Weapons and Refuse as Media

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Weapons and Refuse as Media The Potent Politics of Recycling in Contemporary Mozambican Urban Arts
Schwartzott, Amy
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[Gainesville, Fla.]
University of Florida
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1 online resource (370 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
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University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Art History
Art and Art History
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Committee Co-Chair:
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Subjects / Keywords:
African art ( jstor )
Art exhibitions ( jstor )
Art museums ( jstor )
Modern art ( jstor )
Peace ( jstor )
Recyclable materials ( jstor )
Recycling ( jstor )
Sculpture ( jstor )
War ( jstor )
Weapons ( jstor )
Art and Art History -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
artists -- mozambican
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Art History thesis, Ph.D.


My dissertation explores contemporary Mozambican urban artists who use recycled materials in their art. This investigation is founded on interrelated themes that include object materiality, recycling, art making in urban Africa, and post-conflict resolution. The transformation of recycled materials into art reflects a nexus of environmental, economic, and cultural issues I investigate to determine how and why artists utilize recyclia to create distinctly Mozambican art.  Many creative, environmental, and financial factors, including the impact of past wars, the development of the Transforming Arms into Plowshares (TAE) project, and poverty illustrate how recyclia provides an advantageous art medium. Each of the artists addressed in this analysis comes from vastly different economic, social, and educational backgrounds, yet all use recycled materials. These artists utilize natural and urban detritus to produce art, continuing recycling traditions, which are pervasive throughout Africa. This investigation addresses these artists and their varied motivations as I definewidespread recycling use by artists in urban Mozambique. ( en )
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2014.
Co-adviser: POYNOR,ROBIN E.
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by Amy Schwartzott.

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Copyright Schwartzott, Amy. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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907379474 ( OCLC )
LD1780 2014 ( lcc )


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2014 Amy Schwartzott


To Mom and Pop Thank you!


4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many individuals and institutions have made this dissertation possible from my earliest fieldwork in Africa in 2007 to the completion of this document in 2013. F irst and foremost I thank my dissertation advisor, Victoria Rovine. Vicki has seen this project through since its nascency and has provided ind efatigable support, necessary critical comments, and advice. Robin Po ynor has been equally indispensi ble in his constant wi llingness to provide wisdom and astute commentary at all stages of my research and writing process Many thanks also to my committee members Fiona McLaughlin and Guolang Lai who offered support and guidance along the way. Fiona assi sted my first African journey to Dakar unexpectedly learned how contemporary Chinese art would make an impact o n my unde rstanding of African art. I am grateful for institutional support that has provided me with funding allowing me to travel and complete fieldwork research in Dakar, South Africa, London, and Mozambique. The U.S. Department of Education provided funding for my lengthiest stay in Mozambiq ue (2010 2011) with a Fulbright Hays DDRA G rant. The University of Florida has generously provided several travel grants that have facilitated research trips to Mozambique (2008 2010) through the Center of African Studi es, wh ere I received support an d encouragement from Leo Villal n and Todd Leedy. Also at the University of Florida I must thank others for thei r support and advice: Dan Rebou ssin, Laura Robertson, and my colleagues Jordan Fenton and Genia Martinez. Beyond Florid a I thank C urator of African Art at the British Museum, C hris Spring who kindly allowed me to participate in the progression of his commission of TAE artworks in England and Maputo. Also, Stephanie Danker at Coastal Carolina University, who agreed to loo k at early drafts and offer suggestions as I completed the writing process ; and Margaret Sharkof fmadrid in Washington D.C. for her help with logistics and continuing robust support of my research


5 During time spent in Mozambique I have many individuals an d institutions to thank for their continuing kind ness and g enerosity. I am grateful my research has been supported through affiliations to the National Museum of Mozambique/ Museu Nacional da Mocambique (Julieta Massimbe) ; Transforming Arms into Plowshare s/ Transformao de Armas em Enxadas (T AE ) project (Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane, Boaventura Zita, Nicolau Lus) ; Fora Moambicana para Investigao de Crimes e Reinsero Social / Mozambican Force for Crime Investigation and Social Reinsertion (FOMICRES) projec t (Albino Forquilha); Hulene Dump (Amerigo); A Associao Ncleo de Arte / Association of the Nuc leus of Art ( Arturo Vincente (Nongwhenye), and many of the artist members); Movimento de Arte Contempornea de Moambique/ Contemporary Art Movement of Mozambiq ue (MUVART ) (Pompilio Hilrio (Gemuce) Jorge Dias; and many others. I heartily thank my assis tant, Alcides Goba, who proved a knowledgeable authority and served as a translator, tour guide, photographer, advisor, and friend. The artists include d here re present a small number of the many artists who have generously spent time with me answering questions, providing source material s and explaining and sharing their love of art with me. Although there are t oo many overall to mention here I hope they are a ware of my indebtedness and gratitude to them. I would like to especially thank p articular artists who exceeded my expectations in their generosity of time, understanding and unwavering patience They include Cristvo Estevo Canhavato (Kester), Faizal O mar (Matequenha), Moiss Ernesto Matsinhe Mafuiane (Butcheca) Domingo s W. Comiche Mabongo (Domingos), and Jorge Jos Munguambe ( Makolwa ) Finally, thank you to my Mozambican family the Mung uambe F amily: for their tireless supp ort, advice, companionship, kindness and sense s of humor throughout my project. To Rosa, Zit h o, and Mak obrigado kani mambo


6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 16 Recycling ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 17 Object Materiality ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 19 Theoretical Frames ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 20 Assemblages and Recycling: linking past and present ................................ ........................... 23 Overview: History of Mozambique ................................ ................................ ........................ 27 Research Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 32 Chapter Organization and Summaries ................................ ................................ .................... 34 2 CONCEPTUAL, TEMPORAL, AND TANGIBLE: DISCURSIVE SPACES OF CONTEMPORARY ART IN MAPUTO ................................ ................................ ............... 43 Conceptual: MUVART ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 47 Temporal: TDM Bienal ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 55 Tangible: Ncleo de Arte ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 62 Tangible: Kulungwana ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 67 Conceptual, Temporal, and Tangibl e: MUVART, TDM Bienal A Associao Ncleo de Arte, and Associao Kulungwana ................................ ................................ ..................... 72 3 R INTO ART ..... 95 Theoretical Framework/Deconstructing Weapons of War ................................ ..................... 96 History of TAE ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 98 TAE Donors: Providing Financial and Pro duct Support ................................ ...................... 103 TAE Informants: Individual Narratives ................................ ................................ ................ 109 TA E Weapons Destruction ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 113 TAE Arts ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 116 Projects/Group Exhibitions ................................ ................................ ........................... 118 Earliest TAE Artists: 1997 1998 ................................ ................................ ................... 124 TAE Artists: 2000 2005 ................................ ................................ ................................ 128 TAE Artists: 2010 2013 ................................ ................................ ................................ 130 TAE Patrons: Financial Support through Sales ................................ ................................ .... 131 The Futur e of TAE ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 134 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 135


7 4 RECYCLED WOOD AND METAL AS MEDIA ................................ ............................... 176 Recycled Metals ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 176 ................................ ................................ ............. 177 ................................ ............................. 183 Recycled Metals and Wood ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 188 I give life to an object ................................ ................ 188 Alexandria: ............ 193 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 198 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 202 5 RECYCLED FABRIC AND PAPER AS MEDIA ................................ .............................. 242 Recycled Fabric ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 242 capulana ................................ ............. 246 Ncl eo ............ 248 ........................... 250 Recycled Paper ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 253 .......... 254 ................................ .................. 257 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 260 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 263 6 RECYCLED MATERIALS: A CASE STUDY OF TWO ARTISTS ................................ 296 Domin ................................ ... 298 Compradores Ambulante de Ferro/Itinerant Iron Buyers. mixed media 2008 ............. 300 Sinistro /Sinister. mixed media, 2009 ................................ ................................ ............. 304 ..................... 308 Rua Passada / Past Street mixed media, 2011 ................................ ............................... 312 Xibalakatsi /Slingshot mixed media, 2011 ................................ ................................ .... 314 Malabarista/Juggler the Man who rides the Bicycle mixed media, 2011 ................. 317 Untitled Painting 1. oil and acrylic on canvas, 2011 ................................ ..................... 319 S atellite. mixed media, 2011 ................................ ................................ ......................... 320 Conclusion: Domingos and Butcheca ................................ ................................ ................... 321 7 WELDING AND UNRAVELING TRANSFORMING OLD INTO NEW: A CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 342 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 351 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 370


8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure P age 1 1 Recicla E mployees weighing plastic for a customer, Maputo, 2011. ............................... 37 1 2 Recicla E mployee cutting down plastic for crushing machine, Maputo, 2010 ............... 38 1 3 AMOR E mployee dropping recyclables off at Eco Point, Maputo, 2011. ....................... 39 1 4 Hulene Dump, Maputo, November 2011. ................................ ................................ ......... 40 1 5 Malangatana Valente Ngwenya (Malangatana) in his home in Maputo (Aeroporto), August 2009. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 41 1 6 Reinata Sadimba at her work shop at the Anthropological Museum, Maputo, 2011. ....... 42 2 1 Faizal Omar (Matequenha). Estudo Acstico do Convencional/Tradicional(Acoustic Study of Conventional/Traditional ), mixed media, 2004. ................................ ................. 77 2 2 Matequenha. Detail. Estudo Acstico do Convencional/Tradicional (Acoustic Study of Conventional/Traditional ), mixed media, 2004. ................................ .......................... 78 2 3 Jorge Dias. Transparncia: Processos criativos e devaneios ( Transparency: Creative Processes and Daydreams ), mixed media installation at Instituto Cames (Camoes Institute), Maputo, 2010. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 79 2 4 Money Crunch mixed media performance/installation in Huntly, Scotland, December 2009. ................................ ........ 80 2 5 Gem Money Crunch in Huntly, Scotland, mixed media performance/installation, December 2009. ................................ .................. 81 2 6 View in Gallery 1, TDM Bienal 2011, National Muse um Maputo ................................ 82 2 7 Awards Ceremony, TDM Bienal 2011, National Museum Maputo ................................ 83 2 8 Domingos W. Comiche Mabongo (Domingos). Van dalizadores de cabos de fibra ptica e mscara do vigilante /Vandals of Fiber Optic wire and the Masks of the Vigilant mixed media, 2011. ................................ ................................ ............................ 84 2 9 Exterior view, A Rua de Argelia Maputo. ........................... 85 2 10 Artis ts in outdoor courtyard area, A ................................ ..... 86 2 11 Artists Matswa Vilancu los (Ana) and Mussagy Narane Talaquichand (Falco) in workshop area, A ................................ ................................ .... 87


9 2 12 Artists and students who par tic ipated in Recycling Workshop, de A rte October 2010. ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 88 2 13 Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane and TAE National Coordinator Boaventura Zita attending exhibition, Fale, No Temas, Deus tem muito gen nesta cidade, Fale de Paz (Speak, A October 2010. ................................ ................................ ...... 89 2 14 Associao Kulungwana CFM Railroad Station, Maputo. ................................ .............. 90 2 15 Associao Ncleo de Arte Artist Jorge Jose' Munguambe (Makolwa) working on a submission for Kulungwana's 2012 Coleco Crescente Exhibition. ............................... 91 2 16 Exhibition Opening Reception for Kulungwana's Coleco Crescente E xhibition, Kulungwana Gallery, Maputo, 2011. ................................ ................................ ................ 92 2 17 Exhibition view, Kulungwana's Coleco Crescente E xhibition Ku lungwana Gallery, Maputo, 2011. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 93 2 18 Performance, Parnasianos E xhibition Opening Reception, Kulungwana Gallery Maputo October 2011 . ................................ ................................ ..................... 94 3 1 Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane, President and Founder of TAE. ................................ ..... 145 3 2 TAE personnel and community members in Gorongosa, October 2010. ........................ 146 3 3 W ea pons retrieved in Gorongosa, October 2010. ................................ ........................... 147 3 4 constructed of cement received as an incentive for weapons exchange. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 148 3 5 Bags of cement received by Mario as incentives for weapons exchange. ...................... 149 3 6 Weapons to be exchanged to TAE by Informant (Paulinho), January 2011. .................. 150 3 7 Casa do Paz/House of Peace Matendene ................................ ................................ ....... 151 3 8 Ceremonies in conjunction with TAE w eapons destr uction, Moamba, August 2009. ... 152 3 9 Previous hiding place of w eapons cache discovered in Moamba, August 2009. .......... 153 3 10 TAE D estructionist Afonso cutting weapons to prevent future use at CCM, Maputo, November 2010. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 154 3 11 TAE weapons container, CCM He adquarters, Maputo ................................ ................... 155 3 12 Current Moza mbican Flag. ................................ ................................ .............................. 156


10 3 13 Fiel dos Santos, Cristvo Estevo Canhavato (Kester), Adelino Serafim Mathe (Mathe), and Hilari Nhatugueja. Tree of Life mixed media (recycled weapons, metal), 2005. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 157 3 14 Trunk d etail with Monkey Tree of Life mixed media (recycled weapons, metal), 2005. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 158 3 15 Branches with Leaves d etail, Tree of Life, mixed media (recycled weapons, metal), 2005. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 159 3 16 Kester Throne of Weapons mixed media (recycled weapons, metal), 2001. ................. 160 3 17 Kester, O Abrao da Paz/Embrace of Peace, mixed media (recycled weapons), 2010 161 3 18 TAE artists working at CCM in prepa ration for TAE/ Ncleo de Arte E xhibition, Fale, no temas, Deus tem muita gente nesta cidade; fale de Paz/Speak, no fear, God has many people in this city; speak the peace October 2010. ................................ ....... 162 3 19 Fiel dos Santos. O mesangeiro / The Messenger mixed media (recycled weapons), 2010. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 163 3 20 Kester. A mulher e a vida/the woman and the life, mixed media (recycled weapons), 2011. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 164 3 21 Incio Matsine. Chair mixed media (recycled we apons), CCM, Maputo, c. 1997. ...... 165 3 22 Kester, Site of intended public monume nt O Pombo da Paz/The Dove of Peace in ... 1 6 166 3 23 Kester. O Pombo da Paz/The Dove of Peace in construction, August 2009. ................ 167 3 24 Kester. Map of Mozambique, with Alcides Goba, mixed media (recycled weapons), 2009. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 168 3 25 Kester with his model for O Pombo da Paz/The Dove of Peace mixed media (metal), 2008. ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 169 3 26 Fiel dos Santos. Animal mixed media (recycled weapons), 2011. ................................ 170 3 27 Mak olwa. Olhando para a frente em direo paz, lembrando o passado/Looking Forward Towards Peace by Remembering the Past mixed media (recycled weapons), October 2011. ................................ ................................ ................................ 171 3 28 Makolwa. Detail. Olhando para a frente em direo paz, lembrando o passado/ Looking Forward Towards Peace by Remembering the Past. mixed media (recycled weapons), October 2011. ................................ ................................ ................................ 172 3 29 S ilverio Salvador Sit oe (Sitoe) c reating Dou vos a minha Paz/I Give my Peace. m ixed media (recycled weapons, charcoal on paper), October 2010. ............................ 173


11 3 30 Sitoe. Dou vos a minha Paz/I Give my Peac e. (recycled weapon s, charcoal on paper), October 2010. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 174 3 3 1 Nilton Piore da Trindade (Trindade). Percussionista/Percussionist. mixed media (recycled weapons), October 2011. ................................ ................................ ................. 175 4 1 t Xipamanine. Maputo, 2011 ................................ ............................. 206 4 2 Zeferino. Metal faces created from recycled cookware, 2011. ................................ ....... 207 4 3 Zeferino with Elephant i n Xipamanine. Maputo, 2011 208 4 4 Zeferin o. Elephant created from teapot, 2011. ................................ ............................... 209 4 5 Zeferino art projects: Man in Boat, and cookware with face s, 2011. ............................. 210 4 6 Mathe. Monumento Esperana /Hope Monument bronze, 2003. ................................ .. 211 4 7 Mathe at his studio in Matola with casts for S amora Machel sculptures, 2008. ............. 212 4 8 Mathe wo rking on his Moving Sculptures, 2011. ................................ ........................... 213 4 9 Mathe. Moving Sculpture No. 1. r ecycled metal materials, 2011. ................................ ... 214 4 10 Mathe. Moving Sculpture No. 2. r ecycled metal materials 2011. ................................ .. 215 4 11 Mathe. Moving Sculptur e No. 3. r ecycled metal materials, 2011. ................................ .. 216 4 12 Nelson Augusto Carlos Ferreira (Pekiw a). Sem Titulo/Untitled canoe, recycled metal hardware, 2009 10. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 217 4 13 Pekiwa. Face and Mouth d etail. Sem Titulo/Untitled canoe, recycled metal hardware, 2009 10. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 218 4 14 Pekiwa. Metal Bracket d etail. Sem Titulo/Untitled canoe, recycled metal hardware, 2009 10. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 219 4 15 Pekiwa. Interior Bracing d etail. Sem Tit ulo/Untitled canoe, recycled metal hardware, 2009 10. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 220 4 16 Pekiwa. Frontal view. Sem Titulo/Untitled canoe, paint remnants, c. 2008 a ............... 221 4 17 Pekiwa. Profile view. Sem Titulo/Untitled boat, paint remnants, c. 2008 a ................... 222 4 18 Pekiwa. Sem Titulo/Untitled deteriorated canoe, paint remnants, c. 2008 b ................. 223 4 19 Pekiwa. O Homem Fumando um Cachimbo/The Man Smoking a Pipe, wooden door, assorted metal, 2009. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 224


12 4 20 Pekiwa. Metalwork d eta il. O Homem Fumando um Cachimbo/The Man Smoking a Pipe, wooden door, assorted metal, 2009. ................................ ................................ ...... 225 4 21 Graffiti on wood d etail. O Homem Fumando um Cachimbo/The Man Smoking a Pipe, wooden door, a ssorted metal, 2009. ................................ ................................ ...... 226 4 22 ................................ .......... 227 4 23 rking si ................................ ...... 228 4 24 Alexandria Homem com uma Gravata/Man with a Tie, wood, recycled metal 2011 .. 2 29 4 2 5 Alexandria D etail. Man with a Tie, wood, recycled metal 2011 ................................ .. 230 4 26 Alexandria Eve, wood and recycled metal, 2011. ................................ .......................... 231 4 27 Alexandria Sem Titulo/Untitled, wood, recycled metal, 2009 2011. ............................. 232 4 28 Alexandria View of early construction of Sem Titulo/Untitled, wood, recycled metal 2009 2011. ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 233 4 29 Alexandria, his daughter, and Carla Mamade, BCI Administrator. ................................ 234 4 30 Makolwa. wooden sculptures left outside for the elements, his home, Matola. ............. 235 4 31 Makolwa Vida Nova/New Life, wood n.d. ................................ ................................ ..... 236 4 32 Makolwa. Mulher Crusificada/Crucified Woman, sandalwoo d, wire, recycled nails, and paste, 1998. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 237 4 33 a futura prostitute/the future prostitute, wood, mixed media, n.d. ................................ 238 4 34 Makolwa. Cadeira/Chair, mixed recycled wood, wire, and nails, 2007. ........................ 239 4 35 Makolwa. as Chaves/The Keys, recycled wood, metal, nails, keys, 2011 ...................... 240 4 36 Makolwa. Untitled (Mozambikes). recycled bicycle, paint, 2013. ................................ 241 5 1 Ana creating webs at A Associao Ncleo de Arte recycling workshop, October 2010. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 267 5 2 Student working on Mannequin A Associao Ncleo de Arte Recycling Workshop, Oct. 2010. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 268 5 3 s Web. A Associao Ncleo de Arte RecyclingWorkshop, October 2010. ................................ ................................ ................ 269 5 4 Matswa Vilankulos (Ana), May 2011. ................................ ................................ ............ 270


13 5 5 Ana. Unr aveled Canvas Painting, oil, acrylic/canvas, May 2011. ................................ 271 5 6 Ana. Capulana Painting Untitled oil, acrylic/canvas, May 2011. ................................ 272 5 7 Capulana Paintings in group oil, acrylic/canvas, May 2011. ................................ ........ 273 5 8 Joo. Book bag created from discarded canvases. paint/canvas, December 2010. ........ 274 5 9 Joo. Jeans Painting with gesso preparation December 2010. ................................ ...... 275 5 10 Joo Jeans Painting. acrylic, jeans, canvas, December 2010. ................................ ....... 276 5 11 Joo. Detail. Jeans Painting. acrylic, jeans, canvas, December 2010. ........................... 277 5 12 Joo. Jeans Painting (Second Style) acrylic, jeans, canvas, De cember 2010. .............. 278 5 13 Falco. Sem Titulo/Untitled. acrylic/canvas, 2013. ................................ ......................... 279 5 14 Falco. Dog. capulanas and wire, 2010. ................................ ................................ ......... 280 5 15 Falco. Sem Titulo/Untitled. c apulanas and wire, 2011. ................................ ................ 281 5 16 Bono modeling a paper mache form at his home in Zimpeto, F ebruary 2011. ............... 282 5 17 Bono with a pap er mache form with added teapot, 2011 ................................ ............... 283 5 18 Bono. Sacrifcio do Inocente Urbano/The Sa crifice of the Urban Innocent acrylic, newspaper/canvas, 2008. ................................ ................................ ................................ 284 5 19 Bono. Detail. Sacrifcio do Inocente Urbano/The Sacrifice of the Urban Innocent acrylic, newspaper/canvas, 2008. ................................ ................................ .................... 285 5 20 ................................ ............ 286 5 21 Calisto Cardboard Printmaking Matrix and Print. Evit e HIV SIDA/Avoid HIV AIDS, 1999. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 287 5 22 Calisto. Cardboard Printmaking Matrix with Sand, n.d. ................................ .................. 288 5 23 Calisto Social Comment ary on Alcohol and Aids, ink, paint/paper, n.d. ........................ 289 5 24 Calisto. Social Commentary on Public Urination, ink/paper, n.d. ................................ .. 290 5 2 5 Pile of recycled materials (art tools) ome. ................... 291 5 26 Carmen. Guitar mixed recycled paper materials. n.d. ................................ .................... 292 5 27 Carmen. Sem Titulo/Untitled mixed recycled paper materials, n.d. ............................... 293


14 5 28 Carmen with Untitled Dress Piece No. 1 recycled fabric, n.d. ................................ ...... 294 5 29 Carmen. Untitled Dress Piece No. 2 recycled fabric, n.d. ................................ .............. 295 6 1 Domingos Compradores Ambulante de Ferro/Itinerant Iron Buyers mixed media on canvas, 2 008. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 325 6 2 Domingos. Sinistro/Sinister mixed media on canvas, 2009. ................................ .......... 326 6 3 Domingos. Materials for anticipated artworks M anifestao/Demonstrations The Bread Riot s. mixed media. unfinished. ................................ ................................ ........... 327 6 4 Domingos. Closer view of m aterials for anticipated artworks Manifestao/Demonstrations The Bread Riot s. mixed m edia. unfinished. ................ 328 6 5 Butcheca. Door mixed media. n.d. ................................ ................................ ................ 329 6 6 View 1: Butcheca working on Rua Passada/Past Street, m ixed media. 2011. .............. 330 6 7 View 2: Butcheca working on Rua Passada/Past Street m ixed media. 2011. ................ 331 6 8 Butcheca. Xibalakatsi/Slin gshot. work in progress. mixed media, 2011. ........................ 332 6 9 Butcheca. Detail. Xibalakatsi/Slingshot work in progress. mixed media, 2011. ........... 333 6 10 Butcheca. View of Xibalakatsi/Slingshot at CCFM exhibit mixed media, 2011. .......... 334 6 11 Butcheca Malabarista/Juggler the Man who rides the Bicycle mixed media, 2011. 335 6 12 Butcheca. Detail of face. Malabarista/Juggler the Man who rides the Bicycle mixed media, 2011. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 336 6 13 Butcheca. Detail of bot tlecap construction. Malabarista/Juggler the Man who rides the Bicycle. mixed media, 2011. ................................ ................................ ..................... 337 6 14 Butcheca. View of works in situ: Malabarista in foreground and Xibalakatsi in the backgro und, Ruinas do Passado/Past Ruins Exhibition, CCFM, August 2011. ............ 338 6 15 Butcheca Untitled 2 oil and acrylic/canvas. 2011. ................................ ........................ 339 6 16 Butcheca. Satellite mixed media, 2011. ................................ ................................ ......... 340 6 17 Butcheca with his artwork Satellite mixed media, 2011. ................................ ............... 341 7 1 Mako lwa. o medo de voltar a guerra/the fear of returning to war mixed recycled materials, 2013. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 349 7 2 Burned bus, photograph sent by Domingos, photographer unknown, November, 2013. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 350


15 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy WEAPONS AND REFUSE AS MEDIA : THE POTENT POLIT ICS OF RECYCLING IN CONTEMPORARY MOZAMBICAN URBAN ARTS By Amy Schwartzott May 2014 Chair: Victoria L. Rovine Major: Art History My dissertation explores contemporary Mozambican urban artists who use recycle d materials in their art This investigati on is founded on interrelated themes that include object materiality, recycling, art making in urban Africa, and post conflict resolution The transformation of recycled materials into art reflects a nexus of environmental, economic, and cultural issues I investigate to determine how and why artists utilize recyclia to c reate distinctly Mozambican art Many creative, environmental, and financial factors, including the impact of past wars, the development of the Transforming Arms into Plowshares/Transforma o de Armas em Enxadas (T AE ) project, and poverty illustrate how recyclia provides an advantageous art medium. Each of the artists addressed in this analysis comes from vastly different economic, social, and educational backgrounds, yet all use recycled ma terials. These artists utilize natural and urban detritus to produce art, continuing recycling traditions, which are pervasive thr oughout Africa. This investigation addresses these artists and their varied motivations as I define widespread recycling use b y artists in urban Mozambique.


16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION War had killed the road thereabouts. Hyenas slunk along the tracks, snuffling among ashes and dust. The landscape had blended sadnesses the likes of whi ch had never been seen before, in colors that clung to the inside of their mouth. They were dirty colors, so dirty that they had lost all their freshness, no longer daring to rise into the blue on the wing. Here the sky had become unimaginable. And creatures got used to the ground, in resigned apprent iceship of death (Couto 2002, 1). My research explores contemporary Mozambican urban artists who use recycled materials in their work. The transformation of recycled materials into art reflects a nexus of environmental, economic, and cultural issues I i nvestigate to determine how and why artists utilize recyclia to create distinctly Mozambican art. independence war tremendously impacted its population, including serving as an influence for many artists discussed here. The vivid descri ptions in the quotation I use to introduce this chapter dramatically capture the aftermath of the war, and also text Terra Somnambula/Sleepwalking Land Each of the artists discussed in this analysis comes from vastly different economic, social, and educational backgrounds, yet all use recycled materials. These artists utilize natural and urban detritus to produce art, continuing recycling traditions, which are pervasive throughout Africa and elsewhere This focused stu dy of artists will reveal the implications of recycling as a tool to explore larger themes related to Mozambican art and its meanings. While artists in Mozambique utilize many different types of media, I have discovered that a majority of artists choose to work with pre used materials. My investigation is founded on a series of interrelated themes and concepts that are difficult to unwind. These connected ideas include object materiality, recycling, art making in urban Africa, and post conflict resolution. Many creative, envir onmental, and financial factors including the impact of past wars, the development of the


17 Transforming Arms into Plowshares/Transformao de Armas em Enxadas (T AE ) project, and poverty illustrate how recyclia provides an advantageou s art medium. Finally, I explore the led materials Each of these elements will be addressed through the wor ds and images of the artists I present here. Recycling An understanding of activities related to recycling is crucial for determining how artists obtain pre used objects. Recycling is generally understood as the reprocessing of waste. The rubbish, refuse, or litter) material that is not a prime product (produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation Statistics Division 2011). Recycling is not new in the context of African cultures, yet it s recent surge as a popular medium is illustrated by its widespread use in contemporary Mozambican urban art specifically Within the last decades, there has been a recognizable spike in global practical and scholarly interest in recycling Motives fueling this appeal include diverse economic, pol itical, financial, and philosophical concerns. Most recently, scholars have turned their attention to the newest aspect o f recycling: discarded electronic or electrical products (Lawhon 2012; Dempsey and McInryre 2009; Finlay and Liecht 2008; Widmer and Lombard 2006; Wilson et al 2006) Referred to as e waste, e scrap or WEEE, which is an acronym for waste electrical and el ectronic equipment, all of t hese terms indicate a fast growing and lucrative commercial interest. Most of the main international markets responsible for post use of e waste are located in developing countries, including many African locales. Research under taken in these countries overwhelmingly demonstrates that recycling in the private (informal) sector has consistently made a significantly greater


18 contribution to waste management than activity in the public sector (Wilson, Velis, and Cheeseman 2006; Mens a 2006; Kassim 2006; Masocha 2006; Njeru 2006; Gill 2007; Gowan 2009; Linganzi 2008; Mamphitha 2011). African cities that demonstrate greater success in recycling within the informal sector include Johannesburg, Monrovia, Dar es Salaam, Cairo, Victoria Fal ls Town, Ouagadougo and Nairobi Recycling in Africa is pervasive ly private, ocurring within individual households, and not as likely to be widely practiced publicly (Gowan 2009; Masocha 2006; Wilson, Velis, and Cheeseman 2006) Scholarship dedicated to r ecycling research in Mozambique is rather paltry in comparison to other African countries. Only one study exists to date, a comparative analysis between South Africa and Mozambique (Karani, Jewasi kiewitz, and Da Costa 2008). My desire to create a contextu al framework for recycled materials has led me to study the varied waste streams of garbage to determine its different paths before it is selected to become media for art. S cholars identify four primary categories of informal recycling: itinerant waste buy ers, street waste, municipal waste collection, and dumps (Wilson, Velis, and Cheeseman 2006). In order to understand such contact points of detritus, I have interview ed municipal directors, administrators, and consultants of solid waste management, public and private garbage collectors, as well as owners, operators, and workers at recycling facilities. Visits to solid waste containers, dump sites, and interviews with workers and independent entrepreneurs in the informal sector who buy and sell recycled mate rials allows me to analyze the cou rse of a n everyday aspec t of recycling in Mozambique. Three object recycling facilities exist in Maputo: Recicla Saaner, and Associao Mocambiana de R eciclag e m /Mozambican Associat ion of Recycling (AMOR) (See Figure s 1 1 1 4). Each of these non profit, local and international organizations relies upon market values that determine


19 preference for one object (metal) over another (plastic). Not only are these facilities promoting sus tainability, but they have connections to social causes as well. For example, Recicla hires former garbage pickers (primarily from the nearby Hulene Dump) to provide them with greater financial stability. AMOR hires women from Xidzuki an organization of H IV positive women who run the eco points that serve as satellite drop offs for community recycled goods. Object Materiality My focus on object materiality underpins this investigation of recyclia as artistic media well as their uses prior to selection as media is essential for determining meanings of these objects within artworks Several authors have focused on the concept of objecthood in extremely varied contexts, including the contemplation of street debris to more theoretical conceptions (Seitz 1961; Kopytoff 1988; Edensor 2005 ; Strasser 1999; Bennett 2010; Polanah 1981; Davis 2006, 2011; Strasser 1999; Bennett 2010; C alvino 2001; Thompson 1979; MacGaffey; Rubin 93; Coole 2010; Baudrillard 2006; C ohen 2012 ). E xamples of scholarly analyses I have found useful include visual analogies determined by object typolog ies in Yoruba l Doris describes these object useless residue s of things that were once positively value d they index the h ( Doris 2011, 31 ). Like Doris, I also focus on deciphering specific meanings of objects within assemblages created from recyclia. In addition to defining and underscoring linkages between disparate object s, I appreciate the emphasis Doris places on the voices of his individual informants, as their interviews appear as a fundamental resource throughout his text. In his 1961 Museum of Modern Art exhibition, The Art of Assemblage, c urator William Seitz probe d into objects He admitted recycling the earlier words of Engli sh art critic Lawrence Alloway in his catalog essay as he stated


20 new goods; then they are possessions, accessible to few, subjected, often, to intimate and repeated use; then, as waste, they are scarred by use but availabl e again (Seitz 1961, 73). Although his words directly focus on western sculptural assemblage arts outside the African context, Seitz and Alloway demonstrate a keen understa nding of object materiality comparable to my own view of pre used things as they are transformed into artworks. Similarly, i n his sculptures in 1961 continues to be relev ant today throwaway material of cities, as it collects in (Seitz 1961, 75). These observations suggest similar ways of looking, and each provides a framework for better viewing and understanding contemporary artworks that form the basis of this analysis In The Saga of a Cotton Ca p ulana, Mozambican writer Lus Polanah presents a harsh plantations. The story is narrated by a capulana which at the beginning of its life was a beautiful colorful and boldly decorated cloth that over time is reduced to a shredded rag, a scrap of its former self narrator, the C apulana is a striking culturall y specific reminder of the great power of things. A consideration of o bjects and their diverse meanings in varied contexts has shaped my thinking on garbage, recycling, objects, and their interrelated ness This has led to the construction of a theoretical framework for this resea rch, related to the objects artists use to create their art. Theoretical Frames The the oretical frames u nderpinning this investigation also draw seminal n understanding commo dities through an investigation of its many lives. Whereas


21 and what happens to it when it re aches the end of its usefulness (Kopytoff 1986, 33), relates directly to issues of commodification, it informs this analysis based on object materiality and the potential to intensify past meanings as recycled objects are transformed in to art. I diverge from Kopytof f a s I argue that the life of an object does not effectively end when it is deemed no longer useful but in its reincarnation as a recycled material it gains more expressive power as it is transformed into art. As recycled objects are selected as media for a rtworks, they are extracted from the context of their former lives. Within the framework of their new lives, as part of an artwork, the identity of recyclia is enhanced, as it gains expressive power. The recycled object no longer exists where it once belon ged. No w, as it is consciously chosen to begin its new life, it is physically isolated from its past. But, in its employment within of being, or materiality Additional foundations Kopytoff provides for my analysis include my extension of his I further consider the lives of the artists in relations hip to the lives of the objects with which they intersect (Cerny and Seriff 11) with their meaning as it is translated into an artwork. Finally object biographies to include i deas based on assemblage arts Linking my own focus on object materiality with these earlier foundations has led to my development of an analytical tool for investigating recycled materials. Wheras Rubin sug in his article, Accumulation: Power and Display in African Sculptu re, he does not advocate


22 creating a dichotomy between these opposing elements of media in Afric an sculptures as an analytical tool: What might be described as the content of African sculpture has clearly not content is defined as one dimension of the affective power and complex of multiple meanings embodied in a work of art. It originates in the orchestration of materials and techniques, and transcends both purely formal qualities on the one hand and comparatively explicit iconographical or symbolic associations on the other. As one of several possible approache s to content in African sculpture, I propose to consider media their nature, how they are used, and what they seem to mean (Rubin 1993, 5). I find it useful to separate objects into what I view as their two fundamental aspects in order to more fully unde rstand recycled objects and their use by artists. I have conceptualized a t heory based on this idea that is founded on the point that objects possess two intrinsic halv es: utility and history I identify hich relates to an inherent tension in the materiality of objects. The intrinsic materiality of ob jects is based on two use s I state that a tension exists between the utility (Rubin 198 6; Bennett 2010) and the hi story (Appadurai 1986; Kopytoff 1986) of an object, both of which are directly based on the physical state, or materiality (Coole and Frost 2010) of the object. The frict ion I view b etween these two elements is deriv ed from the f act that in most cases one of these elements will emerge as the stronger, more apparent factor as determined by the bject. Examples of artists who focus on diverse selections based on these two halves will be investig ated here. Simply put, objects bisect. Two distinct halves define objects, one half is characterized by what the object is made of (utility), and the other half is defined by its past uses or original purpose (histor y). Particularly relevant as an analytic al tool for artworks incorporating recycled materials, the concept of object frictions facilitates defining and determining how and why artists select particular materials as media. The delineating terms, utility and histor y, directly relate to


23 the use of object frictions as a tool for visual analyses of recyclia. Utility specifically focuses on on its use to solve a mechanical or visual problem based solely on its physical materiality. Utility does not address mean ing. In contrast, hi story emphasizes the past uses of an object as a symbolic signifier of meaning within the artwork. In other words, meaning may be determined by its physical or conceptual elements, or a combination of both of these aspects. Artists the history or utility (or a combination of both elements) of th e recycled objects they transform into art Although many artists select similar pre used objects, their motivation for using these materi als often differ s Differences betw een artists are defined by which aspect of the object is most desirable for their purposes: the utility or the hi story of the recycled object I argue that these implicit dualities inform the construction and meaning of a rtworks incorporating recyclia, thus determining and defining explore and utilize these facets of object f rictions as a tool of visual analysis throughout my investigation Assemblages and R ecycling : link ing past and present Mixed media assemblages and recycling are rooted in historical African visual culture and continue to the present. Two examples that have proven useful in the development of my analyses of object materiality and its meanings are Bakongo m inkisi and Yoruba l (MacGaffey 1993 ; Doris 2005, 2011) Admittedly these forms are contextually different both from each other and from the art I analyze here. H istorical forms such as m inkisi and l serve healing and social functions within their cultural contexts whereas the artists I investigate create art from pre used materials with in a framework of contemporar y art production. Despite these obvious differences, the m inkisi and l assemblages link to contemporary artists and share


24 common constructions of mixed media and recycled objects that also include Fon b ocio Bamana k omo headd resses, and Fon a sen among other historical African assemblages (Blier 1995; McNaughto n 1972, 1979; Bay 2008). R eturning briefly to Rubin, it is important to note that he divides assemblage art forms into two broad categories he defines as display and power. Essentially, Rubin views objects of display as illustrative of prosperity, vitality, vigor, and strength, whe reas power objects are variety of sources (Rubin 1993, 19). In his assessment of display and power, Rubin focuses on the historical African m inkisi assemblage sculptures to il lustrate his points. 1 Wyatt MacGaffey, who has undertaken extensive research on m inkisi has stated: At its most basic, an n kisi represents a container of empowering materials or bilongo the ingredient s of m inkisi were chosen for linguisti c and collected from graves, gullies, streambeds and other places regarded as abodes of the dead (MacGaf fey 1993, 62). By the 19 th century, European interest in m inkisi had developed into a potent curiosity often accompanie d by a zeal for ethnographic collecting. An account by a Christian missionary of this e ra illustrates both European amazement an d misunde rstanding of the forms, be an image decorated with strips of cloth and feathers, often with a bit of mirror set into the belly, behind which is the bit of rubbish containing the potent powe 33. Sic; italics by the author ). 2 T h e use of the word rubbish in t his description of the parts of the n kisi figure underscores the 19 th century European misinterpretation of these objects: as fetishistic curios and haphazardly assembled forms. But m inkisi are actually meticulously ordered, well thought out constructions. As described above, the mater ials used to create the m inkisi come from both natural and cultural landscape s In the minkisi it is the careful design and assemblage of


25 specif ically chosen objects that create the powerful a ssemblage construction that is spurred into action by the b anganga the ritual specialists that administer them. D avid Doris explores Yoruba l figures in his book, Vigilant Things: On Thieves, Yoruba Anti Aesthetics, and the Strange Fates of Ordinary Ob jects in Nigeria. He defines l punishments awaiting those who disregard their warning for example, an old shoe, battered from constant use, might porte des cribing the materiality of the l Doris states: the objects used as l are not in themselves treasured. Often made of select bits of trash, l are ephemeral things, usef ul because in m any cases they have been used up Li ke all the works of the canon, l are deployed in space to compel ordin ary detritus of everyday life. l objects are transformed (Doris 201 1, 17). Thus, the objects selected to convey specific meaning in the l constructions are composed of recycled objects whose meanings both derive from, and are directly based on their past use or physicality, as I define in object frictions. Both of thes e assemblage constructions ( m inkisi and l ) function here on two distinct levels. First, I have selected these assemblages as ex amples of historical African visual culture I seek to draw attention to widespread practices including mixed media sculptures comprised of objects that are selected based upon their meanings, and the incorporation of recycled materials in the case of Yoruba l Second I wish to employ these constructions as examples of how object me anings and assemblage provide a link between contemporary African art and visual culture of its past Contemporary artists who select particular objects to convey meanings in their assemblages are not developing a new art practice, but continuing pervasive indigenous African techniques of recycling and constructing mix ed media assemblages.


26 Scholars have addressed the uses of recycling and assemblage in Afr ican visual culture In an editorial in African Arts ffirmed the ancient traditions these artistic techniques : Western art critics often ostracize African works that incorporate visual abstraction, assemblage, jarring juxtapositions, salvage materials, and recycling, saying they are derivative of Euro American modernist movements. Yet these approaches are firmly rooted in Africa's art historical past; they were appropriated and reframed from the African aesthetic we llspring by artists in the West (Blier 2002, 4). E xhibitions have further investigated and interrogated the role of recycling in contemporary African art Much of the contemporary African art made from recyclia comes from urban centers. Because of this, exhibitions that investigate recyclia fo cus directly on the urban framework as a facilitating backdrop, and as a foundation for understanding the context of the art. M any exhibitions closely examine the environment in which these arworks were created. Investigations include connections between a rt and urbanity tradition versus modernity, and local versus global concerns (Grabski 2003, 2007; del Real 2006; Vogel 1991; Subros 2001; Roberts and Roberts 2003; Malaquais 2006; October Gallery 2009; Serageldin 1993). Joanna Grabski defines the most ub iquitous form of art within the city of Dakar as (Grabski 2003, 11). In Africa Explores Susan Voge l links art and artists, stating he only strain 1991, 31). Allen F. Roberts and Polly A Saint in the City: Sufi Arts of Urban Senegal presents the city of Dakar as a microcos m of artistic production, including several artists who rely on detritus (newspaper, wood, metal, cloth scraps) from the city to construct their


27 include visu al hagiography surrounding Sheikh Amadou Bamba (Roberts and Roberts 2003). Finally, in Douala, Dominique Malaquais presents a public mixed media sculpture made of recycled materials as a discu rsive Quelle Liberte she addresses issues raised by heated debates surrounding the sculpture, such as political resistance, contested ethnic identities, economics, and conflicts within social classes. As a result of these types of investigations by scholars and exhibits alike African art has become increasingly identified with and represented by mixed media constructions of recycled materials In fact, the majority of artworks in the exhibitions described here may be defined as created from recyclia My research on artists in Mozambique who use pre used materials contributes to understanding uses of this widespread medium throughout diverse African contexts Overview: History of Mozambique Between the fi rst and fifth centuries, Bantu speaking peoples migrated from the north, settling in the geographical area today known as Mozambique (Murdock 1959, 375). As early as the eleventh century, Swahili, Arab, and Persian traders took advantage of extensive coast al ports in this area. In preparation for impending colonization, Vasco da Gama explored the region for the Portuguese in 1498 who consequently colonized Mozambique in 1505 Mozambique fell under Portuguese colonial rule until 1961, and the war for indepe ndence was fought from 1962 war, (1976/7 1992) almo st directly followed its colonial war. Due to the complexities of this conflict and the fact that both sides received considerable external support, is widely contested among scholars, and it is often post independence war. 3


28 Thi s war was fought between the ruling party, The Liberation Front of Mozambique/ Frente d e Liberao de Mocambique (FRELIMO ), founded in Tanzania in 1962 to fight for the independence of Mozambique and the Mozambican National Resistance/ Resistncia Nacional Moambican a (RENAMO). RENAMO was found ed in 1975 s independence as an anti Co mmunist resistance movement. Whereas scholar s debate s last war, the larger point of importance most central to this investigation is the aggregate damage, violence, and overall destruction caused by this conflict Social anthropologis t Bjrn Bertelsen, who focuses on Mozambique and Southern Africa, succinctly captures the totality of the powerful impact of violence on Mozambic sketches of colonialism an d post independence civil war in a country in which r elations between state and violence, however one might conceive of these entities, have been crucial, visible, and tangible from the liberation struggle onward ( Bertelsen 2009, 216). independence conflict precipitated economic collapse, famine, nearly one million war related casualties, and the internal and external displacement of several million civilians. The sheer volume of s cholarship dedicated to war easily dominates the field of Mozambican studies. Most attention has been given to the post independence conflict (Bertelsen 2009; Honwana 2007, 1997; Schafer 2007; Anouilh 2010, 2005; Mazula 2008; Azevedo 2002; Manning 2002; Castanheiro 1999; Bartoli 1998; Chan 1998; Nordstrom 1997; Synge 1997; Ciment 1997; Berman 1996; Zuppi 1995; Sen gulane 1994; Hume 1994; Finnegan 1992; Africa Watch 1992; Vines 1991). The majority of this literature is dedicated to the attainment of peace. Other significant themes include destabilization, financial losses, refugees, military veterans, and child soldi ers. Important Mozambican literature, including the work of popular authors Lina


29 Magia (1988) and Mia Couto (2013, 2009, 2008, 2005, 2002) also directly relates to war. The breadth of scholarship on the last war in particular indic ates the far reaching implications this war has had on several generations of Mozambicans. (Israel 2009; Hall and Young 1997; Chabal 1996; Egero 1990; Machel and Munslow 1986; Hanlon 1984; Isaacman 1978) focus on themes including decolonization, war heroes, as well as the political, social, and economic effects of the war. Prior to its wars, the colonial era has provided a fertile area for investigation within Mozambican studies (Allina 2012; Penvenne, 1995; Isaacman 1972, 1995, 2004, 2006; Harries 1994; Isaacman and Roberts 1983; Polanah 1981; Leroy and White 1980). Subjects investigated include slavery, peasant struggles, migrant workers, the era as a precursor to the last war, the cotton industry, and capitalism. Focused examinations of indigenous cultural groups (Macgonagle 2013; Israel 2006; West 2005 ; Isaacman and Isaacman 2004; Dias, J. 1964, 1961; Dias, M. 1964, 1970) large ly relate to the Makonde of northern Mozambique. F urther scholarship investigates ethnic identity and inhabitants of Zambezi Valley. Other topics include diverse subjects such as law and justice (Santos et al 2006); land and governance (Galli 2003); international donor governments and (Hanlon 1991); economic shift to democracy and postwar development (Isaacman and Isaacman 2013; Pitcher 2002); historical studies of slavery and peasant struggles throughout history (Bowen 2005; Isaacman, 1995, 1978, 1972); issues directed toward women in history, politics, war, and cultural identities (Gengenbach 2008; Sheldon 2002; and Urdang 1989) and musical instruments (Dias 1986). Mo zambican art has received much less scholarly attention than its wars, and most of this research focuses on Makonde scul pture ( Bortolot 2013, 2007; Kingdon, 2002 Kasfir, 1992, 1980;


30 West and Sharpes, 1999; Dias 1961, 1964; Dias and Dias 1964, 1970; Kingdon 2002). Important scholarship relevant to this research includes the work of Alexander Bortolot and Sidney Littlefield K asfir. In Revolutions: A Century of Makonde Masquerade in Mozambique, Bortolot presents his exploration of the Makonde m apika masquerade, looking at the historical and social of one specific art form and how it has maintained historical traditions while embracing modernity: What accounts for sustain ed, central role within the lives of so many Makonde generations? Although changing times may both help to keep old tradit Makonde experience derives neither from a nostalgic desire for the past nor a reactive need for self definition. Instead, the art form has provided succeeding generations of Makondes with a n essential language with which to assess changing realities and articulate their positions within them (Bortolot 2006, 9). Bortolot explores how the mapiko masquerade functions as a mirror of Makonde identity that reveals cultural transformations over tim e. forms, as she demonstrates how patronage encourages artistic innovation. She describes how a new artistic genre ( shetani /spirit figure) evolved out of sculpting traditi on previously comprised of only one artistic form ( b inadamu /human beings). Kasfir recounts one artist, Samaki Likankoa, who developed a new sculptural form after an arm had broken off a sculpture and his consequent alteration, as he created something that had not artistically been done before, forever changing the canon of Makonde art. Whereas Bortolot focuses on the continuation of one artistic form, Kasfir investigates the development of a new one. Surprisingly, very few scholars have yet addressed the im portant artist Malangatana Valente Ngwenya ( Schmidt 1972; Ngwenya, 2003 ). The artist is featured in a documentary film chronicling his life and artwork, Ngwenya, o Crocodilho directed by Isabel Noronha. 4 Malangatana played a crucial role in the developme nt of contemporary art in Mozambique, and


31 his expressive artistic style defines a bridge between modern and contemporary art I met with Malangatana in 2009 (See Figure 1 5). One of the subjects of our conversation included the division between traditional and contemporary African art. Malangatana defined contemporary art as 5 H is comment is important to think about in terms of both traditional and contemporary art in Africa. Presumably, because of his re latively recent death in 2011, there will be a rise in research and scholarship devoted to him. Selected attention has been given to conflict based art ( Salstrm, Berit 1988, 1990; Sachs 1983; Frontline States Ltd. 1990). Sachs and Salstrm present cogent and thoughtful examinations of revolutionary murals and political posters (Sachs 1983 and Salstrm 1988, 1990) Recently, some scholars have begun to examine contemporary Mozambican artists using weapons as art media (Spring, 2005; Elmquist, 2007 ; Fonseca 2012). Most recently, Maria Emlia Fonseca presented a contextual analysis of Tree of Life a weapons based artwork in the British Museum, in Touching Art: The Poetics and Potenc y of Exhibiting the Tree of Life. My research seeks a different approach anal materials and making connections to recyclia in art making and art as a tool in post conflict resolution Beyond this scholarship on weapons art, no substantial research currently exists on contemporary Mozambica n artists us Reinata Sadimba focuses on the celebrated Makonde ceramic artist (Gandolfo 2012). Reinata explained to me how she first began creating ceramic sculptures when she was a littl e girl in Cabo del Gado, the northern most province of Mozambique. She stated that she continues to use these clays from her childhood home because they are a darker color that she prefers to the local clays in Maputo where she now resides and demonstrates traditional ceramic production at the National Museum of Anthropology in Maputo ( See Figur e 1 6)


32 Harun Harun develops an important dialogue on art criticism and critiques of art education in Mozambique. He presented these previously unaddressed topics a t the International Association of Art Critics meeting in Cape Town in 2007 His paper provides a foundation for further development of these important aspects of art analysis, as he offers insight into the state of visual arts in Mozambique, including a h istorical overview, discussion of art education, description of exhibitions and galleries, and plans for the d eveloping art criticism. Arte e Museus em Moambique, entre a Constuo da Naco e o Mundo sem Fronteiras/ Art and Museums in Mozambique, between the N ithout Borders investigates modern and contemporary artists in Mozambique. Costa provides comprehesive, historical analyses of artistic development. Her work provides a solid foun dation for expansion into more detailed explorations. Finally, Mozambican artists have been fairly well represented recently in selected international art exhibitions (Njami 2006) and African art historical surveys (Spring 2008). Before these exhibitions, Mozambican artists had been absent from these important exhibitions and texts. Research Methodology This investigation is based on eighteen months of fieldwork. Most of the research took 6 where important arts organ izations, cultural centers, but their homes are located in Matola, an industrial suburb situated thirty minutes from the capital. Several journeys beyond these boundaries included outlying neighborhoods, districts, and provinces (Gaza, Inhambane, and Sofala). My longest uninterrupted research trip took place from August 2010 November 2011. Time spent in Mozambique preceding and following this has contributed to my investi gation; most recently from December 2012 January 2013; and prior to this during the summers of 2008 (August) and 2009 (August September). Earlier travel,


33 including a trip to Senegal for five weeks in 2007 introduced me to widespread use of recycl ing and inspired my subsequent investigations. My goal in selecting artists to be included in this dissertation was to provide a representative sample of artists who use recycled materials in order to present a valid overview of contemporary Mozambican ar tis ts working today and to illustrate the large number of artists who use recyclia Although focused on the use of recycled materials, many artists I interviewed chose to utilize other media, including painting on canvas, ceramic production, wood or stone sculpting, and printmaking. Overall I have found that the use of recycled materials has become the medium of choice for the majority of artists I worked with. Over the course of my research, many more artists were consulted and interviewed than finally app ear in this dissertation. I selected individuals who illustrated diverse motivations for using different types of objects in order to present a cross section of artists. My research methodology included direct engagement with individuals through recorded, transcribed, and videotaped formal, informal, and group interviews. I also captured processes and techniques through photography and video. 7 Although my interviews were highly effective, I found that artists tended to be more candid expressing th emselves in the evenings at A Associao Ncleo de Arte and the nearby Museu barracas (shanty bars and restaurants ), which many of the artists regularly frequent. In my investigation of the Transforming Arms into Plowshares/Transformao de Armas em Enxad as (T AE ) project interviews included past and present administrators, security forces responsible for weapons destruction, informants who trade weapons to TAE for incentives, artists who create art from destroyed weapons, patrons of TAE artworks, and fina ncial donors to TAE. My structured questionnaires also included questions related to TAE in an attempt to determine how widely spread the project is known within Mozambique, and if particular groups,


34 i.e. viewers of art may be more aware of this country wi de project. My research expands beyond an investigation of Mozambican artists who use recycled materials to address larger issues inextricably bound to these art practices. My work engages with ongoing debates concerning the diff erences between fine art an d tourist art ( Rovine 2001; Steiner, 1994; Phillips, 1999; Kasfir, 1999), as well as begin to dev elop a dis course on the division between tra ditional and contemporary art in Mozambique. Furthermore, this research develops a dialogue using recycling as a k ey link between traditional African art and contemporary African art. Focusing on the materiality of objects underpins my examination of recyclia as artistic media as a tool to t ackle these important issues. My investigation of artists who use recycled ma t erials as media contributes to the underdeveloped literature on the use of recycled materials in African art in general, and begins to develop scholarship on contemporary Mozambican art specifically. Moreover, my research on the local and global impact of recycling in Mozambican art offers a valuable contribution to the burgeoning discourse on contemporary art in Africa, developing themes of recycling more broadly, within the context of artistic production, fine art, and art as a medium for post conflict r esolution. Chapter Organization and Summaries Following this introductory chapter, I present a foundation for my investigation of artists who use recycle d materials in chapter two. It introduces the current state of the arts in Mozambique As I demonstr ate in this second chapter specific arts spaces provide a framework for promoting the advancement as well as a fundamental understanding of contemporary art despite tremendous social and political obstacles that have impeded its development. Chapter thr ee focuses on a countrywide project founded in 1995 by Bishop Dom Din is Sengulane. It explores the history of Transforming Arms into Plowshares/Transformao de Armas em Enxadas (T AE ) project focusing on its processes, individuals who provide weapons, don ors,


35 artists who create artworks, and patrons. I describe the beginning of TAE from its original tripartite process, including collecting weapons, making them unusable, and providing incentives to individuals who provide weapons, to its expansion, which in cluded the creation of art from parts of destroyed weapons. In the remaining chapters, (4 6), my emphasis on the importance of materiality is highlighted through the basic chapter structures. Each of these chapters is organized related to specific recycled materials. Chapter four focuses on my investigation of distinctions among artists who use wood and metal to create art. In chapter five I introduce a group of artists who are linked in their preference for using fabric and paper, yet differ in terms of ho w and why they utilize these materials. Chapter six focuses on artists Domingos and Butcheca, who use diverse combinations of recycled materials as media. Throughout this dissertation I have foregrounded the in order to create a narrative t hat is fundamental for understanding the complexities of the ir individual artworks. In chapter six this is true to an even greater extent, as I present a more self reflexive, personalized introduction to individual artwork s and practices. This is particul arly relevant in this final content chapter, as it represents a combination of the diverse recyclia previously discussed in chapters four and five. Finally, chapter seven presents a conclusion to this analysis based on summaries of my research findings. 1 For comprehensive interpretations of m inkisi and their multiple meanings within African cultures and their impact on the west, see MacGaffey, Astonishment and Power 1993; Poynor, Cooksey, and Vanh ee, Kongo Across the Water, provides an important contribution to m inkisi scholarship. Fon b ocio are similar forms, discussed by Suzanne Blier in her text, African Vodun: Art, Psychology and Power For an interestin g discussion of the minkisi as an index of cumulative agency see Albert Gell, Art and Agency, 1998 pp. 59 63. 2 See John K. Thornton. The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684 1706 1998 for another account deal ing with m inkisi in the context of missionization. 3 I must thank Kathleen Sheldon and Bjrn Bertelsen for pointing out the necessity of drawing attention to subtle complexities lost with the often over simplified terms used to describe the history of


36 Moza state as early as 1974, with Mozamb ican associations with Rhodesia and South Africa. Thanks also to Bertelsen for sharing the scholarship of those who directl y address this issue, notably Alpers 1979; Coelho 1993, 2009, 2011; Dinerman 2006; Mateus 1999; Nwafor 1983; Opello 1975; and Saul 1979. 4 I invited Isabel Noronha to be a participant in the African Studies Association (ASA) panel I organized and chaired d irectly following my return to the U.S. from Mozambique in fall 2011. The panel, incorporated the film she directed about Malangatana. Due to unexpected illnes s, Noronha was unable to attend, but her husband and producer of the film, Camilo De Sousa, presented in her absence. 5 Malangatana, interview, Maputo (Aeroporto) Mozambique, August 15, 2009. Sidney Kasfir suggests a similar idea in her introduction to he r text Contemporary African Art 1999, 11. As we spoke, Malangatana showed me his impressive home designed by his friend and architect, Pancho Guedes, which served as a gallery for hundreds of his paintings as well as the artwork of many others. After we h ad been talking for quite some time Malangatana stated While I was considering whether he was giving me a compliment or insulting me, my assistant Julio I realized this was probably one of the greatest compliments I have ever received. 6 Loureno Marques in 1976 following independence from Portuguese colonial rule. 7 Stru ctured questionnaires were used to determine opinions from audiences at particular art venues and exhibitions. I utilized portions of this information for chapter two, in my discussion of viewpoints surrounding the impact of the TDM Bienal exhibition. I al so relied on public responses in chapter three as I sought awareness of the TAE project among viewers of art.


37 Figures Figur e 1 1. Recicla E mployee s weighing plastic for a customer, Maputo, 2011 Photograph by A. Schwartzott


38 Figur e 1 2. Recicla E mployee cutting down plastic for crushing machine, Maputo, 2010. Photograph by A. Schwartzo tt


39 Figur e 1 3. AMOR E mployee dropping recyclables off at Eco Point, Maputo, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott


40 Figure 1 4. Hulene Dump, Maputo, November 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott


41 Figure 1 5. Malangatana Valente Ngwenya (Malangatana) in his home in Maputo (Aeroporto), August 2009. Photograph by A. Schwart zott


42 Figure 1 6. Reinata Sadimba at her workshop at the Anthropological Museum, Maputo, 2011 Photogr aph by A. Schwartzott


43 CHAPTER 2 CONCEPTUAL, TEMPORAL, AND TANGIBLE: DISCURSIVE SPACES OF CONTEMPORARY ART IN MAPUTO Widespread recognition of the art s does not exist in Mozambique. Throughout the country, particularly in Maputo, this lack of engagemen t with the visual arts is beginning to change. Arts spaces are attempting to compensate for the absence of government support and public interest in the arts by seeking private and public patronage from corporations in Mozambique and Mozambicans respective ly. This chapter contextualizes the development and dissemination of contemporary art by exploring the conceptual and operational dyn amics of exhibition spaces in Maputo f a A Associa o Ncleo de Arte/ The Association of the Nucleus of Art ), to a twenty first century theoretically based arts movement focused on expanding contemporary art in Mozambique through i ts didactic exhibitions featuring conceptual art ( Movimento de Arte Contempornea de Moambique/ Contemporary Art Movement of Mozambique (MUVART). The se initiatives involve a range of formats, sponsorships, and venues. For example, the largest privately own ed telephone and cable corporation hosts a juried biennial exhibit (TDM Bienal ) while ( Associao Kulungwana/ Kulungwana Association ), an arts venue funded by its diverse membership, uses thematic exhibitions to promote Mozambican art. Physical presenc e determines the framework of classification used in this analysis of the arts spaces within Maputo. The spaces under investigation will be defined as conceptual, temporal, and tangible C onceptual spaces refer to movements that exist in a liminal space th at can be quantified by adherents, exhibitions, and the art created as a result of the conceptual influences of the movement Temporal spaces refer to ephemeral events that exist for a specified


44 amount of time such as a recurring exhibition. Finally, t ang ible spaces occupy concrete physical locations and exist continually as permanent exhibition venues. A blunt appraisal by Pompilio Hilrio (Gemuce), founder of the Contemporary Art Movement of Mozambique (MUVART), reveals the state of the arts in Mozambiq ue : In Mozambique there are no critics of a rt. There is only one historian of art. There is only one curator of art. So you see the level of this country 1 Gilberto Cossa, Chief of Visual Arts lture accounts for less than one 2 (To put this into global perspective the U.S. budget (2.5 trillion dollars) devotes seven percent to the arts whereas Mozambique poorest countries, maintains an overal l budget of 4.3 billion dollars. Mozambique remains Outlook). Arts Administrator Otilia Aquino who is Executive Director of the Mozambique Association fo r the Dev elopment of Democracy/ Moambique Associao para o Desenvolvimento da Democracia (AMODE), further substantiates a deficiency in governmental suppo rt for the arts in Mozambique: e and money to do what we need [to promote the arts] A quino additionally stressed the n ecessity to reach people at community level s to insure culture beco mes 3 A subtext interwoven throughout this analy sis of arts spaces is the widespread use of mixed media, including recycled mater ials by artists to create distinctive Mozambican contemporary art. Maputo, the location of these arts spaces, provides a compelling site for this analysis because its strong network of arts organizations draws many artists who are exceptionally varied in a pproach, technique and media. Wh ereas the artworks featured in these


45 scavenge, select, and recycle diverse pre used objects create mixed media artworks that ill uminate important environmental, political, social and economic issues. overlooked when seeking a contextual understanding of its contemporary art. Olu Oguibe s acknowledgm ent of individual identities in contemporary African art relates to contemporary Mozambican artists and their history specifically: There is a clearly defined individuality hardly any contemporary African artist of note would be correctly described as b elonging to a particular stylistic trend yet there is a strong sense of place, of the self moving in space, moving through geography and history, seeking for not only that which is inside but that which resonates with the present and the past as well (Og uibe 2001, 54). This innate individuality Oguibe refers to is exemplified in the geo political histories that frame the development and identity of contemporary Mozambican artists, inextricably linking them to ts and extensive history of war. This chapter artistic culture by surveying different exhibition spaces and specific examples of artists whose artworks a re framed by these spaces. The artistic movement MUVART ( Movimento de Arte Contempo rnea de Moambique/ Contemporary Art Movement of Mozambique), evolved to fill a wide chasm in the cultural landscape of Mozambique, which its founders perceived as lacking a contemporary art aesthetic. MUVART Curator and current Director of Escola Naciona l de Artes Visuais/ National School of Visual Arts (ENAV), Jorge Dias, articulated the suppression of the arts by the state and how this had a widespread effect on further artistic development in Mozambique well into the latter decades of the twentieth cent ury, thus provoking the development of MUVART: encouraged a great number of artist s who produced the so and photography. These productions censorship of the arts came to anticipate the production [of art] adopting a


46 strategy of repression and forcing the direction, which ended up d ictating determined aesthetics and concepts for the arts in Mozambique (MUVART 2006, 13). Although there is currently a definitive lack of governmental patronage of the arts in both use for political means and financial support of the arts in Mozambique, this was not always the case. As Dias remarked above, both during and following art as a tool to further its ideals. A direct result of the current widespread apathy in the general publ ic regarding art is linked to memories of how the government used the arts as a medium through which it articu lated its power. Generally speaking, the Mozambican population is largely unfamiliar with art outside its use in revolutionary service. This includes individuals who are t went y five years and older, comprising s past wars. Mozambicans who are younger than twenty one years old were not yet born as the most recent war was fought. Based on this reality, young Mozambicans do not have memor ies that link art with propaganda and war. Y ounger generations are undoubtedly aware of the many social realist style murals and posters employed to garner governmental support as part of their But it is not their lived history. This is an important reason why arts spaces direct a majority of their outreach toward youth, providing civic education to potential new audiences of art. Beginning during the colonial war, ( 1962 1974), assuming cont rol of newly independent Mozambique as its governing party. Recent scholarship workshops based on beliefs that their collective cooperative structures aligned with FRELIMO socialist ideals. Bortolot argues: as it [FRELIMO] developed its political philosophy and sought support from international allies FRELIMO realigned the medium [blackwood carving] for


47 distinctly different purposes, conceptualizing blackwood carvi ng as a primary symbol of its socialist project in Mozambique (Kasfir and Frster 2013, 253). ral. In this way, an understanding of how art has historically functioned and d eveloped within Mozambique becomes clearer. Simply put, the visual arts are not well received today because of their past use by the government in a socialist revolutionary context, which dictated its patronage. As a result, contemporary art and its develo pment face tremendous challenges in undoing and recreating these past functions. 4 arts was established under state sponsorship, ( Instituto Superior de Artes e Cultura /Institution of Higher Learning of Arts and Culture) (ISArC), in Matola. State sponsored ENAV, which is devoted to the arts education of young Mozambicans in middle school and higher education began in 1978. Conceptual: MUVART In 2002 Pompilio Hilrio (Gemuce) founded MUV ART in the role of facilitator, with Jorg e Dias as curator, along with eleven original members. 5 Gemuce explained that an interact with culture, because the idea of t he movement is producing art but art that will be 6 Maputo, and contem 7 MUVART strives to advance the development and proliferation of contemporary art in Mozambiqu s to assert itself as an essential tool and intervener in society. It is urgent to expand the number of viewers interested in the arts, open


48 new horizons in relation to new forms of artistic practice and extend this effort beyond the capital city (MUVART 2009). Mozambique is through civic education and, to those ends, the organization use s exhibitions, lectures, debates and artworks to provoke discussion on the production, dissemination and poli tics of art. 8 Ironically, MUVART creates a broad foundation for the intellectual development and adv anc ement of contemporary art in Mozambique, yet the organization does not occup y any permanent physical spaces of its own. Despite its intangibility, MUVAR has shifted the paradigm of art making and its theoreti cal foundations b iennial exhibitions comprise a central platform for facilitating its artistic discourse and they ha ve mounted five biennials since it firs t inaugurated these exhibitions in 2004. goals include addressing current issues using new media (including recycled materials, video, and installations), collaborations with international artists, employing global curatorial strategies inv olving invited guest curators, and sponsoring theoretical debates that challenge divisions between traditional and contemporary art. Expo Arte Contempornea Moambique (Exposition of Mozambican Contemporary Art), was he ld in 2004 and exhibited at Museu Nacional de Arte (National Museum of Art) 9 Thirty seven artists participated, including twenty three artists from Mozambique, as well as artists from six additional countries; Portugual, Brazil, France, Spain South Africa, and the Czech Republic. This exhibit addressed goals initially set forth by MUVART in its Manifesto, such as opening [currently] present in the production of new


49 changing and disrupting the pre esta blished aesthetic in Mozambique (MUVART 2004, 9). One specific artwork from this exhibition, an installation by Faizal Omar (Matequenha), Estudo Acstico do Convencional/Tradicional ( Acoustic Study of Conventional/Traditional), provides an excellent example of the c o artistic philosoph ies and the wa ys exhibited artworks challenge experiencing works of art (See Figure s 2 1, 2 2 ). 10 Before beginning a discuss ion of this artist, I must address the fact given name, surname, or a new name altogeth er. For consistency, I will introduce artists using their given name, surname, and artist name. Following the first instance I will refer to them by found. 11 traditional art and contemporary art and fine art and craft art underpin this work and challenge viewers conceptions about viewing and experiencing works of art. Hi s compl ex installation addresses divisions between music and art, performance and object, environmental sustainability, and invented traditions. In Acoustic Study of Conventional/Traditional Matequenha combines diverse natural and recycled materials including cl ay, animal skins and fur to create innovative forms The percussive forms he recreates display musical instruments he has reinvented by alter ing traditional instruments based on familiar prototypes Describing his inspiration to create thi s piece, Mateque nha explained: I had a dream to play the drums. My father h ad just passed away. Even if I wanted to buy one I would not accept it. I wanted to play, and at the same time I was


50 to show people that it is not necessary to cut down trees to make drums. We can use clay to make what we want. 12 To realize these goals through his installation, Matequenha embarked on research in the different provinces and districts of Mozambique where these percussive in struments were historically used. Ultimately four styles emerged from varied geographical settings that he used to create innovative new drum typ es: Chigubu, Tofo, Mapeko and Maputo. 13 Most noticeably, Matequenha altered the materiality of these forms by r eplacing the wooden support of the drums with clay. By exchanging the original materials Matequenha modifies viewers conception of these acoustic forms. T hese are not original historical objects except fo r the fact that they are based on models of recognizable traditional instruments Matequenha has transformed these instruments by substituting new materials essentially refashioning the old designs and reconstructing them to create new forms and liminal identities provok ing discourse on multiple themes. Matequenha displays these newly made instruments in an ethnographic style; thereby creating an archivistic framework that challenges notions of authenticity and originality. By doing so, Matequenha draws u invented traditions: traditions which appear to be old (but) are actually quite recent in origin and sometimes largely (Hobsbawm and Ranger 1983, 1). Acousti c Study of Conventional/Traditional is a kinetic work in progress, a constantly changing artwork, whose overall form evolves based on audience participation. Matequenha invites viewers to engage in an interactive dialogue with his installation, by encoura ging audiences to touch and play these acoustic forms in order to understand Mozambican musical traditions Matequenha focuses on conceptions of art in context, and how art is viewed and/or


51 experienced by viewer s. He addresses his goal : When we go to g all eries, the pieces around are untouchable for me I want to break that mind set [by creating] things you can touch. [With my artworks] 14 By allowing the instruments (perceived here as art /ethnography in the museum context), to be touch ed, the contemporary is linked to the traditional. Matequenha commented: It is a blend of materials, colors, shapes and culture to produce percussive sounds, varied and innovative, but not only that it is intended to observe a direct interactivity with the drums, participating in the production of sounds, focused on the tentative disregard of any preconceptions about music as an art form. The object drum, is in a way, decontextualized. Constructed of a different material and exposed within a ga metamorphosis, these musical instruments produce faithful ly the role of his mother music (MUVART 2004, 31 32) 15 As he decontextualizes historical forms by refashioning them, simple and straightforward installation is actually a multivalent didactic encourag ing new ways of looking at, an d experiencing art. Installations between artworks and their meanings, as well as between artists and audiences of their art. In his alteration and re creation of traditional musical instruments, Matequenha challenges ideas about materiality past and present, recycling, as well as art and audience. Clearly, Acoustic Study of Conventional/Traditional effective use of its biennial exhibitions as a potent teaching tool to introduce and/or e ducate Mozambican audiences to artistic forms. Wh ereas MUVART lacks a concrete presence in the physical landscape of Maputo, individual members highlight its theoretical focus through artworks exhibited both individually ibitions. MUVART exhibitions have widely embraced variou s arts spaces in Maputo in addition to global expansion made through the participation of international exhibitors and guest curators from varied countries. A rtistic projects by MUVART


52 Curator Jorg e D ias and its founder, Gemuce, illustrate further development s of themes rooted in particularly focused on conceptual art and greater explorations of creative processes. In their personal projects, Dias and Gemuce continue to revis it and further develop subjects they previously displayed in earlier MUVART biennial exhibitions, such as conceptualism, materiali ty, globalization and democracy. Dias and Gemuce expand MUVART ideals both locally and globally, in arts spaces of Mozambique and abroad. Dias presented Transparncia: Processos criativos e devaneios ( Transparency: Creative Processes and Daydreams ) at Instituto Cames (Camoes Institute) in Maputo in 2010 In this exhibit Dias highlights the complex processes of art making thro ugh an ex ploration of its inherent materiality. Urging viewers to contemplate how and why artists create art from particular media, Dias incorporates materials he has stripped to their essence. By revealing what is often concealed with narratives, Dias und erscores a link to basic environmental systems of production, destruction, and transformation. As his exhibition title suggests, Dias presents a daydrea m surrounding the process of creation, as he vividly explores manifestation s of its fantastical possibi lities Working primarily with recycled materials, (most ly newspapers ) ; Dias creates a n environment peopled with the everyday (newspapers) that i s transformed into the uncommon based on his [day] dreams of creativity ( See Figure 2 3 ) Speaking about the fo rms he created and their underlying materiality Dias explained, newspaper into a wholly different form. I use newspaper s because most people use them every day. 16 Dias illustrates the d ynamics of life through daily activity, focusing on the relationship of construction and reconst ruction visualized here (MUVART 2008, 17). These are recurring themes in artistic explorations, in which he frequently relies upon recycled materials as


53 m edia. He relayed a deep interest materials and to be born and to die to show life and death, transformation. It does not end I work with the idea that pieces of art are not finished pieces. It bec omes, it grows. 17 and (2009 2010), illustrates his continued exploration of globalization and politics themes he previously developed in past MUVART biennials. I hibition, Perspectives and Experiences: Other Territories (2008), Gemuce presented Jogo/Democracia (Game/Democracy) This conceptual work shows his ironic interpretation of the democratic form of government as he reduces it to a game. Gemuce present ed a c ircular wooden board game patterned on the m odel of chess, and thus illustrated democracy as a game to be played by the viewer. Inspired by the not ion of the democratic system as a game of chance, strategy, and opponents who may win or lose, Gemuce defines this piece in the following terms: Every intellectual dispute expended in the game illustrates the evil manipulative capacity of men in the struggle for power in the democratic system. But at the same time, as is my appeal to tolerance, with a civilized attitude, because simply dealing with a game ( MUVART 2008 14 ). With this elemental yet highly politicized work, Gemuce underscores MUVART practices by raising thematic discussions and simultaneously ins erting his association and contemporary art praxis into Mozambican society. In a more recent project, Money Crunch Gemuce moves beyond his conceptual exploration of democracy to investigate themes of capitalism, economics, and differences between these i dea s in both Western and Non western contexts. A multi media performance piece, Money Crunch was a site Gemuce participated in. Sponsored by Scotland based contemporary arts organization, Deve ron in order to site the piece in a


54 Western, capitalist location. 18 In this work, Gemuce tackled the reality that most of the global economy is teetering on over extended credit. Addressing politica l and social concerns, Gemuce made an ironic statement in his appraisal of W estern society an d the gross materialism of its ubiquitous gift giving traditions of the Christmas season 19 The opening segment of Money Crunch took place i n Huntly Square on an early December evening, intended to coincide with the commencement of holiday shopping in the village center. Booths set up by local merchants provid ed various ite ms for purchase, ostensibly to facilitate and stimulate holiday gift shopping. In the midst o f this space of commerce, Gemuce presented Calabash Bank 20 Making a wry statement on value, Gemuce alludes to the multiple uses of the calabash in Africa ve rsus the multiplicity of consumer items offered for sale in W estern cultures that appear to provide only one, very specific use. Unlike all of the other booths, Calabash Bank interrogated glo bal monetary and credit systems by challenging interwoven themes including value ideas, money and credit. Dressed as Father Christmas Gemuce handed out cred it cards for his Calabash Bank (See Figure s 2 4, 2 5 ). Encouraging contemplation of W estern and specifically African contexts, Gemuce contrasted and linked W ester n ideals of Christmas capitalism and the ubiquitous African calabash. By linking Christmas and calabashes, Gemuce created a conceptual performance devoted to interrogating globalization, value, and currencies. Calabash Bank c redit cards Gemuce created were exchanged for ideas offered as an alternative to monetary currency. I deas were collected fro m shoppers who were given a credit card issued from the Calabash Bank with which they were permitted to withdraw ide as. Playing on the common W estern practice of relying on and over using credit cards, ideas replaced the money that is ty pically extracted from the automatic


55 teller machines of a bank. contemporary art scene and its engagement with internationa l sites and themes can be seen in the specific examples described above. In its efforts to expand the exhibition of contemporary art in Mozambique, MUV didactic strategy of exhibitions, workshops, lectures and artistic events, as well as highlighting elements of excellent example), has led to a pro mulgation and perpetuation of an intrinsically Mozambican contemporary ar t that transcends the previous governmental control of art Through its instructive advancement of the arts, MUVART presents a trajectory of evaluation and reevaluation of artistic trends in order to move the dissemination of contemporary art in Mozambiqu e forward artistically and intellectually, as well as locally and globally. Temporal: TDM Bienal The TDM Bienal is a n art exhibition sponsored and organized by Telecomunicaes de Moambique (Telecommunications of Mozambique/TDM ). This group of companies w as created in 1981 following the termination of the g overnment agency handling telecommunication services The Bienal is a partnership with the National Museum of Moz ambique, where it is displayed for two months on alternating years (See Figure 2 6) Despi te its time based limitations t he TDM Bienal is definitively the large st single exhibition of art in the country, and represents a tremendous cultural highlight in Mozambique Furthermore, the competition to select artworks include d in this exhibition is the largest in the country Finally, and perhaps most the fact that considerable cash prizes are awarded to winners (See Figure 2 7) 21 The TDM Bienal is widely acknowledged as representing and defining not simply art, but contemporary art in Mozambique.


56 The TDM Bienal wield s great power in the artistic and cultural landscape of Mozambique. The first exhibition, TDM Exposio was held in 1991 to celebrate the ten year establishment in 1981. This exhibition laid the foundation for the development of its Bienal as well a s establishing a standard for TDM to amass and develop its own art collection. commitment in the acc ompanying exhibition catalogue: We believe that this initiative is the first edition of what we intend to become the TDM Arts Biennial. This time, [we present] only the works of our collect ion, but in its other editions [it will be] open to all who want t o participate in it. We believe this opens a new perspective in the field of artistic Mozambique and thus (TDM 1991, n.p.). It is i nteresting to note here the explanation Fernandes provides, that although this first edition TDM Bienal exhibitions would be open to all in terms of allowing anyone to submit a work of art Acceptance to the Bienal Throughout the history of the Bi enal, two types of juries facilitate selection of artworks. The first jury accepts artists into the exhibition, and the second selects prize winners from among the accepted artworks 22 Jurors are individuals with different art related knowledge bases, incorp orating technical, curatorial, art historical and artistic aspects, and are modified with each Bienal 23 The first Bienal set a precedent linking TDM to the promotion of the arts in Mozambique. S ixty one artworks representing twenty four artists were inclu ded in this exhibit, includ ing painting s and sculptural works Representing previous acquisitions to developing art collection, the exhibition showcased such luminary Mozambican artists as Alberto


57 Chissano, dasse, Eugnio Lemos, Bertina Lopes, Malan gatana Ngwenya Estvo Mucavele, and Vctor Sousa. T his first exhibition became both an inspiration and a template for TDM, presenting specific goals that would be replicated in its future biennial exhibitions. Objectives included e nsuring works of art b y Mozambican artists remain in the country, providing broad and widespread support and encouragement of the plastic arts, and building both cultural heritage and financial assets (TDM 1991, n.p.). The Bienal serves as a means for building the TDM corporate art collection. Artworks are acquired by TDM through prize winning (an artwork submitted by an artist who wins first p rize in the Bienal automatically becomes part of the art collection of the TDM corporation), or optionally purchased direc t ly from the ar tists represented in the Bienal In the exhibition catalogue, TDM Director General Fernandes referred to how this exhibition will we consider of value (Ibid n.p.). Imposing value on artw orks and artists whose works are selected to be shown in the Bienal is an important detail Audiences of the visual arts revere many of the artists exhibited in the first Biena l, and the su ccess of these artists has determined the context for understanding i ndividual artistic styles. The implicit connection of value imposed upon the artworks presented in 1991 set a very high standard for all future artworks and artists that would be accepted into the Bienal For example, juried editions of the exhibit allo wed a limit of two artworks per artist submitted for selection. Furthermore, by impressing the notion of value upon these works, younger generations of artists inspired to submit artworks to future exhibitions would view art works shown in this first exhibi tion, as well as future biennials as representative examples of value, and more importantly, of the arts of Mozambique. As a result of this, TDM Bienals have become implicitly linked with selecting and displaying artworks of value. Based upon high expecta tions set within


58 the framework of the first Bienal future incarnations would inherently be charged with a great amount of power to define Mozambican art. This self appointed power of TDM exert s a tremendous influence in determining valuable works within t he visual cul ture of Mozambique. Scholarship regarding the far reaching role of this exhibit sheds light on the widespread impact of the TDM Bienal in Mozambique: By way of both political rhetoric and the exhibited works, Dak'Art forms a site for the construction of a Pan African discursive platform. Its singular focus on exhibiting the work of African and Diaspora artists relates to both the event's history and ideolo gical foundation. From its inception, Dak'Art intended to rectify the marginalization of African artists from international art venues by creating an international platform for showcasing their work in Africa. Dak'Art's ideological raison d'tre is thus un dergirded by an "expression of political will." Pan African in focus, the event's force resides in the premise of geopolitical collectivity. In this, it is as much an artistic event as an illustration of collective power. Its discursive construction relies heavily on the political rhetoric associated with Senegal's first president, Leopold Sedar Senghor, in his writings on Ngritude and subsequent cultural policies. In fact, the tenets of Senghorian ideology provide the ideological capital for the Biennale (Grabski 2008, 104). local (Senegal and African) arenas. Current TDM administrator Adolfo Boane puts a positive TDM tells a history of Mozambique. [It] provides a platform to talk about art, painting, how to teach painting.. 24 Biannually, TDM publicizes a call for submissions to its Bienal Most years since the inception of the comp etitive exhibition in 1993, th is format has been followed An exception occurred in 2007 when artists from the first Bienal were included in addition to previous prizewinners (1993 2007). In 2011, t wenty years after the first Exposio TDM, its president Dr. Teodato Hunguana 25 commented on the how the Bienal had advanced since its beginnings, (TDM 2011, 3). This reflective


59 statement o n the development of the Bienal essent ially presents a progress report on the artistic expansion made by artists through the use of more advanced technology and innovative media adopted by artists since the 1991 exhibition. R emarkable similarities exist b etween this statement and the ideals of MUVART. Based on similar goals of advancement of contemporary art, development of new media, use of biennial exhibitions as platforms, and a desire to fit within an international framework, the TDM Bienal and MUVART share fundamental links between common goals focused on the development of contemporary art in Mozambique. An analysis of an artwork exhibited in the 2011 Bienal provides a compelling case study. Vandalizadores de cabos de fibra ptica e a mscara do vigil ante/Vandals of Fiber O ptic wire and the Masks of the Vigilant is a mixed media artwork of 2011 by Domingos W. Comiche Mabongo (Domingos), an artist who uses mixed media as a didactic tool by incorporating common, everyday materials as media (See Figure 2 8 ) Domingos uses these materials to create art that is both accessible to, and i ntended for a specific audience Mozambicans who are not typically exposed to art. Domingos uses recognizable, recycled, and everyday materials within the instructional comme ntary his art presents. Metal objects such as nails, staples, and scraps in his artworks become transformed into symbols for motor vehicles, technology, and household goods. H is work Vandals of Fiber O ptic wire and the Masks of the Vigilant was create d for, and accepted into the 2011 TDM Bienal Thickly painted gestural strokes create abstract shapes within a frame work of faceted, interlocking cubist forms that suggest three dimensional space. Sections of ovoid and oblong curvilinear shapes invade the geometricity of the picture plane, creating a large skewed mask form diagonally oriented from the left top corner to the center of the bottom of the canvas. This mask creates an optical illusion, alternating its appearance and


60 disappearance within changing surfaces of the canvas. Once this mask is observed, others begin to appear, connecting with the larger mask, as they alternating in different directions as fragmented images. The im agery within this artwork i s kinetic, its movement created in arcs and p lanes that move erratically around the canvas. The movement is amplified by the dissonance of the framing device of the smaller rectangular section on the left side of the canvas. The metallic silver impas to treatment in this area i s heightened with the ad dition of applied staples. The three dimensional effect of the added staples creates a chaotic complement to t he dissonance within the dominant square. As the title indicates, this painting deals with vandals destroying the fiber optic lines that facilita te telephone access throughout Mozambique. In his discussion of this artwork, Domingos foregrounds the widespread effects this type ing is [ there is a] problem with people break[ing] wires of TDM [which is] report[ed] 26 He uses staples symbolically, as a three dimensional addition to his canvas to broadly represent the complex infrastructure of TDM. 27 Domingos explains that the vigilantes of the technological vandals are equipped with arcs (portable weapons and arrows). 28 By creating a visual link between co ntemporary society and the past, Domingos introduces the legacy of legendary Mozambican warrior and folk hero, Ngungunh ane, who according to legend could not be killed by Portuguese forces despite being hit with arrows several times. Domingo s inserts the mythology of this figure into his work, as one who will continue to use his historical weapons in the role as a vigilan te defend ing against the vandals of contemporary technology (of TDM, who sponsored the Bienal exhibition this work was created for).


61 This work was not a prizewinner. Domingos did wi n first prize in the 2009 Bienal however His winning artwork was a mixed media painting that incorporated natural recycled materials such as s 2011 entry investigating vandalism of TDM communication systems, th ese works are based on his explorations o f destruction by men and nature. These paintings typify artwork currently being created by artists in Mozambique. Based on my analysis of archived TDM exhibition catalogs, there has been a steady increase in artworks submitted and accepted to the Bienal t hat are comprised of mixed media and/or recycled materials. In the last Bienal of 2011, eleven of the forty four selected artworks were created from recycled materials, and the first prize win ner was created of recyclia. Whether the TDM biennial exhibitio n represents an accurate portray al of Mozambican art today is a popular debate among artists and patrons of art, and a difficult question to address. This debate as well as jury bias toward younger, trained artists, disapproval of a single prize award ins tead of o n e representing each media favoritism t owards artists working in Maputo, and finally, corruption represent critiques of the TDM Bienal I am currently investigating. As a result of these criticisms, the Bienal has become problematic and several a rtists I have spoken with refuse to participate any longer. Highlighting one of these criticisms, TDM has previously acknowledged that the majority of artists represented in its Bienal are concentrated in Maput o, thereby not providing an overall view of Mo zambican art (TDM 1991, n.p.). The desire to achieve a truer representation of art throughout Mozambique has been a point of contention for the entire history of the TDM Bienal This is not a new problem, yet it continues to be the source of consternation among audiences and organizers of the influential exhibition


62 Victor Sala, Commissioner of the Jury of the 2011 TDM Bienal commented: for people out side of Maputo, it is d ifficult to access information [call for entries] and send work. This is another element. If [we] could do a bit more and think about other artists outside Maputo [represented in the Bienal ] is from here [Maputo] 29 indicates awareness among organizers that the Biena l does not represent all of Mozambique because of the l ack of entries from the artists living outside the capital city. Sala has suggested as a solution that the organizing committee target communication with artists outside of Maputo, through the Minister of Culture 30 For the first time, a debate was planned in 2011 to address critiques of the Bienal Regarding the upcoming debate and specific issues to be tackled, Sala stated: Some of the elements we will discuss include required criteria for giving award s, art or Many art students will be there. Transparency is good. 31 I question whether this debate actually took place. Sala, who had previously asked me to speak at the debate, never contacted me to finalize the date and time the event would be held. Several artists I spoke with confirmed the event did not take place. The TDM Bienal occupies a fascinating posit ion within the framework of developing and advancing the visual arts within Mozambique: A countrywide exhibit dedicated to promoting art in a country whose population is generally disinterested and unknowledgeable about art is a tremendous boon to cultivat i ng a culture of art. Despite the criticisms, the presence of the TDM Bienal has largely benefitted and advanced accessibility to the arts in Mo zambique by offering exposure to contemporary art. Tan gible: Ncleo de Arte A Associao Ncleo de Arte (Associa tion of the Nuc leus of Art), founded in the 1920s/193 0s 32 is dedicated to the development of the fine arts in Mozambique. Ncleo de Arte


63 is r ooted in the coloni al era and originally reflected the cultural sensibili ties of its Portuguese founders. Early di visions of Ncleo de Arte Throughout its history, this instituti on has undergone ideological transformations, allowing it to withstan d the political, social and cultural vicissitudes of the colonial and post independence periods creation of the Ncleo de Arte was cl early the embodiment of imperial thinking and of the attempt to build closer relations be tween spreading aesthetic education and promoting th e progress of art in the 31). Costa further states the original statutes of Ncleo de Arte included aims to: o rganize art courses, put on art exhibitions, create an art museum (with an indigenous art section), and organize visits by artists from Portugal, who could create works of art in the colony inspired by local subjects. I t was also its job to organize art exhibitions dealing with Mozambican subjects in Portugal and contribute, in every possible way, to the artistic exchange between Mozambique and the metrpole (Ibid).


64 Ncleo de Arte An often repeated myth like story tells of how a young Mozambican, Malangatana Valente Ngwenya, broke through racial barriers and became involved in this arts organization and first exhibited paintings there in 1959. Other w ell known Moza mbican artists who became active members of Ncleo de Arte early on include Ber tina Lopes and Alberto Chissano. These artists set the precedent for Ncleo de Arte collective association that exists today an d promotes the development of a broad, yet distinctly Mozambican style of art the 1990s, following the gradual acceptance of Mozambicans preceding independence ( Ncleo de Arte n.d .). T he administrative infrastructure of Ncleo de Arte consists of a President, elected by general vote; (current Arturo Vincente (Nongwhenye) ), who holds office for two years with the possibility of holding two consecutive terms; Vice Pres ident; Council Fiscal, which three individuals selected by vote); and the Assembly, which represents the general population of artists, currently compris ing over three hundred members. Financi al support for Ncleo de Arte relies upon membership dues, contributions, grants, and governmental funding. Recent renovation work described below was achieved through corporate sponsorship of a Mozambican bank, Millenium Bim. The physical space of Ncleo de Arte is anchored by a large colonial era Port uguese home on the corner of a residential neighborhood in the Polana D istrict of Maputo (See Figure 2 9) The focal point and creative center of Ncleo de Arte however, is the large open air covered worksho p in the center of the artistic complex. The workshop, as well as its surrounding outdoor


65 courtyard, provides collaborative working studio space for members of the Association. In these shared areas, artists create, contemplate and engage collectively in i ntensive discussions related to art and art making. It is not uncommon to see close to ten artists communally working within these areas at Ncleo de Arte on a daily basis (See Figure 2 10, 2 11) A rtists at Ncleo de Arte engage with varied media and tech niques as they paint, sculpt, make ceramics and working with diverse recycled materials The cohesive social environment of Ncleo de Arte fosters creativity and the development of ideas through camaraderie. The highly interactive social environment at N cleo de Arte is consistent with Sidney Littlefield Kasfir and institution that fosters particular modes of reciprocal interpretation and in general, social interaction. Artists in the workshop learn through others, not from them ( Kasfir and Frster 2013, 22) Much like Kas workshop analyses, a rtists working collectively immerse themselves in the production of art, while relying upon a constant source of feedback and support literally a nucleus of art. Under renovation for over two years, the large home t hat previously served as the main exhibition space of Ncleo de Arte February 2013. Prior to renovations, this space maintained a permanent exhibition of artworks by members, with occasional interrupt ions of themed exhibitions for brief intervals. Recent construction on this building has impacted and facilitated the development of major goals for Ncleo de Arte that affect not only th e physical infrastructure of this historical Mozambican ciation, but its goals for the presentation of the arts as well. T he impact of this construction affect s Ncleo de Arte theoretically as it will devote greater focus on presenting an ongoing and tangible educational space designed for stu dents,


66 visitors, a nd tourists. The house, now that its construction has been completed, will resume its 33 Vincente, further elaborating on current goals of Ncleo de Arte, stated the organization seeks ology it will be different from before, where a permanent, continuing exhibition was previously displayed, now each artist will make a solo exhibit for fifteen days to show the potential of art is our big 34 Long range plans for Ncleo de Arte inc lude opening additional locations in the provinces of Mozambique to reach out to represent artists beyond the capital city of Maputo. Vincente projected broader ideas surrounding Ncleo de Arte as a cultural resource in Mozambique: Ncleo is an association for people in the community a public space where everyone can see new, innovative art is happening at Ncleo. Ncleo is a space to do research for artists. They come here fr om home and s e e different types of art coming from their ateliers at home [they come to Ncleo ] to open their minds, get new ideas. 35 Ncleo de Arte promotes art through its focus on community projects. In October 2010, s tudents and artists collaborated to create artw orks from pre used materials This multi week (See Figure 2 12) Vicente, [students] t created from recycled materials, as well as to reduce garbage, because when we are reducing we can make something 36 Ana Vilankulos (Matswa) is one of the artists who participated in the recycling workshop. She and Zeferino instructed stud ents, showing them how to create art from scavenged fabric and metal objects (Both of these artists and their works are discussed in chapt ers four and five). Another exhibition held by Ncleo de Arte also aimed at community outreach and focused on recycli ng Intended to demonstrate the potency of art, this exhibit was created in collaboration with the Conselho Cristo de Moambique (


67 Transforming Arms into Plowshares ( Transformao de Armas em Enxadas ) (TAE) Project (See c hapter three for a comprehensive discussion of the project and its artworks) 37 The TAE project, created in 1995 by Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane, is a countrywide project responsible for eradicating Mozambique of the millions of weapons believed to remain in the country after its past wars. TAE collects decommissioned weapons from Mozambican wars, renders them inoperable, and transforms them into art. TAE artists who create art from collected weapons use recyclia both literally and conceptually, creating evoca tive art while deconstructing Mozambican history. 38 pt of peace through the symbolism of powerful artworks compo sed of former tools of killing. An exhibition held at Ncleo de Arte, entitled Fale, No Temas, Deus tem muita gente commemorated the date (October 4, 1992), when the General Peace Agreement was reached in This the TAE artworks, engaging viewers to remember the viol protracted history of war (See Figure 2 13) Diverse in media and techniques, artists affiliated with Ncleo de Arte are embracing historical arts traditions as well as illustrating a strong desire to promote the develo pment and expansion of new ideals of contemporary art in Mozambique Tangible: Kulungwana The Associao Kulungwana (originally Kulungwana Association for Cultural Development) originated in 2005. Kulungwana is a Shangaan 39 word that refers to a sound pe ople (mostly women) utter in ceremonies (weddings or parties) to show joy that all is progressing well. Executive Director Henny Matos describes the non


68 40 conveying that its main acti vity is a music festival held each year in May. In 2008, Kulungwana began operating its art venue, Sala de Espera (Waiting Room), in the Baixa area of Maputo. The gallery occupies a renovated former waiting room in the Estao Central dos Caminhos de Ferro (CFM) R ailr oad S tation on the train platform of this distinguished building that recently celebrated i ts one hundredth anniversary. gallery is augmented by the imposing architecture of the green and white Victorian style railroad station sur rounding it, designed in the much duplicated late nineteenth/early twentieth century Eiffel Style of French architecture (See 2 14 ). During the colonial era, this grand, domed station served as the terminus of the most important railway line connecting the city Loureno Marques with mines located in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Executive Director Matos explained that this space was specifically chosen for its striking architectural presence in order to effectively showcase Mozambican culture 41 T he high visibility location chosen for the site of Kulungwan gallery readily illustrates an eye for attracting both a local and international audience The CFM Railway Station is one of in several Mozambican travel guides. Additionally, the railway station continues to operate with limited services, and One large room holds the art exhibitions, although much of the gal lery activity takes place outside, on the platform of the railroad tracks. formal association and administrative infrastructure consists of a five member directive board, headed by an Executive Director (current Matos) and four additional i Commission of five members set s the program for yearly exhibitions based on proposals; while the General Assembly, including the entire membership, is responsible for developing a yearly


69 financial plan. Kulungwana began with funds totaling just over $330,000.00 USD from donations, grants, bequests, legacies, and concessions. Yearly revenues include proceeds from annual membership dues contributions, subsidies, and bequests ( Kul ungwana ) Five yearly e xhibitions are carefully planned to balance diverse media and artists One exhibit that illustrates goal to promote culture through the arts has evolved into a yearly exhibition. Coleco Crescent (Growing Collection) initially launched by Kulungwana The Creative Block Growing Collection has two specific goals, one intended to stimulate artistic creativity among the artists, while another promotes local patronage through affordable prices for these miniature artworks 42 Focused on attracting both a local and international audience, most of local patronage comes from middle and upper class Mozambicans interested in art, expats who travel in cultural circles, and artists who are more likely to attend exhibition openings than purchase works of art. Tourists comprise a healthy percentage of its audience as well. Kulungwana selects both e stablished and emerging artists who are invited to creat e an artwork for this e vent Each of the artists is provided with three individual small MDF (medium Growing Collection overall strategy, in allowing artists the freedom t o submit diverse works for display in themed exhibitions These blocks challenge artists to create on a relatively small scale, with the flexibility to use any style or additional media they choose. Many artists choose to paint the blocks, while some, such as the artist who is shown here (See Figure 2 15; Jorge Jos Munguambe (Makolwa) ) has chosen to use multiple techniques to create his block. Makolwa is in the process of carving the block and adding re cycled metal materials in his mixed media artwork ( Se e Figures 2 16 2 17 ).


70 Broader goals of Kulungwana are realized t hrough a grassroots technique that creates an ongoing dialogue between viewers and artists. On one level, Kulungwana focuses on promoting artists and their art, push ing artists to expand the ir creative 43 Parnasianos (October 2011) a Kulungwana exhibition featuring Cuban artist Ulisses Gomes Oviedo and MUVART founder Gemuce, illustrates an exhibit in which both goals of Kulungwa na are achieved, as w ell as demonstrating MUVART favored platform of using art exhibitions for presenting conceptually based art as a didactic tool to promote contemporary art. Based on positivist ideals, Gemuce and Ulisses utilized the Parnassian Moveme nt as a foundation to explore artistic representations of realism without romanticism 44 The Parnassian Movement was based on Parnassianism a French literary style that emerged in the second half of the nineteenth and represented a reaction against the pop ular overtly sentimental style of romanticism. 45 Intended to [by] countering romanticism, excess 46 Gemuce defined how this exhibit strove to replicate the Parnassianism Movement The artists focused on achieving artistic standards of exactitude and impeccable workmanship, including classical subjects rigidity of form and emotional detachment ( Kulungwana 2011, n.p.). In the exhibition Parnasianos, Gemuce and Ulisses reo pened an earlier agenda of artistic debate surrounding romanticism, by focusing on a presentation of realism. Speaking of revisiting the mid nineteenth century Paranassian Movement, Gemuce refers to how the Paranassian ] debate fits perfectly in the arti stic practices of our day, [it is] intrinsically connected to artistic practices, born of an academic debate about academic concepts and between 47 In a literal denouncement of romanticism Parnasianos presented two divergent views (the artis of realism explored through art


71 white pen and ink drawings presented graphic, realistic portrayals of dreamlike situations His black and white dashes in china ink, a rescue of human figures in their confrontation with states of con sciousness, composing messages f amil i ar to our 48 period [ Parnassianism ] right now. I am d econstruct ing art also, by only using black and white. I am creating a moment of provocation olors. 49 interpretation of realism, with colorful painterly landscape scene s framed by roughly hewn wooden recyclia. Parnasianos approach, technique, media and representation, inspired contemplation on realism. The intensity of the exhibition emerged from how thes e two views, presented by Ulisses and Gemuce, presented an opposition to romanticism, as well as to each other as if squared off in an artistic duel. T and white pen an d ink drawings created a palpable tension in the gallery. A symbolic figure added to this lively artistic debate : a moving model. Wholly painted white he wore only white, tight fitting shorts and a white knitted tam to cover his hai r. The figure evoked a spirit, or perhaps the spirit of realism (See Figure 2 18 ) He alternated between assuming classical sculptural poses of Michelangelo and Rodin, to melodramatic outbursts where he enthusiastic ally recited traditional poetry. This spi ritual figure served as a conduit to the stark reality graphic works, while creating an abstract foil The Parnassian figure underscored a literal and conceptual repr esentation of realism as he immersed himself into the art, but then quickly rebounded back into real life. Through their conceptual and spirited


72 exploration of realism, Gemuce and Ulisses present ed a striking commentary on the multilayered conceptualizat ion between art and life. Speaking about Parnasianos and its aims, Gemuce commented, In general, this exhibition talks about realism. The theme was talking about how artists imitate real life. But it is imitating in a graphic way. Sculpture and painting imitate. This man [white spirit figure] does the inverse he goes back into art s are about confronting about black and white and the guy in the middle. 50 Like the Parnasianos exhibition Kulungwan a strives to present the exploration of contemporary Mozambican art in its varied multi media exhibitions. By challenging artistic expression through diverse thematic exhibits, Kulungwana promotes the expression and ideals of contemporary art in Mozambique for artists as well as patrons of the arts. Conceptual, Temporal, and Tangible: MUVART, TDM Bienal A A ssociao Ncleo de Arte, and Associao Kulungwana Bienal, A Associao Ncleo de Arte and Kulungwan a Gallery) in Mozambique are conceptual, tangible, and temporal. At the same time, these spaces are also porous, permeable and fluid. In this chapter I strived to illustra te the lack of boundaries between contemporary arts spaces and between artists in Ma puto Members of MUVART frequently exhibit their art at G allery; artists associated with A A ssociao Ncleo de Arte create artworks that are both accepted into and awarded prizes in the TDM Bienal ; members of MUVART are also members of A A sso ciao Ncleo de Arte where they frequently utilize workshop areas there in the creation of their art. Similarly, there is much overlap in the goals set by these varied organizations, arts spaces and movements in their quest to seek the development and proliferation of contemporary art in Mozambique. Each of these spaces, whether conceptual, temporal, or tangible is focused on promoting contemporary art. This artistic advancement has been realized through the


73 mounting of workshops ( A A ssociao Ncleo de Arte MUVART); exhibitions (MUVART, Kulungwana A A ssociao Ncleo de Arte TDM Bienal ); and cultural outreach projects ( A A ssociao Ncleo de Arte MUVART, Kulungwana TDM Bienal ). The artists and artworks that create these varied discursive spaces draw from individual identities, build from the past, and develop new media and techniques. Deficiencies in government suppor t and its lack of patronage have been a major factor that has c ontributed to the currently underdeveloped scene in Mozambique. Des pite this, diverse yet cohesive organizations have assumed leadership roles in promoting and supporting the expansion of contemporary art in Mozambique. Contemporary art exper imentation with new forms of expression and venues for collaboration in the further development and continuation of contemporary art aesthetic s and diverse platforms for its display. 1 Pompilio Hilrio (Gemuce), interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 17, 2009. 2 Gilberto Cossa, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 18, 2009. 3 Otilia Aquino, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, November 14, 2010. 4 China and the republics that comprised the former U.S.S.R illustrate additional examples of how governmental uses of art to promote its ideals have led to similar struggles in the developme nt of contemporary art. 5 Additional early MUVART members included Marcus Bonifacio (Muthewuye), Celestino Mondlane (Mudulaune), Luis Muingua (Muingua), Quentin Lambert, Ansia Manjate, Carmen Muianga, Titos Mabota, Ivan Serra, and Vnia Lemos. 6 Gemuc e, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 17, 2009. 7 Ibid. 8 Gemuce, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, July 24, 2008. 9 In 2003 MUVART held its first exhibition, with participation by its eleven founding artist members and two new artists during the Festival at Centro Cultural Franco Moambicano in Maputo.


74 10 Initially exhibited in the first MUVART biennial of 2004, this artwork is now on permanent display in the collection of the National Museum of Mozambique. 11 I have not yet discovered the origin o f the multiple names involved with the practice of taking artist names in Mozambique. I suspect this practice may be related to the Lusophone tradition of individuals having many different family names. 12 Matequenha, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, July 27 2011. 13 Ibid. 14 Ibid. 15 Touch in Museums: Policies and Practice in Object Handling, Oxford: Berg. 16 Jorg Dias, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 17, 2009. 17 Jorg Dias, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 17, 2009. 18 2009 January 2010). Deveron Arts is a contemporary arts l market town of Huntly, where [they] www.deveron ) First accessed August 25, 2013. 19 Gemuce, interview, Maputo Mozambique, February 24, 2011. 20 Selected uses of calabashes in African contexts include regalia and royal prestige items (Cameroon Grasslands); Hausa and Fulani adornment and status objects (Niger); dye stamps for Adinkra cloth by Akan peopld (Ghana); h ousehold embellishment (Nigeria); as well as water and other storage containers throughout Africa. 21 Prize winnings are considerable. In the last TDM Bienal of 2011 the prize winnings were allocated as follows: 1 st prize 150,000.00 meticais ($5,000.00 US D); 2 nd prize 100,000.00 meticais ($3350.00 USD); 3 rd prize 50,000.00 meticais ($1695.00 USD). 22 In 2011 TDM Bienal budget reductions resulted in only one jury that was responsible for both selection into the exhibit and its prizewinners. 23 Since 1993 too many individuals to mention here have served on both initial selection and prize winning selection juries for the TDM Bienal 24 Adolfo Boane, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, March 23, 2011. 25 I must thank Drew Thompson for pointing out the fact that Hunguana held important governmental positions before transitioning into the private world. These included National Director of Labor (1975), and subsequent appointments by former President Samora Machel: Minister of Justice (1978); Deputy Minister of the Interior (1983); and Minister of Information (1986). 26 Domingos, interview, Mozambique. October 6, 2011.


75 27 Ibid. 28 Domingos. Synopsis. Vandalizadores de cabos de fibra ptica e a mscara do vigilante 29 Victor Sala, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, Novemb er 4, 2011. 30 Ibid. 31 Ibid. 32 Alda Costa cites 1938 as the date Ncleo de Arte was founded. Unverified documents I have viewed at Ncleo de Arte suggest an earlier date of 1921. 33 Artur Vincente (Nongwhenye), interview, Maputo, Mozambique, January 3, 2013 34 Ibid. 35 Ibid. 36 Nongwhenye, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, March 15, 2011. 37 Dia do Paz /Day of Peace, celebrated annually on October 4. 38 I have written elsewhere on how th e past lives of recycled materials (weapons) inscribe meaning as these objects are transformed into art: in Dialogues with Mozambique. Interdisciplinary Reflections, Readings and Approaches on Mozambican Studies. Paula Meneses and Bjrn Bertelsen eds. 201 3, and in Representations of Reconciliation: Art and Trauma in Africa Lizelle Bisschoff and Stefanie Van de Peer, eds. I. B. Tauris Publishers, 2013, 91 109. 39 Shangaan/Shangana is an indigenous Mozambican language from the Bantu family with Tsonga roots. Shangana is predominantly spoken in Southern Mozambique, encompassing the capital of Maputo, in the Maputo region. 40 Henny Matos, interview, Maputo, Mozambique. March 1, 2011. 41 Ibid. 42 Ibid. 43 Ibid. 44 Ibid. 45 Theophile Gautier and Leconte de Lisle found ed the Parnassianism literary movement. 46 Gemuce, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, October 15, 2011. 47 Ibid. 48 Ibid.


76 49 Ibid. 50 Ibid.


77 Figures Figure 2 1. Faizal Omar ( Ma tequenha ) Estudo Acst ico do Convencional/Tradicional ( Acoustic Study of Conventional/Traditional ), mixed media, 2004. Photograph by A. Schwartzott


78 Figure 2 2 Matequenha. Detail. Estudo Acstico do Convencional/Tradicional ( Acoustic S tudy of Conventional/Traditional ), mixed media, 20 04. Photograph by A. Schwartzot t


79 Figure 2 3. Jorge Dias. Transparncia: Processos criativos e devaneios ( Transparency: Creative Processes and Daydreams ) mixed media instal lation at Instituto Cames (Camoes Institute) in Maputo in 2010 Photograph credit Jorge Dias


80 Figure 2 4. Pompilio Hilrio ( Gemuce ) part of Money Crunch mixed media performance/installation in Huntly, Scotland, December 2009. Photo graph credit Gemuce


81 Figure 2 5. part of Money Crunch in Huntly, Scotland, mixed media performance/installation, December 2009. Photo credit Gemuce


82 Figur e 2 6. View in gallery 1, TDM Bienal 2011, National Museum. Photograph by A. Schwartzott


83 Figure 2 7. Awards Ceremony TDM Bienal 2011, National Museum. Photograph by Alcides Goba


84 Figure 2 8. Domingos W. Comiche Mabon go ( Domingos ) Vandalizado res de cabos de fibra ptica e mscara do vigilante /Vandals of Fiber Optic wire and the Masks of the Vigilant mixed media, 2011 Photograph by A. Schwartzott


85 Figure 2 9. Exterior view, A Associao Rua de Argelia Maputo. Photo by A. Schwartzott


86 Figure 2 10. Artists in outdoor courtyard area, A Photograph by A. Schwartzott


87 F igure 2 11. Artists Matswa Vilanculos (Ana) and Mu ssagy Narane Talaquichand (Falco) in workshop area, A e Photograph by A. Schwartzott


88 Figure 2 12 Artists and students who participated in Recycling Workshop, A de Arte October 2010. Photogr aph by A. Schwartzott


89 Figure 2 13. Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane and TAE National Coordinat or Boaventura Zita attending e xhibition, Fale, No Temas, Deus tem muit o gen nesta cidade, Fale de Paz ( k the Peace ) of TAE art at A Associao Arte October 20 10. Photograph by A. Schwar tzott


90 Figure 2 14. Associao Kulungwana CFM Railroad Station, Maputo Photograph by A. Schwartzott


91 Figure 2 15. A Associao Ncleo de Arte Artist Jorge Jose' Munguambe ( Makolw a) working on a s ubmission f or Kulungwana's 2012 Coleco Crescente E xhibition. Photo by A. Schwartzott


92 Figure 2 16. Exhibition Opening Reception for Kulungwana's Coleco Crescente E xhibition Kulungwana Gallery, Maputo, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott


93 Figure 2 17. Exhibition view, Kulungwana's Coleco Crescente E xhibition K ulungwana Gallery, Maputo, 2011. Photo graph by A. Schwartzott


94 Figure 2 18. Perform ance, Parnasianos E xhibition Opening Reception Kulungwana Gallery, Maputo, October 2011 Photograph by A. Schwartzott


95 CHAPTER 3 In this c hapter I explore the Transforming Arms into Plow shares / Transformao de Armas em Enxadas (TAE) project and its artists who use weapons to create art. 1 The TAE project reveals the potency of recycling as a n artistic tool in post conflict resolution. This chapter focuses on the mater iality of the weapons transformed by TAE artists and the crucial fact that these artistic media were originally arti A statement by Antnio 2 a former child soldier, vividly contextualizes the powerful presence o f weaponry that if I lose my weapo 3 More than t wenty years have passed since three decades of nearly continuous warfare ended in Mozambique in 1992. Today Ant nio brokers the collection of arms between individuals who retain or have knowledge of the location of automatic weapons, bazookas, rifles, pistols and other weapons and the non governmental organization Christian Council of s/ Conselho Cristo de Moambique (CCM) project, TAE. TAE collects decommissioned weapons from Mozambican wars, renders them inoperable, and transfo rms them into art. This chapter explores the TAE project and its artists who use recyclia both literally and conceptually, crea ting evocative art while deconstructing Mozambican history. My research contextualize s how the past histories of recycled materials inscribe meaning as these objects are transformed int s purposeful destruction and transformation of recycled weap ons of wars enables these arms to make visible the invisible concept of peace through the compelling symbolism of artworks comp osed of former tools of killing. The sublime visual power of TAE artworks engages viewers to remember the violenc e and destruct ion of war.


96 Theoretical Framework/ Deconstructing Weapons of War Scholarship linking art and trauma studies is a fast developing field in the discipline of art history. S ome scholars who link the arts and conflict resolution distinguish between process and product in the role of the arts ( Liebman 1996; Epskamp 1999; Zeliger 2003; Cleveland 2008) Overall, sc holars tend to agree in their fo cus on art as a therapeutic device, its role in remembrance of conflict, and how it contributes to the process of communi ty building and reconciliation (Bennett 2005; Cleveland 2008; Kelly 1994; Liebmann 1996; and Samuels 2008). The TAE project is an innovative example of conflict resolution that disables weapons from killing again. American artist William Kelly founde d T he Peace Project a traveling installation focused on non violence and humanist themes, begun in 1988. He s tate d can never stop a bullet, but a painting can stop a bullet from being TAE proj ect literally proves this through their sculptures that prevent further conflict by ending the violent cycle of the life of weapons by transforming them into art forms that evoke the visceral symbolism of their former lives. P ost conflict resolution has become a developing field of interdisciplinary scholarship following former United Nations Secretary General Boutros Boutros An Agenda for Peace: Preventive d iplomacy, peacemaking and peace keeping In t his report, Boutros Ghali identified post conflict resolution as Gh ali 1992, 21). Recent scholarship indicates widespread interdisciplinary recognition of the important role of art in the field of post conflict resolution and trauma studies In a discussion about the TAE project, eminent Africanist political scien tist Gor an Hyden remarked: the use of a rt as an alternative mechanism [in post conflict resolution] is an innovation especially appropria te in the light of rapid


97 urbaniz ation with its more concen 4 Hyden i s best known for E conomy of A a theory he developed that addresses local communication here, as it illustrates recognition among diverse disciplines that art is a n effective tool in the processes of peacemaking, peacekeeping, trauma studies, and post project is consistent with his views of Southern/Eastern African politics and the importance and effectiveness of grassroots approaches to p olicy making. I draw upon a n interdisciplinary framework that link s social anthropology (Kopytoff 1986; Appadurai 1988), v isual culture studies (Ben Amos 1989; Mirzoeff 1999; Costa 2005), and post conflict reso lution theories (Bhoutros Ghali 1992; Sengulan e 1994; Bartoli 1998; UNECA 2001; Nhema & Zeleza 2008) for this research I foc s assemblage arts as a n effective tool for remembrance, reconciliation, and peacekeeping in Mozambique and as a global paradigm. I draw connections between Mozambican artists who use recycled materials as tools for activism and interdisciplinary scholarship focused on grassroots foundations based in religio us politic al and economic contexts (Anoui lh 2006; Zuppi 1995; Hyden 1983 ) The theoretical fra mework for investigating TAE draws largely from social anthropology and visua l culture studies, specifically the writings of Igor Kopytoff and Nicholas Mirzoeff (Kopytoff f s transformation from its initial use thro ugh its many lives. Centrally, as stated previously in chapter one, I argue that the life of an object such as a weapon does not end when it is decommissioned, destroyed and recr eated artistica lly. Rather, in its reincarnation as a recycled material it gains more expressive power as it is transformed into art. I focus on how its original identity and


98 how this intrinsic mea ning is maintained. I link this connection directly to the weapons collected, disabled, and transformed by TAE. Whereas the weapons are physically cut to prevent their further use, the recognizable shapes of the parts of the guns remain reminding vie wers of their original identity, or history as I state in Object F rictions. These identities also evoke The iconic symbolism of the weapons as they are transformed is essential for understanding the meaning of the TAE art s 5 (Mirzoeff 1999, 76), informs this exploration as I link how daily recycling in Africa extends to the practice of ar t making, through the widespread use of recycled materials in the creation of con temporary art in Mozambique. This dissertation demonstrates how recycling is integral to the everyday life of artists, through my presentation of many artists who purposely select diverse pre used objects to recycle into art Furthermore, the linking of ar t and post conflict resolution as it is explored in this chapter contributes to the limited scholarship on this topic ( Liebmann 1996; Bennett 2005, Samuels 2008), by incorporating the use of recycling as a n effective tool for peacebuilding and pe acekeeping in the arts of TAE. History of TA E TAE was initially established as Comisso do Justia, Paz e Reconciliao /Department of Justice, Peace and Reconciliation (JPRC) within the Christian Council of Mozambique (C CM ), founded in 1948 and motivated by a mandat e of the church to bring peace TAE, which is donor and widely considered to be its most important and most successful. Although CCM is an NGO, it is more ofte n considered a religious organiz ation, comprised of at least twen ty different denominations, including mainline churches brought to Mozambique by missionaries as well as indigenous local churches


99 CCM President Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane founded TAE in 1995 (See Figure 3 1). 6 TAE began in the context of CCM /JPRC worksh ops aimed at establishing peace and democracy following FRELIMO /RENAMO negotiations and the General Peace Agreement signed in Rome in 1992. 7 Mandates of JPRC included the following: Implement the Justice, Peace and Reconciliation Commission decisions; Pro vide s piritual assistance and counsel ing on how Mozambicans can embrace in a holistic manner the peace to come in close cooperation with the Evangelism Department; Work with demobiliz ed soldiers and study ways for CCM to provide them means for the ir social integration or mobiliz e means to assist them; Start new program related with Peace Building, Conflict Resolution, Democratiz ation, Human Rights; Mobiliz e national and international assistance and solidarity to fulfil l those initiatives; Link Bible studies with social interventions and record those experiences to share them with interesting parties, nationally and internationally (Zita n.d.) s intent for TAE was to facilitate community dialogue and civic education through workshops and seminars dealing with reconciliation, memory, healing and forgiveness. A central focus of these workshops was the preparation of Mozambican people to return to their homes after many years of displacement caused by the post independence conflict. 8 Bi sh op Sengulane stated that the primary goal motivating TAE and CCM following the peace agreement was to come together after the war to reunite as a nation 9 This process included travel ing to different provinces to find out what Mozambicans feared most aft er the war. Bishop Sengulane explained that a woman in the Nampula provi nce ( in n orthern Mozambique) asked him, What are we going to do with so many guns in the hands of the people? 10 He said that he applied principles he found in the Old Testament verse s of Micah 4 3 and Isaiah 2:2 and they s hall beat their swords into plow shares. And their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation neith This well

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100 known verse reveals not only the desire to promote peace, but it also underscores a pervasive theme in the arts of Mozambique: recycling. When I asked Bishop Sengulane and other religious figures in TAE leadership where they found inspiration for the ir development of the proj ect they stressed that the ir motivation s came from the Bible. When probed whether specific theorists provided guidance in creating their in grassroots organizi ... academics want more. Bishop Tutu led programs, ... pea ce talks come from the church. 11 s solution for the weapons problem included the completion of the disarmament program ini tiated by the government and the United Nations 12 Following this, CCM, through the establishmen t of TAE, would utilize the concept of transformation as a guiding principle in its program for peac ebuilding 13 logical transformation as well Since the United Nations Operation in Mozambique ( ONUMOZ ) did not provide psychiatric or psychological treatment s, there were no doctors prepared to deal with these types of wounds created by war despite the obvious need fo r this type of specialized medical treatment Military personnel on both sides of the conflict were traumatized and i n need of treatment ( Zita n.d ). TAE employed American Mennonite psychiatrist Alda Brubaker t o administer to individuals who needed assista nce reintegrating into Mozambican society. 14 Bishop Sengulane initially viewed TAE as a tripartite process: it consisted of col lecting weapons, making them non usable and providing an instrument of production as an incentive in exchange for the collected weapons. F informants who hand over guns and other military hardware to the

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101 organization in order for the weapons to be destroyed. Originally TAE incentives included such materials as bicycles, sewing machines, and plows. Over time TAE has become more flexible with incentives offered, focusing on confidence building and creating an honest living for individuals who turn in weapons 15 Diverse incentives such as farm imp lements, seeds, cement, zinc roofs and even tickets for trips to home villages are not unusual. Bishop Sengulane and other TAE leaders stress that money is nev er offered as an incentive for turning weapons over to TAE because they do not wish to give the i mpression that they are buying the weapon s. TAE polic ies stress anonymity and lack of involvement by the army or police when weapons are handed over, and names are never recorded. 16 Weapons exchanged by demobilized soldiers, individual civilians, and eventu ally entire communities follow similar frameworks exchanging arms for products or services. Bishop Sengulane often repeats the following warning to convey the d to sleep with a gun in your bedroom is like sleeping with a pois onous snake in your room. 17 TAE representatives work to become integrated into provincial regions and gain access to areas where heavy fighting took place during the last war and weapons are believed to remain, such as the Zambzia and Nampula provinces. Ad mission into communities is achieved by focusing on grassroo ts ideals based on trust and the sharing of food, drink s and eventually informa s acceptance, TAE representatives are frequently led to weapons that have remained h idden since the war ended 18 Often this is a protracted process, contingent upon the level of trust informants have that no recriminations will be made against them after weapons are exchanged. Security Expert Joo commented on this: why some times when people start to work with us they have fear. After [the exchange] in two months they want to see if a man is in jail or not. 19

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102 Promised exchanges of weapons may develop into an extended waiting game that ultimately does not succeed for fear of reprisals. A successful weapon s exchange that took place in three communities in the Gorongosa and Buzi districts in October 2010 yielded the retrieval of 129 weapons and 389 ammunitions of different calib er s 20 ( See Figures 3 2 3 3 ). TAE National Coordinat or Boaventura Zita has commented that while the response to the TAE project has been great so far, s existed in the first 21 While TAE has reported collecting more than 600,000 weapons since its inception in 1995 22 many weapons continue to be discovered and turned over to TAE annually TAE offi cials are extremely concerned about the unknown number of weapons that still remain in Mozambique and the great danger this poses for maintaining the co s peace. As will become clear in the stories of the informants below, in many ways eradicating the unknown number of remaining weapons today is even more important to the preservation of peace than when the war ended in 1992. 23 Since founding TAE in 1995, Bishop Sengulane has served as its president. From the beginning, TAE leadership has undergone several personnel alterations, and functioned under the leadership of three different administrations. 24 Jacinto Muthi first directed TAE, as National C oordinator, from 1995 until his death in 1 999 Reverend Lucas Amosse Tivane served as Secretary General of CCM from 1982 Zunguze, a conflict resolution specialist, replaced his position for a short time. A t this time, Boaventura Zita was hired to help maintain civic education elements of the quickly expanding project, based on his background in jou rnalism. Albino Forquilha was appointed TAE National Coordinator in 1999. An assistant, Tomas Guerra who had p revious experience with firearms collection and destruction with the Southern African Development Community, 25 supports

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103 Forquilha. During this period, Reverend Dinis Matsolo assumed the position of Secretary General. Following the departure of Forquilha in 2006, Boaventura Zita assumed the position of TAE National Coordinator, and continues to serve in this capacity to the present. An assistant, Nicolau Lus, who has worked within CCM since 2002, accompanies him. Current Secretary General Reverend Marcos Ma como replaced Reverend Matsolo as Secretary General in 2009. TAE Donors: Providing Financial and Product Support TAE continued success depends on d onors who provide financial support, partnerships and/or products to the project. I have spoken with past and present donors, including founders and representatives from Diakonia, Church World Services, Ehime and the Mennonite Community Center. 26 Diakonia is a Swedish International faith based NGO, which was founded in 1966 as a cooperative of five churches. This foundatio n was based on a global plan consisting of governance, human rights, peace and justice. Diakonia began to focus on conflict transformation in post conflict Mozambique following the end of the war in 1992. 27 Diakonia works with NGOs to provide institutional development through their financial support and began supporting TAE in in Mozambique, and CCM/TAE specifically: Amidst the goals for strong civil society and democratic development after the civil war, a lot of weapons were hidden. They provided a threat for peace and democr acy. At any time, any moment, [people] could go back and use the weapons. We started providing funding, technical capacities, financial management and resources. CCM chose to be a partner of Diakonia because of the church and the people. 28 Diakonia is no longer connected to CCM and the TAE project. TAE did not submit required financial records to Diakonia in 2009, and subsequen tly did not qualify for funding Water for Weapons is a TAE initiative that is supported by Church World Services (CWS). Begun in 1946 following the Second World War, CWS is a donor based American NGO

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104 comprised of seventeen religious denominations. Grassr oots development ideals create the foundation of their core mission to Feed the hungry, clothe the naked, heal the sick, comfort the aged, and shelter the homeless ( Church World Service n.d., 2). Inaugurated in 2008, the CWS program Water for Weapons foc uses on building wells in areas with limited water supplies. Provision s necessary for well building are offered as incentives to en coura ge communities to help with the process of peace building by collecting weapons left o ver from past wars. This program i s based in areas such as the Niassa and Inhambane provinces, which experienced heavy military action during the last war, where many weapons are still believed to remain (Ibid.). Program s such as Water for Weapons vision of community buildi ng, where incentives are offered to an entire community rather than an individual. Projects such as this are important for reconciliation. In addition to eradicati ng weapons and providing safe water, this program achieved unexpected successes. Well building provides more time for women to attend to their daily activities rather than spend ing hours each day acquiring water Additionally, children gain more free time to attend school All of these positive outcom es lend themselves to the overall goal of community building and post conflict d evelopment. As of November 2010 this project continued to operate as a partnership between CWS and CCM/TAE (Chu rch World Service 2010). Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) is a bi national Anabaptist religious organization missionary activities are linked to the Russian Mennonites who were oppressed d uring the Bolshevik revolution. MCC conferences held at this time resulted in cooperative aid, which was sent in shipments of food (grain). This early survival aid has expanded to include relief, development, and peace work, which MCC focuses on today. 29 P reviously based in Swaziland,

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105 MCC created an ecumenical partnership with CCM in Mozambique during the last war. At this time, their attention and administrative offices shifted from Swaziland to war stricken Mozambique. 30 MCC intervention programs have inc lude d food and water security projects based in the provinces of Northern Gaza, Manica, Sofala, and Tete. These areas were particularly the country is run through CCM. T itled Agua Aid, this project focuses on the restoration and maintenance of water, including education related to, and facilitation of sand dam building in dry riverbeds. 31 Additional MCC programs include Anglican preschools in Sofala and Manica and widespre ad AIDS projects. Because MCC embrace s peacebuilding and post conflict transformation, the mission knew its beginnings 32 Mos t recently, MCC and TAE negotiated the possibility of a partnership for Ten Thousand Villages a non profit trade organization that markets international crafts by disadvantaged artisans worldwide 33 MCC hoped TAE would provide the opportunity to expand the global reach of Ten Thousand Villages into previously unrepresented areas of Southern African countries. Because of quality standards and fair trade rules, Melanie Jones, the MCC country representative for Mozambique, related that many elements of the TAE project would need to be adapted in order for this partnership to exist: to be a redes igned business model, production line model assembly, and quality standards based on international fair trade rules. These regulations would call for a non damaging environment [for the artisans to work in] humane conditions, and the quality of welding n eeds to improve. We would need to send people here to train The current /export costs would ultimately add to the price 34 Since preliminary negotiations between MCC and TAE took place in the summer of 2011, no further progress has been made towards the creation of a partnership. The collaboration between

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106 Ten Thousand Villages and TAE do e s not seem likely. Many issues stand in the way of aligning TAE to the production standards and requirements with international fair trade rules I asked the MCC r epresentatives Kempf and Jones how artists would be selected to participate in th e proposed project. They suggested that a competition between artists would take place, based on a particular theme or image. 35 Through discussions with Kempf and Jones I learned that MCC provided TAE with a $15,000.00 grant in 2008 This grant was intend ed to fund a large public TAE sculpture Cristvo Estevo Canhavato (Kester) began construction of the sculpture at Robert Mugabe S quare near the waterfront of the Bay of Catembe in 2008. According to Kempf and Jones, their ved necessary additional backing 36 and the money has never been accounted for by TAE. This sculpture will be discussed further individual TAE artworks Ehime Global Network was founded in 1998 by its president, Yoshiko Takeuchi. Ehime is a Japanese international non profit NGO focused on educational sustainability development. Takeuchi founded Ehime based on her interests in peacebuilding, creating international understanding, and network building among local communities and NGOs. She stresses grassroots activism and cooperation within an international framework, which includes the environment, peace and human rights, and other global issues. Takeuchi explained her initial interest in Mozambique and TAE: It [my interest] was based on the fact that I felt TAE had something different to agriculture, [TAE] made me think of something different, because people who have guns must give up the guns. What will they receive? Be cause in exchange a person has to submit weapons. I felt it is not just Japan giving we are trying to promote peace in Mozambique together. 37

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107 She devised a plan that she could implement in Mozambique that not only incorporated her vision for her NGO, b ut also offered a sustainable and viable solution for a n escalating Japanese problem. Partnership is a key issue at stake here. I like the idea of transforming weapons into art. Art is telli ng us to stop making weapo [this] creation out of guns is such a strong messag e. Maybe [we could] support s ending bicycles to Mozambique. [Focus on] collecting bikes, not guns. It is dangerous because of so many increasing bi cycles. 38 Throughout Japan abandoned bicycles are a growing problem. located in southwest Japan on the island of Shikoku. The population of 470,000 people own over 400,000 bicycles. She explained: Each year, more than 13,00 0 bicycles are abandoned. [There is] no place to keep them: one third of the bicycles are returned to owners, one third are given to second hand bike shops, and the last one third are abandoned scrap. I realized it was such a waste. I had to explain to c ity officials what was happening in Mozambique. Create peace and use bikes. No one knew anything about Mozambique. I was the ed by the mayor of the city. 39 Citywide o rdinances were passed in Matsuyama following the governmental acceptance of and a public relations campaign was mounted S igns were erected proclaiming how the abandoned bikes were going to be use d to help other people. 40 In 2000, 100 bicycles were sent to CCM. Takeuchi explained that she asked citizens of Matsuyama to write messages on the bicycles. She expanded on how this created a positive environment in the city: as talking about th e bicycles, [how we were] recycling bikes not just giving them away. The atmosphere even the homeless people would help to clean and polish [the bicycles] This project made us unite and think about peace. Mozambique experienced big floods th at year [2 000] Peace issues combined with floods environmental issues combined 41 Takeuchi explained that bicycles were sent to Mozambique until 2004. 42 Asked to comment on her current support of [the only

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108 ones] left to support TAE. I come to solve [the problems and decide ] w hether we [renew our] 43 Takeuchi clarified that it is difficult to continue to suppo rt TAE. Despite the fact that maintaining peace in Mozambique is important, yet she although there are de finitely problems. its organizing problems n ot peace problems. If TAE dies or becomes abandoned who will talk about it? (But) i t is difficult to keep supporting them Continued support is an issue. T ransparency is necessary, more accountability, TAE and CCM [have] pr 44 Because of critiques such as those identified here by donors such as Takeuchi and Diakonia, TAE has been losing support. Criticisms of TAE including their lack of transparency to present financial records and present access into their operations. support has dramatically declin ed over the years and today only Ehime re mains. In the beginning, large global (Diakonia, CWS, MCC, and Ehime), provided financial support and product donations success in its mission of peace and transf ormation At this point, the continuation of TAE is directly contingent upon increased donor support. The importance of cash and product donations in maintaining TAE will be shown in the discussion of informants below There is a strong link between expect these incentives in determining whether this project will continue. Without incentives, there is literally no motivation bey ond morality for handing in weapons to TAE This is a serious issue that I have discussed extensively with Bishop Sengulane. In reality, the Bishop reliance on the bible is simply not enough of an incentive for people who can easily sell their weapons on the streets and turn a n immediate profit

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109 T AE Informants: Individual Narratives Informants who exchange weapons to TAE for incentives have distinct histories that explain their possession of the weapons, as well as their motivations to turn them over to TAE. I had the opportunity to speak with sev eral i nformants, each with a very different story to tell. A selection of these stories will be retold here to underscore the point that weapons TAE receives come from widely diverse areas and individuals from all sectors of society. Each of the narratives illustrates not only the diversity of TAE informants, but also underscores the continuing necessity and importance of this project in Mozambique. In my discussion of the informants I use pseudonyms to protect their identities. Alex discovered an AK 47 bu ried in the ground as he was di gging the foundation for the hous e he was building in Matola, an industrial suburb of Maputo, in mid October 2010. He explained he was looking for help to dispose of this weapon and the police did not respond to his calls. 45 C oincidentally, Alex happened to view a television news segment reporting on a TAE art exhibition that commemorated the Mozambican Dia doPaz /Day of Peace, held at A A ssociao Ncleo de Arte 46 This was the first time Alex learned of TAE and its program of collecting and destroying weapons. Seeing this broadcast inspired Alex to contact TAE to collect the AK 47, which he had unearthed along with an ammunition box. I traveled to Matola with TAE Project Director Boaventura Zita and Assistant Project Director N icolau Lu s to retrieve these materials. Alex showed us where he had found the military artifacts. I saw family, including his five children O ne child stood out, wearing a makeshift wig of blue foil. An older woman was clearly overjoyed to have th e weapo n removed and she could not physically contain her happiness. continuing danger they pose as they remain in the country. Alex asked to receive a bag of ce ment from TAE that enabled h im to continue building his house 47

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110 Arlindo travels from his home in Matola, to Maputo several times a week to facilitate a community peace project; this fact is ironic in connection with his link to the weapons he exchanges. Ar lindo explained why he chose to exchange weapons to TAE: I try to fight like a criminal in the street. I can go into the street to show it [a gun] and it is bad. That is harmful. We know it is dangerous and I give it [to TAE] without questioning it. It i s good for me. A s you know, I need something to help my life. I receive things [incentives] that can help my life and I [am] helping to save mind gives me peace [by handing over the weapons] 48 Arlindo is building a cement block house using bu ilding supplies that he has received as incentives from TAE in exchange for the weapons he has tu rned in. I traveled to Matola to see construction in October 2010 (See Figure 3 4 ). When I visited Arlindo again in Decembe r, he had just received five bags of cement as an incentive for guns he had turned over to TAE ( See Figure 3 5 ). Arlindo told me that he has friends with weapons who are deciding whether or no t they will turn them over to TAE. 49 Paulinho is a former member of the Mozambican military. He has b een handing weapons over to TAE since 2001. He has not revealed his connections t o TAE to his friends or neighbors, nor the fact that the construction of his home in Matendene wa s a resu lt of this connection. In December 2010, Paulinho spoke of TAE in this way: criminals and take out weapons from the population and thr ough incentives the population [is able] impact in 50 When I visited Paulinho for the second time in January 2011 he was in the process of a weapons exchange with TAE. He was offering TAE seven pistols and ammunition in the form of bullets. He told me that for the exchange of four operational and three non operational pistols and the bullets he would receive forty five bags of cement from TAE 51 ( See Figure 3 6 ).

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111 Specific factors determine the type and value of incentives received by informants for handing weapons over to TAE. More value is give n to an operational weapon tha n one that is non operational, and weapons are generally more valuable than ammunitions. Nicolau Lu s, TAE Assistant Project Director, relayed the following information: e from when they relinquish their weapons. The most one can receive for a working AK 47 is ten metal roofing pieces (or ten bags of cement, but the roofing is more expensive). If someone does not want ten bags of cement or roofing pieces they can choose so mething for the equivalent monetary value (currently 3750 meticais = $145 US +/ (with a quote) and TAE will pay for that item. 52 Whereas the wishes of the informant are taken into consideration, the determination of incent ives s financial stability. Since TAE is donor based, incentives are contingent upon th e funding/donations TAE receives 53 Several of the informants I spoke with shared their dissatisfaction with prolonged waiting periods for incentives. In most cases, informants expected to receive incentives directly when weapons exchange s took place. Despite this criticism of TAE, each of the informants praised the s mission overall and continue to work with TAE response to why he continues to broker weapons collection for TAE without always receiving payment is a testament to the objectives of the project, fighting against bandits who get weapons, robbing cars, assaulting people on the s treet. For me, I never stop dealing with them, even now. Most people say God exists 54 Through conversations with Paulinho, I learned that many of the weapons remaining in Mozambique today are in the hands of forme r military combatants. Paulinho offered a revealing explanation for this Agreement the armed forces were individually responsible for turning in one weapon each. Many turned in one weapon and kept the 55 As previously stated, Paulinho built his

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112 home entirely of materials he attained from TAE incentives received for turning in weapons of war. Many informants I spoke with seek building supplies to build homes for themselves and their f amilies. Because these structures are often constructed wholly of materials exchanged in efforts to eradicate the remaining weapons from the country, I refer to them as Casas do P az / Houses of P eace These houses constructed of incentives are visible incarn ations of peacekeeping in Mozambique (See Figure 3 7 ). Antnio mentioned above is a former child soldier who began fighting in Inhambane and Vilankulos f or RENAMO when he was seven years old Unlike many others, Antnio was not forcibly recruited to bec ome a child soldier. He recounts the origins of his involvement in the war: nd father were living with the [RENAMO] They trained me how to deal with weapons and how to put landmines. They liked children because children 56 Antnio now works with other ex child soldiers, past military personnel, former combatants, and others to recover and exchange we apons to TAE 57 He, like Paulinho has been working w connection with TAE is ongoing ; he told me at one of our final meetings that just two days earlier he had handed over thirty three pistols, three AK 47s and three rockets to TAE, and that he planned to collect again the next day in Moamba. 58 Antnio stated that weapons were considered more important than people during the war soldiers were given explicit directions to retrieve weapons immediately from their victims 59 I asked Antnio if soldiers received any remuneration for acquiring large numbers of weapons from their fallen enemies. He explained that he and other child soldiers were promised re wards if they retrieved weapons: t if you bring four or five [weapons] you can be a commandant. You can organize 60 Antnio further relayed that often

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113 so many killings took place that there were too many weapons for child soldiers to carry. RENAMO lacked a strong infrastructure with p ermanent bases so young soldiers were forced to rely on hiding retrieved weapons. In the course of the guerrilla warfare between FRELIMO and RENAMO troops, many caches of weapons were buried within heavily mined perimeters to protect and maintain these hi ding spots for later re arming should peace negotiations fail. 61 Antnio explained that in these cases he and his comrades removed the crucial firing mechanism of the weapons and left piles of weapons behind for later retrieval. 62 As a result, Antnio candid ly now it is so easy because weapons 63 TA E Weapons Destruction TAE utilizes two different forms of weapons destruction, pyrotechnic and manual. The former are exploded in iso lated areas and often include a memorial service that invites local residents living in the vicinity of the weapons collection to participate, as witnesses to the destruction of the weapons. This community involvement maintains the civic education goal of s multi faceted peacekeeping process. 64 In August of 2009 I was scheduled to meet with the TAE weapons destructions specialist s and army engineers at TAE headquarters in Maputo to learn call to find that plans had abruptly changed, as I learned that all of the destructionists had gone to Moamba, a community that lie s outside Maputo province to the west, to des troy retrieved weapons and they hoped I would meet them there. My journey was eventful. A two hour chapa (local minibus taxi) ride was followed by thwarted attempts at bartering with taxi drivers in a small town at the end of the line, who were charging exorbitant rates to continue to Moamba. After several failed tries at hitchhi king, my assistant, Goba, and I eventually obtained a ride for a reasonable price with a tomato farmer

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114 community center in Moamba, a TAE representative met us and drove us to our final destination. We drove in a small pickup truck at break neck speed through overgrown bush roads recently destroyed by elephants, simultaneously engulfed in flames from bush fires as we barreled through to our destination in an outlying area of the Maputo province. Billowing clouds of smoke upon Despite missing the explosion, we observed prayers overseen by then TAE General Secretar y Reverend Matsolo and a delegation from Ehime, the Japanese agency that donates bicycles to TAE ( See Figure 3 8 ). The ditch where the weapon s lay yielded a pile of rifles and two helmets beneath the exposed roots of a tree. The guns had long been hidden only by the leaves that covered them ( See Figure 3 9 ). Le ss than a week later, Boaventura Zita told me that this collection had resulted in the revelation that three bombs had also been found near Moamba. Zita explained that once weapons have been turned in to TAE, it is not uncommon for more nearby caches to be discovered. 65 Whereas pyrotechnically destroying weapons completely obliterat es all reference to the former existence, manual destruction involves physically cutting the weapons into pieces He explained that he was responsible for cutting weapons after they had been collected and that he had worked in this capacity since 1999 66 ( See Figure 3 10 ). The w eapons TAE collects are housed at CCM i n a large locked metal container supported by metal legs ( See Figure 3 11 ) During our meting Afonso remarked on it needs to 67

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115 I s poke with who asked not to be identified. I refer to him here as Joo. He has been working for CCM/TAE since 2003. His background is in security; he was a member of the police force in Mozambique. His task involves many different asp ects of weapons security, from the negotiations to collect weapons, collection and retrieval, insuring safe transport of the weapons to CCM, and continued security of the weapons until they a re destroyed. He explained : ice when they have an operation. I share information with the Minister of the Interior. We go to collect wea pons. They allow me to collect. They know p eo pl e come we arrive and inform the local police. We i nform them of how many [weapons] They know these operations are from Beira to Maputo. I share the info rmation when I go to inform them 68 My conversation with Joo referring to a specific weapons collection that took place in Gorongosa (See Figure 3 1 and related discussion above) clarifies his position in TAE Nic [Nicolau Lus] and I went together to see where the people in Gorongosa are hiding [the weapons] hey called us. We n eve r go alone. [The exchange] i s not finished. When they call us we will go again [They are] becoming m ore confident and c omfortable [with us in order] to come forward [ wit h information about the weapons] 69 Like Afonso, whe n it started was good. They [TAE] had weapons to collect Now t he donors have now. From 2003 until now we the budget to support TAE As you know the last budget did not come from TAE project. 70 In this se ction I have outlined the importance the destruction of the weapons plays in the interviewed who work for TAE in the capacity of weapons destruction have shared their feelings

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116 TAE Arts s initial plan, based on a literal interpret ation of the Biblical verse, was to melt the weapons down and tur n them into tools. Ultimately, this process proved too costly and was abandoned. Bishop Sengulane now views the providential for it would have transformation, by permanently disfiguring and erasing th eir former identities as dangerous killing tools. 71 The process of transformation that Bishop Sengulane envisioned for TAE also included a plan for the future of the collected weapons. he B iblical verse as a source for peace and reconciliation now 72 TAE artists create artworks using the s innovative approach to peacebuilding uses art as a visual reminder, a mnemonic device symbolizing the violence of war. By renderi ng the weapons unusable while maintaining a visual reference to wh weapons transformed now serve as iconic images. The destruction of weapons of war and their transformation into art is more than symbolic. Thes e images reflect the ch urch mandate and focus to bring peace and to forgive, not forget, and keep on touch ing the wound that is 73 Thus, in the transformation of weapons into art, the peace building ethos of the TAE project succeeds by di sarming bodies as well as minds. Simply put, the TAE project strives not only to physically remove and destroy weapons from the landscape of Mozambique, but combi nes this with program s of civic education to perpetuate a culture of peace both physically and mentally. This process not only affects and impacts the individuals who are living among the remaining weapons, but also the artists, viewers, and patrons who are exposed to the TAE artworks as powerful reminders of the ho s past wars. s artistic tr ansformation of the recycled weapons began in 1997, two years after the project was established. Bishop Sengulane strives to glorify peace instead of war, and he believed

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117 artists ha d always created these types of monuments. 74 He forged a partnership with A Associao Ncleo de Arte in Maputo. Initially fourteen artists participated in a workshop where Bishop Sengulane challenged them to transform weapons into symbols of peace 75 only restriction by the Bishop was that they use the weapons to create imagery associated with peace and avoid violent themes. TAE artists were given the freedom to create. Similar to message of peace achieved through the collection, destruction, and recycling of weapons of war into a rt, the church played a major role in the grassroots mediation of the peace process for Mozambique The General Peace Agreement of 1992 took place largely within the community of Sant Egidio 76 i n Rome, which provided a strong religious presence in the atta inment of peace 77 grassroots approach to peacekeeping and reconciliation has inspired artists to memorialize the destruction of the Mozambican wars through the use of transformed weapons of those war s TAE artists create sculptures designed to evo ke the memory of long history of war as well as serving as a healing process for the artists, many of whom lived through the last war and are motivated to promote peace in the creation of their art. The impact of the are largely r ooted in the tension of their strong visual presence. The sculptures that are comprised of cut and dismembered weapons of war maintain the power of their original forms and challenge links between art and beauty. These sculptures are not beautiful in the conventional sense of art by providing visual pleasure ; they are constructed of weapons that have been used to kill. They are not easy to look at when the past use of the weapons is considered. These artworks transform weapons from tools for killing into tools for reconciliation and peacebuilding. Scholarship that links art and power is admittedly not as widespread as work on art and beauty Select related themes include African arts, feminist art, and European political art under dictatorships (McNaughton 1993; Blier 1995; Broude and Garrard 1994; and Ades 1995 ).

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118 transformation and re presentation of weapons is the construction of a visual language based on the materiality of the weapons used in their promotion of peace. narrative based on the imagery of weapons transformed presents an alternative identity f s past reliance upon revolutionary imagery wherein the pristine, iconic form of the AK 47 is employe d 78 See political tool (See Figure 3 12 ). TAE artists offer a model of the glorification of peace rather than war symbolized through weapons that have been destro yed and transformed. Projects/Group Exhibitions One of the most well known TAE artworks, Tree of Life 79 ( See Figure s 3 13 3 15 ), is based on the cooperative effort of four artists: Fiel dos Santos, Cristvo Estevo Canhavato (Kester), Adelino Serafim Mate (Mathe), and Hilrio Nhatugueja 80 Tree of Life was commissioned by British Museum Sainsbury Curator of African art, Chris Spring, in conjunction with the British Museum and Africa05, celebrating African culture and heritage in London (Spring 2005 ). I nternational attention has been drawn to this work that has become both a symbol of peace and a symbol of Africa. Tree of Life is on display and part of the permanent collection of the British Museum in London. 81 Throne of Weapons ( Se e Figure 3 16 ) which is also in the collection of the British Museum, is an earlier TAE artwork that inspired Spring to contact TAE and ultimately commission Tree of Life for the British Museum. Spring initially viewed Throne of Weapons OXO Ga llery, in an exhibition titled Swords into Ploughshares: Transforming Arms into Art. Supported by Christian Aid, a CCM donor at the time, this exhibition was held January 18 February 3, 2002. Seven TAE artists participated in this display of arts recycled from weapons in one of the earliest international exhibitions to address this genre. The four artists who would come to create Tree of Life participated in the exhibition, as well

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119 as three additional artists: Nelson Augusto Carlos Ferreira (Pekiwa), Humber to Delgado and Gonales Mabunda. In June of 2001 pieces from the OXO Gallery exhibition were displayed during the United Nations International Conference on the Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons in New York (OXO gallery 2002). Throne o f Weapons has been incorporated into the British M Prison Project, an outreach program aimed at creating a dialogue with prison populations on the subject of violence. Program Director Jane Samuels explained that the project focuses on p risoner interactions with Throne of Weapons travels to English prisons so that inmates may interact with, and touch the artwork that is co nstructed primarily from recycled AK powerful visual presence is used to facilitate discussions on gun crime, violence, and peace with prison populations Samuels referred to the Throne of Weapons as an aggressive symbol, ion and re education ( issues of peace reconc iliation, community rebuilding, and amnesty) 82 Throne of Weapons recently re ceived worldwide attention for it s selection as the ninety eighth object in A History of the World in 100 Objects A joint partnership between the British Museum and BBC Radio, th is venture began as a radio series and culminated in a book of the same name. Presented by British Museum Director Neil MacGregor the project incorporated diverse objects from antiquity to the present from the collection of the British Museum entry for Throne of Weapons includes a link to historical African utilitarian objects and its contemporary role conveying post co nflict resolution in Mozambique: The throne was made by a Mozambican artist known as Kester. He chose to make a chair and cal l it a throne, which immediately makes a particular statement. Chairs, as distinct from stools, are rare in traditional African societies, reserved for tribal heads, princes and kings; they are thrones in the truest sense of the word. But this is a throne on which no one is meant to sit; it is not for an individual ruler but is intended as an expression of the governing spirit of the new Mozambique

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120 Two rifle butts form the bac k of the chair. If you look closely at them it seems as though they have faces two screw holes for eyes and a strap slot for the mouth. They almost seem to be smiling. It is a visual accident that Kester spotted and decided to exploit which denies the gu ns their central purpose and gives this work of art its fundamental meaning (MacGregor 2011, 664). 83 Each of the TAE sculptures in the British Museum collection underscore s the broad diversity of meanings that are translated through the materiality (weapons ) of these artworks, as well as the which was initiated in 2003 by British artist Sasha Constable. PACP is often described as being loosely based on the TAE project, using decommissioned weapons from war to create art 84 (Constable 2010). Since 1997, when Bishop Sengulane introduced the arts component, the number of artists working for TAE has drastically declined over the years. 85 One of the hopes of TAE has been to increase the number of artists working for them and to strengthen their relationship with A Associao Ncleo de Arte 86 A recent c olla boration between the two organiz ations took place in the au tumn Peace (Dia do Paz) The exhibition, entitled Fale, no temas, Deus tem muita gente nesta cidade; fale de Paz/ Speak, no fear, God has many people in this city; speak the pe ace was designed to incorporate the ideals of TAE and encourage additional artists from A Associao Ncleo de Arte to participate in the project. Kester discussed above, was responsible for supervising artists from A Associao Ncleo de Arte who were i nvited by TAE to create works for this exhibition. Commenting on the collaboration and goals of th I want to collect the people who want to know about the peace made by weapon s [TAE sculptures] and bring peace into their mind s a nd hearts and bring bring good results, for it will bring 87 Exhibitions such

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121 as this one are essential in spreading the message of the TAE project through the visual power of the artworks created. O Abrao da Paz/ The Embrace of Peace ( See Figure 3 17 ) was one of s included in the exhibition. This life size sculpture depicts Joaquim Chissano and Afonso Dhlakama, the first president of M oza mbique and leader of FRELIMO and the second leader of the oppo sing RENAMO party respectively, shaking hands. This work represents an important moment for Mozambicans as it symbolizes the moment in 1992 when peace was achieved between the two opposing fact ions of the last war. Kester creates a powerful form with this artwork constr ucted of recycled weapons from that same war. The compelling messages of TAE are implicit within this artwork. Artists newly recruited from A Associao Ncleo de Arte and TAE art ists spent much time working together creating artworks fro m weapons in preparation for this exhibition. Artists worked at CCM where they shared tools, space, ideas, and electricity ( See Figure 3 18 ) Jorge Jos Munguambe (Makolwa) is one of the artists fr om A Associao Ncleo de Arte who participated in this collaborative project. His involvement with TAE dates back to 2000, and he has intermittently created artworks for them during this time. Asked about the motivation for his involvement in this exhibit ion, he responded, the world they kill innocent people like children and old people and destroy everything. We [artists] have different experiences [ Y ou can] collect experiences between you and your friends and show young people not to use guns, [because] they are too danger ous If you destroy the guns 88 In March 2011, British Museum Curator Chris Spring traveled to Maputo to lead a materials worksho p for African curators and inspect artworks he had recently commissioned by

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122 TAE artists. Spring explained: l sculptures to wanted figural sculptures. We [British Museum] have a tree, animals, and a throne. I want to support the TAE project and e [already] got a few. 89 Spring initially contacted each of the four artists who created Tree of Life Fiel, Kester, Mathe and Hilri o to gauge their interest in creating new works for the museum. 90 Fiel and Kester ultimately completed sculptures that we re selected by Spring to become new additions to the growing collection of TAE artworks. O mesangeiro / The Messenger portrays a man (See Figure 3 19 ). H e is a powerful figure, exudi ng confidence and strength, as he delivers A mulher e a vida/the woman and the life (See Figure 3 20 ), is a nurse administering an injection to a young boy. Kester portrays an oversized needle, while the boy appears to run away to attempt to avoid the imminent shot, adding a comical element within this serious artwork. In his representation of what Kester refers to as an injection to prevent malaria, he confronts the ever present dangers of this disease, which poses constant threats in Mozambique and many othe r African societies. 91 Both of these works illustrate messages that are magnified through forms created of recycled weapons of war. In the case of gers are illustrated: malaria and war. While Spring was in Maputo in March 2011, CCM he ld a press conference at their headquarters to celebrate the publication of A History of the World in 100 Objects Speakers included TAE Administrators Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane, General Secretary Reverend Macomo, and Program Director and Assistant Progra m Director, Boaventura Zita and Nicolau Lus. Spring poignantly recalled his introduction to and collaboration with the TAE project:

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123 For me the story started in 2002 in London. It started with this wonderful sculpture ( Throne of Weapons ) by my great frie nd Kester. I saw it in a small exhibition sponsored by Christian Aid. And I saw it firs t as a sculpture, not as an object that would begin to take me on this journey to Mozambique to understand the project that gave this sculpture life, and what it means n ot just for the people of Mozambique, but people of the world. Throne of Weapons was selected by the British Museum Director Neil MacGregor as one of one hundred objects that tell the history of the world. When you consider how many millions and millions and millions of great artworks there are achievement. I began to know more abou t the TAE works of art first through this exhibition and later to commission a work called Tree of Life Museum of peace but also a message of bravery of the people who can stand up against a culture of violence to stand up for themselves and to disarm people who would kill them. Many, many people learned to appreciate this of all ages. Young people 92 Throne of Weapons. work was one of the ear British Museum Curator Chris Spring first experienced these Mozambican sculptures made of weapons. Since that time, Throne of Weapons inspired several British Museum commissions, facilitate d a project aimed at prison populations, and motivated many more works of TAE art to be created. TAE artists display distinct sensibilities in their approaches invoking the memory of war to move Mozambique and the world forward in peace through remembrance Each of these individuals i personalizes what Kopytoff refers to as the life of the object (Kopytoff 1986). In my comprehensive investigation of the TAE project I aimed to speak with all of the artists who had participated since the inception of its art component, which evolved in 1997. W ith few exception s, 93 I was fortun ate to have interviews with the majority of artists who participated over the years. Specific con cerns led to the selection of individual artists included in this chapter as representative of TAE. Although I will not present th e art and histories of all o f the participating

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124 artists here, an inclus ive list of the artists I have interviewed appears in t he not es for this chapter 94 In order to historicize the art component of TAE, I have chosen to illustrate specific periods in the history of TAE artists/ artworks These include the earliest TAE art ists (1997 98); the middle years (2000 05); and most recen tly (2010 13), to obtain the broadest comprehensive view of TAE Earliest TAE Art i s ts : 1997 1998 Incio Matsine was o ne of the earliest artists to create artworks from recycled weapons collected and destroyed by TAE Curiously, Mat sine remains largely absent from the often repeated accounts of the development of the art component of TAE. 95 As a result of this inconsistency, Matsine occupies a perplexing role in the development of TAE arts. Matsine spoke of his participation in the pr oject: Jacinto M uthi, who was the first director of TAE, showed me a room with all of the weapons and materials. When I saw the weapons I asked what I should do. He told me that Bishop Sengulane wanted to transform them. I told Muthi I wanted to talk to t he Bishop because I was with him in the Colonial War. I wanted to transform weapons into art for people. 96 potential controversies within TAE: I was the fir st person to transform [weapons into art] in Moz ambique I found some weapons in good condition I contact ed the governmen t to cut them. When I was seeing that weapon s were usable some p eo pl e wanted to use them it was [then] forbidden for them to be cu t. I think all the proble ms I have now come from this. One group in TAE work (ing) with the project was taking weapons and selling them to be use d again. I made a lot of pieces of art with weapons. An exhibition in Jacinto [Nampula province, was] t he place they ga ve me to make an exhibition. It was a s trange situation. I org anized the pieces and people were crying. 97 Since I began my investigation of TAE in 2008, I have encountered many inconsistencies that do not align with the official rhetoric that is pu blicly presented In his statements above, Matsine refers to weapons that had not yet been cut and were being sold. Based on my own

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125 experiences, on several occasions I have been exposed to complete and undestroyed weapons, which would have been enabled thi s type of incident to occur. The images that supplement this chapter reveal many examples of weapons prior to their destruction. A grand and imposing chair made of weapons is displayed on the veranda of the CCM offices in Maputo ( See Figure 3 21 ). This cha ir has moved with the office, which has been relocated several times over the years TAE has transferred its headquarters within Maputo since its inception. Matsine told me this was one of the many pieces that he created for TAE. 98 Kester, initially describ ed above was among the earliest artists who began to create art for TAE. He was one of the fourteen artists who participated in the first TAE workshop and inaugural exhibition at A Associao Ncleo de Arte in 1997, as well as the OXO exhibition that disp layed his Throne of Weapons which subsequently inspired the Tree of Life commission for the British Museum. heavily based on his engineering background. His methodological determination in constructing his sculptures is appa rent in his work His expertise was specifically sought in the creation of the Tree of Life for the British Museum. In 2008 Kester began building a thirty foot tall public sculpture of decommissioned weapons sited at a busy ro undabout in Maputo. I viewed the development of O Pombo da Paz /The Dove of Peace from its early architectural plans to the preliminary construction of the monument. While I was in Maputo in August 2008 and 2009 I was able to spend time with Kester as he was working on the monument Its design incorporated a large base with stairs on one side and imagery depicting global plate tectonics on the other (See Figure s 3 22, 3 23 ) massive dove escaping from a box with a globe on its tail. Created from m etal armature e ncruste d with weapons, these forms were meant to be an iconic symbol of peace memorializing the conflict in Mozambique and hope for the future. Unfortunately, funding for the continuation of the project

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126 was not matched and construction of th e sculpture ended. The Dove of Peace perhaps one third completed at its termination, was disassembled to provide materials for other TAE projects. Today, all that remains of The Dove of Peace See Figure 3 24 ). Now on permane nt display at A Associao Ncleo de Arte this map was originally intended to embellish one side of the monument. The present whereabouts of the original model Kester created to seek additional funding for his monument is unknown ( See Figure 3 25 ). Keste r explained that his initial engagement with TAE there are weapons there is fear. 99 He described how he was fascinated by the possib i l it y of creating artworks that express ed his creativity and emotions while illustrating the transformation of instruments that used to kill. 100 Kester revealed his personal connections to the war that inspired During the war I was at Emille Dause Secondary School in Inhambane Province. In order to go from E.D. to m y neighborhood where I was born, I [had to] get 3 trucks because at that time that was the only kind of car people were using as transport. So those three times they said no you have to stop here So the last time on my way to travel that car br oke down when I was 30 km away So we [ had to] go by foot, walking awhile. So by the time we arrive d we go t info rmation that the place we just were RENAMO was bomb ing cars and killing p eo pl e make it c ome alive Connect artists makin g art with the project 101 Kester explained h is family ad use of anti personnel mines [landmines] I have one female cous in who had her legs amputated. [It was] caused by land mines during the war. It was accid ental. She left from one place to go to another not knowing the street was mined. So it happened. RENAMO strategy was to use landmines. To close the way that FRELIMO goes, to block them. After that they forget to remove. 102 led to a discussion surrounding the dangers of working with weapons for TAE. Kester explained that because of the dangers of explosions TAE did not allow land mines to be used in the construction of artworks. In one instance he was given part of a

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127 weapon to use in a sculpture that had a bullet remaining in it. Kester gave the destroyed firearm to the TAE destructionist to be removed otherwise it would have exploded. He further relayed how a bazooka he was working with in the first TAE workshop exploded im in the leg and making a hole. 103 appened when [I] hammered shot it out. Well we can risk our lives because the goals are that we want to reach people and that it is not good to use guns to resolve problems. Wars in other countri es we want to tell about a good way to use weapons. Sit down and talk with nobody getting killed. 104 Like Kester, Fiel dos Santos is one of the first artists to start working for the TAE project when CCM approached A Associao Ncleo de Arte in 1997 Fie l is unlike many of the other artists in TAE because he had previous experience welding. He participated in a workshop for sculptors that took place in Durban, South Africa in 1997. He now teach es other artists how to weld. Fiel has maintained his connect ions with TAE, continuing to create works of art from weapons. relationship to the project is personal. He explained that when he was 12 or 13 years old, his brother was kidnapped into service as a child soldier for six years 105 recruited to fight on the side of RENAMO, another brother chose to enlist on the government side many Mozambican e laborating on his personal connection to TAE, Fiel stated: I grew up durin s my time to do som ething for society. I wa nt to volun teer Sometimes I ed painting. [After] ten years they keep bringing more weapons. They a re not training more artists. The TAE p roject would be more powerful. When we start ed there were fourteen, now four, maybe three [ artists involved with TAE]. [I am] t eaching people from outside who want to be involved Brazil, Denmark. There are f unding problems. They contin ue to collect guns Exchange is the good part and education,

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128 but the a If they destroy two [weapons] fifty more come. It c annot be only me that must train. 106 s forms evoke his curiosity about nature. He is interested in the relationship of the parts to the whole, often revealing the intricacy of the individual weapons in his overall constructions In his sculptures, Fiel focuses on carefully connecting bits of the recycled weapons to create the larger forms in representations of plant, animal, and human figures. Sensitive in his treatment of forms and their placement, his focus on the objecthood of the weapons is revealed as he carefully positions the weapons. His meticulous organization of arms transformed forces viewer s to i ntimately connect to the meaning of the weapons and the intrinsi c power of violence within each (See Figure 3 26 ). Fiel has continued to create artworks for TAE, expanding beyond Mozambique. Since 2009 he has been working with Russian/American documentar y filmmaker Irina Patkanian and American Chris Langer on a stop animation short film, Little Fiel 107 Little Fiel tells the story of how as a young boy, Fiel was left alone to fend for himself, and the experiences he dealt with as a result of the war. The pr incipal characters of the film, Fiel and his family, are represented as reaching im pact on Mozambicans and a global audience. TAE Artists: 2000 2005 As stated above, Makolwa is an artist from A Associao Ncleo de Arte whose involvement with TAE dates back to 2000 s personal connection to TAE differs from t he other artists as his family sent him out of the country to improve his chances to survive the war as a y oung man. He left his country in 1986 and spent seven years living in Apartheid era South Africa. He became a shoemaker while in South Africa in order to make money to eat and live. 108

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129 s motivations to create art for TAE are intrinsically linked to his connections to his country: I began making art primarily to deal with my responses to the ci vil war. At this time I was creating art for myself as a means of catharsis. I started to realize this was also something I could do to give back to my country an act of creation to counter the destruction that had taken place. As I realized that my art provided something for people other than myself, I knew that I could offer a visual means to share my experiences and emotions with others. 109 s recent TAE artworks is particularly resonant of his personal connection to his country and the la st war. His piece entitled Olhando para a frente em direo paz, lembrando o passado/Looking Forward Towards Peace by Remembering the Past (See Figure 3 27 ) represents a family devastated by war but moving ahead to survive. A mother and her young son ar e struggling to move forwar s back looks s past. Makolwa defined his aims with th is artwork: With this work I hope to show people the guns that were used during the war to remind them of the destruction of Moza civil war. By remembering the past, I hope to show Mozambicans and the world the power of peace through memories of what will never happen again. 110 The visible gun parts are clearly shown in this detail image of t he sculpture (See Figure 3 28 ). A closer view is composed of the pistol grip of a destroyed weapon. Other recognizable weapon parts include a trigger and trigger guard, and a recoil spring from an AK 47. Closely examining the many different pieces of destroyed arms in sculptures such as this one original form and function. deconstructing these artworks composed of weapons and understanding the ir potent message s as viewer s contemplate the former life of the weapons depicted in these artworks The viewer cannot help but meditate on the former life of the trigger of the weapon that is promin ently shown here. The fact that this specific mechanism of this individual gun was quite possibly responsible for

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130 causing many deaths creates extremely powerful visual symbolism. The clarity of the recognizable gun parts resonate s with their innate associa tion with vi purposeful selection of this powerful element of the weapon here realized as the head and mid section of the young boy. power of hi s TAE artworks TAE Artist s : 2010 2013 Silverio Salvador Sitoe (Sitoe) is an artist from A Associao Ncleo de Arte who began making TAE artworks fo r the first time in 2010 in conjunction with the 2010 exhibition Speak, no fear, God has many people in thi s city; speak the peace at A Associao Ncleo de Arte Sitoe is a former child soldier He created a work different from the others in the exhibition that was not welded together, Dou vos a minha Paz/I Give my Peace (See Figur es 3 29, 3 30 ). Sitoe explai ned his inspiration for the work, how are we able to buy 111 not to weld the weapons together facilitates sustainability, such as the ability to create quick demo nstrations for strong impact at the site of weapon retrieval saving money by not using electricity, and the ability to recycle the weapons over and over. 112 powerful connections between his personal understandings of the peace of the pre sent with the conflicts of the past, linking Mozambicans of the present to those who died in past wars His work suggests the effectiveness of memorialization and remembrance in the sity of appeasing the dead to insure living in peace, a growing source of scholarship on Mozambican conflicts (Honwa na 1997; Muianda 2005; Granio 2009). Explaining Dou vos a minha Paz Sitoe stated: Those weapons have killed people and these people are ly ing down now. They are bones. If you

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131 lo ok at my artwork ( Dou vos a minha Paz ), it looks like people who have died but in a d ifferent way, with open arms [they] 113 N ilton Piore da Trindade (Tri ndade) is also an artist from A Associao Ncleo de Arte He accepted an invitation to make works of art from recycled weapons in conjunction with a planned style is unique in an innovation he has applied to his approach to his TAE artworks. Trindade forcefully addresses the visceral materiality of the gun parts by adding carved designs to wooden sections like pistol grips. This is readily apparent in his work, Percussionista/Percussionist 2011 (See Figure 3 31 ). Abstract designs add a graphic feature that reinforces the strong diagonal lines and curves of the gun parts he uses in his sculpture, such as the mouth of the bazooka that creates the head of his drumming man. Additionally, Trindade adds varnish t o the wood and metal parts of the weapons, which results in a shiny finish. While this in itself is not unusual in TAE artworks, coupled with his innovatively carved pistol The resulting glistening surface contributes a sense of preciousness to this form, seemingly at odds with the rough strength of the destroyed weapons. Overall these techniques by Trindade create a palpable tension in its entirety contributing to its powe rful presence. TAE Patrons: Financial Support through Sales Inasmuch as TAE is dependent upon donors for continued success of its project, patronage of its arts is essential to insure its continuation as well 114 As stated above, TAE artworks are comple x and difficult to process visually and emotionally as they are fraught with inherent memories of war torn lives. As an expected result of their powerfully embedded emotional messages, individuals are often hesitant to commit to purchasing these artworks. A further factor in the d ifficulty of securing patrons for TAE artworks lies in the lack of widespread support of the arts in Mozambique, as is discussed more fully in chapter two. Although this is slowly beginning

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132 to change, it has not yet developed amon g the Mozambican population. Finally, a fundamental critique of TAE that I have continually observed is the overall lack of visibility of the project and its art. This lack is most apparent within Mozambique. As I conducted interviews within all sectors of society pertaining artists who use recycled materials as media, I had a multiplicity of diverse questions. One question that remained standard was whether the individual was familiar with the TAE project. Surprisingly, most individuals who were not direct ly related to the TAE project were not aware of this project, its aims, or most importantly for this analysis, its artworks. 115 In a response to my queries surrounding its visibility, TAE National Coordinator Zita stated: debates on issues of art as an instrument of peace to 116 As of yet, these goals have not been implemented. Ironically, as illustrated in this investigation, most of the commissions for TAE arts originate outside of the co untry. Similarly, in terms of overall patronage, most individuals who purchase TAE arts are expats, foreigners, tourists and international museums. Within my examination of TAE, patronage of its artworks represented the most difficulty. Despite fundamental obstacles including a lack of visibility, TAE patrons do exist. Although diverse in background, educational levels, and ethnicity, each of the patrons discussed here are linked in their overall interest in the emotional impact of TAE artworks. Tino, a yo ung Mozambican professional, purchased Co Vira Lata/Mutt dog A TAE artwork by Makolwa in November 2009. He explained why he chose this artwork: I had to select art for a good place in my house. Big [artworks are] not useful for me. I saw th e sculpture was suffering it was a sad dog and I wanted to take it home. It was a good sculpture. After that he [Makolwa] 117 Tino refers to a calendar put out by Mozambican bank, Banco Pro Credit. The bank produced a calendar that featured artworks

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133 from Ncleo de Arte. Dog was included in the calendar. Tino to explained the twenty two Since I started to go to Ncleo and meet friends. Then I learned more. I used to live next to Ncleo. 118 As we spoke about his art purchase, Tino express ed his opinions about arts patronage in Mozambique: ine seeing how beauty is and teaching new people For example, in my family. I introduced them. I put [the artworks] in the st an idea of changing minds. It is not difficult to understand art. The b ig problem with art in Mozambique No happening is some [artists] have connection s to make more exhibition s group. Something strong. Everybody can weld. We c an change with the project. We can live with thing s without worry. 119 Alexis is also patron of TAE arts. She is an American currently living in Maputo where she teaches at the American School. She explained h er initial awareness of TAE occurred after she saw a chair made of weapons on display at the Centro Cultural Franco Moambicano (French Mozambican Cultural Center) In December 2009 she commissioned Fiel to create a drummer and a pangolin for her. Fiel agr eed to create the sculptures as long as materials were available for him to use. 120 Fiel created the artworks and was contacted again to create additional sculptures in August of 2010. The second request could not be completed due to lack of available materi als. When asked why she specifically selected to commission works made from recycled weapons by the TAE project Alexis responded: The idea of sculpture from guns is fascinating and meaningful a way to close that meaningful presents craft market art makes perfect gifts. 121

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134 Chris Spring, discussed above, commissioned Tree of Life as well as two more recent pieces of TAE art for the British Museum, both of which are discussed above in the TAE art projects section. The British Museum currently has nine TAE artworks in their collection. The Future of TAE TAE plans for TAE previously included incorporating additional recycled materials such as metal, pottery and other objects into the creation of artworks, as well as addressing ecological concerns and tackling environmental issues. Additionally, TAE Coordinato rs envision ed a peace institute in the town of Liberdade outside the city of Maputo. This plan originally included creating an international institute w here scholars would convene to teach, learn, and develop ideas surrounding peace, conflict resolution, and the use of art as a tool in this process. 122 in terms of management, for example transparency and accountab ility. Small grants keep the 123 Since Zita expressed these issues confronting TAE in October of 2010, the situation of TAE has worsened. In a seemingly unending cycle, weapons continue to remain uncollected as informants remain waiting for promised incentives. Incentives cannot be provided for weapons because financial support from donors who would ordinarily provide the means for these incentives has dried up. With no support, TAE is unable to collect weapons, which does not provide materials for its artists to create artworks that would help to improve its visibility. Coordinator of TAE, has developed his own program, FOMICRES. 124 FOMICRES is an acronym for Fora Moambicana para Investigao de Crimes e Reinsero Social /Mozambican Force for Crime Investigation and Social Reinsertion. FOMICRES, formally organized in 2007, originated

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135 as FIC, The Force Intelligence Community FIC was founded in 1995 by a group of young Mozambicans, comprised of former child soldiers and ex members of the extinct Armed Forces for the Liberation of Mozambique ( FPLM ) 125 iginal aims, Forquilha, a former child soldier and veteran of the Mozambican military, established FOMICRES as a community strategy for crime and violence prevention in Mozambique. His project focuses on re integration of former child soldiers into society peace maintenance through civic education programs, and a program of collection and destruction of the weapons remaining in Mozambique. from international donor s, including United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and Center for Global Nonkilling, that indicate its continued success. While not yet in operation, Forquilha destroyed weapons into art. TAE artists Kester and Hilrio relayed to me that they were very enthusiastic about participating in this new project. Conclu sion Bishop Sengulane once explained to me how RENAMO President Afonso Dhlakama viewed one success of the TAE project as allowing individuals to see the end of a life of a gun. 126 usefulness (Kopytoff 1986, 33). both Kopytoff and Dhlakama lives do not end; they become empowered in their transformation into art Weapons are s trengthened symbolically as they become incarnated into tools for peace keeping. Seemingly in contradiction to the original use of weapons as tools for destruction, the TAE project r eveals the power of recycling through artistic transformation. TAE artists reveal and perpetuate the invisible concept of peace in their creation of

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136 artworks of remembrance, reconciliation, memorialization, and peacekeeping not only for Mozambique, but also globally The TAE project illustrates t he potency of recycling and art a s tools of post conflict resolution. Despite specific challenges facing TAE that include a lack of transparency accountability, and visibility that I am currently investigating, weapons from Mozambican wars is clearly mean ingful for those engaged in, as well as viewers of the purposeful collection, destruction, and transformation of these weapons into symbolic The Mozambican government commissioned a mass ive bronze statue by North Korean sculptors The sculpture depict s former Mozambican president and defender of Mozambican independence, Samora Machel, and Praa Indepndencia to commemorate the anniversary of the tr agic death of this hero on October 19, 1986. This new addition to the visual landscape captured much attention by Mozambicans and foreigners alike. In the days directly following the unveiling of the new sculpture the section of the traffic circle directly facing Machel was roped off to prevent many photographers with cameras and cellphones alike from being hit by fast moving traffic. M any traffic circles now stand naked in Mozambique, denuded of their former colonial monuments. What a testament to the gra ssroots attainment of peace in Mozambique it would be to occupy such empty spaces with the evocative and powerful forms of the TA E. As Samora Machel artworks symb olize the perpetuation of Mozambican peace. In the poignant words of one TAE t a feeling to us they have a 127

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137 1 See chapter 1 for a discussion of Moz 2 Antnio is a pseudonym. The names of the informants discussed here have been changed to protect their identities. Other informants whose names have been changed include Alex, Arlindo, and Paulinho. 3 Antnio, intervi ew, Boane, Mozambique, October 12, 2010. 4 Goran Hyden, interview, New Orleans, LA, USA, November 20, 2009. 5 In connection with Object Frictions, the inherent meanings of the arts of the TAE project are directly based on the history ginal use. This concept, object frictions, originally appears in chapter one, where it is introduced. 6 Before Bishop Sengulane agreed to be photographed he exchanged the crucifix he was wearing for this one, created from the gas pistons of AK 47s, which was made for him by a TAE artist. 7 Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 21, 2009. 8 CCM held seminars and workshops at this time in Mozambique as well as refugee settlement in neighboring countries, especially in Zambia, Zimb abwe, Malawi and Tanzania. 9 Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 28, 2009. This remark relates to the fact that many families were torn apart as members of the same family served on opposing sides of the last conflict. Evidenc e of this reality will be illustrated in the discussion of the personal motivations of the artists to work for TAE. 10 Ibid. 11 Reverend L. Ammos, Bishop Sengulane, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 20, 2009. 12 (United Nations Operations in Mozambiqu e) ONUMOZ UN peace mission (1992 1994) was created to monitor implementation of Peace Accord signed in Rome establishing peace in Mozambique. 13 Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 21, 2009. 14 Ibid. These practices directly r elated to Mozambican (Bantu and Ngoni) traditions called Umbengululu The traditions are based on strong beliefs that preparation for war included the need for magic potions to make warriors brave and not vulnerable to enemy weapons like spears and more re cently, bullets. Furthermore, when these same warriors returned from war they were subjected to special ritual treatments aimed at redressing these powers in order to become gradually re integrated into society. Sangoma istered such treatments, as well as Zion and/or Pentecostal churches and to a minor extent, mainline churches (Albino Forquilha, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, December 7, 2010). 15 Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, October 7, 2010. 16 Ibid.

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138 17 Ibid. 18 Boaventura Zita, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 18, 2009. 19 Joo. interview, Maputo, Mozambique, November 23, 2010. 20 Nicolau Rus, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, November 1, 2010. 21 Boaventura Zita, interview, Maputo, Moza mbique, August 1, 2008. 22 Ibid. 600,000 is the magic number TAE administrators use repeatedly in response to questions related to its weapons collections. I have been told this same number as the overall total of weapons collected when asking for numbers of weapons collected by TAE each year since I began this research in 2008. Similarly, other individuals related to TAE, such as informants, donors and patrons have also quoted this same number when believing to be relaying accurate numbers of collected wea pons. While I have been unsuccessful in my attempts following continued requests to look at annual reports or other data that would provide actual numbers of weapons collected, this number persists within TAE rhetoric by administrators, religious leaders a nd others mentioned previously. Critiques of disparities of numbers of collected weapons by TAE have been reported elsewhere (Tester 2006; Elmquist 2007). 23 Scholars in several different contexts have addressed the issue of problems of weapons in Mozambiq ue (Tester 2006; Leo 2004, Knight 2004). 24 Many of the personnel changes within TAE/CCM have been attributed to charges of embezzlement, which I am in the process of substantiating before reporting in conjunction with this research. In the case of the te nure of Jacinto Muthi, his departure has been verified due to his unfortunate death by suicide in 1999. 25 Southern African Development Community (SADC), officially established in the 1980s, with origins in 1960s 1970s. Organized as an inter governmental co mmunity of fifteen member African countries including Mozambique, focused on political and security issues. Particularly relevant here is the arm of the community dealing with the storage, collection, destruction, and disposal of firearms. 26 As of now, I have been unable to successfully contact past TAE donor Christian Aid, one of the earliest donors of TAE. 27 William Antonio Mulhovo, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, April 4, 2011. 28 Ibid. 29 Jenny Bishop Kempf, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, June 23, 2011. 30 Melanie Jones, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, July 8, 2011. 31 Jenny Bishop Kempf, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, June 23, 2011. 32 CCM hired Dr. Alda Brubaker, American Mennonite psychiatrist, at beginning of TAE workshops and seminars to deal with emoti onal and psychological problems experienced by Mozambicans after the war.

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139 33 Edna Ruth Byler, a MCC worker in Puerto Rico founded Ten Thousand Villages, originally known as LFHELP Crafts. eradicating poverty by creating viable marketplaces for third world artisans around the world. 34 Melanie Jones, interview, Maputo, Mozamb ique, July 8, 2011. 35 During this discussion of a proposed competition to determine artists who would be participating in the Ten Thousand Villages project, my assistant, Goba, leaned over to me, noting the irony in these planned competitions and stated, 36 Kempf and Jones, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, July 8, 2011. 37 Yoshiko Takeuchi, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, December 3, 2010. 38 Ibid. 39 Ibid. 40 Ibid. 41 efecture) to change their preexisting laws that defined abandoned bikes as rubbish. These laws prevented bicycles from being sent to other countries because laws stipulated rubbish could not be sent out of Japan to other countries. 42 At this time Ehime c ould not wait for responses from TAE regarding a shipment of bicycles left at a seaport dock and not picked up. Takeuchi referred to big problems of TAE in 2004/5 because of accounting systems. 43 Yoshiko Takeuchi, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, December 3, 2010. 44 Ibid. 45 Alex, interview, Matola, Mozambique, October 12, 2010. 46 See discussion of this exhibition, and also in the context of Mozambican arts organizations in Maputo, Associao Ncleo de Arte (chapter two). 47 TAE is inconsistent with its in centives provided for weapons exchanged to them. This will become more apparent below when the value for an AK 47 weapon is specifically discussed here. 48 Arlindo, interview, Matola, Mozambique, October 1, 2010. 49 Arlindo, interview, Matola, Mozambique, December 13, 2010. 50 Paulinho, interview, Matendene, Mozambique, December 17, 2010. 51 Paulinho, interview, Matendene, Mozambique, January 22, 2011. 52 Nicolau Lus, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, November 10, 2011.

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140 53 edecessor as National Coordinator of TAE, provided me with this example of an incentives table (table of rewards). This table is used in his organization, FOMICRES, a project based on his experiences with TAE that focuses on the collection, destruction, an d transformation of weapons into art with a component of civic education, which will be discussed in the conclusion above. I was unsuccessful after repeated requests to Nicolau Lus to obtain a current table of rewards purportedly used by TAE to determine value of incentives for exchanged weapons. 54 Antnio, interview, Boane, Mozambique, July 7, 2011. 55 Paulinho, interview, Matendene, Mozambique, January 21, 2011. 56 Antnio, interview, Boane, Mozambique, July 7, 2011. Similar arguments on the use of child soldiers in Mozambique and elsewhere have been put forth (Castanheira 1999; Honwana 2007). 57 I have been fascinated by the fact that many of the individuals connected with peacekeeping in Mozambique I have interviewed are former child soldiers. I have be gun to investigate this phenomenon. My proposal, Combatants of war/mediators of peace: the power of peacekeeping in the successful reintegration of Mozambican child soldiers was accepted to the international multidisciplinary conference, Children and War: Past and Present, Second International multidisciplinary conference, University of Salzburg, Austria, July 10 12, 2013. Unfortunately, due to time and financial restraints I was forced to decline the invitation to present my research. 58 Antnio, interview Boane, Mozambique, October 11, 2011. 59 Ibid. 60 Ibid. 61 Most often reserved for reference to state sponsored conflict, particularly in Latin America, several scholars consider atrocities committed by RENAMO as tactics consistent to those employed in war 62 Ibid. 63 Ibid. 64 Nicolau Lus, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, November 1, 2010. 65 Boaventura Zita, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 18, 2009. 66 Afonso Muengwa, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, No vember 22, 2010. 67 Ibid. 68 Joo. Interview, Maputo, Mozambique, November 23, 2010. 69 Ibid.

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141 70 Ibid. His mention of the last budget of TAE here refers to the fact that for the TAE/ N cleo exhibition of 2010, funds secured from two artists (Sitoe and Mabun da), largely supported the exhibition. I too contributed money for the exhibition opening, which has not yet been reimbursed. 71 Bishop Sengulane, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 21, 2009. 72 Ibid. 73 Boaventura Zita, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 1, 2008. 74 Bishop Sengulane, Maputo, Mozambique, August 21, 2009. 75 Artists who participated in the first TAE workshop and subsequent exhibition at Ncleo de Arte in 1998 included: Cristvo Estevo Canhavato (Kester); Fiel dos Santos; Adelino Se rafim Mate (Mathe); Hilrio Nhatugueja; Humberto del Gado; Eugnio Saranga (Saranga); Gonalo Mabunda; Idasse Ekson Malendza; Carlos S. Ferreira Simoes; Joo Paulo Queha; Bernardo Carrula*; Fernando Rosa da Silva Dudanisse*; Micas Pedro Nungo*; Sebastiao A rmando Jonze*(an asterisk indicates TAE artists I have been unable to contact for this research). 76 spreading the gospel through the promotion of prayer and service to the poor. Largely concentrated on Mozambique during the last war. Realizing the importance of peace in its humanitarian efforts, in 1990, the Community a at war is the "mother of every poverty LFM: Le Fait Missionaire: Social Sciences and Missions No. 13, October, (119 145). 77 Several scholars have written on the links between the role of the church an process (Anouilh 2006, 2010; Zuppi 1995). 78 The current Mozambican flag, adopted in 1983, clearly portrays the image of an AK 47 assault rifle fitted with a bayonet, crossed with a hoe to create the shape of an X. The Mozambican flag has included an AK 47 since 1975. Just following attainment of Independence in 1975 the FRELIMO flag was adopted, to which the cog, hoe, book and AK 47 have subsequently been added. (New York Times December 20, 2005). 79 Tree of Life most often discussed singly, as it is installed in the subterranean Sainsbury African Galleries of the British museum actually comprises several TAE pieces, creating an assemblage artwork. Additional creatures incorporated with the tree include a monkey climbing its trunk, as well as several other animals (two birds, tortoise, lizard) that are displayed surrounding the tree. 80 work will be discussed in regard to its materiality, which most recently includes diverse metal recycled materials, which will appear in chapter four. Whereas Hilrio has had success in his completion of several monumental sculptures depicting Samora Mache l for various Mozambican provinces, these artworks will not be discussed further here. I hope to integrate his sculptural works into a larger project on Mozambican artists after I complete this dissertation.

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142 81 Much has been written about Tree of Life (Elmq uist 2003; Spring 2005; Holden 2006; Mitchell 2013); I will not discuss this work in depth here, I will use this artwork here as a foundation for exploring specific artworks by individual TAE artists. 82 Jane Samuels, interview, October 28, 2009, London, E ngland. Further British Museum initiatives that incorporate TAE artworks include a bird by Hilrio. This sculpture, utilized in museum based projects, is focused on object interactions with the blind. 83 Additional entries by Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane an presentation of Throne of Weapons in the text. 84 project in Cambodia. I have discussed this other project with TAE artists who have expressed interest in contacting artists working for the PACP project and creating a workshop, in which they could work and create art from weapons together. 85 Fourteen artists originally participated in the first TAE workshop. In December 2013 n o artists are working for TAE because no weapons have been recovered recently due to lack of funding for incentives to provide informants with. 86 Boaventura Zita/Nicolau Lus, interviews, Maputo, Mozambique, October 19, 2010. 87 Cristvo Estevo Canhavato (Kester), interview, Maputo, Mozambique, October 10, 2010. 88 89 Chris Spring, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, March 22, 2011. 90 In 2011 Fiel and Kester agreed to create new ar tworks for the British Museum, while Mathe and Hil rio were unable to contribute as they were both (individually) occupied with the construction of monumental Samora Machel statues for various provinces in Mozambique. 91 Malaria represents a widespread and continuing danger in Mozambique. To illustrate its personal connections, while I was in Mozambique in 2009, TAE Assistant Program Director Nicolau Lu s lost his mother to the disease. 92 Chris Spring, press conference, Maputo, Mozambique, March 22, 2011. 93 A few of the early TAE artists are believed deceased, living out of the country, or simply unable to be located after repeated attempts. 94 The artwork of Gonalo Mabunda (Mabunda), frequently associated with TAE, will not be discussed here. Mabunda was a pivotal figure in my early TAE research with his innovative adaptions of weapons integrated into art. I have chosen not to include him because I am currently investigating allegations that he created art from weapons he obtained illegally, which were not o riginally collected by TAE. Additionally, after 2010 Mabunda would no longer speak with me for this research. 95 Matsine did not participate in the initial TAE workshop and exhibition. His tenure with TAE ended before the workshop took place in 1997. 96 In cio Matsine. interview, Maputo, Mozambique, January 11, 2011.

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143 97 Ibid. 98 Matsine told me that he carved his name into one of the weapons that comprise the structure of this chair. After many attempts, I have been unable to find any signature, which easily may have been obliterated over the decade and a half this sculpture has been exposed to the elements. So far, I have still been unsuccessful in verifying the authorship of this prominently displayed TAE sculpture. 99 Kester, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, S eptember 29, 2011. 100 Ibid. 101 Ibid. 102 Ibid. 103 Kester, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, May 18, 2011. 104 Ibid. Other TAE artists (Saranga, Mabunda) have shared similar stories of accidents resulting from bullets discharged from weapons believed to be inopera ble. 105 Fiel dos Santos, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, October 5, 2010. 106 Fiel dos Santos, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 17, 2009. 107 Irena Patkanian. Little Fiel Clips from film in production (August 2009) and online. HTTP: (firs t accessed June 10, 2013). 108 Makolwa, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, September 18, 2010. 109 Makolwa, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 29, 2010. 110 Makolwa, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 1, 2011. 111 Silverio Salvador Sitoe (Sitoe), interview, M aputo, Mozambique, October 18, 2010. 112 Ibid. 113 Ibid. 114 In terms of patronage, TAE artists typically receive 55% payment on sales and TAE/CCM maintains 45% of the cost of the sculptures sold. 115 Based on structured questionnaires left at arts venues su ch as Ncleo de Arte Kulungwana Gallery, and the National Museum for the TDM Bienal, I asked if respondents were familiar with the TAE project. I received overwhelming recognition affirming knowledge of TAE. This response was the opposite of interviews he ld with non arts audiences. 116 Boaventura Zita, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, October 19, 2010.

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1 44 117 Constantino De Silva (Tino), interview, Maputo, Mozambique, February 17, 2011. Tino refers to the fact that this TAE artwork appears in a yearly calendar pr Dog embellishes the page for October, 2010. Interestingly, this is the only TAE work and the only sculpture illustrated in the calendar. I spoke with the graphic designer who created this calendar and Director of Ncleo de Arte Nongwhenye regarding the placement. Nongwhenye told me the designers approached him about creating a calendar based on artwork from Ncleo de Arte Nongwhenye stated he selected the sculpture by Makolwa among other artworks (paintings) based on artists that were highly visible at Ncleo de Arte spending a lot of time working there. 118 Ibid. 119 Ibid. 120 The issue of materiality is at the core of this investigation on many levels. In this case, Fiel could not confirm that he could accept t he commission without acknowledging the availability of materials (weapons) to use to create the sculptures. The cyclical nature of the project is further revealed here as well. In order to collect the weapons, incentives are required to exchange with the informants. Further, donations are necessary to insure the support financial/material in order to keep the project moving. 121 122 Boaventura Zita, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, October 19, 2010. 123 Ibid. 124 discussed its development with Forquilha at grea t length, and hope to continue investigating his project in conjunction with TAE in future scholarship. 125 Albino Forquilha, interview, December 7, 2010, Maputo, Mozambique FPLM refers to the armed wing of the Frelimo political party, originated in the 1970 s and 1980s. 126 Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, October 7, 2010. 127 Paulinho, interview, Matendene, Mozambique, December 17, 2010.

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145 Figu re 3 1. Bishop Dom Dinis Sengulane, President and Founder of TAE. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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146 Figure 3 2. TAE personnel and community members, Gorongosa, October 2010. P hotograph credit Nicolau Lus

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147 Figure 3 3. W ea pon s retrieved in Gorongosa, October 2010 Photograph by A Schwartzott

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148 Figure 3 4 received as an incentive for weapons exchange. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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149 Figu re 3 5. Bags of cement received by Mario as incentives for weapons exchange. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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150 Figure 3 6. Weapons to be exchanged to TAE by Informant (Paulinho), Januar y 2011. Photog raph by A. Schwartzot t

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151 Figure 3 7. Casa do Paz/House of Peace Matendene. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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152 Figure 3 8. Ceremonies in conjunction with TAE weapon s destruction, Moamba, August 2009. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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153 Figure 3 9. Previous hiding place o f weapons cache, M oamba discovered August 2009. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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154 Figure 3 10 TAE Destructionist Afonso cutt ing weapons to prevent future use at CCM, Maputo, November 2010. P hotograph by A. Schwartzott

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155 Figure 3 11 TAE w eapo ns cont ainer, CCM Headquarters, Maputo. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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156 F igure 3 12. Current Mozambican Flag.

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157 Figure 3 13. Fiel dos Santos, Cristvo Estevo Canhavato (Kester), Adelino Serafim Math e (Mathe), and Hilari Nhatugueja Tree of Life mixed media (recycled weapons, metal), 2005. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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158 Figure 3 14. Trunk detail with Monkey, Tree of Life mixed media (recycled weapons, metal), 2005. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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159 Figure 3 15 Branches w ith Leaves d etail, Tree of Life, mixed media (recycled weapons, metal), 2005. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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160 Figure 3 16. Kester. Throne of Weapons mixed media (recycle d weapons, metal), 2001. Photograph credit British Museum

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161 Figur e 3 17. Kester O Abrao da Paz/Embrace of Peace mixed media (recycled weapons), 2010. Photog r aph by A. Schwartzott

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162 Figure 3 18. TAE artists working at CCM in preparation for TAE/ Ncleo de Arte E xhibition, Fale, no temas, Deus tem muita gente nesta cidade; fale de Pa z/Speak, no fear, Go d has many people in this city; speak the peace October 2010. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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163 Figure 3 19. Fiel dos Santos. O mesangeiro / The Messenger mixed media (recycled weapons), 2010. ( Photo graph by A. Schwartzott

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164 Figure 3 20 Kester. A mulher e a vida/the woman and the life, m ixed media (recycled weapons), 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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165 Figure 3 21. Incio Matsine. Chair mixed media ( recycled weapons), CC M Maputo c. 1997. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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166 Figure 3 22 Kester Site of intended monement, O Pombo da Paz/The Dove of Peace in construction, August 2009. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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167 Figure 3 23. Kester. O Pom bo da Paz/The Dove of Peace in construction, August 2009. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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168 Figure 3 24. Ke ster. Map of Mozambique, with Alcides Goba, mixed media (recycled weapons), 2009. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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169 Figure 3 25 Kester with his model for O Pombo da Paz/The Dove of Peace mixed media (metal), 2008. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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170 Figure 3 26 Fiel dos Santos. Animal mixed media (recycled weapons), 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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171 Figure 3 27 Makolwa Olhando para a frente em direo paz, lemb rando o passado/Looking Forward Toward s Peace by Remembering the Past mixed me dia (recycled weapons), October 2011 Photograph by Makolwa

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172 Figure 3 28 Makolwa. Detail. Olhando para a frente em direo paz, lembrando o passado / Looking Forward Towards Peace by Remembering the Past. mixed me dia (recycled weapons), October 2011. Photograph by Makolwa

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173 Figure 3 29 Silverio Salvador Sitoe (Sitoe) c reating Dou vos a minha Paz/I Give my Peac e Mixed media (recycled weapons, charcoal on paper), October 2010. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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174 Figure 3 30 Sitoe. Dou vos a minha Paz/I Give my Peace (recycled weapons, charcoal on paper), October 2010. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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175 Figure 3 31 Nilton Piore da Trindade (Trindade). Percussionista/Percussionist. mixed media (recycled weapons), October 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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176 CHAPTER 4 RECYCLED WOOD AND METAL AS MEDIA Artists discussed in this chapter use pre used metal, natu ral wood waste, and recycled wooden materials as media Artists who use recycled metal include Zeferino Chicuamba (Zeferino) and Adelino Serafim Mate (Mathe). Alexandria Simes Ferreira (Alexandria), Nelson Augusto Carlos Ferreira (Pekiwa), and Jorge Jos Munguambe (Makolwa) use wood and metal recyclia in the creation of their art. Examination of specific artworks made of recycled wood and metal, interviews and direct observations shape the analysis of these artists. My investigation focuses on similaritie s and to the recycled wood and metal materials they select as media O bject f rictions, a theoretical framework I developed, defines inherent tension with i n objects. Discussed in the introduction (S ee ch apter one), this analytical tool is valuable for determining distinctions between artists using similar media, by defining how and why artists select recycled materials based on their interest on an history or a combination of both. Recy cled Metals An enormous body of scholarship documents the widespread presence of artisans who work with metal in Africa. Many of these scholars focus on the liminal position these individuals occupy within their societies (Willett 1971; Herbert 1993; McNau ghton 1998) Patrick McNaughton, who was an apprentice to a Mande blacksmith in the course of his research, and in sub Saharan Africa occupy confusing social spaces, as if they lived in two conflicting dimensions. They are at once glorified and shunned, (McNaughton 1998, xiii). W ithin the liminal state of blacksmiths, notions of power are often

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177 associated with transformation, a process at the core of metalworking. Additionally, these kn own example, blacksmiths and metalworkers in Yoruba culture are linked to Ogun, a natural deity associated with both the hearth and the forge (Visona, Poynor, et al. 2001, 251). The artist Mathe, discussed in this chapter, cites American sculptor Alexande r Calder as an important influence in the creation of his sculptures. Calder is recognized for expanding the boundaries of sculpture through the creation of his mobiles; both wind driven and motorized. An s Mathe sets for himself with his own kinetic Teshuva 1999, 5). Much has been written connecting African weaving traditions to the artwork of African artist El Anatsui who creates cloth like forms from metal caps and tops from liquor bottles (Picton 1998; Binder 2011; Vogel 2012 ). One scholar metal forms to the history of African blacksmiths and their legacies of metal working however ( Ogbechie 2003, 15). Alth ough the materials the artists included in this chapter utilize a re similar, their predisposition for selecting pre used metal to create their art differs dramatically The motivations for how and why these artists use recycled metal to create art are reve aled in specific examinations of each of the artists. These artists include Zeferino, who bases his creation of pots and pans with individual expressions on traditional Mozambican Makonde masking traditions; and Mathe, who covers his front yard with kineti c sculptures made of recycled metal objects to To demonstrate the use of pre used materials to students at A Associao Ncleo de recycling worksho p in October 2010, Zeferino created oversized spiders from pre used Associao

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178 Ncleo de Arte artist, Ana, and her students made from fabric scraps ( See Figure 5 3 ). Shortly after the workshop, I met Zeferino at his studio in Xipamanine a Maputo neighborhood noted for the diversity of offerings at its wide ly popular and extensive market. A tiny puppy, many chickens, and a gang of screaming children besieged my assistant Goba and I as we opened the of quiet tranquility, Zeferino was surrounded by chaos. Apparently stimulated by all the confusion around him, Zeferino immediat ely led us into a cement building bursting with wooden and stone sculptures, paintings and other artworks he had created ( See Figure 4 1 ). Zeferino explained that this space was formerly his studio, but it had become so crowded with his artworks he had bee n forced to work outside. Zeferino pointed out that he was finishing several sculptures in stone, recycled metal, and studio, many expressive faces in met al were di splayed on the cement block wall lining his property. Created from recycled pots and pans, each of these artworks exhibited a different demeanor or animated expression (See Figur es 4 1 4 2 ). As our atten tion shifted between these faces Zeferino began to demonstrate the repouss and chasing techniques he had used to create them. It became clear as Zeferino initiated his l oud banging on the metal cookware that he and the surrounding cacophony of puppy, chickens, and children were in concert As he hammered and pounded, Zeferino loudly explained how he obtained the pots and pans he used to create these artworks and how this directly related to his preference for using recycled materials: recycled materials to show people these materials are for us to use instead of throwing away. I

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179 1 At a later interview, Zeferino expanded upon his techniques of procuring recyclia for his art: Every time wh en I get it [recycled materials], I get it from people who are going to take it to the garbage and I buy it [from them] to recycle it I buy it and sometimes go [to the garbage] myself to collect it. My preference is to jo in several kinds of m aterials: m etal, plastic and other materials. For example, wh at I want to present this time [ at my exhibition] are plastic masks. And other [metal] pieces at the Ncleo workshop. 2 Zeferino explained the origins of his artistic devel opment of these pots, establishing their connection s to African Makonde masks: For me I us e faces more because of their connection to masks. [I want to] show about the masks identify that t hey are using [to create these faces] we have to take care of the using for the face the characteristics that [the] material has [that] determines the form it takes. becomes increasing ly apparent after scrutinizing the various faces he creates. In the same way, Makonde masks display diverse expressive and individualized features, some of which include human hair. Makonde masks are distinct among African masks because of the uniqueness a mong them. The many diverse pots in varied states of disrepair, discoloration, torn surfaces, and blackened edges, reveals the many different personalities Zeferino has given these faces. Each of the unique personalities Zeferino creates for these pots ha s been directly inspired by the materiality of its form. As Zeferino asserted, he relies upon the characteristics of the pot to determine how it becomes transformed into a face. To initiate this process, Zeferino carefully focuses on the surface condition of the metal. Relying on an organic process of creation, Zeferino is not concerned with the history, or former uses these pots may have served, sitting in wood fires, on stovetops, or electric ovens. He is concerned solel y with the results of these use s

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180 an d their direct effect on the surface of the metal forms. Using my notion of object frictions as an materiality the effects of wear on each individual pot. Spe cific features emerge based upon blackening, fissures, or dents. Inspired by our discussion of his use of recycled materials, Zeferino began to describe how he first began to make art: My grandfather was an artist. I learned from him since I was two year s old. I started with elephants. My first idea was to transform teapots. I am still working on them ( See Figures 4 3 4 4 ad because I never stop my work with wood, and stone I alway s receive good inspiration from my materials in the morning when I wake up. 3 example of his orga nic process of creation. In his transformation of teapots into elephants, Zeferino relies on the basic structure of the ma terial to inform and direct his artistic process. Initially drawn to the converts the spout into the trunk of the elephant. In the same manner, the pitted surface of the pot easily translates into the As both his expressive pots and elephants demonstrate, Zeferino uses the form of the materials he is using to dictate the pro cess and direction of his art. As Zeferino continued to describe his early art experiences, he shared ideas about his techniques, as well as how the development of his artistic transformations was using recycled materials a long, long time ago. Since I was a kid. I can show you how I can recycle things. With t hi s coconut [for example] I can see a monkey This is a monkey. I can add some things this is a face you can see. 4 In addition to creating artwork, Zeferino devotes time to teaching children about using recycled materials to make art. One of his projects combin es a coconut, a flip flop sandal, a nd a

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181 stick. Using these everyday disposable objects, Zeferino creates a man in a boat (Se e Figure 4 5). He described his experiences with the children he teaches: Every time I tell my students garbage is not garbage because we can t ransform it into good a rt pieces p eo pl e will like by using bottles, several types of wood, and metal. [recycled materials] Even i n my free time I have some kids who want to learn this type of work and (I) show them recycled materials are to use. Th d there were some children here. My dream is to make a small school where I can teach kids. For example, (Zeferino indicates a specific boy playing in his studio area) this is a kid I teach. I am t each ing him [how to make] boats wit h men. [ I am n ot] wasting materials. If I can recycle it. We can make more figures with flip flop stripes. 5 While he spoke Zeferino demonstrated the process he used to construct his men in boats. As h e cut slicing d own the mi ddle of the sandal, he extracted the simple shape of a figure made from the spongy, condensed bottom of the flip flop. Through these art projects and their discarded materials, Zeferino asserts his message extolling the efficacy of recycling. Zeferino has exhibited his art global ly, and has been invited to participate in international workshops where he presents his work with recycled materials. He proudly referred to trips he made to Germany in 2004 and France in 2010. Zeferino spoke of his experiences: I was in Germany working in Bremen. I went there to work with adults and children. They asked me to share my experiences with them. I worked with pots, recycled materials and wood. I made Af rican faces. German students made [good] Mozambique we have a lot of litter. 6 Discussing the abundance of materials available to recycle in Mozambique, Zeferino expressed his viewpoints regarding differences in the reception of art made from recyclia by international patrons as opposed to local audiences: We can sell more to the Colonials [Portuguese population/expats]. [It is] easy to sell [to them] nities. [There is a] problem with artists not being able to make [international] exhibitions outside of Mozambique. This collection I am making to sell Mozambicans have a problem to buy art $2000 .00 is the .00 USD. I prefer

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182 not to sell So [despite] these kind s of differences I never stop working. I find opp ortunities to sell my piece s and go on. So these stone pieces if nobody comes to buy I will fix in my garden and it will be very beautiful. The probl em is money and how I can make [it] If we had opportunities to make exhibits out side Mozambique [it would be] a very good opport unity for us. We wait for a good time. 7 Since Zeferino has been directly exposed to international art markets he was well situated t o offer opinions on the differences between how art is perceived in Mozambique and abroad. Zeferino centrally focused on the greater opportuniti es he felt were available to artists outside Mozambique: I have more examples of artists who do not make art fo r money, but for their love [my art in my] collection. I hope that many journalists ask me why my pieces are not selling. Some are for my collection [the art] is part of my f amily Some pieces business outside of this I make art because I love it. My option is to make art and connect to my art. Of course someone will not pay $2000 .00 USD for m y art. 8 reproducible arts are describ artisan art, which is often sold on the street, Zeferino pointed out his concern for maintaining his originality and expressed his fear of losing this individuality when his My exper ience with my teachers h as taught me that y ou neve r should create art for selling in the street. Yes we have many [artworks] them cheap ly I have to make what is in my imagination. I have experience. If I teach somebody else how to make materials and h e take s it and sell s it on the streets .. We have different ideas it is n ot to sell on street [then] ever y one can see it and make a copy. [At] e xhibitions p eo pl e can see the artwork then There are differences between artisan art and gallery art becau se in this zone (Xipamanime) we have a lot of artists making pieces to sell on the plaza or [the] beach for tourists on the stre e t, not in exhibitions. S o if they sell on the street, they see tourists [who will buy artwork] so you can make a copy and tha t is bad. So we are different. Each artist has his own idea s N ow Malangatana is gone, a lot of p eo pl e copy his art 9

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183 he creates, cookware faces, elephants, understanding how his artworks are intrinsically linked to the physical materiality of the recycled forms used to create it. Zeferino is not interested in the former lives of the objects as a contribut ing factor to the overall construction or meaning of his art. Furthermore, his use of common everyday materials that are recycled into art raises questions linked to art production. Specifically, ideas such as originality, authenticity, and value are raise d by artworks that can easily be duplicated by others. Mathe i s one of the first artists I interviewed when I traveled to Mozambique in 2008 He and three other artists created Tree of Life the large sculpt ure created from weapons commissioned by Chris Spring, Curator of African art at the British Museum from the Transforming Arms into Plowshares/Transformao de Armas em Enxadas (T AE ) project. Most recently Mathe has been interested in movement, creating k inetic sculptures made of diverse pre moving sculptures illustrate the continued development of his artistic processes I would go to schoo l, and then [I would] 10 Museum, Harun Harun, describ es his influence, The two important and best known names in the ar tistic arena of Mozambique were Malangatana for painting, drawing and ceramics and Chissano, for sculpture. They both played an important role, by becoming points of reference and sources of inspiration for younger artists. Malangatana lived in the airport area and Chissano in the area of Dlhavana. As these established artists lived in close proximity to other local artists and had both already set up studios in their homes, they were both easily accessible and open to dialogue (Harun 2007, 2).

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184 During scho ol holidays Mathe also went to t he workshop of Alberto Chissano He was among the young boys in the neighborhood Chissano invited to help in his Matola studio. Mathe began carving wood in 1990 and also cited the art ist Ndlozy as a mentor Ndlozy became a student of Chissano in 1988 and since that time has achieved great success as a sculptor himself. I n an interview, Ndlozy stated that he "walked away" from his master (Chissano) and will begin to make works with more current and modern features (Costa 2008, 87 90). Mathe described Ndlozy ugly with 11 Since participating in his first exhibition in 1994, Mathe has exhibited his sculpture in the important bien nial art exhibition sponsored by Telecomunicaes de Moambique /Mozambique Telecommunications ( TDM ) Corporation as well as numerous group and solo exhibitions. Focused primarily on wood in his early years, Mathe traveled to the U nited States in 1998 where he taught wood sculpting at the Kansas City Art Institute. At this time he gained his first exposure to bronze casting After returning to Mozambique in 1999, Mathe created a proposal for a large bronze sculpture focusing on HIV AIDS that he presented to several different NGO s and embassies for funding consideration The Irish Embassy ultimately accepted his proposal. Mathe spoke about the project and his sculpture: It was about my interventions fighting against HIV. A lot of people were talking about kil ling, suffering, and dying. So I created the Hope Monument for people living with AIDS. There are two kinds of people, infected and affected. I gave this they thought it was more i mportant for all people to see. The sculpture is in the plaza at the intersection of three big streets where there is access to a big market I saw lot of posters say about people dying living. 12

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185 Monumento Esperana /Hope Monument completed in 2003 (See Figure 4 6) underscores his view that messages related to AIDS should focus more on life than on death. His sculpture, sited in the busy Alta Mae neighborhood illustrates this, as he literally brings the recognizable AIDS ribbon to life in his depic tion of an entwined male and female couple. The undulating figures emerge from the bronze monument, as their limbs expand from within flattened surface and link. The three dimensional sculpted heads of the man and woman further connect, as they converge to create the circular shape at t he top of the ribbon the AIDS ribbon as a living couple. In 2008 the Mozambican government contacted Mathe He was requested to create a monumen tal scul pture of Samora Machel, who led Mozambique to victory in its colonial war and served as its first president. The government decided that a heroic statue of Machel would be erected in each of the ten provinces. Ceramic artist Loureno Abner Tsenane (Tsenane ) assisted Mathe and they began an intensive sculptural program Mathe and Tsenane created multiple cast bronze statues for several different provinces, beginning with Nampula and Inhambane (See Figure 4 7 ). To date, the project to provide each of Mozambi Machel statue remains uncompleted. Relying on photographs and viewing footage of Machel, Mathe and Tsenane strived to create an accurate representation of Machel in bronze. Attempting to gain greater insight into his chara cter, Mathe and Tsenane worked to create not only an image that was true to life, but also one that captured the essence of this heroic figure. 13 Most recently, in preparation for an upcoming exhibition at Centro Cultural Franco Moambicano /Franco Mozambic an Cultural Center, Mathe created movable figures from metal objects he had r ecycled (See Figures 4 8 4 12 ) Mathe explained this

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186 theme as movement is research for movement 14 Expanding on his exploration of movement in sculptures he explained : [ of the medium ] was machines, bikes or cars. I am not putting out what it was before. I make it into a [new] machine With life [the sculptures] change positions. Some will be easy with wire but I want to try others with electric systems so they move alone without hangers. With Alexander Calder [there is] always movement. I saw his works in the United State s in 1998 when I was in Kansas City learning bronze casting. 15 Mathe defined his intentions with these moving sculptures: I want to make people understand because this is a rural zone, they do not understand what art is its meaning s So no w when I put pi eces here in my yard, people can understand. After they see them severa l times, t hey begin to understand In the beginning, people thought I was joking now [they] take it seriously and The sculptures are alive. So, normall y when you have an exhib ition it is difficult to touch [the sculptures] because they [will] f all down. When they are hanging you can see movement. You can get in contact with them. The idea is you can touch it 16 Basic themes Math focuses on include movemen t, transformation, and the facilitation of interaction between viewers and sculptures in order to raise awareness and understanding of art. These themes are readily seen in specific examples of his past artworks. In his AID S sculpture, Hope Monument Mathe added life to the AIDS ribbon by transforming it into two expressive intertwined figural forms representing hope Similarly, in his work with the TAE project the process of transformation motivated him on many levels; n ot only were weapons transformed in to artworks, the se artworks function post conflict memorials about peace. Mathe spoke of his desire to use discarded metal remnants from machinery and history o f the materials he uses. He is interested in the pieces of metal as part of something that moves a machine. He buys these materials from metal scrapyards and the trova driving scrap dealers that tr averse the streets with metal materials bought and sold In the same way, he also

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187 focuses on the utility of these machine made metal parts that so readily fit into a history and the utility of the forms based on the recycled metal parts he disassembles, c ombines, reassembles, and transforms into new moving machines. interest in both aspects of the object, its utility and its histor y. Mathe characterized his desire to use recycled materia ls for the creation of his art as he focused on his creative and environmental concerns: For me it i s good because of the creative options polluting t not polluting. creativity Not much about money. You can make hundreds of sculptures no one buys. Art is more for creativity. by Jesus come and do something good for [the] environment. We are doing art for income. We are doing it for Not only recycled guns. Recycling s hould be for the environment. A lot of materials of waste are around. It is bad for the environment it take s a long time to disappear, it is better to reuse it. 17 Speaking of his us e of recycled materials in his new sculptures, Mathe dre w connections to his previous use of weapons in his TAE artworks, and its impact on his art p I found differences between TAE and ot her recycled materials because the meanin g is different. TAE works against criminals and destroys weapons but the meaning is not about destruction. 18 Linking ideas from the TAE project and its overall message of transformation, Mathe spoke about how recycled materials were not fully embraced ove rall as art media or truly I think it is because the people do not give value to c t here needs to be an] in troduction to art in schools to introduce an understand ing of art. Sometimes I receive local children from schools. Kids come 19 Although Mathe does not believe that art is widely understood in Mozambique his recent kinetic sculptures made from recyclia illustrate how he strives to generate foundati ons of

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188 understanding for art in Mozambique. From his earliest works, as he learned traditional Mozambican carving in the studio of Chissano, he began to develop his own style. The impact of his artistic experiences has led to his artistic transformation s both with the TAE project, his construction of the Hope Monument and his accurate representations of Samora Machel Finally, in his latest project he is focused not only on bringing movement to art created from detritus, but also to educate by allowing vi ewers to experience his art. Recycled Metals and Wood These artists are linked through their preference for using wood and metal, yet their individual motivations are diverse. A rtists discussed here include deteriorating door s with new ones, so he may create an artwork using the old door as a foundation; Alexandria, who combines recycled metal with wood to bal ance his sculptures, but adding wood is the most important and and Makolwa, wh ose transformed materials vibrate with tension, as he links sharp nails and spikes with the smooth s urfaces of broken window frames. I give life to an object Pekiwa was born into a family of artists. His father (Govane), un cle (Simes), and cousin (Alexandria), are all sculptors who work with diverse materials that include wood, stone, and mixed media. d oors, and boats Pekiwa explained that his pref erence for recycled materials was not originally limited to these particular items: before I start ed to wo rk with windows and doors [and boats] I bega n to work with anything I [could] find I transform ed whatever came into my mind. Lots of artists were doing the same thing so I wanted to show my own style so I chose to work with doors and windows [and boats] 20 He described this initial awareness:

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189 I got interested in the s e kind s of object s when I went to the Island of Moz ambique. I saw a lot of houses broken; some old ones, and the windows and doors reflected their identity as being connected to a house bec ause we can see the windows and the doors. My first idea w hen I saw these things wa s to give life to something that died and to protect the window s and the doors When I say to protect it is not specifically for the actual broken doors and windows but if we have something broken we can give it another life. That i s my first message that I want to give people Then I went to the Mozambican highland s to collect materials This was my project. collected materials in urb an ar went to the houses where p eo pl e were making renovations on their house s and I ask ed them for mat eria l s they did they ga ve me materials which I bring here to my studio to use. 21 himself as a sculptor, by choosing to work with specific materials (such as doors, windows, and boats), with which he would be readily identified. After traveling to the Mozambican Highlands and the surplus of the inhabitants, by viewing dilapidated houses and homes undergoing renovations. Windows and doors became linked, not only to hous es they belonged to, but also to the lives of the people who inhabited the homes and lived among these objects. Pekiwa began encountering deteriorating bo ats on the historic Island of Mozambique, which had served as both a port and a thriving boat building industry since the fifteenth century. He began to incorporate boats that had fallen into disrepair into his artwork. As Pekiwa stated above, his view of protecting these objects was limited to his ability to provide new life through their transformation. In reality however his protection of the objects proce ss focus directly on preserving the physicality of many of the objects he acquires through his innovative artistic techniques of conservation. Techniques Pekiwa utilizes are not restricted to preservation of objects he has scavenged, bartered, or bought h owever. In fact, in several

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190 and materials to underscore his transformative process, which draws attention to worn and damaged areas under his careful repair Using both new and recycled metal wire, hinges, and rivets, Pekiwa carefully stitches together cracks, encloses gaps, and draws attention to holes by previous u transformation of the forms. Specific examples illustrate how Pekiwa painstakingly mends the ruptures in the physical forms both to fortify and emb ellish their structures. object conservation. Sem Titulo/Untitled an extremely imposing structure, is a canoe that is at least tw enty feet tall (See Figures 4 13 4 16 carved, gouged and sculpted figural imagery and decorative patterns. Different figures appear throughout its surface, and it s most imposing figure is carv ed into the bow. These figures balance the canoe, and are interspersed with floral and pattern designs that punctuate as well as puncture the surfaces of the wood. Viewing the sculpture overall, it is clear where Pekiwa has relied upon of imagery. For exam ple, where gaping holes are altered into geometric eyes, or transformed into toothy screaming mouths. surface of the canoe, and instead of actually repairing it, draws further attention to this old hull. Attended to with more rusted hing es and equally rusted metal reinforcement bar (rebar), the hese metal braces as a necessary conservation to prevent the canoe from collapsing upon itself.

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191 Providing his view of these repa some context with he part of the door hinges I put there [on the canoe] bec ause my idea was to fix where it was broken. A t the end I see it is good to use these mat erial s bec ause too. 22 maller example (See Figures 4 17, 4 18 ). Here again, Pekiwa begins with the structure of the boat in his construction of his artwork. He relies upon the basic shape as a guide, in addition to elements of deterioration providing inspiration for sculpting into larger open areas or sculptural forms. Pekiwa enjoys working with different surfaces of the boat to create multiple views, and this is p articularly true of figural representation s. In t his case, the frontal view reveals a figure near the base, where negative space opens above its head. In contrast, viewing the boat from the side, a winged form appears. In another example, a completely deteriorated canoe where the entire beam has disinteg rated reveals whatever is behind it, serving solely as a framing devic e (See Figure 4 19 history of the objects in the creation of his artworks as he integrates his designs to their recognizable forms. In order to provide a context, he focuses on connections to the social aspects of these materials. Pekiwa commented on these ideas: erials that were used before domestic objects m aterial s that have some story s e piece s going to give up its meaning from before. So I respect the meaning, and its functions. B ut if I transform it I keep its meaning I give the art texture Well even now I try to preserve [its meaning] because i t has a social context. This is for me is to try to preserve the object. If I find a door frame i s broken I try to keep it the same in my art its original function was to close something. 23 Each of the wooden materials Pekiwa obtains to recycle into his art becomes associated with their former use, creating a connection between these objects and a social his tory of Mozambique. O homem fumando um cachimbo/The Man Smoking a

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192 Pipe, combines a recycled d oor as the base for intricate openwork metal imagery (See Figures 4 20 4 22 ). Pekiwa uses both the surface of the door and the metalwork to create this seemingly whimsical work. A smiling linear figure dominates the scene. Once focused on the work, other figures become apparent and a narrative develops. The largest smiling figure is smoking a pipe. He is a fisherman. A fish caught on a hook can be seen on the left hand side. A smaller figure is ed materials including a pipe, hinges, wrench, fishing hooks, and can opener. Pekiwa makes a statement here about the previous owner of the door, a fisherman. The door itself becomes part of the meaning of the artwork. Looking more closely, it is no longer a positive portrayal. Social problems affect the people high priced utilities and a lack of resources result in deficiencies light, water, and worth of past written graffiti on the door by carving the letters of the individual words to create a permanent statement. In a detail section, nao Early in his practice of acquiring objects, Pekiwa developed a system of exchange in which he would provide new replacements or fin ancial remuneration for the old doors, windows, and boats he acquired. learning I would buy a new one to change with the old one. Some old boat s I bought so I helped p eo pl e to survive bec ause n ow t he y have money to survive. 24 In spite of these examples, Pekiwa does not view his artwork as political, or socially active: In gen eral, I want to say these sculptures bring love For me [my art] is not political. But it is not my objective to bring the pol itical s ide of these sculptures. It is the t rue reality of the s ocio economic situation of the poor erve theirhistory. My m essage a nd with ntion. E ven now I try to preserve these objects because they have a social context. to try to preserve these object s If I find a door frame that is broken I will try to keep it 25

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193 cate people about Mozambican culture, Well I hope the p eo pl e can see it in the same way. Art is to educate p eo pl e trying to give my op inion and view to contribute to [their] education. 26 As Pekiwa and I discussed his goals to educate th rough his recyclia, our conversation turned to how he felt art made from recycled materials fit into the contemporary art scene in Mozambique. Pekiwa described the situation in this way: Yes I can tell yo u we have a lot to do with this kind of art. [The] b iggest program is to transform weapons into art. Now we see contemp orary arts most arti sts used recycled things. Contemporary art here in M oz ambique is large, an expressive group (of artists) have good idea s of defini n g [with recycled materials] It is a big idea I think there is support for contemporary art, but I think the first ones [to provide the support] were Ncleo and Malangatana. [He was] the f irst artist in Ncleo and museums to do something to promote [ con temporary art] The o ther problem wi th the budget is our gov ernmen t; support the ar ts in M oz ambique 27 pre used windows, doors, and boats he scavenges, barters, and trades to obtain, creates a visual dialogue for viewers dealing with social issues i n Mozambique Alexandria: connecting expressive sculptural style in which he combines recycled metal with large carved wooden forms evolved out of a discussion with his father, Simes : In 19 92 I won a c ontest and my father was telling me I could do something new all p eo pl e (at that time) were trying to create sculpture in the style of Chissano. 28 This style was monotonous. I felt I could show people I am really creative and I could create art with other materials and change how people create art. 29 Alexan dria and Pekiwa are cousins, from the same family of important sculptors in Mozambique Alexandria explained how the traditional art of Makonde blackwood sculptors and more recently Alberto Mozambican artists, had also inspired both his father and his uncle. 30

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194 He started carving wood with his father in 1990, and together they began selling artwork at the popular art market h eld at the square of Avenida 25 Junho in Maputo. Alexandria became a member of A Associao Ncleo de Arte in 1996 and his sculptures have been widely exhibited in both group and solo exhibitions in Mozambique and abroad. In 2 0 04 he trave led to the U.S. as part of the Vermont Studio Residency program. His sculptures are included among various international collections, including South Africa, N etherlands, Portugal, Denmark, USA, Nicaragu a, Brazil, F inland N orway S pain G ermany, and B elgium As he began de veloping his distinctive style, Alexandria experimented with different techniques. He felt that by investigating materials (he could) give dynamic to his sculpture s 31 Initially concentrating on the physicality of the wood, he began leaving his unfinishe d sculptures in the sun and rain to attain roughness, and achieve n atur al coloring from the v arious elements (See Figure 4 23 First, he would try to figure out what he needed in terms o f metal to use. He would go to a large scrapyard where he could buy discarded metal that offered a great variety of choices Finally, he combine d the scrap metal with the wood 32 In his methodical process, Alexandria often allowed long periods of time for artworks to develop. I noticed how he would create a chalk marking where he envisioned a further development ( See Figure 4 2 4 33 Perhaps he was signifying an area where more carving would be done, or noting a specific part of the wood where metal would later be added. In the same way, he meticulously wrought the wo od in his development of the final sculptural forms that would emerge. Using both electric and hand tools, such as a chisel and a mallet, Alexandria combined wood and metal, as he aimed to

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195 create a balance within his sculptures. His association with the TA E project over several years had developed his interest in welding, an add itional technique he included to his creative process. Alexandria explained his sources for obtaining the pre used metal that was necessary for him to complete his wooden sculptures: Sometimes I one day I will need to use it Sometime I will use it I will use it for my scu lpture. You never know when you e going to use it. 34 Alexandria viewed his overall creative process as one that would: connect two worlds, the processes of metal and wood. (I am) f ocused on the notion of preserving the environment by recy c 't have limits on the kind of ma I b uy most of the recycled m aterials but if I find som ething I don't mind. The combination of wood and metal balances the sculpture 35 One of my interviews with Alexandria took place at his group exhibition, Mulher e Integridade, Social/Women and Social Integrity held at BCI Mediateca in the Baixa section of Maputo. The exhibition combined women artists (Carmen Muianga (Carmen) and Jlia Nachaque), and artists dealing with representations of women (Alexandria and Vovs). included recycled metal materials, objects he had fashioned f rom metal pieces, including shoes, bowties, and globes that define d his mixed media sculptures Homem com uma gravata/Man with a Tie (See Figures 4 25, 4 26 ), was displayed in a niche space that perfectly showed off this unusually tall and narrow wooden sculpture. Created from a long and thin piece of wood, his treatment of the length of the wooden form was not distinct. At the top of this elongated form was the face of a man with downturned eyes and a sombre expression. Dark areas of discoloration in the his head, as if it had been slicked into a mohawk style haircut. further heightened the v isual impact of this sculpture. The man was wearing a dark metal bow tie

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196 that extended from within the sculpted wood cleavage Alexandria had carved into the front of the the first, chipped and revealing its silvery under surface, created a vibrant distraction from the bowtie. s to the wooden sculpture raised visual questions why were there two ties? who was this man? was he really crying? Layered a ngular poin ted ribs surrounded the figure on both sides. The sharp angles echoed the carefully wrought pointed form The jagged whit e edges on either side of the figure conjured the image of a torn tuxedo shirt that flapped in the wind. Commenting, Alexandria stated: I wasn't sure what I was doing. I thought first I have to do wood in the su n and rain to transform into this color. See red car part. [From the] scrapyard. 36 Another sculpture from this exhibition, Eve (See Figure 4 27 ), illustrates the interplay betw een wood and recycled materials. Here, a woman holds a carefully smo othed sphe r ical form that has been carved into the wood. She has a metal gearshift on her right hand side. Perhaps this gear is a representation of technology or th e modern world whispering to the woman The figure stands upon a rusted openwork circular fo rm, resembling a cage. I have to make the balance b e tw ee n metal and wood. It rep resent s a globe. [It is] b ased on a story in the Bible, E ve with the apple. I think E ve is now standing up on in control. 37 In Sem Titulo/Untitled Alexandria presents a roughly hewn figure combining realistic and abstract imagery to create a woman (See Figure 4 28 ) This short, squat sculpture makes clear reference to its creation from the blocky wooden trunk it was carved f rom. Whereas this play with positive and negative space and focused ge o metric ity is not entirely

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197 consistent with the much celebrated sculptor Chissano generally, this sculpture is not dramatically different from the same much copied, traditi onal Mozambican sculptural style that Alexandria strived to move beyond. his innovative style diverged from Mozambican sculpture s in the style of Chissano addition t o this seemingly traditional sculpture is a pair of finely wrought metal shoes. Painstakingly cre a ted in metal sections that have been stitched together, these detailed shoes also include shoelaces created of wire. Alexandria creates a dissonance between t he heavy wooden form and meticulous craftsmanship of his perfect ly wrought metal shoes at its base. This wooden sculpture wearing shoes illust rates the playful sense of humo r with which Alexandria approaches his art and its methodical process. Alexandria s the s hoes. To mak e balance I put something else to stand on its own. a s ense of art. from metal. I made it myself. It was just a piece of metal 38 This sculpture was among the early examples o Shown here on the left hand side, (See Figure 4 29 ), the form is seen in the early progress of its development. The blocky sculpture has been anchored to the stone on which it is standing. es was not simply a superficial addition his sculpture could not stand upright on its own. The effects of weathering become clear in the considerable change s apparent in the comparison of these two views of the same sculpture. Begun in 2008, Alexandria d id not complete this artwork until his exhibition was held in 2011. Alexandria died on August 18, 2013. He was the victim of a beating at the hands of a gang known as G 20. This group of close to twenty criminals terrorized Matola for some time this year (2013) committing robbery, rape, and murder. This was very sad news to receive. In

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198 his tragically short life, Alexandria achieved his central goal of creating balance by link ing recycled metal materials with wood in his sculptures. He focused on the metal additions as the final step in his creative process. Th rough these examples we view his e ccentric play on the pre used metal materials he used and how these carefully added elements altered the outcome and meaning, creating more visual engaging That fun and important part (See Figure 4 30). Makolwa became an artist a year after his return to Mozambique in 1993. Prior t o this, in an effort to preserve his life, his family sent him to South Africa in the midst of the war in 1986. While living in Apartheid era South Africa Makolwa became a shoemaker to make money to survive. In his words, when he returned to Mozambique: I saw all of the destruction caused by the many years of war in my country. I decided that I needed to do something that was the opposite of this destruction I wanted to create, so I taught myself to be an artist. I realized that the best way for me to express my emotions and strong feelings about the war and give something back to my country would be to create art. 39 Makolwa found that ar t provided him with a voice the ability to communicate his feelings artistically Initially his art deal t with his responses to the war and the years he spent in South Africa. Creating art at this time primarily served as a means of catharsis for him Makolwa soon realized that his art also provided a way of giving something back to his country an act to counter all of the des truction that had taken place. Because he was unemployed with limited resources, Makolwa be came inspired to create art from materials found in the street. Wood was the first material he explored. He explained that wood was a simple choice, bec ause it was readily available and could be ac quired at no cost. Makolwa initially create d sculptures from different types of wood he found in the debris of destroyed buildings and from dead trees. His wooden sculptures initiated his interest in transforma tion, an investigation of environmen tal

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199 processes on his sculptures. B y exposing them to sun and rain d ifferent exposures created variations colors, shapes, and textures began to change He left some of his sculptures outside for close to ten years (S ee Figure 4 31 ). Makolwa articulated how the effects of environmental processes on his sculptu res fascinated him: For example, if I left my sculptures outside, they were exposed to elements such as sun and rain. These different exposures created changes i n my sculptures the color, the shapes of the forms began to change, to be transformed. The changes that took place in these wooden artworks fully transformed them they were given a new life. These early wooden sculptural works affected my interest in my artwork dealing with the importance of transformation. 40 Vida Nova/New Life (See Figure 4 32 ), illustrates his exploration of transformation within a single material. The dissonant properties of wood are shown in this work wh ere areas of uncarved wood with bark intact are aligned with carefully smoothed carved surfaces. Balance is achieved in his juxtaposition of this mixture of discordant surfaces. In one of his early artworks incorporating recycled materials with wood, Mako lwa explained how his combination of recycled metal and wood occurred by chance. Describing the figural work, Mulher Crusificada/Crucified Woman (See Figure 4 33 ), Makolwa articulated that the head had broken off. In order to repair it, he utilized recycle d nails, which were transformed 41 I asked him about his use of nails and metal in his mixed media works and whether he was selecting these materials because they were readily available. He responded: arts. There is n o reason, the reason is (because) people are using them and they throw them out. I m ake it usable. It is recycled. Some people take out nails because I like to use them. 42 After making wooden sculptures and observing the consequent effects of environmental exposure on them Makolwa began to think about actually transforming the objects he recycled.

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200 Remaining unemployed, he lacked resources to purchase art supplies such as paint and canvas. He told me: I began to notice objects in the stree t and wondered about what use they had served before who had owned them and why had they been discarded? I thought that maybe I could continue their lives by using them to create art. I started to collect debris that interested me, predominantly metal objects such as nails and bits of scrap metal. My interest in wood continued to influence my collecting habits, in the way of broken furniture such as chairs, doorframes, and windows, which continues in my work to this day. I started constructing assembl ages of mixed media materials, all recycled objects that I acquired from the streets of Mozambique. 43 changes of wood in its exposure to natural elements affected his developing interest in transformation as a larger theme Mak olwa began constructing mixed media assemblages based on recycled objects he acquired from the streets. Creating artworks investigation of oppositions between materials A lively early mixed recycled media piece provides an excellent example of his experimentations. In a futura prostitute/the future prostitute (See Figure 4 34 port the form. Here, the wooden foundation is merely an armature to display the recyclia he has layered on the figure. Objects including broken jewellery, a belt inscribed with word KISS, a discarded change purse, natural debris from the trunk of a coconut tree, broken plastic sunglasses, hair extensions, and a persona of this figure. Created after he had begun experimenting with different recycled materials, this work illustrates his interest in diverse recyclia and transformation. Makolwa continues to collect discarded wood to use in the creation of his sculptures, which he combines with discordant objects such as sharp nails and bits of scrap metal. Speaking of the importance of wood in his constructi For any ui ld ing I can connect wood 44

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201 Each of the surfaces of a scavenged small wooden chair Cadeira/Chair (See Figure 4 35 ), is covered in patches and swirls of br illiant red, blue, yellow, black white paint. Several of these painted surfaces are encrusted with hundreds of nails of various sizes. The relative uniformity of small nails clustered in specific areas creates the visual effect of a fuzzy t exture. At the same time, other areas of the chair are punctured with much larger nails protruding from the wooden planes like antennas. The overall visual effect of this object is dizzying, as the colors and textures blend and collide, creating a sense of movement and v ibrating tension in this static form. A more recent untitled work, A s Chaves/The Keys linking recycled metal and recycled wooden forms in the same artwork. This sculpture combines discarded elements including a pictu re frame, sheet metal, nails, keys, and assorte d wooden scraps (See Figure 4 36 ). One of his similar work s was selected for exhibition in the 2009 TDM Bienal In each of these artworks, Makolwa has taken into consideration the various material properties o f the objects he is using. In the latter work for example, he pounds thin sheets of metal to adhere to the smooth wooden surfaces to which it is applied, creating a second skin. In contrast, the multiple concentrations of nails call to mind the bristling s urface of m inkisi figures. in his participation with Mozambikes Social Development. Mozambikes is a non profit organization that seeks to provide rural Mozambicans with efficient transportation. They provide refurbished donated bicycles to needy individuals. Makolwa took part in a workshop where artists painted these re cycled bicycles (See Figure 4 37 ). in his art underscores his broad interest in the process o f t ransformation, both within single media constructions such as wood, as well as in relation to linking diverse objects such as wood and metal. The first experiences that ural

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202 process continues to focus through his experimentations with diverse recyclia to explore dissonance between form s in his artwork C onclusion The link between these artists lies in their similar selection of metal and wood recycled materials. Despite these connections, the artists discussed here illustrate individual motivations regarding how and why these particular materials are selected Using object frictions as an analytical tool elucidates individual the history or utility of the materials they are using. For materiality of the forms determines the final product, in addition to its process of constructio n. He has no concern for the p revious meaning of the objects. Zeferino bases his art process solely on the utility of the objects he uses. In the construction of his kinetic metal sculptures, Mathe relies on both elements of materiality defined by my con ception of object frictions the history and the utility. Creating forms that recreate machinery, he relies on the conceptual framework of a machine as a combination of multiple parts that are joined to create movement. Particularly focused on auto parts, constructions in his new interpretations of kinetic figural forms. Creating new machines from old ones, Mathe brings together elements that combine both the utility and the history of the recycled metal objects in his art. Pekiwa, in his use of recycled wooden objects that include doors, windows, and boats, links these recognizable forms to everyday life in Mozambique. While he uses the deteriorating surface of these specifi c forms as a base for his permutations, he most closely focuses his attention on maintaining the integrity of the identity of the objects. In this way, Pekiwa makes

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203 social statements about Mozambicans and poverty, such as a lack of money to pay for food, a nd utilities. physicality of the materials he uses to create them. From the lengthy process with which he transforms the wood by exposing it to the elements, to his final addition of recycled meta l his work identifies with the utility of the object materiality Alexandria wa s not at all interested in the previous use of the metal he used to create a small necktie for a wooden figure. He focused exclusively on how he could adapt the material base d upon its inher ent physical form as he combined wood and metal in his sculptures. Purely based on the materials and how he create d interesting combinations between forms, Ale xandria was drawn to the intricacy of the physicali ty of the wood and metal he us ed to create his art. affects of weather on wood. Later he began to investigate the disparate materiality of diverse objects such as sharp nails and smooth chair legs. Makolwa utilizes both elements of object frictions, both its history and its utility. He is interested in the previous life of the objects, and how they become transformed into new con stru ctions. He also focuses on the process of the changes taking place and how these changes determine new meanings in his art. In the same way, it is the physicality of these objects that fascinates and inspires him to create these combinations. The smooth wood surfaces are juxtaposed with the sharpness of rusty nails to cre ate a tension between these forms, which resonates in his artworks. 1 Zeferino Chicuamba (Zeferino), interview, Maputo, Mozambique, November 19, 2010. 2 Zeferino, inter view, Maputo, Mozambique, March 8, 2011. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid.

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204 5 Zeferino, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, March 8, 2011. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 8 Zeferino, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, November 19, 2010. 9 Ibid. 10 Mathe, interview, Matola, Mozambique, August 18, 200 9. 11 Ibid. 12 Adelino Serafim Mate (Mathe), interview, Matola, Mozambique, June 14, 2011. 13 Hilari Nhatugueja who worked with Mathe as one of the four artists to create Tree of Life also has been working on monumental Samora Machel sculptures for the rema ining provinces in Mozambique. 14 Ibid. 15 Ibid. 16 interactions with artworks by promoting touching art. 17 Ibid. 18 Ibid. 19 Ibid. 20 Nelson Augusto C arlos Ferreira (Pekiwa), interview, Matola, Mozambique, August 8, 2008. 21 Ibid. 22 Pekiwa, interview, Matola, Mozambique, September 23, 2010. 23 Pekiwa, interview, Matola, Mozambique, August 8, 2008. 24 Pekiwa, interview, Matola, Mozambique, September 23, 20 10. 25 Pekiwa, interview, Matola, Mozambique, August 15, 2009. 26 Pekiwa, interview, Matola, Mozambique, September 23, 2010. 27 Pekiwa, interview, Matola, Mozambique, July 30, 2011. Many of the themes Pekiwa discusses here are discussed in chapter two, deali ng with arts spaces and the development of contemporary art in Mozambique. 28 famous for his wood carving who became associated with a widely popul Mozambican style of art. 29 Alexandria Simes Ferreira (Alexandria), interview, Matola, Mozambique, August 15, 2008. 30 Ibid. 31 Alexandria, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 12, 2009.

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205 32 Ibid. 33 Alexandria, interview, Map uto, Mozambique, August 12, 2009. 34 Alexandria, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, March 22, 2011. 35 Ibid. 36 Ibid. 37 Ibid. 38 Alexandria, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, March 22, 2011. 39 Jorge Jos Munguambe (Makolwa), interview, Maputo, Mozambique, October 20, 2010. 40 Ibid. 41 Makolwa, interview, Matola, Mozambique, January 10, 2011. 42 Ibid. 43 Ibid. 44 Makolwa, interview, Matola, Mozambique, January 10, 2011.

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206 Figures Figure 4 1. Maputo. Photograph by A.Schwartzott

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207 Figure 4 2. Zeferino. Metal faces created from recycled co okware, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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208 Fig ure 4 3. Zefer ino with Elephant in Xipamanine, Maputo, Mozambique Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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209 Figure 4 4. Zeferin o. Elephant created from teapot, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwar tzott

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210 Figure 4 5. Zeferino art projects include Man in Boat, and cookware with faces, 2011 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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211 Figure 4 6. Mathe. Monumento Esperan a /Hope Monument bronze, 2003 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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212 Figure 4 7. Mathe at his studio in Matola with cas ts for Samora Machel sculptures, 2008. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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213 Figure 4 8. Mathe working on his Moving Scul ptures, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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214 Figu re 4 9. Mathe. Moving Sculpture No. 1 r ecycled metal materials, 2011 Photo by A. Schwartzott

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215 Figure 4 10. Mathe. Moving Sculpture No. 2 r ecycled metal materials, 2011 Photograph by A. Schwartzo t t

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216 Figure 4 11 Mathe. Moving Sculpture No. 3 r ecycled metal materials, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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217 Figure 4 12 Nelson Augusto Carlos Ferreira ( Pekiwa ) Sem Titulo/Unti tled canoe, recycled metal hardware, 2009 10. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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218 Figure 4 13 Pekiwa. Face and mouth d etail. Sem Titulo/Untitled canoe, recycled metal hardware, 20 09 10. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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219 Figure 4 14 Pekiwa. Metal bracket d etail. Sem Titulo/Untitled canoe, recycled metal hardware, 20 09 10. Photograph by A. Schwar tzot

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220 Figure 4 15 Pekiwa. Interior bracing d etail. Sem Titulo/Untitled canoe, recycled metal hardware, 20 09 10. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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221 Figure 4 16 Pekiwa. Frontal view. Sem Titulo/Untitled canoe, paint remnants, c. 2008 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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222 Figure 4 17 Pekiwa. Profile view. Sem Titulo/Untitled boat, paint remnants, c. 2008. Photograph b y A. Schwartzott

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223 Figure 4 18 Pekiwa. Sem Titulo/Untitled deteriorated canoe, paint remnants, c. 2008 b Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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224 Figure 4 19 Pekiwa. O Homem Fumando um C achimbo/The Man Smoking a Pipe, door, assorted metal, 2009. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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225 Figure 4 20 Metalwork d etail. O Homem Fumando um C achimbo/The Man Smoking a Pipe, door, assorted metal, 2009. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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226 Figure 4 21 Graffiti on wood d etail. O Homem Fuman do um C achimbo/The Man Smoking a Pipe, door, assorted metal, 2009. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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227 Figure 4 22 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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228 Figure 4 23 halk ma Photogr aph by A. Schwartzott

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229 Figure 4 24 Alexandria Homem com uma G ravata/Man w ith a Tie, wood, recycled metal 2011 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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230 Figu re 4 25 Alexandria Detail. Man with a Tie, wood, recycled metal 2011 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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231 Figure 4 26 Alexandria Eve, wood and recycled metal, 2011 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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232 Figure 4 27 Alexandria Sem Titul o/Untitled, wood, recycled metal 2009 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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233 Figure 4 28 View of early construction of Alexandria Sem Titulo/Untitled, wood, recycled metal 2009 2011 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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234 Figure 4 29 Alexandria his daughter, and C arla Mamade, BCI Ad ministrator. Photo by A. Schwartzott

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235 Figure 4 30 Makolwa. wooden sculptures left outside for the elements, his home, Matola Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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236 Figure 4 31 Makolwa V ida Nova/New Life, wood, n.d. Photograph by Makolwa

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237 Figure 4 32 Makolwa. Mulher Crusificada/Crucified Woman, sandalwood, wire, recycled nails, and paste, 1998. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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238 Figure 4 33 a futura prostitute/the f uture prostitute, wood, mixed media, n.d Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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239 Figure 4 34 Makolwa. Cadeira/Chair, mixed recycled wood, wire, and nails, 2007. P hotograph by Makolwa

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240 Figure 4 35 Makolwa. as Chaves/The Keys, recycled wood metal, nails, keys, 2011 Photograph by Makolwa

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241 Figur e 4 36 Makolwa. Untitled. (Mozambikes). recycled bicycle, paint, 2013. Photograph by Alcina do luz photographers

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242 CHAPTER 5 RECYCLED FABRIC AND PAPER AS MEDIA In this chapter I focus on artists who use of pre used fabr ic and paper products These include Joo Paul Bias (Joo), Mussagy Narane Talaquichand (Falco), and Matswa Vilankulos (Ana). Bono Mandlate (Bono), Crmen Maria Muianga (Carmen), and Henrique Vicente Calisto (Cal isto) use paper products as their preferred medium. T he structure for this analysis remains consistent with chapter four, including of recycled fabrics and paper, synthesis of interviews, direct ob servations of the artists and use of object frictions Recycled Fabric In the West, artworks tha t incorporate fabric are most often associated with women artists During the second wave of the Feminist Movement in the United States in the 1970s, several women artists utilize d fabric (Faith R inggold, Mir iam Schapiro, Judy Kozloff, Judy Chicago and others ). Ideological factors and shared concerns of this movement, including gender equality, reclaiming the past history of women, reproductive rights, and dome stic violence became linked in a concurrent art movement known as the Pattern and Decoration Movement ( Chadwick 364 366). Although the art movement attracted both men and women, it is most widely linked with women artists. Artists aligned with the Pattern and Decoration Movement Much scholarship devoted to feminist art has focused on artists, who share d common themes dealing with feminist issues (Lippard 1976; Wilding 1977; Pollock 1987; Raven 1988; exemplified in artist Miriam S

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243 to a chieve their art sewing, piecing, hooking, cutting, appliqueing, cooking, and the like (Ibid.). My observations suggest that among Mozambican artists overall, there is not a connection between the use of fabric and women artists. Both men and women artis ts incorporate recycled fabric into their art. Furthermore, fabric itself is generally not equated with inherent gender themes. Yet a particular fabric known as capulana is exceptional Capulanas are brightly colored machine produced fabrics with bold de signs typically cut in lengths measuring six feet by three feet. Similar to African printed fabrics including Kanga Chitenge/Kitenge and Dutch Wax Cloths, t he y are primarily worn as wrap per s by Mozambican women and used to secure babies to their mother Capulanas elicit implicit meanings by artists. In the artwork of Ana, for example, this cloth is inherently charged with gendered meanings that associate it with women. Furthermore, when a male artist, Falco uses this same fabric, it is not link ed to gender but i s strongly connected to themes of cultural identity. I n the novella Histria de Uma Capulana de Algodo / The Saga of a Cotton Capulana Mozambican author Luis Polanah creates a cultural framework for understanding contemporary ses of this cloth The inherent meanings of the capulana are deftly conveyed in his 1958 publication, as Polanah foregrounds the life of the capulana directly through its objecthood and materiality The narrator is the capulana whose own story unfolds as it connects to the larger account of Mozambique and its cotton planta t ion s. Polanah presents a biting social commentary strained relations between imposed racially d esignated stratifications, the assimilados indigenas,

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244 and regulos 1 (See also related discussion in chapter two), and the colonizing Portuguese that controlled them. Focused on the impact of both capitalism and colonialism, Polanah provides an important cr of the life, as it has become a used object, literally a remnant of its former self: Today I am nothing more than a rag, which the kids have tied to the top of t his long stick to use as the flag for the village where they, their parents, and their grandparents as far as seven generations back, were born. (In the beginning of my life as a brand new beautiful capulana ) I was sold for a good price and worn by one of the most beautiful women of this village, whose kisses the shopkeepers to Europe and there changed completely. Who would have said that I came from the cotton field of a poor Afr ican woman with three children in her charge and a (Polanah 1958, 28). Thus, while in the West textiles are associated with women, in African traditions the re are widespread examples link ing both men and women to the produ ction and use of this material which is pervasive throughout African history. Traditions est and Central Africa ( Poynor 2003). In terms of masquerades, textiles figure prominently in several cultural traditions including t he Yoruba ( Gelede and Egungun) masquerades In these masquerades costumes constructed of textiles serve multiple purposes witches elder women believed to hold more power than the ruler himself, and for the living to make spiritual connec tions to the ancestors through performers wearing multilayered textile costumes (Drewal 1978) The Igbo Mmuo (Nigeria) also uses textiles incorporated into their mixed media constructed masks used for varied functions (Poynor 2003) More recently, John P i cton and Nancy Hynes have focused on the meanings of an individual cloth, in their investigation of Dutch Wax Cloth, used by British Nigerian artist Yinka cloth base d on its complicated history and themes, including identity and authenticity. Picton and

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245 entangled relationship between Africa and Europe and how the two conti nents invented each Victoria Rovine also focuses on one textile in her investigation of b ogolan and its importance and multiplicity of meanings within a wide global framework. Rovine specifically nalities this uniquely Malian textile projects from a chic fashion accessory to a (Rovine 2001, 1). Several scholars investigate fabric as a site of meaning and tool for investigating materiality and identity in Africa (Barnes and Eicher 1993; Hendrickson 1996; Eicher 1999; Rabine 2002; Allman 2004; Rovine 2001). Finally, many scholars have explored the theme of c lothing as material culture (Hansen 2000; Kchler and Miller 2005 ; Norris 2005). Hans secondhand clothing trade, market scenes, and dress practices. Her examination, largely based in salaula 2000, 3). Likewise, in an analysis of Indian recycled clothing, Lucy Norris sates: It is not that people do not recognize that clothing is often transformed back into fibre and rags, but it is assumed that that constitutes the end of our concern for the Artists in Mozambique who use fabric maintain individual incentives for selecting this medium. These artists include Ana, who creates art that concentrates on gender issues by using fabric scraps from capulanas ; Jo o who requests people on Facebook to bring him jeans to use as a substitute f or canvas to paint on; and Falco, who stitches together twisted and tied bits of canvas to create his

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246 capulana I met Ana on the way to the dump Ana was among a truckload of artists and students Dump to collect materials for a recycling workshop organized by A Associao Ncleo de Arte At the workshop Ana twisted and tied fabric scraps from capulanas teaching students to use recycled materials to ma ke art (See Figure s 5 1, 5 2 ). Ana made webs populated by spiders made by Zeferino, an artist who instructed students how to work with scavenged metal objects (See Figure 5 3). Ana explained her preference for using capulanas and the specific appeal these Mozambican cloths held for her: I am interested in sho wing the different things they [ capulanas ] are u sed for, we can do more things [ w ith them] not just to carry babies and cover our bodies [these are] r. As you know, capulanas are used for different purposes to use them for a n art piece is to use them in a different form. The capulana i s a symbol of an African lady a Mozambican lady. It reminds me of my mother because she wears capulanas It is an A frican lady symbol. From when I was young our mothers used to carry us in capulanas, cover us. When you reach five years old, your first present is a capulana We grew up giving capulanas as presents to our mothers. If you get married it is a symbol. The capulana is a symbol of the progression of life in Africa. The story of the capulana means so many things: lady of today, yesterday, and future lady. 2 Ana continued, defining the role capulanas play in her art someone explaining to them [viewers] t he story of capulanas. capulanas 3 Ana uses capulanas symbolically as a didactic tool in her art. She expands the diversity of their uses whil e instructing viewers about their meaning, as she focuses on implicit gender connections. Ana, an autodidact began painting in 2004. The first recycled material Ana integrated into her artwork five years later was c apulanas She began acquiring remnants f rom tailors. 4 Capulanas figure, Untitled (See Figure 5 4, 2 1 2 ),

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247 was created at A Associao N recyclin g workshop. She helped students cover the repurposed mannequin with cloth strips from pre used capulanas Although only bits and scraps, the bold colorful patterns identify these cloth remnants as former capulanas More recently Ana began working on a ne w painting style that evolved from her use of capulana scraps She explained the development of this new technique: I was painting and one loose thread went into the canvas and stuck to the paint. I to unravel the edges of the painting. I unravel the canvas and then apply the threads to the surface and paint them. 5 In these works, Ana unravels the canvas and focuses on its individual threads by integrating them into the painting. As she incorporates threads, she paints them onto the surface of the painting (See Figure 5 5 ). This technique emphasizes the materiality of the canvas and its construction from woven threads, capulana fragments. 6 Another style of art Ana developed substitutes capulana s for canvas. Using a capulana as the support for paint, she 7 Most recently, Ana has stopped including actual capulana s into her artwork, relying recreations of the bold, colorful designs of capulanas (See Figures 5 6, 5 7 sti ll discovering myself in art. I j ust keep on doing it as long as I have ideas c reating I think I found my own style. I will keep 8 In each of these artworks, the progression of capulana is apparent; f rom the earliest works that incorporate scraps of capulana to her most recent recreations of the colorful designs of these cloths. Perhaps most importantly, the capulana has provided Ana with self confidence related to developing her own individu al style.

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248 I ask people on F acebook to bring jeans here to Ncleo I met Jo o at The Life of a Dress exhibition o rganized by Swedish designer Amanda Ericsson 9 Held at A Associao Ncleo de Arte in early December 2010 this exhibition was part of a continuing global project exploring second hand clothing market s focused on teaching local people about ecology and sustainability. Er icsson dedicated one room of the exhibition to an ongoing workshop inviting visitors to create new fashions from pre used clothing. Jo o participated in the workshop and created a book bag for himself The book bag Jo o created inspired him to create art from recycled materials. desig ns because instead of utilizing pre used clothin g, he substituted discarded remnants of artist He explained his motivations for participating in The Life of a Dress project: I wanted to do something for me. It was the weekend and I wanted to create a bag to p ut my books in I needed one I w anted to get involved in this project. They showed me the scrap s of available fabrics but the colors di they were Ncleo nd I found one canvas. I felt like I wanted to do something that day so I decided to use my canvas 10 Jo o created a bag from a canvas he abandoned. He select ed a vividly painted canvas depicting acacia seedpods to construct the front and top flap of the ba g. A monochrome green section composed the rear of the bag (See Figure 5 8 ). Joo used his own canvas to create this bag, but in his continuation of this technique. Joo explai ned how he acquires them : Sometimes I clean th e workshop at Ncleo de Arte one or two times a week. I come and clean. When I find old canvases I ask artists whether I can use them own canvas. Many times it happens that art ists are not happy with their works and 11 Jo desire for expanding his creativity and his concerns about ecological sustaina bility:

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249 Using recycled materials is a g ood means for learning magazin es. One good thing of this art made from recycled materia ls full of I r eall y hope to be able to work with these them away. I keep them to re originate to give more quality mixed media mixt ure of paper, jeans, and canvas, o ld paintings from other artists and mine too for e will always end up reusing it in a good way. 12 The next time I met Jo o he was at A Associao Ncleo de Arte working on a painting incorporating jeans as an alternative painting surface. He explained that jeans were the first r ecycled material he integrated into his art practice in 2004 : 13 My first work i n recycling was to transfer trousers jeans into canvas. I was in Catembe at paint on and I was looking in th e rubb ish for some material to paint on I found the trousers. My creativity started to talk how could I express myself using that material? I did a collage I fragmented them That was without anything behind to join them. 14 As Joo treats jeans as a su bstitute for canvas, he directly applies gesso as a base for oil or acrylic paint (See Figure 5 9 ). Describing his motivation for using jeans in this way, Joo stated: Everybody is o jeans but I feel s my tool. I feel a little bit proud bec ause as an artist maybe I seek to find an identity. And I see this recycling work as an open window an open window because yo u can join things put then together and you could have them talk to e ach other Bec some oil colors on paper and was not successful. I found a simple way of reusing paper but there is not a lot of color. J eans have a lot of colors. Using jeans w ill bring different effect s and expression. When I use mix ed media I have new options and suggestions apart from the canvas 15 The methods Joo uses to obtain jeans are more resourceful than how he gains discarded he street and from my friends. [I use] my own and I ask people on Facebook to bring here to Ncleo 16 begun adding scraps of recycled canvas. Joo varies between these two different styles. In the first, h e overlaps sections of jeans patched together with canvas pieces to create a variegated

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250 background (See Figure 5 10 ). Each distinct part of the jeans is emphasized, forcing the viewer to interrogate individual elements such as pocket, waistband, and crotch as shown more closely in detail ( See Figure 5 11 ). Painted outlines of individual sections accentuate specific parts. The verall quilt like surface. Jo reates a clear distinction between the jeans and the bits of canvas, emphasizing the jeans as a pictoral element through his placement of intact legs outlined with wide strokes of paint ( See Figure 5 12 ). The mostly unpainted jeans reveal tears amid varyin g states of faded denim. The jeans appear as an object, commodified, and displayed, rather than a mere support for paint. Both of these painting styles illustrate how Jo o relies upon recycled materials in the creation of his art. In both styles, he foregr ounds the materiality of the jeans, used both as support and a pictoral element using different techniques. Similarly, Joo bags illustrate an innovative repurposing of unwanted canvases. In the transformation of his own ses into new objects, Jo o provides a new life for the artworks. Reconfigured into new objects (school bags), Joao gives the discarded canvases a new identity and purpose. Additionally, Joao views jeans as his tool as an artist, in which he has forged a s ingular identity from using this recycled material in his artwork. Falco stitches canvas remnants together with twisted and tied fabric scraps to create his modern stitched canvases o physically expands the limited surface area of canvas scraps he has access to, as well as dynamically altering the customary single ces are stitched together, for cing viewers to confront the materiality of Falc materials, Falc o considers his art to be evocative of contemporary art sensibilities. 17 Falco described how the d evelopment of his stitched paintings was due to I had no canvas. I

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251 had to paint so I started to join scraps. I used t he waste of canvas. I sewed it and I connected it. 18 The canvases Falco creates are not merely cobbled together; they create multiple surfaces on which he portrays vivid imagery. Sem Titulo/ Untitled stitched canvases multiple images on faceted canvas planes. Here he presents abstract and figural forms. He incorporates figures within a cityscape to populate his urban environment. In this work as in many of his paintings, Fal co creates imagery that captures the day to d 19 (See Figure 5 13 ). ion in Falco production, canvas was not the first recycled material he worked with. Experimentation with diverse recyclia has shaped Falco Beginning to paint in 1990 when he was sixteen years of age without instruct ion, Falco started incorporating recyclia into his art at A Associao Ncleo de Arte five years later. Falc o credits Mozambican artist Titos Mabota for showing him how to work with recy c 20 Falc he w ill work with He can take all recycled materials and put them together and get something 21 Falco preference for recycled materials is rooted in their important role in both su staining the environment and increasing his creative options. He stressed that he is more interested in its creative benefits. 22 The first recycled materials Falco worked with were decommissioned weapons. Titos Mabota invited him to be his assistant in the first worksh op of the TAE project held at A Associao Ncleo de Arte in 1997 98. Falco explained that the pieces he and Titos created were unlike the others because they were not welded together. Pieces of weapons were attached to two large wire figures they created. This early project provided

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252 Falc o with the skills to work with wire and the curiosity to explore additional recycled materials as media. Falco explained that for the next seven or eight years he continued to experiment with recyclia, work ing freely and inventing his own art. 23 Specific materials he utilized included different types of cloth primarily canvas and capulanas Over time, Fal c o developed a body of work using both of these materials. Falco explained how he would go to the tailo r and tell him not to throw away the cloth scraps because he wished to create something from them to transform them into something. 24 Utilizing his previous skills working with wire, h e constructed figures of twisted wire that he wrapped with the remnants of capulana s. One of these sculptures, Dog appeared in a 2010 group exhibition at A Associao Ncleo de Arte honoring Mozambican artist Neto Bem Haja Neto /Well There Neto ( See Figure 5 14 ). Jorg e Dias, (director of ENAV and curator of MUVART) purchase d Falco Dog This vivid, whimsical creature displays the diverse patterns and vibrant colors of the capulanas Despite the fact that only bits and scraps of capulanas are wrapped around the wire armature to create this form, its overall construction fro m this particular cloth is clearly identifiable. Another small sculpture made of capulana and wire depicts a common sight in Maputo, a child playing, as he pushes a tire with a stick (See Figure 5 15 ). Falco defined his selection of capulanas : I want to show the world our capulanas They are beautiful. They have a life. Originally when worn, capulanas Mozambique. You can find different kinds in the north, although they are all different, all these capulanas are on e thing. A lot of people use this type of cloth in Africa. You can see people wear ing capulanas all around they are identifying with African culture. 25 Clearly, Falco is making a strong connection between capulanas and identity. On a local level he is li nking capulanas with Mozambican identity, and more broadly, he is connecting them with African culture. Expanding upon these connections, Falco stated:

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253 The meaning of capulanas has a lot to do with commemoration. One group buy s all the same pattern and w ear s them for a ceremony [wedding, funeral]. This has big meaning ... a powerful meaning for us. It is a good representation of our culture. It symbolizes celebration. Not just in Mozambique In Africa i t has the same meanings, for each ceremony, particip ants must wear the same capulana The capulana stands for Africa. This is the cloth of Africans. It is a s ymbol of African style. All people have their own style of how to wear the capulana What it represents for us is typical African dress. 26 Falco used capulanas in the recycling workshop at A Associao N cleo de Arte Like Ana, he worked with students helping them create artworks from scraps of capulanas Both Falco and Ana draw connections between this cloth and Mozambican and African identities. Wh ereas Ana additionally recognizes an implicit gender connection between women and capulanas Falco does not. He adamantly stated he used the cloth to create cultural connections, by identifying the cloth with Mozambique and Africa. 27 By addressing these in herent links between capulanas and identity, he acknowledges pride in his cultural heritage, as well as the tched canvases. Recycled Pape r Western a rtworks comprised of combinations of paper fragments are often connected to Cubism, an Avant Garde art movement of the early twentieth century. The development of Cubism and its widespread global infl uence defined the dire ction of M odern art, revolutionizing Western ar t Artists Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso founded Cubism, although it was Picasso who ultimately became most widely connected with this artistic movement. Cubism focused on the analysis, destruction through fragmentation, and reassembly of objects to create abstracted forms. Analytic Cubism was the first phase of Cubism, relying wholly on paint to illustrate its fragmented forms. A second phase called Synthetic Cubism built upon the earlier Analytic Cubism. I n this style, actual objects replaced those originally painted by the artist. Synthetic

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254 Cubist artworks incorporating paper objects such as wallpaper, newspaper, paper scraps, and other objects became known as collages (to stick). Still Life with Chair Caning (1912) and Glass and Bottle of Suze (1912) represent seminal Cubist artworks that include additional objects such as recycled rope, wall paper, paper, cardboard, newspaper, sand, and metal. In these collages that incorporate recycled material s to the flatness of the painted canvas, Picasso introduced objects from life into the artwork. Among his large number of Synthetic works, Picasso created many versions of guitars using the Cubist style of collage, 28 some of which he created as three dimens ional forms utilizing sheet metal. (recycled paper) and subject matter (guitars) can be seen in the work of Carmen, whose artwork is discussed below. Although more often associated with Western art, at the same time there are African uses of glued paper and textiles as well. Less widely known examples include minkisi masks used by Chokwe and related groups where paper is glued to fabric (Poynor 2003). The artists discussed here include Bono, who p a p er can do other things beyond (being used to) read and write m aterials all ow more flexibility and force us to open our minds ; and Carmen who prefers using recycled materials and most people Bono has achieved success as a painter, inclu ding a second prize award in the TDM Bienal of 2005. Despite this, he continually returns to recycled paper as media, and considers himself a multimedia artist (See Figure 5 16 ). For the past five years, each time I have traveled a small village two hours north of Maputo, he was constructing paper mache sculptures. He explained how his brother, now deceased, had just returned home

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255 from Cuba when Bono first began creating art in 1991. While he preferred drawing, his brother worked on making paper. 29 A self taught artist, Bono began to incorporate recycled materials into his art making in 1997. The first recycled material he used was newspaper. Clarify in g his preference for recyclia, Bono state showing people by s pr eading my experience, not pollu ting the environment, and adv ising M oz ambican p eo pl e not to 30 Bono gave examples of how he has used his experiences to teach other s the benefits of using recyclia Whe n I spoke with Bono in 2009, he had just begun to work on Arte positive: M os livres / Positive A rt: free hands This art focused on helping HIV positive children create ar t from recyclia. Bono stated that creativity was his aim in this project, c reativity leads everyone to develop their work. I used recycled materials for developing th e creativity of the children. By using recycled materials you have to bend. You need to 31 An environmental fair sponsored by the Fundo Nacional do Ambiente /National fund for the ( Mozambican ) environment (FUNAB) 32 is another example of how Bono shared his experiences using recyclia to teach others. Each year, FUNAB holds a fair d edicated to the environment that is held in a different location of the country Larg ely comprised of lectures devoted to environmental concerns, a venue is reserved for artists who work with recycled materials. 33 The arts component is intended to showcase artistic innovations while offering artists an opportunity to sell their works to an interested audience. The fourth edition of the FUNAB fair took place in Nampula in March 2011. In early March, Bono prepar ed pulp from recycled newspapers to create his sc ulptures.

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256 Bono models paper mache pulp to create both abstract and figural forms. He occasionally incorporates recycled objects such as coconuts and teapots ( See Figure 5 17 ). While including recyclia in his sculptures creates visual interest, Bono remains transfixed by his transformation of cause nobody imagine s p a p er can do other things beyond being used to read and write read ing and writing is not surprising considering he is a m ember of the Associao dos Escritores Mocambiaos/ Association of Mozambican Writers Another technique Bono works with combines newspaper with painted canvas es. Bon o explained its theme a group of my newspaper work s often talks more about corruption, so ci al life, social differences, but the main them e of this work is youth. 34 Expanding, he explained: The youth are in a bad situation because 95% of them are unemployed. They are feeding prostitution, crime, and drugs. It is not only the fault of the youth but also the lack of attention on the part of the government. I try to be in tune with society. v ery little is good and much more is bad. 35 Works such as Sacrifcio do Inocente Urbano/The Sacrifice of the Urban Innocent (S ee Figures 5 18 5 19 ) using recycled materials and his concern for Mozambican youth. In this piece, imagery depicting children torn from a newspaper page is applied to canvas. The torn newspaper image depicts children playing in a heavily wooded area. The page is imposing in the foreground of the painted background he presents. A tension is created between the forested area of the children and the urban environment depicting buildings. The juxtaposed images create a view of co ntemporary urban reality and the toll it t akes on youth s Bono defines this situation the innocent fruit of urban civilization marginalized wit hin the society in which I live 36 When a sked about public perceptions of art created from recyclia in Mozamb ique, Bono The p eo pl e do not value r ecycled m aterials here so few p eo pl e give value to the art

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257 a cultural problem. I t is more international people who buy the art 37 He agreed that exhibitions presenting this type of art were important to increase public awareness and understanding of art yes have exhib itions they need to be conceptualized for the p eo pl e so it [understanding recyclia as art] can change. 38 Bono is interested in explor ing the use of recycled objects. This is especially apparent in his continual return to paper mache, and use of newspapers. His desire to expand his creative options, as well as exploring multiple uses of this material underscore his continued use of this particular recycled material. Prior to meeting Calisto I saw one of his artworks at A Associao Ncleo de Arte The mixed media piece incorporated the primary recycled material Calisto continually r eturns to in the creation of his art: cardboard. Commenting on his preference for using cardboard as a tool to expand his creativity, Calisto explained: I use the technique [ using recycled mater ials] to glue, to paint. For exa mple, I use mostly cardboard to make maquettes to m ake art. It has been previously used for something give s more depth to my creativity. If I go to the rubbish and get it to take to my atelier and not use it it will stay like rubbish. For me that rubbish I use to give s more power to my creativity. 39 Calisto explained his predilection for recycled materials and how he began using them in 1980: For a long time I used media materials (paint, wood) At time s though our market have everything we need [media materials] and we do not have enough money to buy these media materials I also want to us e materials that can last a long time : s and, cardboard, paper If I want to make a piece with wood even l ast five years. i Moz ambique W e have a lot of things around us we can use. I started to see that I was able to add recycled materials to media materials to give more visual effects I started to t hink of how I could transform these materials. using mixed media techniques. R ecycled m aterials all ow more flexibility and force us to open our minds. 40

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258 Calisto is among the first group of students to attend the newly opened governmen t sponsored Instituto Superior de Artes e Cultura /Institution of Higher Learning of Arts and Culture (ISArC) (2009) Currently he is also an instructor at the Escola Nacional de Artes Visuais / National School of Visual Arts ( ENAV ), where he previously stud ied graphic design, and now as an instructor has established workshops in graphics, ceramics, and textiles Calisto has been an active member of A Associao Ncleo de Arte for many years and served as its Vice P resident in the mid 1990s. Calisto also fou nded and served as director of a monthly new s paper Arte Voz/Art Voice dedicated to arts and culture in Mozambique. Unfortunately this was a short lived venture, in which Calisto published nine editions between 2003 and 2004. endent on the recycled cardboard he uses as a tool in his printmaking He uses cardboard as a matri x, replacing standard support s of silk, metal, or like barra cas [small shanty bars/restaurants] and to the garbage. Even at school recycled paper. I use pizza boxes to create a printing plate. P eople save pizza boxes for me, such as (See Figure 5 20 ). Calisto is distinct among artists I have intervie wed because he utilizes cardboard as a tool for producing art, while o ther artists use recyclia as media to be included within a single artwork Calisto uses cardboard as a printing device made from pre used cardboard He creates new art from cardboard he uses as a mechanism in his printmaking process. He creates a twist on the use of recycled materials as merely part of an artwork, as he matrix creates the impressi on of the design. Its imagery is transferred onto the paper as a mirror image

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259 cardboard as a support is illustrated in several different series of posters he has created. In 1999, Calisto created posters to raise awareness of HIV AIDS (S ee Figure 5 21 ). Imagery incorporating the recognizable AIDS ribbon with a stylized image of Edu ardo Mondlane, first president of FRELIMO, from its beginning in 1962 until his assassination in 1969, was carved into the cardboard as a matrix for creating pr ints of the image. Calisto explained that he specifically included Mondlane because the Mozambican government declared 1999 the year of Mondlane. Mondlane was being honored in 1999 because it represented the thirty year anniversary since his death in 1969. Calisto hoped to provoke dialogue among AIDS, which had not yet developed at this time. 41 Much of the imagery Calisto creates focuses on social causes such as HIV AIDS, incor porating heroic figures such as Eduardo Mondlane and Samora Machel to garner attention. Calisto also frequently experiments with his print matrices, creating further texture through the addition of sand and cloth to the cardboard (See Figur e 5 22 ). A less serious side incorporates a population of insect like alien creatures, in colorful and graphic styled designs. Even these antennaed figures become co opted by Calisto into commentary on social causes such as domestic violence, alcohol abuse, and even putti ng an end to public urination (See Figur es 5 23 5 2 4 ). Calisto shared his opinions on the state of culture and the arts in Mozambique, in addition to the plight of being a professional artist: Many p eo pl e give up and stop being artists. n o money. Artists are forced to u se their pocket money. Even chapa [ local taxi] Our gov ernment does not see because they cannot surviv e with only their art. F arm ers can exist on a farm bec ause they can sell what they produce. Kids on the street who sell p hone credit, DVD they make more money than artists. Even p eo pl e cleaning cars in the street make more money than artists So, artist s can organize a solo exhib ition with twenty or thirty works and not sell

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260 any at all. So they make a sacrifice to org anize materials, make art and transport art And still they are n ot selling anything. We have bad luck; no NGO help us. So you s ee how it is. What do you think? After he relayed the bleak prospects for artists, Calisto shifted into a more positive state of mind as he began to describe how he has integrated recycled materials into his teaching at ENAV, the state funded visual arts s chool: [Recycled materials] start to open the ir minds. W ith my students I might say we have to draw with sand. At ENAV w e do not give them recycled materials to use We tell them to find simple materials and then they go to the streets and they bring to school to work with Well, we enlighten them to the idea that r ecycled m aterials are transformed mat erials: So even traditional artists who use paint if we go deeper we can find that t hese paints come from pre used materials recycled materials. So if we think we need m edia m aterials they do not exist now. So even modern art is recycling traditional art The number of recycled m aterials in TDM Bienal (increases) every year. Calisto prefers recycled materials as media because he believes their use expands his creative options. He has brought the use of recyclia as media into the classes he teaches at ENAV as well as his own art. In his use of pre used materials a tool to create multiple prints of images and didactically in his teaching, Calisto illustrates a great example of how the message of using recyclia is spread to multiple audiences and younger generations of Mozambican artists. They I have two distinct memories of Carme n; the first was from late December 2010 when we met at her home, in the neighborhood of Patrice Lumumba, outside of Maputo I remember Carmen graciously offering cake she had made to me and my assistant, showing countless examples of her artwork, thoughtf ully answ ering my long list of questions, demonstrating a marbleizing painting technique she learned in Cuba, successfully containing her liv ely three year ol d son, and managing to remain unfazed by the overwhelming heat that day The second memory was as I watched her from a distance among a crowd of thousands, as she gave a eulogy at the extravagant funeral of Malangatana in early January 2011

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261 Carmen received a formal education in the arts. She studied a course of graphic design at the Escola Nacional de Artes Visuais / National School of Visual Arts (ENAV) in Maputo, where she currently teaches printmaking. Studying at ENAV until grade twelve she continued her education at the National School of Plastic Arts of Havana. She remained in Cuba for five y ears. In addition to her current position at ENAV, s he also was a professor at the School of Visual Arts Lopes Penha in Cuba and an instructor at the School Gallery Eugenio Lemos in Maputo. She is a founding member of MU VART and like most of the artists d iscussed here is a member of A Associao Ncleo de Arte of the living room and proclaim 42 ( See Figur e 5 25 ). Carmen explained that she began to use recycled materials at ENAV. Her instructor s, Mozambican artist Victor Sous a, as well as teachers from Cuba, Poland, Canada, and Portugal directed her towards using recycled materials She descri bed how at that time most of her teachers were from outside Mozambique 43 Carmen contended, Most in the streets. 44 Carmen nam ed Pablo Picasso and German Renaissance artist Albrecht Drer as artistic influence s S he explained that Drer introduced her to European printmaking techniques and that she had seen drawing s by Picasso at the Centro Cultural Franco Moambicano (French Mozambican Cultural Center) in Maputo, Cuba, and in books. 45 arly seen in artworks by Carmen, ( See Figur e 5 26 ) especially here, where not only does she mimic the collage, but the imagery of his often depicted guitar s as well. In these constructions, Carmen utilizes scraps of paper she has recycled to create fragmen ted images representing guitars and

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262 these abstract forms. Experimenting with painted imagery and diverse paper products including different types of paper an d cardboard, Carmen creates vibrant arworks linking distinct patterns and designs in her art constructed of mixed recycled materials (See Figur e 5 27 ). When Carmen re turned from Cuba and started teach ing printmaking at ENAV she began making matrices from r ecyclia. She linked diverse objects to create textural effects from both manmade and natural materials she recycles. Carmen explained her decision for choosing pre used objects but for me, using r ecycled m aterials was more expressi ve. I feel good using my mind when I use these materials. 46 Since 2010, Carmen has begun to experiment with fabric In these artworks she uses fabric scraps, particularly her own discarded dresses. She commented, these clothes a re my old ones and I thoug ht I would b urn them but I decided to make them into somethin g. Better to do something else with them so I take the cloth and make a piece of art. My idea is to do the same types. No need for a budget. I will explore this kind of material more. 47 These h anging fabric pieces utilize light and capture shadows creating dissonance between light and dark (See Figur es 5 28 5 30 ) further develop in the ir silhouettes as they flow back and forth with the movement of air I look forward to seeing more of these works made from dresses when she begins to devote more time to this project. Carmen began to speak about cul ture and the arts in Mozambique: [There are] more rec ycled materials in sculptures. But our public is s till ignorant even th e rich ignore it. Our hope for selling as artists is the international audience. Contempora ry art takes more power to show So the first art that is selected for purchase is by artists using media materials unfortunately. I think with time it can change N ow with new curriculum at school especially visual arts education Some books give info rmation on M oz ambican artists using r ecycled m aterials ( levels six, seven, and eight ) I think a lot of kids know Malangatana and his pieces. Now the idea is to give them opp ortunities to know about other artists. The books they get, some ref er to old artists. It would be better to ref erence artists using r ecycled m aterials and talk about contemporary art in M oz ambique Attitudes are changing for the better. Where I t each at ENAV, I remember using

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263 r ecycled materials, student made art work with r ecycled m aterials, and go ing to the rubbish to look for materials. 48 Defin ing the type of message she hoped viewers would take away from art c omposed of recycled materials Carmen stated: My hope is with the youth because I want them to get inspiration to make other things. Another goal is that I want to give more incentive for people to like it [recycled materials] and love art. Most people want to start creating art but they have fear. More people think art is all about media materials. I want them to learn more 49 creativity, based on the greater options she believes these objects provide. Influen ced by the art of western artist Picasso, Carmen focuses on creating artworks out of unexpected objects as she strives to illustrate the creative power these materials possess. C onclusion The artists discussed in this chapter are linked in their preferenc es for using recycled fabric and paper as media in their art. Each of these artists displays individual motivations for how and why they use these particular materials, which may be defined through the use of object frictions as an analytical tool. For exa gender ide ntity and its connection with particular cloths capulanas which are largely used and worn by women in Mozambican s ociety. She chronicles the e use of the capulanas in which female gender roles are stressed. Based on her use of the inherent meaning of the capulana she is directly focused on the history of the cloth. In the new style Ana developed from the threads of the canvas, this is altered. In these artworks, she is not directly relying on the meaning of the canvas. In this example, she relies on the utility of the object and how it is used to literally con struct her artwork.

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264 Jo o uses two different types of fabric: pre used canvas to create book bags inspired hi m to begin to use jeans to create a support for paintings. In his use of these materials, he focuses not on their meaning or previous use per se. Jo o selects these materials to serve a function in the construction of his new forms. In this case, Jo o rel ies on the recyclia as a tool, focusing on the utility of their forms in his creative process. Falc o, like Jo o, uses different types of recycled fabric in his creative processes. He uses capulanas in the construction of wire figures and pre used canvas t o expand the picture plane of insufficient canvases. In his use of the capulanas, he strongly identifies the cloth with an inherent link to Mozambican and African identity. In this history in his creation of these artwor ks. In the case of the canvas scraps however, his selection of this material is who lly one of utility, solving problem s of expanding his painting surface. Bono uses old newspapers to create paper mache he constructs into abstract and figural forms. Fasci nated by his transformation of paper into a sculptural tool, Bono is most interested in the utility of the paper and its ability to be developed into something new. Calisto, also drawn to paper products, relies upon the characteristic density and thickness of cardboard. Using pizza boxes that have been collected for him, he creates a tool out of this recycled material. Using the cardboard as a matrix on which to print images, he uses recyclia to create multiple artworks from his cardboard supports. Carmen, similar to Calisto, also utilizes cardboard and other diverse recyclia in her printmaking processes. Drawn to an exploration of creativity, through expanded utility. Artists may be distinguished within their use of similar recycled materials based on their preference for the history or utility of the materials they use. These links and differences between

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265 artists contribute to the development and widespread us e of recycled materials throughou t Mozambican contemporary ar t 1 Assimilados refers to colonized Mozambicans believed to have reached a complete level of civilizat ion, implying equal status with the Portuguese colonizers. Indigenas refers to indigenous Mozambicans who were viewed as inferior to assimilados R egulos r efer to indigenous chiefs or rulers in a leadership position. 2 Matswa Vilankulos (Ana), Maputo, Mo zambique, May 8, 2011. 3 Matswa Vilankulos (Ana) Maputo, Mozambique, May 21, 2011. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Amanda Erricson is a researcher at the Swedish School of Textiles and founder of the fashion brand Dreamandawake. 10 Joo Paul Bias (Joo), interview, Maputo, Mozambique, December 6, 2010. 11 Joo, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, October 18, 2011. 12 Joo, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, December 6, 2010. 13 Joo is currently studying marketing and publicity at Universidade Eduardo Mondlan e/University of Edward Mondlane in Maputo. 14 Joo, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, December 6, 2010. 15 Joo, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, October 18, 2011. 16 Ibid. 17 Mussagy Narane Talaquichand (Falco), interview, Maputo, Mozambique, June 22, 2011. 18 Ib id. 19 Falco, personal correspondence, August 23, 2013. 20 Ibid. 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid. 23 Falco, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, June 22, 2011. 24 Falco, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, May 19, 2011. 25 Ibid.

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266 26 Ibid. 27 Ibid. 28 The Museum of Modern Art presented the exhibition, Picasso Guitars 1912 1914 from February 13 June 6, 2011. The exhibition included sixty five artworks. 29 Bono Mandlate (Bono), interview, Zimpeto, Mozambique, August 17, 2008. 30 Bono, interview, Zimpeto, Mozambique, February 25, 2011 31 Bo no, interview, Zimpeto, Mozambique, August 5, 2009. 32 FUNAB is an autonomous public institution supervised by the Mozambican Ministry of the Environment. 33 Artists submit work for selection by FUNAB to be included in the yearly fair. 34 Bono, interview, Zim peto, August 17, 2008. 35 Ibid. 36 Bono, personal correspondence, August 23, 2013. 37 Bono, interview, Zimpeto, Mozambique, August 17, 2008. 38 Bono, interview, Zimpeto, Mozambique, February 25, 2011. 39 Calisto, Interview, November 8, 2010. 40 Calisto, intervie w, February 15, 2011. 41 Ibid. 42 Crmen Maria Muianga (Carmen ) interview, Patrice Lumumba, December 30. 2010. 43 In a paper presented at the International Association of Art Critics Meeting Harun Harun explains that in the early years of ENAV most of the a rt teachers were from outside Mozambique. Harun Harun. 2007. The Fine Arts in Mozambique: Aspects of Arts Education and Art Criticism that have Contributed to the Development of Fine Arts in Mozambique. Johannesburg, South Africa. 44 Carmen, interview, Patrice Lumumba, December 30, 2010. 45 Ibid. 46 Ibid. 47 Ibid. 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid.

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267 Figures Figure 5 1. Ana creating webs at A Associao Ncleo de Arte recycling workshop, October 2010. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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268 Figure 5 2. Student working on Mannequi n A Associao Ncleo de Arte Recycling Workshop, Oct. 2010 Photograph by Alcides Goba

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269 Figure 5 3. A Associao Ncleo de Arte Recycling Workshop, October 2010. Photograph by Al cides Goba

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270 Figure 5 4 Matswa Vilankulos (Ana), May 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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271 Figur e 5 5. Ana. Unraveled Canvas Painting, oil, acrylic/canvas, May 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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2 72 Figu re 5 6. Ana. Untitled c apulana p aintin g oil, acrylic/canvas, May 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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273 Figure 5 7. c apulana p aintings oil, acrylic/canvas, May 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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274 Figure 5 8. Joo. Book bag created from discarded canvases. paint/canvas, December 2010 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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275 Figure 5 9. Joo. Jeans Painting with gesso preparation December 2010 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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276 Figure 5 10 Joo. Jeans Painting (F irst style) acryli c, jeans, canvas, December 2010 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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277 Figure 5 11. Joo. Detail. Jeans Painting (First style) acrylic, jeans, canvas, December 2010. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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278 Figur e 5 12. Joo. Jeans Painting ( Second s tyle ) acrylic, jeans, canvas, December 2010. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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279 Figure 5 13 Falco. Sem Titulo/Untitled. acrylic/canvas, 2013. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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280 Figure 5 1 4. Falco. Dog. capulanas and wire, 2010 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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281 Figure 5 15. Falco. Sem Titulo/Untitled. c apulanas and wire, 2011 Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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282 Figure 5 16. Bon o modeling a paper mache form at his home in Zimpeto, February 2011. Pho tograph by A. Schwartzo tt

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283 Figure 5 17. Bon o with a paper mache form with added teapot. 2011, Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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284 Figure 5 18. Bono. Sacrifcio do Inocente Urbano/The Sacrifice of the Urban Innocent a crylic, newspaper/canvas, 2008. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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285 Figure 5 19. Bono. Detail. Sacrifcio do Inocente Urbano/The Sacrifice of the Urban Innocen t a crylic, newspaper/canvas, 200 8. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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286 Figure 5 20. Photograph by Alcides Goba

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287 Figure 5 21 Calisto Cardboard Printmaking matrix and p r int. Evite HIV SIDA/Avoid HIV AIDS, 1999. Pho tograph by Alcides Goba

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288 Figure 5 22. Calisto. Cardboard p rintm aking matrix with s and, n.d. Photo by Alcides Goba

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289 Figure 5 23. Calisto. Social Commentary on Alcohol and Aids, ink, paint/paper, n.d. Photograph by Alcides Gob a

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290 Figur e 5 24. Calisto. Social Commentary on Public Urination ink/paper, n.d. Photograph by Alcides Goba

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291 Figure 5 25. Pile of recycled materials (art tools) and Print Matrices at Photo by A. Schwartzott

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292 Fi gure 5 26. Carmen. Guitar mixed recycled paper materials. n.d. Photo by A. Schwartzott

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293 Figure 5 27. Carmen. Sem Titulo/Untitled mixed recycled paper materials, n.d Photo by A. Schwartzott

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294 Figure 5 28. Carmen with Untitled Dress Piece No 1 recycled fabric, n.d. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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295 Figure 5 29. Carmen. Untitled Dr ess Piece No. 2 recycled fabr ic, n.d. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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296 CHAPTER 6 RECYCLED MATERI ALS: A CASE STUDY OF TWO ARTISTS In this chapter I discuss two artists who use diverse combinations of pre us ed materials in their art Domingos W. Comiche Mabongo (Domingos) and Mois s Ernesto Matsinhe Mafuiane (Butcheca). Both of these ar tists incorporate a wide range of recycled material s as media, by selecting objects that are diverse both in materiality and their original uses. Domingos and Butcheca diverge from my previous discussions of artists whose media includes a purposeful selection and continual return to particular materials s u ch as decommissioned weapons, wood, metal, paper and textiles the y recycle into artworks. to selecting specific recycled materials. Object frictions, the theoretica l framework I developed, which defines inherent tensions within objects (See chapter one), provides a useful analytical tool for determining how and why particular objects are used by these artists. Despite similarities e for diverse recyclia, they dramatically differ in regard to which aspect of the object is most desirable fo r their individual purposes: its utility or its history I argue that the implicit dualities within objects inform the construction and meaning of artworks, thus Domingos and Butcheca both use diverse recyclia as a didactic tool. I will demonstrate patterns in the ir methodical approache s to create arts explicitly intended for educational close examination of artworks illustrating their use of recyclia and transformative processes, synthesis o f extensive interviews held with the artists, and discussion based on direct observations of the artists as they worked over the course of several years.

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297 Domingos uses recycled materials to instruct viewers on widely varied social issues. By creating art f rom everyday materials people can relate to, he is able to reach his audiences, one of which includes uneducated individuals with messages intended specifically for them. A primary goal of Domingos is to create a universal appeal for art. Through his use o f recyclia, Domingos aims to bring his art to all people, by breaking down hierarchical barriers. The recycled materials Domingos utilizes become symbols within the instructional commentary his art presents. His use of pre used objects to symbolize larger their uses, their trajecto ries (Appadurai 1986, 5). Domingos collects bits and scraps of recycled materia ls that serve as potent symbols to bring awareness and highlight social problems such as drinking and driving, technological vandalism, and the importance of recycling to an audience he believes has been neglected in the world of art. Wher eas Domingos focu ses on the histories of the objects he uses, recalling Appadurai and Kopytoff, According to Butcheca, an aluminum can of pop or a bottle cap is viewed simply as a tool in his process of c reation, an object whose use is governed by utility as it will be used to cover or support another possibly non recycled object. Butcheca views the recycled materials he utilizes as a bridge a link between materials. He emphatically denies any interes t in possible meaning based upon their former purpose or use. Solely interested in the literal materiality of the recycled materials to aid his process of transformation, Butcheca combines diverse pre used materials to construct art that is centrally focu

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298 Domingos: I conducted several i nterviews with Domingos throughout my fieldwork in Mozambique, and he beca me a semi nal figure in my research. Most interviews with Domingos took place at his home, in an area of Maputo known as Aeroporto in the vicinity of the Maputo International Airport chapas (local taxis) and then winding through a busy market that had been built on a massive mountain of garbage. 1 Like current, ed terrain revealed the hard packed strat layers of plastic bags and other debris, exposing its previous life as a dump. located behind the cem ent block walls that frame the maze of dirt roadway s. His home c onsists of four small multi room buildings. Two of the buildings are of reed construction and the remaining two are composed of cement block s. All of these buildings are covered with zinc roofs. We met in the cement block building set back the fu rthest on his property a small three room building that served jointly as an art studio/ storage/sleeping area. Domingos immediately began to discuss his art, pulling several paintings out of a storage area as he eagerly explained his inspiration to become an artis their kids to be painters they want immediate results. Art is not like that it is 2 Domingos has won several prizes over the course of his career. These awards include first prize at Museu Nacional de Arte (National Art Museum of Mozambique) in 2003, participation in FUNDAC (government sponsored recycling art program ) in 2006 and 2007, as well as the highest honor of first premium at the last TDM Bienal held in 2009 3 Describing his a when they see paintings that art is for elites. I am trying to bring communication for all people, to

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299 try to show all peo art that they can relate to. I want to 4 This comprehensive statement is fundamental to understanding his motivations for creating art. First, he believes his use of everyday materials allows a larger po pula tion to understand his art. He sees it as essential for his art t o be viewed by a wider audience. Domingos believes that through his use of materials from everyday life, he enable s viewers to easily relate to and consequently understand the message of h is artworks. He wishes to break down hierarchies of art by creating art for everyone. I asked Domingos how he makes his art accessible to his desired access ible, one way is to invite people to my Atelier and by way of explaining I 'll talk about the importance of recycling in our community taking into account the transformation of waste into something useful like a work of art in this case 5 Second, Domingo s creates art for the people who are directly affected by the specific social issues he addresses The didactic motivation of his art is geared towards an audience who understands the everyday objects he uses. He takes on the role of educating the populati on about varied social issues through his use of related recycled materials he uses as symbols. Domingos is deeply committed to creating art that will be understood by all. He explains how this has actually become a sacrifice : My aim when I started to mak e art was to let people know what art is. I used my pocket money to teac h kids about art. I bought all the materials: cardboard and p aint. I had to stop because I did 6 Domingos uses money he obtains from selling his art to buy art supplies he use s to create art to teach others. Often, such as his exhibition at BCI, no works are sold. This results in a loss of money on the part of the artist who h as already

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300 spent money to purchase supplies and arrange transportation. I have heard similar stories from several arti sts, particularly those who create art from recycled materials (See chapter two for a discussion of Mozambican receptions to art). Synopse s Domingo s creates for his abstract artworks are essential tool s in his process of art making. These detailed journalistic records provi de a description and con textual background, creating his individual chronicle of artworks These texts provide a clearly delineated framework for him, as they catalogue the inherent symbolism of artworks, along with their contextual development, as a methodology. Providing more than simply an explanation of the piece s his synopses includ e carefully detailed backgrounds which include source material, technical and media concerns, as well as general ideas related to the physical and ideological construction of the piece and its meaning all elements Domingos believes are necessary for view ers to understand his abstract artworks. Discussing the importance of these written explanations, Domingos explain Mozambique, abstract artists do not writ if they forget it is important to make people understan d better what you are doing too. 7 Domingos expressed deep dissatisfaction that the exhibition catalog accompanying the TDM Bienal of 2011 did not include the synopsis he had created to accompanied his entry, Vandalizadores de cabos fibra ptica e a mscar a do vigilante / Vandals of fiber optic wire and the masks of the v igilant (See chapter two for a specific discussion of this work in the context of the Bienal ) Compradores Ambulante de Ferro/ Itinerant Iron Buyers. mixed media 2008 Itinerant Iron Buyers is a mixed media painting com pleted in 2008 (See Figure 6 1). The background depicts three small buildings, representations of homes similar to those typically found in urban, suburban and rural Mozambique, of timbered reed construction with thatched roofs. Domingos pointed out that these were similar to his own home, and meant to convey a

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301 specific connection to his audiences, conforming to their own homes and socio economic levels. 8 The green building farthest to the left is the clearest and most brightly pa inted, whereas the other two buildings fade into the greyish background of sky and clouds. An open window in this building reveals a simply portrayed individual who is outlined in profile. Dots increasing in size lead from his right side towards a large e surprise. Undoubtedly the cause of his surprise is the scene portrayed in the foreground of the painting. A trova a two wheeled metal pushcart, is depicted, but a donkey has taken over the role of the m an in calling for materials, while the man pulls the cart. The bulging cal f muscle and straining arms of the barefoot man indicate s his struggle with the weight of the cart he attempts to pull that would ordinarily fall to the task of the donkey Inside the trova are three objects, a grey te apot, a large cooking pot, and a rust colored car door Domingos has affixed actual n ails, scraps and bits of metal to the interior surface of the trova, add ing three dimensional texture to the painting. The use of th ese recycled materials adds a didactic element for the viewer, who is being visually instructed to recycle. A bubble directly Who can think this is a theatre player (the donkey), but no! I want t o show that this animal, when he is recycling c an be used for many other purpose s. The donkey is not as dumb cart grasps the handle of the trova with his six th leg while speaking into a megaphone created from an affixed piece of recycled metal. 9 His words are enclosed within an angular speech balloon, indicating the high volume of his voice as he speaks. He loudly proclaims in Shangaan : 10 We buy old metals! Pans, stoves, m Despite swap ping the principal characters, Domingos portraya l is a common sight in the streets of Maputo. Buyers of scrap metal pushing trovas loudly broadcast the fact they will buy

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302 almost any type of metal, regardless of its size, large or small 11 The donkey indica tes specific types of metal he is willing to buy as he traverses the streets attempting to forage scrap metal, noisily announcing this through his megaphone. These buyers form an integral part of reets through their purchase of scrap metal, which they sell at a profit to larger brokers of metal and junkyards. aspects of recycling. To illustrate this point, he presen ted a familiar image of everyday life that anyone could relate to. As he described: I bring a strong message about how to use recycled materials. In this piece I use metaphors because people know what happens day by day. People buy recycled materials i n the neighborhoods. I put the opposite the man pushing the trova and the burro calls for people who will buy these materials. What inspires me is what happens around. They are making noise around. In the morning we can hear the ow we have an animal doing the job he has the ow that when he is recycling he can use materials for another thing; so here you see the material the trova is taking away can be recycled to use again. 12 Dom ingos creates artworks such as this to educate a population that has not been exposed to art. He uses materials to create images these people can relate to and be educated by. By utilizing recycled materials he clearly shows people how materials can be reu sed with a new purpose. In this painting, as described above, Domingos has c ombined recycled materials within his oil on canvas support. The viewer can clearly identify the three dimensional textural elements that the materials inside the trova signify, a megaphone) are created out of recycled materials. Domingos uses added recyclia to create more realistic depictions for viewers to relate to, as well as bring ing the concept of recycling to life through his eas ily recognizable realistic representations. Domingos explained how he uses no time. People have to make money and survive. There is n o time to look at art to get ideas. I

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303 want to show the community many ideas. When I produced my piece of art I did not plan to sell it it is to giv e ideas about recycling. I included 13 Domingos selected different languages for his representation of the thoughts of the man and the voice of the donkey. The man thinks in Portuguese, while the donkey speaks in Shangaan 14 This seemingly appeal directly and po werfully to his audience. Domingos explained how language reinforces the realism exactly how the people who buy the metals speak in Shangaan trova driver speaks Shangaan s how they look to survive (buying and selling scrap metal). 15 Domingos has literally included source material he might provide in his explanat ory synopsis directly within this to reflect i deas he wishes to communicate to viewers. Domingos views h is lack of accessi bility to audiences unfamiliar and disinterested in art as problematic. To promote one of his foremost goals, dispelling the belief that art is for elites, Domingos uses several te chniques. He explained: I have a go people liv ing in rural areas think about the elites. It is diffic ult because there is no space for art in the communiti es. We make exhibits downtown. It would be different if we had cu ltural space s in the community if people go to the market they can pass by to see the piece. If we create art we can teach kids to open their brains. 16 Domingos feels strongly about the power of art and its ability to enact social change. He also has an intense need to bring art to the people with his mixed media works, because they are unable or neighbor to see. Some people say they have no money to go. Some p eople say we think if you make exhibitions in the city it is for the elite When they think about art they think it involves 17 Domingos attempts to convince his uneducated audiences that although art may be linke d with higher classes because it may be priced too high

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304 for them to afford to buy it, they still may enjoy it by going to his atelier, the National Museum, and A Associao Ncleo de Arte to view art without charge purely for the joy of it. In many cases for individuals who are unemployed or not financially stable, the thought of spending even the smallest amount of money to travel to see art makes no sense. The Mozambican population overall does not yet have an appreciation for art as a source of enjoymen t (See chapter two for a discussion of Mozambique population reception of art). Domingos explained how in the last few months he had been working on an art project with other artists to raise awareness in communities about important issues, such as HIV AI DS. Projects such as this one illustrate how Domingos works towards bringing the art to the community and breaking the stereotype of art being restricted to an elite audience by showing it is for everyone. 18 F urther elaborating on how art may be used as an effective means of educating communities, Domingos stated see recycled materials as help f o r survival. If they ha ve something that they do not use we can teach them how to use it again 19 Clearly, Domingos is concerned with recycling, promoting its practice through his art, and using his art as a means to make connections to communities that are not familiar with ar t. Sinistro /Sinister. mixed media 2009 Sinister i s a large, rectangular mixed media canvas, divided into two unequal sections (See Figure 6 2 ) The dominant section is wholly abstract with drips and violent swaths of paint in combinations of warm colors such as red, orange, and gold that contrast with the alternating blacks, greys, and whites they intermingle with. Overall, the colors and techniques of paint application create a sense of dissonant movement throughout the work. The addition of nails to the surface heightens the overall tension of the painting.

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305 The placement of nails initially appears random, but upon closer inspection it becomes clear that their organization follows and enhances the outlines of several of the fluid, abstracted forms that s platter and pool like blood The interplay of the rhythmic quality of the loose conveying a sense of violence to the viewer. The less dominant portion of the work creates a clashes with the vibrant colors and erratic actio n depicted in the dominant space. The top frame is stark in its complete whiteness, whereas the side section on the right includes boot prints in grey an d black that initially appears r andom; yet upon scrutiny indicate a downward thrust of movement, as if someone walked across this portion of the canvas from the top. Two of these boot prints have faint reddish highlights, suggesting these boots have walked through blood. In addition to the somewhat chaotic trail of boot prints, erratic section s of tire tracks appear, imply ing the unexpected swerve of an autom obile symbolizing an accident. Domingos explained that his goal with Sinister was to bring art to life, as he previously did with Itinerant Iron Buyers Intending to create a realistic portr ayal, he used imagery people are able to relate to. Domingos explain an accident on the street nt the broken cars and g lass on the street when an accident occurred scene 20 In his synopsis of Sinistro, Domingos indicates that his direct inspiration came from newspaper ar ticles reporting on vehicular accident s Noticias a Maputo newspaper, repor ted that a mini bus had fallen into a river and killed five people, and two children fr om one family had died in another car accident. Both of these accidents were caused by excessive s peed and alcohol ( Noticias 2009, 15). 21 Sinis ter clearly illustrates how Domingos uses his art as a platform to bring

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306 attention to social issues In this instance the abuse of alcohol and its dangers in conjunction with driving are highlighted, as he refer s to actual stories taken directly from the local media to create art from life Here again, as in Itinerant Iron Buyers Domingos has relied on symbols and metaphors, using the theme and imagery of the automobile accidents to represent societal problems. 22 and strong technique s that included dripping paint on the canvas to give the sensation when faced with strange liquids (the mixture of blood and fuels) on the roads, and nails and iron oxide 23 Nails are a recycled material used to great symbolic effect by Domingos in Sinister. He uses the nails metaphorically to represent automobiles. Referring to the conceptual process of transformation that he employed with were used by people for another reason (to drive into w ood to connect it). When I use nails in my For example, when I put na ils in my paintings metal vehicles on the street. (Ibid). Another work by Domingos, Vandalizadores de cabos de fibra ptica e a Mascara do Vigilante/Vandals of fiber optic wire and Masks of the Vigilant is in cluded in chapter two as part of a discussion on artworks included in the TDM Bienal for which it was created. Domingos is currently working on an artwork titled The Manifestao/The Demonstrations Bread Riots The assemblage of materials creates an odd still life juxtaposed with the pastel yarn tablecloth on which they a re displayed The visual effect i s surreal, remnants of social unrest specifically, riot gear, including incapacitating agents such as aerosols, grenades, bullet casings and cartridges from guns and grenade dischargers, against the innocent

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307 backdrop of fuzzy crocheted pink, yellow and white florettes (See Figures 6 3, 6 4 ). These are materials Domingos has collected in anticipation of a new series of artworks The se objects are discarde d remnants of tools used by Mozambican police and armed forces. They were used to quell public demonstrations during what is popularly referred to as the Manifestao (Demonstrations) or Bread R iots. These events took pl ace f or three days in early Septembe r 2010, when public protests broke out in response to proposals to raise utility prices. Many people were injured and some deaths resulted from the ensuing events connected with these protests. The demonstrations during the Bread Riots effectively shut dow n Maputo. Traffic to and from the city was suspended, and those risking travel despite street closures were targets of hurled rocks and flames from fires, which were purposely set in the roadways to thwart travel. These events were r eferred to as bread rio ts because the demonstrations responded to proposed governmental hikes in the necessary utilities required among the ingredients to create bread: water and electricity. Raising pri ces of these necessities would translate into higher prices for bread, a sta ple of the lines of people seeking bread from bakeries magnified, stretching far down the streets. Many bakeries ran out of bread during this time. B akeries that did maintain bread in stock resorted to p osting armed guards at the ir doors to dissuade violence. A key factor in the demonstrations is that the mode of contact used to rally and convene the people was SMS messaging via cell phones. After the government realized this onverg ence, they shut down all cell phone networks effectively curtailing communication networks within Maput o, wreaking further chaos within the already suffering city. Domingos stated hi s intentions for this artwork: conception yet

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308 support I will use for the foundation not like paint, it will by heavy. I must read more newspapers, I bought a lot from that week. .. 24 Domingos commented on his proje cted artwork and the objects (riot gear) he has I want to make a piece to talk about social conflict and show how people react. It may take one year to collect more materials to mix and give real informat ion about these social actions from the riots 25 Domingos has not yet completed his Riot Series artwork. When I saw him last in January 2013 he had not finished collecting the materials or formalized a plan for t heir ar twork. Over several years and many interviews Butcheca has carefully described h is use of recycled materials and how recyclia both informs and forms the didactic message of his art. Butcheca utilizes recycled materials for several reasons that address creative, financial, and environmental concerns. Butcheca deeply values recycled materials as a means of expanding his creative options, serving as a solution to preserv e the environment, provid ing a financial boon by limiting the need to purchase media materials, as well as his unique vision of spiritual connections in his use of recyclia for ecological purposes. widely used among Mozambi can artists. General usage suggest s a description of traditional W estern media materials including paint, canvas, wood, etc. that are used in the construction of artworks. Media materials specifically do not refer to recycled materials however, which ar e According to Butcheca, this is both a creative and financial option pre used materials allow for an expansion of creativity without relying solely on media materials, w hich must b e purchased. I met Butcheca through Mozambican artist Gonales Mabunda (Mabunda). Near the end of one of our interview s Mabunda called his friend Butcheca, explaining my interest in speak ing

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309 with artists who use recycled materials. I was immediately invi ted to meet Butcheca at his atelier. As he waited for me on the street, the abundance of white floral blossoms fallen from an creating a strikingly surreal scene as I required descending a dimly lit staircase that led to a much darker hallway below. Turning left, Butcheca opened a door to reveal his atelier. The door was an a ssemblage of recycled materials. Constructed within a metal border, the recyclia included a bicycle frame and chain mechanism, various gears of miscellaneous sizes, an assortment of metal tools, motley metal scraps, an d a broken shovelhead (s ee F igur e 6 5 ). This great door reveal ed a tiny room that served not only as style sleeping area and diverse art objects packed within every bit of available space confirmed his economical use of space. Butcheca immediately explained he had been an artist since 1996, and affiliated with A Associao N cleo de Arte 26 since 1997, when he was eighteen or nineteen years old. An early piece created of wire, Volkswagen is one of his first artworks. Artista autodidacta as self taught artists are referred to in Mozambique. He expanded on this : taught myself art I never learn ed it in school it comes in my heart. I love too much to make art. 27 Recycled materials were among the first objects Butcheca used to creat e art: beginnin g to be come an artist I was looking for how to do this, since for the first seven years the first material I was using was recycled mat erials then I discovered I could paint. 28 Primarily utilizing wire and recycled wood en objec ts Butcheca affirmed his use of pre used materials; love it. I have the passion to transform old things to make new ones 29 Butcheca expanded upon his view of the superiority of recycled materials:

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310 t use. 30 Butcheca illustrated a didactic p people the mat erials they can use You have to stop if you materials. And those who like to create art pieces will not wait for money to buy media materials. 31 As stated above, Butcheca for the environment: of garbage by taking it from the street and making decorations for our house. I am sure that all the things you can find in a shop if you have materials you can make with what you have at your 32 invites viewers to use recycled materials to create. s use of recyclia stems from his desire to combine pre used and media materials creating intersections based on their materiality Butcheca claims that he prefers using recycled materials because they provide more creative options for him. Butcheca expla ined : Recycled materials attract me more than media materials. For me see ing the recycled materials wasted in the street hurts my heart. So my attitude is why not make ar t by using recycled materials that will be wasted in the street. I can explain to yo feeling very comfortable using recycled materials. media materials with other materials that have been used before. I think if you want to use new materials there is a good reason to use this tec hnique. For example, if I want to make one how to join paint and recycled materials to see how it can be to give more visuals. 33 Both recycled materials and media materials are interchanged as supporting foundations or materials added later, that are more visible to the viewer. Butcheca stated that each time he creates an artwork it is differen t, sometimes the recycled materials come first the process of creation informs the construction and development of th e individual artwork. T he first artworks Butcheca showed me were paintings a series of variously sized canvases illustrating a similar v isual problem s he was working out through a serial approach. He explained

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311 that the paintings were part of the development of his artistic process. It became clear after I had he begins with paintings that serve as preparatory sketches for large r, three dimensional works whish are based on these painterly investigations, as he develops artistic solutions through this process. After the sculptures are realized, he returns to p ainting to explore new themes that may have developed from the creation of the sculptures or a new direction entirely. Butcheca defined his creative process in this way: My mind is my atelier. What I se e and what I think I learn to paint and then see what I can do next to bring out what my m is different but made in same way I stop, g et inspir ation when I make installations, then I s top ying to find new techniques with my artwork. In the future I want 34 In the realization of his artworks, shifting back and forth between his sculptural w orks and his paintings h elps Butcheca to move forward with in t his cyclical process. Butcheca is unique among the artists I have worked with in that he draws a spiritual link between respon ses to questions about his use of recycled materials included specific references to God. because God tells people not to sp end money to buy new things. 35 He also told me: o ne person who knows how to manage recycled materials and his name is God. 36 B utcheca envisions his use of recycled materials as imbued with a pervasive spirituality. A connection to God is achiev ed by using these pre used materials as opposed to relying solely on media materials to create. A similar connection between art and spirituality exists in the El th

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312 The importance Butcheca places on combining the media materials with recycled materials exemplifies his spiritual action of connecting old and new. A n additional spiritual element is apparent in the didactic message Butcheca imparts through his use of recyclia is meant to instruct viewers to use recycled materials themselves. Effectively extending the transcendent notion of his artworks Butcheca becomes the messenger or proselyti zer of this ideal (recycling), as he spreads the word through his artworks constructed of recyclia. Butcheca subscribes to the basic ideals of Rastafari. His beliefs are linked to making universal connections which can be seen in both his art and spiritua l concerns. The exhibition, Ruinas do Passado (Ruins of the Past), held at Centro Cultural Franco Moambicano (CCFM) in Maputo in August 2011 represent s a watershed in the development of are starkly revealed in this exhibition, w hich foregrounds his strong reliance upon recycled materials. The exhibition comprises a combination of paintings and large multi media sculptural works, each of which clearly reveal their indebtedness to the other of The exhibition is anchored by a large work, Rua Passada ( Past Street ) (See Figure 6 6 ) This multilayered work invites the viewer into the space of the exhibition, Ruinas do Passas ( Ruins of the Past ). In Past Street Butcheca has combined a seemingly endless array of diverse recycled object s into a construction evoking a memorial or memento mori of past and possibly lost belongings and memories. Rua Pass ada / Past Street mixed media, 2011 Past Street is a large, complex multi media assemblage comprised of variegated wooden elements in cluding planks, boar ds, table legs, window frames, and assorted building materials. Additional objects include a wheel, palm and coconut fibers, auto parts, metal tools, hubcaps,

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313 wire, string and a glove. Many of these elements are encrusted with dripping and brushed paint and overlaid with additional pre used materials, creating further stratum with inscribed text, images, sy mbols, designs, patterns, sketches, and drawings. I unknowingly began to observe the A Associa o N cleo de Arte Bit by bit, elements were added, subtracted, altered and re affixed to create this large, mult i media piece The bulky form of Rua Passada courtyard for weeks, until the threat of rain finally forced it to be dragged inside. One evening during its continued construction, Butcheca en listed the aid of his artist friend Taigga to assist him with this piece. As the two artists dripped white paint over selected areas of the assemblage a fat, black, slow moving, hard shelled caterpillar violated the space of the artwork. Without hesitation Butcheca created a kinetic, mixed media piece out of the trespasser, dripping the white paint he had been applying to his assemblage directly on top of the creature. As the caterpillar crawled away, it created an undulating white line that indicated its path as it conti nued on across the floor of the workshop. Describing his work, Butcheca proudly proclaimed, theme is Rua Passada to join recycled materials and media ma terials 37 In this work, Butcheca combined recuperated pre used materials with purchased media materials to create a large multi media installation piece. Parts of the overall work included earlier assemblages of mixed media pieces Butcheca had created. Bu tcheca did not have any further comments on an overall meaning of this piece, focusing wholly on his process, which in cluded the use of a multiple recycled materials joined with media materials 38

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314 Xibalakatsi/Slingshot mixed media 2011 Burned wooden tim ber creates a cross on which an assemblage of smashed and crushed aluminum cans (Coca Cola, Fanta, Sprite) are joined and sculpted into the form of a voluptuous over life size female figure. Rebar and wiring anchor the figure to the cross on which it lies. The burned cans create a blackened, smoky effect overall, dulling the colors of the once brightly colored cans. Single bottle caps attached with carefully stitched wiring delineate specific details, such as the nipples and navel of the figure 39 (See Figure s 6 8 6 10 ). Xibalakatsi and media materials within the same artwork. His comments on this union clarify his process, As you can see I use what we can get in the street and the wire I bought. The wood is recycled The base m etal I bought. So I am mixing materials in this piece to have good support. If I use all recycled materials I have to mix with some media materials. For example, the piece is not finished, so I have some materials I need to buy. To finish I have to put new media materials and cover them with recycled materials. As one man building his home he must go to buy new materials to make it strong different materials are mixed. What I want to show is all new media materials I b uy will be behind so what people will see in front are recycled materials. 40 imply that the recycled materials are given a place of prominence at the top, a higher visual placement of prestige, whereas the media materials below, serve me rely as a support for them. While Butcheca finds it important to combine mixed media materials with recycled materials, I have observed that recycled materials are given higher priority and are foregrounded based upon their heightened visibility and place ment within his artworks. selection of recycled materials as it relates to the overall message of the piece illustrates how and why recycled materials underpin his creative process, as well as his focus on object mate riality: For example, first, because I prefer to use them because I can cover wire and metal with the can s I burned them to make an effect with my painting I bring black first to get the same effect with

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315 my Coca Cola, Fant a, etc. I bring the same color black I balance the color. Now I have discover ed a new material to use, which is the can. So I will keep on using the can. 41 Butcheca selects aluminum cans because of their physical form. He uses them to cover wire and metal. His use of cans is solely based on their utility in the construction of his art. Butcheca also likes the effect he achieves after he burns them as they are transformed fr om color to black. title of this work and the overall form he has created. Xibalakatsi a Shangana/Shangaan wo rd, Bu tcheca explained this connection: Xibalakatsi (slingshot) was an object I used to play with in my childhood to kill sparrows, doves, and other birds. It was made out of rubber tube tire and was a toy. I named the work after the position and movement of the body of the figure that makes up the work that is similar to the slingshot, the way the body in the and the head is like a bullet in the slingshot. The shape of the cross was the support that I found to better positi on t he figure at the same time drawing attention by referring to the figure of Christ on the cross, which adds another meaning to the work. 42 Butcheca envisions this visually arresting work as a reminder of a childhood toy, based on its essential shape. Not withstanding larger implicit connections to r eligious imagery (a crucified image of Jesus Christ), he focuses most intently on the materials and the shape of the overall form, seeming to disregard deeper overall meanings. r recycled materials is directly rooted in his use of those materials as a tool, and how they will facilitate the construction of his artworks. Butcheca commented on these ideas as they directly related to the development of Xibalakatsi and its form compos to burn the bottom. But after that when I was riding my bicycle in the street I saw lots of cans broken by cars in the street. I was thinking about colors. I burn the cans t o get the color that I love [black] 43

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316 Butcheca does not have any interest in the original meaning of the aluminum can based on its previous use. Solely interested in its materiality as a functional tool used to cover the wire, he explained that it is on ly the material he is interested in, not its former life or meaning. problem. In this example and others, his selection of the can is based on a determination of have interest in the kind of food, beer, coke, etc. I am interested in the material of the can. The can expresses what I want, and its resist ance. The ma terial of the can provides long life. 44 Beyond the materiality of Xibalakatsi construction of wood and cans, the viewer is confronted with the imagery of this artwork. Butcheca has replaced the traditional iconic image of Jesus Christ on a cross with a female figure. He explained his imagery: a amputate d. Jesus Christ is without any clothes. I men and women have the same rights now. Bad things men do, women can do, and I use this to show how we can show art. 45 As he could not provide a more profound statement on the meaning of his presentation of the crucified woman Xibalakatsi Butcheca explained the truncated arm in this way: The amputated arm moves away from and tries to avoid t he relationship with Christ crucified. This is b [crucified Christ] to be the primary interpretation of the work. At the same time, I felt no need to add an arm to the figure of the slingshot, which is the starting point of the work 's meaning. Without the ar m this way the figure is closely linked to the form of the slingshot. 46

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317 Butcheca is more interested in the materiality of the sculpture and cans than the decidedly uno rthodox imagery he displays. His commentary regarding the potentially incendiary and provocative nature of this sculpture is anticlimactic: you about religion with my piece religion is about people. He who connects with the church is only one. I have nothing connecting 47 Malabarista/Juggler the Man who rides the Bicycle 48 mixed media, 2011 Suggested movement propels Malabarista /Juggler the Man who rides the Bicycle (See Fi gure 6 1 1 6 14 ) The English translation of the Portuguese wor d Malabarista is a juggler. handed riding of his bicycle. Motion is implied in the wheels of this bicycle, festooned with bottle cap spir als, as a sweeping arc extending behind its rider adds further velocity. This rider is composed of tens of thousands of bottle caps; each one painstakingly form. Malabarista is an example of many recycled multi media asse mblages that illustrat e artistic practice overall Malabarista is a large sculpture constructed of a bicycle, wire, corks and bottle caps. The misshapen, over life size figure has a wing like arc that sweeps behind him, extending beyond the length of the bicycle. The original colors of the variegated bottle caps create the overall multicolored form. Central areas of the figure are blac kened, an effect achieved by burning the bottle caps. The feet of the figure, firmly planted on the pedals of the bicycle further imply forward motion as he holds onto the handlebar on his right side. The left hand of the figure rests atop his head as he stares directly forward. Whereas the form is multicolored and blackened overall, its face is conspicuously red, created through the concentration of Coca Cola and Dos M 49 bottle caps, as well as others that have been painted red. An open mouth forming a sl ight

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318 smile is composed of wire stitched corks. Th e eyes of the figure are absent; empty eye sockets reveal the interior I observ ed Butcheca for weeks, as he laboriously punched holes into bottle caps, preparing them to be wired together in the cr eation of his multi media assemblage piece for his upcoming exhibition, Ruina s do Passado at Centro Franco Moambicano (CCFM) Butcheca has bags and bags of bottle caps he collected from the barracas (small shanty bars) near A Associa o N cleo de Arte an d artists and friends have brought him more. He explained how he acquired these materials he would use to construct his work: Wire metal I bought. The bicycle I bought to transform. Bottle caps I collected from restaura nts, bars, and in the street. And corks I collected too. So to be completed I contracted guys who sell telephone credit in the street to collect bottle caps and we trade with money. And some friends help me to collect in bars and restaurants. So before I h ave all these people to help me I was collecting myself, so I say I need more so I contact people to help me. 50 Despite its grotesque appearance Butcheca confirms this figure represents a man: I created him with mixed materials b ottle cap 51 Butcheca affirms that his portrayal of movement is an intended goal in this piece: what he does mal abarismos (j uggling ) and riding the bicycle is transport. 52 There are many different references to movement throughout this mixed media sculpture: the spirals within the f you see circles created you can see movement. The bicycle is starting not to be able to make movement. 53 extensive c onstruction and additions to this bicycle it literally cannot move an y longer. To continue its movement he has resorted to suggesting this visually Movement is implied through the use of the recycled

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319 materials (bottle caps) that adorn the spirals on the wheels and the whoosh of an arc of implied movement at th e rear of th e rider. In Malabarista as with his other artworks, Butcheca does not rely on the former meaning of these recycled materials in any way. The bottle caps are simply used to cover the wire as part of his working process. the mea ning of the recycling materials s o 54 There is not a further meaning or purpose beyond the fact that he uses these materials as a preferred tool, in conjunction with the media ma terials, merely used as glue to hold the artwork together, for engineering (Rubin 1983 ). Several p aintings hanging figure on a cross and a bicycle similar to the on e he has incorporated into this sculptural wo rk. Butcheca confirms that these paintings were created prior to the construction of the three dimensional work s Xibalakatsi and Malabarista Untitled Painting 1. oil and acrylic on canvas 2011 A skeletal figure of non specified gender on a cross dominat es the canvas (See Figure 6 15 ). A bicycle, vertically oriented downward, is overlaid upon the figure on the cross. Both forms are loosely constructed in black and white. The more solidly painted brown cross anchors the painting. An effect approaching str iping, created with wide blocks of muted blocks of blue, orange, pink and gold envelope the images with pronounced dripping and spattered colored and white paint. Conspicuous flashes of red paint appear beneath the bicycle seat and on the chest of the fig ure. This painting illustrate s the cyclica working methods discussed above can readily be seen in the juxtaposition of paintings such as this one and his completed sculptural forms. The central forms of a bi cycle and a figure on a

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320 cross depicted in this painting directly prefigure his multi media assemblages, Malabarista the Man who rides the Bicycle and Xibalakatsi/Slingshot. An unmistakable detail noted in this painting is the co nspicuous bright red flash of red paint that appears di rectly below the bicycle seat. T he small curve of red paint begins to take on the appearance of a tongue, becoming ever more sinister, as the bicycle seat begins to morph into a head depicted in profile with an eye and a mouth. Although I did n ot get confirmation from Butcheca, it is probable that this element of the painting developed into the large figure Malabarista who eventu ally consumed the bicycle with his overgrown form. Satellite. mixed media, 2011 Satellite is a tal l, freestanding kinetic sculpture compos ed of wood with wire additions (See Fig ures 6 16, 6 17 ). A circular wooden platform painted black anchors and supports the structure overall. Wires of varying thicknesses are wrapped around the base. From the base, thin wood en planks and tree branches create arms protruding in all directions. Each of the se arms terminates in a thick, circular wooden disk near its end, the wooden plank or branch penetrating as a nub on the opposite end. Satellite is painted black, ora nge, and white A large white X is painted on the black platform of the base. Several of the arrayed discs include details of abstract, geometric forms, one of which depicts a simply drawn face. Satellite is a kinetic form, which results in an uneven arce d orbit of rotation when it is spun. Butcheca explained that the base of Satellite represents land, as it splits apart. He envisions movement as the goal of Satellite its purpose is to contro l the circulation of the world: Satellite exists in space. My idea is to hang it. It is about movement the m ovement of the piece. 55 if you go to an exhibition you have to pay if it s [artworks are] broken. 56 Butcheca refers to art displayed in a gall ery context and its inability to be touched by viewers. He wishes to create more interaction

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321 with his art and its movement. This is an interesting thought that is shared by Matequenha in regard to his musical instrument/artworks. 57 regarding his exhibition overall underscores how he links his didactic message to God, big God and my realization my G od was to show people they can reuse garbage we make to make exhibit. 58 Conclusion: Domingos and Butcheca Time spent vie wing Domingos and Butcheca working and discussing their artistic practices has allowed me to understand the importance of recyclia in their distinct practices focused on educating viewers. Broadly speaking, in Mozambique, I have documented a significant tr end among contemporary artists to utilize pre used materials as media in the creation of their artworks. In this chapter I have specifically focused on two such artists who recycle mixed materials in the construction of their art. Both of these artists fav or selecting diverse recyclia, which they often combine with traditional media materials. In as many ways as these artists are linked in their preference to combine an assorted mixture of unrelated materials, they differ in the juxtaposition of objects th ey choose to create their art. Domingos and Butcheca both use diverse recyclia as a didactic tool. Domingos uses recycled materials to instruct viewers on widely varied social issues. By creating art from everyday materials people can relate to, he i s able to reach his audiences, one of which includes uneducated individuals with messages intended specifically for them. Domingos views recycled materials as symbols that are transformed into larger meanings as they are incorporated in his work. In contra st, Butcheca views the recycled materials he utilizes as a bridge a link between materials. Solely interested in the literal materiality of the recycled materials to aid his process of transformation, Butcheca combines diverse pre used materials to constr uct art that is centrally

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322 use of recycled materials as he develops forms based on a process, as he links diverse recycled onstruct his large mixed media sculptures. 1 This area originally housed the Loureno Marques city dump until the mid 1960s when it reached capacity. At this time the Hulene Dump was built and garbage disposal for Maputo was transferred there. 2 Domingos, interview, Maputo (Aeroporto), Mozambique, August 5, 2011. 3 See chapter two for a discussion of sponsorship of the arts related to specific museums, organizations, movements, businesses and the Mozam bican government. 4 Domingos, interview, Maputo (Aeroporto), Mozambique. August 5, 2011. 5 Domingos, personal communication, August 14, 2013. 6 Ibid. 7 Domingos. interview, Maputo (Aeroporto), Mozambique. August 5, 2011. 8 Domingos. Interview, Maputo (Ae roporto), Mozambique. January 4, 2013. 9 I asked Domingos if there was significance in the fact that he had created this donkey with six legs. He responded that there was no significance 4, 2 013. 10 Shangaan/Shangana is an indigenous Mozambican language from the Bantu family with Tsonga roots. Shangana is predominantly spoken in Southern Mozambique, encompassing the capital of Maputo, in the Maputo region. 11 To my pleasant surprise, I once obs erved a trova with the entire metal body of a Volkswagen beetle automobile balanced upon it. 12 Domingos, interview, Maputo (Aeroporto), Mozambique. September 1, 2011. 13 Domingos, interview, Maputo (Aeroporto), Mozambique, September 1, 2011. 14 Domingos, in terview, Maputo (Aeroporto), Mozambique, January 4, 2013. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. 18 Ibid. 19 Ibid. 20 Domingos, interview, Maputo (Aeroporto), Mozambique. August 5, 2011. 21 Noticias p. 15, July 15, 2009.

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323 22 Domingos, interview, Maputo (Aeroporto), Mozambi que. August 5, 2011. 23 Domingos, Synopsis, Sinistro 2009. 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid. 26 See chapter two for a discussion of A Associa o Associao Ncleo de Arte included within an 27 Ibid. 28 Butcheca, interview, Maputo, Moz ambique. November 18, 2010. 29 Ibid. 30 Ibid. 31 Ibid. 32 Butcheca, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, August 19, 2011. 33 Butcheca, interview, Maputo, Mozambique. November 18, 2010. 34 Ibid. 35 Butcheca, interview, Maputo Mozambique. August 15, 2009. 36 Butcheca, in terview, Maputo, Mozambique, November 18, 2010. 37 Butcheca, interview, Maputo, Mozambique. November 18, 2010. 38 deference to his greater interest in the process and technique of combining recycled and media materials will become increasingly apparent through my continued discussion of Butcheca and his artworks in this chapter. 39 The original burnt planks were later replaced with new, smooth wood planks embellishe d with circular cutouts on both arms of the cross. 40 Ibid. 41 Ibid. 42 Butcheca, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, January 10, 2013. 43 Ibid. 44 Ibid. 45 Ibid.

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324 46 Butcheca, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, January 10, 2013. 47 Ibid. 48 Ibid. 49 Dos M/2M is a popular bee r in Mozambique, distinguished by its bright red label and bottle cap. 50 Ibid. 51 Ibid. 52 Ibid. 53 Ibid. 54 Ibid. 55 Ibid. 56 Ibid. 57 in the section of MUVART. 58 Butcheca, interview, Maputo, Mozambique. August 10, 2011.

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325 Figures Figure 6 1 Domingos Compradores Am bulante de Ferro/ Itinerant Iron Buyers mixed media on canvas, 2008. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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326 Figure 6 2. Domingos. Sinistro/Sinister mixe d media on canvas, 2009. Photograph by Alcides Goba

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327 Figure 6 3. Domingos. Mater ials for anticipated artworks : Manifestao/Demonstrations The Bread Riot s. mixed media. unfinished. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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328 Figure 6 4. Doming os. Closer view of m ater ials for anticipated artworks : Manifestao/Demonstrations The Bread Riot s. mixed media. unfinished. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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329 Figure 6 5. Butcheca. Door mixed media. n.d. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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330 Figure 6 6 View 1: Butcheca working on Rua Passada/ Past Street. m ixed media, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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331 Figure 6 7 View 2: Butcheca working on Rua Passada/ Past Street. m ixed media, 2011. Photograph by A Schwartzott

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332 Figure 6 8. Butcheca. Xibalakat s i /Slingshot. work in progress. mixed media, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzot

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333 Figure 6 9. Butcheca. Detail. Xibalakat s i /Slingshot work in progress. mixed media, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwart zott

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334 Figure 6 10. Butcheca. Xibalakatsi /Slingshot at CCFM exhibit mixe d media, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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335 Figure 6 11 Butcheca Malabarista /Juggler the Man who rides the Bicycle mixed media, 2011. P hotograph by A. Schwartzott

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336 Figure 6 12. Butcheca. Detail of face. Malabarista /Juggler the Man who rides the Bicycle mixed media, 2011. P hotograph by A. Schwartzott

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337 Figure 6 13. Butcheca. Detail of bottlecap construction Malabarista /Juggler the Man who rid es the Bicycle. mixed media, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott \

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338 Figure 6 14. Butcheca. View of works in situ: Malabarista in foreground and Xibalakatsi in the background, Ruinas do Passado/ Past Ruins Exhibition, CCFM, August 2011 P hotograph by A. Schwartzott

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339 Figur e 6 15 Butcheca Untitled 2 oil and acrylic/canvas. 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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340 Figure 6 16. Butcheca. Satellite mixed media, 2011. Photograph by A. Schwartzott

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341 Figure 6 17. Butcheca with his artwork Satellite mixed media, 2011. Photograph by Alcides Goba

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342 CHAPTER 7 WELDING AND UNRAVELING TRANSFORMING OLD INTO NEW: A CONCLUSION Recently, fear of war between FRELIMO and RENAMO has bee n exacerbated by unilateral annulment of its 1992 Peace Accord with FRELIMO on October 22, 2013. RENA attack and seizure of its military base in Santunjira, near Gorongosa in the Sofala province RENAMO leader Afonso Dhlakama remains missing after fl eeing the scene (BBC 20 13). Municipal elections scheduled to take place in Mozambique on November 20, 20 13 underscore the politicized natu re of recent conflicts. RENAMO alleges that FRELIMO (which has been in power since the democratic elections of 1992), has maintained a one sided fraudulent electoral system (Ibid. ). RENAMO questions the fact that its party has never won a national election since the Peace Accord and chall enges past election result s seeking greate r pol itical representation FR ELIMO aims to disarm RENAMO, which it views as a threat to the continuation of p eace within the country. Daily accounts by national and international news agencies report continuing violence between FRELIMO and RENAMO. Armed a ttacks have escalated since fall of 2013 resulting in loss of life on both sides of the conflict (Reuters 2013). Increasing tensions between FRELIMO and RENAMO indicate the return to war as a real possibility War continues to influence the lives of Moz ambican artists. A new sculpture by Makolwa, o medo de voltar a guerra/the fear of returning to war is a vivid commentary of the precarious situation in his country at the present time (See Image 7 1). Constructed of recycled materials, the work combines a pan with plastic handles, kettle, the inner part of a spotlight, copper and aluminum wire, and nails. Makolwa described the sculpture, explaining how it expresses his fears that his country may soon return to war: that I have to go back to war ( me and the remaining young Mozambicans) because of the political situation in the country we live

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343 Mozambique and the world, between RENAMO and FRELIMO, because the war is something that has to exist in the world. She [war] leaves the poor without knowi ng what will happen and leaves the children with no future. I hate people who make war, especially those who make weapons. 1 lpture portrays a young and helpless individual who is especially vulnerable to the threat of impending war. The dull, dented surface combined with the wiry, stringy hair, and placid expression on its upturned face reveals inconsolable sadness. The combination of they underscore the continuing impact of war and its importance among Mozambicans. I have found that war has contributed to the development of recycling as an artist ic practice in Mozambique. I would like to return to this factor, as well as summarizing other elements that have contributed to a widespread use of recycled materials as media. Creative, environmental, and financial factors have also played a role influencing artists to consider using pre used materials. Past wars and the development of the Transforming Arms in to Plowshares/Transformao de Armas em Enxadas (T AE ) project have also been influential in creat ing a particularly Mozambican style of art. The TAE project, d eveloped by Bishop Sengulane as a tool for peace building, peacekeeping and po st conflict resolu tion, has made a great artistic contribution, beyond its aim to remove weapons from the landscape of Mozambique. This project has inspired an awareness of using recycled materials as art media and widely contributed to the use of recycled materials among m any Mozambican artists. A rtists have participated in the TAE project (See chapter three), since Bishop Sengulane introduced its art component in 1997 at A Associa o Ncleo de Arte. Mozambican wars, aiming to eradica te the country of weapons left behind following these wars. Artists who transform tools of destruction into tools for peace, remembrance, and post conflict resolution, are also recycling objects into art.

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344 A rtist Titos Mabota made an astute observation dur ing one of our conversations about the TAE project and its popularity among artists. He explained that major appeal is the provision of materials 2 Artists who began working with TAE gained access to materials at no cost, as well as learning about the advantages of choosing recyclia as a medium. In addition to experience working with recycled materials. TAE has made a great impact in the artistic commun ity of Maputo particularly, where its headquarters are based. Since working with TAE, many artists have been inspired to work with recycled materials and continue to utilize this type of media in the construction of their art. Varied techniques used among artists working with recycled materials in this dissertation include unraveling canvas, tearing newspapers, and stitching together bottle caps. Other methods comprise welding destroyed weapons, gouging boat hulls, carving dead trees, and pounding pots and pans. Each of these different techniques facilitates the transformation of recycled materials into art. Through the voices and artworks of the artists included here I have shown a wide variety of recycled materials that are selected as media to f acilitate these techniques. Object material ity has been a fundamental focus of my investigation, and elucidates the selection of specific media used by artists. T methodologies, and individual style s. Object frictions, the theoretical framework I conceptualized, serves as a useful analytical tool for defining and understanding artists and their works my s ubsequ ent inquiry into the history of the objects and the artists who use them. Regardless of whether the object is significantly altered in its adaption to become part of an artwork, these objects all become di sengaged from their past uses

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345 Art ists have a rang e of motivations for using recycled materials including economic, ecological, and creative concerns. Most artists I have observed cite the possibility of expanding their creativity as their foremost motivation for selecting recycled materials to work with. diversity of materials they select These include artists such as Joo who substitutes jeans as a canvas support for painting; Bono who uses newspaper to ex plore varied uses of paper; Makolwa whose interest lies in transformations as he links metal objects with wooden forms; Carmen who prefers using recycled materials because she is able to find good garbage in the streets; and Alexandria, who combined recy cled metal with wood to balance his sculptures. Other themes addressed in these artworks made from recycled materials include politics, social commentary, and cultural heritage. Examples include artists such as Domingos who uses recycled materials as a d idactic tool to instruct viewers on widely varied social issues ; Mathe who covers his front yard with kinetic sculptures made of recycled metal objects to instruct neighbors about art made from recyclia; Butcheca who prefers using recyclia as a tool in h is artworks to illustrate transformation and movement; and Falco, who stitches together twisted and tie modern stitched canvases as a solution to his lack of canvases for painting. In this research I have linked a number o f artists based on their us e of pre used materials, disparate motivations, and proposed outcomes for their artwork. B ecause of these connections, I believe I have been observing what can be defined as a contemporary art historical movement in Mozambique T he movement of artists using recycled materials has evolved and continues to attract artists based on the broad scale of its popularity. Furthermore, the widespread use of

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346 recycled materials as media is supported, exhibited, and disseminated by the spaces of contemporary art in Maputo discussed here (See chapter two). Through the presentation of diverse artists I have identified links that illustrate how their art may be defined as distinctly Mozambican. Not only are artists using objects from Mozambican s but this art focuses on defining a particularly Mozambican identity based both on media and themes. Several examples include Zeferino, who bases his creation of pots and pans wi th individual expressions on traditional Makonde masking traditions; Pekiwa, who selects damaged boats to define cultural histories and social issues of Mozambican fisherman; Ana, who uses capulanas to identify gender in connection with Mozambican identity ; and Calisto, who appropriates Mozambican political heroes such as Eduardo Mondlane and Samora Machel in is graphic designs for posters promoting varied social causes. By using recycled materials, these artists create art that is quintessentially Mozambi can. Several of these artists equate their artwork with past histories or cultural remnants, linking their contemporary artwork with past narratives and identities. In these examples, the artists illustrate the strong tie of recycling as a practice of ever yday life in Mozambique and also Africa. Contemporary artists in Mozambique are not only connected to past ar tistic traditions, but continue these traditions within contemporary context s By presenting these artists as a representative sample of the large number of artists who use recycled materials in Mozambique, I illustrate how recycling permeates all levels of society, including its expansion into art making on a widespread scale, and how the use of recycled materials by these artists inspires them and instills a sense of pride in their artistic practices.

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347 Recently I received an email from the artist Domingos. I include it here because it underscores the current situation in Mozambique and it makes an important statement about its artists: Are you a ll right? Here we are in a state of planning due to the confrontations of the army with the forces of RENAMO in the center of the country, particularly in Sofala. T his stems from the stalemate in conversations there have been between FRELIMO and RENAMO and th e result of the arrogance President Guebuza find s with the RENAMO leader Afonso Dhlakama. H owev er life goes on and as artists we continue to produce our artwork. Good night. 3 s email included an image of the shell of a bus that was charred black a nd destroyed (See Image 7 2). This bus represents one of the many attacks that have recently occurred as a result of the escalating violence between RENAMO and FRELIMO. This incident and others like it occurred on the main north south highway between the Save River and the town of Muxungue in the central province of Sofala, roughly 380 miles from Maputo. Due to this violence, armed military convoys have been necessary to ensure safe passage through this section of the high way (Noticias 2013) In this case RENAMO gunmen stopped the bus, looted its passengers, killed the driver, and injured nine others (four seriously), and then set bus on fire. Supposedly the bus had been traveling without escorts (Noticias 2013; BBC News 2013). Linking the image with Dom s words creates a frightening idea of what life must be l ike right now in Mozambique. After Domingos s email I had conflicted emotions. Despite feeling saddened, upset, and helpless about unknown future I was moved by the poignancy of t he fact that he believes life will go on and artists will continue to create art. I hope this is true and the artists and others will remain safe. The artists ad d ress ed here tell the stories of their culture through bits and pieces of its discarded histori es. Looking beyond the terror of recent events in Mozambique, it is necessary to recognize an important concept that resonates through this uncertainty. One of the most

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348 important idea s these artists continue to demonstrate through their word s and their art work is their ability to recogni ze the power of art and its ability to inspire artists to create. 1 Makolwa, personal communication with author, September 12, 2013. 2 Titos Mabota, interview, Maputo, Mozambique, November 11, 2010. 3 Domingos, personal communication with author, November 1, 201 3.

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349 Figures Figure 7 1. Makolwa. o medo de voltar a guerra/the fear of returning to war mixed recycled materials, 201 3 Photograph by Makolwa

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350 Figure 7 2. Burned bus, photograph sent by Domingos, photographer unknown, November, 2013

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370 BIOGRAPHICAL S KETCH Amy Schwartzott has been conducting research on African artists since 2007, and recently completed a Centre for Conflict S tudies Fellowship (2011 2012). She received two Fulbright awards based on her research, one of which, the Fulbright Hays DDRA, f unded intensive research in Mozambique for 15 months in 2010 2011 and facilitated the completion of her dissertation She previously received funding for a National Endow ment for the Humanities Summer I nstitute exploring Native American arts and literatur e. Ms. Schwartzott has taught African Non Western, and Western art h istory at Coastal Carolina University, University of Florida, Canisius College, Buffalo State College, and the Wyoming Correctional Facility, where she taught Western art h istory survey c lasses to inmates. Ms. Schwartzott has participated in several curatorial projects, incl uding serving as a consultant for A Vitalidade da Arte Mocambicana/The Vitality of Mozambican Arts, exhibition curator of Senegalese Reverse Glass Paintings: Strength and Fragility: A Unique Vision at the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida, as well as serving as Assistant Curator of Ceramics at the Everson Museum of Art. Ms. Schwartzott received her PhD from the University of Florida in May 2014 under the direction of Victoria Rovine and Robin Poynor She attained her MA in Art History from the University at Buffalo, where she studied contemporary Native American arts with Jolene Ri ckard and A ncient art w ith L. Vance Watrous. She received her BA from Drew University, in Madison, New Jersey, where she first studied A frican A rt with Phil Peek