1 COMMUNITY COLLEGE BACCALAUREATE DEGREES : AN ANALYSIS OF ENROLLMENT TRENDS, DEMOGRAPHIC CHAR ACTERISTICS AND SYSTEMIC IMPACTS By IAN PHILLIP NEUHARD A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TH E DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2 2013 Ian Phillip Neuhard
3 I dedicate this work t o my father, the late Sheldon P. Neuhard, and my mother, Al berta M. Neuhard: two wonderful parents who always believed in me and always encouraged me to reach my full potential.
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are several important people who must be acknowledged for their part in helping me complete this doctoral program and this dissertation. First, and foremost, I want to thank my parents for their love, their sacrifices, and their guidance as I progressed through school and many years of higher education. Their constant support, encouragement, and belief in my ability helped me to believe in myself and chart this course toward new and challenging horizons. I also want to thank the members of my family for their support especially the meals and nights of lodging they provided during those many weekend trips to Gainesville and Orlando. My wife, Dr. Peggy Russell, deserves special mention for her love, assistance, advice, and patience with the list of home improvement projects that has g rown to unnatural proportions. Three mentors in my life have been instrumental in my personal and professional development. The late Dr. John E. Carlson was my teacher, my motivator, and my friend. He set an inspirational example with his life, and taugh t me that anything is possible with hard work, belief, and determination. Dr. Judith H. Bilsky is my friend, my colleague, and the most impressive higher education leader that I know. Her unwavering encouragement, and her timely assistance with my data a cquisition, will coolest and most creative higher education leader that I know. His friendship and influence on my career has been profound especially in the areas of coll ege student thousands of hours of meaningful conversation, professional projects, dissertation dissection, music, laughter, and fun that we have shared over the past twenty ye ars.
5 I would also like to thank my dissertation committee and, especially, my Chair Dr. Dale F. Campbell, who has worked tirelessly to make the UF Higher Education program among the best in the nation. In his role as a shepherd of doctoral students, Dr. Campbell has impacted the lives of many friends and professional colleagues. It is an honor to now join those ranks. I will always remember my friends and colleagues from the 2007 UF LEAD doctoral cohort. We worked together to achieve the highest levels of academic accomplishment. We made sacrifices; we established friendships; we celebrated marriages, births, and promotions; and we supported each other during difficult times and dark days. We shared an experience that few will attempt, and we are stro nger and better for having done so. Finally, I want to acknowledge the administrators of Indian River State College for their flexibility and support of my professional development. It is wonderful to be part of an organization that values and promotes lifelong learning for students, faculty, staff, administrators, and the community.
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURE S ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 15 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ....................... 16 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 17 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 18 Significan ce of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 18 Design of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ 20 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 21 Delimitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 21 Definitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 21 2 LITERATURE REV IEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 23 National Background/History on Community College Baccalaureate Degrees ....... 23 Differing Viewpoints ................................ ................................ .......................... 24 Definitions and Terminology ................................ ................................ ............. 25 Applied Baccalaureate Degrees ................................ ................................ ....... 26 Need for Data and Analysis ................................ ................................ .............. 29 Responding to the Call for More Research ................................ ....................... 39 Development of Community College Baccalaureate Degrees in Florida ................ 43 Chronology of Florida Publications and Reports ................................ .............. 43 Reports by the Postsecondary Education Pla nning Commission ..................... 44 Publications by CEPRI and State Agencies ................................ ..................... 56 Summary of Literature Review ................................ ................................ ......... 76 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 78 Restatement of Purpose ................................ ................................ ......................... 78 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 78 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 79 Sample and Population ................................ ................................ ........................... 79 Data Sources and Data Collection ................................ ................................ .......... 81
7 Reliability and Validi ty of Instruments ................................ ................................ ..... 82 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 83 Longitudinal Analysis of Enrollment Data ................................ ......................... 83 Cross Sectional Analysis of Demographic Data ................................ ............... 84 Ethical Considerations ................................ ................................ ............................ 85 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 87 Longitudinal Analysis of Headcount Enrollment ................................ ...................... 87 System Level Enrollment Trends ................................ ................................ ...... 88 System/Program Level Enrollment Trends ................................ ....................... 89 Sample Institution/Program Level Enrollment Trends ................................ ...... 92 Florida International University and Miami Dade College ................................ 92 University of South Florida and St. Pete rsburg College ................................ ... 94 Florida Atlantic University and Indian River State College ............................... 97 Cross sectional Analysis of Demographic Characteristics ................................ ...... 99 System Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 100 Continuous demographic variables ................................ .......................... 100 Categorical demographic variables ................................ .......................... 101 System/Pro gram Data for Nursing ................................ ................................ .. 102 Continuous demographic variables for Nursing ................................ ....... 102 Categorical demographic variables for Nursing ................................ ....... 102 System/Program Data for ESE ................................ ................................ ....... 103 Continuous demographic variables for ESE ................................ ............. 103 Categorical demographic variables for ESE ................................ ............. 104 System/Program Data for Elementary Education ................................ ........... 105 Continuous demographic variables for Elementary Ed ucation ................. 105 Categorical demographic variables for Elementary Education ................. 106 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 140 Restatement of Purpose and Policy Context ................................ ........................ 140 Primary Research Question ................................ ................................ ........... 140 Secondary Research Question ................................ ................................ ....... 147 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 151 Implications for Policymakers ................................ ................................ ............... 152 Implications for Higher Education Practitioners ................................ .................... 155 Recommendations for Further Research ................................ .............................. 155 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 158 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 166
8 LIS T OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Headcount Enrollment of Florida College System (FCS) Upper Division Students and State University System (SUS) Baccalaureate Students, 1991 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 108 4 2 Headcount Enrollment of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) Upper Division Students, 1991 2011 ................................ ........ 109 4 3 Headcount Enrollment of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) Upper Division Nursing Students, 19 91 2011 ........................... 110 4 4 Headcount Enrollment of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) Upper Division Exceptional Student Education Students, 1991 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 111 4 5 Headcount Enrollment of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) Upper Division Elementary Education Students, 1991 2011 .... 112 4 6 Headcount Enrollment of Miami Dade College (MDC) and Florida International University (FIU) Upper Division Nursing Students, 1991 2011 .... 113 4 7 Headcount Enrollment of Miami Dade College (MD C) and Florida International University (FIU) Upper Division Exceptional Student Education Students, 1991 2011 ................................ ................................ ........................ 114 4 8 Headcount Enrollment of St. Petersburg College (SPC) and University of South Florida (USF) Upper Division Nursing Students, 1991 2011 .................. 115 4 9 Headcount Enrollment of St. Petersburg College (SPC) and University of South Florida (USF) Upper Division Exceptional Student Education Students, 1991 201 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 116 4 10 Headcount Enrollment of St. Petersburg College (SPC) and University of South Florida (USF) Upper Division Elementary Ed ucation Students, 1991 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 117 4 11 Headcount Enrollment of Indian River State College (IRSC) and Florida Atlantic University (FA U) Upper Division Nursing Students, 1991 2011 ........... 118 4 12 Headcount Enrollment of Indian River State College (IRSC) and Florida Atlantic University (FAU) Upper Division Exceptional Student Education Students, 1991 2011 ................................ ................................ ........................ 119
9 4 13 Comparison of 2010 Florida Co llege System (FCS) and Fall 2010 State University System (SUS) upper division students on age, GPA and family contribution ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 120 4 14 Comparison of 2010 Florida College S ystem (FCS) and Fall 2010 State University System (SUS) upper division students on gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, dependency status, transfer status, and Florida residency status ................................ ................................ ................................ 121 4 15 Comparison of 2010 Florida College System (FCS) and Fall 2010 State University System (SUS) upper division nursing students on age, GPA and family contribution ................................ ................................ ............................. 122 4 16 Comparison of 2010 Florida College System (FCS) and Fall 2010 State University System (SUS) upper division nursing students on gender, race/ethnicity, fu ll time/part time status, dependency status, transfer status, and Florida residency status ................................ ................................ ............. 123 4 17 Comparison of 2010 Florida Co llege System (FCS) and Fall 2010 State University System (SUS) upper division exceptional student education students on age, GPA and family contribution ................................ .................. 124 4 18 Comparison of 2010 Florida College System (FCS) and Fall 2010 State University System (SUS) upper division exceptional student education students on gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, dependency status, tra nsfer status, and Florida residency status ................................ ......... 125 4 19 Comparison of 2010 Florida College System (FCS) and Fall 2010 State University System (SUS) upper division elementary education students on age, GPA and family contribution ................................ ................................ ..... 126 4 20 Comparison of 2 010 Florida College System (FCS) and Fall 2010 State University System (SUS) upper division elementary education students on gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, dependency status, transfer status, and Florida residency status ................................ ................................ 127
10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Enrollment trends of Florida College System upper division students (FCS UD) and State University System baccalaureate students (SUS BAC), 1991 2011. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 128 4 2 Enrollment trends of Florida C ollege System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) upper division students, 1991 2011. ................................ ......... 129 4 3 Enrollment trends of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) upper division nursing students (NUR), 1991 2011. ................. 130 4 4 Enrollment trend s of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) upper division exceptional student education (ESE) students, 1991 2011. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 131 4 5 Enrollment trends of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) upper division elementary education students (ELED) with nonequivalent control group (SUS ED), 1991 2011. ................................ ......... 132 4 6 Enrollment trends of Miami Dade College (MDC) and Florida International University (FIU) upper division nursing students (NUR) with nonequivalent control group (SUS NUR), 1991 2011. ................................ ............................. 133 4 7 Enrollment trends of Miami Dade College (MDC) and Florida International University (FIU) upper division exceptional student education students (ESE) with nonequivalent control group (SUS ED), 1991 2011. ................................ 134 4 8 Enrollment trends of St. Petersburg College (SPC) and University of Sout h Florida (USF) upper division nursing students (NUR) with nonequivalent control group (SUS NUR), 1991 2011. ................................ ............................. 135 4 9 Enrollment t rends of St. Petersburg College (SPC) and University of South Florida (USF) upper division exceptional student education students (ESE) with nonequivalent control group (SUS ED), 1991 2011. ................................ 136 4 10 Enrollment trends of St. Petersburg College (SPC) and University of South Florida (USF) upper division elementary education students (EL ED) with nonequivalent control group (SUS ED), 1991 2011. ................................ ......... 137 4 11 Enrollment trends of Indian River State College (IRSC) and Florida Atlantic University (FAU) upper division n ursing students (NUR) with nonequivalent control group (SUS NUR), 1991 2011. ................................ ............................. 138
11 4 12 Enrollment trends of Indian River State Col lege (IRSC) and Florida Atlantic University (FAU) upper division exceptional student education students (ESE) with nonequivalent control group (SUS ED), 1991 2011. ....................... 139
12 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BAS Bachelor of Applied Science CAAT Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology CCBA Community College Baccalaureate Association CEPRI Council for Education Policy Research and Improvement CIP Classification of Instructional Program DCC Division of Community Colleges DCCWE Division of Community Colleges and Workforce Education DFC Division of Florida Colleges ECS Education Commission of the States FBOE Florida Board of Education FCS Florida College System F CCS Florida Community College System FDOE Florida Department of Education FLDOE Florida Department of Education HECC Higher Education Coordinating Council IPEDS Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System NCHEMS National Center for Higher Education Management Systems OCCRL Office of Community College Research and Leadership OPPAGA Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability PEPC Postsecondary Education Planning Commission SACSCOC Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commi ssion on Colleges SB E State Board of Education SUS State University System
13 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for th e Degree of Doctor of Educ ation COMMUNITY COLLEGE BACCALAUREATE DEGREES : AN ANALYSIS OF ENROLLMENT TRENDS, DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND SYSTEMIC IMPACTS By Ian Phillip Neuhard December 2013 Chair: Dale F. Campbell Major: Higher Education Administration The policy of utilizing community colleges to expand baccalaureate degree access has generated controversy in Florida and other states, partially due to a lack of data regarding the impacts of these programs on othe r institutions and systems of higher ed ucation. This study examined longitudinal enrollment trends and cross sectional demographic characteristics of upper division students in the Florida College System (FCS) and the Florida State University System (SUS) A special focus of this research was on institutions in close geographic proximity where baccalaureate degree programs have been duplicated. This study provides insight for policymakers, practitioners, and other stakeholders who need to know if Florid whether enrollments from the SUS are merely being redistributed into the FCS. The results of the longitudinal enrollment analysis showed that total upp er division enrollments at state universities have increased at a faster rate since community college baccalaureates were authorized in Florida than in the ten years prior to their authorization. Across the entire State University System, enrollments in N ursing and
14 Exceptional Student Education have increased since the first community college baccalaureates were authorized in those disciplines. Elementary Education enrollments increased for the first five years and then decreased each year since 2008 09 i n conjunction with education reform efforts and budget cuts in Florida. At institutions in close geographic proximity where baccalaureate degree programs were duplicated, there was no evidence of long term, negative enrollment impacts. There was limited evidence of short term impacts in Education programs when looking from one year prior, to two years after, FCS programs were initiated. The analysis of 2010 demographic characteristics for the full populations of upper division students in both systems re vealed large differences in age, expected family contribution, gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, and dependency status. Similar demographic patterns were found in the duplicated academic programs of Nursing, Exceptional Student Education and Elementary Education. The demographic differences between the populations, combined with the data on enrollment trends, suggest that community college baccalaureate degrees in Florida are successfully increasing access, especially for nontraditional populations, without sustained impacts on state university system enrollments.
15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The State of Florida has been struggling with increasing access to higher education and, particularly, with increasing access to the baccalaureate degree for many decades ( Postsecondary Education Planning Commission, 1995 ). Dramatic population incre ases that began during the 1950 s and accelerated during the 1970 s and 1980 PEPC 1993) However, the need to provide access to more students while simultaneously controlling costs has also resulted in several innovative approaches to baccalaureate degree production. Among these are state mandated articulation conventions such as common co urse numbering, common prerequisites, system wide transferability of 36 hours of General Education coursework, and 2+2 articulation between community colleges and state universities ( Florida Department of Education 2011). Other innovations to increase b accalaureate degree access have involved joint and concurrent use partnerships for the delivery of upper division coursework by other colleges and universities on community college campuses. From 2000 to 2008 the number of these joint and concurrent use p rograms increased by 98% to over 460 distinct programs ( Florida Department of Education 2008). Beginning in 2001 with Senate Bill 1162, the Florida Legislature authorized community colleges to award baccalaureate degrees once they have been approved by th e State Board of Education and achieved accreditation as a baccalaureate degree granting institution by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools ( Florida Department of Education 200 5). As of March 2012, there were 21 community colleges that had been approved to offer 135 baccalaureate
16 degrees. This total includes degrees offered by St. Petersburg College which has separate legislative authority for baccalaureate degrees and is not required to obtain approval from the State Board of Education prior to o ffering new degree programs (Florida College System 2012). co ncerned that community colleges with baccalaureate degrees will lose their traditional community college mission. Some worry about the cost to start up new baccalaureate programs and others fear that the quality of these programs will not match the qualit y at state universities or private institutions (Floyd and Skolnik, 2005). Statement of the Problem Because little research has been conducted on the effects of community college baccalaureate degrees on other systems of higher education and other higher education institutions in Florida, there is a great deal of uncertainty among both policymakers and practitioners about the impact of this movement. State policymakers and institutional practitioners need formal research and reliable data to make inform ed decisions about the future of these degree programs (Floyd, 2005). One concern that exists among both policymakers and institutional administrators is related to the unnecessary duplication of baccalaureate degree programs and, ultimately, competition for students (Glennon, 2005). This issue has received much attention since community college bacca laureate degrees were first considered as an alternative in Florida. Given the newness of the community college baccalaureate degree movement, it is not su rprising, or inappropriate, that state university administrators are asking hard questions about what will happen to the enrollment in
17 their programs when nearby community colleges are authorized to implement baccalaureate degree programs that duplicate th eir current degree offerings. This becomes especially relevant in light of the legislative mandate that was included in Section 1004.87 of the Florida Statutes (2008) requiring community college gs to students and to the state (para. (3)(b)). In the absence of data on this topic, it is not unreasonable to conclude that the lower cost and additional access to baccalaureate degree offerings could very well have a negative impact on transfer rates and, thus, on the total Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study wa s to examine the enrollment patterns at both state universities and community colleges in close geographic proximity to each other where baccalaureate degree offerings have been duplicated. Ultimately, this study is intended to provide insight into a key aspect of the community college baccalaureate debate in Florida by examining an important policy question: Are comm unity college baccalaureate programs fulfilling their stated policy goal of increasing access to merely being redistributed into the new community college programs? Additional research was conducted to examine the demographic characteristics of students enrolled in community college baccalaureate degree programs as compared with students enrolled in the upper division of state university programs. Section 1007.33 of the Florida Statutes (2012) clearly states the legislative expectation for nontraditional students to be served by baccalaureate degree programs provided by the Florida College System:
18 The Legislature also recognizes that the economic development needs and the educational needs of place bound, nontraditional students have increased the demand for local access to baccalaureate degree programs. It is therefore the intent of the Legislature to further expand access to baccalaureate degree programs through the use of Florida College System institutions (para. (1)(a)) Thus, the policy question to be addressed here is whether community college baccalaureate programs in Florida are serving the same student populations as state universities or whether they are they are truly expanding access by attracting students with different demographic characteristics. Research Questions The primary research question addressed by this study wa s: How have are in close geographic proximity to community colleges where duplicative baccalaureate degree programs have been implemented? A secondary and related question wa s: How do the demographics of community college baccalaureate students in the Florida Colleg e System differ from those of upper universities? Significance of the Study This research provides important information and assistance for policymakers and other stakeholders in the state of Florida who need val id data and analysis in order to make informed decisions about the future of baccalaureate access, and the role of community college baccalaureate degrees in achieving this goal. Understanding the impact of community college baccalaureate programs on othe r programs, on other information with implications that have been debated for more than 20 years.
19 This study represents an important next step in the process of ev aluating community college baccalaureate policy in Florida and, perhaps, in other states as well. Comprehensive policy evaluation examines not only whether a policy is meeting its stated goals; but, also whether there are other alternatives that are more cost effective, more successful, or more attractive to the stakeholders and policymakers who are invest ed in a given issue. A comprehensive policy evaluation is beyond the scope of this dissertation research; but, answering the questions about enrollment impacts from duplicated programs and serving nontraditio nal student populations does advance the work of thoroughly evaluating community college baccalaureate policy in Florida. This research is also signif icant because it organized existing data in new a nd useful ways. The state of Florida spends millions of dollars annually to collect data about programs and students in the State University System and the Florida College System. By examining data from different databases and organi zing it in new ways, it was possible to confirm prior research by Manias (2008) and Floyd and Walker (2009 ) on enrollment trends in the FC S and the SUS, and to extend their research to the institution and program level to better understand the enrollment dynamics when communit y colleges offer duplicated programs. The analysis cond ucted for this study also allowed for the confirmation of findings reported by the Florida College System (2011 ) with regard to the age race/ethnicity, gender, and full time/part time status of stude nts in the FC S Extending this analysis to include additional demographic variables deepens the understanding of the student populations that are being served by FCS and SUS institutions. This work add s to the literature by illuminating demographic varia bles that are previously unreported with respect to community college
20 baccalaureate degrees in Florida. Finally, the methodology used in this study for examining enrollment trends by pairing baccalaureate programs with identical CIP codes that are in clos e geographic proximity to each other may provide a useful model for evaluating community college baccalaureate pilot projects, and anticipating program level impacts in other states. Ultimately, this approach lays a foundation for more advanced research on this topic. As enrollments are documented over longer spans of time, more advanced research designs, quasi experimental methods, and predictive analytics will become possible. Design of the Study The research design for this study was non experimental since random assignment to treatment and control groups was not possible. The study featured a secondary analysis of archival, quantitative data sets administered by the Florida Department of Education and the Florida Board of Governors. This type of an alysis utilizes unobtrusive measures which do not require the researcher to interact with participants, or influence the research context. Additionally, the examination of data from multiple sources often provide s deeper insight into a given res earch ques tion than limiting analysis to a single database (Trochim, 2006). For the research question related to enrollment trends, elements of an interrupted time series analysis were used to examine upper division enrollments in specific baccalaureate programs at SUS institutions before and after duplicated community college baccalaureate degree programs were implemented. For the research question related to demographic characteristics, a comparative analysis of demographic da ta was performed using descriptive st atistics to examine the entire, unduplicated population s of upper division students in the SUS (Fall 2010) and the FCS (all semesters 2010)
21 Limitations of the Study 1. Confounding factors other than identical community college baccalaureate degree programs i n close geographic proximity could account for enrollment changes at the targeted state unive rsity programs. History is a potential threat to internal validity when conducting a longitudinal analysis. 2. Trend data and descriptive statistics do not allow for generalization to larger populations or prediction of future circumstances. 3. The researcher is a former director of state policy related to community college baccalaureate degrees, and is currently employed as an administrator of baccalaureate programs at a Florida College System institution. Unintentional bias in the research design and in the interpretation of data is possible when the researcher has professional responsibilities related to the subject being studied. Reliance on quantitative methods, population data (rather than sample data), and unobtrusive data collection techniques mitigated this threat to internal validity. Delimitations of the Study 4. The study was focused on public community colleges and state universities within the state of Flo rida. Generalizing to private, not for profit institutions and private, for profit institutions, as well as institutions and systems of higher education in other states is not appropriate. 5. The study was focused on the enrollment and demographic data for u pper division students only. Impacts on lower division enrollments and differences in lower division student demographics were not examined. 6. The study relied on state administered, archival databases maintained by the Florida Board of Governors and the Fl orida Department of Education. While these data sets are considered to be the official representation of circumstances in the Florida State University System and the Florida College System, the collection and coding of data was not under the control of th e investigator. Definitions The following terms are used throughout this study as defined below to ensure clarity for the reader: C LOSE GEOGRAPHIC PROX IMITY A condition that exists when the main or branch campus of a Florida state university exists in the service district of a Florida College System institution. C OMMUNITY COLLEGE A n institution with open door access at the lower division. It awards primarily two year associate degrees and technical certificates. In
22 Florida a community college may also be called junior college, college, or state college and it may or may not award baccalaureate degrees. C OMMUNITY COLLEGE BAC CALAUREATE DEGREE A four year degree awarded by a community college that maintains the traditional community college mission of open access to associate degrees and technical certificates. In Florida, a student who earns a community college baccalaureate degree must meet the same state mandated requirements as a student who earns a baccalaureate degree from a public, state uni versity degree is a bachelor of science or bachelor of applied science degree. C ONCURRENT USE ( OR JOINT USE ) PARTNERSHIP A formal agreement between a community college and another public or private college or univers ity where the community college off ers lower division instruction and the partner institution offers upper division instruction on the community college campus. The combination of these course offerings leads to the completion of a baccalaureate degree th at is conferred by the partner institution. D UPLICATIVE ( OR IDENTICAL ) BACCALAUREATE DEGREE PROGRAM T wo baccalaureate degree programs at different institutions with the same six digit, Classification of Instructional Program (CIP) Code number.
23 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW National Background/History on Community College Baccalaureate D egrees Since their inception at the beginning of the 20 th Century, community colleges in the United States (originally called Junior Colleges) have been evolving and adap ting to meet the changing postsecondary needs of Americans and American society (Cohen & Brawer, 2008). The mission of community colleges has been multi faceted, with various combinations of collegiate transfer courses, vocational and technical training, developmental education, recreation and leisure courses, community service experiences, and other educational opportunities that have been tied to the needs of local students, businesses, and communities. Central to this multi faceted mission has been the idea that community colleges increase access to postsecondary education especially for nontraditional colleg e students who are older, workin g, and often unable to travel beyond their local communities to obtain postsecondary instruction (Cowen & Brawer, 20 08). Given the evolutionary nature of these institutions, and the increasing focus on college as career preparation, it was, perhaps, inevitable that community colleges would begin to offer baccalaureate degrees, especially in disciplines closely related to specific workforce needs, such as teaching and nursing. Dr. Kenneth Walker, former president of Edison Community College (now Edison State College) and founder of the Community College Baccalaureate Association, asserts in the opening chapter of The C ommunity College Baccalaureate: Emerging Trends and Policy Issues come to stop defining the community college as a two
24 right for a new vision for community colleges, one that embraces a strong commitment to baccalau reate access Differing Viewpoints policymakers agree d baccalaureate degree granting waters. For example, Dr. James Wattenbarger the founder and former Executive Director of the Florida Community College S ystem was strongly opposed to the idea of communit y colleges awarding b accalaureate degrees due to the potential for mission creep and, eventually, the total abandonment of all community college functions (2000) Townse nd ( 2005) provides a concise summary of the arguments both for, and against, community college baccalaureate degrees. Proponents note that community college ba ccalaureate degrees increase access to the baccalaureate for nontraditional populations, are responsive to local workforce needs, and reduce the cost of obtaining a four year degree. Opponents of the community college baccalaureate degree cite threats to the traditional community college mission, the potential for increased costs to states and students, concerns about quality, and changing expectations for faculty as reasons to proceed with caution, or even to prevent community colleges from offering four year degrees. Floyd ( 2005) offers an important insight into the potential reasoning behind the controversy and the strong opinions on both sides of the community college baccalaureate debate. She notes that, historically, universities (and other four ye ar institutions) have conferred the baccalaureate degree and, essentially, controlled the curriculum -even when partnering with community colleges via articulation agreements or providing access to upper division coursework on community college campuses.
25 curriculum, four trans challenged in a significant way by community colleges authorized to confer their own Definitions and Terminology One factor that complicates the study of c ommunity college baccalaureate degrees is definitional in nature. Often times, terms such as applied baccalaureate, workforce baccalaureate, and community college baccalaureate are used interchangeably by both researchers and practitioners. Floyd and Wal ker (2009) attempted to reduce this confusion by defining seven different options that community colleges often use to improve baccalaureate access. These include Community College Baccalaureates (conferred by institutions with a community college mission ), Articulation Baccalaureates (conferred by a university partner with the first two years of instruction provided by a community college under a specified articulation agreement), University Center and Concurrent Use Baccalaureates (conferred by a college or university partner that has located on the community college campus or in shared facilities), University Extension Baccalaureates (conferred by a college or university as a function of extension activities -with or without a community college partnersh ip), Workforce Baccalaureates (conferred by community colleges as well as traditional four year institutions in areas closely associated with specific careers, such as teaching), Applied Baccalaureates (conferred by community colleges as well as traditiona l four year institutions utilizing articulated credit from associate degree programs previously
26 considered to be terminal, such as the associate of applied science degree), and Inverted Baccalaureates (a program model where the first three years of study a re primarily in a technical field and the final year is primarily general education courses). Applied Baccalaureate Degrees Recently, there has been increased attention on the applied baccalaureate degree structure as a result of research being conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign via their Office of Community College Research and Leadership (OCCRL). This institute has primarily focused on developing a definition of the applied baccalaureate degree, charting its growth across the Un ited States, identifying curriculum models for delivering the applied baccalaureate degree, and investigating associated policy implications. Since 2006, OCCRL researchers have been studying the applied baccalaureate degree as part of an agenda focused on transfer and c ollege completion (Office of Community College Research and Leadership 2013 a ). More recent efforts (since 2010) have been centered on investigating the applied baccalaureate pathway for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) deg Technological Education program. Funded in part by a Lumina Foundation grant, the researchers from OCCRL conducted a multi year, multi phase study between 2006 and 2009 specifically designed to provide policy makers with data and information about applied baccalaureate degrees througho ut the United States ( Bragg Townsend & Ruud, 2009 ). To guide their degree designed to incorporate applied associate courses and degrees once considered as terminal or non baccalaureate level while providing students with the
27 higher order thinking skills and advanced technical knowledge and skills so desired in p. iv). However, in their 2011 publication, The Applied Baccalaureate: What We Know, What We Learned, and What We Need to Know Ruu d and Bragg concede that this definition is still not universally applicable. They note that the September 2010 Convening on the Applied Baccalaureate Degree sponsored by the Lumina Foundation revealed much disagreement about what constitutes an applied baccalaureate degree, and that the definition does not account for all of the variations and nuances reported by p ractitioners and policymakers across the United States. Still, the OCCRL research has been extremely useful. The researchers charted the emergence of applied baccalaureate degrees over the past 40 years, noting that, in the 1970 s, only four states were ut ilizing this degree structure: Illinois, Alabama, Missouri, and New York. Within these four states, only one institution the Fashion Institute of New York was primarily an associate degree granting institution offering an applied four year degree. By th e 1980 s, another seven states had implemented ap plied baccalaureates. The 1990 s brought more expansion with eight additional states reporting applied baccalaureate degrees in ope ration. The decade of the 2000 s provided the largest growth in applied bacca laureate degrees. Another 15 states reported the emergence of these degrees between 2000 and 2009 (Townsend, Bragg, & Ruu d, 2009). Building upon the work of other researchers in this field, the Office of Community College Research and Leadership also identified five major curricular structures through which institutions deliver applied baccalaureate degree coursework. These structure s are as follows: the Career Ladder model, in which both academic and technical
28 coursework extends from the associate degree to the baccalaureate degree; the Management Capstone model, in which the upper division focus is on business and management course work; the Upside Down model, in which upper division, general education coursework complements technical coursework from the associate degree and leads to a discipline prior learning credits are ma ximized and upper division, general education coursework leads to a more general, or interdisciplinary, baccalaureate degree; and the Hybrid model, in which features of two or more of the previous models are combined to achieve specific, baccalaureate o utc omes (OCCRL, 2013b). Differing treatments by accrediting agencies, national data collection organizations, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, and even the institutions themselves contribute to the confusion in understanding th e nature of a community college baccalaureate degree. For example, th e Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC) requires an institution to in the eyes of SACS, a Florida community college with 100 associate degree and certificate offered the bacca laureate (SACSCOC, 2013) However, the Carnegie Classification f or this same institution would be Assoc/Pub4 year, Primarily since the majority of the degrees awarded are at the ass (Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 2013) The National Center for Edu cation Statistics (NCES) would classify this institution as Public, 4 year or higher (National Center for Education Statistics, 2013) And, finally, the institution in this
29 example may have followed the convention of public, Florida community colleges tha t -even though it is still required by law to fulfill its community coll ege mission (Florida Statutes, S ection 1007.33, 2012). For the purposes of this study, an adaptation o f the common usage identified by Floyd, Garcia Falconetti, and Felsher (2012) will be utilized: a community college baccalaureate degree that maintains the traditional community college missio n of open access for associate degrees and certificates. This descriptor will apply regardless of the name of the oriented, or technical in nature. The term community colle ge baccalaureate degree will also be used regardless of how the curriculum is structured. Need for Data and A nalysis In the pioneering book, The Community College Baccalaureate: Emerging Trends and Policy Issues Floyd (2005) noted that there was a press ing need for more research about the growing phenomenon of community colleges conf erring baccalaureate degrees. Each of the contributing authors to this book called for more research by professional associations, policy makers, scholars, and higher educat ion leaders in order to better understand the issues and implications surrounding this nascent development in postsecondary education. In many ways The Community College Baccalaureate: Emerging Trends and Policy Issues helped to organize and summarize w hat was known about the community college baccalaureate movement from its beginnings until 2005. The book serves as a milepost driven into the terrain of this topic from which researchers, practitioners and
30 policymakers can mark their journey into the lit erature, history, development, and authors and editors address many of the key questions and aspects surrounding the community college baccalaureate. Each chapter ends by ide ntifying key policy and research issues for the reader to consider. This repetitive theme drives home several points: first, there is a severe shortage of research, data, and analysis on this topic; second, most of the research and journal articles that exist are qualitative descriptions of existing programs and historical accounts of their implementation process; and third, much policy still needs to be developed to guide the community college baccalaureate movement but good policy is dependent on high q uality research, data, and analysis. In many ways, this book was a call to action. It was a plea for research, program evaluation, policy development and analysis, data collection, and the synthesis of information into useful knowledge and actionable str ategies. Due to its important standing in the community college baccalaureate milieu, and its relevance as an organizing and contextualizing resource, a more detailed examination of this book is warranted. Walker ( 2005) summarized the development of the community college baccalaureate trend, tracing its roots to community colleges in Texas, Utah, Arkansas, Nevada and Florida where authorization was obtained from state legislatures to offer a small number of highly focused b accalaureate degrees in the mid to late 1990 s. Walker also outlined the rationale for this approach by noting that baccalaureate degrees are a natural extension of the community college mission to increase higher education access and address local workforce needs especially for nontradi tional populations. Walker
31 highlighted the advantages of having an academic infrastructure of faculty, staff, facilities and support services already in place to serve students in an era where the credential for workforce entry and advancement has increas ingly moved toward the Floyd ( 2005) contributed an organizational structure or four part typology of the models used by community colleges to provide students with access to the baccalaureate degree. It encompassed much more than baccal aureate degrees awarded by community colleges. In addition to the community college baccalaureate, part typology included articulation structures, university center arrangements, and university extension programs. Moreover, Floyd analyzed an d compared the key aspects of each approach, such as whether community college facilities were used, whether the university controlled the baccalaureate degree requirements, and whether there was sequential attendance by students beginning at community col lege and then moving to a university. By 2009, this typology had expanded to seven parts, as previously outlined in this literature review, to accommodate applied baccalaureate degrees, workforce baccalaureate degrees, and inverted baccalaureate degrees. Michael Skolnik ( 2005) reminds us that community college baccalaureate degrees are not an exclusively American innovation. Skolnik traced the history and development of the community college baccalaureate in Canada, noting that the first programs b egan to emerge in the late 1980 s. By 2003, more than twenty five percent was continuing to rise. Skolnik noted that different Canadian provinces have
32 implemented varied approache s to the community college baccalaureate degree. In some cases, there was duplication of traditional university degrees while, in other cases, new (more applied) degree structures had been developed. Likewise, at the institutional level, some institution s had merely added a new function; whereas, other institutions had evolved into new organizations with the multifaceted mission of both a important issues associated with commu nity college baccalaureate degrees in Canada are access to graduate schools, effects on faculty members, and effects on the future roles of the colleges particularly as it relates to retaining the traditional community college mission. An entire chapter of The Community College Baccalaureate: Emerging Trends and Policy Issues is dedicated to the topic of university centers an arrangement where one or more university partners provides upper division instruction on a community college campus On the surface this topic seems antithetical to the idea of community college baccalaureate degrees. It is true that this is one way in which community colleges provide access to baccalaureate education. It is one of the models included in the Floyd typologies; b ut, it is clearly one in which a university or other four year institution controls the process by providing the upper division instruction, awarding the upper division credits, and conferring the baccalaureate degree. Nevertheless, this chapter is informative in many ways. In discussing the need and rationale for university centers, Lorenzo ( 2005) demonstrates that demand for (and attainment of) baccalaureate education has increased dramatic ally since the midpoint of the 20 th Century. He notes that, in 1950, the percentage of Americans age 25 and older whose
33 highest level of education was less than high school stood at 65.7 percent. The 6.2 percent. By 2000 these figures had shifted dramatically. The percentage of Americans age 25 and older whose highest level of education was less than high school had dropped to 16.0 percent, while .6 percent. This data trend clearly makes a case for expanded baccalaureate degree access, regardless of the delivery mode or institutional control over degree conferral. Lorenzo goes on to identify and provide examples of six models of university center delivery based on the role of the community college with regard to governance, financing, operations, and academic programming. The six models are identified as: co locati on, enterprise, virtual, integrated, sponsorship and hybrid. Co location means that two year and four year institutions deliver academic programming at the same place, usually the community college campus. The enterprise model describes a consortium of i nstitutions working together to provide access to baccalaureate and even graduate programs in a common location. Typically, the community college is an equal partner in the venture. The virtual model allows students to take their upper division coursewor k online; but, the community college serves as an anchor point for enrollment and support services. In some cases, the community college may also offer upper division, bridge courses, either onsite or online. The integrated model describes a situation wh ere co location has become more meaningfully coordinated and fused into a single experience for the student. Joint planning, shared classrooms, dual purpose libraries, common technology, collaborative hiring, and cross trained staff help to create a seaml ess environment for service delivery. The sponsorship model features a
34 community college in the lead position for developing and managing a university center. Typically, the community college decides on degree offerings, recruits upper division partners, operates all facilities, and dedicates full time staff for oversight and advancement of the center. Usually multiple university partners are involved so that a wide array of baccalaureate and graduate degree offerings can be provided. Finally, there is the hybrid model that provides a combination of university center baccalaureate degrees and baccalaureate degrees delivered and conferred directly by the community college. The purported advantage to this model is that it expands baccalaureate access with notes that many community colleges have sought the authority to provide applied baccalaureate degrees that are not typically offered by universities. However, in many other c ases, authority has been granted for more traditional programs, such as the teacher preparation programs that were approved between 2000 and 2004 at several Florida community colleges. Lorenzo (2005) writ college baccalaureate movement was specifically designed to address critical workforce shortages in three areas: teaching, nursing, and applied technology. Nevertheless, a recurring one among both critics and supporters of the community college baccalaureate movement. Additional examples of this co ncern regarding duplication will be presented throughout this review of literature especially as it applies to Florida
35 community college baccalaureate programs. Addressing and illuminating the issue of programmatic duplication is a major goal of this rese arch study. Subsequent chapters in the The Community College Baccalaureate: Emerging Trends and Policy Issues provide historical accounts and case studies of specific institutions that implemented community college baccalaureate degrees. Furlong ( 2005) provides an in depth account of events at St. Petersburg College the first Florida community college to be granted authority to award baccalaureate degrees. Furlong notes that frequent internal communication, dedication to a single college culture (often traditional community college mission were key factors in the successful roll out of community college baccalaureate degrees. St. Petersburg College also worked very closely with the o ther institutions of higher education in their geographic region on joint planning, marketing, and communication while simultaneously expanding their university center degree offerings at the baccalaureate and graduate levels. In this way, competition and the unnecessary duplication of programs was avoided. For Westark College in Fort Smith, Arkansas (now named the University of Arkansas at Fort Smith), it was joint planning with the Manufacturing Executives Association that led to a unique, competency ba sed, outcomes oriented, General Education integrated, Bachelor of Manufacturing Technology degree in 1998. McKee ( 2005) states that support from many stakeholders including powerful legislators, corporate chief executive officers, faculty, students and ad ministrators was critical in obtaining the authority to offer this workforce specific baccalaureate degree. The integrated General Education learning outcomes and self paced, modular, delivery
36 format created challenges from an ac creditation standpoint. H owever, as a result of the Westark experience, the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools produced a report in 2001 to guide other community colleges that were considering the implementation of baccalaureate deg rees. This level of cooperation and specific guidance from a regional accrediting body has not been experienced by Florida and other members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). In fact, SACS accreditation concerns at several bacca laureate degree granting Florida community colleges led to a statewide effort in 2011 and 2012 to develop the Guidelines on Transfer Agreements and Faculty Credentials and Qualifications (Florida College System, 2012 April ) in an attempt to clarify and st andardize operating procedures in a way that would be acceptable to SACS. The journey toward accreditation is a theme that was addressed by Remington and Remington (2005) as they traced the development and implementation of a 1999 Bachelor of Arts degree in Elementary Education at Great Basin College (formerly Northern Nevada Community College). In this account, Remington and Remington describe the iterative process of developing plans and curriculum, using consultants and accreditors to critique those p lans, and then refining the plans into a baccalaureate program that would meet the need for rural teachers in a service district spanning 45,000 square miles. Great Basin was an institution in the midst of a turnaround when the need for offering a four ye ar degree became apparent. A major challenge for the institution was related to start up costs. The Nevada legislature wanted to know that Great Basin could achieve accreditation before providing funding; but, funding was necessary to make the upgrades n ecessary in facilities, faculty, libraries and student
37 services to achieve accreditation. Although the journey was time consuming and difficult; ultimately, funding and accreditation were achieved. The self study and subsequent quality improvements were beneficial to all students at Great Basin. Essentially, the move to baccalaureate status provided a crucial opportunity, and impetus, for significant quality improvement and revitalization. The institution that emerged was stronger, with an enhanced iden tity, and an improved culture to accompany its new name. E volving institutional culture i s a theme that can also be found in Berta Vigil ( 2005). This exploratory case study of three O ntario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (CAATs), which are similar in mission and function to American community colleges, focused on five major themes: funding, program development and facilities, faculty, students, and culture/identity. Numerous challenges and questions were encountered the institutions did not increase when the applied baccalaureate degrees were approved, so upgrades to facilities, faculty, and l ibrary resources were difficult or impossible to accomplish. Faculty had multiple concerns ranging from additional preparation time for more theory based courses, to feeling pressured to obtain a terminal degree. Despite a multi year planning phase, thes e issues were not resolved degree programs. Changes in faculty credentialing were also reflected in the perceptions of employees about institutional culture. With higher credentials, more emphasis on theory, a potential new expectation for research, and an expanded
38 mission, many wondered if the existing organizational culture and vocational/technical aureate degrees was to expand the opportunities for advanced education and training. As such, that proposed programs could not duplicate any university degree offerings. This contrasts with many American initiatives, and especially the Florida community college baccalaureate campaign, where increasing access and addressing critical workforce shortages were major decision factors. Nevertheless, in both cases, the familiar initial program enrollments which further jeopardized programmatic funding a nd the long term viability of these new, applied baccalaureate degree programs. In discussing an ongoing agenda of policy development and research, Skolnik and Floyd (2005 ) noted that frameworks of analysis can be focused on programmatic characteristics or structure of entire sys tems of postsecondary education (p. 192). They are clear on the college baccala However, to date, little research has been conducted on the impacts or interactions of community college baccalaureate degrees on other systems of higher education. This deficit in data on system level impacts is another key aspect that will be addr essed in the research for this dissertation.
39 Responding to the Call for More Research Chronologically, the next major publication dedicated to the issue of community college baccalaureate degrees is the February 2009 edition of the Community College Journal of Research and Practice, Volume 33, Number 2 which was a special issue dedicated to the topic of the community college baccalaureate degree. Floyd, Skolnik and Walker were major cont ributors to this volume, offering expanded and updated analysis of many of the themes covered in their 2005 book. Additional researchers also contributed to this special edition. What is striking about this publication is the prevalence of qualitative me thods, case studies, and descriptive techniques that were used to frame the discussion about community college baccalaureates. By this point in time, many programs had been operating for at least a decade; but little data was being published on enrollment trends, demographic characteristics, graduation rates, graduate school articulation, or other program outcomes. This is not to criticize the authors or editors of this work. Clearly, qualitative methods are extremely important, and fully appropriate, fo r describing new programs and initiatives, for developing theories, and for identifying areas for policy analysis and additional research. The titles of the articles in this publication show that this is exactly what was happening: The Community College B accalaureate: Putting the Pieces Together by Deborah L. Floyd and Kenneth P. Walker (2009) Theorizing About the Emergence of the Community College Baccalaureate by Michael L. Skolnik (2009) Perceptions and Reflections of Administrators: Community College s Transitioning to Baccalaureate Colleges by Edwin P. Bemmel, Deborah L. Floyd and Valerie C. Bryan (2009) The Perceived Effects of State Governance Decentralization on Baccalaureate Articulation by Angela M. Garcia Falconetti (2009)
40 Baccalaureate Communit y Colleges: The New Florida College System by Deborah L. Floyd, Angela M. Garcia Falconetti, and Michael R. Hrabak (2009) The Community College Baccalaureate Movement: Cutting Edge Dissertation Research by Michael R. Hrabak (2009) As just one indicator o f the heavy focus on qualitative research during this time, it is interesting to note that in the entirety of this special issue on the community college baccalaureate degree, there were only three tables and two figures included in the entire publication. Of these, two of the tables merely showed dates of program initiation in various states across the country. The remaining two figures traced the growth in however, pr ovided a side by side comparison of headcount enrollment growth in division of the Florida State University System (SUS) from 2002 03 to 2006 07. This table showed that upper div ision headcount enrollment in the SUS increased from 110,255 in 2002 03 to 133,112 in 2006 07, and that community college baccalaureate enrollments increased from 627 to 3,166 during the same time period (Floyd and Walker, 2009). The authors concluded tha programs, enrollment, and graduates have steadily increased, they have not advanced the first published journal articles to utilize quantitative data to examine the relationship ms ystem. Updated data on these enrollment trends will provide the foundation for more system level research and analysis in later chapters of this dissertation.
41 It is also instructive to compare the 2009 special issue of the Community College Journal of Research and Practice to the next major collection of a rticles dedicated to the community college baccalaureate phenomenon. In the summer of 2012, Jossey Bass produced an issue of New Directions for Community Colleges focused on applied and workforce baccalaureate degrees edited by Floyd, Felsher, and Falcone tti (2012). The editors of this special issue explore the question of whether the community college answering the question directly, the editors state that their intent is to debate by providing a deeper understanding of this movement from the perspective of reveals that investigation into the community college baccalaure ate degree did indeed extend previous research while also moving into more complex issues and deeper levels of analysis on topics such as articulation, economic development, work experience curricular components, national studies of adult learners, and gra duate school articulation. The chapters of this publication are: Applied and Workforce Baccalaureate Models by Deborah L. Floyd, Angela M. Garcia Falconetti, and Rivka A. Felsher (2012) Articulation to and from the Applied Associate Degree: Challenges an d Opportunities by Jan M. Ignash (2012) Community and Technical Colleges by Christy England Siegerdt and Michelle Andreas (2012) The Evolution of Workforce Baccalaureate Degrees in Fl orida by Judith Bilsky, Ian Neuhard, and Mary G. Locke (2012) The Applied and Workforce Baccalaureate at South Texas College: Specialized Workforce Development Addressing Economic Development by Juan E. Mejia (2012)
42 The Work Experience Component of an Ont ario College Baccalaureate Program by Marguerite M. Donohue and Michael L. Skolnik (2012) Why Applied Baccalaureates Appeal to Working Adults: From National Results to Promising Practices by Debra Brag g and Collin Ruud (2012) Institutional Challenges of Applied and Workforce Baccalaureate Programs by Richard L. Wagoner and Carlos Ayon (2012) Graduate Education Issues and Challenges: Community College Applied and Workforce Baccalaureates by Deborah L. Floyd, Rivka A. Felsher, and Linda Catullo (2012) What is noteworthy about this collection of articles is the increased use of quantitative data to provide insights and draw conclusions. The 2012 Jossey Bass special issue on applied and workforce baccalaureates includes ten data tables to illustrate and illu minate the research that was conducted. This is a dramatic increase (over 200 percent) from the 2009 Special Issue of the Community College Journal of Research and Practice which utilized only three tables to summarize data. In contributing to the 2012 J ossey Bass special issue, several authors support their discussions and conclusions with quantitative data. Bilsky, Neuhard and Locke ( 2012) provide data to document need and trace the evolution of community college baccalaure ates in Florida. Jan Ignash ( 2012) provides comparisons of credit hours and curricular categories to identify the opportunities and challenges associated with articulating associate degrees with applied and workforce baccalaureates in the state of Washington. In addition, Juan Meji a ( 2012) presents exit survey data on student outcomes and satisfaction levels to show how community college baccalaureate degrees are providing specialized workforce development in support of the economic development initiatives in South Texas.
43 Over t he past decade, there has been considerable growth throughout the United Along with this growth has been the call for more data, more research, and enhanced policy develop ment to guide this movement. While academic researchers are beginning to rely more on the use of quantitative data to describe and analyze the community college baccalaureate movement, some of the best quantitative data is being produced by state agencies workgroups and policy analysts. This data is often self published or published by government agencies, for us e by very specific stakeholders. I t rarely appears in peer reviewed journals or other academic publications. Yet, despite all these efforts, there has been very little academic research conducted about the impact of community college baccalaureate degrees on other institutions or systems of higher education Development of Community College Baccalaureate Degrees in Florida Understanding the con text and development of the community college baccalaureate movement in Florida is instructive for addressing the policy questions and research questions that are the focus of this disser tation research. The examination of key state agency publications al so illustrates the kinds of quantitative data that has been collected (and remains to be collected) to inform legislators and policymakers about community college baccalaureate degrees as they continue to grow and evolve in Florida. Chronology of Florida Publications and Reports What follows is a chr onological timeline and analysis of the key publications by state agencies and consulting firms which led to the development of community college
44 baccalaureate degrees in the Florida College System (formerly n amed the Florida Community College System). Reports by the Postsecondary Education Planning Commission The Postsecondary Education Planning Commission (PEPC) was established in 1980 by an executive order of the governor to serve in an advisory capacity to the State and technical centers. The primary responsibility of the Commission was to prepare a master plan for higher education in Florida and to update this plan every five years (PEPC, 1991). The commission also performed research and analysis, developed recommendations, and produced numerous reports related to a wide range of higher education policy issues in Florida from 1980 through 2001. Many of these repor ts focused on access to higher education and baccalaureate degree production. The PEPC reports which provide important historical context and justification for this initia tive. The most important and relevant of these reports are organized chronologically in the following paragraphs. 1991: The Florida Postsecondary Educ ation Planning Commission published the Criteria for the Establishment of New Public Colleges and Universities in which it was note population was 47 th in the Un ited States. Florida also ranked 47 th in the United States in total higher education institutions per 1 million of the working age population. At that time, Florida had not built a new university since 1968 or a new community college 1990 (PEPC, 1991). The report cited the econo mic and individual benefits of increased
45 baccalaureate degree production while recommending both a formal planning process and an FTE based model for establishing new, public, community colleges and universities. 1993 : PEPC published Challenges, Realities Strategies: The Master Plan for Florida Postsecondary Education in the 21 st Century -Supplement in which improved productivity (producing more graduates with decreasing resources) was identified as a major goal. One strategy advocated by the Commission to accomplish this goal was to eliminate excessive program duplication and low productivity programs. Another strategy was to explore alternatives for obtaining a baccalaureate education including joint use agreements where college and university partner s would deliver upper division coursework on community college campuses. The increased use of technology and competency based models were also cited as potential ways to increase baccalaureate access and production for Florida (PEPC, 1993). 1995: PEPC pu blished Access to the Baccalaureate Degree in Florida in which the Commission produced a bifurcated analysis that focused on access to postsecondary education and access to the baccalaureate degree. A careful reading of this report reveals the concerns (s till present today) regarding competition between higher education sectors in Florida, despite the following facts: a) Florida was lagging in baccalaureate degree production; b) the population of Florida was continuing to increase; and c) Florida had fewer total institutions of higher education than almost every other state, ranking 47 th in the nation per 1 million of the wo rking age population (PEPC, 1995 ). There should have been plenty of work for all the sectors to do, and plenty of students to fill se ats. However, the fear that the State University System would
46 co opt students and state funding through their 1993 94 to 1997 98 Master Plan appeared to be very real. In this plan, the SUS established the goal of expanding to school graduates to enroll in the SUS as first time in college (FTIC) students. This move led to the creation of a special Council on Educational Interdependence with multi PEPC, 1995 ). It was this Council that charged PEPC with producing Access to the Baccalaureate Degree in Florida and it would seem that the higher education sectors. Neverthe t stated conclusion in this 1995 assignment to each postsecondary sector has not been substantiated as a state postsecondary enrollment policy for first tim e in ). 1998 : PEPC published the Feasibility Plan for Implementation of a State College System. This document was required by proviso language attached to Specific Appropriation 57 of the 1998 General Appropriations Act, Chapter 98 422, Laws of Florida (PEPC, 1998) Specifically, PEPC was charged with preparing a plan that would outline the creation a new sector of higher education institutions, focused primarily on baccalaureate level instruction, to complement the existing commun ity college and state university systems in Florida. PEPC contracted with the consulting firm MGT of America to complete the feasibility study. In describing this report, PEPC noted that several possible responses for increasing access to postsecondary e ducation had been previously discussed in their 1998 Master Plan for Florida Postsecondary Education These options included increasing enrollment at existing institutions, establishing a state
47 college system, authorizing community colleges to offer select baccalaureate degrees, increasing the number of joint use facilities, encouraging more students to attend tance learning and technology ( PEPC, 1998). During 1998 when the feasibility plan was being drafted, some plans and to address the baccalaureate access issue. The State University System was exploring the concept of differentiated m issions in which certain institutions would be more research intensive, while other institutions would be more focused on teaching and producing baccalaureate graduates. At the same time, the community college system was moving forward with obtaining auth orization to provide selected baccalaureate degrees at their institutions. Other initiatives with an impact on the issue of baccalaureate degree access in 1998 were a $15 million appropriation for the expansion of joint use facilities, a study on the curr ent utilization of facilities and future determined baccalaureate degree This is the name of the law and the program that currently exists in Florida to allow community colleges to offer select baccalaureate degrees upon approval of the Florid a Board of Education (Florida Statutes Section 1007.33, 2012). However, the original intent of this law, as described in the 1998 PEPC Feasibility Plan, was for local sites (presum ably community college campuses) to be selected to house multiple baccalaureate degree programs from one or more external institutions. Essentially, the site determined baccalaureate degree program was what we now think of as the
48 University Center Model a nd, in fact, those words are actually used in th e PEPC report as a synonym for site determined baccalaureate degree program (PEPC, 1998). The use of this term today likely stems from the fact that the original 1999 section of law that addressed this issu determined baccalaureate degree access progr Florida Statutes, Section 240.3836, 1999) which established a new categorical line item aimed at expanding partnership agreements between community colleges and four year colle ges and universities for the delivery of baccalaureate degrees in underserved geographic regions. The final paragraph of this law included a provision for the community college to receive authority (from the Florida Legislature via PEPC and the State Boar d of Community Colleges) to provide a specific baccalaureate degree in the event that no other upper division institution was willing to enter into a from the title and, by 2001, a much more streamlined process was described in statute longer a last resort, but an option with equal standing, equal opportunity, and identical proposal su bmission requirements to those proposed as a partnership with an established four year college (Florida Statutes, Section 240.3836, 2001) Site degree program approved by the Florida Board of Education to be offered by an institution within the Florida College System (formerly the Florida Community College System). Aside from the evolving nature of the Florida Statutes, the 1998 PEPC Feasibility Plan for Implementation of a S tate College System is notable for at least three specific
49 reasons as it relates to this research: a) it is the first time that state colleges and a state college system was seriously considered as a solution for increasing baccalaureate degree access and production in Florida; b) the study was supported by extensive quantitative data, and it utilized the services of an external consulting company which, presumably, increased its objectivity; and c) program duplication was identified as a major concern amon g stakeholders who wanted to ensure that no new institutions would be created until all existing baccalaureate capacity had been utilized within existing institutions and higher edu cation systems (PEPC, 1998). Spe cifically, in Section 2.3 of this report e primarily offer degree programs in core areas. These areas include the following: liberal arts and sciences; business; ed ucation; and the social sciences. Other degree program areas will be considered where appropriate. Every effort will be made to minimize program duplication with the State University System and four year institutions in the independent sector. (p. 2 7) Few would argue that duplication of public sector programs and services is inefficient and wasteful if the duplication is unwarranted. However, in a situation where it has been determined that additional capacity is necessary, then duplication of public s ector programs and services is needed; indeed, it is warranted, and it is desirable to 1998 PEPC report because the authors acknowledge that no single system of hig her education, and no one initiative, is sufficient to meet the projected demand for baccalaureate education in Florida: enrollment growth, and is viewed as only one of the several responses of responses that could be used to meet enrollment demand including
50 growing the SUS and adding limited baccalaureate programs to some community colleges. No single response will be adequate to meet this demand, although the Commission anticipates that up to one half of this demand could be met through the middle tier response (p. 2 7) A full treatment of the 1998 PEPC Feasibility Plan for Implementation of a State College System is beyond the scope of this literature review; however, there does seem to be contradiction on the point of program duplication. Essentially, there is a failure to distinguish between duplication that is warranted, and duplication that is unwarranted. There is a clear attempt to address the concerns of stakeholders within the existing systems of higher education; but, there is also an acknowledgement that these systems are not adequate to deal with the projected demand for baccalaureate degrees in the future. And while there is a substantial amount of quantitative data to support the foundations and conclusions found in this report, there are no attempts to address, or anticipate, the system level impacts of new baccalaureate degree programs. As previously noted, this gap in the literature will be the focus of the research conducted for this dissertation. 1998 was als o the year that the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) published A Brief Analysis of Baccalaureate Degree Production in Florida under a contract with the Florida Postsecondary Education Planning Commission. The purpose of thi s contract was to conduct a statistical analysis of baccalaureate degree production in Florida as compared to the rest of the United States to further inform decision making and policy development. This is one of the more rigorous statistical analyses of
51 one educational level to the next to isolate the variables with high and low levels of influence on baccalaureate degree attainment. Results were presented in the form of a pipeline model to show how factors such as high school graduation and lower division to upper division Florida and other states (NCHEMS, 1998). This work was important because it provided an external validation of the low 1998 NCHEMS study found that Florida ranked 45th out of the 50 states in baccalaureate degree production in proportion to its working population (defined as adults between the ages of 18 and 44). One of the main conclusions of this report was that Florida authors concluded that any state with similar demographics (low family incomes, low levels of educational attainment, and a relatively high minority populati on) could be expected to perform in a similar manner. However, some states with similar demographics were performing better than Florida, and this suggested that changes to higher education policy could result in improved outcomes. NCHEMS presented opti ons related to each stage of the educational pipeline without endorsing any specific set of strategies. These options included increasing upper division capacity via new, open admission, public institutions; allowing community colleges to offer upper divi sion coursework either independently or through university partnerships; adjusting the mission and size of existing upper division institutions; creating incentives for private institutions to enroll more students, and utilizing technology to deliver upper division coursework and degrees. On the topic of
52 increasing lower division to upper division conversion rates, the suggestions (some included revising policies to remo ve articulation barriers; revising admission standards at selected universities to prevent articulation by less able (but still college capable) students; allowing/encouraging designated universities to offer developmental instruction; allowing community colleges to offer upper division coursework that would articulate; and encouraging four degree programs for high performing students possibly through the use of distance learning technologies. Finally, w ith regard to increasing college continuation rates, the alternatives included greater use of dual enrollment by both two year and four year institutions and modifying admissions requirements at four year, public colleges to include non cognitive predictor s of college success (NCHEMS, 1998). This study relied exclusively on national data sets such as the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, the Digest of Educational Statistics, and the Statistical Abstract of the United States. This is not surpr ising given the charge of generating a national comparison. However, the limitations of these data sets related to part time students, and the nuances of community college student enrollment patterns, were not fully addressed in this report. Nevertheless the focus on demographic characteristics of upper division students is an important element that will be examined Florida College System is serving the same upper division student population as
53 1999 : PEPC published Plus Two Articulation System in which several key aspects of baccalaureate degree access and production are examined in relation to the mov systems of public higher education the Florida Community College System and the Florida State University System. While acknowledging the historical growth and positive contributions of the 2 + 2 model, severa l concerns were also identified which confirmed prior research and, most likely, added momentum to the community college baccalaureate discussion. The report reiterated the idea that ongoing population growth ty to produce baccalaureate degrees. More significantly, the report also noted that the act of transferring to another institution community college graduates might be d heavy reliance on 2 + 2 articulation. The quality of the transfer experience, and the availability of adequate academic and student support services at both community colleges and state universities, were also cited as ongoing concerns for students While PEPC stopped short of recommending community college baccalaureate degrees as an immediate option to increase access to the baccalaureate deg ree, the Commission did acknowledge that this innovation was currently under consideration in Florida, and that it might become a reality in the near future. This is evidenced in the following statement from the Executive Summary of the 1999 PEPC Evaluati on of Plus Two Articulation System
54 p. ii). 2001: PEPC published Baccalaureate Needs Assessment in Five Selected Counties utilizing contracted services from the Education Commission of the States (ECS). As with many other PEPC reports, this topic was required by proviso language attached to a specific budget appropriat ion by the Florida Legislature. The methodology for the needs assessment included data analysis, interviews with business and community leaders, a statewide survey of employer needs, and a series of three public hearings on the topic. This report had sig baccalaureate movement because of two specific recommendations that were included in the final document. First, the report noted that the needs of the five counties that were studied were similar to the state as a whole, and that expanded baccalaureate capacity should occur on a statewide basis (PEPC, 2001, January ). The need for expanded baccalaureate capacity had been previously discussed in many reports; but, with the addition of another objective analysis (thi s time by ECS), the reliability of this conclusion, and the legitimacy of this need, increased even more. Of greater significance, perhaps, was the determination that none of the university branch campus in the counties that were studied offered access to complete programs (all of the upper the five critical need areas that were identified in the study business management, computer science, education, engineering, and health professions. For no ntraditional students who are often restricted in the distances they can travel for postsecondary education, the state university branch campuses offer a lifeline in terms of
55 baccalaureate access. However, this finding confirmed what many students had lon g been reporting to community college staff members there were difficulties in completing four year degree programs on state university branch campuses without having to travel to the main campus for coursework (and sometimes even for books, advising, fina ncial aid, and registration services). During 2001, PEPC also published the Update of State Level Planning Guidelines for New Colleges and Universities in Florida. This report revisited the 1991 Planning Guidelines developed with MGT of America to determ ine if they were still appropriate. PEPC retained all of the original recommendations and planning guidelines for establishing new institutions (participation rate, population base, geographic access and extenuating circumstances), but noted that Florida had not improved in terms of higher education participation and degree production in the ten years since 1991, relative to the rest of the United States. This lack of improvement, coupled with new data from MGT on the preferences of working adults for con venient access to higher education, led PEPC to reduce by 25 percent the time and distance thresholds for establishing a new college or university. The Commission also suggested some specific, qualitative, extenuating circumstances that should be consider ed in the decision to establish a new institution. Among these was the idea that special consideration should be given to communities where certain academic programs were not being provided thr ough existing, higher education delivery systems (PEPC, 2001 March ). These conclusions added to the growing feeling among state level policy makers that more options and more innovation especially for working adults would be required to move the needle on baccalaureate degree production in Florida.
56 Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the 2001 Florida S tatute s (Section 240.5278) authorizing St. Petersburg Junior College to award limited baccalaureate degrees as St. Peter sburg College, and in the 2001 Florida S tatute s (Section 240.3836) on site determined baccalaur eate degrees which opened the baccalaureate degree approval process to the entire Florida Community College System. Publications by CEPRI and State A gencies The Council for Education Policy Research and Improvement ( CEPRI ) was created in 2001 by the Florid a Legislatu re (Florida Statutes, Section 229.0031 ) as an entity that essentially replaced the Postsecondary Education Planning Commission and expanded its scope to include the entire spectrum of K 20 educational issues This was educational governance structure underwent a massive restructuring at the turn of the century. The intent was to create a coordinated and integrated K 20 governance structure with one governing body: the Florida Board of Education. The Florida Board of Regents, which governed the State University System, was abolished during this restructuring process, as was the State Board of Community Colleges. Eventually, after legal challenges, the Florida Board of Regents was replaced by the Florida Board of Gover nors to provide oversight for the State University System. System in 2008 ( Florida Statutes, Sectio n 1001.60, 2008), is still administered by the Florida Board of Education to day. Between 2001 and 2002, the numbering system for educational statutes in Florida changed as well. All education statutes moved from Title XVI to Title XLVIII as the unified K 20 Educational Code, encompassing Chapters 1000 1013.
57 2002: By 2002, three institutions within the Florida Community College System had decided to submit proposals to seek authority to offer their own site determined baccalaureate degrees (Chipola Junior College, Edison Community College, and Miami Dade Community College). As p art of the statute that provided this opportunity, these institutions were required to submit their proposal s to CEPRI for analysis and recommendations prior to being considered by the Florida Board of Education ( Florida Statutes, Section 240.3836, 2001). During 2002, C EPRI published a collection of community college baccalaureate degree proposal documents related to the proposals submitted by Chipola Junior College, Edison Community College, and Miami Da de Community College, including the Community Colleg e Baccalaureate Degree Proposal Evaluation -a resource for the Florida Board of Education to delineate and standardize objective for the second publication was to align th e baccalaureate degree proposal criteria with the goals of the new K 20 education system. Two of the goals specifically cited in the Proposal Evaluation document as presented to the Florida Board of Education, were to: a) provide a more seamless and stud ent centered approach to achieving a high level of learning and, b) achieve a more coordinated and cost effective use of available resources (CEPRI, 2002). The CEPRI Proposal Evaluation document included a Matrix of Criteria that was also proposed to the Florida Board of Education. Within the Matrix of Criteria is a section on Potential Impact to determine if the proposed program would significantly
58 this criterion are qui te relevant to the research being conducted for this dissertation. The component questio ns from the 2002 CEPRI Matrix are: Will the program increase access or redistribute the current pool of applicants? Will the program have an adverse impact on existin g public and independent providers? As an organization focused on policy analy sis and research, CEPRI was right to be concerned about programmatic duplication and systemic impact s. Policymakers should be concerned with these issues as stewards of public f unds. Unfortunately, it is difficult to accurate ly predict the answers to the questions posed by CEPRI before a new baccalaureate program is actually implemented. A reading of the actual baccalaureate degree program proposals, and the minutes of the CEPRI meetings where these proposals were considered, reveals much about the differing perspectives and values of the stakeholders involved in the community college baccalaureate movement. Proponents of the new community college baccalaureate degree propo sals cited the differences in age and race/ethnicity between the students served by cited the difficulty with accessing full programs and services on branch campuses, as well as the time restrictions of nontraditional students that often hindered commuting to SUS facilities. Opponents of baccalaureate expansion into the community colleges cited excess capacity at the state universities and their branch campuses, along wi th the cost savings involved with higher levels of coordination and cooperation via joint use facilities, university centers, and inter institutional articulation agreements. No specific or standardized measures were requested of community colleges that were responding to these questions about access and system impacts. Ultimately,
59 evaluate the legitimacy and persuasiveness of those arguments. A full treatment of recommendations and justifications for these and later site determined baccalaureate degree proposals is not appropriate for this review of literature. What is relevant is that these questions have never been the subject of an ex post facto academic anal ysis. To this day, concerns remain about programmatic duplication and increasing access for underserved populations and, if so, whether those programs are adversely impacti CEPRI represented one important viewpoint in Florida with regard to community college baccalaureate degrees. In their publication entitled Community College Baccalaureate Degree Proposal Evaluation (2002), CEPRI clearly stated that they would be guided by two major goals of the new K 20 education system: a seamless and student centered approach, and a coordinated and cost effective use of resources (CEPRI, 2002). Yet, CE alm ost exclusively on only three of the four components within the stated goals: seamlessness, coordination, and cost effectiveness. There were virtually no elements in the matrix related to student centeredness. The six major aspec ts of the Matrix of Crit eria were : Need, Potential Impact, Use of Resources, Implementation, Accountability, and Co st Effectiveness. Each of those aspects included specific questions that community colleges responded to in order to submit their baccalaureate degree proposals. As a result, there were few opportunities to advocate for a more student centered approach to addressing the unique needs of community college students.
60 In 2002, perhaps i n an effort to add some student centered perspective to the community college bac cala Division of Community Colleges published Access to Baccalaureate Degree Instruction in Florida: Options and Opportunities a background paper for the Florida Board of Education. The following statement (FLDOE 2002, p.3) acknowledges the multiple perspectives of diverse stakeholders regarding this issue and astutely notes that differing values and political influences ultimately lead to different conclusions about the best way to increase bacca laureate access in Florida: The paper attempts to deal with facts of cost and other major factors that must be considered; however, unwritten (but not underestimated) are the political and values based issues that are at play in discussions regarding these options. Opinions vary widely on some of the options and they are rooted in the history, culture, and competitive environment of higher education systems and institutions. Later in the report, the ubiquitous concern with program duplication appears once again. The community college perspective is addressed rather directly by quoting a statement of principle by the Florida Community College Council of Presidents from their September, 1997 meeting. It is interesting to note that the community college Coun cil of Presidents distinguishes between necessary and unnecessary program duplication: The Council of Presidents endorses the offering of baccalaureate degrees by community colleges in selected programs, as determined by local district boards of trustees a nd approved by the State Board of Community Colleges, based on documented local needs and demand, while avoiding unnecessary duplication of programs. It is the intention of the Council of Presidents that any modification of the mission of community colleg es shall not affect the locally governed, open access, community responsive, college may alter its mission entirely to that of a traditional four year state college or university. (F LDOE, 2002, p. 13). The report prepared by the Division of Community Colleges is a thorough policy analysis, and it presents multiple options for increasing baccalaureate access and
61 production in Florida without presenting recommendations or specifically advocating for the expansion of site determined baccalaureate degrees. What is unique about this particular report is the inclusion of the community college perspective through material such as the statement by the Council of Presidents on program duplic ation and mission are provided to many misconceptions surrounding the community college baccalaureate community colleges to obtain accreditation at the baccalaureate level, the inability of community colleges to continue providing open door access for associate d egrees, the inability of community colleges to offer baccalaureate degrees at prices comparable to established four year institutions, the idea that universities are already providing all the needed baccalaureate programs, the idea that community college f aculty members are not qualified to teach upper division coursework, the idea that community college programs will be less rigorous than university programs, and the idea that community colleges will proliferate baccalaureate degrees without appropriate ov ersight and accountability (FLDOE, 2002). 2005: The Florida Division of Community Colleges and Workforce Education published History of the Need for Baccalaureate s This document focused on data showing that Florida was facing s evere shortages of nurses and teachers, especially in the area of exceptional student education, secondary math education, and secondary science education. This report also summarized the major policy developments related to community college baccalaureat e degrees in Florida
62 since 1999. A brief history of the site determined baccalaureate degree approvals that were authorized through 2005 was included as well. By July of 2005, 20 community college baccalaureate degrees had been approved at five different institutions: Chipola College, Edison College, Miami Dade College, Okaloosa Walton College, and St. Petersburg College. There were 13 degree programs in education and technology, one B.S. in Nursing, and six Bachelor of Applied Science degree programs i n a variety of disciplines (FLDO E, 2005). This report added to the idea that some program duplication was needed since all of the state universities and private, nonprofit colleges and universities in Florida were only projected to produce 6,409 teachers in 2005 06. This number would fall approximately 13,000 teachers short of the projected need if every one of those graduates took a teaching job. Unfortunately, historical trends showed that only 50 60 percent of the Education graduates would actually go on to become a teacher in Florida (FLDOE, 2005) In the field of Nursing, almost 1,900 qualified applicants were denied admission to Nursing programs at the baccalaureate level in 2003 04. At the associate degree level, almost 3,000 qualified applicants were turned away. Both situations were restricting the production of Nurses at a time when there were approximately 8,000 annual job openings for Nurses in Florida (FLDOE, 2005) As more community college baccalaureate degrees were authorized at a growin g number of institutions throughout the state, the Florida Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability (OPPAGA) began to review this issue and develop recommendations for the Florida Legislature. OPPAGA is an office o f the Florida Legi slature that,
63 assist legislative budget and policy deliberat Government Accountability, 2013). OPPAGA publishe d its first report on community college baccala ureates in 2005, Authorizing Community Colleges to Produce Baccalaureate Degrees is One of Several Options to Expand Access to Higher Education. The report focused on three key issues; a) the need to increase access to baccalaureate degrees, b) the advant ages and disadvantages of alternative methods of delivering baccalaureate degrees at community college campuses, and c) options for strengthening the process for providing baccalaureate degrees on community college thorizing community colleges to award 20, 2005, p. 1). However, the report also noted sequences including higher expenditures per student and weaker community college dedication to their traditional 20, 2005, p. 1). s and recommendations are consid ered seriously by stakeholders and policymakers. Often his first report on community college baccalaureates was to create a process for coordinating degree requirements in the new Bachelor of Applied Science (BAS) degrees that were increasingly being approved isingly, The Division of Community Colleges and Workforce Education convened a BAS Task Force the following year to
64 frequently appear in successive versions of state law as well. One of the degrees was to strengthen the review process for new baccalaureate degree proposals. An examination of Section 10 07.33, F.S. over the years show s that the le gislative requirements related to the baccalaureate degree proposal process have been revised and enhanced several times. Interestingly, the issue of programmatic duplication did not appear in this OPPAGA report; although, lower initial enrollments and st art up costs did raise concerns about higher expenditures per credit hour in the short term. OPPAGA published another report in 2005 with implications for the community college baccalaureate movement in Florida. Individuals with Baccalaureate Degrees Hav e Positive Outcomes; Increasing Production in Critical Areas Poses Challenges was released in December of 2005. While this report was focused on the State University System, the findings had broader implications related to baccalaureate access and outco me s. The report tracked spring public universities to determine employment outcomes four years and eight years after graduation. Data indicate that graduates found work in Florida, that median wages increased sub stantially over time, and that baccalaureate degree holders earned more than Associate in Science degree holders over time. Citing national research, the study also noted that baccalaureate degree holders benefit the state in other ways including lower le vels of unemployment and public assistance, lower health care costs, and higher participation rates for voting and volunteerism (OPPAGA 05 20, 2005) These positive outcomes for baccalaureate degree holders bolstered the case for increased
65 access and degr ee production and, most certainly, increased momentum for the community college baccalaureate movement. This study also confirmed that Florida was not meeting its critical workforce needs for teachers and nurses. Several actions that were being taken by legislators and policymakers to address these shortages were identified with the most significant being Succeed Grants. The Succeed Grant program, authorized by the 2005 Legislature, allocated 15 million in state funding to public and private colleges an d universities to expand nursing and teaching programs (OPPAGA 05 58, 2005). This program lasted several years and expanded over time to include other areas of critical workforce need in Florida. The Succeed Grant initiative has particular significance f or this dissertation research due to its probable impact on baccalaureate enrollment trends in Nursing and Education programs at both community colleges and universities. It becomes an external influence, or historical event, that must be considered as an internal threat to validity as enrollment levels are examined over time. This issue will be addressed in greater detail in later chapters of this dissertation. 2006: The Florida Division of Community Colleges and Workforce Educ ation published The Bachelor of Applied Science Degree Task Force Final Report of Activities, June 2006 As interest in community college baccalaureate degrees, and particularly Bachelor of Applied Science degrees, continued to increase in the state of Fl orida du ring the first half of the 2000 s, leaders in important to develop a shared understanding, or definition, of the BAS degree in Florida in order to ensure consistency, qua lity, and compliance with existing p olicies and
66 practices As was noted earlier, this was also a recommendation in the first OPPAGA report that examined the topic of community college baccalaureate degrees. To accomplish this task, a Bachelor of Applied Science (BAS) Degree Task Force was established with representation from the Florida State University System (SUS), the Florida Community College System, and the Florida Department of Education. State policy makers, stakeholders, and practitioners from b oth systems met three times over a seven month period between 2005 and 2006. Included in the June, 2006 Final Report is a definition of the BAS degree that was unanimously endorsed by the members of the Task Force, along with descriptions of four, unique degree structures that were being utilized by community colleges in Florida to deliver BAS degrees. The definition and descriptions were intended to be complementary so that practitioners would have clear expectations, guidance and appropriate options for structuring new BAS degree programs. The definition developed by the BAS Task Force is as follows: The Bachelor of Applied Science (BAS) is the designated degree for flexible baccalaureate programs that are designed to accommodate the unique demands for entry and advancement within specific workforce sectors. BAS programs provide degree completion opportunities for students from a variety of educational backgrounds, but primarily those with A.S. degrees or the equivalent. BAS degree programs conform to al l articulation conventions (including common course prerequisites, common course numbering, and faculty credentialing in accordance with the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools). BAS degree programs typically include capstone experiences that prov ide opportunities for students to demonstrate the application of acquired knowledge, skills, and competencies (FLDOE 2006, June, p. 4 ). The four degree structures that were identified and described by the Florida BAS Task Force are detailed below: Inverted Baccalaureate an upper division focus on general education, electives, and an appropriate area of concentration
67 General Management an upper division focus on general business and management courses Advanced Discipline and Management an upper divis ion focus on advanced content in the discipline of the A.S. degree (or equivalent) and management courses Discipline Saturation an upper division focus on advanced content in the discipline of the A.S. degree (or equivalent) This report was also significan t because, for the first time, it showed a direct strategic goals and initiatives of both the Florida Department of Education, as well as the Florida Community College Sy stem Strategic Plan. The report noted that the work Goal Number 2: seamless articulation and maximum access ; the Florida Department of ber 8: coordinate efforts to improve higher student learning ; and Priority Goal Number 3 from the Florida Community College facilitate baccalaureate access through policies which maintain a local community focus, thereby reaffirm ing our commitment to meeting unmet community economic and educational needs (FLDOE 2006 June ). 2008: The 2008 Legislative session ushered in several significant developments e Florida Statutes was revised to reestablish the Florida Community College System as the Florida College System with a purpose statement that now included providing 171 6 created the Florida College System Task Force as described in Section 1004.87, Florida Statutes, and it also created the Florida State College Pilot Project as delineated in Section 1004.875, Florida Statutes. At the most basic level, the Florida Colleg e
68 System Task Force was created to make recommendations about the transition of community colleges to baccalaureate degree granting institutions, and to recommend criteria for establishing and funding state colleges. The State College Pilot Project was es tablished to allow nine institutions in the Florida College System to operate as state colleges with a more regional and statewide focus. There was also a requirement to make recommendations about the approval process and criteria for transitioning an ins titution into a state college, and to recommend a funding model for the entire Florida College System. Both the Task Force and the Pilot Project were required to produce reports containing their recommendations no later than January 1, 2009. By this poin t in time, ten institutions in the Florida College System were approved to offer a total of 71 baccalaureate degrees. The focus had clearly shifted from whether community colleges should offer baccalaureate degrees, to the more practical issues associated with program implementation such as structure, the approval process, operations, and funding. The Florida College System: Assuring Postsecondary Access that Supports was the December 2008 report by the Florida College System Task Force. This Task Force, with broad representation from the Florida College System, the Universities of Florida, and the for profit sector of higher education, issued 27 recommendations in the broad categories of articulation, mission and governance, the transition process and program approval criteria, and funding. While none of the recommendations specifically focused on the issue of programmatic duplication or the potential negative i mpacts on other higher education systems, this concern was still
69 apparent in the process and documents required for program approval. For example, recommendation 14 proposed that the existing process for program approval be incorporated into a State Board of Education rule, including the requirement for communication to occur with other accredited public and private postsecondary institutions during the program planning and p roposal development process (Florida College System Task Force 2008). Similarly, the Florida statute that governed community college baccalaureate degrees allowed for alternative proposals to be submitted by public universities and private colleges within the state ( Florida Statutes, Section 1007.33 2008) and the statute that authori zed St. Petersburg College to award baccalaureate degrees required input by a coordinating board with representatives of the University of South Florida and Pasco Hernando Community College ( Florida Statutes, Section 1004.73 2008). As stated previously, the Florida Legislature created Section 1004.875 of the Florida Statutes in 2008 to establish the State College Pilot Project. The report from this group contained a vision statement linking community college baccalaureate degrees to economic development. There were also a series of Guiding Principles that were adopted by the Pilot Project colleges affirming their roots as open access, associate degree granting institutions that would continue to maintain compliance with all the statues and rules that wer e in place for the community college system. The Pilot Project report used the Guiding Principles to lay out a foundation of state college operational values and practices that would address any concerns about mission and quality. These values and practi ces included driving economic development by providing access to affordable baccalaureate degrees; demonstrating flexibility and
70 responsiveness to workforce needs; designing and maintaining high quality programs that were regionally accredited and also acc redited by discipline; emphasizing effective teaching and student learning; operating under local control for new baccalaureate programs once SACS Level II accreditation was achieved; proposing new programs based on a rigorous analysis of need, demand, and institutional capacity; structuring programs for all students -especially place bound, nontraditional, and underrepresented of both lower division and upper division co urses; and prioritizing admission for associate degree holders to promote the value of associate degree completion (Florida State Colleges Pilot Project 2008). On the issue of programmatic duplication, the Pilot Project was more straightforward than the T ask Force. The Pilot Project cited the existing Program Approv al statute (Florida Statutes, Section 1004.03 2008) that required the State Board of Education to establish proscribed criteria for new program approval. This law contained four specific prov isions: 1. New programs may not be approved unless the same objectives cannot be met through use of educational technology 2. Unnecessary duplication of programs offered by public and independent institutions shall be avoided 3. Cooperative programs, particularly within regions, should be encouraged 4. New programs shall be approved only if they are consistent with the strategic plan adopted by the State Board of Education Thus, in their recommendations on Baccalaureate Program Selection and Approval for State College s, the Pilot Project suggested that these existing statutory requirements (that were originally developed for lower division programs) could be adapted or
71 expanded to address baccalaureate degree programs at state colleges (Florida State Colleges Pilot Pro ject 2008). As was the case with prior reports and publications, and despite the ongoing concern with this issue, no analysis of the enrollments in duplicated conducted or provided in support of this recommendation. Interestingly, the Pilot Project report did contain a hotlink in Appendix A to a 2008 Program Review conducted by the Division of Florida Colleges. This was the irst program review of baccalaureate degree programs in the Florida College System. The Pilot Project report essentially endorsed this publication and incorporated endor sed all the information contained in the program review of baccalaureate degrees (Florida State Colleges Pilo t Project 2008, p. 28). 2008 report entitled, Baccalaureate Programs in Community Colleges: A Program Review was significant in many ways. It was the first, structured, system wide program review focused on the status and e degree programs. This report was the first instance of a state agency comparing overall enrollment trends in both the upper division of the State University System, and the baccalaureate (upper division) enrollment in the Florida College System. This d ata (also reported by Floyd and Walker, 2009), showed that SUS upper division headcount enrollment had been steadily increasing from 110,255 in 2002 03 to 133,112 as of 2006 07 (a 21% overall s community college
72 baccalaureate degree programs increased dramatically from 627 to 3,166 (an increase of over 400%). While no attempt was made to examine the enrollments of baccalaureate degree programs that had been duplicated within the two systems, i t is known from this same report that 64 percent of the FCS baccalaureate degrees that had been approved by 2007 08 were in the field of Education; therefore, these programs most certainly duplicated existing SUS teacher preparation programs (FLDOE, 2008, March) In another first, this program review also compared demographic data on students in the Florida College System with upper division students in the State University System. The report noted that the traditional community college mission involved s erving a large proportion of nontraditional students in terms of age (adults over 25 years and older), racial and ethnic minorities, students from low income households, individuals working full time, and those with dependent children. The report stated t baccalaureate degree option paves the way for specific populations served by these institutions to access further education in a cost effecti 2008, March, p. 1). But wer e community college baccalaureate degree programs actually serving underrepresented populations, or were they just siphoning enrollment from the compared between the two syste ms. The report revealed that 79 percent of the baccalaureate students in the Florida College System were 25 years or older. This compared to only 29 percent of the upper Sy stem in 2005 (FLDOE, March 2008). This analysis definitively showed that these
73 programs were serving a much different student population in terms of age. An expanded slate of demographic variables will be examined as part of the research for this dissertation to determine if other diffe rences exist in the characteristics of students attending baccalaureate degree programs in FCS and SUS institutions. Two recommendations from the FCS Program Review seem to have influenced the policy landscape in Florida. One recommendation was to assess the performance of FCS baccalaureate degree programs on a regular basis. This, in fact, has continued to occur through FCS baccalaureate accountability reports that have been published each year since 2009. The second influential recommendation was for systemic, long range planning to address the expansion of community college baccalaureate degrees. While long range and strategic planning have taken several forms, the most high profile response related to this recommendation can be seen in legislation passed in 2010 that created the Higher Education Coordinating Council (HECC), with the mission of identifying unmet needs and facilitating solutions to disputes regarding the creation of new degree programs and the establishment of new institutes, campuses or centers. Essentially, the HECC serves in an advisory capacity to the Florida Legislature, the Florida Board of Education and the Florida Board of Governors ( Florida Statutes, Section 1004.015 2010). 2011: The Higher Education Coordinating Council p ublished its first report in December of 2011 simply titled, Higher Education Coordinating Council: A Report to the Florida Legislature, The Office of the Governor, The State Board of Education, and the Florida Board of Governors This report was broad i n scope with a total of 36 recommendations organized under the following themes: strategic degree program
74 coordination; capital expansion issues; student financial aid; funding/performance funding; articulation policies and programs; data, performance mea sures, and accountabilit y; and workforce education (Higher Education Coordinating Council 2011 December ). An examination of these themes alone indicates that the issues of better data collection and utilization, along with program coordination (avoiding program duplication) continue d to be ongoing concerns into what is now the second decade of the 21 st Century. What is, perhaps, most interesti ng about the HECC is its conscientious attempt to represent and focus on all of the higher education sectors in Florida including public colleges and universities, private not for profit institutions, and for profit organizations. This is demonstrated in the narrative of the report which rhet orically asks: Are there geographic/programmatic gaps between all sectors, public and private, through which students are falling? Are there unnecessary overlays of duplication that reduce cost effectiveness? Is there a methodology for state level enroll ment and programmatic delivery planning across all sectors? (HECC, 2011, December, p. 16). community college baccalaureate degree proposals with its emphasis on seamlessnes s, efficiency, and cost effectiveness; but, almost no consideration of the diverse array of end users in terms of affordability, convenience, support systems, 2A is even more utilitarian: The State Board of Education and the Board of Governors should jointly review the current process for the development and delivery of public baccalaureate education and recommend potential revisions, if any, that will provide Floridians with expanded access to quality baccalaureate degree programs in the most efficient and cost effective way. In proposing new programs, the Florida Colleges, the State Universities, and ICUF should undertake an analysis of whether a new proposal will impact
75 existing FCS, SUS or ICUF programs and the most cost effective means of increasing access, prior to expanding or implementing new baccalaureate degrees (HECC, 2011, December, p.8). In reading this statement, it must be remembered that the HECC wa s operati ng a time during which all higher educati on systems and institutions endured drastic funding reductions. Efficiency and co st effectiveness were never more important factors for public officials to consider. It is also notable that the HECC recommended an analysis of the potential impacts on other systems of higher education before new baccalaureate degree programs are authorized. Unfortunately, as in the past, there are also shortcom ings associated with these recommendations. First, no model for assessing cost effectiveness or efficiency is suggested. Second, no model is provided for assessing the impact on other higher education systems. Institutions can speculate about expanding access to new student populations or new geographic regions; but, once again, it is left to the proposing institutions to argue the need for new programs, and for the reviewers and authorizing entities to evaluate the merits of these arguments. With multi ple higher education sectors controlled by different governing authorities, with different regulations dictating the program approval process, and with different stakeholders, shareholders, goals, and objectives in play, the notion of coordinated program a pproval seems idealistic and unobtainable without a massive (and unlikely) citizens (the end users of new baccalaureate programs) and the diverse needs of multiple st udent populations are not included as critical factors for the approval of new baccalaureate degree programs.
76 2012: As previously noted, staff members in the Florida College System annually produce the Florida College System Baccalaureate Accountability report. The most recent report, dated March 2012, provides information for not only the prior academic year, but also trend data since 2005 06. This report addresses statutory and administrative code requirements related to the following accountability m easures: enrollment, retention, completion, and success. In some cases, data is disaggregated by program, by age, by gender, an d by race/ethnicity (FCS, 2012). As of 2010 11, 21 of degree programs. The report documents dramatic increases in enrollment (almost 500% since 2005 06), including strong percentage increases for Black and Hispanic students. For the demographic variable of age, the data show that 70 percent of the students in FCS baccalaureate programs are over the age of 25. However, the proportion of traditi onally aged college students had increased from 23 percent of total enrollments in 2005 06, to 30 percent in the 20 10 11 academic year (FCS, 2012). This data is inte resting; but no comparisons are made to the enrollment levels and demographic data from the State University System. Furthermore, no attempt is made to examine the impact on SUS enrollments in the institutions and programs where baccalaureate degrees have been duplicated by nearby FSC institutions. Summary of Literature Review The research conducted for this dissertation is designed to address ongoing issues and questions by exploring how enrollments have changed in state university programs when communit y colleges in close geographic proximity have initiated characteristics of students in the upper division of SUS baccalaureate programs and
77 students in the FCS baccalaureate progra ms will help to determine if both systems are serving the same student populations, or whether postsecondary access is truly being expanded in accordance with the intent of community college baccalaureate policy in Florida.
78 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Restatement of Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the enrollment patterns at both State University System (SUS) and Florida College System (FCS) institutions in close geographic proximity where baccalaureate degree offerings have been duplicated. Ultim ately, the results of this study will provide insight into a key aspect of the community college baccalaureate debate in Florida by examining an important policy question: Are Florida College System baccalaureate programs fulfilling their stated policy go characteristics of students enrolled in Florida College System baccalaureate degree programs as compared with students enrolled at state universities. The policy question to be addressed here was whether FSC baccalaureate programs are serving the same student populations as state universities or whether they are they expanding access by attracting students with different demographic characteristics. Research Questions The primary research question addressed by this study was: How have public, state universities that are in close geographic proximity to Florida College System institutions where duplicative baccalaureate degree programs have been implemented? A secondary and related question was: How do the demographics of Florida Colle ge System baccalaureate students differ from those of upper
79 Research Design Students self select whether to attend SUS or FCS institutions; therefore, a non experimental approach utilizing seconda ry analysis of existing data sets was indicated Because the purpose of this study was to examine changes in enrollment data and differences in demographic characteristics, quantitative methods and descriptive statistics were utilized. In order to answer the primary research question, an examination of enrollment data at State University System institutions and Florida College System institutions over multiple years was necessary. Elements of an interrupted time series analysis were employed to display a nd characterize the enrollment data for SUS programs before, and after, duplicated FCS baccalaureate programs in close geographic proximity were initiated. For the secondary research question, descriptive statistics were calculated and displayed to provid e a comparative analysis of the 2010 demographic characteristics of baccalaureate students at both SUS and FCS institutions at the program and system (but not institutional) levels. Sample and Population The sample for the enrollment portion of this study was drawn from institutions in the two, public, higher education systems within the state of Florida. The sample consisted of baccalaureate programs that have been duplicated at State University System institutions and Florida College System institutions that are in close geographic proximity to each other. For the purpose of this study, close geographic proximity was operationally defined as when the SUS institution has a main or branch campus located within the service district of the FCS institution. For this study, the service district boundaries for all FCS institutions were considered to be those as defined in Section 1000.21 of the Florida Statutes (2012).
80 The academic programs at both the SUS and the FCS institutions were required to have repor ted enrollment data for a minimum of four years. This means that only baccalaureate programs approved in 2007 or earlier were considered. Additionally, baccalaureate Education programs in the content areas of math, science, and English were excluded from this study since many programs in these disciplines have historically low enrollments, and many SUS institutions transitioned teacher training in these subjects to a model in which subject area content is provided by traditional academic departments at th e baccalaureate level, and Education methodology and pedagogy is delivered in a fifth year or graduate environment. To ensure duplicated baccalaureate programs, only Education programs in Elementary Education and Exceptional Student Education were include d in the sample. A headcount enrollment of 50 students or greater for each, annual reporting period was required for inclusion in the study. Most importantly, the academic programs, as identified by their six digit federal CIP code (Classification of In structional Program) had to be identical (the CIP code for AS to BSN programs in the SUS was changed from 51.1601 to 51.3801 in 2010; however, the program remains an identical match to CIP 51.1601 in the FCS). Only data reported prior to August 31, 2012 w as utilized for the research on enrollment trends. Applying these sampling criteria yielded seven pairs of duplicated baccalaureate programs for inclusion in this study. Two duplicated programs were found at Florida International University (FIU) and Mia mi Dade College (MDC), three duplicated programs were identified at the University of South Florida (USF) and St. Petersburg College (SPC), and two duplicated programs existed at Florida Atlantic University (FAU) and Indian River State College (IRSC).
81 For the research question related to demographic characteristics, a cross sectional analysis was conducted using 2010 demographic data from the unduplicated population of upper division students in all SUS programs (Fall 2010) and the unduplicated population of upper division students in all FCS baccalaureate programs (all semesters 2010). Because data on entire populations was obtained and compared, inferential statistics were not required. Descriptive statistics were reported in a tabular forma t for this comparative analysis of demographic characteristics. Data Sources and Data Collection Because state universities and Florida colleges are state supported, public institutions, records related to their performance are considered to be public inf ormation, Academic program enrollment data are used frequently by both policymakers and higher education administrators to inform strategic planning efforts, and to make de cisions about resource allocations. For this reason, both the SUS and the FCS annually publish their enrollment data in electronic and hard copy formats. Data for this study related to enrollment in state university academic programs was collected from the SUS Interactive University Database found on the Florida Board of Governors website at www.flbog.edu. Data related to baccalaureate program enrollments at Florida College System institutions is only published in an aggregated format in the annual Flor ida College System Fact Book. Therefore, the necessary data for FCS baccalaureate enrollments by CIP code was obtained through a request to the Division of Florida Colleges for AA1A Verification Reports of baccalaureate enrollment by year (AA1AREPT BACC T 3E) for the years 2004 through 2012. Data on Fall 2010 demographic characteristics of upper division students in the Florida State University
82 System was obtained through a request to the Office of the Florida Board of Governors. Likewise, the research st aff of the Division of Florida Colleges provided the 2010 demographic data for baccalaureate students at Florida College System institutions based on an ad hoc data request for this dissertation research. Reliability and Validity of Instruments This study relies on archival data sources that are certified as accurate, published by state agencies, and archived in the Data Warehouse of the Florida Department of Education. For this reason, typical concerns and measures of reliability (such as test retest rel iability, equivalent forms reliability, and inter rater reliability) and validity (such as content validity, criterion related validity, and construct validity), are not applicable. Existing electronic student database reporting systems are used to upload academic program enrollment data files to either the Information Resource Management Office (SUS) or to the Community College and Technical Center Management Information System (FCS). These offices examine the files, look for data discrepancies, and work with individual institutions to resolve any problems with the data before it is released to the public. Essentially, this data is the industry standard for the Florida Col lege System. It is used by the Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability, the Florida Legislature, Florida policy makers, and national organizations such as the Community College Research Center, the National Community College Benchm ark Project, and Achieving the Dream. It is also reported to the National Center for Educational Statistics for use in the Integrated Postsecondary Educational Data System (IPEDS).
83 Data Analysis A secondary analysis of existing, state administered data se ts was conducted to address the research questions proposed in this study. A longitudinal analysis was used to examine the enrollment data, while a cross sectional analysis of 2010 data was used to inv estigate demographic characteristics Longitudinal Ana lysis of Enrollment Data F all h eadcount enrollment data (unduplicated) was obtained from the Florida Board of Governors online Interactive University Database Annual headcount enrollment (unduplicated) was obtained from Florida College System AA1A Verifi cation Reports. A longitudinal analysis of headcount enrollment trends at the overall system level, the system/program level (enrollment data for a specific program aggregated across the entire SUS and FCS), and at the institutional/program level (enrollm ent data for a specific program at sampled institutions) was useful to fully illustrate the nature and magnitude of enrollment changes at both SUS and FCS institutions in close geographic proximity where baccala ureate degree programs were duplicated. Enro llment data is displayed in both tabular and graphic formats to highlight changes over time. Borrowing from the methods of an interrupted time series analysis, a line of demarcation was added to each graphic display to show the point in time when a dupli cated FCS program was implemented. In this way, SUS enro llment levels before and after these events are easily distinguished. Adding data from the SUS system/program levels to these graphic displays provides a type of nonequivalent control group for the purpose of comparison. This approach is another concept borrowed from the interrupted time series analysis. It is designed to improve validity by
84 revealing potential threats that are specific to longitudinal analysis, such as history effects. The longi tudinal headcount enrollment data is displayed for seven pairs of duplicated programs at SUS and FCS institutions in close geographic proximity that met the sampling criteria for this study: Nursing (CIP 51.1601 and CIP 51.3801) at FIU and MDC Exceptiona l Student Education (CIP 13.1001) at FIU and MDC Nursing (CIP 51.1601 and CIP 51.3801) at USF and SPC Exceptional Student Education (CIP 13.1001) at USF and SPC Elementary Education (CIP 13.1202) at USF and SPC Nursing (CIP 51.1601 and CIP 51.3801) at FAU and IRSC Exceptional Student Education (CIP 13.1001) at FAU and IRSC Cross Sectional Analysis of Demographic Data Data from an ad hoc request to the Florida Board of Governors and the Florida College System was utilized to conduct a cross sectiona l analysis of unduplicated 2010 demographic data T he entire population of upper division students in the SUS (Fall 2010), and the entire population of upper division students in the FCS (all semesters 2010) was examined to address the research questio n related to student demographics Because the policy goal of community college baccalaureate degrees in Florida is to increase access for nontraditional students, the following demographic variables were selected: a) age, b) race/ethnicity, c) gender, d) t ransfer status, e) full time/part time status, f) expected family contribution for financial aid purposes, g) dependency status, h) GPA, and i) Florida residency status. Descriptive statistics were calculated and organized in tabular form to provide a comp arative analysis of the demographic variables at the system level and at the system/program level. Demographics for students enrolled in duplicated programs at
85 the institutional level were not reported in order to ensure the privacy of individual students For the six categorical variables of race/ethnicity, gender, transfer status, full time/part time status, dependency status, and Florida residency status, the total size of the population (N) and the proportions for each response category were reported. For the three continuous variables of age, expected family contribution, and GPA, the median score and the interquartile range (IQR) were computed and displayed since the data were not normally distributed. The differences in population data are apparent from the comparison tables, and the practical significance of these differences is discussed in Chapter 5 of this dissertation. However, there is an alternate construct for the manipulation of this data. The cross sectional data on 2010 demographic vari ables could be considered as a sample of an abstract, future population of upper division students in the SUS and FCS. Under this scenario, inferential statistics can be calculated so that findings from this ture population. To address this contingency, the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two independent, nonparametric, samples was also calculated and reported for the continuous demographic variables. For the categorical demographic variables, the Chi Square stat istic was computed and reported. Ethical Considerations Human subjects did not receive any treatments or interventions, nor were they assigned to study and control groups for the purposes of this study. Headcount enrollment reports for specified academic programs were extracted from student information database systems by institutions and then reported to state level agencies in accordance with standardized, recurring data submission protocols. No identifying information for individual students was coll ected or examined by the researcher as part
86 of this study; thus, there was no ethical threat to individual students of the SUS or the FCS. Additionally, all data used for this study are available to the public via published reports, the Internet, or via s tandard data request procedures utilized by the Florida Board of Governors and the Division of Florida Colleges within the Florida Department of Education. For this reason, there is no ethical threat to the institutions or academic programs identified or named in this study. At this point it should be noted that the researcher is currently employed as an administrator of baccalaureate degree programs at Indian River State College which study. Additionally, the researcher was an Educational Policy Director for the Division of Community Colleges and Workforce Education (now the Division of Florida Colleges) at the Florida Department of Education between 2005 and 2007. In that capacity, t he researcher was responsible for policy recommendations, data analysis, the development of procedures, and the implementation of technical assistance for FCS institutions seeking approval for new baccalaureate degree programs. As a result of these profes sional experiences and responsibilities, unintended bias may be present in has attempted to bracket all personal opinions and has selected only those research methods and data analysis techniques that would minimize personal bias regarding the subject matter of this study. Revealing this potential source of bias is in keeping with the standards for the ethical and professional practice of academic research.
87 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS In this chapter the results of the longitudinal analysis of headcount enrollments and the cross section al analysis of 2010 demographic characteristics are presented. This study was designed to answer two research questions. The primary researc h are in close geographic proximity to Florida College System institutions where duplicative baccalaureate degree programs have been implemented? The secondary and re lated question was: How do the demographics of Florida College System baccalaureate students differ from those of upper state universities? The answers to these questions relate to larger issues surrounding community college baccalaureate policy in Florida. The results presented in this chapter will help to determine if community college baccalaureate degrees are fulfilling especially for non traditional students. These results will also yield insights into whether there are negative impacts to SUS program and s ystem enrollments that correspond to the authorization of Longitudinal Analysis of Headcount Enrollment A longitudinal analysis of headcount enrollment trends at the overall system level, the system/program level (enrollment data for a specific program aggregated across the entire SUS and FCS), and at the institutional/program level (en rollment data for a specific program at sampled institutions) is presented below to illustrate the nature and magnitude of enrollment changes at both SUS and FCS institutions in close geographic proximity where baccalaureate degree programs have been dupli cated.
88 System Level Enrollment Trends In the State University System, baccalaureate students are all undergraduate students (those taking lower division and upper division courses). Course numbers between 1000 and 2999 are considered lower division and w ould correspond to associate degree programs in the FCS. Course numbers between 3000 and 4999 are considered to be upper division courses and these correspond to baccalaureate degree programs in the FCS. Data presented in Table 4 1 show the headcount enr ollment trends for all upper division students in the Florida College System and all baccalaureate students in the Florida State University System since 1991, along with e shows that upper division headcount enrollment in the FCS increased from zero in 2001 02 to 21,517 in 2011 12. During this same time period, baccalaureate headcount enrollment in the SUS increased fr om 190,161 to 254,351. At the system level, neither t he FCS nor the SUS has ever recorded a year without a positive increase in headcount enrollment. The FCS added 21,517 upper division students since 2001 02 and the SUS added 64,190 baccalaureate students since 2001 02 (+33.8%). In the ten years prior to 2001 02 (when the first FCS baccalaureate programs were authorized), the SUS headcount enrollment for baccalaureate students increased from 131,390 in 1991 92 to 180,643 (a net gain of 49,253 students or +37.5%). Figure 4 1 provides a visual illustration of the rate of change in both systems over the past twenty years. The freeze in SUS new student enrollment as a result of the economic recession is clearly visible in the data for 2008. Table 4 2 provides a more direct comparison of student headcount enr ollment in
89 focus of this table is at the upper division for both systems. Any major reduction in transfer rates among students from the FCS to the SUS would be apparent i n this data. For the FCS, the data are the same as previously reported: an increase of 21,517 in upper division headcount between 2001 02 and 2011 12. For the SUS, upper division headcount increased from 107,290 in 2001 02 to 165,846 in 2011 12. This r epresents an increase of 58,556 upper division students -an increase of 54.5% at the same time that the FCS added 21,517 upper division students. The slope of the trend line in Figure 4 2 shows that the rate of increase after 2001 02 (the first year that FCS baccalaureate degrees were authorized) has been dramatically greater than the prior ten years when the SUS added 16,038 upper division students between 1991 92 and 2000 01 (an 18.7% increase). The total upper division headcount enrollment from both sy stems reached an all time high of 187,363 for the 2011 12 reporting year. System/Program Level Enrollment Trends Data at the system/program level represent upper division headcount enrollments in a specific academic program that have been aggregated acros s all FCS and all SUS institutions. This view of the data helps to determine how enrollments in specific programs may have been impacted at the system level as duplicated baccalaureate degree programs were introduced. It also provides a system level none quivalent control group for comparison of headcount enrollments at the institution level, which are discussed later in this chapter. At the system/program level, upper division headcount enrollments are presented for Nursing (AS to BSN), Exceptional Stude nt Education (ESE), and Elementary Education. Table 4 3 shows the twenty year trend of Nursing (AS to BSN) upper division headcount enrollment in the FCS and the SUS. Enrollment in the FCS grew from zero
90 in 2003 04 to 2,901 in 2011 12. During the same years, upper division headcount enrollment grew from 3,204 to 5,299 in the SUS a headcount increase of 2,095 which represents a 65.4% increase over eight years. During the prior 12 years, SUS upper division headcount enrollment in Nursing programs increa s ed from 1,925 to 2,660. This wa s an increase of 735, or 38.2%. Together, the FCS and the SUS enrolled a total headcount of 8,200 upper division students in 2011 12. Figure 4 3 provides the visual representation of this data before and after 2004 05 when the first FCS Nursing enrollments were reported. Additionally, the change in the rate of annual increases, as seen in the slope of the SUS Nursing enrollment trend beginning in 2002, is clearly visible in this figure. Exceptional Student Education enrol lments at the system level are the focus of Table 4 4. In the FCS, enrollment grew from zero to 882 between the years of 2003 04 and 2011 12. In the SUS, upper division headcount enrollment grew from 691 to 1,120 during the same time period. This is an increase of 429 students or 62.1%. Together, the FCS and the SUS enrolled a total headcount of 2,002 upper division ESE students in 2011 12. The year over year increases in SUS ESE headcount at the system level were not consistently positive. As can be seen in Figure 4 4, there were three years since 2003 04 when SUS enrollments declined over the prior year (2004 05, 2008 09, and 2009 10). Nevertheless, the net gain in enrollments in the SUS since 2003 04 has been strongly positive. Additionally, the s lope of the enrollment trend in the SUS since 2001 02 is much steeper than in the ten years before FCS baccalaureates were first authorized.
91 Elementary Education upper division enrollments for the FCS and the SUS are presented in Table 4 5. Enrollments in creased in FCS institutions from zero in 2003 04 to 935 in 2011 12. However, in SUS institutions, upper division Elementary Education enrollments decreased from 6,004 to 5,462 during the same time period. All of the year over year decreases in the SUS oc curred in last three years, between 2008 09 and 2011 12. In the FCS, Elementary Education enrollments also decreased for the first time from the prior year by 30 students ( 3.1%) between 2010 11 and 2011 12. Since the first year of FCS Elementary Educati on enrollments, the net headcount increase in the FCS was 935, and the net decrease in the SUS was a loss of 542 ( 9.0%). For 2011 12, the upper division Elementary Education headcount for the two systems combined was 6,397. This is less than the SUS was enrolling by itself in 2005 06. Figure 4 5 provides the visual representation of this trend data. For the first four years after FCS enrollments were reported, upper division SUS Elementary Education enrollments increased. However, as previously noted, they decreased each year since 2009 10. To understand whether history effects were impacting Elementary Education enrollments in the SUS and FCS, a third trend line (SUS ED) representing all SUS Education programs is included in this figure. This is a t ype of nonequivalent control group that is often used in time series analysis to better understand the influence of external factors on subjects or treatment groups. This trend line reveals that total upper division enrollments for all SUS Education progr ams decreased every year since 2009 10. This is the same pattern that is exhibited with the SUS Elementary Education data.
92 Sample Institution/Program Level Enrollment Trends In the following sections, data is presented for the institutions and programs t hat met the sampling criteria for this research study. Seven pairs of duplicated programs were examined: Nursing (CIP 51.1601 and CIP 51.3801) at FIU and MDC Exceptional Student Education (CIP 13.1001) at FIU and MDC Nursing (CIP 51.1601 and CIP 51.3801) at USF and SPC Exceptional Student Education (CIP 13.1001) at USF and SPC Elementary Education (CIP 13.1202) at USF and SPC Nursing (CIP 51.1601 and CIP 51.3801) at FAU and IRSC Exceptional Student Education (CIP 13.1001) at FAU and IRSC Florida Internati onal University and Miami Dade College Florida International University is located in the Miami Dade College service district. Both institutions offer baccalaureate degree programs in Nursing and Exceptional Student Educati on. Data on the upper division headcount enrollment trends for these programs are reported below. Nursing. The upper division headcount enrollment data for the Nursing programs at MDC and FIU are summarized in Table 4 6. At MDC, enrollments increased from zero during 2006 07 to 478 during 2011 12. At FIU enrollments increased from 613 to 783 during this same time period. There was only one year when upper division Nursing enrollments at FIU did not increase year over year. In 2008 09, enrollments dipped by four students, from 640 to 636. Otherwise, enrollments At FIU the net gain in headcount was 170 students, or an increase of 27.7%. By 2011 12 the combined headcount enrollment for upper division Nursing students at both institutions was 1,261. Figure 4 6 is instructive as a visual representation of the da ta. Upper division Nursing enrollments
93 for the entire SUS are included as a nonequivalent control group. A comparison of the FIU Nursing enrollments with the SUS Nursing enrollments over the past 20 years shows that FIU enrollments did not mirror the pat terns of the larger state university system. Between 1996 and 1999, FIU Nursing enrollments decreased while the SUS enrollments increased. Since 2007, when MDC first reported upper division Nursing enrollments, the enrollments at FIU have increased, but not as quickly as the SUS overall. In fact, the SUS began experiencing rapid growth in upper division Nursing enrollments in 2002. But, again, the Nursing enrollments at FIU did not grow as rapidly as the system enrollments between 2002 and 2007 (five ye ars before MDC began offering their Nursing programs). Exceptional Student Education. The data for the ESE programs at MDC and FIU are different from the other six pairs of duplicated programs. Upper division headcount enrollment data for CIP 13.1001 (E xceptional Student Education) were first reported by MDC in 2003 04. FIU first reported enrollments in 2007 08 (the only instance where an SUS baccalaureate program was implemented after an FCS baccalaureate program). Table 4 7 shows the trends for both institutions. MDC enrollments in the ESE program increased from zero in 2002 03, to 371 in 2011 12. However, the year over year trends were not always positive. Year over year enrollments actually decreased in 2004 05, 2005 06, and again in 2009 09. FI U enrollments increased from zero in 2005 06 to 122 in 2011 12. Very slight year over year decreases occurred at FIU for the first two years (minus one student in 2007 08, and minus two students in 2008 09). For the most recent year of data, the total up per division ESE enrollment at both institutions reached a total of 493 students. Figure 4 7
94 shows the upper division ESE enrollment trends at MDC and FIU in comparison to the upper division enrollments for all Education programs in the SUS. All Educatio n programs were used because the trend line for all upper division ESE programs in the SUS was severely skewed by one institution with very large increases (not an institution sampled for this study). The FIU trend line for ESE shows an inverse relationsh ip to the trend for all SUS upper division Education programs (SUS ED). Enrollments in the upper division ESE program decreased at FIU during the years when the enrollments in all Education programs in the SUS were increasing. In the most recent years, w hen overall Education program upper division enrollments in the SUS have been decreasing, ESE upper division enrollments increased at FIU. The year that FIU first reported upper division headcount enrollment was 2005 06. FIU opened with a headcount of 76 students that year while MDC experienced its largest enrollment decrease that same year, going from 106 to 64 students ( 39.6%). University of South Florida and St. Petersburg College The University of South Florida has a major branch campus (USF St. Pete rsburg) located in the St. Petersburg College service district. Both institutions offer baccalaureate degree programs in Nursing, Exceptional Student Education, and Elementary Education. Data on the upper division, headcount enrollment trends for these p rograms are reported below. Nursing. The upper division headcount enrollment trends for the Nursing programs at SPC and USF are displayed in Table 4 8. At SPC, upper division enrollments have grown dramatically from zero in 2002 03 to 931 in 2011 12. D ouble digit percentage increases were recorded each year at SPC except for 2 011 12 when a 4% decrease, from 970 to 931 students, was reported. At USF, upper division Nursing
95 enrollments increased from 367 in 2002 03 to 760 in 2011 12 (+107.1%). Together, both institutions enrolled 1,691 upper division Nursing students in 2011 12. The rate of upper division Nursing increases at both institutions can be seen in Figure 4 8, along with the enrollment trend for all RN to BSN programs in the SUS as a nonequiva lent control group. As was the case with FIU, the historic enrollment trend at USF did not mirror the overall SUS enrollment trend. The rate of Nursing enrollment increases at USF has been less than that of the full SUS for the past twenty years both bef ore, and after, the SPC program was initiated. USF did not lose enrollment from the prior year in 2003 04 when SPC Nursing enrollments were first reported. It should be noted that the SPC Nursing program was first approved on October 17, 2001, meaning th at enrollments could have begun as early as the spring of 2002 at SPC. Looking back to 2001 02, USF still logged an increase of 2.0% over the prior year and continued to record positive, year over year, upper division headcount increases until 2007 08. B oth SPC and USF recorded decreases in headcount enrollment for 2011 12 ( 4.0% at SPC and 6.1% at USF). Exceptional Student Education. Exceptional Student Education is another program that was duplicated at SPC and USF. As shown in Table 4 9, data were first reported for upper division ESE students at SPC in 2003 04, although the program was approved at the same time as the SPC Nursing program -October 17, 2001. ESE enrollments at SPC grew from zero to 144 between 2002 03 and 2011 12. During this same time period, upper division ESE enrollments at USF declined from 153 to 100, a decrease of 34.6%. For the most recent year of data (2011 12) the total upper division headcount enrollment from both institutions was 244. Figure 4 9 shows that the
96 enrollmen t trends at both institutions have been fairly similar since 2001. The only exception has been between 2002 and 2005 for USF. Upper division enrollments in all SUS Education programs, and in the ESE program at SPC, were increasing during those years, whi le the enrollments at USF were decreasing. Both SPC and USF have been experiencing ESE upper division enrollment decreases since 2008 09, along with the upper division of all Education programs in the SUS. Elementary Education. The third program that ha s been duplicated at both SPC and USF is Elementary Education. Data in Table 4 10 indicate that upper division Elementary Education enrollments at SPC grew from zero in 2002 03 to 301 in 2011 12. During this same time period, upper division Elementary Ed ucation enrollments at USF decreased from 1,329 to 971 (a change of 358 students or 28%). Total upper division Elementary Education enrollments from both institutions for 2011 12 are 1,272. This is less than USF was enrolling by itself in 2001 0 2 The Elementary Education enrollment at SPC peaked in 2007 08 with 378 students. For USF, upper division Elementary Education enrollment peaked in 2005 06 at 1,576. Figure 4 10 shows the enrollment trends at both institutions over the past twenty years along with the upper division enrollment trend for all SUS Education programs (SUS ED). Both SPC and USF match the SUS ED downward trend in enrollments since 2008 09. The USF upper division Elementary Education enrollments decreased at a faster rate than the S US ED control group while the SPC upper division Elementary Education enrollments decreased at a slightly slower rate. No decrease is noted for USF in the first year that SPC reported data. However, if enrollments at SPC began in the spring or fall of 20 02 (which is likely due to the program approval date), then the USF enrollment dip from 2001 02 to 2002
97 03 could be related to the start up of the SPC program. The overall SUS ED trend line shows a dip at exactly the same point in time, so the decrease at USF also could have been caused by an external event in history that impacted all SUS Education programs. In all the years prior to 2005, the USF upper division Elementary Education enrollment trend is an excellent match with the SUS ED trend line. If t he upper division Elementary Education enrollment at USF had decreased at the same time that all SUS upper division Education enrollments were increasing, then it would be more likely that a local event (such as the SPC program start up) was impacting the USF data. However, in this case, the dip at USF is also seen in the data for all of the upper division Education programs in the SUS, making it less likely that this one year dip in the data was due exclusively to a local ized event. Florida Atlantic Uni versity and Indian River State College Florida Atlantic University operated a full service branch campus in the IRSC service district until July 2012 when the joint use FAU/IRSC campus, located in St. Lucie West, was vacated by FAU due to budget constraint s. During the period of this study, both FAU and IRSC offered baccalaureate degree programs in Nursing and Exceptional Student Education and met all of the sampling criteria. Data on the upper division headcount enrollment trends for these programs are r eported below. Nursing. Data on the upper division enrollments of Nursing students at IRSC and FAU are presented in Table 4 11. Upper division Nursing enrollments grew from zero to 241 at IRSC between 2006 07 and 2011 12. At FAU, upper division Nursing enrollments grew from 621 to 707 during this same time period (+13.8%). Together, the two institutions enrolled 948 upper division Nursing students during 2011 12. Figure 4 11 shows that FAU upper division Nursing enrollments have not increased as quick ly as
98 overall Nursing enrollments in the SUS (SUS NUR) since 2001 when the first FCS baccalaureate degrees were authorized. FAU experienced a significant drop in upper division Nursing enrollments during the second year that IRSC reported data. The upper division Nursing headcount enrollment at FAU decreased from 694 to 600 between 2007 08 and 2008 09. Of note is the fact that this is the only year that overall SUS NUR enrollments decreased as well during an 11 year cycle of increases. Because the FAU u pper division Nursing enrollment decreased at the same time as the SUS NUR upper division Nursing enrollment, it is more difficult to determine if the drop at FAU was related to the relatively new IRSC program or, instead, to larger history effects that we re impacting all SUS upper division Nursing programs that year. The IRSC Nursing program was approved on February 20, 2007 and enrolled its first 75 students in the spring 2008 semester (captured in the 2007 08 reporting year). An per division Nursing enrollment data from Table 4 11 shows that enrollments actually increased from 621 students in 2006 07 to 694 students in 2007 08 (the first year of the IRSC Nursing program). Exceptional Student Education. Indian River State College began to offer an upper division ESE program in 2007 08. As noted in Table 4 12, IRSC enrolled 35 students during this first year of operation and increased total upper division ESE headcount enrollment to 114 by 2011 12. Upper division enrollment for the FAU ESE program in 2007 08 was 133 and it has decreased to 98 as of 2011 12. This is a net decrease of 26.3%. Together, the two institutions enrolled a total of 212 upper division ESE students in 2011 12. An examination of F igure 4 12 reveals that the FAU enrollment decreases since 2008 are consistent with the overall SUS upper division
99 Education enrollment trend. In fact, both IRSC and FAU are closely following th e declining trend of SUS ED enrollment since 2008, and especi ally since 2010. However, looking back to 2006 07, it is apparent that the FAU upper division ESE enrollments were decreasing at a time when overall SUS upper division Education enrollments were increasing. This is also the time period when IRSC recorded its first upper division ESE enrollments (2007 08). The fact that FAU upper division ESE enrollments decreased during a time when overall SUS ED enrollments were increasing means that other forces were influencing the enrollments at FAU. While this data does not prove that increasing IRSC enrollments caused a drop in FAU upper division ESE enrollments, it also does not contradict this possibility. Overall, the upper division ESE enrollment trend for FAU over the past 20 years has been one of decline, fr om a peak headcount of 238 in the 1994 95 reporting year to 98 students in 2011 12. Cross section al Analysis of Demographic Characteristics A cross section al analysis of nine demographic variables for the entire populations of 2010 upper division students in the FCS and Fall 2010 upper division stu dents in the SUS is presented below This comparison highlight s the s imilarities and differences of two, public, systems o f higher education. The data are presented at the system level and at the system/program level for the three, academic program areas that were the focus of this study: Nursing, Exceptional Student Education, and Elementary Education. Data at the institution al /program level were not collected so that individua l student privacy would be assured. The demographic data presented below are directly relevant to the secondary research question developed for this study: How do the demographics of Florida College System baccalaureate students differ from those of uppe r
100 state universities? The demographic data for the three continuous variables of age, GPA, and expected family contribution are discussed separately from the categorical variables of gender, race/ethnicity, full time/ part time status, dependency status, transfer status, and Florida residency status. System Data In the next two paragraphs, continuous and categorical demographic variables are reported for the system level. This includes unduplicated data for all upper division students in all academic majors for the Fall 2010 semester at all Florida State University System institutions and all upper division students at all Florida College System institutions offering baccalaureate degrees during 201 0 (all semesters, unduplicated) Continuous demographic variables Age, GPA, and expected family contribution (EFC) for federal financial aid purposes are reported in Table 4 13 for all 2010 FCS upper division students and all Fall 2010 SUS upper division students. The median, the interquartile range (IQR), and results of the Wilcoxon rank sum test (W and Z) are provided. The median age for the FCS students is 31, while the median age for SUS students is 22. The interquartile range for all FCS students i s 24 to 40 years of age, while the IQR for all SUS students is 21 to 24 For GPA, the median for FCS students is 3.12 (IQR = 2.78 3.45), while the median for SUS students is 3.14 (IQR = 2.75 3.50). For the EFC variable, the median for FCS upper division students is $648 (IQR = $0 $4,555), and the median for SUS upper division students is $3,487 (IQR = $0 $11,360 ). Clearly, these populations are very different in terms of age and expected family contribution. It would appear that FCS students are older a nd less able to pay for college. The GPA data for the two populations is very similar. Wilcoxon rank sum test Z scores are significant where p<
101 0.05 for GPA and p<0.00 0 1 for age and EFC. While the GPA result could be interpreted as statistically signifi cant, the difference between these two populations is likely insignificant to policymakers. Categorical demographic variables Gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, dependency status, transfer status and Florida residency status are reported in Table 4 14 for all 2010 FCS upper division students and all Fall 2010 SUS upper division students. The population (N), proportion, and Chi Square statistic (X) appear for each variable. With regard to gender, the FCS is more heavily female (0.71) tha n the SUS (0.58). Minority populations are generally higher in the SUS with White students accounting for 55% of the total in the SUS and 64% of the total in the FCS. The proportion of Black students is higher in the FCS (0.18) than in the SUS (0.14); bu t, the proportion of Hispanic/Latino students is higher in the SUS (0.22) versus the FCS (0.13) for 2010. Large differences exist regarding full time/part time status. In the FCS only 13% of upper division students are full time while, in the SU S, full t ime students make up 78 % of the population. Dependency status is also dramatically different. In the FCS the proportion of students who are independent for tax purposes is 0.84. In the SUS this proportion is only 0.33 In the category of transfer statu s, 51 % of the SUS upper division students are categorized as transfer students, while 45 % of FCS students are transfers. Finally, in the category of Florida residency, the proportions are very similar: 97% of FCS students are Florida residents, while 98% of SUS students are Florida residents. The Chi Square statistic yielded significant results for all categorical variables, including Florida residency (p<0.05); yet, the significance of this difference for policymakers is, most likely, negligible. For a ll of the other categorical variables, the Chi Square test
102 yielded p values less than 0.0 0 01, indicating that this res ult would occur by chance only one in 1 0 ,000 times. System/Program Data for Nursing In the next two paragraphs, continuous and categorica l demographic variables are reported at the system/program level for Nursing. This includes data for all upper division Nursing s tudents (RN to BSN) in the Fall 2010 semester at all Florida State University System institutions and all upper division stud ents in Florida College System institutions offering baccalaureate degrees in Nursing during 2010 Continuous demographic variables for Nursing The data for age, GPA, and expected family contribution for upper division Nursing students are shown in Table 4 15. The median age for FCS Nursing students is 35 (IQR = 28 43), as opposed to the median age of 22 (IQR = 21 26) for SUS Nursing students. The median GPA scores are not as similar as those found for the entire FCS and SUS. The median GPA for FCS Nurs ing students is 3.17 (IQR = 2.89 3.47), while the median GPA for SUS Nursing students is 3.33 (IQR 3.01 3.58 ). The expected family contribution results are very different for the two populations. The median EFC fo r FCS Nursing students is $2,873 (IQR = $ 0 $7,774), and the median EFC fo r SUS Nursing students is $3,953 (IQR = $0 12,141 ). Results for the Wilcoxon rank sum test for all three continuous variables were significant at the p<0.0 0 01 level. Categorical demographic variables for Nursing Table 4 16 shows that the proportion of male, upper division Nursing students in the FCS and the SUS is almost identical. In the FCS the proportion is 0.12 and, in the SUS, the proportion is 0.13. On the race/ethnicity variable, the results look differen t than those at the overall system level. For upper division Nursing students, 60% of the
103 stude nts are White in the FCS, and 51 % are White in the SUS. For Black Nursing students, the proportion in both systems is almost identical (0.19 in the FCS vs. 0.2 0 in the SUS ). Hispanic/Latino students are represented in greater proportions in the SUS Nursing programs: (0.21) for the SUS versus (0.14) in FCS Nursing programs. The differences in full time/part time status and dependency are much more striking. I n the FCS, 96% of the stude nts are part time, while only 26 % are part time in the SUS programs. Likewise, 95 % of FCS Nursing students are financially independent, as opposed to only 41% of SUS Nursing students. Transfer status and Florida residency statu s are almost identical for Nursing students in the two systems. In the FCS the proportion of transfer students is 0.51. In the SUS the proport ion of transfer students is 0.53 In both the FCS and the SUS, the proportion of upper division Nursing student s who are Florida residents is the same at 0.98. In line with these findings, the Chi Square statistic was significant at p<0.0 0 01 for race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, and dependency status. It did not indicate a statistically significant diff erence in the two populations for gender, transfer status, or Florida residency status. System/Program Data for ESE Continuous and categorical demographic variables are presented in the next two paragraphs for ESE students at the system/program level. Dat a is provided for all upper di vision ESE students during Fall 2010 at all Florida State University System institutions and all upper division students at Florida College System institutions offering baccalaureate degrees in Exceptional Student Education du ring 2010 Continuous demographic variables for ESE Age, GPA, and EFC are captured in Table 4 17 for 2010 ESE students in the FCS and Fall 2010 ESE students in the SUS The median age of students in the FCS is
104 27 (IQR = 23 37), as compared to t he median age of 23 (IQR = 21 30 ) in the SUS. The GPA data for ESE students shows more variation than at the overall system level. The median GPA for ESE students in the FCS is 3.24 (IQR = 2.96 3.52). In the SUS the med ian GPA for ESE students is 3.39 (IQR = 3.05 3.67 ). Expected family contribution is markedly different for the two populations. The median for FCS upper division ESE students is $0 (IQR= $0 $2,988), while the median for SUS upper division ESE students is $3,337 (IQR = $0 $9,532 ). The Wilcoxon ran k sum test confirmed significant differences between the two populations with p<0.0 0 01 for all three continuous variables. Categorical demographic variables for ESE Table 4 18 displays the data for the categorical demographic variables related to ESE stud ents in both the FCS and the SUS. In 2010 the FCS enrolled a higher proportion of male upper division students in Exceptional Student Education than the SUS. This is a different pattern than in the overall system level data. In the FCS, the figure i s 12% while, in the SUS, the figure i s 8%. Enrollment by race/ethnicity also showed differences from the system level data. For ESE students there i s a far greater proportion of White students enrolled in the SUS (68 %) than in the FCS (46%). The proportio ns of Black and Hispanic/Lati no upper division ESE students are higher in the FCS than in the SUS. For Black students, the proportion in the F CS i s 0.16, as compared to 0.11 in the SUS. For Hispanic/Latino studen ts, the proportion in the FCS i s 0.35 whi le the figure in the SUS i s less than half of that amount at 0.16. The dramatic differences in full time/part time status are consistent with prior findings at the overall system level and the system/program level for Nursing. The proportion of full time upper div ision ESE students in the FCS i s only 0.17, whereas this figure for upper
105 di vision SUS ESE students i s 0.77 Dependent status continued to be different for the two populations as well: 23% of the upper division FCS students are dependent, and 48% of the SUS students are dependent for income tax purposes. The difference in transfer status fo r upper division ESE students i s somewhat different than at the overall system level. For FCS studen ts, 30% indicated that they were transfer students, while 67% of the SUS ESE students indicated that they had transferred from another institution. As in past comparis ons, Florida residency status i s nearly identical: 0.98 for FCS students, and 0.97 for SUS students. The Chi Square te st indicated statistically significant differences where p<0.0 0 01 for each categorical variable except gender (p< 0.01) and Florida residency status (no statistically significant difference). System/Program Data for Elementary Education In the next two par agraphs, continuous and categorical demographic variables are reported at the system/program level for Elementary Education students. This includes data for all upper division Elementary Education s tudents in the Fall 2010 semester at all Florida State Un iversity System institutions and all upper division students at all Florida College System institutions offering the Elementary Education baccalaureate degree during 2010 Continuous demographic variables for Elementary Education The data for age, GPA, and expected family contribution for upper division Elementary Education students are shown in Table 4 19. The median age for FCS Elementary Education students i s 25 (IQR = 22 34), as opposed to the median age of 22 (IQR = 21 25) for SUS Elementary Educat ion stud ents. The median GPA scores are relatively similar for the FCS and SUS populations. The median GPA for FCS Elementary Education students i s 3.30 (IQR = 3.00 3.62), while the median GPA for
106 SUS Eleme ntary Education students i s 3.37 (IQR 3.05 3 .68 ) The expected family contribution results are notably different for the two populations. The median EFC for FCS Elementary Education students i s $811 (IQR = $0 $3,933), and the median EFC for SUS Element ary Education students i s $3,593 (IQR = $0 10, 543 ) Results for the Wilcoxon rank sum test fo r age and EFC were statistically significant at the p<0.0 0 01 level. For the GPA variable, the Wilcoxon rank sum test indicated st atistical significance with p< 0.05. Categorical demographic variables for Elementary Education Table 4 20 displays the demographic population data for the categorical variables of upper division Elementary Education students in both the FCS and the SUS. The proportion of males in upper division Elementary Education programs i s higher in the FCS (0.10) than in the SUS (0.06 ). Racial and ethnic diversit y i s greater in the SUS upper division Elementary Education programs. White students account for 67% of the SUS population, while 84% of the FCS population is White. Black stude nts and Hispanic/ Latino students appear in higher proportions in the SUS Elementary Education programs as well. Th e proportion of Black students i s 0.12 in the SUS, and only 0.05 in the FCS. For Hispanic/Latin o students, the SUS proportion i s 0.17, wh ile the FCS proportion i s 0.08. The previous patterns in full time/part time status and dependency status apply to the upper division Elementary Education students as well. The proportion of part time Elementary Education students in the FCS i s 0.78. The p roportion of part time Elementary Education students in the SUS i s only 0.23 Ind ependent students in the FCS are 78% of the population, while ind ependent students in the SUS are 42 % of tha t population. Transfer status wa s quite different in the two popu lations as well. Upper division Elementary Education transfer stu dents in the FCS
107 are only 30% of the population while, in t he SUS, transfer students are 64 % of the population. Florida residency status for upper division Elementary Education students i s identical: 99% are Florida residents and 1% are non Florida residents in both systems. In the alternative methodology where these data are viewed as a sample of an abstract, future population, the Chi Square test shows statistically significant differenc es for all categorical variables (with p<0.0 0 01) except for Florida residency. This confirms that the two groups are not the same with respect to the variables of gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, dependency status, and transfer status.
108 Table 4 1. Headcount Enrollment of Florida College System ( FCS ) Upper Division Students and State University System ( SUS ) Baccalaureate Students, 1991 2011 Year FCS %Change SUS %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 131,390 131,390 1992 93 0 134,122 +2.1 134,122 +2.1 1993 94 0 138,874 +3.5 138,874 +3.5 1994 95 0 145,177 +4.5 145,177 +4.5 1995 96 0 150,196 +3.5 150,196 +3.5 1996 97 0 154,628 +3.0 154,628 +3.0 1997 98 0 160,101 +3.5 160,101 +3.5 1998 99 0 165,418 +3.3 165,418 +3.3 1999 00 0 172,307 +4.2 172,307 +4.2 2000 01 0 180,643 +4.8 180,643 +4.8 2001 02 0 190,161 +5.3 190,161 +5.3 2002 03 566 199,602 +5.0 200,168 +5.3 2003 04 1,194 +111 208,173 +4.3 209,367 +4.6 2004 05 2,050 +72 213,551 +2.3 215,601 +3.0 2005 06 2,834 +38 222,498 +4.2 225,332 +4.5 2006 07 3,902 +38 228,227 +2.6 232,129 +3.0 2007 08 5,613 +44 232,824 +2.0 238,437 +2.7 2008 09 8,155 +45 233,772 +0.4 241,927 +1.5 2009 10 12,408 +52 240,102 +2.7 252,510 +4.4 2010 11 16,901 +36 247,408 +3.0 264,309 +4.7 2011 12 21,517 +27 254,351 +2.8 275,868 +4.4
109 Table 4 2. Headcount Enrollment of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) Upper Division Students, 1991 2011 Year FCS %Change SUS %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 85,962 1992 93 0 87,298 +1.6 87,298 +1.6 1993 94 0 87,356 +0.1 87,356 +0.1 1994 95 0 89,919 +2.9 89,919 +2.9 1995 96 0 91,143 +1.4 91,143 +1.4 1996 97 0 97,232 +6.7 97,232 +6.7 1997 98 0 98,862 +1.7 98,862 +1.7 1998 99 0 99,301 +0.4 99,301 +0.4 1999 00 0 100,285 +1.0 100,285 +1.0 2000 01 0 102,000 +1.7 102,000 +1.7 2001 02 0 107,290 +5.2 107,290 +5.2 2002 03 566 110,255 +2.8 110,821 +3.3 2003 04 1,194 +111 116,944 +6.1 118,138 +6.6 2004 05 2,050 +72 122,281 +4.6 124,331 +5.2 2005 06 2,834 +38 127,749 +4.5 130,583 +5.0 2006 07 3,902 +38 133,112 +4.2 137,014 +4.9 2007 08 5,613 +44 139,228 +4.6 144,841 +5.7 2008 09 8,155 +45 144,590 +3.9 152,745 +5.5 2009 10 12,408 +52 152,721 +5.6 165,129 +8.1 2010 11 16,901 +36 159,972 +4.7 176,873 +7.1 2011 12 21,517 +27 165,846 +3.7 187,363 +5.9
110 Table 4 3. Headcount Enrollment of Florida College System ( FCS ) and State University System ( SUS ) Upper Division Nursing Students, 1991 2011 Year FCS %Change SUS %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 1,925 1,925 1992 93 0 2,024 +5.1 2,024 +5.1 1993 94 0 1,978 2.3 1,978 2.3 1994 95 0 2,095 +5.9 2,095 +5.9 1995 96 0 2,295 +9.5 2,295 +9.5 1996 97 0 2,412 +5.1 2,412 +5.1 1997 98 0 2,494 +3.4 2,494 +3.4 1998 99 0 2,656 +6.5 2,656 +6.5 1999 00 0 2,705 +1.8 2,705 +1.8 2000 01 0 2,535 6.3 2,535 6.3 2001 02 0 2,618 +3.3 2,618 +3.3 2002 03 0 2,660 +1.6 2,660 +1.6 2003 04 0 3,204 +20.5 3,204 +20.5 2004 05 323 3,705 +15.6 4,028 +15.6 2005 06 389 +20 4,186 +13.0 4,575 +13.6 2006 07 510 +31 4,455 +6.4 4,965 +8.5 2007 08 750 +47 4,620 +3.7 5,370 +8.2 2008 09 1,097 +46 4,529 2.0 5,626 +4.8 2009 10 1,746 +59 4,844 +7.0 6,590 +17.1 2010 11 2,341 +34 5,067 +4.6 7,408 +12.4 2011 12 2,901 +24 5,299 +4.6 8,200 +10.7
111 Table 4 4. Headcount Enrollment of Florida College System ( FCS ) and State University System ( SUS ) Upper Division Exceptional Student Education Students, 1991 2011 Year FCS %Change SUS %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 638 638 1992 93 0 698 +9.4 698 +9.4 1993 94 0 762 +9.2 762 +9.2 1994 95 0 843 +10.6 843 +10.6 1995 96 0 803 4.7 803 4.7 1996 97 0 943 +17.4 943 +17.4 1997 98 0 960 +1.8 960 +1.8 1998 99 0 780 18.8 780 18.8 1999 00 0 698 10.5 698 10.5 2000 01 0 651 6.7 651 6.7 2001 02 0 710 +9.1 710 +9.1 2002 03 0 681 4.1 681 4.1 2003 04 0 691 +1.5 691 +1.5 2004 05 241 667 3.5 908 +31.4 2005 06 239 0.8 795 +19.2 1,034 +13.9 2006 07 300 +25.5 958 +20.5 1,258 +21.7 2007 08 424 +41.3 1,087 +13.5 1,511 +20.1 2008 09 527 +24.3 1,047 3.7 1,574 +4.2 2009 10 822 +56.0 979 6.5 1,801 +14.4 2010 11 857 +4.3 1,047 +6.9 1,904 +5.7 2011 12 882 +2.9 1,120 +7.0 2,002 +5.1
112 Table 4 5. Headcount Enrollment of Florida College System ( FCS ) and State University System ( SUS ) Upper Division Elementary Education Students, 1991 2011 Year FCS %Change SUS %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 5,618 5,618 1992 93 0 5,169 8.0 5,169 8.0 1993 94 0 4,862 5.9 4,862 5.9 1994 95 0 4,837 0.5 4,837 0.5 1995 96 0 4,903 +1.4 4,903 +1.4 1996 97 0 5,539 +13.0 5,539 +13.0 1997 98 0 6,021 +8.7 6,021 +8.7 1998 99 0 5,737 4.7 5,737 4.7 1999 00 0 5,392 6.0 5,392 6.0 2000 01 0 5,324 1.3 5,324 1.3 2001 02 0 5,810 +9.1 5,810 +9.1 2002 03 0 5,500 5.3 5,500 5.3 2003 04 0 6,004 +9.2 6,004 +9.2 2004 05 301 6,273 +4.5 6,574 +9.5 2005 06 356 +18.3 6,645 +5.9 7,001 +6.5 2006 07 365 +2.5 6,707 +0.9 7,072 +1.0 2007 08 378 +3.6 6,857 +2.2 7,235 +2.3 2008 09 563 +48.9 7,002 +2.1 7,565 +4.6 2009 10 800 +42.1 6,512 7.0 7,312 3.3 2010 11 965 +20.6 5,798 11.0 6,763 7.5 2011 12 935 3.1 5,462 5.8 6,397 5.4
113 Table 4 6. Headcount Enrollment of Miami Dade College ( MDC ) and Florida International University ( FIU ) Upper Division Nursing Students, 1991 2011 Year MDC %Change FIU %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 330 330 1992 93 0 319 3.3 319 3.3 1993 94 0 300 6.0 300 6.0 1994 95 0 345 +15.0 345 +15.0 1995 96 0 423 +22.6 423 +22.6 1996 97 0 445 +5.2 445 +5.2 1997 98 0 400 10.1 400 10.1 1998 99 0 375 6.3 375 6.3 1999 00 0 280 25.3 280 25.3 2000 01 0 202 27.9 202 27.9 2001 02 0 212 +5.0 212 +5.0 2002 03 0 232 +9.4 232 +9.4 2003 04 0 220 5.2 220 5.2 2004 05 0 499 +126.8 499 +126.8 2005 06 0 557 +11.6 557 +11.6 2006 07 0 613 +10.1 613 +10.1 2007 08 58 640 +4.4 698 +13.9 2008 09 173 +198.3 636 0.6 809 +15.9 2009 10 300 +73.4 751 +18.1 1,051 +29.9 2010 11 373 +24.3 772 +2.8 1,145 +8.9 2011 12 478 +28.2 783 +1.4 1,261 +10.1
114 Tab le 4 7. Headcount Enrollment of Miami Dade College (M DC ) and Florida International University ( FIU ) Upper Divis ion Exceptional Student Education Students, 1991 2011 Year MDC %Change FIU %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 0 0 1992 93 0 0 0 1993 94 0 0 0 1994 95 0 0 0 1995 96 0 0 0 1996 97 0 0 0 1997 98 0 0 0 1998 99 0 0 0 1999 00 0 0 0 2000 01 0 0 0 2001 02 0 0 0 2002 03 0 0 0 2003 04 125 0 125 2004 05 106 15.2 0 106 15.2 2005 06 64 39.6 76 140 +32.1 2006 07 99 +54.7 63 17.1 162 +15.7 2007 08 176 +77.8 62 1.6 238 +46.9 2008 09 171 2.8 60 3.2 231 2.9 2009 10 316 +84.8 63 +5.0 379 +64.1 2010 11 340 +7.6 77 +22.2 417 +10.0 2011 12 371 +9.1 122 +58.4 493 +18.2
115 Table 4 8. Headcount Enrollment of St. Petersburg College ( SPC ) and University of South Florida ( USF ) Upper Division Nursing Students, 1991 2011 Year SPC %Change USF %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 198 1992 93 0 208 +5.1 1993 94 0 216 +3.8 1994 95 0 220 +1.9 1995 96 0 223 +1.4 1996 97 0 268 +20.2 1997 98 0 328 +22.4 1998 99 0 353 +7.6 1999 00 0 385 +9.1 2000 01 0 353 8.3 2001 02 0 360 +2.0 2002 03 0 367 +1.9 2003 04 191 389 +6.0 580 2004 05 298 +56.0 467 +20.1 765 +31.9 2005 06 344 +15.4 759 +62.5 1,103 +44.2 2006 07 461 +34.0 824 +8.6 1,285 +16.5 2007 08 556 +20.6 772 6.3 1,328 +3.3 2008 09 670 +20.5 809 +4.8 1,479 +11.4 2009 10 789 +17.8 835 +3.2 1,624 +9.8 2010 11 970 +22.9 809 3.1 1,779 +9.5 2011 12 931 4.0 760 6.1 1,691 4.9
116 Table 4 9. Headcount Enrollment of St. Petersburg College ( SPC ) and University of South Florida ( USF ) Upper Division Exceptional Student Education Students, 1991 2011 Year SPC %Change USF %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 0 0 1992 93 0 0 0 1993 94 0 0 0 1994 95 0 0 0 1995 96 0 21 21 1996 97 0 64 +204.8 64 +204.8 1997 98 0 79 +23.4 79 +23.4 1998 99 0 52 34.2 52 34.2 1999 00 0 28 46.2 28 46.2 2000 01 0 19 32.1 19 32.1 2001 02 0 104 +447.4 104 +447.4 2002 03 0 153 +47.1 153 +47.1 2003 04 73 141 7.8 214 +39.9 2004 05 135 +84.9 117 17.0 252 +17.8 2005 06 175 +29.6 110 6.0 285 +13.1 2006 07 201 +14.9 144 +30.9 345 +21.1 2007 08 213 +6.0 146 +1.4 359 +4.1 2008 09 217 +1.9 139 4.8 356 0.8 2009 10 187 13.8 109 21.6 296 16.9 2010 11 152 18.7 100 8.3 252 14.9 2011 12 144 5.3 100 0.0 244 3.2
117 Table 4 10. Headcount Enrollment of St. Petersburg College ( SPC ) and University of South Florida ( USF ) Upper Division Elementary Education Students, 1991 2011 Year SPC %Change USF %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 1,220 1,220 1992 93 0 1,078 11.6 1,078 11.6 1993 94 0 1,053 2.3 1,053 2.3 1994 95 0 1,108 +5.2 1,108 +5.2 1995 96 0 1,107 0.1 1,107 0.1 1996 97 0 1,240 +12.0 1,240 +12.0 1997 98 0 1,438 +16.0 1,438 +16.0 1998 99 0 1,392 3.2 1,392 3.2 1999 00 0 1,337 4.0 1,337 4.0 2000 01 0 1,383 +3.4 1,383 +3.4 2001 02 0 1,484 +7.3 1,484 +7.3 2002 03 0 1,349 9.1 1,349 9.1 2003 04 154 1,405 +4.2 1,559 +15.6 2004 05 301 +95.5 1,468 +4.5 1,769 +13.5 2005 06 356 +18.3 1,576 +7.4 1,932 +9.2 2006 07 365 +2.5 1,433 9.1 1,798 6.9 2007 08 378 +3.6 1,468 +2.4 1,846 +2.7 2008 09 329 13.0 1,541 +5.0 1,870 +1.3 2009 10 343 +4.3 1,343 12.8 1,686 9.8 2010 11 323 5.8 1,146 14.7 1,469 12.9 2011 12 301 6.8 971 15.3 1,272 13.4
118 Table 4 11. Headcount Enrollment of Indian River State College ( IRSC ) and Florida Atlantic University ( FAU ) Upper Division Nursing Students, 1991 2011 Year IRSC %Change FAU %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 266 266 1992 93 0 269 +1.1 269 +1.1 1993 94 0 266 1.1 266 1.1 1994 95 0 271 +1.9 271 +1.9 1995 96 0 299 +10.3 299 +10.3 1996 97 0 381 +27.4 381 +27.4 1997 98 0 374 1.8 374 1.8 1998 99 0 417 +11.5 417 +11.5 1999 00 0 492 +18.0 492 +18.0 2000 01 0 541 +10.0 541 +10.0 2001 02 0 589 +8.9 589 +8.9 2002 03 0 442 25.0 442 25.0 2003 04 0 599 +35.5 599 +35.5 2004 05 0 647 +8.0 647 +8.0 2005 06 0 641 0.9 641 0.9 2006 07 0 621 3.1 621 3.1 2007 08 75 694 +11.8 769 +23.8 2008 09 143 +90.7 600 13.5 743 3.4 2009 10 182 +27.3 630 +5.0 812 +9.3 2010 11 222 +22.0 646 +2.5 868 +6.9 2011 12 241 +8.6 707 +9.4 948 +9.2
119 Table 4 12. Headcount Enrollment of Indian River State College ( IRSC ) and Florida Atlantic University ( FAU ) Upper Division Exceptional Student Education Students, 1991 2011 Year IRSC %Change FAU %Change Total %Change 1991 92 0 145 145 1992 93 0 178 +22.8 178 +22.8 1993 94 0 222 +24.7 222 +24.7 1994 95 0 238 +7.2 238 +7.2 1995 96 0 223 6.3 223 6.3 1996 97 0 227 +1.8 227 +1.8 1997 98 0 202 11.0 202 11.0 1998 99 0 173 14.4 173 14.4 1999 00 0 162 6.4 162 6.4 2000 01 0 151 6.8 151 6.8 2001 02 0 152 +0.7 152 +0.7 2002 03 0 109 28.3 109 28.3 2003 04 0 122 +11.9 122 +11.9 2004 05 0 113 7.4 113 7.4 2005 06 0 125 +10.6 125 +10.6 2006 07 0 144 +15.2 144 +15.2 2007 08 35 133 7.6 168 +16.7 2008 09 90 +157.1 125 6.0 215 +30.0 2009 10 119 +32.2 91 27.2 210 2.3 2010 11 123 +3.4 104 +14.3 227 +8.1 2011 12 114 7.3 98 5.8 212 6.6
120 Table 4 13. Comparison of 2010 Florida College System ( FCS ) and Fall 2010 State University System ( SUS ) upper division students on age, GPA and family contribution FCS SUS Median IQR Median IQR W Z Age 31 24 40 22 21 24 2,000,348,246 122.12 * ** GPA 3.12 2.78 3.45 3.14 2.75 3.50 1,211,291,512 2.27 Family contribution 648 0 4,555 3,487 0 11,360 325,943,151 34.07 * * Note. W = Wilcoxon rank sum test; IQR = Interquartile Range. p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 ; **** p < 0.0001.
121 Table 4 14. Comparison of 2010 Florida College S ystem (FCS) and Fall 2010 State University S ystem ( SUS ) upper division students on gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, dependency status, transfer status, and Florida residency status FCS SUS N proportion N Proportion 2 Gender 719.55 ** * Male 3,492 0.29 81,431 0.42 Female 8,390 0.71 113,086 0.58 Ethnicity 877.11 ** * American Indian/ Alaskan Native 40 0.0033 855 0.0044 Asian 277 0.02 9,826 0.05 Black/African American 2,119 0.18 27,241 0.14 Hispanic/Latino 1,556 0.13 43,417 0.22 Other/Unknown 347 0.03 5,509 0.03 White 7,634 0.64 107,672 0.55 Full or part time 24,240.86 * ** Full time 1,524 0.13 151,072 0.78 Part time 10,285 0.87 43,448 0.22 Dependency status 5,784.95 ** * Dependent 778 0.16 110,341 0.67 Independent 4,239 0.84 53,734 0.33 Transfer status 173.20 ** * Not transfer 6,056 0.55 94,422 0. 49 Transfer 4,958 0.45 100,098 0.51 FL residency status 4.05 Florida 11,617 0.97 189,826 0.98 Non Florida 323 0.03 4,694 0.02 p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 ; **** p < 0.0001.
122 Table 4 15. Comparison of 2010 Florida College System ( FCS ) and Fall 2010 State University System ( SUS ) upper division nursing students on age, GPA and family contribution FCS SUS Median IQR Median IQR W Z Age 35 28 43 22 21 26 9,795,870 46.09 * ** GPA 3.17 2.89 3.47 3.3 3 3.01 3.58 5,425,845 11.03 * ** Family contribution 2,87 3 0 7,774 3,953 0 12,141 1,004,551 4.77 * * Note. W = Wilcoxon rank sum test. p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 ; **** p < 0.0001.
123 Table 4 16. Comparison of 2010 Florida College System ( FCS ) and Fall 2010 State University System ( SUS ) upper division nursing students on gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, dependency status, transfer status, and Florida residency status FCS SUS N proportion N Proportion 2 Gender 0.34 Male 210 0.12 698 0.13 Female 1,514 0.88 4,793 0.87 Ethnicity 73.58 ** * American Indian/ Alaskan Native 3 0.00 17 19 0.00 35 Asian 64 0.04 308 0.06 Black/African American 332 0.19 1,093 0.20 Hispanic/Latino 244 0.14 1,162 0.21 Other/Unknown 51 0.03 105 0.02 White 1,050 0.60 2,804 0.51 Full or part time 2,860.65 * ** Full time 63 0.04 4,073 0.74 Part time 1,672 0.96 1,418 0.26 Dependency status 476.10 * ** Dependent 20 0.05 2,754 0.59 Independent 421 0.95 1,938 0.41 Transfer status 1.39 Not transfer 771 0.49 2,589 0.47 Transfer 808 0.51 2,902 0.53 FL residency status 0.01 Florida 1,710 0.98 5,386 0.98 Non Florida 34 0.02 105 0.02 p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 ; **** p < 0.0001
124 Table 4 17. Comparison of 2010 Florida College System ( FCS ) and Fall 2010 State University System ( SUS ) upper division exceptional student education students on age, GPA and family contribution FCS SUS Median IQR Median IQR W Z Age 27 23 37 23 21 3 0 1,004,786 11.68 * * GPA 3.24 2.96 3.52 3.3 9 3.05 3.6 7 769,245 5.40 * * Family contribution 0 0 2,988 3,373 0 9,5 32 342,931 11.48 * * Note. W = Wilcoxon rank sum test. p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 ; **** p < 0.0001.
125 Table 4 18. Comparison of 2010 Florida College System ( FCS ) and Fall 2010 State University System ( SUS ) upper division exceptional student education students on gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, dependency status, transfer status, and Florida residency status FCS SUS N proportion N Proportion 2 Gender 10.35** Male 98 0.12 104 0.08 Female 704 0.88 1,201 0.92 Ethnicity 137.15 * ** American Indian/ Alaskan Native 2 0.00 25 9 0.01 Asian 11 0.01 28 0.02 Black/African American 125 0.16 13 8 0.11 Hispanic/Latino 284 0.35 208 0.16 Other/Unknown 13 0.02 29 0.02 White 3 68 0.46 893 0.6 8 Full or part time 722.06 ** * Full time 132 0.17 1,005 0.77 Part time 659 0.83 300 0.23 Dependency status 90.09 * ** Dependent 119 0.23 545 0.48 Independent 396 0.77 595 0.52 Transfer status 266.26 * ** Not transfer 545 0.70 430 0.33 Transfer 236 0.30 875 0.67 FL residency status 3.10 Florida 787 0.98 1,264 0.97 Non Florida 15 0.02 41 0.03 p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 ; **** p < 0.0001.
126 Table 4 19. Comparison of 2010 Florida College System ( FCS ) and Fall 2010 State University System ( SUS ) upper division elementary education students on age, GPA and family contribution FCS SUS Median IQR Median IQR W Z Age 25 22 34 2 2 21 25 3,850,483 12.87 * * GPA 3.30 3.00 3.62 3. 37 3.05 3. 68 2,853,802 2.33 Family contribution 811 0 3,933 3, 593 0 10,543 1,069,246 9.88 * * Note. W = Wilcoxon rank sum test. p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 ; **** p < 0.0001
127 Table 4 20. Comparison of 2010 Florida College System ( FCS ) and Fall 2010 State University System ( SUS ) upper division elementary education students on gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, dependency status, transfer status, and Florida residency status FCS SUS N proportion N Proportion 2 Gender 16.6 6* ** Male 79 0.10 462 0.06 Female 686 0.90 6,734 0.94 Ethnicity 97.59 * ** American Indian/ Alaskan Native 4 0.01 24 0.00 33 Asian 7 0.01 145 0.02 Black/African American 35 0.05 847 0.12 Hispanic/Latino 64 0.08 1,212 0.17 Other/Unknown 16 0.02 115 0.02 White 646 0.84 4,853 0.67 Full or part time 1,013.84 * ** Full time 169 0.22 5,555 0.77 Part time 584 0.78 1,641 .023 Dependency status 192.90 * ** Dependent 89 0.22 3,573 0.58 Independent 314 0.78 2,633 0 .42 Transfer status 317.15 * ** Not transfer 506 0.70 2,577 0.36 Transfer 221 0.30 4,619 0.64 FL residency status 1. 10 Florida 756 0.99 7,097 0.99 Non Florida 7 0.01 9 9 0.01 p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 ; **** p < 0.0001.
128 Figure 4 1. Enrollment trends of Florida College System upper division students (FCS UD) and State University System baccalaureate students (SUS BAC), 1991 2011.
129 Figure 4 2. Enrollment trends of Florida College System (FCS) and State Univer sity System (SUS) upper division students, 1991 2011.
130 Figure 4 3. Enrollment trends of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) upper division nursing students (NUR), 1991 2011.
131 Figure 4 4. Enrollment trends of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) upper division exceptional student education (ESE) students, 1991 2011.
132 Figure 4 5. Enrollment trends of Florida College System (FCS) and State University System (SUS) upper division elementary education students (ELED) with nonequivalent control group (SUS ED), 1991 2011.
133 Figure 4 6. Enrollment trends of Miami Dade College (MDC) and Florida International University (FIU) upper division nursing students (NUR) with nonequivalent control group (SUS NUR), 1991 2011.
134 Figure 4 7. Enrollment trends of Miami Dade College (MDC) and Florida International University (FIU) upper division exceptional student education students (ESE) with nonequivalent control group (SUS ED), 1991 2011.
135 Figure 4 8. Enrollmen t trends of St. Petersburg College (SPC) and University of South Florida (USF) upper division nursing students (NUR) with nonequivalent control group (SUS NUR), 1991 2011.
136 Figure 4 9. Enrollment trends of St. Petersburg College (SPC) and University of South Florida (USF) upper division exceptional student education students (ESE) with nonequivalent control group (SUS ED), 1991 2011.
137 Figure 4 10. Enrollment trends of St. Petersburg College (SPC) and University of South Florida (USF) upper division el ementary education students (EL ED) with nonequivalent control group (SUS ED), 1991 2011.
138 Figure 4 11. Enrollment trends of Indian River State College (IRSC) and Florida Atlantic University (FAU) upper division nursing students (NUR) with nonequivalent control group (SUS NUR), 1991 2011.
139 Figure 4 12. Enrollment trends of Indian River State College (IRSC) and Florida Atlantic University (FAU) upper division exceptional student education students (ESE) with nonequivalent control group (SUS ED), 1991 2011.
140 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Restatement of Purpose and Policy Context The purpose of this study was to examine the enrollment patterns at both state universities and community colleges in close geographic proximity to each other where baccalaureate d egree offerings have been duplicated. Ultimately, this study was designed to provide insight into a key aspect of the community college baccalaureate debate in Florida by examining an important policy question: Are community college baccalaureate program s fulfilling their stated policy goal of increasing access to merely being redistributed into the new community college degree programs? Additional research was conducted to examine the demographic characteristics of students enrolled in community college baccalaureate degree programs as compared with students enrolled in the upper division of state university programs The policy questi on to be addressed here was whether community college baccalaureate programs in Florida are serving the same student populations as state universities, or whether they are they are truly expanding access by attracting students with nontraditional demograph ic characteristics. Primary Research Question The primary research que stion of this study was: How have enrollments community colleges where duplicative baccalaureat e degree programs have been implemented? To provide context for this analysis, enrollment trends at the system
141 level and at the system/program level were first reviewed to reveal patterns in the statewide data. Data for baccalaureate students (all under graduates, freshman through senior) and upper division students (all juniors and seniors) were examined in the SUS along with upper division students in the FCS. At this level, the SUS has consistently recorded year over year increases for all baccalaurea te students and all upper division students for the past twenty years. The rate of change for all baccalaureate students in the ten years prior to 2001 02, when the first FCS baccalaureate programs were authorized, was slightly more (+37.5%) than the grow th rate in the ten year span since 2001 (+33.8%). However, when looking at the more direct comparison of upper division headcount enrollment, the rate of increase since 2001 02 has been very dramatic in the SUS (+54.5% from 2001 to 2011 versus +18.7% from 1991 to 2000). This increase occurred at the same time that the FCS grew its upper division enrollment from zero to 21,517 students. There appears to be no negative impact on upper division SUS system enrollments as a result of authorizing FCS instituti ons to award baccalaureate degrees. In fact, the data suggest just the opposite -that there was a concerted effort in the SUS to increase upper division enrollment once the Florida College System became eligible to enroll upper division students. Given t he number of state reports in the 1990s showing that Florida was falling behind in baccalaureate degree access and production, it is not surprising that both systems have increased their efforts to enroll upper division students since 2001. Against this ba ckdrop, the enrollment trends of upper division students in seven pairs of duplicated programs were examined where the FCS and SUS institutions were
142 in close geographic proximity to each other. The duplicated programs were in the fields of Nursing, Except ional Student Education, and Elementary Education. First, the aggregated enrollment trends for these three programs were examined at the system/program level to understand how enrollments were behaving across the entire state of Florida. Upper division Nursing enrollments in the SUS increased dramatically since the first FCS upper division Nursing enrollments were recorded (+65.4% since 2003 04). This occurred at the same time that the FCS added 2,901 upper division Nursing students. Upper division ESE enrollments in the SUS grew 62.1% since 2003 04. The FCS added 882 upper division ESE students during this same time period. For Elementary Education, the upper division headcount in the SUS decreased by 542 students ( 9.0%) since 2003 04. The FCS adde d 935 upper division Elementary Education students during this same time period. In the SUS, upper division Elementary Education enrollments have been decreasing since 2008 09 and, in the FCS, they decreased from 2010 11 to 2011 12. Upper division enrol lments for all SUS Education programs have also been decreasing since 2008 09. M ajor education reforms were being implemented in Florida and many other states between 2009 and 2011 in conjunction with the federal Race to the Top initiative, and as a r esul t of the policy agenda office. During this time, t eacher performance and pay was tied to student performance on standardized tests T eachers hired after July 1, 2011 were no longer eligible for tenure (Dixon, 201 1) and all state employees were forced to contribute a portion of their salary to the Florida Retirement System for the first time since 1974 (Luhby, 2011 ).
143 Funding for public, preK 12 education in Florida was reduced for several consecutive years, includ ing a 1.35 billion cut in 2011 (Deslatte, 2013). These changes in the political and economic environments of public education appear to have had a major impact on upper division enrollments in both the SUS and the FCS. Fewer students were enrolling in te acher preparation programs. However, an examination of the Elementary Education data between 2001 (when FCS baccalaureate degrees were first authorized) and 2008 (when the history effects in the political and economic environments began to suppress overal l Education enrollments) reveals that upper division Elementary Education enrollment in the SUS increased from 5,810 to 7,002 (+20.5%). An additional 563 upper division Elementary Education students were added by the FCS during this same time. Prior to F there appear to be no negative impacts on SUS upper division Elementary Education enrollment as a result of the new Elementary Education programs in the FCS. In fact, for all three academic programs, Nursing, ESE, and Elementary Education, the data suggest that both systems were able to dramatically increase their upper division headcount enrollments at the same time. But what happened at the sample institutions and programs? Did the introduction of duplicated baccala ureate degree programs in the FCS have an impact on program enrollments at nearby SUS institutions? When looking at net enrollment changes since the initiation of FCS programs, as well as the rate of SUS increases as compared to a nonequivalent control gr oup, the data suggest that the addition of FCS baccalaureate programs did not have a negative impact on SUS enrollments. However, it is important to restate at this point that this study did not employ an experimental
144 design, so causation (or lack of caus ation) cannot be definitively isolated or attributed to a specific event. Later in this chapter, an examination of related demographic data will be presented in an effort to strengthen these findings and triangulate toward a more complete conclusion. At F IU there was a net increase in the Nursing program of 27.7% since the introduction of the MDC Nursing program. The rate of increase at FIU has been less than the rate of increase for all SUS upper division Nursing programs; however, that was also the case at FIU prior to initiation of the MDC Nursing program. Upper division enrollments for ESE at these two institutions represent the only instance when an SUS program recorded upper division enrollments after an FCS program. Both programs have increased thei r upper division enrollments over the past three years, even as overall upper division Education enrollments in the SUS have been decreasing. At USF there was a net increase in the Nursing program of 107.1% since the introduction of the SPC Nursing program The rate of increase at USF was lower than the rate of increase for all SUS upper division Nursing programs; however that was also the case prior to initiation of the SPC Nursing program. For ESE programs at USF there has been a net decrease of 53 stud ents ( 34.6%) since the first SPC enrollments were recorded. However, when looking at the years between approval of the SPC ESE program in 2001 02 when the first ESE enrollments most likely occurred, and 2008 09 when overall SUS Education enrollments bega n to decline due to education reform in Florida, there was actually an increase in ESE enrollment at USF of 33.7%. For Elementary Education, the results are similar to ESE. At USF there was a net decrease of 358 students ( 28%) since 2003 04 when the fir st SPC enrollments were recorded.
145 However, between 2001 02 (approval of the SPC program) and 2008 09 (the beginning of system wide Education enrollment declines), the upper division Elementary Education enrollment at USF actually increased from 1,484 to 1 ,541 (+3.8%). At FAU there was a net increase in the Nursing program of 13.8% since the introduction of the IRSC Nursing program. The rate of increase at FAU was less than the rate of increase for all SUS upper division Nursing programs; however that was also the case in the five years prior to initiation of the IRSC Nursing program. With respect to ESE enrollments at FAU, they have declined 26.3% since IRSC began to enroll upper division ESE students in 2007 08. However, four of the five years of data i n this time period correspond to overall upper division Education program enrollment declines in the SUS, so it is not unexpected that FAU enrollments would decline at the same time. In fact, upper division ESE enrollments at FAU have been on a steady dow nward trend since reaching their peak in 1994 95. One final way to examine the impacts on SUS upper division enrollments due to FCS program duplication is to look at first year effects. In other words, what happened to enrollments in the SUS programs dur ing the first year that the FCS programs enrolled students? For the FIU Nursing program, there was an increase from the prior year (+4.4%) but that was after two years of double digit percentage increases. FIU also experienced a slight drop from 640 to 636 students ( 0.6%) in Nursing enrollments SUS Nursing enrollments that same year. In the ESE program, FIU enrollments began after MDC initiated its program. In this case we look for any drop in MDC ESE enrollments when the FIU program began. FIU opened with 76 students in 2005 06 and
146 MDC experienced a drop in upper division ESE headcount from 106 to 64 ( 39.6%). At USF there was no decrease in Nursing enrollment in 2003 04 (the first year of SPC reported data), nor for the first year of program approval (2001 02). However, there was a decrease in upper division Nursing enrollment at USF in 2000 01 ( 8.3%). This would have been the year prior to the SPC Nursing program a pproval. This seems significant since it was the only decrease in upper division Nursing enrollment at USF between 1991 92 and 2007 08; but, upper division Nursing enrollments in the entire SUS also dipped that same year. For the ESE program at USF, ther e was a decrease in enrollment during 2003 04 when SPC first reported ESE enrollment. Additionally, overall SUS ED enrollments were trending up at that same time. However, for the year the SPC program was approved (2001 02), USF reported a massive 447.4 % increase in ESE enrollments (from 19 students to 104 students). There was no drop in Elementary Education enrollments at USF in 2003 04 (the first year of SPC Elementary Education data), nor in 2001 02 when SPC was first approved to offer Elementary Edu cation and most likely enrolled its first students. USF did experience a 9.1% decrease in upper division Elementary Education headcount in 2002 03 (corresponding to the second year of the SPC program). The fact that enrollments were increasing that year for all Education programs in the SUS adds importance to this finding. At FAU, there was not a decrease in upper division Nursing enrollment during 2007 08 (the first year of the IRSC program). However, Nursing enrollment did decrease from 694 to 600 ( 1 3.5%) in the second year of the IRSC Nursing program. It should be noted that overall SUS Nursing enrollments dipped that same year. For ESE at FAU, upper division enrollments did decrease 7.6% in 2007 08 when IRSC began its ESE program. ESE
147 enrollments in the SUS were still increasing at this time, so the possibility that IRSC enrollments impacted FAU enrollments in the short term cannot be dismissed. Here it is important to remember, though, that FAU ESE enrollments have been trending predominantly do wnward since 1994 95. Overall, there is some evidence for short term, initial enrollment declines in Education programs when new programs were initiated, especially if the window for analysis extends from 1 year prior to the new program enrollments/progra m approval, through 2 years after the first new program enrollments/program approval. Secondary Research Question The secondary research question of this study was: How do the demographics of community college baccalaureate students in the Florida College System differ from those of upper A total of nine demographic variables were compared for the total populations of upper division students in all academic programs in the FCS (using 2010 unduplica ted annual headcount) and the SUS (using 2010 unduplicated Fall headcount) Analysis at the system level and the system/program level revealed many differences and some similarities. At the system level there were large differences in median age and exp ected family contribution (EFC) for federal financial aid purposes. Median age in the FCS was 31 as compared to a median age of 22 in the SUS. Median EFC for the FCS p opulation was $648 vs. $3,487 for the SUS population. Cumulative GPA for students in t he two systems was remarkably similar (3.12 in the FCS versus 3.14 in the SUS). For the categorical variables of gender, race/ethnicity, full time/part time status, and dependency status there were, again, large differences between students in the two
148 pop ulations. The proportion of females was higher in the FCS (71%) versus the SUS (58%). The proportion of minority students was higher in the SUS (55% White in the SUS compared to 64% White in the FCS). With regard to full time/part time status, the diffe rence was very dramatic (13% full time in the FCS vs. 78 % full time in the SUS). Dependency status was also dramatically different (8 4% independent in the FCS vs. 33 % independent in the SUS). For transfer status and Florida residency status, the populati ons were much more similar: 4 5% transfer in the FCS versus 51 % transfer in the SUS, and 97% Florida residents in the FCS compared with 98% Florida residents in the SUS. These same patterns in the data hold for the three continuous variables at the syste m/program level as well. While the magnitude of the differences fluctuates somewhat depending on the academic program, the FCS students in all cases are several years older than their SUS counterparts, they have a slightly lower median GPA than SUS studen ts, and their EFC is dramatically less than that of SUS students. In the case of Exceptional Student Education, the median EFC of FCS students is actually zero (IQR = $0 $2,98 8) versus a median EFC of $3,337 (IQR = $0 $9,532 ) for SUS ESE students. For the categorical variables at the system/program level, the patterns are basically the same as those at the system level; however, there are some noteworthy relationships to report. There a re more men in the FCS ESE and Elementary Education programs than in th e same SUS programs ( 12% in FCS ESE vs. 8% in SUS ESE, and 10% i n FCS Elementary Education vs. 6 % is SUS Elementary Education). This runs counter to the overall system data which shows 29% of all FCS students a re male
149 versus 42% of all SUS students. The overall pattern of higher minority student representation in SUS programs is consistent for Nursing and Elementary Education; but, for ESE, the percentage of White students i s higher in the SUS programs (68 %) th an in the FCS programs (46%). Full time/part time status at the system/program level is consistent with the system level data in which FCS students are far more likely to be part time. However, the proportions do change by program for the FCS students. For Nursing, 96% of FCS students are part time, for ESE the percentage drops to 83%, and for Elementary Education, the percentage drops even more to 78%. The median age of students in the FCS decreases for these three programs as well (35 for FCS Nursing 27 for FCS ESE, and 25 for FCS Elementary Education) so it seems apparent that older students in the FCS tend to take classes on a more part time basis than younger students. For dependency status, in all cases at the system/program level the FCS studen ts are more financially independent than the SUS students. For the FCS studen ts the percentages range from 95 % independent for Nursing to 77% independent for ESE. The levels are very different in the SUS as well with 52% independent for SUS ESE students 42% independent for Elementary Education, and 41% independent for Nursing students in the SUS. The overall percentage in the SUS was even lower at 33 %. Transfer status sho ws some variation by program. Approximately h alf of all SUS students at the syste m level are classified as transfer students as compared with 45% of FCS students. In Nursing, these figures are about the same; but, for ESE and Elementary Education, the numbers trend lower for FCS students and higher for SUS students. For ESE, only 30% of FCS students are transfer students while 67% are transfer students in the SUS ESE programs. In Elementary Education programs, 30%
150 are transfers in the FCS and 64 % are transfers in the SUS. Florida residency status in all three academic programs is be tween 97% and 99% for both FCS and SUS students. These findings demonstrate very conclusively that the Florida College System served a different, more nontrad itional, student population than the State University System in 2010. Essentially, the FCS studen ts were older, more financially independent for income tax purposes, yet less able to pay for college. They were also attending college on a much more part time basis than their SUS counterparts. The FCS programs were over represented with women; however many of the FCS academic programs lead to careers that have been traditionally dominated by women namely, teaching and nursing. Interestingly, the FCS baccalaureate degree programs in ESE and Elementary Education attracted higher percentages of men than the same SUS programs. From the standpoint of enrolling nontraditional students, the biggest surprise is that the SUS enrolled more minority students in the upper division than the FCS. Community colleges have traditionally been the entry point to high er education for a large percentage of racial and ethnic minorities. To have found more minority students in the Florida State University System at the upper division seems counterintuitive. Also, somewhat counterintuitive is the similarity between the t wo populations with regard to transfer status. It is well known that about half of the students in the upper alone; but, having 45% of FCS upper division students classifi ed as transfer students means that they attended at least one other institution of higher education during their journey toward a baccalaureate degree. The common assumption is that FCS students
151 are place bound by jobs, families, and/or community commitme nts; but, clearly, about half of the upper division students in the FCS had opportunities, at some point in their educational careers, to attend other institutions. With the increasing availability of online baccalaureate programs in recent years, and wit h the pervasive media coverage about the high cost of college tuition, it will be interesting to learn if transfer rates into FCS baccalaureate programs increase over time. Conclusions One of the advantages of secondary data analysis is that data from mult iple sources can be reviewed, combined, and applied to a given set of research questions. For this study, the primary research question dealt with how enrollments changed when duplicated baccalaureate degree programs were implemented in close geographic p roximity to each other. Whether looking at the system level, the system/program level, or the institutional/program level, the enrollment trend data suggest that enrollments continue to increase over time unless impacted by larger history effects. There was no evidence that increasing FCS enrollments corresponded with decreasing SUS enrollments. In fact, at the system level and at the system/program level, SUS upper division enrollments increased at faster rates since FCS institutions were first authoriz ed to award baccalaureate degrees in 2001 02. At the sample institution/program level, there was no evidence of short term enrollment declines at SUS Nursing programs that were associated with the sta rt up of FCS Nursing programs For ESE and Elementary Education programs, there was limited evidence of short term effects on enrollments at existing programs when the window of analysis was extended from one year before program approval or first enrollment, to two years after program approval or first enroll ment. This phenomenon was observed when FCS programs were initiated after
152 SUS programs, and also in the one instance when an SUS program was initiated after the FCS program (the ESE program at MDC and FIU). These effects appear to be short term with enro llments increasing again in subsequent years unless acted upon by SUS Education programs since 2008 09. The secondary research question of this study dealt with wheth er there were differences in the demographic characteristics of students in the FCS baccalaureate programs as compared to the upper division students in the SUS. Clearly, there were major differences in all of the variables with the exception of GPA and F lorida residency. The data from the cross sectional analysis of demographic characteristics also supports the findings from the longitudinal analysis of enrollment trends. It does not appear that SUS stu dents simply moved into duplic ated FCS programs whe n they beca me operational. The demographic data, particularly on age, expected family contribution, full time/part time status, and dependency status show ed that students in the two, public systems of higher education were very different in 2010 If the two systems were serving the same kinds of student s, the demographic data would have been much more similar. Implicati ons for Policymakers The topic of community college baccalaureate degrees exists in a highly charged policy context in the state of Florid a. The debates about how to increase access to baccalaureate education have been in progress for more than twenty years. Questions about programmatic duplication have been pervasive during the last two decades, and many legislators and higher education l eaders are still suspicious and unsure about the role of Florida College System institutions as providers of upper division instruction and
153 question: Are community college baccalaureate programs fulfilling their stated policy college programs? It seems cl ear from both the longitudinal analysis of enrollment trends, and the cross sectional analysis of demographic characteristics, that baccalaureate programs in the Florida College System are successfully fulfilling the stated policy goal of increasing access Working together, the SUS and the FCS enrolled more baccalaureate students than ever before in the state of Florida (a total of 187,363 students at the upper division in 2011 12). When the 21,517 baccalaureate students in the FCS are added to the 254, 351 undergraduates in the SUS, Florida had 275,868 baccalaureate students enrolled in 2011 12 (a 45% increase since 2001 02 when the first FCS baccalaureate degrees were authorized). Perhaps more importantly, no negative enrollment impacts have been obser ved at the system level or at the system/program level that correspond with FCS enrollment increases. At the institutional/program level, no negative enrollment impacts were observed for the Nursing programs that were sampled. For the Education programs that were sampled, short term enrollment drops related to the start up of FCS and SUS programs cannot be eliminated as a possibility. Enrollments in these programs showed positive increases in subsequent years, notwithstanding the history effects of Flori A second and related poli cy question to be addressed by this study was whether community college baccalaureate programs in Florida are serving the same student
154 populations as state universities or whether they are they are truly expanding access by attracting students with different demographic characteristics. Comparing population data from both systems across nine demographic characteristics for the year 2010 showed that FCS institutions served a very different student population than SUS institutions. This was true for the familiar variables of age, gender, and full time/part time status. This study confirms the data reported by the Florida College System (2011) with regard to age, gender, and full time/part time status. This study also extends our understanding of the students being served by both systems with regard to demographic variables that highlight the differences between traditional and nont raditional student populations -such as expected family contribution and dependency status. Taken together, the differences among these demographic variables provide very strong evidence that different, more nontraditional student populations were served by FCS baccalaureate programs. The data, analyses, and conclusions contained in this study represent an important next step in the process of evaluating commun ity college baccalaureate policy in Florida and, perhaps, in other states as well. Comprehensive policy evaluation examines not only whether a policy is meeting its stated goals; but, also whether there are other alternatives that are more cost effective, more successful, or more attractive to the stakeholders and policymakers who ar e invested in a given issue. It is acknow ledged that a comprehensive policy evaluation was beyond the scope of this dissertati on research; but, answering critical questions ab out enrollment impacts from duplicated programs, and about increasing access for nontraditional stude nt
155 populations, does advance the work of thoroughly evaluating community college baccalaureate policy in Florida. Implications for Higher Education Pract iti oners For higher education practitioners, particularly in Florida, this stud y is useful in several ways. It provides data for a potential model of new baccalaureate program enrollment growth at FCS institutions based on past experience. It also provid es a snapshot of the demographic characteristics in FCS and SUS baccalaureate programs important information for decisions about marketing, support services, class scheduling, scholarships and financial aid, co curricular programming, and student progressi on. Administrators at both FCS and SUS institutions may find this research to be useful for discussions about the impact (or lack of impact) of proposed FCS baccalaureate programs on enrollments at other institutions of higher education. The methodology used in this study for examining enrollment trends by pairing baccalaureate programs with identical CIP codes that are in close geographic proximity to each other may provide a useful model for evaluating community college baccalaureate pilot projects, or anticipating program level impacts in other states. Recommendations for Further Research Floyd (2005) noted that policymakers need more information and more data upon which to make decisions about the future of community college baccalaureate degrees. This study utilized an evaluation research approach featuring secondary analysis of existing, quantitative data sets. Continued monitoring of enrollment trends and demographic characteristics over time will help to determine if enrollment impacts are chan ging as more and more baccalaureate degree programs are authorized in the FCS, or if there are shifts over time in the demographic make up of FCS and SUS upper
156 division students. degree p rograms in disciplines such as Biology, Business Administration, and Accounting that duplicate the offerings of nearby SUS institutions. It would be valuable to add enrollment trends for these new programs to the trends identified in the research for this dissertation. Likewise, f rom a n access and policy perspective it will be important to know how the proportions of minority students and men are changing in both SUS and FCS institutions Thus, a longitudinal analysis of demographic data (as opposed to the cross sectional analysis used for this study) would be especially enlightening. Ultimately, a s enrollments and demographics are documented over longer spans of time, more advanced research designs, quasi experimental methods, and predictive analytics will become possible. ovement is one of the history effects that seem to have impacted enrollments in both FCS and SUS Education programs. However, there are other history effects that need to be explored, such as the effect of employment levels on upper division enrollments in FCS and SUS programs. It is well known that lower division enrollments in the FCS run in a countercyclical pattern to employment; but, what about enrollments in specific programs at the upper division? The impact of grant funding on enrollments is another topic worthy of more research. Florida funded a program of Succeed Grants at FCS and SUS institutions to increase the production of nurses and teachers during the mid to late 2000s. Understanding the short term and long term impact of these Succeed Grant progr ams on FCS and SUS enrollment would add another dimension of validity and understanding to this study.
157 An examination of the enrollment trends at other types of Florida institutions would provide an excellent extension of this research. Recently, it has been stated that the nonprofit, Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida (ICUF institutions) have been negatively impacted by the increasing number of FCS baccalaureate programs (Vogel, 2013). It would be good to know if this claim is based on re search and analysis of enrollment trends, or if it is simply political posturing. I nformation about start up costs, changes to operating costs over time, and/or changes to tuition and fees over time would be another important topic to overlay with the en rollment trends and demographic data in order to produce a more complete policy programs for students, for institutions, and for the state is of great interest to policymak ers and practitioners alike. Finally, applying the methodology of this study to explore the enrollment trends and demographic characteristics of duplicated community college baccalaureate programs in other states would help to determine if these research findings have a broader application beyond the state of Florida. As Campbell (2005) noted, the Florida approach to increasing baccalaureate degree access and production by authorizi ng community colleges to award four year degrees may not be the best appr oach for all other states. Replicating this study in other states (or countries) with different higher education governance structures, financial resources, and population dynamics would most likely be of benefit to local policymakers and the larger commu nity of scholars who are interested in this topic.
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166 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ian Phillip Neuhard is currently the Associate Dean of Baccalaureate Programs at Indian River State College. He has twenty five years of experience as an educator and administrator including service to public schools, public community colleges, private universities, and the Florida Department of Education. Dr. Neuhard holds an Associate in Arts degree from Valencia Community College, a Bachelor of Science degree in English Language Arts Educa degree in Community Services Administration from Alfred University, and a Doctor of Education in Higher Education Administration from the University of Florida. Prior to assuming his duties at Indian River State College, Dr. Neuhard served as the Director of Academic Programs and Teacher Preparation for the Florida Division of Community Colleges and Workforce Education. In that role, he developed policy recommendations system, and he provided statewide oversight for the implementation of Educator Preparation Institutes and community college baccalaureate degree programs.