Exploring the Hallmarks of a Successful Volunteer Preservation Organization

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Exploring the Hallmarks of a Successful Volunteer Preservation Organization The Villagers, Incorporated
Perkins, Kelly K
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
University of Florida
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1 online resource (147 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Master's ( M.H.P.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Historic Preservation
Committee Chair:
Hylton, Morris
Committee Co-Chair:
Prugh, Peter E
Graduation Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Advocacy ( jstor )
Community associations ( jstor )
Cultural preservation ( jstor )
Funding ( jstor )
Fundraising ( jstor )
Historic preservation ( jstor )
Landmarks ( jstor )
Nonprofit organizations ( jstor )
United States history ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Historic Preservation -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
hallmarks -- historic -- miami -- nonprofit -- preservation -- successful -- villagers -- volunteer
City of Miami ( local )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Historic Preservation thesis, M.H.P.


Tracing its beginnings to the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966, the formal historic preservation movement in the United States is approaching fifty years old. With this significant milestone, there is increasing interest in documenting the organizations and activities that matured the movement, such as the Historic Districts Council’s“Looking Forward, Looking Back” conference. Held in 2011, the conference reflects on the history and changes within the preservation community in the last forty years. Many historic preservation advocacy groups were founded as grassroots movements against a specific landmark’s imminent demolition. The Villagers, Incorporated is one such example. Established in 1966, this group of Coral Gables residents mobilized around saving the Douglas Entrance, a neighborhood landmark, from being torn down to create a parking lot for a new supermarket. As the years have passed, The Villagers, now a group of women interested in historic preservation in the greater Miami area, have worked to save and document many historic and culturally significant buildings in the region. In 2016, The Villagers will turn fifty years old. The organization’s methods and practices have changed over the years, often a reflection of the evolution of the historic preservation movement. With little attention and scholarly writing inspecting the history, changes, and impact of these preservation-minded organizations, this thesis study documents the history of The Villagers, including a compilation of the projects and works they have completed over the years. Using the framework set forth by the Standards for Excellence Institute, this thesis study uses a content analysis of archival documents, a survey of current members, and case study analysis to identify the pertinent hallmarks of the organization. The survey results demonstrate that members believe there are explicit and implicit hallmarks that contribute to the organization’s longevity. Recommendations were presented on how this knowledge could be disseminated to other organizations and utilized by The Villagers. The outcomes of this thesis study explore the question: What are the hallmarks of The Villagers that led to the organization’s lasting success through its fifty-year history? ( en )
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
Includes bibliographical references.
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Thesis (M.H.P.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Adviser: Hylton, Morris.
Co-adviser: Prugh, Peter E.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kelly K Perkins.

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2 2013 Kelly Perkins


3 To my family


4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are many people I would like to thank for their knowledge, generosity, and assistance. First and foremost, I acknowledge Assistant Professor Morris Hylton III, who has guided me through this long and difficult process. Without his leadership, understanding demeanor and wealth of information, I would not have been able to complete this challenging and demanding project I am also very grateful to Professor Emeritus Peter Prugh. Although retired, he took his t ime to review and co chair my thesis In addition, I would like to thank Dr. Margaret Portillo all of my colleagues in the Historic Preservation Department, as well as my friends in the College of Design, Construction, and Planning who have helped answer all of my questions I also want to express my deepest gr a titude to Louise Petrine and The Villagers member I encountered. Louise housed me, fed me, entertained me, and supported my days of research ing contacted key Villagers for me to meet The time that she dedicated to me was very much appreciated. As well, e very Villager s member I encountered was so kind, open, and readily available to be subjected to my interrogation. I will never be able to list all The Villagers members that I was introduced to, but I would like to thank Dolly MacIntyre, Barbara Guilford, Cookie Thelan Gayle Duncan, and Joan Bounds. Lastly, I have to thank my parents and family. Without their love and support my thesis would have never been written.


5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 The Modern Preservation Movement ................................ ................................ ...... 12 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 1 7 2 FROM ENTRANCES TO LIGHTHOUSES: A HIST ORY OF THE VILLAGERS, INCORPORATED ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 19 The Villagers, Inc. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 19 Advocacy and Planning ................................ ................................ .......................... 21 Douglas Entrance ................................ ................................ ............................. 21 The Biltmore ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 24 Documentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 25 Formation of Dade Heritage Trust ................................ ................................ .... 26 ................................ ................................ ........................... 28 The Alamo ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 29 Bulmer Apartments ................................ ................................ ........................... 31 Other Documentation Projects ................................ ................................ ......... 32 Restoration ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 33 Vizcaya ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 34 Merrick Manor ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 35 Biltmore Fountain ................................ ................................ ............................. 36 Kampong ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 37 ................................ ........ 37 Other Restoration Projects ................................ ................................ ............... 39 Maintenance ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 41 Biltmore Fountain ................................ ................................ ............................. 42 Other Maintenance Projects ................................ ................................ ............. 42 Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 44 Member Education ................................ ................................ ........................... 45 Educational Events ................................ ................................ ........................... 47 Schol arships ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 47 Interpretation ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 48 Fundraising and Volunteering ................................ ................................ ................. 49


6 Books ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 50 E vents ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 50 Summary of History ................................ ................................ ................................ 50 3 LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHODOLOGY ................................ ..................... 53 Recording Preservat ................................ ................................ ............ 53 Preservation History of Miami ................................ ................................ ................. 59 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 62 Survey Development ................................ ................................ ............................... 71 Goal of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 73 4 OUTCOMES OF SURVEY ................................ ................................ ..................... 75 Survey of Current Membership ................................ ................................ ............... 75 Responses ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 75 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 76 Membership ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 77 Contributing Hall marks ................................ ................................ ............................ 79 Mission Focus ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 79 Preservation Projects ................................ ................................ ....................... 80 Dedication of Members ................................ ................................ ..................... 81 Fundraising ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 82 Organizational Structure ................................ ................................ ................... 82 Social Unity ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 83 Other Outcomes ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 84 Challenges ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 84 Membership Ch anges ................................ ................................ ...................... 85 Meetings ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 86 Openness to the Community ................................ ................................ ............ 86 Transitional Meeting Places ................................ ................................ ............. 87 Focus on Educating Members ................................ ................................ .......... 88 Advocacy ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 88 Disclosed Conflict of Interest ................................ ................................ ............ 89 Sound Financial and Leg al Practices ................................ ............................... 90 Review of Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 90 5 OBSERVATIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 99 Summary of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 99 Reflections from Survey ................................ ................................ ........................ 100 Other Impactful Hallmarks ................................ ................................ .............. 100 Challenges and Opportunities ................................ ................................ ........ 102 Possible Next Steps ................................ ................................ .............................. 105 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ 106 APPENDIX


7 A VILLAGERS PROJECTS LIST ................................ ................................ ............. 110 B VILLAGERS SURVEY ................................ ................................ .......................... 128 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 140 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 147


8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Top six contributing hallmarks according to Villagers members ......................... 92 4 2 How Villagers members ranked the hallmarks in terms of their contribution to n=35 ) ................................ ................................ ...... 98 A 1 Com ............................. 111


9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Hallmarks considered by current membership to have changed the most over the years (n=15) ................................ ................................ ................................ 93 4 2 Highest level of education completed by survey participants (n=40) .................. 94 4 3 ................................ .......................... 95 4 4 The years survey participants have spent as members of The Villagers (n=40) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 96 4 5 Hallmarks considered b y current Villagers to have remained the most consistent over the years (n=32) ................................ ................................ ........ 97


10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Historic Preservation EXPLORING THE HALLMARKS OF A SUCCESSFUL VOLUNTEER PRESERVATION ORGANIZATION: THE VILLAGERS, INCORPORATED By Kelly Perkins May 2013 Chair: Morris Hylton III Cochair: Peter Prugh Major: Historic Preservation Tracing its beginnings to the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966, the formal historic preservation movement in the Uni ted States is approaching fifty years old Wit h this significant milestone, there is increasing interest in documenting the organizations and activities that matured the movement, such as the Historic conference reflects on the history and changes within the preservation community in the last forty years. Many historic preservation advocacy groups were founded as Villagers, Incorporated is one suc h example. Established in 1966, this group of Coral Gables residents mobilized around saving the Douglas Entrance, a neighborhood landmark, from being torn down to create a parking lot for a new supermarket. As the years have passed, The Villagers, now a g roup of women interested in historic preservation in the greater Miami area, have worked to save and document many historic and culturally significant buildings in the region. In 2016 The Villagers will turn fifty years old


11 practices have changed over the years, often a reflection of the evolution of the historic preservation movement. With little attention and scholarly writing inspecting the history, changes, and impact of these preservation minded organizations, this thes is study documents the history of The Villagers, including a compilation of the projects and works they have completed over the years. Using the framework set forth by the Standards for Excellence Institute, this thesis study uses a content analysis of arc hival documents, a survey of current members, and case study analysis to identify the pertinent hallmarks of the organization. The survey results demonstrate that members believe there are explicit and implicit hallmarks that contribute to the organization Recommendations were presented on how this knowledge could be disseminated to other organizations and utilized by The Villagers. The outcomes of this thesis study explore the question: What are the hallmarks of The Villagers that led to the o year history?


12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Modern Preservation Movement anniversaries are good for three things: selling dressed the audience attending a luncheon focused on t he forty fifth anniversary of the p assage of the New York City Landmarks Preservation L aw deadline, it is no surprise that preservationists devote so little time to reflection or big middle age, this is the appropri ate time to do some deep thinking and critical 1 In his speech about reflecting on the state of preservation in New York City, historic p reservation field in the United States and elsewhere. Histori c preservation, a discipline so focused on history and making sure that remnants of history remain standing or existing for future generations, has spent little time documenting and reflecting on its own history, particularly the latter half of the twentie th century. It is generally accepted by preservationists and historians that the recognition of the value of preserving built heritage in western civilization dates back as far as ancient Roman times, and possibly even earlier. 2 The beginnings of organized Louis Phillippe established the office known as the Inspector of Historic Monuments in 1 th Anniversary of the Passage of the New York Landmarks th Anniversary of the passage of the New York Landmarks Preservation Law, New York, NY, April 19, 2010). 2 Jukka Jokilehto, A History of Architectural Conservation (Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 1999), 16.


13 1830 after there was a movement to remove iconic French monuments during the French Revolut France. 3 Preservation continued to grow during the nineteenth century, with important figures such as Eugene Viollet Le Duc, John Ruskin, and Williams Morris developing important theories and practices for the field. Preservation spread to the United States when many private citizens began to save important sites that had associations with the from demolition and development In 1816, a group of Philadelphia citiz ens worked to preserve Independence Hall after the State of Pennsylvania put the site up for sale. In 1853, Ann Pamela Cunningham established the Mount Ladies Vernon Association, the oldest private, preservation organization in the United States, to save G continued through centennial celebrations in 1876. By the early twentieth century, all levels of the United States government became involved in preservation activities, with the passa ge of legislation, zoning, and ordinances protecting historic and monumental sites beginning with the first protective measures established for the Battery in Charleston, South Carolina (passed in 1936) and the Vieux Carre (French Quarter) in New Orleans, Louisiana (passed in 1937). These activities soon led to the beginnings of the modern historic preservation movement. 4 The maturation of the historic preservation movement in the United States has been correlated with the passage of the National Historic P reservation Act in 1966, and 3 Environme ntal Affairs Law Review 22, no. 3 (1995): 595. 4 Ibid., 597 600.


14 as such, the movement will reach its fifty there has not been much written about the organizations that helped support and fund early preservation work in the United States. Ma ny of the leading nonprofit organizations that helped advocate and financially support historic preservation are also celebrating milestone anniversaries, such as The World Monuments Fund (founded in 1965), New York City Historic Districts Council (founded in 1971) and The Florida Trust for Historic Preservation (founded in 1973). Little has been recorded about these organizations and their role in the preservation movement. When it comes to the Villagers an influential organization headquartered in Dade C ounty and Miami that raises funding for historic preservation efforts, even less has been documented. Much that has been written has addressed local governmental operations or nongovernmental organizations that mainly focused on lobbying for laws friendly to preservation or lobbying for more budgetary support from Congress. Shantia Anderheggen wrote about the local historic district in Newport, Rhode Island and its evolution over its forty year history. 5 James C. Williams detailed the history of advocacy or ganizations for historic preservation in California, but he concentrated on the lobbying aspect of advocacy. 6 Page Putnam Miller examined the history of associations that advocated for funding for the history profession at the federal level. 7 5 The Public Historian 32, no. 4 (Fall 2010): 16 32. 6 The Public Historian 22, no. 2 (Spring, 2000): 29 38. 7 The Public Historian 22, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 39 49.


15 While many wr itings have been dedicated to governmental organizations, there is a void in the literature about the role of nongovernmental organizations and their involvement in the historic preservation movement. With the Historic Districts Council working on document ing the role of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Committee, and historic preservation in New York City, in general, there has not been much documentation about nongovernmental organizations outside of some of the York City, Boston, and Philadelphia. 8 With little written about The Villagers this thesis study will document the history of the organization and analyze the values and significant people, projects, and events that have led to its longevity and success. The Villagers has not received as much credit as other Miami based preservation organizations such as the Miami Design Preservation League (MDPL). That organization has received honors from the American program, and from the Society of American Travel Writers for helping to revitalize tourism in South Beach. 9 Analyzing the successes (and the less successful ventures) of the group might offer a framework for other grassroots organizations in historic preservation to emulate and hopefully achieve the same success. About to celebrate its fiftieth birthday in 2016, The Villagers have consistently continued to increase their money raised and granted as well as their length of operation and consistent membership number, it would be important to figure out what 8 th Annual Preservat ion Conference: Looking Forward, Looking Back: Forty Years of Preserving New 9 Miami Design Preservation League, acces sed December 9, 2011, us/about miami design preservation league/a brief history/.


16 made the organization successful. To achieve this, the central question in this thesis study is how has The Villagers evolved in its fifty yea r history and how has its approach to his toric preservation changed over time? Secondary questions include: w hat are the hallmarks and who emerged as key leaders of The Villagers? What were the keys to success of The Villagers and what were the organizatio This thesis study will hopefully be the beginning of more studies devoted to local preservation efforts, and the organizations that made them possible. For this thesis study advocacy will be defined a the act of pleading for or against a espousal of a position, a point of view or a course of action, 10 This clarification is important, as scholarly literature refers to advocacy as lobbying for govern mental policies. Elizabeth Boris, the director of the Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy at the Urban Institute, and Rachel Mosher Williams stated in their article that advocacy has been narrowly defined to only include influencing public policy, protec ting rights, and the promotion of political interests. 11 She argued that advocacy social change as well. 12 Examples of this policy usage include articles from The Public Histori an a scholarly journal. In one article, Wil focused on 10 Bruce R. Hopkins, Charity, Advocacy, and the Law (New York: John Wiley, 1992), 32, quoted in Elizabeth Boris and Rachel Mosher Williams it Advocacy Organizations: Assessing the Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 27, no. 4 (1998): 490 491. 11 Elizabeth Boris and Rachel Mosher Williams 488 491. 12 Ibid., 488 490.


17 the creation of advocacy o rganizations in California, which worked to develop more professional career s for historians. Most of the actions of the groups formed were lobbying policy makers, as 13 Advocacy played an important role in the roots of the preservation movement that began in the 1960s in the United States, as the move ment was sparked by grassroots group s that advocated for preservation. Purpose of Study This thesis study attempts to identify and analyze the hallmarks of success of a nonprofit advocacy organization that focuses in historic preservation. The identification of these hallmarks could work to cr eate a better understanding as to why certain nonprofit organizations have retained lasting success while others have dissolved and disbanded. Further, these hallmarks could be used to strengthen existing, nonprofit organizations or create new ones dedicat ed to historic preservation. The focu s of the study is The Villagers Founded in 1966, The Villagers is a nonprofit organization that helps advocate and fund historic preservation efforts in South Florida. An in depth analysis, history and its preservation projects, attempts to identify the hallmarks of the organization that could have helped lead to its successes. First research was conducted of statements, newspaper clippin gs, meeting minutes, and other documents, was 13


18 long term members of the organization After analyzing the collected data, the hallmarks that were identified were social unity, members with educated/professional backgrounds, focus on educating members on historic preservation issues, focus on achievable projects, transitional meeting place s, and the dedication of the members. These were added to the Eight Guiding Principles provided by the Standards for Excellence Institute, a program initiated by Maryland Nonprofits. These hallmarks became the foundation of a survey administered to all Vil lagers members to fully identify the hallmarks that have contributed the most to its continued achievements. The second chapter of this thesis study details the history of the organization. The third chapter introduces the literature reviewed for this thesis study as well as the methodology used to analyze in terms of its hallmarks. The fourth chapter discusses the outcomes of the survey used to determine which hallmarks Villagers members felt were the most influential for the or lasting success. The final chapter refers to the conclusions drawn from the survey and what recommendations could be made for other studies devoted to this topic.


19 CHAPTER 2 FROM ENTRANCES TO LIGHTHOUSES: A HISTORY OF THE VILLAGERS, INCORPORATE D The Villagers, Inc. The Villagers has become a staple in historic preservation in the Miami Dade historic landmarks and resources. Founded in 1966, The Villagers is the ol dest historic preservation advocacy organization in Miami Dade County. Its mission statement reads, acquisition, restoration an d preservation of structure sites, buil dings and objects having 1 remained practically the same during its almost fifty year history. Coordinated entirely as a volunteer group, The Villagers have maintained a consi stent organizational structure through its history. Comprised of newly elected officers every year, the organization holds monthly meetings: one member meeting and one board meeting, with the exception of holidays and summer (June through August and the mo nth of December ). Other than the elected board, the group also includes committees to fulfill each task needed to sustain the organization and its goals. The committees covered responsibilities like hospitality, budget, fundraising, membership, legalities, and so on. In total, there are more than twenty committees currently in The Villagers. As almost every member has joined at least one committee at some point, accomplish tasks set forth. 1 2002 2003


20 In researching the history of The Villagers, preservation projects (1966 2011) were documented 2 When compiling the list projects were broken down into different categories, corresponding to the type of work supported: advocacy and planning, documentation, restoration, maintenance, and education. For this thesis, advocacy and planning will cover activities that involve working to save a building from demolition and the work to stabilize these structures. Documentation i ncludes any effort to research and survey historic structures. Restoration pertains to any work that will bring a structure back to a previous or historic condition. Maintenance will be defined as any repairs or additions done to a historic resource that d oes not relate to its significance. Education has a broader definition, which contains interpretation, scholarship, and educational activities for the community or for the organization itself. For the purposes of preservation, there is a standard process: 1) Save the structure from deliberate or benign neglect, 2) Document and research its condition and history, 3) Restore the resource, 4) Maintain the property, and finally, 5) Interpret its history an d offer programming. 3 us has shifted from step 1 to step 5. As the profession of preservation has become more specialized, the role of The Villagers has changed from more hands on activity to awarding more grants to help support and fund preservation projects. 2 See Appendix A for entire project list 3 Derek Worthing and Steph en Bond, Managing Built Heritage: The Role of Cultural Significance (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2008).


21 Advocacy and Planning The beginnings of The Villagers started for one function: to save an iconic building in Coral Gables. In 1966, Pat Deen invited a small group of women to form an organization that would support the Douglas Village Corporation. With the creation of The Villagers, the women worked to clear and paint the tower of the Douglas Entrance, as well as host events to raise money for the purchase of the significant Coral Gables structure. Following the initial success in the purchase of the Dou glas Entrance in 1972 the group remained organized to work to save other dilapidated structures in Coral Gables. In their formation years, The Villagers focused mostly on working to save landmarks in the community that were under threat of demolition. For historic structures and help plan for their stabilization. After saving many of these buildings, The Villagers made the choice to move onto the next stage in preservati on: documentation. While The Villagers were responsible for the protection and future enjoyment of many Miami landmarks, the two largest advocacy projects were the Douglas Entrance and the Biltmore Hotel Douglas Entrance The brainchild of George E. Merrick (1886 1942) Coral Gables was deemed 4 Situated in southwest Garden City and City Beautiful Movements, two movements that focused on bringing aesthetic beauty back to urb an environments including among other things, an equal 4 George Merrick, ( Coral Gables: Parker Art Print Association 1923).


22 amount of residences, commercial areas, and green spaces. 5 Merrick planned the entire city, drawing inspiration from James Deering (1859 1925) who popularized the Mediterranean Revival style in the Miami area in the 1910s and 1920s. Merrick also drew inspiration from historic Spanish Mediterranean cities, such as Seville, Majorca, and Malaga. 6 Combining efforts with a team of extraord inary designers, Merrick created a popular neighborhood in the 1920s, with its own city center, a country club, golf and tennis courses, paths, and parks. By 1925, the City of Coral Gables was incorporated, millions of dollars of property was sold, and inf rastructure was beginning to be set in 7 That year, Merrick unveiled his plan: fourteen villages containing suburban homes. Each village was to have its own unique and internationally inspired architectural style. Unfortunately, 1926 marked the beginning of the end of the real estate land boom in the Miami area. A devastating hurricane ended all construction, and then the Depression hit in 1929. Only seven villages were ever realized, but Coral Gables has remained not only a unique and popular suburb, the residents of Coral Gables sparked the preservation movement in the Miami area. 8 In 1966, the Douglas Entrance, a main feature in Coral Gables, fell under threat of demolition. Original ly called Puerta del Sol, the Douglas Entrance was the grand entryway into Coral Gables from Miami. The entrance included an arched gateway with 5 Arva Moore Parks, (Miami: Centennial Press, 2006) 6 Merrick, Coral Gables 6. 7 Parks, 39 50. 8 Metro Magazine (2010),


23 a ninety foot tall belfry. Designed by architects Walter de Garmo (1876 1951) Denman Fink (1880 1956) and Phi neas E. Paist (1875 1937) the entrance was not just a gate, but also contained commercial and residential space. Built in 1927, the gate had deteriorated and was dilapidated by 1960s. 9 In 1957, Douglas Road, which led to the entrance to the Coral Gables community, was closed as a traffic hazard, and with the closure, the Douglas Entrance fell out of the public eye and into further dilapidation. Plans were proposed in the early 1960s to develop a Food Fair Supermarket, with its parking lots placed at the s pot of the soon to be demolished Douglas Entrance. The community began to debate whether the almost forty year old Entrance should be saved. In 1964, James Deen, an architect who grew up in Coral Gables and under the shadow of the Douglas Entrance, assembl ed his colleagues from the design field in an effort to save the entranceway. Architects, engineers, landscape architects, and decorators formed the Douglas Village Corporation, many of whom resided in the seven villages that make up Coral Gables. The memb ers then pooled financial resources to develop a plan to turn the Douglas Entrance into a design and cultural center, rather than a parking lot for a supermarket. The Corporation was able to fully purchase the Entrance, saving it from the wrecking ball, an d started the restoration project to turn it into a design and cultural center opened for the first major social event in forty years for the Inaugural Ball of the American Institute of Architects. 9 Beth Dunlop, Miami: Mediterranean Splendor and Deco Dreams ( New York: Rizzoli, 2007 ).


24 The re storation was long and arduous. In October of the same year, Pat Deen, gathered the other wives to create an auxiliary group, The Villagers, now the oldest historic preservation advocacy organization in Miami Dade County. Soon a total of thirty eight women joined the group, becoming the first charter members of the organization. 10 These young, accomplished women were at first tasked with cleaning the tower, simultaneously chasing pigeons away while scrubbing and painting. The Vi llagers also worked to raise money for the Entrance through hosting events while working to raise public awareness on the benefits and necessity of preservation. Unfortunately, the Douglas Village Corporation was unable to realize their goal of adaptively using the Douglas Entrance as a design and cultural center. Typical of many projects, the initial cost of restoration varied substantially from reality. Miami based architects Edward Grafton and Andy Ferendino made a significant investment purchasing stoc k in the Douglas Village Corporation. Soon it was too much for the group of Coral Gables residents to handle and in 1972, the property was sold to Grafton and Ferendino architectural firm under the condition that the restoration and revitalization process of the Douglas Entrance would be completed The Entrance was ultimately fully restored, and the Douglas Village Corporation was dissolved. The Biltmore their philanthropic efforts in preservation. The organization, which had raised five hundred dollars for the Crandon Park Zoo in 1972 by hosting a fashion show, shifted 10 2.


25 foc us to the Coral Gables Biltmore. In 1971, the grand Biltmore Hotel, previously used the federal government, announced its intentions to trade the property to a develope r who wanted to tear down the structure, and build condominiums to replace it. 11 12 Citizens in the Coral Gables community were outraged. As far back as 1942, the City of Coral Gables had made it known that the City wanted first claim to the property if the f ederal government wanted to sell it. Inspired by the Douglas Entrance project, The Villagers decided to expand their preservation activities to include significant buildings throughout Miami Dade County. To raise money for preservation efforts, The Village rs held a series of social events at convince those in power to save the structure. In 1973, the City of Coral Gables, under pressure from citizens and after heated debates, m anaged to get a three million dollar bond issue to purchase the old Biltmore Hotel. 13 In the end, the money was never property to the City. 14 Documentation Once a structur character 11 Parks, 58. 12 Helen Muir, The Biltmore: Beacon for Miami (Miami: The Pickering Press, 1987), 77 84. 13 Parks, 58. 14 Muir, The Biltmore 81.


26 defining feature s that contribute to its significant. 15 The purpose of documentation is to identify and un derstand what historic resources are still standing, as well as recording the histories, modifications, and current states of the structures. In the late 1970s, The Villagers were on the forefront of this stage as they became adept at writing National Regi ster nominations. Ultimately, t hey were responsible for many Miami landmarks obtaining placement on the National Register. It was also during this time that The Villagers realized their limitations in preservation. As they wanted to remain a small organiza tion, they understood that Miami Dade County needed a more formal and below represent some of the best work The Villagers has done in this field. Formation of Dade Heritag e Trust In the early 1970s, the Villagers initiated a new type of project As the organization agreed to limit membership one hundred active members to remain a close ly knit group, The Villagers realized that their organization would not be able to achie ve a large amoun t of preservation needed in South Florida with such limited membership and resources 16 Dolly MacIntyre, a charter member of The Villagers, suggested the creation of an organization that would focus on statewide preservation Under the dire ction of Frances N ehrhes, the chairperson of the P r eservation C ommittee, The Villagers explored this idea, eventually inviting Robert Williams, the Douglas Entrance apartments to discuss the idea of creating a Florida Historical Trust in 15 Worthing, Managing Built Heritage 2008. 16 Patty Meader,


27 April of 1972. The Villagers hoped to draw about thirty five preservation interested organizations to the meeting to discuss having the State of Florida legislature charter this poten tial new organization as well as the creation of a survey to inventory what historic resources were left in the Mi ami area and to emphasize the need for tax incentives to help maintain historic sites. 17 To prepare for the meeting, Williams had spoke a week earlier with the National Trust for Historic Preservation in Washington, D.C. 18 Williams, however, expressed his doubts, pointing out that the infrastructure was not there for a Florida Historical Trust, and that instead, The Villagers should focus on creating a Miami Dade professional preservation organization. The women ran with the idea, sponsoring the formation of the Dade Heritage Trust. Dolly MacIntyre served as an early president of the Dade Heritage Trust, and many members of The Villagers ha ve served numerous positions or have worked for the Dade Heritage Trust over the years. The first project of the Dade Heritage Trust was to survey the historic resources in Dade County, with The Villagers donating one thousand dollars to underwrite this su rvey and many members donating time to the project. 19 The study identified over 875 sites in Dade County, and helped lead to the placement of many of these sites on the National Register of Historic Places. 20 d citizens that our state wide preservation goals will be realized. Miami is fortunate to have the 17 The Miami Herald April 9, 1972. 18 The Miami Herald April 17, 1972. 19 20 Alex Riley The Miami Herald August 30, 1979.


28 e Stacey in 1972. While some Villagers worried that the Dade Heritage Trust would overshadow or take away from their work, the two organizations have retained close ties throughout the years, working on numerous projects together. After s pending their time raising funds for a few years, The Villagers began to twentieth century by William Anderson, the two story pine building served as general store for Anderson who made his early living cutting swamp cabbage in the Everglades. In the 1930s, it was converted into an apartment building. The structure remained as the oldest existing general store in Dade County and one of the few remaining general stores in the country. 21 22 Pat Cothron purchased the site in 1970, unaware of its history until the Metro Building and Zoning Department served her a condemnation notice on her building in 1974. From there, she started seeking community support in restoring the structure calling up on groups such as The Villagers and the Dade Heritage Trust for funding. 23 of three women Ginger Kerwin, Mary Elizabeth Sistrunk, and Alice White. The three 21 Patty Meader, 9. 22 The Miami Herald 23 The Miami Herald October 9, 1975.


29 suit had already run out two days earlier. 24 Cothron asked for an extension and The Villagers got to work. They first conducted ex tensive research and filed a nomination in Tallahass ee to get the property listed on the National Register, which became official in October 18, 1977. In February 1976, The Villagers convinced Dade County to set aside twenty five thousand dollars the co unty had already condemned it for demolition. The county then agreed to lease the property to The Villagers, who would sublease it to a private business. Unfortunately, two and a half years later, the county still had not purchased the property, and the tw enty five thousand dollar appropriation expired in 1979. With the estimates for restoration had more than doubled to over two hundred thousand dollars 25 The building remaine d in peril between demolition and restoration for several building restored to what it once was. The Corner was awarded local historic status in 1981 and rehabilitation was completed in 1985. 26 The Alamo first hospital, the Alamo faced demolition in 1977 for the construction of a new Maternal 24 The Miami Herald October 17, 1975. 25 26


30 Child Care Tower. 27 Alamo was beloved by its employees who to raise donations to save the building. 28 The Villagers dona ted five hundred dollars to the campaign in 1978 at first As the construction of the new hospital tower was set to begin the only way for the Alamo to be saved was to relocate the building to a new site. wit h a total of seventy thousand dollars in l ocal donations raised, in addition to a one hundred thousand dollar federal grant, and the two story, Spanish Mediterranean building was moved five hundred feet southwest to a new foundation in December of 1978. The work was not over, as it was estimated to need two hundred fifty thousand dollars for restoration. A year later, The Villagers were asked to prepare a National Register nomination, as they had done the same for Ander s Corner. On February 14, 1980, the Alamo was placed on the National Register. With the historic site moved to a safe location and landmarked it was not only protected from demolition, but also now eligible for numerous grants from the government and private sector. While in the past The Villagers approached restoration work with hands on application, by the 1980s, The Villagers shifted their focus from doing the actual hands on work to providing the funding for the restoration work. With the Alamo sav ed in 1980, attention turned towards granting funds for restoration. In 1980, The Villagers helped by donating two thousand dollars to the Alamo Restoration Fund. The next year, The 27 Robin R. Strassburger, The Alamo National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, 1979, h ttp:// nal.pdf 28 The Miami Herald February 14, 1980.


31 production was successful, and The Villagers were able to donate another five thousand five hundred dollars to the restoration fund for the Alamo. 29 Bulmer Apartments The Alamo was not the only building in need of help. The Villagers were start ing to gain a reputation for their expertise on researching and documenting historic properties, and soon they were receiving more requests from groups for their help. First, the Audubon Society asked for help with the Thomas house, then the Audubon House, and finally the Sylva Martin Community Center in South Miami. The Alamo was not the only building in threat of demolition. The ornate Italianate Bulmer Apartments, built in 1918 by William Brickell (1817 1908) also came under the threat of demolition. On ce an apartment complex for the rich, such as Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848 1933) the in the early 1970s, it was sold to Flagship Bank, which planned to build a n office to wer on the site. Many groups were concerned about the decision to level these historic apartments, such as the Dade Heritage Trust, who campaigned to save the Bulmer Apartments. The architectural firm of Ferendino, Grafton, Spillis, and Candela the owner s of the Douglas Entrance built a model for a feasibility report of using the existing buildings as the central part of the plan. Flagship B ank rejected this model 30 Instead, the b 29 Villagers Archives. 30 The Miami Herald July 12, 1978.


32 Th e group of women had previously toured the building with respected architect 31 Although The Villagers had reached the conclusion that the Bulmer Apartments was not worth stabilization o r restoration other historical groups had not given up hope on saving the site. The Dade County Historical Survey was still protesting the decision when the apartments were demolished on July 11, 1978. Judy Fagin, of the Dade County Historical Survey, hel 32 Before demolition, members of the Villagers stripped the apartment building of usable interior features such as doorknobs and hardware for future restoration projects. 33 Other Doc umentation Projects The Villagers continued documentation projects throughout the 1970s, researching and writing National Register nominations for two historic sites in 1979. The first project was the Flagler Workers House, later known as the Butler Building. the structure was moved to Fort Dallas Park on the north side of the Miami River. 34 The Villagers have continued their work in research and documentation t o the present, although most of their focus has shifted towards the funding side, with much money 31 Ibid. 32 The Miami Herald July 12, 1978. 33 34 Miami, 1983), http://www.historicpreservationmi


33 directed towards restoration and maintenance purposes, as well as for education efforts. Throughout the 1970s the organization grew by fifty members, while sim ultaneously expanding their scope of preservation practices. By 1980, The Villagers had successfully procured four sites to be listed on the National Register. While the decade started with the organization focusing on saving significant historic resources in Coral Gables from demolition The Villagers expanded their treatments by the end of the decade shifting their focus from advocacy to also include documentation and restoration. To successfully shift in a new direction in preservation the organization had to increase its knowledge of the discipline. To have a resource placed on the National Register, research must be conducted on the site such as the history of the resource, its significance, and its architectural features As The Vi llagers became more adept at preparing these nominations, they learned more about preservation process as a whole. This accumulation of knowledge was important for their next step of the preservation process: restoration. For a historic site to be restored its history, architectural features, and significance must be known and available. Documentation generates this needed information. Restoration T he Villagers was founded with the intent of helping to restore historic sites by employing hands on projects Their hands on projects at the Douglas Entrance involved work to clean the gate in an effort to return it to an earlier state. For this study, r estoration followed the act or process of accuratel y depicting the form, features, and character of a property as it appeared at a particular period of time by means of the removal of features from other


34 periods in its history and reconstruction of missing features from the restoration 35 Most of Th res toration, but their role in this type of treatment has changed. While early restoration attempts entailed hands on work from Villagers members, their role shifted into financers of restoration work by the early 1980s. This role of funding restoration projects Vizcaya, Merrick Manor, Biltmore Fountain, Kampong, and the Cape Florida Lighthouse ottage. Vizcaya In 1971, Vizcaya, an iconic landmark of Miami, became a project of focus for The Villagers. A residence of James Deering, Vizcaya was constructed in the early twentieth century in the Mediterranean style that was sweeping the Miami area. T he opulent residence was influenced by Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, and Neoclassical periods 36 but the Miami landmark had fallen into disrepair. The Villagers went to work, doing physical work when possible, such as cleaning bathrooms and supplying the funding for the technical work, materials, and furnishings to restore and renovate of the Casino on the Mound. 37 The women added a new wrought iron and glass door in time for their f 35 accessed March 18, 2013, 36 The Miami Herald 1971. 37


35 while raising funds for The Villagers. 38 39 The women continued with the restoration us on the fixing the bathrooms under the Casino. Not only did they help fund repainting the ceiling in the Casino loggia, they donated over five hundred and more than five thousand dollars 40 This initial restoration work spurned a lo ng and lasting relationship between Vizcaya and The Villagers, with The Villagers contributing to restoration and maintenance projects at the site. Merrick Manor locales, typi Gables, such as Vizcaya and the Biltmore. In each meeting, there were numerous talks about purchasing property to become the home to The Villagers. At this point, the organization had more than ten thousand dollars in its coffers. William L. Philbrick, the and unable to care for the house. He had been looking for a nonprofit to take over the house, and f elt The Villagers were the perfect stewards to realize his vision of seeing the house restored. The Villagers were elated at this possibility of a project. Not only would they restore a landmark within their community, but that the organization would have its own headquarters. Unfortunately, the transfer of property never happened. Due to the property losing its tax exempt status and series of miscommunications between The Villagers 38 The Miami Herald February 7, 1971. 39 s Archives. 40 Ibid.


36 and the Merrick Manor Foundation, Philbrick pulled out of the agreement. It was ultimately decided that The Villagers could not take on the responsibilities of Merrick Manor. In 1977, the house was ultimately purchased by the City of Coral Gables, who restored and renamed the building as Coral Gables House with some funding from The decided that the organization did not have the funds to purchase and maintain pro perty. 41 across Miami as meeting places. Biltmore Fountain In 1982, The Villagers took on their first large scale restoration project. Previous fundraising efforts and smart inve They felt the best use of the money was to restore the fountain at the Biltmore Hotel, which was built in 1926 by George Merrick. The fountain had closed during the Second World War, when the entire com plex closed down. Architect Charles Harrison Pawley who served on the board of the Metropolitan Museum of Art contacted The Villagers to donate the twenty five thousand dollars needed for restoration and revival of the fountain and the entrance area. After successfully raising funds from their book Outstanding Homes of Miami in 1975, The Villagers were looking fo r a preservation project and had the money available for a larger endeavor, thus agreed to fund the project. Restoration work was quick, and on May 22 1982 many dignitaries, including the Mayor of Coral Gables, attended the dedication to the opening of the fountain and 41 Villagers Archives.


37 patio area. Restored to its previous glory, the fountain was built out of coral rock from the Florida Keys, with a pool of wa ter lilies and goldfish. 42 Kampong In 1991, The Villagers undertook their next large restoration process, donating thirty thousand dollars to the Fairchild Tropical Garden to restore and adaptively reuse the Kampong and study. Even though it was costly, Th e Villagers felt that the Kampong had a large amount of historic significance to the Coral Gables area and that restoration would receive coverage locally and at the National Trust conference. 43 Originally built in 1892 by the A.R. Simons family as a barn, the coral rock structure was used as an a plant explorer, turned the property into a botanical garden and the office into a laboratory and study, after purchasing the p roperty in 1916. In 1928, Fairchild constructed his estate, named the Kampong, near the existing study. The Villagers also helped design the museum exhibits in addition to providing the funding. In 1995, Th e Villager s took on their most ambitious project to date, helping with the restoration of the Cape Florida Lighthouse p roject. Proposed by Dottie Zinzow, the project came to fruition in August 1995 under the leadership of Jody Gache, the Third Vice Preside nt and head of the Projects Committee. The Villagers decided to select the ly visible to the entire community and promote more historic 42 The Miami Herald 43


38 44 The Villagers j oined with the Dade Heritage Trust, th e State of Florida Bill Baggs State Park, and others to start a three year project In 1990, The Villagers had previously donated one thousand dollars to receive landmark membersh ip as part of their commitment to help with the restoration project. The lighthouse and the cottage had a long history in Miami. The structures were first built in 1825 by the United States government soon after it acquired Florida from Spain. It was the first recognition of South Florida by the United States. The lighthouse has survived numerous wars and attacks, but the cottage has been damaged throughout the years and was ultimately destroyed in the 1920s from shoreline erosion. This cottage was reconst ructed by the State of Florida in 1969 when the property became the Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Recreation Area in 1967. 45 With an agreement from the F lorida Park Service, The Villagers decided to focus on the restoration of the Light house e. Originally pledging fifty six thousand dollars to fund the project a fter several negotiations, The Villagers learned that if they donated sixty thousand dollars the state would offer a matching grant of forty thousand dollars to bring t he total to one hundred thousand dollars to restore the cottage. Celebration in July of 1996. The Villagers did not only help with securing grants and providing funding for restoration, but the wo men oversaw the entire project, researching, designing the interpretation and furnishing the Light house They also 44 Judy Mangasarian, quoted in Jennifer G Centennial The Miami Herald 1996. 45 The Miami Herald 1996.


39 converted the kitchen into a mini theater for eighteen people. In 1996, they applied for a ten thousand dollar grant from the City of Key Biscayne to produce a video on lif e at the Lighthouse and cottage, which was shown in the newly converted theater. 46 47 Other Restoration Projects The Villagers also took on other small restoration projects. In 1977, The Villagers donated $13 2 to restore the central courtyard and the fountain of El Jardin, a bay front mansion built in 1918 that is now the Carrollton School in Coconut Grove. The Villagers purchased two flagpoles for Vizcaya in 1982, donated two thousand dollars for restoration at the Plymouth Congregational Church the following year, gave two hundred dollars to the Dade Heritage Trust for the relocation and reconstruction of the Brown House in 1984, and other small amounts to Deering Estate, Coral Gables conut Grove Schoolhouse. The group also donated money to many history focused organizations to become members to develop partnerships and relationships with these groups. In the 1980s, The Villagers became members of The Barnacle Society, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Deering Estate, the Dade Heritage Trust, Black Archives History and Research Foundation, Inc., and the Woodrow Wilkins Archives of Architectural Records. The Villagers also helped restore classical statues at the Gusman Center for Arts i n 1989, granting $7,675 for Mark Jeffries to plaster new limbs. Dedication to restoring artwork did not end there, as the organization donated nearly six thousand dollars to the Coral Gables City Hall three years later for the restoration of a Denman Fink painting. 46 47 Collection, Coral Gables, FL).


40 The Lighthouse project was not the only large restoration project for The Villagers, although it remains the biggest single project The Villagers ever undertook. In 1998, The Villagers donated twenty five thousand dollars for restoring the marque e on the Seminole Theater in Homestead. In 1999, The Villagers donated twenty five thousand dollars to the Land Trust of Dade County to restore Marjorie Stoneman Douglas House and create an education center. The same year, they donated twenty thousand doll ars its fountain. In the 2000s, The Villagers continued their restoration efforts with several large projects: $17,765 to Save a House to stabilize and restore a historic house, twenty five thousand dolla rs to restore Courtroom 6 1 at the Dade County Courthouse, twenty five thousand dollars to restore the entrance to Parrot Jungle, thirteen thousand dollars to restore the heart pine floors at Old Miami High, fifteen thousand dollars to reconstruct the orig inal doors for the train tunnel of a 1950s era train at Virginia Key Beach, ten thousand dollars Montgomery Botanical Center to restore flooring and walls that were damaged by the uneven flooring, fifteen thousand dollars to the Miami Marine Stadium to mat ch a grant offered by the National Trust for Historic Places and the World Monuments Fund, and twenty thousand dollars to the Barnacle for restoring the roof of a 1927 carriage house. In the late 2000s, The Villagers have continued to help fund restoratio n projects, although the amounts of changed over the years. Rather than take on large projects, the organization has recently begun to offer smaller amounts of funding from five thousand dollars to ten thousand dollars to more projects, rather than one large donation to one project. This has led to helping more groups and developing more


41 relationships T his strategy has also helped leverage additional contributions which ore recent funding efforts are contributed to total project, such as what was done with the Cape Florida Lighthouse. Financial security. Maintenance As The Villagers completed their restoration projects, they encountered an unanticipated nee d. As the restoration work finished, soon maintenance issues arose, which led to an increased awareness of the importance of c yclical, long term maintenance. For this project, maintenance includes any work or additions that does not fall under restoration. It can include repairs on earlier restoration work ; damage from natural occurrences; abrasion; vandalism; general upkeep, such as gutter cleaning, painting, security checks, and cleaning ; and additions that make the structure more habitable. 48 A common add ition to historic buildings constructed in Miami was an air conditioning system The introduction of air conditioning and similar non historic additions to buildings fall s under maintenance for this study. When The Villagers started funding large restorati on projects, they did not plan for the necessary maintenance that would arrive in the future. A ll preservationists had to come to this conclusion: once a structure was restored, continued maintenance would need to follow to retain the For the organization, maintenance has become a required part of ongoing, long term preservation of a historic site 48 James Marston Finch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World (Charlottesville, Va: University Press of Virginia), 325 330.


42 Biltmore Fountain When The Villagers took part in one of their first large scale project with the restoration of the Biltmore fountain in 1 981, they had to deal with the consequences of funding the project. Only five years later, the restoration work they commissioned needed maintenance work. The Metropolitan Museum of Art came to them for the funding. In 1985, it was only one hundred dollars to have the fountain cleaned. Two years later in 1987, the existing pool pump needed relocation for two hundred dollars At this point, members of The Villagers start to question their role in the maintenance of projects they restored, and they ask the Me tropolitan Museum of Art to submit a main tenance plan for their fountain. At a general meeting in 1989 after the restored Biltmore fountain needed more were asked whether th e organization should choose restoration projects or maintenance projects, and whether they should choose projects that are high or low profile. No clear answer was revealed, but in the following years, the role of maintenance began to play a larger role i n funding decisions for The Villagers and provided an opportunity to continue partnerships with these organizations. The role of maintenance did not just play into funding repair costs for previously restored projects. Other Maintenance Projects Throughout the 1990s, The Villagers continued funding small maintenance projects. In 1994, The Villagers donated two thousand five hundred dollars for maintenance of the Coconut Grove Schoolhouse property for repair and landscaping, continuing a previously established relationship of helping to fund small preservation and education efforts. Three years in 1997, the women of the Villagers funded their


43 largest to date maintenance project. The Villagers donated forty thousand dollars to the Coconut Grove Women office. The building needed window replacement s, an upgraded electrical system, restoration of the foundation of the building, as well as the installation of central air conditioning. The same year, they donated $1,147 to the Kampong for maintenance of the Interpretive Center, which needed wood replacement, window tinting, and repairs to the gutter system. In the 2000s, maintenance became a necessary part of preservation projects funded by The Villagers While most grants are still selected for restoration purposes, continued maintenance is still needed. The Villagers have worked to help fund maintenance fees for many of the historic resources they have helped preserve Some examples were a two thousand dollar donation to the Old Larkin Schoolhouse for repairs in 2002, one donation in 2003 of fourteen thousand eight hundred dollars to the Montgomery Botanical Center for installing central air conditioning for their archives, and seventeen tho usand dollars 2005 for the replacement of windows, Fr ench doors, and the front entry. This continued lub up to ADA standards with a ten thousand dollar donation for installing a handicap ramp. In 2003, The Villagers gave fifteen thousand dollars to replace and maintain a new lightning protection system at the Coral Gables Congregational Church, which was the first time The Villagers directly funde d a religious organization. For many years, The Villagers had donated to the Plymouth Congregational Church, but only because the


44 Coconut Grove Schoolhouse (the first schoolhouse in Coconut Grove built in 1887 49 ) had been relocated to its grounds. The Villagers had always decided to refrain from funding religious institutions to remain as a secular organization, but the 1924 historic structure built directly across the street from the Biltmore needed help The Villagers felt that there was no alternativ e funding opportunities available for the church. 50 As has been learned with recent preservation work, maintenance is key to furthering the efforts of preservation. As The Villagers have continued to fund restoration projects, maintenance has become a neces sary cost to further the goals of preservation. Education Education had always been a substantial goal of The Villagers. The organization by holding meetings at historic sites throughout Mi ami, in addition to other special projects. As their role in preservation evolved over the years, members realized that they needed to unde rstand more about preservation; as such, they worked to educate themselves on the issues. After holding educational w orkshops for members, these events were expanded to include the community as well. Involving and working to educate the community has remained the foundation for not just educational events, but also for the thes is study, education encompassed any aspect that deals with acquiring, imparting, or funding knowledge. Some examples of 49 Department, Miami, 1982), http:// 50 ccessed March 9, 2013,


45 conferences, and providing interpretation for histor ic sites. Member Education Educating the public has been a focus of The Villagers since the early 1970s, as the mission 51 As mentioned above, many of the meetings were located at different historic landmarks across Miami, the group would educate themselves on the history of Miami and Florida in general. Over the years, the group would bring in speakers, such as Janet Reno or Bet h Dunlop to general meetings to learn more about Miami. The group did not only work to educate public on the history that they had learned. One of their first educationa l services was offering and leading free walking tours of Coconut Grove as a bicentennial project in 1976. These were so popular, that the organization decided to continue the walking tours as a community service. Also during the bicentennial, the organiza tion provided bus tours of houses giving lectures on local history for many convention groups. Beginning in January of 1977, The Villagers presented a series of three free seminars on the history of South Florida given by Samuel Boldrick, a local historia n who was involved the Miami Dade library system, the Florida Historical Society, the Society of Florida Archivists, and the Dade Heritage Trust ; 52 Arva Moore Parks, another Miami 51 Ibid. 52


46 based historian interested in preservation ; 53 and Dr. Thelma Peters, a histori an who researched much about the early history of Miami, South Florida, the Caribbean, and Latin America. 54 As the group delved more into preservation efforts, they realized that they needed to not only educate the public, but also themselves on preservatio n issues. While many members had attended Florida Trust for Historic Preservation conferences and National Trust for Historic Preservation conferences, in 1995, the group paid to send two Villager s members to the National Trust conference in Fort Worth, Te xas. This became a new pol icy for the organization, with T he Villagers paying for the President and Third Vice President (the head of Preservation activities) to attend the National Trust conference. This policy remains in place, but rather than sending th e President and Third Vice President, the organization votes on two members to attend. In an effort to educate all the members on preservation issues, these two members must not have been previously sent to the conference by The Villagers. The next year, a new member restoration project was set into motion for new members to become actively involved in learning about preservation in a more hands er effort to teach members about preservation and The offered a walking tour of a north Coral Gables neighborhood and many bus tours, 53 Florida Magazine January 13, 2013, http: // moore parks keeper of the past/ 54 Thelma Peters papers, 1871 2013,


47 ranging from revisiting many of the sites The Villagers had helped document and restore to a bus tour focusing on African These trips served as a reminder to 55 Educational Events Following the tour of African American history and heritage in Dade County, The Villagers started to run bus tours of historic Coconut Grove and Coral Gables for the public and convention groups. The Villagers continued to offer educational opportunities for the public, governmental officials, and for conferences over the years. In 1982, they held a seminar at the Vizcaya on how to write nominations for properties eli gible for the National Register. In 1998, the organization voted to allocate money for educational grants, which would be used to send government and education officials to seminars, workshops, and conferences that focus on and educate about historic prese rvation. The Villagers also underwrote memberships in the National Trust for commissioners and city managers in Miami and Coral Gables. Four years later in 2002, The Villagers co with the City of Coral Gables and the Florida Trust, which was a two day event. Scholarships In 1979, The Villagers decided to start donati ng funds for education purposes They first offered the first scholarship of five hundred dollars to a student at Flo rida International University, whose studies focused in the architectural field. The scholarship program was named the Seymour Memorial Scholarship Fund, in 55


48 remembrance of a Villager s member Judith Seymour. The scholarship program continued to grow, and in April of 1984, The Villagers changed the then single one thousand five hundred dollar scholarship for a student at FIU to three scholarships worth five hundred dollars each for students at FIU, University of Miami, and University of Florida. Many of these scholarships have been named after exceptional Villager s members who have passed away and had a connection to the institutions that receive the scholarships. Over the years, the amounts of the college scholarships have continued to grow, with present day amounts equaling between three thousand dollars and five thousand dollars Students at the University of Miami, Florida International University, and University of Florida awarded the scholarships can use them for fall tuition or for the Preservation Insti tute Nantucket, operated by the University of Florida. There is one scholarship available for a Miami Dade County resident who is studying in a historic preservation program at an accredited university in the United States. In 2005, The Villagers expanded their scholarship offerings, establishing a five hundred dollar scholarship for a student at Design Architecture Senior High (DASH), after the estate of Dottie Zinzow, a life member of The Villagers who had recently passed away, donated twenty five thousan d dollars to The Villagers. Today, there are many scholarships for DASH students amounting to one thousand dollars each Interpretation In addition to creating and funding direct educational opportunities for Villagers members, government officials, studen ts, and the public, The Villagers have educated many in history and preservation by helping to provide interpretation at many historic sites and resources. The Villagers have been involved in developing interpretation since


49 t they first became formally involved in 1991 when Villager s members worked as docents at the Kampong. As The Villagers had achieved steps one through four, their projects and partnerships began to need interpretation included in their preservation proces s. The Villagers had a few interpretation projects in the 1990s, but 2000 was when the organization shifted their focus towards the need for interpretation funding, when they gave ten thousand dollars to the Stan Cooper House for training of docents, as we ll as for relocation of the property. The Villagers have continued this interest in funding interpretation, with over twenty thousand dollars donated to the Black Archives, History, and Research Foundation for printing brochures and booklets. The largest i nterpretation undertaking was a twenty five thousand dollar grant to the Miami River Commission in 2006 for eighteen historic markers on the Miami River. Education and interpretation have remained focus areas for The Villagers when selecting their preservation projects. Fundraising and Volunteering Fundraising has been at the core of The Villagers since its inception. E ven focus shifted quickly to throwing social galas and parties to raise money for preservation efforts. In addition to parties, such as a Monte Carlo Night at Vizcaya, and fashion shows, the women evolved to incorporate larger projects to increase fundraising activities: publishing books and hosting annual events. As preservation has become the funds for projects that required experts in construction, restoration, design, and other disciplines necessary for preservation efforts.


50 Books The Villagers first large fundraising project was the publication of their book Outstanding Homes of Miami i n 1975. Over twenty three thousand dollars went into the publication of this book, which received rave reviews, even winning Outstanding Southern Book from Southeastern Library Association. In the 1980s, The Villagers again decided to publish a book about Miami, but rather this was a cookbook that funds in for preservation projects. Moneys raised from these large fundraising projects were invested, which has helped bring i n more money for donations. Events In the 1980s, The Villagers shifted their fundraising activities from parties to history focused events, such as the Historic Hunt in 1985, a historic house tour in 1982, and a garden tour in 1983. Many of these activitie s worked to not only engage Villagers members, but also the greater Miami community in an effort to educate the community also utilized other creative means for raising mon ey activities All fundraising efforts have to contain a history or cultural component, from plays to quilts. In the 1990s, fundraising became an integral part of the organization, as the members have become less an d less able to do hands on work Today, most of The the garden tour, held in December and March respectively. Summary of History ches, the organization has been Beinecke


51 Reeves Distinguished Service Award for Historic Preservation one million dollars to preservation projects and scholarships. Even though the organization has donated so much money, its impact on Miami and historic preservation cann ot be quantified. Having grown from a group of forty to an organization of two hundred women and a few men, The Villagers have completed over one hundred fifty projects. As Miami The Villagers have never taken time to reflect on the reasons for their continued success. Although there has been little change to its mission and purpose, the organization has evolved over the years adapting to c hanging trends and preferences. This adaptation was not just changes in types of preservation projects, but also in types of fundraising events. The flexibility and forw ard thinking of Villagers members to constantly update their programming to current trends has kept their organization relevant to the community an d historic preservation. By changing the types of projects, they were able to keep up with the maturation and evolution of historic preservation. The Villagers have fulfill ed their mission efficiently in a way that also was effective in helping to preserve historic resources. Part of the purpose of this thesis study is to analyze and understand what factors were the pinnacles for success of The Villagers. The next chapters concentrate on the literature of the modern preservation movement, the methodology of this study, and a survey of The Villagers th is history, adding to the case study analysis Comple menting the documented history of the organization, the


52 survey helps to better understand how and why The Villagers have had continuous success and longevity. Identifying contributing hallmarks of The Villagers can form a framework for other volunteer organizations to follow


53 CHAPTER 3 LITERATUR E REVIEW AND METHODOLOGY There is growing interest in documenting and recording the modern historic preservation movement, mainly aiming at the local level and how the profession has changed since the passage of the Nationa l Historic Preservation Act in 1966. For example, historian Theodore J. Karamanski investigates the role of fabricated memories d Historic Districts in Chicago Karamanski reflects on how the creation of historic distri ct s renew, gentrify, and benefit economically from preservation. For his case study, Karamanski focuses on Sheridan Park Historic District, a section of Uptown that was l Lange who hired historians to have the district placed on the National Register not for its architecture significance (which was 1 Receiving historic status worked as Sheridan Park revitalized and Lange profited, even though none of the established residents had ever referred to their neighborhood Karamanski documents the evolution of historic dist ricts in Chicago, this article provides insight into how historians and real estate developers were able to interpret the criteria for National Register for personal gains. The shift from a focus on high style architectural to social and vernacular history allowed for the abuse 1 The Public Historian 32, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 36.


54 2 While Karamanski focuses on Chicago, it is noted that this tool for development has be en commonly used across the country. Shantia Anderheggen also recently documented th e evolution of preservation enactment of a local historic preservation ordinance in 19 65, there have been many changes. 3 Anderheggen explores the many reasons why the ordinance has received criticism from local residents, ranging from confusion over the inclusion of non historic resources in historic neighborhoods to the value placed greatly on Gilded Age resources, when there are many valuable history. Even with the variety of resources Newport obtains, the historic district commission and other professionals in Newport focus mainly on the aesthetic aspects rather than their history. This has led to a lack of historic designation for resources considered ugly or unattractive (and often vernacular). Through this case study of Newport, a recent trend in historic preservation emerged: the focus on architectural history rather than other forms of history a nd associated values As such, many local governments have had a harder time establishing significance for resources that do not fit into that category of aesthetics. 2 Ibid., 41. 3 The Public Historian 32, no. 4 (Fall 2010): 21.


55 While many local governments still have trouble convincing residents that vernacular hist oric sites are significant and that local ordinances are necessary, some councils and commissions have taken a more proactive approach to educating residents on why these ordinances have had a positive impact on their community. The Historic District Counc il, a coalition of community groups advocating for historic districts in New York City, held a conference in 2011, reflecting on the four decades of preservation in the City since the landmark Penn Central case During this conference, multiple panels disc usse d topics such as the change in political and cultural climate in New York City, an overall look at the preservation movement in New York City in the last forty years, and the history of local advocacy organizations, including the common issues they fac e. Some of the earliest beginnings of historic preservation in the United States have been credited to the saving of Independence Hall in 1818 and the formation of the M ount Vernon Ladies Association (1853) : a group of women concerned about the legacy of grassroots movement of preservation. The creation of the ladies group s spread Association in 1889 and the Valley Forge Association in 1878. 4 Max Page and Randall Mason compiled a series of essays to tell the history of the preservation movement in the United States. Giving Preservation A History published in 2004, offers not only information commonly held by preser vationists (the Mount Vernon Ladies Association 4 in Virginia and New England, 1850 Giving Preservation A History ed. Max Page and Randall Mason (New York: Routledge, 2004), 107 129.


56 story), but also tells of other organizations that helped start the preservation movement, such as the foundation of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) in 1910 by William Sum ner Appleton, Jr. that saved the Revere House, as well as many othe r historic buildings in Boston. 5 These lesser known organizations that fought to save historic landmarks throughout the United States have received less credit than some of the more famous cases s uch as the Mount Vernon story. An important aspect of the creation of these primarily female societies, the Mount Vernon (1889), is the role of women following 6 In the mid nineteenth century, women mostly focused their interests on homes, manners, landscapes, and social movements, and as 7 While men concerned themselves with business and politics, women rights, and historic preservation. Throughout the nineteenth century and into the twentieth, but men still developed ideological thought on preservation. 8 As the introduction of Giving Preservation A History states, there is a lack of understanding of the history of historic preservation. This literature is important for showcasing that there was mo re depth to the beginnings of the preservation movement 5 Mich Giving Preservation A History ed. Max Page and Randall Mason (New York: Routledge, 2004), 81 106. 6 7 The Public Historian 12, no. 1 (Winter 1990): 32. 8


57 in the United States than a group of wealthy women who fought to save one structure of political importance. Unfortunately this collection of essays, which details early movements of historic preservation, does not offer much history about preservation after the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966. Any event that ha ppened more recently than the 1960s was given a passing mention in the introductory chapter. Although centered on documenting history, preservationists have not focused on recording the story of their own movement. This lack of reflection follows through o ther highly published works on the history of historic preservation. In Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America (2006), Wil liam J. Murtagh offers a comprehensive look at the preservation movement before and just after the Second Wor ld War. Any recent discussion on preservation focused on the legislative aspect of the discipline, mainly the National Trust, the tax acts that include tax incentives for historic properties, and other governmental laws that cover historic preservation. Ch ristopher Wojno focuses more on the recent history of the hist oric preservation movement in an article published by Journal of Planning Literature in 1991 In his of the historic preservation movement in the latter half of the twentieth century, albeit only in terms of legislative history. While making the argument that historic preservation is good for economic development, Wojno goes into detail about the legislation pas sed since the NHPA that has helped to make historic preservation an economic benefit to many towns and property owners. Reflecting on recent successes and failures of historic preservation projects, Wojno concentrates more on historic preservation as a par tner to economic development, rather than the changes in theories and practices of


58 the profession. While reflecting on the legislative history of historic preservation, the argument of the article is for planners to start using historic preservation as a t ool for economic development, rather than educating the reader on the recent history of the preservation movement. There has been a fair amount of research and study done on legislative history involving historic preservati on. Daniel T. Cavarello reviews t he impact Penn Central v. City of New York (1972) had on case law involving takings cases and historic Penn Central to : The Rise to Immunity of Historic Preservation Designation from Successful Taki theaters, Boyd Theater, was deemed historic. In a 1991 ruling the Pennsylvania Supreme Court declared that the designation of Boyd Theater was a taking, but two years later, after a re argument, the Supreme Court changed their ruling, falling in favor Penn Central Cavar ello investigates how historic preservation ha s retained legitimacy due to upholding the idea that historic designations do not constitute takings under the Fifth Amendment. 9 In the article, Cavarello introduces his topic by offering an expansive history o f historic preservation. Beginning in Europe after the French Revolution, Cavarello explores many of the early landmark efforts of early preservationists in the United States, ending in the 1960s, when many local preservation laws and ordinances were passe d. Like the earlier examples, Cavarello does not document anything about the 9 593 622.


59 modern preservation movement after the passage of many local preservation ordinances in the mid Twentieth century, with the exception of key pieces of legislation and case laws. P reservation History of Miami places like Boston Massachusetts or Alexandria, Virginia. M ost of structures were built in the late nineteenth and early twentieth ce nturies. Initial p reservation efforts began after World War II, close to the time of the founding of The Villagers, Incorporated. 10 Coral Gables was the epicenter in Miami for these early preservation efforts. Not only was Coral Gables home to the first pr eservation organization in Dade County, but it was also the first South Florida city to adopt a local preservation ordinance in 1973. 11 It was eight years later when Dade County implemented a strict preservation ordinance. Part of the new restrictions state d that each municipality had to regulations. 12 The City of Miami also passed a preservation ordinance in 1981, and Miami Beach, a historic district known for its Art Deco and Streamlined Moderne resources, passed its preservation ordinance in 1982. Although Coral Gables was the location for pioneer efforts in preservation in Miami, the focus of early preservation efforts center on Miami Beach and association The Miami Desi gn Preservation League (MDPL). F ounded in 1976 t he nonprofit 10 Beth Dunlop, Miami: Med iterranean Splendor 14 32. 11 Parks, 58. 12 onomic Impacts of Historic Preservation Update 2010 Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, 2010), 96.


60 organization is most well known for its efforts to establish the Miami Beach Architectural Historic District (more commonly called the Art Deco Historic District or South Beach) a National Historic Landmark District Threatened by urban renewal, the district was close to demolition in 1976 before the MDPL fought to get it listed on the Register and to restore the buildings. Kelli Shapir o, a preservationist who focuses on the recent past wr ote the article, 13 As more and more preservationists are recognizing the significance of recently constructed b uildings, there has been a large focus placed on Miami, particularly South Beach. Many of the Art Deco and Streamlined Moderne buildings of Miami Beach were placed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district in 1979. As all of the bu ildings were constructed in the 1930s, 1940s, and a few in 1950s, the Art Deco Historic District was the fi rst National Historic Landmark district with contributing resources primarily from the twentieth century. e that has focused on the placement of Saving South Beach t ells the story of the construction, success, downfall, and eventual dilapidation of the neighborhood in Miami Beach. Built to provide middle class hotels for tourists in the 1930s and 1940s, South Beach had become a shell of its former glamour by the 1970s. With many abandon buildings and empty lots, the neighborhood had transformed from a retirement community to a blighted slum. Stofik examines and analyzes not only what 13 Journal of Architectural Education (2007): 6.


61 Baer Capitman did to have the district placed on t he National Register and to create a historic preservation ordinance in Miami Beach. Since preservation played a large part revitalization, the book focuses on many of the preservation efforts, but little focus was placed on other pre servation organizations or on the history of preservation in Miami. The Villagers were only mentioned once in the book, only to reference them as the oldest preservation advocacy organization in Miami Dade County. Mic helle S. Viegas highlights the state o f Miami Beach in 1970s and 1980s in her rites how the MDPL founded the Miami Beach Community Development Corporation (MBCDC) in 1981 to revitalize the South Beach community. 14 The M BCDC was successful in rejuvenating the neighborhood, with South Beach becoming a popular tourist destination and center for priva te investment. Viegas approaches the South Beach story as a case study in community redeve was not just their focus on preserving and restoring the historic architecture, but understanding how to revitalize the neighborhood and focusing on bringing new life and employment to the a the approaches the MBCDC used to brin g economic rejuvenation to the area, and identifying the fra mework the MDPL and MBCDC used wa s an important part for understanding why they achieved their goals. i s more on the community development group that the MDPL 14 Georgetown Jo urnal on Poverty Law & Policy 8, no. 3 (2005): 394 400.


62 established to re vitalize South Beach, rather than on the pure preservation efforts of the League. Viegas shows that preservationists have often do more than just work to restore the buildings to their aesthetic and architectural peak. Methodology This thesis study involves a case study analysis of The Villagers, using a content analysis of archival documents, informal interviews, and a survey with current members. The intended outcome of this research i s to gain an in depth knowledge of the ion projects, organizational workings, and a tentative list of contributing hallmarks that have To assess why The Villagers became a successful gras sroots organizat ion, a foundational framework was adapted f or the study. Explori ng previous studies that focused on needed a definition. As success can mean many things, and there are many ways to evaluate success: organizational effectiveness, good capacity building, profit, customer satisfaction, and longevity. Unfortunately, many evaluation techniques focused on revenue, especially when researching revolutionary methods. Clyde Hull and Brian Lio offer their own criteria for succ ess, which they profit organizations can use a profits have evaluate their performance upon the fulfillment of the mission o f the organization, while considering evolving externals factors, the current interests of decision makers in the organization, and the multitude of diverse stakeholders. 15 Unlike 15 profit and For profit Organizations: Visionary, Journal of Change Management 6, no. 1 (March 2006) : 56.


63 for profit organizations, non profits have a social responsibility and unders tand that their actions will effect a number of people. Hull and Lio also admit that there has been less focus and less literature on non profit organizations when talking about innovation profit and For pr ofit Organizations: submit a three point model for evaluating organizational structure and policy, which include vision, financial constraints, and strategic constraints. 16 Highlighting the m ajor differences between non profit and for profit org anizations, Hull and Lio focus on risk taking, as it is one of the most important elements of innovation. Risk taking has more implications for nonprofits, as employees and customers will forgive for profits, as long as they continue to provide payment or services. As such, nonprofits are risk adverse, which impacts their learning capabilities. The idea of creating a tool to evaluate capacity and effectiveness has been a more recent idea, as measuring impact has evolved from purely counting the number of people affected by these efforts to understanding how the changes in the behaviors, attitudes and awareness in the affected recipients. 17 Unfortunately, it is hard to evaluate unlike for profit organizations and companies. 18 In their article, Building Efforts for Nonprofit Organizati analyze how nonprofit organizations, consultants, financiers, and evaluators can 16 Ibid., 54. 17 Kendall Guthrie Justin Louie, and Catherine Crystal Foster Advocacy Activities: Part II Inc., Funded by The California En dowment (2006), 4. 18 Ibid., 34.


64 successfully evaluate capacity complicated as success depends on the mission of the group. Connolly and York offer a logic model to evaluate capacity building, but the model itself only articulates a pictorial representation of h ow an evaluation would happen, but does not really propose a framework that could be utilized in this thesis study The models proposed are too broad, especially as this source even states that when approaching nonprofit organizations, models need to be mo re personalized. The California Endowment, a private health organization that gives grants to community based organizations, has develop ed an evaluation framework and methodology to assess whether certain organizations deserve the monetary or other support offered by the Endowment. Focusing on evaluating effectiveness, in 2004, the Endowment contracted a research and design firm to develop an approach to the results of their e arlier study to develop a framework for evaluating policy and Part II developed framework offers six stages for evaluating effective policy and advocacy activities. While the six stages are beneficial for evaluating and identifying reasons for why The Villagers has been successful, the proposed framework focuses heavily on policy advocacy. The Villagers do not conduct policy advocacy. T he organization is more dedicated to fundraising for specific projects and activities than lobbying 19 19


65 Jeffrey Pfe ffer focuses on seven management practices for organizations that want to enhanc e their economic performance. These practices are employment security, selective hiring, decentralized decision making, high compensation, extensive training, reduced distinctions, and openness of financial and performance information amongst the organizat ion. As four of t he seven dimensions center on compensation and hired employees, these practices are not appropriate for evaluating The Villagers. Pfeffer does emphasize that evaluation of long term growth and development are useful and at the very least e ssential for high performance organizations. 20 evaluating effectiveness of NGOs whose mission is to alleviate poverty he comes to the conclusion that understanding NGO effective ness is important and something that 21 With a focus on international development, this article contains a useful list of criteria that contributes to effectiveness: achievable objectives, impact in terms of pove rty reach, alleviation of poverty, sustainability, cost effectiveness, innovation and flexibility, gender impact, 22 Unfortunatel y, the methods for evaluating NGO effectiveness are not comparable across different sectors of organizations or for NGO s located in different parts of the world. Most of these criteria do not apply to The 20 Jeffrey Pfeffer, ccessful Organizations, California Management Review 40, no. 2 (Winter 1998): 96 124. 21 Development Polic y Review 16 (1998): 310 22 Ibid., 307.


66 Villagers, as they deal with cultural and historic heritage, rather than alleviating poverty or environmental impact. So the ability to evaluate effectiveness of non profit organizations is rather complicated and not easily done. While some aspects of the criteria, such as innovation and flexibility, could be utilized for this thesis study most of the criteria, like the impact in terms of advancing democracy and gender, deal with international developme nt, and do not aptly apply for this thesis study Success of Lean Services Implementation on analyzing the critical success factors for the practices of Lean Service. Earlier wor k on identifying these factors suggests a methodology to isolate the most important: case studie s, interviews, and analysis of previous studies. Then, the researcher sent a questionnaire to the respondent to evaluate the level of importanc e. For this study, Hamid derives eighty internal and external factors from research, including case studies on Lean applications and analysis of previous studies of Lean services and techniques. While the methodology from the earlier studies is the procedure used for this study, the mult itude of critical success factors identified is too specific to the discipline of serv ice operations. As Hamid admits organizational structure, environmental situations, and geographical locati 23 Similar i s too particular to be used for this thesis study in identifying hallmarks of The Villagers. 23 tional Conference on Business and Economic Research, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, September 2011): 1501.


67 Focusing on non profit organizations in South Carolina, Zimmermann, Stevens, The DIRECTIONS Nonprofit Resource Assessment Model: A Tool for Small No more closely on agencies similar to The Villagers. Th e work details the cooperative effort between the Departments of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Mana gement of Clemson University and Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service, this study by the Nonpr ofit Education Initiative works to develop a resource assessment model for nonprofit grate resources, 24 The initiative first created a team of academics and formed an advisory council of representatives from multiple nonprofit agencies, funding organizations, and associations across South Carolina. From there, the Nonprofit Education Initiative held focus groups to identify the needs of nonprofits, small and large. From there participants identified characteristics of successful nonprofits: board development, good employee morale and longevity, strong marketing and public relations, good community collaboration, skills in fundraising, mission focused, good financial management, good volunteer development, and so on. While many of these characteristics would apply t o The Villagers, the model developed here does not fulfill the needs completely of creating criteria for effective and successful organizations to follow 24 Resource Assessment Model : A Tool for Small Nonprofit Organizations Nonprofit Management & Leadersh ip 14, no. 1 (Fall 2003): 81


68 The framework that used in this thesis study is the Standards for Excellence Code developed by the St andards for Excellence Institute. 25 A program developed by the Maryland Association of Nonprofit Organizations, an association of Maryland nonprofit groups focused on strengthening and educating nonprofit organizations across Maryland. The Standards for Exc ellence program was created to strengthen nonprofit management and governance. Developed in 1998, the program is centered on eight major benchmarks to provide standards for nonprofit organizations to build capacity, sustainability, and accountability. Many other nonprofit organization associations have adopted the code across the country, such as the Alabama Association of Nonprofits, Center for Nonprofit Excellence, and the Pennsylvania Association of Nonprofits. The benchmarks, which include mission and p rogram, governing body, fundraising, and public policy, are offered with sub principles and descriptions of further characteristics that would be examples of these standards. This framework was chosen because of the depth given in this code. The Code ident ifies eight essential guiding principles that need to be well developed and followed by the organization. These doctrines are: mission and program, governing body, conflicts of interest, human resources, finance and legal, openness, fundraising, and public affairs and public policy. As nonprofits are founded to provide some sort of public good, these organizations need to have a well defined mission with effective and efficient programs to achieve that stated undertaking. Nonprofit organizations need to per iodically revisit their mission s and evaluate their programs 25 Maryland Nonprofits, accessed March 9, 2013, http://www.standardsforexcellen


69 ectiveness in financial matters, mission and policies, and program performance. Every member or employee of a nonprofit organization needs to make sure their actions are in the best interest of the organization, and to battle this possible dilemma, nonprof its need to have a written conflict of interest policy and statements. Human resources principle recommends that groups make sure that there are clear expectations for members and volunteers, so that performance can be effective and meaningful. Organizatio ns should hold orientations for new members to provide be sound financial management and comply with federal, state, and local laws. For openness, nonprofits need to reme mber that they serve a public purpose, and therefore be consistent with its goa ls, its organizational capacity, and respectful of donors. It must also be founded in truthfulness and responsible stewardship. Public af fairs and public policy require that nonprofits should provide public education, public policy advocacy, and encourage members to participate in community affairs. 26 financial data, yearbooks, and scrapbooks, some alternative hallmarks were identified. Then informal interviews were held with lo ng term Villagers members: Dolly MacIntyre (member since 1966), Louise Petrine (member since 1982), Barbara Guilford (member since 1990), Cookie Thelan (member since 1977), Joan Bounds (member since 1984), 26 Maryland Nonprofits


70 and others. Many of these women have held high pos itions, such as president, vice president, and even MacIntyre i s a 1966 Charter Member of The Villagers. From these informal interviews, more characteristics materialized. In the end, these additional hallmarks, not included in the Standard for Excellence Code, were social unity, members with educated/professional backgrounds, focus on educating members on historic preservation issues, focus on achievable projects, transitional meeting places, and dedication of members. Social unity was derived from the cul ture of The Villagers. Many members commented on their desire to join the organization to meet new people, and a reason for their continued role has been due to the friendships and relationships made. Numerous members had achieved a high level of education and careers, which was not as common for women in that time period. 27 knowledge that might have helped the organization persevere. Although the women had tory was to continuously educate its own members on historic preservation subjects. As The Villagers have had continuous achievement in their preservation projects, many members remarked that the organization would only select projects that were achievable Although a headquarters was desired in the 1970s and 1980s, no site was ever chosen. Due to this, meetings have been held at different localities over the years. Villagers remarked both positively and negatively the impact transitional meetings places ha ve had for the group. The last identified hallmark was dedication of members; 27


71 as The Villagers is a purely volunteer organization, no projects would ever be achieved without the members that have contributed so much time and hard work. Survey Development A or numeric description of trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a 28 For this purposes of this thesis study the survey will be q ualitative with open ended questions with requests for participants to rank hallmarks. 29 dat 30 When developing the survey, the Standards for Excellence name for the guiding principles were too broad and non descriptive to use. Rather than provide a page detailing the definition of each hallmark, instead some characteristics were renamed to be more info rmative to survey participants. First mission and program were divided into two separate hallmarks: mission main programs to achieve its mission, but also the foundation of the organization, it was deemed 28 John W. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Los Angeles: Sage Publications, Inc., 2009), 145. 29 I bid., 4. 30 Ibid., 232.


72 more of the organization as a whole, rather than just the leadership. Conflict of interest b membe the community and advocating for the protection of iconic landmarks in the region. The survey was divide d into three sections. The first focused on attaining the gender, educational background, and occupation, were included. The next section s history with The Villagers. Queries concentrated on how long each participant had been a member in the organization, how she learned of the organization, reason for joining, category of membership, number of meetings attended, positions held, and types o f activities participated. The third section delved into the hallmarks originated from the Standard for Excellence Code and from the research conducted in Miami. First Villagers members were asked to rank from one to sixteen each hallmark in relation to it questions included identifying the most consistent characteristics, most changed hallmarks, three primary strengths and three primary weaknesses.


73 T he focus of the survey then turned to examining whether Villagers members perceived the organization fulfilling the hallmarks from the Standards for Excellence statement (mission focused), whether the lack of a headquarters im pacted the organization (transitional meeting places), how available information about The inances were to the community (openness to the g reater Miami c ommunity), and whether they attended a new memb er orientation (organ izational s tructure). The survey was at first distributed at the September Villagers meeting. In mid October of 2012, the survey was also published online. An email was sent to all current Villagers members containing the link take the survey online, as we ll as a hard copy of the survey in case members were more comfortable filling the survey out in paper form. Any responses, which were completed in paper form and mailed, were inputted anonymously into the online survey. The results of the survey were accum ulated on December 12, 2012. M ost questions received forty replies (n=42) With a current membership of slightly less than two hundred, slightly more than twenty percent of The Villagers partook in the survey. Goal of Study Formed in the 1960s, t h e modern preservation movement is approaching an era of maturation. Recently, scholarsh ip has begun documenting the how the discipline has evolved over its fifty year period of growth. While this time of reflection has highlighted many important people and their im pact in the preservation field The Villagers have goal of this thesis study was to feature and document the work that The Villagers have accomplished over the


74 years. In addition to document ation, the objective was to identify what hallmarks field research and the guiding principles detailed by the Standards for Excellence Institute, a survey was develop which hallmarks she believed to have been the most impactful. The survey, which was conducted online, received a twenty percent response rate, with forty members offering their insight. The next chap ter examines the outcomes of the survey and analyzes success.


75 CHAPTER 4 OUTCOMES OF SURVEY Survey of Current Membership This chapter presents and explores the findings of the survey to identify the characteristics hallmarks that have led to the longevity and success of The Villagers, Inc. The results of the survey membership indicate that there are six primary hallmarks that have contributed to the success o projects, dedication of members, fundraising, organizational structure, and social unity. 1 Other questions ascertained that Villagers members feel that their advocacy measures, focus on educating members, and transitional meeting places have also had positive impacts on the organization, although they were not highly ranked in the previous questions. Survey participants also noted that the organization has practiced sound financial management. The characteristi cs that survey participants noticed to have changed the most were focus on achievable projects, the preservation projects themselves, and membership. 2 From the survey comments, membership, openness to the community, and the lack of han ds on projects were t hree aspects that need to be improved. Meetings, specifically when they are scheduled and their structure, were also identified as an area for improvement. Responses The survey was conducted mostly online, although some responses were mailed in on paper. M ailed in responses were blindly input electronically by the researcher to keep them anonymous. The survey went live in mid October of 2012, and the results 1 See Table 4 1. 2 See Figure 4 1.


76 were collected on December 12, 2012. While overall there were forty two recorded survey completions, most questions had a maximum of forty replies. Two people took the survey, but did not answer any questions. As there are slightly less than two hundred members of The Villagers, more than twenty percent of Villagers members participated in the survey. De mographics All the Villagers members who responded to the survey were female (n=40), which was not unexpected, as the organization has only had a few male members since it was founded. The ages of the participants ranged from thirty years old to eighty fou r years old with an average age of sixty six years old (n=39). The mode age was seventy years old Half of the participants have ob (JD, MD, etc.) d egree, and only one Villagers member has not completed high sch ool (n=40). 3 All the women who responded had an occupational identity 4 (n=39). The three most common occupations were in education (twelve), business and financial sector (seven), and healthcare industry (four). Two participants cited careers in historic p reservation. Many responses listed more than one career, but the first one listed was, for the purpose of this thesis study 5 The most common secondary profession was homemaker (five), followed by careers in writing (th ree), business (two), and real estate (two). 3 See Figure 4 2. 4 Categories for occupation were derived from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. 5 See Figure 4 3.


77 Membership The average length of membership of survey participants ranged from eleven to fifteen years, but fifteen participants, more than one third of the total responses (n=40), had been members for less than six years. 6 The short length of membership from many seven of the respondents learned of The Villagers from an existing member, twelve learned o f the organization from a Villagers event, with two learning of the organization by other means (n=41). As there were forty one responses and only forty participants, at least one person chose more than one selection in how she learned of the organization. The top reasons for joining The Villagers were an interest in preservation (twenty), an interest in learning more about Miami and its history (twelve), and to meet new people (nine) (n=29). The survey participants were mostly active members (twenty five), but seven were inactive, and eight were life members (n=40). Eighteen active members dedicated time to roughly one to three fundraising projects a year (n=32). As there were thirty two replies, some inactive and life members responded to the question. Nin eteen active members annually dedicate time to one to three committee activities (n=27). The survey results also show that many inactive members cont inue to dedicate their time to T he Villagers, especially to large fundraising projects. Eleven inactive mem bers still dedicate time to certain projects, activities, and events (n=13). As there were thirteen responses to this question, some contributors in a different membership category responded to this question, as earlier, only seven survey participants clas sified themselves as inactive 6 See Figure 4 4.


78 members earlier. As life membership is an honorific category recognizing longtime and faithful Villagers, these life members can be active or inactive, so this might help explain the overlap in numbers. Most inactive members d edicate time to fundraisers, such as laws require active members to participate in the activities of at least one standing committee and assist with at least one fundraising project but inactive members do not have any requirements to participate in activities. Many survey participants noted that working on these activities and projects help develop relationships and promote a sense of community within the organization. In general, Villagers members attend an average of 4.33 meetings per year (out of a possible eight). Twelve members attend seven to eight meetings a year, eight members attend five to six meetings, six members attend five to six meetings, seven attend two to three, a nd six members attend one to two meetings a year (n=39). Thirty six of the responses have been apart of at least one committee, with the two most popular committees being Projects and Hospitality (n=36). More than half of the responders have held a positio n in the organization, with fifty eight percent (n=40). Of the twenty three participants that have held at least one position, the most prevalent position was a committee chairperson at thirteen (n=23). The next highest position was president or vice presi dent at eight. Of the twenty three Villagers, twelve have held at least two or more positions in the organization. Thirty six Villagers members have recommended someone to attend a fundraising event, thirty two have encouraged someone to join the group, tw enty six have recommended someone attend a Villagers activity or project, fifteen members


79 have recommended someone to apply for funding from The Villagers, and only one person has not recommended The Villagers to anyone (n=40). The top three reasons for jo ining the organization were to learn more about the history of the Miami area, to make friends, and having an interest in preservation. Contributing Hallmarks After conducting research on the organization and holding informal interviews with many Villagers members, some potential hallmarks had been identified that had educated backgrounds of members, the focus on educating members on historic preservation, the focus on a chievable projects, and transitional meeting places. These program. The results of the survey showed that mission focus, preservation projects, dedication of members, fundrais ing, organizational structure, and social unity were considered by Villagers members to be the top five most important factors for the most contributing factors for Th nity was ranked near the bottom as th e twelfth most important factor of the sixteen choices. In the follow up questions though, social unity was a top response, showing that its importance as a hallmark is more implicit. Missi on Focus Mission focus was the top ranked characteristic with a mean of 2.39 for Question 22, which asked Villagers members to order the hallmarks in terms of how she feels


80 7 Village rs me mbers also chose mission focus as the third primary strength of the organization (n=32), the fourth most consistent characteristic (n=32), and third in contributing to longevity and growth (n=32). Eighteen members considered themselves very familiar w members, twenty one percent, were s omewhat to not at all familiar with the mission statement of the organization (n=38). It was not surprising that many members considered miss ion focus to be the top that the group was committed to furthering its mission. One Villager who was interviewed mentioned that when debates occur over new ideas and proj ects for the towards. 8 Preservation Projects Preservation p rojects came in second in the rankings list, with a mean of 3.6. It was also selected as a primary st rength (n=32), was considered to be the most consistent charac teristic (n=32), but tied with focus on achievable p rojects as the most 7 See Table 4 2. 8 All quotes from the survey results of current membership of The Villagers.


81 From previous research, it was noted that the type of preservation projects had evolved over the years, and the history chapter of this study documents the changes that have occurred. As the projects help to fulfill The rising that the preservation projects were ranked high as defined mission, and its programs should effectively and efficiently 9 While keeping its mission in mind, The Villagers have run effective preservation projects that not only fulfill its mission, but also are physical examples of what the organization has achieved. Dedication of Member s Chosen as the third highest contributing hallmark (average 4.54), dedication of members was also selected as the top strength of The Villagers, the third most This hallmark was not derived from the Standards for Excellence Code, but was a trait that was observed from research and informal interviews. While it was expected to perform well, the results showed that there was almost a culture to being a Villagers member Members were described as with a passion for life, not 9 The purpose of The Villagers, Inc. is to promote an appreciation of history through the acquisition, restoration and preservation of structure, sites, buildings and objects havin g special historica l or architectural significance.


82 organization continues to remain focused on the core mission of historic preservation. In addition, these key members continue to educate other members on l egislative issues that develop and that we need to take action on. These members motivate other Fundraising Fundraising was ranked fourth, with a mean of 4.61. It was also considered to be one of the most consistent characteristics. Members noted that while the type of fundraising events had changed over time, they have remained profitable. All of the members believed that The Villagers were very accurate and truthful when reporting the organiza Due to this continued success, The Villagers have always been able to fund the preservation projects and other programs that help the organization achieve its mission. The Vi llagers members also commented on how fundraising has always been [in] or support Organizational Structure Organizational structure was ranked fifth in contributing ch aracteristics of success, with an average of 5.63. While it was not chosen as one of the most consistent hallmark in the rankings question, the re sponses to the question showed implicitly that organizational structure was a consistent throughout The Villag ers Many survey laws of the organization. The officers are careful to follow these by


83 That is something that makes the organization special. It is one thing to have well written by laws, but another to have the governing body of members to enforce the by laws effectively In Question 39, every survey participant believed that the board (n=38). Modeled after another organization of which a founder was a member the by laws have changed very little Even after becoming a corporation in 1976, The Villagers have added only three new articles, with two ions of and modifications to standing committees, increasing dues, and refining member requirements to help the organization achieve its goals and keep up with contemporary trends Social Unity A hallmark identified from previous research, interviewed Vill agers members recognized social unity as an important part of sustained membership in the organization. One of the top reasons for members joining the organization was a desire to make friends or meet new people (n =29), and as such, m any Villagers remained in the group due to friendships gained. One participant membership, these women have grown extremely close which furthers their levels of four women reported to have made sustaining friendshi ps due to her involvement with the organization (n=37). Surprisingly, social unity was ranked far below the previous five hallmarks at twelfth, with a mean of 7.63. While n ever explicitly listed as a contributing hallmark, social unity was the number one r


84 unity was also identified as an important contribution to the longevity and growth for The Villagers (n=32). onal structure. The job of the corresponding secretary, a position that has been part of the organization for over sickness, death, birth, be an understated, yet very important hallmark for The Vill Other Outcomes The survey also worked to identify how Villagers members feel about the state of each hallmark. Participants helped identify previous and ongoing challe nges faced by the organization. In many ways, t he group is working to solve its current challenges. One example is the development of the Heritage Network Committee to improve its advocacy measures and increase relationships with other agencies a nd organizations in the region. For the most part, all of the potential hallmarks proposed have been well implemented and have had a positive impact on the organization, but were not identified that was an aspect of the Stan dard s for Excellence Code, disclosed conflicts of interest, did not receive much attention, with one member questioning why it was included. Challenges are in your opinion, the other questions. When the query was asked during the informal interviews, members


85 would generally say there were no weakness, before identifying one challenge: aging membership. When the questi on about weaknesses was proposed, only eleven participants were able to identify any weaknesses (n=29). Most other responses were, ing membership (five), a lack of diversity in membership (three), meetings (five), and openness to the community (four). One community and cultural changes, while maintaining the purpose of historic evolved and grown to remain effective and successful as a nonprofit, preservation minded organization. Membership Changes Over the years, The Villag ers have grown, while retaining many of the same members. When the organization was first founded, the members were described as 10 whole. The survey results show that the membership of The Villagers has aged, with the average age of sixty six years old One member n Many members have also remarked on the lack of hands on projects, which has been attributed to aging members, as well as other factors, such as the increased specialization of preservation. Other challenges concerning membership were the lack of diversity in membership, but some noted that some members are reluctant to take leadership roles. 10 The Miami Herald September 29, 1971.


86 One aspect of the organizational structure was to prepare new members to wh olly understand the requirements and policies of The Villagers. When asked, seventeen women found the new member orientation to be very helpful, eleven found it to be extremely helpful, four did not attend a new member orientation, and five found the new m ember orientation to be somewhat to not at all helpful (n=37). If members do not fully after attending introductory meetings these new member orientations might need to be improved. Meetings An aspect of organization al struc ture, meetings were identified by some Villagers as too bureaucratic and non flexible. As participants note that there is a requirement for Villagers to attend at least four general meetings annually but they are all held on Friday mornings. This survey h as shown that most members average more than four meetings a year, but some Villagers have pointed out that with careers, it is hard for members criticized the procedures at general meetings, noting the wasted time reviewing minutes, writing in exasperati Openness to the Community improved. Seventeen survey responders belie


87 and finances were very available to the public (n=37). Eight members believed it was extremely available, but twelve participants thought information was only slightly to somewhat available. Twenty seven members t hought the organization advocated for public participation in their activities and projects very or extremely often (n=37). Ten members thought there was not frequent promotion for public participation in the questions received a wide variety of responses, hinting that openness to the public might need improvement. Transitional Meeting Places In the 1970s and 1980s, there was constant discussion at meetings about finding a headquarters for The Villagers. No he adquarters were ever uncovered, and meetings have continued to be held at various sites across Miami, from Coral Gables landmarks to a Miami aircraft hangar. While three members believed that the lack of a headquarters has impacted the organization negativ ely, fifteen participants believed the lack of a physical maintenance costs, property taxes, and a mortgage, all of which would take away from twelve survey participants cited learning more abou reason for joining The Villagers, holding meetings at numerous significant places in learn more about the history of


88 Focus on Educating Members One focus of The Villagers has been encouraging their own members to learn more about preservation. Thirty two members have attend ed lectures involving historic preservation, twenty six have attended presentations on historic preservation, twenty five have attended Dade Heritage Days (A Dade Heritage Trust fundraising event), and seventeen have attended Art Deco Weekend (n=34). Less than fifty percent of survey participants have attended historic preservation conferences, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation Conference, the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation Centur y Modernism Conference organized by Dade Heritage Trust. When attending these events, The Villagers promoted these educational events or provided support for nineteen of the survey participants (n=32). Over time, the organization has offered funding for a few members to attend the Florida and National Trust Conferences, as well as presenting lectures on historic preservation at its monthly meetings. Advocacy The Villagers started as a group advocating for the protection of the Douglas Entrance. Recently, t heir advocacy efforts have seemed to lessen as the organization has focused more on awarding grants and scholarships. Throughout the years, The Villagers have worked to form relationships with other organizations, historic sites, educational institutions, and other entities. When asked how these relationships have impacted the organization, all participants but one said positively (n=28). Members noted that these established relationships help The Villagers achieve their mission, allow for recognition, and offer the organization places to hold meetings. One woman observed that The Villagers has strived to maintain some distance from other agencies


89 interest. While the relatio nships developed with other agencies have been deemed need to be strengthened and the Heritage Network Committee intends to address this ittee has been designed to increase the communication between multiple organizations interested in conservation of land, landscapes, and historic sites. Still in the preliminary stages of implementation, the association will utilize an email network so tha is and what it's doing." 11 Disclosed Conflict of Interest A guiding principle of the Standards for Excellence Code was disclosing any conflicts of interest. This hallmark was not expected by the researcher to be co nsidered observations and research indicated that disclosing conflicts of interest was never mentioned or included in any aspect of the organization. As most members came from a no n historic preservation background, there was little opportunity for any conflicts to arise. Only one participant had to disclose any conflicts of interest that might arise during her membership (n=35). One person felt the need to pinpoint this hallmark, s 11 Quote from Dolly MacIntyre, the Chair of the Heritage Network Committee and Charter Member of The Villagers


90 Sound Financial and Legal Practices While this hallmark was not highly ranked in any of the survey results nor did it part icularly resonate in the responses, thirty six members believed that The Villagers practiced very or extremely sound financial management (n=37). While survey continuous success, some members noted that sound financial stewardship and from the 1980s support these beliefs, as the organization invested raised funds in bonds. As thirty s even of forty survey participants have been Villagers for twenty five years or less, they were not apart of the organization when it started its investment ventures. Review of Results The survey showed that Villagers members consider mission focus, preserv ation projects, dedication of members, fundraising, organizational structure, and social unity former four were explicitly expressed through their selections in certain q uestions, the latter two were more implicitly stated in the replies From responses, survey participants considered the organization to have followed the Standards for Excellence Code in utilizing sound financial and legal practices and disclosed conflicts of interest. Identified hallmarks, such as focus on educating members and transitional meeting places, were considered to have had a positive impact on the organization. When describing weaknesses, many members were hesitant to acknowledge any, but aging membership, advocacy, openness to the community, and meetings were considered to be some challenges. The Villagers have worked to address and improve its advocacy


91 with the implementation of the Heritage Network Committee. Members were at ease describing th e positives of the organization. One member poignantly described the Miami. Many have come from much older communities and desired to make our community extraordinary. W e treasure the beginnings of our community and want to


92 Table 4 1 Top six contributing hallmarks according to Villagers members Top Hallmarks Reasons for choice as a contributing hallmark Mission Focused members can rally around. Preservation Projects Even though preservation projects was chosen as most consistent, it was also considered as one of the most changed hallmarks. Not only the vessel to bring members together, these projects offer a physical symbol Dedicate d of Members where there are clear expecta tions for how members should act as Villagers. Members are described as Fundraising Events Similar to projects, fundraising events are a source of affinity for members. As the organization raises its own money from these events, The Villagers have the freedom and flexibility to evolve and not have to refer to a higher entity. Organizational Structure The organization has had excelle nt leaders who enforce the rules and continue to inspire members. In addition, all of the by laws have articles that encourage the presence of these hallmarks. Social Unity Not ranked as a highly contributing hallmark explicitly, social unity was a const ant mention in the qualitative responses as an impactful hallmark. It was also a top reason for joining The Villagers.


93 Figure 4 1 Hallmarks considered by current membership to have changed the most over the years ( n =15) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Other Dedication of Members Transitional Meeting Places Focus on Achieveable Projects Focus on Educating Members Comprised of Members with Educated/Professional Backgrounds Social Unity Public Education and Advocacy Fundraising Events Openness to Community Sound Financial and Legal Practices Member Requirements Conflict of Interest Organizational Structure Preservation Projects Mission Focused


94 Figure 4 2 Highest level of education completed by survey participants ( n =40) Some High School 2% Some College 7% 2 Year Degree 7% 4 Year Degree 33% Master's 38% Doctoral 3% Professional 10% Some High School High School/GED Some College 2 Year Degree 4 Year Degree Master's Doctoral Professional


95 Figure 4 3 n =39) Education 31% Bussiness 18% Healthcare 10% Management 8% Administrative 8% Social Work 5% Preservation 5% Design and Media 5% Computer 5% Service and Sales 2% Legal 3%


96 Figure 4 4 The years survey participants have spent as members of The Villagers ( n =40) 15 6 9 2 5 1 1 0 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 21 to 25 26 to 30 31 to 35 36 to 40 41 and up


97 Figure 4 5 Hallmarks considered by current Villagers to have remained the most consistent over the years ( n =32) 2 26 12 16 22 7 14 15 28 10 19 16 2 15 29 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Other Dedication of Members Transitional Meeting Places Focus on Achieveable Projects Focus on Educating Members Comprised of Members with Educated/Professional Backgrounds Social Unity Public Education and Advocacy Fundraising Events Openness to Community Sound Financial and Legal Practices Member Requirements Conflict of Interest Organizational Structure Preservation Projects Mission Focused


98 Table 4 2 How Villagers members ranked the hallmarks in terms of their contribution to n =35 ) Hallmarks Average ranking 1 Mission Focused 2.93 2 Preservation Projects 3.6 3 Dedication of Members 4.54 4 Fundraising Events 4.61 5 Organizational Structure 5.63 6 Member Requirements 6.38 7 Focus on Educating Members 6.48 8 Sound Financial and Legal Practices 6.58 9 Public Education and Advocacy 6.71 9 Comprised of Members with Educated/Professional Backgrounds 6.71 11 Focus on Achievable Projects 6.91 12 Social Unity 7.63 13 Openness to the Greater Miami Community 8.25 14 Transitional Meeting Places 8.71 15 Other 9 16 Conflict of Interest 11.75


99 CHAPTER 5 OBSERVATIONS Summary of Study The goal of this thesis study was to identify the hallmarks that contributed to The depth research was conducted to record the history of the organization Analyzing decades of financial documents, meeting minutes, projects preservation and fundraising projects. Informal interviews were then held with former presidents and long time members of The Villagers. From these interviews, some hallmarks began to emerge as possible factors in Using the Standards for Excellence Code as a framework, a survey was developed using the i dentified characteristics from the research conducted in Miami social unity, members with educated/professional backgrounds, focus on educating members, focus on achievable projects, transitional meeting places, and dedication of members and the eight guiding principles laid out by the Code mission and program, governing body, conflict of interest, member requirements, sound financial and legal practices, openness to the community, fundraising, and public education and advocacy. Forty current members of The Villagers participated in the survey to help rank and identify which hallmarks were the most contributing. The survey showed that the top contributing hallmarks that Villagers members valued were mission focused, preservation projects, dedication of members, fundraising, organizational structure, and social unity.

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100 Reflections f rom Survey While the former four mission focused, preservation projects, dedication of members, and fundraising were explicitly expressed in the ranking questions, the latt er two organizational structure and social unity we re implicitly expressed, mostly in the responses and comments about the o rganization. As the Code focuses on non profit organizations that pay employees, The Villagers differed in that they are a purel y volunteer organization. With no hired staff, the organization solely depends on its membership to achieve its mission. longevity and success. If the organization had decided to grow and eventually hire employees, the volunteer members would not be as integral to the process and management of the organization. The Villagers show that for volunteer organizations to dedicated participants will adhere. Many members, while loyal, have continued to commit their time to The Villagers due to the sustaining relationships they have developed with othe r se friendships, The Villagers might have a larger turnover in membership, possibly creating more weaknesses that would affect the health and durability of the organization. Other Impactful Hallmarks While there was a clear top six contributing hallmarks, a few other characteristics had an effect o n The Villagers. These were transitional meeting places, a focus on educating members, and sound financial and legal practices. Although fundraising was sound financ

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101 finances and funds. While the current membership all believed the organization practiced extremely sound financial and legal practices, most of the members had only been a part of The Vil lagers for less than six years. After examining the financial documents over the years, it was found that The Villagers invested monies the y had raised in a treasury bill in 1979. In 1980, their investment had matured, and The Villagers decided to invest more money, receiving a thirteen percent interest rate. During the 1980s, the organization began to see the fruits of their ventures, and their assets increased enormously during t his time. While fundraising has been integral for the grants, scholarships, and funds donated to preservation projects in the region, it would be shortsighted to ignore the sound financial and legal practices The Villagers have undertaken to get the best u se of the funds they have raised. As the organization is dedicated to promoting an appreciation of history, The Villagers have utilized their transitional meeting places to achieve its mission. While over the years The Villagers constantly searched for pro perty to acquire as their headquarters, this goal never came to fruition, but this has benefitted the organization by keeping them free of a mortgage and maintenance fees. Monthly meetings have been held at various locations across Miami, encouraging membe rs to learn more about Miami, its history, and its culture. to sites that The Villagers have helped to restore to iconic landmarks in Miami. M any organizations and associations do not have headquarters, an d therefore hold meetings in different locations Unlike other organizations, The Villagers have he ld meetings at places considered interesting or memorable to other members, creating an

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102 informal standard of locating meetings at places that inspire and enlighten. As m any members joined the organization hoping to learn about and see more of Miami, these meeting places can be used as a selling point for potential members. While the lack of a headquarters might have hindered the organization in terms of leg itimacy, holding meetings in changing but interesting locales facilitates educational purposes for members. It is not just the aspect of having transitional meeting places, but the emphasis on scheduling meetings a t sites that motivate curiosity and inter action, and that Since the survey showed that many members jo ined the organization to learn about history and preservation, another important hallmark that appeared to impact the organization is the focus on educating members on historic preservation issues. As preservation has developed as a discipline over the years, The Villagers have worked to remain knowledgeable in preservation practices. Not only do meetings help educate members on Miami hi story and preservation, the organization has encouraged members to attend conferences and events on preservation, such as the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation Conference and Dade Heritage Days. In addition, The Villagers offer funding for two people to attend the National Trust for Historic Preservation or the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation Conferences on the condition that they have not received funding from the group before. As The Villagers rely on volunteers to run the organization, this focus on educating members has worked to open membership in that new members do not need to be well informed on preservation before joining. Challenges and Opportunities Some challenges were observed from research and the survey. As the organization has a ged, so have many of its members. A Villager wrote in the survey that

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103 This aging membership was first recognized during the informal interviews held with long ti me members. This was confirmed by the results of the survey, where the average age was sixty six years old but the mode was seventy years old While many in the organization have acknowledged this challenge for the future of The Villagers a solution to t he problem has not been found. A recommendation might be for the group to create a committee to focus on recruiting younger members, or even a committee specifically for younger members Rather than meet on Friday mornings, these meetings might be in the e venings at locations that might appeal more to younger people, such as bars, restaurants, coffee shops. These meetings would not have to be a replacement for the standard monthly meeting, but a way to appeal younger members. Another possibility in gaining younger members is actively recruiting men. While The Villagers have had a handful of male members over the years, the With the inclusion of men, it will add more diversity and different perspecti ves to the membership. F rom the survey, some Villager s members admitted that some newer members lack the leadership previously displayed by earlier members. Another aspect of membership that has challenged the organization is the fact that some members hav e careers in addition to being a Villager. As mentioned before, s urvey participants noted that rigidity of meetings in their timing. Active members are required to attend four meetings a year, but meetings are held on Friday mornings. This has made it diff icult for members with occupations to attend these meetings, as they are

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104 during work hours. Another challenge about meetings was that members complained that they were too bureaucratic and inefficient. While The Villagers have some challenges for the futur e, many of these weaknesses were a reflection of societal changes over the years. As families move from one income to two, among other reasons, women have joined the workforce. With their time dedicated to their jobs and their family, there is less time to devote to a non profit organization. Over the past few decades, there has been declining involvement in community organizations, public meetings, and political engagements. 1 With this decline, it is imperative to appeal to younger generations. To attract younger members, who will most likely have careers, The Villagers need to be more flexible in scheduling and timing Thus the strictness of holding meetings Frida y mornings will need to change. Another challenge identified by survey participants was the lack of advocacy and openness to the community. Unlike the previous flaws, the organization is now working to improve its relationship with other agencies in preservation. The Villagers are now implementing a new committee, the Heritage Network Committee, to develop an email network between organizations in preservation and conservation. Established after a meeting was held with many organizations in the area, the Heritage Network Committee hopes to increase knowledge between these agencies on what each org anization is currently doing. Miami has changed a lot over the past fifty years, especially in demographics and population. In the past The Villagers have often selected to focus on 1 Robert D. Putnam, Journal of Democracy (January 1995): 65 78

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105 restoring older resource types, often resources constructed before the 19 40s. Miami has developed and grown since then, and the organization should look into addressing more recent historic types. eed to grow and evolve with community and cultural In addition, focusing on new resource types might help attract new and younger members who have varied interests Possible Next Steps With six contributing hallmarks having been ide ntified, more research needs to be conducted. Over the years, the keepers of records were the officers themselves. So the secretaries kept the meeting minutes, the third vice president held the preservation projects, and so on. Due to this, many records ha ve been lost over the years, such as the entire year of records from 1977. While the history chapter provided an in depth history of the organization, more research could and needs to be done. Formal interviews need to be held with key members from the org anization, especially past presidents and people who were involved with some of the larger projects. These formal interviews will help fill in the missing gaps that these lost records have created. In the same vein, oral histories need to be conducted with long time members. There are a few charter members left, such as Dolly MacIntyre, who was the held the organization together, according to one Villagers member. She would be an ideal candidate for an oral history, not just for The Villagers, b ut also for the Dade Heritage Trust, which she helped found. As The Villagers helped form the Dade Heritage Trust and supported other preservation activities across the state of Florida, there should be more research into

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106 the these other organizations and agencies. This would be important not only for The relationships between The Villagers and these organizations, like the Dade Heritage Trust. Learning more about how The Village rs interacted with other agencies could potentially unveil up other hallmarks that were not observable during this thesis study Another aspect of the organization that needs to be researched is the scholarship program that The Villagers established in the early 1980s. As the group donates more than twenty thousand dollars a year in scholarships, there needs to be analysis on the impact the scholarships have had on preservation in Florida. Recommendations Not all studies are perfect, and this one was no exc eption. Some aspects of the survey design could be improved. From the responses to the survey, it was obvious that there were differences in how people interpreted the hallmarks presented. In the future, it would be better to offer an explanation of what e ach characteristic entailed. This way, survey participants would have had a definition of each hallmark, and responses would have been more consistent in their interpretation. Another survey improvement could be the emphasis on why the rankings questions w ere important. Many members answered incorrectly, rather than assign one number consecutively, some survey participants would put one number next to multiple answers. One member even wrote that ranking r explained why the rankings were necessary, members might have taken more time and care in their responses. As previously mentioned, membership of The Villagers is aging In this way, holding the survey online might have been a negative factor. Many membe rs sent emails not understanding how to take the survey. For every member that asked

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107 questions, it is unknown as to how many members did not complete the survey due to a lack of knowledge in taking surveys online. While hard copies of the surveys were prov ided, they were done so through email. Again, technology was used to distribute the survey for people who might not have access or the most familiarity with using email. This could have dissuaded people from taking the survey. Another recommendation is how will this information from this study be disseminated. The Villagers have a wealth o f documents and knowledge, but they have not distributed this information With certain hallmarks identified for contributing to The s imperative that this knowledge is available for other organizations to follow. From reports to a website, the benchmarks could be network. On a larger scale, a nation wide organization, such as the Nation al Trust for Historic Places could take a proactive approach by developing a database of preservation minded, nonprofit organizations across the United States. with the National Trust for Histo ric Preservation and should be used as a model all over With a consolidated list of these groups, there could be more analysis and research conducted on the hallmarks that contributed to these organizations and their longevity. With the accumulated knowledge, National Trust could promote the identified benchmarks and work to create an association of these nonprofit organizations (similar to Maryland Nonprofits) which would lead to a stronger preservation presence in the nation.

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108 On a smaller scale, The Villagers need to improve the dissemination and storage of their own kn owledge. Unfortunately, as many officers kept the records from their time of service, many of these docum ents have been lost over the years. As the organization does not have headquarters, their records are kept in a storage unit that is not easily accessed to all members. This does not facilitate the sharing of their growing records and knowledge. The organi zation should look into amassing all the records they can find to donate to like minded archival organizations in the area. Possible caretakers could be the Dade Heritage Trust, University of Miami (a Coral Gables institution), or other history focused org anizations in the area. If The Villagers do not want to donate their physical archives, another alternative would be for the group to digitalize their records. This database, another as Without an emphasis on collecting their records and archiving their materials, more information will be lost about The Villagers which could be very useful to historians, other nonprofits organizations, and researchers l ocated in Miami and across Florida. The Villagers have been responsible for the preservation of many landmarks across Miami, and while these historic sites will continue to represent all the work that these women have a ccomplished, The Villagers should rec eive more attention for their longevity and continuous success. Hopefully, this study will be the beginning to a better understanding as to why The Villagers have been such an influential and consistent organization, which will provide for a better framewo rk for other nonprofit organizations to emulate.

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109 landmarks immeasurable In addition to developing and furthering historic preservation in Florida, The Villagers have established important partnerships and relationships throughout the state, but especially in Coral Gables and its neighboring towns. One aspect of the organization is not just its important preservation work, but also the support it has off ered to its members. As one Villager stated,

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110 APPENDIX A VILLAGERS PROJECTS LIST One aspect of this thesis study was to document all of the preservation projects yearbo oks, this list was complied. Each project was categorized by what kind of preservation treatment was applied: advocacy, documentation, restoration, maintenance, and education. The compilation on the next page.

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111 Table A 1. Complete List of T he Villagers Projects from 1966 to 2011 Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Douglas Entrance 1966 Advocacy Maintenance Douglas Entrance N/A Villagers Corporation purchased the Douglas Entrance, conceived to create a Design Center Arch, Interior Design, Fixtures, etc. Unable to do complete the project, so they sell to Arch firm in 1972 Biltmore Hotel 1972 Advocacy "Save the Biltmore" N/A Party at Casa Loma, Fiesta Vizcaya 1972 Restoration Education Maintenance Vizcaya Efforts include cleaning the bathrooms, the Casino on the Mound, the Powder Room. This project continues for a few years. Zoological Society 1972 General Support Crandon Park Zoo $500 Junior Class of Coral Gables High 1973 Restoration Country Club House at the Biltmore $300 Tom Pepper, a student, requested the funds. Florida Division of Archaeology 1973 Documentation Survey of Dade County Historic Resources $1,000 Survey of Historic Resources in Dade County The Villagers 1973 Education Villagers Book $23,000 Outstanding Homes of Miami. Why there are no projects for the next few years. Anderson's Corner 1976 Advocacy Restoration Anderson's Corner $1,000 Lobbied the Dade County Commissioner to set aside $25,000 in federal funds to buy Anderson's Corner. Gave a stay of execution on demolition. Villagers began to work to restore the building to its 1906 condition, and operate it as a historical landmark.

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112 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Anyone 1977 Education Seminars $0 Three seminars about South Florida History Metropolitan Museum of Art 1977 Restoration Casa Loma Building at Biltmore N/A Anderson's Corner 1977 Documentation Anderson's Corner $0 Got the Building listed on the NRHP City of Coral Gables 1977 Restoration Merrick Manor $1,135 For restoration of the wicker chairs Carrollton School 1977 Documentation Maintenance Carrollton School Fountain $132 Spent time and interest. Central Courtyard was restored to 1918 Save the Alamo Campaign 1978 Advocacy Documentation Alamo $360 Alamo was moved from site, and placed on NHRP. Salvaged item s from soon to be demolished Bulme r Apartments, such as windowpanes, French doors, doorknobs, and pine beams for the Alamo. Money was for preservation architect Herschel Shepard Coral Gables House 1978 Restoration Coral Gables House $1,000 Money allocated to finish restoration of house and porch No one 1978 Documentation Advocacy Bulmer/Bohmar Apartments $0 Building was declared unfeasible by Herschel Shepard Butler Building 1980 Documentation Butler Building $0 Building was relocated to Ford Dallas Park

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113 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Vizcaya 1979 Restoration Vizcaya $500 FIU 1979 Education Scholarship $500 Old library building in South Miami 1979 Documentation Old Library $0 Prepare an application to get it listed on the NRHP Save the Alamo Campaign 1980 Restoration Alamo $2,000 Alamo was moved from site, and placed on NHRP Dr. Thelma P. Peters Memorial Fund 1980 General Support Memorial Fund $500 Donated to a memorial fund. Not sure why Black Archives History and Research Foundation, Inc. 1981 General Support Black Archives History and Research Foundation, Inc. $100 Donated money to become a member of this organization The Alamo 1981 Restoration "Oh! Henry" $5,500 For restoration projects in the Alamo Sunset Elementary School 1981 Restoration Maintenance Old Larkin Schoolhouse $400 Helped with research, scraping paint. 21 Villagers and 6 husbands, and 7 PTA reps sanded the building MMA 1981 Restoration Biltmore Fountain $25,000 Gave $4200 for monthly maintenance for 5 years In 1987, after years of maintenance cost, Villagers asks for the MMA to develop a maintenance plan

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114 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Woodrow Wilkins Archives of Architectural Records 1982 Advocacy Woodrow Wilkins Archives of Architectural Records $100 To become a member of this organization Vizcaya 1982 Education Vizcaya Seminar $0 Seminar for placing a property on NRHP Tennessee Williams House 1983 Restoration Tennessee Williams House $0 Funds raised end up dedicated to another project, as they take no action. Plymouth Congregational Church 1983 Restoration Old Schoolhouse $2,000 For restoration FIU, UM, UF 1983 Education Scholarship $1,500 Scholarships are expanded Vizcaya 1984 Restoration Vizcaya N/A To purchase two flagpoles for Vizcaya The Barnacle 1984 Advocacy The Barnacle $100 For an Extension Dade Heritage Trust 1984 Restoration Brown House $200 For the relocation and reconstruction of a historic house Barnacle Society 1985 Advocacy Commodore Bay $100 Donation to prevent $100 to prevent commercial development of the property, adjacent to the Barnacle (possibly part of it?)

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115 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes The Villagers 1985 Education Fundraising Cookbook N/A A lot of money was dedicated to the cookbook project. One of their biggest hands on projects, as they cookbook also included history of South Florida (and other parts of Florida). Really part cookbook/history book. Metropolitan Museum of Art 1985 General Support Metropolitan Museum of Art $100 To become a member of this organization Carrollton School 1985 General Support Carrollton School $100 To thank them for the use of the property for the Historic Hunt Venetian Pool 1986 Maintenance Venetian Pool $0 Paint the wrought iron and other hands on cleaning Barnacle Society 1986 General Support The Barnacle $100 To become a member of this organization Metropolitan Museum of Art 1986 Maintenance Biltmore Fountain $100 Had fountain cleaned Metropolitan Museum of Art 1987 Maintenance Biltmore Fountain $200 To relocate the existing pool pump, and to make sure that the pool is maintained after cleaning. Deering Estate 1987 Restoration Deering Estate $660 Historic Hunt proceeds went to the Deering Estate

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116 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Barnacle Society 1988 Maintenance The Barnacle $7,000 Also gave 45 books of stamps, joined Barnacle Society, and developed partnership, beginning of Christmas Tree Decoration. Specific tasks were to repaint the interior. Hands On had fixing clocks, dolls, repairing furniture, rugs, and pictures. Coral Gables Women's Club 1988 Restoration Coral Gables Women's Club $100 Restoration purposes. FIU, UM, UF 1988 Education Scholarship $4,500 Scholarships expanded in funds Coconut Grove Schoolhouse 1988 Education Restoration Quilt $1,400 Beginning of Annual Quilt Fundraiser Gusman Center 1989 Restoration Gusman Statuary $7,675 Paid for Mark Jeffries to restore the statues, including newly plastering limbs and paint Deering Estate Foundation 1990 General Support Founder's Life Membership $1,000 Donated $1000 to become a life member of the Deering Estate Dade County Commission 1990 Advocacy Historic Preservation Division $0 Pat Ormond attend a Commission meeting to speak in opposition of a "cut" to eliminate the HP Division Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Recreation Area 1990 Restoration Cape Florida Lighthouse $1,000 To receive "Landmark Club Membership" to indicate the dedication of Villagers to restore the landmark National Tropical Botanical Garden 1991 Restoration Education Kampong $30,000 Funds were for adaptive reuse of buildings Villagers became docents for interpretation

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117 Table A 1. Continued Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Barnacle Society 1992 General Support The Barnacle $1,000 Donation at their annual fundraiser Coral Gables City Hall 1992 Restoration Denman Fink Painting $5,850 Restoration of painting and frame Plymouth Congregational Church 1993 General Support Plymouth Congregational Church $1,000 Gift from proceeds of National Trust Tour Fairchild Tropical Museum 1993 Advocacy Fairchild Tropical Gardens (Kampong) $3,000 Gate House Museum was established by moneys donated, matching grant Sunset Elementary School 1994 Relocation Old Larkin Schoolhouse $3,000 Helped relocate the Old Schoolhouse to new location in Tropical Audubon Society Coconut Grove Schoolhouse 1994 Maintenance Coconut Grove Schoolhouse $2,500 Property repair and landscaping Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Recreation Area 1995 Education Restoration Cape Florida Lighthouse Project $60,000 Receiving matching grant from State of $40,000 to restore the Lightk eeper's Cottage. Part of a larger project to restore the lighthouse and cottage. UM 1995 Education Scholarship $1,500 Scholarship added for UM Coconut Grove Schoolhouse 1995 Education Coconut Grove Schoolhouse $2,500 Created new display for historic memorabilia Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Recreation Area 1996 Documentation Education Cape Florida Lighthouse Project $0 Received grant of $10,000 from City of Key Biscayne to produce video, depicting the lifestyle of the lightkeeper and his family

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118 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Coconut Grove Women's Club 1997 Maintenance Restoration Coconut Grove Women's Culb $40,000 Money was to replace windows so building could be A/C ed, upgrade electrical system, also restored foundation of the building Dade County 1997 Restoration Dade County Courthouse Lobby $5,000 PF includes the dedication ceremony invite Fairchild Tropical Gardens 1997 Maintenance Restoration Kampong $1,147 Restoration of Interpretive Center, including wood replacement and treatment to window and fixing of gutter, window tinting Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Recreation Area 1998 General Support Cape Florida Lighthouse $670 Old Fashion Picnic for the Rededication Celebration of the Lighthous e. Seminole Theater 1998 Restoration Seminole Theater $25,000 New Marquee National Tropical Botanical Garden 1998 Rehabilitation Kampong $3,405 A/C grant Junior League of Miami 1998 Restoration Junior League of Miami $2,000 Donor Wall, to go to "Headquarters Restoration Fund." Mary Ann Ballard Field of Interest Fund 1998 General Support Mary Ann Ballard Field of Interest Fund $1,000 In memory of Mary Ann Ballard Land Trust of Dade County 1999 Restoration Marjorie Stoneman Douglas $25,000 Restoration of house, creation of education center Teachers in Miami 1999 Education Florida Trust Conference $150 Offer two grants for one primary and one secondary teacher to attend the Florida Trust Conference

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119 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Alan Potamkin 1999 Education National Trust of Historic Preservation $150 Sent this student to the National Trust Conference. Funding also comes from MDPL, Dade Heritage Trust and Historical Association of South Florida Dade Heritage Trust 1999 Advocacy Miami Circle $2,000 For the Dade Heritage Trust to try to obtain the land in an ongoing trial. Money to be returned if unsuccessful. Dad Heritage Trust was unsuccessful, but un clear if money was returned or just donated. Coral Gables Women's Club 1999 Restoration Coral Gables Women's Club $20,00 0 Restoration of Fountain Stan Cooper Museum 2000 Restoration Education Stan Cooper House $10,000 Relocation of structure Fund training for docents Coconut Grove Women's Club 2000 Rehabilitation Coconut Grove Women's Club $10,000 Add a wheelchair ramp and handicapped parki ng facilities for the building. Also assisted in helping the club to write a grant for state funds, which they received Black Archives, History and Research Foundation 2000 Education Black Heritage Trail $4,653 "Black Heritage Trail" Brochure Merrick Manor 2000 General Support Merrick Manor $660 Benches for gardens

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120 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Black Archives History and Research Foundation, Inc. 2000 Education Overtown Revitalization $16,000 To reprint two booklets for the Black Archives Black Archives, History and Research Foundation Inc. 2001 Education Lyric Theater $1,000 Addition to earlier funding. To print brochures describing the area in Overtown Dade Heritage Trust 2001 Maintenance Education Dade Heritage Trust $3,625 Reprinting of 4th Grade Activity Book Replacement of A/C and plaster Coral Gables Library 2001 Restoration Coral Gables Library $2,500 Refurbishing of Merrick family chairs Plymouth Congregational Church 2002 Maintenance Old Larkin Schoolhouse $2,000 Repairs to the schoolhouse Different governmental agencies of Florida 2002 Education Advocacy Preservation Breakfast $0 Hosted breakfast at the Barnacle to engage a dialogue about the state of preservation. Miami Dade County HPO, City of Miami HPO, Professor at UM, Dade Heritage Trust Director. Very successful. Thought of doing future breakfasts with others Bay Shore Distr ict Silver Bluff District 2002 Documentation Bay Shore District Silver Bluff District $0 Projects Committee agreed to direct this year's efforts towards preservation education. Dolly MacIntyre suggested a survey of the Bay Shore District. Villagers receiv ed a state grant to survey the Silver Bluff District

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121 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Coral Gables Congregational Church 2003 Maintenance Restoration Coral Gables Congregational Church $15,000 Repair and installation of a lightning protection system, which replicates the original, historic finial Historic Hampton House Trust 2003 Restoration Historic Hampton Motel $20,000 Restore and Preserve Curtiss Mansion 2003 Restoration Curtiss Mansion $4,000 Restoration of gate and construction of fencing, which was destroyed by Hurricane Wilma Stan Cooper Museum 2003 Restoration Maintenance Stan Cooper House $5,000 Restoration, as well as commit 500 volunteer hours Montgomery Botanical Center 2003 Rehabilitation Robert Montgomery House $14,800 Installation of A/C, to create climate controlled storage for archives Florida Trust 2003 Education Professional Workshops $500 Money to develop "Saving our Historic Schools" Workshop FIU, UM, UF 2003 Education Scholarship $15,000 Scholarships increased to $3000 Florida Trust for Historic Preservation 2004 General Support Florida Trust Conference $10,000 To be the grand sponsor for the Conference Virginia Key Beach 2004 Restoration Virginia Key Beach $250 Purchase a brick, with funds dedicated to restoration FAU 2004 Education African American Conference $2,000 Scholarships

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122 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes DASH 2005 Education Scholarship $500 Scholarship for 6 years Save a House 2005 Restoration Save a house $17,765 Stabilization of historic house, which will include a new roof, pest control, and access control The Barnacle 2005 Restoration Boathouse Restoration Project $7,200 Restoration and repairs of siding, ste ps, doors and wires after damage caused by Hurricane Wilma Coconut Grove Women's Club 2005 Maintenance Coconut Grove Women's Culb $17,000 Replacement of front entry, rear faade windows, and French doors Miami River Commission Greenway 2006 Education Miami River Markers $25,000 Took a long time to realize. Began in 2001 Dade County 2006 Restoration Dade County Courthouse $25,000 Restoring the lighting in Courtroom 6 1. Total project cost over $600,000. Parrot Jungle/Pinecrest Garden 2006 Restoration Parrot Jungle Entrance $25,000 Restoration of the entrance. Part of a large restoration project, around $250,000 City of South Miami/HP Board 2006 Education Education Cambridge Lawns District Markers Project $8,000 Construction of three obelisks to mark the boundaries of the Cambridge Lawns Historic District Vizcaya Defense Fund 2006 Advocacy Vizcaya $250 Prevent a high rise to ruin the gardens Old Miami High 2007 Restoration Old Miami High $13,000 Originally applied for in 2003. Proj ect is completed. Restore the heart pine floors

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123 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Virginia Key Beach Park Trust 2007 Reconstruction Maintenance Virginia Key Beach Mini Train $15,000 Reconstruction of original doors for the train tunnel, 1950s era. Virginia Key Beach was the only beach blacks were allowed to use during segregation Actors' Playhouse 2007 Restoration Miracle Theater $6,975 Install neon lights, update electrical system, update electrical in lobby Ye L ittle Wood Historical Society 2007 Documentation Ye Little Wood $1,000 Hire d Carolyn Klepser to help research the Ye Little Wood neighborhood, and prepare a report for HP Board Montgomery Botanical Center 2007 Restoration Montgomery Gardens $5,000 Restoration of the Arthur Montgomery Guesthouse, restoration of subflooring University of Miami, School of Architecture 2008 Education Marion Manley Book $9,000 Funds would pay for layout and production of images to publish a book about Marion Manley, th e 2nd licensed female architect in Florida Vizcaya 2008 Education Vizcaya $2,500 Support for a PBS documentary for miscellaneous production costs Montgomery Botanical Center 2008 Restoration Montgomery Gardens $5,000 Restore walls that were damaged by the uneven flooring Tropical Audubon Society 2008 Maintenance Tropical Audubon Society $9,741 Update of electrical system to current code. Florida Trust 2008 Donation Florida Trust Mortgage $5,000 To reduce mortgage interest, so they can focus funds on preservation projects Coral Gables Museum 2009 Education Shenandoah Museums Magnet $6,275 Creation of field trips for middle school students, and producing a book with the results

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124 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes The Kampong 2009 Restoration Galt Simmons Building $4,000 Payment for the rehabilitation of the building Save Hialeah Park, Inc. 2009 Education Hialeah Park Race Track $0 Creation of documentary, "Flight of the Flamingos." Donated $10,000. Documen tary never made, as grant winner Alex Fuentes disappears. Funds granted for another purpose. Miami Science Museum 2009 Restoration Vizcaya Carpenter's Shop $9,000 Restoration of the historic building, in combination of other grants Pinewood Cemetery 2009 Maintenance Pinewood Cemetery $5,000 To add in new tombstones on graves that are known, but have no markers. Add a bench from The Villagers Miami Marine Stadium 2009 Restoration Miami Marine Stadium $15,000 Funding for structural engineering studie s, matching grants of National Trust and WMF Plymouth Congregational Church 2009 Maintenance Old School House at Plymouth $1,200 Termite fumigation and repair of cabinets Barnacle Society 2009 Restoration Maintenance The Barnacle $5,000 Various treatments and repairs to historic buildings Actors' Playhouse 2009 Restoration Miracle Theater $5,000 Repair and restoration of terrazzo floors Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Recreation Area 2009 Education Cape Florida Lighthouse $3,000 For Perrine Garden Display Eileen Hoffman B Fund 2010 Education Cape Florida Lighthouse $500 Pledge for Eileen Hoffman fund to get a boat in front of Lightkeeper's Cottage

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1 25 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Coral Gables Museum 2010 Education Building A Dream Book $5,000 Reproduce book in hard copy form Williams Jennings Bryan Elementary School 2010 Restoration Fountain $1,500 Plans/Permitting for fountain restoration Miami Science Museum 2010 Restoration Vizcaya's Carpenter's Shop $5,000 Finish restoration of the carpenter shop Barnacle Society 2010 Restoration The Barnacle $20,000 Roof of 1927 Carriage House needs to be replaced Pinecrest Gardens 2010 Restoration Education Cottage $1,200 Add A/C to create an archive space, also create an interpretation space Montgomery Botanical Center 2010 Restoration Guesthouse $2,000 Continued restoration on concrete block walls, with several structural cracks Shenandoah Museums Magnet 2010 Restoration Workshop Room $3,500 Adaptive reuse of the workshop room into a gallery space, as well as update electrical Miami Women's Club 2010 Restoration Miami Women's Club $6,000 Restoration of original lighting DASH 2010 Education "A Taste of Design" $0 Donation of cookbook Cook It Like a Native! to the silent auction Florida Trust 2010 General Support Florida Trust Conference $1,000

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126 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes George Merrick Foundation, Inc. 2011 Maintenance Boy Scout Troop 7 $10,000 Install new A/C and upgrade electrical system Coral Gables Museum 2011 Education Exhibition $5,000 To fund an exhibit by Arva Moore Parks Montgomery Botanical Center 2011 Restoration Guesthouse $5,000 Further restoration of the Arthur Montgomery Guesthouse for 13 windows Miami River Inn 2011 Restoration Maintenance Miami River Inn $9,000 Water damage to the breakfast room, so restoration and redesign of interior space The Vizcayans 2011 Restoration Sculpture Collection $7,500 Restoration and conservation of outdoor sculpture garden, where the climate has taken its toll. Treatment for 4 statues Waterway Renaissance Project, Inc. 2011 Restoration Hardee Bridge Restoration $3,750 Fund for documentation and research of the bridge to determine actual cost of project Dade Heritage Trust 2011 Education MiMo Conference $10,000 Help fund teachers' scholarships for the MiMo Conference with National Trust, Florida Trust, DoCoMoMo, WMF, UM School of Arch, and Greater Miami Convention History Miami 2011 Education Miami Circle $5,000 Phase I of park project, including plaques, interpretive panels, benches, parking spots, bicycle racks, etc. GESU Catholic Church 2011 Restoration GESU Historical Catholic Church $4,450 Restoration

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127 Table A 1. Continued. Recipient Year Treatment Project Amount Notes Coral Gables Community Foundation PARKnership Fund 2011 Restoration Alhambra Water Tower $5,800 Repairs and restoration to the Alhambra Water Tower The Villagers 2011 Education Villagers Library $1,600 Purchase of a new computer at the Coral Gables Museum Gusman Center 2011 Maintenance Gusman Theatre of Arts $10,000 Repairs to the fire escapes and to bring in new emergency lighting. Deering Estate Foundation 2011 Restoration Richmond Cottage $5,000 Restoration and repairs to the Richmond Cottage

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128 APPENDIX B VILLAGERS SURVEY Demographics 1. What is your gender? Female Male 2. What is your age in years? __________ __________________________________ 3. What is the highest level of education you have completed? Some High School High School/GED Some College 4 Year Degree (BA/BS) Doctoral Degree Profess ional Degree (MD, JD) 4. What is/was your occupation? (Examples: Attorney, Home Maker, Teacher, Business Owner, etc.) ________________________________________________________

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129 History with The Villagers The following questions are about your involvement with The Villagers: 5 How long have you been a member in The Villagers? Answers are in years. 0 5 6 10 11 15 16 20 21 25 26 30 31 35 36 40 41+ 6. How did you learn about the organization? Non Villager s Member, please specify_______________________ Villager s Member Publication /Mailing Internet Other: _______ ________________________________________ 7. Why did you join the organization?

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130 8. What category of membership do you have? Active Inactive Life 9 If an active member, roughly how many fund raising projects and committee activities do you dedicate time to annually? 0 1 3 4 6 7 9 10+ How many fund raising projects:_______________ How many committee activities:_____ ___________ 10 What committees have you been part of at some point in time? Please check all that apply. Budget Committee Communications Committee Newsletter Committee Hospitality Committee Parliamentarian Publicity Committee

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131 Ways and Means Committee Year Book Committee Program Committee Historian Election Chairman Inventory Committee Membership Committee Marketing/Sales Committee By Laws Committee Special Mailings Committee Scholarship Committee Legal Adviser Legislative Committee Policy and Procedure s Committee Education Committee Projects Committee Other Committee(s) Not Listed Here: __________________________ 11. Have you held a position in the organization? Yes No

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132 12. If yes, what position(s)? 13. If you are an inactive member, do you still dedicate your time to certain projects, activities, or events? Yes No If yes, what projects, activities, or events? 14. How many general meetings have you attended in the past year? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 15. How have you recommended The Villagers to other people? Please check all that apply. Recommended someone to join as a member Recommended someone to apply for funding from The Villagers Recommended someone to attend a Villagers Fundraising Event

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133 Recommended someone to attend a Villag ers Activity or Project I have not recommended The Villagers to anyone Other:______________________________________________ Potential Characteristics of The Villagers 16. Rank the following in terms of how you feel these characteristics have contributed to contribution. Put no number for selections you think do not contribute. ___ Mission Focused ___ Preservation Projects ___ ___ Disclosed Conflict o f Interest ___ Member Requirements ___ Sound Financial and Legal Practices ___ Openness to the Greater Miami Community ___ Fundraising Events ___ Public Education and Advocacy ___ Social Unity ___ Comprised of Members with Ed ucated/Professional Backgrounds ___ Focus on Educating Members on Historic Preservation Issues ___ Focus on Achievable Projects ___ Transitional Meeting Places ___ Dedication of Members ___ Other: ________________________________________________ Please expand in detail how t hese characteristics, or other characteristics you have 17 From the previous list of characteristics which do you think have remained the most consistent over the years?

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134 Mission Focused Pr eservation Projects Limitation of Conflict of Interest Member Requirements Sound Financial and Legal Practices Openness to the Greater Miami Community Fundraising Events Public Education and Advocacy Social Unity Members with Educated/Professional Backgrounds Focus on Educating Members on Historic Preservation Issues Focus on Achievable Projects Transitional Meeting Places Dedication of Members Other: __________ How have these characteristics remained consistent over the year s?

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135 18. In your opinion, what characteristics have changed the most over the years? Please check all that apply. Mission Focused Preservation Projects Limitation of Conflict of Interest Member Requirements Soun d Financial and Legal Practices Openness to the Greater Miami Community Fundraising Events Public Education and Advocacy Social Unity Members with Educated/Professional Backgrounds Focus on Educating Members on Historic Preservation Issues Focus on Achiev able Projects Transitional Meeting Places Dedication of Members Other: __________ ___________________________________ How have these characteristics changed and what other changes have you noticed in the organization over time?

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136 19. What characterist 20. What are the three primary strengths of the organization? 21 What are three primary weaknesses of The Villagers? 22. Check any of the events that you have attended: National Trust for Historic Preservation Conference Florida Trust for Historic Preservation Conference Lectures involving historic preservation Dade Heritage Days Presentations on historic preservation Miami Mid Century Modernism Conference Art Deco Weeken d Other conferences on historic preservation Did The Villagers promote or provide any support for you to attend any of these events?

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137 23. Has the lack of headquarters impacted the organization positively or negatively? Please explain. 24. Have the relationships developed with other public agencies, non profit organizations, and other entities impacted the organization positively or negatively? Please explain. Not at all fa miliar Slightly familiar Somewhat familiar Very familiar Extremely familiar policies and procedures and to help you understand the requirements asked of you? Not at all helpful Slightly helpful Somewhat helpful Very helpful Extremely helpful

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138 I did not attend a new member orientation 27. Have you made any sustaining friendships/relationships due to involvement with The Villagers? Yes No 28. When you joined The Villager s, did you have to disclose any conflicts of interests that might arise during your membership? Yes No 29. Generally, have the board members possessed the skills needed to accomplish The Yes No 30. How available is information abo the public and the community? Not at all available Slightly available Somewhat available Very available Extremely available identifying the organization, its mission, and the intended use of the solicited funds?

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139 Not at all truthful Slightly truthful Somewhat truthful Very truthful Extremely truthful No t at all sound Slightly sound Somewhat sound Very sound Extremely sound 33. How often do The Villagers promote public participation in their activities and projects? Not at all often Slightly often Somewhat often Very often Extremely often 34. What other comments or feelings about The Villagers do you have that you want to express?

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140 LIST OF REFERENCES The Miami Herald April 17, 1972. The Miami Herald February 7, 1971. Abdul Hamid, R International Conference on Business and Economic Research, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, September 2011. ecades of Local Historic District Designation: A Case The Public Historian 32, no. 4 (Fall 2010): 16 32. The Miami Herald April 9, 1972. Anheier, Helmut K. Nonprofit Organizations: Theory, Management, Policy Routledge: New York, 2005. Florida Magazine January 13, 2013. Accessed January 20, 2012 m oore parks keeper of the past/ Barreneche, R Miami Beac Architecture 85, no. 4 (April 1996): 98 108 The Miami Herald Boris, Elizabeth and Rachel Mosher Williams acy Organizations: Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 27, no. 4 (1998): 488 506. World Archaeol ogy 39, no. 3 (2007): 255 370. Accessed September 15, 2011. DOI: 10.1080/00438240701464772. The Miami Herald October 17, 1975. Restoration or Demoliti The Miami Herald October 9, 1975. Environmental Affairs Law Review 22, no. 3 (1995): 593 622.

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141 American Journal of Evaluation 22, no. 1 (2001): 13 28. Building Efforts for Nonprofit O OD Practitioner 34, no. 4 (2002): 33 39. The Public Historian 22, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 71 74. Creswell, John W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches 3 rd ed Los Angeles: Sage Publications, Inc., 2009. University of Surrey, July 11, 2005. Douglas, M arjory Stoneman Coral Gable s: Parker Art Print Association, 1925. The Pacific Sociological Re view 18, no. 1 (January 1975): 122 136. onomic Impacts of Historic Preservation Update 2010 Dunlop, Beth. Miami: Mediterranean Splendor and Deco Drea ms New York: Rizzoli, 2007. --I The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 23 (1998): 190 207. f Miami Planning Department, Miami, 1982. http:// choolhouse.pdf --Miami, 1983. http://www.historicpreser se.pdf District: A Tale of Two The Urban Lawyer 13, no. 4 (1981): 854 863. d March 9, 2013.

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142 The Miami Herald 1996. The Miami Herald February 14, 1980. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 35, no. 1 (2006): 123 138. Guthrie, Kendall, Justin Louie, and Catherine Cr Assessing Policy and Advocacy Activities: Part II Moving from Theory to Endowment. October 2006. tuencies and the Social Construction Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 26, no. 2 (1997): 185 206. Historic Districts Council. Looking Back: Forty Years of Preserving Accessed October 4, 2011. Thelma Peters papers, 1871 1989 Accessed March 9, 2013. http:/ / Giving Preservation A History edited by Max Page and Randall Mason, 81 106. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hopkins, B ruce R. Charity, Advocacy, and the Law New York: John Wiley, 1992. Quoted in Elizabeth Boris and Rachel Mosher Williams Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 27, no. 4 (1998): 490 491. Howe, Barbara J. Cunningham The Public Historian 12, no. 1 (Winter 1990): 3 1 61 profit and For profit Journal of Change Management 6, no. 1 (March 2006): 53 65. Property Rights and Wrongs: Historic Private Property Rights Protection Act. Florida Law Review 48 (1996): 709 721. The Miami Herald September 29, 1971.

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143 Jokilehto, Jukka. A History of Architectural Cons ervation Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 1999. The Public Historian 32, no. 4 (Fall 2010): 33 41. Accessed September 22, 2011. DOI: 10/1525/tph.2010.32.4.33. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 61, no. 184 (December 2006): 166 171. A Spirit That Fires Im agination. Giving Preservation A History edited by Max Page and Randall Mason, 107 129. New York: Routledge, 2004. The Miami Herald --Built Vintage Building Felled Ove The Miami Herald July 12, 1978. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 58, no. 3 (September 1999): 326 333. Attribute Framework, Microeconomic Perspectives, and Policy Im Journal of Socio Economics 32 (2003): 549 569. Accessed September 22, 2011. DOI:10.1016/j.socec.2003.08.009. The Oral History Review 30, no. 2 (2003): 99 109. Merrick, George. at Miami Coral Gables: Parker Art Print Associ ation, 1923. Miami Beach Community Development Corpo M iami B each CDC Record. Accessed D ecember 9, 2011. us/about miami design preservation league/a brief history/. Organization Studies 18, no. 4 (1997): 577 602.

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144 Muir, Helen. The Biltmore: Beacon for Miami Miami: The Pickering Press, 1987 Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservatio n in America 3 rd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. Najam Development Polic y Review 16 (1998): 3 05 3 10 essed March 9, 2013. Parks, Arva Moore. Made Real Miami: Centennial Press, 2006. Practices of Su California Management Review 40, no. 2 (Winter 1998): 96 124. Evaluating Public Public Administration Review 61, no 4 (July August 2001): 414 423. Putnam, Robert D. Journal of Democracy (January 1995): 65 78 The Public Histo rian 22, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 39 49. Raynor, Jared, Peter York, and Shao by The California Endowment. January 2009. The Miami Herald August 30, 1979. Evaluation and Program Planning 26 (2003): 229 235. The Miami Herald 1971.

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145 Journal of Architectural Education (2007): 6 14. : Year Rule in Historic Preservation The Public Historian 29, no. 2 (Spring 2007): 81 103. A History of Coral Gables: A Look Metro Magazine (2010). h ttp:// Stofik, Mary Barron. Saving South Beach Gainesville: University Press of Florida 2005 Stolle Dietlind and Marc Hooghe. Sided or Irrelevant? The Debate about the Alleged Decline of Social Capital and Civic Engagement in Western So cieties British Journal of Political Science 35, no. 1 (January 2005): 149 167 Strassburger, Robin R. The Alamo National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form. 1979. pdates/The_Alamo_National.pdf Miami Beach Conflict Pits Developers Against Lovers of Art Deco. New York Times February 26, 1981. The Miami Herald 1996. Georgetown Journal on Poverty, Law, & Policy 8, no. 3 (Fall 2005): 389 408. The Villagers, Incorporated. September 22, 2011. --. Archives Collection. Coral Gables, FL. --. Yearbook Collection. Coral Gables, FL. Vithayathawornwong, Supaporn, Sheila Danko, an Journal of Interior Design 29, no. 1 and 2 (2003): 1 16. The Public Historian 22, no. 2 (Spring, 2000): 2 9 38. Wojno, C hristopher Historic Preservation and Economic Development. Journal of Planning Literature 5 no. 3 (1991): 296 306.

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146 Wolf, Thomas. Managing a Nonprofit Organization in the Twenty First Century Simon & Schuster Inc.: New York, 1999. Wood, A celebrate the 45th Anniversary of the passage of the New York Landmarks Preservation Law, New York, NY, April 19 2010. Worthing, Derek and Stephen Bond. Managing Built Heritage: The Role of Cultural Significance Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2008. The Miami Herald July 12, 1978. Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods 4th ed SAGE Publications, Inc.: California, 2009. Zimmermann, Jo An M., Bonnie W. Stevens, Brenda J. Thames, Christopher M. Resource Assessment Model : A Too l for Small Nonprofit Organizations Nonprofit Management & Leadership 14, no. 1 (Fall 2003): 79 91.

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147 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kelly Perkins was born in Columbus, Ohio. She received a Bache lor of Arts in history and j ournalism from New York University in 2009. She received her degree in historic preservation in 2013 from the University of Florida