1 THE MEDIA SEQUENCE EFFECT ON NARRATIVE ADVERTISING By LINWAN WU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVER SITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2 2013 Linwan Wu
3 To my family, the source of my inspiration and energy
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge the incredible support and guidance provided by my committee. To my chair, Dr. Lu Zheng, and committee members, Dr. Wayne Wanta and Dr. Churchill Roberts, the quality of this thesis was largely improved by your insight I thank my parents for their unreserved encouragement and support, which motivated me to complete my study. I a lso thank Dr. Hui Fang at the Huangshan College, and Dr. Huajun Lee at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, who offered me great help in my experiment in China. Last but not least, I thank my fiance, Li. You have supported and encouraged me with full love during my t ough time in the United States.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 8 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 11 Media Difference ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 11 Comprehension and Retention ................................ ................................ ......... 11 Persuasion ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 11 Modality ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 12 Medium Control ................................ ................................ ................................ 13 Narrative Advertising ................................ ................................ ............................... 14 Transportation ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 14 Media Effect on Transportation ................................ ................................ ............... 15 Processing Multiple Media ................................ ................................ ...................... 19 Repetition Effect ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 24 Cross Media Effect ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 Forward Encoding ................................ ................................ ............................ 26 Image Transfer ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 Multiple Source Perception ................................ ................................ ............... 28 Media Sequence Effect ................................ ................................ ........................... 29 Sequence Effect on Persuasion ................................ ................................ ....... 30 Media Sequence Effect on Advertising ................................ ............................. 31 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 34 Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 34 Subjects ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 34 Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 34 Materials ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 35 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 38 5 DISCUSSION RESEARCH LIMITATION, AND CONCLUSI ON ............................ 41 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 41 Research Limitation ................................ ................................ ................................ 45 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 47
6 APPENDIX A TRANSPORTATION SCALE ................................ ................................ .................. 49 B AD ATTITUDE SCALE ................................ ................................ ............................ 51 C BRAND ATTITUDE SCALE ................................ ................................ .................... 52 D BEHAVIORAL INTENTION SCALE ................................ ................................ ........ 53 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 54 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 63
7 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising THE MEDIA SEQUENCE EFFECT ON NARRATIVE ADVERTISING By Linwan Wu May 2013 Chair: Lu Zheng Major: Advertising The current study investigates the media sequence effect on the effectiveness of narrative advertising. In particular, the curre nt study tries to answer the question that which sequence of the combination of print and video could make narrative advertising the most effective. Ninety Chinese College students with the average age of 20 participated in a two stage experiment, in which they read or watched a narrative advertisement in both stages. Advertising presenting sequence was manipulated, resulting in four media sequences: print video, video print, print print, and video e ad, attitude towards the brand and b ehavioral intention were measured. The result turned to be that the media sequence of print video caused the most transportation to the narrative ad, but there were no differences of attitude and b ehavioral intention c aused by the four media sequences. Such a result implicates that, in advertising industry, print video may be the most effective way to present narrative advertising. Research limitations and directions for future research are also mentioned.
8 C HAPTER 1 IN TRODUCTION the main characteristics of a story, like protagonists, events, and story lines, etc. These special characteristics of a narrative ad determine the fact that narrative advertising persuades consumers in a different way from what is described in the traditional persuasion models (like Elaboration Likelihood Model, Petty & Cacioppo, 198 6; Heuristic Systematic Model, Chaiken, 1980) (Green & Brock, 2000; Green, 2004; Chang, 2009a, 2009b; Zheng, 2010). In particular, narrative advertising persuades by transporting consumers into the narrative world of the commercials (Green & Brock, 2000; G reen, 2004; Chang, 2009a, 2009b; Zheng, 2010). Transportation is considered as a highly focused process in which audiences post their most attention to the narratives they read or watch (Green, 1996). Green and Brock (2000) put forward that transportation meant audience s of a narrative material lost themselves in it and felt like they got the experience similar to the characters'. Therefore, the process of transportation can be regarded as "an integrative melding of attention, imagery, and feelings" (Green & Brock, 2000, p. 701). Moreover, the consequences of transportation experience are ignoring the real word physically or psychologically, feeling strong emotions, an d behavior change (Green & Broc k 2000). Transportation into narrative advertising has be en investigated from several perspectives. Previous research has considered individual factors (like mental image ability & need for cognition, Zheng & Phelps, 2011a), and message factors (like narrative focus & vividness of product depiction, Zheng & Phel ps, 2011b) that could
9 ield, 2008, p. 667). According to Green, Kass, Carrey, Herzig, Feeney, and Sabini (2008) one external factor, media, is an important issue in narrative processing, and they believed the nature of transportation would be understood better if media factor w as taken into consideration. However, previous research about media factor in narrative advertising largely focused on the effect of media context. For example, Wang and Calder (2006) proposed that high transportation to media content could facilitate the effectiveness of ads inserted, but such a phenomenon could only be observed when ad exposure didn't cause intrusion to people's transportation experience into media content. On the media content would negatively influence the effectiveness of subsequent advertisements. However, media context effect is not the whole picture of investigating media factor in narrative advertising, and not so many studies have explored the impacts of di fferent media per se on the effectiveness of narrative advertising. In the meantime, previous studies in the media research field have confirmed that cross media setting would make advertising more effective than single medium, leading to more favorable a ttitudes and more b ehavioral intention (Edell & Keller, 1989, 1999; Dijkstra 2002; Naik & Raman, 2003; Chang & Thorson, 2004; Dijkstra, Buijtels, & Van Raaij, 2005; Bronner, 2006; Havlena, Cardarelli, & De Montigny 2007; Voorveld, Neijens, & Smit 2011). Moreover, in the advertising industry, the number of cross
10 in the branding and communications industry for 2010 are cross media advertising Al Bawaba 2010). It is believed that different media platforms in a cross connection with the brand (Marketing Week, 2006). However, previous research about cross media effects on advertising effectiveness mainly focused on the comparison between multiple medi a and single medium, and there wa s no enough concern about media sequence effect in cross media campaigns, even though media sequence ef fect was critical for advertisers. (Voorveld et al. 2012). Therefore, according to what has been described, the current research tries to fill the gaps mentioned above. In particular, this study aims to investigate the media sequence effect on the effectiveness of narrative advertising.
11 C HAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Media Difference Previous research has examined media difference from distinctive perspectives, such as comprehension, retention, and persuasion (eg. Jacoby, Hoyer, & Zimmer, 1983; Hayes, Kelly, & Mandel, 1986; McGinnies, 1965; Chaiken & Eag ly, 1983). However, these studies reached no agreements. Comprehension and R etention When considering message comprehension and retention, print is believed by some researchers to be the most effective media type. Because the only stimulation is visual in print media, the distraction caused by vocal cues in the audiovisual counterparts can be avoided (Baron, Baron, Miller, 1973; Haaland & Venkatesan, 1968; Insko, Turnbull, & Yandell, 1974), and readers have entire control of information delivery. This prov ides more opportunities for them to elaborate the message content (Jacoby et al., 1983). By contrast, the opposite viewpoint states that comprehension and retention should be better when people are exposed to audiovisual presentation, because such media ty pe activates more than one sensory mode, which makes messages more comprehensible and memorable (Jacoby et al., 1983; Hayes et al., 1986; Greenfield, 1984; Pezdek, Lehrer, & Simon, 1984). Persuasion Similarly, different results came from various studies about the comparison of persuasion between visual media and auditory media. Wilke (1934) and Carver (1935) both supported the idea that better persuasion occurred in vocal media than print. When studying how opinions change, Hovland (1954) proposed that or al presentations
12 seemed to be better than visual ones. However, the contradictory argument, claiming greater opinion change in written media, was also proposed by other scholars (McGinnies, 1965; Tannenbaum & Kerrick, 1954; Werner, 1978; Werner & Latane, 1 976). Although research about media difference generates contradictory results, the detection of media effect on message comprehension, retention and persuasion implies be Accordingly, comparing different responses is a receiver centered perspective which focuses on examining the psychological dimensions within different media Previous research discovered two significant dimensions in which media differ from each other: modality and medium control (Dijkstra et al., 2005). Modality Modality has been investigated for a long time in the persuasion research field (Liu & Stout, 1987). In the 1970s, Ch aiken and Eagly (1976) found out modality (video, which had particular psychological fu nctions. In recent studies, modality referred to the forms of message delivery associated with human senses which were responsible for information processing (Dijkstra et al., 2005). Similarly, Moreno (2006) defined modality (p. 149). These definitions of modality are in line with the working memory theory which claims that visual and auditory presentations are processed by independent sensory channels (Baddeley, 1992)
13 Examples of modality are pictures, which correspond to visual sense; audio to auditory sense; as well as video to audiovisual senses. When we adopt the perspective of modality, it is easy to understand that different media present information depend on stimulating distinctive sensory modes (Edell, 1988). For instance, the visual and auditory senses would be simultaneously motivated when people watch television. The in a dvertising, which included sound, music and pictures. These nonverbal elements, information processing and mood induction (Edell, 1988). For example, pictorial stimuli are more likely to elicit better recall than their verbal counterparts (Shepard, 1967; Bower, 1972), and nonverbal elements, such as music and pictures, increase affective Medium C ontrol Medium control is defined as senders or receivers dominating the space and flow of information delivery from various media (Dijkstra et al., 2005). Based on this concept, Van Raaij (1998) came up with two categories of media: delivery and retrieval. Telev ision is a delivery medium. The speed of presentation and the sequence of messages are both decided by information senders, or advertisers in the case of advertising (Dijkstra et al., 2005). As a consequence, audience cannot contemplate the information exh ibited by TV because they are not able to keep it. Conversely, print media are labeled as retrieval. Information receivers can make their own decisions about how fast and in what order they read newspapers or magazines. Jacoby et al. (1983) believed that w hen consumers had control over the medium, they were more likely to digest the information they received.
14 Narrative Advertising The current research focuses on the impact of media on the effectiveness of narrative advertising. A narrative ad can be defined as a commercial story presenting has demonstrated that stories in narrative advertising can establish an emotional connection to audiences and those connections will make t hem more likely to express positive attitudes to the ads (Escalas, Moore, & Britton 2004). Fiske (1993) proposed that when individuals were reading a narrative, new information would be associated with their previous knowledge structure. These structures comprehension of the new information from the narratives (Schank & Abelson 1995; Schank & Berman 2002). Their dependence on these prototypes will be more obvious if the characters of the narratives are not real (Wyer, Adaval, & Colcombe 2002). More to the point, previous knowledge or prototypes are not enough for people to understand the narratives. In most instances, mental models of what is going on in narratives will be established et al., 2002). Furthermore, if an individual is really into a story, he may imagine himself in the very event unfolded in the narrative and such a phenomenon is called mental simulation (Taylor & Sch neider, 1989). Escalas (2004) proposed that mental simulation can bring up a favorable evaluation as well as a positive attitude, and this effect will be amplified if such simulation is self related. Transportation Green proposed the Transportation Imager y Model which was considered as a suitable model to interpret narrative persuasion (Green 1996, Green & Brock, 2000).
15 taken from their original world in the process of involvement in the reading materials, and when they return, their beliefs change (Gerrig, 1993). Transportation, therefore, is considered as a highly focused process in whic h audience post their most attention to the unfolded stories in the narratives (Green, 1996). Green and Brock (2000) put forward that transportation meant that audiences of a narrative material lost themselves in it and felt like they had an experience sim ilar to the characters'. Therefore, the process of transportation can be regarded as "an integrative melding of attention, imagery, and feelings" (Green & Brock, 2000, p. 701). Green and Brock (2000) also proposed some consequences of transportation, such as ignoring the real word physically or psychologically, feeling strong emotions, and behavior change. Moreover, Transportation has been demonstrated as the underlying mechanism of narrative persuasion (Green, 1996; Green & Brock, 2000; Green, 2004) and h as been applied successfully to explain the effectiveness of narrative advertising (Escalas, 2004; Chang, 2009a, 2009b; Zheng, 2010). Thus, it is reasonable to measure transportation elicited by narrative ads when exploring the effect of media on how peopl e process narrative advertising. Media Effect on Transportation Involvement is a widely examined concept in communication research (Salmon, 1986; Roser, 1990; Vorderer, 1993; Wirth, 2006). Previous research explored media involvement from the perspectives of modality and medium control (Krugman, 1965; McLuhan, 1964). Krugman (1965) considered television as a low involving medium,
16 overlearn some information. In other words, audiences get no control of information delivery on television. On the contrary, McLuhan (1964) thought television should be more involving than print due to the stimulation of both visual and auditory sen sory modes. Other scholars tr ied to reconcile such contradictory conclusions by adding message content as a moderating factor (Wright, 1974), or dividing involvement into two categories: rational involvement and emotional involvement (Chaudhuri & Buck, 1995). All the studies mentioned above admitted the r oles of modality and medium control in The concept of involvement shares some similar elements with the concept of transportation. They both refer to the experience that individuals get intense ly engage d into stimuli. Moreover, it is believed that there are cogn itive dimension (like attention ) ( Batra & Ray, 1985; Roser, 1990) and affective dimension (like emotion) (Roser, 1990) in the concept of involvement. Similarly, when Green and Brock (2000) introdu ced the Transportation Imagery Model, they emphasized cognitive attention and emotional ded as a motivational meta concept that includes various forms of intense interactions with a Wirth Hartmann, Bocking, Vorderer, Klimmt, Schramm et al., 200 7 p. 521). Such a concept stresses that people connect what they see to what t hey believe and care A high involving individual would consider the stimulus as being of "intrinsic importance" (Sherif & Hovland, 1961, p. 197), or "personal meaning" ( She ri f Kelle y Rodgers, Sarup, & Tittler, 19 73, p. 311). In media research, involveme nt also
17 and beliefs (Krugman, 1965). Highly involving audiences tend to explain media content in their own ways (Batra & Ray, 1985; Perse, 1988). However, a highly transported individual would be deeply engaged into the narrative world without taking their own values and beliefs into consideration (Green et al., 2008). In transportation experience, audiences focus on the narratives with their full cognitive capacity and feel th e emotions of the characters (Green & Brock, 2000; Green, 2004). Unlike people with high e real transportation refers to immersion in the narrative worl d rather 513). However, in spite of the difference between involvement and transportation, as we discussed before, these two concepts shared some similar elements. I n addition to the fact that people would feel different levels of involvement into different media, it is reasonable t o claim that different media c ould also give rise to different levels of transportation. Green et al. (2008) thought vividness and effort were the two important factors that should be taken into consideration when comparing the potential of eliciting transportation between print and film. Movies are thought to be more vivid than print, so it is supposed that individuals are more likely to b e transported into movie stories (Green et al., 2008). However, when scholars investigated the efforts needed to process different media, contradictory conclusions were made by previous research. On the one hand, processing print messages is believed to re quire more effort s because people need to imagine pictures in their minds (Singer, 1980; Salomon, 1984). For example, in
18 their perceptions of self efficiency measured. The results showed that compared to TV, print was found to demand more mental effort s which was positively correlated with self efficiency in print media (Salomon, 1984). On the other hand, watching films or television might need more effort s because charact be expressed as explicitly as in the print. Therefore, an audience has to imagine 2008). So when we take the factors of vividness an d effort into consideration to compare the potential of triggering transportation between print and film, several outcomes may viewers are given a vivid, concrete set beneficial for the fluency of processing of narratives. The visual presentation in films makes it easy for the individuals who are not good at mental imagery to form scenarios in their mind; the sounds and music in films provide opportunities for audience to have deeper insight into the characters and make audiences emotionally involved into the al., 2008, p. 517) in fi transportation, whereas print narratives make readers free to form mental images of the unfolded stories, and allow them to deal with the narrative information on their own space. As a result, trans portation is more likely to be elicited by print media rather than films. A third line of opinion about transportation in film and print suggests that these two types of media are equal in inducing transportation. They both share the factors that are
19 cruci al for transportation, like attracting plots as well as making individuals feel sympathy for the characters in the stories (Green et al., 2008; Dal Cin, Zanna, & Fong 2004). Furthermore, Green et al. (2008) believed that it was possible that print and vid eo elicited transportation in different ways, with video using audiovisual motion pictures and print providing more chances to elaborate information. Such a v iewpoint was supported by Dal C in et al. (2004) who found no media difference between movie and pr int stories. In conclusion, previous research provided little evidence to support should be conducted on this issue. Since the current study concerns about the effect of me dia on the effectiveness of narrative transportation, we begin with the following research question: RQ1: Which medium (print or video) would make individuals more transported to narrative ads? This research question aims to compare the effects of differe nt media on the effectiveness of narrative advertising. As it is mentioned above, the more individuals are transported into a narrative ad, the more likely they would change their attitudes according to the story in the ad, and the more effective the ad wo uld be (Green & Brock, 2000; Escalas, 2004; Chang, 2009a, 2009b; Zheng, 2010). Therefore, comparing and video would tell us which medium (print or video) could make nar rative advertising more effective. Processing Multiple Media The current study does not just compare the effects of different media on eliciting transportation. We are more interested in media sequence effect on how people
20 process narrative advertising and how people experience transportation. The discussion of media sequence effects will be established on the elaboration of multiple media consumers attend to, process, resp information processing approaches when they are exposed to different media. The following section will inspect the eff ect of multiple media on advertising effectiveness by adopting the perspective of information processing expecting to lead to the discussion of media sequence effect on the effectiveness of narrative advertising It has been demonstrated that intense cogn itive responses are associated with multiple information sources (Chang & Thorson, 2004). In one study, subjects were exposed to several similar ads, which shared the same basic arguments, but differed in the expression and sequence of presenting these arg uments. After viewing each ad, subjects were asked to provide their thoughts, which were used to analyze their cognitive responses. The results of the study showed that the overall cognitive response scores were positively related to the number of ads they were exposed, indicating that multiple ads could generate more cognitive activities (McCullough & Ostrom, 1974). Harkins and Petty (1981a, 1981b, 1987) conducted a study about the effect of multiple information resources. In one such study, subjects viewe d a videotape of one or three speakers presenting one or three arguments, and after that their thoughts were recorded. It turned out that the subjects who were exposed to three arguments in a video generated more thoughts about the messages than those who watched the video including only one argument (Harkins & Petty, 1981a). In a follow up study, Harkins and
21 Petty (1981b) added a distraction task to the similar experimental design, and found that the multiple information resources could make subjects recal l more about the messages than single information resource, even in the presence of distraction, indicating that during the exposure of messages, multiple information resources made subjects think more about the messages than a single information resource. third study explored why multiple information resources could stimulate more cognitive manipulation of telling them the messages came from a depe ndent committee or an independent one, or informing them that the members of the committee had similar perspectives or dissimilar perspectives. The results implied that multiple information resources caused more cognitive thinking by making people perceive that the resources were independent with different perspectives, which needed to be contemplated (Harkins & Petty, 1987). In addition, Edell and Keller (1999) investigated the combination of TV and print advertising, claiming that multiple sources gave ri se to more evaluation by subjects. In particular, they detected that the subjects who watched the a TV ad first, would process the subsequent print ad more carefully, and recalled ). Similarly, when subjects saw a print ad first and then watched a TV ad, they would also process the TV ad to a greater extent by generating more recall than those who just watched the TV ad without former exposure to the print ad (Edell &Keller, 1999). Accordingly, Chang and Thorson (2004) adopted the classical Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM, Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) to compare the different routes of information processing that individuals used when they were exposed to multiple
22 advertising media (la beled as media synergy) versus single advertising medium (labeled as medium repetition). In line with previous research, media synergy motivates people to be more concerned about the advertisements than media repetition (Allen, Kania, & Yaeckel, 1998; Blac kwell, Miniard, & Engel, 2001; Brock, Albert, & Becker, 1970; Grass & Wallace, 1969; Putrevu & Lord, 2003; Rossiter & Bellman, 1999). Moreover, individuals exposed to media synergy are more likely to contemplate the advertising messages than those exposed to media repetition (Edell & Keller, 1999; Harkins & Petty, 1981a, 1981b, 1987; McCullough & Ostrom, 1974). Such experience is labeled as the central processing route in ELM, which refers to the process in which individuals base their judgments on the elab oration of the main arguments in the advertising messages as well as the crucial characteristics of the products (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986, 1996a). On the contrary, message repetition is more likely to be processed in the peripheral processing route which me ans individuals formed their attitude based on peripheral cues (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986, 1996a), since repeated exposure to the same advertising message makes audiences less motivated to deliberate the arguments. The fact that advertisements presented by mu ltiple media are processed differently from repeated presentation by a single medium indicates the possibility that multiple media and single medium would have a different impact on advertising effectiveness. Actually, previous research about cross media c ampaign has already substantiated that multiple media campaigns are more persuasive than those using single medium with more favorable attitudes and more b ehavioral intention associated with cross media campaigns (Edell & Keller, 1989, 1999; Dijkstra 2002 ; Naik & Raman,
23 2003; Chang & Thorson, 2004; Dijkstra et al., 2005; Bronner, 2006; Havlena et al., 2007 ; Voorveld et al. 2011). For example, Edell and Keller (1989) examined the synergy of TV and radio ads. Subjects were randomly assigned to six different conditions (TV radio, radio TV, TV TV, radio radio replay, which meant listening to a radio ad in the second exposure, generated less critical thoughts, a sign of less evaluative processin g (Edell & Keller, 1989). Besides, Edell and Keller (1989) detected better recall of ads in media synergy conditions than in single medium ones. Moreover, Chang and Thorson (2004) also explored the media synergy effect by considering television and the int ernet. In particular, they detected that compared to medium repetition, television web synergy made subjects pay more attention to the target ads, and made them more likely to believe the advertising vealed that synergy stimulated more positive attitudes than single medium repetition (Chang & Thorson, 2004). However, knowing the fact that cross media can make advertising more effective than single medium still leaves an incomplete picture of the proce ss. According to Voorveld, Neijens and Smit (2012), cross media effects should be further investigated by examining the effect of media sequence on advertising effectiveness It is necessary to take media sequence into consideration when investigating cros s media effects on are influenced by the order of information presentation (Haugtvedt & Wegener 1994; Loda & Coleman 2005) In fact, the topic of media sequence has bee n more or less covered by previous research about cross media campaigns (Ephron, 2000; Bronner, 2006; Wang & Nelson, 2006; Havlena, Kalluf, & Cardarelli, 2008). The current study will
24 also make some contribution to this line of research by investigating me dia sequence effect on the effectiveness of narrative advertising In the following sections, we start with the discussion of repetition effect. Then we consider message repetition across different media, exploring why cross media presentation makes advert isements more effective. Afterwards, we discuss how sequence of information presentation influences persuasion, leading to our final concern of media sequence effect on advertising effectiveness. Repetition Effect Advertising presentation in a cross media campaign can be regarded as a et al., 2012, p. 204). Thus, we start our discussion about media se quence effect from the repetition effect. During the 1980s, based on several field studies and lab experiments, repetition and redundancy for the familiar fare of popular culture and entertainment as stage model. In particular, with a second exposure, the emotional reactions would not be as strong as audie nces experienced in the first exposure, b ut audiences needed less effort to search for explanations for their reexposure but in the reexperiencing" (Tannenbaum, 1985, p. 238 ). Different theories, however, predicted different outcomes as a consequence of repetitive reading (Brewer, 1996). Uncertainty theories (Ortony, Clore, & Collins, 1988;
25 Kintsch, 1980) suggested rereading was unattractive, because there was no uncertainty when people read stories for a second time, they might forget the information they learned in a previous reading (Brewer, 1996). These theories claimed that rereading w as supposed to be as enjoyable as the first reading, because there was no emotional change (Walton, 1978; De Beaugrande & Colby, 1979, Gerrig, 1989). Other scholars with the same opinion contended that rereading might be appreciated because people would fo due to their limited cognitive capacity (Boulton, 1975). Therefore, although there was no agreement about what effects repetition imposed on message persuasion, one consensus was confirmed that message repetition effect did exist. In the media research field, repetition effect has been popularly investigated by using single medium. Message repetition within the same medium was believed by some scholars to facilitate message ef fectiveness, due to fluency feeling ( Vaughn Petkova, Trudeau, Hesse, McCaffrey, Candeloro et al 2007) as well as deeper understanding of the message (Bortolussi & Dixon, 1996). Other scholars emphasized the negative effect of repetition within the same medium, claiming that curiosity and suspense tended to be reduced (Brewer, 1996). Furthermore, in accordance with Green et al. (2008), repetition exposure should be further studied in the setting of cross media. Such a suggestion is consistent with actual practice in the advertising industry. It was reported that in the year of 2001 nearly 85% of large advertising campaigns adopted a multiple advertising strategy (Bronner, Neijens, & Van
26 Raaij, 2003). Therefore, message repetition presented by different med ia deserves more scrutiny in advertising research. Cross Media Effect As we discussed before, individuals adopted different information processing approaches to deal with synergy of different media versus several exposures of the same single medium, which contributed to different message effectiveness. Media synergy seems to make communication more effective. However, why could cross media setting facilitate advertising effectiveness? Voorveld et al. (2011) came up with three psychological processes that mi ght occur when consumers processed advertisements in a cross media setting: forward encoding, image transfer, and multiple source perception. We believe this deeper insight of information processing would explain why multiple media can positively influence advertising effectiveness. Forward E ncoding Forward encoding is defined as the process in which the first ad exposure motivates an audience to process the second ad (Voorveld et al. 2011). By arousing et a l., 2003; Edell & Keller 1989, 1999; Dijkstra 2002), the initial exhibition of a certain advertisement would lead to deeper processing and easier encoding of a latter one (Dijkstra 2002). In other words, during the experience of forward encoding, the fi rst ad makes individuals more willing and more able to process the second ad. Voorveld et al. (2011) also explained the process of forward encoding from the perspective of memory storage. Actually, during the exposure of the first ad, part of the ad would
27 with a similar ad in a different medium, the memory which was previously stored would be activated to help process the second ad in more depth (Voorveld et al. 2011). Furthermore, it should be emphasized that forward encoding is more likely to occur within the cross media circumstance. According to Dijkstra (2002), people will not be encouraged to process an exact duplicate of a certain ad. Such a phenomenon can be explained by the Differential Attention Theory (Unnava & Burnkrant, 1991), which supposes that both motivation and interest would be reduced when people deal with the same message repeatedly. Notwithstanding, the use of different media can avoid the problem of pure repeti tion by delivering the same information with different presentation forms (Voorveld et al. 2011). Some previous research has mentioned forward encoding in cross media advertising campaigns. By asking subjects to report their interest in the second ad, Di jkstra (2002) detected higher forward encoding in the cross media condition. Edell and Keller (1989, 1999) also discovered the appearance of forward encoding in some cross media conditions in their studies, by checking the results of thought listing. Voorv eld et al. (2011) listed forward encoding as one of the approaches of information processing that people would adopt in a cross media campaign, and stated that forward encoding enhanced campaign results. Image T ransfer Image transfer happens when people a re processing the second ad after seeing watched in the first ad when they are exposed to the second one (Voorveld et al. 2011). The Encoding Specificity Principle cl aimed that individuals would have better recall if they were exposed to the clues which were used initially to store information into their
28 memory (Tulving & Thomson, 1973). By adopting this principle, Dijkstra (2002) interpreted image transfer as the proc ess in which "the elements in the second ad may function as retrieval cues to the ad memory trace from the first exposure" (p.66), due to the similarity of the two ads. Moreover, in the same way as forward encoding, image transfer is also believed to be e asily triggered in a cross media campaign (Edell & Keller 1989), but not single medium. It is said that message repetition presented by a single medium makes it the exact ly same ad can be directly processed with no difficulty (Dijkstra, 2002). Previous research also confirmed the appearance of image transfer in a cross media campaign (Dijkstra, 2002; Edell & Keller, 1989), and its contributing role of facilitating advertis ing effectiveness (Voorveld et al., 2011). Mult iple S ource P erception The so called multiple source perception talks about the fact that people are more likely to trust the message delivered by multiple independent sources (Harkin s & Petty, 1981a, 1987; B ronner et al., 2003; Gotlieb & Sarel, 1991). Such a phenomenon can be illustrated by the Economic Signaling Theory (Nelson, 1974). In the context of advertising based on this theory, repeated advertising exposure indicates high expenditures, which in turn implies more credible brand and product quality (Kirmani, 1997). Moreover, Voorveld et al. (2011) further contended that a cross media campaign would magnify such an effect, because multiple media were considered more costly than using one single medium. When individuals are exposed to advertisements presented by multiple media, they would go through the processes of forward encoding, image transfer and multiple
29 sources perception. Therefore, influenced by these three psychological processes, individuals w ould be more likely to express favorable responses to the advertisements. Consequently, it is reasonable to claim that a cross media effect does exist, and has positive influence on advertising effectiveness. As discussed before, the effectiveness of narra (Green, 1996; Green & Brock, 2000; Green, 2004; Chang, 2009a, 2009b; Zheng, 2010). Therefore, we assume that the cross media effect on narrative advertising can be detected by in vestigating the impact of multiple media on eliciting transportation: H1: Subjects would be more transported into the second narrative ad than the first one. This hypothesis is proposed to demonstrate that cross media setting would make narrative advertisi ng more effective. The cross media setting is created by providing subjects with a second exposure to the ads. If subjects are more transported to the ads in the second exposure than they were in the first one, it is reasonable to believe that cross media setting would positively influence advertising effectiveness. Media Sequence Effect A deeper insight into a cross media effect can be obtained by investigating the media sequence effect, which refers to the impact of different orders of multiple media on the effectiveness of the advertisements presented by these media (Voorveld et al., 2012). Apparently, a media sequence effect can only happen in a cross media setting because of the premise of multiple media. It has been substantiated that cross media can make advertising more effective, but what remains unclear is whether the sequence of media presentation can make a difference (Voorveld et al., 2012).
30 Sequence E ffect on P ersuasion The investigation of a media sequence effect can benefit from research in other fields about information persuasion being influenced by presentation sequence (Haugtvedt & Wegener, 1994; Loda & Coleman, 2005). According to Hovland, Campbell, and Brock (1957), message order tends to have two types of effects on how individuals pro cess two opposite messages within a similar topic. One is the primacy effect which is the recency effect, which means judgments are produced mainly based on the last mes sage. Previous research about this issue mainly focused on the conditions in which familiarity to the messages played a part, with high familiarity causing primacy effect, and low familiarity leading to a recency effect. Later, Lana (1963b) also discovered that when audiences were dealing with something controversial, the primacy effect occurred. ana, 1963a). A highly interested subject was more likely to adopt the primacy effect, while his less interested counterpart was more likely to show the recency effect. Haugtvedt and Wegener (1994) noted that a primacy effect would happen when people expres sed strong attitudes about first message and pondered it further, suggesting that they were motivated to process the first message in a central way, which refers to the process of individuals basing their judgments on the elaboration of the main arguments in the messages (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986, 1996a); while for people who considered the first message lightly, the recency effect was more likely to happen (Haugtvedt & Wegener, 1994). Although the discussion about a primacy/recency effects can be difficult t o apply
31 to the research on media sequence effects, due to the fact that primacy/recency effects focus on contradictory messages, while in a cross media setting, messages are always in tune with each other (Voorveld et al., 2012), the proposal of a primacy/ recency effects at least proves that sequence does influence communication effectiveness. Media S equence Ef fect on A dvertising It has already been demonstrated that a cross media campaign can facilitate advertising effectiveness by making consumers go thr ough forward encoding, image transfer and multiple source perception during their exposure to advertisements (Voorveld et al., 2011). Research in other fields also proved that presentation sequence can influence the effectiveness of communication (Lana, 19 61, 1963a, 1963b; Haugtvedt & Wegener, 1994). Therefore, based on these two lines of research, it is logical to assume that the presentation sequence of advertisements delivered by words, a media sequence effect on advertising effectiveness does exist. So far, media sequence effects have received little attention in the advertising research field (Voorveld et al., 2012). Most studies about multiple media emphasize the comparison be tween the effectiveness of a cross media campaign and that of a single medium campaign (Edell & Keller, 1989, 1999; Dijkstra, 2002; Chang & Thorson, 2004). In fact, based on our knowledge, only one study, conducted by Voorveld et al. (2012), focuses on med ia sequence effects on advertising effectiveness. Voorveld et al. (2012) adopted the concept of product involvement to investigate the sequence effect of the combination of television and website advertising (TV web vs web TV). Specifically, they believed that a TV website sequence would be more effective in presenting a low involvement product. Their rationale was that TV
32 advertising would be better at attracting consumers to low involvement products (Krugman, 1965; Buchholz & Smith, 1991; Dijkstra et al. 2005). Therefore, a TV ad (Yoo & Stout, 2001; Levy & Nebenzahl, 2008; Liu & Shrum, 2009). If such a sequence was reversed, which means the web ads would be presented first followed by the TV ads, the former would fail to trigger enough interest or attention, because consumers process the later TV ads. On the contrary, it is posited that both TV web and web TV sequences are equally effective for high involvement products. When consumers are highly involved, they are motivated to get any information that is available (Beaty & t appreciate et al., 2012, p. 208). The focus of the current research is whether the sequence of combination of print and video would influence the effectiveness of narrative advertising. Voorveld et al. (2012) research provides a promising starting point to investigate media sequence effect by considering two media types: television and internet, as well as adding product involvement as a moderating factor. However, the result of Voorveld et al. (2012) research should be carefully scrutinized. The website ads used in the research just included texts and photos, making the Internet advertising more like print ads, ignoring the fact that the internet platform could contain almost every other medium. Furthermore, th ey also adopted the theories of print media processing to explain how website communication worked (Voorveld et al. 2012). Although Voorveld et al. (2012)
33 considered the internet medium, their study was still based on previous research about traditional me dia. Building upon the work of Voorveld et al. (2012) the current study examines the media sequence effect of print and video on the effectiveness of narrative advertising: RQ2: What combination of print and video media (print video; video print; print p rint; video video) would cause the most transportation to the second narrative ad? RQ3: What combination of print and video media (print video; video print; print print; video video) would cause the most positive attitude toward the ad (RQ3a), the most pos itive attitude toward the brand (RQ3b), and the most b ehavioral intention s (RQ3c). The last two research questions are proposed to test media sequence effect on the effectiveness of narrative advertising. In particular, we expect to find out which one of t he four sequences (print video; video print; print print; video video) can make narrative advertising the most effective. We first test the effectiveness of narrative advertising by measuring transportation, because it has been demonstrated that transporta tion is positively related to the effectiveness of narrative s (Green & Brock, 2000; Escalas, 2004; Chang, 2009a, 2009b; Zheng, 2010). Then we also test the attitude towa rds the brand, b ehavioral intention These three variables were popularly used in previous research about advertising effectiveness.
34 C HAPTER 3 M ETHODS Design The experiment was separated into two stages. There was a three day interval between the two sta ges. Subjects attended both stages. In each stage, they were randomly assigned to read a print narrative ad or watch the same ad in video version resulting in four conditions: print video, video print, print print, and video video. The p rint ad was made i nto hard copies and was handed out to subjects during the experiment. T he v ideo ad w as presented by projectors. Subjects Ninety first year undergraduate students at a southeastern Chinese university were recruited (37 males, 53 females, M age = 20). They w ere told that the experiment some advertisements. After the first stage 20 minute experiment, subjects signed u p for the second sta ge of the experiment three days later. They received extra course credit for participatin g in the experiment Procedure In each stage, subjects in a certain condition were tested at the same time. They were assembled in a small classroom with a projector. At the beginning, they were given a brief explanation of the experiment, including what t hey would do in the experiment, what rights they had during the experiment, how they could contact the researchers if they wanted more information about the experiment, and to whom they could complain if they thought their rights were violated during the e xperiment. After that, What Do We Live For corresponding print v ersion of this ad. The video ad was presented by a projector, and
35 the print ad w as handed out as hard copies. After reading or watching the ad, subjects completed a questionnaire (described below). Materials What Do We Live For This ad is selected from hundreds of ads in several video websites in China, and lasts fo r three minutes. This ad is aimed to present the brand image of a bank in Taiwan (Ta Chong Bank). This ad depicts five old men in Taiwan riding their motorcycles traveling around the whole island trying to find out the essential meaning of being alive; all of them suffer some serious diseases and the death of a close friend prompts them to make this trip. The connection of this story to the bank is story are all ordinary people, but their behaviors are unique. Accordingly, the ad tries to communicate the idea that Ta Chong Bank is the bank for ordinary people, but ordinary people can be e xtraordinary. The print version of this ad was made by the researchers. We selected the six most importa nt scenes, which could present the outline of the story, from this ad. We snapshot the pictures from the video, put them in the print ad, and included i ntroductory text for the stor y Demographics. Subjects gave their age, gender, and major. Transportation. Subjects completed a 12 item transportation scal e (Green & Brock, 2000), consisting 11 general questions measuring cognitive attention, mental images of the main characters (old men riding motorcycles). Example items a re was reading /watching /watching the narrative, activity going on in the room around me ages of those old
36 T he combination of answers to all the items generated the transportation scores (First stage transportation: M =4.75, SD =0.62 Range =3.25; Second stage transportation: M =4.67, SD =0.58, Range =2.75). The scale was translated into Chinese. Three coders individually translated the Chinese version back to English. The retranslated versions were almost completel y identical to the orig inal one Ad attitude, brand attitude and b ehavioral intention Subjects also complete d the scales measur ing their attitude towards the a d, attitude towards the brand, and b ehavioral intention Although lots of previous research measuring advertising eff ectiveness used the variables of attitude towards the ad, attitude towards the brand, and b ehavioral intention there was no consensus about which items were the most appropriate to be include in the scales. In the current research, we reviewed nearly 100 articles in which the three variable were measured, and came up with our own scales of attitude towards the ad, attitude towards the brand, and b ehavioral intention Attitude towards the ad was measured by six bipolar adjectives: good/bad; positive/negativ e; favorable/unfavorable; like/dislike; pleasant/unpleasant; and informative/uninformative. Attitude towards the brand was measured by five bipolar adjectives: good/bad; pleasant/unpleasant; favorable/unfavorable; positive/negative; and appealing/unappeali ng. Behavioral intention was measured by the following questions : I am more likely to remember the brand name after seeing the ad; I would recommend this bank to my friends who are interested in bank service; I am more likely to purchase the product after seeing the ad; I am more likely to use a free trial of this service after seeing this ad; I am more likely to request additional information of t he service after
37 seeing this ad All of the items were measured along a seven point scale and were translated i nto Chinese. Three coders individually translated the Chinese version back to English. The retranslated versions were again almos t identical to the original one
38 C HAPTER 4 R ESULTS First stage transportation. We compared the first stage transportation scor es between the print version and the video version. The results of Indepe ndent Sample T Test showed that for the video version ( M =4.97, SD =0.55) were significantl y larger than those for the print version, ( M =4.52, SD =0.60), t (88) =3.66, p < .05 Therefore, the answer to RQ1 was that video ma de individuals more tr ansported into the narrative ad than print d id Second stage transportation. First we conducted a Paired Sample T Test to compare the first stage transportation score s and the second stage transportation scores. The results showed that the second stage transportation scores ( M =4.93, SD =0.53) were significantly larger than the first stage transportation scores ( M =4.36, SD =0.58) only in print video condition, t (25) = 5. 16, p < .05 However, there w ere no significant difference s between first and second stage transportation for the print print condition ( t (17) = 2.05, p > .05 ) and video video condition ( t (23) = 1.96, p > .05 ). And the second stage transportation ( M =4.37, S D =0.49) was significantly lower than the first stage transportation ( M =4.91, SD =0.55) in the video print condition, t (21) = 4.47, p < .05 Thus, H1 (greater transportation to the second ad exposure) was only supported when the narrative ad w as presented in the sequence of print video, but not in other sequences. Then we conducted an ANOVA on second stage transportation with media sequence (print video, video print, print print, and video video) as the independent variable. There was a significant main effec t of second stage transportation ( F (3, 86) = 5.33, p < .05). The second stage transportation in print video condition ( M =4.93,
39 SD =0.53) was significantly larger than that in video print condition ( M =4.37, SD =0.49) and print print condition ( M =4.49, SD =0.62 ), but was not significantly larger than that in video video condition ( M =4.81, SD =0.55). In conclusion, the answer to RQ2 was that the nar rative ad presented in print video sequence caused the most transportation among the four sequences (print video, vid eo print, print print, and video video). Attitude towards the ad. towards the second stage ad with media sequence (print video, video print, print print, and video video) as the independent variable. However we detected no significant main ude towards the second stage ad F (3, 86) = 1.52, p > .05. Therefore, the answer to RQ3a was that there were no differences of attitude toward the ad caused by different media sequences. Attitude towards the brand. We also conducted an ANOVA on subje attitude towards the brand in the second stage with media sequence (print video, video print, print print, and video video) as the independent variable. We detected no significant main effect of su bje in the second stage, F (3, 86) = 1.51, p > .05. Therefore, the answer to RQ3b was that there were no differences of attitude toward the brand caused by different media sequences. Behavioral intention We also conducted an b ehavioral intention in the second stage with media sequence (print video, video print, print print, and video video) as the independent variable. We detected no significant main effect of b ehavioral intention in the second sta ge F (3, 86) = 2.89 p > .05. Therefore, the answer to RQ3c was that there were no differences of b ehavioral intention caused by different media sequences.
40 I n sum, video ma k e s individuals more tr ansported into the narrativ e ad than print d oes A nd print vi deo leads to the most transportation to the narrative ads among the four media sequences. H owever, there are no differences of attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand or b ehavioral intention caused by different media sequences
41 C HAPTER 5 D ISCUSS ION RESEARCH LIMITATION, AND CONCLUSION Discussion The first research question is to explore which medium (print or video) would make individuals m ore transported to narrative ad vertising According to the results of our experiment, subjects who watched the narrative ad in video version were more transported into the ad than those who read the print version. As we have discussed before, a video not only provides audiences with motion pictures, but also lets them hear the sound and music. Compared to print media, video media stimulate multiple sensory modes of human beings, making the narratives more vivid than those written in words do. Furthermore, a video presents stories directly in front of audiences. Individuals can see characters, backgrounds, and other elements in the stories. They t have to make an effort to build all the stories elements in their minds. It is much easier for audiences to get engaged into a story presented in video. Furthermore wh ich means people tend to not make too much cognitive effort to deal with any mental task they encounter ( Fiske & Taylor 1991). Accordingly in general, people are reluctant to make an effort to process media content, making them like video media more than print me dia. In addition, few people are willing to take full effort to process advertisements in real life I ndividuals purpose of reaching media content is to enjoy media programs, not advertisements. And in our experiment, when subjects were told that they were going to watch or read an ad, they would probably get prepared to put little attention on the stimuli Thus, it is understandable to get the result that the video narrative ad was more appreciated than the print version.
42 We also hypothesized th at multiple media could facilitate transportation into narrative advertising. However, this hypothesis was only supported with the media sequence of print video. This result was in parallel with the answer to our second rese arch question: narrative adverti sing presented in print video sequence led to the most transportation among the four sequences (print video, video print, print print, and video video) Green and her colle agues gained a similar result watching is the most effecti al., 2008, p. 530). They believed such a combination of media was the best way in making individuals transported into the narrative world. In particular, when individuals first read the narrativ e, they can control their own reading pace and have enough time (Green et al., 2008, p. 530) However, when subjects watch the narrative in video first, they would accept the images created for them and store these images into their memory. The next time when they read the same story in print, they can easily retrieve the pictures from th mind, so they would be less transported. We have already talked about forward encoding (the process in which the first ad exposure motivates an audience to process the second ad) and image tr they have watched in the first ad when they are exposed to the second one) in a cross media setting. According to the results of the current research, narrative ad vertising presented in print form is more suitable for motivating individuals to get prepared to
43 process the following ads, and video version narrative ad vertising is better at making audience s mentally reiterating the previous ads they have seen. We detected no difference s of attitude t owards the ad, attitude towards the brand and purchased intention caused by different media sequences in our experiment. In other words, although print video was found to induce the most t ransportation into narrative ad vertising such a media sequence was not found to cause the most favorable attitude towards the ad, attitude towards the brand and most b ehavioral intention Such results surprised us to some extent, because based on previous studies, transportation should be positively related to the effecti veness of narratives, which included attitude and b ehavioral intention (Green & Brock, 2000; Green, 2004). The main reason for the disconnection of transportation to advertising effectiveness in our What Do We Live For appealing story, and the three minute length was enough to make people engaged into the story. Actually, lots of subjects told us after the experiment that they were deeply touched by the story, and when they watched it, they felt tha t they were inside the story and could feel the pain, motivation and hope of the characters. However, the story was depicted in an ad vertisement of a bank, but such a story seemed have nothing to do with bank service. The only connection was that the name of the bank meant ordinary What Do We Live For as an effective ad. In other words, transportation sca le the story per se, but the ad attitude scale asked them to treat the story as a commercial. Since the story presented nothing about the service which should be advertised,
44 subjects regarded it as a less effective c ommercia l. And they also re sponded in the same way when they were asked to evaluate the bank brand. In addition, the bank was in Taiwan, and the subjects in our experiment were all the citizens in P. R. China. For some political reasons, this bank has not had its business in P. R. China. Thus, when considering b ehavioral intention subjects may have tended to take reality into account, expressing less intention to use this bank service. Accordingly, the above discussion makes us notice that transportation is not al ways positively related to the effectiveness of narrative advertising. In previous research of narratives, scholars detected that when individuals were transported into a story, they would be more likely to express favorable attitude towards the story (Gre en & Brock, 2000; Green, 2004). Such phenomenon was the story, based on the post interview to some subjects they all expressed positive feelings to the story. However, scales measuring advertising effectiveness (attitude towards the ad, attitude towards the brand, b ehavioral intention ) asked subjects to evaluate the story as a commercial. In this case, a highly transporting story may not be an effective ad, because the s tory may not be related to product/service consumption, What Do We Live For effectiveness of narrative advertising should consider the relevancy between advertising stories and brand/product advertised. I n sum, generally speaking, narrative ads presented by video media are more effective to attract individuals than the ads in print media, because people are not supposed to put full attention on advertisements and video media, like televisio n, need audiences to make too much effort to be transported. F urthermore, multiple media
45 campaigns of narrative advertising should adopt the media presentation sequence of print video, because such a sequence can cause the most transportation into th e narrative ads, making narrative advertising effective. I n addition, the relevancy between advertising stories and brand/product advertised might be a significant issue in narrative advertising. W e have detected that irrelevant stories have the potential to destroy advertising effectiveness. T herefore, story product relevancy might be an important concern in both future research of narrative advertising and advertising industrial practice. Research L imitation The ad stimulus in the experiment was about th ree minutes long, so that subjects could easily be transported into the ad story. However, in r eality, most TV commercials last for only thirty seconds, due to huge advertising expenditure s Therefore, the advertising watching situation in the current stud y is difficult to be applied into a real life situation of watch ing TV commercials. Future stud ies could use thirty second video stimuli to detect the effectiveness of narrative advertising. Nonetheless, it is doubted that thirty seconds is enough to prese nt a complete story, making individuals transported. Thus, it might be a challenge for advertising professionals to create highly transporting narrative advertisements which last for such a short time. Another limitation of this study comes from the dispa rity between lab experiment and real life commercial watching situation In our experiment, subjects were only exposed to the ad stimuli, and they were forced to pay attention to the narrative ads. However, in real life, commercials are always inserted int o TV programs. Moreover, individual s main purpose of watching TV is not to process commercials, so they may pay less attention to advertisement s taking little effort to process them. Therefore, the
46 high transporting ads in lab experiments may not transpo rt audiences in real life commercial watching situation. Future study should take this issue into consideration. When investigating advertising effectiveness, experiment design s should be more close to commercial watching situation in real life. T he third limitation is that in the current study, the media types that are taken into account are only print and video. However, media sequence effect would be further examined if other media types could be included. Future studies should investigate other media t ypes, like radio or the Internet; or should add other media types on the base of the current study. It should be noted that the more media types included, the more complicated experiment design s would be. T he forth limitation is the print stimulus used in the experiment. A s introduced before, we included both pictures and text in the print ad, so it is logical to assume that subjects t ransportation to the print ad might be influenced by the combination of pictures and text. S ince pictures and words transp ort individuals in different ways, future research should clarify the impact of pictures and words on the transportation to print ads respectively. T herefore, we can add conditions in which subjects read print ads only with pictures or words in future stud ies. T he final concern of research limitation is about the transportation scale. S uch a scale was originally created to measure individuals transportation to print narratives (Green & Brock, 2000). T hus, some items only make sense in reading situation. F or example, the item While I was reading/watching the narrative, I could easily picture the events in it taking place can be easily understood when people read a narrative in print, because they have to image the story in their mind. H owever, when watchi ng a
47 narrative on screen, all the events in the story are exhibited directly in front of the audiences, and they T herefore, such an item is confusing when measuring people s transportation into video narratives. W e also conducted an ANOVA on each item in the scale with media sequence (print video, video print, print print, and video video) as the independent variable. W e detected significant main effect s on only four items: I could picture myself in the scene of the eve nts described in the narrative ( F (3, 86) = 3.44, p < .05 ), I was mentally involved in the narrative while reading/watching it ( F (3, 86) = 10.08, p < .05 ), I found my mind wandering while reading/watching the narrative ( F (3, 86) = 5.73, p < .05 ), an d When I read or watched the story, the vivid images of those old men came into my mind ( F (3, 86) = 3.63 p < .05 ). Accordingly these four items played leadi ng roles in the process that media sequence influence d transportation. T herefore, the transport ation scale adopted in this research might not be an effective one to examine the impact of different media on transportation. F uture research in this field should find a more effective way to measure transportation, like modifying the transportation scale or adopting physiopsycholog ical methods. Conclusion This research investigates the media sequence effect on the effectiveness of narrative advertising. Pr evious research exploring media in narrative advertising focused on the effect of media context (Wang & Calder, 2006; Chang, 2009b). So far, there has not been any research concerning the impact of media per se on transportation to narrative advertising. The current study fill s in this gap by not only detecting that video could make individuals more trans ported into narrative ads than print, but also confirming that the media sequence of print video could induce the most
48 transportation into narrative ads. Furthermore, we believe such a result from academic research has great value to be applied into media planning in the real life advertising industry. In particular, campaigns of narrative adve rtising would be more effective if consumers are exposed to the print narrative ads first and later watch the video version of the same ads. I n addition, the current research also informs us some directions of future studies in this field, like consider ing more types of media, especially the Internet, examining the relevancy between advertising stories and brand/product advertised making lab experiments more close to commercial watching situations in real life, and searching for a more effective way to measure transportation. M oreover, the current research tested the impact of media sequence on transportation and on b ehavioral intention respectively. F uture research co uld investigate the relation between transportation and b ehavioral intention to see whether individuals behavior change is associated with their experience of transportation.
49 APPENDIX A TRANSPORTATION SCALE 1. While I was reading/watching the narrativ e, I could easily picture the events in it taking place. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 2. While I was reading/watching the narrative, activity going on in the room around me was on my mind. S trongly disagr ee ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 3. I could picture myself in the scene of the events described in the narrative. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 4. I was mentally involved i n the narrative while reading/watching it. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 5. After finishing the narrative, I found it easy to put it out of my mind. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : __ : ____ Strongly agree 6. I wanted to learn how the narrative ended. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 7. The narrative affected me emotionally. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ___ Strongly agree 8. I found myself thinking of ways the narrative could have turned out differently. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 9. I found my mind wandering while reading/watching the narrative. S tron gly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 10. The events in the narrative are relevant to my everyday life. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree
50 11. The events in the narrative h ave changed my life. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 12. When I read or watched the story, the vivid images of those old men came into my mind S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : __ __ Strongly agree
51 APPENDIX B AD ATTITUDE SCALE W hat do you think of this ad? 1. bad ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ good 2. negative ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ positive 3. unfavorable ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ favorable 4. dislike ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ like 5. unpleasant ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ pleasant 6. uninformative ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ informative
52 APPENDIX C BRAND AT TITUDE SCALE W hat do you think of the brand (Ta Chong Bank)? 1. bad ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ good 2. unpleasant ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ pleasant 3. unfavorable ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ f avorable 4. negative ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ positive 5. unappealing ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ appealing
53 APPENDIX D BEHAVIORAL INTENTION SCALE 1 I am more likely to remember the brand name after seeing the ad S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ S trongly agree 2 I would recommend this bank to my friends who are interested in bank service. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 3 I am mor e likely to try the bank service after seeing the ad. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 4 I am more likely to u se a free trial of this service after seeing this ad. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree 5 I am more likely to request additional information of the service after seeing this ad. S trongly disagree ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ____ : ___ : ____ Strongly agree
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63 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Linwan Wu enrolled in the master s program in the Ad vertising Department at the University of Florida after completing his BA in advertising at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology. During his study in the master s program, he was glad to work with Dr. Lu Zheng, and developed an interest in Dr. Zheng s research area: transportation in narrative advertising, which eventually led him to the study he conducted. A fter graduating from the master s program in the Advertising Department at the University of Florida, Linwan plans to continue his Ph.D. s tudy in the United States, and keeps doing research in the mass communication field.