Technofunctional Analysis of Pottery from the Late Neolithic and the Early Bronze Periods

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Technofunctional Analysis of Pottery from the Late Neolithic and the Early Bronze Periods Material Culture in the Formation of Ethnic Identity in Korea
Lee, Jaehoon
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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Anthropology ( jstor )
Archaeological paradigms ( jstor )
Archaeology ( jstor )
Bronzes ( jstor )
Cultural anthropology ( jstor )
Korean culture ( jstor )
Material culture ( jstor )
Peninsulas ( jstor )
Pottery ( jstor )
Rice ( jstor )
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
archaeology -- eastasia -- ethnicity -- identity -- korea -- nationalism -- neolithic -- pottery -- sedentism -- technofunction
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
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Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.


Ethnoarchaeological research worldwide has revealed diverse relationships between pottery decoration and aspects of group identity. Many Korean scholars emphasize decoration styles in pottery analysis and regard these as markers reflecting the norms of homogeneous groups. While Korean scholars have focused on pottery stylistic attributes in classifying cultural identities of regional and temporal variations, technological and functional aspects of pottery that inform on subsistence patterns of past societies has seldom been seriously examined and discussed in Korean archaeology. One of the principal purposes of this research therefore is to assert that technofunctional perspectives on pottery are beneficial for Korean archaeology. In this research, two sites that share similar chronological periods are selected in the analysis of internal and external features, such as rim diameter, surface treatment, wall thickness, and so forth. Although it is not easy to quantify these attributes in a meaningful way, the data from these attributes are used to observe temporal and spatial variations. The resulting data are used to determine whether the traditionally divided regional variations of the Neolithic pottery cultures in Korea can be replicated using technofunctional criteria. Findings point to a certain level of similarity on some technofunctional attributes of pottery between the sites, and various temporal and regional variations of technofunctional attributes on the pottery collections has been observed. Based on the research results, it is argued that the traditionally accepted regional identities of Korean Neolithic groups based on pottery stylistic pattern is still relevant but the stylistic variations in the transition period from the Neolithic to the Bronze period should not be considered simply as results of population migrations. Thus, with more sample data and extensive work, the technofunctional approach of pottery offers further potential for testing previously accepted models related with the spread of Neolithic pottery cultures in Korea. ( en )
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
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2 2013 Jaehoon Lee


3 To my family


4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS It has been more than 15 years since I decided to study anthropology after taking an anthropological intro class as one of required liberal arts classes in my country. I believe d While I am sti ll struggling to find a proper answer for many of these questions, I still have learned and realized many things from anthropological perspectives after more than a decade of my own journey in anthropology. I am supposedly better trained to have multicultu ral and diversity perspectives of human societies, regardless that the moments of my own biased judgments on the events in daily life have increased. Actually, as a person being further educated to contain balanced perspectives on many controversial issues in human society, the road for finding a better answer on my own question as a person is getting bumpier. As life goes on, I expect and hope that it will be more simplified for the remainder of my life. While I needed to manage a busy family life, the jou rney of writing my dissertation has been a long road. I have many people to credit for my successes. Without the help from faculty members, friends, and family, I could not have continued my journey in the anthropology world. I appreciate their thoughtful advice and friendship when needed. I also appreciate that I was able to have a good and effective graduate education at the University of Florida. I also would like to thank my committee chair, Dr. Kenneth Sassaman, for his guidance in the research, analys is, and writing of this dissertation and for his encouragement during my time at the University of Florida. I also thank Dr. Steven Brandt, Dr. John Krigbaum, Dr. Augusto Oyuela Caycedo, and Dr. Benjamin Smith for serving on my dissertation committee and t heir advice on all kinds of things I had faced in Gainesville. All these professors were vital in my graduate study at


5 the University of Florida. I also would like to thank my other mentor, Dr. Sara Nelson, for her guidance, encouragement, and positive fee dback throughout my graduate study, along with sharing her own experience on how to successfully get through a graduate study as being a parent. I would like to thank my friends and all those who have helped me along the way during my studies in Gai nesville; I owe many things to my colleagues who shared the archaeological lab, and I am especially grateful to my friends with whom we shared concerns and frustrations. Many thanks go to my friends, Rae and Wayne, who encouraged me and spent their time to read my writing; I especially owe a huge debt of gratitude to Rae who provided a great amount of time to help improve my writing, which allowed me to produce a better document. A special thanks also to Ann Cordell, director of the Ceramics Technology Labo ratory at the Florida Museum of Natural History, not only for allowing me to use her lab and equipment for my pottery re firing analysis, but also for sharing her time and experience throughout my lab working. I would like to thank Dr. Gwon Gu Kim at Keimyung University and Dr. Sung Joo Lee at the Kangnung National University (Gangneung Wonju National University) for allowing me to access to their collections of Neolithic potteries, which made my dissertation research possible, and for their thought ful advice. This project also could not have been carried out without the assistance of the museum staff. I would like to thank all of them for their time, especially Mr. Gung Hyun Nam. Financially, major funding for this dissertation was provided b y the Northeast Asian History Foundation, along with other support, including the Harvard Yenching Library Travel Grant, a Charles H. Fairbanks scholarship from the Department of Anthropology,


6 and the supplemental retention scholarship from the graduate sc hool at the University of Florida. I am grateful for these organizations and institutions for their support. Most importantly, I would like to thank my family for their endless love, which gave me the strength to complete my long graduate studies in the Un ited States. None of this would have been possible without their support. I offer my heartfelt appreciation to my parents, sister, and brother in law for their encouragement and advice and for the many sacrifices they have made over the years. Without thei r support, my journey in the anthropology world would not have been initiated. My greatest debt is to the love of my life, my wife Kyungmi, whose love and care at home allowed and helped me keep focused on my goal. Without all the support I receive d from her, it is unlikely that I could have extended my long journey under sail in the anthropological sea and eventually completed this long dissertation journey. I also must thank my daughters, Andrea and Erin, who were with me through difficult periods as well as good times over the last years. I love you all for the inspiration, love, and most of all, patience. I would like to express again my deepest gratitude to all my family members. This dissertation is dedicated to them.


7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 15 CHAPTER 1 INTERPRETATIONS OF POTTERY ATTRIBUTES IN ARCHAEOLOGY .............. 17 Technofunctional Attributes of Pottery ................................ ................................ .... 19 Re search Questions and Methods ................................ ................................ .......... 21 Signification and Contribution ................................ ................................ ................. 25 Organization of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 27 2 N ATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND PALEOLITHIC PERIOD IN KOREA .................. 29 Natural Geography ................................ ................................ ................................ 29 Paleoclimates ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 33 Paleolithic Korean A rchaeology ................................ ................................ .............. 38 Acheulean Handaxes in Korea ................................ ................................ ............... 39 T he Late Paleolithic P eriod ................................ ................................ ..................... 41 Human P opulation in East Asia ................................ ................................ .............. 43 Summary and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ....................... 46 3 FORAGER TO FARMER AND ORIGIN OF RICE ................................ .................. 49 Foragers and Farmers ................................ ................................ ............................ 49 Transition to Farming and Theoretical F ramework ................................ ................. 50 The Korean Agricultural T ransition ................................ ................................ ......... 53 Archaeology and Rice Cultivation in Asia ................................ ............................... 57 Rice Cultivation in Korea ................................ ................................ ......................... 59 Sorori Rice in Korea ................................ ................................ ................................ 63 Cultivated or Wild? ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 66 Rice Biology ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 69 Discussion and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ..................... 70 4 KOREAN NEOLITHIC POTTERY CULTURE AND ORIGIN OF KOREAN IDENTITY ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 76 Neolithic Packages in East Asia ................................ ................................ ............. 76 First Pottery Making in East Asia ................................ ................................ ............ 78


8 Chronological Issues in Korean A rchaeology ................................ ......................... 80 Neolithic Period ................................ ................................ ................................ 82 Bronze Period ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 82 Chulmun Pottery Studies ................................ ................................ ........................ 84 Chulmun Pottery Stylistic Approach ................................ ................................ 88 Chulmun Pottery Cultures ................................ ................................ ................ 90 Origin of Chulmun Pottery and Its Spreading in Korea ................................ ........... 95 Transition from Chulmun to Mumun ................................ ................................ 98 The Relations between Chulmun and Mumun Pottery Cultures ..................... 100 Origins of the Chulmun and Mumun P ottery C ultures and Korean Identity ........... 1 03 Population Replacements ................................ ................................ ............... 104 Evolution In place Formation ................................ ................................ .......... 108 Biological Features of Korean and Its Neighboring Regions ................................ 110 Languages in East Asia and Korean ................................ ................................ ..... 114 Summary and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ..................... 115 5 A RCHAEOLOGICAL IDENTITY AND POTTERY STUDIES ................................ 117 Culture in A rchaeology ................................ ................................ .......................... 117 Culture History School ................................ ................................ .......................... 120 Migration and Diffusion ................................ ................................ ......................... 121 Culture Change in Archaeological Records ................................ .......................... 125 Culture C hange and Individual in Postprocessual A rchaeology ..................... 128 Cultural Transition to M ore C omplex S ocieties in Archaeology ...................... 130 Archaeology as Anthropology and Identity in Archaeological Study ..................... 132 Ethnicity in Identity ................................ ................................ ......................... 134 Development of Identity and Ethnic History in Archaeology ........................... 136 Identity in Pottery Studies ................................ ................................ ..................... 141 Style and Social Function fro m Pottery Studies ................................ .................... 146 Technofunctional Attributes on P ottery ................................ ................................ 151 Summary and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ..................... 157 6 T HE SAMPLE AND METHOD ................................ ................................ .............. 160 Technofunctional Studies in Korea ................................ ................................ ....... 160 Naming Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 164 Data G athering ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 165 Site Descriptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 165 Method of Analysis ................................ ................................ ............................... 172 Recording Observed Attributes ................................ ................................ ............. 174 Projected Form and Function of P ottery ................................ ............................... 184 Styl istic Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 186 Summary and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ..................... 187


9 7 R EPORTING RESULTS ................................ ................................ ....................... 189 Results of the Analysis ................................ ................................ .......................... 189 Decorations on P ottery ................................ ................................ ......................... 209 Metric D ata in the P ottery S tudy ................................ ................................ ........... 218 Pottery Functional Analysis ................................ ................................ ................... 221 8 DISCUSSION OF POTTERY STUDY IN KOREA ................................ ................ 227 Pottery Decoratio n Studies and Arguments ................................ .......................... 227 Prehistoric P ottery C ultures and O rigin of Korean P eople ................................ .... 231 Long T erm L ocal D evelopment of P rehisto ric Korean P ottery C ultures ................ 234 Pottery and Sedentary Society ................................ ................................ ............. 237 Ordinary P ottery in A rchaeology ................................ ................................ ........... 240 Changes on Pottery Attributes ................................ ................................ .............. 241 Decoration and Cultural Identity ................................ ................................ ............ 245 S ummary and C onclus ion ................................ ................................ ..................... 247 9 DISCUSSION OF NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGY ................................ .................. 250 Material Culture and Social Identity ................................ ................................ ...... 250 Archaeological Identity and Nationality ................................ ................................ 252 National A rchaeology in East Asia ................................ ................................ ........ 254 History of Korean Ar chaeology and Japanese Colonial Archaeology ................... 255 Northeastern Project (Dongbei Gongcheng) ................................ ......................... 257 The Future of National Archaeology in Korea ................................ ....................... 261 Summary and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ..................... 267 10 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 270 Archae ology as Anthropology in Korean A rchaeology? ................................ ........ 272 Identity, Nationalism and Ethic ................................ ................................ .............. 280 Significance, Limitations and Recommendatio ns ................................ .................. 282 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 290 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 350


10 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 7 1 Lip shapes between the Jigyungri Neolithic residential units 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7. .. 190 7 2 Lip shapes among the residential, open storage, open kiln, and open pit units from the Songjookri Neolithic site. ................................ ................................ .... 190 7 3 Lip shapes among the residential, dolmen, and non residential units from the Songjookri Bronze site. ................................ ................................ ..................... 190 7 4 Lip shapes between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. ................................ ................................ ................................ 190 7 5 Lip shapes between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential units. .. 190 7 6 Rim angles between the Jigyungri Neolithic residential units 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7. 191 7 7 Rim angles among the residential, open storage, open kiln, and open pit units from the Songjookri Neolithic site. ................................ ............................ 191 7 8 Rim angles among the residential, dolmen, and non resident ial units from the Songjookri Bronze site. ................................ ................................ ..................... 192 7 9 Rim angles between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. ................................ ................................ ................................ 192 7 10 Rim angles between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential units. 193 7 11 groups (Neo =Neolithic, Bron=Bronze, Resi=Residential). ................................ 193 7 12 Surface Feeling among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.=Jigyungri, S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). ................................ .. 197 7 13 Visible core type pattern among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.=Jigyungri, S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). ................................ .. 200 7 14 Core colors among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups ...................... 204 7 15 Exterior color among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.=Jigyungri, S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). ................................ .. 207 7 16 Decorated vs. Undecorated among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.=Jigyungri, S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). ....................... 209 7 17 Decorated styles among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.=Jigyungri, S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). ................................ .. 211


11 7 18 Decorated positions among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.=Jigyungri, S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). ................................ .. 214 7 19 Decorated techniques among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.=Jigyungri, S.=Songjookr i, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). ................................ .. 216 7 20 Metric data among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups ....................... 218 7 21 Rim diameter ranges among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.=Jigyungri, S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). ................................ .. 219


12 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2 1 Eas t Asia. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 30 2 2 Map of major rivers and mountain ranges on the Korean Peninsula. ................. 31 2 3 Present sea level (m) in the Yellow Sea a nd Korea Strait ............................... 34 2 4 The Pleistocene shoreline ................................ ................................ .................. 35 2 5 Tanged Points ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 42 3 1 Discussed rice diffusion routes. ................................ ................................ .......... 60 3 2 Phytogeographic Zones at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum, 21 000 15 000 years in East Asia ................................ ................................ ................... 65 4 1 Neolithic pottery groups in the Korean Peninsula ................................ ............... 86 6 1 Location of the archaeological sites and their aerial photos ............................. 166 6 2 Jigyungri Potteries from the Neolithic Period. ................................ ................... 1 68 6 3 Songjookri Potteries from the Neolithic Period ................................ ................. 170 6 4 Songjookri Potteries from the Bronze Age ................................ ........................ 171 6 5 S ix simplified core patterns recorded ................................ ................................ 179 7 1 Rim angles among the So ngjookri Bronze residential, nonresidential and dolmen groups in Table 7 8 ................................ ................................ ............. 192 7 2 from the Neolithic Jigyungri residential group in Table 7 11. ............................ 194 7 3 kiln, and open pit units from the Songjookri Neolithic site. ................................ 194 7 4 the residential, non residential and dolmen groups from the Songjookri Bronze site. ................................ .............. 195 7 5 Vis residential units from the Songjookri site. ................................ ......................... 196 7 6 Songjook ri residential units. ................................ ................................ .............. 196


13 7 7 Surface feeling among the residential, dolmen, and non residential units from the Songjookri Bronze site. ................................ ................................ ............... 198 7 8 Visible core type pattern between the residential units 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7 from the Neolithic Jigyungri residential units. ................................ ............................ 201 7 9 Visible core type pattern among the residential open storage, open kiln, and open pit units from the Songjookri Neolithic site. ................................ .............. 201 7 10 Visible core type pattern among the residential, dolmen, and non residential units from the Songjook ri Bronze site. ................................ .............................. 202 7 11 Visible core type pattern between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. ................................ ................................ ................... 203 7 12 Visible core type pattern between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential units. ................................ ................................ ................................ 204 7 13 Core color between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. ................................ ................................ ................................ 205 7 14 Core color between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential units. ... 206 7 15 Exterior color between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. ................................ ................................ ................................ 208 7 16 Exterior color between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential sites ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 209 7 17 Decorated vs. undecorated pottery between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. ................................ ......................... 210 7 18 Decoration styles between the Neolit hic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. ................................ ................................ ................................ 212 7 19 Decoration styles between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential sites. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 213 7 20 Decoration positions between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. ................................ ................................ ........................... 214 7 21 Decoration positions between the Jigyungri and Songj ookri Neolithic residential sites. ................................ ................................ ................................ 215 7 22 Decoration techniques between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. ................................ ................................ ................... 217


14 7 23 Decoration techniques between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential sites. ................................ ................................ ................................ 217 7 24 Firing marks on pottery among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample grou ps. ... 223


15 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy TECHNOFUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF POTTERY FROM THE LATE NEOLITHIC AND THE EARLY B RONZE PERIODS: MATERIAL CULTURE IN THE FORMATION OF ETHNIC IDENTITY IN KOREA By Jaehoon Lee December 2013 Chair: Kenneth E. Sassaman Major: Anthropology Ethnoarchaeological research worldwide has revealed d iverse relationships between pottery decoration and aspects of group identity. Many Korean scholars emphasize decoration styles in pottery analysis and regard these as mark ers reflecting the norms of homogeneous group s While Korean scholars have focused o n pottery stylistic attributes in classifying cultural identities of regional and temporal variations, technological and functional aspect s o f pottery t hat inform on subsistence pa tterns of past societies has seldom been seriously examined and discussed in Korean archaeology. One of the principal purposes of this research therefore is to assert that technofunctional perspectives on pottery are beneficial for Korean archaeology. In this research, two sites that share similar chronological periods are select ed in the analysis of internal and external features, such as rim diameter, surface treatment, wall thickness, and so forth. Although it is not easy to quantify these attributes in a meaningful way, the data from these att ributes are used to observe tempor al and spatial variations. Th e resulting data are used to determine whether the traditionally divided


16 regional variations of the Neolithic pottery cultures in Korea can be replicated using techno functional criteria. Findings point to a certain lev el of si milarity on some techno functional attributes of pottery between the sites and various temporal an d regional variations of techno functional attributes on the pottery collections has been observed. Based on the research results, it is argued that the tradit ion ally accepted regional identities of Korean Neolithic groups based on pottery stylistic pattern is still relevant but the stylistic variations in the transition period from the Neolithic to the Bronze period should not be considered simply as results of population migrations. Thus, with more sample data and extensive work, the technofunctional approach of pottery offers further potential for testing previously accepted models related with the spread of Neolithic pottery cultures in Korea.


17 CHAPTER 1 INTER PRETATIONS OF POTTERY ATTRIBUTES IN ARCHAEOLOGY Since the time archaeology was introduced to the East Asian countries, one of its major goals is to construct a national identity and to improve the national pride for all countries in the region ( Fawcett 199 5 ; Ikawa Smith 1999 ; Nelson 1995b ). Pottery studies are regarded as one of the most important works in archaeology, especially for East Asian peoples who have generally sought their national history in the Neolithic period (Trigger 1989: 174 189) C urrently most arguments regarding the cultural identities of Neolithic pottery groups in the region have been discussed and emphasized by chronological and cultural sequences based mostly on st ylistic variations and changes i n the pottery. Although the earliest kn own Korean pottery dates back to 1 2 000 BP, the most representative type from the Korean Neolithic period is Chulmun patterned pottery which began to appear around 8 000 BP ( Ch oe and Bale 2002, 2006; Y. H Chung 1997 ; Im 2000 ). Korean Neolithic culture is often called the comb patterned pottery period, but sometimes referred to as the geometric pottery ( Chulmun togi or J eulmuntogi in Korean) period. The common characteristic of t his pottery (as implied by its name) is a variety of combed decorations executed by shar p implements such as bones, sticks or even fingernai ls. T his type of decoration occurs on pottery across a broad area from the Scandinavian region to the Volga River, L ake Baikal and Maritime areas in Russia and from Mongolia and Southern Manchuria to the Kyushu Island in J apan (Im 1983, 1995, 1999; W. Y. Kim 1972, 1981, 1983a). In the Late Neolithic period (4 000 3 000 BP), a new style of pottery called plain pottery or plain coarse pottery ( Mumun togi in Korean) appeared. While this type of pottery is generally undecorated, some are minimally


18 adorned by incising or painting on restricted areas such as the rim, neck and around the base. Th is Mumun pottery was prevalent du ring the Bronze period and therefore the Korean Bronze culture is often referred to as the pla i n pottery period. Despite the on going debate among scholars in Korea regarding the cultural identities of Chulmun and Mumun potter ies it is generally believed that these styles of pottery diffused from northern regions into the Korean peninsula as the Neolithic and Bronze periods began respectively. These wares are therefore considered as a reflection of population movements within the East Asian region. While many early Korean archaeologists tie the appearance of Chulmun style pottery to the initial moment for the ethnic identity of the Korean people (J. B. Kim 1972, 1974, 1975; J. H. Kim 1964, 1978; W. Y. Kim 1983a, 1983b, 1989) what ha s developed in argument s about the relations between these two pottery traditions has been divided int o two different interpretations : indigenous origin and development, and an extraterritorial foreign influence. Therefore, the two related main topics in Korean academia, the ori gin and evolution process of modern Korean and the relations between the Chulmun and Mumun pottery peoples are still a matter of debate among scholars in Korea. While interpretations of the cultural identity of pottery types have varied among Korean schol ars over the years and there has been a long history of arguments concerning the differences in stylistic patterns on pottery among major Neolithic and Bronze pottery groups in Korea, most contemporary scholars generally accept three or four regional group ing s for the Neolithic pottery cultures in Korea ( Im 1983, 1999; Kim 1983a 1983 b; Song 2002 ). Variances in stylistic expression have been interpreted as reflecting the cultural differences of Neolithic and Bronze peoples living throughout the


19 Korean Penin sula, but less attention has been given to technological and functional variations within and between stylistic types. In other words, while broader aspects of prehistoric life ways through pottery analyses are commonly discussed in anthropological archaeo logy, Korean scholars traditionally have concentrated more on artifact typologies, especially those of pottery to establish a national cultur al history T he traditional simple normative approach, which regards specific decoration s and shape s as mar kers re flecting the norms of a homogenous group, is given more importan ce and emphasi s in the study of Korean pottery. Because a technofunctional analysis, which is one of the best approaches to infer various subsistence patterns of prehistoric pottery cultures has seldom been seriously examined and discussed in Korean archaeology, not enough consideration has been given to the production and use variations among pottery types that may be the result of various feedback processes for adaptation to environmental an d social facts that might be directly connected with the cultural identity of each society. With further introducing and applying technofunctional analyses Korean archaeology would be benefit ed greatly by more increased theoretical and methodological appr oaches. Technofunctional Attributes of Pottery Although many early arch a eological works using stylistic approaches emphasize the functional purposes of different styles of pottery as boundary markers for reflecting group affiliations ( Rice 1987:252 ), man y studies have proposed some caveats from this traditional approach of focusing only on the direction and intensity of social interactions between archaeological groups ( Hodder 1977; Stanislawski 1978 ). Many archaeological works have shown that styles coul d have been reflected and changed by many factors within a very minimal amount of time and contacts ( Hardin and Mill 2000; Stanislawski


20 1978 ). Therefore recent pottery studies have tried to address a broader communication role of styles by paying more atte ntion to socioeconomic factors, such as social organization, residence, marriage gender rules, and patterns of learning process within each household and group (Bowser 2000; Eerkens et al. 2002). At the same time that some correlations between group bound aries and pottery decorations were reported by modern ethnoarchaeological studies (Stark 1998), it has been reported that for certain pottery groups, technological traditions are more concerned with their own group identity than stylistic patterns that are regarded as more personal choices in the group (Stanislawski 1978). The importance of techno functional characteristics on pottery ha s been corroborat ed and prove n by many ethnograph ic ethnoarchaeological and experimental works reiterating the fact that techno functional attributes on pottery are directly connected to the intended functions of the potteries ( Arnold 1999; Cackette et al 1987; Oppelt 1984 ). Th e se works indicate that all the different shapes from the body, shoulders or handles, r im, mouth, and orifice ratio may be directly correlated with many differently inh eri ted abilities of potteries It is also reported that size, wall thickness, internal and external treatment, and some evidence of use, abrasion and sooting on pottery are all major det erminants of pottery function (Arnold 1985; Cackette et al. 1987; Hally 1983, 1986; Oppelt 1984; Sassaman 199 3 ; Skibo 1992). Moreover w hile the relationship between form and function has been emphasized by many scholars (Hally 1986; Henrickson and McDonal d 1983; Rice 1987), some archaeologists have argued that household sizes could be inferred by pottery size, especially cooking jars (Mills 1989; Turner and Lofgren 1966). According to


21 Mills (1989), increased pottery size among certain groups of the America n Southwest correlates with an increase in the numbers of jars discarded through time and an increased dependence of maize as well. Some also propose that changing the heating and cooking techniques is directly related with changing the overall shapes of p ottery vessels (Sassaman and Rudolphi 2001). While it is also well reported that potters use different clays and tempers for different pottery forms and functions ethnographically (Arnold 1985), according to one of the related studies from ex perimental arc haeological work s, all kinds of tempers overall can reduce shrinkage on the potte ry (Bronitsky and Hamer 1986). Work in experimental archaeology has also show n that t h icker walls are required for larger potteries and smudging and slip increase the s hearting effectiveness and strength (Schiffer 1990). Some use alteration analyses, such as internal and external surface attri tion als o provide information on the way pottery was used transported, and stored (A r th u r 2002; Hally 1983; Skibo 1992). Althou gh there are many challenges for example it is hard to analyze badly eroded sherds or vessels and it may not be possible to infer all functions for pottery vessels over the course of their life cycle s archaeologists believe that if one could infer some basic functions such as stora ge, cooking and serving from assemblages of archaeological pottery, valuable information could be achieved. It is generally now agreed that technofu nctional aspects of potteries provide a fuller understanding and explanation o f the cultural groups that we are interested in than d o stylistic data alone Research Questions and Methods While some Korean archaeologists have emphasized various topics, such as ecology, subsistence, settlement, and land use, other than pottery stylis tic typology in their discussions of pottery cultures (see J. S. Kim 2003 b ; J. J. Lee 2001 a ), there is


22 some urgency to recognize the important interrelationships between archaeology and anthropology in order to extend possible approaches and to maximize th e potential achievements in Korean archaeology. This dissertation research is an investigation of the technofunctional aspects of Korean pottery and will em phasize anthropological pottery methods combining stylistic and functional attributes on the potteri es from the transitional periods in the late Neolithic to early Bronze Age periods in Korea. The results of this work will be used to dete rmine whether po ttery forms and functions vary significantly among regional groups and through time. While this work c ould give us evidence for more precise relations between style and function in one class of material cultures, it also gives us an opportunity to reevaluate the epistemological bases for understanding the relationship between archaeological records and cul tural identities. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation is twofold : t he first is to propose that there are theoretical benefits in the application of technofunctional aspects of pottery on Korean archaeology ; and t he second purpose is to apply th is a pproach to the analysis of pottery from two Korean Neolithic sites. One of the main tasks of this work is to determine whether the traditionally divided regional variations of the Neolithic pottery cultures in Korea can be replicated using technofunctional criteria. Ba sed on the observations from this test, one could sugg est new ideas or strong support for extant models of cultural identity for Neolithic and Bronze Age pottery groups in Korea. Additionally it is essential to review the epistemological basi s for understanding the formation and interpretation of archaeological records. While many contemporary archaeologists would agree that archaeology should be concerned with the meanings behind material culture, it would


23 also be useful to reassess the conce pt of identity, which is directly connected with some specific issues in Korean archaeology. So while the theoretical and methodological emphasis of the technofunctional aspects of pottery is vital, theoretical reviews on ethnicity, nationality and the po litics of identity are also necessary. Based on a simple premise that generally the typological variations of decora tion and shape on pottery among distinct cultural groups would have parallel expression in technofunctional attributes of pottery one can make a hypothesis that Korean Neolithic pottery groups recognized by their stylisti c patterns will be evident in technofunctional pattern s of the pottery. Two simple oppos ing outcomes are possible after testing this hypothesis F irst, if the hypothesis is rejected, the n curre ntly accepted regional identities for the Neolithic cultures of Korea should be reconsidered and all models and theories regarding all Korean cultural history, including the formation process of the Korean ethnic history through the Kor ean Neolithic and early Bronze Age periods should be reevaluated. Second, if the hypothesis cannot be rejected, extant mod els for ethnic identity in Neolithic and Bronze Age Korean would be corroborated Based on the result of this test it could also be a good opportunity to evaluate the traditional conceptual debates on the relationship between style and function in archaeology and t he meanings on cultural identities in prehistoric societies. While the main archaeological inquiry is about the nature of t echnofunctional variations of pottery in the Korean Neolithic period and the tr ansitional periods from the late Neolithic to the early Bronze Age periods there are other future research questions that bear relevance: Can any feature be recognized from tec hnofunctional at tributes that indicates certain evolutionary processes have occurred for one cultural group identity as phenotypes in


24 the region? Is it possible to prove that technofunctional aspects on pottery are more directly connected with local ecolog ical factors? Is there any technofunctional attribute indicating some connections with the first appearance of farming systems in Korea? Is it possible to refer long term and short term changes in subsistence strategies based on the research result of tech nofunctional perspectives on pottery from the Chulmun to the Mumun pottery cultures? What is the role of politics of identity in Korean archaeology and how has it been justified to argue the topic of the origin of Korean ethnic identity? In the end, this research demonstrate s that a technofunctional approach has an effect on the theoretical approaches to the origin of Korean peoples and that in fact the result could help determine whether or not there were possible population replacements between the end o f the Neolithic period and the early Bronze Age period in Korea. In addition, it is hoped that the results from this approach can play an important role as a bridge between all the research questions mentioned above and fu ture Korean archaeological researc h To accomplish these ob jective s three pottery collection s from two different archaeological sites are analyzed The two archaeological sites chosen are from two different regionally divided and stylistically distinct Neolithic pottery groups ( a mong four major pottery groups d ivided by Korean archaeologists) One of these sites encompass es chronological sequences from Neolithic to Bronze Age periods and contains two large collections of sherds of both Chulmun and Mumun sty les from deposits that are ranged between 6 000 3 000 BP with calibrated date s (one for the late Neolithic period and the other for the early Bronze Age period). The other site from a different regional cluster, dated as the late Neolithic period, is selected for the regional


25 comparison Temporal variations in the region and between the regional clusters will be considered. The goal is to observe any possible variations and changes that had synchronically and diachronically appeared throughout two archaeological time sequences in Korean archaeology Using the selected collections, I analyze attributes of pottery vessels such as the form for each overall pottery, dominant paste color, rim and base shapes, pottery size, rim diameter, surface and treatment, wall thickness and decorated sty le and technique that have potential to inform on regional cultural identities, as well as subsistence. Attributes of use alteration, such as abrasion, sooting and firing cloud ing are also carefully observed. As briefly introduced above, it has been prov en that these sorts of technofunctional attributes are a potentially useful source for inferr ing social boun daries among different communities of potters. More detailed discussions of this approach are includ ed in C hapter s 5, 6, and 8. Although the nature of this work focuses on the analysis of some technofunct ional attributes of the pottery, other issues directly and indirectly connected to this approach and Korean archaeology, such as environmental factor s and agricultural practice, sedentism, first potte ry culture, migration and diffusion, origin of Korean people, archaeological identity and national archaeology, will be integrated as major topics for discussion to achieve a more synthetic result. Signification and Contribution Despite longstanding int erest in pottery, Korean archaeologists have given relatively little consideration to the question of pottery function and technology. W hile Korean archaeologists have often focused on pottery to reconstruct possible interactions between groups, less atten tion has been paid to the subsistence patterns


26 that might be reconstructed based on the technofunctional attributes of the pottery. Although new approaches have been applied by some scholars in Korea, all their theoretical and methodological explanations a re inevitably elucidated by the currently exist ing data that depended heavily on stylistic attributes of the pottery for typological and chronological variations. While more approaches and studies on pottery resources, trade network system s and mobility p atterns for the Neolithic pottery cultures have been initially suggested ( J. S. Kim 2002, 2003; J. J. Lee 2001 a, 2001b ), techno functi onal aspects of pottery should be further considered by Korean archaeologists. Therefore, this research work provide s vario us kinds of crucial information to understand not only the regional relations among pottery cultures through the Korean Neolithic to Bronze Age period, but also the relation between style and function in archaeology as w ell as their connections to material identity. Although there are still some different opinions on certain aspects of technofunctional approaches that are still under debate, it is expected that this technofunctional approach would offer Korean archaeologists new perspectives on some major K orean archaeological issues and provide new da ta in the theoretical arguments on the style and function of archaeological material culture Pottery studies in Korea have the great potential to provide useful results for issues under debate in anthropologic al studies ; and, by applying a technofunctional perspective on pottery, epistemological principals of Korean archaeology as well as m ethods of pottery analyses may be broadened. In the East Asian region, where p olitical intervention in archaeological resea rch and the use of archaeological data in politics to consolidate national identities have


27 been commonly known to take place, this study could lead us to the fact that current national histories and their cultural identities, based typically on pottery stu dies in East Asian archaeology could be misleading. And while further researches along with newly developed methods and theories in anthropological archaeology should be encouraged, it is necessary to underscore that using archaeological research es for pol itical purposes is prescribed Organization of the Study This dissertation is organized in to ten chapters. In this chapter the history of Korean pottery and the archaeological aspect of technofunctional attributes on pottery is summarized. This chapter al so outlines the research problems and methods employed in this study. As part of the introduction some information such as regional environmental data related to the study and the Korean archaeological background of the Paleolithic period are described in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 presents a broad overview for the transition period from foraging to farming system s and discusses the origin of rice, along with one of early wild or cultivated rices reported in Korea. In C hapter 4, major issues in Korean archaeology are introduced, along with a basic review of the Neolithic and Bronze Age pottery cultures Key topics in troduced in this chapter are reevaluated in the discussion in C hapter 8. Chapter 5 provides a historical context for the conceptual theoretical and m ethodological background on the study of cultural identity in archaeology. The pottery study for identity is further discussed focusing more on a technofunctional approach. Chapter 6 serves as an introduction to the research data and method for the propose d analysis. In C hapter 7, the results of the technofunctional attribute analysis of the sample data are presented. In C hapter 8, based on the results in C hapter 7 the arguments on the Korean prehistoric pottery


28 studies in C hapter 5 are further discussed. Chapter 9 presents the dilemma of identity studies from the archaeological record s that have been often misused for political purposes. C hapter 10 concludes with a synthesis of the results of this study and some suggestions for the future of Korean archaeo logy.


29 CHAPTER 2 N ATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND PALEOLITHIC PERIOD IN KOREA Over the last few decades many new observations from geology and related natural sciences have yield ed substantial data on past environmental and climatic changes throughout the Pa leolithic and Neolithic periods of East Asia. In this chapter, brief information about environmental facts of Korea as well as the East Asian region will be introduced along with archaeological findings from the Paleolithic period in Korea. Natural Geogra phy Korea is located on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia adjacent to China, Russia and Japan (Figure 2 1 ). The peninsula extends southward for about 1 100 km (683 mi) from the continental landmass of Asia and is roughly 300 km (187 mi) in width. The total area is about 220 000 sq km (86 000 sq mi) and is similar in size to Romania or Kansas. Korea lies roughly between the latitudes 34 and 43 N. and is surrounded by the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait to the south, and the East Sea (=Sea of Japan ) to the east. The shortest distance from the Korean Peninsula to the Shandong Peninsula of China and also to two major Japanese isl ands, Honshu and Kyushu is about 200 km (125 mi). There are about 4 200 islands close to the Korean Peninsula, the m ajority of which are located along the western (59.8%) and southern (33.7%) coasts. While mountain ranges and rivers are frequently used as natural boundaries, they have traditionally also served as regional cultural boundaries in Korea.


30 Figure 2 1. East Asia.


31 into the Yellow Sea or the Korea Strait except for the Tumen River which empties into the East Sea (Figure 2 2 ). The Amnok (=Yalu) River at 790 km (491 mi) i s the longest river and the Nakdong River at 525 km (326 mi) is the second longest river on the peninsula. Figure 2 2. M ap of m ajor rivers and mountain ranges on the Korean Peninsula.


32 Mountains cover much of the Korean Peninsu la, with only about 20% of lowlands suitable for human settlement and cultivation. Most of the higher mountains drop steeply along the east coast and are concentrated in the northern and eastern coastal areas of the peninsula. T he overall height of mountai n ranges gradually descends towards the west and south and the largest and richest agricultural regions with a gentler terrain are located in the west. The peninsula is a stable landmass with no active volcanoes and earthquakes are relatively rare events. Many Korean Neolithic traditions show a concentration of sites along river and coastal areas where abundant resources were available, including the best alluvial agricultural soil on the peninsula. Most of the soil in the mountain terrain is generally rock y, thin and suitable for only limited cultivation. T he Korean Peninsula has many different geological features for such a small geographic area with a great deal of environmental diversity given the altitudinal as well as latitudinal variations ( Chough et al. 2000; Chough et al. 2000). Because of its location, the Korean Peninsula is affected by continental and monso onal climates and has four well defined seasons. The climate for the summer season is closely related to one of Asian summer monsoon systems, e astern Asian monsoon t hat brings a warm and humid air mass (Wang et al. 2003; Wang et al. 200 5 ). This summer monsoon is the most important factor for controlling summer rainfall over the peninsula. Although it is important for water resources, it also crea tes floods. During the winter season, the peninsula is dominated by the winter monsoon that is associated with the Siberian high pressure system that carries cold and dry continental air masses into the region.


33 In general, the southern peninsula is warmer than the northern half, which has longer and colder winters. The annual temperature range between the coldest and hottest months is also much greater in the north and in the interior than in the south and along the coastal areas. Therefore, the growing sea son of the northern peninsula is too short to allow double cropping. In the south, a second winter crop can be obtained on the dry fields and drained paddies (Mackerras 1995). Paleoclimates It is known that the southern Korean peninsula, southern China an d the Japanese island of Kyushu are all closely connected geologically (Lee et al. 2001; Peng et al. 2011). In fact, the Yellow Sea between modern day China and Korea has a depth of only 44 m (144 ft) on average, with a maximum of between 90 and 103 m (~33 7 ft) (Chu et al. 1997; Mask et al. 1998) and the Korea Strait between Korea and Japan is 100 m (328 ft) on average, with the deepest part 227 m (745 ft) (Liu et al. 2004; Pak 1988) (Figure 2 3). It is believed that the modern Korean Peninsula, eastern Chi na and the Japan archipelagoes were all connected to the Asian continental mass prior to the last glacial maximum around 18 000 BP (Seong 2008) (Figure 2 4). At this time ancient sea levels were approximately 100~150 m (328 to 492 ft) lower than today (Cha ng 1997:316; Li 1988:651). Sometime around 12 000 BP, it is interpreted that there was a period of rapid climate change that lasted for a little over two thousand years and was m arked by a rise in sea level to only 40 m (131 ft) below its present day level in the Bering Strait (Aigner 1972:53). Even though there were several major sea level changes after 12 000 BP, it was in the mid Holocene that it reached its maximum height (Li 1988; Lutaenko et al. 2007). W hile most global coast lines were


34 established du ring the last several millennia, it is considered that there was no serious change to the coastal lines in Korea up to the present time (Lutaenko et al. 2007). Figure 2 3. Present sea level (m) in the Yellow Sea and Korea Strait M odified after Sediment Transport in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea Dong et al. 2011:249 Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 93(3)


35 Figure 2 4. The Pleistocene shoreline : (a) Middle Pleistocene Ice age, (b ) Late Pleistocene Ice age. A fter from The Japanese as an Asia Pacific Population (p. 20), by K. Katayama 1996 In Multicultural Japan: Palaeolithic to Postmodern eds. Donal d Denoon, Mark Hudson, Gavan McCormack, and Tessa Mor ris Suzuki, pp. 19 30. Cambridge University Press Cambridge.


36 The Paleolithic climate was generally cool and comparatively dry in the East Asian area. According to a charcoal study fr om an archaeological site located in central Korea, it was cool in temperature before 51 000 BP and then later during 18 630 16 400 BP it was warm and dry (Park et al. 2004). Based on pollen and paleogeographical data taken from China and Japan, Northern C hina was extremely dry and the Yangtze delta in eastern China was emerging due to sea level changes during the Last Glacial maximum (Yasuda 2002:119). Various pollen data also indicate that there were two different ecosystems in East Asia; the dry steppes of the inland northern regions and the forests of the coastal south regions (Yasuda 2002:119). According to Paleo meteorology research, the Yangtze River area, which is currently regarded as one of the earliest pottery and agricultural communities in the w orld, was warmer (about 3 4 C) and damper than in the present time during 10 000 7 000 BP (Tang 2004:20). Because these warm and wet conditions, which were very favorable to wild rice, throughout all East Asian region, it is also believed that even around 15 000 BP, the growth of wild rice might have been extended to the northern regions of East Asia and in this suitable environmental condition, the Yangtze River area was an ideal location for agricultural societies (Fuller et a l 2008; Smith 1995:122). Wh ile rice has been the most important crop for peoples in Asia since the prehistoric times and topics related with rice agriculture in human activities are one of oldest and most popular topics in anthropology, further detailed discussions on the origin of agric ulture and rice will follow in C hapter 3. It is well reported that during the middle Holocene period, the overall climate was warm and wet up to the Inner Mongolian Plateau (Feng et al. 2006:124). However, while


37 there is much research indicating East Asia monsoon affected the overall environmental situation in East Asia (An 2000; An et al. 2000; Wan g et al. 2005), during the late Holocene period, the anomalies of the summer monsoon created either a cold and dry environment in the northern area and a wa rm and wet one in the southern area of the region (An et al. 2000; Zhou 2012). It is also indicated that there was a pattern of drought in the north and flooding in the south around 4 000 BP during a middle Holocene climatic transition (Wu and Liu 2004:161 ). Many recent studies show a Holocene drier/cooler episode, characterized by a maximum cold and dry interval between 3 500 and 4 500 BP (Gu et al. 1993; Lister et al. 1991). This episode might have been a global event and is well shown by variations of la ke levels in China (deMenocal 2001; Perry and Hsu 2000). While Northern China around 4 000 BP was cold and dry, southern China, which includes the Yangtze River delta plain, still experienced a wet interval. Many archaeological sites near the middle and lo wer Yangtze River valley show that in the late third millennium BC, they were either submerged under lake water or buried by marsh peat (Stanley et al. 1999). It has been under dispute geologically as to whether the southern part of the Korean peninsula is correlated with the South China Craton, near the Yangtze River regions, while the Sino Korea Craton includes both the northern Korean peninsular and most of northern China and some southern part of northeastern China (Qiu et al. 2000; Ree et al. 1996). Ac cording to recently reported studies from Korea, the southern Korean peninsula used to share very similar climate conditions with Southern China. These two regions experienced wetter and warmer climates, at least during the very late Pleistocene and the ea rly Holocene period, then getting colder in the mid Holocene


38 ( Chung et al. 2010; Chung et al. 2012; Yi et al.2008). Studies have also shown that the Southern Korean peninsula and southern China were less affected by Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and re mained as suitable refugia for both the fauna and flora of the region (Cohen 2002: Ding et al. 2011; Kong 2000; Liu and Li 1996; Zhang et al. 2008). Paleolithic Korean A rchaeology While repeat ed glacial cycles must have forced land dwelling animals to seek better refuge, it was questioned if there were any actual archaeological sites with early Paleolithic period stone evidence on the Korean peninsula up until the 1960s. Although it was mainly from the lack of any archaeological evidence, it also reflec ted a limited population of researchers interested in this period due to the result of previous colonial archaeology in Korea. However, in the 1990s, more than 100 Paleolithic sites throughout most of the southern Korean peninsula were reported (Bae 2002:2 7). This is more than the total number of Paleolithic sites that had been reported up to the end of the 1980's and currently there are approximately 150 Paleolithic sites in Korea (Bae 2010:1 8 5). Although some cave sites have been reported in Korea, many o ther sites are composed of various and profitable natural environments with many Paleolithic cultural layers from the sites that contained hillside deposits and paleosols formed during the past glacial period ( J. Y. Kim 2004:62 63). It is confirmed that up to the later Pleistocene, the entire Korean peninsula was populated by the Paleolithic people. During the early Paleolithic period in Korea, they developed the pebble tool culture, utilizing local materials and using direct and indirect percussion techniq ues (Kong and Lee 2004; Seong 1998, 2004 and 2009 a ). Throughout the middle Paleolithic period, these processes were continuously in use without any great changes. However, it is regarded that the number of small sizes of


39 extensively retouched tools increas ed around 30 000 BP. It is therefore argued that some crucial changes, such as the appearance of micro core techniques and the long distance acquisition of raw materials occurred in the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene periods (Bae 1992:17, 1997:2; s ee also Seong 1998, 2008). Since it is a very common issue that dividing the groups between the lower and the middle Paleolithic stone assemblages is not an easy task in East Asian archaeology, some scholars argue that there is no strong evidence indicatin g the existence of a lower Paleolithic period culture in Korea (Bae 2002:10; Y. J. Jang 2003, 2005; Y. C Park 1992, 2002). Wh ile lower, middle, and upper no menclature is applied in Old World prehistoric research, some scholars have stated that it is not p roper to apply the system in the East Asian region because there is not much of a difference in appearance between lithic assemblages from the lower and middle Paleolithic periods of East Asia (Bae and Bae 2011:2). Therefore some scholars prefer to use onl y the simplified early and late Paleolithic time periods (Norton et al. 2006:528; Seong 2009 a :420). Acheulean Handaxes in Korea While the majority o f Paleolithic sites in Korea date to the Late Pleistocene, up until now, the earliest Acheulean typed stone industry excavated in southern Korea is dated at 350,000 BP (Bae 2002; Norton et al. 200 6 ). One of the oldest stone industries with Acheulean formed stone artifacts reported in Korea is the Chongokni site. Since it was first found in 1978, scholars have b een debating the chronology of the many different forms of Acheulean found at the site. Based on the morphology of them, it was inferred that the site is dated to the Middle Pleistocene but absolute dating results held later on indicated that the Middle Pl eistocene age of the Chongokni site is not reliable


40 (Chung 1981 ; Yi 1989). The most recent study using two different dating methods, K/Ar and fission track dating has shown that the site is dated to between 0.51 M y a and 0.49 M y a (Danhara et al 2002). Sinc e one of the sandy clay layers with several Acheulean formed hand axes is safe to be dated to 350 ka, it is now a generally accepted idea that the existence of the Acheulean typed stone industry from the Chongokni site could be older than 350,000 BP (Bae 2 002, 2010). Currently there are also several more sites that are postulated to be dated from the Middle Pleis tocene (see Bae 2007; Bae et al. 2006; Kim 2007; Park and Hong 2007; Yi 2002). There is an on going controversy in regards to the Movius Line, a th eoretical line that divides the regions of Europe, Africa and Asia with or without Acheulean handaxe technology (Movius 1944, 1948). Conventionally, scholars have theorized many explanations for why those refined bifaces are absent from east of the Indian subcontinent, while there are plenty of them found across Africa and most of southern Europe. Since these bifaced hand axes have been found not only in Korea but also in China (Bae 2010; Hou et al 2000; Huang 1989; Li 2002), the concept of the Movius Line has been questioned and challenged (Clark 1994; Lycett and Gowlett 2008; Lycett and Norton 2010; Lycett and Bae 2010). Currently there are more than 20 separate localities reporting handaxe, cleaver and proto handaxe forms on the Korean peninsula and this is the highest number of evidence in East Asia so far (Bae 2010:188). As in the case of those discovered across Africa, western Europe, and western Asia, Acheulean handaxes were made using local raw materials, with the Acheulean types found in Korea made mostly of locally available vein quartz and quartzite, which are the most common raw materials i n Korea (Bae 2010; Norton et al. 2006). While


41 morphologically the length and width measurements are not different between ones from the western side of the Movi us Line to those found in Korea, there are several overall differences between Korean Acheulean type tools, including the ones from China, and those across Africa, western Europe, and western Asia. The East Asian are thicker, are less extensive flaking and typically less symmetrical. Second the number of sites are significantly lower in East Asia and the percentage of the appearance for bifaces in East Asian is much lower (Bae 2010; Norton et al 2006; Yoo and Kim 2010). According to Yoo and Kim (2 010), who examined the symetrization of the Acheuleans from the Korean peninsula, there is no patterned manner or no solidly stereotyped method of manufacture found. Because of this and due to its limitedness to infer any pattern, no standardized method, b ut many different types, possibly with more various selective procedures of the Acheuleans from the peninsula, they stated that it may not be proper yet to use the Korean data for regional comparison. They also stated that many different types could be one of the main characters of East Asian Acheulean tools. Although there should be more evidence to prove any argument, it is not illogical to infer now that the Paleolithic hominins around the world adapted tools a little bit differently for their everyday p ractice in order to carry out their activities (Norton et al 2006:534). The Late Paleolithic P eriod The chronology of the late Paleolithic period has been more clarified than the early period based on the increased data from radiocarbon dating and volcan ic ash analysis techniques in Korea. In general, it is believed that the late Paleolithic culture appeared in the peninsula between 40 000 and 30 000 BP with the appearances of


42 many more blades, tanged points, and microblades than core and flake tools from the lithic assemblages in the late Paleolithic sites (Bae and Bae 2011; Seong 2008, 2011) The functions of one of those Paleolithic stone tools, the tanged point, regarded as one of the most distinct lithic forms from the southern Korean peninsula, have been under discussion on whether it could have been used for not only hunting but many other different purposes (Lee et al. 1999; Lee and Kong 2002; Seong 2008, 2009a)(Figure 2 5). Figure 2 5. Tanged Points (photographe d in the Pusan National University Museum) It was first found at the Seokjan ri site in the central southern part of the peninsula, but was later found at many other late Paleolithic sites throughout the whole southern peninsula, most of which are dated by radiocarbon to be between 35 000 and 18 000 BP. Based on the earlier chronological date, some argue that the tanged lithic technic


43 was dispersed from the southern Korean peninsula to neighb oring regions in East Asia ( Y. J. Lee 1989). Since there is no direct evidence from the layers with these tanged pointed lithics at the late Paleolithic sites, some argue that it is too early to define its specific fun ction at this time (Bae 2002:12; Seong 2008). However, it would be safe to assume that many oth er lithics from the transition times in the late upper Paleolithic period would have been made for many different kinds of activities. Based on the evidence that there were a great amount of ta nged pointed spears during the last glacial m aximum (LGM) whic h is associated with colder climate and large mammals and that those tanged points were later gradually replaced by micro lithics throughout the warmer weather conditions of the later upper Paleol i thic period, it could indicate one of great examples showin g subsistence strategies for the hunter gathers in Korea during the late Pleistocene (Elston and Brantingham 2002; Seong 2008). Since the earliest archaeological evidence of microlithic technology in the southern Korean peninsula is dated by radiocarbon to be between 30 000 and 22 000 BP (Bae 2002:11; Seong 2009a), some believe that if it is necessary to divide the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods, the Mesolithic period started as early as possibly 20 000 BP (Bae 1997, 2002; Seong 2006:33). However, due to the early existence of pottery during the end of the Paleolithic period, some scholars believe that the term Mesolithic should not be accepted by scholars in East Asia (H. J. Lee 2000, 2002). Human P opulation in East Asia The earliest hominid occurrences in East Asia are dated to ~1.6 M y a or older and due to the Paleolithic geographic conditions in East Asia, it is generally believed that the Korean peninsula might have also been populated by early hominins (Bae 2010 ; Bae


44 and Bae 2011; Zhu et al. 2008). Th ere are more than 100 Paleolithic sites reported up to late 1990s, but because of the acidic soils in the peninsula being much more aggressive in decomposing, many Paleolithic sites have only stone artifacts. Accordingly, most of the older fossils are bein g reported at the limestone cave sites. Since the Paleolithic open air sites of Dongkwanjin and Yondaebon in the northern Korean peninsula in the mid 1930s were known, the oldest fossils excavated in North Korea are reported to be as old as Middle Pleistoc ene in age and the ones in South Korea are dated to the Late Pleistocene (Bae 2010; Byun 1995; Norton 2000). known hominid in the Korean peninsula is dated at between 400 ,000 and 600,000 years old (Bae 1992; Norton 2000; Y. C. Park 1992). Some cave sites are considered as evidence for the oldest human occupation in Korea based on the associ ated faunal assemblage, dominated by extinct species (Norton 2000). Some fossil spec imens from North Korea are sill under debate regarding their exact dates and distinctive features; for instance, Yongkock (Ryonggok) Man, which was once assigned to Homo erectus on the basis of thermo luminescence (TL) dates of 500,000 400,000 BP, is now classified as Ho mo sapien s on the basis of more recent dating techniques combining uranium series and TL methods (ranged between 111 10 and 44. 3 2 ka) (Lab of Human Evolution 1995). Some sites in South Korea with old artifacts are also in debate due to their questionable site formation processes (Bae 2010:181 185). Currently, many recent studies have been applied to provide more confident chronological data for the Korean Paleolithic remains (Bae 2010; Norton 2000).


45 While SE Asia and China are current ly one of the major centers of studies for the Homo erectus in Asia, lithic evidence shows some interesting data. As mentioned, microlithic blade, scraper and cores all appeared in northern China, Mongol, Korea and Japan. Although some recent studies have confirmed the existence of those tools during the Late Pleistocene in Southeast ( SE ) Asia (Petraglia et al. 2009), there was no strong archaeological evidence supporting the existence of those tools in SE Asia, including Southern China for a long time (Bae and Bae 2011). While some current genetic studies indicate that modern humans moved northward, many scholars have discussed the reason for the absence of microlithic technology in the SE Asian region (Di and Sanchez Mazas 2011 ; Bae and Bae 2011; Shea 2011 ; Su et al. 1999). Although it has been limited for scholars to access data from North Korea due to its political condition, it is expected that many Paleolithic archaeological sites newly being investigated in South Korea could provide further data to cla rify many issues in physical anthropology and archaeology (Bae and Bae 2011:8). One of the key questions in the study of the Paleolithic period in Korea is about the situation of the strikingly minimal reports from the archaeological sites for the transiti on periods between the end of the Paleol it hic and the early Neolithic period. One reason is that some people believe that many of the human residences are now under water submerged due to geological erosions and sea level chang es (S B. Yi 1992:23). Inste ad of emphasizing simply either diffusion or local evolution for the explanations shown above, Seong (2009b) used ethnoarchaeological studies showing hunter and gather strategy for survival and the environmental change from the Postglacial environmental si tuations on the Korean peninsula as an alternative explanation to the


46 paucity of archaeological evidence from the postglacial period in Korea. He suggests that foragers in the region during the postglacial period might have moved northward to find riverine resources (Seong 200 9b ). He states that the main cause for the lack of archaeological evidence in this period is due to vegetational and faunal restructuring that made for a series of northward movements of hunting and gathering bands (Seong 2009b). He al so proposed the fact that the Amur River areas show an increase in the numbers of the archaeological sites at this time as evidence to support his suggestions ( Seong 2008, 2009b) A similar study emphasizing a central role of climate changes on human migra tions for the case of Southeast Asian region was reported by Pope and Terrell (2008). Summary and Conclusion To sum up, Korean lithic and human fossil studies have traditionally focused on chronological sequences to provide regional cultural history base d on typological approaches. Some similar and some different attributes have appeared on stone tools and human fossils found between the Korean peninsula and other regions (Bae 1992, 1997, 2010; Bae and Bae 2011; H. J. Lee 2000; Norton 2000; Seong 1998, 20 06, 2008, 2009a, 2009 b; Y. C. Park 1992). According to Bae 2000:39) However, Seong (2004:73) criticized that applying European typology to Korean Paleolithic artifacts is not to be recommended because its classification is quite specific for the Korean data, which have not been established for a general morpholog ical classification yet.


47 Currently, based on lithic evidence, Korean Paleolithic scholars have focused more on a gradual development of Paleolithic residents in the region, rather than simply accepting population replacement theories (Bae and Bae 2011; Seo ng 2009b). Since this kind of a simple dispersal theory is no longer popular among scholars in Korea, they have focused on local evidence first before attempting to compare their research with those from neighboring regio ns. Therefore, they are focused les s on large scale regional compariso ns, emphasizing micro level studies as archaeological evidence expands with increased archaeological excavation on the southern Korean peninsula. Some say that macro regional comparisons for Korean lithics with other regi ons should proceed further after more studies in Korea have been accumulated (Bae 2002) Along with increased data, scholars have also tried to argue more on detailed contents. Although there is always some difficulty in studies regarding exact time frame s in archaeology, there many scholars argue on the importance of examining questions of all kinds of human behavior and accordingly apply broad anthropological methods and theories in their studies (Bae 2002; Bae and Bae 2011; Seong 2010; Yoo 2 007; Yoo and Kim 2010). Unlike the 1960 70s when ecological determinism was largely used to explain everything in the studies of anthropological archaeology, scholars have looked closely again on ecological factors, such as climate and sea level changes that directly affect on the subsistence of human societies, based on enormous numbers of newly reported paleoenvironmental data throughout the world for the last a few decades. Many current Korean archaeologists therefore have started to broaden their focuses not only on typology of artifact but also on subsistence patterns in prehistoric societies. This kind of a trend has directly influenced the Korean Neolithic studies as well. Scholars


48 now put more effo rt in reconstruct ing the subsistence patterns of Korean Neolithi c peoples. Since the 1990s and especially after the start of the 21 st century, there are now more English based articles being published on Korean Paleolithic studies. It is expected that with more detailed information from further studies and with newly updated lithics and human fossil records from the Koran peninsula, English readers will be introduced to and contribute to the study of the Paleolithic period of Korea.


49 CHAPTER 3 FORAGER TO FARMER AND ORIGIN OF RICE The introduction of pottery, farming and sedentism has always been considered intrinsically linked and this process has long been believed to have been initiated during the times of the postglacial and e arly Holocene period throughout much of the world. In the case of Korea, there is no strong evidence yet if the region was one of the initial places of Neolithic developments But many arguments a nd theories regarding Neolithic origins apply to the late Korean Neolithic period when new pottery style and more intensified farming and se dentism in Korea ensued While further discussion regarding the earl y pottery culture of Korea is introduced in C hapter 4 some theoretical arguments related to the transition period from foraging to farming system s are introduced in this chapter. Some arg uments in regard to the origin of rice, which is currently the most important crop for East Asian people will also be discussed Foragers and Farmers The shift from foraging to farming was one of the most profound changes in diet in the history of modern humans ( Homo sapiens ) This transition is remarkable in light of benefits and drawbacks that resulted, not only in human health but also in social systems of Neolithic peoples. However, it is still not clearly explained when, where, and how the ear liest cultivated agricultural production started. The impact of the transition from foraging to farming in human societies is also not clear. It is, however, reasonable to assume that people began cultivating some crops before they started full scale farmi ng. While cultivation and sedentary life do not appear always to have gone hand in hand (Arnold 1996; Kelly 1995), mixed patterns of subsistence between foraging and


50 farming might have occurred in the early stages of food production (Bender 1975:9). Thi s might have been occurred during the Neolithic period in East Asia as well. In fact, in many ethnographic cases, hunter gatherers have as many optional subsistence strategies as food producers do; for instance, they have their own systems of controlling a nimals and plants as well as adapting environmental and cultural conditions (Bender settlemen (Smith 1995:136). Therefore, defining the difference between foraging and farming styles has mostly depended on the scale of food collecting styles between these two methods (Hutterer 1983:173). Transition to Farming and Theoretical F ramework Various theoretical models for the process and causes of the transition from foraging to agriculture have been discussed, examined, rejected, and left in question. Although further eval uation will have to wait until more archaeological evidence is assembled, J. J. Lee (2001b) summarizes these into four major theoretical approaches to understanding the transition to agriculture: (1) the inherent advantages of agriculture, (2) population r esource imbalance, (3) social demands for surplus, and (4) ideological changes. Braidwood (1960) is one of the major proponents of the first approach. He stated that the cause of the transition to agriculture was inherent in human nature. He also suggeste d that farming started when human culture was simply ready to receive it (Braidwood and Willey 1962:342). He explained that agriculture is the outcome of the prior evolution of modern humans along with a peculiar combination of environmental


51 circumstances. In other words, farming is the result of social memories of inhabitants, and occurred within areas where domestication was available (Braidwood 1960). However, he did not emphasize some climatic shifts in the early post Pleistocene, and the major problem of his theory is that inherent human nature is not a testable proposition. The second theory, population resource imbalance, is associated with the rise of processual studies in the 1960s and based in systems theory and ecological adaptation. The theory c onsiders population bottlenecks and environmental changes as major factors that produced agricultural subsistence systems in human societies. Gordon Childe (1942, 1952), postulated climatic change as a primary causative factor in the domestication process, suggested that farming began where the potential plants were available and when post Pleistocene desiccati on led to a concentration of human population, plant and animals at o ases (1952). This environmental model does not have strong evidence of drastic d esiccation and does not consider human adaptation processes, such as responses to climatic changes in earlier periods (Bender 1975:24). Binford (1968) and Cohen (1977), however, concentrated more on the demographic factors rather than on the environmental pressures. They suggested that the transition to agriculture was caused by breaking equilibrium between population increases and natural resources. Although the environmental and population pressure models have been considered as one of the most prevalent models for explaining the origin of climatic/environmental changes could not be a primary cause for the transition to agriculture. Rather, changes in climate, environment, o r population density may have


52 created important shifts in strategies for responding to stress, and the use of domesticated plants could be one of these new risk 2001b:33). In other words, the models have to address following prob lems: no scientific data indicates paleoclimatic changes were dramatic to the extent that ancient people should have looked for agricultural life, no evidence suggests a high population rate, and also current ethnoarchaeological studies indicate that hunte rs and gatherers used various ways to adapt to severe environmental and social changes (Lee 2001b:11 13). The third theoretical explanation, the social approach, has been argued by Bender (1985, 1990) and Hayden (1990, 1992), who emphasized socioeconomic competition among hunter gatherers to produce food surplus. They propose d that the transition to agriculture was caused by individuals (accumulators) or societies that wanted to make extra supplies for feasting or wealth. According to them, accumulated ass ets, social hierarchy, complex hunter gatherer and agriculture were directly associated. Hayden, furthermore, suggested that various domesticated plants were produced by the process of competitive feasts. He based this theory on ethnographical and archaeol ogical studies done in Mexico. Although Hayden suggested that many early cultivated crops were used for the purpose of prestige goods instead of daily dietary consumption, he also said that most cultivated crops in the world were the principal items of die t (Lee 2001b:14). But, it is not yet confirmed that social complexity existed as early farming societies took place. The last theoretical approach recently proposed by European scholars centers on ideological changes. According to them, the fundamental cau se of the changing


53 ideological change (individuals or societies). For example, Ian Hodder (1990) suggests that the transformation process from foraging to cultivating occurred because foragers took steps to control nature (e.g. changing burial pattern and producing pottery and making grounding stone) (see also Tilley 1996). Although this approach provides many new interpretations related to the origin of agriculture, archaeolog ical evidence is also limited and cannot fully describe the ideological patterns of prehistoric peoples (Price 2000). Although theoretical approaches on conditions and causes for the transformation to agriculture are separated, mono causational model s of agricultural origins have largely been abandoned. Multi causational models are now more popular among scholars. The two theories, the social approach and ideological changes, which are more closely related anthropological study that is a separated aca demic discipline in Korean academia, are not popularly attempted to apply for the Korean farming cases yet. The Korean Agricultural T ransition Although before the start of the 21 st century there was not much discussion regarding the theories introduced above, some attempts in applying the se theories to explain the transition period from hunter and gather to farming in Korea have been tried by some Korean archeologists. According to J. J. Lee (2001b:21), those attempts are mainly based on theories emphasi zing either migration or population pressure. As with other regions in the worlds, the simple process theory based on migration and diffusion, which are traditionally popular in the culture history school up to the early 1960s, had dominated the archaeolog ical discourse in explain ing all prehistoric cultural changes in Korea.


54 While a ll basic and main chronological frameworks and archaeological models used to describe prehistoric Korea from the culture history school are still well accepted some are now un der debate. Most studi es from the 60s and 70s used migration theory to connect Korean Neolithic Chulmun and Bronze Mumun pott ery cultures to the continental areas such as China and Siberia (see J. B. Kim 1975; J. H. Kim 1964; W. Y. Kim 1967). Th e se studies emphasize direct population movements from other regions into the Korean peninsula and focus on the initial moment for the emergence of farming and on the migrated routes of the farmers. While this approach echoes natural habitat hypothesis (1 960), there is no detailed explanation from this approach about the transition process in detail and the reason for the change to farming (J. J. Lee 2001b:19). An other theory, pop ulation resource imbalance, has been applied by Choe (1982, 1990), Choe and B ale (2002) and Norton (1996 2007 ), who argue that changing environment s and /or increased population size resulted in a population resource imbalance that eventually forced a shift to agriculture in Korea. According to Choe (1982, 1990), the environmental changes that created the coldness between 5 500 and 4 000 BP broke the equilibrium condition between the population and its resource s which eventually created resource depletion that caused the start of cultivating of plants. Norton (1996, 2007) however em phasizes only resource depletion caused by the sedentism from the Late Neolithic period (4 000 3 000 BP) rather than stressing any environmental fact or s. According to him, settlements created population increase and a food shortage. These hypotheses again lack any direct evidence for increasing population pressure (J. J. Lee 2001a: 28 ). In other words, there is no direct evidence to


55 support the earlier models that environmental change or a population increase could be a direct cause for the transition to agr iculture in Korea, although there is environmental and archaeological evidence to suggest climate and population changes (J. J. Lee 2001a:28; G. A. Lee 2011:s324). In contrast J. J. Lee (2001a, 2001 b) suggests that s ocial demand theory might be best to explain the case for the appearance of the Mumun agriculturalist of the Bronze Age period o n the Korean peninsula which experienced resource stress caused by increasing social complexity during the late Chulmun period. She combines population resource imb alance with the social approach, emphasizing the fact of socioeconomic competition among hunter gatherers to produce food surplus (2001a:312 322). According to her, environmental changes and/or population increase during the middle Neolithic period created some structural change in population movements inside the Korean peninsula which ing the Korean Chulmun pottery people to agriculture as a storable supplement that could su pport the accumulation of wealth J. Lee 2001a:324 325). She states that while there is no obvious explanation for the population increase in southern Korea, she hypothesize s that the Mumun pottery people who lived in the northern peninsula and had adv anced technological and social complexity moved down to the southern peninsula (J. J. Lee 2001a:324). Therefore, although she emphasizes two theories, social demand and population resource imbalance, the main cause to the development and spread of the Kore an agricultural transition in the southern peninsula is directly ignited by population migration.


56 According to J. J. Lee (2001b: 22 23), there are three possible cases that might have occurred in Korea. The first are the population movements and quick sp reading of farming culture. The second case, as originally suggested by Nelson ( 1992, 1999), is the early secondary diffusion and long term cultural adaptation along with the increasing important status of farming. And the third possibility is the differen t adapting cases based on different environmental situations in the Korean peninsula. Lee also suggests the possibility for the combined situation of occurring migration and cultural diffusion together in certain regions. Lee says that these multi causatio nal models should have been considered in the approach of the topic of the transition period from hunter and gather to farming in Korea. As seen in the examples of the studies above, many current Korean scholars do not accept the idea of the total populati on replacement theory that is usually with is still in the center of the main explanation. In other words, Korean archaeologists have focused on knowing whether it was the primary diffusion by new population movement or the secondary or cultural diffusion without outside population movement. In general, as seen above, they have emphasized the secondary diffusion and native evolution idea more than population replacement theories. There is increas ing new data for environmental changes in the Holocene and in archaeological data. It is expected that a more detailed and reliable explanation for the main cause for the spread of farming to Korea and the interaction process duri ng the transition process will be proposed. This will be further discussed along with other


57 arguments such as the origin of Korean identity and Korean Chulmun pottery culture and its transition to the Mumun pottery in C hapter 4 Archaeology and Rice Cult ivation in Asia While many topics related with the origin of agriculture economy is still a subject of great debate in Asian archaeology, it is incontestable that rice is widely cultivated in these tropical and temperate regions. The origin of rice culture and its spread are domestication will perhaps never be known, there have been many findings of rice at archaeological sites in Asia in the last several decades. Many early botanists and rice specialists believed that the earliest rice cultivation occurred in regions within geographical areas that had a variety of food sources during the year (Sauer 1952). Sauer, who popularized the main theories on the origins of agri culture, rejected Southwest Asia as a cradle of the earliest agriculture. He instead suggested Southeast Asia as the region for the earliest agriculture, while many scholars thought Southeast Asia was only a very early center of the shift from foraging to farming. This was thought to be so because Southeast Asia has regions where food availability and agricultural production were naturally favored. It is believed that the earliest rice cultivators might have settled down near the edge of the uplands on gent ly rolling hills and close to freshwater resources (Sauer 1947, 1952). However, many archeologists do not take up this hypothesis because archeological evidence for agriculture in Southeast Asia appears later than that of the Southwest Asia and China. Many rice specialists before the 1970s supposed that the original home of Asian cultivated rice was in northern India. There, rice had a wide distribution with many varieties of rice species (Tang 2004:18). Another area discussed by scholars as an


58 origin for r ice cultivation was the south foothills of the Himalayan Mountains (see Chang 1976). This area stretches from India to the mountain ranges of mainland Southeast Asia, including southwest China. The area also provides a diversity of cultivated species of ri ce. Again, archaeological evidence from the area has not been reported to support the earliest existence of cultivated rice. One of the earliest known remains of cultivated rice from mainland Southeast Asia in northeastern Thailand, are those of rice at N on Nok Tha and Ban Chiang. The rice chaffs from the Non Nok Tha site (dating 2 300 2 000 BC by AMS) appeared on the pottery as a temper. At the coastal site of Khok Phanom Di (dating 2 000 BC) in southern Thailand, rice was also discovered on the pottery as a temper (Glover and Higham 1996:422). Some people speculate that cultivated rice varieties from the later layers of the site might have been the result of trade between local hunter gatherers and inland farmers (Higham 2002:77). Although some wild rice from the Ganga valley in India is dated between 11 000 to 10 000 BP (Wenming 2002:152), and rice from the Xom Trai site in Vietnam is dated between 19 000 17 000 BP (Glover and Higham 1996:421), chronological dates for the archaeological evidence of culti vated rice from the sites are not reliable. No archaeological proof has been reported yet in the region to indicate the existence of cultivated rice earlier than that found in China. Currently, archaeological evidence shows that China has the oldest rice r emains and richest rice culture. Some people interested in the origin of rice agriculture before the 1970s had suggested the Yunnan region in southern China as the possible region for the earliest rice cultivation in Asia. Although some scholars still spec ulate that rice was brought under cultivation in South China or the Yunnan areas where wild and


59 traditional species of rice existed, rice specialists negate these areas as a rice mutation center. They rather favor the areas between the middle lower Yangtze River and the upper Huai River. In fact, various archaeological data indicates that the Yangtze River areas began rice agriculture much earlier than any other areas in China (Yasuda 2002:130). The dates of the rice from archaeological sites around the reg ion range between 10 000 6 500 BP (Tang 2004:20 21) and the region is in the far northern edge of the range of wild rice today. This suggests that the center of rice cultivation was actually farther north than people supposed. However, since the Yangtze Ri ver areas circumstantial evidence. One of them was based on ancient records, the second was based on the search for wild rice among cultivated rice and the third was based on Rice Cultivation in Korea In the Korean peninsula, the oldest cultivated millet and rice discovered are dated between 5 500 and 4 000 BP as dry field crops ( S. M. A h n 2008 ; C. P. Choe 1991:31; Crawford and Lee 2003; J. J. Lee 2001a; Han et al. 2002 ; W. Y. Kim 1982:515; E. S. Song 2001 ). However, it is believed that these earliest plants did partially contribute to hunter conclusive evidence of domesticated pl ants and animals during the early Neolithic period in Korea ( J. J. Lee 2001a), it is believed that the earliest pa ddy rice field, dating around 3 4 00 3 0 00 BP, is excavated in the southern Korean Peninsula (Bale 20 01; Crawford and Lee 2003; G. A. Lee 2011: S326). On the Japanese archipelago where the existence of Jomon agriculture is still under debate (see Crawford 2008), there is increasing evidence that later Jomon


60 populations may have practiced a form of slash and burn style of agriculture with some min or crop cultivation, especially root crop. There was no evidence for the paddy rice cultivation until around 3 000 2 Imamura 1996), but some rice remains, dating from 4 000 to 5 000 BP, from the site in we stern Japan, near the Southern Korean peninsula have been found (Toyama 2002:269). Figure 3 1. Discussed rice diffusion routes. While it is now generally accepted that Korea was a region of secondary agricultural origins, there are several dif ferent models for explaining the diffusion routes of cultivated rice culture from China to Korea and Japan (Figure 3 1). Since the northern


61 Korean peninsula has shown earlier millet cultivation evidence while the southern Korean peninsula show all later ri ce growing evidence, some scholars have insisted that rice culture moved from Southern and central coastal China to Korea and Japan (e.g. W. Y. Kim 1982; Lindstrom and Uchiyama 2012:284). Another similar theory have considered SE Asian and southern China r egions as the center for the rice culture route for Korea and Japan and is loosely accepted, even though many archaeological sites from the Yangtze River areas have reported earlier rice evidence (A h n 2010:92, see Takamiya 2001). However, some scholars (e. g. A h n 2010; Choe 1982) insist that the rice agricultural culture was introduced from the northeastern area in China to the southern Korean peninsula and later Japan, after the rice culture had been introduced to the Northeastern China where m illet agricu lture was dominant Currently the southern China and Southeast Asian route theories are not supported, while the other two theories are still under debate. While the possible earliest paddy field in China may date to 6 000 5 000 BP (Fuller et al. 2008), r ice discovered at the sites of settled village communities from Hunan Province and Hubei Province in southern China are dated 8 500 8 000 BP. Another very famous Chinese Neolithic site, Hemudu represent ed a well established rice agricultural community and is dated 7 000 6 900 BP (Barnes 1993; Bellwood 2005; Crawford 2005; Chang 1986; Fuller et al. 2008; Fuller et al. 2010; Liu 1985). Some recent arguments as to whether some rice evidence from the Hemudu should be considered as wild or cultivated are discuss ed in Sato (2002) and Fuller et al. (2008). Fuller and others (2008) especially argue that there should be more systematic studies


62 to look at wild and cultivated rice variations in China for establishing evolutionary models that can be used for further spa tial and temporal comparisons. Agriculture in the Korean Neolithic period has been argued in Korean archaeology for a long time and the middle way was that the transition period b etween the Neolithic and Bronze Age time is regarded as the initial moment of the first agricultural stage in prehistoric Korea. Now, it seems that the time frame will be extended at least a few thousand years earlier. According to most recent finds from an structing practiced in Japan but not much in Korea yet, some millet replications of impressions that were found on the Neolithic pottery sherds, are dated between 7 000 6 000 BP (Chosun D aily N ews 2011 Sep. 24 th ). While many sherds with the impressed forms of major crops on the surface have been reported on the site reports, most of these did not go any further in assessment except in a macroscopic inspection for the repor ts (M K. Kim 2010:52). Although many of them were collected from a surface survey and therefore some chronological issues have been discussed, it is expected that more extended and controlled impression study could provide us with further valuable informa tion (M K. Kim 2010:53). Most recently, there was an interesting update that one of the Neolithic sites located in a sand field near the eastern coastline of South Korea, only about 400 m (437 yard) away from the sea and near the demilitarized zone, has b een discovered with the first ancient farm land with residential areas from the Neolithic period in East Asia ( Hankyoreh N ews 2012 June 27 th ). It is also reported that the site is estimated as the


63 middle Neolithic period, around 50 000 BP, based on the re lics such as pottery sherds, stone arrowheads and carbonized millet, and an absolute dating of soil. As seen in the case of the theories related to the transition period of Korean agricultural transition, many discussions for rice diffusion routes are also intertwined with the subject of the identity of the Mumun culture in the Korean Bronze A ge Further discussion on this will b e in C hapter 4 Sorori Rice in Korea About a decade ago, there was the report that 59 carbonized rice grains (18 of ancient rice, 41 of quasi rice) from two peat soil layers of an archaeological site in the Sorori village in central South Korea date earlier than any other rice remains yet found. The carbonized ancient rice is dated to 13 010190 BP and the quasi rice is dated to 17 3 10310 BP. These are the most ancient materials of cultivated rice that have been excavated in Asia (Lee and Woo 2001, 2003). The Sorori site was first found t hrough the survey of pal eolithic tools buried in surface soil at the pre arranged area for Ochang Industrial Complex as a salvage project in 1994. The site is located between 36 and 37 degrees of latitude north and at the low hillside of Osung Mt, near the Mihochun river, which is the upper stream of the Kumkang river, about 2 km (1.24 mile) apart fro m the site (Kim et al. 200 3 ). At the first excavation in 1997 98, 11 short japonica type ancient rice grains and 1 slender smooth ancient rice grain with 2 kinds of quasi rices were found. M any paleolit hic tools, such as cleavers, scrapers, notches, cores and flakes, were also found in the upper culture layer (Lee and Woo 2000). The inquiry from archaeologists and rice specialists about the ancient rice led to a second excavation in 2001. Six short ancient rice hulls and some quasi rices were found and thes e confirmed the presence of ancient rice from the site.


64 Most of the rice grains were found in the middle peat layer (14 800 12 500 BP, 32.13 31.36 m above sea level). In the lower peat layer 1 grain of quasi rice was found (5 dating samples, 17 300~16 30 0 BP) (Lee and Woo 2003:34). T he quaternary geological layers were well preserved and there was the presence of a cultural layer, Paleolithic layers and thick peat layers. However, since there was no cultural evidence in the layers with the rice grains, th e Sorori rice is still under debate among scholars. As mentioned in C hapter 2 many researches indicate that south regions of East Asia, especially near the Yangtze River area, were 3 4 C warmer and damper than in the present time during 15 000 7 000 BP (Smith 1995:122; Tang 2004:20 ; Zheng 1998 ). A study analyzing charcoals from the archaeological sites of the central Southern Korean peninsula indicates that it had cool climates before 51 000 BP and it was warm and dry during 18 630 16 400 BP (Park et al 2004). According to one of pollen analyses from the Sorori site (Kim et al. 2003:51 53), the center of the southern Korean peninsula was covered by deciduous forests or mixed forests with warm and wet swamp conditions around 16 680~13 010 BP. Deciduous a nd broad leaved forests with warm and swamp vegetation were present up to 9 500 BP (Figure 3 2). The Sorori site shows that the area finally changed into a swamp environment predominant with Gramineae after a span of cool conditions in the early period. Th e soil structure of the site was flooded by mud and formed in a dry warm climatic condition during the Holocene. Another soil analysis from the Jangheungri site that has comparable


65 Figure 3 2 Phytogeographic Zones at the time of the Last Glacial Max imum, 21 000 15 000 years in East Asia. A fter from New Perspectives on the Transition to Agriculture in China (p. 217, Fig. 1), by D. J. Cohen 2002, In The Origins of Pottery and Agriculture, ed. Yoshinori Yasuda, pp. 217 227. Roli Books Pvt. Ltd, New Delh i. O rig inally from Yasuda 1996: Fig. 5 geological conditions indicates a similar result (Kim et al. 2003:54 56). Some coleopteran insect fossils have also been excavated from the Sorori site. The identified species are known to have fed on the roots of we tland plants (Lee and Woo 2001:99 104). Therefore, it is possible to suppose that the Sorori site was a wetland environment and this result corresponds with those of other environmental studies from pollen analysis. While there is no lithic evidence from the layers with rice evidence at the Sorori site, many Paleolithic sites including the Sorori site have been found in the central region of South Korea. The archaeological sites have reported repeated occupations,


66 and human fossils were excavated from one of them (Lee and Woo 2004). As mentioned in C hapter 2 lithic evidence shows that some crucial changes, such as increasing number of small sizes of extensively retouched tools around 30 000 BP and acquisitioning raw materials from the long distance, from t he late Pleistocene to the early Holocene occurred. All these changes in lithic technology can be interpreted to show that the late Paleolithic people might have carried out a greater variety of activities than those from earlier periods (Kong and Lee 2004 :102; Seong 2010). Since it is cultivation and harvesting activities (Glover and Higham 1996 :433), it is possible to suppose that one of the lithic forms from the central region of South Korea, the tanged point (also called a knife blade), would have been used to cultivate ancient rice in the Sorori site. Cultivated or Wild? The types of cultiva ted rice are usually divided into two sub species; O. sativa and O. glaberrima O. sativa is more widely utilized in the world. O. glaberrima is O. sativa is the Asian common wild rice, O. rufipogon which shows a range of variation from perennial to annual types. That of O. glaberrima is O. barthii (= O. breviligulata ), which is an annual grass endemic to West Africa. The two cultigens were domesticated independently. They have discrete 1991:58). While scholars still debate the genetic connections among rice species, domesticated rice in Asia (mainly originated from O. sativa ) is normally divided into two subspecies, ind ica (called long grain in general) and japonica (short grain) (Wenming


67 2002:152). The forms of divergence between these two species are still in debate and the range and habitat of the wild species that are thought to have contributed to the cultivated for ms are also looked into by rice specialists researching on the distribution of cultivated species. Today, indica is grown in most of the Southeast Asian regions including southern China, while japonica is grown in north China, Korea and Japan. Thus, it is indicated that indica is better adapted to the zone of monsoonal rainfall and up to 2 000 meters above sea level. Japonica is adapted to the shorter growing seasons and colder temperatures north of 33 degrees north latitude and at higher elevations in south China. Gene flow between indica and japonica is restricted, so we 1995:127). Currently, archaeological sites with rice evidence from both Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia show the existence of O. sativa Some sites with evidence of the earliest cultivated rice from south China and the Yangtze River areas show the existence of both indica and japonica types together. The identification, however, of these types is usually complicated by a substantial overlap in grain size (Smith 1995:127). The scholars who excavated the Sorori site divide rice grains from the site into two groups of rice and two groups of quasi rice. Although there are variations in size, both including short and long form, the grains at the site are very different compared to present day cultivars (Heu et al. 2003:62) short gain type within a limited area, like in this pit, might imply the primitive evolutionary stage plant fauna. Though we could not see the variations, due to single sample of


68 slender grain, the morphology of long grain is peculiar form those of short a nd also from divided into two groups, show that a group of quasi rice 1 form includes both smaller and larger grains than current japonica cultivars. The other group, qua si rice 2 form, shows that its size is similar to the recommended cultivars of today. Most of the short grains, however, are morphologically similar to those of Ilssan ancient rice (discovered in Korea in 1991, see Sohn et al. 1992), which does not exactly look like current japonica cultivars. As mentioned, because the Sorori rice is not excavated with any cultural material, scholars have been arguing whether Sorori rice is cultivated or wild (Ahn 2010). Rice specialists who generally agree that the Sorori rice is a cultivated form of rice, base their opinions on morphological features of the rice. According to Sato (1996), O. rufipogon has a long bristle on the awn and the density of this bristle is (cited in Yasuda 2002:130). Wild rice also has a brittle rachis and its awn is long (Oka 1988, cited in Yasuda 2002:130). Although the rachis of wild rice is very brittle in order to facilitate efficient dispersal of seeds, some wild rice would have a toug h rachis due to the process of mutations (Yasuda 2002:141 142, See also Sato 2002). It is reported that the form of the rachis on the Sorori rice is similar to those of current cultivars. According to a result of an experiment by Morishima (1995 cited in Yasuda 2002:130 ), a wild rice community changes into the cultivated form of rice after a few generations of cultivation. Prehistoric rice collectors would have unconsciously favored rice species with more stabilized and strong forms so that grains would no t be easily dropped on the ground as they grew (Zohary 1969, cited


69 in Bender 1975:53). Although rice from the Sorori site has been determined through DNA analyses to have somewhat little genetic likeness (39.6%) to modern wild/raised y relationship of these Quasi rices with the rice, including wild Rice Biology As discussed in the previous part, the regions popularly discussed by scholars for the origin of early rice cultivation a re mainly considered based on the environmental conditions of the areas. In other words, core areas for the earliest rice cultivation are associated with environmental conditions that required no human modification. Sauer (1952) suggested that a reliable w ater supply must have existed at the area of the earliest rice cultivation. Most rice specialists agree that regions with high temperature, humidity, rainfall, water availability, and a great deal of sunshine were best for the earliest cultivation of rice (Huke 1976:37). Current studies indicate that temperature is plant exposed to low temperatures at seedling stage may undergo a reversible strain due to the decrease in chemical reactions and physical processes, but recovers when adaptability to the environment. In fact, rice is currently raised not only in very high latitude regions such as central Czechoslovakia at latitude 50 north and Hokkaido in Japan at latitude over 40, but also some high altitude areas of Nepal and India, where the growing season temperatures average much lower than those of southeast Asia and southern Chin a (Huke 1976:38). However, it is necessary to note that rice cultivation in these areas might not have been possible without human effort and ingenuity (Huke 1976:40). Nevertheless, it is in general true that rice is still cultivated in difficult


70 environme ntal conditions and is able to produce reasonable yields. As seen, rice is grown under more diverse environmental conditions than any other major food crop in the world. All things considered, it might be too early to determine that wild and/or cultivated rice originated solely in the tropical or subtropical regions where enough water resource combined with high temperature was provided throughout most of the year. Discussion and Conclusion Southeast Asian regions were preferred by some scholars as a cradl e of the earliest rice cultivation before many archaeological sites in the Yangtze River region were found to contain not only evidence of cultivated rice, but also well developed rice farming societies. Scholars suggesting Southeast Asia and far southern China as the origin of agriculture argue that the geographical range of wild rice did not reach as far farming societies along the Yangtze were already highly developed and that evidence for the first stages 120). T hey assert that cultivated forms of rice were introduced from somewhere farther south than the Yangtze regions. Although there is not much evidence of the existence of wild rice in the Yangtze River regions, there are some types of wild rice recently found along the middle and lower Yangtze (Smith 1995:120). But, arguments are still ongoing as to whether these are genetically connected with any kind of the ancestral species of wild and, later, cultivated rice. While many cases of rice discovered at the archaeological sites in Southeast Asia cannot be determined, without clear chronological reliance, to have been produced locally or traded, no direct archaeological evidence has been f ound and proven to support the earliest origin of cultivated rice in Southeast Asia.


71 the wild plants well before they began to use them as part of their regular dietary system. A transition from foraging to farming eventually occurred to people inhabiting a place with various types of plants. Sauer supposed that an initial cultivation process might have occurred with garden horticulture rather than field agriculture (1952). He als o suggested that the initial stages of agriculture involved root crops which were reproduced as a food resource. He hypothesized that these root crops were first propagated in the wet tropics of Southeast Asia, because the root crops, such as yam, taro, ma nioc, and potato, are less labor oriented and more stable, yet less productive compared with seed crops, such as rice and wheat. Although it is now generally agreed that hunter and gatherers in Southeast Asia practiced cultivation activities on tubers or c rops before an agricultural system really started, no direct archaeological evidence plausib More historical ecological aspects of the region are now e mphasized by some scholars (see Bailey et al. 1989; Hutterer 1988; Maloney 1998) to discuss, where, when and why hunters and gathe rers in the regions would really need to consider agricultural processes for their subsistence systems. While it has been found out that most tropical soils are relatively poor and not even suitable for agriculture (Hutterer 1988:72), Endicott and Bellwood argue that small nomadic style of foraging groups can survive with wild resources only (1991:181). Therefore, scholars have focused on environmental conditions of the regions for pre agricultural people. Thus, i t might be


72 true that extensive agricultural systems are not ideal in general in Southeast Asian regions, except in some regions, such as coastal lowlands, river bottoms and areas with good volcanic soils, but it is still plausible that small farming activities with basic cultivation processes of ric e might have been developed somewhere in Southeast Asia. assumption on the origin of agriculture and its diffusion processes have mainly been criticized. Although c urrent archaeological evidence, rice biology, and agronomical approaches clearly indicate that the beginnings of rice cultivation were not necessarily done before completely disagre e ing with his hypothesis on Southeast Asia as the cradle of early agricultural process. Currently, because most of the earliest rice sites are now from China, many scholars agree that near central and southern China is the center for the earliest cultivati on of rice. While all cultural history of East Asia is based on the diffusion theory from China to other regions in Asia, some old arguments for the southern, Central, or Northern China route for spreading of rice from China to Korea and Japan are still un der debate ( C. P. Choe 1982; Y. N. Chon 1992; W. Y. Kim 1982; Nelson 1982a, 1982 b; Takamiya 2001). There may not be enough archaeological evidence to consider that the Sorori site is important until more reliable archaeological data have been recovered fro m the southern Korean peninsula. At the same time, if scholars all agreed that the Sorori rice is a cultivated form, some of our knowledge on rice biology and hypotheses based on it would need to be revised ; for instance, it is traditionally supposed that the proper


73 ecological condition for growing wild rice is limited to the regions below latitude 30, and the area for the earliest development of rice cultivation should be within a region where wild rice forms are known to currently grow. Since we do not h ave any strong reason to believe that there is only one center of primary agricultural and domestication process, the origination of agriculture might have occurred independently in different regions of the world (Bender 1975:15). It is also possible that mixed farming systems could be coeval. Bender also argued that we need to be careful with our own archaeological bias. According to her, archaeologists who work in regions such as Southwest Asia and Mesoamerica where archaeological finds are usually better preserved, but where there is lack of indigenous root crops, favor seed crops as the origin of agriculture, though seed crops are generally more difficult to cultivate (Bender 1975:15). At the same token, it might not be necessary for archaeologists or ri ce specialists to find archaeological sites or regions indicating all genetic processes of rice from the earliest progenitor to current rice forms consumed in the region all together. Human beings have various ways of adjust ing to all kinds of environmenta l conditions. Many different factors, from ecological and social environmental conditions have been reported to produce change in human behavior in archaeology. While all kinds of human nsidered as major processes in their cultural history, settlement movements, aside from adaptation and manipulation processes, might have involved and played major roles for the history of agricultural processes, regardless of the scale of the population i n question, or their distance traveled. Rice specialists have to keep in mind that no progenitor form of the Sorori rice has been found I t is also very important to consider that the climatic


74 conditions of the southern Korean Peninsula during the last gla cial period was similar to that of southern China, which is 5~10 lower latitude than southern Korea (Cohen 2002:223) M ore effort on reconstructing the environmental conditions of the regions, especially the Paleoclimatic conditions of the late Pleistocen e is necessary. There is a need to increase ecological system that includes humans and has multiple (physical, biological, social, and cultural) input and out environments which link to oth Zuckerman 2000:34), of the region. Although the origin of the cultivated rice remains an enigma, we may need to refocus perspective. Perhaps there is not one single region of early rice cultivation that is the ancestor of all cultivat the Sorori rice could have been transported from the warmer southern region around paleo Yangtze channel by Paleolithic foragers or migratory birds we still need to open our minds that t here may be mul tiple origins for domesticated rice. Based on the Sorori rice case, it is probable that earlier cultivated rice could be found near the Yangtze River as well as in farther north regions somewhere in Asia. More approaches which emphasize the historical ecol ogical aspects of the region, and more accumulated archaeological evidence would be essential and necessary for future studies. To sum up, this chapter introduces some theoretical overviews and arguments regarding the Korean agricultural transition and ric e agriculture in East Asia. Those reviews will be helpful in understand ing some theories related to the origin of Korean which is going to be discussed in C hapter 4 Rice cultivation in East Asia is also reviewed in detail because it is associated with or igin and spreading of pottery culture in


75 the region, which is directly connected with many arguments regarding the cultural identity of Korean in archaeology


76 CHAPTER 4 KOREAN NEOLITHIC POTTERY CULTURE AND ORIGIN OF KOREAN IDENTITY Since it has been well agreed that the best way to interpret archaeological records might be a synthetic approach, Korean Neolithic specialists, tr aditionally depending and emphasizing pottery stylistic analysis heavily on their studies, have tried to extend mo re their attention to o ther works, such as paleoclimatic data, ethnoarchaeological and experimental studies, and technological analysis in helping to reconstruct subsistence patterns of prehistoric societies in Korea. These kinds of trends in Korean archae ology have been occurred along with dramatically increased amounts of newly reported archaeological data from South Korea, especially in the last few decades. In this chapter, while some major theoretical issues that lie behind the traditional arguments on the Neolithic and Bronze pottery cultures in Korea are mostly introduced, some other archaeological issues mainly related to the pottery studies for Korean archaeology are also discussed. Neolithic Packages in East Asia Traditionally, East Asian scholars are hesitant Neolithic revolution explanation, which states that most important cultural developments such as the domestication of plants and animals and a more sedentary life in human history occurred all together during the t ransition period between the later part of the Stone age and early Neolithic period This is because of the much earlier existence of the pottery culture than the farming system in the Jomon culture of Japan, which used to be regarded as the oldest pottery culture. Although there has been earlier farming evidence reported in Japan, it still clearly show s that pottery making in the Japanese archipelago was much earlier than the agricultural practice ( Imamura 1996 ). In general,


77 pottery and agriculture evidenc e has been under a see saw contest for the chorological dates between them in East Asian region. Most recent data from China and Siberia show that the earliest evidence for the agricultural crops and pottery making are now closely dated According to most recent report, the pottery found in the one of very late Pleistocene cave sites in China is dated 20 000 19 000 BP (Wu et al. 2012 ). Therefore, while the origin and spread of farming often do not appear to have animal species, long term settlements and pottery in the world, simple evolutionary perspective on the Neolithic Revolution process has come under much criticism in the past thirty years. Since plant and animal remains d ecompose quickly, determining domestication of plants and animals is a difficult process for scholars (Issac 1970; Reed 1977). According to Issac domestication should be reserved for those plants in which morphological change has occurred and the plant is considered economically valuable. He explains that cultivated includes domesticated plants and wild plants, in which no morphological changes have occurred (Issac 1970). Issac also defines that a domesticated animal must have had valued reasons to keep on purpose. As seen in Chapter 3 we still need to ha ve more evidence of Paleoclimatic data as well as other archaeological discoveries to make more plausible arguments on certain issues for when, where, why and how. Based on archaeological evidence from Chin a, it seems that animal and plant domestication came around the same time in East Asia with some exception s such as Jomon in Japan. It is reported that southern China has the oldest archaeological evidence for a domesticated animal, which is a pig, dating 10 000 BP, while northern


78 regions had domesticated pits and chickens around 8 000 BP (Yan 1993, cited in Nelson 2004:47). Although morphological markers and population profiles indicating domesticated status for animal, bones found in Neolithic archaeolog ical sites in Southeast Asia have not been established, pigs, chickens, water buffaloes, cattle, and dogs are believed to be domesticated (Smith 1995). First Pottery Making in East Asia While one thing mak es sense in that prehistoric people must have real ized and learned the benefit of using containers in their daily life (Rice 1999) according to one of hypotheses on the origin of pottery making from Childe (1951:76 79), the initial stage of pot making practice was initiated by our ability to react to som e natural visual stimulus such as baskets, gourds, bladders, and human skulls as containers. Clark and Gosser (1995:219) also suggest a similar explanation on the earliest Mesoamerican pottery containers. According to another popular hypothes is, pottery ma y be invented when such as wheat, maize, and rice that need to be boiled for consumption (Hoopes and Barnett 1995:3) While some other theories such as culinary hypotheses explaining that the first moment of inventing pottery was after an accidental discovery of sun baked clay that could be used various functional purposes, aggrandizer/competitive feasting theory emphasizing the necessary of containers for feasting process and social/symbolic elaboration model, inferring that symbolic elaborated materials such as figurines, miniatures clays and beads, in hunter and gather societies might have been initiated earlier than practical pots (Rice 1999:5 14), currently one of pre dominant and


79 resulted by a corresponding action as both rising demand and time budget advantage were matched (Brown 1989). Although in general pottery sites in China and Japan are m uch older than the earliest sites with agricultural evidence in East Asia (Yasuda 2002), many sites also indicate that the first appearance of domesticated plants and animals in some regions could be very contemporary with early sedentary (Nelson 2004). An other fact that we need to keep in mind is that while some early pottery sites located in Jiangxi, Guanxi and Guandong provinces in southern China date as early as 13 000 11 000 year ago (Jiao 1994:6 16, cited in Kajiwara and Kononenko 1999:68) as mentio ned in C hapter 3 the region of southern China, was never under harsh climatic oscillations. The sites in the region show many plant materials including wild rice, bamboo and acorns and some scholars even mention that some rice phytoliths could be consider ed as the ones from domesticated rice (MacNeish 199 7 ). According to Kajiwara and Kononenko (1999:68 70 ), who hypothesize that the people who lived in southern China during the Final Pleistocene changed their subsistence patterns to a more diversified forag ing system, the earliest pottery is therefore invented for their life style which was that less mobile and therefore tended to use more local resources. They also believe that the pottery culture also moved to the north, the Amur region in Siberia, where t hey believe that it is the original place to diffuse pottery culture to all other northeast Asian region, including northern Japanese archipelago along with the improved climatic condition in the region. T hey also mention however, that the dates and reas ons for the origin of early pottery culture should be


80 explained and supported by more detailed micro level analysis and should be improved chronological sequences based on absolute dating techniques. In brief, although some cases still show possible concur rent appearances of the domestication of plants and animals and a more sedentary life, it has been also reported that many prehistoric farming societies, for example a Meso and South America, did not transform to village life for a long time (Pringle 1998 ). As shown above, the idea of Neolithic Revolution would not be sustainable to argue that it was a package deal throughout the world. Oyuela Caycedo (1995) argues that the part of reasons for the strong beliefs on the direct relations between pottery orig in and sedentism could be produced by not enough effort on making relations between the context of pottery and other archaeological assemblage. Many researchers now study particular societies and follow t hose are more concerned o n social conditions to changes. However, it has not been success fully explain ed why pottery was not used in certain people and region. While environmental limitations have been popular among scholars (Arnold 1985), some scholars have looked into the econom ic perspective as one of the adaptive processes (Brown 1989). We have still to argue why past or current hunter and gatherers did not change to a farming society, although ecological conditions could not be the main factors for some people (for more inform ation about the origins of pottery in prehistoric cultures, see Barnett and Hoopes 1995, Brown 1989; Eerkens 2001; Sassaman 1993; Rice 1999) Chronological Issues in Korean A rchaeology As discussed in C hapter 3 based on the reliable archaeological eviden ce, t he agricultural practice was a much later phenomenon than the presence of the earl iest pottery dating 12 000 ? 10 000 BP in Korea ( C. H. Kang 2007, 2009; S. J Shin 2004).


81 Traditionally the chronology for Korea is based on the Three age system; stone, bronze, and iron, while as introduced above, the concept of the European Three ages classifications have been under debate, specifically for the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods. Currently, applying the system for the Korean archaeology has also been cond emned by some scholars and many ideas have been discussed without having a single agreed suggestion that could have replaced the Three age system yet ( S. R. Choi 1998:223 2008 ) Although there are some disagreements among scholars, the Korean prehistoric chronological division is generally divided into: the Paleolithic, Neolithic (10 000 3 500 BP), and Bronze (3 500 2 400 BP) ( Choe and Bale 2002 :98). While scholars have stated that the Three age classification is inappropriate for Korean archaeology fo r various reasons one of the most criticized facts is on depending heavily on typological distinctions of pottery (see S. R. Choi 1998, 2008; H. J. Ro 1997) According to Nelson technological stages is inexact and disputed (1992a:431) There is currently an increased reliance on absolute dating method to combine the traditional chronology mostly based on pottery typology in South Korean archaeology, while no such shift has taken place in North Korea n archaeology, which heavily emphasizes typology and stratigraphy (Im 1999:261). Another interesting argument is from R o (1994, 2002:519) saying that the old Three period series in Korean archaeology is one of byproducts from the Japanese colonial archaeol ogy and it should have been replaced by some other ways.


82 Neolithic Period scholars use the term to mark the first appearance of pottery. It was generally accepted by the scho lars that the first pottery culture in Korea appeared around 8 000 B P. However, a ccording to recent archaeological evidence the oldest pottery found in the do (or Chejudo), which lie in the Korea Strait, is dated to between 12 000 and 10 000 BP (C. H. Kang 2007, 2009; Shin 2004 :12 ). While some older potteries, called appliqu de corated pattern pottery (yoongimum togi in Korean) and primitive Mumun coarse potter y (wonsi Mumun togi in Korean), have been exca vated from the lower layer of the Chulmun patterned pottery through the Korean peninsula ( C. H. Kang 2007, 2009; Shin 2004 ), the Chulmun patterned ware period is significant for the earliest plant cultivation and sedentary societies in the Korea Peninsula Although it is necessary to discuss further whether it is proper to name all the Neolithic pottery cultures as the Chulmun patterned pottery period, i t is often traditionally called as the Korean Neolithic period. As a result some Korean archaeologists h ave argued that the Neolithic Period which has been applied for the academia in Europe, is not proper for describing Korean Chronological periods. Bronze P eriod The beginnings and definitions of the Korean Bronze Age are the subject s still under debate. Scholars in South Korea generally believe that the Korean Bronze period starts around 3 000 BP ( Choi 2008; Im 1992; J. B. Kim 197 4, 1975 ; J. H. Kim 1978), while North Korean scholars insist that the Korean Bronze age started from 4 000 BP based on the ear liest Bronze materials found in the Northern Korean peninsula (Barnes


83 1993:161 ; Nelson 1993:162). As noted in the case of the Neolithic period, the Bronze period is interchangeably used with another pottery term in Korea, Mumun which means plain or undecor ated in English. Many current scholars in Korea prefer the Mumun to the Bronze period (H. J. Ro 2002:525 ) Although these two terms, Bronze and Mumun pottery period are most commonly used among scholars in Korea, there are s ome people who argu e that they h ave to use the Megalithic period, instead of using the Mumun or Bronze period While Korea has the highest density of dolmens (=megalithic monuments, or Goindol and Chisokmyo in Korea n ), all most 40% of the total in the world are found there and the beginn ings of the bronze in Korea are still questionable Nelson (1993 :110, 150 ) suggest ed that Korean Mumun pottery culture should have been called the dolmen culture which is firmly associated with the Mumun pottery. Nelson believe d that it is a proper way be cause archaeological data show that all kinds of social and subsistence patterns had been changed near the 3 000 B P as the dolmen culture was dominating throughout the Korean peninsula Although scholars generally believe that the dolmen might have been us ed for burial purposes, the topic for the main purpose of the megalithic monuments has been under debate ( B. M. Kim 1982; Whang 1982 ). Since typical artifacts found in the dolmens are Mumun pottery, bronze weapons, and polished stone, scholars generally ag ree that during the dolmen culture, it is believed that a hierarchical system in the society existed ( W. Y. Kim 1986; H. J. Ro 1992:212). While the majority of the dolmen is found in the Korean peninsula, similar dolmens have been reported in Manchuria and Shandong in China and Kyushu Island in Japan ( B. M. Kim 1981, 1982; Whang 1982 ) Many scholars therefore believe that the


84 dolmen could not be used as the Korean c hronology systems because some other neighboring regions mentioned above also have them. Howe ver the Mumun style pottery ha s also been found in the same East Asian regions where dolmens were found Some also argue that the first appearance of the bronze materials in the Korean peninsula is not coincidental with that of the Mumun pottery. However, while it could have been difficult to make a clear cut chronological line on the first appearance of the Mumun pottery in Korea, that issue is also related to some other topics such as how to classify a geographical zone of ancient Korean culture and how to define their ethnic origin. Chulmun Pottery Studies Before the Gosanri pottery which is similar to the primitive Mumun pottery, was found in Korea it was generally believed that the earliest known Korean pottery would be the yoo ngimun potter y, regard less that s cholars in Korea ha d realized the existence of another earlier pottery form the primitive Mumun pottery which was first reported at one of the most famous Neolithic site, Dongsamdong midden in the southern tip of the peninsula They could not decide where to put the primitive Mumun pottery culture in the Korean Neolithic chronology. Similarly, as mentioned the Chulmun pottery has represented a whole Korean Neolithic period, s ome scholars actually put the Gosanri pottery into the Y oo ngimu n group as they were first excavated. Kim, Won Y ong who is called father of Korean archaeology, divided the Korean Chulmun pottery chronology into the three stages; the E arly ( 8 000 5 000 BP ) Middle ( 5 000 4 000 B P ) and Late ( 4 000 3 000 B P ) ( W. Y. Kim 1967) A fter recogniz ing the Dongsamdong site, which shows the existence of the earlier layers of Appliqud pottery and primitive Mumun pottery than the Chulmun pottery h e calls it pre Chulmun period


85 ( W. Y. Kim 1983a) Similarly, in North Korean archaeology the s tage is divided into the Early (7 000 6 000 BP), Middle (6 000 5 000 BP), and Late (5 0 00 4 000 BP) in the 1980s ( C. P. Choi 2005:167; W. Y. Kim 1981:27). Currently scholars in South Korea have added two more earlier stages called Incipient and Initial Per iods (12 000 8 000 BP) in the Chulmun pottery period and they have shown differing opinions for each stage, especially the initial and finial stages for the Middle Chulmun period (e.g. Y. H Chung 1997; Choe and Bale 2002; Im 2000). Although pottery decora tion changes and their spreading routes are still the center of discussions for the Chulmun pottery period, some people have approached the Chulmun pottery chronology with a different emphasis. Choe and Bale (2002, 2006) who emphasize subsistence, tool and settlement patterns as much as pottery tradition, divide the period into Incipient (10 000 8 000 BP), Early (8 000 5 500 BP), Middle (5 500 4 000 BP) and Late (4 000 3 500/3 000 BP), which is also similar with others mentioned above. While the regional st udies for the Chulmun pottery have intensified in the last several decades in Korea, regionally divided chronology systems for the Chulmun pottery period has been also requested (see J. Y. Shim 200 8 ). The Chulmun pottery cultures in Korea have been div ided into three or four regional groups based on mainly pottery form and decoration (Figure 4 1). While scholars in Korea generally believe that each of cultures has different stylistic traits, they have not agreed upon where, when and how the pottery cul tures interacted with each other. W. Y. Kim divide d the Chulmun pottery cultures into four different regional subgroups (1967:101): the west coa s t group with typical Chulmun patterned pottery with


86 Figure 4 1. Neolithic pottery groups in the Korean Peni nsula (modified and based on i nformation from Cultural Heritage of North Korea from the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage in Korea, Buyeo Museum www.bu, and National Museum of Korea


87 incised d ecoration and pointed bases; the southeast coast group with appliqud (raised) decoration and some flat bottomed base; the northeast group with the short incised lines or dots on surface and mostly flat based bowl and jar; and the northwest group with he rringbone designs, short lines and dots and flat based bowl but rounded and pointed ones as well. Kim later combined the west coast and the northwest groups into one group (1981:27). Some scholars have also divided the regional groups similarly but slightl y differently: central western, southern, eastern and northeastern, or west coast, east coast and south coast ( see Y. H. Han 1978; Im 1984, 1996, 1999; J. H. Kim 1978). J. H. Choi (2001:22) stated that the Neolithic pottery groups in Korea are able to divi de into three regional groups based on the shapes of pottery bases; western and eastern north with flat, central western with pointed and rounded, and southern and eastern coastal with flat, pointed, and rounded. Although as Nelson sa id the groupings (1993:61), these regional divisions have been played as a foundation for the progress of studies on the Korean Neolithic period. Scholars in Korea since then have discussed three main topics: chronological studies, Neolit hic regional groups and their connections, and eventually the issue of origin of Korean people ( S. J. Lee 1992:80 81). All these three main topics are directly connected with each other and pottery typology and diffusion and migration theories are centered in all related studies. While many newly emphasized topics such as environmental facts and subsistence patterns have been widely discussed in the Korean Neolithic archaeology through the last two decades, one of the topics, origin of Korean, has not been popularly discussed as much as in the past. However, one of the main discussions for the Korean Neolithic period is


88 still about the relations among those regionally divided groups; origin and spreading order and route among the each pottery group. Pottery stylistic approach has been a primary role in all related studies up until now. Chulmun Pottery Stylistic Approach It seems that two main attributes in the pottery study of the Korean Neolithic and Bronze periods are shape and decoration and their tempor al and spatial relations have been conventionally concerned. As for the decoration study, there are three main categories: decoration techniques such as incising, stamping, punctuating, appliqu, impressed fingering, etc. ; decoration position on pottery; a nd decoration styles such as herringbone, zigzag, dot, spiral motif, perfor ated rim, etc. According to S. T. Im (1999), as an example for the approach mentioned above, one of decoration techniques, stamping, could be divided into two groups; single tooth o r multi teeth. Under the two categories, there are multiple sub groups (Im creates 11 subgroup in his study), based on some facts such as a length of a decoration and a distance and angle between decorations. More discussions on the stylistic approach will be followed later in this chapter. Along with this kind of analyses, some fundamental scheme for the chronology of the Korean Neolithic pottery groups has been created, althou gh it has not been tested ( J. S. Kim 2003 a :6); for instance, the underlying assu mption in all studies for the central western Chulmun pottery group ( S. T. Im 1999, 200 1 2003; J. S. Kim 2003 a, 2004 ) is that a pottery decorated on the whole surface with different motifs in rim, body, and base separately is earlier than the ones wherein a whole body is decorated with a single motif. A partially decorated pottery appeared later in time after a decorated pottery on the whole surface: While the partially decorated pottery on its body part is younger than


89 the ones above, a decoration on a su rface in pottery disappeared in the following order from base, body and rim. A pottery with a single tooth stamped decoration is earlier than a pottery with multi teeth stamped decoration. A pottery with a great care and uniformity is earlier than a pott ery with a coarse and degraded decoration. Eventually, a pottery without any decoration, called Mumun pottery, appeared. Based on the premises above, Korean scholars have put tremendous efforts on analyzing pottery surface decorations; they try to find som e similar decoration patterns on specific forms of the potteries from all regional groups, and later classify them in temporal and spatial orders, and eventually create the chronological orders of some specific decorations. While it is believed that the ce ntral western group is the oldest among all other regional Chulmun pottery groups in Korea, other regional Chulmun pottery groups also show a similar transition trend that shows on the central western group. In the case of the yoongimun, an earlier pottery group than the Chulmun and typically appeared in the southern and eastern coastal areas in the peninsula, it is generally believed that the yoongimun pottery with a decoration on the rim area is older than the one with a whole body decoration. These kinds of approaches have long been centered for all Korean pottery studies up to the present. However, after applying the seriation approach further in the last thirty years, scholars have been questioning the traditionally accepted pottery chro nology from the 1960s (see S. T. Im 200 3 ; J. S. Kim 2003 a 2004; Kim and Yang 2001). Therefore, some have questioned the validity of the habitually utilized typological ordering of pottery designs in the Kore an Neolithic pottery study ( S. T. Im 200 3 ; J. S. Kim 2003 a 2004 ). More discussi on on this will be followed in C hapter 8.


90 As seen above, the two prehistoric pottery cultures, the Chulmun and Mumun potteries have become bywords for the Neolithic and Bronze periods respectively, regardless of that some earlier pottery ty pes, the primitive Mumun and yoongimun, have been reported in southern and eastern coastal regions. Although the Korean Neolithic potteries show some regional variant s, the one common stylistic pattern appeared on most of the regional variants is the comb patterned surface decoration. Chulmun Pottery Cultures While more number of shell midden sites ha s been found than residential sites, traditionally most of the Neolithic sites in the Korean peninsula have been found near river and coastal areas But rece nt reported data shows that they are found in the inland area and even mountain areas as well ( B. K. Choi 2007; H an et al. 2002; S. K. Lee 200 3 ; Lee and Lee 2009). Traditionally, there is not much discussion regarding the dwelling methods of the prehistori c peoples in Korea not only because of insufficient data but also because less attention was given on the subject due to a heavy emphasis on the pottery stylistic approach. With increased numbers of newly discovered residential sites, many studies have bee n done in the last decade. Recently, several scholars have tried to find and discuss some patterns that appeared from the Neolithic residential sites. They focused on regional and temporal comparisons on the shape and size of a floor plan inside a resident ial unit, on floor foundation method, on internal structures such as furnace and storage pit, and on outside structures such as open storage pit, open air hearth, and open pit site ( Y. J. Kim 2010, Koo 2003, 2006 a 2006b, 2008a, 2008 b, 2011a, 2011 b. 2011c ; S. K. Lee 2003; S. J. Lee 2010; S. Y. Lee 2008). Koo, Ja Jin (2011a, 2011 b), who studied some features such as a floor plan and furnace facilities of the residential units by region and time from the Neolithic period in


91 Korea, argued that it is possible t o divide the Neolithic residential site types into sub regional groups along by putting them into three different stages of the Neolithic period by chronological order. According to him, there are three possible subgroups of the residential types for the e arly Neolithic stage; inner central, central eastern and central western. These subgroups are roughly identical to two regional pottery groups; central western and eastern coastal respectively. The central western groups were divided into three different s ubgroups by his study. Similarly, he sorts out later Neolithic residential sites into two other stages and put them into each stage with several sub regional groups. His study shows us that more detailed regional approach, rather than a pottery study, coul d be produced along with more controlled spatial and temporal scales. According to Hong (2012), who most recently studies the Neolithic residential units from the central western region, it shows that; round, squared, and two layered structure houses all a ppeared in the early period, a squared house is dominated in the middle period, and squared and rectangular shapes were getting popular from the late period. He also stated that there is a strong spatial and temporal variation among the sample groups selec ted only in the central western region. Another study of the Neolit hic residential units from S. J. Lee (2010), who focused on the eastern coastal residential units, showed that from the early to middle Neolithic periods, there is not much change shown on the subsistence and residential patterns on archaeological evidence: It is indicated that in the early Neolithic period both round and squared houses were shown, but more round than squared ones and both round and squared houses appeared equally in the mid dle Neolithic period. During the late Neolithic period, a squared pattern was getting popular while the round one slowly disappeared through


92 the time. According to her, the round style of a pit house continued up to the early Bronze period but the size bec ame smaller in the Neolithic to the Bronze period. Lee, S. K. (2003) reported that overall structural and functional patterns that appeared in the residential units in the Korean peninsula from the end of the Neolithic periods continued through the early B ronze period. According to the study from Hong (2012), during the early Neolithic period, it is indicated that the percentage of the pit houses constructed on the bare ground without doing anything was a lot higher in the central western group than any oth er regions. However, it is caused by the fact that one of the sub regional groups in the central western group was excavated with the higher numbers of residential units that were mostly with a simple bare ground floor. In fact, it is indicated that other sub regional groups inside the central western group showed all different kinds of floor styles; with a simple bare ground, with clay intentionally hardened by fire and with clay coated by clay plaster, while either fired ground and coated plaster ground a re more popular. As for the case of the eastern coastal group, it is hard to find a regular pat tern by a region and time ( S. J. Lee 2010). While most of the residential units from the early and middle Neolithic period are found in coastal dune, all these s imply bare (sand), hardened clay and coated clay ground floor irregularly appeared without any noticeable pattern. One residential site found on the hill side from the late Neolithic period of the eastern coastal region shows that all nine houses were cons tructed on the bare ground. As seen above, it is likely that there is a difference among the regional groups for the residential types through the Neolithic period. Since it needs to have more detailed sub regional groups,


93 based on more controlled spatial and temporal scales, more numbers of sample sites would give us better results of the studies. While it is thought that a rectangular pit house, which is generally bigger, might have had more fu nctionally various spaces ( Y. J. Lim 1985), J. J. Koo (2011a 2011b, 2011c ) infers that the appearance of the bigger rectangular houses for the late Neolithic period in a certain region shows more various subsistence activities. Lee, S. J. (2010) similarly states that based on no change of the residential units in th e eastern coastal region from the early to middle Neolithic periods, the subsistence and residential patterns through the early and late Neolithic periods were not transformed much. However, she believes that after the Neolithic people in the region moved their residential area from the sandy dune to a hilly side area through the post middle and late Neolithic period, fishing activity decreased while hunting and foraging activities gradually increased. It is supported by archaeological materials showing mor e grinding stones and querns that appeared from the middle Neolithic period. Their residential units are smaller than earlier periods. Lee, S. J. (2010) hypothesizes that the groups living in the hilly areas in the eastern coastal region needed to make gro ups smaller in size to help them migrate easily from place to place for dietary options due to the colder climate in the late Neolithic period. She states that this process eventually lead the Neolithic societies in the region to transform to the Bronze pe riod. As seen above, it is shown that there were different regional processes for the subsistence patterns in the Neolithic period in the Korean peninsula. According to Lee, J. J. (2001a, 2002) who studied midden sites for the subsistence patterns in the K orean Neolithic period, although it is believed that central western and southern coastal


94 regions show largely differing patterns of using marine resources and residences due to environmental and cultural differences, a stable sedentary style of food econo my from fishing, hunting and foraging might have been established in both regions during the early Neolithic period. Scholars in Korea believe that although people living in the central western area might have started an agricultural activity earlier than any other regions based on some archaeological evidence, it was limited in part of food economy system for the Neolithic people in the region (E H Lee 2004:304). In general, archaeological evidence shows that the Neolithic people living in the central we stern region show lesser dependency on fishing activities than those of southern and eastern coastal regions, while showing that they had more complex subsistence pattern along with foraging activities for nut products to increase longer storage time ( S. H Kim 2001:79). Archaeological evidence shows that a possible small scale cultivation started at least from 5 000 BP at the areas near the Amsadong site in Seoul (Choe and Bale 2002:103) According to the study of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of human and animal remains from one of rare Incipient Chulmun pottery sites located at the southern outmost of the Korean peninsula, the Chulmun pottery people living in the southern coastal regions heavily depended on marine resources than those from the western peninsula where terrestrial resources were more important (Choy et al 2012). The study clearly shows that there was a regional difference of subsistence strategy among the Neolithic peoples in the Korean peninsula. Various new studies focusing on the subsistence patterns of the Neolithic period have been reported for the last decade in Korea. Although many explanations from the


95 studies may not be tested yet due to insufficient evidence, this is a right way for the future of the Korean archaeology. Similarly some scholars have started to discuss a social hierarchy in the Korean Neolithic societies, although some argue that there is no strong archaeological evidence showing the existence of a social class ( S. J. Shin 1994). According to studies from S. K. Lee (2000), H. J. Lim (2003), and T. Y. Yoo (2010) the presence of some unique funerary objects such a s shell bracelets and jade along with all kinds of other materials for daily activities and some various scales of burial sizes and amounts of gene ral funerary objects from some burial sites could be an indication to imply a possible class difference in the Korean Neolithic societies Origin of Chulmun Pottery and Its Spreading in Korea The first archaeological study for the origin of the Korean Chu lmun pottery was done by the Japanese scholar, Fujita who proposed a population migration theory from cited in Nelson 1993:56). This Siberian route theory was further vita lized later by two south Korean scholars, W. Y. Kim (1964, 1967) and J. H. Kim (1964, 1978). Although they believe that the Korean Chulmun pottery is not exactly same as the ones from the northern Europe and Siberia they suppose that the Korean Chulmun po ttery might have been influenced from the regions They describe that some similarities are found on the overall pottery forms and combed decorations from the Chulmun potteries of all three regions but they differ in the detailed decorations on the surface According to W. Y. Kim, the Siberian Chulmun pottery culture moved to the western coastal areas of the Korean peninsula and spread to the eastern and northeastern coastal areas in the peninsula. B. S. Han (1974) similarly describes the diffusion routes o f the Chulmun pottery, Siberia to northwestern Korean peninsula and later to costal line of the


96 peninsula to northeastern peninsula. This Siberia theory has been naturally challenged by scholars because there have been newly reported potteries from Northea stern China, western Siberia, and Korea that show the earlier chronological dates than those from the northeastern Europe ( see H. G. Baek 1986, 1999; H. G. Lee 1 990 ; H. J. Im 1983, 1996, 1999). According to D. J. Lee, except for the shape of the bases from both Chulmun potteries. Overall, the scholars mentioned above emphasize the different patterns that appeared in the Korean Chulmun potteries; as mentioned, most Chulmun potteries from the western regions in Korea show pointed and round ed bases while the northeastern regions show flat pottery in general. Therefore, B. S. Han (1974) considers the flat Chulmun pottery from the northeastern peninsula as the degraded form of the Kammkeramik Chulmun pottery from the Scandinavian peninsula. However, H. G. Lee (199 0, 1991 ), who emphasizes the similar flat potteries between northeastern and northwestern Korea and northeastern China regions, Liaodong peninsula and Manchuria argues that the Neolithic Chulmun pottery culture in the southern Korea peninsula originated from those regions and insists later that the origin of the Neolithic Korean culture should include both northern regions. H. G. Baek (1986, 1993, 1999), who focuses on the compar ative studies of the pottery from the Liaodong area and the northwestern and northeastern regions of the Korean peninsula, also shows close connections between two regions. Nel son (1993:107 108, 1995a:10 12), however mentions some similar archaeological features between northeastern China and the Korean peninsula but states that although some similar geometric decorations appeared


97 at the potteries, overall there are some differences such as the shape of the pottery base between two regions. The idea of the northeastern China as the center of the Chulmun pottery origin is not discussed much after many earlier Chulmun potteries from the coastal areas of the Korean peninsula were reported. After having more archaeological data accumulated, currently scholars have focused more on the regional developments of the Korean Chulmun pottery (I. S. Ha 2003, 2006 a ; S. T. Im 2003; D. J. Lee 1999, 2001; E. S. Song 1998, 2001, 2002; Shin 1994). Although it w as before many newly excavated potteries were reported, Y. H. Han (1978) argues that the central western Chulmun pottery was from the Jitapri site located in the northern peninsula, not by f a rther northern region near the Amnok (=Yalu) river located at the current boundary between China and Korea. Many scholars in South Korea now consider the central western Korean peninsula as the origin of the Korean Chulmun pottery, based on the absolute dating results of the potteries from the region (S. K. Lee 2001; E. S. Song 2002). Some scholars explain that the Chulmun potter y culture from the central western region moved to the eastern central region and later moved down to the southern coastal region (S. K. Lee 1999; E. S. Song 2001, 2002). Based on her study focus ing on the environmental factor and food production, E. S. Song (2001) argues that during the middle Neolithic period, the central western Chulmun people moved to the eastern peninsula and later introduced a Chulmun patterned type of potteries to the south ern coastal area where the yoongimun pottery culture dominated during the middle Neolithic period. She infers this as the result of the subsistence strategy of the Neolithic people who were looking for less effort with higher benefit that all hunter and fo rager look for even at present and she considers that the


98 s a lmon catching was the one that the Chulmun pottery people from the central eastern region found discovered Most of Neolithic pottery studies in Korea show that there is some level of a simi larity on the pottery decoration between the central western Korean Chulmun pottery and all other regional Neolithic Chulmun potteries (Shin 2004; E. S. Song 2002). Therefore, many studies have focused on the transition routes of the central western Korean Chulmun pottery culture to the rest of the Korean peninsula, while a number of studies on the central western Korean region have dominated than that of any other regional Neolithic studies in Korea. However, D. J. Lee (1999, 2001), who focuses on the patt erns of the pottery stylistic decorations and the results of the absolute dates on pottery, suggests a new idea that all Chulmun pottery cultures in the Korean peninsula originated from the southern coastal Chulmun and yoongimun pottery cultures. His idea is similar to that of Sample and Mohr (196 4 ), who excavated one of the most famous sites in the southern peninsula D the site. They did not accept the Siberian theory and suggested instead a local evolutio n. Transition from Chulmun to Mumun During the end of the late Neolithic period, the pottery with the Chulmun style dramatically decreased and eventually changed to the Mumun pottery, which was becoming widespread in the Korean peninsula around 4 000 3 50 0 BP. This new pottery style is generally distinguished from its predecessor, the Chulmun pottery, by the simple decoration pattern, if decorated, and thicker wall with the flat base form (Nelson 1993:163). This Mumun pottery is similar with the paleo Mumu n in terms of no decorated style of pottery, although the Mumun pottery is much more varied than the


99 earlier Mumun pottery. The Mumun period is divided into the early, middle and late time periods, and Korean archaeologists have identified fi ve or six reg ional groups ( C. K. Lee 1988; H. J. Ro 2002:525). According to Nelson (1993:111), there are two basic pottery Nelson interprets this consistency in shape as dietary similarit ies all shared by people throughout the peninsula. Although it was known that more than 70 percent of Neolithic sites from the central western islands in Korea is the midden site and the majority of the contents is oyster ( S. H. Kim 2001:79), the middens n ear coastal line throughout all the peninsula disappeared through the transition from Chulmun to Mumun period ( J. J. Lee 2002:13). While all other general subsistence patterns including settlement styles were changed as well, rectangular semi subterranean pit houses were built on the open land or hillsides near rivers during the early Mumun period. It is indicated that a large size rectangular residential unit continued throughout the early Bronze period in Korea, although from the middle Bronze period, all residential units became smaller ( Seung O g Kim 2006:27). Kim also explained that a multifamily residence pattern changed to a single family pattern in the later period. According to him, the dramatic change during the Bronze period occurred in the middle Bronze period as the residential sizes and shapes changed significantly along with other overall changes in the mode of subsistence. In general, the settlements are more concentrated in the west and south in the peninsula but some sites from east and inner central areas have been reported (see Seung Og Kim 2006:8). Overall, the density of the settlement became noticeably higher

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100 than those of the Chulmun period and many sites for both periods are overlapped between 5 000 and 3 000 BP ( L u taenko et al. 2007:37 2 ) Sometimes, hundreds of dwellings and storage facilities were found in each village, occasionally associated with workshops, dry field, cemeteries, defensive facilities (moats and palisades) (Lee 2001b). J. H. An (2001) divides the Mumun groups, based o n the settlement locations of agricultural societies and residential patterns and tools, into three groups: river basin, ridges and slope on the mountain, and hill side. He believes that these three groups had different patterns of the mode of subsistence. The R elations between Chulmun and Mumun P ottery C ultures Since social complexity from the Mumun period was apparently evident from the archaeological records, before the 1940s, there was no any kind of inquiry about the relations between the Chulmun and t he Mumun cultures : rather it was simply accepted that they were ethnically and culturally different peoples ( S. J. Lee 1992:90). However, there are currently two main arguments that have interpreted the relations between these two pottery cultures; evoluti on in place with acculturation and foreign influence by population movements. While profound archaeological changes from the late Neolithic period have been identified, which are associated with the disappearance of a Chulmun patterned pottery, many tradit ional explanations for the occurrence of the Mumun pottery as the population replacement phenomenon throughout the late Neolithic and early Bronze periods have appeared in the published record from the early twentieth century by Japanese scholars. This exp lanation has been accounted by diffusion and migration theories, based mainly on several factors that have been appeared on the archaeological evidence; the appearance of increased socio political complexity in settlement patterns,

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101 various burial practice including megalithic tombs, broad rice farming tools, a new pottery culture, and relatively large scale rice fields. Scholars supporting these phenome na as results of a population migration process argue that all those changes coincidentally appeared in a relatively short time period as a package (e.g. J. B. Kim; 19 74 ; J. H. Kim; 1978; J. S. Kim 2002a, 2002 b; W. Y. Kim 1986; Lutaenko et al 2007:389). Increased agricultural activity was inferred by more actual remains of grains, more ubiquitous and varied a gricultural implements, such as small semilunar shaped stone knives that were probably grain reaping implement (Nelson 1993:144). Some bronze objects, megalithic tombs, more sedentism after the movement of settlements from the coastal and riverine areas to ward inland hilly zones, polished stone daggers, polished red or black pottery, and craft that needed specialization, are all used as indications for the appearance of a social complexity (Chon 1992). While scholars emphasize a sign of an increased homogen eity in the material culture throughout the peninsula in the Mumun period, some of them state that a nomadic group with a package of material culture that included new types of pottery, bronze technology, megalithic tombs, and rice agriculture migrated fro m northern China and replaced the existing hunter gatherers in the peninsular (J. B. Kim 197 4 ; J. H. Kim 1978; W. Y. Kim 1986). On the other hand, the other group has argued that the transition time from Chulmun to Mumun pottery was not radical or abrupt, but a steady process over a long time (e.g. C. P. Choe 1982, 1986, 1990, 1991; G. A. Lee 2011 ; Shin 1994, 2007). Since this perspective was mainly argued by North Korean scholars initially, many South

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102 Korean scholars, however admitting some external influe nces, have been supporting this explanation at present. While scholars on both sides, indigenous origin and foreign influence, agree that the shift of village locations has been usually interpreted as the result of different subsistence strategies ( see J. J. Lee 2011 a and J. S. Kim 2002), scholars emphasizing local evolution processes rather than population migration process argue that there are increasing examples of continuous occupation from the Chulmun to Mumun sites (see Shin 1994). They have begun to call into question the traditional dichotomy of site locations between two cultures and they therefore disagree with the idea that all material patterns appeared as a package (J. J. Lee 2001a:97). They instead emphasize archaeological evidence showing cult ural continuity from the Chulmun to the Mumun period and point out that many differences between two pottery cultures are caused by a long term intermittent change over a millennium ( J. J. Lee 2001a:95). Some scholars, who suggest a mingled idea, in this g roup infer that the local and the new comer might have lived together (Choe 1990). Nelson (1993:163) suggests migration or diffusion must have played a major role in the introduction of rice agriculture and bronze technology into Korea, although she believ es that there was no process of the population replacement in the transition period from the Chulmun to Mumun periods. She however advises that there might have been some population influx from the north to the Korean peninsula through two thousand years o f the Bronze period in Korea, although she states that there is no evidence supporting any migration process of a single ethnic group along with rice and bronze technology into Korea for the Bronze period.

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103 While arguments on the two explanations for the tr ansition period between the Chulmun and Mumun periods have been ongoing, most recent arguments are more focused on the subsistence patterns of the Chulmun and Mumun pottery cultures rather than on the pottery styles specifically Since the main points on t he arguments are regarding on how much and how fast cultural activities and their products were changed, which would be very subjective, archaeological interpretations on the material cultures will be discussed in C hapter 5 Origins of the Chulmun and Mum un P ottery C ultures and Korean Identity Korean identity was in fact formatted by imperial Japanese scholars who tried to establish the theory of homogeneity of the Japanese and Korean by using archaeological data during the late 19 th century and early 20 th century. They used the pottery from the Neolithic and Bronze periods as one of major archaeological features to approach the topic and all pottery studies from these periods were interpreted as the discussions of population movements in East Asia. Korean scholars have continued the way to use the pottery cultures as major discussion topics of the national history of Korea. Traditional scholars in South Korea have been tracing the topic of the origin of Korean from the Neolithic period, maybe because there was not much archaeological data reported on the Paleolithic period in Korea before 1960s. However, North Korean scholars, who emphasize the evolution in place theory for the history of Korean identity, extend the time frame to the Paleolithic period, base d on some skeletal materials found in North Korea. As noted in the introduction of the Chulmun pottery culture, there are two main ideas regarding the origin of Korea n people, population replacements and evolution in place formations. Most of interpretatio ns of the emergence of regional pottery cultures in

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104 Korea are traditionally accounted for two different models, migration and diffusion. While the variability from the typological classifications has not been discussed enough, some major points of disagree ment for decades in Korean archaeology are mostly related with diffusion or migration routes that are directly connected with the genealogical history of the modern Korean ethnic and national identity. Population R eplacements There are three most influenti al scholars, who suggested theories regarding the origin of the current Korean people; although their theories are not supported anymore by most of the Korean Neolithic scholars, their explanations have been popularly discussed and cited by the public in K orea. One common thing from them is that they all agreed that there were two separated population movements affected on the formation of the Korean ancestral line; first, the Chulmun pottery people and second, the Mumun pottery people. All their explanatio ns are similar with each other but slightly different approaches on racial intermixes and names for the pottery peoples. According to J. H. Kim (1966, 1978), there are two major groups involved in racial intermingling to create the identity of the current Korean people. While two separated population movements, first the Chulmun pottery people, called paleoasiatic people and second the Mumun pottery people, called Altaic people, both from the southern Siberian regions occurred, he groups them as the norther n strain (Pukpang gye in Korean ), which he regards as the major strain. He explains that during the Mumun period, another population called the southern strain (Nambang gye in Korean ) from the southeastern Asian region moved to the Korean peninsula and min gled with the Altaic people to produce the ancestral line of modern Korean. He supports his

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105 southern influence idea from some archaeological evidence such a dolmen that is found in both regions. Similar to J. H. Kim, J. B. Kim (1971, 1972, 19 74 ) regards th e Chulmun pottery people as the paleoasiatic people in the first population movement to Korea. However, he describes the Mumun pottery people as neo Siberian living through Mongol and Western Manchuria. He connects the people to the YeMaek who have been re garded as a direct ancestral line of modern Korean by Korean historians. W. Y. Kim (1972, 1983 b 1989) also calls the Chulmun pottery people as a Paleo Asiatic people from southern Siberia. According to Kim another new comer from southern Siberia moved to the Manchuria and Korean peninsula, which were inhabited by the Paleo Asiatic people Kim calls them as Tungus, which is of the same line as the YeMaek. The process of cultural and biological mixing between these two groups later produce d the ancestral li ne of modern Korean ethnic origin. As noted earlier, the YeMaek people is the one, many Korean scholars have considered as the direct ancestral line of Korean ethnicity based on evidence from not only archaeological materials but also historical resources. Since the Mumun pottery is associated with some major material cultures such as rice, bronze dagger, dolmen, and stone cist burials that all appeared in the Liadong peninsula, Manchuria and Korean peninsula, it is complicated to interpret whether all thos e regions containing the current Chinese territories should be included into the part of the Korean ethnic history. Further discu ssion on this issue will be in C hapter 7. Since the diffusion and migration theory did well in describing the patterns of popul ation movements in East Asia, the northern diffusion hypotheses were generally

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106 accepted by scholars until the 1980s. However, w hile all theories introduced above had failed to explain the sufficient cause of changes occurr ing during the Neolithic and Bronz e period, as seen in the limitations of the diffusion theory generally discussed by scholars (Binford 1968; Davis 1983), more recently another Korean archaeologist sees the cultural changes from the Chulmun to the Mu mun period as radical and abrupt alterat ions and tries to explain the cause of the change. According to Jangsuk Kim (2003 b ), who considers the period of the first appearance of agricultural economy as the initial period for the Mumun pottery culture in Korea, the Mumun pottery people were farmer s who came to Korea by long distance migration. While other scholars interested in the spread of agriculture into hunter and forager have agreed that it is not a simple and fast process but many different mechanisms involved in complicated ways and that th e agricultural technology was gradually transmitted to hunter and gatherer by the process of exchanges with farmers, Kim admits that he would not be able to answer the question was advantageous, how and why foragers eventually be came farmers rather than continuing to exchange with them ( J. S. Kim 2003 b :278). According to Kim, while some locations in Europe, Southern Scandinavia and northern Spain, delayed significantly the spread of farming, central western Korea experienced rapi d transition t o an agricultural economy ( J. S. Kim 2003 b :279). He supposes that the new economic system was introduced from the north and the hunter and gather in the central western Korea adopted new technology, land use strategies and settlement patter ns with the introduction of agriculture in their mode of subsistence. He believes that this rapid process was mainly caused by rapid human migrations.

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107 Furthermore, to support his idea, Kim states that there is no significant chronological overlap between f coexistence or exchange between Chulmun pottery cultures. He also add s, that spread of farming and new material culture resulted in striking homogeneity throughout the region in terms o f material culture, settlement patterns, and subsistence economy. Their predecessors show extreme geographical variability in material culture and subsistence economy depending on the microenvironment ( J. S. Kim 2003 b :297). However, there are some possibl e problems from his propositions First of all, he agrees that agriculture in Korea was not indigenously developed an idea that is generally accepted by archaeologists in the world. Nevertheless, while there is a growing number of archaeological evidences indicating much earlier starting point of agricultural economy in the Korean peninsula (see Lee and Woo 200 0 ), we still are not able to say that Mumun pottery culture was accompanied by the total agricultural econom y compared with the previous Chulmun pat tern culture. And even though it is true that some patterns, such as pottery shape and design, and settlement style might have changed, regional subgroups of Mumun pottery cultures still existed. Is it because diverse agricultural peoples with different po ttery cultures came from different locations in Korea? Although Kim does not emphasize total population replacement of Chulmun patterned pottery peoples, if the process was so rapid, where then did the Chulmun pottery people go? Therefore, it is still too early to define the transition period from the Chulmun to the Mumun culture as rapid or abrupt by population replacement since some evidence supporting a long term process change between two cultures has recently surfaced

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108 Evolution I n place Formation One of the reasons that the population replacement theory for the origin of the Chulmun people from the northern region was so popular among Korean scholars might be that there was not enough evidence to prove the existence of the Mesolithic period in Korea. However, there have been increased numbers of archaeological sites showing some evidence of the Mesolithic period in Korea (see K. D. Bae 2009; B. K Choi 1984, 2008; H. J. Lee 2002; I. S. Ha 2006 a ; Seong 2009 a ). I t is clear that the diffusion and migratio n based theories introduce d above did not consider enough the possible internal factor on the cultural change in a society. Based on the evidences from the Chulmun pottery cultures deliberated in the 1960s 80s, the new generation of the Korean Neolithic sc holars has changed the trend on the study of the Korean Chulmun pottery and its transition period from the Chulmun to the Mumun pottery Focus is now more on internal processes rather than external influences and on how to the Chulmun potter culture spread out inside the peninsula. S ome Korean archaeologists propose the possibility of indigenous Korean pottery culture, although no one has attempted to account for the reason or necessity of indigenous evolution process of the pottery culture in detail or eve n tried to explore further the topic of Korean ethnic origin. Instead they place more emphasis on the great distance with the northern cultures, especially in Siberia, and try to build up a more detailed understanding of the regional Korean Neolithic cult ures. As discussed in the Chulmun pottery culture, some scholars have considered the Korean Chulmun pottery might have evolved from the local inhabitants and even influence d neighboring regions (see Im 1982, 1992; I. S. Ha 2006a; J. H. Cho i 2008). Since th e Jomon pottery in Japan was regarded as the oldest in the world, some

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109 Japanese scholars used to believe that the Korean yoo ngimum pottery, which is mostly discovered from the southern and eastern coastal regions in Korea, was influence d by t he Japanese we stern Jomon ( W. Y. Kim 1981:28 29). But because the specific location of the Jomon appliqud pottery site is younger than Korean Osanri site which was excavated with the y oongimum pottery the idea is not accepted anymore (Im 1992:221). Im says that the o nly similarity is the technique of appliqu between these two pottery cultures. While the Korean Chulmun pottery is also similar to one of the Japanese potter g ro ups, Sobata in the Kyushu island that is discovered from more than 150 sites and is more than a thousand younger than the Korean Chulmun pottery period, many scholars have argue d that there was a strong cultural connection between two regions (Im 1992:223; W. Y. Kim 1981:29 ). Many studies have shown the similar features of the subsistence patterns and regional networks between the two regions during the Neolithic period (J. H. Cho i 2008; I. S. Ha 2006b; Jeong and Ha 1998; S. K. Lee 1998 ). After sufficient archaeological materials had been accumulated, scholars now maintain that both the appearance of the Chulmun pottery culture and the transition from the Chulmun to the Mumun would not have been a radical change but a steady long term process. As Nelson (1993:162) earlier stated that the Korean Chulmun cultures already knew some levels of plant dome stication and population migration from to other regions might have not been necessary. S imilarly G. A. Lee (2011) who supports the idea regarding a long term transition between the Chulmun and Mumun cultures emphasiz es Chulmun o manage early agricultural activities that have been proven by archaeological data for settled agricultural societies.

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110 E. S. Song (2001) who argues that the central western Chulmun people migrated to the central and coastal eastern region to replace the Osanri people in the eastern coastal region for the subsistence strategy also suggests that there was a cultural contact between the Chulmun culture and the local pottery culture in the southern coastal region. According to her, it is proven by the eviden ce that the yoongimun pottery with Chulmun patterned decorations appeared at a later time period. She also argues that the transition process from the Chulmun to the Mumun periods in the region was a long term, internal development process for the local so cieties that were already well settled with all different kinds of well adapted subsistence patterns (see also I. S. Ha 2006a). Overall current s cholars, who have studied the Neolithic and Bronze periods, now look at the transition process between the Chul mun and Mumun periods as a long term internal adaptation and development processes. Biological Features of Korean and Its Neighboring Regions The concept of biological race has been challenged in American physical anthropology during the late twentieth century and many scholars do not accept the term as biological entity anymore ( see Nova 2000 October 12 : Does Race Exist? ). While there are many different ways to classify modern humans (see Boyd 1950; Brues 19 90 ; Coon 196 2 ; Garn 1971; Wiener and Wexler 1 958), Wiener and Wexler divided the major groups of races ( before extending to six later) ; Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid, based on blood frequencies. On this work, the terms will be used when necessary to help in unde rstating previous works and the other term, population, which more implicates geographical area will be frequently used. The mongoloid could be divided into two different groups by geographical locations: the southern and northern (Brues 1990). The northe rn groups could be

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111 identical with those groups that W. Y. Kim (1986:3) identified as the Turks, the Mongols, the Tungus and Manchus in Manchuria and Siberia, the Korean and Japanese. Brues (1990:258) however is concern ed with the inappropriateness of gener a categorization of Mongoloid due to many infiltrations of other racial strains into East Asian regions for the last few millennia. Traditionally it was the North Korean scholars who emphasized the independent evolutionary process of the Korean ethnic deve lopment (Y. H. Han 1997:85; S. B. Yi 1992:23). They believe that one of the human remains from the Sungnisan site (?4 30 000 BP), found in North Korea, shows some features shared by peoples from the two Koreas and northeastern China (Y. H. Han 1997:86 87). Paik and Chang (1973) analyzing bones found at the northeastern peninsula from the Neolithic and Bronze period s state that they were the descendant of the older people living in the Korean peninsula. However, scholars from South Korea have questioned th e dating of the Sungnisan remains, including all other old human skeletal materials, and the reliability of the studies from North Korea (S. J. Park 1999:561). According to one of the earliest studies using human remains from the South Korean regions, peop le between two thousand years ago and modern time in Korea are metrically similar to each other, based on the study using a single individual remain excavated from the southern tip of Korea (S. J. Park 1977). Park (1997) also states in another study compar ing all human bones reported in Korea and putting them in chronological order that some changes on the crania occurred from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic periods. Also it was stable from the Neolithic to the Bronze periods and after that no change was n oticed up to the modern interval. He therefore concludes that

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112 some unique biological features of Korean people had been initiated since the Neolithic period and finalized in the Bronze period. Park and others (Park et al. 1999:153) later report another bio logical approach focusing on cranial flatness, the data from Korea and its neighboring countries. The result shows that the indices for facial flatness of sample data between 10 th and 20 th centuries and modern Korean are similar and the simotic index data between modern Korean and two Korean kingdoms, Koryo (AD 918 1392) and Choson (AD 1392 1897) are also very similar. However, some other indices, frontal, zygomaxillary, and simotic show some variations among different Korean groups from different time peri ods. His studies overall indicate that some biological features of Korean people did not change much during the ancient historic periods. Another study using dental metric and nonmetrics on the several thousand teeth from different time periods of Korea sh ow similar results indicating general closeness with a few variations (Pack et al. 1999). Other studies comparing Korean data to other peoples in East Asian regions have been reported. A study using 118 Korean adult crania from the several medical schools was compared with other neighboring countries by Koh and others (1997). It shows close relatedness to northern Chinese and modern Japanese, but some distance with Mongol, Siberian and Eskimo. Research by Choi and Han (1999), who examined 38 nonmetric crani al traits from Korean samples and compared with 18 other neighboring groups, indicates that the Korean sample shows closer affinity with those of Kazach, Mongol and Buryat in Siberia than China and Japan. Based on those studies done by Korean scholars, it is still too early to make any argument on spatial and temporal variability. After more sample data accumulated, it is possible that better

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113 controlled micro levels of analytical efforts will be followed for a better understanding into these inquiries. Ther e are more studies comparing all East Asian populations along with applying broader sampling groups as well as various methods for the research. According to Yongyi and others (1991), who tried to classify all human population around the world based on 24 craniofacial dimensions, Asian Mainland cluster is with one of eight other clusters, Africa, Amerind, Australo Melanesia, Eskimo Siberia, Europe, India, and Jomon pacific. They also further divide the Asian Mainland cluster into two groups, southern and no rthern, which are consistent with current geographical locations and posit that the groups have diverged within t he last 7 000 years (Yongyi et al. 1991:277). According to one of the earliest bioanthropological research done by Howells (1978) using osteolo gical data from China, 7 000 BP or older and modern Chinese are hardly distinguishable from each other, although some regional variability is reported. Based on his study, he also suggests that the origin of the Chinese is not from southern China. He furth ermore supposes that the northern Chinese do show any connection with Korean and Japanese. Another craniometric study by Pietrusewsky et al. (1992) also indicates that there is not much change from the Bronze to the modern Chinese, although some regional d ifferentiation is noticed. However, Horai and others (1996), using mtDNA sequence variation to study five East Asian populations (Ryukyuan, Ainu, the mainland Japanese, Korean, and Chinese), report that Korean does not show similar sequence types with Chin ese and Ainu. Northeastern Chinese, Inner Mongolian, Manchurian and Japanese from the Honshu

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114 Island share very close affinity. Similarly, another study using genetic material, HLA (human leucocyte antigen), from the East Asian peoples, all Chinese, Japanese and Korean are close, while Japanese and Korean are the closest each other (Tokunaga and Juji 1992).Tokunaga and Juji also report that some of Haplotypes that are common in K orean are not found or very rare to people from Beijing (the capital of China) and Southern China. They further report that some other haplotypes are common among people in northern China and in Seoul (the capital of South Korea) but less common in the wes tern and southern China. Overall, it is indicated that there is a regional variation between the southern and northern China, while some levels of close affinity between northeastern China and modern Korean. Although all studies introduced above could be i nterpreted as various ways of an arguable statement by different scholars, one thing very clear is that the Neolithic and Bronze peoples living throughout the East Asian regions were racially Mongoloid in nature. More spatially and temporally detailed and broader works need to be done after more data have been collected along with the application of newly introduced methods and techniques from the physical anthropology. Languages in East Asia and Korean While the previous Korean archaeologists had adapted s ome results from the linguistic studies for their arguments on the history of the Korean people and their terminology to describe ancient peoples living through the East Asian regions in the past, all researches from the linguistic approaches in essence ha ve utilized archaeological interpretations for the population movements in the regions. Most early linguistic studies show that current Korean and Japanese languages are connected with the Altaic language group, which includes all Siberian peoples who move d to southern

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115 regions as discussed in the topics of the Chulmun and Mumun pottery cultures previously, while some discuss also about southern influence, Austronesian (Malayo Polynesian) theory for the Japanese (Benedict 1990; Chew 1976; K. M. Lee 1979; Po livanov 1924; Poppe 1960; Ramstedt 1928, 1949; Shibatani 1990; H. M. Sohn 1999; Whymant 1926). While the Altaic family groups include Turkic, Mongolian, Tungus, Korean and Japanese, Chinese, which is classified into the Sino Tibetan family, is not included into this language family. Japanese is the closest language to Korean among others and scholars have still argued on whether these two languages need to be included or excluded from the Altaic family (Martin 1966, 1975, 1990; Miller 1971; Poppe 1960). Alt hough it is not still popular and some have still argued that both included into the Altaic (Campbell and Mixco 2007:90 91; H. M. Sohn 1999:18 25). There are several lingu istic similarities between Korean and the Altaic including Japanese; syntactic structure order (subject + object + verb), and lack of articles, relative pronouns and liquid sounds (r and l). In general old Korean is classified by historic nature into two g roups; northern (the areas that ancient Korean counties were founded Manchuria and northern Korean peninsula) and southern (the area for the three ancient countries southern Korean peninsula) (K. M. Lee 1976). Summary and Conclusion While scholars now have applied more seriation study for the chronology of the regional Neolithic pottery groups (Im 1999; Kim 2004; Kim and Yang 2001), they also have put more attentions on the studies that are traditionally lesser focused and have tried to emphasize equal ly on other archaeological data that should be essential to reconstruct prehistoric life and to discuss more reliable regional and temporal relations

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116 among prehistoric pottery groups E ventually they are able to extend their discussion from only focusing o n pottery stylistic arguments for regional and temporal comparison to broadening their arguments on why and how questions rather than limiting their arguments on when and where T he main theory for the origin of the first Neolithic people in Korea has been mostly explained by migration and diffusion theory that was first introduced by Japanese scholars during the colonial period in the early twenty century. Some decoration similarities between other worlds were simply interpreted as population movement into the Korean peninsula. However, this cultural history school approach has been challenged by some Korean scholars at present, because of increased archaeological data. Since North Korean scholars have not reported much new archaeological data after the lat e 1970s, critical weakness on the study of northwestern and northeastern areas in Korea has been created (Song 200 2 :8). This is especially critical on the Korean Neolithic study which has focused on the pottery chronology. The typological groups resulting from great efforts by Korean archaeologists have provided a useful structure of describing and defining Neolithic and Bronze pottery groups in Korean archaeology. A ll newly emphasized and attempted studies to help reconstruct all kinds of subsistence patte rns of the Neolithic peoples in Korea show a bright future for Korean archaeology.

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117 CHAPTER 5 A RCHAEOLOGICAL IDENTITY AND POTTERY STUDIES In this chapter, a historical context for archaeological studies of methodological and theoretical approache s on cultural boundaries of material cultures is presented. While how to define and how to trace changing boundaries from the archaeological evidence have been one of the main dilemmas of studying archaeological communities, some basic concepts that are re lated to cultural identity in archaeology, such as culture, culture change, migration, diffusion, identity, ethnicity, and style are mainly discussed through this chapter. While pottery has been viewed as an important source of information on the behavior patterns of ancient peoples in archaeology archaeology has engaged with identity issues using pottery evidence of the prehistoric societies as the basis for defining their cultural chronology and boundary, and for eventually determining origins and moveme nts of prehistoric peoples P ottery study and identity is further discussed using the technofunctional approach as its focusing lens Culture in A rchaeology S ince the concept of culture is central to anthropology at its very foundations, this culture conce pt has been believed to be what fundamentally links archaeology to the anthropological discourse (Flannery 1982). According to Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952), the word, culture was used in reference to agricultural endeavors in French and transformed later to apply to human progress. In 1908, Rachael Pumpelly used the term culture as a synonym to civilization (Trigger 1989:163). In German, word, culture was used to reference the individual societal customs distinguishing between peasantry and urban civi lized centers (Trigger 1989:162). This German view of the word culture was

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118 custom, and (1871:1, Cited in Trigger 1989:162). The first time the concept of culture was employed in archaeology by Gustaf Kossinna, who believed that culture was a reflection of ethnicity and th us the material culture was associated with the ethnicity and racial categories of those being studies, in first systematically applied for archaeology in England: whil e his cultural concept was used for tracing the cultural history in Old World archaeological material culture as a reflection of past peoples, but did not accept 17 works are not popularly accepted due to his deep involvement and emphasis on nationalism in his archaeological studies, his idea on culture that it is historical and diffusional is being used as a basic notion in archaeology (Trigger 19 89:170 ). (1954:157). According to him, they are definable chronologically and spatially and are ous ladder of inference that is geographically the physical environment influences material culture norms. However, more important to Hawkes are temporal norms wherein he postulates that culture does not exist at one point in time rather it exists througho ut time. Boas, who is considered as the father of American anthropology and influenced by Ratzel as Kossinna did, introduced the culture concept into American archaeology and regarded cultures as collections of traits throughout historical events, called historical

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119 human behavior from artifact typologies. He also tried to avoid an evolutionary scheme used by Tylor and Morgan, who emphasized unilineal cultural evolution a nd tried to rank contemporary societies from a state of savagery to civilization (Gosden 1999:71). In 1948, Taylor defined culture not as geographical or material but as a mental concept on a secondary level of abstraction consisting of ideas such as feel ings values and behaviors. He also criticized previous archaeological works ; cultural traits and units only allowed for comparisons between cultures but did not allow archaeologists to understand the unit being investigated (Taylor 1948:98). He stressed th at the best way to study culture is through a conjunctive approach combining two elements from both archaeology and ethnohistory (and ethnography), utilizing both aspects of statics and dynamics of culture (Lyman 2007:226). of adding mental concept into the cu l ture definitio n was not well received before the emergence of the new archaeology of the 1960s by Binford who follow ed but emphasiz ed that culture is not shared bu t participated by people (Binford 1965:205). While he did not accept a simpl e normative view o f culture as a shared homogeneous and similar traits passed down to generations ( derived from all previous archaeological works and arguments including Taylor ) B inford emphasized a more systemic view on culture H e believes that archaeologists need to investigate not only artifacts but also mental templates behind the artifacts (Trigger 1989:295 297). Yentsch and Beaudry (2001) suggesting a broad perspective on m aterial culture, argued that cultures are different due to external factors such as environment. Similarly Shanks, emphasizing

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120 landscape and identity as central to archaeology, stated that archaeology needs to focus on the social fabric, the materiality of in order to understand the archaeological records (1992) For Shanks, it is not just the people that make culture; it is the material objects that make culture through people. A goal of studying archaeological material has been broadened to encompass not only human behaviors through all kinds of materials left behind, including landscapes, but also human thoughts to explain from those behaviors. Culture History School Culture history was the dominant theoretical framework begin ning around the turn of the 20 th century for archaeology and is s till in common use today under various guises (Lym a 1997, 2001). Willey and Philips (1958) regard culture history as the descriptive part of archaeology, which requires less inte rpretation and more direct description of artifacts and their context in archaeological sites. Culture History as a method and theory is responsible for determining which people were in what place throughout prehistory and therefore helpful for building up on the temporal and spatial synthesis of archaeological data (Lym a words, it generally emphasizes a chronicling of events, possible cultural connections between archaeological sites, and an outline of relative ch ange and stability of cultural patterns within sites. The descriptions from the school therefore are broad, general ones, founded in a normative concept of culture, focused both synchronically and diachronically on the form of cultural attributes (Trigger 1989). C ulture history then, which looks to define people by their material culture and where they were located as a society, relies upon ideas of diffusion and migration in order to describe social change.

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121 Some studies in the school had tried to overcome some limitations of the school such as less scientific approach and simple interpretations from the stratigraphy and typological approaches based on essentialist perspective to identify inherent characters in the data that are independent of exogenous infl uence (Willey and Phillips 1958:14). Regardless of these efforts, Binford, who was a well known proponent of New Archaeology in the 19 60s, admonished that even though the culture history approach had given archaeology a great deal of knowledge on the diver sity of extinct cultural systems, it had made no attempt to explain the archaeological record (1962:217). He also argued that archaeologists need to focus more on the explanation of the archaeological record and appl y scientific method to display a constan t articulation of variables within a system that work to change the structure of the system as a whole. A lthough culture historical archaeologists showed some limitedness in their studies, their approaches have result ed in a significant elaboration of curr ent archaeological methods Migration and Diffusion As mentioned above, migration and diffusion are two of the most fundamental explanations of cultural change not only within the culture history school but also within archaeology. Early migration studies were often stimulated from creationist worldviews, lingering after effects of racism, constraints of short chronology, influence of humanistic particularism, over periodization from fragmentary evidence, and anti evolutionist reactions (Adams et al. 1978). Attempts to understand normative notions of migration patterns were conducted by archaeologists such as Kossinna (late 19 th century), Childe (1925, 1929, 1950), and Kluckhohn (1936). Since these attempts, however, showed the lack of an effective vinculum between method and theory, the concept of migration had

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122 not been popularly applied for the explanation of culture change (Anthony 1990:895). to or drawn from any explic it set of postulates setting forth how migrations work (Anthony 1990:896). The sudden appearance or abandonment of sites and artifact styles was assumed to indicate the movement of human populations. Because these processes could not be tested, processual archaeologists discovered that a normative concept of migration based on material culture was analytically unobtainable. Instead of coming up with different approaches in attacking the complex problems of migration, they chose to ignore the entire issue. In 1990, researchers such as D. Anthony, however, attempted to bring migrations studies back into the archaeological study by introducing new approaches. He suggested that migration patterns should be identified deductively; in the past, scholars such as H aury (1958), MacWhite (1956), and Rouse (1958) had focused on the archaeological record in order to interpret the nature of migration patterns. They inductively tried to understand processes of migration through the discovery of stylistic distributions det ermined by classification methods. The problem with their method was that the archaeologist does not know what or where to look for stylistic patterns. Due to this reason, Anthony argued that one should first develop a theoretical understanding of migratio n processes before looking at the material correlates. Anthony (1990) further stated that in order to acquire a clear concept of migration patterns, archaeologists need to look at migration studies conducted by socio cultural anthropologists, and geographe rs. According to him, these contemporary migration studies have produced a model of migration where there are negative stresses (push to leave) from the home

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123 location and positive forces (pull to come) from the destination location. The likelihood of migra tion then occurs with the increase of intensity of the negative push and positive pull forces as well as the cost of travel between the two area decreases (Anthony 1990:903). He also stated that return route demonstrates the importan ce of looking at stylis tic changes at the home location as well as the destination location, and the age and sex of human remains in relation with stylistically diverse burials may indicate usage of scouts. Currently with these new concepts of migration, an archaeologist has a b etter conception of what to look for among the material culture. For example, spatial distributions of stylistic variation in the form of streams and leapfrog routes can be assessed (Anthony 1990). However, according to Anthony, the obstacles that archaeol ogists have had to overcome in migration studies are different ways of looking at the same process ; it should be changed that many current researchers only see migration as moving in one direction and overemphasize economic factors as to why people migrate By incorporating socio cultural anthropology and geography into archaeological migration studies, strong hypotheses can be derived. Another concept, which is diffusion, was also typically used to explain cultural changes by culture history scholars. Many of them simply believed that all cultural items including all knowledge and material features had diffused from place to place. C hange in culture historical archaeology is emphasized by exogenous factor through diffusion (Lyman et al. 1997:210). Since it culture as permissible transmission between groups, Kossinna strongly emphasized a diffusionist model of cultural connections between archaeological groups (Trigger

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124 1989:161). Childe, who emphasized diff usion more than migration to explain the cultural influence from the Near East to Europe (1933), employed diffusion theory on his studies, which is based on a functionalist view of material culture and typologies. According to Childe certain artifacts bein g used for typological approaches could show cultural diffusion and eventually establish chronologies of such diffusion (Trigger 1989). The relations between diffusion and migration for the culture history school are that diffusion is regarded as sl ower process of movement for ideas, while rapid and radical change from archaeological evidence is regarded as a migration and population replacement (Trigger 1989:154). Therefore for the culture history school, archaeological materials are traits that can be used as diagnostic material artifacts implying changes in the shared norms of that society (Trigger 1989:154). While the sharing of some concepts and modes such as enculturation, transmission mechanism, gradual process, and variation between diffusion and social evolutionary theories are observed (Lyman frequently discussed by scholars ( see Most scholars have criticized uniformi tarian notions notable on the concept of diffusion and migration. According to Fabian (1983), although applying the synchronic uniformitarian mode for human societies has allowed archaeologists interpretations on different cultures, there was too much emph asis in describ ing the unchanged primitive culture not in relation to time, but rather spatial dimen s ions. However, Bailey (1983) argues that the uniformitarian notion could still allow archaeologists to understand the past in terms of present processes fo r an invariance of general spatial and temporal laws, regardless of time and place (Bailey 1983). Although it has been discussed that

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125 there is a way to overcome the static previous explanations by diffusion and migration theories on cultural societies, wit hout wrongly emphasizing that all processes in current societies would have been interpreted as the same phenomena of the past, the cultural history school at that time was not generally discussing enough the issue of how to get over temporal and spatial d imen s ions in archaeology. Culture Change in Archaeological Records According to Taylor (1948) in criticizing the culture history school that focused on describing material remains in terms of their temporal and geographical distributions, and expla ining change in material remains over time as a process of diffusion and migration, rather than focusing on reconstructing past life ways, culture change is something that could be viewed within a site, not simply through external forces such as migration and diffusion. He believes that culture change and the behavior of prehistoric societies must be constructed from the low level data that can be recovered from archaeological sites. He therefore insisted that evaluating each archaeological site based upon its own internal cultural nature is necessary. After the invention of radiocarbon dating in the middle of the Twentieth century and applying it to the archaeological record, it was determined that culture change was seen as progressing far too slowl y to be described as the result of diffusion or migration (Trigger 1989:304). At about the same time some scholars, who were interested in the concept of processual change within cultural systems from evolutionary theory, were attracted by cultural evolut ion explanations on cultural changes, although they were not as focus ed on understanding cultural change through progressive stages emphasized by unilineal cultural evolution (Lyman et al. 1997).

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126 Steward, who was one of scholars critical in the re introduction of evolutionary theory in anthropology, suggested a new form of evolutionism, the multilineal evolution for studying human societies (Gosden 1999:88; Steward 1955). H is multilineal evolution approach emphasizes the significance of comparative views on cross cultural regular and casual relationships A ccording to him, with more emphas is on ecological factor in to environmental constraints (Trigger 1989). Thus, as th e emphasis by neo evolutionary that not all cultural facts are equally important to make cultural changes, archaeology should focus on understanding the changes in the archaeological evidence as ter ms of culture process (Lyman et al. 1997; Trigger 1989:295 ). (1962), who proclaimed that archaeology was anthropology, scholars were more concerned with finding general laws that could be used to explain and predict culture change in human society. Binford (1962, 1965, 1968) embraced environmental determinism and aimed toward finding general laws of behavior, always emphasizing the need for rigorous testing by way of the scientific method, and by applying a systems theory th rough the use of computers. According to him, this kind of a holistic view and approach is necessary to explain culture change. As seen, for the scholars emphasizing this view, the idea that culture change is explainable by a broad set of rules and general izations is one that forms the foundation of most anthropological theory. Although there are numerous theories, some in direct competition and disagreement, most of the se have one thing in common: the se theories explain changes in terms of general laws tha t cultures must follow.

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127 From the 1960s, there are many new evolutionary theories, including cultural ecology, selectionism, and behavioral ecology, which all consider behavior (=culture) as a unit of analysis in archaeological studies. Although som e differences such as scales, units, purposes and methodological approaches are noti ceable from each theory, they all emphasize some sort of evolutionary processes as main cause of cultural change (Barton and Clark 1997; 2000) They postulate that while the main cause of the cultural change is not limited to adaptation from the external conditions, regardless of the fact that adaptation is the key mechanism in the process of cultural changes, it is rather the result from the differential persistence, through time, of behavioral variation (Lyman et al. 1997; Trigger 1989). One of critiques for these new evolutionist models is that while the evolutionary perspective is a good explanatory framework for culture change, the neo evolutionary models were just revamped functionalist explanations in archaeology (Burnham 1973). According to Bamforth (2002), who argues that evolutionary concepts outside of nonbiological scenarios cannot be generalized in archaeology, evolution ary studies must still consider multiple lines of explanations to propose more reliable, holistic, and competent scientific explanation of culture change (Bamforth 2002). Although new archaeologists were interested in relations of production in Dar winist clothes, materialist frame works are fundamental in archaeology to search for regularities exhibited by cultural change (Gilman 1989:65). M any current archaeologists exclude external factors such as migration and diffusion for cultural change. They emphasize a historical component as well as various forms of ecological and demographic determinism, rather than depending simply on diffusion and migration, to

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128 explain discrepancies of the archaeological record (Gilman 1989). As the result, while many new archaeologists embracing neo evolutionism in their works denied human consciousness and its role for cultural changes in favor of exogenous ecological factors, at a later period, as alternatives to new archaeology, some other approaches such as historical materialism, structural Marxism, and critical theories have been introduced into archaeology (Gilman 1989:66; Trigger 1989:327, 347). These approaches consider the material, but stressed that change is induced by social relations surrounding contro ls over the means of production (Gilman 19 8 9; Kohl 1981). In general, these Marxist thought based archaeological theories consider culture as the socially produced means of adaptation to the broader environment and the structure of economy in society, and as the results of technological adaptations, cultural traits are recognizable in a material form (Gilman 1989; Kohl 1981; Spriggs 1984). These new Marxist theories therefore emphasize internal factor for change rather than focusing on external factors such as migration and diffusion for culture change. While they postulate evolutionary view for the process of cultural change, the Marxist Hegelian dialectic is replaced by Darwinian natural selection (Gilman 1989; Price 1982). However, if archaeologists take Marxist perspectives to the level of classless societies, they may find problems in their interpretations and it may be caused by relatively limited range of anthropological models (Gosden 1999:110). Culture C hange and Individual in Postprocessual A rchaeo logy Postprocessual archaeology is the term which is given to the criticisms of the New (Processual) archaeology. It challenge s the old dogmas about adaptation and archaeology as anthropology or objective science. Although there are several sub div isions within postprocessual archaeology, they are all linked by the idea that all of the

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129 human events of the archaeological past cannot be fully understood by scientific and objective methods alon e (Hodder 1991:37 38). In postp rocessual archaeology, cultu re is regarded as organizational schemes of action by the individuals, who are the main social negotiation (Bawden 1996 ; Thomas 1996). Among several major proponents of the move ment, such as Michael Shanks, and Christopher Tailley, it was Ian Hodder who relie d heavily on historical context and sm that archaeological remains are to be interpreted as texts and the viewpoints and e loquence of the interpreter is important. According to him, topics such as ritual, symbolism, and ideology are reachable in archaeology if kept within a specific culture historical context (Willey and Sabloff 1993:299). Similarly in critical archae ology ( another area of postprocessualism ) ideology is considered a powerful social force with a bigger role than neo evolutionists would assign to it. W hile ideology can serve to mask socioeconomic and political divisions within society as well as direct and determine cultural change, dismiss ing it as a factor woul d lead to the failure to explain fully all processes of change in archaeological studies (Willey and Sabloff 1993:300). According to Leone et al. (1987), critical theory, which call s for archaeologists to be concerned with the inherent societal biases that exist within their interpretations, is necessary to make more objective interpretations of data in the archaeological records without being influenced by the political, economic, and soc ial factors which dominate their own time (Willey and Sabloff 1993:301, see Leone 2010; Leone et al. 1987). W hile

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130 all these kinds of studies related to cognitive archaeology, which represents the theoretical position from which we can understand what a par ticular culture thought about a certain item or practice (Senior 1995) and have given broader viewpoints on cultural changes in archaeological remains, the postprocessualists also have shown the fact that the past could have been reconstructed wrongly by p olitically and ideologically motivated reasons. However, there are many archaeologists who have criticized the postprocessualist viewpoint; for instance, Binford argues that archaeologists must be accountable to the world of experience on the ideas we employ in interpreting the archaeological record and s earching for meaning directly from the archaeological records ha s an issue on where and how we obtain this knowledge and how one is to evaluate its accuracy and relevance to what is seen in the arch aeological records (1989: 39 40). C ulture change then in archaeology is not only allied with history but also with anthropology and the scope of related issues has been dramatically ex pa nded with almost no boundar ies Cultural Transition to M ore C omplex S ocieties in Archaeology Archaeologists have proposed some interaction theories to account for culture change occur ring by cultural contact or interregional interaction, especially in view of the transformation process from simple to complex societi es in prehistoric period. Caldwell (1964) introduced the concept of interaction spheres, which indicat es and focus es on regional or interregional exchanging network system and explain s the transformation process as a cultural adaptation. Peer polit y interaction, introduced by Renfrew to describe competitive exchanging network among independent social units, is said to be more explanatory of change than interaction spheres (Renfrew 1982, 1986). Although there is an implicit assumption of

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131 class rankin g within each polity, relations between the polities themselves is seen as competitive but without any one polity controlling over another (Renfrew 1986). The interaction approaches both focus on searching historical causality, rather than inherent causali ty, to approach possible effects of intersocietal contacts on processes of sociopolitical change in individual units or political society (Schortman and Urban 1992). On the other hand, world system theory, developed by Wallerstein (197 6 ) endeavors to explain the rise of capitalism in western societies through taxonomic categories of economic complexity It views the world as comprised of autonomous political units that are linked to a larger unit through some sort of economic interdependence between the core and peripheries in archaeology (Peregrine 1996; Stein 1998). These economic forces drive change, and as a result socio political forms change (Peregrine 1996). One of the benefits of the world system theory in archaeology is that a typology of so cial political forms in various geographical relationships of societies can be proposed based on their economic, social, and political relations (Peregrine 1996) An alternative model called distance parity for world systems theory is proposed by St ein (1998). This model emphasizes that the increased distance between a periphery periphery and the periphery therefore has its own affect or role in structuring the interregion al networks and interaction. All interaction theories above identify cultures as economically independent (except the world system theory), regional, multileveled, evolutionary entities (Peregrine 1996). Not including peer polity, which views polities as r elative equals, there is a hierarchical division between cores and peripheries.

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132 C which focused on economic interaction between core and periphery, influence d the advent of some concepts and ideas on these models and theories, such as the emphasis on economic trade and relations as a force of change in interaction theories with some focus on information and symbolism as well (Trigger 1989:333). Since cultures are not identified through political or geographic character s, change is identified as variation in the economic relations between or among systems or polities, through symbolic entrainment, warfare, or exchange. There are however some critiques in the application of th e se theories in the archaeological con text. According to Kohl (1989), for example, temporal and spatial unit and scales of world system theory would be problematical because the structural relations between societies might have functioned differently with different meanings in different geogra phical locations and time periods. Kohl also argued that some studies show that the peripheral societies in prehistoric periods did not necessarily suffer from a technological gap with respect to heir core areas because the ga p was minimal (or non existent ), and peripheries could shift relations between multiple cores. Archaeology as Anthropology and Identity in Archaeological Study Prior to Phillip Phillips is nothing 247), se veral scholars already had hinted at a prelude for the change in archaeological studies in US. In 1939, McKern argued that ethnographic explanations were of very limited use to explain the archaeological record A nd the application of contemporary groups o f people as directly relational to cultures identified in the archaeological record was faulty because of the disregard for spatial and temporal factors. In the 1940s, as Taylor (1948) stated that archaeology may be nothing more than a technique for gather ing cultural information, archaeology, when viewed as

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133 part of anthropology, was seen in various ways relating to the dichotomy between history and science (see Kluckhohn 1940; Taylor 1948). Therefore, the notion that archaeology was not serving history, bu t history was serving archaeology had been also naturally grown up (Phillips 1955:247; Willey and Phillips 1958). After Phillips (1955) proposed that archaeologists must have some of the same theoretical questions as anthropologists, the advent of proclamation that archaeology was anthropology (see Binford 1962, 1965). Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, archaeologists focused on a total cultural system to approach universal laws of human behavior and by the late 1970s th e use of anthropological models, theories and methodologies had increased in the Western archaeology (Trigger 1989). The methodological base of this approach is that archaeologists must look at the whole of the studied society since this holistic and syste mic view is needed to ascertain the answers to some multicausal problems that have been discussed in anthropology. From the 1980s to no w, along with influence of post processualism, more various theoretical perspectives, such as agency/practice, iden tity, and gender studies, which were once discussed mainly in cultural anthropology, are being undertaken in archaeology (Wylie 1992). Those logical positivistic epistemological approaches by processualists are challenged by postprocessual archaeologists, whose epistemological base is usually anti science (anti positivism and anti empiricism) and leans heavily on the individualistic approach. According to them, naturalism (positivism) in archaeology denies the uniqueness of a human being and produces the lo ss of the individual in the analysis (Shanks and Tilley 1992 :29 45 ). While some possible shortcomings on issues from this anti positivist epistemological school have been realized, some scholars warn

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134 hyper relativism of the school. They also believe that s ymbolic and cognitive issues of human culture in archaeology are still unattainable because they could be biased and subjective rather than objective (Kohl 1985). 8 ) on emphasizing the cultural processes (similar with what Binford suggests) are given credence some common ground between processual and postprocessual archaeologists are realized; for instance, growing acceptance of plural perspectives and discussing postmodernism issues with more scientific methods (Wylie 1992, Knapp 1996). The postprocessual writings suggest a more relativistic critique, emphasizing symbols and ideology (Kohl 1985). Although the individual was not the main focus in the archaeological studies for a long time, current archaeologists c onsider individuals as the unit of analysis and primary source of culture change in human societies. Ethnicity in Identity In the past, the concept of identity was just used to provide a taxonomic framework as one of the first steps in the analysi s process of archaeological materials. Archaeologists simply believed that the material identity from archaeological records is just same as cultural identity and did not discuss much about possible multifaceted nature of identity. However, after archaeolo gists saw the need to look into the meanings behind the material culture, they have increasingly concerned the concept of identity by inquiring what it is in anthropology (Gillespie 2002; Hodder 1991; Meskell 1999). Despite the difficulties in defin ing identity due to its multidimensional nature, it will be a good start to state that identity consists of various components, including but not limited to, race, ethnicity, nationality, gender and class. While the American Heritage Dictionary defines it broadly as the collective or individual aspect of being, what is

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135 instantly observable is that identity may not be static but fluid; it can be changed and multiplied (Brubaker and Cooper 2000; Eriksen 1991; Graves Browns et al. 1996; Hall 1996; Meskell 2001 2002; Shennan 1989; Sokefeld 1999; Todd 2005 2010 ). Ethnic identity (Ethnic group or Ethnicity) has been discussed by scholars since the 1950s as political and social changes in the world could not avoid national character, group or personal ide ntities (De Vos and Romanucci Ross 19 82; Eriksen 1991, 2002; Erikson 1968 ). One of things that scholars and politicians are concerned with is how it is self constructed or self determined. While the term, ethnic, is from the Greek word alien or pagan, in the US it was political term used to refer to largely British descent It is generally believed that ethnicity must include a n aspect of social relationship differences, based on social interactions (Eriksen 2002). Since it is fluid, it could be clear and ambiguous, and more likely it is relativis tic. However, many agents have notions of common ancestry of ethnic boundary. It is not agreed yet which criteria constituting ethnicity are always right. Since all kinds of shared cultures or traits, such as religion, language, custom, and even racial pro file are fluid, emphasizing any one of these criteria for defining ethnicity has been challenged on many occasions (Alonso 1994; Cohen 1978). Therefore, the relations between ethnicity and race, class, gender, and nationality are blurred. So far anthropolo gists usually agree that ethnicity is for the classification of people and group relationships. However, while ethnicity is essentially an aspect of a relationship, anthropologists, especially archaeologists have been

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136 troubled to make possible boundaries f or any feasible ethnic group. If ethnicity is more like self conscious identification and ethnic boundaries are not necessarily territorial boundaries because there is a continuous interaction among agents, how do we see them? According to the study for th e American Indians of the eastern Andes by Ann Osborn (1989), natural environments, such as rivers and mountains, are not directly related with cultural boundaries for the groups of people. She argued that making the lines of cultural identities among the groups of peoples would be based on religious beliefs that appeared on ceremonial houses showing different patterns in different groups. While it is clear that any kinds of ideological features for ethnic boundaries could be challenged, archaeologists, who are concerned with material records, have been trying to find emblemic or assertive styles of material culture. Development of Identity and Ethnic History in Archaeology While according to Wilkie (200 1 ed and defined in various ways, archaeologists from the early 20 th century however did not concern much about metaphysical parts of identity. Kossinna, who developed settlement archaeology to trace an ethnic history in German, could be a good example on ho w archaeologists have been dealing with the relationship between material culture and ethnicity. He believed that if archaeological materials from settlement areas indicate typological differences, it is an indication of different ethnic peoples (Jones 199 7). This simple notion that archaeological culture equals to ethnic unit was pursued not only in German but also in many parts of the world until the 1980s (Jones 1997). That culture historical method which emphasizes chronological and typological analyses came to North American archaeology in the early 1920s and some new analytical methods to sort out archaeological material evidence were introduced. This trend was continued

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137 until new archaeological approaches were introduced in archaeology in the 1960s. H owever, the cultural history school did not emphasize ideational parts of past ethnic societies and even did not believe that it was part of archaeological works (Jones 1997). It is because that archaeologists did not notice complex variation in material c ulture and ethnicity, and they had fixed bounded entities in past material cultures (Trigger 1989). As discussed, during the 1950s and 1960s archaeologists started to concern themselves with the causes of culture change. While their diffusion and mi gration explanations on archaeological studies are insufficient, they emphasized a functionalistic explanation in archaeology. However, archaeologists still depended on stylistic analyses for cultural variations and ethnic differences, although they notice d possible existence of variable dimensions in archaeological evidence. They still 1997:111). Since new archaeologists did consider style as a passive reflection of normative rules, they could have not been successful to seek the relations between the material culture and ethnic boundaries (Jones 1997). Processual archaeologists between the 1960s and 1970s emphasized ecology, economic and subsistence strategies, a nd exchange systems. They, in fact, did not find it necessary to focus on ethnicity. Rather they simply needed to consider ethnicity as an outmoded archaeological paradigm, It was after the late 1970s and early 1980s that a possible active role of style in material culture was realized by archaeologists. Many ethnoarchaeological analyses indicated active communication roles of style among individuals or groups, and

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138 archaeologists started rel ating style as the expression of social identity (Jones 1997). According to Sackett, (1982, 1986), Isochrestic variation, which is a production by formalized and patterned behavior without implying symbolic behavior on material culture is the one for possi bly conveying ethnic stylistic variation. Similarly, Wiessner (1983:257, 1984) suggests both emblemic (formal variation for conscious affiliation or group identity) and assertive (formal variation for individual identity) styles could be directly related t o ethnic traits. Furthermore, as Hodder (1982:55) states that ethnic identity is possibly expressed in the mundane as well as in the decorative, archaeologists have been looking at all kinds of symbolic schemes from archaeological evidence. Therefore mater ial cultures themselves have been regarded as agencies that could have played their own role for cultural changes and variations. Since archaeologists have studied past material cultures, they have focused on their real meaning more than ever since the 1980 (Meskell 2001). And archaeologists have tried to apply many concepts and theories for that reason. Currently they have applied the concept of identity to make a taxonomic framework for their research, while recognizing the fact that identity is di fficult to be defined because of its multifaceted nature. Since the 1990s, some archaeologists have applied agency/practice theories for understanding identity within material cultures (Bell 1992; Gilchrist 199 9 Hodder 2000; Jones 1997; Lightfoot et al 1 998; Sassaman 2000; Shanks and Tilley 19 92 ; Tilley 2004; Upton 1996). Although many controversial implications still exist, the study of agency/practice has offered many advantages to archaeology. Because these theories consider the individual as t he center of the micro scale approaches, these allow archaeologists to

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139 see how the individual or groups intentionally (or unintentionally) constructed, negotiated, and transformed their culture (Barrett 2001; Dobres and Robb 2000). Therefore the advent of agency and practice theories in archaeology made archaeologists start concentrating on the links between thought and action (Gosden 1999). Because agency theory considers how individuals reproduce and structure their society (Dobres and Robb 2000; Hodder 2000), through examinations of all kinds of archaeological material evidence, archaeologists try to understand the recursive relationship between structure and agency. While agency/practice theories consider all history, materiality, and change as m ajor parts of its theoretical approaches along with emphasizing the role of the individual agents, the material production is just regarded as a sense of history for the society and individual to shape the reproduction of life (Dobres and Robb 2000 ; Sassam an 2000, 2001 ). Barrett (2001) argues that material conditions should not be regarded as the representation of the social system because it is a dynamic entity whereby archaeologists can look at the performance of an action within its particular context th at the material condition of life and the material trace intersect (see Hodder and Cesford 2004). According to Jones (1997), who suggests that a better way to approach ethnicity habitus which is a key concept for the practice theory, it includes all aspects of the cultural practices and social relations. She also argues that while the interaction perspective, assuming that ethnicity is produced in the process of social interactions, is not a good enough to app roach, different cultural traditions are a produce of continuous recursive process between relevant cultural

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140 practice and historical experiences. Ethnicity therefore should not be regarded as a passive and static mirror of culture by a traditional normativ e view. Scholars also recognize that while humans are directly linked to the spaces they occupy through memories and interactions, the landscapes are relational entities (Thomas 2001). In other words, since each individual interacts with the landscape diff identities are imbued with their landscapes through their life histories (Thomas 2001). While there are ongoing theoretical arguments about problems or difficulties on e been challenged because of the possible nave projection of contemporary western categories onto their non westerners ) and there is there fore the belief of the possible superior nature of western knowledge (Gosden 1999). Therefore, the identity studies in archaeology have made archaeologists realize that since early forms of identity politics were essentialist and centered on nationalism th us allowing a great deal of political modification and utilization, even current agency/practice theories are not free from the fact because scholars both in anthropology and archaeology that are engaged in area studies are affected by their background, es pecially their Since the material record was transformed from a passive by product of society to a dynamic entity that exerted influence back upon the system and material culture became also relational to the specific socio cultural context in which it was associated in the W estern archaeology, all current topics related to identity in archaeology therefore necessitate rigid explanation of the contextual study in order to adequately identify the

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141 agent s tructure relationships (Barrett 2001; Gosden 1999; Jones 1996; Meskell 2002; Tringham 1991). Identity in Pottery Studies After the scientific method was first largely emphasized by archaeologists who had no generalization could be made cross culturally, some scholars such as Alex Krieger, James Ford and Albert Spaulding tried to develop methods by which artifacts could be classified systematically based on their physical attributes in American archaeology. In his article in 1944, Krieger proposed theoretical scopes of his typological method and some methodological procedures for types be identified by attributes of culture. Th erefore, he defined archaeological type as a unit of cultural practice equivalent to a cultural trait in ethnography (1944:272). He work (1944:273). tion that types as analytical tools was supported by Spaulding (1953). Spaulding, who argued that there is no way to avoid confronting the problems of ordering and comparing quantities of data and sampling error in order to determine which of the data have meaningful or meaningless attributes, suggested that suitable statistical techniques could help archaeologists discover meaningful archaeological data. based on physical a ttributes and how important attributes can be distinguished from unimportant ones can be solved by: surveying a number of sample artifacts; finding consistencies of attributes and all archaeological artifacts fitting into some classification that can be ma de from descriptions of these attributes and, how they are grouped. To

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142 Spaulding, an artifact type was an assemblage sharing a minimum of two attributes However, there were disagreements s uch as from Ford who accused Spaulding of making vast generalizations of the type that the 19 th century evolutionists made about cultures (Ford 1954:391). He strongly expressed doubt about Spaulding statistical methods of discovering cultural types. Ford, who also agreed that the concept of type help us reveal cultural norms, rather than describing culture history ( Steward 1954). He further argues that archaeologists ne ed to keep in mind the following; what a type is, how it is defined and what purpose it may serve. He also suggested four dimensions of cultural type that archaeologists must be aware of ( Steward 1954:52) The first dimension is r eflecting the boundaries o f its cultural bearers in a cultural type because inherent organization exists in culture at all times and places Second is a level of integrated abstraction in cultural structure at which the typology is formulated Third is the c ultural drift, across ge ographic space, producing variation in a cultural type Fourth is that b ecause cultural type will vary in time, the mean of the type is a result of a point in time. Ford however was not interested in finding cultural features on types, although he thought that it is achievable. Julian Steward (1954), who also believed that types could be associated with presenting two kinds of types; morphological (attributes or traits, solely based on form, physical or external properties) and historical index (chronological significance as a time marker). Steward however added a third kind of type that Ford did not consider,

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143 functional type. According to him, while other types can be q uantified by its features in order to be used for temporal and spatial markers of cultural phenomena, a culture can be shown by the study of functional studies from the types of archaeological records and this can be achieved by qualitative approaches (195 4:54 57). Because typology is now regarded as a crucial tool to the understanding of not only a chronological purpose but also a cultural study for the prehistoric societies, Rouse (1939, 1960) introduced a more comprehensive view of artifact typol ogy by dividing these into analytic and taxonomic classification methods. The analytic method established what Rouse called a mode, which is a natural unit of cultural study, rather than types of artifacts. Conversely, the taxonomic method was focused with attributes indicative of a type, which represent an arbitrary unit of cultural study. While Krieger, Spauliding, Ford, Steward and Rouse all show that types are theoretical units, possessing historical significance and displaying temporal and spat ial continuity (Dunnell 1986:174), the typological method in archaeological records inevitably face the issue of subjectivity involved in the classification process of types. Although one of suggestions is by using mathematical and computational tools for sorting pottery morphological features (Gilboa et al. 200 4 ; Zapassky et al. 2006, 2009), many attributes appeared on pottery would not be easily classified or analyzed by using those tools. Therefore, some possible standardized measurements or analytical m ethods for more accurate and objective observations have been introduced by scholars (see Mckern 1939; Orton 1980; Orton et al.1993; Rice 1987; Sinopoli 1991). The method for better chronological control (which is and has been of considerable im portance to prehistory and the methods used by prehistory in archaeological analysis)

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144 had been strongly requested before absolute dating methods were invented. And one of the relative dating methods, seriation as a form or technique of typology was popular ly used in archaeology (Dunnell 1970). According to Rouse (1967), this technique was first used by Christian J. Thomsen as he organized property of the Danish National Museum into three categories based on their respective chronological time frames: the St one, Bronze, and Iron Ages. While seriation is a scaling technique that produces a formal arrangement of units, using classes to order groups, it could be simply defined as a ased on physical attributes (Willey and Sabloff 1993:108). Although seriation has played an important role in the analysis of archaeological records, it has been shown that the results from the method itself is not able to give some answers regardi ng why changes appeared through the times and the meaning on the process (DeBoer 1974:337; Dunnell 1970). In the studies by Deetz (1967, 1977), who used a seriation approach on changing style in tombstone and also tried to recognize real changeover time in artifact design, it showed that he suffered from the inability to account for that change and he only proposed that shifting in assemblage patterning was representative of a substantial change. McNutt (1973) argued that seriation is very effective for ind icating changes on temporal and spatial units, but the method has a limit that pot type frequencies cannot be reconstructed from sherd type frequencies. Dunnell (1970) also argued that, for short duration types, there should have had enough sample numbers for the better seriation approach. Some methods such as the battleship curve (Ford 1962) and close proximity (Renfrew and Sterud 1969) methods have been applied for small amount of sample data (Orton et al. 1993:190).

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145 Nonetheless, seriation has been regard ed as the best method to define the temporal aspect of cultural change from analysis of material records in archaeology. As for the interpretation purposes, archaeology has always had some form of analogy involved in interpretation, even if it was not visible in theory until the middle 1970s. While analogy is an attempt to reduce the dependence in archaeology on inference of human behavior and to take on the study of the archaeological record from a more direct approach, there are two basic types of analogy used in archaeology; specific historical analogy (also known as ethnographic analogy), which is based on analogies within the history of a particular culture, and general comparative analogy, which is cross cultural and seeks to explain basic huma n behaviors that are apparent across cultural boundaries (Willey and Sabloff 1993:246). Analogy would perhaps be more valuable to a culture historian, whose major focus is to describe an artifact in order to classify it by its physical attribute. Therefore when typologists create categories into which artifacts will be placed, they often necessarily base such categories on the basic uses for which they expect that the artifacts were intended. Archaeologists have argued if analogy should be accepted as a necessary tool in archaeology or not, regardless of some caveats from it (see Gould and Watson 1982; Stanislawski 1978; Stark 2003; Watson 1999; Wylie 1985). As for using analogy to develop a theory of the material culture, archaeologists need to pro vide direct evidence of past human behavior and a basis to interpret that evidence. Ethnoarchaeology as one of the alternative approaches to study our past cultural change has been developed by some archaeologists, who focus more on the ethnographic study of contemporary peoples for archaeological purposes by emphasizing their material culture (David and

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146 cross l reflection of the primary adjustments of peoples to environment, as modified by tradition 1939:309), ethnoarchaeologists have also contributed to build interpretive frameworks hat there is no proof that information obtained for living groups held true for prehistoric ones. Although arguments regarding on whether using analogy is less accurate than the direct historic method or ethnographic studies are reliable or not could be co ntinued (Arnold 1985; Costin 2000; Gould and Watson 1982; Schiffer 1976), it is agreed upon that it would have been difficult to reach any kind of archaeological inference without those supported methods and theories. Style and Social Function from Pott ery Studies Archaeologists have thought that studying styles from archaeological records would be the best way to classify different cultural groups in prehistoric societies (Stark 1998:2). Nevertheless, while many regional data of the stylistic app roaches in archaeology from all around world have been produced along with increased concern the early 1960s However, numerous discussions based on ethnoa (Stark 1998:2). It has been agreed that style is therefore difficult to define with precision due to its very elusive and ambiguous aspects, not only for archaeologists but also for scholars from other fields (Conkey and Hastorf 1990:1 rather th an closed systems of expression (Rice 1987:245). While the term style is

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147 archaeologists (Rice 1987:245), Schapiro (1953:288) suggested that there are three dimensions of style; form elements and motifs, form relationship, and quali ties. There are also two different faces of style for archaeologists; one as a tool and the other as potential sources of meaning to prehistoric peoples or groups. While types were often as a particular historians who are concerned chronology and typology before 1960s. However, new archaeologists used style as more an analytical tool for measuring bounded spatial and temporal distributions for charting cultural changes and their social process (Conkey and Hastorf 1990:4). Throughout the 1970s, style became a concept, which also has a function, from the debate over the relation between style and function. Since then, it has been considered as more complex than simple normative concept. Now scholars have also emphasized the relations between pottery styles and social fun ctions, which include social interaction, group affiliation and solidarity, and boundaries not only between groups but also within group, rather than simply concerning themselves only on how to typology diverse pottery styles (Rice 1987:267). While social identity from pottery styles has been emphasized, Sackett (1986, 1990) proposes that style could be recognized in two forms: the isochrestic and the iconological. According to him, isochrestic style is behavioral aspect of potters, who have a full c ontrol for the choices of potential decorations on pottery. However, it is not imbued with emblemic significance in general and it is based on learning traditions in

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148 society. Iconological style, on the other hands, sends intentional messages of social iden tity with meanings and carries not only personal identity of the potter, but also the group identity the pottery is affiliated. However, Wiessner (1983, 1984), who had debated with Sackett about stylistic variation, suggests two different forms of style; e mblemic style, carrying over more group or social identity and assertive style carrying over more individual identity imbued either consciously or unconsciously. Since archaeologists have assumed that stylistic variation among different pott ery cultures can convey important information about social relations among them, they generally consider the fact of the geographical distributions of particular styles of potteries as social contacts between sites or regions (Hegmon 1995; Rice 1987). Curr ently, there are two main theories explaining stylistic variability on pottery; social interaction learning model and information exchange model (Whallon 1968:223 4). Social interaction learning model emphasizes more decorative homogeneity on pottery as so cial or group identities rather than exchange model. In other words, the similar features of pottery styles between sites or regions are of an important concern by archaeologists because of possible social interactions between group members. Therefore, tra ditional archaeological approach to pottery analysis attempts to find the differences of individual elements of pottery design, based on whether certain stylistic features existed on pottery or not, and focuses on grouping potteries or breakages into class es and types (Rice 1987:249 272). As discussed previously, many scholars who emphasized diffusion and migration factors follow a simple formula; the greater the range of similar decorative styles presents in each site or region, the greater the lev el of social interactions. However,

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149 some caveats for this traditional approach focusing only on the direction and intensity of social interactions between groups have been proposed by scholars. For instance, some scholars argue that styles could have been reflected by many different phenomena such as ecological factors, belief systems, or social relationships (Rice 1987:254). While scholars generally agree that trade, intermarriage, and ritual activities among groups of peoples may have occurred in the preh istoric periods, stylistic similarities on different pottery groups or societies could have been produced easily by simple or minimal contacts (Rice 1987:266). Modern scholars, however, now give close attention on some socioeconomic factor, such as, social organization, residence, marriage and gender rules, patterns of learning process within each household and group as well (Bowser 2000; David and Hennig 1972; Deal 1985; Deal and Hagstrum 19 9 4; DeBoer 1974, 2001; Eerkens et al. 2002). Some ethnoarch aeological studies have indicated that it is not always true to consider pottery styles as referring to a symbolized group identity. According to Hardin the short term stylistic changes of small bowl potteries, which take place within only one generation (Hardin and Mills 2000). Another ethnoarchaeological study for the Hopi in the Southwest US also indicates that pottery style and type for individual potter, mostly fema le, would be affected by the age of potters whose preference for colors and forms are changed as they grow older and experimented more (Stanislawski 1978). As for group identity inferred from stylistic approaches, Stanislawski also indicates that the potte ry for the Hopi and Hopi Tewa Pueblos, who share different cultural facts, such as languages, social patterns, and religions, are almost identical. At the same time,

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150 another tribal group living in western Kenya keeps unique styles of material culture despi te the fact that they interact with other neighboring peoples (Hodder 1977, cited in Rice 1987:254). Ethnoarchaeological evidence also indicates that decorative styles spread through diffusion and are a sign of political alliances for some groups of people s (Hegmon 2000:132). While many early works (Friedrich 1970; Wobst 1977, cited in Rice 1987:266 7) with stylistic approaches on pottery emphasize the functional purposes of different styles on pottery as boundary markers for reflecting group affilia tions, there are recent pottery studies on the communication role of styles from individual potters who may want to express their intentions. Bowser (2000), approaching the identity of women potters as political players based on the decoration styles on po tteries made by them, coalit ional alliances and political ambiguity Although some correlations between group boundaries and pottery decorations are reported by modern ethnoarchaeological studies, ethnoarchaeological research has not found any direct relatio n between overall technological traditions in each pottery culture ethnoarchaeological study of coiling, molding, scraping, smoothing and firing to be vital, but see decoration, rim form, and the like as relatively unimportant matters of personal choice 1978:215). Stanislawski explains that it is because certain design styles, such as form,

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151 decorative types, designs, and technology on pottery make an important play for village members as a socio (Stanislawski 1978 : 215 ). In contrast, another study from Chapman (1970) indicates San Ildefonso potters are not able to identify makers of most pots (Stanislawski 1978). Braithwaite (1982) shows that the decoration on the Azande potteries functions as ideological mechanisms for the chiefdom system of Azande society. Based on the work by Sassaman and Rudolphi (2001), who evaluate three main groups of the oldest pottery traditions in the southern United States, potteries from each group have identical decorations on pott ery but share very different pottery forms and tempered clays. They state that although the punctuated surfaces of Classic Stalling potteries in the southern United States may have had stronger thermal shock resistance than the plain surfaces of potteries, there is the lack of direct heat cooking with the appear to have been primarily an expression of cultural affiliation, nonthermal functions and R udolphi 2001:413). After recognizing this contradiction between technofunctional and decorative variation, they also suggest that more understanding of the meaning of object material culture for archaeologists is essential to explain any kind of variations that appeared in material culture (Sassaman and Rudolphi 2001:409). Technofunctional Attributes on P ottery According to Binford (1962, 1965), who believed that there are three different aspects of artifacts; technomic, socio technic, and ideo techn ic, approaching primary functional variation on artifacts is essential for archaeologists who are looking for

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152 sociocultural system. Senior (199 5 different functions of artifacts; 1. Techno function, whic h is mostly functional traits, such as surface treatment, temper, and pottery mechanics; 2. Socio technic function, which is social sub systematic aspect of function in cultural system; 3. Ideo technic function, which is the ideological component in social system; 4. Aestheto technic function, which has subsumed under either the socio or the ideo functional class. While there would be various ways to divide function, Griffiths (1978) however divides function into two simplified ways, intended and actual. According to Skibo (1992), who uses technofunction to emphasize more mechanic aspects of artifacts, intended technofunction consisted of morphological and physical properties, while actual technofunction indicates more use alteration. Skibo (1992:34 ) socio and ideofunctions are components of artifact variability traditionally placed within tes more the technofunctional and utilitarian aspects of pottery. It is also necessary to note that on this research although style in general could be related with all kinds of attributes when pottery style is mentioned, it is more likely indicating and e mphasizing decorated patterns on the pottery surface. While archaeologists are in general concerned with paste and temper, morphology, decoration, use alteration, and overall archaeological context in which potteries are found (Hally 1983), pottery form in fact has been used commonly as one of criteria for a pottery classification system (Ericson and Stickel 1973). The relationship between form

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153 and function therefore has been emphasized by many scholars (Hally 1986; Henrickson and McDonald 1983; Rice 1987). There are many different ways to approach the function of pottery in archaeology; ethnographic analogy, analysis of preserved contents, pollen analysis, chemical analysis of residues, use alteration, archaeological text, morphological correl ation, physical properties of pottery material, contextual information (Cackette et al. 1987; Pauketat 1987). Most of what is known about the function of different forms of potteries is based on ethnographic or ethnoarchaeological studies (Oppelt 1984). According to ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological studies, potteries morphology, manufacturing strategy, and raw material selection/preparation, are directly related with function; more specifically the shapes of pottery carries significant infor mation on their functions (Cackette et al. 1987, see Silva 2008; Smith 1988). Different shapes from body, shoulders or handles, rim, mouth and orifice ratio are directly correlated with nment, improved accessibility/manipulability, and reduced evaporation from boiling foods (Pauketat 1987:7). However, Hally (1983) emphasizes more on size than shape as the major determinant of pottery function, based on his use alteration analysis on a po ttery collection from Georgia in the United States. embedded in culture in much the same way as decorative motifs the analysis of the functional aspe cts of potteries would help us to have better understanding and explanation on cultural systems that we are interested in (Ericson and Stickel 1973; Gosselain 2000). Archaeologists have stressed that pottery shape,

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154 especially a cooking jar, and size could reflect a household size (Blitz 1993; Hally 198 1, 1984, 1986 ; Shapiro 1984; Turner and Lofgren 1966). Mills (1989), who tries to understand changes in food consumption pattern using potteries from the Pueblo American Indian, proposes a similar result. Acco rding to her, household sizes could be indicators for pottery sizes (especially, storage pottery, cooking pottery, serving pottery). She observed that increased pottery sizes go together with increased numbers of discarded jar through time and increased ag riculture of maize as well. functions and existences and residential pattern, based on considerations of possible residential mobility, economy and trade of the sampl e groups (see also Mill s 1989). Similarly, occupation span of archaeological site have been inferred based on identifications of pottery function (Hally 198 1, 1984, 1986 ; Pauketat 198 6 ; Shapiro 1984). Hally (1986) tries to identify pottery functions and re construct food patterns as historic indicant of peoples in the southeastern United States, based on the analysis of combining pottery morphological types, mechanical performance of those forms and analogy (Braun 1983). Sassaman and Rudolphi (2001) also propose that the changing shape of potteries is directly related to functional reasons. They believe that the flat bottomed basins of early Stallings times in the southeastern United America might have been effective for indirect heating (ancient peop le living in this region used soapstone cooking stones for heating purposes). They further suggest that increasing use of direct heating cooking techniques were replacing flat bottomed basins with wider orifices and shallow profiles to the hemispherical bo wls with lower orifice and taller profiles (Sassaman and Rudolphi

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155 2001). F rom a simple analogically inferred functional relation between form and function, (for instance, a hole on the pottery with a wide orifice and shallow profile is usually regard to be used for a pouring function (Blitz 1993)), many sophisticated patterns appeared on the mode of subsistence of prehistoric pottery groups and their behavioral patterns have been inferred by archaeological works. Since some technological characteris tics on pottery are connected with pottery functions, recognizing them from the pottery analysis is called for. Although it is difficult to identify either users or production sites (Rice 1987), interpreting geochemical composition of potteries is an impor tant part of pottery analysis. In general, archaeologists usually believe that potters use resources close to where they work and it is directly related with the amount of cost for pottery production (Arnold 1985). However, many recent ethnoarchaeological studies indicate that source procurement strategies are complex (Gosselain 1994). Bishop et al. (1982) proposes five main strategies related to the selection process of materials for potters: modern potters (1) use equally available clays without discrimi nating among them, (2) preferentially choos e from among equally available clays, (3) use more or less equally available clays of different composition for different kinds of potteries, (4) mix clays to achieve particular paste properties, (5) use m ore distant sources that are judged qualitatively superior for the pot (cited in Costin 2000:380). Ethnoarchaeological studies show that resource materials in the pottery making process are intentionally obtained for calculated purposes (Arn old 1985; Costin 2000). It is also ethnographically reported that potters use different clays and tempers for different pottery forms and functions (Arnold 1985; Gosselain 1994).

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156 Experimental archaeological studies show that some tempers have played a major role for specific technological functions; for instance, burned shell shows more resistant to crack and shatter than sand or unburned shell and all kinds of tempers that can reduce overall shrinkage (Arnold 1981; Bishop and Neff 1989:75 83; Bishop et al. 1982; Bronitsky and Hamer 1986; Rye 1976, 1981; Schiffer et al. 1994; Skibo et al. 1989). It is also indicated that overall sizes of potteries have direct connections with pottery wall thickness; due to structural support, larger potteries require ticker walls (Rice 1987). Experimental archaeological works report that surface treatments such as smudging greater heating effectiveness than potteries with both smu dging and slip, while both (Longacre et al. 2000; Schiffer 1990; Schiffer et al. 1994; Schiffer and Skibo 1997). Another pottery functional approach is from use alte ration analyses. Several major forms of the analysis are surface attrition, absorbed residues and carbon deposition (see A r th u r 2002; Hally 1983; Skibo 1992; Schiffer and Skibo 1997). Although it might be difficult to analyze badly eroded sherds or potteri es, the surface attrition of the internal or external give some inference on the spatial use of potteries. It can provide stirring, carrying, and storing information and indicate how the pottery was heated. Although absorbed residue analysis could not give the correct information due to possible multifunctions of each pottery, it is still possible to identify what kinds of plants or others were stored or cooked in potteries. Carbon deposition analysis is useful because carbon appears inside pottery and was governed by the source and intensity of heat and the presence of moisture. Exterior

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157 carbon (or soot) can yield information about the position of the pot over the fire, the intensity of the fire, the contents of the pot, and the permeability of the pottery wall (Skibo 1992:178 9). This analysis could help enlighten the functional purposes of potteries. More discussions regarding utilizable characteristics on pottery will be introduced in C hapter 6 It is worth men tioning that all these approaches are still mainly used to infer technofunc t i onal aspects of potteries. Although approaching pottery functions that agency imbues may not be identified completely, many potential meanings or functions on various kinds of for ms on pottery are presented to archaeologists. And since these approaches could not inform conclusive use, more contextual approaches for various dimensions of meaning between assemblage and other archaeological evidence from the sites are demanded. Summar y and Conclusion Along with the process of organizing artifacts into types to make a taxonomic framework, archaeologists use the concept of identity to broaden their theoretical approaches in the study of material culture. While typology itself is a rbitrary, identifying type by the naked eye is a common and basic method to infer mental templates of a maker or makers. However variation on pottery could be seen in raw material properties as well as other morphological features. While there are so many challenges to archaeologists who found that identity itself has non static nature and is very hard to define, the use of identity and further discussion on identity would be one of the starting points for Korean archaeologists interested in genealo gical issues. We need to keep in mind the possibility of the

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158 multifaceted nature of identity for archaeological researches to enrich our holistic interpretations. While a stylistic approach is important for temporal issues, it has its limited area; there are no direct clues for certain topics in archaeology, such as subsistence related patterns of societies (Skibo 1992:34). In addition, since it cannot answer any inquiry in regard to why the changes appeared in archaeological records, too much emphasis on the stylistic approach in archaeology could not make archaeologists move forward to the next levels of research questions (Choe and Bale 2006). In archaeology, one of factors which archaeologists always concern with is correlations which relate ma terial objects or spatial relations in archaeological contexts to specific types of human behavior (Schiffer 1976, 1988:469 471). Since archaeologists have been able to assume how artifact were made, distributed, used, recycled and disposed of in living so cieties by the correlates that allow them to infer the processes, some attributes in the technofunctional approach would be useful to infer further correlates in pottery cultures While technofunctional approach is able to compare changes that occur red on the basis of performance characteristics which might have responded to internal changes on the expectations of pottery functional values in societies, it could also help to infer various aspects from archaeological records; for instance, estimating prehistoric values of potteries based on the rate of reused and repaired potteries (e.g. Senior 199 5 ). Studying technoeconomic variation on pottery could be used to explain sociopolitical aspects of prehistoric societies. And consequently, it can be that s ociopolitical variations

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159 analyzed by technofunctional attributes on pottery could help to explain the emergence and spread of prehistoric pottery cultures (Sassaman 1993:3). Many studies related to technofunctional aspects on pottery may not be able to give direct answers to many anthropological archaeology questions, but they will be of help al. 1994:298 299) Foremost, as Skibo (1992:45) says, one of the best be nefits of this approach for Korean archaeology would be that they are able to reuse voluminous data that have been filed in the museum storage. Technofunctional studies therefore would be one of the good archaeological approaches in Korean archaeology.

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160 CHAPTER 6 T HE SAMPLE AND METHOD There have been new reports that our epistemological base on the identity of the material cultures could have been braced along with combining stylistic and technofunctional perspectives togeth er. As discussed in Chapter 5 many recent archaeological researches from ethnoarchaeology and experimental archaeology provide new perspectives that traditional stylistic approaches may have benefited from technofunctional attributes on pottery. Technofunctional attributes on potter y are able to provide fresh perspectives, not only for regional and temporal variations of pottery cultures but also of subsistence patterns. In this chapter, a literature review for the previous studies related to technofunctional emphasis in pottery stud ies in Korea is presented. A brief information with regards to terms used and data gathering process are next given. Some information of the two selected sites to examine the main research purpose of this work, the nature of transitional periods from the C hulmun and the Mumun pottery periods in Korea by investigating technofunctional attributes on pottery is introduced next. Analytical methods and observed attributes with a rationale for selecting them are presented at end of this chapter. Technofunctional Studies in Korea As mentioned in Chapter 1 regardless of the longstanding research interest in pottery, there is little study done intensively on the entire prehistoric pottery assemblages with functional aspects using various technofunctional att ributes on pottery in Korean archaeology, although some attempts using only a few attributes have been applied for research purposes. Therefore there is not enough discussion to infer variability in pottery functions between or among pottery cultures in Ko rea. However, it

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161 has been reported that North Korean archaeologists have focused earlier than those from South Korea on some basic technofunctional related attributes such as paste, form and size in an attempt to compare spatial and temporal variations of the Neolithic potteries (S. S. Byun 1988a, 1988 b; E. S. Han 1995, 1998; Y. G. Kim 1979; K. T. Seo 1990). One of the earliest few efforts done to use the technofunctional approach in South Korean archaeology throughout the past Twenty century is fro m Hyojae Im and Sarah Nelson introduced a functional implication of potteries in their short article in 1976 and argued that the capacity of each pottery needs to be considered for functional perspective. Chang (1987) published a brief summary article abou t the historical review of Korean potteries along with emphasis on functional cooking and storage related potteries. One of the pottery studies that applied real technofunctional aspects was done by Gi gil Lee (1994). He combined ethnographical and experim ental approaches, focusing on the pottery manufacturing processes and introduced some discussions regarding potential benefits of the technofunctional approach which could be used to reconstruct the life of prehistoric societies. The beginning of the 21 st centrury generated more interests in the technofunctional approach on pottery in Korea. C. Y. Kim (200 2 ), who focused two cooking related features, cooking pots and fire hearth techniques in the Bronze period, studied the relations between potter y and its use in fire. He tried to classify his sample potteries into four different patterns of soots based on the respective locations on the pottery wall. While Korean archaeologists have gave more attention to reconstructing pottery volumes to infer th e functions of different sizes and forms of potteries, Y. J. Kim (200 3 ),

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162 who mainly focused on the mostly ignored fact of the coexistence of the Mumun pottery with the Chulmun pottery during the Neolithic period, attempted to compare the volume sizes of bo th potteries to find out any possible functional differences between the two. It must be noted that the Mumun pottery (plain pottery = mintogi in Korea) in the Neolithic period should be distinguished from the Mumun of the Bronze period. Currently, many reports indicate that archaeological sites from the early and middle Neolithic period have been discovered with both Chulmun and Mumun potteries (Y. J. Kim 200 3 :1). According to his findings using the sample data from the central western Korean penin sula, the Mumun pottery used different pastes and morphological sizes of such pottery are obviously smaller that those potteries with the Chulmun patterned surface decorations. In other words, there are rare big Mumun potteries and rare small Chulmun potte ries. He therefore assumed that the Mumun pots were used for serving and cooking practices and were broken more often than the Chulmun pottery. Potters possibly did not bother to put decorations on the Mumun pots due to its being expendable. However, this assumption should have been made with more broken sheds of the Mumun potteries from archaeological sites to be able to form a stronger statement. Although he did not go into theoretical debates on the origins and relations between the Chulmun pottery in th e Neolithic and the Mumun pottery in the Bronze periods, he suggested that the Mumun pottery in the Neolithic period might have developed into the Bronze Mumun pottery along with more various forms through the transition between the two periods. H owever, J. J. Koo (2004), who investigated pottery volume and also analyzed some pottery technofunctional attributes from one of the Neolithic sites located in the

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163 lower central peninsula, suggested that the pottery using patterns between the central weste contradicted the report in Y. 3 since his researched site shows that both Chulmun and Mumun potteries appeared with similar sizes and there are many small pots with Chulmun patterned decorations. He also attempted to use 27 rim sherds to see the patterned relationships among the lip shapes, rim angles and decoration patterns, trace the forming techniques by using x ray technique, and test pottery permeability for 23 samples. He reported that one of the jar shaped pottery forms showed a higher permeability which is not good for use as a water container. He also stated that although it does not clearly appear on his sample data, there is a possibility that bigger potter ies might have been used for storage purposes with a high permeability (2004). Another pottery functional study is practiced by B. C. Kim (2006, see also Kim et al. community distribution of wealth/status using multidi in the households from the Mumun pottery periods, he used pottery as one of the archaeological components along with others such as residential units, appearance rates of agricultural tools and appearance rates of functional and morpholo gical variations in lithic for the comparison purposes (B. C. Kim 2006:108). Although the appearance rates of some specific potteries and the variation rates of their forms are reported on the graphs in the study, there was no direct discussion about findi ngs from the pottery approaches except as shown on the graphs used for his case. Another study from Kim and others in 2007 attempted to introduce an improved method on measuring p ottery volume along with comb ing measurements from two dimensional

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164 attributes such as rim diameter, maximum diameter and its length from bottom, base diameter and angle, wall and rim angles, overall pottery height, wall thickness, rim length, etc. with a computerized image through AutoCAD. One can see from the discussion ab ove that some attempts have been made to find better methods to the technofunctional approach on pottery and to apply possible implications from the approach depending on their interests. Although some limitedness and difficulty have appeared on the studie s introduced, all researches demonstrate that further attempts should be done due to the importance in understanding the aspects that may be learned from this approach. Naming Terms In producing a comparable understanding of this work, most typ ological terms and ways being used in Korean archaeology are purposely considered as a primary scheme; however, while various names of potteries, based on their stylistic decorations and morphological features, have been used by Korean archaeologists in a different way, the forms, selected here, are the ones that are generally known or believed to be known for their functions. Some definitions regarding names are referenced by the information from most recently published dictionaries of archaeology and cult ural heritage terms by the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage in Korea. Since there are so many different names for decoration styles in detail, many of them are simplified in order to be books are also used as main resources for all kinds of English terminologies on all different attributes that appeared on pottery as well as measurement methods.

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165 Data G athering The preliminary trip for the data gathering was completed in June, 2007 This trip this study. After visiting eight different museums, two museums allowed this author to access their entire related inventories. The second trip was made betwe en October and November in 2007. This trip was more for practical purposes. It was arranged to meet local specialists and get their advice regarding stylistic variations on Korean pottery and partial practices for the research plan. This trip was therefore useful towards familiarization with the local materials and to avoid as few mistakes as possible. The last field trip was made between the middle of January and the late March in 2008 to complete all data analysis practices. For the analysis process, supp lies and equipment such as a notebook computer (including extra USB hard drive) and digital camera for data recordings, rim chart for diameter, caliper for thickness, color chart for past color, hand magnifier, Sanford pens were required. Site Descriptio ns The archaeological site of Jigyungri (=Jikyungri, or Jigyeongri) is located in northeastern South Korea, within current Kangwon Province (Figure 6 1). The site is m (about 55 yard) apart in north from the s ite, the Whasang River flows from west to east. Small hills (20~100 m high), connecting to Taebaek Mt, are located west of the site. It is closely located near the eastern shoreline (about 300 m from the ocean), which is generally much steeper and smoother than those of southern and western. The Neolithic settlement area was revealed from the lower layer level.

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166 Figure 6 1. Location of the archaeological sites and their aerial photos: Top Jigyungri site. After from Dwelling Sites in Jigyungri, Yangyang Picture Book (p. 129), by Baek et al. 2002 b The Museum of Kangnung National University, Kangnung. (In Korean) Bottom Songjookri site. After from Gimcheon Songjookri Site Report I (p.292), by S. H. Bae 2006 Hengso Museum at Keimyung University, Daeg u (In Korean)

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167 Most residential units were relatively well preserved: even though some destruction from the residential units of the Iron Age on the upper layer and road construction processes damaged four out of ten units in the site, it is enough to estimate the shape and some structure of all residential units. A total of ten different residential units are reported. The units vary in size; two of them are larger than 30 m, four of them are from 10 m to 20 m, and the rest, four units, are small er than 10 m. All units are between 26 cm and 120 cm deep. Like most of other typical Neolithic residential units in Korea, they were oval or rectangular shaped pit houses. While half of the units have rammed mud floor, the other half were with a sand flo or. Four units have one rectangular, oval or circular shaped fireplace, which is set in the center of a floor and circled with stones. No unit is reported with a storage pit inside, which is common for other Neolithic residential units in Korea. Three outs ide pits, which vary in size from 2 to 3 m in diameter, were also found within the residential area and two of them have been interpreted as an open pit firing kiln (entire this paragraph from Baek et al. 2002 a :15 19, 162 169). Most of the excavated potteries from the site are in the form of sherds. Total 17 potteries are reconstructed nearly completely and 70 potteries are partially reconstructed among many other sherds excavated. Based on those completely reconstructed ones, the pottery types inclu de all regionally divided patterns of pottery from the west group, the southeast coast group, and the northeast group in Korea. Although a broad stylistic similarity is recognized between potteries from the Jigyungri site and those from one of the west gro up, Amsadong site, a jar style pottery with a short neck and a rounded base from the Jigyungri site is not found in the Amsadong site. Feldspar, quartz, mica, and talc are reported as inclusions in pottery. It is also indicated

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168 that two out of thirty five selected sample sherds were slipped (Baek et al. 2002 a :170 174) (Figure 6 2). Figure 6 2. Jigyungri Potteries from the Neolithic Period. The Songjookri site is located in an alluvial plain, where one of tributaries to the Nakdong River, Gamchon flows in a U shaped bend ( see the Figure 6 1) The area is surrounded by low hill and mountain. The Neolithic and Bronze Age residential area was found to contain ten residential units with many attached structures such as one stone workshop area, five o pen pit firing kilns and many other outside stone piled pit areas from the layers of the Neolithic level. Sixty two pit dwelling residential units are

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169 reported with many other stone piled pit areas and nineteen dolmens from the Bronze Age layers. Most unit s are reported with many inside pit areas for fireplace and storage purposes, and all have their own outside storage pits located 2 3 m away from each residential unit (S. H. Bae 2006:13 15). A total of 10 Neolithic residential sites are reported wi th others such as open storage pit, open kiln, and open pit site. As for the Neolithic artifacts, a total of 280 pieces of various lithic artifacts such as axes, arrowheads, spearheads, saddle querns & grinding stone pestles, knifes, net sinkers, flints, c ores, and others, are found from the site and about half of them are from residential units and the stone workshop area. Among several thousand sherds, 1 098 potteries, which can be recognized by their decoration styles and shapes, are partially or complet ely reconstructed. Most common shapes of the pottery base are rounded or pointed ones (Figure 6 3) T he deep jar or bowl shaped pottery with longer height than body diameter (Simbalhyung in Korean, jar or bowl style pottery with taller than 20 cm in height) consist of 75 percent in the group, the jar or bowl shaped pottery with unrestricted style (Balhyung in Korean, jar or bowl style pottery with shorter than 20 cm in height) consist of 15 percent, and the jar shaped pottery with neck (Hohyung in Ko rean) consist of 5 percent. It is reported that, based on decoration styles on pottery, there is one pottery from the early Neolithic, 744 potteries from the middle Neolithic, 293 potteries from the later Neolithic and 60 potteries from the last Neolithic period. It is indicated that there are smaller pottery as well as pottery with a pointed base from the later Neolithic period than the middle Neolithic period. The decoration style of pottery from the last Neolithic period is much simpler than those from t he earlier periods. It is also reported that

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170 Figure 6 3. Songjookri Potteries from the Neolithic Period. A fter from Gimcheon Songjookri Site Report I (Cover page), S. H. Bae 2006, Hengso Museum at Keimyung University, Daegu (In Korean) thirteen clay figurines are found mostly from residential units and outside storage pits. Most of them are not clearly identified for their functions but presumed to be used for personal ornaments, religious symbols, or tools for practical life (S. H. Bae 2006:246 258)

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171 While a total of 61 Bronze residential units are reported, many of them are found in disturbed conditions or with limited artifacts. Open storage or toilet pits, open kilns, and open pit sites and 19 burial units are also reported. Although a tot al of 163 wholly or partially reconstructed potteries are reported, 115 of them are base parts only and not Figure 6 4. Songjookri Potteries from the Bronze Age. After from Gimcheon Songjookri Site Report II (Color figure 11), Kim et a l. 2007 Hengso Museum at Keimyung University, Daegu. (In Korean)

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172 reliable to be used in inferring their original pottery forms. Some potteries such as jar and bowl (30), a jar with unrestricted style or neck (17) and a plate (1) are re ported (K. G. Kim et al 2007:261 276) (Figure 6 4) Method of Analysis All diagnostic sherds or reconstructed potteries were numerically recorded in order to identify the technofunctional aspects of sample pottery groups and to eventually evaluate possible temporal and spatial variations among them. Several stylistic attributes (=decoration style, position and technique) were also recorded in order to find any revealed pattern temporally or spatially and to compare the data with the technofunctional ly emphasized data. While some of the reported data have been lent to other organizations or museums, in total, 248 from the Jigyungri site and 1 196 from the Songjookri site recorded on the site reports were analyzed for further analysis. Another 186 (58 from the Jigyungri and 128 from the Songjookri site) sample sherds, which were not recorded on the site reports and were allowed to be brought to the United States of America, were also used in several attribute analyses. Their data were not used in this s tudy. B ecause of limited numbers of pottery samples from the Jigyungri site, all the data found near each residential area are included into the residential unit T he Songjookri data groups are meanwhile strictly divided between the residential units and o thers to find possible noticeable site functions. Consistent measuring processes and applying common or shared criteria in identifying and classifying worked collections through all analysis process were critical for this project. Although all an alysis processes should be uncomplicated, it is among samples even for one attribute is critical and consistency therefore was

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173 paramount All nonmetric data analysis was done by macroscopic analysis, using only characteristics observable to the naked eye. Macroscopic analysis from a fresh break was done on some basic features such as firing core condition, core color, and inclusion sorting for firing environment and sievi ng rate of paste. Some descriptive variables such as shape (rim type and shape etc. ), thickness (wall, rim, below 3 cm, etc. and length for height and others) are measured and recorded. Other fabric characteristics, surface finish and firing characteristic s, such as hardness, inclusion sorting, firing core, core color, exterior and interior color and feeling were also observed and recorded. As for the decoration style, three simplified stylistic attributes, decoration styles, decoration positions, and decor ation techniques were selected to be recorded, in order to be used for comparisons with the results of other technofunctional attributes of pottery. Others, such as projected function, sooting, firing cloud, and attrition evidence are observed and recorded While it was expected that the pottery shape represented by most sherds and the intended function of each reconstructed pottery from selected sites could not be easily identified or determined unless they were reconstructed already, most sherd data were indeed not good enough to be used as inferences on the projected function of early pottery T his functional data is not included in th e analyzed works introduced in C hapter 7. Although more categories for analyzing each attribute might be better in finding more diversified comparison results, there is a possibility that analytical mistakes also could increase, especially as analy sis on certain attributes must depend on the lysis process for the whole sample data is essential, simplified categories for certain

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174 attributes were used. Because of the realities of various deceptive cases on pottery analysis, consistent environment conditions are also one of the priorities through the analysis working process; for instance, in the case of light condition, all colors sometimes could be very tricky: color without taking a fresh light looks a lot darker than the one with a fresh light and the sherd or pot pictures with a fresh light lo ok a lot more reddish and brighter; for instance, some of them with light or dark grayish brown could have been confused with more reddish one. Every analyzed item was photographed at least more than five times for the future references. All series of attr ibutes of technofunctional and decorative variables for all sample data are recorded as numerical data. Recording Observed Attributes While many different attempts have been introduced and applied for pottery classification, the forms and measuremen ts of pottery shape, base, rim, neck, and so on are studied and compared with each other (e.g. Ericson and Stickel 1973; Shepard 1968; Wilcock and Shennan 1975). However, in this work, focus will be on the individual l attributes to use them for temporal and spatial comparisons in detail between different pottery cultures, rather than on each different functional form and size of pottery. First of all, each item was divided into five different categories: rim, b ody, base, neck, and other. If any partial part of a lip on each small sherd exists, it is put into the item category 1, rim. However, some sherds indicating clearly that they are part of rim areas on pottery but without a portion of lip at all, they are p ut into category 2, body with another ones which indicate they are from body area on pottery. In the case of base, any portion of base part that can have quantitative measurements exist is considered as

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175 category 3, base, regardless of a size of body attach ed on it. As for the category 4, neck, sherds showing only neck area with some portions of body or rim area, or both, are put into that category. However, if any portion of measurement of lip area is shown on the neck sherd, it is considered as category 1, rim. The last category, other, includes a completed pottery or showing more than two categories. As for lip categories, while there are many different kinds of shapes in the lip, ( for instance, round, flat, flared, tapped, etc .) three categories s uch as flat, round and pointed were used. Some potteries that partially includ e pointed lip area are considered as the category of the round lip. If there are two patterns, flat and round combined it is considered as round since it is safer to assume that there is more possibility that the pot would have been rounded but later the rim area must have been grounded on purpose or accidentally. The pointed one is subdivided into two categories; a. pointed in or b. pointed out. The rim lip was recorded to see i f there is any revealed pattern and if there t ion to use pots with a lid on the top of the body. Potteries with flat and rounded orifice rims and curved out lips on the exterior are better to cover pottery lips tightly and safely than those with rounded or pointed and interior protruded angle of lips (Hally 1986:281). As a separate measurement of rim thickness (3 cm below the lip), lip thickness is also measured several times on spots showing thinner or thicker as compared with overall other presented general lip area, while partially broken or damaged spots were avoided The median number between the areas is recorded. As for the appliqud rims, the area with incised or impressed parts on rim lip were also avoided

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176 Although the angle of rim on pottery could be used to project the shape and size of the original pot before breakage, rim angle is one of the attributes very much depend ent on subjective decision. Since it is necessary to con sider several con cern s such as that rim angl e of tall body, sherds that might have been looked as straighter on one and not on the other, and certain pottery forms with dramatic shapes could easily lead to wrong judgment on this analysis, the original sizes and overall shapes of rim and body parts o n the sherd or whole pot are carefully taken into account However, the edge angle of near lip area and top portion of the rim area are given more careful emphasis for this attribute analysis. Although it is not easy to infer what kind of functional consid erations would have been put on rim angles of pottery, there is a possibility that some patterned result from this analysis could indicat e some references of the regardless that it happened consciously or unconsciously. Th ree different ca tegories, curved out, strait and curved into the center, are selected. Although it is not clear whether prehistoric peoples were already concerned with th es e attributes for functional purposes, it is possible to find some patterns if attribute are compared with other attributes. than its maximum body diameter) or unrestricted (orifice is equal or greater than the s (Rice 1987:211 213). Although in general it is believed that restricted potteries were used for food preparation purposes such as cooking and storage, while unrestricted ones are better for being utilized in serving food and drink (see Hally 1986), most of the potteries from the selected sites show large mouth opening s

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177 Although rim diameter does not always indicat e a see B. C. Kim et al. 2007:41), it is one of the most obvious features of possible pottery forms. Therefo re, it is one of the best numeric data to compare regional and temporal variations on pottery. Rim sherds are manipulated along the concentric circles on the rim orifice chart until a closed angle match is reached between the curved rim sherd and the circl ed line on the chart. Although it is generally believed that the sherd with less than 20% portion part of pottery is not reliable, some of them with a bit less than 20% portion were put into the data set in case the rim sherds clearly show enough reliabili ty of the delivered measurement. If potteries are already wholly reconstructed or the rim sherds ha ve more than half of the original shape before breakage or after being reconstructed, a direct measure of the diameter was made The median number after meas uring a few shorter and longer looking distances were measured quickly and was recorded as a diameter. Although it is necessary to consider the possible original form of the sherd material and its size, regardless of different styles of forms and s izes, all measure ments are simply performed by three divided parts, rim lip, 3 cm below rim lip, 6 cm below rim lip, body thickness, base center thickness, and diameter. If body, rim or base sherd is too short or not reliable for any reason, it is not meas ured. Occasionally, for sherds that are not tall enough to measure 6 cm spot from a lip, 5 cm below the spot was measured. In any case that the sherds or whole potteries are decorated with either intaglio or emboss work, such decorated spots were not measu red If there is also any heavy erosion area, a better conditioned area is selected for measurement.

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178 Some of the sherds and whole pots show that the ga p between the thin and thick areas on the body is more than 3 mm. The median number for statistic use was taken after measuring the body several times. The m easuring process for 3 cm below thickness from a lip was practiced for all sherds with rim area or whole pots unless they are too small to measure, regardless of size of all original sherds or pott eries. For some sherds that do not include any part for clueing for rim or base area, the top and bottom side of the body was t est ed in order to get a better assumption of the middle part of the body. The middle center of each body sherd, not showin g any rim and base areas and top and bottom, is to be measured for possible future usage as data. If body sherds are too large and a caliper cannot span the center and it is possible to figure out the top and bottom side, maximum reach from top and bottom spots were measured two times and the ir median number equals body thickness. If body sherds include parts that are shown to be from very close to rim or base areas, the side, away from those parts, were measured. In the case of the body thickness from the body she r d with a base, the body part located too closely to the base area was not selected. The body area from certain distance of the base was only selected for measurement. As for the base thickness, the center of the base bottom area was used as a mea surement spot. And the base sherds with the existence of some portions of body area were also measured for body thickness, if there is enough distance between the base and body. It is known that a number of factors such as firing temperature and d uration and oxygen environment during the pottery manufacturing processes and the post use or post deposition processes of the pottery are related to the results of core color and core reduced and oxidized patterns, and exterior and interior surface colors due to the

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179 degree of carbon and other organic core retention in a paste ( Gosselain 1992; Hally 1983:11; Rice 1987:343 345; Rye 1981: 98, 114 118; Sinopoli 1991:30 31). Therefore, in firing core analyses, core type patterns and core color that provide firi ng conditions, such as temperature and firing atmosphere, a clean section cut was looked. As for the core color, which can provide inferred information about the firing mentioned above, five different color categories are applied; 1. black, 2. dark brown, 3. brown, 4. yellowish brown, and 5. reddish brown. The core type patterns are described in six categories (Figure 6 5). The chart below is used as a standard scheme: 1. all oxidized, 2. all reduced, 3. reduced in the center, 4. exterior reduced, 5. interi or reduced, and 6. both surfaces reduced. Figure 6 5. S ix simplified core patterns recorded : Reduced areas with darker areas and oxidized areas with lighter areas of t he cross section The top indicates the e xterior and the bottom indicate the interior M odified from Explaining Corrugated Pottery in the American Southwest: An Evolutionary Approach (p. 90 91), C. D. Pierce 1999, Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle. In addition to the fir

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180 chart with five categories by Barraclough 1992 (cited in Orton et al. 1993:239) was used;1. very poor (full of big inclusions), 2. poor (very coarse with several bigger ones and many big ones), 3. fair (several big ones with some small ones), 4. good (several big one with overall good sorted out), and 5. very good (no big ones at all). While many differen t thin sections on one sherd or a whole pot show different conditions, it was sometimes difficult to make a decision on which category was the right one. Therefore, for all above core color, core type pattern, and inclusion coarseness analyses (even though the thin section of each sample is considered as a main factor for sorting out ) it was necessary to look though several different thin sections of core for each sherd or several different sherds of each pot carefully. Another very deceptive and subjective analysis is surface color of the exterior and interior, which may point to the firing condition and life function of the pottery. While many color variations on pottery are generally created accidentally during the firing process of pottery maki ng, fires for cooking processes also make color variations on the pottery surface as mentioned (Hally 1983:11), and caution should be practiced in interpreting and selecting a typical color on the pottery surface . A t otal of five color categories for both exterior and interior are set for this analysis; 1. brown, 2. reddish brown, 3. yellowish brown, 4. light grayish brown, and 5. dark grayish brown. If several different colors are shown on surface, the main dominating color is selected. Two things are als o looked into and recorded as well for this analysis; first, original color and after life used color, and second, dramatic color differences between exterior and interior surfaces.

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181 The conditions of the exterior and interior surface can be attribu ted by core inclusion and by mishaps such as spalling and pitting in use. As for the surface feeling, both ocular and tactile examination s of the material are conducted on this analysis. Total five categories; 1. rough (really rough looking and feeling), 2 relatively rough (relatively rough feeling and looking), 3. relatively smooth (not much feeling of roughness and not smooth enough ), 4. smooth ( smooth looking and feeling) and 5. super smooth (very smooth looking and feeling) are selected. When it was di fficult to decide among relatively smooth, smooth and super smooth for an item with some shiny and smooth condition without burnishing or polishing and high firing coating effect, it was categorized into the smooth one. Some talc sherds appeared from the J igyungri Neolithic residential units 6 and 7 were put into the smooth category. Since finishing techniques on the pottery surface are important because they provide technofunctional reasons to do, if shown, some surface treatments such as self slip, slip, smudging, smoothing, burnishing and polishing (generally rubbing while pottery is dry) are all recorded on the database in order to use them in looking for any relations with other attributes that appeared on the pottery in future study. The other attributes carefully looked into and recorded if these existed are used marks such as sooting, firing cloud, spalling and pitting on the surface of pottery. While boiling and heating are necessary processes for preparing not only all kinds of soft vegetab les but also nuts and corns (Arnold 1985; Bennett 1975; Rice 1987; Swanton 1931, 1942, 1946), heated cooking methods are simpl y divided into two different categories, dry heating (broiling, roasting, baking and parching) and moist heating

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182 (simmering, boili ng, and steaming) types for different food materials (Reid 1989:168 169). According to ethnographic data, direct broiled or roasting methods for cooking the meat are commonly practiced. For grinding and bursting some materials such as seeds and nut s, dry heating methods for parching and baking techniques are used. On the other hands, the moist heating methods are used for plants such as roots and tubers. Since the different methods are practiced under different heating temperatures, archaeologists h ave examined consequently mechanical aspects such as porosities and thermal shock on pottery. E thnoarchaeological studies show that potters consciously concern themselves with the relations between function and pottery mechanical aspects in the manufacturi ng process (Arnold 1985). According to the study by Reid (1989), the thicker low fired earthenware that has a higher porosity is a more efficient cooking pot, because it retain s heat better and has less wall failure. While boiling is one of the most important processes for preparing food, one of the aspects to be considered for pottery function is the evidence of use such as fire cloud and sooting marks. Fire cloud is shown on the pottery surface as the result of the deposit of carbon in the clay and is generally produced in open firing as pottery use d over fire The contact areas between the smoky part of the flame or incompletely burnt fuel and pottery produce irregular discoloration, generally black patches, on the exterior of the pottery (Orton et al. 1993:223). Sooting mark is also deposited on cooking pottery as a by product of fuel combustion on the surface contacting with fire and therefore soot on a pottery is the direct evidence it was used over a fire (Hally 1983:7). However, there are some very rare cases that soot do not appear on a pottery, even though it was used

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183 over fire (Hally 1983:10); it is reported that one of the American Indians in the southwestern United States intentionally removed soot accumulations by refiring pottery in a kil n. Soot could be removed by fire i f it is located in a burning structure. I n this case a small pottery over large and hot fires may not create soot on the pottery. And lastly soot could have been removed in the cleaning process, although it is not eas ily eradicated once it occur s on a pottery. Although it is sometimes difficult to determine whether certain sooting and fire cloud on pottery is directly caused with pottery functional operations, it is generally believed that a pottery with sootin g and fire cloud is a cooking pottery A ll front, rear, and sides of sherd or pottery are carefully looked at. While it is necessary to know whether sooting marks had been created before or after breakage of pottery, one of the useful ways is look at the s ides of the sherds In case s that sooting appears not only on the exterior or interior but also on the sides o f the pottery sherds, it is more likely that sooting marks had been created after breakage of pottery. In other words, these kinds of sherd data c an make it more difficult to refer to the original function of the potteries. In general, two different sooting marked sherds or pots are recognized: sooting with no abrasion on both surfaces and sooting with some or heavy abrasion on either or both surfac e s on pottery. U se alterations on pottery would also appear as detectable alterations in the form of pits, spalls, and lines (see A r th u r 2002). These alterations on a pottery provide direct evidence that it was used in cooking or heating purpos es. W ith the presence of surface attrition, which is defined as the removal or deformation of pottery surfaces (Skibo 1992:106), some alteration traces such as pitting and spalling could appear in both

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184 abrasive and nonabrasive ways. Three possible use rela ted mechanisms appear on pottery : interior pitting which is thermal shock by rapid heating or cooling, corrosion by long term exposure to corrosive chemical and physical abrasion by string and scraping in normal usage (Hally 1983:18 19). E xterior pitting also appear s as thermal shock by heat along with sooting and fire cloud and is regarded as cooking evidence I t is reported that some attrition marks such as pitting and erosion on its interior surface also appeared on storage pottery (A r th u r 2002:347). Pr ojected Form and Function of P ottery After inspecting all the attributes mentioned above, the data could be used to infer projected form and function of each pottery as more contextual information. Ultimately more reliable inference on the use of po ttery could be produced and eventually provide more indications for understanding pottery functions and food processing in past societies. Some suggestions proposed by many scholars already need to be considered for interpreting the data of pottery functio nal classifications. According to one of the experimental studies by Ericson and de Atley (1976), reconstructing pottery morphologies, based on some sample sherd data especially rim parts are important, would b e accurate enough to be used in archaeological studies. However, it must be mentioned that to guess a form from the sherds of each pot, it is necessary to know the rim diameter, height and base shape M ost pot samples consist of partial portions or only on e sherd. I t is not an easy task therefore, to infer exact shape of pots unless the pots are perfect or consist of enough portions of pot sherds. While in general the functional associations with shape and size of pottery varie s by different factor s, such as nature of food and size of food consumer group, it is believed that shape and size of the pottery determine its function, although multiple functions of

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185 pottery are always possible (Arthur 2002:334; Ericson and Stickel 1973; Hally 1986:272). Alt hough knowing all functions of pottery is not possible due to its possible multiple usages, scholars however believed that it may be possible to determine which shape or type of potteries are suitable or not suitable for certain purposes, such as boiling, grinding, or pounding. O ne of the indicati ons of pottery functions is pottery form, and it has been shown that more stylistically decorative potteries are generally used for serving purposes, whereas simple jar and bowl style potteries are mostly used for cooking or storage purposes (Arnold 1985; Holland 1995). According to Linton (1944:370), although potteries with large mouth, permitting stirring process, are better for cooking process, generally a bowl is not used for boiling due to its broad and shallow shape. According to the ethnoarchaeological studies (e.g. A r th u r 2002:349; DeBoer 1985; Henrickson and McDonald 1983:631; Longacre 1985:334 336 ) cooking potteries show higher breakage rate than storage potteries, which have twice longer use life, and they are frequently manufactured without a slip treatment and painting on pottery. Although it is not clear whether the reason is to save energy in the pottery manufacturing process, Pauketat (1987:7) states that these could be indications that potter s consciously consider the relation between usability rate and effort. As mentioned in somewhere already, one of the effective ways for controlling functional perspectives of a pottery is through mineral inclusion (temper), porosity, shape and wall thickness. Cooking pots show the considerations such as thermal shock of pottery to make it more resistan t to physical strains of repeated usage o ver fire and liquid substances poured into it It is known that

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186 cooking pots are usually cleaned with often sand which requires higher abrasion resistance Resistance can be increased by tempers or interior and exterior treatments (Schiffer and Skibo 1997:38). While interior surface treatment can improve permeability it is also d irectly related with heating effectiveness (Schiffer 1990) O ther interior and exterior treatments such as smudging, polishing and coating could also increase a (Schiffer 1994 et al.; Skibo et al. 1997). And according to cross cultural evidence from the ethnoarchaeological studies, cooking pots generally have thicker wall sides with a firm base (Henrickson and McDonald 1983:637). Although one very informative and direct ev idence for pottery functional studies is from some resid u es that have been found on pottery or within sherds ( which may be considered as storage purposed ones ) all sample data were already cleaned and hardly visible with the naked eye. Stylistic Analysis This pottery analysis was designed to obtain not only data on technofunctional information but also simplified stylistic variability of pottery. Because of the technofunctional emphasis of the pottery in this study, only three different categories related to the decoration style on pottery are inspected with simplified sub categories. All sample data is divided into two categories, decorated or undecorated. While a handle sherd was not classified into a decorated one, all appliqud lines (mo st are long and some have decorated lines or impressed fingering traces) are considered as decoration regardless of whether there is no real decorated line or something else on the appliqud fraction. While there are so many different ways of describing or naming different motifs and techniques on pottery, some simplified data sets that are directly related with stylistic patterns were categorized and recorded among decorated ones.

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187 First of all, decoration positions are divided into seven different categori es; combine, rim, body, base, whole pottery, interior and lip. It is expected that the analyzed results on the decorated locations on pottery can be used to discover indications of the chronological patterns of Korean pottery cultures as Korean sch olars have thought. Decoration styles are simply categorized into; combined, herringbone pattern, simple straight or oblique pattern, more short and complicated oblique pattern, combined simple oblique lines, crossed lines, zigzag lines (lightning design), dotted rows, arched pattern, spiral motif, notched strip on rim, perforated rim, and no pattern but fingering trace on appliqu. As for the decoration techniques, nine categories are recorded; incised (or grooving), punctuated, stamped (impression), impre ssed fingering, simple appliqu, incised or grooving appliqu, punctuated appliqu, stamped appliqu, and combined. All the results can be used to find which decoration and technique commonly appeared through different time and region T his stylistic data was designed to compare with information gathered from those of more technofunctionally related ones. Summary and Conclusion In this chapter, a rationale for analytical methods and observ able attributes in conduct ing the technofunctional research f or the two Korean Neolithic and Bronze period sites have been presented. T his study does not cover detailed approaches such as the relations among each attribute and pottery projected form and function analysis are not practiced N o direct technique develo ped to estimate pottery morphology or volume was introduced in this work. Since the purpose of this analysis is to find out if there is any significant spatial and temporal variations among pottery sample groups which is mainly divided by pottery stylisti c patterns using pottery technofunctional

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188 attributes for comparison, and to argue the possible benefit of applying the technofunctional attribute in the Korean pottery study, congregated group comparisons by applying regular attributes were given great at tention Further practice of more complicated analys es would hopefully be done in the near future to encourage more discussion on the subject. While the sample data was divided into all categorized attributes introduced in this chapter in order to illumina te maximized data result on any differences, the results from this current analysis attem pt are presented in C hapter 7

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189 CHAPTER 7 R EPORTING RESULTS Chapter 3 and 4 dealt with Korean archaeology along with its related archaeological issues and discus sion which provides a useful theoretical framework for this dissertation work. Reviewing archaeological researches on methods and theories on culture and culture change in archaeology were outlined in C hapter 5. In this chapter, the results of the data ana lysis on the pottery attributes from the Songjookri and Jigyungri sites in Korea are presented and discussed. One main focus on the analysis is the overall temporal and spatial changes on pottery in regional/interregional data groups. Variations will be so rted out and evaluated to figure out if there is any noticeable pattern that eventually can be compared with current regional variations that are stylistically divided groups. The results will be essentially intertwined with major issues introduced in the previous cha pters and further discussed in C hapter 8. Results of the Analysis While the Jigyungri residential units 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7 are from the different layers, the pottery of the units 1, 3, 4, which are from the lower layer than the units 6 and 7, shares some similar decoration patterns with those of the central western pottery group and the other pottery from the units 6, 7 shows some similar decoration patterns appeared in the southern pottery group (E. S. Song 2002:71). Therefore, for compari son purposes, the Jigyungri Neolithic data is divided into three different groups of the sample data; all Jigyungri residential group, Jigyungri residential units 1, 3, 4, and Jigyungri residential units 6, 7. The Songjookri sample data is separated into s even different groups; Neolithic residential, Neolithic open storage, Neolithic open kiln, Neolithic open pit, Bronze residential, Bronze nonresidential, and Bronze dolmen

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190 (burial). Rather than discussing further about how to interpret the meaning of the f indings from the results, for the purposes of this study, focus will be more on describing the variations among the sample groups from the results in this chapter. As mentioned in C hapter 6 although it may not be possible to infer any functional c onsiderations from lip shapes or rim lip angles, it will still be attempted to see if there is any noticeable pattern. Table 7 1. Lip shapes between the Jigyungri Neolithic residential units 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7. Flat Round Pointed Residential 1, 3, 4 ( n=64) 52 (81%) 12 (19%) 0 (0%) Residential 6, 7 (n=87) 63 (72%) 24 (28%) 0 (0%) Table 7 2. Lip shapes among the residential, open storage, open kiln, and open pit units from the Songjookri Neolithic site. Flat Round Pointed Residential (n=224) 195 (87 %) 29 (13%) 0 (0%) Open storage (n=58) 53 (91%) 5 (9%) 0 (0%) Open kiln (n=13) 11 (85%) 2 (15%) 0 (0%) Table 7 3. Lip shapes among the residential, dolmen, and non residential units from the Songjookri Bronze site. Flat Round Pointed Residential (n=1 40) 40 (29%) 100 (71%) 0 (0%) Non residential (n=14) 3 (21%) 11 (79%) 0 (0%) Dolmen (n=24) 4 (17%) 20 (83%) 0 (0%) Table 7 4. Lip shapes between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. Flat Round Pointed Neolithic Residential (n=224) 195 (87%) 29 (13%) 0 (0%) Bronze Residential (n=140) 40 (29%) 100 (71%) 0 (0%) Table 7 5. Lip shapes between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential units. Flat Round Pointed Jigyungri Residential all (n=172) 132 (7 7%) 40 (23%) 0 (0%) Songjookri Residential al l (n=224) 195 (87%) 29 (13%) 0 (0%)

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191 As shown on Table 7 1, 7 2, and 7 3, although there are some minor increase of a rounded lip shape from the early Jigyungri 1,3, 4, to later 6, 7 residential units, the f lat shaped lip were dominant in the Neolithic sample groups of both Jigyungri and Songjookri sites. Some major changes emerge among compared sampling groups from the Songjookri Neolithic to the Songjookri Bronze sample groups in Table 7 4, indicating drama tic increase of potteries with a rounded lip shape in the Bronze period pottery. However, Table 7 5 the regional comparison between the Neolithic Jigyungri and Songjookri residential sites shows a minor regional difference of lip shapes. It is generally kn own that flat and rounded rim lips with curved out rim angle are easy to cover up tightly than those with rounded or pointed ones, yet it is not certain whether prehistoric people in the region consciously considered the change as functional purposes on po ttery. Table 7 6 indicates that in the Jigyungri site more curved out rim angle appeared in the later period in units 6 and 7. However, according to the evidence from the Table 7 6. Rim angles between the Jigyungri Neolithic residential units 1, 3 4 and 6, 7. Curved out Strait To the center Residential 1, 3, 4 (n=63) 15 (24%) 46 (73%) 2 (3%) Residential 6, 7 (n=86) 33 (38%) 49 (57%) 4 (5%) Songjookri sample data (Table 7 7, 7 8 and 7 9), the appearance of the curved out rim angle of pottery h as not change much from the Neolithic to Bronze periods (Table 7 9). Table 7 7. Rim angles among the residential open storage, open kiln, and open pit units from the Songjookri Neolithic site. Curved out Strait To the center Residential (n=226) 113 (5 0%) 103 (46%) 10 (4%) Open storage (n=58) 29 (50%) 23 (40%) 6 (10%) Open kiln (n=13) 9 (69%) 3 (23%) 1 (8%)

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192 Table 7 8. Rim angles among the residential, dolmen, and non residential units from the Songjookri Bronze site. Curved out Strait To the center Residential (n=140) 59 (42%) 60 (43%) 21 (15%) Non residential (n=14) 9 (64%) 5 (36%) 0 (0%) Dolmen (n=24) 21 (88%) 2 (8%) 1 (4%) Table 7 9. Rim angles between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. Curved out St rait To the center Neolithic Residential (n=226) 113 (50%) 103 (46%) 10 (4%) Bronze Residential (n=140) 59 (42%) 60 (43%) 21 (15%) Among the comparisons of different functional sites from both Songjookri Neolithic and Bronze periods, the biggest chang e appeared in the Bronze sample groups for the dolmen group which is for the burial area in the Songjookri site. Almost 90 percent of the pottery from the dolmen group shows the curved out angle of the rim (Table 7 8). Figure 7 1. Rim angles among th e Songjookri Bronze residential, nonresidential and dolmen groups in Table 7 8 The dolmen group has shown the highest rates of the rounded lip and curved out rim angle on pottery among all sample groups (Table 7 3, 7 8). The most common angle for

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193 the res tricted shaped pottery, the rim curved inside, were the least popular one among all the sample groups from both regions, while some increase of its appearance was shown in the residential group of the Songjookri Bronze period. As for the regional Table 7 10. Rim angles between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential units. Curved out Strait To the center Jigyungri Residential all (n=170) 56 (33%) 108 (63.5%) 6 (3.5%) Songjookri Residential all (n=226) 113 (50%) 103 (46%) 10 (4%) compa rison for rim angles between the Neolithic Jigyungri and Songjookri residential sites (Table 7 10), suffice to say that a regional difference appeared between two regional groups. Table 7 Jigyungri and Songj ookri sample groups (Neo=Neolithic, Bron=Bronze, Resi=Residential). Very Poor Poor Fair Good Very Good Jigyungri Neo Resi all (n=248) 0 (0%) 13 (5%) 197 (79%) 29 (12%) 9 (4%) Ji g yungri Neo Resi 1, 3, 4 (n=86) 0 (0%) 10 (12%) 67 (78%) 9 (10%) 0 (0%) Jig yungri Neo Resi 6, 7 (n=117) 0 (0%) 3 (2%) 88 (75%) 17 (15%) 9 (8%) Songjookri Neo Resi (n=369) 0 (0%) 9 (2.5%) 218 (59%) 133 (36%) 9 (2.5%) Songjookri Neo Open storage (n=90) 0 (0%) 10 (11%) 70 (78%) 10 (11%) 0 (0%) Songjookri Neo Open kiln (n=19) 0 (0 %) 0 (0%) 15 (79%) 4 (21%) 0 (0%) Songjookri Neo Open pit (n=5) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 4 (80%) 1 (20%) 0 (0%) Songjookri Bron Resi (n=286) 1 (0%) 22 (8%) 164 (57%) 89 (31%) 10 (4%) Songjookri Bron Non resi (n=73) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 43 (59%) 24 (33%) 6 (8%) Songjookr i Bron Dolmen (n=40) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 10 (25%) 12 (30%) 18 (45%) Table 7 coarsenesses for all sample groups from the Jigyungri and Songjookri sites. Overall all inclusions inside the pa ste of all pottery from both sites are not so coarse because most of them are in fair or good categories. The chart in Figure 7 2 for the Neolithic Jigyungri residential units show very identical results for the categories 3 and 4. However, the earlier dat ed units, 1, 3, and 4 data show there are more potteries with the category 2, while the younger units 6 and 7 also include some pottery with the category 5.

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194 Figure 7 7 fr om the Neolithic Jigyungri residential group in Table 7 11. The chart in Figure 7 3 for the groups of the Songjookri Neolithic site indicates that the residential group includes all four different categorized potteries with a very high rate of appearance for the category 4. Figure 7 kiln, and open pit units from the Songjookri Neolithic site.

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195 The chart in Figure 7 4 clearly shows that the Songjookri Bronze groups between th e residential and nonresidential ones share very similar appearance rates of the category 3 and 4 except some appearance of the category 2 in the residential group. As seen already from the cases of lip shape and rim angle analyses, the pottery group of th e dolmen shows very unique result with the highest rate of the appearance of category 5, along with the lowest category 3 appearance in the Songjookri Bronze groups. Figure 7 the residential, non residential and dolmen groups from the Songjookri Bronze site. Based on both the Songjookri Neolithic and Bronze data, the residential sample groups show more variety of inclusion categories on pottery (Figure 7 5) and also indicate that there is not much ch periods.

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196 Figure 7 residential units from the Songjookri site. Figure 7 c Jigyungri and Songjookri residential units.

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197 This chart (Figure 7 6) presents two different comparisons of the Neolithic data, the right box between the Jigyungri residential 1, 3, 4 units only and all Songjookri residential units, and the left bo x between all Jigyungri residential and all Songjookri residential units. It shows that the Neolithic Songjookri pottery have less coarseness than the Neolithic Jigyungri pottery. Since it is not possible to judge whether any kinds of inclusions in a paste are as a result of natural processes or not, further analysis for the inclusion types was not performed. Table 7 12. Surface Feeling among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). Rough Relative ly rough Relatively smoothed Smoothed Super smoothed J. N. Residential all (n=248) 5 (2%) 19 (8%) 121 (49%) 101 (40%) 2 (1%) J. N. Residential 1, 3, 4 (n=87) 0 (0%) 3 (4%) 49 (56%) 34 (39%) 1 (1%) J. N. Residential 6, 7 (n=117) 5 (4%) 16 (14%) 59 (50%) 36 (31%) 1 (1%) S. N. Residential (n=369) 4 (1%) 55 (15%) 228 (62%) 75 (20%) 7 (2%) S. N. Open storage (n=90) 3 (3%) 12 (13%) 60 (67%) 15 (17%) 0 (0%) S. N. Open kiln (n=19) 0 (0%) 1 (5%) 12 (63%) 5 (27%) 1 (5%) S. N. Open pit (n=5) 0 (0%) 1 (20%) 2 (4 0%) 2 (40%) 0 (0%) S. N. All in Grid (n=316) 2 (0.5%) 24 (7.5%) 86 (27%) 201 (64%) 3 (1%) S. B. Residential (n=286) 3 (1%) 37 (13%) 131 (46%) 101 (35%) 14 (5%) S. B. Non residential (n=74) 0 (0%) 14 (19%) 36 (48%) 22 (30%) 2 (3%) S. B. Dolmen (n=40) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 5 (12.5%) 18 (45%) 17 (42.5%) According to the results of surface feeling analysis in Table 7 12, t here is no dramatic difference between the Jigyungri residential units 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7. In the same way, all the Songjookri Neolithic g roups show the similar appearance rates of the categories for surface feeling analysis, except the All in Grid group with higher smooth potteries. Both Songjookri Bronze residential and nonresidential groups share very identical appearance rates, while the dolmen group shows that almost ninety percent of potteries in the groups are categorized into smooth and super smooth potteries (Figure 7 7). From the Neolithic to Bronze period in the Songjookri site, it is indicated that there was not much noticeable ch ange for the surface feel on pottery, although it is safe to

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198 say that overall smoother surfaced potteries appeared in the Bronze period. As for the comparison of the Neol ithic residential sites, the Ji g y u ngri site includes a slightly less rough and relativ ely rough potteries and almost doubled the rate of the appearance of smooth and super smooth potteries than those of the Songjookri Neolithic potteries. Overall, the Jigyungri site has smoother surfaced potteries. Figure 7 7. Surface feeling among t he residential, dolmen, and non residential units from the Songjookri Bronze site. analyses are very identical for all temporal and spatial comparisons between th e Ji g yu ng ri and Songjookri data groups. Tentatively, it can be inferred that the result is an pottery. Although it is reasonable to believe that we are able to i nfer some insights of the arguable issues for any kinds of qualitative inferences from quantitative data in pottery

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199 study are always existed. It is therefore very diffi cult to interpret anything about firing condition and technology from pottery data due to many factors related to open firings used by the prehistoric pottery societies. Since open firing in the pottery making process does not have enough control of the fi ring atmosphere and temperature, it is very difficult to judge whether the conditions of the attributes introduced in this work were intentional or mechanical results (Schleher 2010:249). In addition, it is also possible that could have been changed through its whole use lifecycle depending on its functional purposes. Therefore more numbers of sample data is always better to increase reliability of study results. The following results from the analyses, core type pattern, core color, and exterior surface color are all connected to each other and are best resources to know firing conditions. However, as mentioned previously, rather than focusing on the interpretation for the meanings of each condition, it will introduce the diff erences and changes that have appeared through time and region among sample groups on this work. While the recorded core type pattern and core color analyses are largely based on color, it is known that black and darker grayish areas indicates reduc ing firing environment, which results in incomplete oxidation with poor oxygen condition and lighter gray, brown, and clear colors indicate an oxidizing firing environment with better oxygen condition (Rice 1987:343 345 ; Rye 1981:114 118; Shepard 19 68 :221) Therefore, the reduced black and darker grayish colors observed in the core of pottery and /or low temperatures of firing It is however necessary t o note that since there are various sources of color alternation by firing in use or accidental firing

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200 due to the structure under fire as indicated in the case of the Jigyungri sites, during the life cycle of pottery (Rice 1987:345), the results from these qualitative analyses are generalized. Table 7 13. Visible core type pattern among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). All oxidized All reduced Reduced in the center Exterior reduced Interior reduced Both surfaces reduced J. N. Residential all (n=248) 145 (59%) 61 (25%) 20 (8%) 2 (0.5%) 18 (7%) 2 (0.5%) J. N. Residential 1, 3, 4 (n=86) 54 (63%) 17 (20%) 8 (9%) 0 (0%) 7 (8%) 0 (0%) J. N. Residential 6, 7 (n=117) 58 (49.5% ) 37 (31.5%) 10 (9%) 2 (1.5%) 8 (7%) 2 (1.5%) S. N. Residential (n=369) 31 (8.4%) 269 (73%) 41 (11%) 1 (0.3%) 27 (7.3%) 0 (0%) S. N. Open storage (n=90) 7 (8%) 72 (80%) 7 (8%) 0 (0%) 4 (4%) 0 (0%) S. N. Open kiln (n=19) 1 (5%) 15 (79%) 3 (16%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. N. Open pit (n=5) 0 (0%) 5 (100%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. B. Residential (n=286) 132 (46%) 65 (23%) 52 (18%) 6 (2%) 31 (11%) 0 (0%) S. B. Non residential (n=74) 23 (31%) 24 (32%) 16 (22%) 4 (5.5%) 7 (9.5%) 0 (0%) S. B. Dolmen (n=40) 26 (65%) 4 (10%) 9 (22%) 0 (0%) 1 (3%) 0 (0%) It is shown on the chart (Figure 7 8) that there was no significant difference of a core type pattern on pottery between the Jigyungri Neolithic residentia l 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7 units. A similar situation appeared among the residential, open storage, open kiln, and open pit units from the Songjookri Neolithic site (Figure 7 9).

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201 Figure 7 8. Visible core type pattern between the residential units 1, 3, 4 and 6 7 from the Neolithic Jigyungri residential units. Figure 7 9. Visible core type pattern among the residential, open storage, open kiln, and open pit units from the Songjookri Neolithic site.

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202 Figure 7 10. Visible core type pattern among the resid ential, dolmen, and non residential units from the Songjookri Bronze site. However, a slightly different result is shown on the chart for the visible core type pattern among the residential, dolmen, and non residential units from the Songjookri Bro nze site (Figure 7 10). While both residential and nonresidential units from the Songjookri Bronze groups show similar results for a core type pattern on pottery, the dolmen group indicates the appearance of a significantly higher rate of the all oxidized pottery data. Similarly the comparison of the core type pattern between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site presents significantly increased appearance of the all oxidized pottery in the Bronze residential group, while the a ppearance of the all reduced pottery decreased more than third time (Figure 7 11). Unlikely inclusion data, some changes from the Neolithic to Bronze on a core type pattern are observable. This might have resulted through a better controlled technique for a higher firing temperature. Another remarkable observation is that the category

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203 number 4, exterior reduced core pots are almost nonexistent both in the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic potteries and rarely appeared in the Songjookri Bronze pottery. Figure 7 11. Visible core type pattern between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. The chart in Figure 7 12 on a regional comparison between the Neolithic Jigyungri and Songjookri sites indicates that both oxidized and reduced rates from two sites show totally opposite rates of appearance; Significantly less all oxidized core pottery are shown along with a lot more all reduced core pottery in the Songjookri Neolithic residential units which has also shown a higher ra te of less coarsenesses on pottery.

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204 Figure 7 12. Visible core type pattern between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential units. Table 7 14 presents the results of the comparisons among the sample groups for core color which is anot her pottery attribute related to characteristics of firing technology. The results indicated here are overall matched with the temporal and regional variations that appeared in the results of the core type pattern above. It is indicated that there is Tabl e 7 14. Core colors among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). Black Dark brown Brown Yellowish brown Reddish brown J. N. Residential all (n=248) 56 (23%) 43 (17%) 61 (25%) 2 (1%) 86 (34%) J. N. Residential 1, 3, 4 (n=86) 17 (20%) 20 (23%) 14 (16%) 0 (0%) 36 (41%) J. N. Residential 6, 7 (n=117) 33 (28%) 18 (15%) 34 (29%) 1 (1%) 31 (27%) S. N. Residential (n=369) 295 (80%) 39 (11%) 21 (6%) 5 (1%) 9 (2%) S. N. Open storage (n=90) 74 (82%) 7 (8%) 6 (7%) 2 (2%) 1 (1%) S. N. Open kiln (n=19) 15 (79%) 2 (11%) 1 (5%) 0 (0%) 1 (5%) S. N. Open pit (n=5) 5 (100%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. B. Residential (n=286) 136 (47%) 25 (9%) 35 (12%) 28 (10%) 62 (22%) S. B. Non residential (n=74) 39 (53 %) 9 (12%) 11 (15%) 3 (4%) 12 (16%) S. B. Dolmen (n=40) 11 (27.5%) 3 (7.5%) 11 (27.5%) 4 (10%) 11 (27.5%)

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205 no big notic eable difference between the Ji g y u ngri 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7 units, except higher numbers of reddish brown appearance in the 1, 3, 4 units. Unlike the Jigyungri Neolithic ones, the Songjookri Neolithic groups show a significantly higher appearance of black core color, which share the identical portion of core color appearance with each other; all four Songjookri Neolithic groups show a signifi cantly high ratio of a reduced pottery with black color. The dolmen group is separated from the other two residential and nonresidential groups in the entire Songjookri Bronze group. In the dolmen group, there is lesser black core compared with the other t wo groups, and more brown and reddish brown pottery cores. Figure 7 13. Core color between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site.

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2 06 Figure 7 14. Core color between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential u nits. The two charts above illustrate temporal and spatial variations from the sample data groups; Figure 7 13 shows that the Songjookri Bronze potteries have lesser black and more brown, yellowish brown and reddish brown core colored potteries appeared. Based on the results on the chart, the numbers of reduced pottery in the Songjookri site decreased, along with increased numbers of oxidized pottery with more brown, yellowish brown and reddish brown ones from the Neolithic to Bronze periods. Figure 7 14 i ndicates that the Jigyungri Neolithic residential group shows a big dissimilarity with the Songjookri Neolithic residential group. Generally speaking, the Jigyungri Neolithic group resembles the Songjookri Bronze dolmen group. Although complete ox idation should create pottery colors such as white, buff and red, the potteries from early Neolithic societies with a low temperature fired pottery generally showed a dark or light grayish brown. In cases where there are several different colors and more r educed core areas shown, the color with reduced firing core is selected as an original color because of the possibility that the color with oxidized

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207 firing core could have been caused by many different stages after the initial firing process. Although it i s difficult to infer the original firing temperature on the pottery due to the evidence of surface color which might have not been produced on pottery during the initial firing procedure, it is generally accepted that potteries with weak colors such as yel lowish or whiter on the surfaces are usually indications of heavy fired ones through many different times (Rice 1987:343 345). Table 7 15. Exterior color among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bron ze). Brown Reddish brown Yellowish brown Light grayish brown Dark grayish brown J. N. Residential all (n=248) 3 (1%) 41 (17%) 23 (9%) 103 (42%) 78 (31%) J. N. Residential 1, 3, 4 (n=87) 3 (3%) 26 (30%) 6 (7%) 28 (32%) 24 (28%) J. N. Residential 6, 7 (n=117) 0 (0%) 10 (8%) 13 (11%) 58 (50%) 36 (31%) S. N. Residential (n=369) 129 (35%) 45 (12%) 61 (17%) 88 (24%) 46 (12%) S. N. Open storage (n=90) 28 (31%) 14 (16%) 39 (43%) 7 (8%) 2 (2%) S. N. Open kiln (n=19) 3 (16%) 3 (16%) 5 (26%) 7 (37%) 1 (5% ) S. N. Open pit (n=5) 2 (40%) 0 (0%) 1 (20%) 1 (20%) 1 (20%) S. B. Residential (n=286) 76 (27%) 109 (38%) 60 (21%) 28 (10%) 13 (4%) S. B. Non residential (n=74) 18 (24%) 34 (46%) 16 (22%) 5 (7%) 1 (1%) S. B. Dolmen (n=40) 6 (15%) 31 (78%) 1 (2%) 2 ( 5%) 0 (0%) According to Table 7 15, the Jigyungri 1, 3, 4 units include more reddish brown potteries than the Jigyungri 6, 7 units that more than 80% of potteries are light grayish brown and dark grayish brown. While it is hard to figure out any kind of a pattern among yellowish brown, light grayish brown and dark grayish brown pottery and more amount of brown and reddish brown potteries than those in the Neolithic site (F igure 7 15). The ninety three percent of the dolmen data in the Songjookri Bronze group shows brown and reddish brown potteries. Based on the results from core firing pattern and core color analyses, it was expected that the Jigyungri Neolithic pottery wou ld have more brown, reddish brown and yellowish brown potteries due to the higher appearance rates of all

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208 oxidized potteries than those of the Songjookri Neolithic potteries (Figure 7 16). As it turned out there are more grayish brown potteries in the Jigy ungri Neolithic data. It is Jigyungri potteries would have affected this result or not (see Figure 7 6, 7 19 between two sites). Two factors that need to be conside red for this coloration of pottery are firing from the pottery manufacturing process and firing from use of pottery. The analysis on this study focuses solely on the level of differences among sample groups in order to argue the benefit of applying technof unctional attribute of pottery in pottery studies, and further discussions in detail about this subject hopefully will held in the future Figure 7 15. Exterior color between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site.

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209 Figure 7 16. Exterior color between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential sites Decorations on P ottery It is necessary to note that this decoration comparison work is arbitrary because, in many cases, we may need to work with a piece or pieces of a completed pottery rather than a completed one. For instance, the data of undecorated ones could possibly be inaccurate unless these are whole and complete ones and there is always a chance that the data without decorations could be a part of a decorated pottery. Table 7 16. Decorated vs. Undecorated among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). Decorated Undecorated J. N. Residential all (n=247) 218 (88%) 29 (12%) J. N. Residenti al 1, 3, 4 (n=87) 80 (92%) 7 (8%) J. N. Residential 6, 7 (n=110) 95 (86%) 15 (14%) S. N. Residential (n=361) 272 (75%) 89 (25%) S. N. Open storage (n=90) 70 (78%) 20 (22%) S. N. Open kiln (n=19) 11 (58%) 8 (42%) S. N. Open pit (n=5) 4 (80%) 1 (20%) S N. All in Grid (n=314) 230 (73%) 84 (27%) S. B. Residential (n=286) 45 (16%) 241 (84%) S. B. Non residential (n=75) 5 (7%) 70 (93%) S. B. Dolmen (n=40) 3 (7.5%) 37 (92.5%)

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210 There is not much variation for the ratio of decorated and undecorated potteries between the Jigyungri Neolithic residential 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7 units (Table 7 16). Among the Songjookri Neolithic groups, the open kiln group shows unusually high ratio of undecorated potteries, compared with all the other groups in the period. One noteworthy fact from the Songjookri Bronze groups is that the dolmen group is not dramatically separated with other Bronze groups when compared with results from previous comparisons, although there is still five and ten percent differences with other gro ups. As seen in Figure 7 17, typical characteristics for the transition time from the Neolithic to Bronze periods in Korean archaeology is indicated on the chart. In the regional Figure 7 17. Decorated vs. undecorated pottery between the Neol ithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. comparison for the Neolithic residential units between the Jigyungri and Songjookri sites, decorated potteries in the Jigyungri site has a thirteen percentage higher appearance ratio.

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211 Table 7 17. Decorated styles among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). C omb ined pattern Herring bone pattern Simple straight or oblique pattern D otted rows Notch e d strip on rim N o pattern but finge ring trace on appliqu S hort complicated oblique pattern Combined oblique lines Cross ed li ne s J. N. Residential all (n=217) 43 (20%) 39 (18%) 27 (12%) 7 (3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 54 (25%) 35 (16%) 12 (6%) J. N. Residential 1, 3, 4 (n=7 9) 25 (31.5 ) 16 (20%) 12 (15%) 2 (2.5%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 19 (25%) 1 (1%) 4 (5%) J. N. Residential 6, 7 (n=96) 6 (6%) 15 (16%) 11 (12%) 3 (3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 24 (25%) 30 (31%) 7 (7%) S. N. Residential (n=272) 14 (5% ) 22 (8%) 33 (12%) 2 (1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 49 (18%) 129 (47%) 23 (9%) S. N. Open storage (n=70) 7 (10%) 8 ( 11.5 ) 6 (8.5%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 6 (8.5%) 43 (61.5) 0 (0%) S. N. Open kiln (n=11) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (18% ) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 6 (55%) 3 (27%) S. N. Open pit (n=4) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (50%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (25%) 1 (25%) S. B. Residential (n=45) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 23 (51%) 0 (0%) 17 (38%) 5 (1 1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. B. Non residential (n=5) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (20%) 0 (0%) 4 (80%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. B. Dolmen (n=3) 0 (0%) 1 (33.3 ) 1 (33.3 ) 0 (0%) 1 (33 .3 ) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)

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212 Table 7 17 shows that in the Jigyungri Neolithic site, three most popular decoration styles are combined pattern, herringbone pattern, and short complicated oblique pattern. Similar appearances of the decoration styles are indicated between the Jigyungri residen tial 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7 units, except combined pattern and combined oblique lines. Due to insufficient sample numbers for the open kiln and open pit groups, it is hard to find patterns in the Songjookri Neolithic groups. There are two facts that can be asser ted though that the style of combine oblique lines is the most popular one and that the residential and open storage groups shared very similar ratio of certain decoration styles on pottery through the Songjookri Neolithic period. It is obvious that deco ration styles on pottery in the Bronze period decreased in number and the overall number of decorated potteries dramatically decreased. Figure 7 18. Decoration styles between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site.

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213 Whi le majority of decoration styles from the Neolithic period were no longer popular, the appearance ratio of simple straits or oblique patterned styles increased and notched strip on rim decoration and fingering trace on appliqu styles began appearing in th e Bronze period. Overall, less various and simplified styles were popular during the Songjookri Bronze period (Figure 7 18). The regi onal differences between the Ji g y u ngri and Songjookri Neolithic residential sites in decorated styles are shown; regardless that some potteries sharing very similar decoration patterns from two sites existed (Figure 7 19). Figure 7 19. Decoration styles between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential sites. Table 7 18 indicates that although it is not an identical pattern of the decoration position on pottery between the Jigyungri 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7 units, it has an overall similar pattern between two groups. The combined decoration position is the most popular way to decorate potteries from the Jigyungr i Neolithic residential units. The Songjookri

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214 Table 7 18. Decorated positions among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). Combin ed R im B ody B ase W hole pottery I nterior L ip only N eck only J. N. Residential all (n=217) 148 (68%) 12 (6%) 38 (17.5 ) 14 (6.5%) 4 (2%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) J. N. Residential 1, 3, 4 (n=79) 45 (57%) 8 (10%) 15 (19%) 7 (9%) 4 (5%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) J. N. Residential 6, 7 (n=96) 78 (82%) 3 (3%) 7 (7%) 8 (8%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. N. Residential (n=272) 129 (47%) 6 (2.2%) 124 (46%) 6 (2.2%) 3 (1.1%) 0 (0%) 1 (0.4%) 3 (1.1%) S. N. Open storage (n=70) 42 (60%) 0 (0%) 26 (37.2 ) 1 (1.4%) 1 (1. 4%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. N. Open kiln (n=11) 1 (9%) 0 (0%) 10 (91%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. N. Open pit (n=4) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 4 (100%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. B. Residential (n= 45) 1 (2%) 27 (60%) 1 (2%) 7 (13%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 16 (36%) 0 (0%) S. B. Non residential (n=5) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (20%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 4 (80%) 0 (0%) S. B. Dolmen (n=3) 0 (0%) 2 (67%) 1 (33%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) Neolithic groups however indicate that the pottery with decoration on its body was slightly more popular than the one on the combined position on pottery. Figure 7 20. Decoration positions between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site.

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215 The dramatic increases of decorations in rim and lip areas appeared in the potteries from the Songjookri Bronze groups (Figure 7 20). The inference that the Neolithic pottery decoration had been changed from a whole body to the rim area only through the Neolithic period by Korean scholars is clearly indicated on the results. It is obvious that the decoration on pottery body areas was not popular after the Neolithic period. Figure 7 21. Decoration positions between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential sites. Figure 7 21 indicates that combined and body decoration positions are the two most popular for both Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential units. Since there are more decorated potteries w ith combined decoration positions, it can be said that the Jigyungri Neolithic residential potteries show more decorated areas on pottery than the Songjookri Neolithic residential potteries.

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216 Table 7 19. Decorated techniques among all Jigyungri and Songjo okri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). Incis e d or groovi ng Punct uat ed Stam p e d (impr e s sio n ) Impres s e d fingeri n g Simple appliq u Incised or groovi ng appliq u Punctu ated appliq u Stamp ed appliq u Combin e d J. N. Residential all (n=217) 129 (59.5 ) 50 (2.3%) 48 (22.2 ) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 35 (16%) J. N. Residential 1, 3, 4 (n=79) 38 (48%) 2 (2.5%) 18 (23%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 21 (26.5 ) J. N. Residenti al 6, 7 (n=96) 69 (72%) 1 (1%) 21 (22%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 5 (5%) S. N. Residential (n=272) 240 (88%) 2 (1%) 23 (8.5%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 7 (2.5%) S. N. Open storage (n=70) 63 (90%) 0 (0%) 5 (7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (3%) S. N. Open kiln (n=11) 11 (100 ) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. N. Open pit (n=4) 4 (100 ) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. B. Residential (n=45) 12 (27%) 0 (0%) 8 (18%) 5 (11%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 0 (0%) 18 (40%) 1 (2%) S. B. Non residential (n=5) 1 (20%) 0 (0%) 4 (80%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) S. B. D olmen (n=3) 1 (33.3 ) 0 (0%) 1 (33.3 ) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (33.3 ) 0 (0%) According to Table 7 19, the comparison of decoration techniques on pottery between the Jigyungri Neolithic residential units 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7 indicates that both groups share a similar appearance pattern. However, a higher rate of combined techniques is shown in the group of the residential 1, 3, 4 units. It also indicates that the most dominant decoration technique among the potteries of the Neolithic Songjo okri groups was the incised decoration technique but stamped and stamped appliqu techniques were also shown with incised technique in the Songjookri Bronze data (Figure 7 22). After the Neolithic period, the use of an incised technique had decreased in ha lf and more appliqu techniques from the Bronze period had been used in the Songjookri site.

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217 Figure 7 22. Decoration techniques between the Neolithic and Bronze residential units from the Songjookri site. Figure 7 23. Decoration techniques between the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential sites. Figure 7 23 presents similar decoration techniques used in both Jigyungri and Songjookri sites in the Neolithic period. While the incising technique is most popular in

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218 both sites, the Song jookri Neolithic people applied the incising decoration on almost 9 out of 10 potteries. Metric D ata in the P ottery S tudy Table 7 20. Metric data among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). L ip 3 cm below lip 6 cm below lip Body Base Diameter Height J. N. Residential all 0.476 (n=169) 0.798 (n=168) 0.816 (n=117) 0.808 (n=59) 1.503 (n=23) 24.675 (n=49) 28.814 (n=9) J. N. Residential 1, 3, 4 0.443 (n=64) 0.842 (n=6 3) 0.897 (n=47) 0.864 (n=26) 1.638 (n=9) 22.957 (n=20) 0 (n=0) J. N. Residential 6, 7 0.511 (n=85) 0.779 (n=85) 0.760 (n=59) 0.705 (n=9) 1.457 (n=13) 26.714 (n=21) 0 (n=0) S. N. Residential 0.495 (n=224) 0.693 (n=222) 0 (n=0) 0.735 (n=250) 0 .995 (n=40) 21.728 (n=98) 20.916 (n=25) S. N. Open storage 0.481 (n=58) 0.696 (n=58) 0 (n=0) 0.713 (n=67) 0.89 (n=9) 21.921 (n=28) 0 (n=0) S. N. Open kiln 0.476 (n=13) 0.714 (n=13) 0 (n=0) 0.820 (n=10) 0 (n=0) 27.46 (n=3) 0 (n=0) S. N. Op en pit 0 (n=0) 0 (n=0) 0 (n=0) 0.747 (n=5) 0.8 (n=1) 0 (n=0) 0 (n=0) S. B. Residential 0.437 (n=139) 0.733 (n=127) 0.726 (n=98) 0.698 (n=97) 1.248 (n=157) 18.868 (n=76) 14.53 (n=36) S. B. Non residential 0.405 (n=14) 0.726 (n=14) 0.787 (n=1 0) 0.738 (n=26) 1.355 (n=63) 17.875 (n=8) 7.55 (n=2) S. B. Dolmen 0.345 (n=24) 0.511 (n=24) 0.521 (n=23) 0.513 (n=16) 1.061 (n=26) 11.860 (n=23) 13.828 (n=14) According to Table 7 20, the lip thickness does not show any direct relation with the measurements from other parts of the pottery. Although the dolmen of the Songjookri Bronze data shows that the smallest lip thickness resulted with all smallest body parts on pottery, except base thickness, the highest thickness from the Jigyungri resident ial 6 and 7 units does not coincide with the results of all other measurements on pottery at all. While the wall thickness was measured 3 below the rim to avoid measuring rim specific phenomena 96:45), 6 cm below the rim also was measured when available for possible use later. The 6 cm below thickness measurement was done for some sample groups in order to increase

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219 reliability of the relation of measured numbers between the wall thickness and the size of the pottery. As for the relations between the thickness of 3 cm below, 6 cm below, and body, some show that the 6 cm below data is the thickest area. This might be because that the body group have included many smaller sherds without the rim area and does not have 3 cm and 6 cm below data. Thus, the comparisons among these data may not be meaningful at all. Even though the relation between 3 cm and 6 cm below data will be more reliable, no consistency is shown on the results of any observable patte rn. If there are enough numbers of sample data, using the group that must include 6 cm below measurement is advisable as an extra logical process of sorting in order to produce lesser size variation gap. Table 7 21. Rim diameter ranges among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronze). J. N. Residential all S. N. Residential all S. N. Open storage S. B. Residential all S. B. Non residential S. B. Dolmen Diameter (cm) 10 43 5.2 38 2.5 38.8 6 42 9 36 4 30 This indicates that the Songjookri peoples from both Neolithic and Bronze periods could have used more functionally varied potteries than the Jigyungri people based on the appearance of the smaller rim diameters (Table 7 21). As seen in all other results the overall number of the Songjookri Bronze dolmen group are smaller than any other compared groups in Table 7 20. This group shows the narrowest rim diameter range. It is safe to say that the overall smaller potteries compared to any other groups in the analysis were used and buried in the Songjookri Bronze burial area. Although it is said that thicker wall, taller, and larger rim diameter potteries generally show bigger sized potteries, it also might have depended on the style of eac h pottery; it has to be

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220 considered, for instance, that some potteries with a narrower mouth with a narrow rim diameter would have higher height and thicker wall as well. According to the results from the comparison between the Songjookri Bronze res idential and nonresidential groups, about 1 diameter did not affect the wall and base thicknesses. The Songjookri Bronze residential group with the wider average diameter shows that its average body and base thickn esses are thinner 5.5% and 7.9% than those of the Songjookri nonresidential group respectively. However, it needs to be considered that the result from the group comparison could have included many outliers. In fact, the general conception about the relati on between the wall thickness and diameter, thicker wall for big and larger rim diameter potteries, appears in the data. Another noticeable fact is that while the results of the comparisons among the pottery groups from the same period accord close ly with our common conception in general (for instance, the comparison among all the Neolithic groups from the Songjookri site), the conception is not applied in the case between the different time periods (for instance, between the Songjookri Neolithic an d Bronze periods). In other words, the Songjookri Bronze potteries show smaller rim diameters with the same wall thickness that was of the larger rim diameter potteries from the Songjookri Neolithic. This also appears in the comparison between the Jigyungr i Neolithic residential 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7 units. The reason may be that there were more varied pottery shapes that appeared throughout the Bronze period; in fact, more jars with smaller rim diameter potteries appeared in the Songjookri Bronze period. In fac t, it is indicated that the jar with neck pottery had increased from 5% to 15% in the entire pottery groups from the

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221 Neolithic to Bronze period. It is also noted that there were more varied pottery forms with broader range of functions during the Songjookr i Bronze period (Bae 2006:256; Kim et al. 2007:276). As for the overall results of the spatial and temporal comparisons, all the Jigyungri Neolithic residential data show higher metric numbers in all measured attributes than those of the Songjookri Neolith ic and Bronze residential groups (which shows lesser levels of variations throughout the temporal change than those of the regional comparison between the Jigyungri and Songjookri sites). Compared with the Jigyungri data, both Songjookri Neolithic and Bron ze groups show many small potteries with less than 10 cm rim diameter. Pottery Functional Analysis As mentioned in C hapter 6 many ethnoarchaeological studies indicate that cooking pots have in general thicker wall sides with a firmed base (Hen rickson and McDonald 1983:637), the Table 7 20 indicates that in most of the cases, thicker wall goes with thicker base. In terms of the relations between the wall and base thickness and height on pottery, these results obviously show that these are morpho logically interconnected; both increase or decrease proportionately. This simple formula should be followed in the case of individual potteries. Although studying use alterations on pottery provides some possible explanations for the subsistence pa tterns of prehistoric societies, it is not done in detail in this study in spite of the fact that there are enough potteries with used marks such as pitting, eroding, and string marks. And because several facts such as temperatures in the manufacturing pro cess and used patterns would have affected existing color on pottery, color evidence could be one of the indications of the cooking function of the pottery. Possible alternations for all analyzed attributes on pottery in this study could have

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222 occurred duri ng its life cycle; for instance, the dark reduced core could have disappeared and affected the surface color after the many different cooking procedures. There are also some ways of inferring cooking pots for instance, depending on how the pottery was loca ted over fire, and in many cases the base areas were easily exposed to firing with higher chances of being oxidized. Thus, a pottery with a reduced upper part core but with oxidized base areas might have functioned as cooking pottery T here is still a poss ibility though, positioned to be exposed to a fire more than any other part in the pottery making proc ess However, potteries with firing marks such as sooting and firing cloud are simply recorded to look for the existen ce ratio of a possible cooking pottery in each individual pottery group. In the case of potteries from the Jigyungri it is reported that there was a fire which may have caused it to be abandoned. Therefore, some color changes and firing marks on the potte ry from the site must have been affected the conflagration rather than by manufacturing process or use. Careful note was done to separate the ones with sooting or firing cloud caused by th is in cident. Although some sherds showing some sooting marks on the ir broken lateral sides indicating post breakage firing processes are easily distinguished, the overall work for selecting sooting and firing marked potteries as cooking pots were difficult. Some potteries with only small spotted sooting marks are also rem oved. Thus, it is necessary to note the possib ility of a significant margin of error in the analysis processes.

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223 Figure 7 24. Firing marks on pottery among all Jigyungri and Songjookri sample groups (J.= Jigyungri S.=Songjookri, N.=Neolithic, B.=Bronz e). As see n in Figure 7 24, among the Jigyungri Neolithic residential, Songjookri Neolithic residential, and Songjookri Bronze residential groups, the Songjookri Neolithic residential one shows less appearance rate of the pottery with firing marks. It is not sure why there is only less than a half of the possible cooking potteries in its residential units compared with other regional and temporal groups. Although the groups of open storage and all in grid in the Songjookri Neolithic group show a rel atively low rate of potteries with firing marks, the other two groups, open kiln and open pit, from the Songjookr i Neolithic group have a very high appearance rate of the firing marked potteries. Among th e se four groups, it can be assumed that there existe d a site function in the Songjookri Neolithic group because cooking pots would have been used in the open pit and kiln sites. One interesting fact is that the Songjookri Bronze dolmen group includes very high ratio of the potteries with firing marks. It is not certain if it was caused

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224 by the reasons that the people from the Songjookri Bronze period buried used cooking pots together or the site had a higher usage rate of a cooking pot for ceremonial purpose s Although there is no strong eviden ce to support the general idea that cooking pots have a high breakage rate, it is indicated that a high numbers of potteries with firing marks appeared more than the partially or completely reconstructed ones. I t may be a natural outcome since one reconstr ucted pottery should include many different pieces of sherds with or without firing marks, while the majority of potteries from both Songjookri Neolithic and Bronze groups mostly show a small or limited part of the pottery surface. There is a possibility o f a slightly higher rate of cooking potteries that could have existed plus the fact that during the process of collecting and cleaning excavated potteries, many soot spots appeared on pottery surface have been washed out (C. Y. Kim 200 2 :3, footnote 10). As discussed in C hapter 6 shape and size are significant predictors of pottery function. Since it is believed that variation in pottery size is a good indicator for the size of the societies (Blitz 1993:93), archaeologists have suggested that one o f the possible ways to measure site permanence is from the existence of food storage (Hally 198 4, 1986 ; Shapiro 1984). It is supposed that higher frequency of larger orifice jars will be a good indicator for a high degree of site permanence. It may be too early to assume anything at present about the residential patterns of the st udied groups based on the result of this analysis. And since it has also been argued that food storage increased in the region with higher latitude and rare in areas near equator; semi sedentary hunter gatherers have higher rates of storage pots than those living in deserts and in tropical

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225 areas (Rice 1999:34), storage potteries could be a good indicator for subsistence pattern with seasonality in prehistoric societies. Therefore, while there are four seasons which includ e winter period in Korea and storage potteries for saving food materials throughout the severe weather for at least several months would have been very critical for the prehistoric people, we may think tentatively t hat the existence of a large number of storage potteries would indicat e that their residential places were more likely semi sedentary hunter more work has to be done in detail in the study of pott ery to understand and break down the relations among all different attributes on pottery. To sum up, the macroscopic and metric data in seeking any difference on pottery among the Jigyungri Neolithic the Songjookri Neolithic and Bronze data sho w different levels of variation within and through spatial and temporal variability of analyzed data. Among the Jigyungri residential units between 1, 3, 4 and 6, 7, which are from different layers and show potteries with different decoration styles, the o verall results do not indicate any dramatic difference s for all the compared attributes between them, although some obvious variations appeared in the metric data. It is not hard to assert that there are certain associations that may exist between all the compared units in the Jigyungri Neolithic residential site. As for the inter site variability for possible site functional variations among the Songjookri Neolithic data, the results of most macroscopic data from the residential unit, open storag e, open kiln, all in grid and open pit exhibited a similar, but slightly different range of characteristics. The open kiln potteries most often displayed dissimilarities with those of other compared groups. The metric data show some levels of differences

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226 a mong them. Similarly, the residential unit, all nonresidential and dolmen in the Songjookri Bronze data exhibited very similar range of characteristics between the residential and nonresidential data sets. However, the dolmen displayed huge variation ga p f rom the other two groups in the macroscopic and metric analyses, except the ratio for the decorated and undecorated potteries. As for the results of the temporal comparison, the potteries from both Songjookri Neolithic and Bronze periods are ra ther similar in lips shape, rim angle, and fabric composition, related ones such as inclusion coarseness and surface feeling, but different significantly in firing techniques for core type and color, exterior color, all decorated attributes such as style, position and technique as well as metric data. As for the spatial comparison, the potteries from the Jigyungri and Songjookri Neolithic residential sites displayed obvious differences between the two sites in macroscopic and metric analyses. From t his work, the expected outcome that potteries from the Songjookri Bronze period would be differ ent in terms of many aspects on both stylistic and technofunctional attributes, compared with those from the Songjookri Neolithic period was not obtained. Alth ough more sample data from other regional variations are needed to make a strong statement on the validity of the previous regional models based on mostly form and decoration patterns, it is possible to s tate that the variations on stylistic patterns are a lso present on the tech n ofunctional characteristics as well And the traditional points of view on the regional variations of the Neolithic Korean pottery cultures are still valid. In the following chapter, the results summarized above will be intertwined with previously discussed topics.

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227 CHAPTER 8 D ISCUSSION OF POTTERY STUDY IN KOREA Since the purpose of this study is to learn whether technofunctional attributes on pottery could be useful to show temporal and spatial variability, the results show sufficient variations that could be used as points of comparisons with research results from a traditional stylistic approach. The use of some technofunctional attributes of pottery in the analysis suggest that based on the case of the sample groups from the Jigyungri and Songjookri sites, Korean Neolithic pottery groups that had been divided by stylistic aspects on pottery are valid for the technofunctionally divided groups. Despite changes in decoration style or technique and high firing temperatu re in the pottery making process for some specific potteries, overall mechanical elements of pottery manufacture remain similar from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze period in the Songjookri site. The relations of those periods of pottery groups could be t echnofunctionally considered as similar in the case of the Songjookri site. Therefore, it follows that the variations of cultural identities of the Korean Neolithic and late Bronze periods could be further understood through the application of technofuncti onal attributes. Pottery Decoration Studies and Arguments Since many early archaeological sites had been excavated with undetectable traces in the archaeological stratigraphy due to all kinds of possible disturbances such as uncontrolled new develo pment processes by human activities, uncared excavation processes, or simply naturally disturbed situations, the overall contexts of pottery stylistic patterns such as shape, decoration and location of decoration have been

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228 naturally emphasized and studied by archaeologists to trace the chronological orders of the Korean pottery cultures (J. H. Kim 1968). After some arguments regarding various approaches on the pottery studies were ggested different approaches in pottery study; for instance, J. K. Choi (1977) tried to emphasize decoration techniques on studying the subject of the transitional history of the Korean Neolithic pottery cultures, rather than focusing on pottery decoration style and their location on pottery and argued that the transition was from the appliqud, to stamped, to incised. S. J. Shin (1982) emphasized pottery chemical analysis and uses pottery technological attributes for pottery typology. J. S. Kim (1991) trie d to study in detail decoration attributes on pottery; he compared metric data from the thickness, length, angle, and distance of motifs to understand regional relations for the Neolithic Chulmun pottery. At the same time, Korean archaeologists also have argued and discussed the possible limitedness of methodological and theoretical approaches from the studies; for instance, Song (2002:95,110) who states that in many cases, Korean pottery studies too much emphasis and focus on pottery decoration with out considering pottery forms and an ocular inspection of shape and decoration on pottery certainly would not be sufficient to find out the transition process of Korean Neolithic pottery cultures. Therefore, scholars ( see J. S. Kim 2002; Kim and Yang 2001; J. J. Lee 2001 a b 2002), including Song (2002) have emphasized subsistence pattern related elements such as dietary, environment fact and settlement pattern to explain the regional relations of the Korean Neolithic and Bronze po ttery cultures as discuss ed in C hapter 4.

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229 While pottery decoration researches have been centered in prehistoric pottery studies and the chronological studies based on pottery typology have been regarded as more reliable facts in Korea, scholars have questioned how to handl e and combine the data from absolute dating techniques and all other assemblage patterns with those from pottery typology based on decoration emphasized patterns Scholars have tried to use archaeology that has resulted to produce many studies from the central western pottery system, which is the earliest and most studied Korean pottery culture. And although these traditionally accepted ideas in the Korean Neolithic studies have remained unc hallenged for so long, it is now under question (S. J. Shin 2004: 8 ). Furthermore, after more applications of the absolute dated data on Korean pottery chronology, some differences between absolute date and relative date system in Korea have been re ported and one of the sites from the Neolithic period shows different regional and temporal Neolithic potteries in Korea (Lyom 2000; S. H. Kim 2001:79), thus several fundamental schemes on the chronology of the Korean Neolithic pottery cultures have been c ritically questioned ( see I. S. Ha 2003; J. S. Kim 2003 a ; Kim and Yang 200 1; D. J. L ee 2003 ; S. T. I m 2003; S. J. Shin 2004) According to Jang Suk Kim (2002), one of first scholars critical on some issues of the Korean Neolithic chronology (that h as been constructed by emphasizing pottery decoration style), the belief that the differences on the decoration styles among pottery cultures should be regarded as temporal variations is too strong for Korean scholars to be free from that prejudice (J. S. Kim 2003 a ). As Kim mentioned, without having enough understanding of how long a certain style had existed and how long that certain style

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230 had coexisted with other styles, any stylistic approach would be producing more confusion in the Korean Neolithic stud y. He further suggested later that more reliable and testable groups of pottery designs need to be understood by their spatial and temporal distributions first to make a more reliable Neolithic pottery chronology in Korea (J. S. Kim 2004). Similarl y, S. H. Yang (2002:36) suggested that it is necessary to work on more detailed chronological orders for each style and compare the existing data that have been applied for the typological approaches with other studies from archaeological evidence on the m odes of subsistence. Therefore while it is very tempting to believe that different decoration styles would indicate different time period and different cultural identity, J. S. Kim suggested that all previous studies emphasizing the traditional approaches in Korea need to be reexamined and reorganized by temporal and spatial distribution ( J. S. Kim 2003 a :17). H. J. R o (2002:533) also strongly contended that one of the urgent tasks of Korean archaeology is that all its archaeological concepts, chronology, ty pology, models and theories should be tested as soon as possible. As the result of this challenge in the Korean Neolithic pottery study, changes in the trend in Korean archaeology have emerged. Archaeologists have started to focus more on gathering environmental, dietary, and residential data from the prehistoric periods in Korea in order to help reconstruct broader subsistence patterns of Korean Neolithic peoples (see J. S. Kim 2002; J. J. Koo 2011a; J. J. Lee 2001a, 2002; S. J. Lee 2010). One of t he first attempts to theorize Korean archaeological evidence was done by J. S. Kim (2002). J. S. Kim (2003 b ), one of proponents of the diffusion and migration theory, believes that cultural changes between the Chulmun and Mumun pottery periods had

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231 taken pl ace radically in a very short time by Mumun pottery farmer who moved to Korea by long distance migration. He explains that this rapid process was necessary for the people living in the central western region due to the benefit of the land use strategies. Prehistoric P ottery C ultures and O rigin of Korean P eople As for the issues related to the origin of the Korean people, direct discussions about the subject among current Korean archaeologists are not that popular anymore. Nevertheless, as mentioned in C hapter 4, the identity of the first Neolithic Chulmun pottery people in Korea and its relation to the Bronze Mumun pottery people are still being argued upon by scholars. Although current archaeological data show that all potteries from the eastern Sib eria and the area of the Baikal Lake are younger than those from the Amur river and the Russian maritime province in the eastern region t he chronological data from the Osanri site located in the eastern coastal area in south Korea have reported an earlier date than those site near the Baikal Lake. The Siberia theory had lost its popularity in Korea (H. J. Im 1999). However, since more archaeological data from the Siberian region has been freely introduced into the Korean archaeology since the 1990s, it has been reported that newly found pottery from the Amur River regions are older than those of Osanri (W. J. Lee 2004; H. W. Hong 2011). Therefore, although some modification for the Siberia route theory may be required, still some connections between Siberia n regions and Korea need to be considered. Another East Asian region that has been discussed regarding the origin of Korean Chulmun and Mumun pottery cultures is Northeastern China. H yung g oo Lee (1987, 1990), who is against the Siberia theory, has suggested that the origin of the Korean people should have been traced from the regions of Northeastern China because not only the Chulmun pottery culture but also all Bronze material culture from the areas are

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232 very similar to those of the Korean peninsul a. He has strongly argued that Northeastern China is the place where the Chulmun pottery culture initially blossomed. According to the most recent studies regarding the Korean Chulmun and Mumun potteries by Lutaenko and others (2007), who surveyed some archaeological and climatic data from the regions, there were population migrations in East Asia from Northeastern China to all other Northern Far Eastern areas. They believed that it was initiated by the climate change (2007:389). However, their wor ks did not include some critical reviews on new archaeological data that have been reported for the last two decades in Korea. Since their surveyed information was mostly from the Nelson book, which was published in 1993, many newly reported Paleo and Neol ithic sites from the Korean peninsula were not included. To be more reliable, some studies regarding the cultural relations between the central and northeastern China should have been included, since many genetic and osteological studies have been s hown that the modern Korean and Chinese people are not closely related to each other. Currently the northeastern Chinese regions, including the Liodong and Manchuria are the center point for the many archaeological and historical arguments between Korean a nd Chinese scholars. Although climate change is a critical cause to human migration during the prehistoric times, it is still not enough to present the real picture of the initial Korean Neolithic period and the transition between the Neolithic and Bronze periods because there is no account about the local people and their relationship to the newcomers. It is obvious that Northeastern China was the cultural contact regions for Chinese, Siberian and Korean throughout the prehistoric periods. This cross cultu ral contact within the Liodong and Manchurian regions in

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233 current Northeastern China was fostered by non material and material exchanges. All kinds of trading activities for goods and ideas happened without strong restricted political boundaries up to only a century ago. With the close regional location between the northern Korean peninsula and northeastern China, it is hard to ignore the fact that diffusion had indeed operated in certain ways in the East Asian region during the Neolithic and Bro nze periods. However, according to Nelson ( 1999:161 ), it is interesting to mention that a tripod pottery, which is one of the major characteristics of the Neolithic pottery from northern China, did not appear in the Korean peninsula until the historic peri od. Evidence from the southern China has also indicated the earliest pottery in the world. Traditionally the region is not considered to a large extent as the origin route of the Korean pottery culture due to different cultural patterns between two regions in archaeological evidence. However, owing to the need to consider the paleoenvironmental facts that the area between southern China and southern Korean peninsula was connected to the Asian continental landmass and the possibility of the earlier a gricultural practice in southern Korea, there is a strong possibility that the related issues on the origins of pottery and agriculture and their relations in East Asia might need to be updated through continuous search for new archaeological evidence in t he coming years. A more reliable understanding on the population movement in the region can be provided by more archaeological evidence. More studies on the relations of the Neolithic pottery cultures between the northern Korean peninsula and the Liodong p eninsula in China should also be further attempted if it is allowed (H. G. Baek 1984; Y. H. Kim 2002).

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234 Long T erm L ocal D evelopment of P rehistoric Korean P ottery C ultures According to Anthony (1990), many researchers have only seen migration as movi ng in one direction and overemphasize economic factors as to why people migrate, and a simple interpretation on migration issue based on archaeological material cultures should be avoided. Indeed, migration theory has held up in many parts of the world, so metimes because of real evidence but more often because it is the way archaeologists have always thought about the past (Adams et al. 1978). It is therefore essential to review carefully how cultural continuity and external influence were integrated into t he Chulmun Mumun pottery transition rather than simplify the transition as a sudden entire demise of the Chulmun pottery and a wholesale replacement by the Mumun pottery. Although it is still required that more regionally and temporally broaden stu dies should have been practiced, traditionally, many scholars have supported the explanation of cultural diffusion by population migrations during the prehistoric period of East Asian region. However, an increas ing number of scholars in the Korean academia see the possib ilities of local developments of Korean Neolithic culture and no population replacement during the transition period from the Chulmun to Mumun pottery culture s. Regardless that there is no scholar who seriously question the Chulmun a nd Mumun pottery periods to divide chronological classification of the Korean prehistoric pottery, some have not accepted the population replacement theory, especially the transition period from the Neolithic to Bronze periods in Korea; for instance, Choe and Bale (2002:96) says no thing clear cut between them on the transition period but just or the absence of any design, and the appearance of new technologies of surface

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235 tre atment and firing (Larichev 1978:54 56, 73 75; Nelson 1993:116 123; Choe and Bale 2002:96, cited in Lutaenko et al. 2007:371 372). In addition, while many scholars traditionally have argued that increased practices of agricultural activities from the Bronze period would have been the best indication of the population movements into the Korean peninsula in the early Bronze period, G. A. Lee recently argues that the Chulmun pottery people were not simply hunter and ho acknowledged the importance of crops (2011:S326). Along with increased numbers of archaeological evidence for earlier agricultural practices in the Korean peninsula, this comment would be validate d with more evidence in the future. In terms of the init ial time of the rice cultivation in Korea, there is no strong argument against the assumption that rice and some other crops were introduced into Korea in domesticated form. But one thing that should be ke pt in mind is that this should not be necessar ily t o be interpreted as the result of total population movements. W hile recently more researchers have cast doubt on the abrupt replacement of the Chulmun by the Mumun some archaeologists have preferred to support a long term transition processes from the Neolithic to Bronze cultural transition (see S. J. Shin 2007). Shin (2007:11) maintains that cultural continuity in pottery making and site selection indicates a gradual transition and the longevity of the Chulmun culture (over 4,000 years) may have b een based on developing economic, technological, and social complexities. Scholars, who agree with this kind of interpretation, naturally support the idea that there has been no sudden cultural discontinuity of the Korean ancestral line since the

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236 Neolithic period, regardless that most of them agree that possible minor diffusion and migration processes must have occurred during the prehistoric period. According to the results from this study, there is no strong indication for abrupt change on the styl istic and technofunctional attributes of the pottery from the Songjookri Neolithic and Bronze data. This result corresponds with the previous microscopic study using ten sample materials, five each for the Neolithic and Bronze periods (Lee and Moon 2006). The analysis indicated that all sample potteries from both periods were fired under the temperature between 500 ~ 900C and used the same inclusions, except one jar with long neck that might have been fired with over 1 000C and its inclusions are finer th an all others. Since the Korean archaeology started, population replacement models by either waves of migrations or cultural diffusion from foreign identities in Korea have been popular. While more archaeological studies have argued some possible issues of the migration and diffusion explanations in Korea and it is well known that migrant peoples usually have tendency to keep their own cultural colors on material cultures, the result of this study supports an evolution in situ idea for the transit ion period from the Neolithic to Bronze period. As for the decoration pattern, if by all indication s of previous studies that the patterns of the Neolithic pottery changed from whole body to limited area and eventually no decoration is correct the process could have been interpreted as a gradual change of decoration patterns on pottery, rather than as a sudden and radical change by population movements. If all these suppositions are right it indicates that in the case of the Songjookri people they might h ave had their territorial zone for a long time. Further anthropological studies such as hunter and gather er

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237 sedentism, trade and network system, and then transition ed in to a complex society could have followed, if this cultural zone had tha t longevity. Pottery and Sedentary Society According to Choe and Bale (2002:96), focusing on subsistence and settlement patterns through time to trace prehistoric cultural change would be one of the best ways to establishing cultural chronology of K orean prehistoric periods. Based on the data from Korean archaeology, it has been thought that the Neolithic period of the Korean peninsula is one of the places where cultivation and sedentary life did not appear simultaneously because Korean data show tha t sedentism starts before agricultural activities began It is due to the fact that although there is some lithic evidence implying possible earlier agricultural activities, the overall archaeological data in Korea have indicated some levels of mixed patte rns of subsistence between foraging and farming in food production. I t is believed that around 4 000 BP, before the Mumun pottery replac ed the Chulmun pottery, the typical form of subsistence for the Chulmun pottery people might have been foraging, gather ing plant, fishing, shellfish gathering, and hunting of terrestrial animals, marine mammals and birds and some limited agricultural activities. A nd archaeologists have argued among themselves on whether there was a dramatic appearance of full scale farming in the peninsula during the transition period from the Neolithic to the Bronze period. I t is generally assum ed that from the middle Chulmun to the early Mumun period, several things had been happened respectively: limited agricultural activities occurred some new agricultural method such as slash and b urn farming technique started, and more frequent agricultural activities practiced from the early Mumun period

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238 (Ko 2010; Yun 2010) Although the Mumun period is known as an agricultural society, it is gener ally believed that more intensive agriculture, the earliest paddy rice field, started from the middle Mumun period along with a relatively highly organized farming economy with a new material culture A s introduced in C hapter 3, there are an increas ing num ber of archaeological evidence and works regarding possible earlier agricultural practice in the Korean peninsula, and more studies related to this subject may provide further elucidation s. According to the study by Koo ( 2011a, 2011 b, 2011c ), who di vided the Neolithic residential groups into nine different regional groups, the Jigyungri and the Songjookri sites are included in the central west coast region and southern inland region respectively. Koo stated that overall processes of changes appeared in each region through time and showed regionally different changing patterns These processes may also be coincident with regionally divided Chulmun pottery cultures in Korea. He also stated that those changes appeared simultaneously with the changes of t he subsistence patterns. He believed that the Songjookri site was a permanent residential site, based on artifacts and inter site units that indicate possibly different site functions, regardless of finding no crops but some aco r ns as in the case of the Ji gyungri (201 1b :224 225). While the Jigyungri site, located in central eastern coast, is regarded as the central Jigyungri Neolithic people replaced the earlier eastern coastal Neolithic people living in the Osanri site. She believed that one of the evidence to an increase in sedentary lifestyle for the Jigyungri people was their use of more rounded or pointed style of a

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239 storage pottery that they brought from the central western to central eastern coastal region. If the notion that societies with more storage potteries would have had a longer settlement patterns in their residential units is correct the supported by th e results seen in C hapter 7 In addition, the two possible biggest potteries (assuming potteries with largest rim diameter and tallest height) from two different periods in the Songjookri site; the ones from the Neolithic site are roughly, 48.5 (H) x 38 (D) and 48 (H) x 35 (D), while the ones from the Songjookri Bronze site are roughly, 41(H) x 39 (D) and 24.5 (H) x 50 (D). Based on the comparison of these two possible biggest potteries from each period, while no big difference is noticed, the people living in the Songjo okri site had no need to make larger potteries measuring over 50 cm in diameter for community purposes. It is reported that the size of each household unit, especially a rectangle shape, in the Bronze period is generally bigger than the one in the Neolithi c period (S. H. Bae 2006:251; Kim et al. 2007:263 265). It is interesting to note that while the Bronze people living in bigger sized dwelling in a bigger community than the one in the Neolithic period, there was not much change in the overall size of pottery in the Songjookri site. Based on the result of more pottery with smaller size, i t could be assumed that more functionally vari ed types of pottery were used in the Bronze period. But it is difficult to infer why the Bronze people did not need to make a bigger community type of pottery. One of the assumptions is that there was no centralized power in the community yet. Although it is difficult to ascertain if the crea tion of considerable surpluses of agricultural products and network syste ms among villages already existed in the early

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240 Mumun period of the Songjookri site, it is clearly indicated that certain levels of varieties of different site functions, especially high in the dolmen site, had exist ed based on the result of this study. In the case of the dolmen pottery, the intended functions of potteries were obviously re cognized and utilized for different purposes in the Songjookri Bronze period as indicated that they are smaller and more energy consumed. That intention appeared on certai n potteries at different rates with more attention in the making processes. Ordinary P ottery in A rchaeology While Korean archaeologists have tried to focus on potteries to reconstruct possible interactions between different Neolithic cultural group s in Korea, the question of the shift from the Chulmun patterned pottery to the Mumun style pottery in Korea is an important research subject matter in current Korean archaeology. It has been long time that one of well known North Korean archaeologists Kim Yonggan in the 1960 s suggested that it is necessary to look and compare all the archaeological data, instead of focusing on some special individual item found (S. J. Lee 1992:104). It is a good recommendation that focusing on the specific artifact or arc haeological approach to trace archaeological cultural connections, rather than dealing with a whole cultural aspects from all archaeological studies, would be detrimental to discovering important perspective Traditionally it has been thought that fine or special potteries were moved further. But Shepard distances. More and more examples of quite mundane wares being moved over long distance are coming to light Santley et al. 1989; and many others, cited in Orton et al. 1993:28). It is also generally known by ethnographic evidence that people spend considerable investment in the decoration of potteries they use for special

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241 feasting or ritual purposes. But how can one identify between ordinary pots for daily life that is associate d with domestic use and specialized ritual or feasting pottery? Since there is less possibility that the pottery from the Neolithic period would be found with specialized purposes than tho se from the Bronze period wherein some complex societies already existed, it is even harder to distinguish which ones were ordinary potteries in the earlier pottery culture. Consequently archaeologists often do not agree on how to identify specialized rit ual or feasting pots from the ordinary ones in Neolithic pottery. One of the potential problems with a stylistic approach is that there may not be enough attention on the mundane potteries which are essential to understand ing the whole picture of a society and to argue a cultural identity of the past society, and too much focus on the more stylistically important ones. Therefore, although some numbers of very unique stylistic potteries in the archaeological sample groups may need to be considered as important archaeological evidence, equal attention should also be given on the mundane stylistic potteries in the group. Changes on Pottery Attributes While there is no study on the potential benefits for the technological advan cement of the Mumu n pottery by Korean archaeologists, many ethnoarchaeological and experimental archaeological studies indicate that possible changes may have occurred on pottery production in term of stylistic and technological aspects inside the same groups of people (She nnan 1989:13). Before one can simply explain the changes on pottery by diffusion or population migration, there are several factors that need to be consider ed in interpret ing changes that occurred on all kinds of attribute s of pottery (Orton et al 1993:24 26); first of all, pottery technology and design could be reversed by

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242 some reasons that we are not able to answer for the reason. Second, it should also be consider ed the possible role of the individual potter for the changes on pottery. Third, the tradit ional role of trade between societies could have caus ed to real changes. According to Linton, who studied the woodland pottery in America and argued its similarity to Eurasian Chulmun pottery, the outward sloping sides and a pointed bottom style of pottery like the traditional Korean Neolithic Chulmun pottery, is the most effective and efficient type for boiling usages (1944:371). That type of pottery from both the Old and New W orlds are associated with hunting and fishing economic societies. According to him, the changing pottery type is connected with overall subsistence patterns of people due to functional relations. Similarly, Arnold (1985:224) also claim s society that There are many pottery studies indicating that pottery changes occurred due to various factors such as changing dietary resources, and in consequence changing cooking methods, and changing social systems (Arnold 1989; Mills 1999:99). Therefore, to produce stronger arguments on whether it was population replacement or cultural changes adjusting to the new mode of subsistence due to local invention or diffusion of new cultural patterns, some other issues ne ed to be questioned and answered in pottery studies in Korea. Unless more various approaches on pottery analysis in Korea are initiated along with adopt ion of some a nthropological issues from the W estern archaeology, the arguments between the two ideas cou ld not advance to reach ing any agreement.

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243 While it is open to question on which categories are more reliable indicators for the levels of cultural changes, and how much different level should be indicated to be declar ed as no cultural continuity, t he level of variations that appeared in the comparison of regional groups in this study between the Neolithic residential Jigyungri and Songjookri data is more obvious than that between the Songjookri Neolithic and Bronze periods. In other words, the varia tion in the regional level was more obvious. S imilar patterns appeared on the mechanical continuity giving a stronger indication of the cultural continuity from the Neolithic to the Bronze period in the Songjookri site. As for the question on which ones ar e more resistant to change over time, Parsons (2011:98) proposed that firing characteristics and fabric description are more resistant unlike decorative techniques based on his research data. While still stong evidence is needed, a more logical answer to t he question on which attribute(s) is more indicative of ethnic identity should be also suggested Similarly, there is no justification to argue that less or non decoration and thicker body on pottery should be called as retreated conditions because it may have connected to various functional choices. Y. J. Kim (2003:70) explained one of the possible reasons for undecorated potteries among other decorated Chulmun potteries According to Kim, the undecorated ones, mostly smaller size, would have been u sed typically for serving and cooking, and have higher chances for breakage, thus prehistoric potters would not want to spend more energy in decorating them. Although more evidence to support his idea is necessary, his supposition is highly possible. In fa ct, this assumption could be investigated by applying the technofunctional approach alone with more detailed sorting process for possible cooking potteries with firing

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244 markers. More importantly, pottery stylistic level and potential function of pottery sho uld not grade our attention level in anthropological archaeology. As mentioned in C hapter 6, while flexural strength of accepting ability to mechanical stresses without distorting tends to increase with increasing wall thickness (Jones and Berarb 19 72:147 148), thicker wall on pottery tends to decrease its thermal conductivity, resulting to require more cooking time (Van Vlack 1964:117 165) and decrease in thermal shock resistance (Rado 1969:198 199). While the increased wall thickness then does not need to represent all technologically degraded situations, it is reported that there are some Songjookri Bronze potteries with high firing temperature which could be called technological advance ment in controlling firing temperature. If the wall thickness changed, what can be assume d is that the Mumun pottery groups were less concerned with thermal stress conditions, such as thermal shock and conductivity, although it cannot be ascertained if they know the differences. While there are some studies connecting the changes of pottery wall thicknesses to the change of food system in societies (see Braun 1983, 1987; Ozker 1982), more interests on the dietary patterns of the prehistoric people in Korean archaeology have been appeared as more archaeologica l evidence of major crops from the Korean Neolithic period has been reported. Further studies on the link between foods and pottery technofunctional attributes are likely to be generated If pottery wall thickness increased along with increased crops in fo od systems for the people from the Bronze period in Korea, it is necessary to explain what kinds of benefits would be produced with thicker wall potteries for cooking these crops.

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245 In fact, one of the general representations of the Mumun pottery cul ture is its thicker wall on pottery. But, b ased on the result (see Table 7 20 ), it cannot be confirm ed if the wall thickness of the Songjookri Bronze pottery increased compared with that of the Songjookri Neolithic period. The comparison between the reside ntial units from two different periods in the Songjookri site actually indicates that the body thickness decreased in the Bronze period, while the 3 cm below thickness increased. Although this may have been affected by possible smaller size of pottery in t he Bronze period, the comparisons of the results from all other groups from both periods also do not indicate any significant change on wall thickness of pottery at all. Decoration and Cultural Identity Almost sixty years ago, Steward (1954:55) sa id that the dilemma all archaeologists classifications in archaeological records. He argued that in the pottery typology, emphasis should be more focused on functional f eatures of artifacts while no evidence has been prov en that either decoration styles or all other noticeable and measurable attributes on pottery is better archaeological indication of the cultural identity of the prehistoric societies. According to him, a culture can be shown by functional studies from the types of archaeological records and this can be achieved by qualitative approaches. Therefore, he believed that other types can be quantified by its features in order to be used as temporal and spatial markers of cultural phenomena. Similarly, while the definition of a type would be a specific kind of pottery embodying a unique combination of recognizably distinct attributes (Gifford 1960:341), Ford (1954) argued that one single classificator y system would not be enough and insisted on a multi approach for pottery study. In 1939, Rouse emphasized another

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246 classificatory term, mode, to describe a conceptual pattern in archaeology. According to him, a type is a pattern of artifact characteristic s which constantly recurs on a given kind of of artifact and a mode is an abstraction of a recurring feature from the specimen (Rouse 1939:18). Rouse stated that a mode is a better classification to describe a standardized cultural behavior pattern in a rchaeology and an analytic classification (mode) should precede a taxonomic classification (type) in archaeology (Rouse 1960). He believed that this approach using mode could produce more classifications from archaeological artifacts because various mo des could be extracted from the attributes. Nevertheless s tylistic appearances on pottery have been traditionally considered as one of the main factors categorizing ancient cultural groups, although traditional stylistic approach could not account for variation in the adoption and use of pottery. As was stated in the preceding paragraphs, how one view s the nature of the cultural group will depend upon the approach and emphasis. According to eth n oarchaeological studies, one of the most commo n visual categories that potters are concern ed with as a mental template for their pottery making is pottery shape rather than a specific or abstract features on pottery (Arnold 1985:7 8). Some studies also show that diffusion is the main factor for the sp read of decorative alliances (Hegmon 2000:132). While archaeologists have questioned the certainty on which markers are primary ones to be interpreted as mat erial evidence of specific ethnic identities, there is no strong evidence that the decoration on the pottery could be a definite fact for each

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247 cultural identity. T herefore, based on some ethnoarchaeological evidence discussed throughout this work the noti on that decoration is always equated with cultural identity is not solid as had been assumed in Korean archaeology. According to philosopher Galen Strawson, there are multiple perspectives on the nature of the self; Among those I have recently com e across are the cognitive self, the conceptual self, the contextualized self, the core self, the dialogic self, the ecological self, the embodied self, the emergent self, the empirical self, the existential self, the extended self, the fictional self, the full grown self, the interpersonal self, the material self, the narrative self, the philosophical self, the physical self, the private self, the representational self, the rock bottom essential self, the semiotic self, the social self, the transparent sel f, and the verbal self (Strawson 2000:39). A lthough it is certain that we could not approach to all the different self categories mentioned above it is arguably possible to simply regard material culture as one of many different possible perspectives in perhaps demonstrating the individual or groups identit y It may not be possible to know how much material perspective had played a n However, there are some selves that could be approach ed from ar chaeological materials and in classifying them into more diversified ways. S ummary and C onclusion Korean archaeology has not sufficiently explained variations of nondecorative characteristics of pottery. While it is obvious that potters are able to control both decorative and nondecorative characteristics of pottery, Korean archaeologists have not emphasized on both characteristics equally to argue any kind of cultural relations among archaeological groups or societies. Traditional investigation on p ottery shape and size would have provided some functional information of pottery cultures in Korea.

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248 However, th is ha s only been used as supporting data for variations of regional cultural groups divided by overall decorative characteristics on the pottery. Up until the 1990s, concerns of context and function of all other kinds of archaeological data from the archaeological sites had not been adequately used for chronological studies in Korea archaeology. Rather, many previous archaeologists regarded pottery styles as sensitive indicators of culture change and viewed the potsherds as keys to spatial temporal variation in culture. They ignored the fact that any single material culture could be shared with more than one ethnic group or multiple differen t material cultures could be shared by a single ethnic group. Old traditional Korean archaeology used to emphasize more archaeological meaning of the taxonomic type than the analytic type which might be more culturally related meanings on the identities o f Korean prehistoric pottery cultures This trend of constructing culture histories and chronologies as the primary goals in their works continued until the middle of the 20 th century. erning of social 1998:9), there is no reason to believe that technofunctional attributes on pottery are less important to compare with the ones in patterns of stylistic v ariability on pottery for examining patterns and modes of exchange. It is even believed to be better to refer to socioeconomic situations, which is one of the better indicat ors for social identity in prehistoric societies. Ideally, with both stylistic and functional perspectives, this approach could be one of the better methods in investigat ing human behaviors relat ive

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249 to the size of social groups, their dietary patterns, functions of their activity sites and eventually their possible ethnic connections to each other. It has been proven that social boundaries have complex nature and the variations on the material culture are historically situated phenomena (Stark 1998:8). While technofunctio n a l approach could have added some valuable data for the iss ue in archaeology it has been also proven the contextualized relation between style and social boundaries (Stark 1998:9). However, s ince technofunctionally divided assemblages could have been considered as common cultural differences, it is still left for debate whether which feature between decorations and technofunctional related attributes on pottery is more indicative of cultural identity in the archaeological assemblage.

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250 C HAPTER 9 DISCUSSION OF NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGY Based on the result of thi s study in C hapter 7 it is tentatively possible to suggest that the stylistic approach on the Korean pottery studies is unfailing in defining cultural variations of the Korean Neolithic period Still many issues are left to be answered and further similar studies from all other regional pottery groups are needed Nevertheless it is now more convinc ing that geographical variations of the Neolithic and Bronze potteries in Korea could have been defined as possible separate cultural identities of the people l iving in the period as based on the results of the comparison works from both stylistic and functional attributes of pottery It is an accepted fact that all kinds of human identities are affected by multiple influences because of the relational nature of human life and all aspects of individual and group identities are produced by through relations with other people and groups, and their landscapes (Gosden 1999) thus variable relationships between material culture and social boundaries have been discusse d in this context (e.g. Bowser 2000 ; Osborn 1989; Stark 1998; Stark et al. 2000). Therefore, connecting the results of this study to the issues related to the ethnic history of Korean ancestral lines in East Asian region is not a simple work due to so many facts that have to be considered In this chapter, while the Neolithic pottery study has played a major role in the discussion of the Korean ancestral history, possible issues of the subject in archaeology will be presented. Material Culture and Social Identity T h ere is no question that archaeology is the best method to infer the life ways of prehistoric culture H o wever, because of inherent difficulties that archaeologist s encounter with material remains from the past human societies various dis cussions to

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251 find methods and theories that are more reliable in all kinds of archaeolog ical interpretations on human prehistoric societies have been attempted; e specially after realizing the issues of a normative approach on archaeological records from the culture history school that did not hesitate to simply consider some features in archaeological materials as the cultural identities in regional histories (Shennan 1989). To make matters worse, the material culture of past societies that survive i n archaeological records is but a tiny fraction of what was actually produced by those societies. Preservation in most archaeological sites is limited to durable materials such as stone, metal and bone tools, pottery and other fired clays, some fauna and f lora remains, and some settlement remains. Many ethnographical studies have shown that the types of things that are most easily preserved are not the same things that cultures most often use to signal ideological beliefs and social organization (David and Kramer 2001; Deal 1998). In other words, some items like clothing and textiles, which are more visible in everyday life but not in the archaeological record, might have been more suited for representing the cultural identity of certain societies. While some argue that technological levels and economic behaviors of societies are easier to determine than the social structure and ideological beliefs, due to the nature of the items most often preserved, how one knows which behaviors among technolog ical, economic and ideological ones are more closely related with the cultural identities of prehistoric societies are still in question As introduced in C hapter 5, ethnoarchaeological studies have shown that while it depend s on each society, cultural ide ntity of each society has been determined by variously different facts Therefore, although it is obvious that material culture plays a series of bridging roles in human

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252 societies (Miller 1987:107), it is also very apparent that the archaeological material s give an incomplete picture of societies (Barrett 2001). It is necessary to keep in mind that material culture give only partial information regarding the identity of individuals or societies and that identity for material is only one of the part s of man y different kinds of identities ( Barrett 2001 ; Bowser 2000; H e gmon 2000; Neupert 2000; Stark et al 2000; Tilley 2004). Archaeological Identity and Nationality W hile it is mostly suppos ition that archaeological materials include symbolized affiliat ion and maintained boundaries and archaeological works have indicated that possible correlation between identity boundaries and material culture (Rice 1987:269), it is not always confirmed that the differences found on the material records would be aspect s of group identity (H e gmon 2000 :132 ). In other words, there is no strong reason that material evidence could help define social or individual identities, especially for ethnic identity, than language, custom, religion, and others In the Culture hi story school, cultural identities based on some features found on archaeological materials ha d usually been equalized as one of the historical stages for the world regional histories and the connection between the archaeological identity of material cultur e and political implication has grown dramatically from the early twentieth century (Jones 1997; Oyuela Caycedo 1994 ) S ince the concept culture developed by Kossinna and popularized by Childe itself contains certain dangers for the nationalist inspired archaeology that became obvious during the 1930s and 1940s (Kohl 1998:230), many archaeologists have discussed and warned that the study of archaeology is not independent of political ideologies and indeed political issues have

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253 been involved in archaeolo gical researches ( Durrans 1989 ; Jones 1997; Kohl 1998; Meskell 2002; Oyuela Caycedo 1994). Although i t is clear that concepts of ethnicity can have a considerable bearing upon the nature and scale of interactions between polities (Cherry and Renfr ew 1986:157) it is not necessarily directly connected to nationality at present. It is also necessary to mention that ethnicity has been differently approached by different countries in the world; for instance, for the Soviet scholars 1993; Shanin 1986; Slezkine 1994). R egardless that it may not be easy to trace the ethnic history of peoples in the Neolithic and Bronze perio ds because for many reasons mentioned above, archaeologists have tried to line up these periods to the older time frame to justify or While n ation ality is spatially more static than ethnicities in general, some national archaeologists in the past had assimilated ethnicity into their national histories to disguise it as nationality which seems to imply an overall smaller spatial connotation but at the same time to associate with the broader geogr aphical space in reality. Nationality thus has been shown in archaeology as tending to develop and change as the result of external historical and ecological factors rather than reflect some durable essential features (Gillespie 2002:15). In this situation, dividing cultural groups based on archaeological materials could be a matter of considerable controversy. Archaeologists have been arguing these issues for a long time. Before any serious discussion on ethnic identity was started, defining

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254 cultu ral identity of many archaeological works entirely depended on the object of archaeological excavation and the interpretation of individual archaeologist on excavated materials. Leone (1978) warned a long time ago that any attempt in conceptualizing the pa st would potentially express purposes of political boundaries. Therefore, according to some extreme form of postmodernism notion of the past, knowledge is shaped by power and cultural constrictions (Knapp 1996:135 ), and one is not able to know the past bec ause the truth of the past is a subjective creation from political ly biased truth which is strongly connected to power (Knapp 1996:151) N ational A rchaeology in East Asia As mentioned in C hapter 1, s ince archaeology was first introduced to the East Asian region, peoples from all three countries have tried to find their national history from the Neolithic period (Trigger 1989 :174 189 ). An d, one of major goals of archaeology of these countries in East Asia is to construct national identity and to deve lop national pride ( Fawcett 1995; Ikawa Smith 1999 ; Nelson 1993, 1995 b). Archaeologists in the region did not exert much effort on questions on why the changes had occurred but rather concentrated more on artifact typologies, especially for pottery in esta blishing their national culture history. Even now, the typical use of migration and diffusion concepts from the culture history school in East Asia has never lost popularity. In fact, these concepts are getting popular among the public whenever they are ap plied on any kind of cultural interpretations related to their national history. Much reliance on diffusion and migration to explain cultural variations and changes through time and space still exist in the region. In China, the first person who worked on the Yangshao culture was a W estern geological surveyor, and he claimed that this culture is from Turkey, based on some pottery stylistic patterns (Chang 1986). Chinese archaeologists

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255 had to wait several more decades to refute the hypothesis and reclaim own national history. History of Korean Archaeology and Japanese Colonial Archaeology Since the late 19 th of its ancient history had been consolidated by very strong nationalistic minds The two main concepts, diffusion and migration, were adapted by nationalistic archaeologists and used in extreme by politicians in Japan. T he beginning of modern archaeology in Korea started aggressively in 1910 after the Japanese annexation of Choson, w hich is the name of the previous dynasty of current North and South Koreas. The first official law for the protection of cultural property in Korea had been published by the Japanese colonialists in 1910 (later in 1916 and 1933 as well). The archaeological practices by imperial Japanese scholars, who largely focused on establishing the theory of homogeneity of the Japanese and Korean, and providing inferiority and cultural backwardness vigorously began not only throughout the Kore an peninsula but also in Manchuria, China (Pai 2000:55) During the occupation period of thirty six years, many important archaeological findings had been made and the major events of Korea n prehistory were outlined ( W. Y. Kim 1983b:3). Prior to th e late 1940s, all archaeological discussions on Korean prehistory were done by Japanese imperial archaeologists. And Northeast Asian ethnic classification schemes by the Japanese colonial racial framework during that time are still entrenched in the anthro pological and historical literatures that exist even today in Korea (Pai 1999 :356, 373 ). Since the first organized studies on the issue of the origin of the Korean people were started by Japanese scholars, the emergence of the Neolithic Chulmun pottery cul ture and the transition period from the Neolithic to the Bronze with

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256 the appearance of a Mumun pottery style w ere all explained under the invasion theory, which emphasizes continuous racial changes in the Korean peninsula (Pai 2000:39, 107 ). Before the 196 0s when there were not many archaeological findings in Korea, Japanese archaeologists had excavated older lithic, pottery and agricultural evidence in Japan and consequently a ll major Korean cultural roots, such as rice and pottery, including human beings, were interpreted to be diffused and migrated through the Japanese archipelago (Im 1992). T he development of a more sophisticated perspective in Korean archaeology began after the Korean Liberation in 1945 and following the end of the Korean War in 1953. Since the 1960s, archaeological findings in Korea have dramatically increased along with rapidly growing industrial development over the last half century. And archaeology has been playing the major role of construing a new national history as its ne ighbor countries, China and Japan, which had already started the process at the beginning of the 20 th century People in Korea believe that Japanese scholars were bent on showing that Korea was largely dominated by either Chinese or Japanese cultur al traditions. In fact, archaeological and historical interpretation on the cultural history of ancient Korea by Japanese scholars was used as one of political reasons to justify the colonization of Korea by Japan for 36 years (Pai 1999). It eventually dev eloped into a historical legitimacy to occupy Manchuria, in northeastern China. Korean scholars, who are educated after WWII, now insist that all of ancient history of Korea interpreted from Japanese historical viewpoints may have been distorted by imperia l historians in Japan. Therefore, for a long time, many Korean scholars have tried to overcome these

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257 distortions of the history of Korea While a few scholars, mainly from North Korea, emphasized internal evolutionary process of the Korean origin since the 1960s, it was only in the 1980s that some south Korean scholars also asserted the uniqueness of the Korean ethnic origin and new alternative hypotheses have been introduced with a more nationalistic perspective (J. H. Lee 20 10 :167 168). In the pas t decades, archaeological excavations from the Korean peninsula have produced many new archaeological materials, which have been used to argue that the old structure of the Korean prehistory by the Japanese scholars needs to be reinterpreted. Abundant arch aeological findings have enabled Korean archaeologists to identify Korean prehistory and made their own interpretation. Interestingly enough it is now the turn of some Korean scholars who have argued the connotation that major protohistoric cultural root of the archipelago is from the Korean peninsula to be vindicated ( see Im 1999; Y. H. Han 1997; W. Y. Kim 1986). All kinds of historical controversies between Japanese and Korean scholars have continued and the issues that resulted in academia have caused a nd created political tensions between the two countries. Currently, some have also argued that strong nationalistic views could have created another distortion on its prehistory and many have emphasized that more various methodological and theoretical fram eworks for archaeological works need to be applied in Korean archaeology (J. I. Kim 2012:212). Northeastern Project (Dongbei Gongcheng) Another newly created circumstance linking t he close relation between archaeology (and history) and politics has occurred in East Asian region As described in this work, it is apparent that Northeastern China, especially the extended Manchurian region was the cultural contact regions for Chinese, Siberian and Korean throughout the prehistoric

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258 periods, and even the J apanese scholars tried to connect their ancestral line from the region for its n ational archaeological purpose. T his cross cultural contact within the Manchurian region was fostered by non material and material exchanges through out the pre historic and hist oric periods, and all kinds of trading activities for goods and ideas happened without strong restricted political boundaries up to only a century ago. Because m any archaeologists have noticed strong connection of archaeological material cultur es between the Korean peninsula and Manchuria (Im 1999; Nelson 1995a, 2004) Manchuria has been involved in many archaeological arguments with Korea regarding the ethnic and cultural identity of the region. While it is indicated that early Neolithic cultur es from central China did not share much cultural similarity with the Chulmun culture in Korea (Im 1999), pottery styles from Manchuria and Korea share many similar attributes on potteries, such as motif and flat bottom. The presence of talc in the pottery clay from both areas is reported (Im 1999). Other common material records, such as, stone and bronze swords and daggers, stone murals, and dolmens, are also found ( Jo 2001, 2003; J. B. Kim 1975, 1987; D. H. Lee 2002; Nelson 1993 1995a ; K. W. Oh 2003 ) Some written history books from China also describe possible migration processes of peoples from Manchuria to inside the peninsula. The Korean public and many scholars believe that the people who migrated described in written history books should be considered as direct ancestral line of the current Korean people. Currently, this kind of archaeological issues in East Asia is sometimes connected with current political agendas among all three countries, although archaeologists do not want to be involved in the situation directly. However, it is clear that archaeological

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259 studies could have been transformed into potential threat for the countries. This poses a dilemma for archaeologists in the region. According to the reference from some school tex t books in Korea, the Korean Bronze period is now date d between 4 000 and 3 500 BP: it was between 3 500 and 3 000 BP. Tangun, who was a king of a county called Kochosun (=old Chosun or Tangun Chosun, or pronounced Kochoso n or Gojoseon), in the western si de of Manchuria and was just regarded as a mythological entity, is officially considered as the part of the Korean ethnic ancestor in South Korea, while North Korean archaeology has been dealing with Tangun as a reality in the history of Korea since the Ko rean liberation in 1945 (see J. H. Lee 20 10 :60, 172 196) Based on Chinese history books, the region of Manchuria was one of the active regions of the Kochosun which has been considered as the earliest ancient proto kingdom in Korea. According to some ancient history books from China and Korea, Koguryo (=Goguryo) was one of the predecessor kingdoms of the Kochosun and its political power covered Manchuria and the northern Korean peninsula until it s collapse brought on by the allied forces of the Ki ngdom of Silla in Korea and Tang China in AD 668. M ost Korean and Chinese scholars generally view the identity of the historic period kingdom Koguryo as one of the ancestor lines of modern Koreans and no one in modern day North and South Korean peoples que stions the cultural identity of the Koguryo society and sees it as a foreign heritage (Y. J. Pak 1999:613). The initial controversy over the historical ownership of Koguryo might have been initiated through the 1990s after establishing diplom atic relations between the two countries in 1992. S i nce many heritage sites of Koguryo are located in China, it was good news for Korean scholars who ha d very limited access to the Koguryo relics. As Y.

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260 J. Pak stated that while ways highlighted in most Chinese interpretation, whereas indigenous developments are emphasized by the Koreans ( 1999: 617) on the history of Koguryo, anything related to Koguryo, the less eager the Chinese are to l oosen up their tight control of information about Koguryo and the cultural relics of Koguryo inside their territory A s seen in this work, the history of Manchuria in China has a potential possibility of conflicted result of politics of identity in the region of East Asia G rowing contested views on the interpretations on the identity of Koguryo between Korea and China have increased And in 2002, the Chinese Academy of S o cial Sciences officially included the history of Koguryo as one of the ancient kingdoms of China. According to th e study from China s Northeast Asia Project, N orth Korean history could be part of the Chinese (Gries 2005:5, see also Seo 2008). As a result, one of the official movements in South Korea was an action that inc ludes the story o f Tangun and Kochosun as official history, not as mythology. Recently, another research report f rom the project was published indicating that the total length of the Great Wall of China has been significantly extended after adding the Kogu ryo s line of fortress es. As has been stated, Manchuria has been involved in sensitive archaeological and historical issues between China and Korea on the interpretation of the ethnic identities of the people who used to live in the region. Since t he more detailed arguments about th e se are beyond the purpose of this dissertation, arguments related to the specific topics are not discussed further, regardless that all these topics could be directly extended and connected to the topic of transition per iods from the Neolithic to the

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261 Bronze. All these movements are indications of rising nationalism in the region. Since disagreements on the cultural identity of prehistoric and historic societies will likely continue or even be expanded due to national ist a rchaeology in East Asian regions, political tensions among the politicians might be increased as well As stated in this work, while East Asian archaeology has been involve into the politics of identity this is that one of good example s of how archaeological works of the Neolithic period and Bronze periods in this region could potentially mislead and misuse The Future of National Archaeology in Korea As reviewed above, archaeological study is commonly connected to the process of constr ucting the history of national identity in the East Asia region. As S. R. Choi (2004:278) clearly describe d, one of the main goals of archaeological studies in Korea is to trace the culture history of Korean people in East Asia. Although archaeologists are the ones who can accomplish the goal of the prehistoric time period this often puts them at odds with the political realities of the present, in which archaeology is too often seen as a tool for documenting a continuity of group ethnicity of nationality that may never have existed (Gillespie 2002:15). S imilarly while archaeology can be advantageous position to use material evidence to provide more rigorous and incisive explanations for human behavior of the past and present ( Schiffer 1992:43), t his position sometimes places archaeologists in a dilemma especially for regions wherein nationalism in archaeology has strongly existed in the academia. While archaeology is strengthened and condemned at the same time by its method to generalize large scale spatial regularities as representative of long term historical trends, archaeologists have acknowledged that these regularities might be the remains of human behavior (Barrett 2001). As discussed in this chapter, one of the potential

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262 byproducts of this step will be the cross spatial and temporal surveys by archaeological works which may generate some levels of disputes among scholars with different nationalities and the results could eventually serve as political propaganda for the nationalist movement ( Mackerras 1995 :178). Hodder (198 2) therefore claims that since material culture is more than a simple reflection of ecological adaptation to the environment but is an active element in group relations that can both disguise and reflect social org anization and ideology focusing on a comprehensive internal study of the archaeological record and recognizing the ability for individuals to consciously shape their own culture in archaeology would be the necessary methodological and theoretical approach es in archaeology. I t is un deniable that nationalistic archaeology in Korea has played a very important role in the developments o f all aspects of the modern history of K o rea. However, it is now time to discuss the latent negative charact eristics o f it not only for the sake of future of Korean societies but also all countries in East Asia T he topic of origin of the Korean s is not popularly discussed among scholars who study the Neolithic archaeology b ecause of many arguments regarding possib le limitedness of archaeological approaches on identity studies. While growing attention has been paid to the social contexts and interactions whereby such different pottery stylistic groups were differently divided by Korean archaeologists, current Korean scholars have looked into some other f eature s, such as technological and environmental factors and food productions in the Korean peninsula. Yet there are others still using the results of the archaeological studies to stress the history of Korean nation al identity S ome radical organizations would not hesitat e to use or even distort

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263 any kinds of new stud ies to fuel its nationalism if there is any kind of political concerns between neighboring countries (J. I. Kim 2012:211). S i nce the Korean public belie ve that the history of Korea was a political casualty of the strong nationalism in the region of East Asia, archaeological references have effectively worked to ga rner national attention to it Although the public in Korea ha ve been paying a full attention toward disputed topics on archaeology and history and are constantly bombarded by a flood of nationalistic messages (Kwon and Kim 2011:93), a very limited number of people have been using the public archaeology program in Korea, as compared to that of the American system. According to Kwon and Kim (2011), a more balanced education emphasizing cultural relativism as much as ethnocentrism al together has been provided in Korea. In fact, it is necessary to have more public programs or lectures empha sizing cultural relativism rather than reporting their own heritages. One of the reasons why there are more ethnocentric styles of education in public archaeology in Korea might be the result of the treatment of archaeology and anthropology as tota lly separate discipli nes in Korean academia Thus cultural issues in archaeology are less discuss ed in public education. R egardless on whether Korean archaeology needs to consider, archaeology as anthropology, or not, enough arguments have to be provided o n the theoretical perspective of concepts related to identity in anthropological archaeology. It is expected to be more appreciation from the Korean public that the study of cultural identity in archaeological records would not be simple due to it s arbitrary condition and is a complicated process. Regardless of the fact that there would always

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264 be some institutions that would distort what archaeologists have worked on and misguid e the public as well as the public media s role to amplify nationalisti c views on archaeological works (J. I. Kim 2012:210 211), well balanced and more intensive public education ha s to be constantly undertaken by scholars in Korea. As to the situation in East Asia, there is a strong indicat ion of a new cold war among nations in the se regions. Aside from current pressing political issues, these regions are evidently grappling on issues related to historical ones. At present t he role of scholars, especially archaeologists and historians is more vital than any other time. Therefore, archaeologists have to provide more arguments on the theoretical perspective of some concepts related to identity in anthropological archaeology. As Arnold (1989:181) mentioned, they need to explain well how to justify that style that represent s ethnic or social identity. According to Arnold, it should be started with looking for the relationship of style (or artifacts) and society on the micro level with the population of the artifact producers (1989:181). M o re detailed approaches with more v arious theoretical arguments are needed to produce a more reliable understanding of the Korean prehistoric people s and their cultures. This process should be followed by special focus on social context and its relationship with an agent in practice as much as on the objective function, style or meaning of an artifact (Barrett 2001). According to Barrett (2001), archaeologists need to pay attention to different levels of analysis to approach the material context that includes both their physical attributes a nd the meanings they evoke. T his kind of holistic approach which includes detailed information will eventually advance the cultural identification of a group or society in Korean archaeology.

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265 Based on many newly emphasized studies and discussions o n reconstructing prehistoric ways of life, Korean archaeologist s have more information regarding the regional groups based on not only pottery stylistic patterns but also other components that can be archaeologically extracted Nevertheless although many efforts have been applied on the subjects, all new findings and results from research arguments are still based on the regional stud ies from a pottery typological approach. While anthropology and archaeology are infamously known as academic offshoot s of colonialist enterprises in an effort to divide the west and primitive societies in Europe (Gosden 1999), it is cautiously questioned that if one of the reasons for keeping to emphasiz e untested pottery stylistic approach, which is the methodological f oundation of the Korean Neolithic and Bronze period studies would be explained as the reason that the Japanese colonial archaeology inside Korean archaeology has not been discontinued yet. A ll epistemological foundation of Korean archaeological works such as early regional studies on the Neolithic and Bronze periods of Korea was structured during the colonial period by Japanese colonial archaeologists who heavily depended on relative pottery style dating ; and it had played a good scheme to help Korean archa eologists develop further archaeological questions for the cultural studies in the periods. Since a rchaeology played a major part of the discussion of the formation of Korean national identity ( as there were not much information from other related fields s uch as linguistics and physical anthropology ) the typological groups from the pottery studies ha d provided a useful structure of describing and defining Neolithic and Bronze pottery groups in Korean archaeology Archaeological studies after the Korean Lib eration in 1948 were practiced by Korean scholars whose academic background was

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266 strongly influenced by the Japanese professors. Consequently, early theoretical works on Korean studies had been strongly influenced by the perspective of the Imperial scholars of Japan. This stylistic approach has been intact and supported by strong relative dating approaches mostly based on seriation studies, although for the last decade, some Korean scholars have argued that its reliability should have been tested. Wh ile the conventional idea from the stylistic approach should have been tested by other archaeological approaches many important aspects of the technofunctional aspects of pottery reported by archaeologists have been informed Although the result of this paper shows that spatial and temporal variations are found through group comparisons of certain technofunctional aspects on pottery, and therefore the traditional regional grouping for the Neolithic pottery cultures are still valid, it is strongly ma intain ed that further tests with more sample data to verify if there were a chance that the models have been correct in its line of direction for the last more than a half century. The old fundamental premises that decorational stylistic variations in pott ery assemblages reflect cultural differences and therefore are the best resources to determine cultural identities in archaeology need to be further verified. With more sample data and extended works, technofunctional approach of pottery will be on e of the appropriate ways to test previously accepted models related with the spread of Neolithic pottery cultures in Korea. As some attributes of stylistic approaches reflect cultural identity of pottery societies in the Korean Neolithic period, technofun ctional attributes on pottery should indicat e some kind of visible variation as well. Thus, c urrent theories and hypotheses in archaeology in the region w ill be either

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267 solidified or rethought after further works. This might giv e an occasion to broad en meth odological and epistemological structures of Korean archaeological studies. Also t h e technofunctional approach could be utilized to expand other purposes. It is expected that further results will eventually aid on a better understanding on the correlation between stylistic and functional attributes on pottery. Meanwhile, according to Stark (1998), t here are several possible ways to improve understanding of the relationship between technological choices and social boundaries; m ore research on the natu re of social boundaries and on the relationship between technical choices and material culture patterning s ystematic long term ethnographic research for examin ing special scales of social boundaries in the presence of their material expressio n, further a d option of extant theoretical frameworks to help archaeological research es, and finally p articularistic approaches and unifying principles to understanding material patterning and social boundaries Summary and Conclusion The re has been discussion o n the relation between the development of archaeology and national history building process in East Asian countries. I t is known that connecting the national identity from the past to present is not a simple but complex process T his chapter review ed how a rchaeological data are frequently accentuated, elaborated and manipulated for nationalism I t has been well known that some social boundaries do not equate with modern ethnic boundaries thus defining and identifying social or cultural boundary in archaeol ogy will c onstantly be under debate among scholars. In addition, since it may not be possible to fully understand identity in prehistoric material culture, material remains from the past must be carefully investigated to infer on contemporary identity issu es.

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268 Since national archaeology with political implications is commonly occurr ing in East Asian countries, the end result is a prevalence of nationalistic interpretation on their respective past histories ; for instance, because m any archaeological w orks in Korea are practiced by institution s that are dependent on government support, rather than scholarly goals have frequently dictated the scope and subject matter of such studies (Pai 2000 :19) While th is dilemma and situation o f archaeology and archaeologists are fac ing will continue, it will be a matter of ethic s on the part of the individual archaeologist in dealing with archaeological interpretation One possible way to rise above the growing political tension with regard s to past historic matters among countries in East Asia will be dependent on the efforts of scholars in the region. They must hold regular academic meetings, ideally, involve more international scholars to further broaden and imbue objective viewpoints on subj ect matters. I t has been a trend of many Old World countries (for their own political purposes) of using the origin history of sedentism, agriculture and pottery to pursue and connect them to the major initial moment of budding cultural identity of modern national histories At the same time, there is no archaeologist who support s the idea that identifying cultural groups solely on the basis of archaeological evidence could be a conclusive process of constructing national identities. Therefore, inor dinate emphasis on the decorative markers on pottery in East Asian regions needs to be altered. I n the case of Korean archaeology, it is time to look back whether there is any issue or problem on the old traditional approaches in Korean archaeology and it has been a while since Korean archaeologists have reviewed it. And, because it is expect ed that there will be better ways to improve the reasons to believe in what is see n and thought about

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269 methodological and epistemological broadness should also be follo wed. Techn ofun c tional approach is therefore one of the methods that can be used to effectively test previous models and theories on the spatial connections among different decoration style s on pottery and to add more enlightening discussions on the relatio nship among different pottery cultures.

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270 CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSION One of t he main research goals of this study is to examine the nature of transitional periods from the Chulmun to the Mumun pottery periods in Korea by emphasizing technofunct ional attributes of pottery that ha ve not been sufficiently utilized in Korean archaeology. Several topics and issues that are related to the main topic of this work have been discussed in the previous chapters. While a bundant pottery data recovered from many different archaeological sites for the Neolithic and Bronze periods in Korea exist, only two archaeological sites with potter y assemblages dating from the middle Neolithic to early Bronze periods were selected for the sample data. As mentioned, conventional Korean archaeologists have depended heavily on stylistic patterns of pottery in deliberating on the topics related to the transitional periods. While some efforts to investigate changes of subsistence patterns from the period s have been practi ced recently, almost all debates related to the topics are fundamentally depended on the archaeological works which conventionally r elied on stylistic differences i n pottery. Because t his study explored the possibility of more extended use of techn ofunctionally related attributes on pottery, t his research has employed anthropological pottery methods combining stylistic and functional attributes of pottery. O ne of the main purpose s of this study was to test whether pottery variations based on decorat io ns and forms of pottery are the best source of data for inferring the culture identities of prehistoric societies. T hus, t his dissertation work had two main tasks. The first was to apply a technofunctional approach to the analysis of the pottery data fro m two Korean Neolithic sites to reevaluate their regional variations The second objective

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271 wa s to propose that there are many theoretical and methodological benefits to apply ing technofunctional aspects of pottery on Korean archaeology Two thing s have apparent ly been stressed throughout the previous chapters F irst, there are multiple aspects that have to be consider ed in determining the cultural identity of any prehistoric society Second, decoration on pottery could not be considered a flawless a nd accurate aspect in reflecting the cultural identity of any society. Decoration on pottery could be a most excellent attribute easily visualized but it would also be a most decisive characteristic A ll possibl e approach es must be considered to understand any cultural identity of prehistoric societies. Because this research has emphasized further possible utilization of the technofunctional attributes of pottery, the method ha s been used to test the hypothesis ; ded by their stylistic pa tterns might have been homologous The result of this work is expected to illustrate that the technofunctional attributes of pottery from the sample data vary significa ntly among regional groups and through time. While this work could give evidence for more precise relations between style and function on the material cultures, it also g i ve s an opportunity to reevaluate the epistemological bases for understanding the rela tionship between cultural identi ty and archaeological records. T his study arose out of the sense that certain cultural changes were caused by active, conscious human behaviors And this could not be explained adequately by traditional normative mig ration and diffusion theories from the culture history viewpoints T he results indicate that the two traditional typologically separated regional pottery groups also show enough regional variations to be considered as separated groups in

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272 the comparison ana lysis from the technofunctio na lly related attributes of pottery. I t is also observ ed that there is no strong indication of possible abrupt and radical changes on the stylistic and technofunctional attributes of the pottery between the Neolithic and Bronze data in the sam e site, although the change from the Neolithic to Bronze periods in Korean archaeology was popularly interpreted and described either as a result of the human migrations or cultural diffusions or a combination of both. Based on the result s o f the present research it is possible to say that the stylistic approach on the Korean pottery studies is valid. The result of this work could be one of the evidence to support the validity of the studies using the stylistic approach on the Korean Neolith ic and Bronze Age pottery cultures In addition, along with providing this kind of result, there could be an increase on the reliability for the material aspect in the question of identity boundaries. I n order to get broader and more accurate unders tanding of the relations among regional groups and the nature of the transitional period s from the Neolithic to Bronze periods larger bodies of representative data are necessar y And o ne obvious thing is that the technofunctional approach will be providin g new results that cannot be achieved by stylistic analyses alone Whether t he information derived from this study is useful to describe overall Korean Neolithic life ways that might show similar patterns of pottery attributes it would be more feasible to gather more results of similar studies from other regional pottery groups in the future. Archaeology as Anthropology in Korean A rchaeology? While archaeologists have traditionally focused on recovering, analyzing and interpreting the remains of t he past, archaeology has long ties to another social science discipline and that is history. According to Taylor (1948), who distinguished the

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273 difference among history, anthropology and archaeology, all historical disciplines establish problems gather d ata, order data, and then search for relationships among data. In American anthropology, Boas added one more step, searching for regularities Taylor (1948) also maintained that what archaeology had been doing is nothing more than a set of techniques and m ethods for collecting and organizing data but the archaeologist ha s the choice to search for relationships between data as in historical sciences or regularities and processes as in anthropology When Phillip Phillips (1955:246 247) famously stated anthropology or it is nothing obviously asserted that the archaeologists should have had similar theoretical arguments and questions as anthropologists Since then, archaeologists have argued that a describe archaeological records as a result of cultural and social aspects of life and therefore it should in corporate itself with other social science s in particular anthropology (Phillips 1955 ; Willey and Phillips 1958). Most curr ent New World archaeologists would agree that this step was necessary for their studies and more attention to the element of human behavior in archaeology has been emphasized since then. The concept of culture now link s archaeology to anthropology (Flanner y 1982; Phillips 1955). As Taylor critiqued some issues in American archaeology in 1948, it would be possible to apply some of his criticisms to conventional Korean arc haeology; the works being done are concerned mainly with the creation of cultu re histor ies and does not get to the full potential th at archaeological record can provide. Taylor criticized culture historians of the early 20 th century for focus ing too much on collecting data to

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274 reconstruct culture histories. As introduced in C hapter 5 since c ulture h istory was a humanistic approach to the study of the archaeological record ( that was mainly interested in determining who lived where and when ) i t described cultures in terms of the artifacts produced and believed that culture change was ma i nly based on diffusion and migration. T h erefore typologies and chronologies for temporal and spatial variations were strongly emphasized in making compar isons However, the way of describing technologies in detail and focusing on the construction of pre historic cultures lost its popularity among anthropological archaeologists after the strong statement by Phillips in 1955 and s ince then they have been guarded in interpret ing similarities found on the archaeological records as ethnic connections. While th ey have shown less interest i n technological and chronological studies on material cultures, archaeologists has given increased attention to more holistic approach es and a theoretical framework for explanation s (Stark 1998:3 4). T hroughout the hist ory of Korean archaeology, many approaches have been used in an attempt to better understand prehistoric culture s T he c ulture h istoric approach was employed during the formative years of Korean archaeology and a great deal of material culture was describe d using this method of study. A t the same time, when Korean archaeology were still in a certain way dominated by the c ulture h istory approach, there have been many newly introduced methods and theories in world archaeology and many of them have been applie d by Korean archaeologists. Although much of the research done using a culture history approach was systematic and useful to understanding prehistoric material culture, none of it employed the scientific method that can be tested by subsequent studies (J. S. Kim 2003 a :6). E ven so Korean

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275 archaeology has been applying newly introduced methods and theories for its studies, rather than doing simple description of the archaeological record and ordering of past events in time and space. However, one of the actua lities that ha ve not changed much is that the main models and theories suggested by the c ulture h istory school have not been scientifically tested and challenged or supported and yet i t is still being used to define the sequences and spatial distribution of past events as a foundation for most studies in Korean archaeology today. need to gather all kinds of archaeological remains as much as possible from archaeological sites to infer culture change and prehistoric human behavior through internal aspects of archaeological sites. According to him, it is necessary for archaeologists to pay an equal amount of attention to all artifacts and how they are interrelated. He furt her stated that within each artifact the spatial distribution, formal properties and evidence of how it was created and used should be considered in analysis. The material must then be combined to learn as much as possible about the site s inhabitants. The need for a more holistic interpretation of archaeological data, along with the drawing together of all aspects of investigation, have been continuously emphasized and recently taken more seriously by Korean archaeologists. As mentioned in C hapter 5, W estern archaeology has been focusing on the causality of culture change along with emphasizing the overall reconstruction of the life ways of prehistoric societies applying social theories from its neighboring fields for archaeological studies to make a stronger bond between archaeology and anthropology. While Hodder (1982) claims that if any interpretation is to be made about

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276 prehistoric social organization or ideology, the archaeological record must be examined in total, not in a piecemeal fashion th at has previously been acceptable in p rocessual studies M any concepts in archaeological theory are being applied in getting insights on social organization and belief systems. Based on this perspective and pro cess, W estern archaeologists have tried to imp rove their arguments along with adding and testing new archaeological methods and theories in their studies. In general, m ost of the newly introduced methodological approaches in archaeology have been initiated and practiced relatively quickly on the Korean archaeological issues including the applied natural and hard sciences However, movement ha s been very slow in us ing anthropological archaeology theories to interpret archaeological records. There are several things to be considered as the reaso ns for that. First of all, although archaeology is often included with anthropology or history in the same department worldwide archaeology history and anthropology are different fields in Korean academia. T raditionally however, archaeology was not a se parate field from history because the Korean Bronze Age period is overlapped with the historical period. And many Korean archaeologists contended more efforts should be made to make archaeology an independent department And i t was not a long time ago that archaeology is regarded as a completely different academic discipline from the department of history (S. R. Choi 1998, 2004) A rchaeology and anthropology are more clearly divided in different academic disciplines Korean archaeologists are less l ikely to be exposed to anthropological studies an d thus less likely to use in their research. Due to the long dependen ce on the culture history approach in Korean archaeology, putting more effort to broaden its

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277 academic topics was not an urgent matter for Korean archaeologists for a long time. And i n reality it is not even easy for a very limited number of archaeologist s in Korea to do the traditional culture history school s task as archaeological data has been increasingly mounting over the last several decades. Currently, some Korean archaeologists have argu ed the need to apply ideological arguments (e.g. Shin 2004) which is popularly discussed in W estern archaeological theories on Korean archaeology T here is also some arg ument on the necessity to cau tiously apply western archaeological theories into Korean archaeological studies C. H. Kim (2006:98) insisted that adapting W estern anthropological theories to study religious belief in Korean archaeology is not proper due to the different backgro und of cultural developments in history between Korea and the W estern world According to Kim, Korean archaeologists need to construct and make their own theories based on their own archaeological evidence. Although it would be hard to argue against his cl aim the development of Korean specific theory has not been forthcoming comment clearly implies the situation of Korean archaeologists pressing need to do further discussion regarding the future direction of their archaeological works. As he said, if they could propose a new theory, it will be a great contribution of Korean archaeology on the study of anthropological archaeology H owever it is not inevitable for them to make their own theory oriented works without doing the procedure of reviewing an d assess ing other theories. While archaeolog ical questions have broaden ed in W estern archaeology and m ultidisciplinary approaches are more popular, one of the main reasons in the application of theories from other fields is to produce more reliable explana tions on culture s in the history of human societies

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278 It is obvious that W estern archaeology should not or would not be a template for the future of Korean archaeology and Korean archaeologists do not need to be one of proponents for archaeology as anthropology (see S. R. Choi 2004). In the last 60 years, Korean archaeology has produced an extensively published, intensively examined archaeological record. In the meantime, most theoretical concepts and arguments from W estern archaeology have been int roduced and applied in the Korean archaeologist s works. But it is not possible for Korean archaeologists to discuss all intensely like what the W estern archaeologists have done because the number s of archaeologists in Korea are limited. While Hodd er suggests (Hodder 1991:4) it has been argued that real archaeological concerns should be with the meanings behind the material culture (Meskell 1999) If Korean archaeologists would agree with the statement above, it might be at least a necessary step to ask what the future statement of purpose in Korean archaeology may be Then, it will be easy to focus on what should be do ne in archaeological studies without any concern s as to their place in Korean academia. According to S. R. Choi (2004:274, 278), who also argued that Korean archaeology should have had more fundamental discussions on some topics, such as the purpose and identity of Korean archaeology, and its method and theory there are thre e things that have been considered as main research purposes in Korean archaeology : (1) reconstruct ing past culture from material records as the general purpose of archaeology ; (2) study ing the origin of Korean culture ; and (3) study ing the territory of K orea and the relationship with the foreign culture ( Choi 2004:305). Choi (2004:305) said further that, Korean archaeology did not get out of the

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279 traditional archaeology I nherently, the area that ha s not been discussed enough is epistemological work in archaeology. As mentioned in C hapter 5, some fundamental concepts should be discussed more to approach cultural identity of material culture, and not go the same way as the old culture history school that heavily emphasized reconstructing prehistoric so cieties and tracing the origin of their ancestral history. Korean archaeolog ists ha ve been trying to develop methods for studying changes in material cultures as other s have been doing worldwide A rchaeologists in Korea meanwhile realized the l imitedness of their theories, which emphasizing migration and diffusion along with some ecological processes Less blame can be leveled t hat they focus too much on reconstructing the prehistoric cultures in Korea since it is one of the main goals in archa eology. However, it is clear that while they have tried to apply newly introduced methods from W estern archaeology to improve their approach, there is a limit that they could reach in terms of archaeological e xplanation. The example from W estern archaeolog y has been explained already throughout this study. Regardless of wh at Korean archaeologists want or not, it is time that they have more discourses regarding epistemological works and theoretical discussions on anthropological archaeology I f they want to improve their arguments more theoretical discussion s on identity in archaeology are essential in Korean archaeolog y. While it is not long ago that diffusion theory was solely used as one of the archaeological theory to describe and explain all kind s of cultural activities from archaeological records (S. R. Choi 1998:235), currently various archaeological methods and theories have been introduced into Korean archaeology. S. R. Choi (2004:292) said that it may not be a good idea to apply post processu al approach on Korean

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280 archaeology at the moment because Korean archaeology is still too nave to wholly digest its approach. B ut he also stated that a traditional approach in Korean archaeology could be improved step by step along with effort s of Korean ar chaeologists to find s ome selected useful method and theory that they can apply for their research topics. It has been shown that w ithout additional discussions on major anthropological archaeological concepts such as culture and other related subjects int roduced or discussed in this dissertation work, it is very difficult to make a strong argument on many archaeological issues and topics in Korea archaeology. Besides, because it cannot be explained well, developing theories would not be an easy task as wel l. Identity, Nationalism and Ethic As discussed in C hapter 9, w hile all identity related studies seem to be related to the subjective perspectives of scholars and their own particular research contexts, identity including national ity and ethnicity i s just as political in that it has been used purposely to link modern people, material culture, and historical remains in a direct historical political agenda (Kohl 1998; Meskell 2002). While many archaeologists applying agency/practice theories currently agree that materiality is just one of the social systems (Barrett 2001) and the material culture at an archaeological site is not static (Meskell 2002), multiple meanings and conclusions can be made from the material culture through the researcher s o wn le ns (Meskell 2002). A rchaeological work therefore may be manipulated for nationalistic intentions regardless of the fact that ethnicity, which is grounded and shaped by agents and their practices, is difficult to be constructed in archaeology because of its situational and relational characteristics Thus, archaeological works affecting the construct ion processes of historical lineages and land claims could be a question of ethics (Jones 1996; Kohl 1998; Meskell 2002).

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281 Therefore, since there is alway s a chance that archaeological works could have been used to mislead the public for political purposes, regardless of the original intensions of archaeologists, t here is now a growing phenomenon throughout East Asia wherein the individual countr ies in the region has trie d to emphasize national heritage or history for their internal or external political purposes. T he way that the past ha s been interpreted has directly affect ed not only the academic, but also the political and economic aspects of current cou ntries in East Asia, as proven by increased disputes and tensions based on controversial historical issues among neighboring countries. Indeed, this could be a potential ly serious threat in the region (see Gries 2005; Gries 2009 et al.; Seo 2008). T here are many possible factors that archaeologists need to consider in tracing identity in material records; for instance how to define and trace multi origins of the traditions in the same cultural group or single origin of the tradition that possibly evo lved from different cultural groups I t might be necessary to have at least some shared common methods and theories that can be discussed among archaeologists around the world for their studies. And, while at least some collective ethic from the discipline exist among them, any archaeological topics for cross regional researches could be discussed together among the regionally related archaeologists at the regular bas i s which could encourage more archaeologists from other regions to participate in the discu ssion. Although it may be obvious that the outcome will be always be under debate among them, this process should be continued until more archaeological data are accumulated from different spatial and temporal groups which will eventually be used t o give clear

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282 ideas on any issues. Although there will never be any perfect solution because archaeologists cannot seem to free themselves from their unconscious biases of their own background ( Kohl 1998; Meskell 2002 ), and even if archaeology in the region can not be separated with the national archaeology, archaeologists in the region need to try to find a way to loosen the tension and avoid further political coercion in the East Asian region. Significan ce, Limitations and Recommendations In the las t decade, there are tremendous amounts of newly reported archaeological data from South Korea, and many studies emphasizing paleoclimates and substance patterns have been introduced It has been known that t he best way to approach any archaeological issues related to a genealogy of past material practices is a synthetic approach and environmental factor is one of core fabric s affecting changes in material records. Since more observations from paleoecological data will be essential to make connections with s ettlements and overall subsistence patterns, or ecological background of the sites, further attention on the pale oenvironmental data in archaeology is necessary for a more detailed documentation of local environmental changes that can be directly linked in time and space to human responses. One of the benefits in applying anthropological archaeological theories is that the scale of archaeological investigation can be broadened many current archaeologists agree that broad viewpoint s including both m icro and macro perspective s on temporal and spatial levels should be considered in all archaeological researches; historical perspective through time is necessary to study the human condition and history in archaeology because people s relationships to the material world could have been different in different spatial location as well as in different temporal frame (McGlade

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283 1999, see also Bailey 1983:180 181). T h is is essential to infer any changes and causalities from material records H owever, without soci al theories, this process in archaeology cannot be completed. At the same time more emphas is on individuals and micro scale processes in archaeology have required the necessary use of anthropological approaches to properly analyze the material record in a rchaeology at present (Barrett 2001; Gosden 1999; Meskell 2002). Although some Korean archaeologists have already tried to use household materials from archaeologi cal sites for a micro level research, rather than conventionally concerning themselves only on the macro level for regional and temporal comparisons, more attempts with this micro level approach should be practiced as much as for the macro level studies wi th strong supporting anthropological theories (see B. C. Kim 2006 ). T his effort in trying to increase understanding of the household, which is the basic social and economic organizational unit in human societies, needs to be continued and expanded in Korea n archaeology (Deal and Hagstrum 1994; Hirth 1993; Hodder 1985 ; Sanders 1993). Sinc e as mentioned in C hapter 5, there is a lack of human mind and will can have on cul ture change it is now time to start hypothesizing the function of individual agency and the nature of identity and ideology all together in Korean archaeological records. As Rye said, there is the need to assume that prehistoric potters were problem solv ers as well as artists (Rye 1976:135). This perspective therefore needs to be discuss ed further as much as other external factors such as environments in Korean archaeology. Essentially all this processes could make

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284 Korean archaeologists eventually pursu e some other anthropological issues such as kinship and gender in the household and community, if they wish ( see Crown 1999; David and Hennig 1972; DeBoer 2001; Sassaman and Rudolphi 2001). Because there should have been more theoretical foundation s to explain and support their findings from these approaches, it is repeated here again that t here is an imperative need to recognize the important interrelationships between archaeology and anthropology in order to extend possible approaches and to maxim ize potential achievements in Korean archaeology. While anthropological archaeology studies have investigated many aspects of prehistoric life ways such as trade, gender, ethnicity, migration, function, technology, and chronology through pottery analyses, it should be reiterated that Korean archaeology needs to have some theories for approaching broader archaeological questions on the pottery studies in Korea. While most of the site reports in Korean archaeology normally include many valuable macros copic and metric information of found artifacts, i t is strongly believed that even those are ready to be used for attribute information of pottery and could be further utilized to provide some reliable archaeological meanings of material cultures in Korean archaeology. I n addition, f urther detailed studies of technofunctional aspects, regarding the relations among each attribute and possible connections to functional contributes, on pottery could provide complementary indications that can help in infer ring the overall subsistence patterns of the prehistoric societies T his study focused only on general comparisons between site and site or among inter regional to inter regional for broader comparisons. However, more detailed studies for the relations between or among attributes such as between potteries with firing marks and their

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285 metric data, between group s divided by height into two or three separated ones as small, medium and tall, and their decoration patterns, and between decoration s and forms or any othe r results by macroscopic data, may be able to produce more results to explain the relations among regional and inter regional pottery groups through time and more questions regarding human behaviors that can also be approached from the sample data These k inds of possible researches could be done with technofunctional studies in the Korean archaeology in the future It should be admitted that some research findings on this dissertation work could have been limited by a number of difficult ies i n particular a lack of proper statistical controls due to small sample sizes. M ore data from other regional groups in Korea would have produced further detailed arguments on the issues discussed in this work. Further effort in the future eventually could h elp archaeologists to determine if it was caused by local innovation, migration or diffusion processes ( after producing more results of various analytical comparisons to compare these to other materiality in archaeology for more comprehensive evaluation ); f or instance, all analyzed results from the technofunctional attributes can be intensively used to compare with all previous studies based on stylistic approaches. In that case, the meaning of regional and chronological changes and patterns on pottery deco rations can provid e more clues for various interpretation s that can be tested reevaluated and improved by upcoming scholars. As a result, Korean archaeology could be methodologically and theoretically benefited by broadening a range of strategies that Kor ean archaeologists use to strengthen knowledge claims.

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286 Therefore, while Korean archaeology needs to be making an effort to muscle more useful information out of existing measures and to exercise more creative problem solving ability from pottery s tudies (Rice 1996:188), further utilization of the technofunctional data on pottery would be one of the efforts. Accumulation of more technofunctional studies using a cross regional and temporal approach by both quantitative and qualitative methods to pro duce a variety of hypothesis and eventually to test them could help to explain the reason for the variability and eventually shed new light on the study of Korean prehistoric pottery There is no doubt that p ottery study has played in a major role i n Korean archaeology although its potential capability has not yet been exploited enough. The chronological system based on the stylistic inspection could not be disregarded in the study of pottery in archaeology because it has helped to demonstrate cultur e connections between sites and to establish an outline of relative change and stability of cultural patterns within and between sites. Korean pottery studies applying the technofunctional approach as an incorporating method for the stylistic approach coul d aid archaeologists in making better comparative studies and eventually provide more visible social boundaries among prehistoric pottery societies in Korea. Along with all newly introduced studies emphasizing paleoenvironmental and subsistence pat terns, the pottery study combining both stylistic and technofunctional approaches will be more promising in produc ing more reliable explanations. A long with combining and extending micro and macro levels of scales for spatial and temporal perspectives, the oretical and methodological arguments on pottery studies in Korean archaeology also could be broadened. Therefore, one of the goals for Korean

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287 archaeology that has been discussed, standing as one independent discipline in Korean academia should be reconfi rmed by this kind of efforts. Eventually all these efforts will make it easy to have a more reliable culture history of Korean prehistoric periods which can be a big contribution in archaeology The studies for the Chulmun and Mumun pottery based o n the stylistic approach have been ruled as the center for all kinds of related issue in the Korean Neolithic and Bronze periodic studies. However, so many issues are still under debate and accordingly it is hard to produce stronger theories and models tha t would have to be challenged and modified later T h is process could have been carried out by an attempt to test or verify the validity of a typological dividing method for the regional Korea Neolithic culture s. Again, the technofunctional approach will be a good tool to try the process to produc e a more scientific approach and testable arguments that could be shared with all archaeologists in the world. It is obvious that t here are always possible failures in subjective judgment in the process of a technofunctional analysis as much as shown in a stylistic approach ; for instance, a sherd or partially reconstructed pot cannot indicate precisely whether there is a decoration or not, or if there is no evidence of sooting or other firing marks for cookin g As Braun ( 1980:177) argued that generally since bigger and larger potteries could be broken easily they w ould produce more numbers of rim sherds and this therefore would make the potteries overrepresented in a sample data. However, th ese kind s of issue s have always existed not only in technofunctional studies but also in stylistic studies as well ( see Orton 1993:208 9) N evertheless it is an undeniable fact

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288 that m any potential distortions in the pottery studies would always exist regardless of enormous efforts by archaeologists Although t his study has not done enough on inferring functional perspectives on pottery from the sample data t his work provides a regional overview of stylistic variability and technofunctional aspects of pottery for arc haeologists to help in defining archaeological units and eventually to solidify the structure of archaeological knowledge Therefore, the result from this study could be used as a regional research data on the relations between style and function on potter y as well as expanding discourses regarding cultural identity, ethnicity and nationality. Since there is a language barrier between sc holars in Korea and other countries in the world, it is wished that t his work also provides foreign scholars a g ood opportunity to review Korean archaeological work s. Therefore, t he results introduced in this work could be shared as one of the regional examples for similar studies W ith the limited number of researchers Korean archaeologists have constantly done gr eat work to advance Korean archaeology. This ongoing effort by Korean archaeologists would provide them a better opportunity to be the part of world archaeology. As introduced in C hapter 9, Korean archaeology should have had more feedback process in archae ology from other parts of the world to create and share common academic purposes in archaeology. To sum up, i t has been discussed through out this work that while the main focus archaeologists have to work with is material culture, it is difficult to determine the cultural identity of a society without knowledge of other aspects including languages and material culture of people and without the ability to observe the people in action, because identity itself is fluid and can be changed or multipl ied d epending upon the

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289 situation due to its non static nature And since it has been shown in many works that both tangible and intangible elements, style and function, on material records need to be considered for the archaeological studies on identity, it rec ommended that anthropological archaeolo gy theories related to the subject need to be further discussed in Korean archaeology and that process could be resulted on the benefits for both Korean and world archaeology. It should be emphasize d that caution must be exercised in studying the concept of identity especially in East Asian archaeology where in strong political implication s of the concept have raised controversy in the archaeological studi es. The pottery stylistic approach has helped the struc ture of the Korean Neolithic study and it is certain that it will do so in the future as well. T echnofunctional data on pottery could be one of viable records in the Korean archaeology to broaden and strengthen their archaeological studies I t is expected that a pottery study with a technofunctional approach will also shed light to many aspects of pottery studies in the Korean Neolithic researches, while t he risk for a possible distorted picture of past culture, which must be translated by archaeologists, f rom this approach would not be greater or lesser than th at of the stylistic approach.

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350 BIOGRAPHICAL S KETCH Jaehoon Lee was born in S. Korea where he raised and received a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature & Language from Kangnung National University in 1996. Cultural studies encouraged his burgeoning interest in anthropology. Enrolling at the Departm ent of Anthropology, Florida State University, he initially focused on cultural anthropology and museum studies. This interest was transformed and developed to bioarchaeology after he began to take classes from Dr. Doran at the department. In addition to h is Masters in Anthropology, he achieved a Museum Studies Certificate while at Florida State. In 2002, he entered the University of Florida for his doctoral degree in anthropology. While studying under the supervision of Kenneth Sassaman and Steven Brandt, he focused on archaeology and developed interest in the studies concerning the relationship between identity and material culture. For his doctoral tery from the late Neolithic and the early B ronze periods: Material culture in the formation of ethnic identity in Korea and received his Ph.D. from the University of Florida in the Fall of 2013. His broad regional interest lies in East Asia.