much as $17.90 an hour, their yearly income m ight still be as low as $20,000. The struggle for middle class jobs becomes clearer when considering that many community members and groups supported the strikers. See Figure 7 6. 91 This had the unintended consequence of shopper s flooding to Ralphs who made a windfall off the picket removal. Moreover, the three corporations had a mutual aid pact where any profits made by one company would be shared with the other companies. In many respects, the corporations were better prepared to financially deal with the strike.

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407 Central to this was a strategy where organizations could adopt a store and provide picket line support in terms of people, clothes, food, or money. UFCW 770 found that the store adoption became a method of communication and mobilization for marches and rallies. devel op a n autonomous activist network. In addition to carrying out their own picket lines and actions, UFCW 770 was able to notify point people adopting a store when there was to be a collective action. The largest march drew 35,000 people, but there were also decentralized rallies, often taking place in 100 locations at the same time, even if they only had 10 or 15 people each. See Figure 7 7. Howe ver, this networked approach faced challenges because the three chains were Fortune 500 multinational corporations so big. They operate everywhere so you are unable to close down the entire company In short, this scalar chall enge is particularly salient in the choice to strike, where a feeling of desperation led to adopting a difficult tactic. As the strike wore on and lawsuits were filed by UFCW and the three supermarket chains, ranging from issues of unpaid wages and health care t o injunctions to prevent striking, stock prices fell and sales began to drop anywhere between 5% and 25%. 92 Taking advantage of the shifting grocery political economy, companies such as Trader Joes, Wal Mart, and Fresh & Easy used the strike to expand into Southern California. At the time, union members thought the problem was excessive supermarket 92 Feeling some of these pressures, Ralphs illegally hired back experienced locked out workers in order to help keep stores running. They were ultimately fined $70 million after pleading guilty to five felony charges.

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408 demands Although the union pulled pickets from Ralphs in order to focus on Vons and Albertsons in early November, the impasse was not broken. In one of the few m ainstream articles to dig at the deeper significance of the strike battle raging in the streets of Southern California, the most intense city being Los Angeles, Cleeland (2003) oming a national labor movement certainly sees this as a decisive event which will set the ev entually was a 21 week strike, UFCW ran out of its strike fund at the end of December, around the same time that negotiations again collapsed. With picket lines thinning due to waning strike funds, UFCW faced whether to give into the supermarket chain dema nds or find other sources of money. Turning to UFCW International and the AFL CIO alleviated some of the pressure, but the public visibility of the strike began to diminish. Differences in resources created a situation where the union lost its ability to d rive the spatialities of the strike. When they did begin to reach out to a more national labor network for support, it was far too late to correct the trajectory of the strike. However, it is arguable that this began much earlier. As t of the problem here is that in Southern California this region had the union thought it could rely on past victories while the grocery retail sector was slowly tran sforming the urban food landscape all around them. While regionally, the union inflicted some losses, nationally the supermarket chains maintained the upper hand.

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409 In the end, the supermarkets were most victorious. They lost $2.5 billion in revenue over th e course of the strike, but the union accepted their worst contract in decades. The supermarkets would keep paying for full health insurance premiums including for new hires, but only for two years, after which covered employees paid $5 a week for individu al coverage and $15 a week for family coverage. Additionally, health insurance eligibility time increased from four months to 12 months for individuals and 30 months for families. 93 Relatedly, the union gave up maintenance of benefits and now negotiates a p ay rate each contract, which if it is too little, requires cutting health benefits. Second, wages froze for current workers, and new hires worked in a lower base wage tier. Moreover, starting pa y stayed the same, but the time lengthened for reaching the lo wer maximum wage for new hires. 94 Perhaps most devastating is the fact that Albertsons, who before the strike had 23,000 UFCW represented workers never fully recovered. The company closed 18 stores in Southern California in 2012. As Connie soberly reflects, fought for due to the infiltration of non union supermarkets inadvertently quickened the exit of a union supermarket, ultimately reducing union density. 95 93 According to Dube and Jacobs (2007) employer sponsored insurance for grocery workers decreased from 94% to 54% throughout Southern California from September 2003 to September 2006. Moreover, only 29% of new hires were eligible for health insurance under the new contract. Of these 28% enrolled in the health plan, meaning that 7% of new hires were covered under this plan. 94 While it varies by position within a store, the difference in maximum wage between the two tiers is $1 to $4. The difference in time t o maximum wage was 57 to 27 months depending on full or part time status. 95 Another negative consequence of the strike was a reduced sense that grocery retail work provides a middle class path. In numerous news accounts after the strike, interviews with workers suggest that this entrance of much lower paid workers under the new two tier system, worker solidarity was strained. Although the three supe was turned against them, they more or less recovered.

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410 of length of time, geographic distance, and the number of workers, this was the biggest strike in California history, if 96 Although many in the mainstream and left media viewed the strike as a failure, many union officials see it differently. I quote Mark at length to show that the strike was viewed not just on the merits of the agreed upon contract, but on the sociospatial reach the strike had in revealing the importance of food chain workers: The successes of th e strike came from the community support of grocery workers. That solidarity did not come because the communities liked the members of the community that people come into contact with on a week. They know me and my fa lose their car, suffer a relatively impoverished holiday season for fo od workers and themselves such that through four and a half months, there was 65% 70% observance of picket lines. This interpretation of events highlights the importance that grocery workers play in social life, which when viewed through the prism of the a dopt a store model concocted by the union, reveals that solidarity between workers and consumers can advance public political participation. term view of the strikes impact. Specifically, she members still step up and tell their employers they will either get what they need or they 96 The strike was the longest in the history of the supermarket industry and largest in terms of lost workdays.

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411 will go on strike again. I think th narrative of worker empowerment serves as a bulwark against instrumental employee during the strike reflects tha t although he came from a union household, After becoming a strike captain, Ray felt like he finally learned to fight collectively for somethi We had our acquaintances before the strike and during the strike we became close friends; we spent the holidays together, we were walking in the rain to ma More broadly, this reflects the development of a greater sense of solidarity and class consciousness people coming after us, not the people be 97 The consequences of this strike reverberate in Wal Mart land use battles. Dave rprisingly, most of those stores are In a sense, haunts the battles that emerged with Wal Mart in the mid to late 2000s partially because it created some of th e current tensions between good food and good jobs. Not only did it increase the influence of non union grocery retailers, but also it is partially responsible for the proliferation of spaces throughout Los Angeles that lack 97 Knowing th at the possibility of another strike looms, and seeing that their members are willing to strike for at least 21 weeks, UFCW has an even larger strike fund.

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412 access to healthy and affordabl e food and good jobs. These issues were percolating as UFCW went into negotiations in 2007 for the first time after the strike. Going into negotiations in 2007, UFCW found itself in a weakened position. Knowing that it might face difficulty again negotiat ing with Ralphs, Vons, and Albertsons, it individually decided to negotiate contracts, a sign that universal standards in the industry were continuing to slip. For example, at the end of 2006, of the 95,000 unionized grocery store workers in Southern Calif ornia, almost half worked at the lower tier, with 65% in the three big supermarket chains. However, as it came closer to the contract expiration, UFCW only signed agreements with smaller grocery chains, anticipating that they might succeed in wring ing more concessions through collective negotiations with the big three supermarket chains. The memory of the 2003 2004 strike loomed large as the union developed their gical stress of them and their own family members. These are parents who took their the line. The necessity o f walking the picket line in public strained s lives in private Wanting to avoid the same situation, UFCW 770 considered how to build off the relationships built during the strike and in the ensuing years. Early on, g reater energy turned to mobiliz ing not just workers in the Local, but those throughout Southern California, including the broader community within which workers lived. Instead of expanding the network during negotiations, UFCW expanded its spatial reach before. Therefore, building off t he widespread community support built during the 2003 2004 grocery retail strike, UFCW 770 stirred up some of the same

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413 people and groups during the 2007 contract negotiations. 98 Because of the adopt a store model from 2003, UFCW 770 more effectively got pub lically out ahead of the negotiations by holding hundreds of actions throughout neighborhoods with unionized grocery stores. One of the largest included about 90 autonomous actions on one day. 770, word quickly spread through these networks, whether online, in person, or through printed newsletters, that grocery store workers needed public support. The labor solidarity UFCW 770 built in conjunction with the recent memory of a bitter four and a half month long strike meant that supermarkets were more open to going back on some of their previous positions. 99 After months of assistance by a federal labor mediator and UFCW stri ke threats, a solution emerged to maintain money in the health care trust fund and fairly bring up wages. The top wage rate was increased and offered to both tiers of workers and he althcare eligibility times shortened to six months for workers and their children. 100 fixed pretty well and the jobs became better at the same time the economy got worse. It was easier for them to attract people because the job was better and because more 98 The union whipped up support from over 30 clergy groups and places of worship, 45 community based organizations, political parties, and advocacy groups, 45 politicians, and 65 labor unions and labor advocacy organizations. They joined in rallies, marches, and wrote letters to encourage the three supermarkets to better the working conditions of its work ers. 99 Focusing on the healthcare concessions made in 2004, UFCW 770 fought for a plan to regain the same level of enrollment prior to the strike, particularly for lower tier workers. 100 Spouses had to wait 24 months instead of 36 months. Reaching the top t ier rate could take seven and a half years.

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414 cost of labor by reducing hours and expecting more. Benefits improved but work conditions worsened. While negotiations and community organizing took place, the union worked in concert with selective representatives to form the Blue Ribbon Commission on Los ery Industry and Community Health. Included were members from the faith, medical, political, industry, labor, academic, and grassroots community. They investigated changes in the grocery retail sector and strategized campaigns that contribute to good jobs and good food in communities facing the most severe impacts of throughout Los Angeles due to supermarket redlining, that grocery stores in low income communities pay less, and tha t these same stores mandate fewer programs to reduce environmental impacts. By coupling their spatial reach strategies with strategies to think more qualitatively about the nature of these changes, UFCW 770 began a process that resonates in grocery retail land use battles to this day and for the foreseeable future. Towards these ends in April 2009, UFCW 1036 merged into Local 770, bringing the membership to 40,000. Now the largest Local in UFCW, it overhauled its organizing department in order to take a mo re active role in local political battles that impact the livelihoods of low income communities of color without grocery stores, those with non union grocery stores, and those with union grocery stores. By seeing these spaces as interrelated, UFCW 770 posi tioned itself to work more closely with non traditional allies. In essence, corporate political and economic power within the grocery retail sector grew and restructured the urban landscape with non union organic and natural food stores

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415 moving into wealthi er communities and non union bottom dollar stores replacing union stores in working class communities. With many low income communities completely losing grocery stores and a stable emplo yment base, UFCW 770 r eevaluate d its tactics. Thus, as union politica l and economic po wer declined they expanded their network to dictate how Los Angeles develops in the interests of working class people. Furthermore, in 2011, as workers felt the impacts of the Great Recession, UFCW 770 again leveraged their robust commun ity network. In anticipation of supermarket chains slashing benefits in the name of a poor economy, organizers at UFCW 770 looked back to the Civil Rights movement to plan direct actions in and at supermarkets. Inspired by the Greensboro and Ashville sit i ns, organizers made their presence and message known by relying on community based organizations to signal public approval supporting grocery workers. Thousands of workers, community leaders, activists, and union allies held small marches and rallies throu ghout the region, hoping to apply pressure early and often. Expressing the level of labor solidarity built over the two that it was in fact the community that spotlight, but the fight itself was far less important than only 6 years prior when these three supermarkets accounted for 60% California in 2003 there were 71,000 grocery workers in the bargaining unit, the number dropped to 62,000 by 2011. This subst antial decline partially explains the low energy going into negotiations, where Ralphs, Vons, and Albertsons showed no urgency to

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416 work towards a new contract. 101 With a n expired contract for a month and a half union members again sought to quicken negotiati ons with a strike authorization A few months later, 90% voted in favor of striking after the supermarkets refused to offer a contract to vote on and began to hold marches (See Figure 7 8). A short month later, they reached a deal after closed door negotia tions. 102 Although the companies agreed to pay $263 million into the healthcare fund, workers still paid an extra $712 a year. Painting a glossy veneer on a spotty agreement, most of which was not made public, Rick Icaza, the president of UFCW 770 publically The union combined insider negotiations with an outward organizing strategy that crystalized into the current strategy minimizing W al The Sociospatial Dialectics of Wal Mart Food Fights in Los Angeles The geography of the political chess match between Wal Mart and labor advocacy groups, most centrally labor unions, reveals some key sociospatial diale ctics of capitalist expansion through urbanization. On one end, labor advocates are dragging Wal Mart into court for any possible reason in order to slow down their expansion and preserve union gains made in the grocery retail sector. This includes environ mental impact assessments, alcohol permitting, and traffic planning violations or inadequacies. This buys time to mobilize public opposition to Wal with the assistance of the Planning Department, City Council, and ideally office. On the other end, Wal Mart is bobbing and weaving their way through the same 101 In the mid 1980s, these three stores accounted for roughly 80% of the grocery retail sector, but by 2011, they only made up about 30%. 102 This same contract extends to the regional chains like Gelsons, Stater B rothers, and Food 4 Less, representing another 28,000 workers throughout Southern California.

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417 set of laws, often easing the process by making campaign contributions or grants to politicians and influential community based organizations. 103 The growth imp erative now pushes Wal Mart to move beyond their rural and suburban strongholds, most often in right to work states, and into urban zones, most push for them. Their future growth depends on the inner city while our future progress identities (Sbicca and Perdue 2013) connect to either Los Angeles as a city or specific neighborhoods, su ch as Chinatown. about how we want our neighborhood or city to look and how we want our land to be used. Wal Mart is not part of that vis keep Wal Mart out of their union membe space, they block greater capital accumulation and keep more wages out of competition. Union grocery retail workers thereby capture more of these wages This does not grow union membership, but it does potentially set a foundation from which to grow. Strategically, the union believes that if you can take on Wal Mart and win, you are in a very strong position moving forward. After slowing Wal Mart and other big Los Angeles through the 2004 big box ordinance, food labor activists are attempting to block Wal areas, Wal is 103 The bribery scandal in Mexico is the most publically egregious example of Wal Mart buying off authorities to facilitate the opening of stores in that country. W hile there is no concrete evidence of outr ight bribery in the US, it is arguable that mayors such as Washington D.C. mayor Vincent Gray and former Los Angeles mayor Antonio Villaraigosa fell under the sway of Wal Mart lobbyists by arguing that some job or some fresh food is better than none at all.

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418 particularly in places banning big box retail stores. It allows Wal Mart to avoid serious space already zoned for such uses. Wal Mart strategically found a way to avoid building new superstores and the costly battles that come with public oversight and permitting Mart, for the most part, chooses not t o go under extra levels of scrutiny. The truth is if they want to build in LA they just have to In this process of Wal Mart/Los Angeles food politics are t he contestation, redefinition, and production of space in its m aterial and symbolic sense One of the perceived problems is that Wal Mart undermines their claim that they benefit communities by not availing themselves to laws meant to provide them a legal A community will approve grocery retail if it lives up to the good standards promised For many UFCW 770 activists, there is the perception that a grocery store should be a community an chor with a long term activists and Wal Mart reveals a dialectical tension that results from a lack of transparency. When Wal Mart announces its intentions, it relies on language that positive ly associates urban expansion tactics to solving social problems. Discursively, Wal Mart uses the notion of food deserts to justify entrance into low income urban communities. A July 20, 2011 Wal Mart to Open up to 300 St ores Serving USDA Food Deserts by 2016; More than 40,000

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419 104 The notion of food deserts though, is roundly criticized as an approach to food insecurity that reduces the complexities of social inequality to place and the built environment (c.f. Guthman 2011), but for proponents it evokes a gap needing a simple infill. Putting aside debates about this contested spatial designation, for corporate public relation s consultants it offers a language to reframe the debate to support corporate restructuring of the grocery retail sector, and in turn a key part of the urban landscape. Below I detail the embedded nature of c ontentious food politics in conflict over land u se laws, designations that shape shift depending on the intentions of social actors. The front line anti Wal Mart comprehensive campaign of UFCW 770 and its labor allies Faced with declining union member roles in the grocery retail sector, and knowing that directly unionizing Wal Mart store by store is a near impossible task, UFCW adjusted their tactics to come up with a comprehensive campaign. Inspired by the organizing of SEIU and their partners at CTW, UFCW is exposing Wal weaknesses through resea rch, public media pressure, community alliance building, and legal battles in the political and economic spheres. Explaining this epiphany, an experienced union organizing director named Diego emphatically states, We knew we had to do things differently o n the International side. The leadership of this Local saw we had to do things very differently if we wanted to survive, hence the new strategy with the Wal Mart campaign on workers ar e most involved, the politics are hot and heavy, and the fight to 104 Mart is building a public relations campaign to back its urban growth strategy, which if successful would yield an estimat ed $80 to $100 billion a year in profits on top of the $316 billion made in 2011. As a point of comparison, Kroger, which owns Ralphs, had annual US sales in 2012 of $92.1 billion while Safeway, which owns Vons, had annual sales in 2011 of $37.5 billion.

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420 e to be successful, we cannot have any false starts; what we do here has to be a model for what needs to happen in the rest of the country. The dire language matches a series of specific political strategies and fronts. Three major strategies foreground th e fight against Wal Mart: political action in closed and open door proceedings (e.g. public comment periods, lawsuits, politician endorsements), protests and actions in public space (e.g. strikes, walkouts, rallies in front of Wal Mart or City Hall) and or ganizing workers in the work place (e.g. petition drives, worker empowerment, and grievance proceedings). First, the union represents 30,000 workers whose dues provi de the resources to support a large local organization, which boosts their power in the for mal political system. Engagement in these formal spaces reproduces institutional modes of political engagement that help legitimize cilitates bridging to other spaces. Second, use of public spaces engages a broader audience. The cultural element to this strategy seeks to win the hearts and minds of the public. While UFCW 770 cannot fully control the media although it does publish it s own newsletters and blog postings they garner local and national media. At a minimum, this raises consciousness about working class and food worker issues. Moreover, engaging in public forms of protest is a way to bring together different constituencie s: workers, students, union organizers, religious leaders, other sympathetic audiences, and depending on the campaign, people from various sectors of the AFM. The perception of UFCW 770 as a more legitimate political force comes from building br oad based a lliances.

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421 Third, the workplace is the core political space. Without workers collectively creating, exercising, and maintaining power, then the union is obsolete. This is also a space of contestation given the many different perspectives on the role of wor ker and employer/owner in decision making workplace conditions, remuneration, and benefits. Moreover, the social relationships embedded in these spaces are directly relevant to is at work; it merely takes on economic significance. UFCW 770 meets this diverse set of people on their terms. For example, many organizers are Latino/a, which reflects the fact that many workers in the food retail sector speak Spanish. In short, the wor kplace is a political space and a space for political organizing. Thes e three political strategies collectively strengthen the power of the wage labor force. Fighting to preserve culturally significant Chinatown from Wal Mart Although since the early 20 00s Wal Mart increased grocery market share within Los Angeles County, they largely failed to enter the city of Los Angeles. This shifted when it sought to open a store in Chinatown, the first centrally located Wal Mart in Los Angeles. Largely behind the c losed doors of the permitting process, Wal Mart leveraged set off a firestorm of protest and legal actions given what many perceive as the secretive way the company by passed a well organized labor advocacy network. Nevertheless there are large property owners and business interests such as the local Chinatown Business Improvemen t District supporting Wal Jill tells with are very pro

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422 Chinatown fight points once again to contestation over land use Social position shapes the variety of perspectives on land use which then informs the physical spaces of city life. In turn, these physical spaces reflect economic and political realities that perpetuate or alter social life. On the one hand, cultural s ensitivity arguments help reject the monocultural tendencies of Wal Mart. On the other hand, bringing in Wal Mart is purported as economically advantageous for working class people. In many respects, the Chinatown fight is a flas hpoint for developing a formula be established a conditional use permit be issued there is a hearing. It goes to this issue of, not just transparency but who decides w reason for this is that it is often hard to learn when and where a Wal Mart will open. As A or something. They tell us when they want to After Wal Mart announced in early 2012 that is was opening a store in Chinatown, the Los Angeles labor community quickly mobilized to convince the City C ouncil to pass a formula retail ordinance requiring rigorous public review before approving permits. The onus is on companies with standardized features (i.e. chain stores) to prove their necessity to the community. In particular, labor advocates argue tha t Chinatown is a unique cultura l center where the community retains the right to preserve its historical asset if so desired. Realizing they lacked the time to pass a completely new piece of policy, groups such as UFCW 770 and LAANE lobbied First District Councilman Ed Reyes to author

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423 With a vote scheduled fo r March 23, 2012, it seemed possible to thwart Wal Mart from receiving its building permit. However, m inutes before the ICO vote, which resulted in a 13 to 0 vote for the temporary measure, council members learned of a permit issued the previous night. With the suspicious timing of events, labor activists On the day of this vote, a representative for Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa avoided directly commenting on the Wal (Zahniser 2012). Mart gave $60,000 to the public strategy firm Mercury Public Affairs to carry out a media blitz to undermine the emergency ICO. However, there was also a more systematic five year offensive. According to the City of Los Angeles Ethics Commission, Wal Mart made lobbying expenditures of $532,906 between 2008 and 2012. Most of this went to Ek & Ek, a consulting firm specializing in fostering public private partnerships that benefit the companies that hire their s ervices. Wal Mart reported their Additionally, the company gave money to the law firm Manatt, g Given the historical importance of Chinatown, LAANE, the lead labor advocacy group fighting this Wal Mart, worked largely with Asian groups. Knowing that a lot of the labor movement does trying to be conscious to incorporate Asian groups into a movement that concerns Asian Mart publically accused the

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424 groups fighting the store siting of ignoring the other 25% of racial and ethnic groups that live in the same community. Joining the fight against this race baiting, Chinatown Community for Equitable Development (CCED) formed to petition local residents and businesses to oppose Wal Mart. The attacks were unsuccessful, particularly when one considers the broad based coalition created to protest Wal Mart in June 2012. The first effort to stop Wal Mart took place in the Los Angeles City Planning Commission public hearing on June 12, 20 12. The hearing of planning commissioners considered the ICO passed by the City Council. Agreeing with the Los Angeles Planning Department, the commission voted 5 to 2 against the ban, arguing that it would hurt the local Chinatown economy. After this vote Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa publically came out against the ban, which contributed to a short term calcification of the political landscape upon which UFCW 770 works to slow union membership decline. Responding to this decision, efforts ramped up to hold a large protest. In what was possibly the largest anti Wal Mart protest in history, a large coalition of labor advocacy groups most notably UFCW 770, LAANE, and the Los Angeles Federation of Labor, worked in conjunction to mobilize their networks to prote st against the Chinatown Wal Mart. The y planned the roughly 5, 000 person protest t o ensure that the media and community self e was high visibility of the Los Angeles march because of other marches and protests held against Wal Mart throughout the US on the same day. In addition to the national visibility, Amy told me that the local Chinatown community was strongly in opposition to Wal

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425 Wal Mart. It Mart. It at the Opponents of the Chinatown Wal Mart hoped the protest would signal to City Council members that they should vote in favor in one last effort to pass an ICO. To issue a temporary building permit restriction requires 12 of 15 members. However, on October 23, 2012, the ICO only received 10 City Council votes. A LAANE activist told down that would have without leadership at the highest levels of city government, even in a town with major Democratic leaning, it is very hard to fight against the urban corporate growth imperative. However, this is only part of the problem. More fundamentally, for Council members Jan Perry and Bernard Parks, who represent districts in historically black neighborhoods lacking gr ocery retail, they want any food and jobs rather than no food and jobs Two other members, Mitchell Englander and Tony Cardenas also chose no t to vote for the ICO. Wal Marts exist in both their districts. With political avenues blocked, labor advocates made desperate efforts to convince the courts to issue an injunction against the Chinatown d evelopment. 105 However, prospects dramatically dimmed after Superior Court Judge James Chalfant 105 Injunctions were successful in another Wal Mart siting battle taking place at the same time in Burbank.

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426 ruled in early September 2012 that construction could continue because it would not constitute irreparable harm. With this loss in hand, the Asian Pacific America n Labor Alliance and UFCW 770 filed a lawsuit claiming that Wal Mart circumvented the hearing and environmental review requirements outlined in the Chinatown Redevelopment Plan. Although labor and community organizations continued to claim that Wal Mart wo uld harm the local economy, by April 2013, a company spokesperson claimed they had received 3,200 applications for 65 positions. With a hearing on the matter not scheduled until April 2014, Wal Mart proceeded with opening the store in September 2013. Whil e the Wal Mart is now open, there are some positive outcomes of this land use battle. First, a single fight in one neighborhood is a catalyst for citywide policy change. Coalitions formed across various political, economic and social boundaries. Jill conte have had a lot of African A merican religious leaders from S outh LA and even Latino/a groups have come to support the Chinatown fight because they see that it is something t Angeles, fighting for policy to prevent Wal Mart was far less pressing. After opening a store in the middle of the city once disparate groups are uniting Second, there ar e renewed efforts to come up with a comprehensive citywide policy requiring CUPs for chain retailers. A heightened awareness of the importance of having a public say in land use decisions is not only spreading through labor advocacy networks, but in city p olitics. For example, with pressure from the Los Angeles Federation of Labor during the last mayoral campaign to reject any Wal Mart campaign contributions, candidates Eric Garcetti, Jan Perry, and Wendy Greuel decided to opt for

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427 a different path than Mayo r Antonio Villaraigosa. While not the only important issue, Eric Garcetti adopting the economic inequality framing buoyed his eventual mayoral win. At one point in his campaign bottom in terms of wa Third, and specifically relevant to UFCW 770, is that they learned the importance of playing a support role for communities fighting Wal members are the community, they are the ones tha union members work in the grocery retail sector, t he largest part of the union. Therefore, there is an immediate economic concern for those th at could lose their jobs or experience r educed pay and benefits were Wal Mart to enter their communities. While al Mart, they work with community groups already engaged on these fronts so that the framing of these urban expansion battles is not big labor against big corporations. T owards these ends, as part of a comprehensive campaign against Wal Mart UFCW 770 is also supporting and organizing workers throughout Wal Mart associates. With nothing left to lose we might as well fight by going out on strike A wave of actions involving Wal Mart spread throughout the United States in 2012, culminating in 160 Wal Mart workers in October and then 500 on Black Friday going on strike demanding fair wages, benefits, and workplace respect. The workers are part of OUR (Organization United for Respect at) Wal Mart, a worker organization supported by UFCW. These strikers received the support of 1,000 protests in 100 cities in all but four states. The actions taking place in Los Angeles stand as some of the largest and most visible. Below I offer an insider account of how these spatialized

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428 politics arose and their implications for land use battles at the intersection of grocery retail, workplace democracy, and poverty. At first, there was hesitancy about using the strategy of an unfair labor practice (ULP) strike. 106 One organizer named Marta told me that given the bitter 2003 2004 grocery retail strike many senior UFCW officials and organizing directors thought that this would stir up negative emotions in the public given the hardships experienced by workers. After agreeing on this course of action, those organizers working with OUR Wal Mart approached the workers with the idea to strike. Marta exclaimed that the workers she spoke to in Los Angeles said remember even before I knew about the whole campaign strategy around found some gung hange Wal we do it, way before even I knew what was going on in terms of actions. Many workers experiencing lab or exploitation at Wal Mart were ready to make a public statement to that effect. Moreover, a number of workers were already actively agitating within some Los Angeles County stores, namely those in Baldwin Park and Pico Rivera. UFCW 770 came in to identif y these activist workers, strategize with them to spread an internal network of discontent and confrontation, and stoke an awareness that their efforts were tied to an outer network looking to broadly take on Wal Mart. If land use laws could not fully prev ent the entrance of Wal Mart then labor conditions needed improvement inside and across the company. 106 These kinds of strikes are legally permissible when an employer has committed an unfair labor practice. Workers going on one of these strikes cannot be fired or permanently replaced. Unless there is serious misconduct on the part of a striker, then they are entitled to their former job

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429 T he SPUR program is o ne of the key empowerment strategies tying together unionized grocery retail workers with Wal Mart workers in order to increase the geographic reach of resistance th roughout Los Angeles Special Project Union Representat ives are union members pulled from work to speak with and organize Wal Mart workers. you see the d evelopment of a worker, who were once super skeptical about getting involved and now they are speaking in front of people at a rally. That kind of thing is named Judy and a Wal Mart worker named Girshriela Green. Judy works in the bakery at a uni onized grocery store and connected with Girshriela as a worker. At the time they met Girshriela was at home, depressed, and on pain medication because of an injury from an acc ident at Wal Mart relationships th at develop between the member stories reinforce the strategy. In essence, workers face challenges all throughout the grocery retail sector, but some workers join and create unions, win better working conditions, wages and b enefits, and in the process become politically activated. Organizers leverage these more empowered workers to spread that empowerment to Wal Mart where worker morale is much lower, but where the fight is possibly more important. Some of these workers took the first stand against Wal Mart on October 9, 2012.

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430 Relatedly, the strike revealed that despite Wal thousands of communi ties throughout the US workers can pull back the faade of low The worker s issued an ultimatum to the company: unless they end retaliation against workers then there will be a larger strike on Black Friday. 107 Instead of heeding the Wal Mart continued retaliating, leading to the largest strike against Wal Mart in history. As the biggest shopping day of the year, UFCW hoped that by supporting a strike at the largest retailer in the US, they would elevate the economic pains experienced by a growing segment of the economy. Additionally, there were deeper themes that organizers and workers we re hoping to impart. For example, Dominic, an associate at Wal participate in it and we thi out of their comfort UFCW also coordinated other logistics. 108 107 Although OUR Wal Mart is a worker run labor advocacy organization, it is not seeking union recognition. This model o f minority unionism works to improve workplace conditions, wages, and benefits. 108 In preparation for the Black Friday strikes, UFCW networked with scholars and journalists to write op ed articles, interview in newspapers and television news programs, and join public panels discussing the problems with Wal Mart. UFCW communications people worked feverishly in the lead up to the strike. For example, part of the strategy behind the Black Friday media campaign was to pick provocative examples of people harmed by Wal communications specialist talked about how a young Latina mother was supposed to speak about her

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431 While witnessing preparations it became quickly apparent tha t high levels of sophistication and organization are required to launch a national campaign against a company such as Wal Mart. People worked on many levels in and through UFCW 770 to realize the Black Friday actions. Organizers in Wal Mart stores stirred up support from workers, planned how to support workers who chose not work for two days, and mobilized community support networks, including advocacy organizations, religious communi ty coordinated messages and responded to media requests. 109 Legal experts and lawyers ensured that the actions were legal, ran background checks on those committing to civil disobedience, and en sure d the discipline of actions Having carried out many strikes in the past, the institutionalized order of the campaign made all of this seem smooth ; these repertoires of collective action underwent refinement over the previous three decades of grocery retail restructuring. In Los Angeles, the loose coalition built around the Chinatown battle maintained local public pressure on Wal Mart. The coalition amplified workers' voices k nowing this strategy attracts the most attention from Wal Mart and local politicians For example, at the Paramount store on Black Friday the re were an estimated 1,500 people, with CCED playing a major community support role. See Figure 7 9. CCED pulled together a fundraiser to support Wal Mart workers with a small strike fund. After nine people were experiences at Wal Mart, but became too embarrassed to speak with the media. Theref ore, they pivoted to an elderly man who worked at Wal Mart for many years and was promised a good healthcare plan. However, the plan was revoked, so they want to use this older man, who when talking about his experiences with the communications specialist began to tear up. The hope was to pull on the emotions of watchers and readers in order to create sympathy. 109 Of central importance to this strike was the development of a new set of portals to support the place based actions. For example, the internet wa s used to coordinate various events. The strategic use of internet technologies (Facebook, Twitter, blogs, etc.) shaped the discourse leading up to the strikes.

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432 arrested for civil disobedience, three of th ese being Wal Mart workers, representatives of CCED delivered a signed card declaring their support. Amy expresses the alone; the community supports them and community support, and worker militancy varies throughout Los Angeles. At the Panorama City store, workers were more hesitant to partici pate in the strike. Most of the workers are black and live in a district at the time represented by Tony Cardenas, a City Council member with friendly Wal Mart relations. An organizer named Olivia told me that she was the fifth organizer to go into that st ore in less than a year, and when she arrived there appeared to by high levels of fear about going on strike. Out of 300 workers, only 20 are OUR Wal Mart members, and only one went out on strike. Therefore, while these workers receive more support than th ey might otherwise, the fact that Wal Mart still provides employment minimizes worker militancy. For example, Olivia told me that management would skirt the ULP s trike law by telling g to be letting some peopl So culture of fear and intimidation in Wal Mart stores coupled with wi despread economic insecurity in these communities creates ongoing challenges in keeping Wal Mart out of Los Angeles. These strikes represent a changing discourse on Wal Mart, which receives major assistance by UFCW 770 and labor allies such as LAANE who r egularly repeat and

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433 demonstrate that Wal Mart poorly treats its workers. r act together with of worker rights in the Mart sent a message and against Wal Mart workers arrested at the improving our jobs on our bills. But when our co workers speak out about problems like these, Wal Mart turns their schedules upside down, cuts their hours and even fires peop 2012). The degree to which these actions will alter the trajectory of grocery retail development in Los Angeles is uncertain In the meantime, local poverty and unemplo yment levels remain static a consequence of which is the stratification o f dietary health. Below I evaluate what I consider the central concern food and labor activists must address going forward: the good food, good job divide. in the Context of Food Deserts Although grocery retail membership and their stake in unionized grocery jobs is high their historical response simply resorts to support ing the creation of any union grocery store no matter its location. As union density waned food i nsecure locations spread

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434 a union to try to figure out cr eative ways to bring good unionized grocery stores into income communities need access to good food. Two, these same communities need access to good jobs. The two of these combined leads to a different set of spatially oriented strategies. For example, you prevent Wal Mart because not only will it reduce union density, but also it will not serve those places and people in most need of good food and good jobs. 110 Although widely used, t he notion of food deserts leads to high levels of conflict between groups that might otherwise work together. Not only does this spatial metaphor obfuscate social drivers behind the problems faced by poor communities of color, it elevates issues of health and food access more so than issues of the political economy of land use To illustrate is a brief story told to me by a community organizer working to prevent non union grocery retail from entering a low income black community. UFCW found itself in the aw kward position of defendin g the need for a union employer a t a community forum meant to air debates on bringing in a super market. Many community members in attendance, including the NAACP, argued that they needed food in their community no matter what. Mar into that neighborhood and one store does and we are trying to stop them, that makes provided good jobs and overlook the economic realities driving its contents and promote addressing the more 110 When Wal Mart enters, there are often reductions in the volume of good food and number of goo d jobs.

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435 nebulous category of health, corporate retailers such as Wal Mart exploit this division to enter neighborhoo ds. The political economy of this process and responses by community based organizations and unions reveal why food access is a divisive issue. The abovementioned dynamics create difficulties for unions working to slow union member decline in the grocery retail sector. With bleak economic prospects in many Los Angeles communities, the oppo rtunity to work is often a positive development. es, he goes on to note that around the question of unionization. Holding out for a union job is therefore a luxury. While SNAP exists to provide food for those in dire need, most people do not want to be reliant on a provisioning system that limits choices, particularly if you shop in neighborhoods with poor food choices. UFCW 770 recognizes that the economic geography of certain Los Angeles neighborhood s structures where residents make herculean efforts to obtain healthier food. While this is problematic, the union rejects arguments that any grocery retail is to be some k For labor activists working in the grocery retail sector, the rise in public concern with food deserts creates more problems than it solves. Contextualizing the issue,

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436 blem in the poor parts of LA where there are no grocery stores at all. People get their groceries from a liquor store. This is a really big The result is the juxtaposit ion of equitable economic developm ent and health Luciana and think about how we move forward on a unified stance on Wal Mart. The truth is we campaign to create a formula retail ordinance. For example, in South Los Angeles where an influential group called Policy Link tirelessly works to improve community health, labor activists face difficulties coming to agreement on what constitutes a responsible employer. While at one point groups such as LAANE considered the efficacy of putting an exception into to a formula retail policy requiring a CUP for chain retailers, such consideratio ns became less palatable after Policy Link spoke against labor activists at a hearing during the Chinatown ICO battle. 111 will have to rebuild at some point soon because the Wal M Particularly troubling for labor activis ts are reports such as the Policy Link connected Food Desert to Food Oasis report by Community Health Councils, Inc. (Bassford, Galloway Gilliam and Flynn 2010). In the report it states [T]he City should be very cautious in adopting policies that require new grocery stores to provide employees a living wage or allow for unionization. While these policies are well intentioned to ensure employees receive sufficient compensation to afford life in Los Angeles, 111 For instance, one plan LAANE considered was allowing any grocery retail to enter food deserts, designated as areas in South Los Angeles and/or areas with high levels of poverty. This was considered a possible means by which to concentrate bad gro cery retailers and prevent their entrance elsewhere.

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437 they also pose higher labor costs that prospective new grocery retailers may not be able to afford (24). This outright acceptance of the neoliberal city as a site where the roll back of unionized labor power is the new normal is diff icult for labor activists to accept. How to maintain unity in the face of daunting odds remains a key challenge for those figuring out how to With grocery retail restructuring leavin g formerly food flush communities devoid of unionized stores, there is a sense of abandonment and marginalization One response by communities and the non profit sector is to take on various projects. This takes the form of experiments such as small scale urban agriculture. Luciana explains, Wal These communities need immediate solutions, but those working on such solutions generally lack capacity or financial security to maintain let alone advance such projects rticulates the reality of roll back neoliberalization and the vacuum it creates for local communities. The scalar disjuncture is apparent While many food labor activists believe that small scale local responses are necessary, they are insufficient. Instea d, priority goes to changing or leveraging policy and challenging corporate power head on. Yet, many policy makers believe that bringing in any food retailers will alleviate the problems faced by communities lacking supermarkets. UFCW 770 runs up against a city government that incentivizes food retailers to locate in underserved communities under the auspice that grocery stores are at least 12,000 square feet, produce markets

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438 dedicate 90% or more of their floor space to fresh fruits and vegetables, and rest aurants seat at least 30 people. Lacking are any labor requirements. 112 When coupled with community planning areas, this creates a better food environment, but it does not deal with Ironically, a number of City Council members at the time of this study claimed that Los Angeles should not prevent compa nies such as Wal Mart from entering the city because they are going to open stores in food desert s. However, not one proposed or built store in the city i s in a food desert. This did not stop City Council members such as Bernard Parks and Jan Perry from touting the benefits of Wal Mart and refusing to support initiatives requiring greater public overs ight and stricter permitting. As Diego Marts are interested in coming to their districts. They are carrying their apparatus support the neoliberal restructur turn the food landscape, but so do federal and state political representatives. For example, Michelle Obama visited Inglewood in early 2012 to promote the California Fresh Works Fund. She and Mayor James Butt s claimed that giving $20 million in financing to Northgate Gonzalez Markets for three stores one in South Los Angeles would improve the economy. union stance and questionable labor practices. Food deserts ar e now a strategic means by health 112 Lewis and colleagues (2011) argue two grocery stores are successful outcomes of this inventive: Fresh & Easy, which received $5 million from the City of Los Angeles and Superior Grocer, which received $3 million. Both of these non union chains are known for paying low wages and providing weak benefits.

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439 subjugates issues of econo mic inequality In turn, grocery retail is increasingly subject to race to the bottom pressures. In order to combat the logic that the solution to food insecure environments is to add more and an y food options UFCW 770 and groups like LAANE argue that economic to do a lo lik e throwing a leech on a wound in the 19 th century. Is that really the best healthcare Such doubt couples with the different experiences that come along with organizing working class people. UFCW 770 works with community groups to prevent the opening of a Wal Mart in Burbank and regularly interfaces with those facing dietary health and economic challenges. Many commu the same respect, trea grocery retailers to fast track the permitting process in order to expedite capturing new local tax revenues. Immediate economic needs often conflict with longer term investment strategies to be tter local communities. Given these realities, some Los Angeles communities are generating greater competition by incentivizing grocery

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440 retailers to come into spaces designated as food deserts. However, as Jae notes, this requires 113 Food labor activists also contest the racialized and classed overtones of the food desert frame Jill exclaims, If you completely sacrifice any economic or workers right piece, it is saying Ralphs with a union store on the west side of LA that is in a more affluent area. Then we should expect to see a Fresh and Easy without the same benefits or tre atment of their workers in S outh LA? Knowing that communities lacking fresh produce and healthier food options tend to consist of blacks and Latino/as and the wor king poor, many food labor activists feel that food desert discourse obstructs recapturing middle wage jobs during the Great Recession. In essence, UFCW 770 fights against a bifurcated grocery retail sector with good food and jobs for people in deserving c ommunities, and less good or bad food and jobs for those that should be thankful for having any food and economic security at all. For UFCW 770, a different social and geographical imagination is at play. As at is going on within virtually every big affects low income people and people of color, the reason provided is different from many given by health advocates. Mark goes that in those communities where the major 113 For example, Obama put into his 2010 2011 budget $400 million in federal tax credits, loan guarantees, below market loans and grants to attract privat e capital to improve food access in underserved communities. This is called the National Healthy Food Financing Initiative. There are similar efforts in California called the California Fresh Works Fund. Even at the city level through the Community Redevel opment Agency there is a program called Market Opportunities: Incentives for Food Retailers.

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441 restructure the economic basis of marginalized c ommunities, effectively removing the means of social reproduction (i.e. union grocery stores as providers of good jobs and good food). Unions play a role in repopulating these communities with such needs. T he history of the grocery gap in Los Angeles and e nsuing efforts by food activists in the AFM to solve these issues from a health lens further complicates t he abovementioned i ssues. The grocery gap between low income people of color and middle to high income white people is one of the most persistent exp ressions of racial and class inequality in the city. Not only did this gap result because land use development patterns in Los Angeles favored suburbanization and the construction of many outlying grocery stores that require driving, but white only restric tive covenants and redlining led to a segregated city and the flight of supermarkets to the suburbs (Shaffer 2002). After the Watts riots in 1965, many grocery stores and markets were burned or destroyed, and in most cases not rebuilt, which was coupled wi th a de facto lending redline drawn around riot torn areas. In spite of efforts to bring in unionized grocery retailers into some of these communities in the 1990s, and hundreds of millions of dollars of unmet demand for groceries, the grocery gap persists (Shaffer 2002). Some of the race and class issues present in the 1970s through the 1990s remain. For instance, South Los Angeles is a place of high racial and ethnic diversity The western part in Lamont Park and Crenshaw consists of middle class and mid dle age or older black residents. The Latino/a community that lives here is low income and first, second, or third gen eration. The social divides generate conflicts. As Jill notes, allarta or

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442 coalitions developed between labor advocates, community groups, and health advocates. When many groups live in the same area, there is a need for culturally appropriate food and food for those wanting more specialty items. Such divisions though are not as major as divisions related to food access, autonomy, economics, and health One of the most visible conflicts was over South Central Farm, which ran from 1994 to 2006. The owner bulldozed t his 14 acre urban farm, the la rgest in the US, after deciding he wanted to use it for other purposes. Some communities of color are hesitant Something like that was a big blow to morale as well, not just to their economies because Therefore, while food labor activists recognize the benefits of new food produ ction and distribution premised on cooperative models, frontline communities need good food and good jobs. At the same time, concerns arise that with hyper local solutions communities can become isolated in their individual attempts to help themselves. A native Angelino, Luciana explains that because of a physical infrastructure built for driving and suburban spra centive for them to do work in S outh LA or other pieces of LA? I wonder whether we want our identity to be that regional or

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443 some groups focus on banning fast food or creatively solving food access inequalities. In essence, a structural analysis of how grocery retail restructuring impacts co mmunities all over the city and the development of widespread solutions is often substituted with meeting immediate needs. Given entrenched food access inequalities and the lack of political influence in food insecure communities, food labor activists push for efforts that Directly related to these issues are the divides between labor unions and health and local food acti vists. For instance, many labor activists recognize that Whole Foods and Trader Joes often offer better food than many stores locating in low income communities, but such stores are not a solution to food deserts because they do not want to locate in such communities. This incites food labor activists to focus on raising wages, which creates its own tensions with the mainstream AFM. As Mark reveals, kers are making $25 28 an hour. You [local food activists] Arguing that sustainability means more than environmental issues and locally procuring he true sustainable health food movement would want healthy think providing healthy food for everyone is their purpose. Their purpose is to make his tension is UFCW 770 self interest. Considerations of good for a community often reduce to economic considerations. In a reflective moment, Amy says,

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444 members and un short term needs versus long term The quest for good food and good jobs Revealing a shift in AFM discourse on food and jobs in Los Angeles, a 2010 All emphasis of this report reveals that solving problems in the local food system requires addressing issues of economic inequality. More broadly, an influential report writte n by highlights many of the issues with which food lab or activists in Los Angeles contend Additionally, a series of ev ents in 2012 and 2013 highlight the importance of making sure that wo rkers take a seat Food Festival and Conference put on an event with panels that not only addressed building community food systems and GMO labeling in California, but a panel titled motivated by the Food Chain Workers Alliance linked good jobs to good food. In short, a growing consensus in Los Angeles contends there can be no food justice without econom ic justice. Below I briefly explain how activists operationalize this and its importance to issues regarding grocery retail land use planning. The central irony motivating countless food labor activist efforts to bridge good food and good jobs is that pe ople working in non union grocery retail cannot afford the food sold in these stores. Olivia told me about Wal Mart workers she is organizing, [M]ost of them live in the Crenshaw area but I have a couple of them that live in Long Beach and further away. I

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445 because they are working in east LA and further towards the not even a good job that helps them to even buy food. There are a couple of them that are homeless and a bunch of them live in the same house This experience connects to the fact that healthy and affordable are often not the same. In many communities where Wal Ma rt workers live there mi ght be a unionized store, but it is most likely to be a discount retailer like Food 4 Less whose produce is limited and low quality. Clearly, these stores provide a needed alternative to fast food restaurants, et good food options, you get good jobs with The goal, then, is to link these two positions. Growing efforts aim to close the gap between good food and good jobs. LAANE, UFCW 770 and other community partners worked to cr eate a citywide mandate to allow unions, or those offering union level wages and benefits to work in what get designated food desert communities. Many food labor activists want to ensure that grocery retail expansion does not sacrifice the wellbeing of workers. 114 Given the number of government agencies offering subsidies for grocery development in food insecure a way front, no subsidies exist for economically highroad grocery development. One means to weave together food access, quality, and labor concerns is through a sha red analysis of poverty and inequality. Lillian, an organizer linked both to the labor movement and to the food justice movement told me that in a committee 114 collectively act and form unions. UFCW 700 does not want this to happen to their food chain workers.

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4 46 about poverty; it access to good food, not being able to afford good food. We have used that as a and bad jobs problems. Operationalizing this agreement is the most comprehensive food procurement policy in the nation, adopted in October of 2012 by the City of Los Angeles. The City of Los Angeles and the Los Angeles Unified School District adopted the policy, known as the Goo d Food Purchasing Pledge. On the one hand, this encourages buying from small and mid sized food and farming operations, ensures that the food meets high environmental sustainability standards, and that food is nutritious and cruelty free, all of which works to scale up alternative food networks. On the other hand, the pledge ensures that food and farm workers receive fair compensation and work in safe conditions. This encourages modified labor practices, and creates i ncentives for companies to su pport unionized workforces as a way to prove their worth as government food supply contractors. Although there are conflicts between groups wanting grocery stores and those wanting union jobs, there is a precedent going back to 2004 when UFCW 770 and its partner LAANE worked to prevent Wal Mart from entering Inglewood. This black and Latino/a community were an urban expansion test case by Wal Mart. They created a front group called Citizens Committee to Welcome Wal Mart to Inglewood, which managed to plac e an initiative on the ballot that would allow the development of stores as is without any public hearings or reviews. In a classic case of doublespeak, Wal Mart

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447 process o Ultimately, residents overwhelmingly rejected the initiative which provided momentum to pass the big box ordinance. Equally as important, this victory against Wal Mart stands as an example of how groups can unite against a common enemy. UFCW 770 can ensure the support of good food and good jobs by supporting pol icy efforts such as the Good Food Purchasing Pledge, CBAs, fast food bans, and grocery development incentive programs with clear metrics and requirements for fair labor practices. fresh food using our political relationships and clout to make sure the terms under which employers move into food deserts are fair and in the best interests of the people who actually live th Summary of Chapter 7 grocery retail sectors made major economic gains throughout most of the 20 th century. With the rise of neoliberal trickle down economics, corporate mergers and acquisitions, free trade agreements that opened up the American economy to greater outside competition, and new waves of Latin American immigrants, owners fought to roll back such gains. Unions such as UFCW 770 failed to stave off the attack in meatpacking and food processing, but managed to maintain majority union density in grocery retail. The story told in this chapter provides a detailed ethnographic and historical account of how Los Angeles food labor advoc ates through the lens of UFCW 770 respond to these

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448 social forces throughout the 2000s. In the course of telling this more recent history, I focus on perceptions and practices of f ood labor by workers and activists, and how land use battles are both the ter rain of struggle and object of social change efforts. In the context of the Great Recession where renewed attacks by the owners of (agrifood) corporation s and retailers seek to undermine gains made by labor unions, activists at UFCW 770 are particularly attentive to addressing the needs of the communities within which their members live. Labor politics in Los Angeles increasingly As a union that early on recognized the importance of not only repres enting Latino/a interests such as immigration reform but ensuring their representation within the ranks of union hierarchy and organizing, UFCW 770 continues to represent politically multi racial working class interests. Moreover, the union is providin g resources for community based organizations and labor advocacy groups outside the traditional union hierarchy. Such social relationships are useful given the complicated political landscape at federal, state, and local levels. Although federal gains und er the Obama administration are minimal, the union fought off attacks and supported candidates on the state level (Proposition 32; Governor Jerry Brown). They are also very influential in Los Angeles politics. In addition to pressuring mayoral candidates t o refuse money from Wal Mart, UFCW 770 expends time, money, and personnel on lawsuits, lobbying, and land use campaigns. Where institutional politics is insufficient in achieving gains, the union engages in various forms of activism and organizing. At all steps along the way, the Latino/a community serves as a potent political force.

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449 My focus is primarily on the perspectives and experiences of union organizers, labor advocates, shop stewards, and activist workers. Many of these people come from working clas s backgrounds and recognize the importance of jobs that provide upward mobility. Although there are complications organizing workers in meatpacking and food processing, where immigration politics and policies create barriers to recapturing previous gains, UFCW 770 is slowly making gains at companies such as Farmer John. Nevertheless some cozy relationships between union representatives and HR departments reflect class divides and institutional relationships that obstruct creating workplaces that are more m ilitant. In turn, contracts in plants like Overhill Farm allow for double breasted workplaces where the conditions for labor solidarity are undermined. While there is a commitment to increasing unionization in this sector and the grocery retail sector stem ming from a commitment to elevate the needs and interests of working class people, there are social forces pushing against such commitments. Restructuring in the grocery retail sector is both opening spaces for new ethnic markets and chains and organic and natural foods stores, thus creating new food possibilities, and is leading to labor insecurity throughout cities like Los Angeles, albeit in ways that unevenly impact low income communities of color. This process is highly contested by labor unions and th eir allies, first with grocery retail strikes in unionized stores, and subsequently with comprehensive campaigns contending with the likes of non union Wal Mart, the spread of food deserts as an idea and sociospatial process, and health policy prerogatives These processes play themselves out in the urban landscape most obviously in the land use and planning sectors, with powerful stakeholders interpreting the problem and solutions in different ways, thus complicating

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450 efforts to maintain both good food and good jobs. For those at UFCW 770 a looming goal remains. Can political, economic, and civil society interests gel at the intersections of improving the food system, improving food access, and improving worker rights? Complicated coalition politics between those committed to health and those committed to labor continue to prevent comprehensive solutions to the grocery gap in low income communities of color. Nonetheless, representatives from across Los d inequalities. With intermediaries such as FCWA successfully relating to food justice, sustainable food activists, anti hunger, and labor organizations, there is g reater headway with creating citywide policies that encourage better labor conditions for fo od chain workers. Nonetheless, this chapter makes clear the ongoing nature of land use politics and labor unrest spilling into public protest. Metabolic relationships at individual and social levels are still strained. Not only are many food chain workers alienated from the food they produce or sell to others (e.g. food insecurity), but they contend with a commodified urban food landscape where minimizing the worst excesses of grocery retail restructuring (e.g. formula retail ordinance) is difficult in the face of urban growth strategies by anti union corporations such as Wal Mart. For UFCW 770 these fights are not simply about maintaining union density as an expression of relevance within the local p olitical economy, but about committing to racial and econ omic justice. In communities such as Chinatown, where Wal Mart achieved a major victory, the union allied with Asian groups to fight to maintain the cultural diversity of that neighborhood and reduce the possibility for economic decline. While ultimately, the diversified tactics undertaken by a broad based coalition did not prevent Wal Mart

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451 from opening, it formed new network connections that possibly contain the power to overcome the homogenizing corporate forces seeking to restructure the Los Angeles food scape.

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452 Figure 7 1. Poultry processing plant. Photo courtesy of Overhill Farms. Figure 7 2. Protest over desktop raid at Overhill Farms in 2009. Photo courtesy of Socialist Worker.

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453 Figure 7 3. UFCW activists arrested for civil disobedience at 2013 immigration reform march in Washington D.C. Photo courtesy of UFCW 770.

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454 Figure 7 4. Union sponsored 2012 Thanksgiving ad. Image courtesy of UFCW

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455 Figure 7 5. Bucolic images of Farmer John meatpacking plant. Photo courtesy of N oah Albert and Efrain D. Guzman

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456 Figure 7 6. Community support for striking UFCW 770 members 2003. Photo courtesy of UFCW 770.

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457 Figure 7 7. Adopt a Store group during 2003 Southern California grocery strike Photo courtesy of UFCW 770.

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458 Figure 7 8. March 26, 2011 Los Angeles rally while UFCW was in grocery negotiations. Photo courtesy of UFCW 770.

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459 Figure 7 9. OUR Wal Mart Black Friday strikers at the Paramount store in 2012. Photo courtesy of OUR Walmart.

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460 CHAPTER 8 UNPACKING T HE SOCIOSPATIAL RELATIONS OF RESOURC E FLOWS, POLITICAL OPENINGS, NETWORK REACH AND RESISTANCE ACROSS AN UNEVEN CONTENTIOUS FOOD POLITICS LANDSCAPE Of central importance to this study is the question of how different institutionalized forces structure effo rts by the alternative food movement (AFM) to advance social justice in addition to environmental sustainability. As should be clear at this juncture, the AFM is a movement of movements. In its various guises, this social movement works to make improvement s in conventional food supply chains and create alternative food supply chains. Moreover, many segments of the social movement seek to use food to improve the lives of racially and economically marginalized groups and/or make changes in other institutions (e.g. prisons, schools, local government). In some instances, activism entrenches powerful forces, while in others it runs parallel to or actively resists such forces. Untangling the ways in which organizations and the networked social movements they are p art of alter and or resist material and symbolic forms of institutional power helps set the foundation for greater understanding of the degree to which social justice is advanced through these efforts. Specifically, this study intensively focuses on strug gles tied to labor and land in the spirit of understanding the sociospatial relations of contentious food politics and the ways in which social movement activism leads to mending social and individual metabolic rifts. While attention to labor is increasing among critic al food scholars ( c.f. Sachs et al. 2013 ; Gray 2014 ), this study offers a much needed empirical breakdown of the internal movement dynamics that facilitate or obstruct improving food labor conditions. Relatedly, the politics of private propert y, urban land use, and the commons is equally important to understand in light of competing notions of the role food plays in

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461 community economic development and democratic participation (Blomley 2004; Pothukuchi 2005; Barraclough 2009; LaCroix 2010; Lovell 2010; Schindler 2011; Schindler 2012). My cases reveal that labo r issues within the AFM intersect with issues of land use and access. Whether an organization wants to incubate urban agriculture cooperatives or prevent the siting of bottom dollar grocery r etail stores, both of which ultimately relate to ensuring economic opportunity, it must engage the state on matters of land. Mending metabolic rifts (e.g. urban food inequalities) by connecting humans with nature through food requires de commodifying and d e alienating labor and land relations (McClintock 2010; Sbicca 2013). Toward understanding such issues, this chapter offers a comparative breakdown between each of my cases of the mechanisms and processes influencing the movements of which they are part. By attending to the economic context, I explain the different approaches each organization takes to labor. Buffering this is an account of the political, but mainly social forces at play. With respect to the political con text, this helps explain the nature of land based contentious food politics. Although often unstated, the AFM needs a greater say in the use of p ublic and private land i f it is to advance greater economic and racial equality in and through food. Lastly, at tention to the social context reveals some of the symbolic issues supporting or contradicting the material issues tied to economic and political institutions. Most centrally, I compare approaches to addressing racial and ethnic inequality, the power of neo liberal subjectivities, and notions of environmentalism and health. Next, I compare the ways in which organizations and their local social movement networks alter and/or resist many of the economic, political, and social forces mentioned

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462 above. Most impor tantly, each of these organizations is engaged in land (use) politics of various sorts. My comparisons focus on these struggles more so than those tied to labor. However, by doing so different economic and social outcomes come to the fore. I discuss social change efforts tied to food access, food production, racial justice, organizational strategies and tactics, and the importance of social movement networks. The compar ison further dives into the sociospatial relations of social movement activism. Recall Giddens (1984), who building off particular, I investigate the sites of activist participation. The description of these places includes attention to differences in scalar reach as a means by which to explain the power of each organization and social movement network to challenge institutional powers. However, it is not just the places themselves that matter, but also the movement between and within places and the degr ee to which places connect across different social spaces. For instance, sociospatial relations look one way if a group (white middle class run organ ization) r egularly farms one place and people (white middle class people) come from an other place (white middle class neighborhoods) to that farm. Sociospatial relations look quite different if for instance people (racially diverse and working class) work in different places across an urban landscape (upper, middle, and low income neighborhoods), are treated poorly by an employer (transnational corporation), and collectively occupy places (marches, protests, picket lines) to air grievances and demand change s. The point here is that sociospatial relations vary and to understand the degree to which the AFM advances goals of social

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463 justice in addition to environmental sustainability requires attention to variance in these processes. Economic, Political, and Soc ial Spatial Structuring Processes To break down how economic, political a nd social forces structure the food activism in each of my cases I offer a side by side comparison. This comparison sets a foundation for understanding the multi institutional approac h to social change embedded within the AFM. As a movement of movements, there are multiple institutional targets, which in practical terms mean that there are spaces of divergence and convergence between different movement segments. Partially explaining t h is difference is variance in how economic, political, and social forces shape the urban food landscape. At the same time, these forces intersect in complex ways to produce varying food inequality matrices. For analytical purposes, these forces are broken a part, but by the time I begin discussing social structuring processes, I offer an account of some of these intersections. Toward these ends, I focus on the most salient institutional mechanisms and processes in order to untangle the spatial relations betwe en exploitation, domination, and resistance. Economic Structuring Processes All three organizations work in a context where economic inequality and its concomitant spatial separation between groups are widespread. 1 However, the context of this sociospatia l inequality and its consequences for different racial and ethnic groups varies (see Appendix D). This in turn influences the form of contentious food politics. In 1 This takes form in both income and wealth inequality. See for instance research by The Institute for Spatial Economic Analysis (ISEA) at University of Redlands ( bubble toil and trouble characteristics of income distribution across the un ited states after the great recession/ .)

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464 San Diego racial demographics over the past four decades shifted to where what was once an o verwhelmingly white city is now predominately people of color. Growth in the Latino/a population primarily accounts for this shift. Unlike Los Angeles, its big brother city to the north, the history of San Die go is one where the visibility of people of co l or and their interests is suppressed (Davis et al. 2003; Davis 2006). Nevertheless Los Angeles is a city where racial and economic i nequality is rife: multimillion dollar homes and Michelin Star restaurants abut giant homeless encampments and tiny taco ca rts. The history of Oakland is well known given the many ongoing battles for racial justice. Negro Improvement Association, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the Black P anther Party, and a variety of environmental and food justice organizations, Oakland historically serves as a reminder that economic justice cannot occur withou t racial justice ( Self 2003 ; Rhomberg 2004 ). In all these cases, the correlation between racial and class inequality is strong. This general pattern of economic/racial inequality takes on specific forms relevant to each organization. San Diego In San Diego activists perceive that corporate power in the form of Monsanto, McDonalds, Wal Mart and the like produce conditions on the ground for eaters where health becomes a stand in for economic inequality. At the same time, local development interests reduce the possibility for producing more local food by paving over formerly fertile farmland. It is oft en felt that if people could just produce more local and organic food then some of these inequalities would dissipate and corporate power shrink. The demographics of San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (SD Roots) and the AFM buoy this structural analy sis. Representing predominately white middle class interests,

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465 efforts focus on creating markets for local and organic foods that often come at a price tag far too expensive for groups on the economic/racial margins. At the same time, there are few opportun ities to work in alternative food jobs that pay a livable wage and provide benefits. Oakland For food activists in Planting Justice (PJ) and many Oakland based AFM allies, segregation is a central framing for what is wrong and needs changing in the local food system. Not only do PJ canvassers use this as a means to mobilize local support, but also many PJ staff experience such sociospatial inequalities. The experiential difference Food activis ts see i ssues such as disproportionate access to healthy and affordable food not simply as the result of corporate malfeasance or local government oversight, but as an outcome of poverty, itself the logical outcome of capitalism, a system of accumulation b ased on heavily relies on the non profit model. With the roll back of welfare state protections and a growing army of recently minted idealistic college educated young adults wanting to fi ght the good fight for (with?) profits seem exponentially to grow. In turn, many jobs are available, but usually not enough or with a high enough salary for such non profits to really alter an economically unequal lands cape. Los Angeles Los Angeles through the lens of United Food and Commercial Workers 770 (UFCW 770) and their allies offers an understanding of economic inequality different from the other two cases. First corporate power is more directly affecting the l ives of people closely connected to the food sectors represented by UFCW 770. Meatpacking

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466 and food processing plants predominate with low income Latino/as, many of whom are undocumented. Economic exploitation at work is the most immediate expression of the more general insecurity faced by these people. With major outsourcing and union busting over the past three decades, the industry successfully reproduces conditions for workers and a product for consumers meeting neither conditions of environmental or eco nomic sustainability. At the same time, UFCW 770 experiences declining union membership roles in the face of unionized grocery retailers leveraging the infiltration of bottom dollar stores, whether in the guise of Wal Mart or Latino/a grocery chains, to re duce wages and benefits. The result is a contentions food labor landscape where Lo s Angeles communities face off against each other for good food and good jobs. As the most unequal of these cities and as a city where the grocery retail sector is one of the Latino/a and black communities. Political Structuring Processes Across all three cases, struggles over land use, whether in the form of territorial boundary making, z oning laws, accessing public land, or relying on private property, represent the shifting tectonics upon which the AFM navigates approaches to incubating social change. At the same time that these are political battles, they also represent the push and pul l between different development trajectories. In this sense, the AFM is not just a collection of independent organizations pursing their own goals, but is a political force that operates in the crosscurrents between different economic and political interes ts. The three results chapters tell the story of how these organizations wade into contentious food politics primarily on a local level, but upon reflection, it quickly becomes clear that these forays represent a more statewide (national?) set of struggles

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467 with related implications. It is to these set of issues I now turn, pointing out areas of similarity and difference along the way. Development patterns in San Diego, Oakland, and Los Angeles offer different landscapes of struggle. Historically in San Die go the influence of the military, development interests, and wealthy white landowners led to a city where the political class fought for land uses that shuffled and centralized capital into the hands of a small number of people (Davis et al. 2003). For man y decades, and arguably up to the present, this meant that gaining access to public lands was very difficult Instead, there was a process of privatizing and commodifying public lands. To this day, private property is sacred and many efforts to collectiviz e either in the workplace or on the streets are heavily policed and suppressed. 2 On a different development trajectory, Oakland is a city where after the decline in World War II manufacturing, a process was set in motion where upwardly mobile whites moved to the suburbs where land covenants and redlining prevented the same segregation continues to play a role in the politics of land use. Whereas whites largely occupied the su burbs in much of the mid to late 20 th contained the seeds for a politics of community empowerment and self determination where urban tax bases did not match the needs of the urban constituency (Self 2003). Historical content ion over spatial separation continues to play a political role in land use and zoning battles. contradictory history of urbanization; the ongoing redevelo pment of the city reflects a 2 The Occupy movement is the most visible instantiation of this suppression.

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468 spa tial politics where local issues of race and class intersect with statewide issues such as policing, prisons, and re entry. Lastly, in Los Angeles, the politics of sprawl reveal a city where development interests were also powerful particularly in the cre ation of downtown skyscrapers, a time, the politics of space show a city that polices people of color, cordons off groups deemed deviant, unevenly invests public resources, and promotes growth benefitting the elite (Davis 2006). However, white flight in the 1990s, entrenched social inequalities, physical separation between communities and a decline in manufacturing produced a landscape where land use battles are a proxy for fights over economic justice. With this historical geography in mind, I turn attention to the specificities in each case. San Diego The contentious food politics in San Diego over urban agriculture present a story where outside statewide and federal forces buoys the power of loc al political forces The territorial layering of political power AFM activists must negotiate to achieve their ends reveals a set of entanglement s that produce a particular land use scape. First activists in SD Roots and their allies faced a maze of zoning laws written at a time when urban agriculture was neither widespread nor seen as a path to community economic development. Interestingly, many f ood activists mobilized around a community gardening plan by International Rescue Committee that revealed the economic and legal barriers faced by minimally resourced food non profits and community groups. Food activists view most community gardens as publ ic resources regardless of whether they exist on public or pr ivate land and as a positive land use that should not face

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469 laborious legal requirements. However, politicians and various public agency officials jumped to support community gardens in the name o f improving dietary health; framing avoided talk of land use for subsistence or urban provisioning. The battle over changing zoning laws to ease the process by which groups could start community gardens turned into a litmus test for whether politicians wo uld allow people to grow food in the city. The wave of changes continued with activists using the political opportunity opened by tens of millions of dollars flowing into San Diego from federal and state sources to improve public health. SD Roots along wit h many San Diego AFM organizations developed grant proposals aimed at reducing obesity or training San Diegans how to grow their own fruits and vegetables. In one sense, supporting food non profits is a way for political elites to shuffle resources into lo cal hands to decentralize government influence in public affairs. Government run programs and services to combat poverty do not match this neoliberal policy approach Therefore, in another sense, political elites and agency experts co opt the health lens f rom the AFM to direct public resources into programs not seen as a direct threat to many development interests supporting local politicians. A case in point is support for changing urban agriculture zoning laws in order to allow people to raise animals an d grow and sell their own food. While there were grassroots groups such SD Roots, Food Not Lawns, and the 1 in 10 Coalition clamoring for zoning laws that allow people to use private property how they want, it was not until federal resources entered the ci ty that laws changed. Food activists viewed the change the framing of the aims reflects libertarian, entrepreneurial language. Moreover, perceptions of th e land use changes are apolitical

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470 because they did not challenge privat e property relations or require any redistribution of public lands. The political climate offered a short term boom of money for SD Roots and its allies, but once this d ried up, organizations faced a restricted political landscape. The discursive opportuni ty structure really only allows for those who frame their work through a health lens. Not everyone benefits from this language, such as the Cambodian farmers mentioned in Chapter 5 whose ethnic status places them outside the predominately white and middle class AFM and outside those working with black communities in central San Diego. At the same time are a set of territorial border imperatives that challenge the labor practices and forms of political allyship pursued by SD Roots. The politics of the borde r are always present in San Diego, particularly for those working in the food and people moved through without much difficulty. However, the militarization and securiti zation of the border in the past two decades reflect not only an entrenched local military culture, but also coming from many politicians (Nevins 2002). In turn, the local AFM overwhelmingly igno res issues faced by Latino/a immigrants, most problematically those having to do with labor issues in the local agrifood system. This internalization of racial and ethnic Roots engagement in different types of land use battles. Despite the fact that Wild Willow Farm (WWF) is right on the border, and immigrants and Border Patrol agents secu

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471 for the (trans)local Latino/a community. The territorial structuring limits the imagination at the same time that it provides a powerful metaphor for what needs to be broken down in order to even the local development landscape. Oakland context of historical land contestation where marginalized groups see land as a resource for urban empowerment and development As a city with a deep radical streak, efforts to capture land for urban agriculture may seem tame. Interestingly, while many food activists throughout the US know of city's zoning laws are not as permissive as those in San Diego. Contention over these processes revea ls a set of issues distinct from the other two cases. In short, given the slow pace of policy change, PJ and many of its allies opt for strategies that bypass the state in the hopes of scaling up alternative models that neoliberal roll back of social services. At the same through the urban scape as commodities that an insatiable prison political economy gobbles up Local contentious food pol itics reveal entrenched social inequalities activists. One of the legacies of the industrialization of Oakland in port bordering neighborhoods is the production of a toxic landscape that white middle class people escaped after World War II, only to leave black and low income people. The health problems in these communities are not simply the result of poor air quality and toxic leeching into local water and soil, but stem f rom the poverty that blunts everything from educational advancement to access to healthy food and adequate health care. In the

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472 name of food justice, many activists argue for the right s of people to grow their own food without onerous zoning laws. Bracketin g for a moment the complexities of growing food in a landscape with toxic soils, there are numerous efforts to ease zoning restrictions for people to grow and sell their own food in the city. First, there is little public land available to grow food. Much like San Diego where the city plan and current food production zoning laws reflect different historical understandings of urban agriculture, Oakland is a city where public land faces competing uses. Many politicians and agency officials see public parks a s spaces for a well it becomes clear that there are class interests seeking to maintain these as recreation spaces for the more well to do. With fewer acres of public land in the flats, the unspoken issue is one of redistribution. As a proxy for these issues, many Oakland AFM activists supported the Occupy the Farm effort to express the extent to which they will engage in civil disobedience t o capture land to meet human needs. However, local politicians continue to drag their feet on availing public lands for urban agriculture. For PJ, the slow pace of change is bothersome in light of the fact that the city is spending tens of millions of dol lars on police abuse settlement claims at the same time it is closing down public schools and criminalizing low income communities of color. Although the city plans to overhaul urban agriculture zoning laws as part of a wider climate action plan, in the na me of both environmental sustainability and equitable community economic development, its impact is unclear for the most economically marginalized neighborhoods. Nonetheless, there is growing pressure to implement

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473 these changes in light Governor Jerry Brow n signing into law in September 2013 a law that allows cities to lower taxes on vacant land if the owner designates the land for urban agriculture for at least five years. However, such efforts clash with proposals to create blight taxes on vacant property unless landowners sign short term leases with groups wanting to grow food on such lands. The car rot versus stick approaches is not yet tested in practice. This leads to two interpretations One, Oakland adopts a more neoliberal approach to availing lands, which reduces local tax revenue. Two, Oakland adopts an approach that is revenue neutral or revenue positive, which likely increases money for public projects and social services. ns, but the costs of permitting compelled groups like PJ to experiment with private property. Unlike SD Roots and their all ies in San Diego who focus on educating people how to grow their own food and setting up volunteer opportunities to help others grow their own food, PJ is monetizing private property with a Robin Hood strategy that redistributes resources to people with barriers to employment. I will discuss this in detail later, but one of the political structuring processes compelling them to do so is the prison industrial complex. In short, income neighborhoods see high levels of criminalized young black men. Not only does poverty produce a context within which people participate in illegal or underground economies as survival strat egies, but also it leads to higher levels of unemployment where more people with more time participate in activities that lead to arrest. Unlike SD Roots who tend to internalize such repressive political forces, PJ seeks to transcend them. That being said the reach of policing and cost of maintaining a police department that largely lives outside Oakland, thus drawing

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474 away needed tax revenues, leads to neighborhood surveillance strategies that perpetuate cycles of poverty. In short, out of necessity, PJ wor ks to leverage private property outside this context. Los Angeles Unlike the previous two cases, corporate power directly influences the zoning law battles UFCW 770 engages in Los Angeles Land is the chessboard upon which workers are battling owners for the value produced through labor. However, state and federal forces influence local maneuvering For instance, while UFCW 770 primarily participates in efforts to advance the interests of meatpacking, food processing, and groc ery retail workers, they also fight off those seeking to access to political power. As was made clear in Chapter 7, UFCW 770 expended incredible amounts of time, money, and personnel to prevent the passage of Proposition 32. Additionally, in their battles a gainst Wal presidency for approval of National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) nominations. Quite recently, the local political landscape s hifted as the NLRB decided to pursue charges against Wal Mart claiming that the co mpany violated US labor law by threatening, harassing, and punishing workers for going on strike. However, the Superior Court of California, County Los Angeles recently enjoined UFCW from picketing and other acts of organizing within Wal Mart stores right before a second year of historic strikes The foundation for t his statewide and natio nal political wrangling is in local land use battles. In Los Angeles, there is a grocery gap between different class and ra cial groups (e.g. rich and poor, black and white) that mirror wage and employment gaps.

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475 is now closer to 50% unionized. This decline mirrors an alteration of the grocery retail landscape as bottom dollar stores increased their presence over the past two decades. While communities such as South Los Angeles are plagued with poor food choices and few economic prospects for decades, the introduction of companies such as Wal M art into Los Angeles County exacerbates these issue s. The city of Los Angeles largely because of the efforts of labor unions such as UFCW 770 and allies such as Los Angeles Alliance for a New Economy (LAANE). Nonetheless, there are a number of local politicians justifying their support for Wal Mart in the name of providing needed fresh produce into places such as South Los Angeles In essence, land use battles now rage over the false choice between good food a nd good jobs. An unevenly developi ng grocery retail landscape means for UFCW 770 that instead of fighting land use battles that would place the provisioning of food on the individual through growing to ensure that food workers captur e enough of the value of their labor to afford to buy healthy food. In practice, this means taking on companies such as Vons, Albertsons, and Ralphs by striking when these companies refuse to share in the profits produced by workers. At the same time, this means battling co mpanies such as Wal Mart over store siting in the places of decision making, namely the courts and planning agencies. One of the difficult issues UFCW 770 contends with after successfully keeping out Wal Mart with a big box store ordinanc e passed in 2004 requiring greater oversight of stores over 100,000 square feet is Wal where they enter under the radar of the traditional permitting process by leasing space

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476 in urban zones as the last major area for growth, Wal Mart sees these spaces as imperative to penetrate. On the other hand, UFCW 770 sees keeping Wal Mart out as imperativ e to maintaining labor power in Los Angeles. In practice, these battles mean that bridging good food and good jobs is challenging. The current mayor, Eric Garcetti, pledged not to take money from Wal Mart during his campaign, buoying political efforts to demonize the company for its poor labor practices. However, many health professionals much like in San Diego roll out neoliberal policies that turn the state into the facilitator of capital accumulation. F without g health advocates successfully facilitate the offering of subsidies to any company willing to open a store in such territorially designated zones. A grocery model dreamt up by Wal M subsidies to open stores in South Los Angeles For UFCW 770, such capitulations shirk a perceived obligation of city governments to their residents to draft policies that protect them from exploitation by econ omic interests bent on profit without ethics. While not universal in terms of who receives these, the subsidies represent political efforts to encourage grocery retail. 3 D ifferent understandings of public versus private space match t he complicated politic al terrain. With the basis in grocery store siting founded in private property laws, UFCW 770 and its allies perceptions of land use varies from the other two cases. Central to the difference is the fact that workers sell their labor for a wage under the 3 Recall that Ralphs, a unionized company, received subsidies to open a grocery store in downtown Los Angeles.

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477 a uspice that this exchange is freely undertaken. Moreover, there is the legal protection to collectively organize and bargain. This private space of employment may be a space of exploitation where employers refuse to meet their legal obligations to allow wo rker organizing and bargaining. In this case, workers recourse is to make such private issues public. The political structuring of worker/employer relations creates conditions where workers and their allies wage public campaigns through protests, marches, and civil disobedience. I will get into these issues later, but for now, I am simply pointing to the different political landscape for conventional labor focused segments of the AFM versus those working to create alternative food supply chains. Social Str ucturing Processes Economic and political forces intersect in various ways to produce a landscape of struggle. However, as Armstrong and Bernstein (2008) make clear, co ntended material conditions mutually constitute the symbolic gravitas of social forces. My study reveals a series of economic and political structuring mechanisms, namely economic inequality and physical segregation, and land use laws and private property regimes that frame the struggles in each case. Intersecting with the material processes producing food inequalities in the built environment are systems of neoliberalization (as ideology and subjectivity), healthism, and racism. In the following comparisons between my three cases, I focus on how these systems operate both to amplify the econ omic and political forces discussed above and how they independently act as mechanisms that produce San Diego San Diego is a city where DIY culture is not anarchist, but libertarian. The expectati on for social engagement is not mutual obligation, but individual responsibility.

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478 Entrepreneurial endeavors trump cooperative proje cts and political expression often reduces These broad strokes do not account for all of San D iego culture, but they embody a general orientation that permeates the work of ideological set of frames variably adopted by activists and internalizations that scale to organ izational and policy prerogatives. Perhaps the most obvious expression of these social structuring processes interpolates with economic structuring processes: there are not many job opportunities SD Roots after tens of millions of dollars in grants dried up was figuring out how to monetize the non profit. 4 The purpose of the money was to improve health, primarily through projects aimed at individual behavior change, itself a neoliberal approach to systemic economic and social inequalities. As such, SD Roots and many of its allies took money to build gardens, train people to grow their own food, and educate children on the importance of locally grown food. Although some money was at one point availab le to develop a food hub that would provide necessary processing and distributional infrastructure, this never materialized. Instead, non profits spent their grant money on projects in ways that did not produce adequate return to the degree where steady em ployment was a possibility. Nevertheless WWF offers an example of concerted efforts to create more economic sustainability and fight back against the path dependency of volunteerism. In the absence of a successfully monetized model producing living wage employment, many members of SD Roots justify the volunteerism with reskilling and 4 Please see Chapter 5 for a more sustained discussion of how non profits represent a strong neoliberal response to the roll back of the welfare state.

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479 self sufficiency discourses. If money is hard to make then at least people are learning about homesteading, cob bench building, cheese making, goat herding, tea making, and o rganic farming to the degree where they can take care of themselves and maybe their families. Hunkering down in the face of collapsing environmental and social systems represents the power of neoliberal ideology. As was briefly mentioned above, an ideology of healthism supports neoliberalization. Guthman (2011) argues that healthism manifests in the AFM because of the science of o besity and its translation into public health policies. Where money flows people gravitate. The result is an internalization of s elf help practices. For instance, there were times when working as an intern at WWF that discussion turned to what people eat, the vitamins they take, and the dietary intolerances they experience. This is not inherently problematic. However when taken to the level of organizational mission making and local AFM project development its impacts are more socially widespread. The other major social structuring forces influencing the work of SD Roots involve issues of racial inequality and immigration. Like neo liberalization and healthism, these issues intersect with other structuring processes. Of particular relevance is how migrant and undocumented labor. Although troubled by t he racial profiling and deportations of Latino/as in 2007 after wildfires forced people to seek shelter at evacuation centers, many activists in SD Roots perpetuate a variety of popular racialized discourses. Chief among these is the notion that agricultur al labor exploitation is unavoidable in the current farm economy. The defeatism of such language naturalizes racial inequality through the belief that it is quasi necessary because food

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480 would cost too much if we paid farmworkers more money. Some food activ ists express discomfort with these arrangements, but in a context where white San Diegans do not cross the border in Tijuana and generally view Mexico with suspicion (Nienstedt 2003), es more understandable. At the same time, the organization is primarily white and generally lacks Spanish speaking skills. A popular discourse that foreign born farmworkers labor in an industry undesirable by most native (white) Americans perpetuates t his de mographic difference Racialization of farmworkers is not simply an active process of defining what forms of work are for diff erent groups of people. There is also an entrenched conflation between the importance of growing and eating organic food as an expression of health and the need to do this all locally. By romanticizing what farming should look like while not improving what farming does look like, white privilege as em bodied in the ability to move freely throughout the San Diego/Tijuana region sup ports territorial boundaries and racialized categories. These racialization processes are reinforced by militarized the body politic. With hundreds of millions of dollars flowing into securing the border in order to stop the flow of bodies northward, the border becomes a space of social separation based on differences in nationality, but translates into marking anybody that meets a Latino/a racial profile as possibly trans gressive, illegal, and therefore suspect. people who flow into the California agricultur al economy by framing them as the

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481 problem behind cheap food. Racialization processes work to absolve growers and politicians for their exploitative practices by blaming immigrants and ascribing characteristics that mark them as different and therefore less deserving. Oakland Unlike San Diego, Oakland is a city where the DIY ethic is more anarchist than libertarian. While entrepreneurialism in the form of food establishments, boutique clothing shops and bike shops abound, there is a much stronger commitment to and higher visibility of cooperative enterprises. At the same time, there is a longstanding culture of canvassing where individuals contribute both financial and professional resources to collective endeavors to alter both social and political processes Nevertheless manifests itself in various ways (Sbicca 2012). With the roll back of social welfare, say in the guise of closing public schools, and roll out of the punitive state, say in the guise climate that both restricts and offers space for experimentation. As the city with the highest non profit per capita of all my cases, Oakland stands as an exa mple of how neoliberalization manifests as non profitization. Similar to the pressures experienced by SD Roots, PJ feels the need to monetize the organization and establish independence from the grant funding model. Many non profits though, still represen t mu s AFM. When one considers that spokespeople for urban agriculture zoning law changes primarily consist of people that work in non es it easier to capture grant money that disproportionately goes to these kinds of projects, the power of neoliberal ideology becomes more visible.

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482 public policy historically cared for. For inst ance, PJ works with San Quentin prisoners through the Insight Garden Program (IGP). Although the program receives money from the state to offer rehabilitation services, San Quentin officials refused to put up the money to build a food producing garden on p rison grounds. However, if the money could be fundraised, then food production could proceed. In essence, the state is willing to spend taxpayer money imprisoning people, but where there is a desire by a non profit to rehabilitate people and offer re entry jobs and services, it is willing to abdicate responsibility. This is not to speak poorly of the program itself, and more to explain how neoliberalization operates as a social structuring process, in turn creating expectations for the functions offered by the state. (TYY) program are a direct response to neoliberal ideology permeating much of the AFM. la wn and instead growing edible plants, especially when considering that while edible landscapes challenge middl e class neighborhood aesthetics. They also represent what respo nsibility for their health in the face of widespread problems in the agrifood system. These social processes reflect a belief, which is generally accurate, that environmental problems associated with industrialized agriculture require rethinking and experi menting with models of food production that replenish ecosystems and not just extract from them. As Alkon (2012) shows often juxtapose social considerations such as race. The tensions between reproducing

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483 racial and class privilege and spreading the benefits of more environmentally and healthy food supply chains remains, but organizations such as PJ are also responding to racialized institutions such as prisons. As was discussed at length in Chapter 6, Cali fornia prisons are a racialized response to widespread poverty in communities of color. Not only might the mass in a city such as Oakland, the social consequences are pro found: broken families, few male mentors in black communities, reduced community earnings, heavy police monitoring and the production of social distrust, and a cycle of poverty. Similarly to the and policed in the context of immigration politics in San Diego, blacks face a similar experience as criminalized bodies in Oakland. This process of policing begins with the assumption that these people are more likely to commit crimes, thus justifying th e heavy police presence in these communities. The neoliberal turn in punishing the poor promotes a colorblind approach to incarceration; it justifies locking up people of color in the name of personal responsibility (Wacquant 2009). As a response to urban unrest in the form of civil rights and black power movements and the decline in the welfare state, the prison industrial complex rests on an ideology that conflates and blames people for being black and poor and therefore criminals (i.e. immoral). While O to take on the ideological, state, and economic structures propping up this system, this system shapes the landscapes within which groups engage in community economic development. No project can succeed without recogn izing the ways in which neoliberal

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484 ideologies intersect with institutionalized racism to produce spaces of economic insecurity and criminality. Los Angeles Los Angeles is a difficult city to generalize, but there are a number of social structuring process es directly relevant to the food labor activism and organizing of UFCW 770 and its allies. Unlike San Diego and Oakland where the AFM organizations AFM under study lar gely skirts these ideological influences. However UFCW 770 still contends with allies, local politicians, and corporations that either push for or operate under the valorization of individual responsibility. Neoliberal tensions are most visible in debat es over providing good food and/or good jobs. Just like San Diego and Oakland, there are communities that lack access to healthy and affordable food. While in these cities the AFM focuses on supporting individual efforts to encourage more farmers markets, doubling payouts for those who use food stamps to buy food at farmers markets, subsidizing CSAs, and teaching low income people to grow their own food, UFCW 770 operates under the ideological position that workers can collectively capture more capital thro ugh unions. Ho wever, health is a discursive Trojan Horse for neoliberalism. In South Los Angeles the black community lacks many grocery stores and suffers from high rates of diet related health problems. Moreover, with the influx of Latino/as, there is a grocery stores that serve this community. The social structuring processes at play take on two discursive forms. One is that as long as grocery stores open in food deserts then there is no need for regulatory oversight in terms of economic or social accountability. Two is that for those grocery stores offering culturally relevant food (e.g. Latino/a

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485 grocery retailers. At the same time, there is a belief in public/private partnerships that encourage such bottom dollar retailers to enter these communities. In essence, neoliberal ideologies that push for the opening of grocery stores that may offer good food, but not good jobs threaten union density Such issues take on added significance in light of the high levels of racial inequality in Los Angeles. Relevant to the work of UFCW 770 is the way in which Latino/a immigrant influx into meatpacking a nd food processing justified a reduction in labor stan dards to break union influence. Over the past three decades, restructuring in the sector left most plants non union which beyond reducing overall wages and benefits also leads to exploitative practices that take advantage of undocumented Latino/a immigran bodies are marked by employers as sites where greater value can be extracted beyond labor More broadly, racial demographic shifts in Los Angeles over the past four decades changed from predominately whites to predominately Latino/as (See Appendix C). UFCW 770 recognized the importance o f supporting the interests of this group beginning in the 1990s. Unlike in San Diego where the AFM largely ignores immigration issues despite its visibility, most segments of the AFM, labor movement, and other social justice movements in Los Angeles see th is as a central concern. As Davis (2000) and Nevins (2002) argue, Latino/as were repeatedly scapegoated for different economic downturns, or viewed as a reserve labor force to be imported into California only to be

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486 paid poor wages, but never offered a chan ce at citizenship (Ngai 2004). This process of the American body politic, means in Los Angeles that no matter your document ed status one most certainly knows family or friends who experienced deportations or shoddy labor protections under US law. At the same time, Latino/as and blacks experience higher rates of unemployment and poverty than whites. In a city where the grocery retail sector is one of the last majorly unionized sectors offering upwardly mobile careers for people of color whose high school and college graduation rates are lower than whites, issues of racial inequality are paramount. Although many activists within UFCW 770 se e the importance of ensuring the right of people to grow their own food as a subsistence strategy (e.g. for groups without white privilege to purchase healthy food. Coming back to the good food and g ood job framing, low income communit ies of color confront the option of settling for one or the other and hear that they should be thankful for whatever they get. Such dichotomous positions represent racialized assumptions about what people need and what t hey deserve. Similarly to racialized discourses that normalize labor exploitation of farmworkers in San Diego, UFCW 770 contends with those arguing that low income communities of color deserve less because they start from a position of less. Resisting and Altering the Spatiotemporal Trajectories of Economic, Political, and Social Life Unpacking the social, geographic, and historical relations of power is a central meta concern in this study. As such, I focus on not only how structural forces influence

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487 the AFM in different California metropolitan areas, but also how these local movements through the lens of single organizations resist and alter the trajectory of these forces. In particular, I recognize that social movement organizations work to change a var iety of political and economic institutions, and cultural frameworks and norms. Below I offer a comparative analysis of each case, paying attention to the degree to which these actually existing radical projects address food inequalities. In order to addre ss my overarching interest in whether the AFM can integrate socially just lenses and projects into their work, I offer a breakdown of the ways in which the movement solves and further entrenches problems related to labor and land use. Working for Social C hange through Restructuring Work Meaning and Practice AFM activists approach issues of labor, and therefore the possibility for achieving economic justice, from a range of vantage points. Some see the interests of the working class as singularly importan t regardless of other social or political concerns, interpreting economic justice as equity in pay, benefits, and workplace decision making. Others engage in a process of redefining labor relations, reducing alienation and commodification, all the while up lifting social, political and economic rights. Still others view labor considerations as peripheral to other social considerations or engage in practices that undermine economic justice. Below I discuss these issues further through a selective presentation of activist discourses and organizational practices. 5 My intent is to call attention to the spectrum of perspectives and practices of actually existing radical food projects. In the most general sense, views on economic justice run the gamut of guiding p rinciple, an ongoing and complicated process, and as 5 Economic, political and social forces influence organizational approaches to economic justice. These are discussed earlier.

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488 peripheral. Within this spectrum, I focus on three levels of engagement. First, individual beliefs, which when viewed within an organizational environment amount to an organizational orientation. Second, the organizational labor practices and forms of engagement in the economic sphere. Third, organizational political efforts aimed at changing and/or using public policy. Figure 8 1 offers a visual representation of the relationship between economic, politi cal, and social structuring processes, and how and the degree to which activists work toward economic justice. San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (San Diego) San Diego mimics a larger national trend in increasing community and scho ol gardens, and restaurants that source their food locally. Not only health and encouraging deeper social ties through less alienating forms of economic exchang e. SD Roots serves as a communal clearinghouse for such projects, offering expertise, time, physical meeting space, and educational tools for newly inspired AFM activist s. As well as contesting many of the structural f orces discussed above, they engage in larger activist network s that offer foodshed. Many of these visions match practices that resist and change institutionalized inequalities, but there are also practices that alter institutional practices only to further i nequalities. Below I investigate t more broadly San D with specific attention to how economic justice is considered peripheral. In a city where neoliberalization is on full display perhaps it is unsurprising that AFM organizati ons such as SD Roots encourage Others note that such consumer oriented social change efforts are unlikely to solve food

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489 inequalities because they are contingent upon capitalist forms of exchange, value, and ideology (Alkon 2012; Guthman 2008b). While I am equally as skeptical about the capacity for consumer centric campaigns to transform economic institutions, the case of SD Roots requires a more nuanced evaluation. One reason for this is that their approach to volunteerism contains both resistant and compromised elements. On the one hand, SD Roots envisions an agrifood system of small scale associated producers who distribute their goods to local markets. T heir worldview demonstrates a d eep skepticism of corporate power and a belief that the state often obstructs alternatives that are more radical by applying rules meant for large agricultural operations on small scale farmers. The issue is twofold. First, SD Roots and their farming proje ct, WWF, lack major resources which forces creativity in navigating agricultural and non pr ofit sectors to actualize goals. Wanting to avoid the non profit funding cycle, SD Roots is developing a model that will create greater financial independence. This will allow for greater organizational autonomy and ideally replication by those with similar goals. Second, there is a gap between those wanting to work as urban farmers and organic producers and the number of jobs. The result is a growing army of reserve volunteer labor. To deal with this gap SD Roots and much of San As work this partially resists commodification of labor by creating spaces for reskilling and experiment ing with alternative ways of living. For some people this means deve loping skills to live more independently from capitalist modes of exchange. While for others this means working free of bosses in spaces where communi tarian ethics strive toward some more noble ends. WWF is a case in point. This farm embodies the collective vision of those wanting

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490 to prove that farming can be less alienating and exploitative. At the same time, the farm offers a rejection of the wage labor system by operating as an educational tool for those interested in reconnect ing with their food source and socializing with those interested in more just and sustainable food systems. On the other hand, volunteerism entrenches social inequalities in the AFM itself. L arge segments of low income and working class people face exclu sion if the only way to act is to buy local organic food volunteer one s time to grow such food or learn how to cook u nusual vegetable varieties Such volunteerism manifests in SD Roots monthly potlucks. These events primarily consist of people coming fr om Central San Diego. In home, but work for a few hours on the farm. Moreover, volunteerism in this mode reflects racialized understandings of work. I already addresse d this issue in the previous section, but I want to add that in the case of WWF there are few efforts to include local Latino/a farmers and community gardeners. I nstead, greater effort goes to convincing politicians that people should be able to grow and s ell their own food. reflects and redefines efforts to independently profit. In the context of the Great Recession and shifting demographics, San Diego is a city with a growing w orking class population. At the same time, there are a growing number of young people out of work looking for ne w opportunities to apply their energy. SD Roots works to direct these economic desires into policy. While I will address this in different ways below, what is interesting to note now is that a large AFM coalition pushed for policy allowing people to grow and sell food from their own property. This policy shifts discourse and practice.

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491 First, it provides institutional sanctioning for the AFM to con vince San Diegans that growing and selling food not only builds a more resilient local foodshed, but it offers some economic remuneration. Second, it legitimizes the proliferation of using private property to grow food. The contradictions are telling. Whil e volunteerism may challenge wage labor relations, entrepreneurialism manifests in entrenching a fundamental in anti despite and post capitalist experiments. Planting Ju stice (Oakland) Similar to AFM efforts in San Diego, in Oakland there are many organizations, PJ included, that are expanding opportunities to profit through the development of local food supply chains and projects. With the popularity of food as a tool to mobilize public successfully proliferating non profits that offer creative ways to spread and share some economic inequality, PJ views this work as necessary. With deindustrialization, divestment from neighborhoods such as West Oakland, economic and racial segregation, and new gentrification pressures, PJ operates from the premise that economic justice is a process in which the organization positions itself to advance. wage work for people with bar riers to employment. Unlike SD Roots, PJ rejects volunteer labor by paying people for their work; there are no volunteers save for a small number of hours by members of the board of directors. B y offering employment that fairly compensates peop le for their work, work considered vocational food activists

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492 challenge a n alienating food wage labor system. As a vocation, those working for PJ experience greater connectivity to the products of their labor. For instance, canvassers financially compel the public to The benefits of their labor are direct and immediate. Additionally, those hired out of prison or high school build full cost edible landscapes i n order to buil d subsidized or free edible landscapes for those with limited means This model redistributes the social surplus to those in greater need, namely to those same places from which formerly incarcerated men and those graduating from high schools in low income communities come from. mirrors this work in different ways While it does not replace conventional food work it offers an alternative community economic development trajectory. By tapping into anti capitalist trends within the region, the l ocal AFM couples critiques with prefigurative politics. For PJ this means bucking non profit institutional norms. On the one hand, this entrenches neoliberalization in the name of resisting state forces that create dependency and economic forces that offer work meeting basic human needs. This is one of the major contradictions embedded in these entanglements of power. Non profits are an institutionalized response to the roll back of state services over the past three decades. To cope with the cognitive diss onance between a perceived social contract where we provide support for those in need out of solidaristic obligation and the stripping away of the institutional mechanisms and means for this support, non profits continue to proliferate. However, in order t o justify performing work that was once publically supported (e.g. through taxes), many food activi sts working in non profits need to grow comfortable with the uncertainty that their

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493 work is scattershot and project dependent. On the other hand, it is the e xact institutional variability and uncertainty of the non profit that offers economic flexibility. PJ takes this experimental opportunity seriously to incubate models that can operate as for profit, but with a commitment to economic and racial justice. The re is growth in Oakland of cooperative business models that democratically share risk s and rewards. Relatedly, PJ works to access more la nd to scale the volume of food production and therefore labor. While they successfully fund most of the organization wi thout grants and pay people for their work, there are contradictions in their use of private property. The need for well paying meaningful work in Oakland is high, especially for the income residents. Without public land forthcoming, PJ relies o n those with the income and private property to pay for edible landscapes. Not only does this provide living wage employment, but also it partially shifts resources from those representing utreach by the inequality, which sensitizes people to their economic position and often compels them to ameliorate the failures of the eco nomy or welfare state This then leads to t he contradiction of using private property as a site of economic change. Unlike countries like Cuba or Venezuela where land (i.e. private property) was taken from the wealthy and more equitably shared with landless people in order to level the economic lan dscape, groups such as PJ plumb private property holders for resources without taking the land. In short, in the process of carrying out prefigurative models that advance a select number of economically marginalized people the system of private property an d issues such as homeownership gaps remain. Revealing the contradictions

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494 of projects and discourses committed to environmental sustainability and environmental justice, a number of scholars are beginning to recognize the unintended tendency for these to su pport urban development interests leading to gentrification (Dooling 2009; Checker 2011; Gould and Lewis 2012). Using private property to create stable edible landscaping jobs may lift more people out of poverty, but unless there is more widespread communi ty economic development, then the prefigurative work may not 6 United Food and Commercial Workers 770 (Los Angeles) Whereas SD Roots and PJ represent more prefigurative (flight?) app roaches to resisting and altering local economic forces, UFCW 770 is engaged in confrontational battles to improve the lives of conventional food workers. The economic landscape in Los Angeles is more unequal and includes far more stakeholders than San Die go or Oakland. In this sense, it offers a case where issues of economic justice are of principle importance to the activists under study. As a labor union, UFCW 770 promotes itself as a force for working class people. Not only do they directly challenge t he grocery retail, meatpacking, and food processing corporations who employ their members, but also those corporations that would threaten to undermine union density in these sectors. One of the reasons they are able to effectively direct and influence the local political economy is because they draw on 6 In Chapter 6 I briefly discuss how homeownership rates are stratified based on race and class. In order to benefit from ordinance changes that allow people to grow food on t heir property, they usually need to be property owners.

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495 campaigns, political lobbying, grassroots organizing, and direct workplace organizing in the social surplus produced by union members. As one measure of the degree to which UFCW 770 resists or alters economic forces is union density. On this measure, the reason this Local is able to maintain roughl y the same number of members over the past fe w decades is because they merged with other Locals. Essentially, with the infiltration of companies such as Wal Mart into Los Angeles County, there is the shrinking of grocery retail union density. In meatpacking and food processing, this declin e started and rapidly continued throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. However they always fi ght back when faced with companies seeking to reduce wages, benefits, and fair workplace standards, whether through strikes, work stoppages, negotiations or politi cal lobbying. Whe n considering that UFCW 770 staked much of its recent reputation on keeping out Wal Mart and supporting local OUR Wal Mart organizing efforts, the evidence suggests that these efforts dramatically slowed the labor exploitation and economic decline that comes with Wal Mart openings. In addition, because of their labor organizing UFCW 770 maintains the grocery retail sector as an economically mobile opportunity for those lacking other means (e.g. college education) by which to enter the midd le class. In this sense, the union resists bottom dollar grocery retailers and alters the local economic climate through rejecting plans that promote cheap prices (i.e. consumer centric marketing and planning) by cutting labor costs (i.e. reducing wages an d benefits and expecting more from workers). The union would undermine its central mission were it not to take on these various economic and political forces. Nevertheless most unions are not as powerful or

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496 successful as UFCW 770. It is on this front wher e w orkers and eaters alike may view the work of UFCW 770 with skepticism bargain. contracts through a vote, the actual content emerges through negotiation between professionals on both the union side and the corporate side. Not only does this occasionally result in outcomes not benefiting workers, but also it entrenches the notion that workers are pawns in the hands of union bosses. Such caricatures hold some truth and represent a problem long ago noted by Schnaiberg (1980) in his development of the idea of the treadmill of production. In essence, many labor unions are in support of economic growth, which ultimately is an ecologically unsustainable system that undermines the conditions for equitable economic development in the long term Therefore, while UFCW 770 is challenging corporate power in order to capture more surplus value, they are doing so based on the premise that the conventional food system needs to continue in order for there to be economic stability. One of the issues here is that advances made protecting food workers may indirectly entrench ecologically unsustainable food supply chains. UFC W 770 though, threw its support behind labeling genetically modified foods in grocery stores. Such moves reveal a labor union willing to shift its position on such issues if it means that the workers it represents are not only economically stable, but als o physically healthy. Land and the Contentious Politics of Place Variance in the forms of political contention intersects with forms of economic contention. To tease out the similarities and differences between each case as it pertains to activism that re sists or alters political forces, I focus primarily on land use

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497 battles. Additionally, there are a number of political struggles each organization uniquely engages. Perhaps most obviously, variance in political engagement results from different worldviews, resource bases, political opportunities, and demographic makeups and targets. These cases still reveal, though, that each of these organizations engages in the politics of place through the entry point of land use struggles which speaks to the necessity of engaging the seemingly mundane and technocratic world of community economic development and planning. Each of these cases also reveals that neoliberal development trajectories are incomplete and open to change. In spite of widespread skepticism and frus tration with the state, the AFM must contend with its placed based, territorial, and scalar parameters. With these thoughts in mind, I created a similar typology to understand the outcomes of land use struggles. In short, my cases represent victory on one end of the spectrum, a holding pattern in the middle of the spectrum, and defeat on the other end of the spectrum. Within this spectrum, each case offers a different insight into the reasons for different outcomes. Like my previous typology, I focus here on how each organization and the social movements within which they work resist and alter economic, political, and social structuring forces (Figure 8 2). Most relevant to the cases at hand are the ways in which worldviews and identities, resource bases an d flows, and political opportunities within each organization and their social movement networks act as mechanisms for the range of abovementioned outcomes. It is to these set of considerations I now turn. San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (San Dieg o) AFM an opening to alter urban agriculture laws and encourage local politicians to take

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498 up the fight for expanding urban food production and healthy food access. I largely addressed this battle both in Chapter 5 and earlier in this chapter. Of importance here is an evaluation of the changes that occurred and the forms of political engagem ent SD Roots and its allies now engage First San Diego now enjoys some of the most p ermissive urban agriculture laws in California. Not only can residents grow fruits and vegetables, but also they can keep bees, 2 miniature goats, and up to 25 chickens. At the same time, residents can sell s, local restaurants and neighbors. Politically, this is primarily a victory for a certain middle class segment of residents desiring institutional sanctioning for their experiments in homesteading and artisanal food production. For those lacking p rivate p roperty, laws changed to substantially reduce the costs and requirements of starting and maintaining a community garden. In San Diego, a large coalition of food activists, many of whom worked with refugee and immigrant populations led the mobilization. One important, albeit underappreciated aspect of this victory is the fact that racial and ethn ic minorities are more political ly present than before this ordinance change. Loca l political support was more viable after Michelle Obama, a nationally recognized p olitical celebrity, came to San Diego to promote healthy eating and land expansion for community gardeners. Coupled with increasing federal, state, and county grants for local projects, the AFM capitalized on the political opportunity. In short, the case o f San Diego reveals that largely invisible organizing when consistent and networked across a variety of fronts can visibly mobilize when resources become available.

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499 The implication of these policy shifts is uncertain, but one q uickly visible downside is t he reduced level of p olitical engagement For example, once SD Roots grant money dried up, they retreated to their silo where they are focusing on monetizing WWF. While not inherently problematic, there are still many political battles to fight Where poli tical energy is exerted, namely in the San Diego Food System Alliance (SDFSA), the influence is minimal. Ostensibly, SD Roots partic ipation in SDFSA is in tor where many policy wins already occurred. One reason the SDFSA is not yet maki ng policy advances more b roadly is because they are developing their charter which they believe upon completion will offer a more unified vision and therefore center from which to engage in political action. 7 On the one hand, SDFSA is a positive political outcome of the battles over land use. With widely respected groups such as SD Roots on board, the re is greater legitimacy for the AFM to push policy makers on other local food system changes. On the other hand, SDFSA is not a food policy council and does not reap the benefits of agency or local government branch housing This possibly supports the neoliberal roll back of regulatory state power. Such co ntradictions permeate other political sectors intersecting with SD Roots work. One of the more complicated and to a degree, peripheral concerns of San community. Nonetheless, the issues are highly visible for SD Roots, particularly those working down on WWF. It is here where I witnessed food activists struggling with the category of the border, its territorial imperative, and the contradictions between political boundary making and ecosystem defiance of such boundaries. In ways different from 7 SDFSA Charter can be fo und at:

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500 the other two cases, SD Roots offers an insight into the deeply institutionalized ways that states separate, categorize, and monitor different bodies, and how such practices are variably within the purview of the AFM. Many Latino/as crossing the border present SD Roots members with a conundr um: do I go about my day pretending that the politics of the border are separate from what I do or do I engage these politics? Largely members choose not to fight for immigration reform, fair labor practices for migrant farm and food workers, and against p olice brutality and racial profiling in San Diego border communities. The result is not simply maintenance of an AFM irrelevant to Latino/as, but an entrenchment of a politics of place where certain privileged bodies are more protected than "other" bodies Planting Justice (Oakland) discourse to support urban agriculture zoning law changes. Whereas the actual ordinance changes are slow in coming, there is a more robust plan in place to encourage the development of more complete local food supply chains. The case of PJ offers insights into these political changes and the importance of land use to a whole slew of AFM projects. In a context where urban space is contested, whether between law enforcement and policed neighborhoods, Occupy activists, the City and law communities and polluters, it is important to investigate where political institutions are resi sted and altered. In 1996, the City of Oakland passed a general plan i n which provisions allow ed and encourage d community gardening. Other than that, however, u rban food production experienced marginalization particularly on public lands where the prerog at ive was

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501 recreation income neighborhoods, many groups sprouted up, clamoring for more land to grow food and start small food production businesses. As PJ stepped into these conversations, a n Between the East Bay Urban Agriculture Alliance (EBUAA), the Oakland Climate Action Coalition (OCAC), and the Oakland Food Policy Council (OFPC), there is political headway to capture public land and encourage the use of private land for food production. As part of the Food Justice and Land Access Committee, PJ worked with a cross Action Plan (ECAP) to build up While there are proposed provisions to allow for urba n food production, incentivize landowners to lease spac e for food production, advance food based economic d evelopment strategies, loosen food di stribution laws, and encourage fo od production techniques that reduce greenhous e gases, the laws are yet to pass on these fronts. On the one hand, ECAP represents the most comprehensive effort of any municipality in the United States (US) to minimize its impact on global warming. To inclu de provisions that encourage local food production as a community economic development strategy is exceptional. On the other hand, the plan is merely a rough blueprint. To date, there are few major changes, leaving most AFM organizations, PJ included, to d evelop strategies that bypass the state. At the same time, much like changes in San Diego, there are no explicit mechanisms to avail public land to the AFM. There are however, ordinance changes that make it less expensive to obtain permits to grow food in residential and commercial districts. The neoliberal implication is that politicians can more easily be convinced that

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502 they should allow individuals, small businesses, and non profits to create food production enterprises, but are more skeptical of any pl an to share public land or redefine the commons outside commodification discourses. Take for instance that so far land use changes are largely revenue neutral, and maybe even revenue negative (e.g. reduce permitting costs for urban food production). PJ and a number of allies are working on one effort that bucks this trend Were Oakland to pass a blight tax, the City would likely generate profit while at the same time encourage the expansion of urban agriculture by offering tax breaks for those willing to pr ovide midterm leases to urban farmers. In brief, PJ historically advocates with a large network of AFM activists and organizations to shift political support and local policy. At the same time, PJ is contesting quite different political forces, namely the prison industrial complex. In a city well known for its abusive police department, overspending on police brutality settlements, history of racial profiling, and politically motivated suppression of dissent (e.g. Black Panther Party, Occupy Oakland), the w ays in which food can be used to alter such political institutions is surprising. Although not directly confronting law enforcement Occupy the Farm the organization actively works with current and form er San Quentin inmates, many of whom are from Oakland. The organization does not f ully confront t he political economy of prisons, but it is helping to shift perceptions that may lead to policy shifts in how prisoners as wards of the state are treated and o ffered rehabilitative opportunities. Toward these ends, PJ works with the IGP to help medium security convicted felons begin shifting their thinking and behavior in ways that will support their transition into employment with PJ once leaving San Quentin. W ith lower recidivism

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503 rates than those not going through these programs, there is proof that more resources should go into creating economic opportunities for people coming out of prison. At the same time, PJ and IGP are changing practices within a state ru n prison, namely through the creation of a vegetable garden, which previously was prevented because of its cost and perceived threat posed by gardening tools. of prisoners, such efforts set the foundation for reinte grating prisoners back into s ociety where they can contribute to the body politic even if they cannot vote. United Food and Commercial Workers 770 (Los Angeles) Most politically active is UFCW 770. As a labor union, its legal status allows it to engage in the political arena to a greater degree than SD Roots and PJ, both of which are non profits. For UFCW 770, political lobbying and organizing are central to what they do. Perceiving and experiencing a private sector that will race to the bottom without stat e intervention, the union pushes for legislation, leverages political contributions, brings lawsuits, drafts local ordinances, mobilizes members to vote, and builds alliances with those maneuvering in and around land use laws. In practice, UFCW 770 is more directly engaged in the institutionalized democratic process than either of the previous cases. This does not m ean that the other cases do not engage in politics or lack a politics of their own. It simply means that UFCW 770 spends greater resources to re sist and alter political forces. Moreover, it works at larger scales than either of the previous cases. During my fieldwork, the most pressing statewide policy threat was Proposition 32, which proposed to limit the ability to collect dues and use these fo r political purposes for all California labor unions. Having participated in other statewide proposition battles, notably Proposition 187, which sought to restrict social services to

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504 immigrants, UFCW 770 was well prepared to do its part in pushing back aga inst forces that politically undermine private sector unions. Without the help of UFCW 770 and a number of other labor unions in Los Angeles there was a much higher chance for the passage of Proposition 32 While this was a statewide win in that it resist ed efforts by private business interests to limit the influence of unions, there were local ramifications, Mart. The contradictions only come with the scalar differences associated with threatening political forces. For SD Roots and PJ, they lack the capacity to engage in more than local political battles, so their resources do not compete between policy fights at different governance levels. With UFCW 770 already strained thin after a grueling grocery retail strike in 2003 and tense standoffs in subsequent grocery retail negotiations, coupled with the onslaught of discount and bottom dollar grocery retail infiltration (e.g. Wal Mart, Kmart, Latino/a chains), fighting statewide propos ition battles and supporting Governor Jerry Brown are luxuries. However, once these statewide political races ended, UFCW 770 focused more energy on electing local representatives and a mayor opposed to Wal Mart. For instance, they successfully convinced a ll the Democratic mayoral hopefuls not to take any campaign contributions from Wal Mart. Even Jan Perry did not take money, even though she did not vote for the Interim Control Ordinance because she did not want to set a precedent for blocking the permitti ng of Wal Out of all my cases, UFCW 770 is most able to resist and alter the political landscape. In practice and directly related to one of my central concerns, they are able to more effectively leverage land use laws in their favor. The largest victory came after

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505 ordinance in Los Angeles requiring greater oversight for stores larger than 100,000 squa re feet. This kept Wal Mart out of Los Angeles for many years. Although they lost the Chinatown battle, largely due to no political support from former Mayor Villaraigosa and the power of food desert discourse to manufacture a public health crisis masking Wal wage in on Wal Mart battles elsewhere. In Burbank for instance, the union blocked a large store format Wal Mart from entering after a series of lawsuits successfully lever aged local land use policies. Additionally, they are working with community based organizations to create worker centers that support the needs of documented and undocumented immigrants. Such efforts work to provide a protective coat around those whose no n citizenship status marks them as insecure while within the territorial boundaries of the US. In other political battles linking them to many segments of the Los Angeles AFM, UFCW 770 is successfully working to encourage better citywide procurement polici es. Along with LAANE, Food Chain Workers Alliance, and groups such as Green Grounds LA and Slow Food LA, the most comprehensive food p rocurement policy in the US passed in 2012, which includes both environmental standards and strict labor standards. The wi de range of political engagement and policy victories stands as a testament not only to the political opportunities created by confrontational organizing strategies, but by the creative coalition politics necessitated by the threat of Wal Mart and other po werful food corporations.

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506 Without Fighting Social Battles the Economic and Political Victories Ring Hollow Resistance to and alterations of economic and political practices and norms oftentimes intersects with efforts to create a variety of social changes Most commonly, my cases offer insight into how race and ethnicity intersect in complex ways with the political economy of conventional and alternative food supply chains. At the same time, there is a range of views on the role of political participati on and protest that demonstrate the ways in which organizati ons make and carry out decisions These cases also speak to the different understandings of, and therefore targeted forms of social change regarding, health and the environment. While these intersect ions m ake clear the complexity of resistance to and alteration of economic, political, and social forces AFM activists often directly target the social forces they want changed. In the following sections, I navigate some of these intersections in each cas e, and for analytical purposes discuss why each organization successfully (or not) creates social change. These cases highlight social changes in race and ethnic relations, health and environmental practices, organizational structure, and notions of democr acy. San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project (San Diego) Health and the environment are the most important social change targets for SD Roots. Early on, the organization opted for an educational model predicated on reaching out to residents of San Diego County in order to expand consciousness regarding the benefits of eating local and sustainably grown food. As I heard from many SD Roots Commonly expressed support came in you give someone a fish they will eat for a day. If S uch expressions stem from a desire for people to reconnect to nature. Toward these ends, SD Roots successfully

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507 educated thousands of people in ga rdening, small scale sustainable farming, healthy eating, cooking, and the merits of supporting local farms. As part of a larger discursive Although seemingly trite, such discursive shifts represent wider social changes in the and master gardener programs are all possible in San Diego because it is not just socially acceptable, but sociall y desirable reinforcing process for people with the privilege to engage in these practices. Relatedly, SD Roots is also helping to drive a social tren d in becoming more self reliant. While this is easy to dismiss as a logical outcome of neoliberal ideology, there are some deeper desires to reject the commodification of food (i.e. life) by taking power back from corporate agribusiness. By reskilling ones elf, many SD Roo ts members and their allies offer a vision of the future where people take care of each other in community because of a newfound ability to do so. There are also government and economy are sentiments motivated by independently get ting off t he grid However, this is the exception. SD Roots represents a social shift in consciousness challenging, although not completely separate from, a deeply vain culture that views healthy food as just a way to become physically att ractive. By elevating the importance of organic food, SD Roots makes clear the environmental crises threatening the social world. Although they receive grants from organic friendly their organic practices reduce water usage, reject pesticides, compost, and interplant in

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508 ways that mimic biodiversity. Even in the midst of ever present c ontra dictions, there is clear evidence that SD Roots is shifting social consciousness and huma n behavior through activism framed with health and environmental discourses. While these social shifts represent the successes of SD Roots and much of San other social practices are not as successful. Most obviously, these involve race and et hnicity. With the exception of International Rescue Committee and Project creating greater racial justice. Perhaps even more problematic is that discourses of health and th e environment may actually entrench racial inequalities further ( Slocum 2007 ; Guthman 2008a ; Alkon 2012). As an organization that is overwhelmingly white and representative of that demographic in Central San Diego, there is a tendency to overlook issues fa their farm. Whether in terms of the documentaries shown, workshops held, and fundraisers thrown, the organization largely reproduces white middle class space. Although many are consciou s of this reality, the practices do not change, in turn reinforcing racial divisions in organizational practice that visibly exist on the border. With few Spanish language skills and real financial pressures, SD Roots is in a position where it feels it can not focus energy on addressing these social issues. Consequently, the common perception that the AFM is white and middle class remains. In brief, this case reveals the contradictions of choosing to make social changes in terms of health and the environment Lastly, these issues play themselves out in terms of organizational practices. In the course of fieldwork, the board of directors was all white and majority male. Even

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509 though the main paid positions were the farmers (both people of color) without whom t he organization would be unable to run their most financially sensitive project, they had far less decision making capacity. The degree of democratic decision making was minimal, leading to conflicts and confusion between different segments of the organiza tion. Such organizational practices contradicted the commitment to mutually supportive practices in the guise of potlucks and volunteerism. However, these practices are more understandable when considering that there was deep skepticism in terms of the rol e of voting and public protest. Some people were sympathetic to things support occupations, but mostly democracy equated with Democracy outside of capitalism was hard to imagine, let alone create. So while social changes are occurring in terms of health and environmental sustainability, notions and practices of democracy are partially stunted. Planting Justice (Oakland) As an organization in which many founding members participate in social movements demanding justice of various sorts from political and economic elites deemed responsible for the injustice, it is noteworthy that food became an issue around which PJ mobilized. At core, many people in PJ see deskilling at home and in the wider economy as a central matter in need of rectification. When it comes to gardening, farming, cooking and nutrition, many Oaklanders lac k the skills to do this for themselves or their families. Much like SD Roots, P J sees this lack as a knowledge gap. In order to bridge this gap the organization seeks to shift social consciousness through a variety of strategies.

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510 First, they work in schools with youth. Hundred s of youth experience justice curriculum. Unlik e SD Roots, whose primary goal is to provide just the practical inequalities in the food system, and a social movement history of the Black Panther Party and Unite d Farm Workers. In this sense, reskilling is not just about providing knowledge that will help reduce individual cognitive and experiential alienation, but intellectual frameworks to build collective power to alter more widespread social forces. Second, t hey offer permaculture workshops and on the job permaculture training to groups who otherwise lack the resources to access this knowledge. Such knowledge elevates culturally relevant approaches to mending human/nature relationships through designing and ca ring for permaculture landscapes. Through the notion of abundance, based organizations. The lang uage of abundance matches social practice that builds strong ties between disp arate social justice movements (e.g. prison abolitionist, anti poverty, globalization from below, food justice). In this way, PJ is taking a leadership role in shifting what is considered socially acceptable movement building practices within the AFM while at the same time building the base from which to mobilize people to not only solve food inequalities, but create more sustai nable and justice communities. Third and directly relat ed to the above actions, canvassers daily engage in framing w ork This is p erhaps the most important public outreach tool available to PJ. It process is educating and mobilizing the public. T he notion of food justice and permacultur e reaches th ousands of people, which still grows link together

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511 issues of economic and racial justice to food systems, in essence shifting public consciousness of what the AFM can be. Unlike SD Roots who enjoins San Diegans interested in their work to come to them, PJ goes out to Oaklanders, inviting them into the AFM and sh owing them that they can direct ly impact mobilization brings previously disparate people together to create greater collective power. This outward looking str ategy challenges social forces seeking to divide people approach to education includes challenging institutionalized racism. As part of a larger AFM in which activists acro ss Oakland hold anti oppression training, engage in racial healing workshops and conversations, and are even attentive to gentrification, PJ is also working to promote multiracial coalitions. Keeping in mind that the organization is primarily people of col or and that many of their community partners Recognizing tha t class inequality intersects with racial inequality PJ supports people of color in their efforts to improve their communities. In essence, there is the belief that there can be no food justice if there is not economic justice, which in Oakland means that one must also fight for racial justice. G ongoing racist policing practices PJ resists powerful social forces difficult to alter. However, they are successfully shifting perceptions of post incarcerated people. By taking m en who grew up in the flats to the hills to build edible landscapes for more wealthy and white clients, PJ is breaking down racial barriers. Everyone who hires PJ

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512 knows that most of the edible landscapers are former inmates at San Quentin. By challenging s tereotypes of post incarcerated people as delinquents, PJ sets the foundation for shifting social consciousness. Even in the low income black reweave social ties within fami lies and among neighbors. collective decision making. These social arrangements set the foundation for supporting public protest. Many PJ members work wi th other organizations de ploying similar direct The result is an organization networked with groups throughout the city developing forms of social engagement from which to challenge neoliberal s ubjectivities, ideologies, and policies. Whether this means rejecting unpaid labor, ideas that we can buy our way to democracy, or roll back s of funding for K 12 education, the left culture in Oakland is more radical than in San Diego. United Food and Com mercial Workers 770 (Los Angeles) Whereas SD Roots and PJ view health and the environment largely independent from labor considerations, UFCW 770 links these together through the discourse of UFCW 770 works with allies such as LA ANE and Food Chain Workers Alliance to push for more inclusive discursive platforms that c hal lenge social forces separating access to healthy and e nvironmentally friendly food from the labor needed to produce or access such food In a city with strained al liances because of differing views on what creates greater social cohesion and development in low e offers a positive framing to bring people together. The framing is not only aimed at gelling lab or, health,

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513 and food activists, but combating corporations such as Wal Mart using a public health sector. Moreover, the discourse provides an accessible language for local politicians to support a number of different constituencies. The success of th is framing is measurable in a number of conferences and reports discussing the com plementarities of fair labor standards and equitable food access. is dedicated to advancin g racial justice and immigrant rights. There are a number of indications that the union and their allies successfully elevate these issues into the public consciousness. First, UFCW 770 repeatedly publicizes the need for immigration reform. This takes plac e when they publically bring their members to rallies, participate in civil disobedience, or support the rights of workers to work under conditions free from intimidation. This brings me to the second point. UFCW 770 publically opposes the IRS either independently or at the urging of an employer cross they are less successful in stopping these practices, they are supporting worker centers that specialize i n protecting immigrants from economic exploitation. To reiterate a point, fights for economic justice are also fights for racial justice. So, third, knowing that UFCW S se puede ¡El pueblo unido, jams ser vencido!,

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514 live transl ators communicated all comments and presentations into Spanish and English. Such practices normalize the demographic reality of Los Angeles. Last, UFCW 770 actively works to break down racial barriers and encourage racial solidarity. One major indication o f the success of t his strategy is the major protests and marches of the past decades with UFCW 770 participation which consist of groups who work in their own communities, but see certain issues (e.g. Wal Mart) in need of collective resistance Many of th ese groups centrally aim to empower their racial or ethnic group while also working in solidarity with other people of color. 8 Whereas the organizational form and approach to democracy is more libertarian for SD Roots, and more anarchist for PJ, UFCW 770 i s more traditionally liberal. The major decisions flow downward from the executive office, and within departments, there is a clear leadership structure. At the s ame time, the organizational form operates far more democratically than in many corporations because of high degrees of autonomy for organizers and represe ntatives in day to day work. T here are also meetings to discuss strategy a nd reach consensus on how t o proceed. These internal organizational dynamics translate into public practices that present UFCW 770 as unified and prepared to take on adversaries. However, in the liberal traditio n, everyone is a stakeholder with a right to air their grievances and se ek justice for their cause. This pluralist approach 8 Groups that come together with UFCW 770 to resist racist corporate div ide and conquer strategies include: CDP African American Caucus, Consejo de Federaciones Mexicanas en Norteamrica (COFEM), Koreatown Immigrant Workers Alliance (KIWA), MLK Coalition for Jobs, Justice and Peace, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), National Korean American Service & Education Consortium, Pueblo y Salud, Strategic Actions for a Just Economy (SAJE), Strategic Concepts in Organizing & Policy Education (SCOPE), and Southeast Asian Community Alliance.

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515 helps to legitimate the union in the eyes of the public, particularly when the union leadership itself reflects the membership, and therefore multiracial interests. Through public protest and civil disobe dience, UFCW 770 also offers an oppositional form of 9 Mapping the Spatialities of Contentious Food Politics and the Potentialities for Metabolic Healing Economic, political and so cial forces intersect in varying ways to (re)produce landscapes of resistance. Simultaneously, activists create networks of resistance and restructure what Lefebvre (1991) refers to as spatial practice, representations of space, and representational space. The ongoing dialectic between resistance, domination, and exploitation takes on specific characteristics in late capitalist history. With urbanization as the spatial expression of capitalism comes a particular form of the social relations of (re)productio n. In the context of urban foodsheds with their sprawling rural extractive tentacles, this includes more than the economic relations of production, processing, distribution, and consumption. In addition, the political theater houses the props of private pr operty, public land, and the zoning laws designating use. In addition are the institutionalized social relations of race, ethnicity, and nationality, and discursive contests between competing notions of health and the environment. Through an examination o f labor and land, these seemingly distinct relations come into focus. Theoretically, this is meta bolism and building upon other theories of the metabolic rift (Foster 2000; Swyngedouw and Heynen 2003). This stu dy elaborates on how food workers experience alienation, eaters experience cognitive separation from food, citizenship 9 Exceptions include the March Against Monsanto and different Occupy movement actions/occupations.

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516 equates to consumerism, and commodification of land and the commons ruptures connectivity with nature through food. The individual and so cial rifts (McClintock 2010) these experiences represent are sites of struggle. A strictly Marxist interpretation of these relations between humans and nature through food might miss what Harvey B ased on i dentity people unevenly experience t he general processes outline d above. In particular, I focus on race, ethnicity, and class. 10 The (re)production of urban foodsheds is not simply the direct outcome of capitalist relations, but intersects with institution alized racism, xenophobia, and white privilege. At the same time, neoliberalization (re)produces difference. Associated policy prerogatives, ideologies, and subjectivities intersect in ways that exacerbate social difference, and control over, movement thro ugh, and strategic deployment of place, territory, scale, and networks (Jessop, Brenner and Jones 2008). Therefore an adequate investigation of the (re)production of metabolic rifts and more importantly the potential for the AFM to mend some of these rift s, requires a nuanced fr amework accounting for economic, political and social forces is required. Toward these ends, I offer a presentation and comparative analysis of the economic, political, and social spaces of resistance in each of my cases. By mappin g these AFM sites of participation across different historical and geographical contexts, I show how the spatialities of contentious food politics are important to understand as a means to unearthing the mechanisms and processes that lead to metabolic heal ing. 10 Gender is missing from my analysis. I acknowledge this is a key intersectional reality overlooked in my study. This is not because I think it is not important, but more so because gender issues did not come up as much during fieldwork.

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517 (Re)Working Labor Sites as Places of Metabolic Healing Sites for economic gain vary across each case, revealing the way in which understandings of labor, anti despite and post capitalist imaginaries, and public versus private space operate to inc ubate metabolic healing. Moreover, the sites reveal that providing the space for healing between humans althoug h this often mediates through nature (i.e. food) is a minimum and often prerequisite for expanding the reach of just and sustainable metaboli sms. Below I compare the simi larities and differences in the use of farms, gardens, grocery stores, meatpacking and food processing facilities, y, and public space to reduce cognitive and experiential alienatio n for individuals and the communities within which these sites are located. Beginning with food production, SD Roots and PJ offer different paths to resisting and altering capitalist wage relations. SD Roots uses WWF as a training facility for aspiring or ganic farmers. On the one hand, this requires these people to pay for the opportunity to organically farm. On the other hand, there is a post capitalist form of exchange that rejects the wage labor system. By using not only interns, but volunteers to feed chickens, weed hoop houses, plant row crops, and build different farm structures, SD Roots offers a participatory site for voluntary association and mutual solidarity building. This anarchist leaning approach offers new ways of being with people in nature. WWF is one large site right on the border, which contradictorily requires mobility privilege to access. In short, only those with the means and social capital generally come to this site of metabolic healing. PJ builds edible landscapes across the Bay Are a, primarily focusing their efforts in Oakland. This is similarly an interstitial approach to economic change in that it strategically transforms spaces where

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518 there is a match in vision between giver and receiver. Most people pay for these services at a hi gh enough level where PJ can pay living wages. In this sense, PJ rejects volunteerism because it exacerbates class divides, and instead opts for a model that employs many low income people of color as a preferential interstitial strategy. While PJ large farm on Wild and R leverage place in a way that seeds new projects elsewhere. Unlike WWF, which teaches those that either want to homestead or start farms structured in conventionally capitalist ways, the Wild and Rad model offers a more radical approach in that it offers a means by which to alter relations of production and more fundamentally resolve alienation in the workplace. Scalar reach va ries by d ifferent economic sites. For instance, SD Roots is growing food at WWF in order to sell that food to local restaurants, grocery stores, and resources necessary to pay more people to work in SD Roots as a full time job instead of as a hobby. While this vision is not actualized, it represents a similar belief among those in PJ that surplus value needs to be extracted somewhere in order to spread such practices somewh ere else. Take the edible landscaping model. This essentially is a (literally and metaphorically). This shuffling of resources between different places is necessary for being one of the major reasons why alternative food supply chains are limited in their ability to offer more economically just models, it is important to understand that different organi zations advance greater or lesser metabolic healing. SD Roots offers models that

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519 create such changes at an individual level (reduced alienation from nature) and with others at a social level (increased cultural significance of local food and relationships with farmers, legitimating urban agriculture as land use that rejects strict commodification and serves as sites for cultural expression). While PJ currently engages in practices that lead to similar changes at individual and social levels, they do more th an simply de commodify food relations. They revalue food production to advance use values over exchange values, not only in terms of the ecological benefits of transforming landscapes into largely self sustaining permaculture ecosystems, but in capturing m ore surplus value to then reinvest in margina lized urban zones. S preading more just and ecologically sustainable human/nature relations through the revaluing of work offers possible paths to metabolic healing. Looking at economic practices in each case thr ough the lens of private versus public reveals where human/n ature metabolisms become more whole. UFCW 770 organizes in workplaces as the central site of struggle. Although conventional grocery retail and meatpacking and food processing employees work in se ctors responsible in different ways for exacerbating rifts between humans and nature, they also regularly experience nature in the form of food through performing work tasks. The commodification of food in th ese workplaces creates a product for buying and selling. Hidden in the packaging and slick aisle displays are the relations of production along reproduce capitalist labor relations, but with the help of UFCW 770, they extract more of the value produced by their work. In one sense, the union helps to reduce the degree of

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520 minimum can afford to eat th at food. However, workers hold l ittle power to de commodify food through their participation in unions because these workplaces are spaces protected by private property laws. When considering the use of public space and the commons as sites for economic advancement, one can look to PJ for their canvassing program. The organization pays canvassers for their work, but the model is much closer to co production than wage labor systems. As such, the public in its embodied and built environment sense becomes a space to co produce new economic forms. PJ practices a model that sees the wider community as an agentic participant in the creation of less alienating and non commodified forms of exchange. There is greater flexibility in n on profits like PJ than the for profit businesses represented by the likes of UFCW 770 to experiment with such co production models. The sites of participation reflect this fact: private workplaces are restricted to mending only certain metabolic relations, while the public as part of a co produced commons (e.g. sidewa lks and streets) is an infinite well of transformative potential for developing new economic bases from which to mend individual and social rifts. Leveraging the Politics of Place to Mend Metabolic Rifts in formal political spaces. These include City Council meetings, Planning Department hearings, and lobbying of the AFM also pushes the state by politicizing other places o f state jurisdiction such as prisons, international borders, and land owned by public universities. Lastly, there are efforts to politicize neighborhoods through mobilizing people to vote in elections that impact their workplaces. This panoply of politica l approaches reveals the need for the

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521 AFM to restructure how the movement thinks about and acts upon the prevailing local government logics. In light of neoliberal ideologies and policy regimes that entrench and accelerate metabolic rifts, pushing the stat e to provide legal frameworks that support the mending of individual and social rifts becomes increasingly important. Even those segments of the AFM averse to restructuring formal politic spaces seem to seek recourse for grievances from the state, whether through directly stepping into these spaces or politicizing space in creative ways. In all my cases there was participation in formal sanctioned political sites and the politicizing of other space as a means by which to push political discourse and practic e in those sites to support organizational and wider AFM goals. For instance, SD Roots worked with San Diego Food Not Lawns, the 1 in 10 Coalition, and others to educate neighborhood councils throughout San Diego on the merits of allowing goats, bees, and chickens on residential property. The neighborhood councils lack official political power, but they are influential advisory bodies to the City Council. As such, they can serve as a means for citizens to locally debate and suggest land use changes. Such po litical efforts resulted in ordinance changes reducing legal barriers to mending individual rifts, while also set ting the foundation to create networks that mend social rifts. On the one hand, San Diegans can reconnect to nature through food by raising ani mals, learning their behaviors, and developing practices that advance animal welfare. This reduction of experiential and cognitive alienation sets the foundation for breaking down internalized and embodied capitalist modes of consumerism. On the other hand there is now the political sanctioning of new food production sites that can serve as less and non

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522 commodified zones that supplement alternative and conventional urban food supply chains. Whi le such legal victories show resistance to ur ban food provisio ning norms through meeting with political and planning elites on their grounds in order to reduce barriers to using private property, there are also instances where political contestation combats larger metabolic rift producing sources. In the midst of the commodification of land and labor and widespread alienation throughout food processing, meatpacking, and grocery retail, UFCW 770 is a legal entity with the rights to enter political spaces historically only matched by corporations. Yet, as a labor union, its success largely relies on This second contradiction of capitalism results from the accumulation logic necessarily undermining the conditions of production, thus creating ec ological and economic crises UFCW 770 seeks to reduce the severity of individual and social rifts inheren t to the current econ omic system, despite dependency on the same system. Its battles with Wal Mart stand as a testament to how this un ion fights in formal political spaces to prevent the spread of alienation and commodification. Primarily it mobilizes workers to build a base of resources with which it files lawsuits, lobbies City Council people, and pressures City planners to prevent Wal Second, it activates members to vote in state elections for politicians and propositions that advance working class power while at the same time bringing workers into the streets to demand protection from predatory corpor ations. While Wal Mart entered Chinatown, the case offers insights into how leveraging the state to slow or retard corporate accumulation strategies is necessary to mend metabolic rifts.

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523 In addition to these traditional political spaces, my cases show the ways in which activists challenge other sites of state control. Riding the wave of prison reform currently underway in California, PJ is working with current and former San Quentin inmates to reduce alienation by reimagining prison space. Many of these men were involved in illegal underground economies (e.g. drugs) hoping to escape their experience of poverty only to be caught by law enforcement and confined to one of the most restrictive political spaces controlled by the state: prisons. However, there are now options for these men besides stepping back into those illegal underground economies. By participating in IGP, one may obtain re entry work with PJ. While PJ is not directly lobbying state politicians to expand funding for such programs, they are none theless lobbying state agents such as the Prison Warden to transform the garden space in the prison to include fruits and vegetables. These victories are largely symbolic. They represent reformative experiments that allow for non commodified relationships with nature through food. Once outside the walls of the prison many o f these men experience a renewed or new sense of their relationship to food, say in choices not to eat fast food or in building gardens in their neighborhood for community elders. By dire cting energy into these projects, PJ is showing how the AFM can creatively engage the state to leverage the worst of its dominating tendencies to literally produce flowers, attract butterflies, and empower alienated segments of soci ety. Not only are new im aginaries produced, but also new forms of spatial engagement that open the possibility for metabolic healing. Restructuring Place as a Social Strategy for Just and Sustainable Metabolisms The degree to which the AFM produces more just and sustainable met abolisms is a byproduct of the degree to which they can create new economic, political, and

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524 social spaces. The two previous sections outline the ways in which activists strive for metabolic healing through contesting exploitative elements of the political economy of labor and land, while at the same time developing alternative practices. The places of struggle constitute the literal and figurative spaces from which real utopias spring (Pickerill and Chatterton 2006; Wright 2010). This section focuses on the social sites each organization uses to advance AFM goals, particularly those altering use and perception of the political economy of food labor and land use. Through leveraging the internet, print and television media, schools, streets, and neighborhoods as places for social change, activists show how community based organizing can move beyond In turn, new landscapes of solidarity create greater possibilities for building just an d sustainable metabolisms All the organizations in this study seek television and print media coverage. The degree to which each organization receives such coverage is contingent upon the social relevancy of the project or campaign. In San Diego, there was widespread coverage of the community garden and animal raising ordinance battles. This offered groups like SD Roots a platform to educate the public on the environmental and health benefits of media attention intensified after a visible conflict (i.e. International Rescue Committee paying tens of thousands of dollars for community garden), there was similar process in Oakland. The writer and activist Novella Carpenter had to close Ghost Town Far m because she sold produce without a permit. There was media coverage and in turn changes to local zoning laws. Given this context, media

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525 coverage of PJ increased in both traditional (San Francisco Ch ronicle) and alternative (East Bay Express, Edible East Bay) print on their labor and land use practices. While SD Roots and PJ seek media coverage in order to expand the reach of their work, the media coverage sought by UFCW 770 is expressly concerned wit h advancing working class interests and shifting the political terrain in their favor. Contract negotiations, workplace abuses, and land use battles get media coverage because of the many people they affect but more so because UFCW 770 publishes press rel eases, prods media contacts, and produces catchy narratives. All the organizations want media coverage, but unlike SD Roots and PJ who often seek this for organizational purposes, movement ood ability to leverage media space to alter economic and political space. Differences in media coverage and strategy partially represent the degree to which each organization engages in other social space like schools, streets, and neighborhoods. In a direct effort to educate a population that does not read newspapers or watch news program s, SD Roots and PJ work at schools to shift social consciousness of students at a younger age. Not only is funding available for such progra ms, but these organizations deploy different economic and political strategies than UFCW 770. Whereas this labor uni on primarily aims to alter workplaces and local government spaces, the non profits want to alter how people experience everyday social space. in neighborhoods serves to change how peo ple understand and engage this space.

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526 homes, but PJ makes a concerted effort to build more in low income, black, and Latino/a communities. Recognizing the class privilege ass ociated with hiring a company distance between racial and ethnic groups. The restructuring of neighborhood spaces through transforming home landscapes and vacant lots in to sites of ecological abundance simultaneously works to minimize social distance and reduce alienation (Kurtz 2001; Draper and Freedman 2010; Firth, Maye and Pearson 2011). In addition to using neighborhoods as sites to create these forms of social change the streets themselves become sites for mobilizing the public around AFM goals. Two of my three cases exemplify a commitment to politicizing and reimagining the streets as a way to push for organizational and movement goals. For UFCW 770, one of the best public areas. Such endeavors strategically display unity through diversity. In the Chinatown protests, a wide cross section of society came out in opposition to Wal Mart: students teachers, mothers, fathers, Asians, Latino/as, blacks, whites, anti capitalists, progressives, and liberals. The protests served a similar purpose to the store adoption strategy of the strikes against Vons, Albertsons, and Ralphs: show that there are man y sectors of society willing to come together around a common cause. This was not lost on many UFCW 770 organizers who regularly spoke about the importance of linking takes pounding the streets seriously when it engages in get out the vote efforts for local and state elections. For PJ, the Occupy movement offered a unique political opportunity

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527 to elevate the diverse groups in support of improving the food system, particularl y through local creative land use alternatives. By supporting actions like Occupy the Farm, PJ proved that AFM organizations could participate in more oppositional activism. PJ and a number of other Oakland AFM organizations took public actions to legitima te socially useful land uses. At the same time, PJ is pounding the streets like UFCW 770, but for the purpose of fundraising and public education. The social purpose of canvassing is similarly to show that the AFM can (must?) confront and work with the pub lic in public places. The visual display of a canvasser speaking with a passerby ruptures the commodification of public sidewalks. Instead of sidewalks serving to connect one store to another store for consumer purposes, sidewalks become avenues into socia lly relevant conversations and movement mobilization. Such efforts push the community gardens, and into public spaces. Canvassing offers the public a different image of the move ment that of the organizer. Moreover, the organizer opens up for the movement new social and political possibilities. Movement generation requires such socially focused outreach. Toward Networks of Resistance There are metabolic tensions between network s of resistance and intersecting structures of domination and exploitation. So far, I presented such tensions through a comparative presentation of the mechanisms and processes structuring AFM activism and the ways in which the AFM navigates, challenges, o r entrenches these forces Moreover, I demonstrated how in the process of resistance organizations redefine and create economic, political, and social spaces. The tensions contained therein may be similar to what McClintock (2013) believes are inherent in urban agriculture, that is, both

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528 neoliberalism and radical counter movements operating simultaneously at a variety of create opportunities for urban agriculture and impose obstacles to it original, 2). Such a perspective seeks to bridge the gap between those that overly praise and those highly critical of urban agriculture, by offering a relational understanding of power. These tensions also exist more broadly thro ughout the AFM. resolution of these metabolic tensions. lintock 2013: 13), then we need to focus on the processes by which tensions reach various syntheses. This in no way suggests the idealistic formalism of Hegel. ical inquiry in to the historical context of human/nature relations. Human practice and thus the dialectical relations between humans and nature, in this instance in the form of food and urban environments, will morph over space and time. As such, it is important to emphasize processes and relations (Harvey 1996). All the e lements of a social movement are heterogeneous and irreducible to their constituent parts, and change based on specific spatiotemporal realities (Levins and Lewontin 1985). This process of making through human doing is premised in a reality that is open, b ut part of an ontologically stratified whole (Bhaskar 2008). Economic, political, and social tensions never sit in stasis, particularly when human freedom seeks to transcend institutions of exploitation and

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529 results in syntheses that are always in flux. Below I explain how we might proceed in understanding the AFM as a social movement en gaged in a variety of social change processes. First, analysis of the AFM requires using more lenses than urban agriculture, with its heavy emphasis on land use and access. This is important for empirical purposes because of the wide range of AFM projects and goals. In addition, by looking at how other social, economic, and political systems impact the AFM and how the AFM does theoretical insights about the role food can play in creating wider social change. My emphasis on networks of resistance points to how organizations create alliances that serve many different purposes (e.g. fight poverty, challenge prison industrial complex). Second, there are different possible syntheses It is in no way inevitable that social change efforts lead to transformative social changes. As a social movement, the AFM follows a normal trajectory of emergence, coalescence, and varying levels of bureaucratization. However, the movement finds itself in a variety of states of decline. 11 formulation, this would include repression, co optation, success, and failure. Through a Marxist and critical race interpretation we can work toward understanding why different syntheses result and wha t this means for the furthering of neoliberal or radical outcomes. This could include new understandings of labor and land, using land to reflect or further a collective identity, gaining access to physical land, changing laws around labor and land use, an d/or altering portrayals of land/human relationships. 11 My use of decline does not equate with failure.

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530 Third, the AFM is a movement of movements. As such, there are many crosscutting conversations, debates, projects, and organizations. For example, anti establishment currents drove the initial goals of the organic farming movement. As these activists succeeded and organic food spread, organic farming became more capital intensive and similar to conventional agriculture (Guthman 2004). In response to the spread of organic food consumption, low income comm unities began demanding food justice. They claimed food justice is the right to healthy and affordable food, including organic food. These food justice activists are in some respects the new anti establishment food activists. However food labor activists (e.g. Food Chain Workers Alliance, CIW) are pushing food justice activists to attend to inequalities in conventional food supply chains. P owerful outside forces that drive conditions of poverty, alienation, and subjugation complicate these processes. In sh ort, dialectical inquiry is open to these various processes and ongoing outcomes. I now turn attention to discussing these relations in the context of the AFM networks in each of my cases. ability to create the form of social change sought (McCarthy and Zald 1977). At the same time, such differences between organizations within the same social movement can lead to competition over resources, skepticism about the need for institutionalized o rganizations, and cooperation in order to achieve shared goals (Clemens and Minkoff 2004; Edwards and McCarthy 2004). Networks themselves can become a resource for social movements, but within such structures, there are social differences that complicate e ffective mobilization (Routledge 2003; Pickerill and Chatterton 2006). As a movement of movements, the AFM is a complex empirical reality to untangle. This study

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53 1 focuses on three different social movement organizations in three different cities, each engag ed in place based networks of resistance. Some of these organizations capture resources from greater scalar distances, and some aim to create social change beyond local considerations (See Figure 8 3 and Figure 8 4). Disentangling these relationships in di fferent California cities reveals the ways in which networks are necessary to achieve environmental sustainability and social justice. At the same time, I show that there are areas of divergence and possibilities for new forms of convergence. The network within which each organization moves offers a spatial representation of the economic, political, and social priorities for change. Figure 8 5, Figure 8 6, and Figure 8 network relevant to the labor and land struggles discussed in this study between the years 2001 and 2013. 12 It shows the direction of support between different of resistance will take on forms relevan t to shared worldviews and related goals. Relatedly, the scale of economic, political and social priorities reflects the resources an organization is able to muster. Where one form of resource is lacking (e.g. money) an organization creates a network tie t o supplement that weakness in order to achieve the wider aims of that network of resistance (e.g. new zoning law). My aim is not to explain all the intricacies of this networked process, but instead call attention to the many sociospatial relations embedde d in contentious food politics. Below I discuss these 12 While my mapping strives for comprehensiveness, it is limited by my acquisition method. I triangulate between the reported coalitions an field, and archival analysis of primary and secondary documents. However, my mapping is representative of the dominant types of network relationships.

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532 relations with attention to the degree to which dialectical tensions resolve through the networked resistance of actually existing radical food projects. The networked resistance of SD Roots primarily focuses on expanding knowledge about local food systems, propagating urban food production in interstitial spaces, and increasing opportunities to access local food. The organizations working on these priorities intersect in different ways depending on wh ether they are non profits, schools, or community assistance groups. For SD Roots, such groups constitute the major organizational sectors represented in their network. Although connected to many AFM non profits, the ties are not as strong as they are with schools and community assistance groups (See Figure 8 5). This is primarily because resource flows come from local, state, and federal grants supporting such projects, and from local residents volunteering time to maintain and improve W WF and Victory Gardens San Diego (See Figure 8 3). As such, most of their social change efforts target individual and city scales (See Figure 8 4). This network of resistance regularly succeeds in meeting its goals, but does not always resolve the tensions inherent in the work of actually existing radical food projects. When considering issues of labor and land, the reasons are twofold. First, by focusing on education and relying on volunteers to maintain operations, individual and social rifts never fully mend. For example, SD Roots gathers people at WWF potlucks to show documentaries about problems in the agrifood system. Many people come away from these events understanding their experiential and cognitive alienation from food with some possible tools to overcome this alienation. Nonetheless, the converging of networks of resistance is fleeting and the conventional agrifood system predominates in

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533 the urban landscape, providing employment and a product rife with problems. Second, even the successful changes to urban agriculture zoning laws only represent partial mending of social rifts. Take for instance the fact that one of these laws allows people to raise animals and sell food from private property, but many of the most marginalized food workers and eater s lack such control over their living arrangements. This outcome reflects the middle class, environmentally focused demographic of the network and the ferent. This is primarily due to the organizations foci, which include creating living wage alternative food jobs, reimagining and redesigning urban food production, and advancing economic and racial justice. As profi t businesses and projects, food justice oriented non profits, and community based organizations. Similar to SD Roots n on profit relationships, PJ profits, but their strongest ties are with businesses, organizations, or people that support for profit projects and their educational, community garden, and community solidarity projects (See Figure 8 6). One major reason for this is that they ultimately do not want to rely as much on resources coming from state and national g ranting sources. By building local economic resiliency to the ebb and flow of funding, PJ is able to work more on developing wider networks as a complementary form of resource (See Figure 8 3). Therefore, unlike SD Roots whose networks of resistance only r eflect targeting local social change sectors, PJ is building ties to make social change at state and national social movement scales (See Figure 8 4).

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534 The degree to which PJ resolves tensions in their actually existing radical food projects is greater tha n SD Roots. Interpreting this through the lenses of labor and land reveals the following. First, PJ creates living wage food work that not only takes care of people economically, but also provides a form of employment that reduces experiential and cognitiv e alienation from food, and builds strong ties across geographies of difference. At the same time, this work is testament to vision becoming practice and the economic net work this model requires is a form of metabolic healing and is the foundation for such healing to spread. Second, land use experiments reimagine how private property can meet basic human needs. However, it is here where we witness an organization confronti Tapping into middle to upper class environmental and health consciousness networks wanting edible landscapes scales local food production, but it does not fundamentally alter the commodificati rifts is incomplete. The AFM networks built through Occupy Oakland represent the clearest oppositional trend, but the fleeting nature of th is tactic is not yet producing institutionalized laws that put more land into the hands of dispossessed local citizens. UFCW 770 participates in the largest and most complex network of resistance of my three cases. This is partially a function of the union organizing workers in Los Angeles for decades but m ore substantively is due to the 30,000 members it represents and the range of economic, political, and social forces it must contend with to advance working class power. Its network primarily consists of other labor unions, labor advocacy groups, and commu nity based organizations (See Figure 8 7). Although there

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535 are relationships with other food worker organizations and educational institutions community based groups fight ing for food worker rights. These ties are largely local, but given the scale of organizing workers in Los Angeles and the power of corporations to direct the political economy of food work, UFCW 770 captures and access es resources at greater scales than e ither SD Roots or PJ (See Figure 8 3). Moreover, UFCW 770 and their networks of resistance can more effectively contribute to social change in more sectors at greater scales (See Figure 8 4). As a labor union representing conventional agrifood system work ers, UFCW 770 is in the unique position to develop alliances with organizations that both ameliorate individual rifts while at the same time support the work of those creatively working to mend social rifts. Once again, resistance through the tensions that arise during the process of mending metabolic rifts. First, let me broadly address what this looks like in terms of labor. Los Angeles is a mega metropolis always undergoing shifts in power between elites and working c lass people (Laslett Recession, whether in grocery stores, restaurants, or food trucks, UFCW 770 and its allies are in the unique position to make gains in sectors under atta ck by powerful corporations such as Wal Mart. Unlike SD Roots and PJ, who are more sympathetic to, participate in, and create prefigurative economic, political, and social models, UFCW 770 is directly opposing food inequalities in conventional food supply chains. In the process, they work to capture more value for working class people, in turn reducing the degree one experiences individual rifts. Nevertheless they still rely on the wage labor

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536 system, itself necessary to capitalist relations of production u nder private property regimes. resistance is overwhelmingly concerned with shaping urban development to meet the needs of working class people. The goal is less to end the commodification of land, but maintain or increase the number of union shops in the urban landsc ape while at the same time working to develop alternative labor networks that link alternative food producers through food hubs where cooperatives are unionized. Like in all my cases, individu al and social rifts are ongoing, but face a range of solutions t o reach a new dialectical synthesis that sets off more just and sustainable metabolic trajectories.

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537 Figure 8 1. Sociospatial relations between approaches to economic inequality and political, economic, and social structuring processes.

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538 Figure 8 2. Sociospatial relations between outcomes associated with land use struggles and political, economic, and social structuring processes.

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539 Figure 8 3. Scale of resource inflows by each organization.

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540 Figure 8 4. Target scale of social change in different arenas by each organization.

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541 Figure 8 5. San Diego Roots Sustainable Food Project network. Arrows connote direction of support. The thicker the lines, the stronger the network tie.

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542 Figure 8 6. Planting Just ice network. Arrows connote direction of support. The thicker the lines, the stronger the network tie s

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543 Figure 8 7. United Food and Commercial Workers 770 organizing network. This network consists of those relationships directly relevant to ad vancing the rights and interests of grocery retail, meatpacking, and food processing workers. Arrows connote direction of support. The thicker the lines, the stronger the network tie s

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544 CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION S Cognitive and experiential alienation from labor and land remain some of the most entrenched problems in contemporary food supply chains. Given such problems, major metropolitan areas throughout the United States are bursting with experiments aimed at creating alternative food supply chains also home to a host of other problems ostensibly removed from issues strictly concerned with food, but that nonetheless intersect: the prison p overty trap, racialized policing patterns, segregation, gentrification, and immigration. As such, there are questions regarding where one intervenes to create the most far reaching and relevant social changes. Taking on these challenges, an increasingly vi sible and vocal alternative food movement (AFM) offers a unique lens to understand both confrontational and prefigurative models of social change. While powerful forces both constituting and intersecting with food supply chains structure the conditions of AFM activism, there is simultaneous resistance to and alteration of these forces. This study delves into these complexities through an analysis of three AFM organizations in three different California metropolitan areas. The sociospatial mechanisms and pro cesses illuminated offer a nuanced account of the similarities and differences between the economic, political, and social forces at play in each city, organizational perspectives and practices, and the strategic social movement relations constituting each findings, I offer an assessment of areas for convergence and divergence between different segments of the AFM. This in turn offers a means to opening the aperture

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545 through which we investigate this s ocial movement. I end with discussing future research suggestions. Main Findings and Contributions While food inequalities take on many forms this study is most concerned with those directly related to labor and land. So far, schol arship on the AFM only s cratches the surface of these topics, which need sustained study to understand associated perspectives and practices to evaluate whether the movement creates more socially just relations that also mend individual and social rifts Upon digging into inequal ities such as workplace exploitation, disproportionate food access, segregation, prison sentencing, unemployment, and deskilling i n growing and preparing food, this study makes evident that calls for food justice or food sovereignty mean little if dominant labor and land conditions remain as is. At a minimum, reform within the confines of capitalist food supply chains is necessary to create tolerable conditions for food workers. This includes paying workers livable wages, providing health care, offering cl ear opportunities for advancement, transparency in decision making, and ideally greater democratic participation in day to day operations. In addition, states and municipalities can support de commodifying public space through incentivizing food production distribution, and consumption models that meet socially just and environmentally sustainable goals. Ideally, such reforms will take place at the same time those within the AFM devise food production, distribution, and consumption models predicated on ant i and post capitalist principles (e.g. anarchism, socialism, and participatory economics). Not only would these models minimally include the reforms outlined above, but also they would need to address other inequalities intersecting with the meta concerns of labor and land, namely those tied to

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546 race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, sexuality, ability, age, ecology, and so on. Such an agenda requires critical empirical attention to social justice in terms of distribution, participation, and recognition. Th e findings in this study suggest that the AFM within three different major California cities is both fighting for some of these reforms and is developing models that combined offer alternatives to capitalist systems of valuation and organization. At the sa me time, there is a growing recognition of and engagement with intersecting systems of domination. For instance, UFCW 770 fights for land use laws that prevent a local race to the bottom in grocery retail that harms both workers and eaters in low income an d working class communities, and in communities of color. At the same time, they are working with various organizations such as the Food Chain Workers Alliance to pressure Los Angeles politicians to adopt and implement robust procurement policies that adva nce economic justice. In San Diego, SD Roots is creating a community run farm predicated on rejecting traditional wage labor systems in favor of voluntary association and educational training that reskills the community for the coming just and sustainable food economy. Last, the work of PJ is primarily committed to using food as a means by which to develop models of community economic development that build from the most marginalized spaces (e.g. prisons) outward. This couples with an edible landscaping and canvassing model that draw from more privileged people to build greater solidarity with marginalized groups. These last two case s are also working to reform local land use laws to ensure a receptive institutional environment for more radical prefigurative visions.

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547 Nonetheless, there are some distinct contradictions in working with food as the focal point for social change. Through archival, fieldwork, and interviews, my findings reveal that across the AFM, neoliberalization as policy, ideology, and subjec tivity compromises the degree to which individual and social rifts heal, whether through reformative or transformative measures. These contradictions are most clearly visible in the case of SD Roots. Here we witness an organization whose social movement le gacy SD Roots advocated and worked in concert with allies committed to creating land use laws that make it easier for people to grow and sell their own food. While opening the space to mend individual rifts such as cognitive and experiential alienation, the laws largely further the roll back of state protections and responsibilities. Even in PJ, a more radically oriented group of food activists, compromise is a necessary part of the work. Perhaps the most sacrosanct ideology and institution of neoliberalization is private property. PJ successfully redistributes resources based in priv ate property through their edible landscaping program and will embark upon a farming project on the land of Wild and Radish, LLC. However, this is in many respects because they do not operate in an institutional context that supports such projects in commo n public space, and because they prefer to bypass the state instead of directly changing its laws in a way that breaks the power of private property regimes. In short, to answer my overarching research question, the potential varies for the AFM to integra te concerns of social justice and advance this through various projects and activism. This may be unsurprising. What is important about this answer is the

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548 reason for why the potential is mixed. Through an investigation of the spatialities of contentious fo od politics, these cases reveal that dialectical tension between exploitation, domination, and resistance fluctuates in time and space. There are nonetheles s consistencies in economic, political, and social context or activist target. First, potential var ies based on whether organizations and their network of resistance recognize and act upon non food social forces influencing their goals. Once again, issues seemingly distinct from food, such as immigration, segregation, and policing, structure the nature of local AFM struggles over labor and land. For example, the goal may be to increase access to healthy and affordable food through liquor store conversions, but such goals may face impediments like segregation, poverty, and criminalization of groups that r esort to informal economic activity for survival. In such a case, to advance social justice, effort would need to target structural causes perpetuating food insecurity to begin with. My research reveals that reflexivity of these issues varies with the degr ee of organizational and network racial and class diversity. Such diversity stimulates a greater crosspollination of ideas and experiences from which to devise strategies that account for structural drivers. At the same time, reflexivity varies with the de gree to which privilege protects activists from having to contend with issues such as race. There is oftentimes an unrecognized investment in privilege that perpetuates engaging in strategies that obstruct achieving more socially just goals. Second, the e xtent of social justice goals and outcomes rests on the degree of organizational embeddedness in and ability to leverage political and economic institutions. On the one hand, this may advance social justice, say in the form of UFCW 770 representing tens of thousands of grocery retail workers and winning contracts that

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549 further economic equity. In this sense, UFCW 770 works with corporate elites in contract negotiations and fights for land use laws with political elites. On the other hand, social justice face s obstructions; say in the form of SD Roots supporting urban agriculture ordinances in the name of health, which then obfuscate the driver of diet related problems, namely poverty. Ostensibly working through a health lens may empower individuals to take ow nership over personal decisions that then improve economic standing, but in a neoliberal policy climate, such ordinances will inevitably produce mixed results. To build off the discussion in Chapter 7 about tensions in the AFM, particularly regarding labor the movement often opts for sidestepping political institutions in the name of creating prefigurative models. Social justice may advance for a small number of people with such models, but these minimal impacts will continue without engaging the actually existing agrifood system, which operates at institutional levels. Third, land use laws represent a strategic leverage tool for the AFM to institutionalize more socially just models of community economic development. In all my cases, organizations were figh ting to direct the historical geographies of their city. There is recognition that current valuation of land in major metropolitan areas preference c apitalist development interests Although each case represents different approaches to chan ging land use la ws, activists strive t o capture local institutions to further more socially just land uses predicated on revaluing land to meet basic human needs In building of bottom dollar big box stores. In SD Roots case, there were members of this

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550 organization, and members of organizations in the network of resistance in key advisory positions, wh ich facilitated passing the urban agriculture ordinances. Nonetheless, there are neoliberal contradictions embedded in many of these land use strategies given each example of land use law changes that while slightly challenging capitalist development patterns are no more than temporary waystations on the way to opening up the commons to democratic management. Last, in all its guis es, the AFM is generative of different forms of social solidarity across a range of identities. When organizations avail themselves to building non traditional alliances, they can leverage greater political power to advance more socially just food labor and land practices. To some degree, food opens the space for mobilizing diverse constituencies. Not only is the experience of eating universal as far as people need to eat to survive, but eating reflects cultural practices that generally bring people together. Moreover, given the increased concentratio n of power within the agrifood system and the increasingly apparent problems this brings to food workers and eaters, there is heightened awareness of the need to collectively band together to agitate for change. At the same time, networks of resistance are often more powerful when they represent people from different movement sectors. For example, PJ was part of an alliance fighting for Oakland to pass a comprehensive city plan to combat climate change, which included workers, students, environmentalists, f oodies, small business owners, and so on. The food working group was essential to working out and implementing the plan. However, mobilizing around food may exacerbate social divisions. There is often a messianic approach by white and middle to upper middl e

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551 class segments of the AFM toward low income communities and communities of color. Instead of beginning from the premise of mutual respect, there is a belief that people are not eating right, or do not know how to grow food, or just need education for emp owerment. Moreover, many food activists also overlook working with groups that do not focus first on food which minimizes the potential for building political power. Such difference in the uses of food helps to explain the degree to which social solidarit y grows and activists leverage political power for socially just ends. Toward a Broad Based Alternative Food Movement When considered in light of the need to transform the agrifood system in a way that is also aimed at transforming other social systems, m y study points to the importance of opening not only the field of what is considered relevant for scholarly investigation, but also political practice. Below I discuss some practical implications of my findings and reflect on what this means for transformi ng food labor and land use understandings and practices. There are areas of conve rgence for build ing a broader based movement that improves corporate labor practices, expands unionization, strengthens policy, and furthers alternative economic models premi sed on equity, recognition, and participation. For example, the AFL CIO recently voted to open up the labor union to any worker that wants to join even without the 50% of workers usually required for certification. This would be an opportunity for the prim arily non union AFM to join in a larger labor movement. An AFM wide campaign to join the AFL CIO would lend a louder voice in the use of union money, particularly towards supporting efforts to grow alternative economic models and develop a supportive legal infrastructure. Relatedly, in a climate of austerity and demographic shifts in th e food labor force, UFCW 770 opts for an organizing model

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552 that works with labor advocacy groups, labor centers, and working class community based organizations. Parts of the AFM are starting to do the same, particularly through the guise of f ood policy councils and other forms of coalition Such frameworks can promote more integrated community economic development strategies that link together different working class forces. T here are also campaigns to build connections between foodies and unions. UFCW 770 came out in support of P roposition 37, which sought to label genetically modified foods. The bridge to other parts of the AFM was health, with the union arguing that its memb ers wanted to know what was in their food. reevaluating and developing new zoning laws, often because of political pressure, that bring together a variety of different liberal, progres sive, and radical groups. While my focus in San Diego and Oakland is on urban agriculture laws, in practice, such land use changes literally open up the urban terrain to create non traditional alliances. Because of laws allowing for urban food production o n private property, PJ successfully built a garden for a food labor union member of UNITE HERE. This garden is now an organizing space for a wide range of food and labor based campaigns and projects. While these utopic spaces are insufficient, they are nec essary as sites for experimentation and vision building. More broadly, there are proposed public and private land uses opposed by wide cross sections of a city or region. For example, the Chinatown Wal Mart successfully mobilized labor and food activists ( not to mention many other community based and left leaning groups) throughout Los Angeles, many connections now providing a foundation for future movement building.

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553 These cases also reveal that divisions remain. The AFM tends to ignore conventional food c hain workers because they work in a system viewed as undesirable on environmental and social fronts. Moreover, i ssues such as volunteerism and romanticized notions of food labor are rife throughout the movement. People want to know where their food comes f rom, but often do not understand who grew their food and under what conditions. T he idealism driving the creation of alternative economic models often obstructs building connections with working class people. Clearly, my cases show that this is not univers al across the AFM, but there are strong trends indicating that the whiteness and middle to upper class biases of the movement often exclude food workers who tend to reflect different socioeconomic groups. On the labor union side, there are intense economic and political pressures to maintain let alone grow union density. Unions experience attacks on all sides. They sustained heavy losses in strongholds such as Wisconsin and Michigan, and are scrambling to develop campaigns to organize new sectors such as bi g box grocery retail and fast food chains. Additionally, the labor movement is much more entrenched in the political system, which many in the AFM view with skepticism compromise. A corollary is that the labor movement focuses more o n winning political campaigns. This requires large amounts of money, time, and union member organizing. There are also areas of divergence regarding land use strategies. Much of the AFM focuses on teaching people to grow their own food and o n building gardens. My cases show how reliant these strategies are on private property. Particularly in a post Great Recession context, homeownership rates are stratified based on race and class. Not only do many groups lack the property necessary to adopt

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554 approach to alleviating economic and social pressures, there are land use laws that often restrict renters from growing food and/or protect landlords in restricting food production. AFM projects that enter gentrifying communities may exa cerbate inequalities in homeownership rates. Oftentimes AFM organizations come in to help the community, only to elevate the edgines s of working and living in the community In the process, property values increase and the indigenous comm unity face pressur es to move out with no real sources of upwardly mobile employment. On the food labor union side of the equation, we witness an increasing trend toward preventing unwanted land uses, such as a Wal Mart, only to allow the entry of anti and non union grocery retailers such as Whole Foods with no opposition. Not only do most foodies turn a blind eye to the labor conditions in these stores, but the land use itself entrenches privilege and neoliberalization in the form of offering a space where one shops their w ay to safety or votes with dollars (e.g. buying organic). Future Research The degree to which the AFM can integrate goals of social justice and environmental sustainability remains open for investigation. This study takes a necessary comparative approach to this question and finds that as a movement of movements, the AFM faces fluctuating structural terrains and interprets and acts in different ways to solve different problems. Emphasis among organizations varies, but there are still networks of resistance that arise to fight for shared goals. In the process of fighting institutional battles, namely for land use law changes, organizations engage in a variety of labor practices that may contradict or support such changes. Reasons range from different collect ive identities (e.g. based on ecological and politica l worldviews, race, and class) and political opportunities, to organizational capacities.

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555 What becomes clear, though, is that issues of labor and land are fundamental to solve if urban development, with the agrifood system as a central component of this development, is to reflect socially just and environmentally sustainable forms. There is a need for greater comparative research across different geographic regions and scales. Unless a single case study sheds light on an innovative or distinct problem, it is contingent upon scholars to come up with projects that speak to issues that are more widespread Such projects might work to understand and empirically present common victories and defeats across the AFM. The AFM meets up in various combinations for conferences such as The Gathering, campaigns such as state initiatives to label genetically modified foods, and policies such as the Farm Bill, but these convergence spaces belie the often Balkanized nature of the movement. Therefore, it is important to understand the similarities and differences between widespread local actions such as food policy councils and food procurement policies. Why do such organizations and policies take on different goals (e.g. fo od access, labor advocacy, and urban agriculture)? How do race, class, and gender operate to shape goals? Outcomes? Such investigations may help set a foundation for understanding what facilitates more transformative activism across space. We know that ma ny AFM practices are spreading acro ss space, but there are few if any movement generated local actions with a national target. Closed door meetings and negotiations take place to change the Farm Bill for instance, but there are few if any national campaign s seeking to shore up movement gains (e.g. greater urban food production, spread of organic farming), with strong federal policy (e.g. banning GMOs, advocating universal basic incomes,

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556 democratizing ownership of near monopolies throughout the food supply c hain, reduce the power of giant banks and setup localized credit unions run by communities). Once again, it is always imperative to understand the ways in which economic, political, and social forces intersect to facilitate and obstruct movement goals. In this case we need more research attending to statewide, regional, and national campaigns (e.g. anti GMO, food worker strikes, tipped worker minimum wage, food safety standards, organic standards, tax related urban food production incentives). Who makes up fighting on these fronts? Who is excluded? Why? How do race, class, and gender influence such campaigns? To what degree do institutional elites leverage institutions to avoid changes sought by the AFM? In conclusion, it is important movi ng forward that critical food scholars di rectly engage with th e provocative claim by some that we need to carry out food research beyond food. I do not believe we need to ditch food per se, but we need to investigate core sociospatial problems linked to th e food system, unearth the central issues people address when talking about food, reveal what purpose food serves as a lens for policy and social change, and evaluate the potential for food activism to expand political imaginations and practices. At the sa me time, it is imperative that scholars begin to understand the ways in which other institutions, norms, and practices intersect with food and agriculture to produce and resist various forms of inequality. In short, we need future research that 1) seeks to uncover the sociospatial processes by which social inequality is deepe ned and/or contested in conventional and alternative food supply chains and social movements that use food for various social change purposes; and 2)

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557 investigates the potential for oppo sitional and prefigurati ve models to corrode institutions and systems driving such inequality. To paraphrase Marx, humans make history, but not under conditions of their choosing. Giddens furthered this idea by noting that humans also make geography, but n ot under conditions of their choosing. This dissertation investigated the dialectics between the spatial, historical, and social conditions under which food activists in California, in all their diversity, struggle to create more socially just food supply chains and more generally labor and land use practices that advance human flourishing. While the future is open under conditions yet to unfold, let us remember the spirit of revolt t is always hope, the hope of v ictory, which makes revolutions.

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558 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT AND INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Dear Participants: I am a PhD student in the Sociology Department at the University of Florida writing my dissertation on programs, activism, and efforts of th e food justice movement throughout California. As part of my research project, I am conducting interviews to learn more about perceptions pertaining to various forms of food inequality throughout the food system (labor exploitation, access problems, enviro nmental problems tied to farming), in addition to efforts at alleviating these forms of inequality. These interviews are also attempting to understand the how people are transforming spaces of work, residence, and recreation. The interviews I conduct are planned to be one time, audio taped and are expected to take approximately one hour. If you cannot continue an interview, I will try to reschedule the rest of it at your convenience. Additionally, you are free to stop the interview at any time, and you do not have to answer any questions you do not wish to answer. There are no anticipated risks, compensation or other direct benefits to you as a participant in this interview. Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. If you decide to partic ipate, you are free to withdraw consent and may discontinue your participation at any time without penalty. Additionally, by participating in this interview your standing and relationship with your union or non profit will not in any way be compromised. An y information obtained in connection with this study that can be identified with you will be kept confidential to the extent provided by the law. The following steps will be taken to protect the identity of all participants: Names in transcripts of the au dio tapes will be replaced by aliases and notes on the interviews will bear only random identification numbers as identifiers. All audio tapes will be erased after they have been transcribed by the researchers and after the transcriptions have been checke d for errors. If you have any additional questions, or if you would like to receive a written summary of the results, please contact Joshua Sbicca at (352) 392 0251 ext.131. If you just have questions you can contact Joshua Sbicca or my supervisor, Dr. Br ian Mayer at (352) 392 0265 ext. 228. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be directed to the University of Florida Institutional Review Board, P.O. Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; (352) 392 0 433. Enclosed, please find the human subjects Bill of Rights. By signing this letter, you indicate that you have decided to participate in the study, and you have read the information in this consent form. You also give me permission to report your respo nses anonymously in the final report, to be submitted to my supervising faculty as part of my course work and to those in supervisory positions at the union or non profit. You also give me permission to publish results from this interview. A second copy of this letter will be provided for your records. Thank you, Joshua Sbicca I have read the procedure described above for the food justice study. I voluntarily agree to participate in the interview, and I have received a copy of this description. Particip

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559 Principle Investigator:_______________________________________ Date:___________________ HUMAN SUBJECTS' BILL OF RIGHTS Persons who participate in research are entitled to c ertain rights. These rights include but are not limited to the subject's right to be informed of the nature and purpose of the research; be given an explanation of the procedures to be followed in the research and any drug or device to be utilized; be give n a description of any attendant discomforts and risks reasonably to be expected; be given an explanation of any benefits to the subject, if applicable; be given a disclosure of any appropriate alternative, drugs, or devices that might be advantageous to t he subject and their relative risks and benefits; be informed of the avenues of medical treatment, if any, available to the subject after the research if complications should arise; be given an opportunity to ask questions concerning the research or proced ures involved; be instructed that consent to participate in the research may be withdrawn at any time and that the subject may discontinue participation without prejudice; be given a copy of the signed and dated consent form; and be given the opportunity t o decide to consent or not to consent to research without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, coercion, or undue influence on the subject's decision.

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560 Interview questions 1) (For those in leadership positions) What is the history of your organization? o What are the major goals? o What are the organizations major successes? o Failures? 2) Tell me how you got involved with the organization? 3) Where do you spend most of your working hours? o What do you do for the organization? o W hat, if anything would you like to see changed? 4) What is the local political context as it pertains to the work you do? o Local economic context? o Local environmental context? 5) Who are your grievances targeted at? 6) What do you think it will take to transform t he part of the food chain you work in? 7) What institutional pressures make it difficult to achieve these socially just, and/or environmentally sustainable transformations? o Role of local city, state or federal policy? o Organization of local, state, national fo od system? 8) Who in the food system do you think have too much power? o How do they impact the work you do? o How does your activism respond to these circumstances? 9) What does food mean to you? o Social justice? o Environmental sustainability? 10) How does your work rel ate to these things? 11) Do you see yourself as part of the food justice movement, a social movement for social justice and sustainability in the food system? Why or why not? o What does food justice mean to you? 12) How important are racial/ethnic issues in the w ork you do? o Gender? o Class? o Other identity issues? 13) Tell me about how you feel about building broader networks to create more socially just and/or environmentally sustainable relations at your node in the food chain? 14) What do you think is needed to transform the food system into a more just and sustainable food system? o To what degree do you think your organization is working to make this happen? o Have there been smaller transformations within (wherever the group works)? o Are reformations more realistic? Why or why not? o Are there any practices that are engaged in that might undermine a transformation of the food system? 15) (For those in more leadership positions) Are you part of any coalitions or alliances? Which ones? Why? 16) Have there been any conflicts with you r organization being part of alliances/coalitions?

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561 APPENDIX B LIST OF SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS DOCUMENTS USED IN THE RESEARCH Dissertation Document Title Source California Sources 1 Organic salad producer Earthbound Farm prepped for sale Retrieved 6 /24/2013 nd sale idUSL2N0DK1JX20130506 Los Angeles Sources 1 The Saga of Local 770 Ricardo F. Icaza. Int ernal Document, 1989 2 History of UFCW Local 770 Draft Internal Document, 1997. 3 Form LM 2 Labor Organization Annual Reports United States Office of Labor Management Standards. Employment Standards Administration. U.S. Department of Labor. 2012 4 Form LM 2 Labor Organization Annual Reports California Office of Labor Management Standards. Employment Standards Administration. U.S. Department of Labor. 2012 5 UFCW Local 770. History of 2003 04 Southern California Grocery Strike Internal D ocument, 2004. 6 UFCW Rejoins AFL CIO, Ending 8 Year Absence From Labor Federation Dave Jamieson. Huffington Post August 08, 2013. 7 Exclusive: UFCW Rejoins AFL CIO (Updated) Mike Elk. In These Times. Retrieved 9/18/2013 expected_to_rejoin_afl_cio_in_august/ 8 L.A. March Against Prop. 187 Draws 70,000 Patrick J McDonnell and Robert J. Lopez. Los Angeles Times October 17, 1994. 9 Controversy Over Prop. 187 Ricardo F. Icaza. Opinion Piece Los Angeles Times. November 02, 1994. 10 Did Congress kill the Twinkie? The tariff tale behind the Hostess demise Patrick Jonsson. Christian Science M onitor November 16, 2012. 11 Twinkies Have Returned, But Most Hostess Workers Won't Get Their Jobs Back Ashley Lutz. Business Insider. Retrieved 9/19/2013 http://ww workers wont get jobs back 2013 7 12 In Leaked Docs, Honeywell Cites Obama Ties As Key to Anti Union Strategy Mike Elk. In These Times. Retrieved 9/19/2013 d_confidential_honeywell_document_say_obama_ administration_connections/

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562 Dissertation Document Title Source 13 Senate confirms a ll five NLRB members Ramsey Cox. The Hill, Retrieved 9/19/2013 action/senate/314503 senate votes to confirm all five nlrb members 14 NLRB at full strength as Obama appointees are sworn into office Julian Hattem. The Hill, Retrieved 9/19/2013 nlrb full of senate confirmed members for first time in decade 15 California No On Proposition 32 Flier Internal Document, 2012. 16 California Teachers Association Yes on Prop 30 and No on P rop 32 Flier Internal Document, 2012. 17 California Prop 32, Ballot Measure Aimed At Hobbling Political Power Of Unions, Defeated By Voters Aaron Sankin. Huffington Post Retrieved 9/19/2013 a prop 32_n_2088960.html 18 Proposition 32: Measure that would restrict union donations is defeated Steven Harmon and Matt O'Brien. Bay Area News Group. Retrieved 9/19/ 2013 4/proposition 32 losing early returns 19 Los Angeles Labor Unions Get Out The Vote For Jerry Brown Mary Slosson, Neon Tommy. Retrieved 9/20/2013 angeles labor unions get out vote jerry brown 20 Meatpack ers Throw `Dodger Dogs' Producer a Strike Henry Weinstein. Los Angeles Times October 02, 1985. 21 Meat Firm Workers End Strike Despite Making No Gains Henry Weinstein. Los Angeles Times December 03, 1985. 22 Vernon Butchers Reject Wage Cut, Plan Stri ke Alan Goldstein. Los Angeles Times April 07, 1986. 23 Need for Speed Has Workers Seething; Labor: Production pace is emerging as a top health concern for low wage employees. Nancy Cleeland. Los Angeles Times June 19, 2002. 24 Total recordable cas es, Rate of injury and illness cases per 100 full time workers by selected industry, All U.S., private industry, 2003 2007: Animal slaughtering and processing. Bureau of Labor Statistics Database, 2008.

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563 Dissertation Document Title Source 25 The Lowe st Paying Jobs in the U.S. Retrieved 9/25/2013 paying jobs us 26 Obama Leaves Monsanto in Charge of Ending Hunger in Africa A lexis Baden Mayer. Organic Consumers Association, May 23, 2012 27 Follow the Money: United Food and Commercial Workers International Union Retrieved 9/25/2013 utor.phtml?u=1020&y=0&incs=1&ince=0&incf=0 28 Follow the Money: United Food and Commercial Workers Local 770 Retrieved 9/25/2013 utor.phtml?u=20902&y=0 29 Fighting For Prop 37: The Truth that $36 Million Can't Hide Stacy Malkan. Retrieved 9/25/2013 ng_for_prop_37_the_truth_that_36_million_cant_hi de 30 Labeling Genetically Engineered Foods: Whose Side Are You On? Zack Kaldveer Retrieved 9/25/2013 41 31 Walmart Drops $1 Million on Urban Ag Pioneer Growing Power Tom Philpot. Retrieved 9/25/2013. philpott/2011/09/walmart drops 1 million urban ag pioneer 32 Median weekly earnings of full time wage and salary workers by u nion affiliation and selected characteristics Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 9/26/2013 33 Major Work Stoppages, 1947 2002 Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retr ieved 2/26/2013 2082013.htm 34 Cincinnati Union Co op Initiative Retrieved 9/26/2013 35 David Bacon. LA Weekly. Oct. 22, 1999. 36 Criminals Because We Worked David Bacon. Retrieved 9/30/2013. ml 37 Trader Joe's Signs Fair Food Agreement On Tomatoes With Immokalee Workers Car ey Polis. Huffington Post. Retrieved 9/30/2013 joes fair food agreement_n_1268417.html

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564 Dissertation Document Title Source 38 Fresh & Easy fail: Tesco exits U.S. after profit tanks 96% Tiffany Hsu. Los Angeles Times. April 17, 2013. 39 Wild Oats chain is poised to reopen this year Tiffany Hsu. Los Angeles Times. June 13, 2013. 40 Tesco's Fresh & Easy declares bankruptcy to ease sale to Burkle Tiffany Hsu. Los Angeles Times. Sept. 30, 2013. 41 Albertsons to close 26 U.S. stores Shan Li and Walter Hamilton. Los Angeles Times. Sept. 06, 2013. 42 Wage and Health Benefit Grocery Industry: Public Costs and Policy Implications Arindrajit Dube and Alex Lantsberg Prepared for United Food and Commercial Workers. July 6, 2004. 43 Ralphs Veterans Losing Jobs to Lower Paid Clerks, Union Says Henry Weinstein. Los Angeles Times June 10, 1985. 44 Southland Butchers Take Vote on Strike Penelope McMillan. Los Angeles Times O ct. 21, 1985. 45 Ralphs and Union Settle Fight Over Clerks' Job Duties Henry Weinstein. Los Angeles Times Nov. 02, 1985. 46 Strike at 1,125 Markets Likely as Talks Stall Henry Weinstein, Los Angeles Times Nov. 04, 1985. 47 Supermarket Walkout Begins as Talks Break Down He nry Weinstein and Patt Morrison. Los Angeles Times Nov. 04, 1985. 48 Both Sides Fear Store Strike Will Last Into '86 Bob Baker. Los Angeles Times. Nov. 26, 1985. 49 Tentative Market Pact Falls Apart Butchers Reject O ffer; Teamsters Strongly Approve It Bob Baker. Los Angeles Times. Dec. 29, 1985. 50 Meatcutters End 8 Week Old Strike Marcia Chambers. New York Times. December 30, 1985. 51 Bagging a career: Superstores may cut grocery prices, but they also gut job s, union workers say Don Lee. Los Angeles Times. Feb. 12, 1995. 52 Supermarkets, Clerks Gird for Possible Strike Na ncy Cleeland and Melinda Fulmer. Los Angeles Times. Sep. 29, 2003. 53 Major Work Stoppages in 2003 Ann C. Foster. Bureau of Labor Sta tist ics. Nov. 23, 2004.

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565 Dissertation Document Title Source 54 Walkout Threatens at Markets Nancy Cleeland. Los Angeles Times Oct. 09, 2003. 55 Grocery Walkout Supported by Unions Nancy Cleeland. Los Angeles Times Oct. 10, 2003. 56 Thousan ds of Grocery Clerks Picket Three Major Chains Melinda Fulmer, E. Sc ott Reckard and Ronald D. White. Los Angeles Times Oct. 13, 2003. 57 Union Sues Grocers for Unpaid Wages Nancy Cleeland. Los Angeles Times Oct. 24, 2003. 58 Union Sues Over Heal th Care Fund Nancy Cleeland. Los Angeles Times Oct. 30, 2003. 59 Grocers, Union to Resume Talks Nancy Cleeland. Los Angeles Times Nov. 08, 2003. 60 Lawsuit Targets Pact by Grocers James F. Peltz. Los Angeles Times Nov. 21, 2003. 61 Cuts i n Funds Wear on Pickets Mel inda Fulmer and Ronald D. White. Los Angeles Times Jan. 09, 2004. 62 AFL CIO to Intervene, Ratchet Up Market Strike Nancy Cleeland. Los Angeles Times Jan. 20, 2004. 63 Supermarkets Reject Union Bid for Binding Arbitrat ion Nancy Cleeland. Los Angeles Times Feb. 05, 2004. 64 Supermarkets Still Feel Pain of Long Strike and Lockout Ja mes F. Peltz and Melinda Fulmer. Los Angeles Times Dec. 15, 2004. 65 Ralphs to Pay $70 Million for Illegal Hiring Scheme Martin Zi mmerman and Ronald D. Wh ite. Los Angeles Times July 01, 2006. 66 A Change in Strategy Jerry Hirsch. Los Angeles Times Sep. 24, 2006. 67 UFCW 770 Thank You List Retrieved 10/9/2013. http://www. 68 Healthcare is central to grocery contract talks Jerry Hirsch. Los Angeles Times Jan. 31, 2007. 69 Union issues grocers a warning Jerry Hirsch. Los Angeles Times July 06, 2007. 70 Grocery strike averted as chains, union reach accord Jerry Hirsch. Los Angeles Times July 18, 2007. 71 Feeding Our Communities: A Call for Standards for Food Access and Job Quality in Los A report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on Los Angeles Grocery Industry and Community Health July 2008

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566 Dissertation Document Title Source 72 Grocery workers union locals agree to combine Jerry Hirsch. Los Angeles Times April 25, 2009. 73 Supermarket workers vote on strike PJ Huffstutter and Tiffany Hsu. Los Angele s Times April 21, 2011. 74 UFCW reaches grocery agreement in Calif. Nikolai Smith. Socialist Worker Retrieved 10/11/2013. re aches grocery agreement 75 Walmart to Open up to 300 Stores Serving USDA Food Deserts by 2016; More than 40,000 Associates Will Work in These Stores Press Release. July 20, 2011. Retrieved 10/16/2013. archive/2011/07/20/walmart to open up to 300 stores serving usda food deserts by 2016 more t han 40000 associates will work in these stores 76 Big Buildup For Small Wal Marts Elliot Zwiebac h. Supermarket News Retrieved 10/16/2013 http://supermarket amp financial/big buildup small wal marts 77 2013 Top 100 Retailers Retrieved 10/16/2013 100 Retailers 78 Busine sses, Economy and Character LAANE, March 2012 79 Los Angeles: County of 212 Walmarts? Bobbi Murray. Frying Pan News Retrieved 10/21/2013 /2012/06/25/los angeles county of 212 walmarts/ 80 Wal Mart Battle Takes a Turn Retrieved 10/21/2013 http://www.ladownt mart battle takes a turn/article_64a40f34 73b2 11e1 b9e9 0019bb2963f4.html 81 Tinker, Tailor Walmart Spy? Steven Mikulan. Frying Pan News Retrieved 10/21/2013 tailor %E2%80%93 walmart spy/ 82 L.A. panel votes against plan to ban big chain stores in Chinatown Kate Linthicum. Los Angeles Times July 13, 2012. 83 In LA Walmart Protest, Thous ands of Angelenos March on Chinatown in Anti Walmart Action Kathle en Miles. Huffington Post Retrieved 10/21/2013 http://www. la walmart protest chinatown photos_n_1632381.html#slide=1169017

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567 Dissertation Document Title Source 84 Judge refuses to block Wal Mart project in Chinatown Retrieved 10/21/2013 mart chinatown.html 85 L.A. Chinatown to Walmart: Not so Fast Brad Wong. Equal Voice News Retrieved 10/21/2013 a chinatown to walmart not so fast/ 86 Wal Josh Eidelson. Salon. Retrieved 10/22/2013 dirty_work/ 87 ultimatum Josh Eidelson. Salon. Retrieved 10/22/2013 _raise_the_stakes_with_black_friday_ultimatum/ 88 First Lady Michelle Obama visits Inglewood to promote food access Anna Gorman. Los Angeles Times Feb. 1, 2012. 89 From Unio n Security to Food Security: The Link is Priceless John Grant. 2002. (In house counsel document, United Food and Commercial Workers) 90 Good Food Purchasing Pledge Los Angeles Food Policy Council Oct. 17, 2012. Oakland Sources 1 Oakland paying o ut extraordinary police abuse settlements KTVU Retrieved 8/16/2013 reveals east bay city paying out ext/nF dWy/ 2 Independent Investigation: Occupy Oakland Response Prepared by Frazier Group, LLC June 14, 2012 3 Occupy Oakland protesters awarded $1 million over police brutality Eoin Reynolds. The Guardian July 3, 2013. 4 The High Costs of Outsour cing Police Dar win Bond Graham and Ali Winston. East Bay Express August 08, 2012. 5 Prison and the Poverty Trap John Tierney. New York Times Feb. 18, 2013. 6 Appalling Prison and Jail Food Leaves Prisoners Hungry for Justice David M. Reutte r, Ga ry Hunter & Brandon Sample. Retrieved 8/19/2013. cle.aspx 7 Permaculture Dream Property 55 140 Hoea Rd, Hawi, Hawaii 96719 Retr ieved 8/19/2013 l 979 4391602/permaculture dream property hawi hi 96719

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568 Diss ertation Document Title Source 8 Insight Garden Program FAQs Retrieved 8/19/2013 9 Oakland Real Estate Soars: Another Bubble? Laura McCamy Retrieved 8/20/2013 estate trend story due june 8/ 10 Transforming the Oakland Food System: A Plan for Action Oakland Food Polic y Council November 2010. 11 Energy and Climate Action Plan Implementation Progress Report Oakland Public Works Agency November 2012. 12 Oakland General Plan: OSCAR Element Oakland Planning and Building Department June 1996. 13 Planning commiss ion votes to ease restrictions on selling backyard produce Ye Tian Retrieved 8/22/2013 ing commission votes to ease restrictions on selling backyard produce/ 14 Oakland allows urban farmers to sell produce Matthai Kuruvila. San Francisco Chronicle Oct. 5, 2011. 15 A Food Systems Assessment for Oakland, CA: Toward a Sustainable Fo od Plan Serena Unger & Heather Wooten. University of California, Berkeley, Department of City and Regional Planning May 24, 2006 16 A New Ecovillage Farm, Twenty Minutes from Downtown Oakland Luke Tsai. Ea st Bay Express April 9, 2013. 17 El Sobrante Eco Village & Information Packet Wild and Radish, LLC. 2012 18 The Huichin Band of the Ohlone at Garrity Creek Michael Ali Retrieved 8/23/2013. 19 Berkeley Is Not Alone in Saving Creeks, Natural Habitat Barbara A. Pende rgrass. The Berkeley Daily Planet June 15, 2005. 20 Re: The Garrity Creek Project SD 01 8533 Barbara A. Pendergrass. Letter to Darwin Myers, Project Planner March 25, 2002. 21 Re: Garrity Creek Project SD 01 8533 Barbara A. Pendergrass, Robert Joyce, Jesse Golden. Letter to Darwin Myers, Project Planner July 31, 2002.

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569 Dissertation Document Title Source 22 Re: Garrity Creek Project SD 01 8533 Barba ra A. Pendergrass, Jesse Golden. Letter to Darwin Myers, Project Planner September 26, 200 3. 23 Subdivision 8533. El Sobrante Area. Draft Environmental Impact Report SCH #2003102107 Contra Costa County Community Development Department August 2005. 24 El Sobrante Residents Debate Subdivision Plans: Inhabitants Fear New Developments Would Worsen Traffic Problems Tom Lochner. Contra Costa Times July 2, 2001. 25 Residents Fight 41 Home Plan Near Creek: El Sobrante Neighbors Say the Development Could Damage Habitat Jose A. Lopez. Contra Costa Times May 5, 2003. 26 Friends of Garrity Creek v. County of Contra Costa Retrieved 8/26/2013 ml 27 Project Narrative: USDA Community Food Project. Project Title: The Urban Resilience Farm in West Contra Costa County Internal Document. Planting Justice. Proposal for Grant 2012 28 Lease Agreement Between Planting Justice and Wild & Radish, LLC Internal Document. Planting Justice. Board of Directors Meeting. March 28, 2 013. 29 Minutes of 12th Meeting of Board of Directors of Planting Justice Internal Document. Planting Justice. Board of Directors Meeting. Dec. 15, 2012. 30 Building the Trayvon Martin Garden: Planting Justice + Poor Magazine Retrieved 9/9/2013 the trayvon martin garden planting justice poor magazine/ 31 The Homefulness Project Retrieved 9/9/2013 32 About Us Retrieved 9/9/2013 33 Planting Justice Street Ra p Internal Document, Canvassing Program 34 Oakland Urban Agriculture Support Petition Internal Document, Canvassing Program 35 A New Leaf Rachel Trachten. Edible Easy Bay. Summer 2013.

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570 Dissertation Document Title Source San Diego Sources 1 The Untold Story of the San Diego Fires Retrieved 2/7/2013 fires untold story en.html 2 Retrieved 2 /7/2013 stadium en.html 3 Firestorm: Treatment of Vulnerable Populations During the San Diego Fires San Diego Immigrant Rights Consortium, Justic e Overcoming Boundaries of San Diego County, and ACLU of San Diego & Imperial Counties Report. 4 Coming Out of the Dark: Emergency Preparedness Plan for Farmworkers in San Diego County Konane M. Martinez and Anna Hoff Arcela Nez Alvare Farmworker CA RE Coalition. Report. 5 Latino evacuees at stadium feel anxiety Twenty Acres of Thirsty Strawberries Leslie Ber estein. San Diego Union Tribune. Oct. 25, 2007. Retrieved 2/7/2013 0a91f5e9 9812 59b8 b3d6 ba0c1650b0b7.html 6 Immigration Enforcement in the United States: The Rise of a Formidable Machinery Migration Policy Institute. Report. 7 The Invisible Mexicans of Deer Canyon John Carlos Frey. Gatekeeper Productions. Documentary. 8 Organic farming vs. gnats: Battle looming J. Harry Jones. San Diego Union Tribune. Aug. 4, 2012. 9 Pesticide sprayed to control eye gnats Karen Pear lman. San Diego Union Tribune. July 16, 2012. 10 Gnat problem swarms around supervisors J. Harry Jones. San Diego Union Tribune. Nov. 9, 2011. 11 gnats Anne Krueger San Diego Union Tribune. April 22, 2010. 12 The Battle Of The Sunflower Maze Barbara Zaragoza. San Diego Reader. October 15, 2012. 13 Tijuana River Valley Regional Park: Area Specific Management Directives San Diego County Vector Control Program: Mosquito, Vector and Disease Control Assessment Coun ty of San Diego Parks and Recreation. 2007.

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571 Dissertation Document Title Source 14 Assessing the San Diego County Food System: Indicators for a More Food Secure Future SCI Co nsulting Group Engineers Report. FY 2010 2011. Sus an Ellsworth and Gail Feen stra. San Diego Food System Working Group. 2010. 15 Final Recommendations of the San Diego Urban Rural Roundtable San Diego Food System Wo rking Group and Roots of Change. Report. 2011. 16 The California farm labor force: Overview and trends from the N ational Agricultural Workers Survey Aguirre International Report. 2005. 17 San Diego County Demographics Profile by Region and Subregional Area County of San Diego, HHSA, Public Health Services, C ommunity Health Statistics Unit. 2011. 18 Michelle O bama visits farm Farmers not invited Chris Marrow YouTube Retrieved 7/2/2013. 19 First Lady Addresses Obesity In City Heights Speech Tom Fudge. KBPS. April 16, 2010. Retrieved 7/2/2013 lady addresses obesity city heights speech/ 20 First Lady Mich elle Obama Visits A San Diego Community Farm Retrieved 7/2/2013 lady michelle obama visits san diego community farm/ 21 County Gets $16 Million From CDC County of San Diego Press Release Retrieved 7/2/2013 2010/Mar/ 031910cdcgrant.html 22 Till the soil, nurture the up on city land Chet Barfield. San Diego Union Tribune. July 30, 2007. 23 Community Farming in San Diego Rebecca Tolin. San Diego City Beat. Feb. 3, 2009. 24 Urban Farming Gains Council Backing David Ogul. San Diego Union Tribune. Feb. 9, 2012. 25 Food, Land Use and Climate Change City of San Diego Environmental and Eco nomic Sustainability Task Force. PowerPoin. Feb. 2, 2011. 26 IRC Memorandum on Permitting Costs Presented to Land Use and Housing Sub Committee. Nov. 19, 2008.

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572 Dissertation Document Title Source 27 Community Garden Politics, San Diego style Parke Troutman. Retrieved 7/3/2013 y garden politics san diegostyle 28 Forced From the Farm that Fed Them Adrian Florido. Voice of San Diego. Nov. 9, 2010. 29 Red Tape Turns a Green Fa rm into an Eyesore Adrian Florido. Voice of San Diego. May 30, 2011. 30 San Diego Eases Graywater Rules Erik Anderson. KPBS. May 1, 2013. 31 Urban Agriculture Amendments to the Municipal Code, The the General Plan Rep ort to the Plannin g Commission, City of San Diego. San D iego City Council Press Release. Dec. 9, 2011 32 Master Gardener Association of San Diego County Community Garden List. 33 Master Gardener Association of San Diego County School Garden List. 34 County Launches Five Garden Education Centers County of San Diego. Press Release. May 16, 2011. 35 City Council Unanimously in Favor of Urban Agriculture Amendments Chad Deal. San Diego Reade r. January 31, 2012. 36 San Diego City Council Meetin g, January 31, 2012 Retrieved 7/8/2013 w_id=3&clip_id=5097 37 General Plan Urban Agriculture Amendments 2012. Resolut ion Number R 307262 Retrieved 7/9/2013 2/adoptedgenplanurbanag120301.pdf 38 Filner Announces Plans to C Diego Region Miria m Raftery. East County Magazine. March 13, 2012. 39 Politician Scorecard: Bob Filner. Food Policy Action, National Food Policy Scorecard Open Secrets: Bob Filner Top Contributors Retrieved 7/9/2013 =26774 Retrieved 7/9/2013 http://www.o cycle=Career&cid=N00007033&type=I

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573 Dissertation Document Title Source 40 California Federation of Find a Market Retrieved 7/10/2013 41 United States Department of Search Retrieved 7/10/2013 smarkets/default .aspx/ 42 San Diego County Certified Retrieved 7/10/2013 Markets.php#EC 43 SNAP/EBT at Your Farmers Market: Seven Steps to Success Nora Owens and Kelly Verel. Project for P ublic Spaces and Wholesome Wave. July 2010. 44 Tops Food Stamp Collection Rate Ruxandra Guidi. KPBS. August 10, 2011 45 Measuring County CalF resh Performance in 2010: The Program Access Index Tia Shimada. California Food Policy Advocates Revised March 2013. 46 Program Access Index 2011: Measuring CalFresh Utilization by County Tia Shimada. California Food Policy Advocates Feb. 2013. 47 Lost Dollars, Empty Plates: The Impact of CalFresh Participation on State and Local Economies Tia Shimada. California Food Policy Advocates Feb. 2013. 48 Food stamps e cards and dependency Ruben Navarrette Jr. San Diego Union Tribune. Feb. 28, 2010. 49 Bitter fruit of food stamp plan Ruben Navarret te Jr. Sarasota Herald Tribune. Jan. 17, 2002. 50 Neighborhood Analysis: Lincoln Park, CA CX3 County of San Diego Health & Human Services Agency. 51 CA WIC Farmers' Market List. California Depa rtment of Public Health Retrieved on 7/11/2013 ents/FarmersMarket/WEB WICAuthorizedMarkets.pdf 52 San Diego Food System Alliance Members Retrieved 7/12/2013 rs/ 53 Harvesting San Diego Retrieved 7/15/2013

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574 Dissertation Document Title Source 54 About Wild Willow Farm Retrieved 7/15/2013 http://wi 55 About the Gerson Institute Retrieved 7/15/2013 us/ 56 Ups and downs on the farm scene Keli Dailey. San Diego Uni on Tribune. October 22, 2010 57 La Milpa Organica: organic farms, politics, and potlucks Retrieved 8/5/2013 milpa org anica organic farms politics potlucks/ 58 San Diego Public Market KPBS YouTube Retrieved 8/15/2013

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575 APPENDIX C DEMOGRAPHICS CALIFORNIA WID E AND CITY WIDE FOR LOS ANGELES, OAKLAND, AND SAN DIEGO: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010 Table C 1. Demographics of Cities with California Comparison 1980 Demographics Los Angeles Oakland San Diego California Population 2,966,525 353,559 875,167 23,667,565 Rac e and Ethnicity White Black Hispanic (any race) Asian and Pacific Islander Native American Foreign born English only spoken at home (5 years or older) 48.3% 16.7% 27.5% 6.7% 0.5% 27.1% 64.9% 33.8% 48.0% 9.5% 8.6% 0.1% 12.5% 81.6% 6 9.3% 8.7% 14.8% 6.4% 0.8% 15.0% 79.4% 70.0% 7.6% 19.2% 5.3% 0.2% 15.1% 77.4% Income (household) Less than $5,000 $5,000 $7,499 $7,500 $9,999 $10,000 $14,999 $15,000 $19,999 $20,000 $24,999 $25,000 $34,999 $35,000 $49,999 $5 0,000 or more Median income 15.3% 8.6% 8.5% 15.6% 12.5% 10.2% 13.1% 8.8% 7.2% $15,735 19.8% 9.1% 9.1% 15.1% 12.7% 10.1% 12.4% 7.5% 4.2% $13,780 12.3% 8.2% 8.6% 16.5% 14.1% 11.5% 14.7% 8.9% 5.2% $16,408 11.5% 7.2% 7.6% 14.8% 13.3% 12.1% 16.5% 10. 7% 6.3% $18,243 Individuals below poverty level (by income) Homeownership rate Bachelor's degree or higher 16.4% 46.7% 19.8% 18.5% 43.0% 21.8% 12.4% 45.4% 24.0% 11.4% 55.9% 19.6% Source: United States Census Bureau.

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576 Table C 2. Dem ographics of Cities with California Comparison 1990 Demographics Los Angeles Oakland San Diego California Population 3,485,398 372,242 1,110,549 29,760,021 Race and Ethnicity White Black Hispanic (any race) Asian Pacific Islander Nati ve American Foreign born English only spoken at home 37.0% 13.9% 39.0% 9.6% 0.2% 0.4% 38.4% 50.1% 28.0% 43.9% 13.0% 14.5% 0.4% 0.6% 19.8% 72.7% 58.1% 9.3% 20.0% 11.2% 0.6% 0.7% 20.9% 70.8% 57.4% 7.4% 25.4% 9.2% 0.3% 0.8% 21.7% 68.5% Income (household) Less than $10,000 $10,000 $14,999 $15,000 $24,999 $25,000 $34,999 $35,000 $49,999 $50,000 $74,999 $75,000 $99,999 $100,000 or more Median Income 15.6% 8.7% 16.7% 14.5% 15.7% 14.6% 6.3% 8.0% $30,925 19.2% 9.5% 17. 5% 15.1% 15.0% 13.1% 5.4% 5.2% $27,095 11.7% 7.8% 16.6% 15.6% 18.3% 17.4% 6.7% 5.9% $33,686 11.5% 7.4% 15.2% 14.7% 18.2% 18.4% 7.6% 7.1% $35,798 Individuals below poverty level (by income) Homeownership rate Bachelor's degree or higher 18.9% 39.0% 23.0% 18.8% 43.0% 27.2% 13.4% 54.0% 29.8% 12.5% 53.8% 23.4% Source: United States Census Bureau

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577 Table C 3. Demographics of Cities with California Comparison 2000 Demographics Los Angeles Oakland San Diego California Population 3,694,757 399,477 1,222,851 33,871,147 Race and Ethnicity White Black Hispanic or Latino Asian Pacific Islander (all) Native American Foreign born English only spoken at home 31.4% 9.5% 46.5% 11.4% 0.2% 0.8% 40.9% 42.2% 24.5% 35.7% 21.9% 16.6% 0.5% 0.7% 26.6% 63.2% 49.0% 8.0% 25% 14% 0.1% 1.0% 25.7% 65% 49.0% 6.7% 32.0% 10.9% 0.3% 1.0% 26.2% 60.5% Income (household) Less than $10,000 $10,000 $14,999 $15,000 $24,999 $25,000 $34,999 $35,000 $49,999 $50,000 $74,999 $75,000 $99,999 $100,000 $149,999 $150,000 or more Median Income 13.3% 7.5% 14.3% 12.8% 14.6% 15.5% 8.4% 7.4% 6.2% $36,687 13.2% 6.6% 12.3% 12.2% 15.2% 16.8% 9.3% 8.6% 5.9% $40,055 8.3% 5.7% 12.1% 12.1% 15.7% 19.3% 11.2 % 9.6% 6.0% $47,451 8.4% 5.6% 11.5% 11.4% 15.2% 19.1% 11.5% 10.4% 6.9% $47,493 Persons below poverty level (by income) Homeownership rate Bachelor's degree or higher 22.1% 38.6% 25.5% 19.4% 41.4% 30.9% 14.6% 49.5% 35.0% 14.2% 56.9% 26.6 % Source: United States Census Bureau, Census 2000.

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578 Table C 4. Demographics of Cities with California Comparison 2010 Demographics Los Angeles Oakland San Diego California Population (2010) 3,792,627 390,719 1,301,621 37,253,956 Race and Ethn icity (2010) White Black Hispanic or Latino Asian Pacific Islander (all) Native American Foreign born English only spoken at home 28.0% 8.5% 47.9% 13.9% 0.2% 0.7% 39.4% 40.1% 25.9% 28.0% 25.4% 16.8% 0.6% 0.8% 27.5% 60.4% 45.1 % 6.7% 28.8% 15.9% 0.5% 0.6% 25.8% 61.3% 40.1% 6.2% 37.6% 13.0% 0.4% 1.0% 27.2% 56.8% Income (household) Less than $10,000 $10,000 $14,999 $15,000 $24,999 $25,000 $34,999 $35,000 $49,999 $50,000 $74,999 $75,000 $99,999 $100,00 0 $149,999 $150,000 or more Median Household Income 7.7% 6.9% 11.9% 10.7% 13.4% 16.8% 10.5% 11.4% 10.7% $50,028 8.7% 7.8% 11.6% 9.8% 12.4% 16.2% 10.5% 11.9% 11.2% $51,144 5.7% 4.8% 8.7% 8.5% 12.8% 17.2% 13.7% 15.3% 13.3% $63,739 5.3% 5.1% 9.5 % 9.1% 12.7% 17.6% 12.8% 15.0% 12.9% $61,632 Persons below poverty level (by income) Homeownership rate higher 20.2% 38.4% 30.5% 19.6% 41.9% 37.2% 14.6% 49.2% 41.0% 14.4% 56.7% 30.2% Source: United States Census Burea u, 2007 2011 American Community Survey 5 Year the 2010 United States Census.

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579 APPENDIX D TABLES FOR MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME AND INDIVIDUAL POVERY LEVELS OVER TIME BY CITY WITH RACIAL BREAKDOWN White Bla ck Hispanic or Latino Asian Native American California 1980 1990 2000 2010 $50,729 $33,139 $40,147 $54,842 $39,231 $62,937 $43,509 $47,063 $66,349 $46,410 $64,383 $44,563 $46,260 $69,139 $49,086 $63,762 $44,534 $47,180 $74,195 $48,522 Los Angeles 1980 1990 2000 2010 $47,451 $28,463 $33,028 $45,402 $34,820 $60,696 $35,624 $ 39,036 $53,522 $46,380 $55,048 $34,872 $36,417 $47,020 $42,266 $57,465 $35,506 $38,617 $53,751 $46,663 Oakland 1980 1990 2000 2010 $41,949 $30,474 $35,788 $ 45,794 $32,539 $57,763 $36,322 $42,787 $42,731 $47,451 $66,818 $39,631 $49,105 $44,054 $46,370 $68,918 $34,255 $43,445 $44,614 $42,244 San Diego 1980 1990 2000 2 010 $45,257 $31,477 $35,386 $45,106 $34,333 $60,363 $39,703 $40,741 $60,308 $43,909 $62,634 $43,406 $39,283 $64,013 $47,253 $64,712 $42,786 $43,267 $75,847 $49,784 Source: US Census Bureau for 1980 2000; 2007 2011 American Community Survey 5 Ye ar Estimates for 2010. All incomes are in 2010 dollars using the Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator.

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580 White Black Hispanic or Latino Asian Native American California 1980 1990 2000 2010 8.9% 22.5% 19.1% 12.4% 17.9% 9.1% 21.1% 21.6% 14.3% 18.6% 10.8% 22.0% 22.1% 12.7% 18.8% 12.0% 20.1% 19.9% 10.3% 18.3% Los Angeles 1980 1990 2000 2010 11.5% 26.2% 24.2% 31.2% 19.4% 13.1% 25.3% 28.2% 14.8% 20.1% 17.3% 27.6% 29.6% 16.8% 23.8% 16.0% 24.9% 25.4% 13.2% 18.8% Oakland 1980 1990 2000 2010 10.4% 24.9% 20.3% 16.2% 20.1% 9.0% 23.9% 21.7% 22.8% 21.1% 12.0% 24.4% 21.7% 21.3% 17.4% 12.6% 23.1% 23.7% 18.3% 21.7% San Diego 1980 1990 2000 2010 9.7% 2 0.9% 21.6% 16.7% 18.0% 9.3% 23.1% 25.6% 14.4% 16.0% 11.1% 21.0% 26.1% 12.9% 18.2% 13.0% 20.9% 21.9% 11.6% 17.5% Source: US Census Bureau for 1980 2000; 2007 2011 American Community Survey 5 Year Estimates for 2010. and is included for 1980 and 1990, excluded from 2000 and

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581 APPENDIX E CHANGING RACIAL COMPOSITION BETWE EN 1980 AND 2010 IN SELECTED LOCATIONS 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1980 1990 2000 2010 California Racial Composition Change Over Time White Black Hispanic or Latino Asian and Pacific Islander Native American 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1980 1990 2000 2010 Los Angeles Racial Composition Change Over Time White Black Hispanic or Latino Asian and Pacific Islander Native American

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582 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1980 1990 2000 2010 Oakland Racial Composition Change Over Time White Black Hispanic or Latino Asian and Pacific Islander Native American 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1980 1990 2000 2010 San Diego Racial Composition Change Over Time White Black Hispanic or Latino Asian or Pacific Islander Native American

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584 Ag riculture and Human Values 17(3): 221 232. International Journal of Sociology of Food and Agriculture 15(1): 1 23. Allen Patricia and Alice Brook Wilson. 20 food inequalities: globalization and Development 51(4): 534 540. Multi Sociological Theor y 26(1):74 99. Aronowitz, Stanley. 2003. How Class Works: Power and Social Movement New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. WorkingUSA 8(3): 271 291. Ataide, Randy M. 2013. k Population: Profile, Analysis, and Solutions San Diego, CA: The Jacobs & Cushman San Diego Food Bank. Change. The Anti The American Prospect October, 22 2004. The Professional Geographer 61(2): 164 186. Bassford, Nicky, Lark Galloway Gilliam, Gwendolyn Flynn and CHC Food Resource Development Workgroup. 2010. Food Desert to Food Oasis: Promoting Grocery Store Development in South Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA: Community Health Councils, Inc. Belasco, Warren. 1989. Appetite for Change: H ow the Counterculture Took on the Food Industry, 1966 88 New York, NY: Pantheon. Bello, Walden. 2009. The Food Wars London, UK: Verso. Annu al Review of Sociology 26: 611 639. NYU Law Review. 58: 1157 1230.

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585 Bhaskar, Roy. 2008. Dialectic: The Pulse of Freedom 2nd ed. New York, NY: Routledge. Biles, James J. 2008. Geographische Rundschau International Edition 4(2): 44 49. te Blog. Accessed 10/25/2013. exhibit wal mart wealth american/ Blomley, Nicholas K. 2004. Unsettling the city: Urban land and the pol itics of property New York, NY: Routledge. Journal of San Diego History 45(2). technologies, pro Antipode 37(3): 497 514. Bonilla American Sociological Review 62(3): 465 480. er view of the politics Initiatives in Critical Agrarian Studies Working Paper Series systems in planning re Journal of Planning Education and Research 26(2): 195 207. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1999. Acts of Resistance: Against the Tyranny of the Market New York NY : The New Press. E Antipode 34(3): 349 379. Brewer, Richard. 2004. Conservancy: The land trust movement in America Hanover, NH: Dartmouth College Press. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy 15(1): 49 94. Cultivating Food Justice, Race, Class, and Sustainability by Alison Hope Alkon and Julian Agyeman (e ds ). P p. 121 46. Cambridge MA : MIT Press Brulle, Robert J. 2000. Agency, Democracy, and Nature: The U.S. Environmental Movement From a Critical Theory Perspective Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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606 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Joshua Sbicca received his Bachelors from Santa Clara University in Sociology and Political Sci ence in 2005. For two years he worked as a Canvass Director for Grassroots Campaigns, where he worked with organizatio ns such as Environmental Action and the American C ivil Liberties Union. Afterwards he traveled for six months with his future wife around New Zealand, and then came home to California where they were married the following year In 2008, he entered the Sociology graduate program at the University of Flori da where he received his Master of Arts in 2010 and his Doctor of Philosophy in 2014. He is now an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at Colorad o State University