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RELATIONSHIPS By HEATHER LOUISE BELL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEG REE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 201 4
2 201 4 Heather Louise Bell
3 To Cam, my parents Aunty Franty and all women who take up sport in adulthood
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I would like to acknowledge the patience, understanding and knowledgeable guidance of my mentor, Heather Gibson. A world class scholar, and a world class person, I have been so lucky to have her leadership throughout this process My appreciation is al so extended to the members of my dissertation committee, Drs. Michael Sagas, Svetlana Stepchenkova and Tanya Koropeckyj Cox for their suggestions guidance and advocacy It has been a n absolute pleasure working with and learning from you. M y d eepest th anks are also extended to the hundreds of women from Australia, Canada and the United States who graciously volunteered to share with me their experiences of voyageur canoe and dragon boat paddling. Without their support and enthusiasm, this study would no t have been possible. Families are often the backstage heroes in endeavo rs such as doctoral degrees. My case is no exception. Cam, you are my partner in everything I do. Your love, your ear, and your smile helped keep me going, even on the darker days Thank you for everything, and I hope this degree leads us to many more adventures together. To my mother : thank you for being there from the beginning, leading by example and being your cheery inspirational self Happy 80 th t his could not have been done without you I I wish to express my gratitude to my sister, Linda, who cares so deeply, and knows how to make everyone around her feel special. unt y Franty my steadfast supporter and cheerleader sadly was not able to see me finish my PhD. Her death shortly before its completion wa s a blow and she is sorely missed T hanks are due to Jean Fran ois Latour and the Yukon River Quest board for their cooperation in allowing me to conduct research during their race. In a ddition,
5 thanks are extended to Penny Behling and the many dragon boat team representatives who took the time to read and diligently pass along my emails to their team members. Special thanks to Leah Anderson for suggesting that I study the women of the Yukon River Quest, and allowing me to join her family on their journey north. I loved our chats under the midnight sun. Muchos gracias also to Marcia De u e rling and Mike Odio for their assistance with translating the questionnaire into Spanish. I w ould like to acknowledge Drs. Mirka Koro Ljungberg, Charlie Lane Ken Wald and Kendal Broad for their support humour and understanding during my time here in Gainesville. Thanks also to Julie McGrath, Donna Walker, and Nancy Gullic for going over and abo ve in helping me and the other students under their care. Struggling and flourishing alongside me on my journey were my wonderful colleagues : Sung Jin, Benjamin, Naomi, Seohee, Ting Bing Pulung, Krystina, Mike Cornell Natalia, Tinelle, Becky, Mona, Ric k, Shintaro and the rest of the FLG 206 crew too many to name A special thanks to Sung Jin Kang, Sungur Gurel and Eugenia Buta whose efforts to help me translate statistics from Klingon to plain English meant the world. All are bright and special folk s who will go on to do great things in their lifetimes W hen things got tough, I learned that there are few better ways to relieve stress than whacking around a tennis ball. Thanks especially to Abby, Erin, Caroline, Sheronda, Westside Jones Westside Wr ight Westside Kolifrath and the Westside Alley Cats for many hours of exercise, fresh air, and fun and allowing me to enjoy firsthand what I have been studying all along social relationships in sport
6 A huge thank you is due to the University of Flor Human Performance Graduate Alumni Fellowship whose financial support during the tenure of my studies made the entire experience possible. And finally, I wish to also acknowledge the Bill Sims Doctoral Dissertation Scholarship, for partial funding of this dissertation The Yukon is a continent away from Florida, and this award helped ease the pain of the cost of the trip.
7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 15 Statement of Problem ................................ ................................ ............................. 19 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 23 Qualitative Phase ................................ ................................ ............................. 23 Research question ................................ ................................ ..................... 23 Main themes ................................ ................................ .............................. 24 Quantitative Phase ................................ ................................ ........................... 25 Research questions ................................ ................................ ................... 25 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 31 Gendered Context of Sport ................................ ................................ ..................... 31 Social Support ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 35 Social Support and Breast Cancer ................................ ................................ ... 38 Social Support in Sport ................................ ................................ ..................... 40 Team Cohesion ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 42 Benefits Sought ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 45 Breast Cancer and Dragon Boating ................................ ................................ ........ 49 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 55 Method Qualitative Phase ................................ ................................ .................... 55 Study Context ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 55 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ 56 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 57 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 59 Method Quantitative Phase ................................ ................................ .................. 61 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ 62 Instrument ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 64 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 68 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 69
8 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 88 Findings Qualitative Phase ................................ ................................ .................. 88 Motivation ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 88 Cancer as impetus for physical activity ................................ ...................... 89 Chance to be part of a team ................................ ................................ ....... 90 Outdoors as a draw ................................ ................................ .................... 91 Challenge of the YRQ ................................ ................................ ................ 93 Team Context ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 96 Different social circles ................................ ................................ ................ 97 Different abilities ................................ ................................ ........................ 99 Breast Cancer ................................ ................................ ................................ 100 Cancer as common experience ................................ ............................... 100 Cancer practicalities ................................ ................................ ................. 102 New perspectives through cancer ................................ ............................ 1 04 The supporter experie nce ................................ ................................ ........ 105 Activism ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 109 Challenging stereotypes ................................ ................................ .......... 109 Creating opportunities for others ................................ .............................. 110 Making cancer visib le ................................ ................................ ............... 112 Cohesion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 117 Social cohesion ................................ ................................ ........................ 118 Task cohesion ................................ ................................ .......................... 121 Social Support ................................ ................................ ................................ 122 Receiving social support ................................ ................................ .......... 122 Providing social support ................................ ................................ ........... 130 Benefits ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 133 Physical benefits ................................ ................................ ...................... 134 Social benefits ................................ ................................ .......................... 136 Mental benefits ................................ ................................ ......................... 139 Results Quantitative Phase ................................ ................................ ................ 144 Social Support and Team C ohesion From Dragon Boating ............................ 144 Social Support ................................ ................................ ................................ 145 Team Cohesion ................................ ................................ .............................. 147 Relationship Between Social Support and Team Cohesion ........................... 150 Benefits Sought From Current Participation ................................ ................... 151 Benefits Sought Factors ................................ ................................ ................. 151 5 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 163 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 163 Qualitative Phase: Grounded Theory Model of Canoe Teams ................................ ................................ .............................. 163 .............. 168 Social Support in Dragon Boating ................................ ............................ 169 Team Cohesion in Dragon Boating ................................ .......................... 173 Benefits Sought in Dr agon Boating ................................ .......................... 176
9 On Mixing Methods ................................ ................................ .................. 180 Delimitations and Limitations ................................ ................................ .......... 183 Qualitative Phase ................................ ................................ ..................... 183 Quantitative Phase ................................ ................................ ................... 185 Future research ................................ ................................ ........................ 188 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 191 APPENDIX A INTERVIEW QUESTIONS QUALITATIVE PHASE ................................ ........... 195 B INFORMED CONSENT QUALITATIVE PHASE ................................ ................ 197 C RECRUITMENT EMAIL QUALITATIVE P HASE ................................ ................ 200 D DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE QUALITATIVE PHASE ............................ 201 E EMAIL CONTACT FOR RECRUITMENT TEAM REPRESENTATIVE .............. 202 F E MAIL CONTACT FOR RECRUITMENT PARTICIPANT ................................ .. 204 G THE QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ........................ 206 H EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS FACTOR LOADINGS BENEFITS SOUGHT SCALE ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 220 I ANOVA INTERACTION TABLES ................................ ................................ ......... 222 J BENEFITS SOUGHT: FACTOR EIGEN VALUES ................................ ................. 226 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 228 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 244
10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Participant Characteristics YRQ Qualitative Phase ................................ ......... 76 3 2 Estimate of Population Size Dragon Boat Quantitative Phase ........................ 76 3 3 Dragon Boat Quantitative Phase Profile of Respondents Social Support and Team Cohesion ................................ ................................ ........................... 77 3 4 Dragon Boat Quantitative Phase Profile of Respondents Benefits Sought .... 78 3 5 Rules of Thumb for Goodness of Fit Index Cut Offs ................................ ........... 79 3 6 Summary of Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model Fit Statistics Initial Through Final Model ................................ ................................ ........................... 79 3 7 Cohesion and Social Support Indicators: Correlations ................................ ....... 80 3 8 Social Support and Cohesion Indicators: Descriptive Statistics .......................... 81 3 9 Benefits Sought Indicators: Correlations ................................ ............................ 84 3 10 Benefits Sought: Descriptive Statistics ................................ ............................... 85 4 1 Social Support and Team Cohesion (Task and Social) Factor Scores: Descriptive Statistics ................................ ................................ ........................ 155 4 2 Summary ANOVA Main Effect Table for Dependent Variable Social Support .. 156 4 3 Pairwise Comparisons for Dependent Variable Social Support ........................ 156 4 4 Summary ANOVA Main Effect Table for Dependent Variable Task Cohesion 156 4 5 Pairwise Comparisons for Dependent Variable Task Cohesion ....................... 157 4 6 Task Cohesion Shaffer Holm Procedure for All Pairwise Comparisons: Type of Team ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 157 4 7 Summary ANOVA Main Effect Table for Dependent Variable Social Cohesion 158 4 8 Pairwise Comparisons for Dependent Variable Social Cohesion ..................... 158 4 9 Benefits Sought Factors: Descriptive Statistics ................................ ................ 158 4 10 Summary ANOVA Main Effect Table for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Leisure ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 159
11 4 11 Pairwise Comparisons for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Leisure ......... 159 4 12 Summary ANOVA Main Effect Table for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Mastery/Achievement ................................ ................................ ....................... 159 4 13 Pairwise Comparisons for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Mastery/Achievement ................................ ................................ ....................... 160 4 14 Summary ANOVA Main Effect Table for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Social Connection ................................ ................................ ............................. 160 4 15 Pairwise Comparisons for Benefits Sought Dependent Vari able Social Connection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 160 4 16 Shaffer Holm Procedure for All Pairwise Comparisons for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Social Connection ................................ ............................ 161 4 17 Summary ANOVA main effect table for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Self Care ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 161 4 18 Pairwise Comparisons for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Self Care ...... 161 4 19 Shaffer Holm Procedure for All Pairwise Comparisons for Benefits Sought Factor Self Care ................................ ................................ ............................... 162 4 20 Summary of ANOVA Results ................................ ................................ ............ 162
12 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Fully loaded voyageur team coming to shore after completing the YRQ. ........... 28 1 2 An empty dragon boat awaiting the start of a race ................................ ............. 28 1 3 Overview of Two Phase Study ................................ ................................ ........... 29 1 4 ............ 30 2 1 Two Way Social Support Model (Shakespeare Finch & Obst, 2011) ................. 54 2 2 Group Cohesion Conceptual Model (Carron, Widmeyer & Brawley, 1985) ........ 54 3 1 Social Support and Team Cohesion: Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model ........ 83 3 2 Exploratory Factor Analysis Model: Benefits Sought ................................ ......... 87 5 1 ....... 164
13 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy SPORT EXPERIENCES AND RELATIONSHIPS By HEATHER LOUISE BELL May 201 4 Chair: Heather J Gibson Major: Health and Human Performance A growing trend for survivors of cancer is to use team based paddling with other survivors as leisure. Literature on breast cancer survivor dragon boating suggests that this brings many benefits for survivors, but ignores the experiences of women without cancer diagnoses who participate in the same team based paddling activities This mixed method two phase study explore d te ammate relationships and experiences of women with and without cancer diagnoses who participate o n voyageur canoeing and dragon boat paddling teams First, t he qualitative phase of the study consisted of face to face and internet based interviews of 11 w omen participating on all female voyageur canoe teams in the Yukon River Quest wilderness canoe race in northern Canada Grounded theory analysis methods were used to identify s even themes from the data: Motivation, T eam C ontext, Breast C ancer, Activism, Cohesion, Social Support, and Benefits. The second phase quantitatively explored three of these qualitative themes using data from an online questionnaire distributed to women in the US and Puerto Rico who participated in the 2012 dragon boat padd ling season (N=609) Specifically, cohesion in teams, teammate social support and benefits sought through
14 paddling were examined in terms of their level of competition, type of team mixed, all female or cancer survivor and the cancer status of the pad dler herself. Analysis techniques included descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis and three way between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). W omen on competitive teams scored higher than women on recreational teams on Task Cohesion, Social Cohesion, and Social Support factors. In terms of benefits sought, they also experienced significantly higher levels on Leisure, Mastery/Achievement, and Self Care factors. C ancer survivors were significantly more likely to seek social connection benefits than women without cancer diagnoses. In terms of team type, participants on all female teams scored higher on the task cohesion factor than women on cancer survivor teams. When analyzed by benefits sought, women on all fema le teams were more likely to seek social connection and self care benefits than women on mixed teams, and women on cancer survivor teams were significantly more likely to seek social connection benefits than women on mixed teams.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION People are living longer today than ever before, however, overall only a minority of adults engage in physical activity at levels beneficial to their health (CDC, 2005). The proportion of those participating in regular physical activity amongst American adults is low, and has been so over time (US DHHS, 2007). A recent report of the participation in sport by American adults between 2003 and 2006 revealed that only 16% of those 15 and over participated in sports and exercise activities on an average day d there is a growing trend for adults to move beyond physical activities traditionally pr omoted, such as walking, strength training and grou p fitness, and to turn to competitive sport ( Weir, Baker & Horton, 2010 ) One example is the growing popularity of water based team sports Many types of small boat team paddling opportunities exist for r ecreational or competitive participation at sprint or endurance distances. Examples include outrigger canoeing, kayaking, marathon canoeing, war canoe, rowing, voyageur canoeing and dragon boating. This dissertation consider s two different types of wate r based team sports notably voyageur canoeing and dragon boating. Voyageur canoes have a rich tradition in Canadian history. They were used originally for transportation and trading and play ed a key role in the nation building and economic development o f Canada through European fur trading with Canadian First Nations peoples (Dean, 2006) Originally crafted from wood and bark, these canoes may now be made of a number of modern materials, including Kevlar and they are used for racing and recreational pu rposes. The Yukon River Quest (YRQ) is a long
16 distance paddling race that began in 1999 for sm all boats such as one and two person canoes and kayaks. A few years later, a group of breast cancer survivors wanted to com plete the race as a team in a larger boat. They approached the YRQ race committee to ask if they could create a special voyageur canoe class so they could participate Th began in 2001 and has entered the race every year since. T he voyageur class h as grown to be a popular addition, with voyageur teams winning the race on many occasions Canoes in the YRQ voyageur class are required to be between 25 and 40 feet long, and must carry a minimum of six paddlers. Most YRQ voyageur canoes accommodate betw een seven and 10 paddlers and their gear comfortably (Figure 1 1) Participation in races using voyaguer canoes is generally limited to longer races such as the YRQ, and the 64km Mattawa River Canoe Race (North Bay Mattawa Conservation Authority, 2013). S ome shorter distance events such as the Day of the Longboat, a two kilometer, obstacle style sprint race for university students and community members ( University of British Columbia 2013 ) with a festive atmosphere are also popular, however Voyageur can oe paddling is a relatively obscure sport that is not widely practiced outside of Canada. Dragon boat paddling is a nother form of small boat team paddling that is growing in popularity (IDBF, n.d.). A dragon boat is a long, slim canoe, with a stylize d dragon head and tail affixed to either end (Figure 1 2) Twenty paddlers sit in pairs down the length of the boat and provide propulsion A steersperson with a long oar steers the boat from the stern. Facing the team, a drummer sits o n a raised seat a t the front
17 straddling a large drum The paddlers paddle in unison to the cadence provided by the dru m beat. Dragon boats have a long history from ancient China as a key component of the annual Dragon Boat Festival, held on the fifth day of the fifth mo nth in the Chinese lunar calendar. What began as an Asian based cultural festival has grown exponentially since its modern revival in 1976 by a Hong Kong based tourist authority (Sofield & Sivan, 2003) to become a global, competitive sport, with regular w orld championship regattas and aspirations to become an Olympic sport (IDBF, n.d.). While it is unknown exactly how many people participate in dragon boating world wide, the increase in participation is evident by the addition each year of new teams and n ew competitions around the globe. While dragon boating maintains a strong mixed sex team profile compared to other sports, many of the teams that are being newly created are for women only S ince 1996 breast cancer survivor (BCS) teams are a large part of that growth (McKenzie, 1998). Currently there are over 100 BCS teams around the world, and that number continues to grow. Prestigious international competitions such as the Club Crew World Championships maintain a BCS division and large global events f or BCS only teams are now held every few years such as the 4 th International Breast Cancer Paddlers Commission Participatory Dragon Boat Festival for Breast Cancer Survivors which is scheduled for Sarasota, Florida, in late 2014 (IBCPC, 2013) Building o n the success of BCS dragon boating, teams have also been created for people who have experienced illnesses such as other types of cancer, and teams for those with disabilities, such as those who are blind and visually impaired.
18 Dragon boat racing has a s trong tradition of being a popular co ed sport, especially in North America. For example, in large festival competitions such as the San Francisco Dragon Boat Festival, the ratio of mixed teams to same sex teams is 2.3 to 1 (California Dragon Boat Associa tion, 2012). At the highest level of the sport, the biannual world dragon boat championships a mixed division is available for contestation (IDBF, 2012). Dragon boating has several rules that are gender based. According to the IDBF racing regulations ( entirely of women, while crews in the BCS division may paddle with males provided they too are BCS. There is no racing category spec based classes (i.e.: Grand Dragons aged 50 59) may compete in mixed or same sex crews. In contrast to the more long distance based focus of voyageur canoeing, dragon boat races are conducted over sprint distances on fl at water, and are commonly 500m in length. The paddling related sport experience may involve a range of activities, including sport practices, dry land strength and cardiovascular training, fundraising, administration/leadership, competition, travel, soci al activities, and sometimes advocacy and activism. These opportunities provide a variety of possible experiences for women. For any particular participant, some of these aspects may be quite novel, especially if
19 they have never participated in a team sp ort previously, or if it has been many years since they have done so. Statement of Problem Researchers studying sport have tended to examine experiences of children and young adults (e.g., Weiss & Ferrer Caja, 2002), those who are elite professional (e.g. Freeman, Rees & Hardy, 2009) or college athletes (e.g., Halbrook, Blom, Hurley, Bell & Holden, 2012). Less is known about community level, non elite, club based sport, in which a large number of adults participate actively. Researchers have begun to exa mine older athletes, but there are few studies that focus on women as athletes. 2007) and Senior Games (e.g., Cardenas, Henderson & Wilson, 2009a, 2009b), which are segre gated sport competitions for adults and older adults respectively, but fewer on general sports where women participate amongst those of all ages (e.g., Bell, 2008; Heuser, 2005). Much research exists on common forms of physical activity such as exercise cl asses, resistance training, walking or aerobics (King, Rejeski & Buchner, 1998; van der Bij, Laurant & Wensing, 2002). These are physical activities regularly used by researchers as interventions designed to increase levels of physical activity in adult an d older adult populations (Allender, Cowburn & Foster, 2006). Little is known about more unique activities such as team based water sports that may be choices for women with little interest in traditionally promoted forms of physical activity. Beyond the historical perspective on voyageur canoeing provided by Dean (2006), no literature on voyageur canoeing as a leisure activity in modern time is known to exist. Most of the existing
20 work on team paddling focuses on dragon boating, which will be explored i n further detail. The physical activity of women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer has been the subject of much research, (e.g., Monninkhof et al., 2007) primarily from a perspective that tries to understand it in terms of disease risk factor mini mization. When women complete their cancer treatment, they move beyond a heavy reliance on medical care into more independent life as a breast cancer survivor, which can be very stressful (Allen, Savadatti & Levy, 2009). Cancer survivorship is a stage w here being physically active is important to physical and mental health. Evidence is mounting that links physical activity with benefits such as improved fitness and quality of life, as well as reductions in cancer treatment side effects such as fatigue ( Sabiston & Brunet, 2012). Some researchers have used dragon boating as a context, to quantitatively look 2001; Culos Reed, Shields & Brawley, 2005), sources of stress (Ha dd et al., 2010), and psychosocial well being (Vanherweg, 2011). Besides one recent literature review of BCS dragon boat research presented from a health promotion perspective (Harris, 2012), r esearch on dragon boat paddling to date has been primarily qua litative, (McDonough, Sabiston & Crocker, 2008; McDonough, Sabiston & Ullrich French, 2011; Mitchell & Nielsen, 2001; Mitchell et al., 2007; Parry, 2006; 2008; 2009; Sabiston, McDonough & Crocker, 2007; Unruh & Elvin, 2004) providing rich descriptions of v focused almost exclusively on the experiences of BCS paddlers, with th re e exception s: tudy of aspects of self determination theory in adult
21 drago n boaters, authenticity of dragon boat festivals documenting the modern history of dragon boat festivals. What we know about the team based physical activ ity of breast cancer survivors has been learned through analysis of the dragon boating context. There is a need to examine the experiences of women who have not had a cancer diagnoses in both dragon boating and other similar paddling contexts such as voyag eur canoe paddling. Because participation in paddling sports such as voyageur canoe ing is relatively less common, m uch of what is known about team based paddling comes from literature focused on the rapidly growing sport of dragon boating though there are a few exceptions (e.g. Bell, 2008). This literature is primarily focused on BCS teams, which are usually women only teams I n North America, participation in dragon boat paddling most commonly occurs on mixed sex teams, however, unlike most team sports where same sex teams are the norm. Much of the research that examines aspects of the same sex sport context in comparison with a mixed sex context has focused on school based physical education for children and adolescents (e.g., experiences of adults in various gendered physical activity contexts, focu sing particularly on mixed team sports such as softball (e.g., Snyder & Ammons, 1993) and women only wildernes s canoeing (e.g., McDermott, 2004). As dragon boat paddling becomes more common, and the number of teams grow s women are increasingly presented with a choice between opportunities to be a part of a gender segregated or gender integrated team A s the spo
22 a range of participation between teams that are recreational and highly competitive as sports team s of various gender combinations (Stuntz, Sa yles, & McDermott, 2011), and why they choose to take part in that sport. One of the reasons individuals choose to participate in team sport is because it is a social activity. Social aspects of sport participation have been shown to be important to mid dle aged participants (Ashford, Biddle & Goudas, 1993) and older women (Adamson & Parker, 2006), but more needs to be known about the nature of these findings. As people move through the life course, they are faced with various experiences, some of which may be challenging and unpleasant, such as the death of a spouse, or being diagnosed with a disease. Kahn and Antonnuci (1980) suggest that throughout the life course, and especially in challenging times, a network of relationships called a social convoy follows the individual, which may provide social support that is very helpful. Being a member of a sports team may provide opportunities for forming relationships with teammates that connect an individual to a group of others from whom they may draw upon and provide social support. This study provide s a fresh perspective on the nature of the experiences of women who choose team based paddling as physically active leisure. This dissertation consists of two phases (Figure 1 3) The first phase was a qualita tive, inductive study, examin ing teams on a long distance wilderness canoe race. From this initial study that focused on social experiences of team membership seven themes were identif ied in a grounded theory model (Figure 1 4) This model led to questions further pursued in the second
23 quantitative, deductive phase which used dragon boating, another paddling team sport as the context. The quantitative phase of the study explored thr ee of the seven themes: cohesion, social support and motivation in the form of benefits sought Together, t hese studies contribute to the body of knowledge on women and leisure by expanding our understanding of teammate social experiences and benefits sou ght by women who choose to participate in community based team sport C onducting the inquiry in two phases facilitated a natural evolution of the research questions. Purpose of Study The purpose of the qualitative phase of this study was to learn about the social aspects of being a member of a n all female paddling team through an explor ation of T experiences paddling voyageur canoes, but, i n the United States, voyageur canoes are n ot common M any aspects of team based paddling in o ther types of craft are similar, however. Larger numbers of team members are needed for a quantitative study, and because dragon boat paddling provides opportunities for more women to paddle together throu he second quantitative phase of this dissertation use d dragon boating as the team based paddling sport context to examine social support, team cohesion and benefits sought. Qualitative Phase Resear ch question How do participants in all female canoe paddling teams experience taking part in the Yukon River Quest, with teammate relationships as a specific focus of this wider experience ?
24 Main themes 1. Motivation This theme highlighted what led participa nts to choose to take part and complete the grueling race, as well as keep them committed to the training regimen required for the race. 2. Team Context The YRQ training and race contexts presented unique mental emotional and physical demands on the paddle rs and influenced the ways teammates interacted with each other. 3. Breast Cancer About half of the participants were survivors of breast cancer. Cancer asserted itself by raising unique practical issues, providing a shared experience, being a direct mot ivator and providing new perspectives towards the race and life itself. 4. Activism Being a member of a breast cancer survivor team that was doing a challenging race provided participants the chance to challenge stereotypes, create opportunities for othe rs, role model and make cancer visible. 5. Cohesion Cohesion reflected the ways women felt towards their teammates how connected they felt, how unified the team was socially, and in terms of the tasks they were working to accomplish. 6. Social Support Tan gible and e motional assistance was given to teammates, as well as received from teammates and the wider community. 7. Benefits Reflected the physical, social, mental and emotional benefits accrued as a result of training for and participating in the YRQ. T ogether these seven themes are integrated in a grounded theory model of all female voyageur team participation in the YRQ (Figure 1 4 .) The model moves chronologically, beginning with the theme of Motivation. A variety of motivations lead the women to c hoose to participate in the YRQ, and in most cases, commit extensive time and effort to race training and preparation beforehand. After making the decision to paddle in the race, the five central themes Team Context, Breast Cancer, Activism, Cohesion, a nd Social Support experiences of their team, and their relationships with teammates within it. Through engaging in YRQ team experiences, such as practices and the race itself, the women experienced various types of benefits as a result of participation These themes and the
25 grounded theory model are discussed in more detail in Chapter s Four and Five respectively. Quantitative Phase The quantitative p hase of this study built on this theoretical model by expl oring three of these seven team based paddling experiences further. Moving from voyageur canoeing to dragon boat ing as a context, the purpose of the quantitative phase of this study was to further examine and team coh esion within teammate relationships and motivation within team based paddling in the United States and Puerto Rico. Research questions Specific research questions that were addressed are noted below: RQ 1 : What are the levels of t eammate social support and team cohesion? RQ 2a : Are there differences between levels of teammate social support based on their primary team level of competition (those on recreational or competitive teams) ? RQ2 b : Are there differences between level s of teammate social support based on the primary team type (those on cancer survivor, all female or mixed teams) ? RQ2 c : Are there differences between level s of teammate social support based on their cancer status (those who are cancer survivors or those who h ave never had a cancer diagnosis) ? RQ 3a : Are there differences between the levels of each type of team cohesion ( task and social) and primary team level of competition (those on recreational or competitive teams) ?
26 RQ3 b : Are there differences between the levels of each type of team cohesion ( task and social) based on the primary team type (those on cancer survivor, all female or mixed teams) ? RQ3 c : Are there differences between levels of each type of team cohesion ( task and social) based on cancer status (those who are cancer survivors or those who have never had a cancer diagnosis) ? RQ4: What is the relationship among t he levels of each type of team cohesion ( task and social) and RQ 5 : What are the benefits sought by female dragon boaters from their current participation in dragon boating? RQ 6a : Are there differences between benefits sought by the women based on their primary team level of competition (those on recreational or competiti ve teams) ? RQ 6b : Are there differences between benefits sought by the women based on their primary team type (those on cancer survivor, all female or mixed teams) ? RQ 6 c: Are there differences between benefits sought by the women based on their cancer stat us (Those who are cancer survivors or those who have never had a diagnosis of cancer) ? Hypotheses To examine these research questions, the following hypotheses were formed and tested: Hypothesis 1: Female dragon boaters will have high levels of social supp ort and team cohesion. Hypothesis 2: Social support and team cohesion levels will be higher among women on competitive teams than recreational.
27 Hypothesis 3: Social support and team cohesion levels will be higher among women on cancer survivor teams than m ixed or all female teams. Hypothesis 4 : Social support and team cohesion levels will be greater for cancer survivors than women without a cancer diagnosis. Hypothesis 5: Women on competitive teams will seek different benefits than those on recreational te ams. Hypothesis 6: Women on cancer survivor teams will be more likely to seek different benefits than those on mixed or all female teams. Hypothesis 7 : Women who are cancer survivors will be more likely to seek different benefits than women without a canc er diagnosis.
28 Figure 1 1. Fully loaded voyageur team coming to shore after completing the YRQ Photo courtesy of author. Figure 1 2. A n empty dragon boat awaiting the start of a race Photo courtesy of author.
29 Figure 1 3. Overview of Two Phase Study
30 Figure 1 4 Grounded Theory Model
31 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Gendered Context of Sport The decision as to whether it is best to participate on a same sex or mixed sex sport team can be a complex one for many women, with the literature supporting both sides of the argument. Sport has been historically dominated by men, based on an accepted female behav iour and be damaging to what was seen as their relatively more frail constitutions (Felshin & Oglesby, 1986). Historically, most team sport opportunities for women were on teams of women only, as a need was seen to segregate on the basis of sex, although there have always been some women who participate alongside palatable, more women have become involved in a variety of sports, though it is still less common for women to partic ipate on mixed sex teams. For example, i n 1985, the Miller Brewing Company commissioned a study on team sport experiences for women. They found that 79% of female athletes sought to play sport with others based on their abilities, not their gender, howev er it also reported 49% of women preferred to play sport skills to develop (Miller Brewing Company) In terms of mixed sex opportunities, Snyder and Ammons (1993) mention softball, tennis and volleyball as sports where women commonly compete on mixed sex teams against other mixed sex teams. More recently developed, dragon boat paddling is a sporting context where the norm is for women and men to participate and compete
32 to gether, and dragon boat competitions routinely experience mixed sex teams as the most numerous type of registrant. Playing in mixed sex sport contexts was considered beneficial by Sabo (1988). He suggested exposure to those of the opposite sex in sport s ettings might help change stereotypical attitudes and provide opportunities for highly skilled women to get better, increased and their overall skill levels grew. Fels hin and Oglesby (1986) provided a historical review of women athletes who competed against men, saying in part that these women achieved because they go to participate in training and competition alongside men who were at higher skill levels. Beyond the sp ort specific benefits of mixed athletes reported that women who played on mixed teams attained a higher level of social support from their female teammates than the women who were on all female teams. From a male perspective, Anderson (2008) studied men who were former football players that had subsequently joined mixed sex cheerleading teams. His participants reported profoundly positive changes in attitude towards women after havin g the chance to participate alongside them instead of their usual all male sport environment. Love and Kelly (2011) reviewed U.S. court decisions on legally mandating preferred for girls. Alongside a more critical examination of same sex teams, the authors advocate for mixed sex teams so females will cease to be seen as lesser and unequal. Th ese studies provide some support for the value of mixed sex sport team
33 opportunities for females, though the literature more generally provides arguments for why same sex sport is preferable. Some scholars have examined sex sports contexts with mixed sex softball leagues serv ing as the setting for several early studies in this tradition. Snyder and Ammons (1993) studied the attitudes of men and women mixed sex team softball players, which revealed widespread assumptions that males were better players than females, and that more was expected from the males than the females. The authors noted that as the level of competition increased, sexist and segregationist behavior on the teams increased and that the opportunity to equall y integrate men and women in sport was missed. Wachs (2002) took a different approach and analyzed co ed softball league rules. She found that despite the laudable goal of providing equal opportunities in the sport, the rules stem from the assumption tha t men are better athletes. In these leagues, well intentioned rules and their inconsistent application by umpires resulted in the replication of stereotyped assumptions about gender differences. In terms of outdoor recreation, Kay and Laberge (2004) stud ied mixed sex management and teamwork skills, male teammates and the media devalued their involvement, treating their presence as merely satisfying a required rule of parti cipation. culture, Laurendeau and Shahara (2008) found their participants had been treated as sexual object s and their activities in both activities trivialized and marginalized because they were female.
34 The work of o ther scholars on same sex sport contexts focus es on the positive aspec ts of women only participation. Beaver (2012) reported that women involved in roller derby teams valued a women only context for sport participat ion and sport based volunteer opportunities as it was empowering to work together as women in an organization that was free fr om male dominated hierarchies. Yin (2001) studied fitness segregated areas. Yin found that those who preferred the gender segregated area were heavier, had higher body appearance anxiety and body image dissatisfaction. Turning to outdoor sporting activities, McDermott (2004) examined women on an all female wil derness canoe trip and found that they were comfortable learning new skills, enjoyed wilderness setting. Following McDermott, Libby (2010) conducted a similar study on all fema le canoe trips, reporting that participants valued being free of stereotyped gender roles. Similarly, Whittingdon (2006) explored the experiences of adolescents on an all female canoe trip. She found that the girls highlighted the importance of social co nnections and friendships made with other girls which they had found difficult before this unique opportunity to be with girls only. Clearly, more research is needed from women who participate in a broader array of sports to more fully understand the compl exities of mixed sex and same sex sport dynamics. One such sport ripe for exploration is dragon boat racing as it has made the transition from an all male sport in ancient times (Barker, 1996) to its current level of co ed dominance in participation. De velopment of the sport of dragon boating can sometimes begin with BCS groups fundraising to get a boat and introduce the sport to a
35 new community. In other cases, a not for profit organization such as a Chinese heritage association will take the lead to e stablish the sport. Most commonly in early sex groups form, often connected in some way through a pre existing organization or common interest, such as a workplace or not for profit organization. S ame sex teams are commonly created for competition by combining, subdividing and reassembling mixed sex teams, as this is seen as competitively advantageous. As the sport develops further in a community teams specifically for women and for men begin to appear and tend to be more sustainable ( Behling personal communication). Some teams will tend to return each year, with varying degrees of stability in membership as team members may connect with each other over time in deeper and mo re lasting ways. Social Support The concept of social support has been one direction researchers in sport studies have used to investigate relationships on sport teams. Originating in the health sciences literature in the 1970s (Caplan, 1974; Cassel, 1976 ; Cobb, 1976) the concept of social support has developed quickly, to be a popular area of study in both health and social sciences, though findings have been marred by a lack of definitional and operationalizational consensus on the concept (Hupcey, 1998 a; Hutchinson, 1999). analyzed a range of social support definitions and identif ied five categories: type of provider, reciprocal support and social networks. Given this wide range of definitions, social support has been conceptualized in a number of ways subjectively in terms of
36 support that is perceived to exist should a need arise, and objectively in terms of the actual assistance provided (Barrera, 1986). The current study conceives of social support as an interactive and dynamic process (Hupce y, 1998b; Vaux, 1992). An important distinction to be made when analyzing social support in interpersonal transactions is between support received by other people and support that is perceived to be available should it be needed (Dunkel Schetter & Bennett, 1990). Generally, perceived social support is more highly associated with positive health outcomes than received support (Antonucci & Israel, 1986; Wethington & Kessler, 1986), partly because it is possible that support that is received may not always be welcome or helpful (Rook, 1984) the right type, or the right amount needed, or if it creates a false sense of self efficacy (Rook, 1992) Perceived social support may not necessarily correlate highly with actual social support available, with expectatio ns either exceeding or underestimating what is available, or initial support dissipating over time (Dunkel Schetter & Bennett, 1990). Social support is a multidimensional and complex construct (Caplan, 1974; Cobb, 1976). The various dimensions of social support have been conceptualized in different, but similar ways by theorists. One way social support has been theorized is as part of a social convoy, a dynamic system of relationships that follow an individual over their lifetime (Kahn & Antonucci, 1980). People in convoy relationships interact with each other and provide social support for each other with the amount and type of support changing over time. Some may provide particular types of support and not others. Membership within a convoy may change o ver time as members come and go, or as the individual potentially adds to the group by joining groups such as a dragon boat
37 include one or more of the following three elem Affective social support involves expressing liking, respect or emotional closeness. Affirmation is described as support that expresses agreement or appropriateness of ements. Aid and assistance that is tangible, practical and direct is the final type of social support. House (1981) conceptualized social support as consisting of four elements: emotional support involving love and empathy; instrumental support that prov ides tangible assistance; informational support and advice that can help with problem solving; and finally appraisal support which includes affirmation and feedback. One aspect of social support that does not receive much attention is that of support provi support receipt and perception of possible receipt in times of daily hassles or high stress, effectively ignoring the other side of the two way nature of supportive relationships ( Hupce y, 1998a ; Maton, 1987). Antonucci and Jackson (1990) described reciprocity in social relations with those that have closer, long term relations taking more time to reciprocate social support compared to those who are less connected because they both believ e that eventually support received and provided will work itself out over time. The two way nature of social support may be important within the context of dragon boat paddling, especially with BCS paddlers who may seek to provide support to each other in survivorship (Sabiston, McDonough & Crocker, 2007), especially as their length of involvement on the team increases. This study adopted the two way perceived social
38 support model of Shakespe are Finch and Obst (2011) that includes both instrumental and emotional social support both received and provided (Figure 2 1). Social Support and Breast Cancer Breast cancer survivor dragon boating began in 1996 in Vancouver, Canada, as part of a study of the effects of vigorous upper body exercise on lymphedaema incidence and severity in BCS (McKenzie, 1998) Dr. Don McKenzie gathered a group of women to become part of the inaugural BCS dragon boat paddling team, Abreast in a Boat. The success of the s tudy in physiological terms and the positive psychological and social benefits the women experienced led to the continuation and expansion of the team after the conclusion of the study, and survivor groups from other cities were inspired to create their ow n teams. Breast cancer survivor paddlers have described certain types of support such as emotional and informational flow in both directions. The role of provision of so cial support to their teammates may also be key to women on mixed and all female teams as well, but this is as yet unknown. It is important to holistically measure social support in terms of its past receipt, perception of its availability if needed in fu ture and its actual provision to get a broad picture of how teammates support each other. As people age, life experiences such as divorce, widowhood and diseases such as breast cancer can provide new challenges to coping resources. Kleiber (2004) suggest through leisure. Team sport provides a possible context for general social interaction and social support. Social support is thought to influence the health status of cancer p atients (Stevens & Duttlinger, 1998). Some social support is sought from family,
39 friends and health care providers, but sometimes this support is unhelpful or howev er beneficial effects occur when advice, affection, affirmation and or tangible aid match the needs of the recipient, when the recipient perceives support, when equality exists between provider and recipient and when the relationship is not conflictual. T hese factors, coupled with the ambivalence often experienced by family and friends (NCI, 2006), may explain why support from other cancer patients is perceived as beneficial. According to Stevens and Duttlinger (1998) research on breast cancer support gro ups is inconclusive. Support groups are helpful for some women with breast cancer, and not helpful for others. This inconsistency may be related to definitions and measurement of breast cancer support groups. Mitchell and Nielsen (2002) speak of the comm on bond felt by breast cancer survivors who participate together as dragon boat team paddlers, and that social support is exchanged between members and highly valued, but that it is not of primary concern. They stated that for the women in their study, the activity itself is more important, as the women address the challenges of paddling and can focus on something other than breast cancer within an environment where breast cancer is normalized. Receipt of social support is related to needing support, which may or may not occur during a particular time period. Measuring social support as that received may inaccurately represent social support that is available to the individual, but latent (Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991). l support available
40 should it be needed might be inaccurate, but in the absence of a crisis to test this resource, perceived social support will be used as a proxy. Social support has been widely studied in a variety of contexts, leading it to be described by Thoits (1995) as the psychosocial resource most frequently studied. Depner and Ingersoll Dayton (1988) studied age and gender effects on the existence and functioning of social relationships, functions, in the convoys of a group of men and women. The y found that women, especially through friendship, had more social support resources than men did. In studying older women specifically, McLaughlin et al. (2011) assessed demographic and other characteristics in relationship to social network size and fou nd that women who are psychologically well, have no constraints on their mobility, no financial restrictions, are widowed or separated, and have experienced a loss of a family member are more likely than other women to have larger support networks. Social Support in Sport In terms of social support research conducted within the sport conte xt, a large proportion has focu ( e.g. Malinauskas, 2008), enhancement of sport performance (e.g., Rees, Ingledew & Hardy, 1999) and stress reduction (e.g., Woodman & Hardy, 2001). Rosenfeld, Richman and Hardy (1989) found that athlete social support can come from a variety of sources that vary in the type of support they provide. This was recently explor ed by Nicholson, Hoye and Gallant (2011) who examined how elite Australian Indigenous Australian Rules Football athletes perceive the level of social support they receive and who they were receiving it from. They found that the most important resource for social support within their team was fellow Indigenous teammates. As ethnic minorities within
41 experience was referenced as a main reason for this key role in the sport expe rience of Indigenous footballers. Social support has been explored within the leisure literature as well. Coleman and Iso Ahola (1993) argued that leisure provides benefits to health through social support from relationships that act as a buffer in times of stress. They suggested that companionship developed through leisure contexts might make people more likely to perceive these relationships as sources of potential social support in the future. More recently, Anderson, Wozencroft and Bedini (2008) studi ed the experiences of social support received by girls aged ten to 18 with physical disabilities who participated in either wheelchair sport programs or informal sport. They used a six part model of social support (Pines, Aronson & Kafry, 1981) that includ ed listening support, shared social reality support, emotional support, emotional challenge support, technical appreciation support and technical challenge support. Anderson et al. found that girls who were part of organized sport programs had higher leve ls of social support from more varied sources, including role models. Mitchel and Nielsen (2002) studied dragon boat paddlers who are breast cancer survivors and experience of the acti vity, but that a specific focus of social support on cancer survivorship is not always sought. While the women knowingly seek a BCS context in joining a BCS dragon boat team, for many, a focus on the activity of paddling itself is of primary importance, w ith the shared experience of cancer being discussed far less frequently (Fernndez Calienes & Behling, 2010). This shared experience of cancer
42 serves as a social support resource to be enacted by BCS as needed. More recently, McDonough, Sabiston and Ulri ch French (2011) interviewed BCS dragon boat team members several times during their first two seasons of paddling focu sing on their experiences of social relationships, social support and post traumatic growth (PTG) in breast cancer survivorship. They i dentified several patterns of social development and outcomes over time where women either experienced ongoing improvement in social relationship s social support and PTG; a focus on provision of support where the participant subsequently also received sup port from teammates; a focus based on competition and the sport itself that de emphasized cancer and emphasized moving beyond it; and finally, a pattern that included limited positive social experiences. They concluded that positive social relationships an d both provision and receipt of social support may enhance PTG in breast cancer survivorship. While this study has begun to those who are BCS. The picture may be more complex, however, as some women who have never had cancer make the choice to become paddlers on BCS teams and many other women paddle on teams that have nothing to do with cancer. Aspects of social relationships such as soci al support, together with a focus on an activity such as dragon boat paddling can lead to a sense of cohesion within a group. As such, in addition to social support, the level of perceived cohesion in a group may also influence team spo r periences. Team Cohesion Group cohesion has been studied in the team sport context and defined by
43 in the tendency of a group to stick together and remain united in the p ursuit of its In the team sport context group cohesion has also been called team cohesion Hereafter, t his dissertation will use the term team cohesion when referring to gro up cohesion within sport teams. Warner, Bowers and Dixon (2012) reported that the vast majority of research on sport team cohesion has used Carron et al. (1985) model (Figure 2 2 ). The model rests on three main assumptions (Carron, Brawley & Widmeyer, 1998). The first assumption suggests that team cohesion can be measured via individual group to group integration (GI) the closeness and bonding of the group as well as individual attractions to the group (AG) the way the group can satisfy personal each of these perceptions of the group are focused on a task orientation related to relationships and activities within the team. Team cohesion is described as being multidimensional, changing over time, with not all dimensions being present at any time w ithin a group, or in all types of groups. Some team cohesion research has related specifically to female athletes. A recent study by Carter et al. (2011) compared two physical activity interventions for female breast cancer survivors in terms of cohesion and exercise program adherence. Participants in a short term dragon boat team based program were found to have significantly higher team cohesion and program adherence levels than women
44 participating in the more traditional form of physical activity invo lved in a group based walking program. These authors suggest further research be conducted into the benefits cancer survivors may experience in team based physical activity. Spink (1995) compared team cohesion and intention to continue sport participatio n of young 16 22 year old women ringette players from both a community based recreational program and participants attending the Canadian ringette national championship. He found that their reported levels of team cohesion were positively correlated with t heir intent to continue ringette the following season. The literature base on cohesion in team sport includes studies on elite performers (Prapavessis & Carron, 1997) and teams of children (Martin, Carron, Eys & Loughead, 2012), youth (Eys, Loughead, Bray & Carron, 2009) and young adults (Terry et al., 2000). The current study is interested in cohesion amongst adult women who participate on paddling sports team s of various types. Sport based team cohesion literature has linked cohesion to a number of rela ted constructs such as leadership (Westre & Weiss, 1991; Widmeyer & Williams, 1991), sport and physical activity adherence behaviour such as lateness and absenteeism (Carron, Widmeyer & Brawley, 1988; Spink & Carron, 1992), clarity and acceptance of role i nvolvement (Dawe & Carron, 1990; Grand & Carron, 1982), and attributions of team success and failures (Brawley, Carron & Widmeyer, 1987). No research has been found exploring linkages between team cohesion and levels of perceived social support in team sport. High levels of social support and team cohesion within a team sport environment may be positive outcomes of participation. These outcomes may be just what a paddler is looking for among other things.
45 Benefits Sought Research into benefits associated with leisure has a long history. Two schools of This approach conceptualizes benefi ts as amenities of participation and was adopted to justify the benefits of Parks and Recreation services. The second approach conceptualizes benefits as more closely linked to motivation, viewing them as causal instead of descriptive (Hayley, 1968). Hay ley discussed that market segmentation based on geographical, demographic and use based factors was inadequate. He argued that consumers are motivated to make purchase decisions because they seek benefits they believe will accrue. Hayley argued that what makes groups of consumers unique from each other are the values they place on various product choices and how they rank the importance of these values. This conceptualization of how unmet needs drive behaviour follows the needs based motivation tradition of earlier work by Murray (1938) and Maslow (1943). Examining benefits sought in leisure by an individual may help to explain their motivations for ongoing participation in an activity (Wiley, Shaw & Havitz, 2000). This approach has been used in touris segmentation strategies based on features such as demographic variables. Within the novelty (Gottlieb, 1982; Lee & Crompton, 1992), relaxation (Gitelson & Kerstetter, 1990), social interaction (Crompton, 1981), prestige (Boorstin, 1961), and education (Tian, Crompton & Witt, 1986) have been identified as benefits sought by individuals as reasons why they travel for leisure
46 Examining relationships between demographics, subsequent leisure travel behavior and benefits sought, Gitelson and Kerstetter (1990) identified four benefits: relaxation, exploration, social, and excitement. For the relaxation, social and excit ement benefit s a negative relationship between age and benefit importance was found. While the explorer dimension was considered important all age groups it was the only one older respondents rated as important All four benefit s were rated as more imp ortant to female respondents than males, with statistically significant differences in relaxation, explorer and social dimensions. Pennington Gray and Kerstetter (2001) sampled university educated women to determine what benefits they sought from their vac ation travel experiences. They developed a list of benefits composed of 27 benefits statements embedded in nine dimensions: rest and relaxation, family togetherness, excitement, education, physical, social, safety, shopping and nature. Their participants rated experiencing natural surroundings, educational experiences and shopping as the most important benefits, while getting away from commercial areas, travelling where I feel safe and meeting new people were ranked the lowest. The authors conducted a clu ster analysis to explore segmentation of travelers, and found that cluster one rest and relaxation seekers had a high percentage of women aged 26 35, and the lowest group of under 25 year olds. The second cluster, family/social seekers had the highest p roportion of women in the 36 45 year old age group with the least number of over 75 year olds while the third cluster action seekers had more women who were between 66 and 75 years old. Pennington ) suggestion that through leisure travel individuals seek multiple benefits.
47 More recently, benefits sought have moved beyond tourism and have been used in recreation based studies. Tomas, Scott and Crompton (2002) examined benefits sought by visitors to the Fort Worth, Texas zoo. They identified six categories of benefits, namely family togetherness, escape, wildlife enjoyment and introspection, companionship and wildlife appreciation and learning. Little information on the sample was provided and the gender characteristics of the participants are unknown. The authors found that the benefit domains of wildlife enjoyment and family togetherness were highly correlated with visitor satisfaction and service quality. A modified version of the benefits list created by Pennington Gray and Kerstetter and her colleagues have examined American college students on a spring break ski trip to Europe (Williams & Gibson, 2004); moun tain sport tourists in Greece (Papadimitriou & Gibson, 2008), and most recently, participants on a group cycling tour through Florida (Gibson & Chang, 2012). Williams and Gibson (2004) conducted a pre and post trip questionnaire study with college stude nts travelling to Switzerland for a spring break ski trip to determine the benefits sought by participants in relation to gender, activity involvement, and prior travel experience. They found that women rated seeking an educational experience, traveling w here I feel safe, seeking an intellectual experience, seeing something new and traveling abroad higher than men. Those with lower involvement were more likely to seek learning a new skill than higher involvement participants, who may already be skilled in the activity.
48 Papadimitriou and Gibson (2008) measured benefits sought and benefits realized as well as destination image through pre and post trip questionnaires with male and female mountain sport tourists to a destination in Greece. Their questionna ire was adapted from the benefits sought scale of Pennington Gray and Kerstetter (2001) for use with sport tourists. An exploratory factor analysis yielded five dimensions of benefits sought, namely: socializing, sport experience, excitement, enrichment, and relaxation. The most important benefits sought by participants were : to take it easy, to be close to nature, to get away from it all, exhilaration, and seeing something new. Relaxation and then excitement were ranked as most important, with sport expe rience and socializing rated as somewhat less important benefits sought. In terms of benefits realized, the most important were challenge, relaxation, to be close to nature, to get away from it all, to travel to where I feel safe, to take it easy and exhi laration. Overall, the means of the dimensions of relaxation, excitement and sport experience were ranked highest, with enrichment and socializing ranking lowest. Papadimitriou and Gibson found that while relaxation was rated highly on both questionnaires that the remaining four dimensions of socializing, sport experience, excitement and enrichment were rated significantly higher in the post test measure. Though gender was not analyzed separately, these findings provide some evidence that the benefits so ught by these tourists were largely realized through their sport based leisure travel experiences. Further examining benefits sought within a sport tourism context, Gibson and Chang (2012) framed their investigation of 498 participants in a structured bi cycle tour through a gender and life course lens revealing six dimensions of benefits sought:
49 socializing, new experience/knowledge, physical activity, relaxation, skill development, and excitement. No significant differences in benefits sought were found between men and women, but relaxation was more important to those in mid life than those in later life. Later life respondents ranked new experience/knowledge as more important than mid life participants. Research examining leisure motivation in terms o f the outcomes expected by individuals from their participation has been conducted by Son et al. (2009) and Son and Yarnal (2011) Son et al. surveyed older adult volunteers and visitors to an urban park agency to examine the relationship between leisure time physical activity, the Selective Optimization and Compensation theory of aging, (Baltes & Baltes, 1990), negotiation of constraints to leisure and two outcome expectations that reflected motivations of enjoyment/pleasure and health benefits Son and Yarnal (2011) test ed several relationships within the integrated model of constraints and benefits to leisure (Crompton, Jackson & Witt, 2005) Within the context cipation in the Red Hat Society, an exa company, needing support from other women, and wanting to make new friends. Breast Cancer and Dragon Boating Benefits have been operationalized in terms of the relatively short term context of leisure based tourism, but the conceptualization of benefits sought may be transferred to longer term, ongoing participation in a leisure activity such as team sport. In the context of dragon boat paddling, physical benefits (e.g., McKenz ie, 1998) as well as psychosocial benefits (e.g., Sabiston, McDonough & Crocker, 2007) have been reported by study participants as part of their BCS dragon boat experiences. However, the
50 literature has largely ignored the reasons why participants are moti vated to become and stay a dragon boat paddler, as well as aspects of dragon boat paddling experience beyond those who are BCS. One of the key early studies about dragon boating was conducted by Mitchell and Nielsen (2002), involving six BCS paddlers from Ontario, Canada. They investigated the psychosocial impact of paddling and its potential for survivor rehabilitation in the physical and mental realms. Nine categories were identified: hopeful mission, common base, paddling and the environment, camarader ie, regaining control, embracing life, facing the disease, having fun, being focussed and moving on. The authors highlighted that participation in dragon boating itself was the primary focus of meaning in the activity, and that the social support enjoyed by participants from their BCS teammates was a secondary outcome. They concluded that participation in BCS Mitchell, Yakiwchuk, Griffin, Gray and Fitch (2007) expanded Mitchell and Neil Ontario, Canada. Ten women were interviewed about their expectations of BCS dragon boating, and seven of them were re interviewed at the end of the season to discuss their experience s. Preseason expectations included benefits such as being energized, a sense of accomplishment, pride, building inner strength, reduction in fear of cancer recurrence, exhilaration, physical demands, being with a group of women, doing something new, maki ng a statement by participating, reclaiming power and control, releasing and managing stress, moving forward beyond cancer, hope, adventure, a positive focus, being with people who understand how one feels, outdoors, beauty,
51 health gains and a reduced risk of recurrence. In the post season interviews, the paddlers shared their experiences of focussing on oneself, taking care of health, being in the moment, reduced stress, feeling energized, focussing on the positive, building confidence, increased self este em, being in a context for positive reinforcement, inner strength and calmness. After their first season, participants also spoke about how cancer was shared but unspoken, building their social networks, feeling support and a sense of comfort, enjoying hu mour, appreciating the chance to meet BCS outside the support group setting, having an emotionally safe space to meet, feeling uplifted, being applauded and recognized as an athlete and BCS, the thrill of racing, moving forward from cancer, and being more than they were before. Of these new dragon boat team members, all expressed that they felt included in the team, and that they intended to return to BCS dragon boating the following season. McGannon and Laing (2002) studied the narratives of four BCS dra gon boat paddlers in Edmonton, Canada to explore the meaning of physical activity in their lives. Three themes affiliation and social support, empowerment and the opportunity for role modelling included beneficial aspects of participation the women de scribed as thrilling, someone to talk to who knows [about breast cancer], maintaining weight, increased self image and body image, feeling in control and raising breast cancer awareness. Unruh and Alvin (2004) also expanded on the work of Mitchell and Neil sen (2002). They recruited three paddlers from a BCS team in Atlantic Canada and interviewed each woman twice. A thematic analysis yielded seven overarching themes: the attraction of dragon boat racing; physical and emotional well being; competition as po sitive energy; dragon boat racing as social support; transcendence/connectedness/
52 oneness; reoccurrence of breast cancer and death of team members; fear, identification and coping; and increasing public awareness and perceptions of breast cancer. The padd lers discussed competition as providing benefits and challenge that they appreciated even though they were not initially drawn to that aspect of dragon boating, they took pride in their participation and told stories about their dragon boating, they experi enced social support that was tangible and practical, and struggled with maintaining a balance within the team between goals relating to competition and support. The women felt dragon boating connected them with other women, especially those with breast c ancer, whom they wanted to reach out to, by taking advantage of opportunities to share their experiences and promote awareness of the disease. More recently, Parry (2008) interviewed 11 BCS dragon boaters from southern Ontario, Canada, asking them how dra gon boat racing contributed to their health. Her participants cited benefits relating to three themes. The first theme was solidary and emotional benefits, which included aspects such as seeking out a social experience, and seeking out other survivors, b uilding new friendships and establishing a teammate network of unconditional support, as well as publicly resisting the cultural image of cancer patient. Within the second theme of physicality and stress coping, the women discussed improvements in physica l health, fitness and paddling technique, that dragon boating allowed them to focus on the activity itself, feeling positive and confident, releasing stress and feeling an increased ability to cope with stressors. The final theme, spiritual awakening, incl uded an increased appreciation for everyday things, a feeling of (2008) study presents evidence that dragon boating can contribute to multiple dimensions of
53 health in breast research on BCS dragon boating in countries other than Canada. Taken together, qualitative studies on psychosocial experiences and benefits of BCS in dragon boating provide a picture o f the types of potential benefits sought by participants. By moving beyond small scale qualitative research, into quantitative methodology, the current study responds to the call by Mitchell and Neilsen (2002) for the use of a larger sample of dragon boate rs. From its heritage within tourism studies, benefits sought has prov id ed a useful way of ascertaining the motivations of participants in pleasure travel, sport travel, recreation activities and sport.
54 Figure 2 1. Two Way Social Support Mode l (Shakes peare Finch & Obst, 2011 ) Figure 2 2 Group Cohesion Conceptual M odel (Carron, Widmeyer & Brawley, 1985)
55 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Method Qualitative Phase Study Context The Yukon River Quest is (YRQ) is an annual long distance wilderness canoe race held since 1991 in the north of western Canada, in the Yukon Territory. The area is beautiful and remote, with only one small community Carmacks (population, 426) between the start and finish line. Each year the race is held near the summer solstice to m give participants the chance to paddle through the night under what is known as the midnight sun. The race is held over three days and paddlers travel from Whitehorse northwes t along the Yukon River to Dawson City, a distance of 740 km (460 miles). Single and double canoes and kayaks, as well as eight 11 person voyageur canoe teams undertake the challenge. The Yukon River flows at a rate of between five and 11 km per hour and is generally a Class 1 river. It has two sets of rapids which can sometimes reach the more difficult Class 3 status when water volume is high. The main challenge of the first part of the race involves getting across Lake Laberge, located just north of Whi tehorse. With its 50 km length, and two to five km width, conditions can be difficult and change swiftly. After the river narrows, the next main challenge is negotiating a route through its winding path, avoiding silty sand bars and side channels that lo ok like shortcuts but are actually dead ends. There are two mandatory rest stops, the first for seven hours at Carmacks, 325 km (201 mi) into the race, and the second for three hours at Kirkman Creek, 580 km
56 (360 mi) from the start. Teams must reach variou s check points by a certain time limit, and be completely self contained, not accepting any outside assistance at any point along the river other than Carmacks where food, shelter and a shower are available. Each year, many route. In 1991, 18 of the 23 (78%) entr ant s completed the race, and in 2010, poor weather faced the paddlers, and only 54 of the 78 (69%) who started finished the race. The voyageur canoe class has a high success rate, compared to on e and two person teams, with a the race include exhaustion, injury, hypothermia, hyperthermia, equipment loss, or equipment failure, with some of these issues brought on from bad weather, swamping or capsizing of the boat. Establishing a reputation as a challenging race through beautiful territory, the YRQ has grown from 23 entries in its first year to 78 entries in 2010 and most recently 67 entries in 2013 Participant s come from all over North America and countries such as the United Kingdom, Austria, Finland, Latvia, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, United Arab Emirates, Israel and South Africa to take part. Within this adventure racing context, this study explore d how female members of voyageur canoe team s experience d taking part in the YRQ, with a focus on relationships with their teammates. Data Collection I arrived in Whitehorse prior to the 2010 event and introduced myself to two of the teams at an on river practice session. Crew preparation for the event involved many last minute gear additions and team meetings, keeping study participants busy, and making appointments for research interviews inappropriate. To avoid intrusion in their preparation experien
57 possible, I stationed myself in the hotel lobby for several days before the event, and paddlers were encouraged to stop by for an interview when they had a chance. I also made myself available by b eing present for the mandatory gear check day, the awards luncheon the day after the event. In addition to participation in formal and informal race related events I serv ed as a participant observer on site as a part of a support team for a tandem canoe team racing in the event. Face to face semi structured interviews lasting between 30 and 75 minutes were conducted with seven participants in Whitehorse in the days just before the YRQ and one interview in Dawson City the day after the race. Three additional paddlers wanted to take part, but there was not time to speak with them on site during the event. These women chose to be interviewed in writing via email in the six weeks following the YRQ, after they returned home from their post race holidays. The same semi structured interview guide was used for all participants (Appendix A) The online interview consisted of a back and forth questioning, commenting and answerin g where the interview guide was emailed to participants who answered questions in writing and sent it back to me. I then probed for further details and asked additional questions based on their responses and emailed it back to them. We continued this bac k and forth questioning until we both felt we had covered the subject thoroughly. Sample Participants were recruited through purposive sampling. Paddlers who were members of the women only voyageur canoe teams registered for the YRQ were eligible to pa rticipate. The President of the YRQ event was contacted by email, and he then approached the YRQ Board of Directors with information about the study. After
58 IRB approval had been secured, the YRQ Board of Directors authorized the President to contact capt on my behalf with general information about the study and informed consent (Appendix B) and an invitation email for all members of the three women only teams to participate. The captains notified their team members by email (Appendix C) and those individuals who were interested in the study replied by email to the researcher to volunteer. After meeting the researcher on site, a few additional participants volunteered to participate on the spot, and some wanted to participate but did not have time during the busy event time frame. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics (Appendix D). Of the population of 24 participants, 11 women from three Yukon River ca noe teams volunteered (Table 3 1). One p articipant w as in her thirties, two were in their forties and eight were in their fifties comprising a middle aged sample (Levinson, 1996). A ll were currently employed. Nine identified their ancestry as Caucasian, one as Malaysian and one as Mtis, a mix of French Canadian and First Nations heritage. All but one paddled on breast cancer survivor teams, but not all of these paddlers were breast cancer survivors. Four women served as breast eir breast cancer survivor team. Four of the women were from Canada and seven were from Australia. The i nternational ly based YRQ team was a dragon boat paddling club sub group that had formed 18 months ago to train specifically for the YRQ. Two study part icipants had joined their teams relatively recently, filling open spots in the boat. One had been with her team for about six weeks, and the other had met her team face to face only the day before the race. Two participants had YRQ experience, having com pleted the race in previous years.
59 Sample size in qualitative research is not predetermined in the planning stages of a study. The optimal number of individuals to be interviewed in a study will be primarily affected by whether the data gained has reach ed saturation, defined by Glaser and Strauss (1967) as the point where collecting more data no longer adds insight to the topic under study. Meeting this guideline ensures that diverse perspectives are gathered, but data does not become repetitive. In th e current study, sample size was already limited by the small size of the potential population, and that no further women volunteered to participate in the study beyond those who were interviewed It was therefore impossible to unequivocally determine tha t saturation had been reached without interviewing at least one more participant. T he final interview elicited data that was very similar to those before it however, which indicated that data saturation was approximated It is plausible that interviewing more women from the non BCS team may have added new insight s however the redundancy in the final interview built confidence that the data was as diverse as was possible within the constraints of this research context Analysis This qualitative study w as grounded within a constructivist framework and sought to bring to light individual experience and meaning making of participants. A constructivist epistemology holds that research and knowledge are created together by participants and researchers, and is therefore transactional (Guba & Lincoln, 2005). Within constructivist research, it is assumed that there are multiple complex realities and that meaning is co experiences and interpretation on the ph enomenon of interest (Charmaz, 2006).
60 Within this framework of constructivist grounded theory, I acknowledge my previous experiences to assist the reader in making their own interpretations of the a former member of several all fe male and mixed paddling teams, and have mostly participated in training and racing at sprint distances, however I also completed a 170 mile, multi day endurance paddling race in Belize. As a scholar research has previously focused on women who paddle outrigger canoes. I have not had a diagnosis of breast cancer, but several of my close relatives including my mother and my aunt are BCS. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and added to the internet interview transcri ptions. Participants were given the opportunity to review transcripts as a member check. Data were analyzed using grounded theory style which began by breaking down data into distinct units of meaning through a process called coding Coding assists t he researcher with describing, organizing concepts and meaning, and facilitates the creation of theory that is grounded in the data (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). First, I read the transcripts several times to become familiar with their contents. Segments of d ata were analyzed inductively within each transcript to create 273 initial open coding categories. An axial coding process examined categories within and between interviews, further condensing the data into themes. In keeping with the constant comparison method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), as much as possible in the condensed time frame of data collection at a sport event, insights and ideas gained from earlier on site interviews iteratively informed the interviews that were conducted after the even t. Accor ding to this method, both within and across transcripts, data, codes and concepts were compared with each other during analysis in order to uncover
61 similarities and differences in experience and meaning. S even themes were identified and are presented usin g the words of the paddlers themselves. In order to maintain confidentiality, participants are identified using pseudonyms that they chose for themselves. This study employed a sequential mixed method design (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998). Both qualitative a nd quantitative research paradigms have established criteria for assessing quality in research. Creswell and Plano Clark (2011) recommend that mixed methods studies should adhere to the quality standards of each paradigm. According to Lincoln and Guba (1 9 85 ), trustworthy qualitative studies should meet standards of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability which address issues of truthfulness, application to other groups, reproducibility of findings and how factual the y data are Th is study met these criteria by utilizing a constant comparison method of analysis, member checks, presenting findings using thick description and the voices of participants, triangulation through a journal made by the researcher while collecting data and a cting as a racer support person at the YRQ event and maintenance of an audit trail documenting research decisions. Method Quantitative Phase In the second phase of this mixed method study, three of the seven themes identified in the qualitative phase were chosen to be further examined quantitatively, using an online survey. The format was chosen because of its practicality in reaching a large and geographically dispersed population that would be impossible to access using traditional face to face sur vey administration (Dillman, 2000).
62 Data Collection The participants were women 18 years of age and older who had been active in the 2012 season as members of a dragon boat team in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. Regional dragon boat associations exist through out the country to provide structure, leadership, and to promote dragon boating. Not all dragon boat teams are members of these associations, however, so the population of women dragon boat paddlers in the United States is unknown and no sampling frame ex ists Data w ere collected between December, 2012 and February 2013 using a web based electronic questionnaire hosted by Qualtrics software. In North American dragon boating, email is a very common form of communication within teams, and was an appropriat e means to reach female dragon boat paddlers. Representatives from 1 4 1 all female mixed and BCS teams in the United States and Puerto Rico and f ive r egional dragon boat associations were contacted by email with information about the study (Appendix E), an d asked to forward the recruitment email to adult women on their team who were active during the 2012 season. The short email sent by representatives to team members (Appendix F) included information about the study, an invitation to participate and the l ink to the online survey Informed consent information was presented to the participants at the beginning of the online questionnaire (Appendix G) and participants were not able to access the questionnaire unless they indicated their informed consent to p articipate in the study The list of email addresses of team representatives from eligible teams were obtained primarily via an online search for teams through public websites and Facebook group listings. For teams lacking a web presence, the organizer s o f dragon boat competitions known as approached where possible for contact
63 information for the representatives of these teams. In addition, cross promotional support was requested from dragon boat associations via a short explanation of th e study and accompanying link to the questionnaire suitable for inclusion in monthly newsletters, websites and Facebook pages. No sample frame was available, so a response rate was estimated using the following formula. A typical dragon boat team consist s of between 18 and 22 paddlers, a steer sperson a drummer, coach manager and a cadre of spare paddlers, to total on average, 30 team members (P. Behling ). W almost completely female though some teams have males as steer speople and a few males are BCS themselves Thus, all female and BCS teams were considered to have 30 females eligible for the study. Mixed sex teams must have between eight and 12 women in the boat during a race. Including several spare female paddlers, a mixed team was considered for this study to have 15 women All cancer team s that were approached were either mixed sex or all female in composition Of t he all cancer teams contacted in this s tudy, one w as composed entirely of women, and three were mix ed sex teams respectively contributing 30 and 45 women to the estimated population The size of the population is estimated in Table 3 2 In total, N= 660 women began the questionnaire and 5 1 questionnaires were dropped because participants did not answ er a substantial portion of the questionnaire leaving N= 60 9 who completed at least some of the GEQ and 2WSSS scales and so were included in analysis Of a total estimated population of 3,060 the conservative estimated response rate was 20.0 %. The quest ionnaire took respondents approximately 15 minutes to complete
64 Instrument The six part questionnaire featured fixed choice, partially closed ended and open ended questions (Appendix G ) paddling hi story and dragon boat team These questions included having them choose a primary team on which to base their responses to subsequent questions. They were asked to designate whether their primary team is a competitive or recreational dragon boat team. Mo st teams participate in dragon boat race events at least once per year, even those that are classified as recreational teams. Within race events, teams are divided into recreational and competitive divisions, which serve to delineate between levels of ser iousness and skill. Section two measured Sport Team Cohesion using a modified version of the 18 item Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) scale (Carron, et al. 1985). The GEQ has been widely adopted as the most common measurement of team cohesion and is regarded as having acceptable reliability and validity (Carron et al., 1985; Spink, 1995). The original study reported the following : Attraction to group Social (ATG Task (ATG ration Social (GI Task (GI In some studies however, the GEQ has produced poor scale reliability, often in the Attraction to group social (ATG S) dimension ( Eys, Carron, Bray & Brawley, 2007 ; Westre & Weiss, 1991 ) To address this issue of marginally acceptable internal consistency, Eys, Loughead, Bray and Carron (2007) created and tested a modified GEQ where all 18 items were worded ls for three of the four dimensions (ATG and no significant difference for one dimension (ATG T ) on the positively worded scale. The
65 (original) GEQ has recently been used in a study of cancer survivors who participated in walking and dragon boating where minimal adjustments in scale wording were made to increase the appropriateness of the instrument for the study context (Carter et al., 2011), a practice cautiously recommended by Carron et al. (2002). The current study used a version of the GEQ that was adapted with the aim of maximizing the reliability of the scale. It was positively re worded in a way deemed appropriate for dragon boating A five point Likert scale was used, instead of the original nine point version This change was made in order to maintain consistency with the other scales in the questionnaire and to appear more visually inviting and less onerous to respondents, which was important as the questionnaire was rather long Both the original and the po sitively worded GEQ scale consist of 18 statements, organized into two groups of nine. The first set of statements asked participants to think about their perceptions of their personal involvement with the team, which measured their personal attraction to the group, while the second set of nine statements asked participants to think about their team as a whole, measuring group integration. The matrix style of questions asked respondents to indicate their agreement on a Likert type scale with statements ran ging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to Due to an error, the current study inadvertently used a 17 item version of the positively worded GEQ scale. The missing item was from the GI T section of the scale, leaving three items to measure GI T instead of fo ur. Because the questionnaire data still
66 included three items that are the minimum required to reliably measure a construct (Kline, 2005), the decision was made to keep the sub scale as part of the overall analysis. The third section used the 20 item, 2 Way Social Support Scale (2WSSS; Shakespeare Finch & Obst, 2011), to assess perceived social support. This scale measured both instrumental and emotional social support that was 2 way; both received from others and given to others. It asked participant s to indicate whether statements were true for them using a corresponding five point Likert scale that ranged from S trongly D isagree ( 1 ) to S trongly A gree (5). The 2WSSS was adapted to be specific to teammate relationships and the perception of social su pport within those relationships Shakespeare Finch and Obst examined psychometric properties of the 2WSSS with two samples, each composed of a combination of male and female undergraduate students and community members. They reported high Cronbach alphas for the four dimensions of their scale: receiving emotional suppo This 2WSSS scale is new and has not yet been used widely beyond Shakespeare Finch and The fourth sectio n of the questionnaire measured benefits sought through participation in dragon boating. Benefits sought by participants in sport were examined by adapting a list of benefits statements used by Pennington Gray and Kerstetter (2001) that was modified for t he dragon boat team context. Adaptations to Pennington Gray reported by studies of BCS dragon boat paddling. These benefits statements were
67 measured based on a five point Li kert scale ranging from Strongly Disagree (1) to Strongly Agree (5). The fifth section of the questionnaire consists of variables relating to breast cancer status, paddling activities, and demographics. The final section is composed of several open ende ing? The questionnaire was pilot tested with two groups. The first was composed of 76 male and female undergraduate students who tested face validity. The second group consisted of 12 women who we re breast cancer survivors and dragon boat paddlers who ascertain ed face and content validity. Correction of typos and minor grammatical errors changes were suggested by the undergraduate students. Questions relating to breast cancer occurrence were rewo rded as a result of the feedback from the second pilot group. After English, Spanish is the language spoken by the largest segment of the U.S. population (USCB, 2012). In order to make the instrument available to the growing community of women paddling in Puerto Rico, and to others throughout the U.S. whose preferred language was Spanish, the final draft of the English questionnaire was translated into Spanish using translation software Two bilingual speakers of English and Latin American Spanish caref ully proof read the translated questionnaire and provided recommendations t o improve its appropriateness. The translated questionnaire was adjusted accordingly and reviewed once again by the translators for any further modifications before it was approved by the University IRB committee. Three respondents chose to complete the Spanish language questionnaire.
68 Sample Characteristics of study participants are shown in Table 3 3 Survey respondents (N= 609) ranged in age from 19 83 with a mean age of 52 year s ( SD = 13.1 ) Of the 552 women who reported comprised 17.4% % (n=37) were 70 or over and had completed some college professional degrees and 4.3% (n=25) had completed their high school diploma. Over four fifths (81.3%, n=466) of the sample identified as W hit e, 11.5% (n=66) were Asian, and 4.4% (n=25) were Hispanic. The 16 were B lack, N ative American, or of M ixed background. Three quarters (76%, n=463) of the participants indicated they were on competitive teams, while 24% (n=146) said they participated recreationally. In terms of cancer diagnoses, the sample was almost evenly split. Half the respondents (50.6%, n=295) had never been diagnosed with cancer, while the other half had (49.4%, n=288). The vast majori ty of those who had cancer diagnoses identified as survivors of breast cancer, but 22 women indicated other types of cancer as their sole diagnos i s In order to reflect their shared experiences of social, emotional and physical adjustment to survivorship, this category was broadened and changed from breast cancer survivor to cancer survivor and the term cancer survivor was used throughout the study Two fifths (40.0%, n=243) of the women were members of mixed sex teams, two fifths (39.7%,
69 n=242) were on b reast cancer survivor or cancer survivor teams, and one fifth (20.4%, n=124) were part of all female dragon boat teams. The sample used for research questions pertaining to benefits sought (N=582) was very similar to the sample used for the social support and cohesion questions (N=609), but it was not exactly the same The social support and cohesion questions appeared earlier in the questionnaire than the benefits sought questions and some respondents chose to abandon the questionnaire before reaching th e benefits sought section This made the sample slightly smal ler for this analysis though the proportions are virtually identical The benefits sought sample was slightly different in three aspects, with 50.5% (n=294) of the sample never having had canc er three quarters (75.9%, n=442) participating on competitive teams, 40.0% (n=230) participating on mixed teams, 39.5% (n=233) on breast cancer and cancer survivor teams and 20.5% (n=119) on all female teams A full description of the demographic charact eristics of respondents in the benefits sought analysis is provided in Table 3 4. Analysis Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the characteristics of the sample. To confirm dimensions of perceived social support and team cohesion, c onfirmatory f actor analyses (CFA), was used. Three way between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify group differences based on level of competition, type of team, and cancer status Correlations were used to identify the relationship between per ceived social support and team cohesion. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to identify the benefits sought factor model, followed by CFA which was used to confirm that model and extract factor scores. Three way between subjects ANOVA were employ ed in addressing differences between groups based on level of
70 competition, type of team and cancer status in terms of benefits sought The CFA and EFA analyses were supported by Mplus (version 7) software and the analysis of variance procedures were cond ucted using SAS (Version 9.3). All analyses used an alpha level of 0.05. In confirmatory factor analysis, the latent structure of data is tested deductively against models with support from published literature to determine its fit to the expected model. Goodness of fit (GOF) indices assess how well a data set fits the proposed model. Hu and Bentler (1999) recommend using both absolute and relative fit indices when conducting CFA, so this study calculated four GOF indices. The chi square and the root me an squared error of approximation (RMSEA) are absolute fit indices that measure the difference between the observed model and the expected model. Considering the chi square goodness of fit statistic is highly affected by sample size, this statistic was not further interpreted, leaving three GOF indices. The Tucker Lewis coefficient (TLI) and the comparative fit index (CFI) are relative fit indices that measure how much a model differs from a null model. T hese indices have cutoff levels that indicate accep table and superlative values (Table 3 5 ). The CFAs were conducted using both scales simultaneously in order to maintain a high level of power. To ensure discriminant validity, correlations should be less than 0.85 (Kline, 2005). In addressing research qu estions two to four, t he social support and social cohesion scales were analyzed together, creating a composite score to maintain power and to use as much of the available data as possible. If the reliability of the composite scores were too low, this CFA would not be usable. Reliability of factor measurement
71 was tested using ( 1951 ) alpha statistic, with values of about 0.70 or higher considered the rule of thumb for acceptable reliability (Nunnally, 1978) The first c onfirmatory factor analys i s was conducted on the dimensions of social support and team cohesion Modification indices serve to project the amount of gain in model fit that would occur with each modification in the model. The modification indices showed that if you allow residuals for those two items to be correlated there would be a gain of 310.367, in the X 2 model fit. When the item correlations were checked there was a n item correlation of .90 4 between item item 11 2WSSS scale that was too high This may be due to the ordering of the questions as the items were right after each other and they are similarly worded. An adjustment was made to allow the residuals betwe en these two items to correlate and another CFA was conducted leading to a second CFA model The second CFA model showed an improvement over the first, as the goodness of fit was higher than in model one (Table 3 6 ) In model two, c orrelations between l atent constructs in the 2WSSS scale were very high, ranging between .86 6 and 927 This high correlation indicated that the factors the items are measuring are almost identical, which may be due to items being highly correlated to begin with. Thus, a th i rd CFA model was created in which all the social support items were collapsed into one factor. A third CFA was run, combining the four dimensions of the 2WSSS into one social support factor. In this model, the goodness of fit indicators showed a slight de crease and high correlations were found between certain factors in the GEQ scale
72 (Table 3 6 ) The Group Integration Task and Attraction to Group Task dimensions were highly correlated (r=.815) with each other and the G roup I ntegration S ocial and A tt raction to G roup S ocial dimensions were also highly correlated (r=.821), so the G roup I ntegration T ask and Attraction to Group T ask were combined to form the Task Cohesion factor, and G roup I ntegration S ocial and Attraction to Group S ocial were com bined to create the Social Cohesion factor. A fourth CFA with three factors Social Support, Task Cohesion and Social Cohesion was conducted. It revealed good goodness of fit statistics and this was adopted as the final model. The correlation matrix u sed in testing this model is presented in Table 3 7 Overall, the goodness of fit indices showed support for the all of measurement model s, however the final CFA model was chosen because it created factor scores that were not highly correlated while maint aining good fit (Figure 3 1 ) Research questions exploring differences between groups were addressed using three way between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) The c ancer status factor consisted of two levels that constituted a family: cancer and non cancer One pairwise comparison was run to compare group means at each level of breast cancer status. Level of competition was another factor with two levels recreational and competitive that constituted a family A single pairwise comparison to compar e group means on both levels of comp e tition was also run Team type was the third factor which was a family comprised of three levels : all female mixed and cancer survivor teams Because there were three levels, t hree single pairwise comparisons were con ducted to analyze all possible pairs In order to control for familywise error rate when there are three pairwise comparisons, the Shaffer Holm procedure was used to control for group
73 differences in each level of the factors ( Holm, 1979; Shaffer, 1986) In this study, each number of comparisons (C) wa s equal to one so once the omnibus F was significant and all pairwise comparisons assessing all three levels of the team type were performed the familywise alpha level was set at .05 and no further adjustme nt to significance value was needed. The approach to research questions five and six used f requency distributions to summarize the characteristics of the sample. The benefits sought scale used was developed specifically for this study and an exploratory f actor analysis (EFA) with geomin rotation was used to determine the underlying structure of the data. As in the previous analysis, reliability tests were conducted to test internal consistency of the domains. Research questions exploring differences between groups used three way between subjects ANOVA analyses. For research questions five and six, a Benefits Sought scale was created. Because this benefits sought scale has not been previously published, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the latent factors in the scale. Geomin rotation was chosen because it forces items to load on only one factor. A combination of methods for determining factor cutoffs w as used in analyzing five potential models of three, four, fiv e, six and seven factors. Using the latent root criterion eigenvalues greater than one were retained leaving six potential factors. Using scree plot criteria, after three factors, eigenvalues started leveling off and after factor six the difference bet ween values was very close to zero. It was also found that models with greater than four factors were not logically interpretive. The three factor model was too general, and those of five or greater were unnecessarily detailed, so a four factor model was
74 adopted. The four benefits sought factors were labeled Leisure, Mastery/Achievement, Social Connection, and Self Care and together they explained 58% of the variance in the 35 items. The geomin rotated loadings for these factors are reported in Appendix H The goodness of fit statistics for the four factor model were acceptably good with RMSEA = 0.076 (90% C I : .072 .079) CFI = 0.924 and TLI = 0.901. From the initial 35 item scale, two items (#3: To lose weight and #10: To spend time with a friend o r family member that was already doing it) were dropped because they did not adequately load on any factor leaving 33 items in the scale F actor scores were not extracted out of the exploratory factor analysis, as it requires every single variable to be observed in the entire sample. Estimating factor scores through the EFA factor loadings would have resulted in losing approximately one third of the sample, as all of the responses of a participant with data missing on any particular question would have t o be dropped from the analysis Therefore, the EFA was used to identify the factor model and then a CFA was used to confirm the EFA model and extract factor scores. The CFA maximize d the sample size by retaining and simultaneo usly enabling factor score creation The CFA was conducted using a four factor model. Four item pairs violated the assumption of confirmatory factor analysis that item residuals are uncorrelated. These pairs were expected to correlate for reasons that are not solely related to the factor. Therefore, w ith in the model, four pairs of items were allowed to have correlating residuals. The first pair of r esiduals for q uestion six ( For opportunities to compete ) and 24 ( To win races ) in the Mastery /Achievem ent factor were allowed to correlate. These two paired items constitute competition, which can be considered a form of
75 achievement but competition is separate because it is specific to the desire to pit oneself against others specifically in competitive settings. The second pair of re siduals that were allowed to be correlated included i tems eight ( To receive support from others ( To provide support to others ) in the Social Connection fact or. Together, this pair denotes social support, which is a form of social connection, but has a specific interpersonal helping based purpose beyond the other items in the factor that represent more general social connections with other people. The third pair of r esiduals allowed to correlate was q uestion s 16 ( To get out of the house ) and 17 ( To have some me time ) in the Self Care factor This combination of items denotes a form of desires of women to temporarily rem ove themselves from things like home based domestic and child rearing responsibilities and an ethic of caring for others This is a form of self care that entails a physical change of setting in order to participate in an activity that is focused on the p attend to the desires of others (Henderson, Bialeschki, Shaw & Freysinger, 1996) Finally, the r esidual pairing for i tems 34 ( To connect with nature ) and 35 ( To relax ) in the Self Care factor were allowed to correlate This pair represents tranquility. Tranquility is a form of self care that suggests a sense of quietness and sereneness that some people are able to obtain after spending time in the outdoors or after physical exertion. Benefits soug ht factor scores were established and the full EFA model is presented in Figure 3 2
76 Table 3 1. Participant Characteristics YRQ Qualitative Phase Name Also on Dragon Boat Team? BC Survivor Done YRQ Before? Chris Yes No No Terrie Yes Yes No DeDe Ye s No No Roxanne Yes Yes No Julia Yes Yes No Ginger Yes Yes No Vivienne Yes No No Harley No Yes Yes Melia No No No Jo No Yes Yes Juno No No No Table 3 2 Estimate of Population Size Dragon Boat Quantitative Phase Type of Team Women on Teams Nu mber of Teams Total Women Breast Cancer Survivor 30 42 1,260 Women 30 20 600 Mixed 1 5 75 1,125 Cancer women 30 1 30 Cancer mixed 15 3 45 Estimated Population 14 1 3,060
77 Table 3 3 Dragon Boat Quantitative Phase Profile of Respo ndents Social Support and Team Cohesion 1 Due to missing data in later parts of the questionnaire, the quantitative analysis of dragon boating used two samples. The social support and team cohesion analysis used the larger sample of N=609, while the benefits sought analysis used the smaller sample size of N=582. Demographics (N=609) 1 Frequency (n) % Age (n=55 2, M =52.2, SD=13.1, Range 19 83 years ) 18 29 3 5 6.3 30 39 6 8 12.3 40 49 9 6 17.4 50 59 1 68 30.4 60 69 1 48 26.8 70 and above 3 7 6.7 Highest Level of Education Completed (n=576) High school diploma 25 4.3 Some college 69 12.0 Diploma/associate degree 57 9.9 Bachelor's degree 205 35.6 Master's degree 169 29.3 Doctorate or professional degree 51 8.9 Racial Background (n=573) White 466 81.3 Asian 66 11 .5 Hispanic 25 4.4 Other 16 2.8 Cancer Status (n=5 83 ) C ancer survivor 288 49.4 Never had cancer 295 50.6 Level of Competition (n= 609 ) Competitive 463 76. 0 Recreational 146 24.0 Type of Team (n= 609 ) All Female 124 20. 4 Mixed/Co ed 243 40. 0 Breast Cancer Survivor /Cancer Survivor 242 39.7
78 Table 3 4 Dragon Boat Quantitative Phase Profile of Respondents Benefits Sought 1 Due to missin g data in later parts of the questionnaire, the quantitative analysis of dragon boating used two samples. The social support and team cohesion analysis used the larger sample of N=609, while the benefits sought analysis used the smaller sample size of N=58 2. Demographics (N=582) 1 Frequency (n) % Age (n=552, M =52.2, SD= 13.1, Range 19 83 years ) 18 29 35 6.3 30 39 68 12.3 40 49 96 17.4 50 59 168 30.4 60 69 148 26.8 70 and above 37 6.7 Highest Level of Education Completed (n=576) High school diploma 25 4.3 Some college 69 12.0 Diploma/associate degree 57 9.9 Bachelor's degree 205 35.6 Master's degree 169 29.3 Doctorate or professional degree 51 8.9 Racial Background (n=573) White 466 81.3 Asian 66 11.5 Hispanic 25 4.4 Other 16 2.8 Cancer Status (n=582 ) Cancer survivor 288 49. 5 Never had cancer 29 4 50. 5 Level of Competition (n=582 ) Competitive 4 42 75 9 Recreational 14 0 24. 1 Type of Team (n=582 ) All Female 1 19 20. 5 Mixed/Co ed 2 30 40.0 Breast Cancer Survivor/Cancer Survivor 2 33 39. 5
79 Table 3 5 Rules of Thumb for Goodness of Fit Index Cut Offs Index Type Index Acceptable Values Absolute Root mean squared error of approximation(RMSEA) 0.05 0.08 1 Close to or >0.06 2 Relative Comparative Fit Index (CFI) > 0.90 3 Close to or > 0.95 2 Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) > 0.90 3 Close to or > 0.95 2 1 Fair fit c ut off level (Browne & Cudeck, 1993) 2 Suggested cu t off level for good fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999) 3 C ut off level deemed acceptable (Bentler & Bonett, 1980) Table 3 6. Summary of Conf irmatory Factor Analysis Model Fit Statistics Initial Through Final Model 1 2 df p RMSEA (90% CI) CFI TLI Model 1 2248.372 601 0.000 0.067 (.064 .070) .958 .953 Model 2 2041.324 600 0.000 0.063 (.060 .066) .963 .959 Model 3 2234.578 618 0.000 0.06 6 (.063 .068) .959 .955 Model 4 2390.125 625 0.000 0.068 (.065 .071) .955 .952 1 n =609
80 Table 3 7 Cohesion and Social Support Indicators: Correlations 1 Social Support 2 Task Cohesion 3 Social Cohesion 4 Social Support Task Cohesion 0.47 *** Social Cohesion 0.71 *** 0.69 *** *** p value < .001 1 n =609 2 Social support = Social support received instrumental, social support received emotional, social support provided instrumental and social support provided emotional 3 Task cohesio n = Attraction to group task and Group integration task. 4 Social cohesion = Attraction to group social and Attraction to group social.
81 Table 3 8 Social Support and Cohesion Indicators: Descriptive Statistics Items 1 Percentages M SD SD 2 D N A SA Factor 1 Social Support 3 If stranded somewhere, there is a teammate who would get me. 0.8 1.7 8.8 43.4 45.3 4.31 0.77 I have helped a teammate with their responsibilities when they are unable to fulfill them. 0.7 3.7 16.3 45.7 33.6 4.08 0.84 When I am feeling dow n there is a teammate I can lean on. 1.2 4.1 10.7 42.5 41.5 4.19 0.87 I give teammates a sense of comfort in times of need. 0.3 1.9 11.2 49.1 37.4 4.21 0.74 There is at least one teammate I feel I can trust. 0.3 0.3 2.0 27.8 69.5 4.66 0.57 There is a te ammate that makes me feel worthwhile. 0.2 0.3 3.9 30.0 65.6 4.61 0.60 There is a teammate who can help me fulfill my responsibilities when I am unable. 0.5 2.4 11.0 33.3 52.8 4.36 0.81 There is a teammate who would give me financial assistance 5.1 9.4 42 .7 20.8 22.0 3.45 1.09 Teammates close to me tell me their fears and worries. 1.7 6.5 17.1 43.0 31.7 3.97 0.95 I am a person my teammates turn to for help. 0.1 6.5 24.1 44.6 23.8 3.84 0.90 Teammates confide in me when they have problems 1.4 8.5 25.0 42 .3 22.9 3.77 0.94 There is at least one teammate I can share my feelings with. 0.7 2.0 7.0 41.1 49.2 4.36 0.76 I have a teammate to help me if I am physically unwell. 2.2 4.6 17.9 36.3 38.9 4.05 0.98 I look for ways to cheer my teammates up when they ar e feeling down. 0.2 1.4 11.3 47.3 39.9 4.25 0.72 There is a teammate I can get emotional support from. 0.5 2.2 9.7 42.0 45.6 4.30 0.77 I help teammates when they are too busy to get things done. 0.3 6.5 23.6 44.0 25.5 3.88 0.88 I feel I have a circle of teammates who value me. 0.8 2.4 10.8 41.7 44.2 4.26 0.81 When a teammate was sick, I helped them. 1.5 5.3 21.0 37.9 34.3 3.98 0.95 There is a teammate I can talk to about the pressures in my life. 1.4 5.1 15.9 39.8 37.8 4.08 0.93 I am there to listen t o the problems of my teammates. 0.7 2.5 11.5 46.2 39.0 4.20 0.79
82 Table 3 8 Continued Items 1 Percentages M SD SD 2 D N A SA Factor Two Task Cohesion 3 I am happy with the amount of paddling time that I get 0.3 4.1 4.8 35.9 54.9 4 .57 0.65 0.3 7.9 8.7 37.8 45.2 4.41 0.79 This team gives me enough opportunities to improve my personal performance 0.2 3.0 7.7 35.9 53.3 4.27 0.85 I like the style of paddling on this team. 0.2 1.5 8.1 38.9 51.3 4.20 0.92 Our team is united in trying to reach its goals of performance. 0.7 5.7 10.2 50.1 33.3 3.74 1.08 We all take responsibility for any loss or poor performance by our team. 0.5 5.6 12.5 50.5 30.9 4.39 0.77 Our team members have consiste nt aspirations for the team's performance. 0.3 6.1 11.9 52.2 29.5 3.51 0.97 If members of our team have problems in practice, everyone wants to help them so we can get back together again. 0.7 3.8 13.3 48.8 33.4 4.40 0.72 Our team members communicate fre ely about each practice. 2.6 12.4 25.2 40.9 18.9 4.16 0.93 Factor 3 Social Cohesion 3 I enjoy being a part of the social activities of this team. 1.2 5.1 29.3 64.5 0 4. 10 0.85 I am going to miss the members of this team when the season ends. 1.2 2.5 1.2 36.9 47.4 3.61 0.88 Some of my best friends are on this team. 2.8 11.0 24.2 33.3 28.7 4.06 0.84 I enjoy team parties more than other parties. 2.3 9.4 41.5 28.8 18.0 3.66 0.93 For me, this team is one of the most important social groups to which I belong. 1.3 4.9 13.8 36.3 43.6 4.04 0.83 Members of our team would rather go out together than go out on their own. 0.5 8.9 36.0 38.4 16.2 3.96 0.83 Our team members often party together. 1.2 11.1 25.0 45.8 17.0 4.11 0.82 Our team would like to spend time together in the off season. 0.7 4.5 19.9 50.5 24.4 3.61 1.01 1 n =609 2 All scales were measured on a 5 point Likert scale where 1= SD= Strongly disagree, 2=D=Disagree, 3=N=Neutral, 4=A=Agree, 5=SA=Strongly agree
83 Figure 3 1 Social Support and Team Cohesion: Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model
84 Table 3 9 Benefits Sought Indi cators: Correlations 1 Leisure Mastery/ Achievement Social Connection Self Care Leisure Mastery/Achievement .734 Social Connection .646 710 Self Care .633 .823 .740 1 n =582
85 Table 3 10 Benefits Sought : Descriptive Statistics Items 1 Per centages M SD SD 2 D N A SA Factor 1 Leisure 3 To have fun 0.5 1.5 32.7 65.2 0.00 4.63 0.54 To develop my physical fitness 0.2 1.0 27.1 71.7 0.00 4,70 0.49 To meet people 0.7 2.9 14.2 45.8 36.4 4.14 0.82 To be outdoors 1.5 26.5 72.0 00.0 0.00 4.70 0.49 Factor 2 Mastery /Achievement 3 To challenge my abilities 0.5 3.1 31.6 64.8 0.00 4.61 0.58 For opportunities to compete 0.7 2.2 10.8 34.8 51.5 4.34 0.81 To be part of a team 0.3 0.3 9.2 39.8 50.3 4.40 0.70 To do something unusual 1.4 2.1 12.0 38.9 45.6 4.25 0.85 For opportunities to travel 2.9 6.8 21.8 37.8 30.7 3.87 1.02 To develop a sense of self confidence 1.4 6.2 18.8 41.5 32.1 3.97 0.94 To learn new skills 0.9 1.0 4.7 43.7 49.7 4.40 0.71 To master a t echnique 0.7 0.7 10.8 40.9 46.9 4.33 0.75 For a sense of accomplishment 0.7 0.3 4.0 39.6 55.4 4.49 0.66 For the prestige of being an athlete 3.5 8.2 28.6 32.8 26.9 3.72 1.06 To win races 3.8 5.8 18.5 42.4 29.5 3.88 1.02 To show others what I can do 4 .3 10.2 26.2 37.6 21.7 3.62 1.07 To show myself what I can do 0.7 1.7 5.2 40.0 52.3 4.42 0.73 To feel excitement 0.9 1.7 9.0 49.2 39.2 4.243 0.76 Factor 3 Social Connection 3 To receive support from others 1.4 6.5 30.4 38.7 23.0 3.75 0.93 To provide support to others 1.0 4.3 26.0 39.8 28.9 3.91 0.90 To be a role model 4.7 13.7 31.5 31.0 19.2 3.46 1.09 15.0 21.4 34.8 19.1 9.7 2.87 1.17 To support a cause/my community 3.1 6.4 28.1 29.5 32.9 3.83 1.0 6 To meet other breast cancer survivors outside the support group setting 14.0 11.5 33.7 19.4 21.5 3.23 1.30
86 Table 3 10 Continued Items 1 Percentages M SD SD 2 D N A SA Factor 4 Self Care 3 To get out of the house 5.2 6.7 19.3 39.2 29.6 3.81 1.09 To have some "me" time 4.3 9.4 19.8 30.4 36.1 3.85 1.14 To leave my worries behind 1.9 5.5 15.7 40.4 36.4 4.04 0.96 To relieve stress and tension 0.9 2.3 10.1 40.4 46 .4 4.29 0.81 For a sense of control 4.5 11.1 31.2 32.9 20.3 3.53 1.07 To move forward from a negative life experience 9.6 17.3 22.5 25.3 25.3 3.39 1.29 To feel empowered 1.4 4.0 12.3 43.6 38.8 4.14 0.88 To connect with nature 1.0 2.6 11.7 3 8.8 45.9 4.26 0.84 To relax 0.5 4.2 13.0 42.7 39.6 4.17 0.84 1 n =582 2 All scales were measured on a 5 point Likert scale where 1= SD=Strongly disagree, 2=D=Disagree, 3=N=Neutral, 4=A=Agree, 5=SA=Strongly agree
87 Figure 3 2 Exploratory Factor Analys is Model: Benefits Sought
88 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Findings Qualitative Phase The YRQ voyageur class has a much higher completion rate than the smaller boats. The women interviewed said they would not have competed in the YRQ in any other type of boat than the team boat. Thus, team sport participation gave these women opportunities for growth and challenge, in part through the relationships built with their canoeing teammates. S even themes and accompanying subthemes became evident from the data: Motivatio n (Cancer as impetus for physical activity, Chance to be part of a team, Outdoors as a draw, and Challenge of YRQ subthemes), Team Context (Different social circles and Different abilities subthemes), B reast Cancer (Cancer as common experience, Cancer prac ticalities, New perspectives through cancer, and The supporter experience subthemes), Activism (Challenging stereotypes, Creating opportunities for others, Making cancer visible, and Role modeling subthemes), Cohesion (Social cohesion and Task cohesion su bthemes), Social Support (Receiving social support and Providing social support subthemes), and Benefits (Physical, Social and Mental subthemes). These themes and subthemes are explored in turn below. Motivation The Yukon River Quest is a sport event tha t was experienced by participants as mentally, physically and emotionally challenging. A variety of reasons were highlighted as motivations to participate in the race which are reflected in four subthemes: Cancer as impetus for physical activity, Chance to be part of a team, Outdoors as a draw, and the Challenge of the YRQ.
89 Cancer as impetus for physical activity Some of the breast cancer survivors were not physically active before their cancer diagnos e s. Several of them learned about paddling as a resu lt of their illness, either through health care practitioners or friends who thought they might be interested (Roxanne, survivor ). Similarly, one paddler noted that in taking up paddlin g after cancer, she felt she had gained s omething good from something bad. Julia said: A lot of us talk about it as the silver lining of breast cancer. Something you would never have considered doing [paddling] but having had breast cancer has given me the opportunity to do it, which is a bit of a bizarre approach (laughs) Jo was involved with her team from its early days, and recalled a fateful phone call. In her community, word of mouth led a paddling opportunity straight to her : I got a call from I understand W o clock on Saturday. And do you want to come and I just k inda said I about and just built it [pad dling] right in. Several of the breast cancer survivors had looked to paddling as a way to connect with other survivors, and to experience group support differently than a traditional discussion based support group. According to Harley, a need for somethi ng action based and physical was an important motivator for the creation of the group and participation in the race formed, was because the gals that were in the boat would rather go down the river, as Similarly, Jo explained her desire to be physically active in her recovery and survivorship: Saturday and we sit around and talk abo ut our problems, light a candle or something.
90 dle Jo felt like through the many hours training for and racing in the YRQ, she would have ample opportunities to talk to other survivors about breast cancer and various other topics, but at the same time she would be able to do something concrete. Chance to be part of a team Being physically active as part of a group was appealing to several of the paddlers. Harley had a background in team sport participation, such as hockey, fastball and curling, and was eager to conti nue on the water why I did it? I just wanted to go, I just wanted to be part of the team. I absolutely wanted to be part of the team, and there Another woman had very little experience with paddling before she accepted a last minute invitation to race in the YRQ. She was already physically fit due to her participation in other vigorous individual sport activities, but she had not trained specifically for paddling. She was the friend of one of the women already on the team, and thought the YRQ was a unique opportunity to be part of a team sport. Juno a paddler, described the reasons why she chose to race : It was a total fluke. I am not a paddler at all and have only been in a kayak once befo re and canoe maybe once or twice before the River Quest. My friend and physiotherapist who is a veteran paddler, asked me to be on her Yukon Quest Team. Last minute, someone else had withdrawn. I thought if zing opportunity to go with a team of strong women, and it was something I had never done before. Most of my athletic experience was all solo racing, or racing on a team where each athlete did different legs. It is a very different experience to be in a ca noe with your teammates for 36 hours Juno was drawn to the YRQ by the novelty of the experience of being on a team. Julia drew on her commitment to being part of a team as an ongoing motive to help her get
91 through both the long preparation leading up to the race and the YRQ itself. She explained: everything is going so well, why are you doing this? And I used to say that Perhaps surprisingly, given the magnitude of the YRQ race, some of the women did not remember mulling over their decision to participate. For one woman the c hance to be part o f a team made doing the YRQ a desirable possibility. Vivienne explained: group of people who were sayin g and I found myself doing it !... I would never have contemplated doing this alone or any other paddle event. I am a team type person Whether the women had prior team sport experience or not, the team setting offered by t he YRQ acted as a motivat ing force for their participation Outdoors as a draw Some women felt that the outdoors motivated their involvement in paddling and the YRQ. After completing the race for the first time, one Australian participant expressed tha t she would like to return again to experience the beauty of the Yukon River, but under less hurried circumstances Yukon at a leisurely pace (Ginger, survivor) The two participants who had competed in th e YRQ multiple times before, both emphasized how important the Yukon River itself beauty: be raining, it or). Jo a survivor, spoke
92 specifically about the uniqueness of the chance to paddle late into the night while still I ts just the idea of being on the river, this is a chance t o get out there. I like in the river when you go, and the further north you go, you have a chance to see midnight north yet, o e could just, got the sun in your face, and The participants who lived in the Yukon had experience with, an d anticipated the beauty awaiting their journey along the river. As might be expected, the international participants were initially less familiar with what the Canadian north would involve, but they were intrigued to experience it. Ginger a survivor, w as interested in using the She said not into resort holidays. This sounded like an interesting way to discover another part of Another survivor, Julia shared that in the 18 months of preparation and training for the race, she did research on the area, and she spoke at length of what she anticipated it would be like: It is embarrassing to be spectacular. Imagine being out on the wat s Julia compared the emptiness of the Yukon wilderness with outdoor experiences never st a [city] girl, growing up on the northern beaches,
93 She went on to explain how the potential survival demands of the wilderness were novel, and was in part what drew her to take part i n the race: I think the wilderness aspect. I suppose I have never done anything with ride out there wi ever befor e The opportunity to be immersed in the beauty of the northern wilderness was sought by many of the YRQ partici pants. Challenge of the YRQ Traversing safely through the wilderness was one aspect of the YRQ that could be considered challen ging. For other participants, the length and difficulty of the event itself motivated their participation in a variety of way s. One woman alluded to the difficulties inherent in the race Juno a paddler, was accustomed to challenging herself : I was asked by Nelly and just could not let the opportunity pass me by. The people tell me something is really hard, I want to do it. I never sign up for beginner anything, I always sign up for intermediate and above . .ha ha Juno was active in several outd oor activities, saying her favo rite was long distance trail running through the Yukon landscape. She viewed this new opportunity to stretch her physical limits, in a canoe, with teammates, in a philosophical way: The fact that it [the YRQ] was so long, and that it was with a team of women. I had never done any race that lasted more than 24 hours. This seemed like such a great opportunity to learn about myself. I had recently embraced the idea that true growth come s with some pain and discomfort, and that is normal and okay even though it is also scary
94 Juno regularly challenged herself physically, but for other women, this level of challenge was a once in a lifetime opportunity. They spoke of wanting do somethin g amazing and novel. Ginger a survivor, the realms of normal life A supporter, Vivienne felt that s he would be motivated by: A sense of achievement perhaps? When the sports psychologist asked us to think about why we were doing the YRQ, as when things go t tough we would need to call on those reason s I said that it would help me to have done something e Similarly, Chris, a supporter explained that now she was older, she felt a need to reprioritize some aspects of her life based on her activities of recent years. She stressed the need to do s omething unusual at her current age: go off and do things to do when you were younger. Early, one of the things that I was told was silly things before I turned 30. Because I was really worried that after I turned 30 and whatever, whatever, and suddenly I turned 50 and its like holy shit them after 30 (l aughs) and here I am 50 an ordinar y (laughs)... was about when I was younger. Because the whole nesting and being in a relationship and buying a house and having a career suddenly just sort of t going to live and cope, and all that sort of stuff that just crowds out. What was I doing all that stuff for before I turned 30. You know, what was the this other stuff that keeps you really busy, keeps y ou really worried, keeps you really stressed ? creating an environment where you can orient your career around children from, you know want to DO something (laughs)
95 Challenge for some participants was taken on incrementally over th eir paddling careers. Doing the YRQ appeared to some to be the next logical step in their development as paddlers Terrie, a survivor, explains : I pretty much like to get involved in anything to do with paddling, because I just love the paddling so much and so I also enjoy the training, and for the the next, a goal to work towards, time after time, it helps w ith the motivation. has led us to .. I only sort of just had enough leave and enough money to get here, but thought amazing exper ience, and it will be As the women progress as athletes and participate in events such as the YRQ that are increasingly challenging, the opportunity to travel can become a more common and desired aspect of the sport experience. Roxanne a survivor who l ives in Australia related her active sport tourism career: to different parts of Australia, to different states, I went to Brisbane, South Australia, across to Western Australia, to Perth to compete, I went to [city] represented Australia in the World Championships, and things like that and rought me all over the world, what more can you ask for?... When I first came to Australia, I basically stayed in Sydney and most of the time when I did have spare time, I would go back to [country] opportun ity to go anywhere, so really paddling has taken me to all sorts of places Julia described how travel has been interwoven with her paddling experiences. She enjoys the tourism aspect of her sport, and endeavors to include it whe re possible. She commented that travel does not eclipse paddling as the main motive for her participation in the YRQ, however: I just love paddling so much that it was an opportunity, and Ginger put it out lly. And then, I thought this will be fantastic, it will give us another place to travel to, another thing to
96 do paddling than associated around paddling, which just you add on something to the end. it ? N o When tel ling others about their plans to participate in the race, several women spurred her on to want to do the YRQ. According to Roxanne, she was motivated in part to do the YRQ it (laughs) I guess (Roxanne, survivor). Similarly, Juno a paddler, noted how she was able to turn he r participate in the YRQ into an opportunity to prove to him what she could do. Physical challenges were familiar terrain for her: My boyfriend was negative with his words bu t positive with his actions, as have thought he was doing me a favo r by being honest, but it was the way he said it that made me angry. Ha, I guess I showed him competit usually much stronger than I, physically that is...he is a faster runner, or do those classic feminine things that well, at least, not yet. So, phy sical challenges are something that I like doing, that I can do well and that he also holds in high esteem so sure, this was important in that regard These women accepted comments they received as inadvertent motivation to successfully attempt the chall enge of racing in the YRQ. Team Context T he second theme was t eam context which included unique aspects of the experiences of the race. Teams are composed of a group of i ndividuals who come
97 together for a particular purpose. Canoe teams include a variety of people who have different strengths, come from different backgrounds and develop in the sport differently. These aspects of team paddling are explored in two subtheme s: Different social circles and Different abilities. Different social circles Participants from the Australian team all were part of a paddling club based in a large metropolitan area, and the other paddlers were from a small, isolated northern community Despite their contrasting residential contexts, women from both groups explained that outside of paddling, they operated in very different social circles than their teammates. Jo shared that with her team People come from different walks of life, like here is where we intersect and we keep going Chris, who lived in a large city, initially began paddling to act in a supporter role, but found many new social connections through her dragon boat paddling club: paddling to be supportive and oh this will be fun kind of thing (laughs) and a member of parliament. Her YRQ team was formed from this large group, and she spoke about how her circle of YRQ teammates fits into her life: times a week and I expect to go on seei ng them two or three times a week, Chris enjoys having connections to a large group of diverse women, but acknowledges that even her YRQ teammates are separate from the rest of her life. her workplace provided the only teammate connection that was non paddling related:
98 The only person I see outside of paddling is Leanne, who I also work with, who is my boss at work And the others you know, we consider ourselves (Terrie, survivor). She was comfortable with the separateness of her teammates from her other friendship groups, however ends, different groups of people, different groups of friends ink I have a lot in common with any of them really. Jo a survivor, lived in a small town and also felt that she had several social circles that did not really overlap. She describes her circle of teammates in a similar way: A lot of times, we operate i interaction with a lot of them, through the rest of the year, bu to paddle t you know, and come January, February, it s like, come on you, what have you been doing l ast summer and and get your paddle in the water Another survivor, Harley explained that for her, time is a big factor that affects her relationships with her teammates: even to go for tea, after, you know? Because we have our other lives with our families, you kind of paddle, you get off the river and you go home and you be with your family other half of the year you
99 Jo a survivor, agreed, saying that Oh yeah, you get closer, closer, closer, closer, you And then you go off in your own private lives again Tim e spent training and competing for the YRQ is substantial and necessarily time spent away from family and other commitments. Harley explained that she has relationships that are closer with some teammates than others, and stated that in the off season, Different abilities Some YRQ teams form to train and compete in the race once. Other teams are recurring entrants in the race, but specific membership on the team changes in part, ea ch year. As noted above, diverse women come together with the YRQ as their goal, but not only their demographic characteristics are diverse, women join these teams with very different general and paddling specific athletic abilities. Melia, a supporter, s poke about diversity in abilities brings something to the boat Similarly, Jo describes her team as a: conglomeration of women with different abilities, all kinds of backgrounds, two artists We keep athlete. This diversity in ability allows te am members to contribute in their own way to the boat. A supporter, DeDe described how the leadership style on her team allowed for contributions from the group: I think everybody in the crew has their own particular kind of specialty and strength and tha and different times to take charge of it, so
100 evolved. Julia echoed this sentiment in her description of how her team communicated and members assisted the team in different ways: T here was one of the girls was really good at reading the river at the front, DeDe, when we were getting into difficulties, you read the river, and then there were two people that were good at reading maps and we had GPS and whatever, and it was like, projection. So it was like you tell her what you ar e seeing on the map, you tell Ginger Diversity in ability comes not only from natural tal ent and training. Jo, as a paddler of multiple YRQ races, commented that experience of the race itself so this is a pretty strong team this than totally never been on the river before Each year a slightly different group of women will bring slightly different abilities to the team. Breast Cancer Breast cancer acted as an invisible team mate for most of the women in this the YRQ on teams that were classified as breast cancer survivor teams, and six of the 11 women interviewed were survivors of brea st cancer Four subthemes were identified : C ancer as common experience, C ancer practicalities, N ew perspectives through cancer, and T he supporter experience. Cancer as common experience While no individual experiences a disease like breast cancer exactl y the same way as others do, there is a level of commonality of experience that the BCS in this
101 study identified as important. Despite the fact that her teammates operate in different social circles, she points to breast cancer as something that brings th em together, and acts as: a common denominator. They would be a sisterhood for that segment of my life, you know for the race, and the breast cancer part. None of them in diagnosis should talk to Faye, she works [at your workplace] and you have good base to draw from when Preparing for the YRQ takes many hours of on and off water training, which provide plenty of opportunities for conversat ions with teammates. Most of the women were part of BCS teams, and while breast cancer may have been what brought them together as a team, and is a main component of the team identity, it is not often the main topic of conversation. Vivienne recalled that in fact, it rarely comes up, but I would say that generally we are all aware of who is a survivor and who is a supporter in Julia concurred: W as so they understand how you feel. Similarly, Harley shared that she felt the body movement aspects of padd ling as a team created a comfortable space where paddlers worked through their feelings in a physical way. She explained that teammates sometimes talked about cancer and supported each other as needed, but that everyday talk and physicality were more the style of the team : physical body movement, as opposed to sitting on the couch and talking
102 feelings an different between this, as opposed to a gr oup where you meet in a home, and that kind of a support group Similarly, Ginger felt that : To start with through case, better than get fit at your own pace. Whether it is talked about specifically or not, k nowing that their teammates could relate to their own experiences of having cancer touch their lives helped build relati onships with teammates. As Jo succinctly put it suggested that having cancer in common helped create a paddling team that was like a sisterhood that could really encompass anyone with breast cancer or a suppo rter Cancer practicalities Serious illnesses come with challenges all their own. Breast cancer is no situations that needed to be dealt with, unique to BCS paddling teams. The women in this study led full lives, active in employment, volunteering, child rearing, demanding sport activities and more. Jo described the challenges inherent in her situation: r. Because my husband had left, I had three kids I was raising on my own, I was working night shifts at [her workplace] cancer in here now, just to add to it Having a diagnosis of breast cancer on top of their other respo nsibilities was experienced as another layer of stress.
103 There are many reasons why individuals may need to drop out of paddling either temporarily, or permanently such as injury or involvement in other time consuming activities that may preclude training For BCS teams, cancer adds another layer of challenge. Typically, BCS paddlers begin paddling after completing treatment for breast cancer. Due to the nature of the disease, it is not uncommon for women to experience a recurrence or need further treat ment and have to drop out and be replaced by someone else. For the members of the two BCS teams, the death of a teammate wa s a stark reminder of the dangers of cancer recurrence or metastasis, even after a period of remission where a teammate feels well. The two women who had completed multiple YRQ races said that they knew of several of their former teammates who had passed away subsequent to their participation in the YRQ. The women from Australia whose YRQ team was composed of a subset of a much lar ger BCS padding club had also struggled to deal with the loss of teammates. Julia shared what she had experienced recently: B w, really like close members of the dragon boating community and stuff like that and it was just, I think that was a big thing, like everybody just got through it. Due to illness, death or simply shifted priorities, sometimes teams needed to add new membe rs at the beginning of the season. Jo explained that finding women who were breast cancer survivors to fill empty seats in the boat was a challenging task, if not a little macabre , ok, and you
104 members by word of mouth in their community network, though in larger cities, breast cancer survivors may be more difficult to identify. New perspectives through cancer Either directly or indirectly, breast cancer was part of the experience of YRQ paddling for all the women in the study except Juno, who paddled on a n all female team that was not related to breast cancer. For both survivors and supporters alike, breast cancer filtered perspectives relating to their own health, positive outcomes after illness and their future in relation to it. Because the loss of a teammate is a real possib ility, this gave a new awareness view, one paddler expressed how she value d her current state of health C autiously optimistic, she said she felt ave such good health, but that it can change Terrie spoke about how a recent spate of teammate deaths in her paddling club had affected her thinking about her own health and survivorship : I feel really lucky to be ab le to participate and to be strong and healthy enough to be able to do it, because last year we lost three of our members um, yeah, it just sort of makes you realize how lucky you are that you can paddle, fit enough cancer and especially to be here [the YRQ] you just feel so lucky to be here, to be able Terrie appreciated the fact that, unlike some former colleagues, her health had improved enough since her cancer that she was able to partic ipate in the challenging opportunity that the YRQ presented. Some survivors like Roxanne, viewed paddling as
105 one way to move forward from their cancer treatment and recovery to build a new perspective: tment, and during my most vulnerable period was when I was first diagnosed and being treated. myself a Like Roxanne, through paddling, Julia gained a new perspective on a future after breast cancer that has been affected, but not defined by the disease She clarified that when say moving away ; [breast cancer] I mean The supporter experience Some women have never had breast cancer but they p articipate on breast cancer survivor paddling teams. These women are known as supporters. In this sample, four women were supporters on the two YRQ BCS teams. Supporters and some survivors spoke about various aspects of having supporters as part of a BC S team. In paddling, as in any sport, team membership changes over time. Some participants guard the composition of their teams and prefer to limit membership on paddling teams to BCS only, but this is not always possible. Vivienne, a supporter shared th at she had encountered some difficulty relating to this but had asserted her right to be part of the team team], when there were a few people who were upset/annoyed that supporters were included. At the time, I responded that the group had asked for members, I had not
106 Some people had initially objected to her inclusion, but she felt comfortable as part of the team. In the case of BCS teams, sometimes it is difficult to find enough women who have had breast cancer to top up membership on the team. In some cases, this need to fill seats in the boat is what prompts inclusion of supporters on BCS teams. Jo a member of multiple YRQ teams remarked that from people who are not necessarily breast cancer survivors, or they have supported someone, or they have a mother or a sister While not every BCS team paddler has had cancer themselves supporters h ad some connection to the disease. When choosing who m to include on a BCS team as a supporter, some teams select people who have been touched by cancer through the illness of someone close to them. Melia another supporter describe d how her indirect expe riences with breast cancer made her a candidate for a BCS team: Livi, she contacted me the day after at [workplace] I contacted her back, So she explained to me that every year it happens that they have supporters, and it is not necessarily all breast cancer survivors, but supporter in the way that if someone, she said that someone in my environment, or family or that had been touched by a ny problems. From my grandmother who was 63, to my mom 56, to my brother, 45 to a [child] When Melia was asked to join the team, she soon realized that the team was looking for someone who had been affected indirectly by cancer. She then felt qualified, as one of the many people who have had cancer touch their lives Once part of the team, supporters generally felt that s urvivors on the YRQ teams provided a warm atmosphere for their supporter teammates. Melia replaced a YRQ
107 team member who had become ill and had to withdraw from the race She was asked to join her team late in the season, yet found she was welcomed into the group and thanked for taking on the YRQ challenge: T hey really, make me felt welcoming [sic], really welcome, and thanking thanking them but they are extremely thankful of me getting on, embarki ng at the last minute like this Melia went on to say that s he felt hono red to be chosen as the lone supporter on her BCS team saying she was : even more nervous because um, the whole meaning around the boat and this team and the opportunity, and I reall y, really um, I am forever thankful Some team members also came to view the supporters in their group as survivors, just not survivors of breast cancer. Vivienne explained how while this is often true, it is different for survivors of breast cancer paddling on a BCS team because of the lack of public visibility of the crises supporters had faced says that many of the supporters have their own story or challe nge so although we are survived other events, we are not wearing a shirt advertising it or being defined by it Breast cancer survivor teams often spend time in the publ ic eye as they go about their regular training and racing activities, as well as participating in activist and advocacy roles in the local community and beyond. This can lead to team members being viewed in a special way by the wider community as they ral ly around the team. Referring to the admiration of others around being a BCS team taking on the challenge of a race such as the YRQ, Vivienne shared her perspective a survivor, so sometimes I
108 feel like I am being given something that I do not deserve labeled as BCS can sometimes make supporter s feel different from their teammates. Chris another supporter described her understanding of being different from survivors: becaus e I superficial level it makes much difference, and then at a deeper level, it see them as a person with breast cancer, you see them as the person that Between survivors and supporters on the team, difference is acknowledged, but relationships between teammates can serve to smooth the edges of this difference. Melia said: The ladies are older and ones that really remind me of my mom, and so I can from outside see that they went through c ancer, my mom went, like I they treat me as a daughter, as a sister, as a friend, as if I always belonged in this boat, this is your bo at, this is your team, this is our team To some participant s the distinction between being a survivor and a supporter is not very important. Roxanne, a survivor, explained, breast cancer] behind me and really just the fact that, o k, I ha Jo agreed, and eschewed the idea of a hierarchy based on cancer status, saying: Melia has not had breast cancer but she can tell you about her aunt and he r r to say well I only have one breast therefore I am a notch above.
109 Activism Women who participated on breast cancer survivor teams were involved i n some level of activism as a result of their YRQ experiences. In some cases this was deliberate, and in others it was incidental. Activism was the fourth theme, which included sub themes of challenging stereotypes, creating opportunities for others, makin g cancer visible, and role modeling. Challenging stereotypes The women in this study chose to participate in a grueling distance canoe race, with most spending many hours in preparing physically, mentally and organizing equipment and logistics. This sor t of undertaking is considered unusual by most people. Through participation in the YRQ, some participants felt they were challenging stereotypes and opinions others may have had of their capabilities. The mean age of the women in this study was 52 years old, The Australian women participated in dragon boat paddling as well, a sport that involves a sizable proportion of adults younger than they were By going beyond regular dragon boat training and competition, one woman felt that through participation i n the YRQ, she and her team might change some attitudes about what older women paddling together can do, thus p roving her ability despite her age. Chris said: I reckon you can do this [training for and competing in YRQ] (laughs) and if you did everyone wi ll treat you with respect instead of seeing you as a s like YES, its kinda cool. Similarly, Terrie a survivor hig hlighted that stereotypes of their ability fail to account for their development as a team, and improved results in relation to younger teams. She spoke about her experiences as both a dragon boat and YRQ paddling team member :
110 I think we like to get out t here and show them, you know, really, which we all the time It s a common bond, I guess, I think maybe some of us have felt along t maybe not, that we maybe have something to prove to other dragon boat you know, are always there, but sort of never do very well, I mean that might have been doing things like this, like, ground breaking stuff as far as paddling goes that no other teams have done before, even non breast cancer teams, they know Terrie sensed that her YRQ team had surprised people who had limited ideas of what Creating opportunities for others The YRQ began as an event for smaller boats, and no opportun ities for teams larger than two people existed at first. After learning about BCS dragon boating in other areas of Canada, a group of local women took it upon themselves to ask for the chance to enter the YRQ in a larger boat. Jo recalled the history of voyageur canoeing in the YRQ: Yeah, I was one of the first ones there, and they were like ex perience. What about the voyageur canoe and everybody was, talked to the team organizers and they said hmmmm for a demo class, and they kind of looked at this conglomeration of women with different abilities, all kinds of backgrounds, two artists a nu ah this is pretty big. But they let us go in and that was quite something. She recalled being on the:
111 first voyageur to in the race, the first voyageur canoe to go in the in there before, so. So with this big old tub of a one for us to go out in. There were 11 of us the first year, and we hardly knew which end of the paddle went in the water, so it w as an interesting trip. This early group named themselves Paddlers Abreast and their pioneering participation in the YRQ paved the way for other voyageur teams to register in subsequent years. Harley said: other women that started the voyageur in the River Quest, as a trial and got this year, eight entries or something Not only did that success inspire an increase in the overall number of voyageur teams since, the participation of Paddlers Abreast created opportunities for all female and BCS team: The boat we were using was the one they used when they did the YRQ for the first time, so we felt that we were in a special boat and that they were t was a bit special for them to see us in it O pportunities were also created on an individual level as well. Jo felt that the creation of Paddlers Abreast allowed he r the chance to interact with her local landscape in a unique way: Just the idea of getting from here to Dawson on the river was like, whoa. I would never have a chance otherwise to make that trip. I would never have, I would never see that part of the world, be on that river in those Mentorship of new paddlers served as a form of activism. Jo greatly valued her YRQ experiences, but recognized that it was important for othe r BCS to have the opportunity
112 to participate as well. She commented that she and others were prepared to sacrifice their own leisure in order to give someone else a chance: years if there was somebody who has never been before we would step everybody a chance, we always say there is room for ever ybody. Keeping the team inclusive to the needs of BCS in the community was more important to Jo than solely her own enrichment. Part of this commitment to inclusivity involved outreach to women who may be reluctant at first to take part Jo explained, S ome of a direct concern, and the entire group took responsibility to share their expertise through mentorship She found this to be helpful stating that, I realized quickly a team of experienced women would more easily share the burden of having a newbie aboard and allow me to experience this event. It was really, a perfect situation for me. Making cancer visible By forming a team, women who are survivors and supporters become a group who are visible to both individuals struggling indirectly and directly wit h breast cancer, as well as to a wider audience. Gaining visibility within the community was achieved through several means. Melia explained how her team connected with residents of Whitehorse: T here will be a few upcoming events as, ah, one of the item s for the silent auction for the special evening for their 10 th anniversary was actually a, you boat, so we get to paddle some people for ... I think it went for close to $400 for p addling on the river with us.
113 The YRQ team that came from Australia was composed of members of a larger paddling club that had a strong public relations profile already. T his allowed them to use various channels to spread their message of breast cancer awareness. One example of this was shared by Chris who said that f there was speeches Her teammate Terrie commented on coverage received from the media from newspapers and magazines pretty special In 2007, River of Life was filmed, a documentary that fo llowed the crew (Walcher, 2007) Jo shared her experiences promoting the film in different parts of Canada: two by two to the different cities to the film showing and introduce the film It was kinda cool. I went with Claire to Regina, no, I went to Winnipeg with Claire, I went to Regina with Lynn, I went out to ed to being a celebrity! This was just, was fun to go with the movie because it has a message and you can answer questions and you can commiserate with somebody or you can, you know, you can relate, you don are a breast cancer survivor who is entering into your breast cancer story. Serving as a semi famous role model was a new experience for Jo, who enjoyed the chance t o interact with others touched by breast cancer. In general though, she preferred to help others in the background, explain ing spotlig as soon work on the sidelines While Jo herself may have been a bit
114 shy, there was no doubt that this form of visibility had an impact, however. This film role modeled what was possible for BCS paddlers, and contributed to the formation of the a fter watching the we can Many reasons were identified as to why members of BCS YRQ teams wanted increased visibility. Julia stressed the importance of having a platform to remind women about cancer screening and the benefits of early diagnosis. She said: of breast cancer, and looking for ea rly diagnosis and getting women to look after themselves, and make sure that they take care and constantly have regular checks and stuff like that we know how important it is to be checked, and to know that it s all about, well not always, but most of the testing and things, or working out if there is some genetic connection or something, do something about it Harley focused more on the symbolic and emotional value of visib i l ity in th e community for those who had been touched by cancer. She explained: The team, we paddle for breast cancer awareness. We paddle for people on the shore that have lost loved ones to breast cancer, we paddle for addle for the ones who have you, they could be thinking, see in our boat, and they could all of a sudden b though, all for a very good cause. Jo felt a sense of urgency and was impatient around the push for a c ure. Acknowledging that breast cancer is widespread, she felt visibility was important to maintain momentum around the issue. She explained: Well, I keep saying that people need to know how many women are right now full of breast cancer survivors from three different parts of the world. Its just a little
115 affecting a lot of women, and we should have a cure for this, we should d cancer is screwed to the earth at this n people, this women in their prime, you take women, you know, mothers, daughters, but working for the s chances to help, you know when we get out there in our pink shirts, when we do regattas and things like that, we show everyb ody that sees us how important this is, and that there is a life after breast cancer, you can get back to, you can either get back to the exercise that you do, or you can do more exercise to make you fitter and stronger, and people can see that you can get Jo also felt that being visible might help someone struggling with the disease to reduce their isolation and realize there are others experiencing similar issues. She said: brother, this misery and t ones Terrie also wanted to reach out to those who are touched by breast cancer. She felt that role modeling active, fulfilling lifestyles would lead others to feel that for themselves anything may be possible. She explained: be a relief for some people to see that we are able to do something like thi s if they are going through treatment, or they know somebody, I mean ev relief for some people to see what we can do after cancer the fact that this race, and also to do a few of the other things that we did in training leading up to it, we were the first to just to let other I guess breast cancer survivors know that they can do
116 something. Similarly, Harley suggested that after breast cancer one can return to a normal, active life: I think maybe what it, maybe it proves something. If a proof has t o be made that you can survive breast cancer, hopefully any cancer, and get in a boat, and do an extreme sport, or get on a bicycle and bike across Canada, or do I think that mig ht be the difference between the cancer boat, survivor boat, completely whole people, if you want to call it t hat way. And the only difference. c er has been useful when speaking to She explained: I always feel that whenever, whenever I paddle, I feel that every paddling stroke that I take, I move further and further away from my diagnosis, and you get into this kind of zone, when you get in, and I move beyond it, and beyond it. An encourage people to come and do it because we have new paddler days there and you just keep on moving forward, and just, I suppose, you feel so, you feel great that you can do that, and you can also show people t hat it is just moving, whe Visibili ty as a BCS team does not come without some negative aspects, however. In the case of the group from Australia, they faced external pressure to go to Canada and return having completed the race successfully. Vivienne admitted:
117 I think that the only thing about being in the public eye was that thought that if we did not finish, it may have been embarrassing. I would have hated to come back and say om people, it just would have been a bit embarra s sing if we had not finished for less than a really good reason. Another concern may arise if teammates buy into the activist agenda to varying for publicity: of thing, and people go around and do guest speaking at various functions t of fundraising and so, you know every now and then of thing really, really promoted it. She continued: ot there has been this huge push to appear in, get media attention, being in articles in newspapers and every single person has been in the newspaper e to be in the news, this is like a Jo also highlighted the potential tension publicity that is not backed by a human touch. She remarked: s about and you can live a full life after, and all this, but all fanfare and no personal Cohesion Being part of a team for the YRQ involved feeling different ways. Cohesion was identified as the fifth theme, which had both social and task related dimensions.
118 Social cohesion In both practice and the race, being together in a boat, over a long period of time provides ample opportunities to build social relationships. One team spe nt 18 months training and preparing for the race. They used different techniques to build cohesion within the team. Julia explains one part of their preparation: few people are day together, because a lot of the times, we were just doing paddling, which s a little bit different, but my main thing was that we all need to know and we all need to be able to look after each other Besides being concerned about safety aspects of their participation in the race, Julia thought that doing a non paddling activity together gave the team a chance to interact and connect socially in a novel way. Similarly, Roxanne a survivor commented that the team engaged in a variety of activities during their year and a half of preparation we have social gatherings elsewhere, we do, yeah, we do other things, we have gone out to dinners, we also do other social activities like cycling, perhaps, just for something different. Social activities served to increase the sense of connectedness felt within the team which was importan t, given the potential dangers inherent in the race. Roxanne explained that: W e felt that we needed to be a lot closer to each other, we need to be able moods a lot more, because i know, and you sort of, we feel that we are freer to say things to each other, t at least here we recognize that we need to be open, more open with each other. Roxanne felt social cohesion was helpful in fostering open communication between teammates, which was thought to be essential for completion of the race. Julia was
119 concerned about the commitment of teammates to assist each other in times of crisis. Reflecting back on the race, she felt that the level of social cohesion on her YRQ team And just ah would you say, a new depth of connection a new depth to the relationship that you had before. Like I feel, from the beginning till now, I done together, but the connection now is like um, like I really was with these people that were going to save my life if it was needed. And they would think about w hat we could do, and I now know, and I knew it before, but I, to get to right at the end, I look back and know that all eight of those women would have done everything to make sure that I was going to be ok Ginger compared the closeness of her YRQ teammat e relationships with those on other teams she has been a member of. She found that beyond increased training requirements in preparation for an event, the relationships themselves were more intense: We are all part of the same dragon boat club, having be en members for five or six years. This relationship is much more intense than with our other team mates although we have all had experience of intense training for competition within the club. Harley initially had trouble finding the right words to charac terize the connection she experienced with her teammates and how she felt about them: Well, I just admired them so much. And they, those women are damn feeling of strength and go odness, and wholeness and, you just feel t. She continued: I think a rapport with each other is again goes down to the river trip, , and you have love for that person sitting beside you and in front of you and
120 in there. Within a characterization of her teammate relationships as cohesive, Julia explained that she expected to feel closer to some teammates than others. The way this actually developed surprised her, however. She said: closer to, that I felt I would have knew more than others, and now some that down in t more, more of the person in the group who has said a lot less all the way along and I think felt not as mayb and I spent so much time with her. And we always got on well before, but like a, in fact when we came to breakfast this morning, and she and her partner led us to know how lon all, all of them, I think I felt a connection with before. This person in particular, a huge bond. Like everybody, I just, every time I see them I want lt they are all my sisters Despite developing relationships with some teammates that were closer than others, the entire group was committed to staying together and experiencing the YRQ as a team, even if it meant 460 miles of hauling the extra weight of a paddler un able to contribute I think sistership in this context is being a cohesive, supportive group, all working towards a goal and doing your best to make your very best effort for the tea m. I also think that it means that if you have tried your best and you. We all said that if something had gone wrong with anyone along the way even before we left we would have encouraged them to continue the trip and we would have taken them in the boat with us.
121 Task cohesion Working cohesively as a unit was important in a race as demanding as the YRQ. Completing it safely required that the women worked together towards the sa me goals, both during the race itself and in the training leading up to the event. Because of the length of the YRQ and the effort and skill required to finish the race, there were differences in the way the women approached the philosophy of their paddling. The women who had never completed the YRQ before, tended to be focused on more recreational and completion based goals. As a YRQ first timer, Melia wanted to finish the race, and was aware of the meaning and symbolism of being a supporter in a survivor boat. She felt that Terrie, another YRQ first timer who had come a very long distance to participate felt the same way several times before, on a team that participated annually. Knowing she was capa ble of completing the distance, Jo was more interested in the competitive aspects of the race. And a lot of different reasons for going. I mean some of us, gotta get there, gotta get there and other ones were, we could camp and sit around the campfi re and tell stories to get all those different kind s of women in a boat. Participants had different views of what style of paddling was expected from them as a team member. The race was long and required much physical and mental energy be expended throughout. In general, p addling a boat as a group requires working together, but in
122 special circumstances, team members must focus specifically on coming together to perform a specific task. Harley gave an example where her team put in special effort and worked together to dislod ge their boat from a sand bar: ing when everybody, you can just feel it, all at the same time, and that boat lifts up next. So when y Harley found working together as a team to complete smaller tasks within the context of the larger task of the YRQ was a positive experience. Vivienne also recalled her team being able to pull together when the boat or a specific teammate was in need: In the scheme of things, we did carry on and worked together most of the time. For example When one team member was on the edge of hypothermia, everyone worked to keep us going and to get her warm. When we got s tuck we all worked together to get going again. Social Support and formed the sixth theme As team members they provided support for each other as well as received support from teammates an d others both before and during the race. Receiving social support Social support was received from teammates as well as other community members because they were part of the team. In most cases social support was welcome and useful, but not always. Me mbers of the local BCS team shared their appreciation of the support that their team received from the wider community. Melia explained how networks in her community served to assist in a team fundraising event: And because it is tightly knit, everyone kn ows someone in one way or another, and then so when we went out to get some silent auction item,
123 items, I think we had, actually, something like 46 items and they were not like little, little items, that was, there were big things. So everyone is kind of connected to these women somewhere, somehow, somewhat. Either by being a sister, or a husband who has a company and is going to help, and even [team member] being a teacher for 19 years up here and then, so all of those parents and now students that are n ow adults, and that want to stretch out in one way or another to help and to be part of the whole adventure. Similarly, Harley shared how as a team member she was recognized and encouraged in the community and how other local organizations contributed by conducting small fund raisers on behalf of the team: from our friends. Our sponsors are hugely in love with the team, which just makes it awesome, crazy awesome. And every single person that works for Griffiths and Superior Propane goes, you walk into the building and the corner of super, super support from people in town. They have a, sell hot dogs. Griffiths sells hot dogs, so say, when they have their show, their outdoor show and people are throwing in donations. So and to wherever to help people who need to fly out [for treatment in a larger goes down the chain. As a highly visible group in a small community, the team enjoyed practical and emotional support from a variety of sources. Melia explained how she received support as word spread when she joined the team as a supporter part way through t he season. I contacted my sister, and then I, through Facebook and emails and it went, the word kind of spread quite quickly, actually. I kind of held my tongue at a small co mmunity, things go around, someone sees your name in the paper, and everything else, and anyway, but it was really a, they were really problem for you, we know you can do that like I, they saw some articles that I posted, and then they kind of understood the all the time, and so they understood, but everyone was really pleased for me, they were
124 really thrilled for me to do that. And in the community it was really nice, lots of my colleagues at [work] and friends in the community thinking that I was the best person to s the impact on all the people get start, oh yeah, like, ok, it did, without, without knowing the extent of what you do gets spread onto other people, but they really want to be there for the team tomorrow As an individual, Melia was encouraged by community members through her decision to join the team and paddle not as a survivor, but in memory of loved ones she had lost to cancer. She felt her emotional challenges were acknowledged and supported by others, and as the race drew closer, realized that their attending the start of the race to see her and the team off was also important to others who were touched by cancer. Social support was also received from family members and friends both close and casual. Juno had very little paddling experience compared to her teammates, and described several sources of practical support from those close to her: My friends were very supportive. They gave me dry bags to use and gear. My mom was als o very supportive, she said the only thing that mattered was that I stayed safe and had a good time. She said she was proud of me. oyfriend] is very action oriented. He gave me all the gear I needed, and advice so forth. He is a second generation Yukoner so he knows a lot a bout the outdoors and the River DeDe described how she and her team received encouragement from several unexpected sources during events they participated in to prep are for the YRQ: P so all her girlfriends came, you know, to cheer us on and keep us going, the type of guy who actu ally gets involved with us very much, he came support.
125 Overwhelmingly the women expressed that they had th e support of their family to participate, but that the training necessary to be successful in the YRQ did cut into time spent with their families. Harley related how her immediate family supports her every year by going far beyond cheering for her efforts : make the supper meal. Yo very often... big commitment for As a repeat YRQ participant, Harley enjoys support every year for her participation though she is mindful of the sacrifice her family endures. For the women who trained for and raced in the YRQ as a o ne time experience, they knew the intensity of their commitment and time away from family would have a discrete end point. Julia explained the demands she faced getting ready for the race: other things were going on in your life and you know, you, just life is busy and we have, for the last 18 months, we have, our focus has been this. And other things have had to be put to the side, like, you know, to a certain extent, family have missed out, and you try to do as much as you can do and keep it going wel l, and you have to fit everything in, but these things could never be missed, like as a team, you had to always be there, and not miss paddling sessions. And even when I took part in the Australian squad and the NSW team, people were a bit miffed in some ways, that, that you had taken on these other things, and you had to keep saying to yourself, of not allowing yourself to let that part, that team, down but not wanting to mis five in the and when you k d, juggling, juggling it all. You know, your life, and but not ever wanting to let down the team, and times if
126 an I send you hard. Despite challenges, Julia was able to garner support for her YRQ undertaking. Similarly, Chris changed her regular routine as part of her YRQ preparation, which affected others who were used to spending more time with her. She found that it was difficult to get some of those closest to her to understand that her priorities had temporarily changed: eally know Australia and I generally spend quite a bit of time visiting them and for the Some of the women were able to include those important to them in the YRQ crew. The support crew attended smaller paddling events the team participated in as stepping stones to the YRQ, as well as the YRQ race itself. They provided needed support such as encouragement, sunscreen, food and dry clothing at various designated rest stops along the way. DeDe was very appreciative, and felt that for her, the mos t memorable aspects of the YRQ were: W hen we finished [the race], that and the support we had from our support crew all the way through T hat, I think probably that was really memorable, as far as emotionally memorable our support crew and how they pull ed together with us Vivienne agreed and shared how the involvement of the support crew was meaningful for her: As well as our team mates we also spent a great deal of time with the partners of the five women in our team who are married. This added to the general dynamics, and at times, I think that there was some tension
127 between the guys thrust together for long periods of time but on the YRQ trip this tension was never obvious to me. They were fantastic and without them we would not have been able to undertake the adventure. It was very The support crew was viewed as a group that assisted the entire team on their journey to and through the YRQ, not just the team members they were married to. Another source of social support for the paddlers were members of other voyageur teams. The local, more experienced BCS voyageur team provided support to the visiting BCS team before the race doing things such as: Sharing their knowledge prior to the event. Ginger had a number of emails from Livi and then from Dan about the event, tips, information etc. We had our logo medals ready to give them, and to be invited to have our boat which is a ritual cleansi ng. A few days before the race, sage and other herbs are burned and the smoke waved over all the paddlers and their boat. This removes any negative energy and creates a balance along with the wish for following winds and calm weather. One of the Paddlers Abreast First N ation members conducted this ceremony and it was our privilege to be invited and included. This connection between BCS teams carried over to the end of the event as well, as the more experienced team were waiting at the finish line to cheer the visiting BCS team to an emotional finish. Vivienne explained: I was completely amazed and overwhelmed by the number of people at the finish line. The warmth from the Paddlers Abreast team was unbelievable and I found it hard to accept so much love wa s being given so freely by warmth from the Paddlers Abreast. For these people to gi ve us so much support was amazing. Interviewed weeks after the event, Ginger recalled that the suppo rt given by the local BCS team to the visitors had not been forgotten. She said: They are women, like us. But the way they embraced us in the Yukon was absolutely amazing and we continue to feel overwhelmed by their generosity and warmth. I would come ba ck to the Yukon just to meet up with them again.
128 However, she said she found support indirectly through interactions with another voyageur team. She shared that she enjoyed: g iving the British Army team of young men a hard time as they would pass us throughout the race. I remember just feeling that strength, together we can do this, and we can even do this and look good (we all put on red lipstick) and we can even do this, loo k good, and give some young army men a hard time! Thus, b esides positive social interactions between teams before and after the race, other teams on the river during the race served to support these women. Much of the social support team members received was from their own community spectator unexpectedly turned more personal: of water, but I just admired that these gals would go and so there was a special spot that I would stand on, down the river there, and then be found out more about them and then I just went to one of thei r meetings, and got in the boat, they took me in the boat. Me and, Karla and I went in the boat together and it was a thrill of a lifetime for me, I was so scared. So that was it, I just wanted to, but they inspired me, they helped me get through my chem o and stuff teammates helped her through her cancer treatment and beyond. As the paddlers got to know more about each other and their backgrounds, they were able to find support and affirmation from the experiences of other teammates that were not cancer based. DeDe said: I think shared experiences, and learning about different people, just realizing, too, that the three of us, actually, have had pretty key breakups in ou r personal lives, and I think realizing that there are good guys out there, that other relationships do work.
129 Over time, through conversations, DeDe was able to receive emotional support from her teammates who had been through interpersonal difficulties s imilar to her own. In some cases, however, support was needed to deal with a more immediate crisis. Juno opened up about how her teammates supporte d her through a tough situation during the YRQ race: I had a very decent sized break down after Lake Laberg e. Esther helped me through it. She is amazing It had rained and the wind was insane ALL the way across Lake Laberge. It took us the better part of ten hours to cross. I was tired, I was hungry. All I could think about was being at home with Charles, my b oyfriend, on his couch with the cats. We got out at the end of Lake Laberge as there is one of the checkpoints there. Everyone went their separate ways to dress and eat something. I opened my bag to get my clothes out and they were soaked! There was a hole in my dry bag. I had pulled out my clothes. They were also soaked! It also had a hole. I felt like a HUGE liability. Esther had given me her fleece and I put it in my bag, and it wa s wet. So I felt like I had let her down..I started crying, uncontrollably. The EMT lady that was there from FARO fire dept. saw me right away and ave lots of extra clothe s she went back to the canoe and brought me clothes to wear, dry wonderful, dry clothes!! It felt so good to be dry again. The EMT made us wait a few going. She knew that the more you sit around and think about the enormity of that race, the less likely you are to get back into the boat. I felt so stupid of the first time they did the race and how t hey had their own episodes like mine. Everyone is different, not everyone cries, sometimes they just get really mad and swear and throw things! It was such a relief to know that they also had a hard time, like I did Joining the team just before the race, Juno had not had the opportunity to train extensively and experience endurance paddling and a t the first checkpoint, she felt overwhelmed by the demands of the race Her more experienced teammates
130 supported her then, and throughout the race, enabling her to go beyond her comfort zone. She recalled: I feel like I would no t get away with asinine behavio r with these ladies. My e up. It was unspoken, it blankets that we lay down in for about 40 mins or so). When you get up, here, eat. strong. It was one step at a time. It was we are all here to At different points during the race, Juno received tangible support such as dry clothing and food as well as emotional support in the form of encouragement, and sharing their own, similar experiences. Providing social support For support to be received, it must be provided by someone. Social support was provided by teammates for teammates in vari ous ways before as well as during the YRQ. Early in the season, experienced paddlers such as Jo supported their teammates by encouraging newcomers, allaying their fears and helping teach them the physical skill of paddling She explained : But you encourag e the new ones that are coming. The ones who sort of s to encourage the new ones coming in as much as anything. After spending much time together, some paddlers mentioned they learned when support was needed by their teammates: is in the quiet, being able to read people. You get to read people. So you spend many hours in the voyageur and you get to
131 Some needs were met right away while the team was paddling in the boat, but some support was provided off the river. Jo explained how discussions and emotional support between teammates happened in a variety of locales: P and hauled ba lots of time to follow up on how things were going. Doing long distance practices on a river required starting in one place and ending miles away in another, with a vehicle to take the group back to their starting point. Warm and comfortable in the van, they were able to use the time to focus on personal interactions. During the race and long practices, social support was most often focused on practicalities of endurance paddling, to keep th e boat running smoothly. Juno explained how teammates supported each other to make sure they were safe and healthy just talked and talked and fed each other. Everyone watched out for each other, to make sur e they were eating and sleeping Another participant described what was needed beyond self care responsibilities, to have teammates be as comfortable as possible while paddling Harley said: Oh, yeah, you take some ibuprofen, Tyle nol, whatever to get you through, ok after each other, make sure each other is ok, and not too cold, are you staying warm and stop and have some hot water a h, camaraderie is pretty heavy in that boat there. Similarly, Melia emphasized that it w own: you have to always ask, if is so that you maybe have the right to take your turn, and always caring for, like asking how everyone is, are you ok there ? D o you need something ? W hat are you looking for? Like always, always, always.
132 While paddlers mentioned providing practi cal support to teammates most often during practices and during the race, Jo mentioned an example of support provision to teammates that assisted during non paddling related, everyday life g your arm and are you able to Within the teams that had breast cancer survivors, a level of informational support was especially evident. The experience s of team members who had navigated through diagnoses, health care decision making, various treatments and accessing local support services were freely offered to those teammates who needed guidance and a helping hand. Through years, she described how numerous teammates handled asp ects of the breast cancer experience, and how one particular teammate needed support with a problem medication: You get to see a lot more ways people getting on with their lives, anywhere breasted, and you j ust see a whole different way of, a lot of different people, how they step out, how they manage. How they, you know Lynn was taking some oral medication that was making her god awful sick and we kind of gathered around and ilities here and what are the options, what are just walk it out with people She explained that while some women need help every step of the way, for others, less intense support, jus t information about possible choices and contact information can be helpful. She recalled a conversation with another teammate, who was not aware of a certain option for breast reconstruction Oh, this is possible ? can get thi s kind of reconstruction done really, who [sic] do you sign up for real wealth of information there
133 In the YRQ, having the whole team committed to the task is imperative for success. In particular, to avoid disqualification, the entire t eam that starts the race must finish it together, so everyone must remain in the boat. I n some cases when experiencing hardship, getting everyone to keep paddling was a challenge. Jo recalled a race situation where she had to provide support to a struggli ng teammate by pushing her past her comfort zone in order for the team to reach their goal of finishing the race without forfeiture: I know Ginnie, the first year she went, was a basket case. She will still tell you the same kind of story from her viewpoi boat. She [multiple] times now. But it was just a real turning point for me to speak up, because I usua out here in the middle of nowhere, and we need your paddle in the water, goes. And she made it, it was a tough trip. The next trip was better. And Jo could see that her teammate was having difficulties. Jo had confidence in her ability to prevail, and the team needed her to share the workload, so she became more assertive than usual with her teammate. Jo got her teammate through the challenge iple occasions. Benefits The final theme of benefits included, Physical, Social, and Mental benefits that the paddlers experienced as a result of their participation in training for and racing in the YRQ.
134 Physical benefits The women who committed to part icipate in the YRQ came to it with various levels of physical conditioning. Generally, the local BCS team had participated before, and the team trained for six months leading up to the race. The international BCS team members started with a level of fitn ess suited to high intensity, short duration sprint racing, and they worked for 18 months to prepare for the endurance challenge that the YRQ presented. Two of the women joined their teams later in the training period, but were endurance athletes highly t rained in other physical activities. Due to the length and intensity of training sessions, paddlers saw changes in their physical capabilities over time. For those who were BCS, physical benefits took on extra meaning. Terrie explains how she felt when she first began to train for the YRQ, not long after her breast cancer treatment I was pretty tired to start with, and had to keep pulling my paddle out Harley explained how the physical gains she has made through training for the YRQ have helped not only her paddling, but also improved her performance at work, increasing her overall quality of life: Quality of life, as far as doing, doing something to keep my body strong, so that I can h ave a better quality of life, through the Paddlers Abreast. Holy Yeah, I was doing my treatment etting back into the workforce, your and it inspires you to get your body in shape and catch up to everybody so you can do your part and give your 100% Julia looked forward to the physical benefits she would experience through paddling, as she noticed that women in general were not strong in their upper bodies:
135 like to do, and then from then on, I guess it was, once I started, I just was compl etely hooked, it just was, it just felt, I think it felt, it feels good to do it, for lots of reasons, but one of the reasons I think is a lot of the time women strength maybe as lower body, and with paddling, it helps you feel better about your upper body, which has changed in some way, because of the surgery. It makes you feel, I think you feel stronger, because, and you feel as though everything up there is much stronger even though it has changed in some way [due to cancer treatment] She enjoyed the upper body strength she felt after training as a paddler, especially since her upper body had been affected by her cancer. Chris echoed that she enjoys the feel and look of the strength she has built through developing her muscles: u know, yada yada and you can actually feel the muscle. The physical training Chris underwent to prepare for the YRQ resulted in her being the most fit she had ever been. Roxan ne reflected further on her newfound fitness: As you get older you think the last thing you do would be was to be training was able to do anything like this at this level and to think that as you get do in my younger days as far as fitness is concerned. Roxanne found that bei ng her most fit self enabled her to tackle physical challenges she would never have been able to before. Ginger related that the fitness gained through paddling assisted her in her journey through breast cancer survivorship. She said: Paddling makes me a for years and years. Now I am active and fit and enjoy the social aspects of Paddling, as a team sport, is the form that wo rks for me. It keeps me motivated and committed, and therefore impacts my staying alive.
136 The physical benefits of training and competing in an endurance canoe race like the YRQ were important for both survivors and supporters alike, however in voyageur c anoe training and racing, teammates are usually involved, lending a social dimension to the experience. Social benefits The paddlers overwhelmingly expressed that a positive aspect of paddling for them revolved around their teammates. Roxanne stated that in paddling, she was pleasurable, you know Adding a new circle of friends to her life where she felt she fit in was s pecifically mentioned by Terrie: Y ou feel, good that you belong to a group, you have that sense of belonging, to a particular group, you know and you have your different dimension to Harley added new people to her life through her cancer diagnosis, but felt that her paddling team allowed her to get to know women who she now treasured: I met Karla, her and I started together. I met Karla throug gals, met in the boat. Seen them, you know, but never like really met them awesome bunch of women Juno spoke about how being with her teammates furthered her social development and introduced her to the value of an all women environment in sport: I had a hard time identifying with women my whole life. Stemming from childhood I suppose. I had a rough go with bully girls at my school. I spent better than humans, especially fema les. I just never could trust a girl. They always seemed to be out to get me. It is only as an adult woman that I have been able to truly connect to what I like to call My Women Tribe . .I have friends here in the Yukon that I just adore and trust and lov e (girlfriends that
137 is) so yeah, the team of women thing was great. I have had enough of men, I tell you! The last thing we needed was testosterone in that boat! It was way more enjoyable to be coached gently along by Esther and the rest of the ladies. Th ey were This experience just cemented my need to find, keep and maintain deeper, more fulfilling relationships with women. er YRQ experience would lead her to seek different social relationships with local women in the future. DeDe spoke of how paddling and teammate relationships benefitted her by filling a different social need: a time in life where I really needed up after 28 years and so I found myself on my own for the first time in my life. . because all the kids had left home and got families of their own. So, yeah, I found [paddling] and it kinda now takes up my whole life (laughs) There are a few sessions a week, so when I was first separated, goin g to all these events helped fill my time and helped me stave off loneliness When she began paddling, DeDe was seeking an activity that would provide her with a focus beyond her personal issues, and it has since taken on an important role in her life. Wor king together as a team provided a chance for paddlers who were used to more independent sports to experience the interdependence that a paddling team requires. Melia related the cooperation inherent in paddling to her previous sport experiences: one part out of the team, as opposed to this one where everyone is your own when you do your leg [team based being in a boat, with seven other women, and paddling all together, and if I decide I walk part of the route, I walk part of the route, but I ca the boat
138 While Melia described the novelty of working together, Juno reflected further on how her YRQ experience enabled her to trust her teammates and allowed herself to be vulnerable: We also made each other laugh and supported each oth er. I t was amazing to feel that kind of support. It is so different than a solo event. I would say I found it harder, it is hard for me to ask for help sometimes and so it was a good lesson for me to be humble and vulnerable. I did not like to show when I was scared or mad. I think that I have been taught to believe that being vulnerable is silly, needing people, someone is weak. From my I am fairly independe nt. This is not a great way to No one is an island, right? But I think my experience from childhood has caused me to only rely on myself and to only trust myself and sometimes, b e quite cold. Which is unfortunate!! So the more humility and humbling experiences I get, the better. The division in my mind that I had formed as me being very different from other people is harmful to myself and stopped me from having deeper relationship s with men and women, even my own family. It stopped me from sharing and truly connecting. .so in this way, else. Juno valued the opportunity the YRQ and her teammates offered to let down her guard, and allow herself to be more open to interactions with others. Participants described interactions with teammates as positive overall Perhaps inevitably, feelings were not always positive within the boat. Jo took this in stride and cons idered it a growth and learning opportunity Interpersonal dynamics are key to the YRQ experience, because of its length and demands, both physical and mental. Juno spoke compared the dynamics of her team at the beginning of the race with the rest of the race: Because at work, I am in a male dominated profession. There are grea t
139 bless them. But sometimes I want to wring their necks! (i e : the front of the boat not talking to the back of the boat was something I feel, more ou, we can do this ourselves. We know the hours we were together.so for the most part, there was a lot of helping and supportiveness going on, a lot of checking are you okay? When was the last time you ate? Do you want some of my chocolate? The nurturing and observing men and how they operate, it was wonderful and refreshing to have this experience. Juno found the more nurturing style of all female dynamics that she experienced in the boat to be a positive change from the usual group dynamics she experienced at work. Mental benefits Training for and competing successfully in the YRQ enabled women to learn and grow, providing several mental benefits, such as pride in accomplishment, empowerment, confidence, escape from stress, and fun, which were often seen as transferrable to other as pects of their lives. Upon completion of the race, many women spoke about being proud of their accomplish ments at the YRQ T he women had worked for up to a year and a half in preparation for the race and some had travelled a great distance at great expen se to participate Ginger had been one of the first people to suggest to her paddling club that a team be formed to travel from Australia to Canada and compete in the YRQ. Her belief in the abilities of her teammates and herself were eventually rewarded I was just pleased that I could get through my personal comfort level and complete such an iconic race. DeDe also felt a sense of achievement, though she described it a s being on a more personal, intimate scale:
140 I do feel that I have done something amazing and do feel a bit smug inside. I liken it to losing my virginity where I knew I had done something, but all but one other person was oblivious to it! By contrast, Julia reflected on the monumental nature of the event and what it meant to her: I here to do something like that and two, have the opportunity to be in this amazing river with thi just, such a, such a mind blowing experience in terms of where you were in the world, and like it really was a quest. This is really a quest. This is something, to get to the end, to actually sur vive it, and get to the end of it is like wow! Juno, a participant who did not plan to do the race again, was thinking more about how her feeling of accomplishment would last over the long term. She surmised that: W hen I am an 80 year old woman, I will recount this adventure with great pride to my friends and will be quietly confident that even though it was very difficult, it was the right decision to do the race Juno looked forward to the pleasure of a lifetime of reminiscence about her experience paddling the YRQ. Several women spoke about empowerment and confidence in conjunction with their YRQ experiences. Juno had been simultaneously humbled and empowered by the race. She said she learned that at I am Similarly, Harley talked about the way she felt after finishing the YRQ : I t brought me back to life again. Because after the, when I went through the so concerned about your family, ou just feel so good when strong and clear
141 booze that could, could take y very empowering in that boat. Very empowering, mentally and physically Harley had been challenged by the difficulties cancer had brought to her life and felt that paddling the YRQ helped her feel physicall y and mentally empowered. Other women also identified the connection they felt existed between paddling the YRQ and coping with cancer. Jo described her experience: You can do the river, you can do this all over again, the cancer. It goes both ways, but that, but you can, if you are a success at something that is difficult, then you I made it through that [cancer], then I had a chance to paddle As if it was either way, if I can do cake, or vice versa. You know, if somebody is really struggling, but they get re how you get kind of confidence transfers the other direction too. Jo felt that the confidence she gained in one area could inform her success in another. She told of Lo rna, a former teammate who gained confidence through paddling, which assisted her in fighting cancer a second time: had benefited and was able to deal with the challenges of a second diagnosis and tre atment. According to the women, on water training sessions for the YRQ provided a time and physical setting for mental escape. Chris shared how the activity itself demanded a focus on her body itself and the work it was doing, which enabled her to not thi nk about other day to day concerns:
142 have to focus on and then you can b e kind of like it would be nice to improve perhaps I should sit up straight, perhaps I should you know, (laughs) do all those other things. But you have to stay focused on the physicality of being there at that moment, and ? tai chi and paddling has the same kind of effect, enjoyed how paddling enabled the removal of oneself from stresses that seem ed urgent, but could be postponed and returned to later, when in a better state of mind: You can either let your steam out and belly ache about something or you can choose to set that aside for now, but it does give you a chance to, yeah, go into a differe be there when you get back. You just get out there and this is down time, Yup, yeah, put your lifejacket on, hop in the som so, yeah I get involved with a lot of people issues through the church and through different things and She felt that the physical and mental change of space a long paddle entailed was beneficial. Beyond the escape from personal issues and stress, Vivienne val ued the chance to escape her routine and focus on the different activities involved in the YRQ temporarily: It was also personally indulgent time and money spent on myself. I have quite a strong community spirit and feel that now I should give of myself a spend all my non work time training and planning events In taking on the YRQ, Vivienne had decided to focus her personal resources on herself, yet after the race, she looked for ward to returning to her previous lifestyle.
143 Participants reported that they had a lot of fun during their YRQ experiences. According to Jo, her team h ad fun in general day to day bantering and interactions, good, lot s of good laughs, an she viewed as particularly light hearted: There are numbers of incidents when funny things happened, or when things went w rong and we fixed them up. During our training paddling in Middle Harbour we would often have the coffee boat come up to us and we would sit in the outrigger [canoe] si pping our cappuccinos. That beca me a running joke, especially when we sent that info t hrough to people in Whitehorse and it was briefly discussed on the YRQ forum. During the race Unexpectedly, fun was also part of other YRQ experiences. Ginger also felt her team found pleasure from special experiences that were initially viewed as serious safety training exercises: In March we spent an afternoon at the Penrith Whitewater Rafting Centre, which is at the former Olympic kayaking site. This was to give us a feel for we absolutely did NOT want to be thrown into the water (which is the aim of most people coming to the Centre replicate staying in the boat. We managed to achieve that, and we also enjoyed it much more than we had expected. Indeed, before the YRQ, Julia had been quite worried about the safety aspects of the YRQ, in particular, the special challenge of a white water portion of the race called Five Finger Rapids. After successfully paddling the rapids, she found it was a far better experience than what she had feared for so long w hen we were out, I was just squealing, I loved it! ack, I would have, oh it was great For Juno, e ven during the hard work of monotonous paddling in the event itself, fun crept into the experience w e could laugh and share the laughs. Shared pain is half the pain. Shiloh said that, my teammate from [pla
144 Paddling together as a team provided many different experiences for the women paddling that is further discussed in Chapter Five. Three of the themes from this analysi s Social Support, Team Cohesion and Motivation formed the basis of the second, quantitative phase of this study. Results Quantitative Phase Research questions one to four, and hypotheses one through four relating to social support and team cohesio n were addressed using frequency distributions, and three way between subjects ANOVA analyses. Similarly, research questions five and six, together with hypotheses five through seven relating to benefits sought through dragon boat participation were addre ssed using frequency distributions and three way between subjects ANOVA analyses. Results of these analyses are presented below. Social Support and Team Cohesion From Dragon Boating Research question (1 ): tea mmate social support and team cohesion? In terms of social support, overall, res pondents tended to express favo rable responses to the statements ( See Table 3 7 ). The items with the most respondents indicating they agree or strongly agree were: there is at % five top ranked items were originally classified by Shakespeare Finch and Obst (2011) as measuring social support received, and four of the se five were originally classified as emot
145 agreeing with it. Regarding team cohesion, a distinct difference was identified between the scores reported in the task cohesion and social cohesion factors. The items with the most team five top ranked items were orig inally classified by Ey s et al. (2007) as measuring task cohesion, with the top three measuring attraction to the group (ATG) and the next two measuring group integration (GI) Hypothesis 1: Female dragon boaters will have high levels of social support and team cohesion (task and social). The first hypothesis was supported, as female dragon boaters reported high levels of both social support, and team cohesion. Within team cohesion, levels of task cohesion were reported as higher than levels of social c ohesion. Social Support Data were analyzed using a three way between subjects ANOVA. The social support factor was the dependent variable and level of competition (RQ 2a), type of te am (RQ 2b) and cancer survivor status (RQ 2c) were independent variables (Table 4 1) An initial ANOVA model included all of the main effects, two way interactions and three way interaction. As none of the interactions were significant, they were removed to gain power, and the ANOVA was run again. The results of the ANOVA with
146 interactions can be found in Appendix I. In the subsequent model, the omnibus test of ANOVA was significant with F (4, 578) = 3.40 ( p =.009) indicating that at least one of the main effects was sign i ficant Research question (2 a ): Are there d ifferences between level s of teammate social support recreational or competitive teams). The main effect for level of competition in terms of social support was significant [ F (1, 578) = 9.24( p = .003 ) ] (Table 4 2) showing that o n average, competitive participants reported levels of social support .34 SD ( p =.003) higher than recreational participants (Table 4 3 ) Research question (2 b ): Are there differences between level s of teammate social support based on prima ry team type (those on cancer survivor, all female or mixed teams)? T able 4 2 shows that t here were no significant main effects in terms of team type [ F (2,578) = 0.07( p =.930)] In terms of social support, pairwise comparisons reported that on average, wom en on cancer teams were .05 SD ( p =.755) higher than women on all female teams, women on cancer teams were .01 SD ( p =.947) higher than those on mixed teams ; and women on mixed teams were .04 SD ( p =.741) higher than all female team members on social support (Ta ble 4 3) Because of the Shaffer Holm procedure which controls for family wise error rate, it was assumed that since the main effect of team type was not significant, that all pairwise comparisons were also non significant by implication. Research questi on (2 c ): Are there differences between level of teammate social support based on cancer status (those who are cancer survivors or those who have never had a cancer diagnosis )? In terms of cancer status [ F (1,578) =
147 0.84( p =.361)], differences between groups were not statistically significant (Table 4 2 ) P airwise comparison showed women who had cancer diagnoses had levels of social support .14 SD ( p =.361) higher than those who have never had cancer (Table 4 3) Team Cohesion Team cohesion consists of two f actors, task cohesion and social cohesion. Research questions were posed addressing both aspects of team cohesion, and are reported separately. For both the task cohesion and social cohesion factors, d ata were analyzed using a three way between subjects ANOVA design. For the first part of research question three, t he task cohesion factor was the dependent variable and level of competition (RQ 3 a), type of te am (RQ 3 b) and cancer survivor status (RQ 3 c) were independent variables. An initial ANOVA model included all of the main effects, two way interactions and three way interaction. Once again, none of the interactions were significant, (Appendix I ) so they were removed to gain power, and the ANOVA was run again. The omnibus test of ANOVA indicated a s ignificant difference [ F (4, 578) = 6.74 ( p <.000) ] in levels of task cohesion on at least one main effect In the second part of research question three, the social cohesion factor was the dependent variable and level of competition (RQ 3a), type of te am (RQ 3b) and cancer survivor status (RQ 3c) were independent variables. An initial ANOVA model included all of the main effects, two way interactions and a three way interaction. As none of the interactions were significant (Appendix I ), they were removed to gain power, and the ANOVA was run again. The omnibus test of ANOVA was significant [ F (4, 578) = 2.54 ( p =.0 3 9 ) ].
148 Research question ( 3a Task cohesion ): Are there differences between level s of team cohesion based on primary n (those on recreational or competitive teams)? The ANOVA indicated significant differences between those on competitive and recreational teams in terms of task cohesion. The main effect for level of competition was significant [ F (1, 578) = 18.97 ( p <.000 ) ] (Table 4 4) Women on competitive teams, on average, reported significantly higher levels of task cohesion, with pairwise estimates .29 SD ( p <.000) higher than those on recreational teams (Table 4 5). Research question ( 3a Social cohesion ): Are there differences between level s of team cohesion based on primary (those on recreational or competitive teams)? Table 4 7 shows results of the main effect ANOVA Results indicated there was a significant main effect in terms of lev el of competition, [ F (1,578) = 7.38( p =.00 7 )]. Pairwise comparisons reveal that on average, women on competitive teams were .24 SD ( p =.007) higher on social cohesion than women on recreational teams (Table 4 8). Research question ( 3b Task cohesion ): Are there differences between level of team cohesion based on primary team type (those on cancer survivor, all female or mixed teams)? The main effect for team type was significant, [ F (2, 578) = 3.37 ( p =.035) ] (Table 4 4) The family wise error rate was sele cted for control and the Sha f fer Holm procedure was used The results of the Shaf f er Holm procedure for pairwise comparison between team types are provided in T able 4 6 These revealed that average task cohesion scores of respondents on all female teams we re .26 SD ( p =.012) higher than those on cancer survivor teams, those on all female teams were
149 .13 SD ( p =.099) higher than members of mixed teams, and women on mixed teams reported scores .13 SD ( p =.184) larger than those on cancer teams (Table 4 5) Research question ( 3b Social cohesion ): Are there differences between level s of team cohesion based on primary team type (those on cancer survivor, all female or mixed teams)? Table 4 7 shows that n o significant main effects were found in levels of social cohes ion between women who participated on all female cancer survivor or mixed dragon boat teams [ F (2,578) = 0.02( p =.97 7 )] A pairwise analysis revealed that on average, respondents on all female teams reported social cohesion scores that were .02 SD ( p =.895) higher than those on cancer teams, women on cancer survivor teams were .004 SD ( p =.978) higher than those on mixed teams, and those on all female teams were .02 SD ( p =.832) higher than mixed teams in terms of social cohesion (Table 4 8). These differences were non significant by implication, because the main effect of team type was non significant. Research question ( 3c Task cohesion ): Are there differences between level s of team cohesion based on their cancer status (those who are cancer survivors or tho se who have never had a cancer diagnosis ) ? No significant main effect for cancer status [ F (1,578) = 2.33, ( p =.127)] was found (Table 4 4 ) with pairwise comparisons indicating that on average, cancer survivors were .14 SD ( p =.127) higher on task cohesion t han those who have never had cancer (Table 4 5 ). Research question ( 3c Social cohesion ): Are there differences between level s of team cohesion based on cancer status (those who are cancer survivors or those who have never had a cancer diagnosis ) ? In te rms of cancer status, there were no significant differences between groups of women based on cancer status [ F (1,
150 578) = 0.64( p =. 42 3 )] and social cohesion (Table 4 7) The pairwise comparisons showed women who have had cancer were, on average, .10 SD ( p =.42 3) higher on social cohesion than those who have not had cancer (Table 4 8). Hypothesis 2 : Social support and team cohesion (task and social) will be higher in women on competitive teams than on recreational teams. Support was found for hypothesis two as women on competitive teams perceived significantly higher levels of social support and team cohesion both task cohesion and social cohesion than did women on recreational dragon boat teams. Hypothesis 3 : Social support and team cohesion (task an d social) levels will be higher among women on cancer survivor teams than mixed or all female teams. The third hypothesis was supported by the data. A significant difference was found in levels of task cohesion, with women on all female teams reporting hi gher levels than those on cancer teams. There were no significant differences in levels of social support or social cohesion in terms of type of team, however. Hypothesis 4 : Social support and team cohesion (task and social) levels will be higher among c ancer survivors than among women without a cancer diagnosis. The fourth hypothesis was not supported by the data. There were no significant differences in social support or either component of team cohesion (task cohesion or social cohesion) based on the cancer status of the respondents. Relationship Between S ocial S upport and T eam C ohesion Research question (4): What is the relationship among levels of team cohesion ( task and social ) and overall perceived level of social support ? The correlation coeffi cient between task cohesion and social cohesion was .69 ( See Table 3 7) with a t value of t(.608) = 28.352( p <.000), while the correlation coefficient between
151 social cohesion and social support was .71 [t(.608) = 31( p <.000)]. These high and significantly positive correlations indicate that task cohesion is associated with social cohesion, and that social cohesion is associated with social support. The correlation coefficient between task cohesion and social support was positive and moderately high at .047 [t(.608) = 13.786( p <.000)]. Benefits Sought From Current Participation Research question (5): What are the benefits sought by female dragon boaters from their current participation in dragon boating? In terms of benefits sought, res pondents tended to express favo rable responses to the item statements ( See Table 3 10 ) but there were some exceptions The benefits sought items with the most respondents indicating they agree d or strongly agree d to show myself what I can do (9 2 (88. 4 %). All of the top five items were from the Mastery/Achievement factor. The five items that respondents indicated they disagreed or str ongly disagreed with the most in an all female Three of these items were from the Social Connection factor. 72% of respondents as neutral, the only item to score highest in that category. Benefits Sought Factors Data were analyzed for ea ch of the four benefits sought factors using multiple three way between subjects ANOVA design. Leisure, Mastery/Achievement, Social Connection and Self Care factors were the dependent variable s and level of competition
152 (RQ 6a), type of te am (RQ 6b) and can cer survivor status (RQ 6c) were independent variables (Table 4 9) An omnibus test of ANOVA was conducted for all four factors, with significant results in each: Leisure [ F (4, 57 7 ) = 3.73 ( p =.00 5 ) ]; Mastery/Achievement [F(4,577) = 6.43 ( p <0.000)]; Socia l Connection [ F (4, 57 8) = 25. 46 ( p <. 0 00) ] and Self Care [ F (4, 57 7 ) = 8.61 ( p <. 0 00) ] Results of the main effect ANOVA analyses are presented below Research question (6a): Are there differences between benefits sought by the women based on their primary recreational or competitive teams) ? The results of a main effect ANOVA revealed one significant main effect for Leisure A pairwise analysis revealed a significant main effect in level of competition [F(1,577) = 7.68 ( p =.006)] (Table 4 10) indicating that on average, women on competitive teams had Leisure factor scores 0.1 8 SD ( p =. 006 ) higher than those on recreational teams (Table 4 11 ) Table 4 12 reports results of the main effect ANOVA conducted for Mastery/Achie vement. One significant main effect was found in level of competition [F(1,577) = 12.92 ( p <0.000)]. Pairwise analysis showed that on average, women on competitive teams scored 0.40 SD ( p <0.000) higher in terms of the Mastery/Achievement factor than women o n recreational teams (Table 4 13 ) On the Social Connection factor, n o significant main effect was evident in terms of level of competition [F(1,577) = 3.63 ( p =. 0 57)] (Table 4 14) Table 4 17 presents results of the main effect ANOVA conducted for Self C are which revealed a significant main effect in level of competition [F(1,577) = 5.49 ( p =.019)]. A pairwise analysis showed that on average, women on competitive teams
153 were 0.13 SD ( p =.019) higher on Self Care factor scores than those on recreational teams (Table 4 18 ) Research question ( 6b ): Are there differences between benefits sought by the women based on their primary team type (those on cancer survivor, all female or mixed teams)? No significant main effects were found for type of team [F(2, 577) = 1.05( p= .351)] in terms of Leisure factor scores (Table 4 10) Similarly, there was n o significant main effect for the Mastery/Achievement factor by type of team [F(2,577) = 2.59 ( p =.076)] (Table 4 12) The main effect ANOVA conducted for Social Connection is presented in Table 4 14 Two significant main effects were found in relation to Type of team [F(2,577) = 9.87 ( p <.000)]. A pairwise analysis using the Type of team as the family controlled for the family wise error rate using the Shaffer Holm all pai rwise comparison procedure. The analysis showed a significant difference and that on average, women on cancer based teams score 0.60 SD ( p <0.000) higher on Social Connection than women on mixed teams. In addition, women on all female teams differed signifi cantly from other team types in that they scored 0.34 SD ( p =.003) higher, on average, than those on mixed teams (Table 4 16 ) Table 4 17 shows a significant main effect in the type of team [F(2,577) = 3.98 ( p =. 019 )] on the Self Care factor A pairwise ana lysis using the Type of team as the family controlled for the family wise error rate using the Shaffer Holm all pairwise comparison procedure. A significant difference was revealed. On average, participants on all female teams reported levels 0.17 SD ( p =.0 10) higher on Self Care than women on mixed teams (Table 4 19 )
154 Research question ( 6c ): Are there differences between benefits sought by the women based on their cancer status (those who are cancer survivors or those who have never had a cancer diagnosis )? No significant main effects were found for cancer status [F(1,577) = 1.05( p =.305)] in terms of the Leisure factor scores (Table 4 10) Similarly, n o significant main effect for the Mastery/Achievement factor was found in cancer status [F(1,577) = 2.54 ( p =.112)] (Table 4 12) The main effect ANOVA conducted for Social Connection is presented in Table 4 1 4 One significant main effect was revealed in cancer status [F(1,577) = 5.94 ( p =.015)], with a pairwise analysis showing that, on average, women with c ancer diagnoses reported Social Connection factor scores 0.3 3 SD ( p =.015) higher than women who had not had diagnoses (Table 4 15 ) No significant main effects for cancer status were found [F(1,577) = 2.25 ( p =.134)] in terms of Self Care factor scores (Tabl e 4 17) Hypothesis 5: Women on competitive teams will be more likely to seek different benefits compared to those on recreational teams. This hypothesis received partial support. There were no significant differences in Social Connection factor scores were reported on Leisure, Mastery/Achievement and Self Care factor levels, with women on competitive teams scoring higher than women on recreational teams on all three. Hypothesis 6: Women on cancer survivor teams will be more likely to seek different benefits than those on mixed or all female teams Partial support was shown for this hypothesis. There were no significant differences reported on Leisure
155 and Mastery/Achievement fa ctor scores in terms of type of team, however there were significant differences in relation to the Social Connection and Self Care factors. Women on cancer teams had significantly higher scores on the Social Connection factor than women on mixed teams. Women on all female teams reported significantly higher scores on both Social Connection and Self Care factors than women on mixed teams. Hypothesis 7: Women who are cancer survivors will be more likely to seek different benefits compared to those who h ave never had a cancer diagnosis. This hypothesis was also supported only partially. Within the Social Connection factor, women who have had a cancer diagnosis reported significantly higher scores than women without a cancer diagnosis. There were no sign ificant differences indicated on Leisure, Mastery/Achievement and Self Care factor scores based on cancer status. Table 4 1 Social Support and Team Cohesion (Task and Social) Factor Scores: Descriptive Statistics 1 Social Support Task Cohesion Social Cohesion Variable Level n M SD M SD M SD Cancer Status Cancer 288 0.09 1.23 0.02 0.74 0.06 0.95 Non Cancer 294 0.10 1.07 0.03 0.66 0.06 0.86 Level of Competition Recreational 140 0.28 1.12 0.23 0.65 0.20 0.86 Competitive 443 0.08 1.15 0.07 0.70 0.06 0.92 Type of Team Cancer 233 0.10 1.25 0.03 0.75 0.06 0.97 All Female 120 0.08 1.05 0.11 0.64 0.01 0.78 Mixed 230 0.07 1.10 0.40 0.69 0.05 0.90 1 n =609
156 Table 4 2 Summary ANOVA M ain E ffect T able for Dependent Variable Soci al Support 1 Source of Variance df SS MS F p Cancer Survivor 1 1.09 1 .09 0.84 0.361 Level of Competition 1 12.08 12.0 8 9.24 0.003 Type of Team 2 0.19 0. 10 0.07 0.930 Error 578 755.94 1.31 1 n =609 Table 4 3. Pairwise Compa risons for Dependent Variable Social Support 1 Parameter Estimate Standard Error t Value Cancer minus non cancer 0.14 0.15 0.91 Recreational minus competitive 0.34 0.11 3.04 Cancer minus all female 0.05 0.17 0.31 Cancer minus mixed 0.01 0.17 0.07 All female minus mixed 0.04 0.1 3 0.33 1 n =609 Table 4 4 Summary ANOVA M ain E ffect T able for Dependent Variable Task Cohesion 1 Source of Variance df SS MS F p Cancer Survivor 1 1.111 1.11 2.33 0.127 Level of Competition 1 9.026 9.03 18.97 0.000 Type of Team 2 3.208 1.60 3.37 0.035 Error 578 287.756 0.476 1 n=609
157 Table 4 5. Pairwise Comparisons for Dependent Variable Task Cohesion 1 Parameter Estimate Standard Error t Value Cancer non cancer 0.14 0. 09 1.53 Recreational minus competitive 0.29 0.07 4.36 Cancer minus all female 0.26 0.10 2.52 Cancer minus mixed 0.13 0.10 1.33 All female minus mixed 0.13 0.08 1.65 1 n=609 Table 4 6 Task Cohesion Shaffer Holm Procedure 1 for All Pairwise Comparisons: Type of Team 2 Step Comparison t C 3 p 1 Cancer team minus All female team 2.52 1 0.012 2 Cancer team minus Mixed team 1.33 1 0.184 3 All female team minus Mixed team 1.65 1 0.099 1 The Shaffer Holm procedure is used when three pair wise comparisons are made, to control for family wise error rate in variables such as type of team, that have more than two categories. 2 n =609 3 C=Number of comparisons
158 Table 4 7 Summary ANOVA M ain E ffect T able for Dependent Variable Social Cohesion 1 Sou rce of Variance df SS MS F p Cancer Survivor 1 0.53 0.53 0.64 0.423 Level of Competition 1 6.03 6.03 7.38 0.007 Type of Team 2 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.977 Error 578 274.94 0.48 1 n=609 Table 4 8 Pairwise Comparisons for D ependent Variable Social Cohesion 1 Parameter Estimate Standard Error t Value Cancer minus non cancer 0.10 0.12 0.80 Recreational minus competitive 0.24 0.0 9 2.72 Cancer minus all female 0.0 2 0.1 4 0.13 Cancer minus mixed 0.00 0.13 0.03 All fem ale minus mixed 0.02 0.10 0.21 1 n =609 Table 4 9 Benefits Sought Factors: Descriptive Statistics 1 Leisure Mastery/ Achievement Social Connection Self Care Variable Level n M SD M SD M SD M SD Cancer Status Cancer 288 0.06 0.68 0.14 1.12 0.38 0.98 0.12 0.53 Non Cancer 294 0.06 0.65 0.11 1.18 0.35 1.06 0.10 0.60 Level of Competition Recreational 140 0.15 0.68 0.32 1.12 0.22 1.03 0.12 0.55 Competitive 442 0.04 0.66 0.12 1.15 0.08 1.09 0.05 0.58 Type of Team Cancer 233 0.0 5 0.69 0.11 1.12 0.47 0.96 0.13 0.53 All Female 119 0.04 0.67 0.16 1.15 0.05 1.02 0.05 0.58 Mixed 230 0.08 0.63 0.16 1.18 0.42 1.05 0.13 0.59 1 n =582
159 Table 4 10 Summary ANOVA Main Effect Table for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Leis ure 1 Source of Variance df SS MS F p Cancer Status 1 0.460 0.460 1.05 0.305 Level of Competition 1 3.355 3.355 7.68 0.006 Type of Team 2 0.916 0.458 1.05 0.351 Error 57 7 252.146 0.437 1 n =582 Table 4 1 1 Pairwise Co mparisons for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Leisure 1 Parameter Estimate Standard Error t Value Cancer minus non cancer 0.091 0.088 1.03 Recreational minus competitive 0.179 0.06 5 2.77 Cancer minus all female 0.065 0. 100 0.66 Cancer minus mi xed 0.043 0.09 6 0.45 All female minus mixed 0.10 9 0.075 1.45 1 n =582 Table 4 1 2 Summary ANOVA M ain E ffect T able for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Mastery/Achievement 1 Source of Variance df SS MS F p Cancer Status 1 3.289 3.289 2.54 0.11 2 Level of Competition 1 16.738 16.738 12.92 0.0 0 0 Type of Team 2 6.738 3.360 2.59 0.07 6 Error 577 747.292 1.295 1 n =582
160 Table 4 1 3 Pairwise Comparisons for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Mastery/Achieveme nt 1 Parameter Estimate Standard Error t Value Cancer minus non cancer 0.2438 0.153 1.59 Recreational minus competitive 0.4005 0.111 3.60 Cancer minus all female 0.2534 0.172 1.48 Cancer minus mixed 0.0308 0.165 0.19 All female minus mixed 0 .2842 0.130 2.20 1 n =582 Table 4 14 Summary ANOVA M ain E ffect T able for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Social Connection 1 Source of Variance df SS MS F p Cancer Status 1 5.964 5.964 5.94 0.015 Level of Competition 1 3.645 3.645 3.63 0.057 Type of Team 2 19.827 9.914 9.87 0.0 0 0 Error 577 579.343 1.004 1 n =582 Table 4 15 Pairwise Comparisons for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Social Connection 1 Parameter Estimate Standard Error t Value Cancer minus non cancer 0.3 28 0.135 2.44 Recreational minus competitive 0.187 0.098 1.91 Cancer minus all female 0.262 0.151 1.73 Cancer minus mixed 0.597 0.145 4.12 All female minus mixed 0.335 0.114 2.95 1 n =582
161 Table 4 16 Shaffer Holm Procedure 1 for All Pairwis e Comparisons for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Social Connection 2 Step Comparison t C 3 p 1 Cancer team minus All female team 1.73 1 0.083 2 Cancer team minus Mixed team 4.12 1 0.00 0 3 All female team minus Mixed team 2.95 1 0.003 1 The Shaffer Holm procedure is used when three pair wise comparisons are made, to control for family wise error rate in variables such as type of team, that have more than two categories. 2 n = 582 3 C=Number of comparisons Table 4 17 Summary ANOVA main effect table for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Self Care 1 Source of Variance df SS MS F p Cancer Survivor 1 0.714 0.714 2.25 0.134 Level of Competition 1 1.745 1.745 5.49 0.019 Type of Team 2 2.529 1.264 3.98 0.019 Error 577 183.348 0.318 1 n =582 Table 4 18 Pairwise Comparisons for Benefits Sought Dependent Variable Self Care 1 Parameter Estimate Standard Error t Value Cancer minus non cancer 0.114 0.076 1.50 Recreational minus competitive 0.129 0.055 2.34 Cancer minus all female 0.009 0.085 0.11 Cancer minus mixed 0.157 0.082 1.92 All female minus mixed 0.166 0.064 2.59 1 n =582
162 Table 4 19 Shaffer Holm Procedure 1 for All Pairwise Comparisons for Benefits Sought Factor Self Care 2 Step Comparison t C 3 p 1 Cancer team minus All female team 0.11 1 0.915 2 Cancer team minus Mixed team 1.92 1 0.055 3 All female team minus Mixed team 2.59 1 0.010 1 The Shaffer Holm procedure is used when three pair wise comparisons are made, to control for family wise error rate in variables such as type of team, that have more than two categories. 2 n =582 3 C=Number of comparisons Table 4 20. Summary of ANOVA Results Factors Level of Competition Type of Team Cancer Status Social Support and Team Cohesion 1 Soci al Support Comp etitive .34SD (p=.003) > than rec reational No significant difference No significant difference Task Cohesion Competitive .29SD (p<.000) > than recreational All female .26SD (p=.012) > than Cancer No significant difference Social Cohesion C ompetitive .24SD (p=.007) > than recreational No significant difference No significant difference Benefits Sought 2 Leisure Competitive .179 SD (p=.0058) > than recreational No significant difference No significant difference Mastery/ Achievement Competitive .40SD (p<0.000) > than recreational No significant difference No significant difference Social Connection No significant difference All female .34SD (p=.003) > Mixed ; Cancer .60SD (p<0.000) > than Mixed Cancer survivors .39SD (p=.015 ) > No cancer diagnosis Self Care Competitive .13SD (p=.019) > than recreational All female .17SD (p=.010) > than mixed No significant difference 1 n =609 2 n =582
163 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION S Discussion Th e qualitative phase of this study sought to explore the exp eriences of women paddling voyageur canoes in the Yukon River Quest, a multi day wilderness canoe race with a focus on teammate relationships Following several of the themes emerging from the first study, the purpose of the second study was to further ex plore the themes of team cohesion, social support and motivation through benefits sought in a similar context that of dragon boat paddling. This study was delimited to adult women participating on dragon boat teams in the US and Puerto Rico during the 2 012 season. Qualitative Phase: Grounded Theory Model Teams The use of constructivist grounded theory techniques (Charmaz, 2006) in the qualitative phase of the current study resulted in a grounded theory model of the experi ences of all women YRQ voyageur team paddl ers with teammate relationships being a specific focus within this wider experience (Figure 5.1). Movement through the model involves starting at the top, with an interplay among five interrelated themes charact erizing their participation experiences and then concluding with participation outcomes. The model is arranged vertically to reflect its chronological orientation, and is meant to be interpreted from top to bottom. The first theme identified was Motivatio n, which is represented at the top of the model. Motivation is conceptualized chronologically as a range of forces that drive an individua l to participate in an activity, and thus occur s before the individual engages in that activity. This group of YRQ p addlers were motivated by such reasons as the
164 chance to be part of a team, the outdoors, the challenge of the YRQ race, and their e xperiences with breast cancer. For many of these women, a diagnosis of cancer Figure 5 1. Grounded Theory Model of YRQ Wom was found to be an impetus for being physically active and subsequently taking on the challenge of the YRQ. Th e purposive restructuring of leisure to include physical activities after diagnosis and treatment for breast can cer echoes the findings of Shannon and Shaw (2005 ) It is similar to studies that have found that dragon boat paddlers were drawn to the sport in order to create something positive from the negative life experience of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment (Mitchell & Nielsen, 2002; Unruh & Elvin, 2004 ) Similarly, the finding that some women sought the chance to be physically active in their cancer survivorship supports the findings of previous
165 researchers ( McDonough et al., 2011; Mitchell & Neilsen 2 002 ; Mitchell, et al., 2007; Sabiston, et al., 2007) This is an important finding that may be useful for health care professionals looking for alternative ways to assist individuals in coping with cancer survivorship that go beyond traditional, physically p assive support groups. With motivation as a precursor the middle portion of the model depicts a matrix team context, breast cancer, activism, team cohesion and social support as experience dimensions. This clu ster of dimensions reveals potential influences i ndividual paddlers may experience through being a YRQ The interplay of these five dimensions influences the unique setting and series of dynamics created by the formation of any on e particular team, as experienced by the individuals who make up that team. The women reported v arious motivations that led participants to train for and participate in the YRQ. To do so, they needed to become part of a team. The team context theme int roduced the different paddling related skill levels contributed to the team by team members, and the social circles. This theme was relevant to all the women in the study and is placed in the middle of the matrix to reflect its centrality. Surrounding this inner portion are four dimensions each representing one of the themes of the study, which appear to have no pre set hierarchy of importance. One theme was b reast cancer which appeared to have eith er a direct or indirect influence on most of the women in this study. It provided a level of common experience for survivors and served to bring the women together (Unruh & Elvin, 2004) Practicalities of cancer affected recruitment of team members, and t eammate health.
166 For those on BCS teams, breast cancer brought reflection and new perspectives on their health and the future (Shannon & Shaw, 2005) and the presence of supporters within the BCS team dynamic was explored. Activism was the next dimension of the model. Thou gh not all team members had direct experience of a breast cancer diagnosis and treatment it was most often the reason for the creation of the team itself. Breast cancer served as the cause most often addressed through activism within the teams, though ageism was also a factor mentioned by some. Activism for these women included challenging stereotypes about what being a breast cancer survivor means making cancer visible to the general public, and role modeling an active, healthy life style which echoes the literature of BCS dragon boating (McGa nn on & Laing, 2002; Mitchell & Neilsen, 2002; Unruh & Elvin, 2004) Activism in terms of purposeful creation of opportunities for other BCS t eams and members of the wider community to be more p hysically active and experience new things was a subtheme in this study that has not emerged as explicitly in other studies, though Sabiston, McDonough, and Crocker (2007) report that new opportunities such as leadership roles, and public speaking were aff orded to existing members of the team. Team Cohesion was another dimension of the grounded theory model. Team cohesion for the women in the YRQ revolve d around task and social cohesion as suggested by Carron, et al. (1985) The women felt connected to their team in varying degrees, with most feeling close to their teammates and supportive of the primary task of the team competing in and completing the YRQ race as well as the secondary task of two of the teams, which was Breast Cancer Awareness. Besides feeling close to their team, they felt that their teams were cohesive as a whole, pulling together in the
167 challenge of the training and the race itself, as well as bonding with their teammates to different degrees. Social Support was the next di mension of the grounded theory model. It involved the provision and receipt of both tangible and emotional support (Shakespeare Finch & Obst, 2011) between teammates. This support was connected with breast cancer in that women assisted each other with ad justment to physical activity and life as a survivor, helping with practical issues such as information and advice, as well as being an understanding and experienced shoulder to cry on (Sabiston, et al. 2007) Social Support was connected with Activism i n that working on behalf of breast cancer survivors, and raising awareness of the disease could be considered a way of emotionally and practically supporting those who have been affected by the disease. Being an activist may show solidarity with others who care about the same cause. Social support appears to be connected to team cohesion in that the possibility for emotional and physical intimacy and care involved in various support interactions can lead to people feeling closer to one another, and more c onnected to the task they are trying to accomplish as a group. The final theme pictured at the bottom of the model below the matrix is Benefits Realized. This theme was identified as the outcome of the unique interplay of the previous dimensions exper ienced by paddlers during their YRQ experiences and the meaning they made of these experiences The outc omes described as benefits included physical, social and mental benefits. Only a few participants acknowledged that not all the outcomes they experie nced were positive h owever, participants seemed to frame negative incidents as learning opportunities and chances to grow their mental
168 and physical fortitude and interpersonal skills. They minimized the importance of these negative outcomes and spoke ove rwhelmingly in positive terms about their participatio n. This mirrors the BCS sport and team paddling literature generally, where negative outcomes are beginning to be reported, but need further study ( Burke & Sabiston, 2010; McDonough, et al, 2011; Sabis ton, et al., 2007) Due to the chronological nature of the model, the themes of motivation and benefits are related to each other as they can be alternatively conceptualized as benefits sought and benefits realized by activity participants (Papadimitriou & Gibson, 2008). In this study, there was some similarity of content between these themes. For example, the chance to be in the wilderness and enjoy the scenery and beauty of the Yukon backcountry informed the Motivation subtheme of Outdoors as a Draw. This revealed parallels to the Benefits subtheme of Mental Benefits, in terms of the mental escape from day to day stresses and overcoming fear of being potentially vulnerable in a remote wilderness area. Overall, however the themes did not match exact ly, because during the initial interviews, there was not a special emphasis put on questioning the paddlers about their motivations for the YRQ. Quantitative Following completion of the first, qualitat ive phase of this study on women in team based paddling, the sport of dragon boat paddling was chosen as a suitable context for quantitatively exploring further some of the themes from the grounded theory model proposed in the qualitative phase of this stu dy.
169 Social Support in Dragon Boating Participating in leisure activities with others can provide women with sources of social support (Kerstetter, Yarnal, Son, Yen & Baker, 2008). R espondents indicated that they perceived high levels of social support within their dragon boat teams, especially social support received from teammates. It seems logical that the ratio of giving and receiving of social support should be similar, but there may be several reasons for this imbalance It may be because more peop le on a team receive support from a smaller number who provide support for more teammates. Many women h ave a deep seated ethic of care for others (Gilligan, 1982) and in some women, this may spill over from responsibilities for family to those teammates they perceive in need of support. According to Clark, Mills and Powell (1986), reciprocity of social support within close and long lasting communal relationships is assumed to occur over time. Within a dragon boat team context, the continuity of teammate relationships as a network of sources of social support may alleviate the need for immediate reciprocity of social support. Dragon boat teams have many members, and it is a very social sport. The dynamics of the team can influence the way individuals exp erience the activity. With a large number of teammates, it is likely that one may not be as connected to each team member in the same way, and that deeper connections are made with some teammates than others which may affect general social interaction and social support exchanges (McDonough, et al. 2011) This may be affected in part by where a paddler sits in the boat, as they may be more likely to be more closely connected to the people that sit near them, as they have more opportunities to talk to each other during practice and may be united in certain tasks specific to their place in the boat Competitive teams tend to demand that members have a greater commitment to the team and more time
170 devoted to practice and conditioning than recreational teams d o. Higher levels of social support on competitive teams may be a result of increased involvement in the activity that a more serious commitment to competition entails Centrality refers to the degree life (Watkins, 1987). Time spent within the social world (Unruh, 1980) exclusion of other social worlds and centrality may increase as the move to competitive participation develops. Within these focused so cial worlds, women may be more likely to turn to their teammates for social support as they grow to have more and more shared experiences Levels of social support were not found to differ based on type of team. It is encouraging to note th at women who participate on mixed and all female teams enjoy similarly high levels of social support to those experienced by cancer survivors. While not all social support is considered positive ( Rook 1984 ), it usually is and this benefit may be reflecte d in the growth of dragon boat participation and events in communities throughout the US (Dynamic Dragon Boat Racing, 2013, High Five Dragon Boat, 2013) Many women who are cancer survivors are not necessarily defined solely by their diagnoses, and th ey h ave many other aspects to their lives such as work, school, parenting and other leisure activities that may be the main focus of their discussions and presentation of self to others in the boat The women in this study are multidimensional and complex, a nd cancer survivorship is only one part of their experience. It may be the life experience of cancer that brought them to dragon boat paddling, but it does not necessarily define it. This finding aligns with studies ( Unruh & Elvin, 2004 ) that have shown t hat cancer survivors on paddling teams come together
171 because of cancer, but do not necessarily spend a lot of time talking about cancer related topics. As this study is the first to compare the experiences of women who dragon boat on teams of breast cance r survivor s with women on other types of teams, future research that explore the reasons behind this finding is needed This study found no significant differences in levels of social support based on the cancer status of respondents. As stated above, the women who participated in this study are involved in many non sport activities. While cancer survivorship is an important part of their lives, it may not be the most salient at any one time especially if a great deal of time has elapsed since their diag nosis and treatment This may lead their perception of teammate social support to be based in relation to support related to other aspects of their lives. This finding highlights literature that points at survivors who have stated that they participate in ( Mitchell & Neilsen, 2002; Mitchell, et al., 2007; Sabiston, et al. 2007; Unruh & Elvin, 2004) The involvement of women without a cancer diagnosis on cancer teams, and survivors on mixed and all female teams may be partia lly explained by the findings that teammate social support levels are not dependent upon cancer status. Confirmatory factor analysis found that the four factor model proposed by Shakespeare Finch and Obst (2011) was not a good fit for this sample of adult female dragon boat paddlers. Their scale was unique because it proposed a measure that focused on the reciprocal relationship presumed inherent in social support The model identified in the current study has social support as a unidimensional factor, c ombining Shakespeare emotional and instrumental support into one factor. A possible explanation for this may relate to the reciprocal nature of
172 social support, in that teammates may conceive of social support as a whol e resource, eschewing the division of received and provided social support as unimportant. Perhaps, as members of a team, they are enveloped within a social world that engenders trust that social support received and provided will balance out over time, a nd they feel no need to keep score (Clark, et al., 1986) This is an unusual result as research on social support typically delineates differences between the type of support focus ing only on support either provided or received (e.g. Nicholson, et al., 201 1) As such, this result warrants future study to determine whether this result is unique to dragon boating, or whether the finding that social support is unidimensional holds in other team sport contexts. O ther sport related research has expl or ed social support received from a variety of source relationships (e.g. Bianco, 2001) and others have focused on specific relationships such as between the coach and athlete (e.g. Zourbanos, Hatzigeorgiadis, Goudas, Papaioannou, Chroni & Theodorakis, 2011), the pare nt and athlete (e.g. Beets, Cardinal & Alderman 2010 ) and support in relationships between adult athletes and their own families ( e.g. Dionigi, Fraser Thomas & Logan, 2012 ) T his study is one of the few to focus on social support within adult teammate r elationships (McDonough et al 2011 ). A dragon boat team consists of 20 paddlers or more, a large group with which an individual can be asked to measure social support. It is possible that when reflecting on the relationships participants have with thei r teammates, the large number of teammates on a dragon boat team relative to the number of teammates on other sports teams such as basketball may have influenced the findings. Also, the gender of the participants may have been influential, as women may ex perience team sport differently
173 than men (Kay & Laberge, 2004; Snyder & Ammons, 1993) Many of the women are middle aged and older, and may not have had much previous or little recent experience being part of a sport team. They may have spent many years within other family and friendship groups where they give and receive social support. Adding teammates as further potential sources of social support aligns with the social convoy model of Kahn and Antonucci (1980) which suggests that social relationshi ps of varying importance to an individual adapt and change throughout the life course. These relationships may act as resources and outlets for social support, when needed. The literature on breast cancer survivor dragon boating indicates that being on a team with other survivors and having the potential for instrumental and emotional social support from survivor teammates may be important to women with cancer, it may not be the most important factor. In this study, women on all teams enjoyed high levels of based teams and women on mixed sex teams. This suggests that the activity of dragon boating itself may hold the building blocks for the development of social support. Team C ohesion in Dragon Boating Spor t team cohesion, a four dimensional model well established in the literature, was measured in this study by the positively worded GEQ (Eys et al., 2007), an adaptation of a scale originally reported by Carron, et al., (1985). However, for this sample of a dult women dragon boaters, the conceptual model was not a good fit. The confirmatory factor analysis conducted revealed a two factor solution, where differences between perceptions of attraction to the group and group integration were subsumed under task cohesion and social cohesion factors. It is unclear how these results may
174 have been inadvertently influenced by the one scale item that was missing from the questionnaire. Women on competitive teams perceived significantly higher levels of both task and social cohesion than did women on recreational dragon boat teams. Competitive teams may have more structured goals and spend more time together, which may in part account for the significant findings. findi ngs (1995) in relation to the importance of social cohesion to female ringette players. He reported that among those who intended to return the following season, recreational community based players were significantly higher on ATG S (Attraction to Group Social), and elite ringette players were significantly higher on ATG S and GI S (Group Integration Social) (1990) study of differences between elite and recreational same sex volleyball teams foun d that perceptions of group cohesiveness, specifically ATG T (Attraction to Group Task) and GI S were positively related to collective efficacy in elite, but not recreational level teams. He suggests that this may indicate that for recreational teams, cohe sion may be an end in itself, not a means to some other end, such as winning. In Carron et participants of fitness classes, elite sport and recreational sport, adherence to the acti vity was inversely related to levels of certain types of team cohesion. Specifically, recreational sport participants were significantly different on GI S and elite sport participants on GI S as well as ATG T, and ATG S supp ort the notion that levels of cohesion can differ in teams at recreational and competitive levels
175 Carter et al., (2011) studied cohesion within dragon boat paddling using the GEQ. Their EFA yielded two factors: Teamwork Cohesion which referred to the tea ability to work together for a common goal, and Individual Goals Cohesion, which reflected the ability to attain personal goals within the team. Their study found that BCS had higher cohesion levels in dragon boat teams than walking groups, with the co mparison group consisting of other BCS. They did not have control groups of women in each intervention category that had no cancer diagnoses. This is similar to other studies reporting on various aspects of dragon boat paddling ( e.g. Parry 200 9 ) that a lso examine only BCS teams, so the effects of a cancer diagnosis in comparison to those who have not had cancer were previously empirically unknown. Some research suggests that the commonality found in people who have experienced diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer or other cancers creates a social bond (Mitchell, et al., 2007) which might lead to increased levels of cohesion. That was not the case for the women in this study. Women dragon boaters who have not had cancer reported similar levels o f both task and social cohesion to cancer survivors This could suggest that more salient opportunities for cohesion may be inherent in the activity itself that women are able to bond with their teammates through a spirit of togetherness and time spent t raining, or commonalities other than a history of cancer This study may reflect other findings (McDonough et al., 2008; Unruh & Elvin, 2004) that indicate BCS dragon boaters value the chance to participate in an activity without needing to overly focus on their personal history of cancer.
176 According to Widmeyer, et al., (1990), who found that 3 on 3 basketball teams with larger numbers were less cohesive than basketball teams with smaller numbers, it would be expected that having a large number of people o n a team may result in lower levels of team cohesion. The women in this study reported high levels of cohesion, however. This finding may relate to the teamwork inherent in dragon boating where everyone must paddle together with a high level of conformity, compared to the more individualized style of play common in basketball teams. This discrepancy may also be due to the relative lack of flexibility inherent in dragon boating, compared to sports like basketball in terms of the number of participants need ed to take part. An empty dragon boat weighs approximately 500 750 pounds, and requires a critical mass of paddlers in order to overcome inertia and get the boat to move. This need for a minimum ored on land and must be carried to the water and back each time it is used. Benefits Sought in Dragon Boating M otivation for paddling was identified as a theme in the qualitative phase of this study It was further explored in the quantitative phase by measuring the perceptions of women who participate in dragon boat paddling in terms of the benefits they sought from participating in the activity Results of the CFA identif ied four factors Leisure, Self Care, Mastery /Achievement and Social Connection w hich represented the benefits sought by female dragon boat paddlers. These factors echoed the Intellectual, Social, Competence Mastery, and Stimulus (1983) Leisure Motivation Scale and also overlapped with Ch benefits sought dimensions: S ocializing, N ew E xperience/knowledge, P hysical A ctivity, R elaxation, S kill D evelopment and E xcitement.
177 Similar to the findings for social support and team cohesion, competition was an important variable in the benefits sought analysis. Competition has been considered by scholars to be an inherent characteristic of sport (Coakley, 1986 ), and as such, dragon boating probably attracts women who enjoy competitive situations. Women in Unruh ) study of BCS stated that competition was an important underlying motivator source of energy, and focus of goal setting, though it was not recognized as an initial attraction to participate. In deed, once some women take up paddling tion to compete grows in importance over time as they develop their fitness and skill levels (Sabiston, et al., 2007). experiences on BCS teams only, and the results of the current study extend this to provide some evidence o f the development of competition as a motive in ongoing I n terms of Leisure, Mastery /Achievement and Self C are factors women on competitive teams scored higher than those on recreational teams The Leisur e factor included and women on teams with a more recreational focus had lower scores on this factor. A potential reason for this result may be that competiti ve teams may be more likely to spend greater amounts of time practicing on the water and participate in additional dryland fitness training, which may reflect the importance of physical fitness for these women. In addition, teams that are competitive may b e more likely to participate in a greater number of race events and be more likely to travel to do so. This exposure to people on other dragon boat teams may be reflected by a higher motivation of competitive team members to meet people. Mastery /Achievem ent is a mot ive that is
178 frequently associated with sport contexts (Gibson & Chang, 2012). That women on competitive teams reported higher Mastery /Achievement scores is not surprising as participation in sport requires a level of skill and technique that c an always be improved the more frequently an individual participates (Sabiston et al., 2007) In terms of Self Care, participation in sport is linked to both physical and social health and well being outcomes (Wankel & Berger, 1991 ) Self Care factor ite to leave my worries behind Similar motives have been reported by studies in sports such as cycling (Gibson & Chang) as well as dragon boat paddling ( McGannon & Laing, 2002; Mitchell & N ielsen, 2002). Sabiston et al. (2007) found that dragon boating was one way participants could cope with stress. Unruh and Elvin (2002) suggested that competition in dragon boating may serve to shift attention from stressful experiences by enabling parti cipants to focus on competitive suggest support for the notion that women sought competition in dragon boating to leave their worries behind and regain a sense of control over stresses. Social connection benefits were sought equally amongst women on recreational and competitive teams. Social connection is a benefit that is rated as important across and later life adults on a cycle tour, socializing was reported as an important benefit sought by participants. Analysis of benefits sought by team type produced significant results. Specifically, women on mixed teams scored lower on the Social Connection scale than women on both all female and cancer survivor teams. This supports findings from other
179 studies such as Beaver (2012) that suggest the presence of men may disrupt the female dynamic that exists on teams with an all female context. In addition, women on mixed teams scored lower on the Self Care factor than women on all female teams. feel empowered of comfort and less equality associated with the mixed sport setting where women felt they were treated as sexual objects and their sport participation was undervalued by men (Kay & Laberge, 2004; Laurendeau & Shahara, 2008) Together, these findings alig n with McDermott s (2004) study on all female canoe trips where women felt empowered, comfortable and a sense of equality through their participation in same sex paddling. For Leisure and Mastery/Achievement factors, type of team was not a significant dif ferentiating variable As the sport of dragon boat grows, more teams will be created, and a wider range of levels of participation in terms of team type and level of competition will become available. Participants with a choice of teams to join who have L eisure and Mastery /Achievement as important motivators may feel that they are able to satisfy these desires on teams with a variety of teammates, as long as they participate on a team with a focus on an appropriate level of competition. In communities whe re dragon boating is new and still developing, there may be only a few teams and little choice in terms of whether to participate on a mixed, same sex or cancer survivor team, with many participants at the novice level. Motivation for participation may f ocus more Mastery /Achievement items gender and cancer
180 status of teammates. The motivations of these women may or may not change over time, as they get to know the sport, and move from novice to intermediate skill levels. In terms of cancer status, Social Connection was the only factor wher e there was evidence of a significant difference with cancer survivors scoring higher than those without a diagnosis This evidence aligns with previous studies of breast cancer survivor paddlers such as Parry (2008 ) that found many women joined dragon b oating in part to be with other survivors Several i tems included in the Social Connection factor This may have indicated that a motivation for social connection amongst cancer survivors in particular goes beyond individual social support to a need for social connection within the broader community (McDonough, et a l., 2011) Cancer survivors were not more likely to seek S elf C are benefits than those who did not have a cancer diagnosis. This finding may be related to the busy lives of modern women who experience stress and challenges in multiple areas of their live s, not just those who have been diagnosed with a disease. Perhaps through dragon boating, women are actively choosing involvement in leisure activities to assist them in coping with issues and stress inherent in life itself (Coleman & Iso Ahola, 1993) an d not just disease as one particular form of stress On Mixing Methods The qualitative phase of this study used an inductive approach and a small sample to explore the experiences of women on YRQ paddling teams. The quantitative phase used a deductive app roach with a larger sample to further examine social support, team cohesion and benefits sought by women on dragon boat teams. In the
181 qualitative phase, the Social Support theme included subthemes of Support Received and Support Provided highlighti ng the reciprocal nature of social support. These findings align with those of McDonough, Sabiston and Ullrich French (2011), and led to the choice of the 2WSS scale (Shakespeare Finch & Obst, 2011) for further analysis in the quantitative phase. In the quantitative phase, CFA reduced social support to a single factor, which diverged from the literature, as well as the qualitative phase. In terms of Team Cohesion, the qualitative theme was composed of two This finding was confirmed within the quantitative phase, with CFA results showing the same two factors, though this differed from the four factors found within previous literature (i.e. Carron, Widmeyer & Brawley, 1985). The qualitative theme of Motiva /Achievement provide different insights. This mixed method study included samples of women from two different, yet closely related sports. Some differences between the two contexts which may have had some influence on the results include dragon boats having more than twice the number of paddlers than voyageur canoes; the endurance aspect of the YRQ compared to sprint dragon boat races; and th e one race event focus of the YRQ teams compared to the usual multi event focus of dragon boat teams.
182 Despite the differences between the two types of paddling, there are many more similarities. Participating on a paddling team generally means that one practices in close quarters within the confines of the boat; spends time together with the group, usually outdoors and sometimes in inclement weather; works together to improve paddling technique, communication, strategy, mental focus, fitness, and timing of the paddling strokes. Team based paddling is social and has the potential to bring together women from many backgrounds to pursue a number of goals. Both types of paddling can involve teams with a focus on breast cancer or cancer survivorship and a wareness. On a personal note, I am a researcher who has participated in many dragon boat events locally and internationally. I have limited voyageur canoe racing experience, but have participated on teams in long distance outrigger canoe and marathon ca noe races, and have conducted participant observation of the YRQ race. I can attest to the similarities and differences between various types of team paddling. The first phase of the study focused on women who participated in long distance voyageur canoe paddling, specifically within the context of the YRQ. About half of this sample consisted of women from Australia, who had trained for one and a half years for the race, having never been in a voyageur canoe, until a practice session the day before the race began. These women were able to successfully bridge the gap between their use of more familiar dragon boat and outrigger canoes to train and prepare for the YRQ race in a voyageur canoe. In sum, despite some differences, due to the fundamental simi larities mentioned above, and because voyageur canoeing is relatively uncommon, dragon boat paddling teams were deemed a suitable substitute
183 team experiences. Interpretat ion of the results was only minimally affected through the switching of contexts from voyageur to dragon boating in the two phases of this study. Delimitations and Limitations Qualitative Phase The sample for the qualitative phase of this study was del imited to include numbers which were not controlled by the researcher. Participants self selected themselves to participate in this study and appeared to be similar to women Y RQ voyageur paddlers who were non study participants in terms of age and racial background (researcher observation) Within the sample, participants were divers e in terms of the length of time they had been paddling, their occupations and family life cycl e status. The sample included a robust representation of the Australian BCS team, a moderate representation of the local BCS team, and only one person from the non BCS team. This range of diversity increased the level of richness of the data and in turn, provided a more in depth understanding of their experiences. While there was good representation in the sample by paddlers who were not BCS, these findings may have been affected by the under representation of paddlers from non BCS identified teams, as th eir experiences and intra team relationships might have be en different. Juno, the lone participant from the non BCS team joined her team only a short time before the race, and thus spoke only in relation to her experience of the race itself, as she was no t able to participate in training activities with her team prior to the event. As breast cancer was not present in her narrative, she was more focused on different aspects of her YRQ experience than those on the BCS teams. She shared stories about situati ons that led to connections made as part of a group of women participating in a
184 demanding race as teammates, and related personal insights about her history in adventure racing and her relationships with females over her life course. Conducting interviews with additional women from the team that concentrated solely on the YRQ event itself without focusing on breast cancer may have led to further insights Training for and participating in a race as challenging as the YRQ is not something most adults would choose to do. Self selection into the YRQ itself was affected by a variety of factors. For example, participation for most was constrained to those who were able to make a commitment of significant resources in terms of time, and for those travelling from far away, a significant expenditure of money. Some self selection bias may have been present within the group who chose to volunteer for this study however. Of the YRQ participants who volunteered for this study, the majority were members of the tw o YRQ BCS teams. The mission of these teams is, in part, to increase breast cancer awareness. Therefore, their members may have been more willing and accustomed to speaking about their experiences and sharing their personal stories under the banner of br east cancer awareness than women on the non BCS team, given their roles as activists, and the publicity they received for their goal of completing the race. grounded theory w there was not sufficient time to transcribe and analyze some of the interviews before conducting the next interview. Interview notes were taken by the researcher immediately after each interview, but without full analysis as data collection continued, the richness of these data may have been limited by this modification. S ome of the
185 participants were interviewed prior to their actual completion of the YRQ. While all participants were of fered the chance to amend or revise their transcripts after the race, there were no major revisions requested. Perhaps their responses may have been somewhat different, had they all been interviewed after the event. For example, one paddler who was inter viewed the day after the race gave a longer and more detailed interview than several of the women who I spoke to before the race, perhaps because of personality differences in level of openness, or an increased level of familiarity and comfort with the res perhaps those interviewed before the event may have been experiencing anxiety about the race that was not present after they successfully completed the event. Quantitative Phase The sample for t he quantitative phase of the study was delimited to adult women 18 and older participating on dragon boat teams based in the United States and Puerto Rico during the 2012 paddling season. With no sampling frame from which to draw, characteristics of the f ull population of adult female dragon boaters in the US and Puerto Rico remain unknown. Participants for this study were primarily recruited through contact with dragon boat teams that have some level of sustained public profile, such as a website, Facebo ok page or membership in a regional dragon boat association that publicly posted contact information of a designated team representative. The link to the study was also posted in the newsletter of dragon boat organizations, which is sent to parties who ha ve specifically expressed interest in receiving dragon boat related information. It is therefore assumed that the sample is biased towards those participating on teams with a more sustained and serious level of involvement, and less
186 oriented towards the c asual style of team that may get together once or twice to practice and then participate in only one local festival event. While results from qualitative research do not have generalizability as their aim, it ple may cautiously be considered representative of the population of female s who participate regularly in dragon boat ing beyond a casual level in the United States and Puerto Rico It consists of women from a wide range of geographic locations, and appears to match the general profile of white, mid to upper class, well educated middle age participants of the sport within North America. Dragon boat paddling teams are active throughout the US. It is often practiced year round in milder climates in the south and on the west coast, but only in the spring and summer in colder areas. This survey was conducted in the winter season between December and February, which allowed participants to complete the survey based on reflections of However, for many respondents, dragon boating had been over for several months before filling out the survey, during which time dragon boat experiences may not have been top of mind. This seasonality may have increased memory decay or created fond but un realistic memories, especially in those with shorter paddling seasons where more time had elapsed since they last had ongoing contact with their teammates. This negative effect was mitigated by asking a range of questions about their paddling history and e xperiences. These questions were designed to jog memories and assist participants in recalling a wide range of meaningful aspects of their dragon boat experiences to draw from when answering the questions.
187 Results from the benefits sought analyses in rese arch question six should be interpreted with caution as the alpha value for the Leisure factor indicate factor reliability is not as high as the values obtained in the social support and cohesion confirmatory analysis and the other three factor s in the benefits sought analysis The scale used in this study was adapted from benefits scales used previously and perhaps more testing with other samples needs to be done to refine the scale and increase its reliability. Several issues occurred during the research process that may have affected the results of the study. There w ere missing data for 5 percent of the respondents for the question as one of the main variables, th e questionnaire design included this as an survey unless they completed this question. However, due to the placement of this question in a later section, many participa nts had already abandoned the questionnaire, and the analysis potential for this question was thus diminished. Pilot study participants helped with wording and question ordering however one suggestion for the future might be to conduct a larger pilot stud y with participants not known to the researcher so that some would choose at different points to discontinue. In this study, pilot participants were known to the researcher, and they all completed the questionnaire in full as a personal favor or for clas s credit may have fabricated an unnatural impetus for pilot testers to complete the questionnaire in full, leading to a lack of knowledge about how the ordering or length of the questionnaire may have contributed to rates of attrition from the study.
188 Results of the quantitative study that pertain to team cohesion should also be interpreted with caution due to the missing item from the full 18 item GEQ scale Thus, comparison to other studies measuring team cohesion must b ear in mind that there is a difference between the GEQ used elsewhere and the version used in this analysis. The 17 item scale was retained in the current analysis because the scale used met the minimum standard of measurement by three items, and Cronbach statistics indicated an adequate level of reliability. Future research From these findings, new directions for future research can be ascertained. Mitchell et al. (2007) call for further research on age, socio economic status, marital status, a nd parenting responsibilities in relation to benefits from participation in BCS dragon boating. They explain that the three women who dropped out from their sample were the youngest and from the lowest socioeconomic status group, leading to concerns about participation constraints. The authors also reported that due to a lack of formal information sources, women found it difficult to become aware of and access a BCS dragon boat team. Non Caucasian women are one group that do not appear to have high level s of participation in dragon boating. This sample included only a small number of African American women though African Americans constitute 13.1% of the U.S. population (USCB, 2011). cancer survivors or of the general population, but it is likely representative of those who participate in dragon boating in the U.S. The average rate of American women who survive breast cancer for five years is 88% The rate is 90% for Caucasian women, yet the rate is o nly 76% for African American women (ACS, 2007). Given the overall social, mental and physical benefits of sport, and the dominance by Caucasian women in
189 dragon boating numbers and at the top of cancer survivor rates, it would be instructive for future res earch to explore the experiences of both African American women and African American female cancer survivors to learn more about whether they are aware of and have any interest in dragon boating and the constraints they may face to participation This m ay inform steps that could be taken by sport organizations and health providers for this population to avail themselves of the benefits of dragon boat team participation. It has been suggested that team cohesion may be affected by the amount of time the team spends together and the activities undertaken with team members (Spink, 1995), and further research could explore the relationship between team cohesion, the length of time one had paddled, the number of practices per week and the types/frequency of s port related travel with the team. Additional research could also explore how important levels of cohesion and social support are in terms of the intentions of participants to take part in dragon boating the following season. From the perspective of sport organizations, it would also be helpful to conduct a similar study with adult male paddlers, to determine if, and how, their motivations for and experiences in dragon boating are different from those of women. Further research regarding the nature of socia l support amongst teammates is warranted. While women training for and participating in the YRQ experienced high levels of social support, being confined to a small boat in the wilderness over several days with little interaction with the outside was an i ntense experience that most of the women will do only once. The women in this study spoke of their teammates being in a different social circle than their other friends, and recognize that their preparation for the
190 race took them away from other relations hips which they may want to devote more time to after the event. It is unclear whether the social support these women gave to and received from each other will transfer to other aspects of their lives after the YRQ, and if so, for how long. It is also un clear how experiences of social support reciprocation would be affected by repeat participation in the YRQ The team would likely undergo some degree of turnover in membership from one year to the next leaving some members with experience and others as n ovices, looking towards their teammates for assistance. Another related avenue for research in teammate relationships could be an e xploration of whether through participation in an event similar to the YRQ a sense of communitas a feeling of solidarity and social equality (Turner, 1969) is engendered during the bounded space and time of endurance canoe and adventure racing would further understanding of these group relationships. One line of research in the sport management literature that has begun t o be explored is the support of a cause through participation in charity sport events (e.g. Filo, 8; 2009 ). The current study found that within team based paddling, cause based activism can take many forms, such as raising funds to suppo rt research, diagnosis or other aspects of disease treatment and recovery; providing opportunities for others to participate in paddling; public speaking to groups; role modelling; and awareness raising. As we have learned, survivor dragon boat teams oft en include a mix of cancer survivors and supporters, and most of these team members seem to fully engage in the cancer activist mission of their teams. Further exploration of how BCS survivors and supporters perceive their dragon boat involvement as act ivists, volunteers, or neither would be instructive to sport and charity administrators alike. At
191 this time, n o scale that focuses on general disease based activism appears to exist. However, developing one could be a next step for future research to b uild on studies of charity sport event participation and support to explore what guides people to participate in short term and recurring sporting events, as well as in ongoing participation in charity related sport and events over time. The themes of Act ivism and Breast Cancer raised in the qualitative phase of this study are very likely part of the experience of dragon boating for some of the women in the quantitative phase, as a large proportion of the sample participated on cancer based teams. Much of what was said about their training and participation in the YRQ by the women from the Australian team was connected to their experiences as paddlers on a BCS dragon boat team. The growth in number of BCS teams within dragon boating, and the range of ages within the quantitative sample suggest that women are challenging age and cancer based stereotypes, and making cancer visible to the wider community. More needs to be known about the experiences of supporters on cancer teams, and why some women with a pe rsonal history of cancer choose to join a non canc er affiliated dragon boat team. Conclusion Through participation in the YRQ, this group of women were able to find and give support in challenging themselves through the friendships they formed on the tea m team sport context. Specifically, the study focused on teammate relationships in re lationships were generally reported as being positive, close, and serving many support functions for participants during their YRQ training as well as in the actual race. Teammate relationships were described as important to participants, but not all
192 enco mpassing, as their paddling activity and teammates were only one part of their broader personal social context. One question that arose is whether, and to what degree participants who take up team paddling specifically seek social and other benefits fr om the activity, and whether these benefits are being realized by their participation. Another area of inquiry that emerged wa s to examine perceptions of the types and level of social support women experience through being part of a paddling team, and to what degree they feel that their team is cohesive. The YRQ study focu sed on women only sports team s, leading to questions about the nature of teammate relationships in other gendered sport contexts. These ideas were explored in the context of dragon boa t paddling in the quantitative portion of this dissertation Much is still to be learned about adult sport teammate relationships. Participation of women with their peers in team sport appears to be growing. Identifying contexts where women can feel comf ortable challenging their physical and mental selves is important. Paddlers in the current study took up canoe paddling relatively late in their lives. Some were physically active throughout their lives in a variety of sports, and a focus on canoeing was a new activity. Others had been active only in individual sports and had never been part of a team. Some started paddling through opportunities gained because they were breast cancer survivors. Others participated because they were asked, or knew some one on the team. Being active in a female only team sport their fitness levels, and socially, through positive relationships with their teammates. Team based paddli ng in voyageur canoes and dragon boats can bring women from all walks of life together, in some cases, women who might otherwise never have
193 met. Spending time together training, competing and in other related activities may serve to bond paddlers to each other through teammate relationships. In some cases these bonds are strong and tight leading to high levels of social support received and provided, while in others they are not. ects of different groups on team cohesion, by examining groups of women who are on teams of different competition levels and types as well as women with and without a personal history of cancer diagnosis and treatment C ancer status was not a significant factor in determining levels of social support or team cohesion. For women in this study who have had a cancer diagnosis c ancer may be what initially draws them to dragon boat paddling and brings them together where they then have a chance to build team cohesion and social support through their participation. This study has implications for leisure service practitioners who wish to learn more about engaging women in sport. Keeping women physically active provides a wide range of benefits: social, mental and physical (Wankel & Berger, 1991). Dragon boating seems poised to continue to grow in popularity and spread geographically to new communities throughout the nation. In areas where the sport is new, limited options for participation may be on offer for women who wish to participate As dragon boating develop s in a community, and teams of varied competition lev els and types emerge, there will be opportunities for individuals to make choices about what team to participate with, based on the benefits they seek from participation. It is worth repeating that social support and team cohesion are dynamic constructs Thus, they may change over seasons, or with teammate turnover Women
194 have the power through their involvement both individually and with their p addling teammates to affect social and personal change (Shaw, 2001)
195 APPENDIX A INTERVIEW QUESTIONS QUALITATIVE PHASE Women and Paddling Project Interview guide 1. Please tell me about tell me about your previous experiences with sport and padd ling in particular? a. Were you involved in sports as a child, adolescent or young adult? b. Do you paddle currently/previously with any other teams i.e. dragon boat? c. How did you become a paddler? 2. Tell me about why you chose to take part in this event? a. What factors were involved in your decision to take part in this event? b. Were you attracted by the destination i.e.: Yukon? c. What did your friends and family say when they learned you were participating? 3. Please tell me about your preparation for this event a. How long have you been preparing to take part in this event? b. How did you prepare for the YRQ? c. How did you get connected with your YRQ teammates? d. Why did you choose to participate with this particular group of teammates? 4. What is your most memorable experience with your paddling teammates? a. What made this memorable? 5. How would you describe the relationships you have with your YRQ teammates? a. How do your relationships with your teammates compare with relationships you have with other friends? b. How important are y ou teammates to your daily life, paddling and travel experiences? c. d. What does sistership mean to you? e. (If they have prior team sport experience) How does paddling with your YRQ teamm ates differ from other types of sports team s you have participated with? 6. What benefits do you receive from spending time with your teammates? a. From travelling with them? b. From training with them? c. From socializing with them?
196 7. How might participation together in the YRQ affect your relationships with your teammates? a. Level of closeness? b. Memories? 8. (If breast cancer survivor) How does paddling impact your experience of survivorship? a. How does survivorship impact your experience of paddling? Of sport tourism ? b. How does socializing with your teammates impact your experience of survivorship? c. What is special about paddling with a breast cancer survivor team? d. How does paddling on a BCS team make you feel (about self, women, BCS) 9. (If from out of town) Beyond part icipation in the event, have you/do you plan to do any leisure travelling during this trip? a. Who are you travelling with? b. Where are you going? c. How long will you be staying? d. What part of the trip are/were you most looking forward to? Why? 10. (If from out of to wn) How does travelling with your teammates differ from other types of pleasure travel? a. From travelling solo, with spouse, with family, other friend/s. b. Are there any specific constraints in this type of tourist experience? 11. Is there anything else you would like to add? Thank you so much for your time.
197 APPENDIX B INFORMED CONSENT QUALITATIVE PHASE Women and Paddling Informed Consent The study is being conducted by Heather L. Bell under the supervision of Heather J. Gibson, PhD., from the Departmen t of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, at the University of Florida. Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of relationships between team members who participate in the Yukon River Quest canoe race. Specifically, the study will focus on the nature of the relationships between team members, the social support provided to each other and how this impacts your sport sport tourism, and (if applicable) breast cancer survivorship experiences. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to participate in a one on one interview. Each interview will be audio recorded. You may request that the recorder b e stopped at any point during the interview. The interview will be conducted at a time and place that is appropriate and convenient for you. You might be contacted after the interview for further clarification of what you have said. You will be requested to talk about your previous sport, paddling, and sport related travel experiences, your relationship with your teammates and the benefits and The interview will be semi structured in natur e. Please note, there are no wrong answers and your opinion is of utmost importance. You are free to refuse to answer any question, or withdraw from the study at any time without penalty. Time required: Interviews will be a maximum length of 2 hours. Ris ks and Benefits: No risks are anticipated. We do not anticipate that you will benefit directly by participating in this research, although reflecting on your sport and sport tourism experiences may be pleasurable. Also, your participation might help to sh ed light on
198 addition, you might contribute important insights leisure and tourism professionals seeking to provide services for women participate in team sport and tra vel who are breast cancer survivors. If you are a breast cancer survivor, your insights may also contribute to a better understanding and improved service provision for breast cancer survivorship on the part of leisure and health care professionals. Compen sation: Unfortunately, there is no compensation for being involved in this research. If you wish, I am able to provide you with a summary of the findings. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your name will not be used in any report. Your information will be assigned a pseudonym (that you will choose prior the interview) and a code number. There will be no list connecting your name to the pseudonym and/or to the code number. Nobody, except for the invest igator, will have access to audio recordings of the interviews. The audio recordings will be kept at the office of Dr. Heather Gibson and will be destroyed immediately after the data analysis. To maintain confidentiality, please do not share the contents o f the interview with anyone. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time witho ut consequence. You have the right not to answer any question/s. You have the right to ask that information revealed in the course of the interview not be used in analysis. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Heather L. Bell, MA / PhD S tudent, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, Room 300, Florida Gym PO Box 118208 Gainesville, FL 32611 8208, phone: (352) 392 4042 Ext. 1311, email: heather .email@example.com Heather J. Gibson, Ph.D. / Associate Professor, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, Room 304, Florida Gym PO Box 118208 Gainesville, FL 32611 8208, phone: ( 352) 392 4042 Ext. 1249, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
199 Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250, USA; phone 1 (352) 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above and I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure. I have received a copy of this consent form and all my questions about the study have been answered to my satisfaction. Participant Name: ____________________________ Date: _______ __________ Participant Signature: ________________________________________________ Researcher: _________________________________ Date: _________________ Thank you very much for your cooperation!
200 A PPENDIX C RECRUITMENT EMAIL QUALITATIVE PHASE Hel lo Team XXXX members, Recreation and Sport Management at the University of Florida. I will be attending the 2010 Yukon River Quest and would like to invite you to participate in m y research study. The purpose of this pilot study is to explore the experiences of female team members who participate in the YRQ. Specifically, the study will focus on the nature of the relationships between team members, the social support provided to each other and how this impacts your sport, sport tourism, and (if applicable) breast cancer survivorship experiences. In addition to observing the event in general, I will be conducting one on one interviews team managers and coaches), and would love to hear your story. If you are 18 or older, and are willing to share your story, or want to know more about the study, please contact me by email at: heather.bell@h hp.ufl.edu Thank you very much for your time and consideration! I look forward to hearing from you! Best regards, Heather Heather Bell, MA PhD Student University of Florida Supervisor: Heather Gibson, Ph.D., http://hhp.ufl.edu/dir/links/gibsonH.php
201 APPENDIX D DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE QUALITATIVE PHASE Dear Participant, Thank you very much for your time and willingness to share your important perspective on women in paddling Your i dentity will be kept confidential and the information regarding the socio demographic profile requested here will be used to help me interpret the information you provided in the interview. Please feel free to skip any question. 1. In what year were you bo rn? ____________________________________________ 2. How would you describe your marital status? ______________________________________________ 3. Do you have children? Yes No If the answer is yes: how many? __________________ __________________________ of what age? ____________________________________________ 4. How would you describe your educational level? ________________________________________________________ 5. How would you describe your occupation? _______________________ _________________________________ 6. How would you describe your race/ethnicity? ________________________________________________________ 7. Are you a breast cancer survivor? Yes No If the answer is yes, For how long? _______ _______________________ _________ 8. And finally, please choose a fictional name for your pseudonym : ________________________________________________________ Thank you very much for your participation!!!
202 APPENDIX E EMAIL CONTACT FOR RECRUITMENT TEA M REPRESENTATIVE Hello Team XXXX representative, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management at the University of Florida who is conducting research for my PhD dissertation. If your team includes any women survivor, or co your help. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences and similarities in experiences of ed and breast cancer survivor teams. Specifically, the study will focus on the benefits women paddlers seek from their participation, an d the nature of the relationships between team members, in terms of social support perceived and the level of connectedness or cohesiveness in the team. Participation in the study requires completion of an online questionnaire which will take approximat ely 15 minutes. Your help in forwarding this email to the women on your team to invite them to take part in the study is integral to its success. I have included an introductory script for you to use to cut and paste into the email for your female team mem bers. Once your female paddlers have been forwarded the email with the short explanation and link to the study, your contribution is complete! Of course, if you are a female paddler 18 or over, you are invited to share your own experiences by completin g the questionnaire as well. Here is the link to the study: XXXXX
203 on your If you have any questions or comments, please contact me by email at: email@example.com Spring of 2013. If you are interested in receiving a copy, please send me an email. Thank you very much for your time and consideratio n! Together, I hope we can learn Paddles up! Heather Bell Heather Bell, MA PhD Candidate Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management Department University of Florida firstname.lastname@example.org S upervisor: Heather Gibson, Ph.D., Professor Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management Department University of Florida http://hhp.ufl.edu/dir/links/gibsonH.php email@example.com
204 APPENDIX F EMAI L CONTACT FOR RECRUITMENT PARTICIPANT Hello Team XXXX member, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management at the University of Florida who is conducting resea rch for my PhD dissertation. If you are a woman over 18, who ed dragon The purpose of this study is to examine the differences and similarities in experiences of ed and breast cancer survivor teams. Specifically, the study will focus on the benefits women paddlers seek from their participation, and the n ature of the relationships between team members, in terms of social support perceived and the level of connectedness or cohesiveness in the team. Participation in the study requires completion of an online questionnaire which will take approximately 15 minutes. Your help in sharing your experiences is integral to the Here is the link to the study: XXXXX onnaire by typing in the responses and clicking If you have any questions or comments, please contact me by email at: firstname.lastname@example.org Spring of 2013. If you are interested in receiving a copy, please send me an ema il.
205 Thank you very much for your time and consideration! Together, I hope we can learn Paddles up! Heather Bell Heather Bell, MA PhD Candidate Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management Depar tment University of Florida email@example.com Supervisor: Heather Gibson, Ph.D., Professor Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management Department University of Florida http://hhp.ufl.edu/dir/li nks/gibsonH.php firstname.lastname@example.org
206 APPENDIX G THE QUESTIONNAIRE Women and Dragon Boating Q1 The study is being conducted by Heather L. Bell under the supervision of Heather J. Gibson, PhD., from the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Managem ent, at the University of Florida. Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to investigate the experiences of women who participate on wome dragon boat teams. Specifically, the study will focus on the benefits women seek from their participation in dragon boating, as well as the nature of the relationships between team members, in terms of social support and social cohesion within the team. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to participate in an online questionnaire. If you need to interrupt the survey, you may save your responses and return to complete the questionnaire at a later time. Time required: Completion of the questionnaire will take about 15 minutes. Risks and Benefits: No risks are anticipated. We do not anticipate that you will benefit directly by participating in this research, although reflecting on yo ur sport and sport tourism experiences may be pleasurable. Also, your participation might help to shed addition, you might contribute important insights for leisure and tourism professionals seeking to provide services for women who participate in team sport and travel who are breast cancer survivors. If you are a breast cancer survivor, your insights may also contribute to a better understanding and improved service prov ision for breast cancer survivorship on the part of leisure and health care professionals. Compensation: Unfortunately, there is no compensation for being involved in this research. If you wish, I am able to provide you with a summary of the findings upon completion of the study. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. There will be no list connecting your email address or name to your responses. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating.
207 Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. You have the right not to answer any question/s. You have the right to ask that information revealed in the course of the interview not be used in analysis. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Heather L. Bell, MA / PhD Candidate Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, Room 300, Florida Gym PO Box 118208 Gainesville, FL 32611 8208, phone: (352) 294 1674, email: email@example.com Heather J. Gibson, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Tourism, Recreation and S port Management, Room 304, Florida Gym PO Box 118208 Gainesville, FL 32611 8208, phone: (352) 294 1649, email: firstname.lastname@example.org Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250, USA; phone 1 (352) 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above and by completing this questionnaire, I indicate that I have voluntarily agreed to the research protocol. Thank you very much for your participation!!! Yes, I agree to this protocol. Let's get started! (1) No thanks. (2)
208 Q2 SECTION ONE You and your team Q3 Wh at type of dragon boat team are you a member of this season (if you participate with more than one team, please choose your PRIMARY team as the one that is most important to you)? Women's Recreational (1) Women's Competitive (2) Mixed/co ed Recreational (3) Mixed/co ed Competitive (4) Breast Cancer Survivor Recreational (5) Breast Cancer Survivor Competitive (6) Other (7) Q5 How many seasons (including this one) have you: Participated on the team you chose as your PRIMARY dragon boa t team? (1) ____ Participated on A NY dragon boat team? (2) _____ Q6 The following asks about HOW LIKELY YOU ARE TO DRAGON BOAT IN THE FUTURE. Please click on a response to indicate how likely you are to dragon boa t in the future (extremely unlikely=0% chance, very unlikely=25% chance, somewhat likely=50% chance, very likely=75% chance, extremely likely=100% chance). Extremely Unlikely (0%) (1) Very Unlikely (25%) (2) Somewhat Likely (50%) (3) Very Likely (75%) (4 ) Extremely Likely (100%) (5) To continue dragon boating with your PRIMARY team next season (1) To continue dragon boating with ANY team next season (2)
209 Q7 In a typical week during the season, how many days does your PRIMARY team train ON THE WATER? One (1) Two (2) Three (3) Four or more (4) Q8 SECTION TWO Group Cohesion Q9 The following questions are designed to assess your feelings about YOUR PERSONAL INVOLVEMENT with your PRIMARY team. Please click on a response to indicate your level of agreement with each of the statements. Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree (5) 1. I enjoy being a part of the social activities of this team. (1) 2. I am happy with the amount of paddling time that I get. (2) 3. I am going to miss the members of this team when the season ends. (3) 4. I am happy with my win. (4) 5. Some of my best friends are on this team. (5) 6. This team gives me enough opportunities to improv e my personal performance. (6) 7. I enjoy team parties more than other parties. (7) 8. I like the style of paddling on this team. (8) 9. For me, this team is one of the most important social groups to which I belong. (9)
210 Q10 The fol lowing questions are designed to assess your perceptions of YOUR PRIMARY TEAM AS A WHOLE. Please click on a response to indicate your level of agreement with each of the statements. Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree (5) 10. Our team is united in trying to reach its goals of performance. (1) 11. Members of our team would rather go out together than go out on their own. (2) 12. We all take responsibility for any loss or poor performance by our team. (3) 13. Our team members often party together. (4) 14. Our team members have consistent aspirations for the team's performance. (5) 15. Our team would like to spend time together in the off season. (6) 16. If members of our team have probl ems in practice, everyone wants to help them so we can get back together again. (7) 17. Our team members communicate freely about each athlete's responsibilities during competition or practice. (8)
211 Q11 SECTION THREE Social Support Q1 2 The statements which follow refer to perceptions and experiences which might occur at one time or another in ONE'S RELATIONSHIPS WITH THEIR TEAMMATES on their PRIMARY team. Please click on the response that corresponds with your level of agreement on eac h statement. Strongly disagree (1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree (5) 1. If stranded somewhere, there is a teammate who would get me. (1) 2. I have helped a teammate with their responsibilities when they are unable to fulfill th em. (2) 3. When I am feeling down there is a teammate I can lean on. (3) 4. I give teammates a sense of comfort in times of need. (4) 5. There is at least one teammate I feel I can trust. (5) 6. There is a teammate that makes me fee l worthwhile. (6) 7. There is a teammate who can help me fulfill my responsibilities when I am unable. (7) 8. There is a teammate who would give me financial assistance. (8) 9. Teammates close to me tell me their fears and worries. (9)
212 10. I am a person my teammates turn to for help. (10) 11. Teammates confide in me when they have problems. (11) 12. There is at least one teammate I can share my feelings with. (12) 13. I have a teammate to help me if I am physical ly unwell. (13) 14. I look for ways to cheer my teammates up when they are feeling down. (14) 15. There is a teammate I can get emotional support from. (15) 16. I help teammates when they are too busy to get things done. (16) 17. I feel I have a circle of teammates that value me. (17) 18. When a teammate was sick, I helped them. (18) 19. There is a teammate I can talk to about the pressures in my life. (19) 20. I am there to listen to the problems of my teammates. ( 20)
213 Q13 SECTION FOUR Motivation Q14 Please think about why you currently participate in dragon boating. Click on the response that corresponds with your level of agreement with each statement about WHY YOU PARTICIPATE in dragon boating. Strong ly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree (5) 1. To have fun (1) 2. To develop my physical fitness (2) 3. To lose weight (3) 4. To meet people (4) 5. To challenge my abilities (5) 6. For opportunities to compete (6) 7. To be outdoors (7) 8 To receive support from others (8) 9. To provide support to others (9) 10. To spend time with a friend or family member that was already doing it (10) 11. To be a role model (11) 12 To be in an all women's setting (12) 13. To be part of a team (13) 14. To do something unusual (14) 15. For opportunities to travel (15) 16. To get out of the house (16) 17. To have some "me" time (17)
214 Q15 Please think about why you currently participate in dragon boating. Click on the response that corresponds with your level of agreement with each statement about WHY YOU PARTICIPATE in dragon boating. Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongl y Agree (5) 18. To develop a sense of self confidence (1) 19. To learn new skills (2) 20. To support a cause/my community (3) 21. To master a technique (4) 22. For a sense of accomplishment (5) 23. For the prestige of being a n athlete (6) 24. To win races (7) 25. To show others what I can do (8) 26. To show myself what I can do (9) 27. To leave my worries behind (10) 28. To meet other breast cancer survivor outside the support group setting (11) 29. To relieve stress and tension (12) 30. For a sense of control (13) 31. To move forward from a negative life experience (14) 32. To feel excitement (15) 33. To feel empowered (16) 34. To connect with nature (17) 35. To relax (18)
215 Q16 SECTION FIVE About you Q17 Have you ever been been diagnosed with cancer? No (1) Yes (2) Breast cancer (1 ) Other (2) Q20 When were you diagnosed? Year (first or only diagnosis) (1) Year (most recent if diagnosed more than once) (2) Q21 Are you currently being treated? Yes (1) No (2) Q22 When did you complete treatment? Year (first or only diagnosis) (1) Year (most recent treatment if diagnosed more than once) (2) Q23 As a child/youth, did you participate in team sport? Yes (1) No (2) team sports? (please list all that apply)? Q25 In the five year period before you started dragon boating, did you participate in team sport? Yes (1) No (2)
216 Q27 What kind o f activities do you do WITH your primary dragon boat team (choose all that apply)? 1. On water practices (1) 2. Dry land fitness training (2) 3. Social events/parties (3) 4. Fund raising (4) 5. Volunteering (5) 6. Advocacy/activism (6) 7. Competition (7) 8. Team committee/administration (8) 9. Other (9) Q29 Have you ever travelled out of town to participate in a dragon boat festival/competition? Yes (1) No (2) 1. In my state (1) 2. To a neighboring state (2) 3. Throughout the country (3) 4. Throughout North America (4) 5. Other countries beyond North America (5) Q30 During a typical season, how often do you travel out of town to participate in dragon boat festivals? None (1) One (2) Tw o (3) Three (4) Four (5) Five or more (6)
217 Q31 How did you first hear about the sport of dragon boating? (please choose all that apply) Referred by health care professional (1) Saw brochure in health care office (2) From a friend/family member (3) Wa tched a festival or practice (4) TV advertisement/story (5) Internet website (6) Magazine advertisement/story (7) Newspaper advertisement/story (8) Poster (9) Recreation center (10) Seniors' center (11) Cultural center (12) It is part of my cultural tradit ion (13) Other (14) Q33 Please indicate your marital status Single (never married) (1) Living with partner (2) Married (3) Divorced/separated (4) Widowed (5) Q34 In what year were you born? Q35 Please ch oose what would best describe your racial background. White (1) Asian (2) Black (3) Native American (4) Hispanic (5) Mixed (6) Other (7)
218 Q38 Please indicat e the highest level of education you have completed. Elementary school (1) Some high school (2) High school diploma/GED (3) Some college (4) Diploma/Associate degree (5) Bachelor's degree (6) Master's degree (7) Doctorate or professional degree (8) Q39 Wh at is your primary employment status? Full time student (1) Unemployed (2) Working part time (3) Working full time (4) Retired (5) Self employed (6) Q40 Please indicate the annual income range for your household: $10,000 or under (1) $10,001 $25,000 (2 ) $25,001 $40,000 (3) $40,001 $60,000 (4) $60,001 $80,000 (5) $80,001 $100,000 (6) $100,001 or above (7) Prefer not to say (8) Q41 Please indicate what would best describe your sexual orientation Heterosexual (1) Lesbian (2) Bisexual (3) Other (4) Prefer not to say (5) Q43 What is your zip code?
219 Q44 SECTION SIX Open ended questions Please type in your responses. Take as much space as you need. Q45 Why did you first join dragon boating? Q46 W hen first joining dragon boating, was the gender composition (mixed or all women) of your team an important consideration in choosing your team? Please explain. Q47 If you are on more than one team, what aspects of your primary team made you choose it as primary over others? Please explain. Q48 What is your favorite aspect of dragon boating? Why? Q49 Is there anything else about dragon boating and teammate relationships you would like to add? Q50 If you would be interested in participating in further s tudies about dragon boating in the future, please provide an email address. Q51 You're done! Thank you so much! Please click the forward arrow button below to ensure your responses are recorded.
220 APPENDIX H EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS FACTOR LOADINGS B ENEFITS SOUGHT SCALE 1 (GEOMIN ROTATION) Items 2 Leisure Mastery / Achievement Social Connection Self Care To have fun 0.643 0.004 0.090 0.082 To be outdoors 0.583 0.240 0.080 0.141 To meet people 0.554 0.008 0.282 0.082 To develop my phy sical fitness 0.497 0.398 0.168 0.032 To win races 0.301 0.960 0.267 0.007 For opportunities to compete 0.068 0.881 0.227 0.094 To master a technique 0.070 0.783 0.082 0.059 For a sense of accomplishment 0.050 0.764 0.110 0.060 For the prestige of being an athlete 0.194 0.690 0.021 0.149 To show others what I can do 0.307 0.666 0.009 0.253 To show myself what I can do 0.049 0.605 0.007 0.317 To challenge my abilities 0.379 0.600 0.004 0.026 To learn new s kills 0.205 0.569 0.181 0.049 To feel excitement 0.038 0.557 0.043 0.314 To be part of a team 0.332 0.518 0.136 0.073 To do something unusual 0.155 0.462 0.172 0.045 For opportunities to travel 0.133 0.379 0.057 0.239 To devel op a sense of self confidence 0.118 0.306 0.282 0.272 To meet other breast cancer survivor outside the support group setting 0.098 0.087 0.757 0.144 To provide support to others 0.445 0.067 0.734 0.052 To receive support from others 0.4 58 0.003 0.718 0.031 To support a cause/my community 0.051 0.155 0.626 0.071 To be a role model 0.015 0.365 0.498 0.016 To be in an all women's setting 0.003 0.148 0.425 0.080
221 Appendix H Continued Items 1 Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 To have some "me" time 0.222 0.032 0.001 0.712 To relax 0.325 0.036 0.027 0.705 To relieve stress and tension 0.214 0.084 0.013 0.662 To leave my worries behind 0.005 0.249 0.045 0.611 To get out of the house 0.256 0.0 15 0.134 0.606 To connect with nature 0.303 0.051 0.049 0.546 To move forward from a negative life experience 0.098 0.021 0.488 0.508 For a sense of control 0.122 0.253 0.270 0.441 To feel empowered 3 0.022 0.430 0.158 0.432 To sp end time with a friend or family member that was already doing it 3 0.087 0.108 0.295 0.009 To lose weight 3 0.278 0.108 0.035 0.174 1 All scales were measured on a 5 point Likert scale where 1= S trongly D isagree and 5= S trongly A gree 2 n=582 3 The se items did not load on any factor above 0.300 and were dropped from the subsequent CFA analysis.
222 APPENDIX I ANOVA INTERACTION TABLES Summary ANOVA Table with I nteractions for Social Support Factor 1 Source df SS MS F p Cancer status 1 1.121 1.121 0.85 0.3570 Level of competition 1 1.567 1.567 1.19 0.2763 Team type 2 0.314 0.157 0.12 0.8878 Cancer status *Level of competition 1 0.041 0.041 0.03 0.8596 Level of competition*Team type 2 0.778 0.389 0.29 0.7447 Cancer status*Team ty pe 2 0.202 0.101 0.08 0.9262 Cancer status*Level of competition* Team type 2 0.088 0.044 0.03 0.9670 1 n =609 Summary ANOVA Table with I nteractions for Social Cohesion Factor 1 Source df SS MS F p Cancer status 1 0.024 0.024 0.03 0.8644 Level of competition 1 0.824 0.824 1.00 0.3169 Team type 2 0.260 0.130 0.16 0.8539 Cancer status *Level of competition 1 0.783 0.783 0.95 0.3292 Level of competition*Team type 2 0.776 0.388 0.47 0.6237 Cancer status*Te am type 2 0.105 0.053 0.06 0.9378 Cancer status*Level of competition* Team type 2 0.271 0.135 0.16 0.8481 1 n =609
223 Summary ANOVA T able with Interactions for Task Cohesion Factor 1 Source df SS MS F p Cancer status 1 0.172 0.172 0.36 0.547 Level of competition 1 2.584 2.584 5.45 0.020 Team type 2 0.876 0.438 0.92 0.398 Cancer status *Level of competition 1 0.356 0.356 0.75 0.387 Level of competition*Team type 2 0.608 0.304 0.64 0.527 Cancer sta tus*Team type 2 0.238 0.119 0.25 0.778 Cancer status*Level of competition* Team type 2 1.496 0.748 1.58 0.208 1 n =609 Summary ANOVA Table with I nteractions for Benefits Sought Leisure Factor 1 Source df SS MS F p Cancer status 1 0.177 0.177 0.40 0.527 Level of competition 1 1.578 1.578 3.59 0.059 Team type 2 1.441 0.721 1.64 0.195 Cancer status Level of competition 1 0.013 0.013 0.03 0.866 Level of competition Team type 2 0.848 0.424 0.96 0.382 Cancer stat us Team type 2 0.408 0.204 0.46 0.629 Cancer status Level of competition Team type 2 0.797 0.398 0.91 0.405 1 n =582
224 Summary ANOVA T able with Interactions for Benefits Sought Mastery/Achievement Factor 1 Source df SS MS F p Cancer stat us 1 0.396 0.396 0.31 0.580 Level of competition 1 3.438 3.438 2.66 0.104 Team type 2 5.787 2.893 2.24 0.108 Cancer status Level of competition 1 0.019 0.019 0.01 0.904 Level of competition Team type 2 5.987 2.994 2.31 0.100 Ca ncer status Team type 2 0.332 0.166 0.13 0.880 Cancer status Level of competition Team type 2 3.701 1.851 1.43 0.240 1 n =582 Summary ANOVA Table with I nteractions for Benefits Sought Social Connection Factor 1 Source df SS MS F p Cance r status 1 2.393 2.393 2.37 0.125 Level of competition 1 0.259 0.259 0.26 0.612 Team type 2 7.237 3.619 3.58 0.029 Cancer status Level of competition 1 0.042 0.042 0.04 0.839 Level of competition Team type 2 1.367 0.684 0.68 0.5 09 Cancer status Team type 2 0.128 0.064 0.06 0.939 Cancer status Level of competition Team type 2 1.523 0.761 0.75 0.472 1 n =582
225 Summary ANOVA Table with Interactions for Benefits Sought Self Care Factor 1 Source df SS MS F p Cancer status 1 0.013 0.013 0.04 0.843 Level of competition 1 0.135 0.135 0.42 0.516 Team type 2 1.974 0.987 3.10 0.046 Cancer status Level of competition 1 0.033 0.033 0.10 0.746 Level of competition Team type 2 0.911 0.455 1.43 0.240 Cancer status Team type 2 0.331 0.165 0.52 0.595 Cancer status Level of competition Team type 2 0.426 0.213 0.67 0.513 1 n =582
226 A PPENDIX J BENEFITS SOUGHT: FACTOR EIGENVALUES Factors 1 Eigenvalues 1 14.022 2 2.546 3 2.089 4 1.804 5 1.670 6 1.086 7 0.959 8 0.885 9 0.822 10 0.807 11 0.692 12 0.660 13 0.628 14 0.561 15 0.547 16 0.526 17 0.448 18 0.414 19 0.396 20 0.373 21 0.336 22 0.330 23 0.292 24 0.267 25 0.247 26 0.231 27 0.223 28 0.204 29 0.182 3 0 0.165 31 0.142 32 0.134
227 Appendix J Continued 1 n = 582 Factors 1 Eigenvalues 33 0.121 34 0.101 35 0.091 Total Variance Explained 35
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244 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Heather Bell was born in Prince Rupert, British Columbia, Canada to Alfred and Vera Bell. She is married to Cameron Lansdell. Heather studied Leisure Service Administration at the University of Victoria, in Victoria, British Columbia, graduating in 1997. Initially, she pursued a career in municipal parks and recreation programming, moving from leadership and teaching positions in aquatics to recreation programming and coordination for people with disabilities, new im migrants, adult sport participants, and older adults. After moving to Vancouver, British Columbia, Heather spent almost five years working in the not for profit sector, as Coordinator of Volunteer Resources and Gaming Coordinator at the Canadian Red Cross Society She returned to community based recreation and school part time in 2003 to shift the focus of her career. S he attended the University of British Columbia and completed a Post Graduate Diploma in Education with a specialty in Adult Education, wh ile co ncurrently attending Simon Fraser University to earn a Post Baccalaureate Diploma in Gerontology in 2006 She then turned her focus to scholarly pursuits on a full time basis. She graduated with her Master of Arts in Leisure Studies from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia Canada in 2008 before moving to Gainesville, Florida to study at the University of Florida She completed her Ph D in the Spring of 2014 Heather enjoys many leisure activities, including dragon boating, and would one day love to canoe down the Yukon River.